Manual 20136095

Manual 20136095
PRELIM!N ....Ry SPECIFICATION
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Mllnufll cturer rllUrYel ttle t i~ to me"e delion .nd procell chengel enet improvementl.
DESCRIPTION
The Sig neltci 2637 Uni... ernl Video
, Inl.,. •
fa c e ( U\lI) ( uaing I ne .... design approach.
enable. a mfcropro ceSiOf bll!utd Iyttem to
be intorlaCed mora elli c ionlly .... ilh a color or
blllck and wh il e lelovilion recoiver or moni· ,
lor. For th e lirsl Um •. Iho 2637 UVI combinel an ob jecl Orie nled approach ....rlh
c haracl,)f generalion (alphanumeric.
or olh·
,
er d' ,pl av able form.) plul RAM· mapped
PIN CONFIGURATION
-
-
• F!)U, ganara' purpo... RAM-r •• ld."t
obJectl
• 280nlec obJect ra'otullon
• ObJ eclalu and po, ltlon undar program
control
•• Ptogral1lm.bl.
mutU-'eve' aound and
•
nola. gan.rator,
• Hi charact.r' pe, dl.pla, row
• 13 Of :115 charlct., fowa pat ICla.n
• 40 alphanuftWlrtc charactarl
The u vr "s p :il1' ~ry usa i. in microprocealor
• 11, background CMracle"
cCtn tl ol!ud home comp..l elS or ga me IV"
• 8 pi'ogram darlnabl. charlctera
tern s. ·however. i! mly al.o be used in oth.,
• 64 graphlca chaTact.t'
i1ppl,C8t ions where th e display of alphanll'
' • • progt.mmab~ color codaa
m e r~ and graphic. dati il desired. In par·
• Chip .nabl. outputa lor 110 logic
I lcular, I l'\e UVI 1'111 boon designod to laql,llr.
• 110 facllitle. ror awltch ,c.nnlng and
a minimum of suppo r1 compononl. Ihe',ebY
"
,. pot!,ntlometer
(RC) Input,
tI!lowlnO a sys t.m con figulation tha] i. opU· • • Operet., with both U.S. and Eur o paan
rniled l or the ~ser'l needs.
'1."
. 11.nd.rda .'
• Slngl. +S ... olt power . upply
The UVI f ead. data and operational ~om '
• Forty -pin packaoe
mands rrom. memory and pl oduces v ideo
~' \1" a ; s l :"lat ' f'!ou l1 in the gr.r,eration ol.lphl·
APPLICATIONS
" """"J;C 0' 9'" phica [,0;01 TV d.sp· s y s. Mil nv
01 th e I o",",on ~ . s pl.y cilcuits h;t~. b • • 11
• Vi"dao gamlll
•
;"co'p(h ated in. sin,la chip. incloding;
•
• Home compuler,
• Cornmu /1l cilUona terminal' •
• Analoo 10 digital co nverterll wh ich seeepi
. • E ~uc ,;1 lonal .. ys!em.
potentiometer inp~I'
' ",
• Ploee ..a control displ., ..
• . ~Iph "' numellc and spec .. 1 c!J.ar~y,e,~
' . Medic al al.ctronica
ljIl!nlt, al ors
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• t.\ o~iro objec t ci rcuit.
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• Audio si ~l1a l .. ener.to"
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Wi th 11'18 263 1, a typical syslilm co nfigura·
PACKAGES
hon CO" ~ ~ !s.o' a UVI, a :7616 / 2632 ROM. a .~
' H?) (1.1 <::C) or 7':; 2 t (P:' l) Ufliverlal Sync
C61,mic DIP
C, 1!. , I Q' h1':'Vj ). a . f ~O series micro. DIP
1-' ..... · ·~!> c r . 1::-", 21 12 R .... V. s. il"d ~ideo summ o g C Hcl"i 1f~ Addillo r.at UVI • .~ Pro ·
,~
~; O} I:!m~b ll! V,,: j,' o 1~ :ert~ L !:s (PVls), as w e.1I
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a ~ : ~n d .... rn ''' ;1'(" \.lIn be interfaced Iq . n·
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•
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.A / D Block .
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Internal Status Block
.
