3Com 4200G Switch User Manual

3Com® Stackable Switch
Family
Advanced Configuration Guide
3Com Switch 5500
3Com Switch 5500G
3Com Switch 4500
3Com Switch 4200G
3Com Switch 4210
www.3Com.com
Part Number: 10016492 Rev. AB
Published: February 2008
3Com Corporation
350 Campus Drive
Marlborough, MA
USA 01752-3064
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CONTENTS
ABOUT THIS GUIDE
Conventions 9
Related Documentation 9
Products Supported by this Document
1
LOGIN CONFIGURATION GUIDE
Logging In from the Console Port
Logging In Through Telnet 15
Configuring Login Access Control
2
10
13
18
VLAN CONFIGURATION GUIDE
Configuring Port-Based VLAN 21
Configuring Protocol-Based VLAN 23
3
IP ADDRESS CONFIGURATION GUIDE
IP Address Configuration Guide
4
VOICE VLAN CONFIGURATION GUIDE
Configuring Voice VLAN
Precautions 32
5
29
GVRP CONFIGURATION GUIDE
Configuring GVRP
6
27
33
PORT BASIC CONFIGURATION GUIDE
Configuring the Basic Functions of an Ethernet Port
7
LINK AGGREGATION CONFIGURATION GUIDE
Configuring Link Aggregation
8
41
PORT ISOLATION CONFIGURATION GUIDE
Configuring Port Isolation
45
39
4
3COM STACKABLE SWITCHES ADVANCED CONFIGURATION GUIDE
9
PORT SECURITY CONFIGURATION GUIDE
Configuring Port Security autolearn Mode 47
Configuring Port Security mac-authentication Mode 48
Configuring Port Security userlogin-withoui Mode 51
Configuring Port Security mac-else-userlogin-secure-ext Mode
10
PORT BINDING CONFIGURATION GUIDE
Configuring a Port Binding
11
59
MAC ADDRESS TABLE MANAGEMENT CONFIGURATION GUIDE
MAC Address Table Management
12
61
DLDP CONFIGURATION GUIDE
Configuring DLDP
13
63
AUTO DETECT CONFIGURATION GUIDE
Auto Detect Implementation in Static Routing 67
Auto Detect Implementation in VRRP 69
Auto Detect Implementation in VLAN Interface Backup
14
88
ROUTING CONFIGURATION GUIDE
Configuring Static Routes 93
Configuring RIP 95
Configuring OSPF 98
Configuring OSPF DR Election 102
Configuring a (Totally) Stub Area 106
Configuring a (Totally) NSSA Area 111
Configuring OSPF Route Summarization
Configuring OSPF Virtual Link 126
Configuring Routing Policies 128
16
72
MSTP CONFIGURATION GUIDE
Configuring MSTP 77
Configuring VLAN-VPN Tunneling 80
Configuring RSTP 83
Configuring Digest Snooping and Rapid Transition
15
55
117
MULTICAST CONFIGURATION GUIDE
Configuring IGMP Snooping 135
Configuring IGMP Snooping Only 138
Configuring Multicast VLAN 142
Configuring PIM-SM plus IGMP plus IGMP Snooping
Configuring PIM-DM plus IGMP 155
146
Contents
Configuring Anycast RP Application
17
159
802.1X CONFIGURATION GUIDE
Configuring 802.1x Access Control
18
165
AAA CONFIGURATION GUIDE
Configuring RADIUS Authentication for Telnet Users 169
Configuring Dynamic VLAN Assignment with RADIUS Authentication
Configuring Local Authentication for Telnet Users 173
Configuring HWTACACS Authentication for Telnet Users 174
Configuring EAD 176
19
MAC AUTHENTICATION CONFIGURATION GUIDE
Configuring MAC Authentication
20
179
VRRP CONFIGURATION GUIDE
Single VRRP Group Configuration 183
Multiple VRRP Groups Configuration 186
VRRP Interface Tracking 188
VRRP Port Tracking 191
21
DHCP CONFIGURATION GUIDE
DHCP Server Global Address Pool Configuration Guide 195
DHCP Server Interface Address Pool Configuration Guide 198
DHCP Relay Agent Configuration Guide 199
DHCP Snooping Configuration Guide 201
DHCP Accounting Configuration Guide 203
DHCP Client Configuration Guide 205
22
ACL CONFIGURATION GUIDE
Configuring Basic ACLs 207
Configuring Advanced ACLs 208
Configuring Ethernet Frame Header ACLs
Configuring User-Defined ACLs 211
23
209
QOS/QOS PROFILE CONFIGURATION GUIDE
Configuring Traffic Policing and LR 215
Configuring Priority Marking and Queue Scheduling 217
Configuring Traffic Redirection and Traffic Accounting 220
Configuring QoS Profile 222
24
WEB CACHE REDIRECTION CONFIGURATION GUIDE
Configuring Web Cache Redirection
225
171
5
6
3COM STACKABLE SWITCHES ADVANCED CONFIGURATION GUIDE
25
MIRRORING CONFIGURATION GUIDE
Local Port Mirroring Configuration 229
Remote Port Mirroring Configuration 231
Traffic Mirroring Configuration 236
26
XRN CONFIGURATION GUIDE
XRN Fabric Configuration
27
239
CLUSTER CONFIGURATION GUIDE
Cluster Configuration 247
Network Management Interface Configuration 251
Cluster Configuration in Real Networking 254
28
POE/POE PROFILE CONFIGURATION GUIDE
PoE Configuration 259
PoE Profile Configuration
29
261
UDP HELPER CONFIGURATION GUIDE
UDP Helper Configuration Guide
30
SNMP-RMON CONFIGURATION GUIDE
SNMP Configuration
RMON Configuration
31
265
267
269
NTP CONFIGURATION GUIDE
NTP Client/Server Mode Configuration 271
NTP Symmetric Peers Mode Configuration 272
NTP Broadcast Mode Configuration 273
NTP Multicast Mode Configuration 275
NTP Client/Server Mode with Authentication Configuration
32
276
SSH CONFIGURATION GUIDE
Configuring the Switch to Act as the SSH Server and Use Password
Authentication 279
Configuring the Switch to Act as the SSH Server and Use RSA Authentication 283
Configuring the Switch to Act as the SSH Client and Use Password
Authentication 290
Configuring the Switch to Act as the SSH Client and Use RSA Authentication 292
Configuring the Switch to Act as the SSH Client and Not to Support First-Time
Authentication 295
Configuring SFTP 300
33
FTP AND TFTP CONFIGURATION GUIDE
Configuring a Switch as FTP Server
305
Contents
7
Configuring a Switch as FTP Client 307
Configuring a Switch as TFTP Client 309
34
INFORMATION CENTER CONFIGURATION GUIDE
Outputting Log Information to a Unix Log Host 311
Outputting Log Information to a Linux Log Host 313
Outputting Log and Trap Information to a Log Host Through the Same Channel
Outputting Log Information to the Console 317
Displaying the Time Stamp with the UTC Time Zone 318
Use of the Facility Argument in Log Information Output 319
35
VLAN-VPN CONFIGURATION GUIDE
Configuring VLAN-VPN 321
Configuring BPDU Tunnel 324
36
REMOTE-PING CONFIGURATION GUIDE
Remote-ping Configuration
37
327
DNS CONFIGURATION GUIDE
Static Domain Name Resolution Configuration Guide 329
Dynamic Domain Name Resolution Configuration Guide 330
38
ACCESS MANAGEMENT CONFIGURATION GUIDE
Configuring Access Management 333
Configuring Access Management with Port Isolation
335
314
8
3COM STACKABLE SWITCHES ADVANCED CONFIGURATION GUIDE
ABOUT THIS GUIDE
Provides advanced configuration examples for the 3Com stackable switches,
which includes the following:
■
3Com Switch 5500
■
3Com Switch 5500G
■
3Com Switch 4500
■
3Com Switch 4200G
■
3Com Switch 4210
This guide is intended for Qualified Service personnel who are responsible for
configuring, using, and managing the switches. It assumes a working knowledge
of local area network (LAN) operations and familiarity with communication
protocols that are used to interconnect LANs.
n
Always download the Release Notes for your product from the 3Com World Wide
Web site and check for the latest updates to software and product
documentation:
http://www.3com.com
Conventions
Table 1 lists icon conventions that are used throughout this guide.
Table 1 Notice Icons
Icon
Related
Documentation
Notice Type
Description
n
Information note
Information that describes important features or
instructions.
c
w
Caution
Information that alerts you to potential loss of data
or potential damage to an application, system, or
device.
Warning
Information that alerts you to potential personal
injury.
The following manuals offer additional information necessary for managing your
Stackable Switch. Consult the documents that apply to the switch model that you
are using.
■
3Com Switch Family Command Reference Guides — Provide detailed
descriptions of command line interface (CLI) commands, that you require to
manage your Stackable Switch.
10
ABOUT THIS GUIDE
■
3Com Switch Family Configuration Guides— Describe how to configure your
Stackable Switch using the supported protocols and CLI commands.
■
3Com Switch Family Quick Reference Guides — Provide a summary of
command line interface (CLI) commands that are required for you to manage
your Stackable Switch .
■
3Com Stackable Switch Family Release Notes — Contain the latest information
about your product. If information in this guide differs from information in the
release notes, use the information in the Release Notes.
These documents are available in Adobe Acrobat Reader Portable Document
Format (PDF) on the 3Com World Wide Web site:
http://www.3com.com/
Products Supported by
this Document
Table 2 Supported Products
Product
Orderable
SKU
Description
4210
3CR17331-91
Switch 4210 9-Port
4210
3CR17332-91
Switch 4210 18-Port
4210
3CR17333-91
Switch 4210 26-Port
4210
3CR17334-91
Switch 4210 52-Port
4210
3CR17341-91
Switch 4210 PWR 9-Port
4210
3CR17342-91
Switch 4210 PWR 18-Port
4210
3CR17343-91
Switch 4210 PWR 26-Port
4500
3CR17561-91
Switch 4500 26-Port
4500
3CR17562-91
Switch 4500 50-Port
4500
3CR17571-91
Switch 4500 PWR 26-Port
4500
3CR17572-91
Switch 4500 PWR 50-Port
5500
3CR17161-91
Switch 5500-EI 28-Port
5500
3CR17162-91
Switch 5500-EI 52-Port
5500
3CR17171-91
Switch 5500-EI PWR 28-Port
5500
3CR17172-91
Switch 5500-EI PWR 52-Port
4200G
3CR17660-91
Switch 4200G 12-Port
4200G
3CR17661-91
Switch 4200G 24-Port
4200G
3CR17662-91
Switch 4200G 48-Port
4200G
3CR17671-91
Switch 4200G PWR 24-Port
5500G
3CR17250-91
Switch 5500G-EI 24 Port
5500G
3CR17251-91
Switch 5500G-EI 48-Port
5500G
3CR17252-91
Switch 5500G-EI PWR 24-Port
5500G
3CR17253-91
Switch 5500G-EI PWR 48-Port
Products Supported by this Document
11
12
ABOUT THIS GUIDE
LOGIN CONFIGURATION GUIDE
1
n
Logging In from the
Console Port
Network Diagram
Unless otherwise specified, all the switches used in the following configuration
examples and configuration procedures are Switch 5500 (release V03.02.04).
You can log in locally from the console port to configure and maintain your switch,
including configuring other login modes. The default login mode on the Switch
5500 is local console login.
Figure 1 Logging in from the console port to configure Telnet login
RS-232
Console port
Configuration cable
PC
Networking and
Configuration
Requirements
Switch
As shown in Figure 1, use a console cable to connect the serial port of your
PC/terminal to the console port of the switch. Log into the switch from the AUX
user interface on the console port to configure Telnet login. The current user level
is manage level (level 3).
Applicable Products
Configuration Procedure
Product series
Software version
Hardware version
Switch 5500
Release V03.02.04
All versions
Switch 5500G
Release V03.02.04
All versions
Switch 4500
Release V03.03.00
All versions
Switch 4210
Release V03.01.00
All versions
■
Configure common attributes for Telnet login
# Set the level of commands accessible to the VTY 0 user to 2.
[3Com] user-interface vty 0
[3Com-ui-vty0] user privilege level 2
# Enable the Telnet service on VTY 0.
[3Com-ui-vty0] protocol inbound telnet
# Set the number of lines that can be viewed on the screen of the VTY 0 user to
30.
[3Com-ui-vty0] screen-length 30
14
CHAPTER 1: LOGIN CONFIGURATION GUIDE
# Set the history command buffer size to 20 for VTY 0.
[3Com-ui-vty0] history-command max-size 20
# Set the idle-timeout time of VTY 0 to 6 minutes.
[3Com-ui-vty0] idle-timeout 6
■
Configure an authentication mode for Telnet login
The following three authentication modes are available for Telnet login: none,
password, and scheme.
The configuration procedures for the three authentication modes are described
below:
1 Configure not to authenticate Telnet users on VTY 0.
[3Com] user-interface vty 0
[3Com-ui-vty0] authentication-mode none
2 Configure password authentication for Telnet login on VTY 0, and set the
password to 123456 in plain text.
[3Com] user-interface vty 0
[3Com-ui-vty0] authentication-mode password
[3Com-ui-vty0] set authentication password simple 123456
3 Configure local authentication in scheme mode for login users.
# Create a local user named guest and enter local user view.
[3Com] local-user guest
# Set the authentication password to 123456 in plain text.
[3Com-luser-guest] password simple 123456
# Set the service type to Telnet and the user level to 2 for the user guest.
[3Com-luser-guest] service-type telnet level 2
[3Com-luser-guest] quit
# Enter VTY 0 user interface view.
[3Com] user-interface vty 0
# Set the authentication mode to scheme for Telnet login on VTY 0.
[3Com-ui-vty0] authentication-mode scheme
[3Com-ui-vty0] quit
# Specify the domain system as the default domain, and configure the domain to
adopt local authentication in scheme mode.
[3Com] domain default enable system
[3Com] domain system
[3Com-isp-system] scheme local
Logging In Through Telnet
Complete Configuration
■
Telnet login configuration with the authentication mode being none
user-interface vty 0
authentication-mode none
user privilege level 2
history-command max-size 20
idle-timeout 6 0
screen-length 30
protocol inbound telnet
■
Telnet login configuration with the authentication mode being password
user-interface vty 0
user privilege level 2
set authentication password simple 123456
history-command max-size 20
idle-timeout 6 0
screen-length 30
protocol inbound telnet
■
Telnet login configuration with the authentication mode being scheme
#
domain system
#
local-user guest
password simple 123456
level 3
#
user-interface vty 0
authentication-mode scheme
user privilege level 2
history-command max-size 20
idle-timeout 6 0
screen-length 30
protocol inbound telnet
Precautions
Logging In Through
Telnet
None
You can telnet to your switch to manage and maintain it remotely.
15
16
CHAPTER 1: LOGIN CONFIGURATION GUIDE
Network Diagram
Figure 2 Telneting to the switch to configure console login
Ethernet1/0/1
Ethernet
User PC running Telnet
Networking and
Configuration
Requirements
As shown in Figure 2, telnet to the switch to configure console login. The current
user level is manage level (level 3).
Applicable Products
Configuration Procedure
Product series
Software version
Hardware version
Switch 5500
Release V03.02.04
All versions
Switch 5500G
Release V03.02.04
All versions
Switch 4500
Release V03.03.00
All versions
Switch 4210
Release V03.01.00
All versions
■
Common configuration for console login
# Specify the level of commands accessible to the AUX 0 user interface to 2.
[3Com] user-interface aux 0
[3Com-ui-aux0] user privilege level 2
# Set the baud rate of the console port to 19200 bps.
[3Com-ui-aux0] speed 19200
# Set the number of lines that can be viewed on the screen of the AUX 0 user to
30.
[3Com-ui-aux0] screen-length 30
# Set the history command buffer size to 20 for AUX 0.
[3Com-ui-aux0] history-command max-size 20
# Set the idle-timeout time of AUX 0 to 6 minutes.
[3Com-ui-aux0] idle-timeout 6
■
Configure the authentication mode for console login
Logging In Through Telnet
17
The following three authentication modes are available for console login: none,
password, and scheme. The configuration procedures for the three authentication
modes are described below:
1 Configure not to authenticate console login users.
[3Com] user-interface aux 0
[3Com-ui-aux0] authentication-mode none
2 Configure password authentication for console login, and set the password to
123456 in plain text.
[3Com] user-interface aux 0
[3Com-ui-aux0] authentication-mode password
[3Com-ui-aux0] set authentication password simple 123456
3 Configure local authentication in scheme mode for console login.
# Create a local user named guest and enter local user view.
[3Com] local-user guest
# Set the authentication password to 123456 in plain text.
[3Com-luser-guest] password simple 123456
# Set the service type to Terminal and the user level to 2 for the user guest.
[3Com-luser-guest] service-type terminal level 2
[3Com-luser-guest] quit
# Enter AUX 0 user interface view.
[3Com] user-interface aux 0
# Set the authentication mode to scheme for console login.
[3Com-ui-aux0] authentication-mode scheme
Complete Configuration
■
Console login configuration with the authentication mode being none
#
user-interface aux 0
user privilege level 2
history-command max-size 20
idle-timeout 6 0
speed 19200
screen-length 30
■
Console login configuration with the authentication mode being password
#
user-interface aux 0
authentication-mode password
user privilege level 2
set authentication password simple 123456
history-command max-size 20
idle-timeout 6 0
speed 19200
screen-length 30
18
CHAPTER 1: LOGIN CONFIGURATION GUIDE
■
Console login configuration with the authentication mode being scheme
#
local-user guest
password simple 123456
service-type terminal
level 2
#
user-interface aux 0
authentication-mode scheme
user privilege level 2
history-command max-size 20
idle-timeout 6 0
speed 19200
screen-length 30
Precautions
None
Configuring Login
Access Control
Network Diagram
Figure 3 Network diagram for login access control
10.110.100.46
Host A
IP network
Switch
Host B
10.110.100.52
Networking and
Configuration
Requirements
As shown in Figure 3, configure the switch to allow only Telnet/SNMP/WEB users
at 10.110.100.52 and 10.110.100.46 to log in.
Applicable Products
Configuration Procedure
Product series
Software version
Hardware version
Switch 5500
Release V03.02.04
All versions
Switch 5500G
Release V03.02.04
All versions
Switch 4500
Release V03.03.00
All versions
Switch 4210
Release V03.01.00
All versions
# Create basic ACL 2000 and enter basic ACL view.
[3Com] acl number 2000 match-order config
[3Com-acl-basic-2000]
# Define ACL rules to allow only Telnet/SNMP/WEB users at 10.110.100.52 and
10.110.100.46 to log into the switch.
Configuring Login Access Control
[3Com-acl-basic-2000]
[3Com-acl-basic-2000]
[3Com-acl-basic-2000]
[3Com-acl-basic-2000]
rule 1 permit source 10.110.100.52 0
rule 2 permit source 10.110.100.46 0
rule 3 deny source any
quit
# Reference ACL 2000 to control Telnet login by source IP address.
[3Com] user-interface vty 0 4
[3Com-ui-vty0-4] acl 2000 inbound
# Reference ACL 2000 to control SNMP login by source IP address.
[3Com] snmp-agent community read aaa acl 2000
[3Com] snmp-agent group v2c groupa acl 2000
[3Com] snmp-agent usm-user v2c usera groupa acl 2000
# Reference ACL 2000 to control WEB login by source IP address.
[3Com] ip http acl 2000
Complete Configuration
■
Configuration for Telnet login control by source IP address
#
acl number 2000
rule 1 permit source 10.110.100.52 0
rule 2 permit source 10.110.100.46 0
rule 3 deny
#
user-interface vty 0 4
acl 2000 inbound
■
Configuration for SNMP login control by source IP address
#
acl number 2000
rule 1 permit source 10.110.100.52 0
rule 2 permit source 10.110.100.46 0
rule 3 deny
#
snmp-agent community read aaa acl 2000
snmp-agent group v2c groupa acl 2000
snmp-agent usm-user v2c usera groupa acl 2000
■
Configuration for WEB login control by source IP address
#
ip http acl 2000
#
acl number 2000
rule 1 permit source 10.110.100.52 0
rule 2 permit source 10.110.100.46 0
rule 3 deny
Precautions
None
19
20
CHAPTER 1: LOGIN CONFIGURATION GUIDE
2
Configuring
Port-Based VLAN
Network Diagram
VLAN CONFIGURATION GUIDE
The VLAN technology allows you to divide a broadcast LAN into multiple distinct
broadcast domains, each as a virtual workgroup. Port-based VLAN is the simplest
approach to VLAN implementation. The idea is to assign the ports on a switch to
different VLANs, confining the propagation of the packets received on a port
within the particular VLAN. Thus, separation of broadcast domains and division of
virtual groups are achieved.
Figure 4 Network diagram for port-based VLAN configuration
Eth1/0 /1
Eth1/0/2
Eth1/0 /3
Server
Host
Eth1/0 /10
Eth1/0 /11
Server
Networking and
Configuration
Requirements
Eth1/0/12
Host
Switch A and Switch B are connected each to a server and workstation. To
guarantee data security for the servers, you need to isolate the servers from the
workstations by creating VLANs. Allow the devices within a VLAN to communicate
with each other but not directly with the devices in another VLAN.
Applicable Products
Configuration Procedure
Product series
Software version
Hardware version
Switch 5500
Release V03.02.04
All versions
Switch 5500G
Release V03.02.04
All versions
Switch 4500
Release V03.03.00
All versions
Switch 4210
Release V03.01.00
All versions
# Create VLAN 101 on Switch A and add Ethernet 1/0/1 to VLAN 101.
[SwitchA] vlan 101
[SwitchA-vlan101] port Ethernet 1/0/1
# Create VLAN 201 on Switch A and add Ethernet 1/0/2 to VLAN 201.
22
CHAPTER 2: VLAN CONFIGURATION GUIDE
[SwitchA-vlan101] quit
[SwitchA] vlan 201
[SwitchA-vlan201] port Ethernet 1/0/2
# Configure Ethernet 1/0/3 of Switch A to be a trunk port and to permit the
packets carrying the tag of VLAN 101 or VLAN 201 to pass through.
[SwitchA-vlan201] quit
[SwitchA] interface Ethernet 1/0/3
[SwitchA-Ethernet1/0/3] port link-type trunk
[SwitchA-Ethernet1/0/3] port trunk permit vlan 101 201
# Create VLAN 101 on Switch B, and add Ethernet 1/0/11 to VLAN 101.
[SwitchB] vlan 101
[SwitchB-vlan101] port Ethernet 1/0/11
# Create VLAN 201 on Switch B, and add Ethernet 1/0/12 to VLAN 201.
[SwitchB-vlan101] quit
[SwitchB] vlan 201
[SwitchB-vlan201] port Ethernet 1/0/12
# Configure Ethernet 1/0/10 of Switch B to be a trunk port and to permit the
packets carrying the tag of VLAN 101 or VLAN 201 to pass through.
[SwitchB-vlan201] quit
[SwitchB] interface Ethernet 1/0/10
[SwitchB-Ethernet1/0/10] port link-type trunk
[SwitchB-Ethernet1/0/10] port trunk permit vlan 101 201
Complete Configuration
■
Configuration on Switch A
#
vlan 101
#
vlan 201
#
interface Ethernet1/0/1
port access vlan 101
#
interface Ethernet1/0/2
port access vlan 201
#
interface Ethernet1/0/3
port link-type trunk
port trunk permit vlan 1 101 201
■
Configuration on Switch B
#
vlan 101
#
vlan 201
#
interface Ethernet1/0/10
port link-type trunk
port trunk permit vlan 1 101 201
Configuring Protocol-Based VLAN
23
#
interface Ethernet1/0/11
port access vlan 101
#
interface Ethernet1/0/12
port access vlan 201
Precautions
Configuring
Protocol-Based VLAN
Network Diagram
■
After you assign the servers and the workstations to different VLANs, they
cannot communicate with each other. For them to communicate, you need to
configure a Layer 3 VLAN interface for each of them on the switches.
■
After you telnet to an Ethernet port on a switch to make configuration, do not
remove the port from its current VLAN. Otherwise, your Telnet connection will
be disconnected.
Protocol-based VLAN, or protocol VLAN, is another approach to VLAN
implementation other than port-based VLAN. With protocol VLAN, the switch
compares each packet received without a VLAN tag against the protocol templates
based on the encapsulation format and the specified field. If a match is found, the
switch tags the packet with the corresponding VLAN ID. Thus, the switch can
assign packets to a VLAN by protocol.
Figure 5 Network diagram for protocol-based VLAN configuration
IP Server
AppleTalk Server
Eth1/0 /11
Eth1/0 /12
Eth 1/0/10
IP Host
Networking and
Configuration
Requirements
AppleTalk Host
Workroom
Configure the switch to automatically assign IP packets and Appletalk packets of
the workroom to different VLANs, ensuring that the workstations can
communicate with their respective servers properly.
Applicable Products
Product series
Software version
Hardware version
Switch 5500
Release V03.02.04
All versions
Switch 5500G
Release V03.02.04
All versions
Switch 4500
Release V03.03.00
All versions
24
CHAPTER 2: VLAN CONFIGURATION GUIDE
Configuration Procedure
# Create VLAN 100 and VLAN 200; add Ethernet 1/0/11 to VLAN 100 and
Ethernet 1/0/12 to VLAN 200.
1 Create VLAN 100 and add Ethernet1/0/11 to VLAN 100.
[3Com] vlan 100
[3Com-vlan100] port Ethernet 1/0/11
2 Create VLAN 200 and add Ethernet 1/0/12 to VLAN 200.
[3Com-vlan100] quit
[3Com] vlan 200
[3Com-vlan200] port Ethernet 1/0/12
# Configure protocol templates and bind them to ports.
3 Create a protocol template for VLAN 200 to carry Appletalk and a protocol
template for VLAN 100 to carry IP.
[3Com-vlan200] protocol-vlan at
[3Com-vlan200] quit
[3Com] vlan 100
[3Com-vlan100] protocol-vlan ip
4 Create a user-defined protocol template for VLAN 100 to carry ARP for IP
communication, assuming that Ethernet_II encapsulation is used.
[3Com-vlan100] protocol-vlan mode ethernetii etype 0806
5 Configure Ethernet 1/0/10 to be a hybrid port and to remove the outer VLAN tag
when forwarding packets of VLAN 100 and VLAN 200.
[3Com-vlan100] quit
[3Com] interface Ethernet 1/0/10
[3Com-Ethernet1/0/10] port link-type hybrid
[3Com-Ethernet1/0/10] port hybrid vlan 100 200 untagged
6 Bind Ethernet 1/0/10 to protocol template 0 and protocol template 1 of VLAN
100, and protocol template 0 of VLAN 200.
n
When configuring a protocol template, you can assign a number to the template.
If you fail to do that, the system automatically assigns the lowest available number
to the template. Thus, in this configuration example, the two protocol templates
for VLAN 100 are automatically numbered 0 and 1, and the protocol template for
VLAN 200 is numbered 0.
[3Com-Ethernet1/0/10] port hybrid protocol-vlan vlan 100 0 to 1
[3Com-Ethernet1/0/10] port hybrid protocol-vlan vlan 200 0
Complete Configuration
#
vlan 100
protocol-vlan 0 ip
protocol-vlan 1 mode ethernetii etype 0806
#
vlan 200
protocol-vlan 0 at
#
interface Ethernet1/0/10
port link-type hybrid
port hybrid vlan 1 100 200 untagged
port hybrid protocol-vlan vlan 100 0
port hybrid protocol-vlan vlan 100 1
Configuring Protocol-Based VLAN
port hybrid protocol-vlan vlan 200 0
#
interface Ethernet1/0/11
port access vlan 100
#
interface Ethernet1/0/12
port access vlan 200
Precautions
Because IP depends on ARP for address resolution in Ethernet, you are
recommended to configure the IP and ARP templates in the same VLAN and
associate them with the same port to prevent communication failure.
Up to five protocol templates can be bound to a port.
25
26
CHAPTER 2: VLAN CONFIGURATION GUIDE
3
IP Address
Configuration Guide
IP ADDRESS CONFIGURATION GUIDE
If you want to manage a remote Ethernet switch through network management
or telnet, you need to configure an IP address for the remote switch and ensure
that the local device and the remote switch are reachable to each other.
A 32-bit IP address identifies a host on the Internet. Generally, a VLAN interface on
a switch is configured with one primary and four secondary IP addresses.
Network Diagram
Figure 6 Network diagram for IP address configuration
172.16.1.0/24
Switch
Host B
Vlan -int1
172 .16 .1.1/24
172 .16 .2.1/24 sub
172.16.1.2/24
172 .16.2.2 /24
Host A
172.16.2.0/24
Networking and
Configuration
Requirements
As shown in the above figure, the port in VLAN 1 on Switch is connected to a LAN
in which hosts belong to two network segments: 172.16.1.0/24 and
172.16.2.0/24. It is required to enable the hosts in the LAN to communicate with
external networks through Switch, and to enable the hosts in the two network
segments to communicate with each other.
Applicable Products
Product series
Software version
Hardware version
Switch 5500
Release V03.02.04
All versions
Switch 5500G
Release V03.02.04
All versions
Switch 4500
Release V03.03.00
All versions
28
CHAPTER 3: IP ADDRESS CONFIGURATION GUIDE
Configuration Procedure
Assign a primary and secondary IP addresses to VLAN-interface 1 of Switch to
ensure that all the hosts on the LAN can access external networks through Switch.
Set Switch as the gateway on all the hosts of the two network segments to ensure
that they can communicate with each other.
# Assign a primary IP address and a secondary IP address to VLAN-interface 1.
<Switch> system-view
[Switch] interface Vlan-interface 1
[Switch-Vlan-interface1] ip address 172.16.1.1 255.255.255.0
[Switch-Vlan-interface1] ip address 172.16.2.1 255.255.255.0 sub
# Set the gateway address to 172.16.1.1 on the hosts in subnet 172.16.1.0/24,
and to 172.16.2.1 on the hosts in subnet 172.16.2.0/24.
# Ping Host B on Host A to verify the connectivity.
Complete Configuration
Precautions
#
interface Vlan-interface 1
ip address 172.16.1.1 255.255.255.0
ip address 172.16.2.1 255.255.255.0 sub
#
■
You can assign at most five IP addresses to an interface, among which one is
the primary IP address and the others are secondary IP addresses. A newly
specified primary IP address overwrites the previous one.
■
The primary and secondary IP addresses of an interface cannot reside on the
same network segment; an IP address of a VLAN interface must not be on the
same network segment as that of a loopback interface on a device.
■
A VLAN interface cannot be configured with a secondary IP address if the
interface has obtained an IP address through BOOTP or DHCP.
4
Configuring Voice
VLAN
VOICE VLAN CONFIGURATION GUIDE
In automatic mode, the switch configured with voice VLAN checks the source
MAC address of each incoming packet against the voice device vendor OUI. If a
match is found, the switch assigns the receiving port to the voice VLAN and tags
the packet with the voice VLAN ID automatically.
When the port joins the voice VLAN, a voice VLAN aging timer starts. If no voice
packets have been received before the timer expires, the port leaves the voice
VLAN.
In manual mode, you need to manually assign a port to or remove the port from
the voice VLAN.
Network Diagram
Figure 7 Network diagram for voice VLAN in automatic mode
PC
IP Phone1
(Tag)
000f-e234-1234
Voice
Gateway
VoIP Network
Eth1/0/1
SwitchA
SwitchB
Eth1/0/2
Server
IP Phone2
(Untag)
Oui:000f-2200-0000
Networking and
Configuration
Requirements
As shown in Figure 7, PC is connected to Ethernet 1/0/1 of Switch A through IP
phone 1, and IP phone 2 is connected to Ethernet 1/0/2 of Switch A. IP phone 1
sends out voice traffic with the tag of the voice VLAN, while IP phone 2 sends out
voice traffic without any VLAN tag. Configure voice VLAN to satisfy the following
requirements:
■
VLAN 2 functions as the voice VLAN for transmitting voice traffic, and set the
aging time of the voice VLAN to 100 minutes. VLAN 6 transmits user service
data.
■
Ethernet 1/0/1 and Ethernet 1/0/2 can recognize voice traffic automatically.
Service data from PC and voice traffic are assigned to different VLANs and then
transmitted to the server and the voice gateway respectively through Switch B.
30
CHAPTER 4: VOICE VLAN CONFIGURATION GUIDE
■
As the OUI address of IP phone 2 is not in the default voice device vendor OUI
list of the switch, you need to add its OUI address 000f-2200-0000. In addition,
configure its description as IP Phone2.
Applicable Products
Configuration Procedure
Product series
Software version
Hardware version
Switch 5500
Release V03.02.04
All versions
Switch 5500G
Release V03.02.04
All versions
Switch 4500
Release V03.03.00
All versions
# Create VLAN 2 and VLAN 6.
<SwitchA> system-view
[SwitchA] vlan 2
[SwitchA-vlan2] quit
[SwitchA] vlan 6
[SwitchA-vlan6] quit
# Set the aging time for the voice VLAN.
[SwitchA] voice vlan aging 100
# Add 000f-2200-0000 to the OUI address list and configure its description as IP
Phone2.
[SwitchA] voice vlan mac-address 000f-2200-0000 mask ffff-ff00-0000
description IP Phone2
# Configure VLAN 2 as the voice VLAN.
[SwitchA] voice vlan 2 enable
# Set the voice VLAN operation mode on Ethernet 1/0/1 to automatic. This step is
optional, because the default operation mode of the voice VLAN is automatic.
[SwitchA] interface Ethernet 1/0/1
[SwitchA-Ethernet1/0/1] voice vlan mode auto
# Configure Ethernet 1/0/1 as a trunk port.
[SwitchA-Ethernet1/0/1] port link-type trunk
# Set VLAN 6 as the default VLAN of Ethernet 1/0/1 and configure Ethernet 1/0/1
to permit the packets of VLAN 6 to pass through. (PC data will be transmitted in
the VLAN.)
[SwitchA-Ethernet1/0/1] port trunk pvid vlan 6
[SwitchA-Ethernet1/0/1] port trunk permit vlan 6
# Enable voice VLAN on Ethernet 1/0/1.
[SwitchA-Ethernet1/0/1] voice vlan enable
n
■
After the configuration above, PC data is automatically assigned to the default
VLAN of Ethernet 1/0/1 (namely the service VLAN) for transmission. When IP
Configuring Voice VLAN
31
phone traffic arrives at Ethernet 1/0/1, the port automatically permits the voice
VLAN and transmits the voice traffic with the voice VLAN tag, so that the IP
phone can receive packets normally.
■
You can set Ethernet 1/0/1 as a hybrid or trunk port following the same
procedure. In either case, you need to set the service VLAN as the default
VLAN. As for voice traffic, when IP phone traffic arrives at the port, the port
automatically permits the voice VLAN and transmits the traffic with the voice
VLAN tag.
# Set the voice VLAN operation mode of Ethernet 1/0/2 to manual. The operation
mode must be manual because IP phone 2 can only send out untagged voice
traffic.
[SwitchA-Ethernet1/0/1] quit
[SwitchA] interface Ethernet 1/0/2
[SwitchA-Ethernet1/0/2] undo voice vlan mode auto
# Configure Ethernet 1/0/2 to be an access port and permit the voice VLAN.
[SwitchA-Ethernet1/0/2] port access vlan 2
# Enable voice VLAN on Ethernet 1/0/2.
[SwitchA-Ethernet1/0/2] voice vlan enable
n
Complete Configuration
■
You can set Ethernet 1/0/2 as a trunk or hybrid port. In either case, configure
the voice VLAN as the default VLAN and configure the port to remove the
VLAN tag when forwarding traffic with the voice VLAN tag.
■
If traffic from IP phone 2 is tagged, configure Ethernet 1/0/2 as a trunk or
hybrid port where the default VLAN cannot be set to VLAN 20 and the packets
of VLAN 20 must be sent with the VLAN tag.
#
vlan 1 to 2
#
vlan 6
#
interface Ethernet1/0/1
port link-type trunk
port trunk permit vlan 1 6
port trunk pvid vlan 6
voice vlan enable
#
interface Ethernet1/0/2
port access vlan 2
undo voice vlan mode auto
voice vlan enable
#
voice vlan aging 100
voice vlan mac-address 000f-2200-0000 mask ffff-ff00-0000 descripti
on IP Phone2
voice vlan 2 enable
32
CHAPTER 4: VOICE VLAN CONFIGURATION GUIDE
Precautions
■
You cannot add a port operating in automatic mode to the voice VLAN
manually. Therefore, if you configure a VLAN as a voice VLAN and a protocol
VLAN at the same time, you will be unable to associate the protocol VLAN with
such a port. Refer to “Configuring Protocol-Based VLAN” on page 23 for
description on protocol VLAN.
■
You cannot set the voice VLAN as the default VLAN on a port in automatic
mode.
■
The switch supports only one voice VLAN.
■
You cannot enable voice VLAN on a port configured with the Link Aggregation
Control Protocol (LACP).
■
Only a static VLAN can be configured as a voice VLAN.
■
When the number of ACL rules applied to a port reaches the upper threshold,
enabling voice VLAN on the port fails. You can use the display voice vlan
error-info command to locate such ports.
■
In the voice VLAN operating in security mode, the device allows only the
packets whose source address matches a recognizable voice device vendor OUI
to pass through. All other packets, including authentication packets such as
802.1x authentication packets, will be dropped. Therefore, you are
recommended not to transmit both voice data and service data in the voice
VLAN. If that is needed, disable the security mode of the voice VLAN.
5
Configuring GVRP
Network Diagram
GVRP CONFIGURATION GUIDE
GVRP enables a switch to propagate local VLAN registration information to other
participant switches and dynamically update the VLAN registration information
from other switches to its local database about active VLAN members and through
which port they can be reached. GVRP ensures that all switches on a bridged LAN
maintain the same VLAN registration information, while less manual configuration
workload is involved.
Figure 8 Network diagram for GVRP configuration
Switch A
Eth1/0/1
Eth1/0/2
Eth1/0/3
Switch C
Switch D
Eth1/0/1
Eth1/0/2
Eth1/0/1
VLAN5
Networking and
Configuration
Requirements
Switch B
Eth1/0/1
Eth1/0/1
Switch E
VLAN8
VLAN 5
VLAN 7
As shown in Figure 8, all the switches in the network are Switch 5500s.
■
All the involved Ethernet ports on the switches are configured to be trunk ports
and permit all the VLANs to pass through.
■
GVRP is enabled for all the switches globally and for all the ports on them.
■
Configure static VLAN 5 for Switch C, static VLAN 8 for Switch D, and static
VLAN 5 and static VLAN 7 for Switch E. Switch A and Switch B are not
configured with static VLANs.
■
Set the registration mode of Ethernet 1/0/1 on Switch E to fixed, and display
dynamic VLAN registration information of Switch A, Switch B, and Switch E.
■
Set the registration mode of Ethernet 1/0/1 on Switch E to forbidden, and
display dynamic VLAN registration information of Switch A, Switch B, and
Switch E.
Applicable Products
Product series
Software version
Hardware version
Switch 5500
Release V03.02.04
All versions
Switch 5500G
Release V03.02.04
All versions
Switch 4500
Release V03.03.00
All versions
Switch 4210
Release V03.01.00
All versions
34
CHAPTER 5: GVRP CONFIGURATION GUIDE
Configuration Procedure
■
Configure Switch A
# Enable GVRP globally.
<SwitchA> system-view
[SwitchA] gvrp
# Configure Ethernet 1/0/1 to be a trunk port and to permit the packets of all the
VLANs to pass through.
[SwitchA] interface Ethernet 1/0/1
[SwitchA-Ethernet1/0/1] port link-type trunk
[SwitchA-Ethernet1/0/1] port trunk permit vlan all
# Enable GVRP on Ethernet 1/0/1.
[SwitchA-Ethernet1/0/1] gvrp
[SwitchA-Ethernet1/0/1] quit
# Configure Ethernet 1/0/2 to be a trunk port and to permit the packets of all the
VLANs to pass through.
[SwitchA] interface Ethernet 1/0/2
[SwitchA-Ethernet1/0/2] port link-type trunk
[SwitchA-Ethernet1/0/2] port trunk permit vlan all
# Enable GVRP on Ethernet 1/0/2.
[SwitchA-Ethernet1/0/2] gvrp
[SwitchA-Ethernet1/0/2] quit
# Configure Ethernet 1/0/3 to be a trunk port and to permit the packets of all the
VLANs to pass through.
[SwitchA] interface Ethernet 1/0/3
[SwitchA-Ethernet1/0/3] port link-type trunk
[SwitchA-Ethernet1/0/3] port trunk permit vlan all
# Enable GVRP on Ethernet 1/0/3.
[SwitchA-Ethernet1/0/3] gvrp
[SwitchA-Ethernet1/0/3] quit
■
Configure Switch B
# Configure Ethernet 1/0/1 and Ethernet 1/0/2 to be trunk ports and to permit the
packets of all the VLANs to pass through. Enable GVRP globally and enable GVRP
on the two ports. # The configuration on Switch B is similar to that on Switch A.
■
Configure Switch C
# Create VLAN 5.
<SwitchC> system-view
[SwitchC] vlan5
[SwitchC-vlan5]
Configuring GVRP
35
# Configure Ethernet 1/0/1 to be a trunk port and to permit the packets of all the
VLANs to pass through. Enable GVRP globally and enable GVRP on the port. # The
configuration on Switch C is similar to that on Switch A.
n
For simplicity, the following provides only configuration steps. For configuration
commands, refer to “Configure Switch C” on page 34.
■
Configure Switch D
# Configure Ethernet 1/0/1 to be a trunk port and to permit the packets of all the
VLANs to pass through. Enable GVRP globally and enable GVRP on the port.
# Create VLAN 8.
■
Configure Switch E
# Configure Ethernet 1/0/1 to be a trunk port and to permit the packets of all the
VLANs to pass through. Enable GVRP globally and enable GVRP on the port.
# Create VLAN 5 and VLAN 7.
■
Display the static VLAN registration information on Switch A, Switch B, and
Switch C.
# Display the dynamic VLAN information on Switch A.
[SwitchA] display vlan dynamic
Total 3 dynamic VLAN exist(s).
The following dynamic VLANs exist:
5, 7, 8,
# Display the dynamic VLAN information on Switch B.
[SwitchB] display vlan dynamic
Total 3 dynamic VLAN exist(s).
The following dynamic VLANs exist:
5, 7, 8,
# Display the dynamic VLAN information on Switch E.
[SwitchE] display vlan dynamic
Total 1 dynamic VLAN exist(s).
The following dynamic VLANs exist:
8
■
Set the registration mode of Ethernet 1/0/1 on Switch E to fixed, and display
the dynamic VLAN registration information on Switch A, Switch B, and Switch
E.
# Set the registration mode of Ethernet 1/0/1 on Switch E to fixed.
[SwitchE] interface Ethernet 1/0/1
[SwitchE-Ethernet1/0/1] gvrp registration fixed
# Display the dynamic VLAN information on Switch A.
36
CHAPTER 5: GVRP CONFIGURATION GUIDE
[SwitchA] display vlan dynamic
Total 3 dynamic VLAN exist(s).
The following dynamic VLANs exist:
5, 7, 8,
# Display the dynamic VLAN information on Switch B.
[SwitchB] display vlan dynamic
Total 3 dynamic VLAN exist(s).
The following dynamic VLANs exist:
5, 7, 8,
# Display the dynamic VLAN information on Switch E.
[SwitchE-Ethernet1/0/1] display vlan dynamic
No dynamic vlans exist!
■
Set the registration mode of Ethernet 1/0/1 on Switch E to forbidden, and
display the dynamic VLAN registration information on Switch A, Switch B, and
Switch E.
# Set the registration mode of Ethernet 1/0/1 on Switch E to forbidden.
[SwitchE-Ethernet1/0/1] gvrp registration forbidden
# Display the dynamic VLAN information on Switch A.
[SwitchA] display vlan dynamic
Total 2 dynamic VLAN exist(s).
The following dynamic VLANs exist:
5, 8,
# Display the dynamic VLAN information on Switch B.
[SwitchB] display vlan dynamic
Total 2 dynamic VLAN exist(s).
The following dynamic VLANs exist:
5, 8,
# Display the dynamic VLAN information on Switch E.
[SwitchE] display vlan dynamic
No dynamic vlans exist!
Complete Configuration
■
Configuration on Switch A
#
gvrp
#
interface Ethernet1/0/1
port link-type trunk
port trunk permit vlan all
gvrp
#
interface Ethernet1/0/2
port link-type trunk
port trunk permit vlan all
gvrp
Configuring GVRP
#
interface Ethernet1/0/3
port link-type trunk
port trunk permit vlan all
gvrp
■
Configuration on Switch B
#
gvrp
#
interface Ethernet1/0/1
port link-type trunk
port trunk permit vlan all
gvrp
#
interface Ethernet1/0/2
port link-type trunk
port trunk permit vlan all
gvrp
■
Configuration on Switch C
#
gvrp
#
vlan 5
#
interface Ethernet1/0/1
port link-type trunk
port trunk permit vlan all
gvrp
■
Configuration on Switch D
#
gvrp
#
vlan 8
#
interface Ethernet1/0/1
port link-type trunk
port trunk permit vlan all
gvrp
■
Configuration on Switch E
#
gvrp
#
vlan 5
#
vlan 7
#
interface Ethernet1/0/1
port link-type trunk
port trunk permit vlan all
gvrp registration forbidden
gvrp
37
38
CHAPTER 5: GVRP CONFIGURATION GUIDE
Precautions
■
The port trunk permit vlan all command is designed for GVRP only. To
prevent users of unauthorized VLANs from accessing restrictive resources from
a port, do not use the command when GVRP is disabled on the port.
■
Before enabling GVRP on a port, enable GVRP globally first.
■
Use GVRP only on trunk ports. You cannot change the link type of a trunk port
with GVRP enabled.
PORT BASIC CONFIGURATION GUIDE
6
Configuring the Basic
Functions of an
Ethernet Port
An Ethernet port on a Switch 5500 can operate in one of the three link types:
■
Access: an access port can belong to only one VLAN and is generally used to
connect to a PC.
■
Trunk: a trunk port can belong to multiple VLANs. It can receive/send packets
of multiple VLANs and is generally used to connect to a switch.
■
Hybrid: a hybrid port can belong to multiple VLANs. It can receive/send packets
of multiple VLANs and can be used to connect to either a switch or a PC.
You can add an Ethernet port to a specified VLAN. After that, the Ethernet port
can forward the packets of the specified VLAN, so that the VLAN on this switch
can intercommunicate with the same VLAN on the peer switch.
Network Diagram
Figure 9 Network diagram for Ethernet port configuration
Eth1/0/1
Switch A
Networking and
Configuration
Requirements
Eth1/0/1
Switch B
■
Switch A and Switch B are connected through the trunk port Ethernet 1/0/1 on
each side.
■
Specify VLAN 100 as the default VLAN of Ethernet 1/0/1.
■
Configure Ethernet 1/0/1 to permit the packets of VLAN 2, VLAN 6 through
VLAN 50, and VLAN 100 to pass through.
Applicable Products
Product series
Software version
Hardware version
Switch 5500
Release V03.02.04
All versions
Switch 5500G
Release V03.02.04
All versions
Switch 4500
Release V03.03.00
All versions
Switch 4210
Release V03.01.00
All versions
Configuration Procedure
n
■
The following provides only the configuration on Switch A. The configuration
on Switch B is similar to that on Switch A.
■
This configuration example assumes that VLAN 2, VLAN 6 through VLAN 50,
and VLAN 100 have been created.
40
CHAPTER 6: PORT BASIC CONFIGURATION GUIDE
# Enter Ethernet port view of Ethernet 1/0/1.
<3Com> system-view
System View: return to User View with Ctrl+Z.
[3Com] interface ethernet1/0/1
# Configure Ethernet 1/0/1 as a trunk port.
[3Com-Ethernet1/0/1] port link-type trunk
# Configure Ethernet 1/0/1 to permit the packets of VLAN 2, VLAN 6 through
VLAN 50, and VLAN 100 to pass through.
[3Com-Ethernet1/0/1] port trunk permit vlan 2 6 to 50 100
# Configure VLAN 100 as the default VLAN of Ethernet 1/0/1.
[3Com-Ethernet1/0/1] port trunk pvid vlan 100
Complete Configuration
n
Precautions
#
interface Ethernet1/0/1
port link-type trunk
port trunk permit vlan 1 to 2 6 to 50 100
port trunk pvid vlan 100
#
Refer to “VLAN Configuration Guide” on page 21 for the use of hybrid ports.
Do not configure the port trunk permit vlan all command on a trunk port with
GVRP disabled. To configure the trunk port to permit the packets of multiple
VLANs to pass through, use the port trunk permit vlan vlan-id-list command
instead.
7
Configuring Link
Aggregation
LINK AGGREGATION CONFIGURATION
GUIDE
Link aggregation aggregates multiple ports into one logical link, also called an
aggregation group.
Link aggregation allows you to increase bandwidth by distributing
incoming/outgoing traffic on the member ports in the aggregation group. In
addition, it provides reliable connectivity because these member ports can
dynamically back up each other.
Network Diagram
Figure 10 Network diagram for link aggregation configuration
Switch A
Link aggregation
Switch B
Networking and
Configuration
Requirements
Aggregate Ethernet 1/0/1 through 1/0/3 on Switch A into an aggregation group
and connect the group to Switch B to balance incoming/outgoing traffic among
the member ports.