The internal 5lal u, bl ock accul":1l"lal l' S sta·
Ius information which c an be . cad by Ihe
CPU; l or example. co lhsion• .
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Sl!InOllca
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5 ', T... .. O'C 10 55"C
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2637N
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- -- - ----- -
26311
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A 10 Block COnl~ar1S Ihe analog pol onli·
·
UVI FUNCTIONAL DESCRIPTION .
omeler posilion 'nformation into binlry d.la
The 2637 UVI is • bu. orienled device' oifltt'1 ' ,¥hich can tie re ad by th e Iyalem'. CPU.
~ dd , e5s and dala bUllies con lrollinO Ine ,Only, two ol lha l our po tenliom., ...... , e ac'
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)Iow o. data bel .... (oon th e user', sysleA;l!VId • live' at a!ly gi .... n time.
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the UVI h.c; e block di.gram). Both thll ad- "'. It
(I.ess and d . Ja bussel aUI bi::fueclionar)
~ddr os,s Block
~
~
block pro vid.! c hip enable out·
.
.,t~' _. , , The addren
.
The bUlc cl ock Ifeq~ancr .nd fhe 'P9'"f~n;
pul,.for ede,nal flAM, and 110 butterl .
tal li nd ver1 ic lII resellignailio Il'Ie UVI drlvl
'.1 '
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"
vert ical and hOlizon'.1 count.rl . 111. IwO - Sound Block ' ;,,', .
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" The .ound bl ock is a' multi· level aQLtaro wave
coun ters provide the ·UVI with a Cart!!aian
• ~O e n !'~ IO;' tendi n". ou t, pul" ea : et a USOT
c oordina te ICPl811entatiOn of the televfl,lon
, .
pr ogrlof!)mab1e audio Irequency. Random
SCI lien. i a ., each counler pail" descri be.
,. ,a
noiae Is al,o generated Ind c an be milled
unIque poin t on the Icreen. TypicaJirth ...
wit", Ihe au610 IreQuencV lor ' a i m~I.ling
cl ock and reae l slgn.ls .re pro~ided by a
crO,,!!, d noi ••• I!.xploa lona. elc. ~
univeraal aync generato( cilcu it.
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COMMERCIAL RAN GES
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Colof Mux System
The c olor multiple _er ganel31es !'"€ colol
codes for cheracters. o bjecl s ... nd sc· ':en.
ROM Character Generator
The ROM Char.cter gener ator 510'('5 lhe
characler lonts .
,
RAM
The 64 byle, or RAM sl oles eighl pro·
grammable ch.racter / objacl fonts"
UrilVERSAl
2537
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f'H ELIMINA.RY SPEC IFICATION
PIN DESIGNATION
,r
-
PIN NO.
TYPE
AO- AS
36·26
110
00- 07
2 ·6 , 36·40
110
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MNEMONIC
OPRE Q
R IW
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NAME AND FUNCTION .
--:-,.,---:::--.---:-::--:----:--:.,--,------'-~---------j
Addres. Bus: 9-bit bidirectional address bUI.
Data BUI: B-bit bidirectional data bus.
. Op.ratlon Aequ.lt: Whell high, all signals Irom the CPU must be valid.
I
A.ad/Wrlte: Specifies direction 01 data hansler with resp"ct to the CPU. Read when low.
write when high.
o
Operation Acknowledge: The UVi pulls Ihil signal10 ground when it is re8dy 10 serJice the
CPU.
•
CPU Paus.: Activa low DMA req uest from Ihe UVllo the CPU. The CPU lowers Ihi s signal
'
when il wanls to acceS!; the displsy RAM.
37
o
7
0
Addr." and Data BUI Enable: This output is high when the UVI perlorms OMA oper alions 11
is low when the CPU is granted control 01 the busses,_
"20
I
Chip Selelll: Active high Input which controls
I
po..ltlon Clock: Generated by the USG to S)'llchroni18 the UVl's internal funct ions ( 358MHz.
227 pulses/line) .
14 , 13, 15
0
Color 1, Color 2, Color 3: Outputs denoting the color to be displayed.
Vertical R •• et: The USG pro~ides the signal 10 synchronile the UVl's verticaf coun tar,
HRS T
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Horizontal Re.et: This signal is provided by the USG to synchronize the UVl's h or;2001l'l1
count chain.
heE
27
o
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RAM Chip Enable: This outpulls low when Ihe CPU addresses the display RAM.