The example will show you how to configure link aggregation in different
aggregation modes.
Applicable Products
Product series
Software version
Hardware version
Switch 5500
Release V03.02.04
All versions
Switch 5500G
Release V03.02.04
All versions
Switch 4500
Release V03.03.00
All versions
Switch 4210
Release V03.01.00
All versions
42
CHAPTER 7: LINK AGGREGATION CONFIGURATION GUIDE
Configuration Procedure
n
The example only provides the configuration on Switch A. Perform the same
configuration on Switch B to implement link aggregation.
1 In manual aggregation mode
# Create manual aggregation group 1.
<3Com> system-view
[3Com] link-aggregation group 1 mode manual
# Add Ethernet 1/0/1 through Ethernet 1/0/3 to aggregation group 1.
[3Com] interface Ethernet1/0/1
[3Com-Ethernet1/0/1] port link-aggregation group 1
[3Com-Ethernet1/0/1] quit
[3Com] interface Ethernet1/0/2
[3Com-Ethernet1/0/2] port link-aggregation group 1
[3Com-Ethernet1/0/2] quit
[3Com] interface Ethernet1/0/3
[3Com-Ethernet1/0/3] port link-aggregation group 1
2 In static LACP aggregation mode
# Create static aggregation group 1.
<3Com> system-view
[3Com] link-aggregation group 1 mode static
# Add Ethernet 1/0/1 through Ethernet 1/0/3 to aggregation group 1.
[3Com] interface Ethernet1/0/1
[3Com-Ethernet1/0/1] port link-aggregation group 1
[3Com-Ethernet1/0/1] quit
[3Com] interface Ethernet1/0/2
[3Com-Ethernet1/0/2] port link-aggregation group 1
[3Com-Ethernet1/0/2] quit
[3Com] interface Ethernet1/0/3
[3Com-Ethernet1/0/3] port link-aggregation group 1
3 In dynamic LACP aggregation mode
# Enable LACP on Ethernet 1/0/1 through Ethernet 1/0/3.
<3Com> system-view
[3Com] interface Ethernet1/0/1
[3Com-Ethernet1/0/1] lacp enable
[3Com-Ethernet1/0/1] quit
[3Com] interface Ethernet1/0/2
[3Com-Ethernet1/0/2] lacp enable
[3Com-Ethernet1/0/2] quit
[3Com] interface Ethernet1/0/3
[3Com-Ethernet1/0/3] lacp enable
Configuring Link Aggregation
43
Complete Configuration
1 In manual aggregation mode
#
link-aggregation group 1 mode manual
#
interface Ethernet1/0/1
port link-aggregation group 1
#
interface Ethernet1/0/2
port link-aggregation group 1
#
interface Ethernet1/0/3
port link-aggregation group 1
#
2 In static LACP aggregation mode
#
link-aggregation group 1 mode static
#
interface Ethernet1/0/1
port link-aggregation group 1
#
interface Ethernet1/0/2
port link-aggregation group 1
#
interface Ethernet1/0/3
port link-aggregation group 1
#
3 In dynamic LACP aggregation mode
#
interface Ethernet1/0/1
lacp enable
#
interface Ethernet1/0/2
lacp enable
#
interface Ethernet1/0/3
lacp enable
#
Precautions
■
If static LACP aggregation or manual aggregation is adopted, you are
recommended not to cross-connect the aggregation member ports at the two
ends to avoid packet loss. For example, if local port 1 is connected to remote
port 2, do not connect local port 2 to remote port 1.
■
Dynamic LACP aggregation mode is not recommended in actual networking
scenarios.
■
The implementation of static aggregation varies by platform software version.
This may result in problems when products using different platform software
versions are interconnected through static aggregation groups. Use the
display version command to view the platform software version.
■
The Switch 4210 supports only the manual aggregation mode.
44
CHAPTER 7: LINK AGGREGATION CONFIGURATION GUIDE
8
Configuring Port
Isolation
PORT ISOLATION CONFIGURATION
GUIDE
Port isolation allows you to add a port into an isolation group to isolate Layer-2
and Layer-3 traffic of the port from that of all other ports in the isolation group.
While increasing network security, this allows for great flexibility.
Currently, the Switch 5500 supports only one isolation group; however, the
number of Ethernet ports in the isolation group is not limited.
Network Diagram
Figure 11 Network diagram for port isolation configuration
Internet
Eth1/0/1
Switch
Eth1/0/4
Eth1/0/2
Eth1/0/3
PC 2
Networking and
Configuration
Requirements
PC 3
PC 4
■
PC2, PC3, and PC4 connect to the switch ports Ethernet 1/0/2, Ethernet 1/0/3,
and Ethernet 1/0/4 respectively.
■
The switch connects to the Internet through Ethernet 1/0/1.
■
Isolate PC2, PC3, and PC4 from each other.
Applicable Products
Product series
Software version
Hardware version
Switch 5500
Release V03.02.04
All versions
Switch 5500G
Release V03.02.04
All versions
Switch 4500
Release V03.03.00
All versions
Switch 4210
Release V03.01.00
All versions
46
CHAPTER 8: PORT ISOLATION CONFIGURATION GUIDE
Configuration Procedure
# Add Ethernet 1/0/2, Ethernet 1/0/3, and Ethernet 1/0/4 to the isolation group.
<3Com> system-view
System View: return to User View with Ctrl+Z.
[3Com] interface ethernet1/0/2
[3Com-Ethernet1/0/2] port isolate
[3Com-Ethernet1/0/2] quit
[3Com] interface ethernet1/0/3
[3Com-Ethernet1/0/3] port isolate
[3Com-Ethernet1/0/3] quit
[3Com] interface ethernet1/0/4
[3Com-Ethernet1/0/4] port isolate
[3Com-Ethernet1/0/4] quit
[3Com]
# Display information about the ports in the isolation group.
<3Com> display isolate port
Isolated port(s) on UNIT 1:
Ethernet1/0/2, Ethernet1/0/3, Ethernet1/0/4
Complete Configuration
Precautions
#
interface Ethernet1/0/2
port isolate
#
interface Ethernet1/0/3
port isolate
#
interface Ethernet1/0/4
port isolate
#
■
Adding to or removing from an isolation group an aggregated port can cause
all other ports in the aggregation group on the device to join or exit the
isolation group automatically.
■
After an aggregated port is removed from its aggregation group, all other
member ports will still stay in the isolation group that they have joined (if any).
■
Removing an aggregation group does not remove its member ports from the
isolation group that they have joined (if any).
■
Adding an isolated port to an aggregation group can cause all the member
ports in the aggregation group to join the isolation group automatically.
■
Cross-device port isolation is supported on the Switch 5500 in an XRN fabric.
This allows ports on different units to join the same isolation group.
■
For the Switch 5500 in an XRN fabric, adding a member port in a cross-device
aggregation group to an isolation group does not cause other member ports to
join the isolation group automatically. For them to join the isolation group, you
need to perform the configuration manually for each of them.
9
Configuring Port
Security autolearn
Mode
Network Diagram
PORT SECURITY CONFIGURATION
GUIDE
In autolearn mode, a port can learn a specified number of MAC addresses and
save those addresses as secure MAC addresses. Once the number of secure MAC
addresses learnt by the port exceeds the upper limit defined by the port-security
max-mac-count command, the port transits to the secure mode. In secure mode,
a port does not save any new secure MAC addresses and permits only packets
whose source addresses are secure MAC address or configured dynamic MAC
addresses.
Figure 12 Network diagram for configuring port security autolearn mode
Eth1/0/1
Internet
Host
Switch
MAC:0001 -0002- 0003
Networking and
Configuration
Requirements
On port Ethernet 1/0/1 of the switch, perform configurations to meet the
following requirements:
■
Allow a maximum of 80 users to access the port without authentication, and
save the automatically learned user MAC addresses as secure MAC addresses.
■
To ensure that the host can access the network, add the MAC address
0001-0002-0003 as a secure MAC address to VLAN 1 on the port.
■
Once the number of secure MAC addresses reaches 80, the port stops MAC
address learning. If any frame with an unknown source MAC address arrives,
intrusion protection is triggered and the port is disabled and kept silent for 30
seconds.
Applicable Products
Configuration Procedure
Product series
Software version
Hardware version
Switch 5500
Release V03.02.04
All versions
Switch 5500G
Release V03.02.04
All versions
Switch 4500
Release V03.03.00
All versions
# Enter system view.
<3Com> system-view
# Enable port security.
[3Com] port-security enable
48
CHAPTER 9: PORT SECURITY CONFIGURATION GUIDE
# Enter Ethernet 1/0/1 port view.
[3Com] interface Ethernet1/0/1
# Set the maximum number of MAC addresses allowed on the port to 80.
[3Com-Ethernet1/0/1] port-security max-mac-count 80
# Set the port security mode to autolearn.
[3Com-Ethernet1/0/1] port-security port-mode autolearn
# Add the MAC address 0001-0002-0003 as a secure MAC address to VLAN 1.
[3Com-Ethernet1/0/1] mac-address security 0001-0002-0003 vlan 1
# Configure the port to be silent for 30 seconds after intrusion protection is
triggered.
[3Com-Ethernet1/0/1] port-security intrusion-mode disableport-temporarily
[3Com-Ethernet1/0/1] quit
[3Com] port-security timer disableport 30
Complete Configuration
Precautions
Configuring Port
Security
mac-authentication
Mode
#
port-security enable
port-security timer disableport 30
#
interface Ethernet1/0/1
port-security max-mac-count 80
port-security port-mode autolearn
port-security intrusion-mode disableport-temporarily
mac-address security 0001-0002-0003 vlan 1
#
■
Before enabling port security, be sure to disable 802.1x and MAC
authentication globally.
■
On a port configured with port security, you cannot configure the maximum
number of MAC addresses that the port can learn, reflector port for port
mirroring, fabric port or link aggregation.
In mac-authentication mode, a port performs MAC authentication of users.
Configuring Port Security mac-authentication Mode
Network Diagram
49
Figure 13 Network diagram for configuring port security mac-authentication mode
Authentication servers
(192 .168.1.3/24
192 .168.1.2 /24 )
Eth1/0/1
Internet
Host
Networking and
Configuration
Requirements
Switch
The host connects to the switch through the port Ethernet 1/0/1, and the switch
authenticates the host through the RADIUS server. If the authentication is
successful, the host is authorized to access the Internet.
On port Ethernet 1/0/1 of the switch, perform configurations to meet the
following requirements:
■
The switch performs MAC authentication of users.
■
All users belong to the domain aabbcc.net, and each of them uses the MAC
address as username and password for authentication.
■
Whenever a packet fails MAC authentication, intrusion protection is triggered
to filter packets whose source MAC addresses are the same as that of the
packet failing the authentication, ensuring the security of the port.
Applicable Products
Product series
Software version
Hardware version
Switch 5500
Release V03.02.04
All versions
Switch 5500G
Release V03.02.04
All versions
Switch 4500
Release V03.03.00
All versions
Configuration Procedure
n
■
The following configurations involve some AAA/RADIUS configuration
commands. For details about the commands, refer to “AAA Configuration” in
the Configuration Guide for your product.
■
Configurations on the user host and the RADIUS server are omitted.
■
Configure RADIUS parameters
# Create a RADIUS scheme named radius1.
<3Com> system-view
[3Com] radius scheme radius1
# Specify the primary RADIUS authentication server and primary RADIUS
accounting server.
[3Com-radius-radius1] primary authentication 192.168.1.3
[3Com-radius-radius1] primary accounting 192.168.1.2
50
CHAPTER 9: PORT SECURITY CONFIGURATION GUIDE
# Specify the secondary RADIUS authentication server and secondary RADIUS
accounting server.
[3Com-radius-radius1] secondary authentication 192.168.1.2
[3Com-radius-radius1] secondary accounting 192.168.1.3
# Set the shared key for message exchange between the switch and the RADIUS
authentication servers to name.
[3Com-radius-radius1] key authentication name
# Set the shared key for message exchange between the switch and the
accounting RADIUS servers to money.
[3Com-radius-radius1] key accounting money
# Configure the switch to send a username without the domain name to the
RADIUS server.
[3Com-radius-radius1] user-name-format without-domain
[3Com-radius-radius1] quit
# Create a domain named aabbcc.net and enter its view.
[3Com] domain aabbcc.net
# Specify the RADIUS scheme for the domain.
[3Com-isp-aabbcc.net] scheme radius-scheme radius1
[3Com-isp-aabbcc.net] quit
# Set aabbcc.net as the default user domain.
[3Com] domain default enable aabbcc.net
# Configure the switch to use MAC addresses as usernames for authentication,
specifying that the MAC addresses should be lowercase without separators.
[3Com] mac-authentication authmode usernameasmacaddress usernameform
at without-hyphen
# Specify the ISP domain for MAC authentication.
[3Com] mac-authentication domain aabbcc.net
# Enable port security.
[3Com] port-security enable
# Set the port security mode to mac-authentication.
[3Com] interface Ethernet 1/0/1
[3Com-Ethernet1/0/1] port-security port-mode mac-authentication
# Configure the port to drop packets whose source addresses are the same as that
of the packet failing MAC authentication after intrusion protection is triggered.
Configuring Port Security userlogin-withoui Mode
51
[3Com-Ethernet1/0/1] port-security intrusion-mode blockmac
Complete Configuration
#
domain default enable aabbcc.net
#
port-security enable
#
MAC-authentication domain aabbcc.net
#
radius scheme radius1
server-type standard
primary authentication 192.168.1.3
primary accounting 192.168.1.2
secondary authentication 192.168.1.2
secondary accounting 192.168.1.3
key authentication name
key accounting money
user-name-format without-domain
#
domain aabbcc.net
scheme radius-scheme radius1
#
interface Ethernet1/0/1
port-security port-mode mac-authentication
port-security intrusion-mode blockmac
Precautions
Configuring Port
Security
userlogin-withoui
Mode
Network Diagram
■
Before enabling port security, be sure to disable 802.1x and MAC
authentication globally.
■
On a port configured with port security, you cannot configure the maximum
number of MAC addresses that the port can learn, reflector port for port
mirroring, fabric port, or link aggregation.
In the userlogin-withoui mode, a port authenticates users using MAC-based
802.1x and permits only packets from authenticated users. Besides, the port also
allows packets whose source MAC addresses have a specified organizationally
unique identifier (OUI) value to pass the port.
Figure 14 Network diagram for configuring port security userlogin-withoui mode
Authentication servers
(192 .168.1.3/24
192 .168.1.2 /24 )
Eth1/0/1
Internet
Host
Networking and
Configuration
Requirements
Switch
The host connects to the switch through the port Ethernet 1/0/1, and the switch
authenticates the host through the RADIUS server. If the authentication is
successful, the host is authorized to access the Internet.
52
CHAPTER 9: PORT SECURITY CONFIGURATION GUIDE
On port Ethernet 1/0/1 of the switch, perform configurations to meet the
following requirements:
■
Allow one 802.1x user to get online.
■
Set two OUI values, and allow only one user whose MAC address matches one
of the two OUI values to get online.
■
Configure port security trapping to monitor the operations of the
802.1x-authenticated user.
Applicable Products
Product series
Software version
Hardware version
Switch 5500
Release V03.02.04
All versions
Switch 5500G
Release V03.02.04
All versions
Switch 4500
Release V03.03.00
All versions
Configuration Procedure
n
■
The following configurations involve some AAA/RADIUS configuration
commands. For details about the commands, refer to “AAA Configuration” in
the Configuration Guide for your product.
■
Configurations on the user host and the RADIUS server are omitted.
■
Configure RADIUS parameters
# Create a RADIUS scheme named radius1.
<3Com> system-view
[3Com] radius scheme radius1
# Specify the primary RADIUS authentication server and primary RADIUS
accounting server.
[3Com-radius-radius1] primary authentication 192.168.1.3
[3Com-radius-radius1] primary accounting 192.168.1.2
# Specify the secondary RADIUS authentication server and secondary RADIUS
accounting server.
[3Com-radius-radius1] secondary authentication 192.168.1.2
[3Com-radius-radius1] secondary accounting 192.168.1.3
# Set the shared key for message exchange between the switch and the RADIUS
authentication servers to name.
[3Com-radius-radius1] key authentication name
# Set the shared key for message exchange between the switch and the
accounting RADIUS servers to money.
[3Com-radius-radius1] key accounting money
# Set the interval and the number of packet transmission attempts for the switch
to send packets to the RADIUS server.
Configuring Port Security userlogin-withoui Mode
53
[3Com-radius-radius1] timer 5
[3Com-radius-radius1] retry 5
# Set the timer for the switch to send real-time accounting packets to the RADIUS
server to 15 minutes.
[3Com-radius-radius1] timer realtime-accounting 15
# Configure the switch to send a username without the domain name to the
RADIUS server.
[3Com-radius-radius1] user-name-format without-domain
[3Com-radius-radius1] quit
# Create a domain named aabbcc.net and enter its view.
[3Com] domain aabbcc.net
# Specify radius1 as the RADIUS scheme of the user domain, and the local
authentication scheme as the backup scheme when the RADIUS server is not
available.
[3Com-isp-aabbcc.net] scheme radius-scheme radius1 local
# Set the maximum number of users of the ISP domain to 30.
[3Com-isp-aabbcc.net] access-limit enable 30
# Enable the idle disconnecting function and set the related parameters.
[3Com-isp-aabbcc.net] idle-cut enable 20 2000
[3Com-isp-aabbcc.net] quit
# Set aabbcc.net as the default user domain.
[3Com] domain default enable aabbcc.net
# Create a local user.
[3Com] local-user localuser
[3Com-luser-localuser] service-type lan-access
[3Com-luser-localuser] password simple localpass
■
Configure port security
# Enable port security.
[3Com] port-security enable
# Add two OUI values.
[3Com] port-security oui 1234-0100-1111 index 1
[3Com] port-security oui 1234-0200-1111 index 2
# Set the port security mode to userlogin-withoui.
54
CHAPTER 9: PORT SECURITY CONFIGURATION GUIDE
[3Com] interface Ethernet 1/0/1
[3Com-Ethernet1/0/1] port-security port-mode userlogin-withoui
[3Com-Ethernet1/0/1] quit
# Configure port security trapping.
[3Com] port-security trap dot1xlogfailure
[3Com] port-security trap dot1xlogon
[3Com] port-security trap dot1xlogoff
Complete Configuration
Precautions
#
domain default enable aabbcc.net
#
port-security enable
port-security trap dot1xlogon
port-security trap dot1xlogoff
port-security trap dot1xlogfailure
port-security oui 1234-0100-0000 index 1
port-security oui 1234-0200-0000 index 2
#
radius scheme radius1
server-type standard
primary authentication 192.168.1.3
primary accounting 192.168.1.2
secondary authentication 192.168.1.2
secondary accounting 192.168.1.3
key authentication name
key accounting money
timer realtime-accounting 15
timer response-timeout 5
retry 5
user-name-format without-domain
#
domain aabbcc.net
scheme radius-scheme radius1 local
access-limit enable 30
idle-cut enable 20 2000
#
local-user localuser
password simple localpass
service-type lan-access
#
interface Ethernet1/0/1
port-security port-mode userlogin-withoui
#
■
Before enabling port security, be sure to disable 802.1x and MAC
authentication globally.
■
On a port configured with port security, you cannot configure the maximum
number of MAC addresses that the port can learn, reflector port for port
mirroring, fabric port, or link aggregation.
Configuring Port Security mac-else-userlogin-secure-ext Mode
Configuring Port
Security
mac-else-userlogin-sec
ure-ext Mode
Network Diagram
55
In mac-else-userlogin-secure-ext mode, a port first performs MAC
authentication of a user. If the authentication is successful, the user can access the
port; otherwise, the port performs 802.1x authentication of the user. In this mode,
there can be more than one authenticated user on a port.
Figure 15 Network diagram for configuring port security mac-else-userlogin-secure-ext
mode
Authentication servers
(192 .168.1.3/24
192 .168.1.2 /24 )
Eth1/0/1
Internet
Host
Networking and
Configuration
Requirements
Switch
The host connects to the switch through the port Ethernet 1/0/1, and the switch
authenticates the host through the RADIUS server. After successful authentication,
the host is authorized to access the Internet.
On port Ethernet 1/0/1 of the switch, perform configurations to meet the
following requirements:
■
Perform MAC authentication of users and then 802.1x authentication if MAC
authentication fails.
■
Allow up to 64 802.1x authenticated users to get online. The total number of
802.1x authenticated users and MAC address authenticated users cannot
exceed 200.
■
All users belong to the domain aabbcc.net, and each user uses the MAC
address of the host as the username and password for authentication.
■
Enable NeedToKnow feature to prevent packets from being sent to unknown
destination MAC addresses.
Applicable Products
Product series
Software version
Hardware version
Switch 5500
Release V03.02.04
All versions
Switch 5500G
Release V03.02.04
All versions
Switch 4500
Release V03.03.00
All versions
Configuration Procedure
n
■
The following configurations involve some AAA/RADIUS configuration
commands. For details about the commands, refer to “AAA Configuration” in
the Configuration Guide for your product.
■
Configurations on the user host and the RADIUS server are omitted.
■
Configure RADIUS parameters
56
CHAPTER 9: PORT SECURITY CONFIGURATION GUIDE
# Create a RADIUS scheme named radius1.
<3Com> system-view
[3Com] radius scheme radius1
# Specify the primary RADIUS authentication server and primary RADIUS
accounting server.
[3Com-radius-radius1] primary authentication 192.168.1.3
[3Com-radius-radius1] primary accounting 192.168.1.2
# Specify the secondary RADIUS authentication server and secondary RADIUS
accounting server.
[3Com-radius-radius1] secondary authentication 192.168.1.2
[3Com-radius-radius1] secondary accounting 192.168.1.3
# Set the shared key for message exchange between the switch and the RADIUS
authentication servers to name.
[3Com-radius-radius1] key authentication name
# Set the shared key for message exchange between the switch and the
accounting RADIUS servers to money.
[3Com-radius-radius1] key accounting money
# Set the interval and the number of packet transmission attempts for the switch
to send packets to the RADIUS server.
[3Com-radius-radius1] timer 5
[3Com-radius-radius1] retry 5
# Set the timer for the switch to send real-time accounting packets to the RADIUS
server to 15 minutes.
[3Com-radius-radius1] timer realtime-accounting 15
# Configure the switch to send a username without the domain name to the
RADIUS server.
[3Com-radius-radius1] user-name-format without-domain
[3Com-radius-radius1] quit
# Create a domain named aabbcc.net and enter its view.
[3Com] domain aabbcc.net
# Specify the RADIUS scheme for the domain.
[3Com-isp-aabbcc.net] scheme radius-scheme radius1
# Enable the idle disconnecting function and set the related parameters.
[3Com-isp-aabbcc.net] idle-cut enable 20 2000
[3Com-isp-aabbcc.net] quit
Configuring Port Security mac-else-userlogin-secure-ext Mode
57
# Set aabbcc.net as the default user domain.
[3Com] domain default enable aabbcc.net
# Set the maximum number of concurrent 802.1x users.
[3Com] dot1x max-user 64
# Configure the switch to use MAC addresses as usernames for authentication,
specifying that the MAC addresses should be lowercase without separators.
[3Com] mac-authentication authmode usernameasmacaddress usernameform
at without-hyphen
# Specify the ISP domain for MAC authentication.
[3Com] mac-authentication domain aabbcc.net
# Enable port security.
[3Com] port-security enable
# Set the maximum number of secure MAC addresses allowed on the port to 200.
[3Com] interface Ethernet 1/0/1
[3Com-Ethernet1/0/1] port-security max-mac-count 200
# Set the port security mode to mac-else-userlogin-secure-ext.
[3Com-Ethernet1/0/1] port-security port-mode mac-else-userlogin-secure-ext
# Set the NeedToKnow mode of the port to ntkonly.
[3Com-Ethernet1/0/1] port-security ntk-mode ntkonly
Complete Configuration
#
domain default enable aabbcc.net
#
port-security enable
#
MAC-authentication domain aabbcc.net
#
radius scheme radius1
server-type standard
primary authentication 192.168.1.3
primary accounting 192.168.1.2
secondary authentication 192.168.1.2
secondary accounting 192.168.1.3
key authentication name
key accounting money
timer realtime-accounting 15
timer response-timeout 5
retry 5
user-name-format without-domain
#
domain aabbcc.net
scheme radius-scheme radius1
58
CHAPTER 9: PORT SECURITY CONFIGURATION GUIDE
idle-cut enable 20 2000
#
interface Ethernet1/0/1
port-security max-mac-count 200
port-security port-mode mac-else-userlogin-secure-ext
port-security ntk-mode ntkonly
dot1x max-user 64
Precautions
■
Before enabling port security, be sure to disable 802.1x and MAC
authentication globally.
■
On a port configured with port security, you cannot configure the maximum
number of MAC addresses that the port can learn, reflector port for port
mirroring, fabric port, or link aggregation.
10
Configuring a Port
Binding
Network Diagram
PORT BINDING CONFIGURATION
GUIDE
Port binding allows the network administrator to bind the MAC and IP addresses
of a user to a specific port. After the port binding operation, the switch forwards a
packet received from the port only if the source MAC address and IP address
carried in the packet have been bound to the port. This improves network security
and enhances security monitoring.
Figure 16 Network diagram for port binding configuration
Switch A
Eth1/0/1
Switch B
Host A
Host B
10.12.1.1 /24
MAC address: 0001 -0002 -0003
Networking and
Configuration
Requirements
To prevent the IP address of Host A from being used by a malicious user, bind the
MAC address and IP addresses of Host A to Ethernet 1/0/1 on Switch A.
Applicable Products
Configuration Procedure
Product series
Software version
Hardware version
Switch 5500
Release V03.02.04
All versions
Switch 5500G
Release V03.02.04
All versions
Switch 4500
Release V03.03.00
All versions
# Enter system view.
<3Com> system-view
# Enter Ethernet 1/0/1 port view on switch A.
[3Com] interface Ethernet1/0/1
60
CHAPTER 10: PORT BINDING CONFIGURATION GUIDE
# Bind the MAC address and the IP address of Host A to Ethernet 1/0/1.
[3Com-Ethernet1/0/1] am user-bind mac-addr 0001-0002-0003 ip-addr 10.12.1.1
Complete Configuration
<3Com> system-view
[3Com] interface Ethernet1/0/1
[3Com-Ethernet1/0/1] am user-bind mac-addr 0001-0002-0003 ip-addr 10.12.1.1
11
MAC Address Table
Management
Network Diagram
MAC ADDRESS TABLE MANAGEMENT
CONFIGURATION GUIDE
The Switch 5500 provides the MAC address table management function. Through
configuration commands, you can add/modify/remove a MAC address, set the
aging time for dynamic MAC addresses, and set the maximum number of MAC
addresses an Ethernet port can learn.
Figure 17 Network diagram for MAC address table management configuration
0014-222c-aa69
NMS
000f-e20f-dc71
Eth1 /0/10
Eth1/0 /2
Eth1/0/5
PC
Networking and
Configuration
Requirements
Switch
Server
Server is connected to Switch through port Ethernet 1/0/2. Configure a static MAC
address containing the Server MAC address on Switch, so that Switch can unicast
rather than broadcast packets destined for Server through Ethernet 1/0/2. Port
Ethernet 1/0/10 is connected with a network management server (NMS). For
network management security, configure Ethernet 1/0/10 to permit the access of
this NMS only.
■
The Server MAC address is 000f-e20f-dc71.
■
Port Ethernet 1/0/2 belongs to VLAN 10.
■
The NMS MAC address is 0014-222c-aa69.
Applicable Products
Configuration Procedure
Product series
Software version
Hardware version
Switch 5500
Release V03.02.04
All versions
Switch 5500G
Release V03.02.04
All versions
Switch 4500
Release V03.03.00
All versions
Switch 4210
Release V03.01.00
All versions
# Add ports Ethernet 1/0/5 and Ethernet 1/0/2 to VLAN 10.
<3Com> system-view
[3Com] vlan 10
[3Com-vlan]
62
CHAPTER 11: MAC ADDRESS TABLE MANAGEMENT CONFIGURATION GUIDE
# Add a static MAC address entry.
[3Com] mac-address static 000f-e20f-dc71 interface Ethernet 1/0/2 vlan 1
# Set the aging time of dynamic MAC address entries on Switch to 500 seconds.
[3Com] mac-address timer aging 500
# Display the MAC address table configuration in system view.
[3Com] display mac-address interface Ethernet 1/0/2
MAC ADDR
VLAN ID STATE
PORT INDEX
AGING TIME(s)
000f-e20f-dc71 1
Static Ethernet1/0/2
NOAGED
00e0-fc17-a7d6 1
Learned Ethernet1/0/2
AGING
00e0-fc5e-b1fb 1
Learned Ethernet1/0/2
AGING
00e0-fc55-f116 1
Learned Ethernet1/0/2
AGING
--- 4 mac address(es) found on port Ethernet1/0/2 ---
# Disable Ethernet 1/0/10 from learning MAC addresses dynamically, and add a
static MAC address entry. So that port Ethernet 1/0/10 can only send packets
destined for the NMS, and other hosts cannot communicate through this port.
[3Com] interface Ethernet 1/0/10
[3Com-Ethernet1/0/10] port access vlan 10
[3Com-Ethernet1/0/10] mac-address max-mac-count 0
[3Com-Ethernet1/0/10] mac-address static 0014-222c-aa69 vlan 10
Complete Configuration
Precautions
#
interface Ethernet1/0/2
port access vlan 10
mac-address static 000f-e20f-dc71 vlan 1
#
interface Ethernet1/0/10
mac-address max-mac-count 0
port access vlan 10
mac-address static 0014-222c-aa69 vlan 10
#
mac-address timer aging 500
■
When you add a MAC address entry, the port specified by the interface
keyword must belong to the VLAN specified by the vlan keyword in the
command. Otherwise, the entry will not be added.
■
If the VLAN specified by the vlan keyword is a dynamic VLAN, adding a static
MAC address entry will make the VLAN become a static VLAN.
12
Configuring DLDP
DLDP CONFIGURATION GUIDE
Sometimes, unidirectional links may appear in networks. On a unidirectional link,
one end can receive packets from the other end but the other end cannot.
Unidirectional links can be caused by fiber cross-connection or fiber cut (including
single-fiber cut and lack of a fiber connection).
They can cause problems such as spanning tree topology loops.
You can use the Device Link Detection Protocol (DLDP) to monitor the link status of
optical fiber cables and copper twisted pairs such as super category 5 twisted
pairs. Once detecting a unidirectional link, DLDP shuts down the port or ask you to
do so depending on your configuration.
Network Diagram
Figure 18 Network diagram for DLDP configuration
GE1/1/3
SwitchA
GE1/1/4
GE1/1/3
SwitchB
GE 1/1/4
PC
Networking and
Configuration
Requirements
■
Switch A and Switch B are connected through two pairs of fibers. The
connecting ports are operating in mandatory full duplex mode at 1000 Mbps.
Both of the switches support DLDP.
■
Configure DLDP to automatically disconnect the detected unidirectional link.
■
After the fibers are connected correctly, the port shut down by DLDP restores
automatically.
Applicable Products
Configuration Procedure
Product series
Software version
Hardware version
Switch 5500
Release V03.02.04
All versions
Switch 5500G
Release V03.02.04
All versions
Switch 4500
Release V03.03.00
All versions
■
Configure Switch A
64
CHAPTER 12: DLDP CONFIGURATION GUIDE
# Configure the ports to work in mandatory full duplex mode at 1000 Mbps.
<SwitchA> system-view
[SwitchA] interface GigabitEthernet 1/1/3
[SwitchA-GigabitEthernet1/1/3] duplex full
[SwitchA-GigabitEthernet1/1/3] speed 1000
[SwitchA-GigabitEthernet1/1/3] quit
[SwitchA] interface GigabitEthernet 1/1/4
[SwitchA-GigabitEthernet1/1/4] duplex full
[SwitchA-GigabitEthernet1/1/4] speed 1000
[SwitchA-GigabitEthernet1/1/4] quit
# Enable DLDP globally.
[SwitchA] dldp enable
# Set the interval for sending DLDP packets to 15 seconds.
[SwitchA] dldp interval 15
# Configure DLDP to operate in enhanced mode.
[SwitchA] dldp work-mode enhance
# Configure DLDP to shut down a port automatically once a unidirectional link is
detected on it.
[SwitchA] dldp unidirectional-shutdown auto
# Display the DLDP state.
[SwitchA] display dldp 1
# Restore the ports brought down by DLDP.
[SwitchA] dldp reset
■
Configure Switch B
The configuration on Switch B is the same as that on Switch A.
Complete Configuration
■
Configuration on Switch A
#
dldp interval 15
dldp work-mode enhance
#
interface Gigabitethernet 1/1/3
duplex full
speed 1000
dldp enable
#
interface Gigabitethernet 1/1/4
duplex full
speed 1000
dldp enable
■
Configuration on Switch B
Configuring DLDP
65
The configuration on Switch B is the same as that on Switch A.
Precautions
1 When enabling DLDP on two connected devices, make sure that they are using the
same software version. Otherwise, DLDP may malfunction.
2 When optical fibers are cross-connected, two or three ports are in the disable
state, and the remaining ports are in the inactive state.
3 DLDP in the enhanced mode can identify unidirectional links caused by fiber
cross-connection or fiber cut.
4 DLDP in the normal mode can identify only unidirectional links caused by fiber
cross-connection.
5 You are recommended to set the Delaydown timer to 5 seconds on the
DLDP-enabled devices that are connected with each other.
66
CHAPTER 12: DLDP CONFIGURATION GUIDE
13
Auto Detect
Implementation in
Static Routing
Network Diagram
AUTO DETECT CONFIGURATION GUIDE
You can bind a static route with a detected group. The auto detect function will
then detect the reachability of the static route through the path specified in the
detected group.
■
The static route is valid if the detected group is reachable.
■
The static route is invalid if the detected group is unreachable.
Figure 19 Network diagram of applying auto detect to static routing
Vlan- int3
192 .168 .1.2 /24
Vlan-int2
Switch B 10.1.1 .3/24
Vlan -int3
192.168 .1.1/24
Vlan- int1
192 .168 .2.2 /24
Host A
192.168.2.1/24
Switch A
Vlan -int2
10 .1.1.4/24
Vlan- int1
Vlan -int2
192 .168.3.1/24 10.1.2.1 /24
Vlan -int3
10 .1.3.2/24
Switch C
Host C
10.1.3.1/24
Vlan-int1
10.1.2 .2/24
Vlan- int2
192 .168.3.2 /24
Switch D
Networking and
Configuration
Requirements
■
Make sure there is a route between Switch A and Switch B, Switch B and
Switch C, Switch A and Switch D, and Switch D and Switch C.
■
On Switch A, configure two static routes to Host C with different preferences.
The one with higher preference (smaller value) is used as the master route, and
the other as the backup route.
■
Normally, Switch A adopts the master route to send data to Host C through
Switch B.
■
Create detected group 8 on Switch A; detect the reachability of IP address
10.1.1.4/24, with the next hop being 192.168.1.2, and the detecting number
being 1.
■
If the detected group 8 is reachable, the master route is valid, and Switch A
adopts the master route to send data to Host C through Switch B.
■
If the detected group is unreachable, the master route is invalid, and Switch A
adopts the backup route to send data to Host C through Switch D.
■
Similarly, configure two static routes to Host A on Switch C. Normally, Switch C
sends data to Host A through Switch B.
68
CHAPTER 13: AUTO DETECT CONFIGURATION GUIDE
■
Create detected group 9 on Switch C; detect the reachability of IP address
10.1.1.3, with the next hop being 192.168.1.1/24, and the detecting number
being 1.
Applicable Products
Configuration Procedure
Product series
Software version
Hardware version
Switch 5500
Release V03.02.04
All versions
Switch 5500G
Release V03.02.04
All versions
Switch 4500
Release V03.03.00
All versions
Configure IP addresses for the interfaces according to Figure 19. The configuration
procedure is omitted here.
■
Configure Switch A
# Enter system view.
<SwitchA> system-view
# Create detected group 8.
[SwitchA] detect-group 8
# Detect the reachability of 10.1.1.4, with the next hop being 192.168.1.2, and
the detecting number being 1.
[SwitchA-detect-group-8] detect-list 1 ip address 10.1.1.4 nexthop 1
92.168.1.2
[SwitchA-detect-group-8] quit
# Configure a static route to Switch C.
[SwitchA] ip route-static 10.1.1.4 24 192.168.1.2
# Configure the master static route, which is valid when the detected group is
reachable.
[SwitchA] ip route-static 10.1.3.1 24 192.168.1.2 detect-group 8
# Configure the backup static route, and set its preference to 80. The backup
route is valid when the detected group is unreachable.
[SwitchA] ip route-static 10.1.3.1 24 192.168.3.2 preference 80
■
Configure Switch C
# Enter system view.
<SwitchC> system-view
# Create detected group 9.
[SwitchC] detect-group 9
Auto Detect Implementation in VRRP
69
# Detect the reachability of 10.1.1.3, with the next hop being 192.168.1.1/24,
and the detecting number being 1.
[SwitchC-detect-group-9] detect-list 1 ip address 192.168.1.1 nextho
p 10.1.1.3
[SwitchC-detect-group-9] quit
# Configure a static route to Switch A.
[SwitchC] ip route-static 192.168.1.1 24 10.1.1.3
# Configure the master route, which is valid when the detected group is
reachable.
[SwitchC] ip route-static 192.168.2.1 24 10.1.1.3 detect-group 9
# Configure the backup static route, and set its preference to 80. The backup
route is valid when the detected group is unreachable.
[SwitchC] ip route-static 192.168.2.1 24 10.1.2.2 preference 80
n
Complete Configuration
This configuration procedure only provides the auto-detect related configuration.
To ensure the normal communication between Host A and Host C, corresponding
static routes must already exist on Switch B and Switch D.
■
Configure Switch A
#
detect-group 8
detect-list 1 ip address
#
ip route-static 10.1.1.0
ip route-static 10.1.3.0
tect-group 8
ip route-static 10.1.3.0
#
■
10.1.1.4 nexthop 192.168.1.2
255.255.255.0 192.168.1.2 preference 60
255.255.255.0 192.168.1.2 preference 60 de
255.255.255.0 192.168.3.2 preference 80
Configure Switch C
#
detect-group 9
detect-list 1 ip address 192.168.1.1 nexthop 10.1.1.3
#
ip route-static 192.168.1.0 255.255.255.0 10.1.1.3 preference 60
ip route-static 192.168.2.0 255.255.255.0 10.1.1.3 preference 60 de
tect-group 9
ip route-static 192.168.2.0 255.255.255.0 10.1.2.2 preference 80
#
Precautions
Auto Detect
Implementation in
VRRP
None
You can use the auto detect function on the master switch of a VRRP group to
detect the routes from the master switch to other networks, and use the detection
results (reachable/unreachable) to control the priority of the master switch, so as
to realize the automatic master-backup switchover:
70
CHAPTER 13: AUTO DETECT CONFIGURATION GUIDE
Network Diagram
■
The master switch remains as master when the detected group is reachable.
■
The priority of the master switch decreases and thus becomes a backup when
the detected group is unreachable.
Figure 20 Network diagram of applying auto detect to VRRP
Virtual IP address:
10.1.1.10/24
Switch A
Vlan- int2
10.1.1 .1/ 24
Vlan-int3
10.1.2.1/24
10.1.4.1/24
Vlan-int3
10.1 .2.2/24
Switch C
10.1.4.2/24
20 .1.1.1/24
10.1. 1. 3/24
Switch E
Host A
Vlan- int2
10.1.1.2/24
Switch B
Networking and
Configuration
Requirements
20.1.1.2/24
10.1.5.2/24
Host B
Vlan-int3
10.1.3.1/24
Vlan-int3
10.1 .3.2/24
10.1.5.1/24
Switch D
■
Make sure there is a route between Switch A and Switch C, Switch C and
Switch E, Switch B and Switch D, and Switch D and Switch E.
■
Create VRRP group 1 containing Switch A and Switch B, and set the virtual IP
address of the group to 10.1.1.10/24.
■
Normally, data of Host A is forwarded to Host B through Switch A.
■
If the link between Switch C and Switch E fails, Switch B becomes the master
of VRRP group 1. Data of Host A is forwarded to Host B through Switch B.
Applicable Products
Configuration Procedure
Product series
Software version
Hardware version
Switch 5500
Release V03.02.04
All versions
Switch 5500G
Release V03.02.04
All versions
Switch 4500
Release V03.03.00
All versions
Configure IP addresses for the interfaces according to Figure 20. The configuration
procedure is omitted here.
■
Configure Switch A
# Create detected group 9.
<SwitchA> system-view
[SwitchA] detect-group 9
# Detect the reachability of 10.1.4.2, with the next hop being 10.1.2.2, and the
detecting number being 1.
[SwitchA-detect-group-9] detect-list 1 ip address 10.1.4.2 nexthop 10.1.2.2
[SwitchA-detect-group-9] quit
Auto Detect Implementation in VRRP
71
# Configure an IP address for VLAN-interface 2.
[SwitchA] interface vlan-interface 2
[SwitchA-Vlan-interface2] ip address 10.1.1.1 24
# Enable VRRP on VLAN-interface 2, and set the virtual IP address of the VRRP
group to 10.1.1.10.
[SwitchA-Vlan-interface2] vrrp vrid 1 virtual-ip 10.1.1.10
# Set the VRRP priority of Switch A to 110, and specify to decrease the priority by
20 when the result of detected group 9 is unreachable.
[SwitchA-Vlan-interface2] vrrp vrid 1 priority 110
[SwitchA-Vlan-interface2] vrrp vrid 1 track detect-group 9 reduced 20
■
Configure Switch B
# Configure an IP address for VLAN-interface 2.
<SwitchB> system-view
[SwitchB] interface vlan-interface 2
[SwitchB-Vlan-interface2] ip address 10.1.1.2 24
# Enable VRRP on VLAN-interface 2, and set the virtual IP address of the VRRP
group to 10.1.1.10.
[SwitchB-Vlan-interface2] vrrp vrid 1 virtual-ip 10.1.1.10
# Set the VRRP priority of Switch B to 100.
[SwitchB-Vlan-interface2] vrrp vrid 1 priority 100
n
Complete Configuration
This configuration procedure only provides the auto-detect and VRRP related
configuration. To use auto detect function properly, a route to Switch A must
already exist on Switch E.
■
Configure Switch A
#
detect-group 9
detect-list 1 ip address 10.1.4.2 nexthop 10.1.2.2
#
interface Vlan-interface2
ip address 10.1.1.1 255.255.255.0
vrrp vrid 1 virtual-ip 10.1.1.10
vrrp vrid 1 priority 110
vrrp vrid 1 track detect-group 9 reduced 20
■
Configure Switch B
#
interface Vlan-interface2
ip address 10.1.1.2 255.255.255.0
vrrp vrid 1 virtual-ip 10.1.1.10
#
Precautions
None
72
CHAPTER 13: AUTO DETECT CONFIGURATION GUIDE
Auto Detect
Implementation in
VLAN Interface
Backup
Network Diagram
You can implement VLAN interface backup through auto detect. When data can
be transmitted through two VLAN interfaces on the switch to the same
destination, configure one of the VLAN interfaces as the active interface and the
other as the standby interface. Through the auto detect function, the standby
interface is enabled automatically when the active fails, so as to ensure the data
transmission:
■
In normal situations (that is, when the detected group is reachable), the
standby VLAN interface is down and packets are sent to the destination
through the active VLAN interface.
■
When the communication between the active VLAN interface and the
destination fails (that is, the detected group is unreachable), the system
enables the backup VLAN interface.
■
When the communication between the active VLAN interface and the
destination resumes, the system shuts down the standby VLAN interface again.
Figure 21 Network diagram of applying auto detect to VLAN interface backup
Vlan- int1
192 .168.1.2 /24
Switch B
Vlan- int2
10.1.1 .3/24
Vlan -int2
10 .1.1.4/24
Vlan -int1
192.168 .1.1/24
Host A
Switch A
Vlan- int1
Vlan -int2
192 .168.3.1/24 10.1.2.1 /24
Switch C
Host C
Vlan-int1
10.1.2 .2/24
Vlan -int2
192 .168.3.2 /24
Switch D
Networking and
Configuration
Requirements
■
Make sure that there is a route between Switch A and Switch B, Switch B and
Switch C, Switch A and Switch D, and Switch D and Switch C.
■
Create detected group 10 on Switch A to detect the connectivity between
Switch A and Switch C.
■
Configure VLAN-interface 1 to be the active interface, which is enabled when
the detected group 10 is reachable.
■
Configure VLAN-interface 2 to be the standby interface, which is enabled
when the detected group 10 is unreachable.
■
Create detected group 9 on Switch C to detect the connectivity between
Switch C and Switch A.
■
Configure VLAN-interface 2 to be the active interface, which is enabled when
the detected group 9 is reachable.
■
Configure VLAN-interface 1 to be the standby interface, which is enabled
when the detected group 9 is unreachable.
Auto Detect Implementation in VLAN Interface Backup
73
Applicable Products
Configuration Procedure
Product series
Software version
Hardware version
Switch 5500
Release V03.02.04
All versions
Switch 5500G
Release V03.02.04
All versions
Switch 4500
Release V03.03.00
All versions
■
Configure Switch A
# Enter system view.
<SwitchA> system-view
# Configure an IP address for VLAN-interface 1.
[SwitchA] interface vlan-interface 1
[SwitchA-Vlan-interface1] ip address 192.168.1.1 24
[SwitchA-Vlan-interface1] quit
# Configure an IP address for VLAN-interface 2.
[SwitchA] interface vlan-interface 2
[SwitchA-Vlan-interface2] ip address 192.168.3.1 24
[SwitchA-Vlan-interface2] quit
# Create detected group 10.
[SwitchA] detect-group 10
# Detect the reachability of 10.1.1.4, with the next hop being 192.168.1.2, and
the detecting number being 1.
[SwitchA-detect-group-10] detect-list 1 ip address 10.1.1.4 nexthop
192.168.1.2
[SwitchA-detect-group-10] quit
# Configure VLAN-interface 2 as the standby interface, which is enabled when the
detected group 10 is unreachable.
[SwitchA] interface vlan-interface 2
[SwitchA-Vlan-interface2] standby detect-group 10
■
Configure Switch C
# Enter system view.
<SwitchC> system-view
# Configure an IP address for VLAN-interface 2.
[SwitchC] interface vlan-interface 2
[SwitchC-Vlan-interface2] ip address 10.1.1.4 24
[SwitchC-Vlan-interface2] quit
# Configure an IP address for VLAN-interface 1.
74
CHAPTER 13: AUTO DETECT CONFIGURATION GUIDE
[SwitchC] interface vlan-interface 1
[SwitchC-Vlan-interface1] ip address 10.1.2.1 24
[SwitchC-Vlan-interface1] quit
# Create detected group 9.
[SwitchC] detect-group 9
# Detect the reachability of 192.168.1.1/24, with the next hop being 10.1.1.3,
and the detecting number being 1.
[SwitchC-detect-group-9] detect-list 1 ip address 192.168.1.1 nextho
p 10.1.1.3
[SwitchC-detect-group-9] quit
# Configure VLAN-interface 1 as the standby interface, which is enabled when the
detected group 9 is unreachable.
[SwitchC] interface vlan-interface 1
[SwitchC-Vlan-interface1] standby detect-group 9
n
Complete Configuration
This configuration procedure only provides the auto-detect related configuration.
To use auto detect function properly, a Switch A-to-Switch B-to-Switch C route
must already exist on Switch A, and a Switch C-to-Switch B-to-Switch A route
must already exist on Switch C.
■
Configure Switch A
#
detect-group 10
detect-list 1 ip address 10.1.1.4 nexthop 192.168.1.2
#
vlan 1
#
vlan 2
#
interface Vlan-interface1
ip address 192.168.1.1 255.255.255.0
#
interface Vlan-interface2
standby detect-group 10
ip address 192.168.3.1 255.255.255.0
■
Configure Switch C
#
detect-group 9
detect-list 1 ip address 192.168.1.1 nexthop 10.1.1.3
#
vlan 1
#
vlan 2
#
interface Vlan-interface1
standby detect-group 9
ip address 10.1.2.1 255.255.255.0
#
interface Vlan-interface2
Auto Detect Implementation in VLAN Interface Backup
ip address 10.1.1.4 255.255.255.0
#
Precautions
None
75
76
CHAPTER 13: AUTO DETECT CONFIGURATION GUIDE
14
Configuring MSTP
Network Diagram
MSTP CONFIGURATION GUIDE
The Switch 5500 supports the Multiple Spanning Tree Protocol (MSTP), which
allows you to map one or multiple VLANs to a multiple spanning tree instance
(MSTI). Note that one VLAN can be mapped to only one MSTI. With MSTP, the
packets of a specific VLAN are transmitted in the MSTI to which the VLAN is
mapped, thus saving overhead and reducing resource utilization.
Figure 22 Network diagram for MSTP configuration
Switch A
Switch B
Permit˖all VLAN
Permit˖
VLAN10ˈ20
Permit˖
VLAN20ˈ30
Permit˖
VLAN10ˈ20
Permit˖
VLAN20ˈ30
Permit˖VLAN20, 40
Switch C
Networking and
Configuration
Requirements
Switch D
VLAN
MSTI
VLAN 10
MSTI 1
VLAN 20
MSTI 0
VLAN 30
MSTI 3
VLAN 40
MSTI 4
Configure MSTP in the network shown in Figure 22 to enable packets of different
VLANs to travel along different MSTIs. Do the following:
■
Assign all switches in the network to the same MST region.