PAU SE
~
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ADf N
.
CS
PCK
(. ! , C? , C 3
VRST
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26
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RAM Read/Write: Signal which indicates wh",th«f Ihe UVI is f(,f>ding !rum or wr:t <n!;! inlO lhe
di~pla)' RAM. Read when high. write when low.
•
Potentiometer Inputs: These pins c onnect to exlernl!ll vari8ble RC ne lwor ;-, s fw A 0
conversion.
•
DIgital Sound: An audio frequency
•
_ __
0
~qua~e
wl\ve output generated under
pr{j ~f"'"
Object Video: This output goes low when tne UVi is presenting obj.-.ct informal ion !.
1he fourth color o ~ 'pul .
·• .
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•
uvr accesses.
Power Supply:
,
•
•
-+ 5V
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" ': " 5
5%
.
Ground: OV rale-fE-nce ground.
1.'0 Chip Enable: Activ e low output to s{llecl
8n
110 device.
_ -L._ __ __ _ _____ _ _ ._. _ _.. _ .•. __ ._ _... _ _ .__ __ ___ _
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PRELIMINARY SPECIFICATION
BlOCK DIAGRAM
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UYI BASED GAME · TYPICAL CONFIGURATION
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Figure 1
TYPICAL UVI BASED HOME COMPUTER
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Figure 2
EXTERNAL MEMORY MAP WITH ADDRESS LINE 12 USED AS CS
EXTeRNAL RAM MEMORY MAP
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Figur.3
Flgur.4
PRELIMINARY SPECIFICATION
MEMORY MAP AOORE SS
7
6
5
4
3
,
2
0
T YPE OF UVI
ACCESS
Write
R - ROW
15 i
H' FF'
SH ., no . of bits 0 1 delay for Ihe row 01
RNG ., 1 enables random noise to the sound output
FEN. I enables the frequency coun ler to th e sound output .
LS specitiea 1 of 8 levels of loudness
H'FE'
Read
M - color mode bit
N - frequ ency count er term inal coun i .
H'FO'
V OFFSET
H'FC'
H' F7'
EXPLANATION
Horizontal coordinate of
V OFFSET '"'
the complement of the number 01 lines from
the trail ing edge of vertical drive to start character display
Read
j
•
1
H'F5'
Read
H'F3'
Figure 5
External Switch 110
Switchea can be addressed through the
chip enabte (CE) output in combinalion with
the addreas bus. A typica l 8 or 16-switch
conliguration can be s cco mmodated by
using a 7 4 257 (tri-statable 8 t o 4
muHiple.er) or a 74LS251 (tri-s tatable a to I
multiple.er).
Internel Organization
The uvrs internal logic blocks perform the
following algorithms:
Determines shape _ co lor_ position. and
siu 01 lour objects
Generatel IlphanumeriC c haracter video
Produc el multi" eve' sound
object -back Detects inter·object
ground collision
Converts sel ec ted potentiometer inputs to
a-bit digital values.
•
•
•
•
MEMOR Y MAP OF UVI IHTERHAl -UPPER SECTOR
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Figure 6 ia a UVI memory map an d figure 7 is
an e.panalon of Ihe 110. sound, color. status
and control sector.
,I
CHARACTER VIDEO
The UVI preaents 13 rows 0 1 16 Characters
each to the TV acreen (see figure 8). The
charscters ara accessed Irom the e.lernal
2112. snd dec oded l or identification 01 each
•
' - -- -----'-
---.. -
Flgur. 6
SI.!III!tICS
7
PRELIMINARY SPECIFICATION
A8-AO
ACCESS
f-A::D:::D:::R:::E::S::S'--I-,7,--,-..:6:-L..:...5 4
3
2 _':....L..:O'+_---'TY
- "PE=___ _ _ _--:-:--:-_ _-'D"E"S::C"R:::
IP..:T:::
IO"N'---_ _:-:c:-_ _-I
A I D Potentiometer I j 3
'FF
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<t';f~Wt
f1 :; bow ..,
(lJ.fr)
fl '~ ~ I;W\
A I D Potentiometer 2 f 4
Read
Same as above for POT2 or POT4 inputs
Read
lij - Intercollision status between objects i and j . The bits
are reset on collision and set by reading or the trailing
edge of VRST.
(Iij - 0) collision
Read
0ic - Collision status between object i and any cheracter.
The bits are reset on collision and set by resding or the
trailing edge of VRST.
(Oij = 0) collision
Write
Cij - Color assignment 01 object I to colOf' output Cj
'FA
Write
SZi - Size 01 object i.
(SZi = 0) (SZi "" 1) -
,F9
Write
Ccj - Chara cter co lor aasignment to color outputs Cj.
'FE
{RICo"';
'FD
,
'FC
, , , ,
~---+-.-r-r-r-r-
8
Read
During VRST: Returns velue 01 A I D counter on POTI or
POT3 inputs.
Range = H'OO' - H' FE'.
During "VRR<$tf·: Returns value H' FF' .
1
134
123 114
'FB
object I size 8 clocks X 16 lines
object i size 8 clocks X 8 lines
Csj - Screen color assignment to color outputs Cj.
SZc - Size 01 c haracters
(SZc '" 0) characler size 8 clocks X US
(SZc = 0) character size 8 clocks X 8 lines
P - Potentiometer input mu x control.
(P - 0) - Inputs POll , POT2, drive A I D at
(IFF), (IFE)
(p:: I) - Inputs POT3, POT4, drive A I D at
(IFF), (IFE)
•
~ ' 2.t..:
Write
'F8
Cc'j - Alternate character color 88sign.
Cs'j - Alternate screen color assignment for cheracter
display ares
REF - Refresh mode. When set, the entire character field will
be displayed twice, contiguously.
GM - Graphics mode. When self reset. forces / terminates
the character graphics display mode at the beginning
of each horizontal scan line.
Figure 7
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PRELIMINARY SPECIFICATION
DIRECT MEMORY ACCESSING THE CHARACTERS ONTO THE TV SCREEN
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Figur.8
characler. 05 Ihrough 00 reprasent the
charactar code; 07 through 06 ara the c har·
acter color code,
Character Addr •••
For any column x and row y on the acreen,
1he external RAM addre .. equal. (y-I) x
16 + (x-1), e .g., the RAM addre•• for row
1, column 1 equal. (1-1) X 16 + (1-1) - 0 ,
Character DMA
There are 15 OMA. per frame numbared; 15,
0, I, 2, 3, ' , , 13, (sea figure 8). Each OMA is
praceded by a PAUSE requall and Irl·.lal·
ing of the microprocelSor bus after 6O$taec .
Then OMA la atarted for one TV acan line.
Addreas 255, 254 and 253 01 the external
RAM will ba accaaaed for a" OMA numbara.
During .ach OMA acce.. , the UVI will write
the OMA number into axtemal RAM at ad·
dress location 255. The charactarl will b.
accessed from OMA 0 through 12 (Icreen
space). The character codea are atored in a
16·chsracter buffer and will continue to be
displayad for the raat 01 the charactar linaa,
Tha vertical and horizonla' coord lnatas of
the four objects Ind vertical oll.et will be
accessad at OUA 15, During the sc rean
space, the 2650 should 1'101 access the UVI
as the internal data bua la busy .erviclng Ihe
displsy,
The charactar video is shillad out 66 clocka
alter the rising adge of the horizontat reset.
Tha character video shifting can be dalayed
up to 7 clocks by programming the SH flald
in location 254 01 tha extemat RAM (aee
figure 5). This provides horizonlal scrolling
on a 'ow by row basis.
Character Set
Char.cter Color
The variable character lont ia stored in UVI
RAM and can be changed during Ihe vertical
reset period,
Character color can ba specified by mode 0
and mode I (for board gamea) operaUon.
Mode is specified by the M bit (location 253)
in axternal RAM,
Th e UVI character ael conaiats of 40 mask
programmable c haracters (8 X 8), 16 fixed
background charactera end 8 dynamically
programmable characters, Figure 9 iHua·
trates the font diagr.ms of all fixed back·
gro und characle,s, Fioure 10 shows a stan dard c haracler sel,
Refr••h Mode
M - 0 apecifiea mode 0
1-
Font
Video
C1
C2
1
87
8.