■
Enable packets of VLAN 10, VLAN 30, VLAN 40, and VLAN 20 to travel along
MSTI 1, MSTI 3, MSTI 4, and MSTI 0 respectively.
In this network, Switch A and Switch B are operating at the distribution layer;
Switch C and Switch D are operating at the access layer. VLAN 10 and VLAN 30
are terminated at the distribution layer and VLAN 40 is terminated at the access
layer. Configure Switch A as the root bridge of MSTI 1, Switch B as the root bridge
of MSTI 3, and Switch C as the root bridge of MSTI 4.
78
CHAPTER 14: MSTP CONFIGURATION GUIDE
Applicable Products
Product series
Software version
Hardware version
Switch 5500
Release V03.02.04
All versions
Switch 5500G
Release V03.02.04
All versions
Switch 4500
Release V03.03.00
All versions
Switch 4210
Release V03.01.00
All versions
Configuration Procedure
1 Configuration on Switch A
# Enter MST region view.
<3Com> system-view
[3Com] stp region-configuration
# Configure the region name, VLAN-to-MSTI mapping, and revision level of the
MST region.
[3Com-mst-region]
[3Com-mst-region]
[3Com-mst-region]
[3Com-mst-region]
[3Com-mst-region]
region-name example
instance 1 vlan 10
instance 3 vlan 30
instance 4 vlan 40
revision-level 0
# Activate the MST region configuration manually.
[3Com-mst-region] active region-configuration
# Specify Switch A as the root bridge of MSTI 1.
[3Com] stp instance 1 root primary
2 Configuration on Switch B
# Enter MST region view.
<3Com> system-view
[3Com] stp region-configuration
# Configure the region name, VLAN-to-MSTI mapping, and revision level of the
MST region.
[3Com-mst-region]
[3Com-mst-region]
[3Com-mst-region]
[3Com-mst-region]
[3Com-mst-region]
region-name example
instance 1 vlan 10
instance 3 vlan 30
instance 4 vlan 40
revision-level 0
# Activate the MST region configuration manually.
[3Com-mst-region] active region-configuration
# Specify Switch B as the root bridge of MSTI 3.
[3Com] stp instance 3 root primary
Configuring MSTP
3 Configuration on Switch C
# Configure the MST region.
<3Com> system-view
[3Com] stp region-configuration
[3Com-mst-region] region-name example
[3Com-mst-region] instance 1 vlan 10
[3Com-mst-region] instance 3 vlan 30
[3Com-mst-region] instance 4 vlan 40
[3Com-mst-region] revision-level 0
# Activate the MST region configuration manually.
[3Com-mst-region] active region-configuration
# Specify Switch C as the root bridge of MSTI 4.
[3Com] stp instance 4 root primary
4 Configuration on Switch D
# Enter MST region view.
<3Com> system-view
[3Com] stp region-configuration
# Configure the MST region.
[3Com-mst-region]
[3Com-mst-region]
[3Com-mst-region]
[3Com-mst-region]
[3Com-mst-region]
region-name example
instance 1 vlan 10
instance 3 vlan 30
instance 4 vlan 40
revision-level 0
# Activate the MST region configuration manually.
[3Com-mst-region] active region-configuration
Complete Configuration
■
Configuration on Switch A
#
stp instance 1 root primary
stp region-configuration
region-name example
instance 1 vlan 10
instance 3 vlan 30
instance 4 vlan 40
active region-configuration
#
■
Configuration on Switch B
#
stp instance 3 root primary
stp region-configuration
region-name example
instance 1 vlan 10
instance 3 vlan 30
79
80
CHAPTER 14: MSTP CONFIGURATION GUIDE
instance 4 vlan 40
active region-configuration
#
■
Configuration on Switch C
#
stp instance 4 root primary
stp region-configuration
region-name example
instance 1 vlan 10
instance 3 vlan 30
instance 4 vlan 40
active region-configuration
#
■
Configuration on Switch D
#
stp region-configuration
instance 1 vlan 10
instance 3 vlan 30
instance 4 vlan 40
active region-configuration
#
Configuring
VLAN-VPN Tunneling
Network Diagram
VLAN-VPN tunneling enables BPDUs to be transparently transmitted between
geographically dispersed customer networks through a specific VLAN VPN over
the service provider network. This allows the customer networks to share a
spanning tree independent of that of the service provider network.
Figure 23 Network diagram for VLAN-VPN tunneling configuration
Switch D
Switch C
Eth 1/0/2
Eth 1/0/1
Eth 1/0/2
Eth 1/0/1
Eth 1/0/1
Switch A
Networking and
Configuration
Requirements
Eth 1/0/1
Switch B
■
Use the Switch 5500 (Switch C and Switch D in the network diagram) as access
devices of the service provider network.
■
Use the Switch 4210 (Switch A and Switch B in the network diagram) as access
devices of the customer networks.
■
Connect Switch C and Switch D through trunk ports. Enable VLAN-VPN
tunneling in system view to achieve transparent transmission between the
customer networks over the service provider network.
Configuring VLAN-VPN Tunneling
81
Applicable Products
Product series
Software version
Hardware version
Switch 5500
Release V03.02.04
All versions
Switch 5500G
Release V03.02.04
All versions
Switch 4500
Release V03.03.00
All versions
Switch 4210
Release V03.01.00
All versions
Configuration Procedure
1 Configuration on Switch A
# Enable MSTP.
<3Com> system-view
[3Com] stp enable
# Add Ethernet 1/0/1 to VLAN 10.
[3Com] vlan 10
[3Com-Vlan10] port Ethernet1/0/1
2 Configuration on Switch B
# Enable MSTP.
<3Com> system-view
[3Com] stp enable
# Add Ethernet 1/0/1 to VLAN 10.
[3Com] vlan 10
[3Com-Vlan10] port Ethernet1/0/1
3 Configuration on Switch C
# Enable MSTP.
<3Com> system-view
[3Com] stp enable
# Enable VLAN-VPN tunneling.
[3Com] vlan-vpn tunnel
# Add Ethernet 1/0/1 to VLAN 10.
[3Com] vlan 10
[3Com-Vlan10] port Ethernet1/0/1
[3Com-Vlan10] quit
# Enable VLAN VPN.
[3Com] interface Ethernet1/0/1
[3Com-Ethernet1/0/1] vlan-vpn enable
[3Com-Ethernet1/0/1] quit
# Configure Ethernet 1/0/2 as a trunk port.
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CHAPTER 14: MSTP CONFIGURATION GUIDE
[3Com] interface Ethernet1/0/2
[3Com-Ethernet1/0/2] port link-type trunk
# Add the trunk port Ethernet 1/0/2 to all the VLANs.
[3Com-Ethernet1/0/2] port trunk permit vlan all
4 Configuration on Switch D
# Enable MSTP.
<3Com> system-view
[3Com] stp enable
# Enable VLAN-VPN tunneling.
[3Com] vlan-vpn tunnel
# Add Ethernet 1/0/2 to VLAN 10.
[3Com] vlan 10
[3Com-Vlan10] port Ethernet1/0/2
# Enable VLAN VPN.
[3Com] interface Ethernet1/0/2
[3Com-Ethernet1/0/2] vlan-vpn enable
[3Com-Ethernet1/0/2] quit
# Configure Ethernet 1/0/1 as a trunk port.
[3Com] interface Ethernet1/0/1
[3Com-Ethernet1/0/1] port link-type trunk
# Add the trunk port Ethernet 1/0/1 to all the VLANs.
[3Com-Ethernet1/0/1] port trunk permit vlan all
Complete Configuration
1 Configuration on Switch A
#
stp enable
#
interface Ethernet1/0/1
port access vlan 10
#
2 Configuration on Switch B
#
stp enable
#
interface Ethernet1/0/1
port access vlan 10
#
3 Configuration on Switch C
Configuring RSTP
83
#
stp enable
#
vlan-vpn tunnel
#
interface Ethernet1/0/1
port access vlan 10
vlan-vpn enable
#
interface Ethernet1/0/2
port link-type trunk
port trunk permit vlan all
#
4 Configuration on Switch D
#
stp enable
#
vlan-vpn tunnel
#
interface Ethernet1/0/2
port access vlan 10
vlan-vpn enable
#
interface Ethernet1/0/1
port link-type trunk
port trunk permit vlan all
#
Configuring RSTP
The Rapid Spanning Tree Protocol (RSTP) optimizes STP. RSTP allows a newly
elected root port or designated port to enter the forwarding state much quicker
under certain conditions than in STP. As a result, it takes a shorter time for the
network topology to become stable.
Although RSTP support rapid network convergence, it has the same drawback as
STP does: all bridges within a LAN share the same spanning tree, so redundant
links cannot be blocked based on VLANs, and the packets of all VLANs are
forwarded along the same spanning tree.
84
CHAPTER 14: MSTP CONFIGURATION GUIDE
Network Diagram
Figure 24 Network diagram for RSTP configuration
Switch A
GE 2 /0/1
GE 2/0/2
Eth 1/0/1
Switch B
Eth 1/0 /6
Eth 1/0/6
Eth 1/0 /2
Eth 1/0/5
Eth 1/0/3
Eth 1/0 /4
Eth 1/0/4
Eth 1/0 /3
Switch C
Eth 1/0/2
Eth 1 /0/5
Eth 1 /0/1
Eth 1/0/1
Eth 1/0/2
Eth 1/0/1
Eth 1/0/2
Eth 1/0/1
Eth 1/0 /2
Switch D
Networking and
Configuration
Requirements
Switch E
Switch F
■
Switch A is operating at the core.
■
Switch B and Switch C are operating at the distribution layer.
■
Switch D, Switch E, and Switch F are operating at the access layer.
At the distribution layer:
■
Switch C is operating as the backup switch of Switch B. When Switch B fails,
Switch C takes over.
■
Switch C and Switch B are connected through two links. When a link fails,
another link takes over.
At the access layer:
■
Switch D, Switch E, and Switch F are directly connected to PCs.
■
Switch D, Switch E, and Switch F are connected to Switch C and Switch B.
In the configuration procedure below, only RSTP-related configurations are
provided. Switch A is the root bridge. Switch D through Switch F are mostly
consistent in the configuration, so only the configuration on Switch D is listed.
n
■
In most cases, Switch A is a high-end switch or middle-range switch, such as
Switch 8800 or Switch 7750.
■
In most cases, Switch B and Switch C are stackable switches such as the Switch
5500 and Switch 5500G.
■
In most cases, Switch D, Switch E, and Switch F are stackable switches such as
the Switch 4210 and the Switch 4200G.
Applicable Products
Product series
Software version
Hardware version
Switch 5500
Release V03.02.04
All versions
Switch 5500G
Release V03.02.04
All versions
Configuring RSTP
85
Product series
Software version
Hardware version
Switch 4500
Release V03.03.00
All versions
Switch 4210
Release V03.01.00
All versions
Configuration Procedure
1 Configuration on Switch A
# Enable MSTP.
<3Com> system-view
[3Com] stp enable
# Enabling MSTP globally on the switch enables RSTP on all the ports. Disable
MSTP on the ports that are not involved in RSTP calculation, for example
GigabitEthernet 2/0/4.
[3Com] interface GigabitEthernet 2/0/4
[3Com-GigabitEthernet2/0/4] stp disable
# Configure Switch A as the root bridge in one of the following two methods:
■
Set the bridge priority of Switch A to 0.
[3Com] stp priority 0
■
Use the following command to specify Switch A as the root bridge.
[3Com] stp root primary
# Enable the root guard function on the designated ports connected to Switch B
and Switch C.
[3Com] interface GigabitEthernet 2/0/1
[3Com-GigabitEthernet2/0/1] stp root-protection
[3Com-GigabitEthernet2/0/1] quit
[3Com] interface GigabitEthernet 2/0/2
[3Com-GigabitEthernet2/0/2] stp root-protection
[3Com-GigabitEthernet2/0/2] quit
# Enable the TC-BPDU attack guard function on Switch A.
[3Com] stp tc-protection enable
2 Configuration on Switch B
# Enable MSTP.
<3Com> system-view
[3Com] stp enable
# Enabling MSTP globally on the switch enables RSTP on all the ports. Disable
MSTP on the ports that are not involved in RSTP calculation, for example Ethernet
1/0/8.
[3Com] interface Ethernet 1/0/8
[3Com-Ethernet1/0/8] stp disable
[3Com-Ethernet1/0/8] quit
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CHAPTER 14: MSTP CONFIGURATION GUIDE
# Configure Switch C and Switch B to back up each other, and set the bridge
priority of Switch B to 4096.
[3Com] stp priority 4096
# Enable the root guard function on each designated port.
[3Com] interface Ethernet 1/0/4
[3Com-Ethernet1/0/4] stp root-protection
[3Com-Ethernet1/0/4] quit
[3Com] interface Ethernet 1/0/5
[3Com-Ethernet1/0/5] stp root-protection
[3Com-Ethernet1/0/5] quit
[3Com] interface Ethernet 1/0/6
[3Com-Ethernet1/0/6] stp root-protection
[3Com-Ethernet1/0/6] quit
# Adopt the default MSTP operation mode, time-related parameters, and port
parameters.
3 Configuration on Switch C
# Enable MSTP.
<3Com> system-view
[3Com] stp enable
# Enabling MSTP globally on the switch enables RSTP on all the ports. Disable
MSTP on the ports that are not involved in RSTP calculation, for example Ethernet
1/0/8.
[3Com] interface Ethernet 1/0/8
[3Com-Ethernet1/0/8] stp disable
[3Com-Ethernet1/0/8] quit
# Configure Switch C and Switch B to back up each other, and set the bridge
priority of Switch C to 8192.
[3Com] stp priority 8192
# Enable the root guard function on each designated port.
[3Com] interface Ethernet 1/0/1
[3Com-Ethernet1/0/1] stp root-protection
[3Com-Ethernet1/0/1] quit
[3Com] interface Ethernet 1/0/2
[3Com-Ethernet1/0/2] stp root-protection
[3Com-Ethernet1/0/2] quit
[3Com] interface Ethernet 1/0/3
[3Com-Ethernet1/0/3] stp root-protection
[3Com-Ethernet1/0/3] quit
# Adopt the default MSTP operation mode, time-related parameters, and port
parameters.
4 Configuration on Switch D
Configuring RSTP
87
# Enable MSTP.
<3Com> system-view
[3Com] stp enable
# Enabling MSTP globally on the switch enables RSTP on all the ports. Disable
MSTP on the ports that are not involved in RSTP calculation, for example Ethernet
1/0/3.
[3Com] interface Ethernet 1/0/3
[3Com-Ethernet1/0/3] stp disable
# Configure the ports directly connected to users as edge ports and enable the
BPDU guard function on these ports. Take Ethernet 1/0/3 for example.
[3Com-Ethernet1/0/3] stp edged-port enable
[3Com-Ethernet1/0/3] quit
[3Com] stp bpdu-protection
# Adopt the default MSTP operation mode, time-related parameters, and port
parameters.
# The configuration on Switch E and Switch F are the same as that on Switch D.
Complete Configuration
1 Configuration on Switch A
#
stp instance 0 priority 0
(stp instance 0 root primary)
stp TC-protection enable
stp enable
#
interface GigabitEthernet2/0/1
stp root-protection
#
interface GigabitEthernet2/0/2
stp root-protection
#
interface GigabitEthernet2/0/4
stp disable
#
2 Configuration on Switch B
#
stp instance 0 priority 4096
stp enable
#
interface Ethernet1/0/4
stp root-protection
#
interface Ethernet1/0/5
stp root-protection
#
interface Ethernet1/0/6
stp root-protection
#
88
CHAPTER 14: MSTP CONFIGURATION GUIDE
interface Ethernet1/0/8
stp disable
#
3 Configuration on Switch C
#
stp instance 0 priority 8192
stp enable
#
interface Ethernet1/0/1
stp root-protection
#
interface Ethernet1/0/2
stp root-protection
#
interface Ethernet1/0/3
stp root-protection
#
interface Ethernet1/0/8
stp disable
#
4 Configuration on Switch D
#
stp enable
#
interface Ethernet1/0/3
stp disable
interface Ethernet3/0/5
stp edged-port enable
stp bpdu-protection
#
Configuring Digest
Snooping and Rapid
Transition
Digest Snooping
On a network comprised of devices of multiple vendors, 3Com switches cannot
interoperate with switches that run proprietary spanning tree protocols in the
same MSTP region, even if they are configured with the same MST region-related
settings.
To address the problem, you can enable digest snooping on the ports connected
to switches running proprietary spanning tree protocols.
Rapid Transition
The proprietary spanning tree protocols of some vendors provide port state
transition mechanisms similar to RSTP. For a switch running such a proprietary
protocol, its rapid port state transition mechanism may fail on the designation port
when the switch is downlinked to an MSTP-enabled 3Com switch.
To address the problem, you can enable the rapid transition feature on the
downstream 3Com switch.
Configuring Digest Snooping and Rapid Transition
Network Diagram
89
Figure 25 Network diagram for digest snooping and rapid transition configuration
Switch A
Eth 1/0 /1
Eth 1 /0/2
Eth 1/0/1
Eth 1/0/1
Switch B
Switch C
Eth 1/0 /2
Networking and
Configuration
Requirements
Eth 1/0/2
■
Use another vendor’s switch, Switch A in this scenario, as the root switch.
■
Switch B and Switch C are connected to Switch A.
For Switch B:
■
Set the priority of Switch B to 4096.
■
Enable rapid transition and digest snooping on Switch B.
For Switch C:
■
Set the priority of Switch C to 8192.
■
Enable rapid transition and digest snooping on Switch C.
Applicable Products
Product series
Software version
Hardware version
Switch 5500
Release V03.02.04
All versions
Switch 5500G
Release V03.02.04
All versions
Switch 4500
Release V03.03.00
All versions
Switch 4210
Release V03.01.00
All versions
Configuration Procedure
1 Configuration on Switch B
# Enable MSTP.
<3Com> system-view
[3Com] stp enable
# Set the priority of Switch B to 4096.
[3Com] stp priority 4096
# Enable digest snooping on Switch B.
[3Com] stp config-digest-snooping
# Enable digest snooping on the root port Ethernet 1/0/1.
90
CHAPTER 14: MSTP CONFIGURATION GUIDE
[3Com] interface Ethernet 1/0/1
[3Com-Ethernet1/0/1] stp config-digest-snooping
# Enable rapid transition on the root port Ethernet 1/0/1.
[3Com-Ethernet1/0/1] stp no-agreement-check
[3Com-Ethernet1/0/1] quit
2 Configuration on Switch C
# Enable MSTP.
<3Com> system-view
[3Com] stp enable
# Set the priority of Switch C to 8192.
[3Com] stp priority 8192
# Enable digest snooping on Switch C.
[3Com] stp config-digest-snooping
# Enable digest snooping on the root port Ethernet 1/0/2.
[3Com] interface Ethernet 1/0/2
[3Com-Ethernet1/0/2] stp config-digest-snooping
[3Com-Ethernet1/0/2] quit
# Enable rapid transition on Ethernet 1/0/1.
[3Com] interface Ethernet 1/0/1
[3Com-Ethernet1/0/1] stp no-agreement-check
[3Com-Ethernet1/0/1] quit
n
■
The rapid transition feature can be enabled only on root ports or alternate
ports.
■
You can enable rapid transition on a designated port, but the configuration
cannot take effect on the port.
Complete Configuration
1 Configuration on Switch B
#
stp enable
stp instance 0 priority 4096
stp config-digest-snooping
#
interface Ethernet1/0/1
stp config-digest-snooping
stp no-agreement-check
#
2 Configuration on Switch C
#
stp enable
stp instance 0 priority 8192
Configuring Digest Snooping and Rapid Transition
stp config-digest-snooping
#
interface Ethernet1/0/1
stp no-agreement-check
#
interface Ethernet1/0/2
stp config-digest-snooping
#
91
92
CHAPTER 14: MSTP CONFIGURATION GUIDE
15
Configuring Static
Routes
ROUTING CONFIGURATION GUIDE
A static route is manually configured by an administrator. In a simple network, you
only need to configure static routes to make the network work normally. The
proper configuration and usage of static routes can improve network performance
and ensure the bandwidth for important applications. However, if a fault occurs to
the network, the corresponding static routes cannot be updated dynamically, and
the network administrator has to modify the static routes manually.
For two devices to be reachable to each other, you need to configure a static route
to the peer on each device.
Network Diagram
Figure 26 Network diagram for static route configuration
Host A
1.1.5 .2/24
1.1.5.1 /24
1 .1.2.2/24
1.1 .3.1/24
Switch C
1 .1.2.1/24
1 .1.3.2/24
1.1.1.1/24
1.1.4.1/24
Switch A
1.1.1 .2/24
Host C
Networking and
Configuration
Requirements
Switch B
1.1.4.2 /24
Host B
A small company has a simple and stable office network. The company’s existing
devices that do not support dynamic routing protocols. The company requires that
any two nodes on the network can communicate with each other and that the
existing devices can be fully utilized.
In this case, static routes can enable communication between any two nodes on
the network.
Applicable Products
Product series
Software version
Hardware version
Switch 5500
Release V03.02.04
All versions
Switch 5500G
Release V03.02.04
All versions
94
CHAPTER 15: ROUTING CONFIGURATION GUIDE
Configuration Procedure
Product series
Software version
Hardware version
Switch 4500
Release V03.03.00
All versions
Configure the switches:
■
Configure static routes on Switch A.
<SwitchA>
[SwitchA]
[SwitchA]
[SwitchA]
■
Configure static routes on Switch B.
<SwitchB>
[SwitchB]
[SwitchB]
[SwitchB]
■
system-view
ip route-static 1.1.3.0 255.255.255.0 1.1.2.2
ip route-static 1.1.4.0 255.255.255.0 1.1.2.2
ip route-static 1.1.5.0 255.255.255.0 1.1.2.2
system-view
ip route-static 1.1.2.0 255.255.255.0 1.1.3.1
ip route-static 1.1.5.0 255.255.255.0 1.1.3.1
ip route-static 1.1.1.0 255.255.255.0 1.1.3.1
Configure static routes on Switch C.
<SwitchC> system-view
[SwitchC] ip route-static 1.1.1.0 255.255.255.0 1.1.2.1
[SwitchC] ip route-static 1.1.4.0 255.255.255.0 1.1.3.2
Configure the hosts:
# Configure the default gateway of Host A as 1.1.5.1. Detailed configuration
procedure is omitted.
# Configure the default gateway of Host B as 1.1.4.1. Detailed configuration
procedure is omitted.
# Configure the default gateway of Host C as 1.1.1.1. Detailed configuration
procedure is omitted.
Complete Configuration
■
Perform the following configuration on Switch A.
#
ip route-static 1.1.3.0 255.255.255.0 1.1.2.2 preference 60
ip route-static 1.1.4.0 255.255.255.0 1.1.2.2 preference 60
ip route-static 1.1.5.0 255.255.255.0 1.1.2.2 preference 60
■
Perform the following configuration on Switch B.
#
ip route-static 1.1.2.0 255.255.255.0 1.1.3.1 preference 60
ip route-static 1.1.5.0 255.255.255.0 1.1.3.1 preference 60
ip route-static 1.1.1.0 255.255.255.0 1.1.3.1 preference 60
■
Perform the following configuration on Switch C.
#
ip route-static 1.1.1.0 255.255.255.0 1.1.2.1 preference 60
ip route-static 1.1.4.0 255.255.255.0 1.1.3.2 preference 60
Precautions
Note the following when configuring a static route:
■
If the nexthop of a static route is indirectly connected, the static route takes
effect (that is, it is installed into the routing table) only if a route to the nexthop
exists in the routing table.
Configuring RIP
Configuring RIP
95
■
You cannot configure the next hop of a static route as the address of an
interface on the local switch.
■
You can configure different preferences or an identical preference for routes to
the same destination for route backup or load sharing.
■
The default route has both the destination and mask configured as 0.0.0.0. If
the destination IP address of a packet does not match any entry in the routing
table, the router will select the default route to forward the packet
RIP is a Distance-Vector (D-V) routing protocol. It advertises routing information in
User Datagram Protocol (UDP) datagrams.
RIP uses a hop count, or a routing cost, as the metric to a destination. The hop
count from a router to a directly connected network is 0, and that to a network
which can be reached through another router is 1, and so on. To restrict the
convergence time, RIP prescribes that a cost is an integer ranging from 0 and 15. A
hop count equal to or exceeding 16 is defined as infinite; that is, the destination
network or the host is unreachable. To improve performance and avoid routing
loops, RIP supports split horizon. Besides, RIP can redistribute routes from other
routing protocols.
Network Diagram
Figure 27 Network diagram for RIP configuration
Vlan-int 2
Switch A
Ethernet
Vlan-int 1
Switch C
Vlan-int 4
Device
Interface
IP address
Device
Switch A
Vlan-int1
110.11.2.1/24
Switch B
Vlan-int2
155.10.1.1/24
Vlan-int1
110.11.2.3/24
Vlan-int4
117.102.0.1/16
Switch C
Networking and
Configuration
Requirements
Switch B
Vlan-int 3
Interface
IP address
Vlan-int1
110.11.2.2/24
Vlan-int3
196.38.165.1/24
A small company requires a small office network where any two nodes can
communicate with each other, and the network devices can automatically adapt
to topology changes.
In this case, RIPv2 can enable communication between any two nodes on the
network.
Applicable Products
Product series
Software version
Hardware version
Switch 5500
Release V03.02.04
All versions
96
CHAPTER 15: ROUTING CONFIGURATION GUIDE
Configuration Procedure
Product series
Software version
Hardware version
Switch 5500G
Release V03.02.04
All versions
Switch 4500
Release V03.03.00
All versions
■
Configure Switch A.
# Configure RIP.
<SwitchA> system-view
[SwitchA] interface Vlan-interface 1
[SwitchA-Vlan-interface1] ip address 110.11.2.1 24
[SwitchA-Vlan-interface1] rip version 2
[SwitchA-Vlan-interface1] quit
[SwitchA] interface Vlan-interface 2
[SwitchA-Vlan-interface2] ip address 155.10.1.1 24
[SwitchA-Vlan-interface2] rip version 2
[SwitchA-Vlan-interface2] quit
[SwitchA] rip
[SwitchA-rip] undo summary
[SwitchA-rip] network 110.11.2.0
[SwitchA-rip] network 155.10.1.0
■
Configure Switch B.
# Configure RIP.
<SwitchB> system-view
[SwitchB] interface Vlan-interface 1
[SwitchB-Vlan-interface1] ip address 110.11.2.2 24
[SwitchB-Vlan-interface1] rip version 2
[SwitchB-Vlan-interface1] quit
[SwitchB] interface Vlan-interface 3
[SwitchB-Vlan-interface3] ip address 196.38.165.1 24
[SwitchB-Vlan-interface3] rip version 2
[SwitchB-Vlan-interface3] quit
[SwitchB] rip
[SwitchB-rip] undo summary
[SwitchB-rip] network 196.38.165.0
[SwitchB-rip] network 110.11.2.0
■
Configure Switch C.
# Configure RIP.
<SwitchC> system-view
[SwitchC] interface Vlan-interface 1
[SwitchC-Vlan-interface1] ip address 110.11.2.3 24
[SwitchC-Vlan-interface1] rip version 2
[SwitchC-Vlan-interface1] quit
[SwitchC] interface Vlan-interface 4
[SwitchC-Vlan-interface4] ip address 117.102.0.1 16
[SwitchC-Vlan-interface4] rip version 2
[SwitchC-Vlan-interface4] quit
[SwitchC] rip
[SwitchC-rip] undo summary
[SwitchC-rip] network 117.102.0.0
[SwitchC-rip] network 110.11.2.0
Configuring RIP
Complete Configuration
■
Perform the following configuration on Switch A.
#
vlan 1
#
vlan 2
#
interface Vlan-interface1
ip address 110.11.2.1 255.255.255.0
rip version 2 multicast
#
interface Vlan-interface2
ip address 155.10.1.1 255.255.255.0
rip version 2 multicast
#
rip
undo summary
network 110.0.0.0
network 155.10.0.0
#
■
Perform the following configuration on Switch B.
#
vlan 1
#
vlan 3
#
interface Vlan-interface1
ip address 110.11.2.2 255.255.255.0
rip version 2 multicast
#
interface Vlan-interface3
ip address 196.38.165.1 255.255.255.0
rip version 2 multicast
#
rip
undo summary
network 196.38.165.0
network 110.0.0.0
■
Perform the following configuration on Switch C.
#
vlan 1
#
vlan 4
#
interface Vlan-interface1
ip address 110.11.2.3 255.255.255.0
rip version 2 multicast
#
interface Vlan-interface4
ip address 117.102.0.1 255.255.0.0
rip version 2 multicast
#
rip
undo summary
network 117.0.0.0
network 110.0.0.0
97
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CHAPTER 15: ROUTING CONFIGURATION GUIDE
Precautions
Configuring OSPF
Network Diagram
■
RIPv2 supports automatic route summarization (with the summary command).
This function is enabled by default.
■
Based on your needs, you can configure the switch to receive or send RIP
packets with the rip input command or the rip output command.
■
RIPv2 can transmit packets in two modes: broadcast and multicast. By default,
RIPv2 transmits packets in the multicast mode.
Open Shortest Path First (OSPF) is a link state interior gateway protocol developed
by IETF. At present, OSPF version 2 (RFC 2328) is used. OSPF has the following
features:
■
Wide-spread application
■
Fast convergence
■
Loop-free
■
Multicast transmission
■
Area partition
■
Routing hierarchy
■
Authentication
Figure 28 Network diagram for OSPF basic configuration
Switch A
Area 0
Switch B
Vlan -int100
Vlan -int200
Switch C
Vlan -int10
Vlan -int200
Vlan -int300
Vlan-int20
Vlan-int10
Switch D
Vlan -int20
Area 1
Device
Interface
IP address
Router ID
Switch A
Vlan-int100
10.1.1.1/24
1.1.1.1
Switch B
Switch C
Vlan-int200
10.1.2.1/24
Vlan-int100
10.1.1.2/24
Vlan-int200
10.1.3.1/24
Vlan-int200
10.1.2.2/24
Vlan-int300
10.1.4.1/24
Vlan-int10
192.168.1.1/24
Vlan-int20
192.168.2.1/24
2.2.2.2
3.3.3.3
Configuring OSPF
Switch D
Networking and
Configuration
Requirements
Configuration Procedure
Vlan-int200
10.1.3.2/24
Vlan-int300
10.1.4.2/24
Vlan-int10
192.168.10.1/24
Vlan-int20
192.168.20.1/24
99
4.4.4.4
Network devices run OSPF to forward packets. For network security, disable the
device interfaces not enabled with OSPF from sending OSPF packets.
Product series
Software version
Hardware version
Switch 5500
Release V03.02.04
All versions
Switch 5500G
Release V03.02.04
All versions
Switch 4500
Release V03.03.00
All versions
■
Configure Switch A.
# Create VLANs and configure IP addresses for VLAN interfaces. The configuration
procedure is omitted.
# Configure OSPF.
<SwitchA> system-view
[SwitchA] ospf 1 router-id 1.1.1.1
[SwitchA-ospf-1] area 0
[SwitchA-ospf-1-area-0.0.0.0] network 10.1.1.0 0.0.0.255
[SwitchA-ospf-1-area-0.0.0.0] network 10.1.2.0 0.0.0.255
[SwitchA-ospf-1-area-0.0.0.0] quit
[SwitchA-ospf-1] quit
■
Configure Switch B (refer to “Configure Switch A.” on page 99).
■
Configure Switch C.
# Create VLANs and configure IP addresses for VLAN interfaces. The configuration
procedure is omitted.
# Configure OSPF.
<SwitchC> system-view
[SwitchC] router id 3.3.3.3
# Disable the interfaces from sending OSPF packets.
[SwitchC] ospf
[SwitchC-ospf-1] silent-interface Vlan-interface 10
[SwitchC-ospf-1] silent-interface Vlan-interface 20
# Enable the interfaces in the specified areas to run OSPF.
[SwitchC-ospf-1] area 0
[SwitchC-ospf-1-area-0.0.0.0]
[SwitchC-ospf-1-area-0.0.0.0]
[SwitchC-ospf-1-area-0.0.0.0]
[SwitchC-ospf-1] area 1
[SwitchC-ospf-1-area-0.0.0.1]
network 10.1.2.0 0.0.0.255
network 10.1.4.0 0.0.0.255
quit
network 192.168.1.0 0.0.0.255
100
CHAPTER 15: ROUTING CONFIGURATION GUIDE
[SwitchC-ospf-1-area-0.0.0.1] network 192.168.2.0 0.0.0.255
[SwitchC-ospf-1-area-0.0.0.1] quit
[SwitchC-ospf-1] quit
Complete Configuration
■
Configure Switch D (refer to “Configure Switch C.” on page 99).
■
Perform the following configuration on Switch A.
#
vlan 100
#
vlan 200
#
interface Vlan-interface100
ip address 10.1.1.1 255.255.255.0
#
interface Vlan-interface200
ip address 10.1.2.1 255.255.255.0
#
ospf 1 router-id 1.1.1.1
area 0.0.0.0
network 10.1.1.0 0.0.0.255
network 10.1.2.0 0.0.0.255
#
■
Perform the following configuration on Switch B.
#
vlan 100
#
vlan 200
#
interface Vlan-interface100
ip address 10.1.1.2 255.255.255.0
#
interface Vlan-interface200
ip address 10.1.3.1 255.255.255.0
#
ospf 1 router-id 2.2.2.2
area 0.0.0.0
network 10.1.1.0 0.0.0.255
network 10.1.3.0 0.0.0.255
#
■
Perform the following configuration on Switch C.
#
router id 3.3.3.3
#
vlan 10
#
vlan 20
#
vlan 200
#
vlan 300
#
interface Vlan-interface10
ip address 192.168.1.1 255.255.255.0
#
Configuring OSPF
interface Vlan-interface20
ip address 192.168.2.1 255.255.255.0
#
interface Vlan-interface200
ip address 10.1.2.2 255.255.255.0
#
interface Vlan-interface300
ip address 10.1.4.1 255.255.255.0
#
ospf 1
silent-interface Vlan-interface10
silent-interface Vlan-interface20
area 0.0.0.1
network 192.168.1.0 0.0.0.255
network 192.168.2.0 0.0.0.255
#
area 0.0.0.0
network 10.1.2.0 0.0.0.255
network 10.1.4.0 0.0.0.255
#
■
Perform the following configuration on Switch D.
#
router id 4.4.4.4
#
vlan 10
#
vlan 20
#
vlan 200
#
vlan 300
#
interface Vlan-interface10
ip address 192.168.10.1 255.255.255.0
#
interface Vlan-interface20
ip address 192.168.20.1 255.255.255.0
#
interface Vlan-interface200
ip address 10.1.3.2 255.255.255.0
#
interface Vlan-interface300
ip address 10.1.4.2 255.255.255.0
#
ospf 1
silent-interface Vlan-interface10
silent-interface Vlan-interface20
area 0.0.0.1
network 192.168.10.0 0.0.0.255
network 192.168.20.0 0.0.0.255
#
area 0.0.0.0
network 10.1.3.0 0.0.0.255
network 10.1.4.0 0.0.0.255
#
101
102
CHAPTER 15: ROUTING CONFIGURATION GUIDE
Precautions
Configuring OSPF DR
Election
■
Before configuring OSPF basic functions, configure a router ID for each OSPF
process to ensure OSPF runs normally. You are recommended to use the ospf
command to configure router IDs for the processes, especially on a device
running multiple processes.
■
To prevent route leaking and enhance network security, use the
silent-interface command on the interfaces not running OSPF to disable them
from sending OSPF packets.
On broadcast or NBMA networks, any two routers need to exchange routing
information with each other. If n routers are present on a network, n × (n-1)/2
adjacencies are required. Any route change on a router in such a network
generates traffic for routing information synchronization, consuming network
resources. The Designated Router (DR) is defined to solve the problem. All the
other routers on the network send routing information to the DR, which is
responsible for advertising link state information.
On a network, a BDR is elected along with a DR and establishes adjacencies with
all the other routers for routing information exchange. When the DR fails, the BDR
will become the new DR in a very short period by avoiding adjacency
establishment and DR re-election. Meanwhile, other routers elect another BDR,
which requires a relatively long period but has no influence on routing calculation.
A router that is neither a DR nor a BDR is a DRother. It forms adjacencies with the
DR and BDR, but it neither establishes adjacencies nor exchange routing
information with each other, thus reducing the number of adjacencies on
broadcast and NBMA networks.
The DR and BDR in a network are elected by all the routers attached to the
network. The DR priority of an interface determines its qualification for DR/BDR
election. Interfaces attached to the network and having priorities higher than 0 are
election candidates. The election votes are hello packets.
Network Diagram
Figure 29 Network diagram for DR/BDR election
Switch D
Switch A
DR
Vlan- int1
Vlan- int1
Vlan -int1
Vlan-int1
BDR
Switch B
Device
Interface
Switch C
IP address
Switch A
Router ID
Interface priority
Vlan-int1
196.1.1.1/24
1.1.1.1
100
Switch B
Vlan-int1
196.1.1.2/24
2.2.2.2
0
Switch C
Vlan-int1
196.1.1.3/24
3.3.3.3
2
Switch D
Vlan-int1
196.1.1.4/24
4.4.4.4
1
Configuring OSPF DR Election
Networking and
Configuration
Requirements
103
Use OSPF to enable communication between devices in a broadcast network.
Devices with higher performance should become the DR and BDR to improve
network performance. Disable the devices with lower performance from taking
part in the DR/BDR election.
Based on the customer requirements and networking environment, assign proper
priorities to interfaces.
Applicable Products
Configuration Procedure
Product series
Software version
Hardware version
Switch 5500
Release V03.02.04
All versions
Switch 5500G
Release V03.02.04
All versions
Switch 4500
Release V03.03.00
All versions
■
Configure Switch A.
# Assign a router ID to Switch A.
<SwitchA> system-view
[SwitchA] router id 1.1.1.1
# Configure an IP address for the VLAN interface.
[SwitchA] interface Vlan-interface 1
[SwitchA-Vlan-interface1] ip address 196.1.1.1 255.255.255.0
# Assign a DR priority to the VLAN interface.
[SwitchA-Vlan-interface1] ospf dr-priority 100
[SwitchA-Vlan-interface1] quit
# Enable OSPF and specify the VLAN interface to belong to OSPF area 0.
[SwitchA] ospf
[SwitchA-ospf-1] area 0
[SwitchA-ospf-1-area-0.0.0.0] network 196.1.1.0 0.0.0.255
■
Configure Switch B.
# Assign a router ID to Switch B.
<SwitchB> system-view
[SwitchB] router id 2.2.2.2
# Configure the IP address of the VLAN interface attached to area 0 and assign a
DR priority to the interface. Enable OSPF and specify the VLAN interface to belong
to area 0.
[SwitchB] interface Vlan-interface 1
[SwitchB-Vlan-interface1] ip address 196.1.1.2 255.255.255.0
[SwitchB-Vlan-interface1] ospf dr-priority 0
[SwitchB-Vlan-interface1] quit
[SwitchB] ospf
[SwitchB-ospf-1] area 0
[SwitchB-ospf-1-area-0.0.0.0] network 196.1.1.0 0.0.0.255
104
CHAPTER 15: ROUTING CONFIGURATION GUIDE
[SwitchB-ospf-1-area-0.0.0.0] quit
[SwitchB-ospf-1] quit
■
Configure Switch C.
# Assign a router ID to Switch C.
<SwitchC> system-view
[SwitchC] router id 3.3.3.3
# Configure an IP address for the VLAN interface.
[SwitchC] interface Vlan-interface 1
[SwitchC-Vlan-interface1] ip address 196.1.1.3 255.255.255.0
# Assign a DR priority to the VLAN interface.
[SwitchC-Vlan-interface1] ospf dr-priority 2
[SwitchC-Vlan-interface1] quit
# Enable OSPF and specify the VLAN interface to belong to area 0.
[SwitchC] ospf
[SwitchC-ospf-1] area 0
[SwitchC-ospf-1-area-0.0.0.0] network 196.1.1.0 0.0.0.255
■
Configure Switch D.
# Assign a router ID to Switch D.
<SwitchD> system-view
[SwitchD] router id 4.4.4.4
# Configure an IP address for the VLAN interface.
[SwitchD] interface Vlan-interface 1
[SwitchD-Vlan-interface1] ip address 196.1.1.4 255.255.255.0
[SwitchD-Vlan-interface1] quit
# Enable OSPF and specify the VLAN interface to belong to area 0.
[SwitchD] ospf
[SwitchD-ospf-1] area 0
[SwitchD-ospf-1-area-0.0.0.0] network 196.1.1.0 0.0.0.255
Complete Configuration
■
Perform the following configuration on Switch A.
#
router id 1.1.1.1
#
vlan 1
#
interface Vlan-interface 1
ip address 196.1.1.1 255.255.255.0
ospf dr-priority 100
#
ospf 1
Configuring OSPF DR Election
105
area 0.0.0.0
network 196.1.1.0 0.0.0.255
■
Perform the following configuration on Switch B.
#
router id 2.2.2.2
#
vlan 1
#
interface Vlan-interface 1
ip address 196.1.1.2 255.255.255.0
ospf dr-priority 0
#
ospf 1
area 0.0.0.0
network 196.1.1.0 0.0.0.255
■
Perform the following configuration on Switch C.
#
router id 3.3.3.3
#
vlan 1
#
interface Vlan-interface 1
ip address 196.1.1.3 255.255.255.0
ospf dr-priority 2
#
ospf 1
area 0.0.0.0
network 196.1.1.0 0.0.0.255
■
Perform the following configuration on Switch D.
#
router id 4.4.4.4
#
vlan 1
#
interface Vlan-interface 1
ip address 196.1.1.4 255.255.255.0
#
ospf 1
area 0.0.0.0
network 196.1.1.0 0.0.0.255
Precautions
■
The DR election is performed only on broadcast and NBMA interfaces rather
than P2P or P2MP interfaces.
■
A DR is an interface of a router and belongs to a single network segment. A
router’s interface may be a DR, while another interface of the router may be a
BDR or DRother.
■
The DR priority of a router interface affects the DR and BDR election. However,
it does not effect the election immediately after the DR and BDR election ends.
A new DR priority assigned to a router interface takes effect at the time of next
DR and BDR election.
■
A DR may not be a router interface with the highest priority in a network, and
a BDR may not be a router interface with the second highest priority.
106
CHAPTER 15: ROUTING CONFIGURATION GUIDE
Configuring a (Totally)
Stub Area
When a large number of OSPF routers are present on a network, the LSDB of
routers may become so large that a great amount of storage space is occupied
and CPU resources are exhausted when performing the SPF computation.
In addition, as the topology of a large network is prone to changes, enormous
OSPF packets may be created, reducing bandwidth utilization. Each topology
change makes all the routers perform a route recalculation.
To address this issue, OSPF divides an AS into multiple areas.
Backbone area
The area ID of the backbone area is 0. The backbone area is responsible for
distributing routing information between none-backbone areas. Routing
information of non-backbone areas must be forwarded by the backbone area.
(Totally) Stub area
The ABR in a stub area does not distribute Type-5 LSAs into the area, so the
routing table size in this area is reduced significantly.
To further reduce the routing table size in a stub area, you can configure the stub
area as a totally stub area, where the ABR advertises neither the addresses of other
areas nor the external routes.
NSSA area
Similar to a stub area, a Not So Stubby Area (NSSA) area imports no Type-5 LSAs
but can import Type-7 LSAs that are generated by the ASBR and distributed
throughout the NSSA area. After reaching the NSSA ABR, Type-7 LSAs are
translated into Type-5 LSAs by the ABR for advertisement to other areas.
Network Diagram
Figure 30 Network diagram for (Totally) stub area configuration
Switch A
Area 0
Switch B
Vlan- int100
10.1.1.1 /24
Vlan -int100
10 .1 .1.2/24
Vlan- int2 00
10 .2.1.1/24
Area 1
Stub
Vlan -int200
10 .2 .1.2/24
Vlan -int2 00
10.3.1.1 /24
Area 2
Vlan -int200
10.3.1.2/24
ASBR
Switch C
Networking and
Configuration
Requirements
Vlan -int300
10.4.1.1/24
Vlan- int3 00
10 .5.1.1/24
Switch D
Run OSPF on the network devices. Configure a (totally) stub area to reduce the
routing table size.
Applicable Products
Product series
Software version
Hardware version
Switch 5500
Release V03.02.04
All versions
Configuring a (Totally) Stub Area
Configuration Procedure
107
Product series
Software version
Hardware version
Switch 5500G
Release V03.02.04
All versions
Switch 4500
Release V03.03.00
All versions
Non-backbone area and backbone area configuration (area 1 is a
non-backbone area)
■
Configure Switch A.
# Create VLANs and configure IP addresses for the VLAN interfaces. The
configuration procedure is omitted.
# Configure OSPF for area 1.
<SwitchA> system-view
[SwitchA] ospf 1 router-id 1.1.1.1
[SwitchA-ospf-1] area 1
[SwitchA-ospf-1-area-0.0.0.1] network 10.2.1.0 0.0.0.255
# Configure OSPF for the backbone area.
[SwitchA-ospf-1] area 0
[SwitchA-ospf-1-area-0.0.0.0] network 10.1.1.0 0.0.0.255
■
Configure Switch B (refer to “Configure Switch A.” on page 107).
■
Configure Switch C.
# Create VLANs and configure IP addresses for the VLAN interfaces. The
configuration procedure is omitted.
# Configure OSPF for area 1.
<SwitchC> system-view
[SwitchC] ospf 1 router-id 3.3.3.3
[SwitchC-ospf-1] area 1
[SwitchC-ospf-1-area-0.0.0.1] network 10.2.1.0 0.0.0.255
[SwitchC-ospf-1-area-0.0.0.1] network 10.4.1.0 0.0.0.255
■
Configure Switch D.
# Create VLANs and configure IP addresses for the VLAN interfaces. The
configuration procedure is omitted.
# Configure a static route of 1.0.0.0/8.
<SwitchD> system-view
[SwitchD] ip route-static 1.0.0.0 8 10.5.1.2
# Configure OSPF for area 2.
[SwitchD] ospf 1 router-id 4.4.4.4
[SwitchD-ospf-1] area 2
[SwitchD-ospf-1-area-0.0.0.2] network 10.3.1.0 0.0.0.255
[SwitchD-ospf-1-area-0.0.0.2] network 10.5.1.0 0.0.0.255
[SwitchD-ospf-1-area-0.0.0.2] quit
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CHAPTER 15: ROUTING CONFIGURATION GUIDE
# Redistribute the static route to specify Switch D as an ASBR.
[SwitchD-ospf-1] import-route static
[SwitchD-ospf-1] quit
n
■
The above-mentioned steps configure non-backbone areas, backbone area,
and ABRs/ASBRs.
■
By using the display ospf lsdb command on Switch C, you can see that Type-3
LSAs, Type-4 LSAs, and Type-5 LSAs exist in the link state database (LSDB). You
can control the generation of Type-4 LSAs and Type-5 LSAs by configuring the
stub attribute.
Configure a stub area (area 1)
Based on the configuration in “Non-backbone area and backbone area
configuration (area 1 is a non-backbone area)” on page 107, perform the
following steps:
# Configure area 1 as a stub area.
[SwitchA-ospf-1-area-0.0.0.1] stub
[SwitchC-ospf-1-area-0.0.0.1] stub
n
■
Use the display ospf lsdb command on Switch C to display the LSDB. You can
see that no Type-4 LSAs or Type-5 LSAs exist in the LSDB. But a default Type-3
LSA is added.
Configure a totally stub area (area 1 is a totally stub area)
Based on the configuration in “Non-backbone area and backbone area
configuration (area 1 is a non-backbone area)” on page 107, perform the
following steps:
# Configure area 1 as a totally stub area.
[SwitchA-ospf-1-area-0.0.0.1] stub no-summary
[SwitchC-ospf-1-area-0.0.0.1] stub
n
Complete Configuration
■
To configure a stub area as a totally stub area, use the stub no-summary
command on the ABR of the stub area.
■
Use the display ospf lsdb command on Switch C to display the LSDB. You can
see that no Type-3 LSAs, Type-4 LSAs, or Type-5 LSAs exist in the LSDB. But a
Type-3 default LSA is added.
Configuration information when area 1 is a non-backbone area:
■
Perform the following configuration on Switch A.
#
vlan 100
#
vlan 200
#
interface Vlan-interface100
ip address 10.1.1.1 255.255.255.0
#
interface Vlan-interface200
Configuring a (Totally) Stub Area
ip address 10.2.1.1 255.255.255.0
#
ospf 1 router-id 1.1.1.1
area 0.0.0.1
network 10.2.1.0 0.0.0.255
#
area 0.0.0.0
network 10.1.1.0 0.0.0.255
#
■
Perform the following configuration on Switch B.