0
Col
C.2
2. M:
I specifies mode 1
Font
Video 87
1 X
1 X
1
0
0
C3
C,3
C.3
0
Charact.r Addre •• -Retre.h
1
C1
Col
C2
Co2
C3
C,3
0
CC' !
Cs ' 2
Cc '3
X
X
Col
C.2
C"
Cs' l
Ca' 2
Ca'3
8.
,._dofI1c. t.
When Ihe REF bil at UVI address WI F8' is
aet. Ihe UVI wiH c ycle through the character
display a second lime. In thIs mode, a lotal
of 416 c hafactefs will be displayed, Two
additional2t!2 RAMs can be added to hold
Ihe aecond 208 characters,
--
For any column X and row Y on the screen,
Ihe external RAM addres. is:
ADO - (Y- 1l x 16
ADO • 25e
+
+ (X -I)
(~-1 .))(
tOf , ..: Y :5 13 '
111 +
(_-
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' . ~ Y ~ 26
S IOlieS
9
2637 .
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PR EU M!tlARY SPECI" : A1"IOO
~---------'UVI BACKGROUND CHARACTER SET
.
•
STANDARD UVI CHARACTER SET
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Figur. 10
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PRELIMINARY SPECIFICATION
For different upper and lower diaplaya, the
exlernal RAM must be dynamic alty reIreahed il only 256 bytea 01 RAM are used.
Character DNA-Refre.h Mode
In the refreah mode there are 28 DMAa per
frame with numbers:
Hi . O. •. 2.
11 . '2, O. ' . 2, .. •• . '2, 13
Graphic. Mode
'Nhen in the graphica mode, the effected
c haractera will be displayed In a graphics
lont determined by the bit pattern 01 Ihe
character code. 05 through 00 desc ribe the
lont aa followa:
3 CLOCKS
3 CLOCKS
2 CLOCKS
02
D.
00
O.
0'
03
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40',-.
LlII • •
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Graphics Mode Coubol
Attha beginning 01each TV acan line, graphica mode ia determined by Ihe alate 01 the
GMODE bilat UVladdress H' IF8':
(GM • • ) . .t 1I,.phic. mode
(GM • 0) , . .et 1I'lphic. mod.
Add it lonsl graphics mode conlrol is provided by two special characler codes:
• 'CMX(I'XlO eI' lpll, bllnk.1Id I.' lI"phicl mod.
OHlOOOOO elilpl., bllnk.nd ,.... g •• phic.
moo.
binary counter to give Irequenci es such thai
Illrequency - 2 (n + I) X (horizontel line
period). A va lue 01 '0' inhibits frequency generation. FEN - 0 inhibita frequency output to
sound chsnnel.
are 8-bit unsigned values repreaenting the
number 01 lines to skip (VC) and the number
01 clocks to skip (HC) belore presen ting th e
object video. Each has a lilted offset to
VRST and HRST.
Random Noise
POTENl1OME I ER
'Nhen Ihe random noise control (RNG) bit is
aet. th e random number generator is reset
and will Slart count ing with a variable clock
rate 01N X (horizon tal line period). N -the 7
bit value apecified. RNG _ 0 inhlblta random
noiae to sound channet.
Data ia valid during VRST; the potentiometer
is set to H'FF' on the tra iling edge of VRST.
lOf.-I(In ... Control
OBJECT VIDEO GENERATION
Loudness ca n be controlled by LS2 LS I LSO
to give 8 levels of curren t output.
Each objec t video generator conaiata 01 lour
data atruclures:
LS 2
lS2
LS2
l S2
lS2
lS2
l S2
LS2
LS,
LSI
LSI
LS ,
LS,
LS,
LS ,
LS ,
LSo
LSo
LSo
LSo
LSo
-
000
001
0 10
0 11
100
LSo -
.0 •
Levell
OFF
2
3
••
•
8
LOUDEST
The levela are adjusted to be apaced equal Iyapart ,
Object Slza
The leaat acreen area occllpled by each
object is deacribed by an 8 clock wide by 8
line area. Objects cen be enlargad to 8 X
16. Aa Indicated in the memory map, con trol
bits SZi c an be independently programmed
to perform th ia enlargemen t.
SOUND GENERATION
Sound is ganeralad trom a pul aa Irain of
square wsve s al a programmed frequency.
There are th ree types of control:
1. Fixed frequen cy control
2 . Random noise with variable clock rate
3 . Lo udness conlrol
Th e aound oul put is a combination of 1 and 2
with levela controlled by 3 .
Fixed Frequency Control
The 7 bit value N (aee elttern al memory map
in ligure 3) is direct memory acceaaed to a
1.
2.
3.
-4.
Object
Object
Object
Objeci
Si ze
Shape
Position
Color
-
! ·bit
6-4 bill
16 bill
3 bita
He and VC describe the poailion of the left·
7
LSo · 'IO
LS I - I I I
Four potentiometer inputs (1 , 2, 3, 4) are
multiplexed by control fl ip Ilop P to give two
8-bit values (see l igure 6, memory map).
most clock and top -moat line 01 the object
video. i .• .• the boud·in bit olthe ball shape.
0
,
•
•
1
•
• •
• •
0
•
, 0,
•
,
• ,
,• ,
,
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0, etc,
li the He ia aat to > 227, the object ia effecIIvety removed from the video field.
Ob)""t Color
Obj ect $hap.
As indicated in the memory map, the ahape
of an cOject ia described by an 8-byte array.
Eac h byte reprasenta the video l or one line
01 eight clocka. Figure II delails the vidao
outpu t of a bait represented by the object
shape array.
.
Object Poeitlon ..
Positioning the object video (and affecting
mol ion) ia accomplished by aatting VC and
He in the appropriete object position. Each
- --
Object video is only diaplay.d when bits aet
to I In the ahape arr ay are present. in which
caae the aelected color (wire-OR with the
color 01 any othar object almultaneously being displayed) ia output on pina C I , C2 and
C3. 'Nhen bita aet to 0 are preaent, then the
colora generated by other objecl s or the
charact.rs / acreen ar. output.
Aa Indicated in tha memory map, each 01the
fou r objecta is assigned a 3-bit va riable (Clj)
wh ich c an be programmed to one 01 eight
colora .
PRELIMINARV SPECIFICATION
COLOR SYSTEM
Eight 3-bit variables are assigned to locs tions within the UVI memory; one lor eech 0 1
the lour objects, two lor characters. and two
for screen col or, i.e ., character video - O.
The possible almultaneous presentetlon 01
video (objec t I charecters) reQuirea color
precedence reaolution as follows:
1. Colors of objects sre wired-ORed and
teke precedence over cherectera and
screen color.
2. An addit ional pin repreaenling the logical
OR 01 all object vidao is available to give
a dillerent COlor aignal to dillerantiate
betwaen c heraclera and obj ects.
STATUS REGISTERS
Three clasea. 0 1 atalus are provided:
1. Inter-object collision (6 bits)
2. Object collision with c haracters (4 bits)
3. ROW atatus - OMA number (4 bits)
The atatua classes 1 and 2 are presented as
2 bytes 01 UVI data. They should be r ead
during vertic al rasal period. Stalus c lass 3
ia a byta in the exlemal RAM.
OBJECT POSITION SHAPE ARRAY
~
•
,
,
,
•
•
•
,
, • • • , ,
• , , • • •
, , , , • •
, , , , • •
, , , , • •
, , , , • •
• , , • • •
• • • • • •
• • • • • •
,
•
•
•
•
• •
• •
• •
• ,
lOOC-'
Int8f'-obJect CoIII8k>n
Six bita provide inter-object colliaion detec tion. Each is ael to 0 when the AND 0 1 the
appropriat e Iwo object videos is high. Eac h
is re set to I when accasaed or at the end of
Ihe verticsl blanking period.
Objec! CoIllolon with Chalac!.,.
Four bits provida object-characters collision indicelion. Each Is .. I when lhe AND of
the appropriate object and background vid·
eoa i, high. Each i, re ..t when accessad or
at Ihe end 01 th e vertical blanking period.
Row Statue
Four bita in Ihe external 2112 RAM, location
255. provides Inlormation indicating Ihe la,l
OMA number. The slalus can be acceaaed
anytime in Ihe field when the mic ro·
processor is not pauaed.
•
•
•
•
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Figure 11
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19
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