#
vlan 100
#
vlan 200
#
interface Vlan-interface100
ip address 10.1.1.2 255.255.255.0
#
interface Vlan-interface200
ip address 10.3.1.1 255.255.255.0
#
ospf 1 router-id 2.2.2.2
area 0.0.0.2
network 10.3.1.0 0.0.0.255
#
area 0.0.0.0
network 10.1.1.0 0.0.0.255
#
■
Perform the following configuration on Switch C.
#
vlan 200
#
vlan 300
#
interface Vlan-interface200
ip address 10.2.1.2 255.255.255.0
#
interface Vlan-interface300
ip address 10.4.1.1 255.255.255.0
#
ospf 1 router-id 3.3.3.3
area 0.0.0.1
network 10.2.1.0 0.0.0.255
network 10.4.1.0 0.0.0.255
#
■
Perform the following configuration on Switch D.
#
vlan 200
#
vlan 300
#
interface Vlan-interface200
ip address 10.3.1.2 255.255.255.0
#
interface Vlan-interface300
109
110
CHAPTER 15: ROUTING CONFIGURATION GUIDE
ip address 10.5.1.1 255.255.255.0
#
ospf 1 router-id 4.4.4.4
import-route static
area 0.0.0.2
network 10.3.1.0 0.0.0.255
network 10.5.1.0 0.0.0.255
#
ip route-static 1.0.0.0 255.0.0.0 10.5.1.2 preference 60
#
Configuration information when area 1 is a stub area:
■
Perform the following configuration on Switch A.
#
vlan 100
#
vlan 200
#
interface Vlan-interface100
ip address 10.1.1.1 255.255.255.0
#
interface Vlan-interface200
ip address 10.2.1.1 255.255.255.0
#
ospf 1 router-id 1.1.1.1
area 0.0.0.1
network 10.2.1.0 0.0.0.255
stub
#
area 0.0.0.0
network 10.1.1.0 0.0.0.255
#
■
Perform the following configuration on Switch B.
Refer to the configuration of Switch B when area 1 is a non-backbone area.
■
Perform the following configuration on Switch C.
#
vlan 200
#
vlan 300
#
interface Vlan-interface200
ip address 10.2.1.2 255.255.255.0
#
interface Vlan-interface300
ip address 10.4.1.1 255.255.255.0
#
ospf 1 router-id 3.3.3.3
area 0.0.0.1
network 10.2.1.0 0.0.0.255
network 10.4.1.0 0.0.0.255
stub
#
■
Perform the following configuration on Switch D.
Configuring a (Totally) NSSA Area
111
Refer to the configuration of Switch D when area 1 is a non-backbone area.
Configuration information when area 1 is a totally stub area:
■
Perform the following configuration on Switch A.
#
vlan 100
#
vlan 200
#
interface Vlan-interface100
ip address 10.1.1.1 255.255.255.0
#
interface Vlan-interface200
ip address 10.2.1.1 255.255.255.0
#
ospf 1 router-id 1.1.1.1
area 0.0.0.1
network 10.2.1.0 0.0.0.255
stub no-summary
#
area 0.0.0.0
network 10.1.1.0 0.0.0.255
#
■
Perform the following configuration on Switch B.
Refer to the configuration of Switch B when area 1 is a non-backbone area.
■
Perform the following configuration on Switch C.
Refer to the configuration of Switch C when area 1 is a stub area.
■
Perform the following configuration on Switch D.
Refer to the configuration of Switch D when area 1 is a non-backbone area.
Precautions
Configuring a (Totally)
NSSA Area
■
To configure a stub area as a totally stub area, use the stub no-summary
command on the ABR of the stub area.
■
When you configure an area as a (totally) stub area, the ABR of the (totally)
stub area will automatically generate a Type-3 default LSA into the area.
Refer to “Configuring a (Totally) Stub Area” on page 106 for related information.
112
CHAPTER 15: ROUTING CONFIGURATION GUIDE
Network Diagram
Figure 31 Network diagram for (totally) NSSA area configuration
Switch A
Area 0
Switch B
Vlan- int100
10.1.1.1 /24
Vlan-int200
10.2.1 .1/24
Area 1
NSSA
Vlan -int200
10 .2 .1.2/24
Vlan -int100
10 .1 .1.2/24
Vlan -int200
10 .3.1.1/24
Area 2
ASBR
Switch C
Networking and
Configuration
Requirements
Vlan -int300
10 .4.1.1/24
Vlan -int200
10.3.1.2/24
ASBR
Vlan- int3 00
10 .5.1.1/24
Switch D
Run OSPF on the network devices. Based on actual conditions, you can configure
an (totally) NSSA area to reduce the routing table size in the area.
Applicable Products
Configuration Procedure
Product series
Software version
Hardware version
Switch 5500
Release V03.02.04
All versions
Switch 5500G
Release V03.02.04
All versions
Switch 4500
Release V03.03.00
All versions
Non-backbone area and backbone area configuration (area 1 is a
non-backbone area)
■
Configure Switch A.
# Create VLANs and configure IP addresses for the VLAN interfaces. The
configuration procedure is omitted.
# Configure OSPF for area 1.
<SwitchA> system-view
[SwitchA] ospf 1 router-id 1.1.1.1
[SwitchA-ospf-1] area 1
[SwitchA-ospf-1-area-0.0.0.1] network 10.2.1.0 0.0.0.255
# Configure OSPF for the backbone area.
[SwitchA-ospf-1] area 0
[SwitchA-ospf-1-area-0.0.0.0] network 10.1.1.0 0.0.0.255
■
Configure Switch B (refer to “Configure Switch A.” on page 112).
■
Configure Switch C.
# Create VLANs and configure IP addresses for the VLAN interfaces. The
configuration procedure is omitted.
# Configure a static route of 2.0.0.0/8.
Configuring a (Totally) NSSA Area
113
<SwitchC> system-view
[SwitchC] ip route-static 2.0.0.0 8 10.4.1.2
# Configure OSPF for area 1.
[SwitchC] ospf 1 router-id 3.3.3.3
[SwitchC-ospf-1] area 1
[SwitchC-ospf-1-area-0.0.0.1] network 10.2.1.0 0.0.0.255
[SwitchC-ospf-1-area-0.0.0.1] network 10.4.1.0 0.0.0.255
[SwitchC-ospf-1-area-0.0.0.1] quit
# Redistribute the static route to specify Switch C as an ASBR.
[SwitchC-ospf-1] import-route static
[SwitchC-ospf-1] quit
■
Configure Switch D.
# Create VLANs and configure IP addresses of the VLAN interfaces. The
configuration procedure is omitted.
# Configure a static route of 1.0.0.0/8.
<SwitchD> system-view
[SwitchD] ip route-static 1.0.0.0 8 10.5.1.2
# Configure OSPF for area 2.
[SwitchD] ospf 1 router-id 4.4.4.4
[SwitchD-ospf-1] area 2
[SwitchD-ospf-1-area-0.0.0.2] network 10.3.1.0 0.0.0.255
[SwitchD-ospf-1-area-0.0.0.2] network 10.5.1.0 0.0.0.255
[SwitchD-ospf-1-area-0.0.0.2] quit
# Redistribute the static route to specify Switch D as an ASBR.
[SwitchD-ospf-1] import-route static
[SwitchD-ospf-1] quit
n
■
The above-mentioned steps configure non-backbone areas, backbone area,
and ABRs/ASBRs.
■
By using the display ospf lsdb command on Switch C, you can see that Type-3
LSAs, Type-4 LSAs, and Type-5 LSAs exist in the link state database (LSDB). You
can control the generation of Type-4 LSAs, Type-5 LSAs, and Type-7 LSAs by
configuring the NSSA attribute.
NSSA area configuration 1 (area 1 is an NSSA area)
n
After this configuration, packets destined for an IP address (in another AS)
advertised by the ASBR of the NSSA area will be forwarded by the ASBR, while
packets destined for an IP address (in another AS) not advertised by the ASBR will
be dropped.
Based on the configuration in “Non-backbone area and backbone area
configuration (area 1 is a non-backbone area)” on page 107, perform the
following steps:
114
CHAPTER 15: ROUTING CONFIGURATION GUIDE
# Configure area 1 as an NSSA area.
[SwitchA-ospf-1-area-0.0.0.1] nssa
[SwitchC-ospf-1-area-0.0.0.1] nssa
n
■
The steps above configure an NSSA area.
■
Use the display ospf lsdb command on Switch C to display the LSDB. You can
see that no Type-4 LSAs or Type-5 LSAs exist in the LSDB. But Type-7 LSAs are
installed.
NSSA area configuration 2 (area 1 is an NSSA area)
n
After this configuration, packets from the NSSA area to other ASs are forwarded
by the ASBR of the NSSA area.
Based on the configuration in “Non-backbone area and backbone area
configuration (area 1 is a non-backbone area)” on page 107, perform the
following steps:
# Configure a default route.
[SwitchC] ip route-static 0.0.0.0 0.0.0.0 10.4.1.2
# Configure Area 1 as an NSSA area. Switch C will forward all the packets to other
ASs.
[SwitchA-ospf-1-area-0.0.0.1] nssa
[SwitchC-ospf-1-area-0.0.0.1] nssa default-route-advertise
n
■
The steps above configure an NSSA area.
■
Use the display ospf lsdb command on Switch C to display the LSDB. You can
see that no Type-4 LSAs or Type-5 LSAs exist in the LSDB. But Type-7 LSAs and
a Type-7 default LSA are added.
NSSA area configuration 3 (area 1 is an NSSA area)
n
After this configuration, packets destined for an IP address (in another AS)
advertised by the ASBR of the NSSA area will be forwarded by the ASBR, while
packets destined for an IP address (in another AS) not advertised by the ASBR will
be forward by the ABR of the area to the ASBR of another area for further
forwarding.
Based on the configuration in “Non-backbone area and backbone area
configuration (area 1 is a non-backbone area)” on page 107, perform the
following steps:
# Configure area 1 as an NSSA area.
[SwitchA-ospf-1-area-0.0.0.1] nssa default-route-advertise
[SwitchC-ospf-1-area-0.0.0.1] nssa
n
■
The steps above configure an NSSA area.
Configuring a (Totally) NSSA Area
■
115
Use the display ospf lsdb command on Switch C to display the LSDB. You can
see that no Type-4 LSAs or Type-5 LSAs exist in the LSDB. But Type-7 LSAs and
a Type-7 default LSA are installed.
Totally NSSA area configuration (area 1 is a totally NSSA area)
Based on the configuration in “Non-backbone area and backbone area
configuration (area 1 is a non-backbone area)” on page 107, perform the
following steps:
# Configure area 1 as a totally NSSA area.
[SwitchA-ospf-1-area-0.0.0.1] nssa no-summary
[SwitchC-ospf-1-area-0.0.0.1] nssa
n
■
The steps above configure a totally NSSA area.
■
Use the display ospf lsdb command on Switch C to display the LSDB. You can
see that no Type-3 LSAs, Type-4 LSAs, or Type-5 LSAs exist in the LSDB. But
Type-7 LSAs and a default Type-3 LSA are added.
Complete Configuration
n
In the following example, the ASBR of the NSSA area will forward all the packets
destined for other ASs. For the configurations in other cases, refer to
“Configuration Procedure” on page 112.
■
Perform the following configuration on Switch A.
#
vlan 100
#
vlan 200
#
interface Vlan-interface100
ip address 10.1.1.1 255.255.255.0
#
interface Vlan-interface200
ip address 10.2.1.1 255.255.255.0
#
ospf 1 router-id 1.1.1.1
area 0.0.0.1
network 10.2.1.0 0.0.0.255
nssa
#
area 0.0.0.0
network 10.1.1.0 0.0.0.255
#
■
Perform the following configuration on Switch B.
#
vlan 100
#
vlan 200
#
interface Vlan-interface100
ip address 10.1.1.2 255.255.255.0
#
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CHAPTER 15: ROUTING CONFIGURATION GUIDE
interface Vlan-interface200
ip address 10.3.1.1 255.255.255.0
#
ospf 1 router-id 2.2.2.2
area 0.0.0.2
network 10.3.1.0 0.0.0.255
#
area 0.0.0.0
network 10.1.1.0 0.0.0.255
#
■
Perform the following configuration on Switch C.
#
vlan 200
#
vlan 300
#
interface Vlan-interface200
ip address 10.2.1.2 255.255.255.0
#
interface Vlan-interface300
ip address 10.4.1.1 255.255.255.0
#
ospf 1 router-id 3.3.3.3
import-route static
area 0.0.0.1
network 10.2.1.0 0.0.0.255
network 10.4.1.0 0.0.0.255
nssa default-route-advertise
#
ip route-static 0.0.0.0 0.0.0.0 10.4.1.2 preference 60
ip route-static 2.0.0.0 255.0.0.0 10.4.1.2 preference 60
#
■
Perform the following configuration on Switch D.
#
vlan 200
#
vlan 300
#
interface Vlan-interface200
ip address 10.3.1.2 255.255.255.0
#
interface Vlan-interface300
ip address 10.5.1.1 255.255.255.0
#
ospf 1 router-id 4.4.4.4
import-route static
area 0.0.0.2
network 10.3.1.0 0.0.0.255
network 10.5.1.0 0.0.0.255
#
ip route-static 1.0.0.0 255.0.0.0 10.5.1.2 preference 60
#
Precautions
■
To configure an NSSA area as a totally NSSA area, use the stub no-summary
command on the ABR of the NSSA area.
Configuring OSPF Route Summarization
Configuring OSPF
Route Summarization
117
■
After you configure an area as a totally NSSA area, the ABR of the totally NSSA
area will automatically generate a Type-3 default LSA into the totally NSSA
area.
■
For the ASBR of an NSSA area to generate a default Type-7 LSA, the default
route with the destination address 0.0.0.0/0 must exist in the routing table and
you need to execute the nssa default-route-advertise command.
■
For the ABR of an NSSA area to generate a default Type-7 LSA, you only need
to execute the nssa default-route-advertise command on it.
You can configure an ABR or ASBR to summarize routes with the same prefix into
a single route and distribute it to other areas.
An AS is divided into different areas that are interconnected through ABRs.
Through route summarization, routing information across areas and the size of
routing tables on routers will be reduced, improving the calculation speed of
routers.
After calculating the intra-area routes of an area, an ABR summarizes contiguous
networks into one route and advertises it to other areas according to the related
configuration.
For example, as shown in the following figure, in Area 1 are three intra-area routes
19.1.1.0/24, 19.1.2.0/24, and 19.1.3.0/24. By configuring route summarization
on Router A, the three routes are summarized with the route 19.1.0.0/16 that is
advertised into Area 0.
Figure 32 Route summarization
Router A
19.1.0.0/16
ABR
Area 0
ABR
19.1.1.0/24
19.1.2.0/24
Router B 19.1.3.0/24
ĂĂ
Area 1
OSPF performs two types of route summarization:
1 ABR route summarization
To distribute routing information to other areas, an ABR generates Type-3 LSAs on
a per network segment basis. If contiguous network segments are available in the
area, you can summarize them with a single network segment. In this way, the
ABR in the area distributes only the summary LSA to reduce the scale of LSDBs on
routers in other areas.
2 ASBR route summarization
If summarization for redistributed routes is configured on an ASBR, it will
summarize redistributed Type-5 LSAs that fall into the specified address range. If in
an NSSA area, it also summarizes Type-7 LSAs that fall into the specified address
range.
118
CHAPTER 15: ROUTING CONFIGURATION GUIDE
If this feature is configured on the ABR of the NSSA area, the ABR will summarize
Type-5 LSAs translated from Type-7 LSAs.
Network Diagram
Figure 33 Network diagram for route summarization configuration
Switch A
Area 0
Switch B
Vlan- int100
10.1.1.1 /24
Vlan-int200
20.1.1 .1/24
Area 1
NSSA
Vlan -int200
2 0.1 .1.2/24
Vlan -int100
10 .1 .1.2/24
Vlan -int200
30 .1.1.1/24
Area 2
Vlan -int200
30.1.1.2/24
ASBR
Switch C
Networking and
Configuration
Requirements
Vlan -int300
20 .1.2.1/24
ASBR
Vlan- int3 00
30 .1.2.1/24
Switch D
Network devices run OSPF to forward packets. Configure ABR and ASBR route
summarization to reduce the routing information across areas and the size of
routing tables on routers. Based on the actual needs, you can filter out specified
routes through route summarization.
Applicable Products
Configuration Procedure
Product series
Software version
Hardware version
Switch 5500
Release V03.02.04
All versions
Switch 5500G
Release V03.02.04
All versions
Switch 4500
Release V03.03.00
All versions
OSPF basic configuration and area configuration
■
Configure Switch A.
# Create VLANs and configure IP addresses for the VLAN interfaces. The
configuration procedure is omitted.
# Configure OSPF basic functions. The configuration procedure is omitted.
# Configure the NSSA attribute of Switch A.
<SwitchA> system-view
[SwitchA] ospf 1
[SwitchA-ospf-1] area 1
[SwitchA-ospf-1-area-0.0.0.1] nssa
[SwitchA-ospf-1-area-0.0.0.1] quit
■
Configure Switch C.
# Create VLANs and configure IP addresses for the VLAN interfaces. The
configuration procedure is omitted.
# Configure OSPF basic functions. The configuration procedure is omitted.
Configuring OSPF Route Summarization
119
# Configure the static routes 2.1.3.0/24, 2.1.4.0/24, 2.1.5.0/24, 2.1.6.0/24, and
2.1.7.0/24.
<SwitchC>
[SwitchC]
[SwitchC]
[SwitchC]
[SwitchC]
[SwitchC]
system-view
ip route-static
ip route-static
ip route-static
ip route-static
ip route-static
2.1.3.0
2.1.4.0
2.1.5.0
2.1.6.0
2.1.7.0
24
24
24
24
24
20.1.2.2
20.1.2.2
20.1.2.2
20.1.2.2
20.1.2.2
# Redistribute the static routes and configure the NSSA attribute of Switch C.
[SwitchC] ospf 1
[SwitchC-ospf-1] import-route static
[SwitchC-ospf-1] area 1
[SwitchC-ospf-1-area-0.0.0.1] nssa
[SwitchC-ospf-1-area-0.0.0.1] quit
■
Configure Switch B.
# Create VLANs and configure IP addresses for the VLAN interfaces. The
configuration procedure is omitted.
# Configure OSPF basic functions. The configuration procedure is omitted.
■
Configure Switch D.
# Create VLANs and configure IP addresses for the VLAN interfaces. The
configuration procedure is omitted.
# Configure OSPF basic functions. The configuration procedure is omitted.
# Configure the static routes 1.1.3.0/24, 1.1.4.0/24, 1.1.5.0/24, 1.1.6.0/24, and
1.1.7.0/24.
<SwitchD>
[SwitchD]
[SwitchD]
[SwitchD]
[SwitchD]
[SwitchD]
system-view
ip route-static
ip route-static
ip route-static
ip route-static
ip route-static
1.1.3.0
1.1.4.0
1.1.5.0
1.1.6.0
1.1.7.0
24
24
24
24
24
30.1.2.2
30.1.2.2
30.1.2.2
30.1.2.2
30.1.2.2
# Redistribute the static routes.
[SwitchD] ospf 1
[SwitchD-ospf-1] import-route static
ABR route summarization configuration
n
This configuration is applicable when an ABR needs to summarize the Type-3 LSAs
of an area. The following takes the ABR route summarization configuration on
Switch B as an example.
Based on “OSPF basic configuration and area configuration” on page 118,
perform the following configuration:
120
CHAPTER 15: ROUTING CONFIGURATION GUIDE
# Configure ABR route summarization to summarize the routes 30.1.1.0/24 and
30.1.2.0/24 in area 2 into 30.1.0.0/22.
[SwitchB-ospf-1] area 2
[SwitchB-ospf-1-area-0.0.0.2] abr-summary 30.1.0.0 255.255.252.0
[SwitchB-ospf-1-area-0.0.0.2] quit
ASBR route summarization configuration 1
n
This configuration is applicable when an ASBR needs to summarize the Type-5
LSAs or Type-7 LSAs. The following takes the ASBR route summarization
configuration on Switch D as an example.
Based on “OSPF basic configuration and area configuration” on page 118,
perform the following configuration:
# Configure ASBR route summarization to summarize the routes 1.1.4.0/24,
1.1.5.0/24, 1.1.6.0/24, and 1.1.7.0/24 into 1.1.4.0/22 and to prevent 1.1.3.0/24
from being advertised to any other area.
[SwitchD-ospf-1] asbr-summary 1.1.4.0 255.255.252.0
[SwitchD-ospf-1] asbr-summary 1.1.3.0 255.255.255.0 not-advertise
ASBR route summarization configuration 2
n
This configuration is applicable when the ABR in an NSSA area needs to translate
Type-7 LSAs into Type-5 LSAs and summarize the Type-5 LSAs.
Based on “OSPF basic configuration and area configuration” on page 118,
perform the following configuration:
# Switch A is the ABR of the NSSA area. Configure ASBR route summarization to
summarize the routes 2.1.4.0/24, 2.1.5.0/24, 2.1.6.0/24, and 2.1.7.0/24 into
2.1.4.0/22 and to prevent 2.1.3.0/24 from being advertised.
[SwitchA-ospf-1] asbr-summary 2.1.4.0 255.255.252.0
[SwitchA-ospf-1] asbr-summary 2.1.3.0 255.255.255.0 not-advertise
Complete Configuration
n
ABR route summarization configuration
Configure ABR route summarization on Switch B.
■
Perform the following configuration on Switch A.
#
vlan 100
#
vlan 200
#
interface Vlan-interface100
ip address 10.1.1.1 255.255.255.0
#
interface Vlan-interface200
ip address 20.1.1.1 255.255.255.0
#
ospf 1 router-id 1.1.1.1
area 0.0.0.1
Configuring OSPF Route Summarization
network 20.1.1.0 0.0.0.255
nssa
#
area 0.0.0.0
network 10.1.1.0 0.0.0.255
#
■
Perform the following configuration on Switch B.
#
vlan 100
#
vlan 200
#
interface Vlan-interface100
ip address 10.1.1.2 255.255.255.0
#
interface Vlan-interface200
ip address 30.1.1.1 255.255.255.0
#
ospf 1 router-id 2.2.2.2
area 0.0.0.2
network 30.1.1.0 0.0.0.255
abr-summary 30.1.0.0 255.255.252.0 advertise
#
area 0.0.0.0
network 10.1.1.0 0.0.0.255
#
■
Perform the following configuration on Switch C.
#
vlan 200
#
vlan 300
#
interface Vlan-interface200
ip address 20.1.1.2 255.255.255.0
#
interface Vlan-interface300
ip address 20.1.2.1 255.255.255.0
#
ospf 1 router-id 3.3.3.3
import-route static
area 0.0.0.2
network 20.1.1.0 0.0.0.255
network 20.1.2.0 0.0.0.255
nssa
#
ip route-static 2.1.3.0 255.255.255.0
ip route-static 2.1.4.0 255.255.255.0
ip route-static 2.1.5.0 255.255.255.0
ip route-static 2.1.6.0 255.255.255.0
ip route-static 2.1.7.0 255.255.255.0
#
■
20.1.2.2
20.1.2.2
20.1.2.2
20.1.2.2
20.1.2.2
Perform the following configuration on Switch D.
#
vlan 200
#
preference
preference
preference
preference
preference
60
60
60
60
60
121
122
CHAPTER 15: ROUTING CONFIGURATION GUIDE
vlan 300
#
interface Vlan-interface200
ip address 30.1.1.2 255.255.255.0
#
interface Vlan-interface300
ip address 30.1.2.1 255.255.255.0
#
ospf 1 router-id 4.4.4.4
import-route static
area 0.0.0.2
network 30.1.1.0 0.0.0.255
network 30.1.2.0 0.0.0.255
#
ip route-static 1.1.3.0 255.255.255.0
ip route-static 1.1.4.0 255.255.255.0
ip route-static 1.1.5.0 255.255.255.0
ip route-static 1.1.6.0 255.255.255.0
ip route-static 1.1.7.0 255.255.255.0
#
30.1.2.2
30.1.2.2
30.1.2.2
30.1.2.2
30.1.2.2
ASBR route summarization configuration 1
n
Configure ASBR route summarization on Switch D.
■
Configure Switch A.
#
vlan 100
#
vlan 200
#
interface Vlan-interface100
ip address 10.1.1.1 255.255.255.0
#
interface Vlan-interface200
ip address 20.1.1.1 255.255.255.0
#
ospf 1 router-id 1.1.1.1
area 0.0.0.1
network 20.1.1.0 0.0.0.255
nssa
#
area 0.0.0.0
network 10.1.1.0 0.0.0.255
#
■
Configure Switch B.
#
vlan 100
#
vlan 200
#
interface Vlan-interface100
ip address 10.1.1.2 255.255.255.0
#
interface Vlan-interface200
ip address 30.1.1.1 255.255.255.0
#
preference
preference
preference
preference
preference
60
60
60
60
60
Configuring OSPF Route Summarization
ospf 1 router-id 2.2.2.2
area 0.0.0.2
network 30.1.1.0 0.0.0.255
#
area 0.0.0.0
network 10.1.1.0 0.0.0.255
#
■
Configure Switch C.
#
vlan 200
#
vlan 300
#
interface Vlan-interface200
ip address 20.1.1.2 255.255.255.0
#
interface Vlan-interface300
ip address 20.1.2.1 255.255.255.0
#
ospf 1 router-id 3.3.3.3
import-route static
area 0.0.0.2
network 20.1.1.0 0.0.0.255
network 20.1.2.0 0.0.0.255
nssa
#
ip route-static 2.1.3.0 255.255.255.0
ip route-static 2.1.4.0 255.255.255.0
ip route-static 2.1.5.0 255.255.255.0
ip route-static 2.1.6.0 255.255.255.0
ip route-static 2.1.7.0 255.255.255.0
#
preference
preference
preference
preference
preference
60
60
60
60
60
#
vlan 200
#
vlan 300
#
interface Vlan-interface200
ip address 30.1.1.2 255.255.255.0
#
interface Vlan-interface300
ip address 30.1.2.1 255.255.255.0
#
ospf 1 router-id 4.4.4.4
asbr-summary 1.1.4.0 255.255.252.0
asbr-summary 1.1.3.0 255.255.255.0 not-advertise
import-route static
area 0.0.0.2
network 30.1.1.0 0.0.0.255
network 30.1.2.0 0.0.0.255
#
ip route-static 1.1.3.0 255.255.255.0 30.1.2.2 preference
ip route-static 1.1.4.0 255.255.255.0 30.1.2.2 preference
ip route-static 1.1.5.0 255.255.255.0 30.1.2.2 preference
ip route-static 1.1.6.0 255.255.255.0 30.1.2.2 preference
60
60
60
60
■
20.1.2.2
20.1.2.2
20.1.2.2
20.1.2.2
20.1.2.2
Configure Switch D.
123
124
CHAPTER 15: ROUTING CONFIGURATION GUIDE
ip route-static 1.1.7.0 255.255.255.0 30.1.2.2 preference 60
#
ASBR route summarization configuration 2
n
Configure ASBR route summarization on Switch A to summarize the Type-5 LSAs
translated from Type-7 LSAs.
■
Configure Switch A.
#
vlan 100
#
vlan 200
#
interface Vlan-interface100
ip address 10.1.1.1 255.255.255.0
#
interface Vlan-interface200
ip address 20.1.1.1 255.255.255.0
#
ospf 1 router-id 1.1.1.1
asbr-summary 2.1.4.0 255.255.252.0
asbr-summary 2.1.3.0 255.255.255.0 not-advertise
area 0.0.0.1
network 20.1.1.0 0.0.0.255
nssa
#
area 0.0.0.0
network 10.1.1.0 0.0.0.255
#
■
Configure Switch B.
#
vlan 100
#
vlan 200
#
interface Vlan-interface100
ip address 10.1.1.2 255.255.255.0
#
interface Vlan-interface200
ip address 30.1.1.1 255.255.255.0
#
ospf 1 router-id 2.2.2.2
area 0.0.0.2
network 30.1.1.0 0.0.0.255
#
area 0.0.0.0
network 10.1.1.0 0.0.0.255
#
■
Configure Switch C.
#
vlan 200
#
vlan 300
#
interface Vlan-interface200
Configuring OSPF Route Summarization
ip address 20.1.1.2 255.255.255.0
#
interface Vlan-interface300
ip address 20.1.2.1 255.255.255.0
#
ospf 1 router-id 3.3.3.3
import-route static
area 0.0.0.2
network 20.1.1.0 0.0.0.255
network 20.1.2.0 0.0.0.255
nssa
#
ip route-static 2.1.3.0 255.255.255.0
ip route-static 2.1.4.0 255.255.255.0
ip route-static 2.1.5.0 255.255.255.0
ip route-static 2.1.6.0 255.255.255.0
ip route-static 2.1.7.0 255.255.255.0
#
■
preference
preference
preference
preference
preference
60
60
60
60
60
30.1.2.2
30.1.2.2
30.1.2.2
30.1.2.2
30.1.2.2
preference
preference
preference
preference
preference
60
60
60
60
60
Configure Switch D.
#
vlan 200
#
vlan 300
#
interface Vlan-interface200
ip address 30.1.1.2 255.255.255.0
#
interface Vlan-interface300
ip address 30.1.2.1 255.255.255.0
#
ospf 1 router-id 4.4.4.4
import-route static
area 0.0.0.2
network 30.1.1.0 0.0.0.255
network 30.1.2.0 0.0.0.255
#
ip route-static 1.1.3.0 255.255.255.0
ip route-static 1.1.4.0 255.255.255.0
ip route-static 1.1.5.0 255.255.255.0
ip route-static 1.1.6.0 255.255.255.0
ip route-static 1.1.7.0 255.255.255.0
#
Precautions
20.1.2.2
20.1.2.2
20.1.2.2
20.1.2.2
20.1.2.2
125
■
The abr-summary command is applicable to the ABR only to summarize
contiguous networks into a single network. You can use the not-advertise
keyword to not advertise a specified summary route in a Type-3 LSA.
■
After the asbr-summary command is used on an ASBR, it will summarize the
Type-5 LSAs falling into the specified address range; if the ASBR is in an NSSA
area, it will summarize the Type-7 LSAs within the specified address range. If
used on the ABR of an NSSA area, the asbr-summary command summarizes
Type-5 LSAs translated from Type-7 LSAs. If the router is not the ABR in the
NSSA area, no summarization is performed. You can use the not-advertise
keyword to not advertise a specified summary route in a LSA.
126
CHAPTER 15: ROUTING CONFIGURATION GUIDE
Configuring OSPF
Virtual Link
Among OSPF areas in an AS, one area is different from any other area. Its area ID is
0 and it is usually called the backbone area. The backbone area is responsible for
distributing routing information between none-backbone areas. Therefore, OSPF
requires that:
■
All non-backbone areas must maintain connectivity to the backbone area.
■
The backbone area must maintain connectivity within itself.
In practice, the requirements may not be satisfied due to physical limitations. In
this case, configuring OSPF virtual links is a solution.
A virtual link is established between two ABRs through a non-backbone area and
is configured on both ABRs to take effect. The non-backbone area is a transit area.
Network Diagram
Figure 34 Networking diagram for OSPF virtual link
Switch A
Area 1
Switch B
Vlan-int2
Virtual link
Vlan-int1
Vlan-int1
Area 2
Area 0
Device
Switch A
Switch B
Networking and
Configuration
Requirements
Interface
IP address
Router ID
Vlan-int1
196.1.1.2/24
1.1.1.1
Vlan-int2
197.1.1.2/24
-
Vlan-int1
152.1.1.1/24
2.2.2.2
Vlan-int2
197.1.1.1/24
-
Configure OSPF in the network, which is divided into three areas: the backbone
area and two non-backbone areas (Area 1 and Area 2). Area 2 has no direct
connection to the backbone area; the connection from Area 2 to the backbone
area must go through Area 1. The user hopes to enable Area 2 to communicate
with the other two areas.
Based on the user requirements and network environment, configure a virtual link
to connect Area 2 to the backbone area.
Applicable Products
Product series
Software version
Hardware version
Switch 5500
Release V03.02.04
All versions
Switch 5500G
Release V03.02.04
All versions
Switch 4500
Release V03.03.00
All versions
Configuring OSPF Virtual Link
Configuration Procedure
1 Configure OSPF basic functions.
# Configure Switch A.
<SwitchA> system-view
[SwitchA] interface vlan-interface 1
[SwitchA-Vlan-interface1] ip address 196.1.1.2 255.255.255.0
[SwitchA-Vlan-interface1] quit
[SwitchA] interface vlan-interface 2
[SwitchA-Vlan-interface2] ip address 197.1.1.2 255.255.255.0
[SwitchA-Vlan-interface2] quit
[SwitchA] router id 1.1.1.1
[SwitchA] ospf
[SwitchA-ospf-1] area 0
[SwitchA-ospf-1-area-0.0.0.0] network 196.1.1.0 0.0.0.255
[SwitchA-ospf-1-area-0.0.0.0] quit
[SwitchA-ospf-1] area 1
[SwitchA-ospf-1-area-0.0.0.1] network 197.1.1.0 0.0.0.255
[SwitchA-ospf-1-area-0.0.0.1] quit
# Configure Switch B.
<SwitchB> system-view
[SwitchB] interface Vlan-interface 1
[SwitchB-Vlan-interface1] ip address 152.1.1.1 255.255.255.0
[SwitchB-Vlan-interface1] quit
[SwitchB] interface Vlan-interface 2
[SwitchB-Vlan-interface2] ip address 197.1.1.1 255.255.255.0
[SwitchB-Vlan-interface2] quit
[SwitchB] router id 2.2.2.2
[SwitchB] ospf
[SwitchB-ospf-1] area 1
[SwitchB-ospf-1-area-0.0.0.1] network 197.1.1.0 0.0.0.255
[SwitchB-ospf-1-area-0.0.0.1] quit
[SwitchB-ospf-1] area 2
[SwitchB-ospf-1-area-0.0.0.2] network 152.1.1.0 0.0.0.255
[SwitchB-ospf-1-area-0.0.0.2] quit
2 Configure a virtual link.
# Configure Switch A.
[SwitchA-ospf-1] area 1
[SwitchA-ospf-1-area-0.0.0.1] vlink-peer 2.2.2.2
[SwitchA-ospf-1-area-0.0.0.1] quit
[SwitchA-ospf-1] quit
# Configure Switch B.
[SwitchB-ospf-1] area 1
[SwitchB-ospf-1-area-0.0.0.1] vlink-peer 1.1.1.1
[SwitchB-ospf-1-area-0.0.0.1] quit
Complete Configuration
■
Perform the following configuration on Switch A.
127
128
CHAPTER 15: ROUTING CONFIGURATION GUIDE
#
router id 1.1.1.1
#
vlan 1
#
vlan 2
#
interface Vlan-interface1
ip address 196.1.1.2 255.255.255.0
#
interface Vlan-interface2
ip address 197.1.1.2 255.255.255.0
#
ospf 1
area 0.0.0.0
network 196.1.1.0 0.0.0.255
area 0.0.0.1
network 197.1.1.0 0.0.0.255
vlink-peer 2.2.2.2
#
■
Perform the following configuration on Switch B.
#
router id 2.2.2.2
#
vlan 1
#
vlan 2
#
interface Vlan-interface1
ip address 152.1.1.1 255.255.255.0
#
interface Vlan-interface2
ip address 197.1.1.1 255.255.255.0
#
ospf 1
area 0.0.0.1
network 197.1.1.0 0.0.0.255
vlink-peer 1.1.1.1
area 0.0.0.2
network 152.1.1.0 0.0.0.255
#
Precautions
Configuring Routing
Policies
■
Both ends of a virtual link must be ABRs configured with the vlink-peer
command.
■
A virtual link cannot transit the backbone area.
■
The vlink-peer command needs to be used in the transit area.
When advertising, redistributing or receiving routing information, a router can
apply some policy to filter the routing information. For example, a router
receives/sends only routing information that matches certain criteria, or a routing
protocol redistributes from other protocols only the routes matching certain
criteria and modifies some attributes of these routes to satisfy its needs.
Configuring Routing Policies
Network Diagram
129
Figure 35 Network diagram for routing policy configuration
Static 20 .0.0.0/8
30.0.0.0 /8
40.0.0.0 /8
Area 0
Vlan -Int 200
12.0.0.1 /8
10.0.0.1 /8
10.0.0 .2/8
Vlan-Int 100
Switch A
Router ID:1 .1.1.1
Networking and
Configuration
Requirements
Switch B
Router ID:2 .2.2.2
■
As shown in the figure above, Switch A and Switch B run OSPF. The router ID of
Switch A is 1.1.1.1 and that of Switch B is 2.2.2.2.
■
Configure three static routes and enable OSPF on Switch A.
■
Apply a routing policy on Switch A when redistributing the three static routes
so that the routes 20.0.0.0 and 40.0.0.0 are redistributed, and the route
30.0.0.0 is filtered out.
Applicable Products
Configuration Procedure
Product series
Software version
Hardware version
Switch 5500
Release V03.02.04
All versions
Switch 5500G
Release V03.02.04
All versions
Switch 4500
Release V03.03.00
All versions
Filter routing information with the import-route command and the
route-policy command (method 1)
■
Configure Switch A.
# Configure the IP addresses of the interfaces.
<SwitchA> system-view
[SwitchA] interface vlan-interface 100
[SwitchA-Vlan-interface100] ip address 10.0.0.1 255.0.0.0
[SwitchA-Vlan-interface100] quit
[SwitchA] interface vlan-interface 200
[SwitchA-Vlan-interface200] ip address 12.0.0.1 255.0.0.0
[SwitchA-Vlan-interface200] quit
# Configure three static routes.
[SwitchA] ip route-static 20.0.0.0 255.0.0.0 12.0.0.2
[SwitchA] ip route-static 30.0.0.0 255.0.0.0 12.0.0.2
[SwitchA] ip route-static 40.0.0.0 255.0.0.0 12.0.0.2
# Enable OSPF and specify VLAN-interface 10 to belong to area 0.
[SwitchA] router id 1.1.1.1
[SwitchA] ospf
[SwitchA-ospf-1] area 0
[SwitchA-ospf-1-area-0.0.0.0] network 10.0.0.0 0.255.255.255
[SwitchA-ospf-1-area-0.0.0.0] quit
[SwitchA-ospf-1]quit
130
CHAPTER 15: ROUTING CONFIGURATION GUIDE
# Configure an ACL.
[SwitchA] acl number 2000
[SwitchA-acl-basic-2000] rule deny source 30.0.0.0 0.255.255.255
[SwitchA-acl-basic-2000] rule permit source any
[SwitchA-acl-basic-2000] quit
# Configure a routing policy.
[SwitchA] route-policy ospf permit node 10
[SwitchA-route-policy] if-match acl 2000
[SwitchA-route-policy] quit
# Apply the routing policy when the static routes are redistributed.
[SwitchA] ospf
[SwitchA-ospf-1] import-route static route-policy ospf
■
Configure Switch B.
# Configure the IP address of the interface.
<SwitchB> system-view
[SwitchB] interface vlan-interface 100
[SwitchB-Vlan-interface100] ip address 10.0.0.2 255.0.0.0
[SwitchB-Vlan-interface100] quit
# Enable OSPF and specify VLAN interface 100 to belong to area 0.
[SwitchB] router id 2.2.2.2
[SwitchB] ospf
[SwitchB-ospf-1] area 0
[SwitchB-ospf-1-area-0.0.0.0] network 10.0.0.0 0.255.255.255
[SwitchB-ospf-1-area-0.0.0.0] quit
[SwitchB-ospf-1] quit
Filter routing information with the import-route command and the
filter-policy export command (method 2)
■
Configure Switch A.
# Configure the IP addresses of the interfaces.
<SwitchA> system-view
[SwitchA] interface vlan-interface 100
[SwitchA-Vlan-interface100] ip address 10.0.0.1 255.0.0.0
[SwitchA-Vlan-interface100] quit
[SwitchA] interface vlan-interface 200
[SwitchA-Vlan-interface200] ip address 12.0.0.1 255.0.0.0
[SwitchA-Vlan-interface200] quit
# Configure three static routes.
[SwitchA] ip route-static 20.0.0.0 255.0.0.0 12.0.0.2
[SwitchA] ip route-static 30.0.0.0 255.0.0.0 12.0.0.2
[SwitchA] ip route-static 40.0.0.0 255.0.0.0 12.0.0.2
# Enable OSPF and specify VLAN interface 100 to belong to area 0.
Configuring Routing Policies
131
[SwitchA] router id 1.1.1.1
[SwitchA] ospf
[SwitchA-ospf-1] area 0
[SwitchA-ospf-1-area-0.0.0.0] network 10.0.0.0 0.255.255.255
[SwitchA-ospf-1-area-0.0.0.0] quit
[SwitchA-ospf-1] quit
# Configure an ACL.
[SwitchA] acl number 2000
[SwitchA-acl-basic-2000] rule deny source 30.0.0.0 0.255.255.255
[SwitchA-acl-basic-2000] rule permit source any
[SwitchA-acl-basic-2000] quit
# Apply ACL 2000 to filter the advertised routes.
[SwitchA] ospf
[SwitchA-ospf-1] filter-policy 2000 export
# Redistribute static routes.
[SwitchA-ospf-1] import-route static
■
Configure Switch B.
The configuration on Switch B is the same as that in method 1. Refer to
“Configure Switch B.” on page 130.
Filter routing information with the import-route command and the
asbr-summary not-advertise command (method 3)
■
Configure Switch A.
# Configure the IP addresses of the interfaces.
<SwitchA> system-view
[SwitchA] interface vlan-interface 100
[SwitchA-Vlan-interface100] ip address 10.0.0.1 255.0.0.0
[SwitchA-Vlan-interface100] quit
[SwitchA] interface vlan-interface 200
[SwitchA-Vlan-interface200] ip address 12.0.0.1 255.0.0.0
[SwitchA-Vlan-interface200] quit
# Configure three static routes.
[SwitchA] ip route-static 20.0.0.0 255.0.0.0 12.0.0.2
[SwitchA] ip route-static 30.0.0.0 255.0.0.0 12.0.0.2
[SwitchA] ip route-static 40.0.0.0 255.0.0.0 12.0.0.2
# Enable OSPF and specify VLAN interface 100 to belong to area 0.
[SwitchA] router id 1.1.1.1
[SwitchA] ospf
[SwitchA-ospf-1] area 0
[SwitchA-ospf-1-area-0.0.0.0] network 10.0.0.0 0.255.255.255
[SwitchA-ospf-1-area-0.0.0.0] quit
132
CHAPTER 15: ROUTING CONFIGURATION GUIDE
# Configure route summarization to prevent network 30.0.0.0/8 from being
advertised.
[SwitchA-ospf-1] asbr-summary 30.0.0.0 255.0.0.0 not-advertise
# Redistribute the static routes.
[SwitchA-ospf-1] import-route static
■
Configure Switch B.
The configuration on Switch B is the same as that in method 1. Refer to
“Configure Switch B.” on page 130.
Complete Configuration
In the following complete configuration, the import-route command and the
route-policy command are used to filter routing information (method 1). For the
complete configurations of other methods, refer to the related configuration
procedures.
■
Perform the following configuration on Switch A.
#
router id 1.1.1.1
#
acl number 2000
rule 0 deny source 30.0.0.0 0.255.255.255
rule 1 permit
#
vlan 100
#
vlan 200
#
interface Vlan-interface100
ip address 10.0.0.1 255.0.0.0
#
interface Vlan-interface200
ip address 12.0.0.1 255.0.0.0
#
ospf 1
import-route static route-policy ospf
area 0.0.0.0
network 10.0.0.0 0.255.255.255
#
route-policy ospf permit node 10
if-match acl 2000
#
ip route-static 20.0.0.0 255.0.0.0 12.0.0.2 preference 60
ip route-static 30.0.0.0 255.0.0.0 12.0.0.2 preference 60
ip route-static 40.0.0.0 255.0.0.0 12.0.0.2 preference 60
#
■
Perform the following configuration on Switch B.
#
router id 2.2.2.2
#
vlan 100
#
interface Vlan-interface100
Configuring Routing Policies
133
ip address 10.0.0.2 255.0.0.0
#
ospf 1
area 0.0.0.0
network 10.0.0.0 0.255.255.255
#
Precautions
In an OSPF network, when an ASBR redistributes routes, you can use the
command combination of filter-policy export and import-route, route-policy
and import-route, or import-route and asbr-summary not-advertise to filter
redistributed routing information based on the actual conditions.
The filter-policy export command and the import-route command are often
used together on an ASBR to filter redistributed routes.
134
CHAPTER 15: ROUTING CONFIGURATION GUIDE
16
Configuring IGMP
Snooping
MULTICAST CONFIGURATION GUIDE
Internet Group Management Protocol Snooping (IGMP Snooping) is a multicast
constraint mechanism that runs on Layer 2 Ethernet switches to manage and
control multicast groups.
By listening to and analyzing IGMP messages, a Layer 2 device running IGMP
Snooping establishes and maintains mappings between ports and multicast
groups and forwards multicast data based on these mappings.
Network Diagram
Figure 36 Network diagram for IGMP Snooping
Receiver
Host A
Source
Eth1/0/2
1 .1.1.2/24
Eth1 /0/1
10 .1 .1.1/24
Router A
IGMP querier
1.1.1.1/24
Multicast packets
Networking and
Configuration
Requirements
Application Product
Matrix
Eth1/0 /4
Eth1 /0/1
Switch A
Receiver
Eth1 /0/3
Eth1/0 /2
Host B
Host C
To prevent multicast packets from being flooded at Layer 2, IGMP Snooping is
required on the switch.
■
As shown in Figure 36, Router A connects to a multicast source (Source)
through Ethernet 1/0/2, and to Switch A through Ethernet 1/0/1.
■
Run PIM DM and IGMP on Router A. Enable IGMP Snooping on Switch A.
Router A is the IGMP querier.
■
The source sends multicast data to multicast group 224.1.1.1. Host A and Host
B join multicast group 224.1.1.1.
Product series
Software version
Hardware version
Switch 5500
Release V03.02.04
All versions
Switch 5500G
Release V03.02.04
All versions
136
CHAPTER 16: MULTICAST CONFIGURATION GUIDE
Configuration Procedure
Product series
Software version
Hardware version
Switch 4500
Release V03.03.00
All versions
Switch 4210
Release V03.01.00
All versions
Configuring IP addresses for the interfaces of each device
Configure the IP address and subnet mask for each interface as per Figure 36. The
detailed configuration steps are omitted here.
Configuring Router A
# Enable IP multicast routing, enable PIM-DM on each interface, and enable IGMP
on Ethernet 1/0/1.
<RouterA> system-view
[RouterA] multicast routing-enable
[RouterA] interface Ethernet 1/0/1
[RouterA-Ethernet1/0/1] igmp enable
[RouterA-Ethernet1/0/1] pim dm
[RouterA-Ethernet1/0/1] quit
[RouterA] interface Ethernet 1/0/2
[RouterA-Ethernet1/0/2] pim dm
[RouterA-Ethernet1/0/2] quit
Configuring Switch A
# Enable IGMP Snooping globally.
<SwitchA> system-view
[SwitchA] igmp-snooping enable
Enable IGMP-Snooping ok.
# Create VLAN 100, assign Ethernet 1/0/1 through Ethernet 1/0/4 to VLAN 100,
and enable IGMP Snooping in this VLAN.
[SwitchA] vlan 100
[SwitchA-vlan100] port Ethernet 1/0/1 to Ethernet 1/0/4
[SwitchA-vlan100] igmp-snooping enable
[SwitchA-vlan100] quit
Verifying the configuration
# View the multicast groups in VLAN 100 on Switch A.
<SwitchA> display igmp-snooping group vlan100
Total 1 IP Group(s).
Total 1 MAC Group(s).
Vlan(id):100.
Total 1 IP Group(s).
Total 1 MAC Group(s).
Router port(s):
Ethernet1/0/1
IP group(s):the following ip group(s) match to one mac group.
IP group address: 224.1.1.1
Host port(s):
Ethernet1/0/3
Ethernet1/0/4
MAC group(s):
Configuring IGMP Snooping
MAC group address: 0100-5e01-0101
Host port(s): Ethernet1/0/3
137
Ethernet1/0/4
As shown above, a multicast group entry for 224.1.1.1 has been created on
Switch A, with Ethernet 1/0/1 as the router port and Ethernet 1/0/3 and Ethernet
1/0/4 as dynamic member ports. This means that Host A and Host B have joined
the multicast group 224.1.1.1.
Complete Configuration
Configuration on Switch A
#
igmp-snooping enable
#
vlan 100
igmp-snooping enable
#
interface Ethernet1/0/1
port access vlan 100
#
interface Ethernet1/0/2
port access vlan 100
#
interface Ethernet1/0/3
port access vlan 100
#
interface Ethernet1/0/4
port access vlan 100
#
Precautions
■
Layer 2 and Layer 3 multicast protocols can run on the same switch. However, a
Layer 2 multicast protocol cannot run in a VLAN while a Layer 3 multicast
protocol is running on the corresponding VLAN interface, and vice versa.
■
Before enabling IGMP Snooping in a VLAN, be sure to enable IGMP Snooping
in system view; otherwise the configuration will not succeed.
138
CHAPTER 16: MULTICAST CONFIGURATION GUIDE
Configuring IGMP
Snooping Only
Network Diagram
Figure 37 Network diagram for IGMP Snooping only configuration
Querier
Eth1 /0/1
Eth1/0/2
Switch A
Switch B
Eth1/0/2
Networking and
Configuration
Requirements
Eth1/0/1
Eth1 /0/1
Eth1/0/3
Eth1/0/2
Receiver
Receiver
Receiver
Host A
Host B
Host C
Switch C
Eth1/0 /3
Source
1.1.1 .1/24
Where it is unnecessary or infeasible to build a Layer 3 multicast network, enabling
IGMP Snooping on all the devices in the Layer 2 network can implement some
multicast functions.
1 As shown in Figure 37, in a Layer 2 only network, Switch C connects to the
multicast source through Ethernet 1/0/3. At least one receiver is attached to
Switch B and Switch C respectively.
2 Enable IGMP Snooping on Switch A, Switch B, and Switch C. Switch A acts as the
IGMP Snooping querier.
3 Enable Switch A and Switch B to drop unknown multicast traffic so that multicast
traffic for unknown multicast groups are not flooded in the VLAN.
Application Product
Matrix
Configuration Procedure
Product series
Software version
Hardware version
Switch 5500
Release V03.02.04
All versions
Switch 5500G
Release V03.02.04
All versions
Switch 4500
Release V03.03.00
All versions
Switch 4210
Release V03.01.00
All versions
Configuring Switch A
# Enable IGMP Snooping globally.
<SwitchA> system-view
[SwitchA] igmp-snooping enable
Enable IGMP-Snooping ok.
# Create VLAN 100, assign Ethernet 1/0/1 through Ethernet 1/0/2 to VLAN 100,
and enable IGMP Snooping in this VLAN.
Configuring IGMP Snooping Only
139
[SwitchA] vlan 100
[SwitchA-vlan100] port Ethernet 1/0/1 Ethernet 1/0/2
[SwitchA-vlan100] igmp-snooping enable
# Enable IGMP Snooping querier in VLAN 100.
[SwitchA-vlan100] igmp-snooping querier
[SwitchA-vlan100] quit
# Enable dropping unknown multicast packets.
[SwitchA] unknown-multicast drop enable
Configuring Switch B
# Enable IGMP Snooping globally.
<SwitchB> system-view
[SwitchB] igmp-snooping enable
Enable IGMP-Snooping ok.
# Create VLAN 100, assign Ethernet 1/0/1 through Ethernet 1/0/3 to VLAN 100,
and enable IGMP Snooping in this VLAN.
[SwitchB] vlan 100
[SwitchB-vlan100] port Ethernet 1/0/1 to Ethernet 1/0/3
[SwitchB-vlan100] igmp-snooping enable
[SwitchB-vlan100] quit
# Enable dropping unknown multicast packets.
[SwitchB] unknown-multicast drop enable
Configuring Switch C
# Enable IGMP Snooping globally.
<SwitchC system-view
[SwitchC] igmp-snooping enable
Enable IGMP-Snooping ok.
# Create VLAN 100, assign Ethernet 1/0/1 through Ethernet 1/0/3 to VLAN 100,
and enable IGMP Snooping in this VLAN.
[SwitchC] vlan 100
[SwitchC-vlan100] port Ethernet 1/0/1 to Ethernet 1/0/3
[SwitchC-vlan100] igmp-snooping enable
c
CAUTION: As Switch C is not the IGMP Snooping querier, it cannot create
forwarding entries for Host A and Host B, and therefore, do not enable the
function of dropping unknown multicast packets on Switch C. To avoid impact on
the network and on Switch C caused by multicast flooding, it is recommended to
enable IGMP Snooping querier on the switch to which the multicast source is
directly attached.
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CHAPTER 16: MULTICAST CONFIGURATION GUIDE
Verifying the configuration
Check the reception of multicast stream for multicast group 224.1.1.1 on Host A,
and take the following steps to verify the configurations made on the switches.
1 View the information on Switch B
# View the IGMP packet statistics on Switch B.
<SwitchB> display igmp-snooping statistics
Received IGMP general query packet(s) number:16.
Received IGMP specific query packet(s) number:3.
Received IGMP V1 report packet(s) number:0.
Received IGMP V2 report packet(s) number:53.
Received IGMP leave packet(s) number:1.
Received error IGMP packet(s) number:0.
Sent IGMP specific query packet(s) number:1.
Switch B has received IGMP general queries from the querier and IGMP reports
from receivers.
# View the multicast group information on Switch B.
<Switch B> display igmp-snooping group
Total 1 IP Group(s).
Total 1 MAC Group(s).
Vlan(id):100.
Total 1 IP Group(s).
Total 1 MAC Group(s).
Router port(s):Ethernet1/0/1
IP group(s):the following ip group(s) match to one mac group.
IP group address:224.1.1.1
Host port(s):Ethernet1/0/2
MAC group(s):
MAC group address:0100-5e7f-fffe
Host port(s):Ethernet1/0/2
As shown above, a multicast group entry for the multicast group 224.1.1.1 has
been created on Switch A, with Ethernet 1/0/1 as the router port and Ethernet
1/0/2 as the member port.
2 View the information on Switch A
# View the IGMP packet statistics on Switch A.
<SwitchA> display igmp-snooping statistics
Received IGMP general query packet(s) number:0.
Received IGMP specific query packet(s) number:0.
Received IGMP V1 report packet(s) number:0.
Received IGMP V2 report packet(s) number:53.
Received IGMP leave packet(s) number:1.
Received error IGMP packet(s) number:0.
Sent IGMP specific query packet(s) number:1.
Switch A receives IGMP reports from the receivers.
# View the multicast group information on Switch A.
Configuring IGMP Snooping Only
141
<Switch A> display igmp-snooping group
Total 1 IP Group(s).
Total 1 MAC Group(s).
Vlan(id):100.
Total 1 IP Group(s).
Total 1 MAC Group(s).
Router port(s):
IP group(s):the following ip group(s) match to one mac group.
IP group address:224.1.1.1
Host port(s):Ethernet1/0/1
MAC group(s):
MAC group address:0100-5e7f-fffe
Host port(s):Ethernet1/0/1
As shown above, a multicast group entry for the multicast group 224.1.1.1 has
been created on Switch A, with Ethernet 1/0/1 as the member port. Acting as the
IGMP Snooping querier, Switch A does not have a router port.
3 View the information on Switch C
# View the IGMP packet statistics on Switch C.
<SwitchC> display igmp-snooping statistics
Received IGMP general query packet(s) number:10.
Received IGMP specific query packet(s) number:0.
Received IGMP V1 report packet(s) number:0.
Received IGMP V2 report packet(s) number:0.
Received IGMP leave packet(s) number:.0
Received error IGMP packet(s) number:0.
Sent IGMP specific query packet(s) number:0.
Switch C received only IGMP general queries from the querier.
# View the multicast group information on Switch C.
<Switch C> display igmp-snooping group
Total 0 IP Group(s).
Total 0 MAC Group(s).
Vlan(id):100.
Total 0 IP Group(s).
Total 0 MAC Group(s).
Router port(s):Ethernet1/0/1
As shown above, no multicast entries have been created on Switch C. The switch
must flood multicast data in the VLAN to allow the multicast data to flow to the
receivers downstream. Therefore, do not enable the function of dropping
unknown multicast packets on Switch C.
Complete Configuration
Configuration on Switch A
#
unknown-multicast drop enable
#
igmp-snooping enable
#
142
CHAPTER 16: MULTICAST CONFIGURATION GUIDE
vlan 100
igmp-snooping enable
igmp-snooping querier
#
interface Ethernet1/0/1
port access vlan 100
#
interface Ethernet1/0/2
port access vlan 100
#
Configuration on Switch B
#
unknown-multicast drop enable
#
igmp-snooping enable
#
vlan 100
igmp-snooping enable
#
interface Ethernet1/0/1
port access vlan 100
#
interface Ethernet1/0/2
port access vlan 100
#
interface Ethernet1/0/3
port access vlan 100
#
Configuration on Switch C
#
igmp-snooping enable
#
vlan 100
igmp-snooping enable
#
interface Ethernet1/0/1
port access vlan 100
#
interface Ethernet1/0/2
port access vlan 100
#
interface Ethernet1/0/3
port access vlan 100
#
Configuring Multicast
VLAN
In the traditional multicast-on-demand mode, when users in different VLANs on a
Layer 2 device need multicast information, the multicast router needs to forward a
separate copy of the multicast data to each of these VLANs. This mode wastes a
great deal of bandwidth.
With the multicast VLAN feature, you can configure a VLAN as the multicast
VLAN, which can be used to transmit multicast traffic to users in different VLANs.
Configuring Multicast VLAN
143
Since multicast packets are transmitted within the multicast VLAN, which is
isolated from user VLANs, the bandwidth and security can be guaranteed.
Network Diagram
Figure 38 Network diagram for multicast VLAN
V lan-int 20
168.10.1.1
E th 1/0/10
E th 1/0/1
h1
Et
V lan-int 10
168.10.2.1 E th 1/0/10
V lan10
Et
W orkS ta tio n
S w itchA
/0 /
1
an
Vl
Vl
an
h1
S w itchB
2
H ostA
3
/0
/2
H ostB
Networking and
Configuration
Requirements
Configure the multicast VLAN feature so that Switch A just sends multicast data to
VLAN 10 rather than to each VLAN when Host A and Host B attached to Switch B
need the multicast data.
The following table describes the device details:
Device
Description
Remarks
Switch A
Layer 3 switch
IP address of VLAN-interface 20 is 168.10.1.1. Ethernet
1/0/1 belongs to VLAN 20 and is connected with the
workstation.
IP address of VLAN-interface 10 is 168.10.2.1. Ethernet
1/0/10 belongs to VLAN 10 and is connected with Switch
B.
Switch B
Layer 2 switch
VLAN 2 contains Ethernet 1/0/1 and VLAN 3 contains
Ethernet 1/0/2. These two ports are connected with Host A
and Host B respectively. The default VLAN of Ethernet
1/0/1 is VLAN 2 and the default VLAN of Ethernet 1/0/2 is
VLAN 3.
VLAN 10 contains Ethernet 1/0/10, Ethernet 1/0/1 and
Ethernet 1/0/2. Ethernet 1/0/10 is connected with Switch
A.
VLAN 10 is multicast VLAN. Ethernet 1/0/1 sends packets
of VLAN 2 and VLAN 10 without VLAN tags.
Ethernet 1/0/2 sends packets of VLAN 3 and VLAN 10
without VLAN tags.
HostA
User 1
Connected with Ethernet 1/0/1 of Switch B
HostB
User 2
Connected with Ethernet 1/0/2 of Switch B
Configure VLAN 10 as a multicast VLAN so that users in VLAN 2 and VLAN 3 can
receive multicast packets through VLAN 10.
Application Product
Matrix
Product series
Software version
Hardware version
Switch 5500
Release V03.02.04
All versions
Switch 5500G
Release V03.02.04
All versions
Switch 4500
Release V03.03.00
All versions
144
CHAPTER 16: MULTICAST CONFIGURATION GUIDE
Configuration Procedure
Product series
Software version
Hardware version
Switch 4210
Release V03.01.00
All versions
Assume that the IP addresses have been configured and the devices have been
connected correctly.
1 Configure Switch A.
# Configure the IP address of VLAN-interface 20 as 168.10.1.1, and enable
PIM-DM.
<SwitchA> system-view
[SwitchA] multicast routing-enable
[SwitchA] vlan 20
[SwitchA-vlan20]port Ethernet1/0/1
[SwitchA-vlan20] quit
[SwitchA] interface Vlan-interface 20
[SwitchA-Vlan-interface20] ip address 168.10.1.1 255.255.255.0
[SwitchA-Vlan-interface20] pim dm
[SwitchA-Vlan-interface20] quit
# Create VLAN 10.
[SwitchA] vlan 10
[SwitchA-vlan10] quit
# Configure Ethernet 1/0/10 as a Hybrid port, assign it to VLAN 10, and configure
it to send packets of VLAN 10 with the VLAN tag kept.
[SwitchA] interface Ethernet1/0/10
[SwitchA-Ethernet1/0/10] port link-type hybrid
[SwitchA-Ethernet1/0/10] port hybrid vlan 10 tagged
[SwitchA-Ethernet1/0/10] quit
# Configure the IP address of VLAN-interface 10 as 168.10.2.1, and enable
PIM-DM and IGMP.
[SwitchA] interface Vlan-interface 10
[SwitchA-Vlan-interface10] ip address 168.10.2.1 255.255.255.0
[SwitchA-Vlan-interface10] igmp enable
[SwitchA-Vlan-interface10] pim dm
2 Configure Switch B.
# Enable IGMP Snooping globally.
<SwitchB> system-view
[SwitchB] igmp-snooping enable
# Create VLAN 2, VLAN 3, and VLAN 10, configure VLAN 10 as a multicast VLAN,
and enable IGMP Snooping in VLAN 10.
[SwitchB] vlan 2 to 3
Please wait.... Done.
[SwitchB] vlan 10
[SwitchB-vlan10] service-type multicast
Configuring Multicast VLAN
145
[SwitchB-vlan10] igmp-snooping enable
[SwitchB-vlan10] quit
# Configure Ethernet 1/0/10 as a Hybrid port, assign it to VLAN 2, VLAN 3 and
VLAN 10, and configure it to send packets of VLAN 2, VLAN 3, and VLAN 10 with
the respective VLAN tags kept.
[SwitchB] interface Ethernet1/0/10
[SwitchB-Ethernet1/0/10] port link-type hybrid
[SwitchB-Ethernet1/0/10] port hybrid vlan 2 3 10 tagged
[SwitchB-Ethernet1/0/10] quit
# Configure Ethernet 1/0/1 as a Hybrid port, assign it to VLAN 2 and VLAN 10, and
configure it to send packets of VLAN 2 and VLAN 10 without VLAN tags.
Configure VLAN 2 as the default VLAN.
[SwitchB] interface Ethernet1/0/1
[SwitchB-Ethernet1/0/1] port link-type hybrid
[SwitchB-Ethernet1/0/1] port hybrid vlan 2 10 untagged
[SwitchB-Ethernet1/0/1] port hybrid pvid vlan 2
[SwitchB-Ethernet1/0/1] quit
# Configure Ethernet 1/0/2 as a Hybrid port, assign it to VLAN 3 and VLAN 10, and
configure it to send packets of VLAN 3 and VLAN 10 without VLAN tags.
Configure VLAN 3 as the default VLAN.
[SwitchB] interface Ethernet1/0/2
[SwitchB-Ethernet1/0/2] port link-type hybrid
[SwitchB-Ethernet1/0/2] port hybrid vlan 3 10 untagged
[SwitchB-Ethernet1/0/2] port hybrid pvid vlan 3
[SwitchB-Ethernet1/0/2] quit
Complete Configuration
Configuration on Switch A
#
multicast routing-enable
#
interface Vlan-interface10
ip address 168.10.2.1 255.255.255.0
igmp enable
pim dm
#
interface Vlan-interface20
ip address 168.10.1.1 255.255.255.0
pim dm
#
interface Ethernet1/0/1
port access vlan 20
#
interface Ethernet1/0/10
port link-type hybrid
port hybrid vlan 10 tagged
#
Configuration on Switch B
#
igmp-snooping enable
146
CHAPTER 16: MULTICAST CONFIGURATION GUIDE
#
vlan 1 to 3
#
vlan 10
service-type multicast
igmp-snooping enable
#
interface Ethernet1/0/1
port link-type hybrid
port hybrid vlan 1 to 2 10 untagged
port hybrid pvid vlan 2
#
interface Ethernet1/0/2
port link-type hybrid
port hybrid vlan 1 3 10 untagged
port hybrid pvid vlan 3
#
interface Ethernet1/0/10
port link-type hybrid
port hybrid vlan 2 to 3 10 tagged
port hybrid vlan 1 untagged
Precautions
Configuring PIM-SM
plus IGMP plus IGMP
Snooping
■
A port belongs to one multicast VLAN only.
■
Only Hybrid ports can be connected with receivers.
■
Upon receiving a multicast packet, a router port forwards the packet only to
the member ports in the same VLAN. Therefore, the member ports must
belong to the same multicast VLAN with the router port.
■
When assigning a router port to a multicast VLAN, be sure to configure it as a
trunk port, or a hybrid port that sends packets of the multicast VLAN with the
VLAN tag kept; otherwise all the member ports in this multicast VLAN will be
unable to receive multicast packets.
PIM-SM is a type of sparse mode multicast protocol. It uses the “pull mode” for
multicast forwarding, and is suitable for large- and medium-sized networks with
sparsely and widely distributed multicast group members.
The basic implementation of PIM-SM is as follows:
■
PIM-SM assumes that hosts need multicast data only if they explicitly express
their interest in the data. PIM-SM builds and maintains rendezvous point trees
(RPT) for multicast traffic delivery. An RPT is rooted at a router in the PIM
domain as the common node referred to as rendezvous point (RP), through
which the multicast data travels along the RPT and reaches the receivers.
■
When a receiver is interested in the multicast data addressed to a specific
multicast group, the last-hop router sends a join message to the RP
corresponding to that multicast group. The path along which the message
goes hop by hop to the RP forms a branch of the RPT.
■
When a multicast source sends multicast traffic to a multicast group, the
first-hop router encapsulates the first packet in a register message, and sends
the message to the corresponding RP by unicast. The arrival of this message at
the RP triggers the establishment of an SPT rooted at the multicast source.
Configuring PIM-SM plus IGMP plus IGMP Snooping
147
Then, the multicast source sends the multicast traffic along the SPT to the RP.
Upon reaching the RP, the multicast traffic flows down the RPT to the receivers.
Figure 39 Network diagram for PIM-SM, IGMP, and IGMP Snooping configuration
Receiver
Switch A
Host A
Vlan -int100
Vlan -int102
Switch F
V
la
Vlan -int102
Vlan -int300
Vlan -int105
Switch D
10.110 .5.100 /24
Host B
Receiver
Vlan -int200
Vlan -int103
Vlan -int105
Vlan -int103
Switch E Vlan -int104
Switch B
Ethernet
Source
N1
nin
t1
0
1
V
la
nin
t1
01
Vlan100
Ethernet
Network Diagram
Host C
Vlan -int104
Vlan -int200
PIM-SM
Host D
Switch C
Device
Interface
IP address
Ports
Switch A
Vlan-int100
10.110.1.1/24
Ethernet1/0/1
Vlan-int101
192.168.1.1/24
Ethernet1/0/2
Vlan-int102
192.168.9.1/24
Ethernet1/0/3
Vlan-int200
10.110.2.1/24
Ethernet1/0/1
Vlan-int103
192.168.2.1/24
Ethernet1/0/2
Vlan-int200
10.110.2.2/24
Ethernet1/0/1
Vlan-int104
192.168.3.1/24
Ethernet1/0/2
Vlanint300
10.110.5.1/24
Ethernet1/0/1
Vlanint101
192.168.1.2/24
Ethernet1/0/2
Switch B
Switch C
Switch D
Switch E
Switch F
Vlanint105
192.168.4.2/24
Ethernet1/0/3
Vlanint104
192.168.3.2/24
Ethernet1/0/3
Vlanint103
192.168.2.2/24
Ethernet1/0/2
Vlanint102
192.168.9.2/24
Ethernet1/0/1
Vlanint105
192.168.4.1/24
Ethernet1/0/4
Vlan100
-
Ethernet1/0/1,
Ethernet1/0/2,
Ethernet1/0/3
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CHAPTER 16: MULTICAST CONFIGURATION GUIDE
Networking and
Configuration
Requirements
Requirement Analysis
When users receive VOD information through multicast, the information receiving
mode may vary depending on user requirements:
1 To avoid flooding of the video information at Layer 2, IGMP Snooping needs to be
enabled on Switch E, through which Host A and Host B receive the multicast data.
2 To ensure reliable and stable reception of multicast data, Switch B and Switch C
provide link backup for the directly attached stub network N1, which comprises
multicast receivers Host C and Host D.
3 The PIM-SM domain as a single-BSR domain, and OSPF runs in the domain for
unicast routing.
Configuration Plan
1 Switch D connects to the network that comprises the multicast source (Source)
through VLAN-interface 300.
2 Switch A connects to Switch F through VLAN-interface 100, and to Switch D and
Switch E through VLAN-interface 101 and VLAN-interface 102 respectively.
3 Switch B and Switch C connect to stub network N1 through their respective
VLAN-interface 200, and to Switch E through VLAN-interface 103 and
VLAN-interface 104 respectively.
4 Both VLAN-interface 105 of Switch D and VLAN-interface 102 of Switch E serve as
C-BSRs and C-RPs.
5 Enable IGMPv2 on VLAN-interface 100 of Switch A. On Switch F, enable IGMP
Snooping globally and in VLAN 100. Run IGMPv2 on Switch B and Switch C for
group management on stub network N1. Typically, Switch B acts as the querier
because its interface on the multi-access subnet has a lower IP address.
Application Product
Matrix
Configuration Procedure
Product series
Software version
Hardware version
Switch 5500
Release V03.02.04
All versions
Switch 5500G
Release V03.02.04
All versions
Configuring the interface IP addresses and unicast routing protocol for
each switch
Configure the IP address and subnet mask for each interface as per Figure 39. The
detailed configuration steps are omitted here.
Configure OSPF for interoperation among the switches in the PIM-SM domain.
Ensure the network-layer interoperation among Switch A, Switch B, Switch C,
Switch D and Switch E in the PIM-SM domain and enable dynamic update of
routing information among the switches through a unicast routing protocol. The
specific configuration steps are omitted here.
Configuring multicast protocols
# Enable IP multicast routing on Switch A, enable PIM-SM on each interface, and
run IGMPv2 on VLAN-interface 100.
<SwitchA> system-view
[SwitchA] multicast routing-enable
[SwitchA] interface Vlan-interface 100
Configuring PIM-SM plus IGMP plus IGMP Snooping
149
[SwitchA-Vlan-interface100] igmp enable
[SwitchA-Vlan-interface100] pim sm
[SwitchA-Vlan-interface100] quit
[SwitchA] interface vlan-interface 101
[SwitchA-Vlan-interface101] pim sm
[SwitchA-Vlan-interface101] quit
[SwitchA] interface vlan-interface 102
[SwitchA-Vlan-interface102] pim sm
n
It is necessary to enable IGMP only on interfaces with multicast receivers attached.
The default IGMP version is IGMPv2.
The configuration on Switch B and Switch C is similar to that on Switch A. The
configuration on Switch D and Switch E is also similar to that on Switch A except
that it is not necessary to enable IGMP on the corresponding interfaces on these
two switches.
# Configure the group range to be advertised in C-RP-Adv messages and
configure a C-BSR and a C-RP on VLAN-interface 105 of Switch D.
<SwitchD> system-view
[SwitchD] acl number 2005
[SwitchD-acl-basic-2005] rule permit source 225.1.1.0 0.0.0.255
[SwitchD-acl-basic-2005] quit
[SwitchD] pim
[SwitchD-pim] c-bsr vlan-interface 105 24 2
[SwitchD-pim] c-rp vlan-interface 105 group-policy 2005 priority 2
[SwitchD-pim] quit
# Configure the group range to be advertised in C-RP-Adv messages and
configure a C-BSR and a C-RP on VLAN-interface 102 of Switch E.
<SwitchE> system-view
[SwitchE] acl number 2005
[SwitchE-acl-basic-2005] rule permit source 225.1.1.0 0.0.0.255
[SwitchE-acl-basic-2005] quit
[SwitchE] pim
[SwitchE-pim] c-bsr vlan-interface 102 24 1
[SwitchE-pim] c-rp vlan-interface 102 group-policy 2005 priority 1
[SwitchE-pim] quit
# On Switch F, enable IGMP Snooping globally and in VLAN 100.
<SwitchF> system-view
[SwitchF] igmp-snooping enable
Enable IGMP-Snooping ok.
[SwitchF] vlan 100
[SwitchF-vlan100] igmp-snooping enable
[SwitchF-vlan100] quit
Verifying the configuration
Check the reception of multicast stream for multicast group 225.1.1.1 on Host A
and Host C and verify the configurations made on the switches.
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CHAPTER 16: MULTICAST CONFIGURATION GUIDE
Using the following commands to determine whether Host A and Host C
can receive multicast data
# View the PIM neighboring relationships on Switch E.
<SwitchE> display pim neighbor
Neighbor’s Address Interface Name
192.168.9.1
Vlan-interface102
192.168.2.1
Vlan-interface103
192.168.3.1
Vlan-interface104
192.168.4.2
Vlan-interface105
Uptime
Expires
02:47:04 00:01:42
02:45:04 00:04:46
02:42:24 00:04:45
02:43:44 00:05:44
# View the BSR information on Switch E.
<SwitchE> display pim bsr-info
Current BSR Address: 192.168.4.2
Priority: 2
Mask Length: 24
Expires: 00:01:39
Local Host is C-BSR: 192.168.9.2
Priority: 1
Mask Length: 24
# View the RP information on Switch E.
<SwitchE> display pim rp-info
PIM-SM RP-SET information:
BSR is: 192.168.4.2
Group/MaskLen: 225.1.1.0/24
RP 192.168.9.2
Version: 2
Priority: 1
Uptime: 00:03:15
Expires: 00:01:14
RP 192.168.4.2
Version: 2
Priority: 2
Uptime: 00:04:25
Expires: 00:01:09
# View the PIM routing table on Switch A.
<SwitchA> display pim routing-table
PIM-SM Routing Table
Total 1 (S,G) entries, 1 (*,G) entries, 0 (*,*,RP) entry
(*, 225.1.1.1), RP 192.168.9.2
Protocol 0x20: PIMSM, Flag 0x2003: RPT WC NULL_IIF
Uptime: 00:23:21, never timeout
Upstream interface: Vlan-interface102, RPF neighbor: 192.168.9.2
Downstream interface list:
Vlan-interface100, Protocol 0x1: IGMP, never timeout
(10.110.5.100, 225.1.1.1)
Protocol 0x20: PIMSM, Flag 0x80004: SPT
Uptime: 00:03:43, Timeout in 199 sec
Upstream interface: Vlan-interface102, RPF neighbor: 192.168.9.2
Downstream interface list:
Configuring PIM-SM plus IGMP plus IGMP Snooping
151
Vlan-interface100, Protocol 0x1: IGMP, never timeout
Matched 1 (S,G) entries, 1 (*,G) entries, 0 (*,*,RP) entry
The information on Switch B and Switch C is similar to that on Switch A.
# View the PIM routing table on Switch D.
<SwitchD> display pim routing-table
PIM-SM Routing Table
Total 1 (S,G) entry, 0 (*,G) entry, 0 (*,*,RP) entry
(10.110.5.100, 225.1.1.1)
Protocol 0x20: PIMSM, Flag 0x4: SPT
Uptime: 00:03:03, Timeout in 27 sec
Upstream interface: Vlan-interface300, RPF neighbor: NULL
Downstream interface list:
Vlan-interface101, Protocol 0x200: SPT, timeout in 147 sec
Vlan-interface105, Protocol 0x200: SPT, timeout in 145 sec
Matched 1 (S,G) entry, 0 (*,G) entry, 0 (*,*,RP) entry
# View the PIM routing table on Switch E.
<SwitchE> display pim routing-table
PIM-SM Routing Table
Total 1 (S,G) entry, 1 (*,G) entry, 0 (*,*,RP) entry
(*,225.1.1.1), RP 192.168.9.2
Protocol 0x20: PIMSM, Flag 0x2003: RPT WC NULL_IIF
Uptime: 00:02:34, Timeout in 176 sec
Upstream interface: Null, RPF neighbor: 0.0.0.0
Downstream interface list:
Vlan-interface102, Protocol 0x100: RPT, timeout in 176 sec
Vlan-interface103, Protocol 0x100: SPT, timeout in 135 sec
(10.110.5.100, 225.1.1.1)
Protocol 0x20: PIMSM, Flag 0x4: SPT
Uptime: 00:03:03, Timeout in 27 sec
Upstream interface: Vlan-interface105, RPF neighbor: 192.168.4.2
Downstream interface list:
Vlan-interface102, Protocol 0x200: SPT, timeout in 147 sec
Vlan-interface103, Protocol 0x200: SPT, timeout in 145 sec
Matched 1 (S,G) entry, 1 (*,G) entry, 0 (*,*,RP) entry
# View multicast group entries created by IGMP Snooping on Switch F.
<SwitchF> display igmp-snooping group
Total 1 IP Group(s).
Total 1 MAC Group(s).
Vlan(id):100.
Total 1 IP Group(s).
Total 1 MAC Group(s).
Router port(s):Ethernet1/0/2
IP group(s):the following ip group(s) match to one mac group.
IP group address:225.1.1.1
Host port(s):Ethernet1/0/19
MAC group(s):
152
CHAPTER 16: MULTICAST CONFIGURATION GUIDE
MAC group address:0100-5e01-0101
Host port(s):Ethernet1/0/19
# View the multicast group information that contains port information on Switch
B.
<SwitchB> display mpm group
Total 1 IP Group(s).
Total 1 MAC Group(s).
Vlan(id):200.
Total 1 IP Group(s).
Total 1 MAC Group(s).
Router port(s):
IP group(s):the following ip group(s) match to one mac group.
IP group address:225.1.1.1
Host port(s):Ethernet1/0/24
MAC group(s):
MAC group address:0100-5e01-0101
Host port(s):Ethernet1/0/24
Vlan(id):103.
Total 0 IP Group(s).
Total 0 MAC Group(s).
Router port(s):Ethernet1/0/10
As shown above, Host A and Host C can receive multicast data.
Configuring simulated joining
Configure simulated joining on Switch B, thus to prevent the multicast switch from
considering that no multicast receiver exists on the subnet due to some reasons
and pruning the corresponding path from the multicast forwarding tree.
# Configure Ethernet 1/0/21 as a simulated host to join multicast group 225.1.1.1.
<SwitchB> system-view
[SwitchB] interface Vlan-interface 200
[SwitchB-Vlan-interface200] igmp host-join 225.1.1.1 port Ethernet 1/0/21
# View the multicast group information that contains port information on Switch
B.
<SwitchB> display mpm group
Total 1 IP Group(s).
Total 1 MAC Group(s).
Vlan(id):200.
Total 1 IP Group(s).
Total 1 MAC Group(s).
Router port(s):
IP group(s):the following ip group(s) match to one mac group.
IP group address:225.1.1.1
Host port(s):Ethernet1/0/21
Ethernet1/0/24
MAC group(s):
MAC group address:0100-5e01-0101
Host port(s):Ethernet1/0/21
Ethernet1/0/24
Configuring PIM-SM plus IGMP plus IGMP Snooping
153
Vlan(id):103.
Total 0 IP Group(s).
Total 0 MAC Group(s).
Router port(s):Ethernet1/0/10
As shown above, Ethernet 1/0/21 has become a member port for multicast group
225.1.1.1.
Complete Configuration
Configuration on Switch A
#
multicast routing-enable
#
interface Vlan-interface100
ip address 10.110.1.1 255.255.255.0
igmp enable
pim sm
#
interface Vlan-interface101
ip address 192.168.1.1 255.255.255.0
pim sm
#
interface Vlan-interface102
ip address 192.168.9.1 255.255.255.0
pim sm
#
Configuration on Switch B
#
multicast routing-enable
#
interface Vlan-interface103
ip address 192.168.2.1 255.255.255.0
pim sm
#
interface Vlan-interface200
ip address 10.110.2.1 255.255.255.0
igmp enable
pim sm
#
interface Ethernet1/0/1
igmp host-join 225.1.1.1 vlan 1
#
Configuration on Switch C
#
multicast routing-enable
#
interface Vlan-interface104
ip address 192.168.3.1 255.255.255.0
pim sm
#
interface Vlan-interface200
ip address 10.110.2.2 255.255.255.0
igmp enable
pim sm
#
154
CHAPTER 16: MULTICAST CONFIGURATION GUIDE
Configuration on Switch D
#
acl number 2005
rule 0 permit source 225.1.1.0 0.0.0.255
#
multicast routing-enable
#
interface Vlan-interface101
ip address 192.168.1.2 255.255.255.0
pim sm
#
interface Vlan-interface105
ip address 192.168.4.2 255.255.255.0
pim sm
#
interface Vlan-interface300
ip address 10.110.5.1 255.255.255.0
pim sm
#
pim
c-bsr Vlan-interface105 24 2
c-rp Vlan-interface105 group-policy 2005 priority 2
#
Configuration on Switch E
#
acl number 2005
rule 0 permit source 225.1.1.0 0.0.0.255
#
multicast routing-enable
#
interface Vlan-interface102
ip address 192.168.9.2 255.255.255.0
pim sm
#
interface Vlan-interface103
ip address 192.168.2.2 255.255.255.0
pim sm
#
interface Vlan-interface104
ip address 192.168.3.2 255.255.255.0
pim sm
#
interface Vlan-interface105
ip address 192.168.4.1 255.255.255.0
pim sm
#
pim
c-bsr Vlan-interface102 24 1
c-rp Vlan-interface102 group-policy 2005 priority 1
#
Configuration on Switch F
#
igmp-snooping enable
#
Configuring PIM-DM plus IGMP
155
vlan 100
igmp-snooping enable
#
Precautions
Configuring PIM-DM
plus IGMP
■
Only one C-BSR can be configured on a Layer 3 switch. Configuration of a
C-BSR on another interface overwrites the previous configuration.
■
It is recommended that C-BSRs and C-RPs be configured on Layer 3 switches in
the backbone network.
■
If you do not specify a group range for a C-RP, the C-RP will serve all multicast
groups when it becomes the RP in the domain; otherwise it will serve the
specified group range.
■
You can configure a basic ACL to filter related multicast IP addresses, thus to
control the multicast group range that a static RP serves.
■
If you configure a static RP, you must perform the same configuration on all the
routers in the PIM-SM domain.
■
If the configured static RP address is the address of an interface in the up state
on the local device, the local device will serve as a static RP.
■
When the elected RP works properly, the static RP does not take effect.
■
It is not necessary to enable PIM on the interface that serves as a static RP.
■
Configuring a legal BSR address range can prevent the legal BSR from being
replaced maliciously. With a legal BSR address range configured on all Layer 3
switches in the entire network, all these switches will discard bootstrap
messages from out of the legal address range, thus to safeguard BSR in the
network.
■
To guard against C-RP spoofing, you can configure a legal C-RP address range
and the range of multicast groups to be advertised by each C-RP.
PIM-DM is a type of dense mode multicast protocol. It uses the “push mode” for
multicast forwarding, and is suitable for small-sized networks with densely
distributed multicast group members.
The basic implementation of PIM-DM is as follows:
■
PIM-DM assumes that at least one multicast group member exists on each
subnet of the network, and therefore multicast data is flooded to all nodes on
the network. Then, branches without multicast receivers are pruned from the
forwarding tree, leaving only those branches that contain receivers. This “flood
and prune” process takes place periodically, that is, pruned branches resume
multicast forwarding periodically.
■
When a new receiver on a previously pruned branch joins a multicast group, to
reduce the join latency, PIM-DM uses a graft mechanism to resume data
forwarding to that branch.
In PIM-DM, the multicast forwarding path is a source tree, with the multicast
source as its “root” and multicast group members as its “leaves”. Because the
source tree is the shortest path from the multicast source to the receivers, it is also
called shortest path tree (SPT).
CHAPTER 16: MULTICAST CONFIGURATION GUIDE
Network Diagram
Figure 40 Network diagram for PIM-DM configuration
Ethernet
N1
Receiver
Switch A
Host A
10
3
Vlan -int100
03
Vl
an
-in
t
Host B
Vlan -int101
Switch D
Vlan -int200
Vlan -int101
Switch B
02
- in
an
Vl
02
t1
10.110 .5.100 /24
Host C
Ethernet
Vlan-int300
N2
Vl
an
-i n
t1
Receiver
IGMP querier
t1
-i n
an
Vl
Source
Ethernet
156
Vlan -int200
PIM-DM
Switch C
Device
Interface
IP address
Device
Interface
IP address
Switch A
Vlan-int100
10.110.1.1/24
Switch D
Vlan-int300
10.110.5.1/24
Vlan-int103
192.168.1.1/24
Vlan-int103
192.168.1.2/24
Switch B
Vlan-int200
10.110.2.1/24
Vlan-int101
192.168.2.2/24
Vlan-int101
192.168.2.1/24
Vlan-int102
192.168.3.2/24
Vlan-int200
10.110.2.2/24
Vlan-int102
192.168.3.1/24
Switch C
Networking and
Configuration
Requirements
Application Product
Matrix
Host D
■
Receivers receive multicast VOD information through multicast. The receiver
groups of different organizations form two stub networks, and at least one
receiver host exists in each stub network. The entire PIM domain operates in
the dense mode.
■
Host A and Host C are multicast receivers in the two stub networks.
■
Switch D connects to the network that comprises the multicast source (Source)
through VLAN-interface 300.
■
Switch A connects to stub network N1 through VLAN-interface 100, and to
Switch D through VLAN-interface 103.
■
Switch B and Switch C connect to stub network N2 through their respective
VLAN-interface 200, and to Switch D through VLAN-interface 101 and
VLAN-interface 102 respectively.
■
IGMPv2 needs to run between Switch A and N1, and also between Switch B,
Switch C, and N2. Typically Switch B acts as the querier.
Product series
Software version
Hardware version
Switch 5500
Release V03.02.04
All versions
Switch 5500G
Release V03.02.04
All versions
Configuring PIM-DM plus IGMP
Configuration Procedure
157
Configuring the interface IP addresses and unicast routing protocol for
each switch
Configure the IP address and subnet mask for each interface as per Figure 40. The
detailed configuration steps are omitted here.
Configure OSPF for interoperation among the switches in the PIM-DM domain.
Ensure the network-layer interoperation among Switch A, Switch B, Switch C, and
Switch D in the PIM-DM domain and enable dynamic update of routing
information among the switches via unicast.
Enabling IP multicast routing and enabling PIM-DM on each interface
# Enable IP multicast routing on Switch A, enable PIM-DM on each interface, and
enable IGMP on VLAN-interface 100, which connects Switch A to the stub
network.
<SwitchA> system-view
[SwitchA] multicast routing-enable
[SwitchA] interface vlan-interface 100
[SwitchA-Vlan-interface100] igmp enable
[SwitchA-Vlan-interface100] pim dm
[SwitchA-Vlan-interface100] quit
[SwitchA] interface vlan-interface 103
[SwitchA-Vlan-interface103] pim dm
[SwitchA-Vlan-interface103] quit
The configuration on Switch B and Switch C is similar to the configuration on
Switch A.
# Enable multicast routing on Switch D, and enable PIM-DM on each interface.
<SwitchD> system-view
[SwitchD] multicast routing-enable
[SwitchD] interface vlan-interface
[SwitchD-Vlan-interface300] pim dm
[SwitchD-Vlan-interface300] quit
[SwitchD] interface vlan-interface
[SwitchD-Vlan-interface103] pim dm
[SwitchD-Vlan-interface103] quit
[SwitchD] interface vlan-interface
[SwitchD-Vlan-interface101] pim dm
[SwitchD-Vlan-interface101] quit
[SwitchD] interface vlan-interface
[SwitchD-Vlan-interface102] pim dm
[SwitchD-Vlan-interface102] quit
300
103
101
102
Verifying the configuration
Carry out the display pim neighbor command to view the PIM neighboring
relationships among the switches. For example:
# View the PIM neighboring relationships on Switch D.
[SwitchD] display pim neighbor
Neighbor’s Address Interface Name
192.168.1.1
Vlan-interface1
192.168.2.1
Vlan-interface1
192.168.3.1
Vlan-interface1
Uptime
00:47:08
00:48:05
00:49:08
Expires
00:01:39
00:01:29
00:01:34
158
CHAPTER 16: MULTICAST CONFIGURATION GUIDE
Use the display pim routing-table command to view the PIM routing
information on the switches. For example:
# View the PIM routing table on Switch A.
<SwitchA> display pim routing-table
PIM-DM Routing Table
Total 1 (S,G) entry
(10.110.5.100, 225.1.1.1)
Protocol 0x40: PIMDM, Flag 0xC: SPT NEG_CACHE
Uptime: 00:00:23, Timeout in 187 sec
Upstream interface: Vlan-interface103, RPF neighbor: 192.168.1.2
Downstream interface list:
Vlan-interface100, Protocol 0x1: IGMP, never timeout
Matched 1 (S,G) entry
The displayed information on Switch B and Switch C is similar to that on Switch A.
# View the PIM routing table on Switch D.
<SwitchD> display pim routing-table
PIM-DM Routing Table
Total 1 (S,G) entry
(10.110.5.100, 225.1.1.1)
Protocol 0x40: PIMDM, Flag 0xC: SPT NEG_CACHE
Uptime: 00:00:23, Timeout in 187 sec
Upstream interface: Vlan-interface300, RPF neighbor:
Downstream interface list:
Vlan-interface101, Protocol 0x200: SPT, timeout in
Vlan-interface103, Protocol 0x200: SPT, timeout in
Vlan-interface103, Protocol 0x200: SPT, timeout in
Matched 1 (S,G) entry
Complete Configuration
Configuration on Switch A
#
multicast routing-enable
#
interface Vlan-interface100
ip address 10.110.1.1 255.255.255.0.
igmp enable
pim dm
#
interface Vlan-interface103
ip address 192.168.1.1 255.255.255.0
pim dm
#
Configuration on Switch B
#
multicast routing-enable
#
interface Vlan-interface101
NULL
147 sec
145 sec
145 sec
Configuring Anycast RP Application
159
ip address 192.168.2.1 255.255.255.0.
pim dm
#
interface Vlan-interface200
ip address 10.110.2.1 255.255.255.0
igmp enable
pim dm
#
Configuration on Switch C
#
multicast routing-enable
#
interface Vlan-interface102
ip address 192.168.3.1 255.255.255.0.
pim dm
#
interface Vlan-interface200
ip address 10.110.2.2 255.255.255.0
igmp enable
pim dm
#
Configuration on Switch D
#
multicast routing-enable
#
interface Vlan-interface101
ip address 192.168.2.2 255.255.255.0.
pim dm
#
interface Vlan-interface102
ip address 192.168.3.2 255.255.255.0
pim dm
#
interface Vlan-interface103
ip address 192.168.1.2 255.255.255.0
pim dm
#
interface Vlan-interface300
ip address 10.110.5.1 255.255.255.0
pim dm
#
Precautions
Configuring Anycast
RP Application
When deploying a PIM-DM domain, you are recommended to enable PIM-DM on
all interfaces of non-border routers.
Anycast RP enables load balancing and redundancy backup between two or more
RPs within a PIM-SM domain by configuring the same IP address for these RPs and
establishing MSDP peering relationships between the RPs.
160
CHAPTER 16: MULTICAST CONFIGURATION GUIDE
Network Diagram
Figure 41 Network diagram for anycast RP configuration
Source 3
Receiver
Lo
op
1
Loop 10
Switch F
Vlan -int200
Vlan-i nt1 02
Switch B
Switch A
0
10
la
V
in
n0
t1
Vlan -int101
0
10.110.5.100 /24
Vlan- int1 02
t
-in
Vlan -int103
Vlan -int103
n
la
V
Source 1
Switch G
Switch C
Receiver
Source 2
Vlan-int300
Vlan -int101
Switch D
Switch E
Lo
1
op
Loop 10
Receiver
PIM-SM
MSDP peers
Networking and
Configuration
Requirements
Application Product
Matrix
Configuration Procedure
Device
Interface
IP address
Device
Interface
IP address
Switch A
Vlan-int103
10.110.1.2/24
Switch D
Vlan-int300
10.110.4.1/24
Switch B
Vlan-int100
10.110.2.2/24
Vlan-int102
192.168.3.1
Switch C
Vlan-int103
10.110.1.1/24
Vlan-int100
10.110.2.1/24
Vlan-int101
Vlan-int101
192.168.1.2/24
Vlan-int200
10.110.3.1/24
192.168.1.1/24
Vlan-int102
192.168.3.2/24
Loop1
3.3.3.3/32
Loop1
4.4.4.4/32
Loop10
10.1.1.1/32
Loop10
10.1.1.1/32
Switch F
■
The PIM-SM domain in this example has multiple multicast sources and
receivers. OSPF needs to run in the domain to provide unicast routes.
■
The anycast RP application needs to be is configured in the PIM-SM domain, so
that the last-hop switch joins the topologically nearest RP.
■
An MSDP peering relationship needs to be set up between Switch C and
Switch F.
■
On Switch C and Switch F, the interface Loopback 1 needs to be configured as
a C-BSR, and Loopback 10 as a C-RP.
■
The router ID of Switch C is 1.1.1.1, while the router ID of Switch F is 2.2.2.2.
Product series
Software version
Hardware version
Switch 5500
Release V03.02.04
All versions
Switch 5500G
Release V03.02.04
All versions
Configuring the interface IP addresses and unicast routing protocol for
each switch
Configure the IP address and subnet mask for each interface as per Figure 41. The
detailed configuration steps are omitted here.
Configuring Anycast RP Application
161
Configure OSPF for interconnection between the switches. The detailed
configuration steps are omitted here.
Enabling IP multicast routing and enabling PIM-SM on each interface
# Enable multicast routing on Switch C, and enable PIM-SM on each interface.
<SwitchC> system-view
[SwitchC] multicast routing-enable
[SwitchC] interface vlan-interface 103
[SwitchC-Vlan-interface103] pim sm
[SwitchC-Vlan-interface103] quit
[SwitchC] interface vlan-interface 100
[SwitchC-Vlan-interface100] pim sm
[SwitchC-Vlan-interface100] quit
[SwitchC] interface Vlan-interface 101
[SwitchC-Vlan-interface101] pim sm
[SwitchC-Vlan-interface101] quit
The configuration on Switch A, Switch B, Switch D, Switch E, Switch F, and Switch
G is similar to the configuration on Switch C. The specific configuration steps are
omitted here.
Configuring the IP addresses of interface Loopback 1, Loopback 10, C-BSR,
and C-RP
# Configure different Loopback 1 addresses and identical Loopback 10 address on
Switch C and Switch F, configure a C-BSR on each Loopback 1 and configure a
C-RP on each Loopback 10.
[SwitchC] interface loopback 1
[SwitchC-LoopBack1] ip address 3.3.3.3 255.255.255.255
[SwitchC-LoopBack1] pim sm
[SwitchC-LoopBack1] quit
[SwitchC] interface loopback 10
[SwitchC-LoopBack10] ip address 10.1.1.1 255.255.255.255
[SwitchC-LoopBack10] pim sm
[SwitchC-LoopBack10] quit
[SwitchC] pim
[SwitchC-pim] c-bsr loopback 1 24
[SwitchC-pim] c-rp loopback 10
[SwitchC-pim] quit
The configuration on Switch F is similar to the configuration on Switch C.
# View the PIM routing information on Switch C.
[SwitchC] display pim routing-table
PIM-SM Routing Table
Total 1 (S,G) entries, 0 (*,G) entry, 0 (*,*,RP) entry
(10.110.5.100, 225.1.1.1)
Protocol 0x20: PIMSM, Flag 0x80004: SPT
Uptime: 00:00:08, Timeout in 203 sec
Upstream interface: Vlan-interface1, RPF neighbor: NULL
Downstream interface list: NULL
Matched 1 (S,G) entries, 0 (*,G) entry, 0 (*,*,RP) entry
162
CHAPTER 16: MULTICAST CONFIGURATION GUIDE
As shown above, the multicast source has been registered on Switch C, which is
deemed as the RP.
# View the PIM routing information on Switch F.
<Switch F>dis pim routing-table
PIM-SM Routing Table
Total 0 (S,G) entry, 1 (*,G) entries, 0 (*,*,RP) entry
(*, 225.1.1.1), RP 10.1.1.1
Protocol 0x20: PIMSM, Flag 0x2003: RPT WC NULL_IIF
Uptime: 00:00:12, never timeout
Upstream interface: Null, RPF neighbor: 0.0.0.0
Downstream interface list:
Vlan-interface2, Protocol 0x1: IGMP, never timeout
Matched 0 (S,G) entry, 1 (*,G) entries, 0 (*,*,RP) entry
As shown above, the multicast receiver joins to Switch F, rooted at which an RPT
has been established.
However, the RP for the multicast source is different from the RP for the multicast
receiver, so the multicast receiver cannot receive multicast data yet. Anycast RP
needs to be configured on these two RPs.
Configuring MSDP peers
# Configure an MSDP peer on Switch C.
[SwitchC] msdp
[SwitchC-msdp] originating-rp Vlan-interface 101
[SwitchC-msdp] peer 192.168.3.2 connect-interface Vlan-interface 101
[SwitchC-msdp] quit
# Configure an MSDP peer on Switch F.
[SwitchF] msdp
[SwitchF-msdp] originating-rp Vlan-interface 102
[SwitchF-msdp] peer 192.168.1.1 connect-interface Vlan-interface 102
[SwitchF-msdp] quit
You can use the display msdp brief command to view the brief information of
MSDP peering relationships between the switches.
# View the brief MSDP peer information on Switch C.
[SwitchC] display msdp brief
MSDP Peer Brief Information
Peer’s Address
State
192.168.3.2
Up
Up/Down time
00:48:21
AS
?
SA Count
2
Reset Count
0
SA Count
2
Reset Count
0
# View the brief MSDP peer information on Switch F.
[SwitchF] display msdp brief
MSDP Peer Brief Information
Peer’s Address
State
192.168.1.1
Up
Up/Down time
00:50:22
AS
?
Configuring Anycast RP Application
163
After the peering relationship is established, the multicast receiver can receive
multicast data from the source.
# View the PIM routing information on Switch C again.
[Switch C] display pim routing-table
PIM-SM Routing Table
Total 1 (S,G) entries, 0 (*,G) entry, 0 (*,*,RP) entry
(10.110.5.100, 225.1.1.1)
Protocol 0x20: PIMSM, Flag 0x80004: SPT
Uptime: 00:00:55, Timeout in 208 sec
Upstream interface: Vlan-interface1, RPF neighbor: NULL
Downstream interface list:
Vlan-interface2, Protocol 0x200: SPT, timeout in 200 sec
Matched 1 (S,G) entries, 0 (*,G) entry, 0 (*,*,RP) entry
# View the PIM routing information on Switch F again.
[SwitchF] display pim routing-table
PIM-SM Routing Table
Total 1 (S,G) entry, 3 (*,G) entries, 0 (*,*,RP) entry
(*, 224.1.1.1), RP 10.1.1.1
Protocol 0x20: PIMSM, Flag 0x2003: RPT WC NULL_IIF
Uptime: 00:25:26, never timeout
Upstream interface: Null, RPF neighbor: 0.0.0.0
Downstream interface list:
Vlan-interface2, Protocol 0x1: IGMP, never timeout
(192.168.3.1, 224.1.1.1)
Protocol 0x20: PIMSM, Flag 0x4: SPT
Uptime: 00:02:56, Timeout in 202 sec
Upstream interface: Vlan-interface1, RPF neighbor: 192.168.1.1
Downstream interface list:
Vlan-interface2, Protocol 0x1: IGMP, never timeout
Matched 1 (S,G) entry, 3 (*,G) entries, 0 (*,*,RP) entry
Complete Configuration
Configuration on Switch C
#
multicast routing-enable
#
interface Vlan-interface100
ip address 10.110.1.1 255.255.255.0.
pim sm
#
interface Vlan-interface101
ip address 192.168.1.1 255.255.255.0
pim sm
#
interface Vlan-interface103
ip address 10.110.1.1 255.255.255.0
pim sm
#
interface LoopBack1
164
CHAPTER 16: MULTICAST CONFIGURATION GUIDE
ip address 3.3.3.3 255.255.255.255
pim sm
#
interface LoopBack10
ip address 10.1.1.1 255.255.255.255
pim sm
#
pim
c-bsr LoopBack1 24
c-rp LoopBack10
#
msdp
originating-rp Vlan-interface101
peer 192.168.3.2 connect-interface Vlan-interface101
#
Configuration on Switch F
#
multicast routing-enable
#
interface Vlan-interface102
ip address 192.168.3.2 255.255.255.0
pim sm
#
interface Vlan-interface200
ip address 10.110.3.1 255.255.255.0
pim sm
#
interface LoopBack1
ip address 4.4.4.4 255.255.255.255
pim sm
#
interface LoopBack10
ip address 10.1.1.1 255.255.255.255
pim sm
#
pim
c-bsr LoopBack1 24
c-rp LoopBack10
#
msdp
originating-rp Vlan-interface102
peer 192.168.1.1 connect-interface Vlan-interface102
#
Precautions
■
Be sure to configure a 32-bit subnet mask (255.255.255.255) for the Anycast
RP address, namely configure the Anycast RP address as a host address.
■
An MSDP peer address must be different from the Anycast RP address.
802.1X CONFIGURATION GUIDE
17
n
Configuring 802.1x
Access Control
Network Diagram
The following configurations involve most AAA/RADIUS configuration commands.
Refer to “AAA Configuration” in the Configuration Guide for your product for
information about the commands. Configurations on the user host and the
RADIUS servers are omitted.
As a port-based access control protocol, 802.1x authenticates and controls access
of users at the port level. A user host connected to an 802.1x-enabled port of an
access control device can access the resources on the LAN only after passing
authentication.
Figure 42 Network diagram for configuring 802.1x access control
Authentication servers
(IP address:
10.11.1.1
10.11.1.2)
Eth1/0/1
Supplicant
Networking and
Configuration
Requirements
Switch
IP network
Authenticator
■
The switch authenticate supplicants on the port Ethernet 1/0/1 to control their
access to the Internet by using the MAC-based access control method.
■
All supplicants belong to the default domain named aabbcc.net, which can
accommodate up to 30 users. When authenticating a supplicant, the switch
tries the RADIUS scheme first and then the local scheme if the RADIUS server is
not available. A supplicant is disconnected by force if accounting fails. In
addition, the username of a supplicant is not suffixed with the domain name. A
connection is terminated if the total size of the data passes through it during a
period of 20 minutes is less than 2000 bytes.
■
The switch is connected to a server group comprising of two RADIUS servers
whose IP addresses are 10.11.1.1 and 10.11.1.2 respectively. The former
operates as the primary authentication server and the secondary accounting
server, while the latter operates as the secondary authentication server and the
primary accounting server. The shared key for authentication message
exchange is name, and that for accounting message exchange is money. If the
switch sends a packet to the RADIUS server but receives no response in 5
166
CHAPTER 17: 802.1X CONFIGURATION GUIDE
seconds, it retransmits the packet for up to 5 times. The switch sends real-time
accounting packets at an interval of 15 minutes. A username is sent to the
RADIUS server with the domain name truncated.
■
The username and password for local 802.1x authentication are localuser and
localpass (in plain text) respectively. The idle disconnecting function is enabled.
Applicable Products
Product series
Configuration Procedure
Software version
Hardware version
Switch 5500
Release V03.02.04
All versions
Switch 5500G
Release V03.02.04
All versions
Switch 4500
Release V03.03.00
All versions
Switch 4210
Release V03.01.00
All versions
# Enable 802.1x globally.
<3Com> system-view
[3Com] dot1x
# Enable 802.1x on Ethernet 1/0/1.
[3Com] dot1x interface Ethernet 1/0/1
# Set the access control method to MAC-based. This operation can be omitted
because MAC-based is the default.
[3Com] dot1x port-method macbased interface Ethernet 1/0/1
# Create a RADIUS scheme named radius1 and enter the RADIUS scheme view.
[3Com] radius scheme radius1
# Assign IP addresses to the primary authentication and accounting RADIUS
servers.
[3Com-radius-radius1] primary authentication 10.11.1.1
[3Com-radius-radius1] primary accounting 10.11.1.2
# Assign IP addresses to the secondary authentication and accounting RADIUS
servers.
[3Com-radius-radius1] secondary authentication 10.11.1.2
[3Com-radius-radius1] secondary accounting 10.11.1.1
# Set the shared key for message exchange between the switch and the RADIUS
authentication server.
[3Com -radius-radius1] key authentication name
# Set the shared key for message exchange between the switch and the RADIUS
accounting server.
[3Com-radius-radius1] key accounting money
Configuring 802.1x Access Control
167
# Set the interval and the number of packet transmission attempts for the switch
to send packets to the RADIUS server.
[3Com-radius-radius1] timer 5
[3Com-radius-radius1] retry 5
# Set the interval for the switch to send real-time accounting packets to the
RADIUS server.
[3Com-radius-radius1] timer realtime-accounting 15
# Configure the switch to send a username without the domain name to the
RADIUS server.
[3Com-radius-radius1] user-name-format without-domain
[3Com-radius-radius1] quit
# Create a domain named aabbcc.net and enter its view.
[3Com] domain aabbcc.net
# Specify radius1 as the RADIUS scheme of the user domain, and the local
authentication scheme as the backup scheme when the RADIUS server is not
available.
[3Com-isp-aabbcc.net] scheme radius-scheme radius1 local
# Specify the maximum number of users of the user domain to 30.
[3Com-isp-aabbcc.net] access-limit enable 30
# Enable the idle disconnecting function and set the related parameters.
[3Com-isp-aabbcc.net] idle-cut enable 20 2000
[3Com-isp-aabbcc.net] quit
# Set aabbcc.net as the default user domain.
[3Com] domain default enable aabbcc.net
# Create a local user.
[3Com] local-user localuser
[3Com-luser-localuser] service-type lan-access
[3Com-luser-localuser] password simple localpass
Complete Configuration
#
domain default enable aabbcc.net
#
dot1x
#
interface Ethernet1/0/1
dot1x
#
radius scheme system
radius scheme radius1
server-type standard
168
CHAPTER 17: 802.1X CONFIGURATION GUIDE
primary authentication 10.11.1.1
primary accounting 10.11.1.2
secondary authentication 10.11.1.2
secondary accounting 10.11.1.1
key authentication name
key accounting money
timer realtime-accounting 15
timer response-timeout 5
retry 5
user-name-format without-domain
#
domain aabbcc.net
scheme radius-scheme radius1 local
access-limit enable 30
idle-cut enable 20 2000
domain system
#
local-user localuser
password simple localpass
service-type lan-access
#
Precautions
1 802.1x and the maximum number of MAC addresses that a port can learn are
mutually exclusive. You cannot configure both of them on a port at the same time.
2 You can neither add an 802.1x-enabled port into an aggregation group nor enable
802.1x on a port which is a member of an aggregation group.
3 When a port uses the MAC-based access control method, users are authenticated
individually and when a user goes offline, no other users are affected. When a port
uses the port-based access control method, once a user passes authentication, all
users on the port can access the network. But if the user gets offline, the port will
be disabled and will log off all the other users.
4 If you use the dot1x port-method command to change the port access method,
all online users will be logged off by force.
5 Handshake packet transmission needs the support of the 3Com private client. The
handshake packets are used to detect whether a user is online.
18
Configuring RADIUS
Authentication for
Telnet Users
AAA CONFIGURATION GUIDE
Authentication, Authorization and Accounting (AAA) is a uniform framework used
to configure the three functions for network security management. It can be
implemented by multiple protocols.
RADIUS configurations are made in RADIUS schemes. When performing RADIUS
configurations, you first create a RADIUS scheme and then specify the IP addresses
and UDP port numbers of the RADIUS servers for the scheme. These RADIUS
servers include the primary and secondary authentication/authorization severs and
accounting servers. In addition, you need to configure the shared key and specify
the RADIUS server type.
In practice, you can configure the above parameters as required. But you should
configure at least one authentication/authorization server and one accounting
server. If no accounting server is needed, you must configure the accounting
optional command. Besides, the RADIUS server port settings on the switch must
be consistent with those on the RADIUS servers.
Network Diagram
Figure 43 Network diagram for configuring RADIUS authentication for Telnet users
RADIUS server
10 .110 .91 .164 /16
Internet
Telnet user
Networking and
Configuration
Requirements
As shown in Figure 43, configure the switch so that Telnet users logging into the
switch are authenticated remotely by the RADIUS server.
■
A RADIUS authentication server with an IP address of 10.110.91.164 is
connected to the switch.
■
On the switch, set the shared key for exchanging messages with the
authentication RADIUS server to aabbcc.
■
A CAMS server is used as the RADIUS server. Select extended as the
server-type in the RADIUS scheme.
■
On the RADIUS server, set the shared key for exchanging messages with the
switch to aabbcc, configure the authentication port number, and add Telnet
170
CHAPTER 18: AAA CONFIGURATION GUIDE
usernames and login passwords. Note that the Telnet usernames added to the
RADIUS server must be in the format of userid@isp-name.
■
Configure the switch to include domain names in the usernames to be sent to
the RADIUS server in the RADIUS scheme.
Applicable Products
Product series
Configuration Procedure
Software version
Hardware version
Switch 5500
Release V03.02.04
All versions
Switch 5500G
Release V03.02.04
All versions
Switch 4500
Release V03.03.00
All versions
Switch 4210
Release V03.01.00
All versions
# Enter system view.
<3Com> system-view
# Configure the switch to use AAA authentication for Telnet users.
[3Com] user-interface vty 0 4
[3Com-ui-vty0-4] authentication-mode scheme
# Configure an ISP domain.
[3Com] domain cams
[3Com-isp-cams] access-limit enable 10
[3Com-isp-cams] quit
# Configure a RADIUS scheme.
[3Com] radius scheme cams
[3Com-radius-cams] accounting optional
[3Com-radius-cams] primary authentication 10.110.91.164
[3Com-radius-cams] key authentication aabbcc
[3Com-radius-cams] server-type extended
[3Com-radius-cams] user-name-format with-domain
[3Com-radius-cams] quit
# Associate the ISP domain with the RADIUS scheme.
[3Com] domain cams
[3Com-isp-cams] scheme radius-scheme cams
Complete Configuration
#
system-view
#
user-interface vty 0 4
authentication-mode scheme
#
domain cams
access-limit enable 10
quit
#
radius scheme cams
accounting optional
Configuring Dynamic VLAN Assignment with RADIUS Authentication
171
primary authentication 10.110.91.164
key authentication aabbcc
server-type extended
user-name-format with-domain
quit
#
domain cams
scheme radius-scheme cams
Precautions
Configuring Dynamic
VLAN Assignment
with RADIUS
Authentication
Network Diagram
The Telnet user needs to enter the username with the domain name cams, in the
format userid@cams, so that the user is authenticated according to the
configuration of the domain cams.
With the dynamic VLAN assignment function, a switch can dynamically assign an
authenticated user to a specific VLAN according to the attributes issued by the
RADIUS server, thus restricting the user to specific network resources.
Figure 44 Network diagram for configuring dynamic VLAN assignment with RADIUS
authentication
Update server
Authentication server
Eth1/0/1
VLAN 10
Eth1/0/4
VLAN 2
Eth1/0/3
VLAN 1
Eth1/0/2
VLAN 100
Internet
Supplicant
Networking and
Configuration
Requirements
You are required to configure the switch so that users logging into the switch are
authenticated and restricted to specific network resources. The detailed
requirements are as follows:
■
All users must pass authentication to access the network.
■
Users can access only VLAN 10 before passing authentication.
■
Users passing authentication can access VLAN 100.
Applicable Products
Product series
Software version
Hardware version
Switch 5500
Release V03.02.04
All versions
Switch 5500G
Release V03.02.04
All versions
Switch 4500
Release V03.03.00
All versions
172
CHAPTER 18: AAA CONFIGURATION GUIDE
Configuration Procedure
Product series
Software version
Hardware version
Switch 4210
Release V03.01.00
All versions
# Create a RADIUS scheme named cams and specify the primary and secondary
servers.
<3Com> system-view
[3Com] radius scheme cams
[3Com-radius-cams] primary authentication 192.168.1.19
[3Com-radius-cams] primary accounting 192.168.1.19
[3Com-radius-cams] secondary authentication 192.168.1.20
[3Com-radius-cams] secondary accounting 192.168.1.20
# Set the shared key for message exchange with the authentication and
accounting RADIUS servers to expert.
[3Com-radius-cams] key authentication expert
[3Com-radius-cams] key accounting expert
# Configure the switch to send a username with the domain name.
[3Com-radius-cams] user-name-format with-domain
# Specify the server type as extended.
[3Com-radius-cams] server-type extended
# Create an ISP domain named abc, bind RADIUS scheme cams for
authentication, and configure dynamic VLAN assignment.
[3Com] domain abc
[3Com-isp-abc] radius-scheme cams
[3Com-isp-abc] vlan-assignment-mode integer
[3Com-isp-abc] quit
# Configure the ISP domain abc as the default ISP domain.
[3Com] domain default enable abc
# Enable guest VLAN on the port.
[3Com] interface Ethernet 1/0/3
[3Com-Ethernet1/0/3] dot1x port-method portbased
[3Com-Ehternet1/0/3] dot1x guest-vlan 10
# Enabled 802.1x.
[3Com] dot1x
# Enable 802.1x in interface view.
[3Com] interface Ethernet 1/0/3
[3Com-Ethernet1/0/3] dot1x
Complete Configuration
#
system-view
Configuring Local Authentication for Telnet Users
173
radius scheme cams
primary authentication 192.168.1.19
primary accounting 192.168.1.19
secondary authentication 192.168.1.20
secondary accounting 192.168.1.20
key authentication expert
key accounting expert
user-name-format with-domain
server-type extended
#
domain abc
radius-scheme cams
vlan-assignment-mode integer
quit
#
domain default enable abc
#
interface Ethernet 1/0/3
dot1x port-method portbased
dot1x guest-vlan 10
#
dot1x
#
interface Ethernet 1/0/3
dot1x
Precautions
Configuring Local
Authentication for
Telnet Users
Network Diagram
The above describes only the configurations on the switch. Configurations like
adding users and configuring VLAN assignment on the RADIUS server are omitted.
In local authentication mode, user information including the username, password
and related attributes are stored in the switch. Local authentication features high
speed and low cost, but the amount of stored information depends on the
hardware capacity.
Figure 45 Network diagram for configuring local authentication for Telnet users
Internet
Telnet user
Networking and
Configuration
Requirements
Switch
As shown in Figure 45, you are required to configure the switch so that Telnet
users logging into the switch are authenticated locally by the switch.
Applicable Products
Product series
Software version
Hardware version
Switch 5500
Release V03.02.04
All versions
Switch 5500G
Release V03.02.04
All versions
Switch 4500
Release V03.03.00
All versions
Switch 4210
Release V03.01.00
All versions
174
CHAPTER 18: AAA CONFIGURATION GUIDE
Configuration Procedure
# Enter system view.
<3Com> system-view
# Configure the switch to use AAA authentication for Telnet users.
[3Com] user-interface vty 0 4
[3Com-ui-vty0-4] authentication-mode scheme
[3Com-ui-vty0-4] quit
# Configure a local user named telnet.
[3Com] local-user telnet
[3Com-luser-telnet] service-type telnet
[3Com-luser-telnet] password simple aabbcc
[3Com-luser-telnet] attribute idle-cut 300 access-limit 5
[3Com] domain system
[3Com-isp-system] scheme local
Complete Configuration
Precautions
#
system-view
#
user-interface vty 0 4
authentication-mode scheme
quit
#
local-user telnet
service-type telnet
password simple aabbcc
attribute idle-cut 300 access-limit 5
domain system
scheme local
The Telnet user needs to enter the username with the domain name system (that
is, telnet@system), so that the user is authenticated according to the configuration
of the system domain.
The configurations of local authentication for FTP users are similar to those for
Telnet users.
Configuring
HWTACACS
Authentication for
Telnet Users
3Com Terminal Access Controller Access Control System (HWTACACS) is an
enhanced security protocol based on TACACS (RFC 1492). Similar to the RADIUS
protocol, it adopts the client/server model and implements AAA for multiple types
of users through communicating with TACACS servers.
Compared with RADIUS, HWTACACS provides more reliable transmission and
encryption, and therefore is more suitable for security control.
Configuring HWTACACS Authentication for Telnet Users
Network Diagram
175
Figure 46 Network diagram for configuring HWTACACS authentication for Telnet users
Authentication server
10 .110 .91 .164 /16
Internet
Telnet user
Networking and
Configuration
Requirements
As shown in Figure 46, you are required to configure the switch so that Telnet
users logging into the switch are authenticated and authorized by the TACACS
servers.
A TACACS server with the IP address 10.110.91.164 is connected to the switch. It
will be used as the authentication, authorization and accounting server.
On the switch, set the shared keys for exchanging authentication, authorization
and accounting messages with the TACACS server to expert. Configure the
switch to strip domain names off usernames before sending usernames to the
TACACS server.
On the TACACS server, configure the shared keys to expert for exchanging
messages with the switch, and add Telnet usernames and login passwords.
Applicable Products
Configuration Procedure
Product series
Software version
Hardware version
Switch 5500
Release V03.02.04
All versions
Switch 5500G
Release V03.02.04
All versions
Switch 4500
Release V03.03.00
All versions
Switch 4210
Release V03.01.00
All versions
# Configure a HWTACACS scheme.
<3Com> system-view
[3Com] hwtacacs scheme hwtac
[3Com-hwtacacs-hwtac] primary authentication 10.110.91.164 49
[3Com-hwtacacs-hwtac] primary authorization 10.110.91.164 49
[3Com-hwtacacs-hwtac] key authentication expert
[3Com-hwtacacs-hwtac] key authorization expert
[3Com-hwtacacs-hwtac] user-name-format without-domain
[3Com-hwtacacs-hwtac] quit
# Configure domain hwtacacs to use HWTACACS scheme hwtac.
[3Com] domain hwtacacs
[3Com-isp-hwtacacs] scheme hwtacacs-scheme hwtac
[3Com-isp-hwtacacs] accounting optional
176
CHAPTER 18: AAA CONFIGURATION GUIDE
Complete Configuration
Precautions
Configuring EAD
#
system-view
hwtacacs scheme hwtac
primary authentication 10.110.91.164 49
primary authorization 10.110.91.164 49
key authentication expert
key authorization expert
user-name-format without-domain
quit
#
domain hwtacacs
scheme hwtacacs-scheme hwtac
accounting optional
The above describes only the configuration of the HWTACACS scheme on the
switch. The configuration of Telnet users on the HWTACACS server is omitted.
Endpoint Admission Defense (EAD) is an attack defense solution. By controlling
access of terminals, it enhances the active defense capability of network endpoints
and prevents viruses and worms from spreading on the network, thus securing the
entire network.
With the cooperation of the switch, AAA sever, security policy server and security
client, EAD is able to evaluate the security compliance of network endpoints and
dynamically control their access rights.
With EAD, a switch verifies the validity of the session control packets it receives
according to the source IP addresses of the packets:
It regards only packets from the authentication and security policy servers valid.
It assigns ACLs according to session control packets, thus controlling the access
rights of users dynamically.
Network Diagram
Figure 47 Network diagram for configuring EAD
Authentication servers
10 .110 .91.164/16
Eth1/0/1
Internet
User
Security policy servers
Virus patch servers
10.110.91.166 /16
10.110.91.168/16
Configuring EAD
Networking and
Configuration
Requirements
177
As shown in Figure 47, a user host is connected to Ethernet 1/0/1 on the switch.
On the host runs the 802.1x client supporting 3Com EAD extended function. You
are required to configure the switch to use the RADIUS server for remote user
authentication and the security policy server for EAD control of users.
A CAMS server acts as the RADIUS server and another acts as the security policy
server.
Applicable Products
Configuration Procedure
Product series
Software version
Hardware version
Switch 5500
Release V03.02.04
All versions
Switch 5500G
Release V03.02.04
All versions
Switch 4500
Release V03.03.00
All versions
# Configure 802.1x on the switch.
Omitted
# Configure an ISP domain.
<3Com> system-view
[3Com] domain system
[3Com-isp-system] quit
# Configure a RADIUS scheme.
[3Com] radius scheme cams
[3Com-radius-cams] primary authentication 10.110.91.164 1812
[3Com-radius-cams] accounting optional
[3Com-radius-cams] key authentication expert
[3Com-radius-cams] server-type extended
# Specify the IP address of the security policy server.
[3Com-radius-cams] security-policy-server 10.110.91.166
# Associate the ISP domain with the RADIUS scheme.
[3Com-radius-cams] quit
[3Com] domain system
[3Com-isp-system] radius-scheme cams
Complete Configuration
#
system-view
domain system
quit
#
radius scheme cams
primary authentication 10.110.91.164 1812
accounting optional
key authentication expert
server-type extended
security-policy-server 10.110.91.166
#
178
CHAPTER 18: AAA CONFIGURATION GUIDE
quit
domain system
radius-scheme cams
Precautions
To support all extended functions of CAMS, you are recommended to configure
the 802.1x authentication method as EAP and the RADIUS scheme server type as
extended on the switch.
19
Configuring MAC
Authentication
MAC AUTHENTICATION
CONFIGURATION GUIDE
MAC authentication provides a way for authenticating users based on ports and
MAC addresses, without requiring any client software to be installed on the hosts.
Once detecting a new MAC address, a switch with MAC authentication
configured will initiate the authentication process. During authentication, the user
does not need to enter any username and password manually.
MAC authentication can be implemented locally or by a RADIUS server.
After determining the authentication mode, you can select one of the following
username types as required:
Network Diagram
■
MAC address, where the MAC address of a user serves as the username for
authentication (you can use the mac-authentication authmode
usernameasmacaddress usernameformat command to set the MAC
address format).
■
Fixed username, where the same username and password preconfigured on
the switch are used to authenticate all users. In addition, the number of
concurrent users is limited with this username type. This username type is not
recommended.
Figure 48 Network diagram for configuring local MAC authentication
Eth1/0/2
IP network
Host
Switch
MAC: 00-0d-88-f6-44-c1
Networking and
Configuration
Requirements
As illustrated in Figure 48, a supplicant is connected to the switch through port
Ethernet 1/0/2.
■
MAC authentication is required on port Ethernet 1/0/2 to control user access to
the Internet.
■
All users belong to domain aabbcc.net. The authentication is performed
locally and the MAC address of the PC (00-0d-88-f6-44-c1) is used as both the
username and password.
Applicable Products
Product series
Software version
Hardware version
Switch 5500
Release V03.02.04
All versions
Switch 5500G
Release V03.02.04
All versions
Switch 4500
Release V03.03.00
All versions
180
CHAPTER 19: MAC AUTHENTICATION CONFIGURATION GUIDE
Configuration Procedure
Product series
Software version
Hardware version
Switch 4210
Release V03.01.00
All versions
# Enable MAC authentication for port Ethernet 1/0/2.
<3Com> system-view
[3Com] mac-authentication interface Ethernet 1/0/2
# Specify the MAC authentication username type as MAC address and the MAC
address format as with-hyphen.
[3Com] mac-authentication authmode usernameasmacaddress usernameform
at with-hyphen
# Create a local user account.
■
Specify the username and password.
[3Com] local-user 00-0d-88-f6-44-c1
[3Com-luser-00-0d-88-f6-44-c1] password simple 00-0d-88-f6-44-c1
■
Set the service type to lan-access.
[3Com-luser-00-0d-88-f6-44-c1] service-type lan-access
[3Com-luser-00-0d-88-f6-44-c1] quit
# Create an ISP domain named aabbcc.net.
[3Com] domain aabbcc.net
New Domain added.
# Configure domain aabbcc.net to perform local authentication.
[3Com-isp-aabbcc.net] scheme local
[3Com-isp-aabbcc.net] quit
# Specify aabbcc.net as the ISP domain for MAC authentication.
[3Com] mac-authentication domain aabbcc.net
# Enable MAC authentication globally.
[3Com] mac-authentication
After configuring the above command, your MAC authentication configuration
will take effect immediately, and Only the user with the MAC address of
00-0d-88-f6-44-c1 is allowed to access the Internet through port Ethernet 1/0/2.
Note that enabling authentication globally is usually the last step in configuring
access control related features. Otherwise, valid users may be denied access to the
networks because of incomplete configuration.
Complete Configuration
#
domain default enable aabbcc.net
#
MAC-authentication
MAC-authentication domain aabbcc.net
MAC-authentication authmode usernameasmacaddress usernameformat wit
Configuring MAC Authentication
181
h-hyphen #
domain aabbcc.net
#
local-user 00-0d-88-f6-44-c1
password simple 00-0d-88-f6-44-c1
service-type lan-access
#
Precautions
■
You cannot configure the maximum number of MAC addresses that can be
learnt on a MAC authentication enabled port, or enable MAC authentication
on a port that is configured with the maximum number of MAC addresses that
can be learnt.
■
You cannot configure port security on a MAC authentication enabled port, or
enable MAC authentication on a port that is configured with port security.
182
CHAPTER 19: MAC AUTHENTICATION CONFIGURATION GUIDE
20
Single VRRP Group
Configuration
VRRP CONFIGURATION GUIDE
Virtual Router Redundancy Protocol (VRRP) is an error-tolerant protocol defined in
RFC 2338. In LANs with multicast or broadcast capabilities (such as Ethernet),
VRRP can avoid single point failure through establishing backup links without
modifying the configuration of dynamic routing protocols and router discovery
protocols.
You can add two or more switches into a single VRRP group, which can provide
two or more reliable links to the outside networks, therefore avoiding
communication interruption resulting from single- or multi- point failure.
Network Diagram
Figure 49 Network diagram for VRRP
Host B
10.2.3 .1/24
Internet
Vlan- int3
10 .100 .10 .2/24
LSW A
Vlan -int2
202.38.160.1/24
LSW B
Virtual IP address
Vlan-int2
202.38.160.111 /24
202 .38.160 .2/24
202.38.160.3/24
Host A
Networking and
Configuration
Requirements
Host A accesses Host B on the Internet, with the VRRP group consisting of Switch
A and Switch B as its default gateway.
VRRP group settings:
■
VRRP group number: 1
■
Virtual router IP address of the VRRP group: 202.38.160.111.
■
Switch A acts as the master.
■
Switch B acts as the backup, and works in the preemptive mode.
184
CHAPTER 20: VRRP CONFIGURATION GUIDE
Table 1 Networking description
Switch
Ethernet port
connected with
Host A
IP address of the
VLAN interface
Switch priority
in the VRRP
group
Working mode
LSW-A
Ethernet 1/0/6
202.38.160.1/24
110
Preemptive mode
LSW-B
Ethernet 1/0/5
202.38.160.2/24
100 (default)
Preemptive mode
Applicable Products
Product series
Software version
Hardware version
Switch 5500
Release V03.02.04
All versions
Switch 5500G
Release V03.02.04
All versions
Configuration Procedure
1 Configure Switch A.
# Configure VLAN 2.
<LSW-A> system-view
[LSW-A] vlan 2
[LSW-A-vlan2] port Ethernet1/0/6
[LSW-A-vlan2] quit
[LSW-A] interface Vlan-interface 2
[LSW-A-Vlan-interface2] ip address 202.38.160.1 255.255.255.0
[LSW-A-Vlan-interface2] quit
# Enable a VRRP group to respond to ping operations destined for its virtual IP
address.
[LSW-A] vrrp ping-enable
# Create a VRRP group.
[LSW-A] interface Vlan-interface 2
[LSW-A-Vlan-interface2] vrrp vrid 1 virtual-ip 202.38.160.111
# Set the priority of Switch A in the VRRP group to 110.
[LSW-A-Vlan-interface2] vrrp vrid 1 priority 110
# Configure preemptive mode for the VRRP group.
[LSW-A-Vlan-interface2] vrrp vrid 1 preempt-mode
n
By default, a VRRP group adopts the preemptive mode.
2 Configure Switch B.
# Configure VLAN 2.
<LSW-B> system-view
[LSW-B] vlan 2
[LSW-B-Vlan2] port Ethernet1/0/5
[LSW-B-vlan2] quit
Single VRRP Group Configuration
185
[LSW-B] interface Vlan-interface 2
[LSW-B-Vlan-interface2] ip address 202.38.160.2 255.255.255.0
[LSW-B-Vlan-interface2] quit
# Enable the VRRP group to respond to ping operations destined for its virtual IP
address.
[LSW-B] vrrp ping-enable
# Create a VRRP group.
[LSW-B] interface vlan 2
[LSW-B-Vlan-interface2] vrrp vrid 1 virtual-ip 202.38.160.111
# Configure preemptive mode for the VRRP group.
[LSW-B-Vlan-interface2] vrrp vrid 1 preempt-mode
The default gateway of Host A is configured as 202.38.160.111.
Normally, Switch A functions as the gateway. When Switch A is turned off or fails,
Switch B functions as the gateway.
Because Switch A is configured to work in the preemptive mode, when Switch A
resumes to work, it becomes the master again to function as the gateway.
Complete Configuration
■
Configurations on Switch A
#
vrrp ping-enable
#
interface Vlan-interface1
ip address 202.38.160.1 255.255.255.0
vrrp vrid 1 virtual-ip 202.38.160.111
vrrp vrid 1 priority 110
#
interface Ethernet1/0/6
port access vlan 2
#
■
Configurations on Switch B
#
vrrp ping-enable
#
interface Vlan-interface1
ip address 202.38.160.2 255.255.255.0
vrrp vrid 1 virtual-ip 202.38.160.111
#
interface Ethernet1/0/5
port access vlan 2
#
Precautions
■
The Switch 5500 supports VRRP, while the Switch 4500 does not.
■
For the IP address owner, its priority in the VRRP group is always 255.
■
Do not configure multiple VRRP groups on the same VLAN interface.
Otherwise, the VRRP function will be affected.
186
CHAPTER 20: VRRP CONFIGURATION GUIDE
■
Multiple VRRP Groups
Configuration
Network Diagram
If both switches in the preemptive mode and switches in the non-preemptive
mode exist in a VRRP group, the working mode of the VRRP group conforms to
that of the master. For example, if the master works in the preemptive mode,
when the master fails, the VRRP group will elect a new master through
preemption although there are switches working in the non-preemptive mode.
Multiple VRRP groups can implement the link backup and load sharing functions,
which can avoid communication interruption resulting from switch failure or traffic
overburden on a link.
Figure 50 Network diagram for VRRP
Host B
10.2.3.1/24
Internet
Vlan -int3
10 .100 .10.2/24
Switch B
Switch A
Vlan -int2
VLAN -int2
202 .38 .160 .1/24
202.38.160.2/24
Backup group 2
Virtual IP address 202 .38 .160 .112 /24
Backup group
1
Virtual IP address 202.38.160.111 /24
202 .38.160.4/24
202 .38.160.3/24
Host A
Networking and
Configuration
Requirements
Host C
A switch can backup multiple VRRP groups.
Multiple-VRRP group configuration can implement load sharing. For example,
Switch A acts as the master of VRRP group 1 and a backup of VRRP group 2.
Switch B acts as the master of VRRP group 2 and a backup of VRRP group 1. Some
hosts in the network take VRRP group 1 as the gateway, while the others take
VRRP group 2 as the gateway. In this way, both load sharing and mutual backup
are implemented.
Applicable Products
Product series
Configuration Procedure
Software version
Hardware version
Switch 5500
Release V03.02.04
All versions
Switch 5500G
Release V03.02.04
All versions
■
Configure Switch A.
# Configure VLAN 2.
Multiple VRRP Groups Configuration
<LSW-A> system-view
[LSW-A] vlan 2
[LSW-A-vlan2] port Ethernet1/0/6
[LSW-A-vlan2] quit
[LSW-A] interface Vlan-interface 2
[LSW-A-Vlan-interface2] ip address 202.38.160.1 255.255.255.0
# Create VRRP group 1.
[LSW-A-Vlan-interface2] vrrp vrid 1 virtual-ip 202.38.160.111
# Set the priority of Switch A in VRRP group 1 to 150.
[LSW-A-Vlan-interface2] vrrp vrid 1 priority 150
# Create VRRP group 2.
[LSW-A-Vlan-interface2] vrrp vrid 2 virtual-ip 202.38.160.112
■
Configure Switch B.
# Configure VLAN 2.
<LSW-B> system-view
[LSW-B] vlan 2
[LSW-B-vlan2] port Ethernet1/0/6
[LSW-B-vlan2] quit
[LSW-B] interface Vlan-interface 2
[LSW-B-Vlan-interface2] ip address 202.38.160.2 255.255.255.0
# Create VRRP group 1.
[LSW-B-Vlan-interface2] vrrp vrid 1 virtual-ip 202.38.160.111
# Create VRRP group 2.
[LSW-B-Vlan-interface2] vrrp vrid 2 virtual-ip 202.38.160.112
# Set the priority of Switch B in VRRP group 2 to 110.
[LSW-B-Vlan-interface2] vrrp vrid 2 priority 110
Complete Configuration
■
Configurations on Switch A
#
interface Vlan-interface2
ip address 202.38.160.1 255.255.255.0
vrrp vrid 1 virtual-ip 202.38.160.111
vrrp vrid 1 priority 150
vrrp vrid 2 virtual-ip 202.38.160.112
#
interface Ethernet1/0/6
port access vlan 2
#
■
Configurations on Switch B
#
interface Vlan-interface2
187
188
CHAPTER 20: VRRP CONFIGURATION GUIDE
ip address 202.38.160.2 255.255.255.0
vrrp vrid 1 virtual-ip 202.38.160.111
vrrp vrid 2 virtual-ip 202.38.160.112
vrrp vrid 2 priority 110
#
interface Ethernet1/0/6
port access vlan 2
#
Precautions
VRRP Interface
Tracking
■
The Switch 5500 supports VRRP, while the Switch 4500 does not.
■
For the IP address owner, its priority in the VRRP group is always 255.
■
Multiple-VRRP group configuration is commonly used in real networking, for
multiple VRRP groups can implement load sharing.
■
Do not configure multiple VRRP groups on the same VLAN interface.
Otherwise, the VRRP function will be affected.
■
If both switches in the preemptive mode and switches in the non-preemptive
mode exist in a VRRP group, the working mode of the VRRP group conforms to
that of the master. For example, if the master works in the preemptive mode,
when it fails, the VRRP group will elect a new master through preemption
although there are switches working in the non-preemptive mode.
VRRP interface tracking extends the backup functionality of a backup in a VRRP
group. With this function enabled, a backup can backup the master not only
when the VRRP group resident interface fails, but also when other interfaces of
the master become unavailable. This is achieved by tracking an interface of a
master.
When the tracked interface goes down, the priority of the master decreases by a
specified value (value-reduced), allowing a higher priority switch in the VRRP
group to become the new master.
VRRP Interface Tracking
Network Diagram
189
Figure 51 Network diagram for VRRP
Host B
10 .2.3.1/24
Internet
Vlan -int3
10.100.10.2/24
LSW A
Vlan-int2
202.38.160.1/24
LSW B
Vlan -int2
Virtual IP address
202.38.160 .111/24
202 .38 .160 .2 /24
202 .38 .160 .3 /24
Host A
Networking and
Configuration
Requirements
Switch A is the master and Switch B is the backup in a VRRP group. Both Switch A
and Switch B have an interface connected with the Internet. Configure the VRRP
interface tracking function, so that when the interface connected with the
Internet on Switch A becomes unavailable, Switch B can replace Switch A to act as
the gateway even if Switch A is still working.
Set the group number to 1.
Applicable Products
Configuration Procedure
Product series
Software version
Hardware version
Switch 5500
Release V03.02.04
All versions
Switch 5500G
Release V03.02.04
All versions
■
Configure Switch A.
# Configure VLAN 2.
<LSW-A> system-view
[LSW-A] vlan 2
[LSW-A-vlan2] port Ethernet1/0/6
[LSW-A-vlan2] quit
[LSW-A] interface Vlan-interface 2
[LSW-A-Vlan-interface2] ip address 202.38.160.1 255.255.255.0
[LSW-A-Vlan-interface2] quit
# Enable the VRRP group to respond to ping operations destined for its virtual IP
address.
[LSW-A] vrrp ping-enable
190
CHAPTER 20: VRRP CONFIGURATION GUIDE
# Create VRRP group 1.
[LSW-A] interface Vlan-interface 2
[LSW-A-Vlan-interface2] vrrp vrid 1 virtual-ip 202.38.160.111
# Set the priority of Switch A in VRRP group 1 to 110.
[LSW-A-Vlan-interface2] vrrp vrid 1 priority 110
# Set the interface to be tracked.
[LSW-A-Vlan-interface2] vrrp vrid 1 track interface Vlan-interface 3
reduced 30
■
Configure Switch B.
# Configure VLAN 2.
<LSW-B> system-view
[LSW-B] vlan 2
[LSW-B-vlan2] port Ethernet1/0/5
[LSW-B-vlan2] quit
[LSW-B] interface Vlan-interface 2
[LSW-B-Vlan-interface2] ip address 202.38.160.2 255.255.255.0
[LSW-B-Vlan-interface2] quit
# Enable a VRRP group to respond to ping operations destined for its virtual IP
address.
[LSW-B] vrrp ping-enable
# Create VRRP group 1.
[LSW-B] interface Vlan-interface 2
[LSW-B-Vlan-interface2] vrrp vrid 1 virtual-ip 202.38.160.111
Normally, Switch A acts as the gateway. When VLAN-interface 3 on Switch A
becomes unavailable, the priority of Switch A decreases by 30, making the priority
of Switch A lower than that of Switch B. Therefore, Switch B preempts and
becomes the master to act as the gateway.
When VLAN-interface 3 resumes to work, Switch A becomes the master again to
act as the gateway.
Complete Configuration
■
Configuration on Switch A
#
vrrp ping-enable
#
interface Vlan-interface2
ip address 202.38.160.1 255.255.255.0
vrrp vrid 1 virtual-ip 202.38.160.111
vrrp vrid 1 priority 110
vrrp vrid 1 track Vlan-interface1 reduced 30
#
interface Ethernet1/0/6
VRRP Port Tracking
191
port access vlan 2
#
■
Configurations on Switch B
#
vrrp ping-enable
#
interface Vlan-interface2
ip address 202.38.160.2 255.255.255.0
vrrp vrid 1 virtual-ip 202.38.160.111
#
interface Ethernet1/0/5
port access vlan 2
#
Precautions
VRRP Port Tracking
■
The Switch 5500 supports VRRP, while the Switch 4500 does not.
■
For the IP address owner, its priority in the VRRP group is always 255.
■
When configuring VRRP interface tracking, you are recommended to configure
the uplink Trunk port to deny the VLAN that corresponds to the tracked
interface.
■
When you set the priority decrease value of the master in a VRRP group, make
sure that the master has a lower priority than the backups after the decrease.
VRRP group port tracking function can track the link state of a physical port, and
decrease the priority of the switch when the physical port fails.
With this function enabled for a VRRP group, if the tracked physical port of the
master fails, the priority of the master decreases by the specified value
automatically, making a new election of the master in the group.
Network Diagram
Figure 52 Network diagram for VRRP port tracking
Network
Actual IP address
Actual IP address
Vlan -int2
10 .100 .10.2/24
Vlan -int3
10 .100 .10.4 /24
Master
Backup
Virtual IP address
Virtual IP address
10 .100 .10 .1 /24
10.100.10.1/24
Layer 2 Switch
192
CHAPTER 20: VRRP CONFIGURATION GUIDE
Networking and
Configuration
Requirements
■
There are two switches, the master and the backup, in VRRP group 1.
■
The IP addresses of the master and the backup are 10.100.10.2 and
10.100.10.3 respectively.
■
The master is connected with the upstream network through port Ethernet
1/0/1 that belongs to VLAN 2, and is connected with a Layer 2 switch through
Ethernet 1/0/2 that belongs to VLAN 3.
■
The virtual IP address of the VRRP group is 10.100.10.1.
■
Enable the port tracking function on Ethernet 1/0/1 of the master and specify
that the priority of the master decreases by 50 when Ethernet 1/0/1 fails, which
triggers a new master election in VRRP group 1.
■
On the backup, the configurations related to the upstream and downstream
device connection, and the configurations related to the VRRP group have
been finished. The configuration procedures are omitted here.
Applicable Products
Configuration Procedure
Product series
Software version
Hardware version
Switch 5500
Release V03.02.04
All versions
Switch 5500G
Release V03.02.04
All versions
Perform the following configurations on the master:
# Enter system view
<3Com> system-view
# Create VLAN 2.
[3Com] vlan 2
[3Com-vlan2] port Ethernet1/0/1
[3Com-vlan2] quit
# Configure VLAN-interface 2.
[3Com] interface Vlan-interface 2
[3Com-Vlan-interface2] ip address 10.100.10.2 255.255.255.0
[3Com-Vlan-interface2] quit
# Create VLAN 3.
[3Com] vlan 3
[3Com-vlan3] port Ethernet1/0/2
[3Com-vlan3] quit
# Configure VLAN-interface 3.
[3Com] interface Vlan-interface 3
[3Com-Vlan-interface3] ip address 10.100.10.4 255.255.255.0
[3Com-Vlan-interface3] quit
# Create VRRP group 1.
VRRP Port Tracking
193
[3Com] interface Vlan-interface 3
[3Com-Vlan-interface3] vrrp vrid 1 virtual-ip 10.100.10.1
# Enter port view of Ethernet 1/0/1 and enable the VRRP port tracking function.
[3Com] interface Ethernet1/0/1
[3Com-Ethernet1/0/1] vrrp Vlan-interface 3 vrid 1 track reduced 50
Complete Configuration
On the master:
#
interface Vlan-interface2
ip address 10.100.10.2 255.255.255.0
vrrp vrid 1 virtual-ip 10.100.10.1
#
interface Vlan-interface3
ip address 10.100.10.4 255.255.255.0
#
interface Ethernet1/0/1
port access vlan 2
vrrp vlan-interface 3 vrid 1 track reduced 50
#
interface Ethernet1/0/2
port access vlan 3
#
Precautions
■
The Switch 5500 supports VRRP, while the Switch 4500 does not.
■
For the IP address owner, its priority in the VRRP group is always 255.
■
When you set the priority decrease value of the master in a VRRP group, make
sure that the master has a lower priority than the backups after the decrease.
194
CHAPTER 20: VRRP CONFIGURATION GUIDE
21
DHCP Server Global
Address Pool
Configuration Guide
Network Diagram
DHCP CONFIGURATION GUIDE
In general, there are two typical DHCP network topologies. One is to deploy the
DHCP server and DHCP clients in the same network segment. This enables the
clients to communicate with the server directly. The other is to deploy the DHCP
server and DHCP clients in different network segments. In this case, IP address
assignment is carried out through a DHCP relay agent. Note that the DHCP server
configuration is the same in both scenarios.
Figure 53 Network diagram for DHCP server global address pool configuration
Client
WINS server
10.1.1.4 /25
Vlan -int1
10.1.1 .1/25
10 .1.1.2/25
DNS server
Networking and
Configuration
Requirements
Client
Vlan -int2
10.1.1.129/25
Switch A
DHCP server
10.1 .1.126 /25
Gateway A
Client
10 .1 .1.254 /25
Gateway B
Vlan-int1
Switch B
Client
Client
Client
■
The DHCP server (Switch A) assigns IP addresses to clients in subnet
10.1.1.0/24, which is subnetted into 10.1.1.0/25 and 10.1.1.128/25.
■
The IP addresses of VLAN-interface 1 and VLAN-interface 2 on Switch A are
10.1.1.1/25 and 10.1.1.129/25 respectively.
■
In the address pool 10.1.1.0/25, the address lease duration is ten days and
twelve hours, the domain name suffix is aabbcc.com, the DNS server address is
10.1.1.2, the WINS server address is 10.1.1.4, and the gateway address is
10.1.1.126.
■
In the address pool 10.1.1.128/25, the address lease duration is five days, the
domain name suffix is aabbcc.com, the DNS server address is 10.1.1.2, and the
gateway address is 10.1.1.254; there is no WINS server address.
■
Enable unauthorized DHCP server detection on Switch A so that the
administrator can check out any unauthorized DHCP servers from the system
log information.
196
CHAPTER 21: DHCP CONFIGURATION GUIDE
Applicable Products
Configuration Procedure
Product series
Software version
Hardware version
Switch 5500
Release V03.02.04
All versions
Switch 5500G
Release V03.02.04
All versions
# Enable DHCP.
[SwitchA] dhcp enable
# Exclude the IP addresses of the DNS server, WINS server, and gateways from
dynamic assignment.
[SwitchA]
[SwitchA]
[SwitchA]
[SwitchA]
dhcp
dhcp
dhcp
dhcp
server
server
server
server
forbidden-ip
forbidden-ip
forbidden-ip
forbidden-ip
10.1.1.2
10.1.1.4
10.1.1.126
10.1.1.254
# Enable unauthorized DHCP server detection.
[SwitchA] dhcp server detect
# Configure the address range, domain name suffix and DNS server address in
DHCP address pool 0.
[SwitchA] dhcp server
[SwitchA-dhcp-pool-0]
[SwitchA-dhcp-pool-0]
[SwitchA-dhcp-pool-0]
[SwitchA-dhcp-pool-0]
ip-pool 0
network 10.1.1.0 mask 255.255.255.0
domain-name aabbcc.com
dns-list 10.1.1.2
quit
# Configure the address range, gateway address, and lease duration in DHCP
address pool 1.
[SwitchA] dhcp server
[SwitchA-dhcp-pool-1]
[SwitchA-dhcp-pool-1]
[SwitchA-dhcp-pool-1]
[SwitchA-dhcp-pool-1]
ip-pool 1
network 10.1.1.0 mask 255.255.255.128
gateway-list 10.1.1.126
expired day 10 hour 12
quit
# Configure the address range, lease duration, DNS server address and gateway
address in DHCP address pool 2.
[SwitchA] dhcp server
[SwitchA-dhcp-pool-2]
[SwitchA-dhcp-pool-2]
[SwitchA-dhcp-pool-2]
[SwitchA-dhcp-pool-2]
[SwitchA-dhcp-pool-2]
ip-pool 2
network 10.1.1.128 mask 255.255.255.128
expired day 5
nbns-list 10.1.1.4
gateway-list 10.1.1.254
quit
With the unauthorized DHCP server detection enabled, Switch A will log
information about all DHCP servers, including authorized ones. The administrator
needs to find unauthorized DHCP servers from the system log information. If
Switch A detects an unauthorized DHCP server, the following log information is
recorded.
DHCP Server Global Address Pool Configuration Guide
197
<SwitchA>
%Apr 10 21:34:55:782 2000 3Com DHCPS/4/DHCPS_LOCAL_SERVER:- 1 Local DHCP server information(detect by server):SERVER IP = 10.1.1.
5; Sourceclient information: interface = Vlan-interface2, type = DHC
P_REQUEST, CHardAddr= 00e0-fc55-0011
Complete Configuration
Precautions
#
dhcp server ip-pool 0
network 10.1.1.0 mask 255.255.255.0
dns-list 10.1.1.2
domain-name aabbcc.com
#
dhcp server ip-pool 1
network 10.1.1.0 mask 255.255.255.128
gateway-list 10.1.1.126
expired day 10 hour 12
#
dhcp server ip-pool 2
network 10.1.1.128 mask 255.255.255.128
gateway-list 10.1.1.254
nbns-list 10.1.1.4
expired day 5
#
dhcp server forbidden-ip 10.1.1.2
dhcp server forbidden-ip 10.1.1.4
dhcp server forbidden-ip 10.1.1.126
dhcp server forbidden-ip 10.1.1.254
dhcp server detect
#
If you use the inheritance relation between the parent and child address pools in
this configuration, make sure that the number of IP addresses to be assigned from
a child address pool does not exceed the number of its total available addresses;
otherwise, extra IP addresses will be obtained from the parent address pool, and
the attributes (for example, gateway) of the parent address pool are also obtained
by the clients.
In this example, the number of clients requesting IP addresses from VLAN-interface
1 is recommended to be less than or equal to 122 and the number of clients
requesting IP addresses from VLAN-interface 2 is recommended to be less than or
equal to 124.
198
CHAPTER 21: DHCP CONFIGURATION GUIDE
DHCP Server Interface
Address Pool
Configuration Guide
Network Diagram
Figure 54 Network diagram for DHCP server interface address pool configuration
Files server
Client
Client
WINS server
192.168.0.10/24
192 .168.0.30/24
Vlan -int1
192 .168 .0 .1/24
Switch A
DHCP server
192 .168 .0.20 /24
Client
Networking and
Configuration
Requirements
Client
DNS server
■
Configure the IP address of VLAN-interface 1 on the DHCP server (Switch A) as
192.168.0.1/24.
■
The DHCP clients belong to VLAN 1 and dynamically obtain IP addresses
through DHCP.
■
The DHCP server assigns a fixed IP address of 192.168.0.10/24 from the
interface address pool to the file server with MAC address 000D-88F7-0001,
and assigns IP addresses on the network segment 192.168.0.0/24 to other
clients with the lease duration of 10 days. The IP address of the DNS server is
192.168.0.20/24, and that of the WINS server is 192.168.0.30/24.
Applicable Products
Configuration Procedure
Product series
Software version
Hardware version
Switch 5500
Release V03.02.04
All versions
Switch 5500G
Release V03.02.04
All versions
# Enable DHCP.
[SwitchA] dhcp enable
# Exclude the IP addresses of the DNS server, WINS server, and file server from
dynamic assignment.
[SwitchA] dhcp server forbidden-ip 192.168.0.10
[SwitchA] dhcp server forbidden-ip 192.168.0.20
[SwitchA] dhcp server forbidden-ip 192.168.0.30
# Configure the IP address of VLAN-interface 1 as 192.168.0.1/24.
[SwitchA] interface Vlan-interface 1
[SwitchA-Vlan-interface1] ip address 192.168.0.1 24
# Configure VLAN-interface 1 to operate in DHCP interface address pool mode.
DHCP Relay Agent Configuration Guide
199
[SwitchA-Vlan-interface1] dhcp select interface
# Configure a static IP-to-MAC binding in the DHCP interface address pool.
[SwitchA-Vlan-interface1] dhcp server static-bind ip-address 192.168
.0.10 mac-address 000D-88F7-0001
# Specify the lease duration, DNS server address, and WINS server address in the
DHCP interface address pool.
[SwitchA-Vlan-interface1]
[SwitchA-Vlan-interface1]
[SwitchA-Vlan-interface1]
[SwitchA-Vlan-interface1]
dhcp server expired day 10
dhcp server dns-list 192.168.0.20
dhcp server nbns-list 192.168.0.30
quit
Complete Configuration
#
interface Vlan-interface1
ip address 192.168.0.1 255.255.255.0
dhcp select interface
dhcp server static-bind ip-address 192.168.1.10 mac-address 000d-88
f7-0001
dhcp server dns-list 192.168.0.20
dhcp server nbns-list 192.168.0.30
dhcp server expired day 10
#
dhcp server forbidden-ip 192.168.0.10
dhcp server forbidden-ip 192.168.0.20
dhcp server forbidden-ip 192.168.0.30
#
Precautions
After all the addresses in the interface address pool have been assigned, the DHCP
server looks up IP addresses from the global address pool containing the network
segment of the interface address pool for the DHCP clients. As a result, the IP
addresses obtained from the global address pool and those obtained from the
interface address pool are not on the same network segment, so the clients
cannot communicate with each other.
In this example, the number of clients requesting IP addresses from VLAN-interface
1 is recommended to be less than or equal to 250.
DHCP Relay Agent
Configuration Guide
Since some DHCP packets are broadcast, DHCP is only applicable to the situation
where DHCP clients and the DHCP server are in the same network segment, that
is, you need to deploy at least one DHCP server for each network segment, which
is not economical.
DHCP relay agent is designed to address this problem. It enables DHCP clients in a
subnet to communicate with the DHCP server in another subnet to obtain IP
addresses. In this way, the DHCP clients in multiple networks can use the same
DHCP server, which is cost-effective and allows for centralized management.
200
CHAPTER 21: DHCP CONFIGURATION GUIDE
Network Diagram
Figure 55 Network diagram for DHCP relay agent configuration
DHCP client
DHCP client
Vlan-int1
10.10.1.1 /24
Vlan- int2
10.1.1.2 /24
Switch A
DHCP relay
Host A
Vlan- int2
10.1.1.1 /24
Switch B
DHCP server
DHCP client
IP:10.10.10.5/24
MAC:0001 -0010- 0001
Networking and
Configuration
Requirements
■
VLAN-interface 1 on the DHCP relay agent (Switch A) connects to the network
where DHCP clients reside. The IP address of VLAN-interface 1 is 10.10.1.1/24
and the IP address of VLAN-interface 2 is 10.1.1.2/24.
■
The clients (except Host A, which uses a fixed IP address of 10.10.10.5/24)
dynamically obtain IP addresses from the DHCP server at 10.1.1.1/24.
■
Switch A forwards messages between DHCP clients and the DHCP server to
assign IP addresses in subnet 10.10.1.0/24 and related configuration
information to the clients.
■
Enable the address check function on Switch A to allow only the clients with
valid fixed IP addresses or with IP addresses obtained from the DHCP server to
access external networks.
Applicable Products
Configuration Procedure
Product series
Software version
Hardware version
Switch 5500
Release V03.02.04
All versions
Switch 5500G
Release V03.02.04
All versions
Switch 4500
Release V03.03.00
All versions
# Create DHCP server group 1 and specify DHCP server 10.1.1.1 for it.
[SwitchA] dhcp-server 1 ip 10.1.1.1
# Configure the IP address of VLAN-interface 1 as 10.10.1.1/24.
[SwitchA] interface Vlan-interface 1
[SwitchA-Vlan-interface1] ip address 10.10.1.1 24
# Map VLAN-interface 1 to DHCP server group 1.
[SwitchA-Vlan-interface1] dhcp-server 1
[SwitchA-Vlan-interface1] quit
# Bind the IP address 10.10.10.5/24 to the MAC address 0001-0010-0001 of Host
A on the DHCP relay agent.
DHCP Snooping Configuration Guide
201
[SwitchA] dhcp-security static 10.10.10.5 0001-0010-0001
# Enable the address check function on the DHCP relay agent.
[SwitchA] interface Vlan-interface 1
[SwitchA-Vlan-interface1] address-check enable
Currently, a Switch 4500 operating as a DHCP relay agent does not support the
address check function.
Complete Configuration
#
dhcp-server 1 ip
10.1.1.1
#
dhcp-security static 10.10.10.5 0001-0010-0001
#
interface Vlan-interface1
ip address 10.10.1.1 255.255.255.0
dhcp-server 1
address-check enable
#
Precautions
DHCP Snooping
Configuration Guide
■
You need to perform corresponding configurations on the DHCP server to
enable the DHCP clients to obtain IP addresses from the DHCP server. For DHCP
server configuration information, refer to the “DHCP Server Global Address
Pool Configuration Guide” on page 195.
■
The DHCP relay agent and server are reachable to each other.
For security, a network administrator needs to use the mappings between DHCP
clients’ IP addresses obtained from the DHCP server and their MAC addresses.
DHCP snooping is used to record such mappings from:
■
DHCP-ACK packets
■
DHCP-REQUEST packets
If there is an unauthorized DHCP server on a network, the DHCP clients may
obtain invalid IP addresses. With DHCP snooping, the ports of a device can be
configured as trusted or untrusted to ensure the clients to obtain IP addresses
from authorized DHCP servers.
■
Trusted: A trusted port is connected to an authorized DHCP server directly or
indirectly. It forwards DHCP messages normally to guarantee that DHCP clients
can obtain valid IP addresses.
■
Untrusted: An untrusted port is connected to an unauthorized DHCP server.
The DHCP-ACK or DHCP-OFFER packets received on the port are discarded to
prevent DHCP clients from receiving invalid IP addresses.
202
CHAPTER 21: DHCP CONFIGURATION GUIDE
Network Diagram
Figure 56 Network diagram for DHCP snooping configuration
DHCP Server
Eth1/0/5
Switch
DHCP Snooping
Eth1/0/1
Eth1/0/3
Eth1/0/2
Client A
Networking and
Configuration
Requirements
Client B
Client C
As shown in Figure 56, Ethernet 1/0/5 of Switch is connected to the DHCP server,
and Ethernet 1/0/1, Ethernet 1/0/2, and Ethernet 1/0/3 are respectively connected
to Client A, Client B, and Client C.
■
Enable DHCP snooping on Switch.
■
Specify Ethernet 1/0/5 on Switch as a DHCP snooping trusted port.
Applicable Products
Product series
Software version
Hardware version
Switch 5500
Release V03.02.04
All versions
Switch 5500G
Release V03.02.04
All versions
Switch 4210
All versions
Note that: Switch 4210support DHCP snooping, but do not support DHCP
snooping trusted port configuration.
Configuration Procedure
# Enable DHCP snooping on the switch.
[Switch] dhcp-snooping
# Specify Ethernet 1/0/5 as a trusted port.
[Switch] interface Ethernet1/0/5
[Switch-Ethernet1/0/5] dhcp-snooping trust
[Switch-Ethernet1/0/5] quit
Complete Configuration
#
interface Ethernet1/0/5
dhcp-snooping trust
#
dhcp-snooping
#
DHCP Accounting Configuration Guide
Precautions
DHCP Accounting
Configuration Guide
Network Diagram
■
You need to specify the port connected to the authorized DHCP server as a
trusted port to ensure that DHCP clients can obtain valid IP addresses. The
trusted port and the ports connected to the DHCP clients must be in the same
VLAN.
■
To enable DHCP snooping on a Switch 5500 that belongs to an XRN fabric, you
need to set the fabric ports on all devices in the fabric to DHCP snooping
trusted ports to ensure that the clients connected to each device can obtain IP
addresses.
■
You are not recommended to configure both the DHCP client/BOOTP client and
DHCP snooping on the same device; otherwise, the switch may fail to record
DHCP snooping entries.
DHCP accounting allows a DHCP server to notify the RADIUS server of the
start/end of accounting when it assigns/releases a lease. The cooperation of the
DHCP server and RADIUS server implements the network accounting function and
ensures network security at the same time.
Figure 57 Network diagram for DHCP accounting configuration
DHCP Client
Networking and
Configuration
Requirements
203
Vlan -int2
10 .1 .1.1/24
Vlan -int3
10.1.2.1 /24
Eth1/0/1
Eth1/0/2
DHCP Server
RADIUS Server
IP:10.1.2.2/24
■
The DHCP server connects to a DHCP client and a RADIUS server through
Ethernet 1/0/1 and Ethernet 1/0/2 respectively.
■
Ethernet 1/0/1 belongs to VLAN 2; Ethernet 1/0/2 belongs to VLAN 3.
■
The IP address of VLAN-interface 2 is 10.1.1.1/24, that of VLAN-interface 3 is
10.1.2.1/24, and that of the RADIUS server is 10.1.2.2/24.
■
DHCP accounting is enabled on the DHCP server.
■
The global DHCP address pool belongs to the network segment 10.1.1.0. The
DHCP server operates as a RADIUS client and adopts AAA for authentication.
Applicable Products
Configuration Procedure
Product series
Software version
Hardware version
Switch 5500
Release V03.02.04
All versions
Switch 5500G
Release V03.02.04
All versions
# Create VLAN 2.
[3Com] vlan 2
[3Com-vlan2] quit
# Create VLAN 3.
[3Com] vlan 3
[3Com-vlan3] quit
204
CHAPTER 21: DHCP CONFIGURATION GUIDE
# Enter Ethernet 1/0/1 view and add the port to VLAN 2.
[3Com] interface Ethernet 1/0/1
[3Com-Ethernet1/0/1] port access vlan 2
[3Com-Ethernet1/0/1] quit
# Enter Ethernet 1/0/2 view and add the port to VLAN 3.
[3Com] interface Ethernet 1/0/2
[3Com-Ethernet1/0/2] port access vlan 3
[3Com-Ethernet1/0/2] quit
# Enter VLAN-interface 2 view and assign the IP address 10.1.1.1/24 to the VLAN
interface.
[3Com] interface Vlan-interface 2
[3Com-Vlan-interface2] ip address 10.1.1.1 24
[3Com-Vlan-interface2] quit
# Enter VLAN-interface 3 view and assign the IP address 10.1.2.1/24 to the VLAN
interface.
[3Com] interface Vlan-interface 3
[3Com-Vlan-interface3] ip address 10.1.2.1 24
[3Com-Vlan-interface3] quit
# Create a RADIUS scheme and a domain, and then associate the domain with the
RADIUS scheme.
[3Com] radius scheme 123
[3Com-radius-123] primary authentication 10.1.2.2
[3Com-radius-123] primary accounting 10.1.2.2
[3Com-radius-123] quit
[3Com] domain 123
[3Com-isp-123] scheme radius-scheme 123
[3Com-isp-123] quit
# Create an address pool on the DHCP server.
[3Com] dhcp server ip-pool test
[3Com-dhcp-pool-test] network 10.1.1.0 mask 255.255.255.0
# Enable DHCP accounting.
[3Com-dhcp-pool-test] accounting domain 123
Complete Configuration
#
radius scheme 123
primary authentication 10.1.2.2
primary accounting 10.1.2.2
#
domain 123
scheme radius-scheme 123
#
dhcp server ip-pool test
network 10.1.1.0 mask 255.255.255.0
accounting domain 123
DHCP Client Configuration Guide
205
#
vlan 2
#
vlan 3
#
interface Vlan-interface2
ip address 10.1.1.1 255.255.255.0
#
interface Vlan-interface3
ip address 10.1.2.1 255.255.255.0
#
interface Ethernet1/0/1
port access vlan 2
#
interface Ethernet1/0/2
port access vlan 3
#
Precautions
DHCP Client
Configuration Guide
Network Diagram
Networking and
Configuration
Requirements
Before configuring DHCP accounting, make sure that:
■
The DHCP server is configured (such as the address pool, lease time and other
configuration parameters).
■
The DHCP client is enabled.
■
Routes are reachable.
With the DHCP client enabled on an interface, the interface will use DHCP to
obtain configuration parameters such as an IP address from the DHCP server.
Refer to Figure 53.
Configure VLAN-interface 1 on Switch B to obtain an IP address through DHCP.
Applicable Products
Configuration Procedure
Product series
Software version
Hardware version
Switch 5500
Release V03.02.04
All versions
Switch 5500G
Release V03.02.04
All versions
Switch 4500
Release V03.03.00
All versions
Switch 4210
Release V03.01.00
All versions
# Create VLAN-interface 1 on Switch B and enter its view.
[SwitchB] interface Vlan-interface 1
# Configure VLAN-interface 1 to obtain an IP address through DHCP.
[SwitchB-Vlan-interface1] ip address dhcp-alloc
[SwitchB-Vlan-interface1] quit
206
CHAPTER 21: DHCP CONFIGURATION GUIDE
Complete Configuration
Precautions
#
interface Vlan-interface1
ip address dhcp-alloc
#
None
22
Configuring Basic
ACLs
ACL CONFIGURATION GUIDE
Basic ACLs filter packets based on only source IP address.
The numbers of basic ACLs range from 2000 to 2999.
Network Diagram
Figure 58 Network diagram for basic ACL configuration
PC 1
10 .1 .1.1
Eth1 /0/1
To the router
Switch
PC 2
Networking and
Configuration
Requirements
PC 1 and PC 2 connect to the switch through Ethernet 1/0/1 (assuming that the
switch is a Switch 5500). PC 1’s IP address is 10.1.1.1. Apply an ACL on Ethernet
1/0/1 to deny packets with the source IP address of 10.1.1.1 from 8:00 to 18:00
everyday.
Applicable Products
Configuration Procedure
Product series
Software version
Hardware version
Switch 5500
Release V03.02.04
All versions
Switch 5500G
Release V03.02.04
All versions
Switch 4500
Release V03.03.00
All versions
# Define a periodic time range that is from 8:00 to 18:00 everyday.
<3Com> system-view
[3Com] time-range test 8:00 to 18:00 daily
# Define basic ACL 2000 to filter packets with the source IP address of 10.1.1.1.
[3Com] acl number 2000
[3Com-acl-basic-2000] rule 1 deny source 10.1.1.1 0 time-range test
[3Com-acl-basic-2000] quit
# Apply ACL 2000 to Ethernet 1/0/1.
[3Com] interface Ethernet 1/0/1
[3Com-Ethernet1/0/1] packet-filter inbound ip-group 2000
208
CHAPTER 22: ACL CONFIGURATION GUIDE
Complete Configuration
Precautions
Configuring Advanced
ACLs
#
acl number 2000
rule 1 deny source 10.1.1.1 0 time-range test
#
interface Ethernet1/0/1
packet-filter inbound ip-group 2000 rule 1
#
time-range test 08:00 to 18:00 daily
#
■
If a packet matches multiple ACL rules at the same time and some actions of
the rules conflict, the last assigned rule takes effective.
■
When applying multiple rules, you are recommended to apply rules in the
ascending order of their mask ranges and apply rues with the same mask range
at the same time. This is to ensure that the actual operation of the rules is
consistent with the requirements.
■
Some functions and protocols configured on the device may occupy ACL rule
resources. The actual occupation varies with functions and protocols.
Advanced ACLs filter packets based on Layer 3 and Layer 4 header information
such as the source and destination IP addresses, type of the protocols carried by IP,
protocol-specific features (such as TCP or UDP source port and destination port,
ICMP message type and message code).
The numbers of advanced ACLs range from 3000 to 3999.
Network Diagram
Figure 59 Network diagram for advanced ACL configuration
To the router
Wage query server
192 .168 .1 .2
Eth1/0 /1
Eth1/0 /2
Switch
The R&D
department
Networking and
Configuration
Requirements
Different departments of an enterprise are interconnected through a switch
(assuming that the switch is a Switch 5500).The IP address of the wage query
server is 192.168.1.2. The R&D department is connected to Ethernet 1/0/1 of the
switch. Apply an advanced ACL on the interface to deny access requests that are
sourced from the R&D department and destined for the wage server during
working hours (8:00 to 18:00).
Applicable Products
Product series
Software version
Hardware version
Switch 5500
Release V03.02.04
All versions
Configuring Ethernet Frame Header ACLs
Configuration Procedure
209
Product series
Software version
Hardware version
Switch 5500G
Release V03.02.04
All versions
Switch 4500
Release V03.03.00
All versions
# Define a periodic time range that is from 8:00 to 18:00 on working days.
<3Com> system-view
[3Com] time-range test 8:00 to 18:00 working-day
# Define advanced ACL 3000 to filter packets destined for the wage query server.
[3Com] acl number 3000
[3Com-acl-adv-3000] rule 1 deny ip destination 192.168.1.2 0 time-range test
[3Com-acl-adv-3000] quit
# Apply ACL 3000 to Ethernet 1/0/1.
[3Com] interface Ethernet 1/0/1
[3Com-Ethernet1/0/1] packet-filter inbound ip-group 3000
Complete Configuration
Precautions
Configuring Ethernet
Frame Header ACLs
#
acl number 3000
rule 1 deny IP destination 192.168.1.2 0 time-range test
#
interface Ethernet1/0/1
packet-filter inbound ip-group 3000 rule 1
#
time-range test 08:00 to 18:00 working-day
#
■
ACL 3998 and ACL 3999 are reserved for cluster management.
■
If a packet matches multiple ACL rules at the same time and some actions of
the rules conflict, the last assigned rule takes effective.
■
For an advanced ACL applied to a port, if a rule defines the TCP/UDP port
information, the operator argument can only be eq.
■
When applying multiple rules, you are recommended to apply rules in the
ascending order of their mask ranges and apply rues with the same mask range
at the same time. This is to ensure that the actual operation of the rules is
consistent with the requirements.
■
Some functions and protocols configured on the device may occupy ACL rule
resources. The actual occupation varies with functions and protocols.
Ethernet frame header ACLs filter packets based on Layer 2 header information
such as source and destination MAC addresses, 802.1p priority and type of the
Layer 2 protocol.
The numbers of Ethernet frame header ACLs range from 4000 to 4999.
210
CHAPTER 22: ACL CONFIGURATION GUIDE
Network Diagram
Figure 60 Network diagram for Ethernet frame header ACL configuration
PC 1
0011-0011 -0011
Eth1/0/1
To the router
Switch
PC 2
Networking and
Configuration
Requirements
PC 1 and PC 2 connect to the switch through Ethernet 1/0/1 (assuming that the
switch is a Switch 5500). PC 1’s MAC address is 0011-0011-0011. Apply an
Ethernet frame header ACL on the interface to filter packets with the source MAC
address of 0011-0011-0011 and the destination MAC address of
0011-0011-0012 from 8:00 to 18:00 everyday.
Applicable Products
Configuration Procedure
Product series
Software version
Hardware version
Switch 5500
Release V03.02.04
All versions
Switch 5500G
Release V03.02.04
All versions
Switch 4500
Release V03.03.00
All versions
# Define a periodic time range that is from 8:00 to 18:00 everyday.
<3Com> system-view
[3Com] time-range test 8:00 to 18:00 daily
# Define ACL 4000 to filter packets with the source MAC address of
0011-0011-0011 and the destination MAC address of 0011-0011-0012.
[3Com] acl number 4000
[3Com-acl-ethernetframe-4000] rule 1 deny source 0011-0011-0011 ffff
-ffff-ffff dest 0011-0011-0012 ffff-ffff-ffff time-range test
[3Com-acl-ethernetframe-4000] quit
# Apply ACL 4000 to Ethernet 1/0/1.
[3Com] interface Ethernet 1/0/1
[3Com-Ethernet1/0/1] packet-filter inbound link-group 4000
Complete Configuration
#
acl number 4000
rule 1 deny source 0011-0011-0011 ffff-ffff-ffff dest 0011-0011-001
2 ffff-ffff-ffff time-range test
#
interface Ethernet1/0/1
packet-filter inbound link-group 4000 rule 1
#
time-range test 08:00 to 18:00 daily
#
Configuring User-Defined ACLs
Precautions
Configuring
User-Defined ACLs
211
■
If a packet matches multiple ACL rules at the same time and some actions of
the rules conflict, the last assigned rule takes effective. For an Ethernet frame
header ACL applied to a port, you cannot configure the format-type argument
as 802.3/802.2, 802.3, ether_ii or snap.
■
When applying multiple rules, you are recommended to apply rules in the
ascending order of their mask ranges and apply rues with the same mask range
at the same time. This is to ensure that the actual operation of the rules is
consistent with the requirements.
■
Some functions and protocols configured on the device may occupy ACL rule
resources. The actual occupation varies with functions and protocols.
A user-defined ACL filters packets by comparing the strings retrieved from the
packets with specified strings. It defines the byte it begins to perform the “and”
operation with the mask on the basis of packet headers.
The numbers of user-defined ACLs range from 5000 to 5999.
Network Diagram
Figure 61 Network diagram for user-defined ACL configuration
To the router
Vlan -int 1
192 .168 .0.1
Eth1/0/1
Eth1/0/2
PC 1
192.168.0.2
Networking and
Configuration
Requirements
Switch
PC 2
192.168 .0.3
PC 1 and PC 2 are connected to the switch through Ethernet 1/0/1 and Ethernet
1/0/2 respectively (assuming that the switch is a Switch 5500). The IP addresses of
PC 1 and PC 2 are 192.168.0.2 and 192.168.0.3.
PC 1 and PC 2 belong to VLAN 1 and access the Internet through the same
gateway, which has an IP address of 192.168.0.1 (the IP address of VLAN-interface
1).
Configure a user-defined ACL to deny all ARP packets from PC 1 that use the
gateway IP address as the source address from 8:00 to 18:00 everyday.
Applicable Products
Configuration Procedure
Product series
Software version
Hardware version
Switch 5500
Release V03.02.04
All versions
Switch 5500G
Release V03.02.04
All versions
Switch 4500
Release V03.03.00
All versions
# Define a periodic time range that is from 8:00 to 18:00 everyday.
<3Com> system-view
[3Com] time-range test 8:00 to 18:00 daily
212
CHAPTER 22: ACL CONFIGURATION GUIDE
# Define ACL 5000 to deny any ARP packet whose source IP address is
192.168.0.1 from 8:00 to 18:00 everyday (provided that VLAN-VPN is not enabled
on any port).In the ACL rule, 0806 is the ARP protocol number, 16 is the protocol
type field offset of the internally processed Ethernet frame, c0a80001 is the
hexadecimal form of 192.168.0.1, and 32 is the source IP address field offset of
the internally processed ARP packet.
[3Com] acl number 5000
[3Com-acl-user-5000] rule 1 deny 0806 ffff 16 c0a80001 ffffffff 32 t
ime-range test
# Apply ACL 5000 to Ethernet 1/0/1.
[3Com] interface Ethernet 1/0/1
[3Com-Ethernet1/0/1] packet-filter inbound user-group 5000
Complete Configuration
Precautions
#
acl number 5000
rule 1 deny 0806 ffff 16 c0a80001 ffffffff 32 time-range test
#
interface Ethernet1/0/1
packet-filter inbound user-group 5000 rule 1
#
time-range test 08:00 to 18:00 daily
#
■
Some functions and protocols configured on the device may occupy ACL rule
resources. The actual occupation varies with functions and protocols.
■
For a Switch 5500, if VLAN-VPN is not enabled, each packet in the switch
carries one VLAN tag which is 4 bytes long; If VLAN-VPN is enabled on a port,
each packet in the switch carries two VLAN tags, which are 8 bytes long. Pay
attention to the above information when configuring a rule that matches
specific fields of packets.
■
For an Switch 5500Gs Ethernet switch, each packet in the switch carries two
VLAN tags, which are 8 bytes long. Pay attention to the above information
when configuring a rule that matches specific fields of packets.
■
The command for defining a user-defined ACL rule is rule [ rule-id ] { deny |
permit } [ rule-string rule-mask offset ] &<1-8> [ time-range time-name ],
where, rule-id refers to the ACL number, rule-string the user-defined rule
string, rule-mask the user-defined rule mask, and offset the rule mask offset.
■
If you specify multiple rule strings in an ACL rule, the valid length of the rule
mask is 128 hexadecimal numerals (64 bytes).For example, assume that you
specify a rule string of aa and set its offset to 2. If you continue to specify a rule
string of bb, its offset must be in the range from 3 to 65 bytes. If you set the
offset of the rule string aa to 3, the offset of the rule string bb must be in the
range of 4 to 66 bytes, and so on. Note that the offset of the rule string bb
cannot be greater than 79 bytes.
■
As shown in Table 2, the hardware rule of the Switch 5500/5500G logically
divides the rule mask offset of a user-defined string into multiple offset units,
each of which is 4-byte long. Available offset units fall into eight groups, which
are numbered from Offset1 to Offset8
Configuring User-Defined ACLs
■
213
With the Switch 5500/5500G, for a user-defined ACL to be assigned
successfully, the maximum length of a user-defined rule string is 32 bytes. The
string may or may not contain spaces, and can occupy up to eight mask offset
units. Besides, any two offset units cannot belong to the same offset group.
Table 2 Offset units of a user-defined rule string
Offset unit
Offset1
Offset2
Offset3
Offset4
Offset5
Offset6
Offset7
Offset8
0 to 3
4 to 7
8 to 11
12 to 15
16 to 19
20 to 23
24 to 27
28 to 31
2 to 5
6 to 9
10 to 13
14 to 17
18 to 21
22 to 25
26 to 29
30 to 33
6 to 9
10 to 13
14 to 17
18 to 21
22 to 25
26 to 29
30 to 33
34 to 37
12 to 15
16 to 19
20 to 23
24 to 27
28 to 31
32 to 35
36 to 39
40 to 43
20 to 23
24 to 27
28 to 31
32 to 35
36 to 39
40 to 43
44 to 47
48 to 51
30 to 33
34 to 37
38 to 41
42 to 45
46 to 49
50 to 53
54 to 57
58 to 61
42 to 45
46 to 49
50 to 53
54 to 57
58 to 61
62 to 65
66 to 69
70 to 73
56 to 59
60 to 63
64 to 67
68 to 71
72 to 75
76 to 79
0 to 3
4 to 7
■
For example, assuming that you configure ACL 5000, specifying a 32-byte rule
string, a rule mask of all Fs, and an offset of 4 and then apply the ACL to
Ethernet 1/0/1. In this case, the 32-byte rule string occupies eight offset units:
4 to 7 (Offset2), 8 to 11 (Offset3), 12 to 15 (Offset4), 16 to 19 (Offset5), 20 to
23 (Offset1), 24 to 27 (Offset7), 28 to 31 (Offset8), and 32 to 35 (Offset6), as
shown in Table 2. The rule can be assigned successfully.
■
If you configure ACL 5001, specifying a 32-byte rule string, a rule mask of all
Fs, and an offset of 24 and then apply the ACL to Ethernet 1/0/1: In this case,
the 32-byte rule string does not comply with the rule that a user-defined rule
string can contain up to eight mask offset units and any two offset units
cannot belong to the same offset. The ACL cannot be assigned.
The common protocol types and their offsets are listed in the following table.
Protocol type
Offset for
Switch 5500s
with VLAN-VPN
Protocol number function
(hexadecimal)
disabled
Offset for
Switch 5500s
with VLAN-VPN Offset for
function
Switch
enabled
5500Gs
ARP
0x0806
16
20
20
RARP
0x8035
16
20
20
IP
0x0800
16
20
20
IPX
0x8137
16
20
20
AppleTalk
0x809B
16
20
20
ICMP
0x01
27
31
31
IGMP
0x02
27
31
31
TCP
0x06
27
31
31
UDP
0x17
27
31
31
214
CHAPTER 22: ACL CONFIGURATION GUIDE
QOS/QOS PROFILE CONFIGURATION
GUIDE
23
Configuring Traffic
Policing and LR
Network Diagram
Figure 62 Network diagram for traffic policing and LR configuration
To the router
PC 1
192.168.0.1
Eth1/0 /1
Eth1/0/2
Switch
The R&D
department
Networking and
Configuration
Requirements
The Marketing
department
A company uses a switch (a Switch 5500 in this example) to interconnect all the
departments. PC 1 with IP address 192.168.0.1 belongs to the R&D department
and is connected to Ethernet 1/0/1 of the switch; the marketing department is
connected to Ethernet 1/0/2 of the switch.
Configure traffic policing and LR to satisfy the following requirements:
■
Limit the total outbound traffic rate of the marketing department and the R&D
department to 16000 kbps; drop the packets exceeding the rate limit.
■
Limit the rate of the IP packets that PC 1 of the R&D department sends out to
8000 kbps; drop the packets exceeding the rate limit.
Applicable Products
n
Product series
Software version
Hardware version
Switch 5500
Release V03.02.04
All versions
Switch 5500G
Release V03.02.04
All versions
Switch 4500
Release V03.03.00
All versions
Switch 4210
Release V03.01.00
All versions
The Switch 4210 does not support traffic policing.
216
CHAPTER 23: QOS/QOS PROFILE CONFIGURATION GUIDE
Configuration Procedure
1 Define traffic classification rules
# Create basic ACL 2000 and enter basic ACL view.
<3Com> system-view
[3Com] acl number 2000
# Define a rule to match the packets with source IP address 192.168.0.1.
[3Com-acl-basic-2000] rule permit source 192.168.0.1 0
[3Com-acl-basic-2000] quit
2 Configure traffic policing and LR
# Limit the total outbound traffic rate of the marketing department and the R&D
department to 16000 kbps, and drop the packets exceeding the rate limit.
[3Com] interface Ethernet 1/0/3
[3Com-Ethernet1/0/3] line-rate outbound 16000
# Limit the rate of the IP packets that PC 1 of the R&D department sends out to
8000 kbps, and drop the packets exceeding the rate limit.
[3Com] interface Ethernet 1/0/1
[3Com-Ethernet1/0/1] traffic-limit inbound ip-group 2000 8000 exceed drop
Complete Configuration
Precautions
#
acl number 2000
rule 0 permit source 192.168.0.1 0
#
interface Ethernet1/0/1
traffic-limit inbound ip-group 2000 rule 0 8000 exceed drop
#
interface Ethernet1/0/3
line-rate outbound 16000
#
Note that:
■
The ACL rules configured for traffic classification must be permit statements.
■
If packets match ACL rules of multiple traffic policing actions, the traffic
policing action issued the last takes effect.
■
The granularity of traffic policing and LR is 64 kbps. If the value you input is in
the range of N×64 to (N+1)×64 (N is a natural number), the switch sets the
value to (N+1)×64 kbps automatically.
■
Traffic policing or rate limiting just limits the traffic rate of payloads (excluding
preambles and interframes).
■
When referencing an ACL for traffic policing, you must note that the action
that traffic policing takes on conforming traffic is permit. If a packet matches a
permit statement and a deny statement at the same time, the one issued the
last takes effect. If the deny statement takes effect, no traffic policing action
will be performed on the packet.
Configuring Priority Marking and Queue Scheduling
217
Configuring Priority
Marking and Queue
Scheduling
Network Diagram
Figure 63 Network diagram for priority marking and queue scheduling configuration
Server 1
192 .168.0.1
PC 1
Eth1/0/1
Server 2
Eth1/0 /2
Eth1/0/3
192 .168.0.2
Switch
Server 3
192 .168 .0 .3
PC 2
PC 3
Networking and
Configuration
Requirements
A company uses a switch (a Switch 5500 in this example) to interconnect all the
departments. PC 1, PC 2, and PC 3 are clients. PC 1 and PC 2 are connected to
Ethernet 1/0/1 of the switch; PC 3 is connected to Ethernet 1/0/3 of the switch.
Server 1, Server 2, and Server 3 are the database server, mail server, and file server
of the company. The three servers are connected to Ethernet 1/0/2 of the switch.
Configure priority marking and queue scheduling to satisfy the following
requirements:
■
Configure priority marking on Ethernet 1/0/1 to enable the switch to process
traffic flows from PC 1 and PC 2 to the database server, mail server, and file
server in the descending order.
■
Trust the port priority on Ethernet 1/0/3 and set the port priority of Ethernet
1/0/3 to 5. When PC 1, PC 2, and PC 3 access servers simultaneously, the traffic
from PC 3 is preferentially processed.
Applicable Products
n
Product series
Software version
Hardware version
Switch 5500
Release V03.02.04
All versions
Switch 5500G
Release V03.02.04
All versions
Switch 4500
Release V03.03.00
All versions
Switch 4210
Release V03.01.00
All versions
The Switch 4210do not support priority marking.
218
CHAPTER 23: QOS/QOS PROFILE CONFIGURATION GUIDE
Configuration Procedure
1 Define traffic classification rules
# Create advanced ACL 3000 and enter advanced ACL view.
<3Com> system-view
[3Com] acl number 3000
# Define traffic classification rules with destination IP address as the match
criterion.
[3Com-acl-adv-3000]
[3Com-acl-adv-3000]
[3Com-acl-adv-3000]
[3Com-acl-adv-3000]
rule 0 permit ip destination 192.168.0.1 0
rule 1 permit ip destination 192.168.0.2 0
rule 2 permit ip destination 192.168.0.3 0
quit
2 Configure priority marking
# Mark the traffic matching ACL 3000 with a local precedence value on Ethernet
1/0/1.
[3Com] interface Ethernet 1/0/1
[3Com-Ethernet1/0/1] traffic-priority inbound ip-group 3000 rule 0 l
ocal-precedence 4
[3Com-Ethernet1/0/1] traffic-priority inbound ip-group 3000 rule 1 l
ocal-precedence 3
[3Com-Ethernet1/0/1] traffic-priority inbound ip-group 3000 rule 2 l
ocal-precedence 2
[3Com-Ethernet1/0/1] quit
3 Configure priority trust mode
# Configure the switch to trust port priority on Ethernet 1/0/3 and set the port
priority of Ethernet 1/0/3 to 5. (As port priority is trusted by default, you need not
to configure it here.)
[3Com] interface Ethernet 1/0/3
[3Com-Ethernet1/0/3] priority 5
[3Com-Ethernet1/0/3] quit
4 Configure a priority mapping table
# Configure the CoS-to-local precedence mapping table as follows: 0->0, 1->1,
2->2, 3->3, 4->4, 5->5, 6->6, and 7->7.
[3Com] qos cos-local-precedence-map 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
5 Configure queue scheduling
# Configure the switch to adopt the SP queue scheduling algorithm.
[3Com] queue-scheduler strict-priority
Complete Configuration
#
qos cos-local-precedence-map 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
#
queue-scheduler strict-priority
#
Configuring Priority Marking and Queue Scheduling
219
acl number 3000
rule 0 permit IP destination 192.168.0.1 0
rule 1 permit IP destination 192.168.0.2 0
rule 2 permit IP destination 192.168.0.3 0
#
interface Ethernet1/0/1
traffic-priority inbound ip-group 3000 rule 0 local-precedence 4
traffic-priority inbound ip-group 3000 rule 1 local-precedence 3
traffic-priority inbound ip-group 3000 rule 2 local-precedence 2
#
interface Ethernet1/0/3
priority 5
#
Precautions
Note that:
■
The ACL rules configured for traffic classification must be permit statements.
■
The Switch 5500/5500Gupport marking 802.1p precedence, IP precedence,
DSCP precedence, and local precedence for packets.
■
The Switch 5500/5500G first map 802.1p precedence to local precedence and
then perform queue scheduling for the packets based on local precedence. To
avoid local precedence conflict, the devices do not support marking 802.1p
precedence and local precedence simultaneously.
■
On a port configured with port priority trust, the switch uses the port priority as
the 802.1p precedence of received packets. If a packet carries the 802.1q tag,
the port priority overrides the old 802.1p precedence in the tag.
■
With the action of marking 802.1p precedence or local precedence configured
on a port, the Switch 5500/5500G switch marks the conforming packets
received on the port accordingly.
■
On the Switch 5500/5500G, if DSCP marking is configured in both the priority
marking and traffic policing functions for the same type of packets, the action
issued the last takes effect.
■
The Switch 5500/5500G support eight output queues and the Switch 4210
supports four.
■
The Switch 5500 strict priority (SP), weighted fair queue (WFQ), and weighted
round robin (WRR) for queue scheduling. In addition, you may combine SP with
WRR or WFQ to implement finer queue scheduling. By default, all ports adopt
WRR, and the weights of queue 0 through queue 7 are 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 9, 13, and
15. You are recommended to use the defaults when using WRR.
■
The Switch 5500Gs support the SP and WRR queue scheduling algorithms. In
addition, you may combine them to implement finer queue scheduling. By
default, all ports adopt WRR, and the weights of queue 0 through queue 7 are
1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 9, 13, and 15. You are recommend to use the defaults when using
WRR.
■
With the SP + WRR queue scheduling algorithm enabled on a port, the device
preferentially schedules the queue with scheduling weight 0; when the priority
queue is empty, the remaining queues are scheduled using WRR. With the SP +
WFQ queue scheduling algorithm enabled on a port, the device preferentially
schedules the queue with bandwidth 0; when the priority queue is empty, the
remaining queues are scheduled using WFQ.
220
CHAPTER 23: QOS/QOS PROFILE CONFIGURATION GUIDE
■
The Switch 4210 supports the WRR queue scheduling algorithm and the high
queue-WRR (HQ-WRR) queue scheduling algorithm. HQ-WRR is implemented
based on WRR. HQ-WRR selects queue 3 as the high-priority queue from the
four output queues. If the bandwidth occupied by the four queues exceeds the
port capability, packets in queue 3 are preferentially transmitted, and the left
three queues are scheduled using WRR.
■
The Switch 4210, 5500, and 5500G provide the default 802.1p-to-local
precedence mapping table as follows:
Table 3 802.1p-to-local precedence mapping table
802.1p precedence (CoS)
Local precedence
0
2
1
0
2
1
3
3
4
4
5
5
6
6
7
7
Configuring Traffic
Redirection and Traffic
Accounting
Network Diagram
Figure 64 Network diagram for traffic redirection and traffic accounting configuration
To the router
PC 1
192.168.0.1
Eth1/0/1
Eth1/0/2
Switch
Data monitoring device
PC 2
Networking and
Configuration
Requirements
A company uses a switch (a Switch 5500 in this example) to interconnect all the
departments. The network is described as follows:
■
PC 1 and PC 2 are connected to Ethernet 1/0/1 of the switch. The IP address of
PC 1 is 192.168.0.1.
■
The data monitoring device is connected to Ethernet1/0/2 of the switch.
Configure traffic redirection and traffic accounting to satisfy the following
requirements:
■
From 8:30 to 18:00 in working days, redirect the HTTP traffic from PC 1 to the
Internet to the data monitoring device for analysis.
Configuring Traffic Redirection and Traffic Accounting
■
221
During non-working time, count the HTTP traffic from PC 1 to the Internet.
Applicable Products
Product series
Software version
Hardware version
Switch 5500
Release V03.02.04
All versions
Switch 5500G
Release V03.02.04
All versions
Switch 4500
Release V03.03.00
All versions
Configuration Procedure
1 Define a time range for working days
# Create time range tr1, setting it to become active between 8:30 to 18:00 during
working days.
<3Com> system-view
[3Com] time-range tr1 08:30 to 18:00 working-day
# Create time range tr2, setting is to become active during non-working time.
[3Com] time-range tr2 00:00 to 8:30 working-day
[3Com] time-range tr2 18:00 to 24:00 working-day
[3Com] time-range tr2 00:00 to 24:00 off-day
2 Define traffic classification rules
# Create advanced ACL 3000 and enter advanced ACL view.
<3Com> system-view
[3Com] acl number 3000
# Define traffic classification rules to classify the HTTP traffic from PC 1 to the
Internet.
[3Com-acl-adv-3000] rule
on-port eq 80 time-range
[3Com-acl-adv-3000] rule
on-port eq 80 time-range
[3Com-acl-adv-3000] quit
0 permit tcp source 192.168.0.1 0 destinati
tr1
1 permit tcp source 192.168.0.1 0 destinati
tr2
3 Configure traffic redirection
# Redirect the traffic matching certain criteria on Ethernet 1/0/1 to Ethernet 1/0/2.
[3Com] interface Ethernet 1/0/1
[3Com-Ethernet1/0/1] traffic-redirect inbound ip-group 3000 rule 0 i
nterface Ethernet 1/0/2
4 Configure traffic accounting
# Count the traffic matching certain criteria on Ethernet 1/0/1.
[3Com-Ethernet1/0/1] traffic-statistic inbound ip-group 3000 rule 1
Complete Configuration
#
acl number 3000
rule 0 permit TCP source 192.168.0.1 0 destination-port eq www time-range tr1
222
CHAPTER 23: QOS/QOS PROFILE CONFIGURATION GUIDE
rule 1 permit TCP source 192.168.0.1 0 destination-port eq www time-range tr2
#
interface Ethernet1/0/1
traffic-redirect inbound ip-group 3000 rule 0 interface Ethernet1/0/2
traffic-statistic inbound ip-group 3000 rule 1
#
time-range tr2 00:00 to 08:30 working-day
time-range tr2 18:00 to 24:00 working-day
time-range tr2 00:00 to 24:00 off-day
time-range tr1 08:30 to 18:00 working-day
#
Precautions
Note that:
■
The ACL rules configured for traffic classification must be permit statements.
■
When redirecting a packet, the switch processes the packet with the
forwarding mechanism instead of leaving it intact.
■
With traffic redirection configured, the switch does not forward the packets to
be redirected as usual.
■
The packets received on the destination port for redirection are tagged.
Configuring QoS
Profile
Network Diagram
Figure 65 Network diagram for QoS profile configuration
Network
Switch
Eth1/0/1
AAA Server
User
Networking and
Configuration
Requirements
A company uses a switch (a Switch 5500 in this example) to interconnect all the
departments. The 802.1x protocol is used to authenticate the users and control
user access to the network resources. A user named someone in the test.net
domain is connected to Ethernet 1/0/1 of the switch. Its password is hello.
Configure a QoS profile to limit the outgoing IP traffic rate of the user someone
to 128 kbps after the user passes the 802.1x authentication, and drop the packets
exceeding the rate limit.
Configuring QoS Profile
223
Applicable Products
Product series
Software version
Hardware version
Switch 5500
Release V03.02.04
All versions
Switch 5500G
Release V03.02.04
All versions
Switch 4500
Release V03.03.00
All versions
Configuration Procedure
1 Configuration on the AAA server
Configure authentication information and user name-to-QoS-profile mapping for
the user on the AAA server. Refer to “AAA Configuration” in the Configuration
Guide for your product for detailed information.
2 Configuration on the switch
# Configure the IP address information of the RADIUS server.
<3Com> system-view
[3Com] radius scheme radius1
[3Com-radius-radius1] primary authentication 10.11.1.1
[3Com-radius-radius1] primary accounting 10.11.1.2
[3Com-radius-radius1] secondary authentication 10.11.1.2
[3Com-radius-radius1] secondary accounting 10.11.1.1
# Configure encryption keys for the switch to exchange packets with the
authentication RADIUS server and the accounting RADIUS server.
[3Com-radius-radius1] key authentication money
[3Com-radius-radius1] key accounting money
# Enable the switch to remove the domain name from the fully qualified user
name and then send the unqualified user name to the RADIUS sever.
[3Com-radius-radius1] user-name-format without-domain
[3Com-radius-radius1] quit
# Create the user domain test.net and specify radius1 as the RADIUS server
group for the domain user.
[3Com] domain test.net
[3Com-isp-test.net] radius-scheme radius1
[3Com-isp-test.net] quit
# Create advanced ACL 3000 and define a classification rule to match IP packets
destined for any IP address.
[3Com] acl number 3000
[3Com-acl-adv-3000] rule 1 permit ip destination any
[3Com-acl-adv-3000] quit
# Configure a QoS profile to limit the rate of the conforming traffic to 128 kbps
and drop the packets exceeding the rate limit.
[3Com] qos-profile example
[3Com-qos-profile-example] traffic-limit inbound ip-group 3000 128 exceed drop
224
CHAPTER 23: QOS/QOS PROFILE CONFIGURATION GUIDE
# Enable 802.1x.
[3Com] dot1x
[3Com] dot1x interface Ethernet 1/0/1
Complete Configuration
Precautions
#
dot1x
#
radius scheme system
radius scheme radius1
server-type standard
primary authentication 10.11.1.1
primary accounting 10.11.1.2
secondary authentication 10.11.1.2
secondary accounting 10.11.1.1
key authentication money
key accounting money
user-name-format without-domain
#
domain system
domain test.net
scheme radius-scheme radius1
#
acl number 3000
rule 0 permit IP
#
qos-profile example
traffic-limit inbound ip-group 3000 rule 0 128 exceed drop
#
interface Ethernet1/0/1
dot1x
#
Note that:
■
A QoS profile can be applied manually or dynamically. You can use the apply
qos-profile profile-name command to manually apply a QoS profile to a port.
You can also combine a QoS profile with the 802.1x authentication function to
provide the pre-defined QoS function for a user or a group of users that have
passed authentication.
■
Depending on the 802.1x authentication mode, dynamic QoS profile
application mode can be user-based or port-based. The user-based mode is the
default mode.
■
If the traffic classification rules of a QoS profile take source information
(including source MAC, source IP, VLAN) as the match criterion, the QoS profile
cannot be applied in the user-based mode.
■
Currently, the QoS profile function provides packet filtering, traffic policing,
and priority marking.
■
The granularity of traffic policing is 64 kbps. If the value you input is in the
range of N×64 to (N+1)×64 (N is a natural number), the switch sets the value to
(N+1)×64 kbps automatically.
24
Configuring Web
Cache Redirection
Network Diagram
WEB CACHE REDIRECTION
CONFIGURATION GUIDE
The Web cache redirection function redirects the packets accessing Web pages to
a Web cache server, thus reducing the load on the links between a LAN and the
Internet and improving the speed of obtaining information from the Internet.
Figure 66 Network diagram for Web cache redirection configuration
Internet
VLAN 40
Web Cache Server
Router
192 .168 .4.2
0012 -0990 -2250
VLAN 50
Eth1 /0/5
Eth1/0/4
Eth1/0 /1
Eth1/0 /3
Eth1 /0/2
Switch
VLAN 10
The Marketing
department
Networking and
Configuration
Requirements
VLAN 20
The R&D
department
VLAN 30
The Administrative
department
The network of a company is described as follows:
■
The marketing department uses VLAN 10 and is connected to Ethernet 1/0/1 of
the switch. The IP address of the VLAN interface for VLAN 10 is
192.168.1.1/24.
■
The R&D department uses VLAN 20 and is connected to Ethernet 1/0/2 of the
switch. The IP address of the VLAN interface for VLAN 20 is 192.168.2.1/24.
■
The administration department uses VLAN 30 and is connected to Ethernet
1/0/3 of the switch. The IP address of the VLAN interface for VLAN 30 is
192.168.3.1/24.
226
CHAPTER 24: WEB CACHE REDIRECTION CONFIGURATION GUIDE
■
The Web cache server belongs to VLAN 40 and is connected to Ethernet 1/0/4
of the switch. The IP address of the VLAN interface for VLAN 40 is
192.168.4.1/24. The IP address and the MAC address of the Web cache server
is 192.168.4.2 and 0012-0990-2250.
■
The router is connected to Ethernet 1/0/5 of the switch. The switch accesses
the Internet through a router. Ethernet 1/0/5 belongs to VLAN 50 whose VLAN
interface is assigned IP address 192.168.5.1/24.
Enable Web cache redirection on the switch to redirect all the HTTP packets of the
three departments to the Web cache server, thus reducing the load on the WAN
link and improving the speed of obtaining information from the Internet.
Applicable Products
Configuration Procedure
Product series
Software version
Hardware version
Switch 5500
Release V03.02.04
All versions
# Create VLAN 10 for the marketing department and configure the IP address of
VLAN-interface 10 as 192.168.1.1.
<3Com> system-view
[3Com] vlan 10
[3Com-vlan10] port Ethernet 1/0/1
[3Com-vlan10] quit
[3Com] interface Vlan-interface 10
[3Com-Vlan-interface10] ip address 192.168.1.1 24
[3Com-Vlan-interface10] quit
# Create VLAN 20 for the R&D department and configure the IP address of
VLAN-interface 20 as 192.168.2.1.
[3Com] vlan 20
[3Com-vlan20] port Ethernet 1/0/2
[3Com-vlan20] quit
[3Com] interface Vlan-interface 20
[3Com-Vlan-interface20] ip address 192.168.2.1 24
[3Com-Vlan-interface20] quit
# Create VLAN 30 for the administration department and configure the IP address
of VLAN-interface 30 as 192.168.3.1.
[3Com] vlan 30
[3Com-vlan30] port Ethernet 1/0/3
[3Com-vlan30] quit
[3Com] interface Vlan-interface 30
[3Com-Vlan-interface30] ip address 192.168.3.1 24
[3Com-Vlan-interface30] quit
# Create VLAN 40 for the Web cache server and configure the IP address of
VLAN-interface 40 as 192.168.4.1.
[3Com] vlan 40
[3Com-vlan40] port Ethernet 1/0/4
[3Com-vlan40] quit
[3Com] interface Vlan-interface 40
Configuring Web Cache Redirection
227
[3Com-Vlan-interface40] ip address 192.168.4.1 24
[3Com-Vlan-interface40] quit
# Create VLAN 50 for the switch to connect to the router and configure the IP
address of VLAN-interface 50 as 192.168.5.1.
[3Com] vlan 50
[3Com-vlan50] port Ethernet 1/0/5
[3Com-vlan50] quit
[3Com] interface Vlan-interface 50
[3Com-Vlan-interface50] ip address 192.168.5.1 24
[3Com-Vlan-interface50] quit
# Configure Ethernet 1/0/4, the port connected to the Web cache server, as a
trunk port, and configure the port to permit the packets of VLAN 40 and VLAN 50
to pass through.
[3Com] interface Ethernet 1/0/4
[3Com-Ethernet1/0/4] port link-type trunk
[3Com-Ethernet1/0/4] port trunk permit vlan 40 50
[3Com-Ethernet1/0/4] quit
# Enable Web cache redirection to redirect all the HTTP packets received from
VLAN 10, VLAN 20, and VLAN 30 to the Web cache server.
[3Com] webcache
Ethernet 1/0/4
[3Com] webcache
[3Com] webcache
[3Com] webcache
Complete Configuration
address 192.168.4.2 mac 0012-0990-2250 vlan 40 port
redirect-vlan 10
redirect-vlan 20
redirect-vlan 30
#
vlan 10
#
vlan 20
#
vlan 30
#
vlan 40
#
vlan 50
#
interface Vlan-interface10
ip address 192.168.1.1 255.255.255.0
#
interface Vlan-interface20
ip address 192.168.2.1 255.255.255.0
#
interface Vlan-interface30
ip address 192.168.3.1 255.255.255.0
#
interface Vlan-interface40
ip address 192.168.4.1 255.255.255.0
#
interface Vlan-interface50
ip address 192.168.5.1 255.255.255.0
#
228
CHAPTER 24: WEB CACHE REDIRECTION CONFIGURATION GUIDE
interface Ethernet1/0/1
port access vlan 10
#
interface Ethernet1/0/2
port access vlan 20
#
interface Ethernet1/0/3
port access vlan 30
#
interface Ethernet1/0/4
port link-type trunk
port trunk permit vlan 1 40 50
webcache address 192.168.4.2 mac 0012-0990-2250 vlan 40
#
webcache redirect-vlan 10
webcache redirect-vlan 20
webcache redirect-vlan 30
#
Precautions
When configuring Web cache redirection, consider the following:
■
To ensure the success of Web cache redirection, check that the VLAN-interfaces
for all the involved VLANs (VLAN 40, VLAN 10, VLAN 20, and VLAN 30) are up.
■
Do not redirect the HTTP packets destined for VLAN 40 to the Web cache
server.
■
Enabling STP can cause Web cache redirection failure. To avoid this, set the port
connected to the Web cache server as a hybrid or trunk port and configure the
port to permit the packets of the VLAN for the Internet access service (for
example, VLAN 50 in Figure 66).
25
Local Port Mirroring
Configuration
Network Diagram
MIRRORING CONFIGURATION GUIDE
In local port mirroring, packets of one or more source ports of a device are copied
to a destination port on the device for packet analysis and monitoring. In local port
mirroring, the source ports and the destination port are on the same device.
Figure 67 Network diagram for local port mirroring
The R&D
department
Switch A
Eth1/0/1
Eth1/0/3
Eth1/0 /2
Switch C
Data monitoring device
The Marketing
department
Networking and
Configuration
Requirements
Switch B
The departments of a company connect to each other through the Switch 5500:
■
Research and Development (R&D) department is connected to Switch C
through Ethernet 1/0/1.
■
Marketing department is connected to Switch C through Ethernet 1/0/2.
■
Data monitoring device is connected to Switch C through Ethernet 1/0/3.
The administrator wants to monitor the packets received and sent by the R&D
department and the marketing department through the data monitoring device.
Use the local port mirroring function to meet the requirement. Perform the
following configurations on Switch C.
■
Configure Ethernet 1/0/1 and Ethernet 1/0/2 as mirroring source ports.
■
Configure Ethernet 1/0/3 as the mirroring destination port.
Applicable Products
Product series
Software version
Hardware version
Switch 5500
Release V03.02.04
All versions
Switch 5500G
Release V03.02.04
All versions
230
CHAPTER 25: MIRRORING CONFIGURATION GUIDE
Configuration Procedure
Product series
Software version
Hardware version
Switch 4500
Release V03.03.00
All versions
Switch 4210
Release V03.01.00
All versions
Configure Switch C:
# Create a local mirroring group.
<3Com> system-view
[3Com] mirroring-group 1 local
# Configure the source ports and destination port for the local mirroring group.
[3Com] mirroring-group 1 mirroring-port Ethernet 1/0/1 Ethernet 1/0/2 both
[3Com] mirroring-group 1 monitor-port Ethernet 1/0/3
Complete Configuration
Precautions
#
mirroring-group 1 local
#
interface Ethernet1/0/1
mirroring-group 1 mirroring-port both
#
interface Ethernet1/0/2
mirroring-group 1 mirroring-port both
#
interface Ethernet1/0/3
mirroring-group 1 monitor-port
#
When configuring local port mirroring, note the following:
■
Packets sent from the switch CPU cannot be mirrored.
■
Packets received on the destination port are those processed and forwarded by
the switch.
■
The local mirroring group takes effect only after a source port and a destination
port are added to it.
■
The source port or destination port to be configured cannot be a fabric port
(only the Switch 5500/5500G have this limitation), or a member port of an
existing mirroring group; besides, a destination port cannot be a member port
of an aggregation group, an LACP-enabled port, or an STP enabled port.
■
When you configure a mirroring destination port on the Switch 5500, if
mirroring group 1 does not exist on the switch, the switch will automatically
create local mirroring group 1 and add the destination port to the group; if
port mirroring group 1 already exists but is not a local mirroring group, your
configuration of the destination port will fail.
■
On a Switch 4500, if you execute the monitor-port command on different
ports to configure the mirroring destination port for the switch, the last
configuration takes effect.
Remote Port Mirroring Configuration
Remote Port Mirroring
Configuration
231
Remote port mirroring does not require the source and destination ports to be on
the same device. The source and destination ports can be located on multiple
devices across the network. Therefore, administrators can monitor the traffic on
remote devices conveniently.
A special VLAN, called remote-probe VLAN, is needed to implement remote port
mirroring. All mirrored packets are sent from the reflector port of the source
switch to the monitor port (destination port) of the destination switch through the
remote-probe VLAN, so that you can monitor packets received on and sent from
the source switch on the destination switch. Figure 68 illustrates the
implementation of remote port mirroring.
Figure 68 Remote port mirroring application
Remote-probe VLAN
Source
Switch
Source Port
Intermediate Switch
Reflector Port
Trunk Port
Destination
Switch
Destination Port
Switches involved in remote port mirroring play one of the following three roles:
■
Source switch: The monitored port resident switch. It copies traffic to the
reflector port, which then transmits the traffic to an intermediate switch or the
destination switch through the remote-probe VLAN.
■
Intermediate switch: Switches between the source switch and the destination
switch on the network. An intermediate switch forwards mirrored traffic to the
next intermediate switch or the destination switch through the remote-probe
VLAN. No intermediate switch is present if the source switch and the
destination switch are directly connected to each other.
■
Destination switch: The remote mirroring destination port resident switch. It
forwards mirrored traffic received from the remote-probe VLAN to the
monitoring device through the destination port.
232
CHAPTER 25: MIRRORING CONFIGURATION GUIDE
Network Diagram
Figure 69 Network diagram for remote port mirroring
Switch A
Reflector
port
Eth1/0/4
Eth1 /0/1
Eth1/0/2
Networking and
Configuration
Requirements
Dept. 2
Switch C
Eth1 /0/1
Eth1/0 /3
Eth1/0 /1
Dept. 1
Switch B
Eth1 /0/2
Eth1 /0/2
Data monitoring device
The departments of a company connect to each other through Switch 5500s:
■
Switch A, Switch B, and Switch C are Switch 5500s.
■
Department 1 is connected to Ethernet 1/0/1 of Switch A.
■
Department 2 is connected to Ethernet 1/0/2 of Switch A.
■
Ethernet 1/0/3 of Switch A connects to Ethernet 1/0/1 of Switch B.
■
Ethernet 1/0/2 of Switch B connects to Ethernet 1/0/1 of Switch C.
■
Data monitoring device is connected to Ethernet 1/0/2 of Switch C.
The administrator wants to monitor the packets sent from Department 1 and 2
through the data monitoring device.
Use the remote port mirroring function to meet the requirement. Perform the
following configurations:
■
Use Switch A as the source switch, Switch B as the intermediate switch, and
Switch C as the destination switch.
■
On Switch A, create a remote source mirroring group, configure VLAN 10 as
the remote-probe VLAN, ports Ethernet 1/0/1 and Ethernet 1/0/2 as the source
ports, and port Ethernet 1/0/4 as the reflector port.
■
On Switch B, configure VLAN 10 as the remote-probe VLAN.
■
Configure Ethernet 1/0/3 of Switch A, Ethernet 1/0/1 and Ethernet 1/0/2 of
Switch B, and Ethernet 1/0/1 of Switch C as Trunk ports, allowing packets of
VLAN 10 to pass.
■
On Switch C, create a remote destination mirroring group, configure VLAN 10
as the remote-probe VLAN, and configure Ethernet 1/0/2 connected with the
data monitoring device as the destination port.
Applicable Products
Product series
Software version
Hardware version
Switch 5500
Release V03.02.04
All versions
Switch 5500G
Release V03.02.04
All versions
Switch 4210
All versions
Remote Port Mirroring Configuration
233
Configuration Procedure
1 Configure the source switch (Switch A)
# Create remote source mirroring group 1.
<3Com> system-view
[3Com] mirroring-group 1 remote-source
# Configure VLAN 10 as the remote-probe VLAN.
[3Com] vlan 10
[3Com-vlan10] remote-probe vlan enable
[3Com-vlan10] quit
# Configure the source ports, reflector port, and remote-probe VLAN for the
remote source mirroring group.
[3Com] mirroring-group 1 mirroring-port Ethernet 1/0/1 Ethernet 1/0/2 inbound
[3Com] mirroring-group 1 reflector-port Ethernet 1/0/4
[3Com] mirroring-group 1 remote-probe vlan 10
# Configure Ethernet 1/0/3 as a Trunk port, allowing packets of VLAN 10 to pass.
[3Com] interface Ethernet 1/0/3
[3Com-Ethernet1/0/3] port link-type trunk
[3Com-Ethernet1/0/3] port trunk permit vlan 10
2 Configure the intermediate switch (Switch B)
# Configure VLAN 10 as the remote-probe VLAN.
<3Com> system-view
[3Com] vlan 10
[3Com-vlan10] remote-probe vlan enable
[3Com-vlan10] quit
# Configure Ethernet 1/0/1 as a Trunk port, allowing packets of VLAN 10 to pass.
[3Com] interface Ethernet 1/0/1
[3Com-Ethernet1/0/1] port link-type trunk
[3Com-Ethernet1/0/1] port trunk permit vlan 10
# Configure Ethernet 1/0/2 as a Trunk port, allowing packets of VLAN 10 to pass.
[3Com] interface Ethernet 1/0/2
[3Com-Ethernet1/0/2] port link-type trunk
[3Com-Ethernet1/0/2] port trunk permit vlan 10
3 Configure the destination switch (Switch C)
# Create remote destination mirroring group 1.
<3Com> system-view
[3Com] mirroring-group 1 remote-destination
# Configure VLAN 10 as the remote-probe VLAN.
234
CHAPTER 25: MIRRORING CONFIGURATION GUIDE
[3Com] vlan 10
[3Com-vlan10] remote-probe vlan enable
[3Com-vlan10] quit
# Configure the destination port and remote-probe VLAN for the remote
destination mirroring group.
[3Com] mirroring-group 1 monitor-port Ethernet 1/0/2
[3Com] mirroring-group 1 remote-probe vlan 10
# Configure Ethernet 1/0/1 as a Trunk port, allowing packets of VLAN 10 to pass.
[3Com] interface Ethernet 1/0/1
[3Com-Ethernet1/0/1] port link-type trunk
[3Com-Ethernet1/0/1] port trunk permit vlan 10
Complete Configuration
1 Configuration on the source switch (Switch A)
#
mirroring-group 1 remote-source
#
vlan 10
remote-probe vlan enable
#
interface Ethernet1/0/1
mirroring-group 1 mirroring-port inbound
#
interface Ethernet1/0/2
mirroring-group 1 mirroring-port inbound
#
interface Ethernet1/0/3
port link-type trunk
port trunk permit vlan 1 10
#
interface Ethernet1/0/4
duplex full
speed 100
mirroring-group 1 reflector-port
#
mirroring-group 1 remote-probe vlan 10
#
2 Configuration on the intermediate switch (Switch B)
#
vlan 10
remote-probe vlan enable
#
interface Ethernet1/0/1
port link-type trunk
port trunk permit vlan 1 10
#
interface Ethernet1/0/2
port link-type trunk
port trunk permit vlan 1 10
#
Remote Port Mirroring Configuration
235
3 Configuration on the destination switch (Switch C)
#
mirroring-group 1 remote-destination
#
vlan 10
remote-probe vlan enable
#
interface Ethernet1/0/1
port link-type trunk
port trunk permit vlan 1 10
#
interface Ethernet1/0/2
port access vlan 10
mirroring-group 1 monitor-port
#
Precautions
Note the following when configuring the source switch:
■
All ports in a remote source mirroring group are on the same switch (the source
switch). A remote source mirroring group can have only one reflector port.
■
The reflector port of a mirroring group cannot be a member port of another
existing mirroring group, a fabric port (only the Switch 5500/5500G have this
limitation), a member port of an aggregation group, or a port enabled with
LACP or STP. It must be an Access port and cannot be configured with
functions like VLAN-VPN, port loopback detection, packet filtering, QoS, port
security, and so on.
■
You cannot modify the duplex mode, port rate, and MDI attribute of a reflector
port.
■
Only an existing static VLAN can be configured as the remote-probe VLAN. To
remove a remote-probe VLAN, you need to restore it to a normal VLAN first. A
remote port mirroring group becomes invalid if the corresponding
remote-probe VLAN is removed.
■
Do not configure the default VLAN, management VLAN or dynamic VLAN as
the remote-probe VLAN.
■
Configure all ports connecting the devices in the remote-probe VLAN as Trunk
ports, and ensure the Layer 2 connectivity from the source switch to the
destination switch over the remote-probe VLAN.
■
Do not configure a Layer 3 interface for the remote-probe VLAN, run other
protocol packets, or carry other service packets on the remote-prove VLAN and
do not use the remote-prove VLAN as the voice VLAN and protocol-based
VLAN; otherwise, remote port mirroring may be affected.
■
Do not configure a port connecting the intermediate switch or destination
switch as the mirroring source port. Otherwise, traffic disorder may occur in the
network.
■
If the intermediate or destination switch is a Switch 5500/5500G, the
bidirectional mirroring (the both keyword) function is not available.
■
The Switch 4210do not support the both keyword configuration.
Note the following when configuring the destination switch:
■
Packets sent from the switch CPU cannot be mirrored.
236
CHAPTER 25: MIRRORING CONFIGURATION GUIDE
Traffic Mirroring
Configuration
Network Diagram
■
Packets received on the destination port are those processed and forwarded by
the switch.
■
The destination port to be configured cannot be a member port of an existing
mirroring group; a fabric port (only the Switch 5500/5500G have this
limitation), a member port of an aggregation group, an LACP enabled port, or
an STP enabled port.
■
Only an existing static VLAN can be configured as the remote-probe VLAN. To
remove a remote-probe VLAN, you need to restore it to a normal VLAN first. A
remote port mirroring group becomes invalid if the corresponding
remote-probe VLAN is removed.
In traffic mirroring, an ACL is applied to a port to identify traffics. Packets passing
through the port and matching the ACL rules are mirrored to the destination port.
Figure 70 Network diagram for traffic mirroring
PC 1
192.168.0.1
Eth1/0/1
Eth1 /0/2
Switch
Data monitoring device
PC 2
Networking and
Configuration
Requirements
The departments of a company connect to each other through the Switch 5500:
■
PC 1 and PC 2 are connected to Switch through Ethernet 1/0/1. The IP address
of PC 1 is 192.168.0.1.
■
Data monitoring device is connected to Ethernet 1/0/2 of Switch.
The administrator wants to monitor packets sent from PC 1 through the data
monitoring device.
Use the traffic mirroring function to meet the requirement. Perform the following
configurations on Switch:
■
Configure traffic mirroring on Ethernet 1/0/1. Mirror packets matching source
IP address 192.168.0.1 to the destination port.
■
Configure Ethernet 1/0/2 as the destination port of traffic mirroring.
Applicable Products
Product series
Software version
Hardware version
Switch 5500
Release V03.02.04
All versions
Switch 5500G
Release V03.02.04
All versions
Switch 4500
Release V03.03.00
All versions
Traffic Mirroring Configuration
Configuration Procedure
237
# Configure a basic ACL 2000, matching the packets whose source IP address is
192.168.0.1.
<3Com> system-view
[3Com] acl number 2000
[3Com-acl-basic-2000] rule permit source 192.168.0.1 0
[3Com-acl-basic-2000] quit
# Configure traffic mirroring on Ethernet 1/0/1. Mirror packets matching source IP
address 192.168.0.1 to the destination port.
[3Com] interface Ethernet 1/0/1
[3Com-Ethernet1/0/1] mirrored-to inbound ip-group 2000 monitor-interface
[3Com-Ethernet1/0/1] quit
# Configure Ethernet 1/0/2 as the destination port of traffic mirroring.
[3Com] interface Ethernet 1/0/2
[3Com-Ethernet1/0/2] monitor-port
Complete Configuration
#
mirroring-group 1 local
#
acl number 2000
rule 0 permit source 192.168.0.1 0
#
interface Ethernet1/0/1
mirrored-to inbound ip-group 2000 rule 0 monitor-interface
#
interface Ethernet1/0/2
mirroring-group 1 monitor-port
#
Precautions
Note the following when configuring traffic mirroring:
■
The destination port to be configured cannot be a member port of an existing
mirroring group, a fabric port (only the Switch 5500/5500G have this
limitation), a member port of an aggregation group, an LACP enabled port, or
an STP enabled port.
■
When you configure the destination port of traffic mirroring on a Switch 5500,
if mirroring group 1 does not exist on the switch, the switch will automatically
create local mirroring group 1 and add the destination port to the group; if
mirroring group 1 already exists but is not a local mirroring group, your
configuration of the destination port will fail.
■
On a Switch 4500, if you execute the monitor-port command on different
ports to configure the destination port for the switch, the last configuration
takes effect.
238
CHAPTER 25: MIRRORING CONFIGURATION GUIDE
XRN CONFIGURATION GUIDE
26
XRN Fabric
Configuration
Several Expandable Resilient Networking (XRN) supported switches can be
interconnected to form a fabric, in which each switch is a unit, the ports
connecting the units are called fabric ports, and the other ports that are used to
connect the fabric to users are called user ports. In this way, you can increase ports
of network devices and improve the reliability of user networks.
Network Diagram
Figure 71 Network diagram for XRN fabric configuration
IRF fabric
Switch A
User port
Fabric port
Switch B
Networking and
Configuration
Requirements
Switch C
Configure unit ID, unit name, XRN fabric name, and fabric authentication mode
for three switches to enable them to form an XRN fabric.
The configuration details are as follows:
n
■
Unit IDs for Switch A, Switch B and Switch C are 1, 2 and 3 respectively;
■
Unit names of the three switches are Unit1, Unit2 and Unit3 respectively. The
fabric name is hello;
■
Fabric authentication mode is simple and password is welcome.
The Switch 5500Gs do not support the fabric authentication function.
Applicable Products
Product series
Software version
Hardware version
Switch 5500
Release V03.02.04
All versions
Switch 5500G
Release V03.02.04
All versions
Switch 4500
Release V03.03.00
All versions
240
CHAPTER 26: XRN CONFIGURATION GUIDE
Fabric Cable Connection
n
You are recommended to connect the switches with cables after the configuration
in “Configuration Procedure” on page 241 “Configuration Procedure” on page
241.
Fabric cable connection mode of Switch 5500s
When building an XRN fabric of Switch 5500s, note the fabric cable connection
mode:
n
■
Multiple Switch 5500s are interconnected through their fabric ports.
■
A Switch 5500 has two fabric ports: left port and right port. Given a switch, its
left port is connected to the right port of another switch, and its right port is
connected to the left port of a third one.
On a Switch 5500, only four GigabitEthernet ports can be configured as fabric
ports. The four ports fall into two groups according to their port numbers
■
GigabitEthernet 1/1/1 and GigabitEthernet 1/1/2 form the first group.
■
GigabitEthernet 1/1/3 and GigabitEthernet 1/1/4 form the second group.
Only one group of ports can be configured as fabric ports at a time.
GigabitEthernet 1/1/1 and GigabitEthernet 1/1/3 are the left fabric ports of the
first and the second group respectively, and GigabitEthernet 1/1/2 and
GigabitEthernet 1/1/4 are the right fabric ports or the first and the second group
respectively.
An XRN fabric can be successfully built only when the fabric cables are connected
in the above mode.
Based on the networking requirements in Figure 71, interconnect the three
S3628P switches through their first group of fabric ports of as shown in the
following figure:
Figure 72 Switch 5500 fabric port connection mode
SpeedGreen=100Mbps
Yellow=10Mbps
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
DuplxGreen=Full Duplx
Yellow=Half Duplx
8
9 10
11 12
13 14
15 16
17 18
19 20
21 22
23 24
25
26
27
H3C S3600
Series
H3C S3600
Series
H3C S3600
Series
28
Console
Unit
Mode
Green=Speed
Yellow=Duplex
RPS
PWR
10/100Base-TX
SpeedGreen=100Mbps
Yellow=10Mbps
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
DuplxGreen=Full Duplx
Yellow=Half Duplx
8
9 10
11 12
13 14
1000Base -X
15 16
17 18
19 20
21 22
23 24
25
26
27
28
Console
Unit
Mode
Green=Speed
Yellow=Duplex
RPS
PWR
10/100Base-TX
SpeedGreen=100Mbps
Yellow=10Mbps
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
DuplxGreen=Full Duplx
Yellow=Half Duplx
8
9 10
11 12
13 14
1000Base -X
15 16
17 18
19 20
21 22
23 24
25
26
27
28
Console
Unit
Mode
Green=Speed
Yellow=Duplex
RPS
PWR
10/100Base-TX
1000Base -X
Fabric cable connection mode of Switch 5500Gs switches
When building an XRN fabric of Switch 5500Gs, note the fabric cable connection
mode:
■
Multiple Switch 5500Gs are interconnected through their fabric ports on their
rear panels.
XRN Fabric Configuration
n
241
■
An Switch 5500Gs switch has two ports: up port and down port. Given a
switch, its up port is connected to the down port of another switch, and its
down port is connected to the up port of a third one.
■
Plug the cable connectors completely into the fabric ports.
On a Switch 5500Gs Ethernet switch, only two special cascade ports can be
configured as fabric ports. The two ports can only be used to form an XRN fabric,
rather than function as normal ports. Their port numbers are
■
Up port: Cascade 1/2/1
■
Down port: Cascade 1/2/2
An XRN fabric can be successfully built only when the fabric cables are connected
in the above mode.
Based on the networking requirements in Figure 71, interconnect the three Switch
5500Gs switches through their fabric ports as shown in the following figure:
Figure 73 Switch 5500Gs fabric port connection mode
Configuration Procedure
XRN fabric configuration on the Switch 5500
1 Configure Switch A.
# Bring up the fabric ports.
<3Com> system-view
[3Com] fabric-port GigabitEthernet 1/1/1 enable
[3Com] fabric-port GigabitEthernet 1/1/2 enable
# Configure the unit ID as 1.
[3Com] change self-unit to 1
n
When you modify the unit ID of a switch, the switch updates its configurations
automatically. The update process takes some time, during which you cannot
perform any configurations on the switch. If the system generates prompts after
you enter a command, wait for the update to be finished.
# Configure the unit name as Unit1.
[3Com] set unit 1 name Unit1
242
CHAPTER 26: XRN CONFIGURATION GUIDE
# Configure the fabric name as hello.
[3Com] sysname hello
# Configure the authentication mode as simple and password as welcome.
[hello] XRN-fabric authentication-mode simple welcome
2 Configure Switch B.
# Bring up the fabric ports.
<3Com> system-view
[3Com] fabric-port GigabitEthernet 1/1/1 enable
[3Com] fabric-port GigabitEthernet 1/1/2 enable
# Configure the unit ID as 2.
[3Com] change self-unit to 2
# Configure the unit name as Unit2.
[3Com] set unit 2 name Unit2
# Configure the fabric name as hello.
[3Com] sysname hello
# Configure the authentication mode as simple and password as welcome.
[hello] XRN-fabric authentication-mode simple welcome
Perform the same configurations on Switch C.
3 After the above configuration, use the display ftm information command to
view the running status of the XRN fabric.
[hello] display ftm information
FTM State
: HB STATE
Unit ID
: 1 (FTM-Master)
Fabric Type
Fabric Auth
Fabric Vlan ID
Left Port
Right Port
:
:
:
:
:
Ring
Simple
4093
Normal
Normal
Advertise
Advertise ACK
Heart Beat
: Send = 5, Receive = 3
: Send = 0, Receive = 5
: Send = 20, Receive = 0
Left Port
Right Port
: Index = 255, IsEdge = 0
: Index = 25, IsEdge = 0
Units Num Left : 1
Units Num Right : 3
Units Num Backup: 2
XRN Fabric Configuration
243
By viewing the Left Port and Right Port fields in the output information, you can
know the running status of the current fabric ports. The above prompt
information indicates that the fabric ports are working normally (displayed as
Normal).
You can also use the display XRN command to view the switches in the current
XRN fabric.
[hello] display XRN-fabric
Fabric name is hello, system mode is L3.
Unit Name
unit1
unit2
unit3
Unit ID
1(*)
2
3
You can see from the above output information that the three switches have been
successfully added to the XRN fabric, and your configurations have been finished.
XRN fabric configuration on Switch 5500Gs switches
1 Configure Switch A
# Bring up the fabric ports.
<3Com> system-view
[3Com] fabric-port Cascade 1/2/1 enable
[3Com] fabric-port Cascade 1/2/2 enable
# Configure the unit ID as 1.
[3Com] change self-unit to 1
# Configure the unit name as Unit1.
[3Com] set unit 1 name Unit1
# Configure the fabric name as hello.
[3Com] sysname hello
2 Configure Switch B.
# Bring up the fabric ports.
<3Com> system-view
[3Com] fabric-port Cascade 1/2/1 enable
[3Com] fabric-port Cascade 1/2/2 enable
# Configure the unit ID as 2.
[3Com] change self-unit to 2
# Configure the unit name as Unit2.
[3Com] set unit 2 name Unit2
# Configure the fabric name as hello.
244
CHAPTER 26: XRN CONFIGURATION GUIDE
[3Com] sysname hello
The configurations and verification on Switch C are the same as those on a Switch
5500. Therefore they are omitted here.
Complete Configuration
n
Complete configuration on the Switch 5500
To avoid repetition, only the complete configuration of Switch A is listed below.
■
Configuration on Switch A.
#
system-view
fabric-port GigabitEthernet 1/1/1 enable
fabric-port GigabitEthernet 1/1/2 enable
#
change unit-id 1 to 1
#
set unit 1 name Unit1
#
sysname hello
#
XRN-fabric authentication-mode simple welcome
Complete configuration on Switch 5500Gs switches
n
To avoid repetition, only the complete configuration of Switch A is listed below.
■
Configurations on Switch A.
#
system-view
fabric-port Cascade 1/2/1 enable
fabric-port Cascade 1/2/2 enable
#
change unit-id 1 to 1
#
set unit 1 name Unit1
#
sysname hello
#
n
Precautions
The change unit-id and set unit name commands will not be saved in the
configuration file, that is, when you use the display current-configuration or
display saved-configuration command to view the content of the configuration
file, the two commands are not displayed.
■
Before configuring an XRN fabric, make sure that the software versions of each
switch are the same.
■
Make sure that the switches in a fabric are correctly interconnected through
the fabric ports.
■
Establishing an XRN system requires a high consistency of the configuration of
each device. Hence, before you enable the fabric port, do not perform any
configuration for the port, and do not configure some functions that affect the
XRN (such as HWTACACS and VLAN-VPN) for other ports or globally.
XRN Fabric Configuration
245
Otherwise, you cannot enable the fabric port. For detailed restrictions, refer to
the error information output by devices.
■
When configuring XRN, do not configure other functions, and before
configuring other functions, make sure the fabric has been established and
works normally.
■
After a fabric is established, do not remove or plug in the cables used to form
the fabric or shut down/bring up a fabric port, do not modify the unit ID of the
device, and keep stability of the links between fabric ports to avoid fabric split.
■
In an XRN fabric, it is required to keep the global configurations on all the
fabric members consistent. If the global configurations on a switch are
different from those on other switches, XRN will restart the switch forcibly and
generate the same global configurations for the switch. Therefore, before
building an XRN fabric, make sure the global configurations on all the switches
are the same, and backup the existing configurations as needed to avoid
configuration loss in case of switch restart.
■
Do not modify the global configurations of any member switch when an XRN
fabric is being built or the topology is unstable, so as to avoid switch restart
due to global configuration inconsistency of member switches.
■
If a Switch 5500G with half-slot module exists in a fabric, control the number
of VLANs to raise the stability of the XRN fabric.
246
CHAPTER 26: XRN CONFIGURATION GUIDE
27
Cluster Configuration
Network Diagram
CLUSTER CONFIGURATION GUIDE
The cluster function is implemented through 3Com Group Management Protocol
version 2 (Switch Clusteringv2). Using Switch Clusteringv2, you can manage
multiple switches through the public IP address of a master device. In a cluster, the
master switch is called the management device, and the managed switches are
called member devices. The member devices are not configured with public IP
addresses. They are managed and maintained through the management device
redirection.
Figure 74 Network diagram for cluster
Internet
FTP / TFTP Server
63.172.55.1
Management
device
Eth1/0/3
Cluster
VLAN-interface 2:
163.172.55.1
Eth 1/0/2
Eth1/0/1
Member device
MAC: 000f.e201.0011
Networking and
Configuration
Requirements
SNMP / logging host (NMS )
69.172.55.4
Eth 1/0/1
Eth1/0/1
Member device
MAC: 000f.e201.0012
Three switches form a cluster, where:
■
A Switch 5500 serves as the management device.
■
The other two switches are member devices.
Serving as the management device, the Switch 5500 manages the two member
devices. The configurations for the cluster are as follows:
■
The two member devices are connected to Ethernet 1/0/2 and Ethernet 1/0/3
of the management device.
■
The management device connects to the Internet through Ethernet 1/0/1.
248
CHAPTER 27: CLUSTER CONFIGURATION GUIDE
■
Ethernet 1/0/1 belongs to VLAN 2, whose interface IP address is 163.172.55.1.
■
All the devices in the cluster share the same FTP/TFTP server.
■
The FTP/TFTP server uses IP address 63.172.55.1.
■
The NMS/logging host uses IP address 69.172.55.4.
Applicable Products
n
Product series
Software version
Hardware version
Switch 5500
Release V03.02.04
All versions
Switch 5500G
Release V03.02.04
All versions
Switch 4500
Release V03.03.00
All versions
Switch 4210
Release V03.01.00
All versions
The Switch 4210 cannot be used as a management switch.
Configuration Procedure
1 Configure the member devices (taking one member as an example)
# Enable NDP globally and on Ethernet 1/0/1.
<3Com> system-view
[3Com] ndp enable
[3Com] interface Ethernet 1/0/1
[3Com-Ethernet1/0/1] ndp enable
[3Com-Ethernet1/0/1] quit
# Enable NTDP globally and on Ethernet 1/0/1.
[3Com] ntdp enable
[3Com] interface Ethernet 1/0/1
[3Com-Ethernet1/0/1] ntdp enable
[3Com-Ethernet1/0/1] quit
# Enable the cluster function.
[3Com] cluster enable
2 Configure the management device
# Add port Ethernet 1/0/1 to VLAN 2.
<3Com> system-view
[3Com] vlan 2
[3Com-vlan2] port Ethernet 1/0/1
[3Com-vlan2] quit
# Configure the IP address for VLAN-interface 2 as 163.172.55.1.
[3Com] interface Vlan-interface 2
[3Com-Vlan-interface2] ip address 163.172.55.1 255.255.255.0
[3Com-Vlan-interface2] quit
# Disable NDP on Ethernet 1/0/1 of the management device.
Cluster Configuration
249
[3Com] ndp enable
[3Com] undo ndp enable intferface Ethernet 1/0/1
[3Com] interface Ethernet 1/0/1
[3Com-Ethernet1/0/1] undo ntdp enable
[3Com-Ethernet1/0/1] quit
# Enable NDP on Ethernet 1/0/2 and Ethernet 1/0/3.
[3Com] interface Ethernet 1/0/2
[3Com-Ethernet1/0/2] ndp enable
[3Com-Ethernet1/0/2] quit
[3Com] interface Ethernet 1/0/3
[3Com-Ethernet1/0/3] ndp enable
[3Com-Ethernet1/0/3] quit
# Set the holdtime of NDP information to 200 seconds.
[3Com] ndp timer aging 200
# Set the interval between sending NDP packets to 70 seconds.
[3Com] ndp timer hello 70
# Enable NTDP globally and on Ethernet 1/0/2 and Ethernet 1/0/3.
[3Com] ntdp enable
[3Com] interface Ethernet
[3Com-Ethernet1/0/2] ntdp
[3Com-Ethernet1/0/2] quit
[3Com] interface Ethernet
[3Com-Ethernet1/0/3] ntdp
[3Com-Ethernet1/0/3] quit
1/0/2
enable
1/0/3
enable
# Set the topology collection range to two hops.
[3Com] ntdp hop 2
# Set the delay for a member device to forward topology collection request to 150
ms.
[3Com] ntdp timer hop-delay 150
# Set the delay for a port of a member device to forward topology collection
request to 15 ms.
[3Com] ntdp timer port-delay 15
# Set the topology collection interval to three minutes.
[3Com] ntdp timer 3
# Enable the cluster function.
[3Com] cluster enable
# Enter cluster view.
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CHAPTER 27: CLUSTER CONFIGURATION GUIDE
[3Com] cluster
[3Com-cluster]
# Configure a private IP address pool for a cluster. The IP address pool contains six
IP addresses, starting from 172.16.0.1.
[3Com-cluster] ip-pool 172.16.0.1 255.255.255.248
# Name and build a cluster.
[3Com-cluster] build aaa
[aaa_0.3Com-cluster]
# Add the two switches attached to the management device to the cluster.
[aaa_0.3Com-cluster] add-member 1 mac-address 00e0-fc01-0011
[aaa_0.3Com-cluster] add-member 17 mac-address 00e0-fc01-0012
# Set the holdtime of member device information to 100 seconds.
[aaa_0.3Com-cluster] holdtime 100
# Set the interval between sending handshake packets to 10 seconds.
[aaa_0.3Com-cluster] timer 10
# Configure VLAN-interface 2 as the network management interface.
[aaa_0.3Com-cluster] nm-interface Vlan-interface 2
# Configure the shared FTP server, TFTP server, logging host and SNMP host for the
cluster.
[aaa_0.3Com-cluster]
[aaa_0.3Com-cluster]
[aaa_0.3Com-cluster]
[aaa_0.3Com-cluster]
ftp-server 63.172.55.1
tftp-server 63.172.55.1
logging-host 69.172.55.4
snmp-host 69.172.55.4
3 Perform the following operations on the member devices (taking one member as
an example)
After the devices attached to the management device are added to the cluster,
perform the following operations on the member devices.
# Connect the member device to the remote FTP server shared by the cluster.
<aaa_1.3Com> ftp cluster
# Download file aaa.txt from the shared TFTP server to the member device.
<aaa_1.3Com> tftp cluster get aaa.txt
# Upload file bbb.txt from the member device to the shared TFTP server.
<aaa_1.3Com> tftp cluster put bbb.txt
Network Management Interface Configuration
251
Complete Configuration
1 Configurations on the management device
#
interface Vlan-interface2
ip address 163.172.55.1 255.255.255.0
#
ntdp hop 2
ntdp timer port-delay 15
ntdp timer hop-delay 150
ntdp timer 3
#
ndp timer hello 70
ndp timer aging 200
#
cluster
ip-pool 172.16.0.1 255.255.255.248
build aaa
holdtime 100
nm-interface Vlan-interface2
ftp-server 63.172.55.1
tftp-server 63.172.55.1
logging-host 69.172.55.4
snmp-host 69.172.55.4
#
Precautions
Network Management
Interface
Configuration
■
After the above configuration, you can execute the cluster switch-to {
member-number | mac-address H-H-H } command on the management device
to switch to the view of a member device to maintain and manage the member
device, and then use the cluster switch-to administrator command to return
to the view of the management device.
■
On the management device, you can use the reboot member {
member-number | mac-address H-H-H } [ eraseflash ] command to reboot a
member device. For detailed information about these operations, refer to
“Complete Configuration” on page 251.
■
After the above configuration, you can receive logs and SNMP trap messages
of all the cluster members on the NMS.
■
The switches cannot be used as TFTP servers.
■
It is recommended not to transmit data packets in the management VLAN.
The Switch 5500 supports the network management interface configuration for a
cluster. Through the network management interface of a cluster, you can manage
the member devices of the cluster from outside of the cluster.
252
CHAPTER 27: CLUSTER CONFIGURATION GUIDE
Network Diagram
Figure 75 Network diagram for network management interface configuration
VLAN 2
S3600
VLAN 3
192.168.4.22
Eth 1/0/2
192 .168 .5.30
Eth 1/0/1
FTP Server
192.168.4.3
S3100
Networking and
Configuration
Requirements
S3100
■
Configure VLAN-interface 2 as the network management interface.
■
Configure VLAN 3 as the management VLAN.
■
The IP address of the FTP server is 192.168.4.3.
■
The Switch 5500 is the management switch.
■
The Switch 4210s are the member switches.
Table 4 Connection information of the management switch
VLAN
IP address
Connection port
VLAN 3 (connect Switch 4210s)
192.168.5.30/24
Ethernet 1/0/1
VLAN 2 (connect FTP Sever)
192.168.4.22/24
Ethernet 1/0/2
Applicable Products
n
Configuration Procedure
Product series
Software version
Hardware version
Switch 5500
Release V03.02.04
All versions
Switch 5500G
Release V03.02.04
All versions
Switch 4500
Release V03.03.00
All versions
The Switch 4210 cannot be used as a management switch.
# Enter system view, and configure VLAN 3 as the management VLAN.
<3Com> system-view
[3Com] management-vlan 3
# Add Ethernet 1/0/1 to VLAN 3.
[3Com] vlan 3
[3Com-vlan3] port Ethernet 1/0/1
[3Com-vlan3] quit
# Configure the IP address of VLAN-interface 3 as 192.168.5.30.
[3Com] interface Vlan-interface 3
[3Com-Vlan-interface3] ip address 192.168.5.30 255.255.255.0
[3Com-Vlan-interface3] quit
Network Management Interface Configuration
253
# Add Ethernet 1/0/2 to VLAN 2.
[3Com] vlan 2
[3Com-vlan2] port Ethernet 1/0/2
[3Com-vlan2] quit
# Configure the IP address of VLAN-interface 2 as 192.168.4.22.
[3Com] interface Vlan-interface 2
[3Com-Vlan-interface2] ip address 192.168.4.22 255.255.255.0
[3Com-Vlan-interface2] quit
# Enable the cluster function.
[3Com] cluster enable
# Enter cluster view.
[3Com] cluster
[3Com-cluster]
# Configure a private IP address pool for a cluster. The IP address pool contains 30
IP addresses, starting from 192.168.5.1.
[3Com-cluster] ip-pool 192.168.5.1 255.255.255.224
# Name and build a cluster.
[3Com-cluster] build aaa
[aaa_0.3Com-cluster]
# Configure VLAN-interface 2 as the network management interface.
[aaa_0.3Com] cluster
[aaa_0.3Com-cluster] nm-interface Vlan-interface 2
Complete Configuration
Precautions
#
interface Vlan-interface3
ip address 192.168.5.30 255.255.255.0
#
interface Vlan-interface2
ip address 192.168.4.22 255.255.255.0
#
management-vlan 3
#
cluster
ip-pool 192.168.5.1 255.255.255.224
build aaa
nm-interface Vlan-interface2
#
■
The default network management interface is the management VLAN
interface.
■
There can be only one network management interface. A new configuration
will overwrite the previous one.
254
CHAPTER 27: CLUSTER CONFIGURATION GUIDE
■
n
Cluster Configuration
in Real Networking
The network management interface can be configured on the management
switch only.
The network management interface cannot be configured on the Switch 4210.
In a complicated network, you can manage switches remotely in a bulk through
Switch Clustering, reducing the workload of the network configuration.
After you build a cluster and enable Switch Clustering on the management switch,
and enable NDP and Switch Clustering for the member devices, you can manage
the member switches on the management switch.
Network Diagram
Figure 76 Network diagram for Switch Clustering cluster
SNMP host ( NMS)
TFTP Server
10.1.1. 16/24
10 .1.1.15 /24
Internet
Eth1/0/1
Vlan- interface 2
163 .172. 55 .1/24
Switch A
Eth1/0/3
Eth1/0/2
Eth1/0/1
Eth1/0/1
Eth1/0/1
Networking and
Configuration
Requirements
Switch C
Eth1/0/4
Eth 1/0/2
Eth 1/0/3
Switch D
Eth1/0/1
Switch B
Cluster
Switch E
Eth1/0/1
Switch F
■
The IP address of the management switch (Switch A) is 10.1.1.17.
■
Configure the IP address of the TFTP server as 10.1.1.15.
■
Configure the IP address of the SNMP NMS as 10.1.1.16.
■
The whole cluster shares the same TFTP server and SNMP NMS.
Management switch Switch A:
■
Ethernet 1/0/1 belongs to VLAN 2, whose interface IP address is 163.172.55.1.
■
Two member switches are connected to Ethernet 1/0/1 and Ethernet 1/0/2 of
the management switch.
Cluster Configuration in Real Networking
255
The member switches:
n
■
Member switch Switch B is connected to Switch D through Ethernet 1/0/2.
■
Switch B is connected to Switch E through Ethernet 1/0/3.
■
Switch B is connected to Switch F through Ethernet 1/0/4.
■
Switch A, Switch B and Switch C are usually the Switch 5500 and Switch
5500G.
■
Switch D, Switch E and Switch F can be Switch 5500, Switch 5500Gs, and
Switch 4210.
Applicable Products
Product series
Software version
Hardware version
Switch 5500
Release V03.02.04
All versions
Switch 5500G
Release V03.02.04
All versions
Switch 4500
Release V03.03.00
All versions
Switch 4210
Release V03.01.00
All versions
Configuration Procedure
1 Configure the member devices (taking Switch B as an example)
# Enable NDP globally.
<3Com> system-view
[3Com] ndp enable
# Enable NDP on Ethernet 1/0/1, Ethernet 1/0/2, Ethernet1/0/3, and
Ethernet1/0/4.
[3Com] interface Ethernet 1/0/1
[3Com-Ethernet1/0/1] ndp enable
[3Com-Ethernet1/0/1] quit
[3Com] interface Ethernet 1/0/2
[3Com-Ethernet1/0/2] ndp enable
[3Com-Ethernet1/0/2] quit
[3Com] interface Ethernet 1/0/3
[3Com-Ethernet1/0/3] ndp enable
[3Com-Ethernet1/0/3] quit
[3Com] interface Ethernet 1/0/4
[3Com-Ethernet1/0/4] ndp enable
[3Com-Ethernet1/0/4] quit
# Enable NTDP globally.
[3Com] ntdp enable
# Enable NTDP on Ethernet 1/0/1, Ethernet 1/0/2, Ethernet1/0/3, and
Ethernet1/0/4.
[3Com] interface Ethernet 1/0/1
[3Com-Ethernet1/0/1] ntdp enable
[3Com-Ethernet1/0/1] quit
256
CHAPTER 27: CLUSTER CONFIGURATION GUIDE
[3Com] interface Ethernet
[3Com-Ethernet1/0/2] ntdp
[3Com-Ethernet1/0/2] quit
[3Com] interface Ethernet
[3Com-Ethernet1/0/3] ntdp
[3Com-Ethernet1/0/3] quit
[3Com] interface Ethernet
[3Com-Ethernet1/0/4] ntdp
[3Com-Ethernet1/0/4] quit
1/0/2
enable
1/0/3
enable
1/0/4
enable
# Enable the cluster function.
[3Com] cluster enable
n
On the member switches, ports that connect to other switches all need to be
enabled with NDP and NTDP.
2 Configure the management device (Switch A)
# Disable NDP on Ethernet 1/0/1 of the management device.
<3Com> system-view
[3Com] ndp enable
[3Com] undo ndp enable intferface Ethernet 1/0/1
# Enable NDP on Ethernet 1/0/2 and Ethernet 1/0/3.
[3Com] interface Ethernet 1/0/2
[3Com-Ethernet1/0/2] ndp enable
[3Com-Ethernet1/0/2] quit
[3Com] interface Ethernet 1/0/3
[3Com-Ethernet1/0/3] ndp enable
[3Com-Ethernet1/0/3] quit
# Set the holdtime of NDP information to 300 seconds.
[3Com] ndp timer aging 300
# Set the interval between sending NDP packets to 100 seconds.
[3Com] ndp timer hello 100
# Enable NTDP globally and on Ethernet 1/0/2 and Ethernet 1/0/3.
[3Com] ntdp enable
[3Com] interface Ethernet
[3Com-Ethernet1/0/2] ntdp
[3Com-Ethernet1/0/2] quit
[3Com] interface Ethernet
[3Com-Ethernet1/0/3] ntdp
[3Com-Ethernet1/0/3] quit
1/0/2
enable
1/0/3
enable
# Set the topology collection range to two hops.
[3Com] ntdp hop 2
# Set the delay for a member device to forward topology collection request to 180
ms.
Cluster Configuration in Real Networking
257
[3Com] ntdp timer hop-delay 180
# Set the delay for a port of a member device to forward topology collection
request to 20 ms.
[3Com] ntdp timer port-delay 20
# Set the topology collection interval to three minutes.
[3Com] ntdp timer 3
# Enable the cluster function.
[3Com] cluster enable
# Enter cluster view.
[3Com] cluster
[3Com-cluster]
# Configure a private IP address pool for a cluster. The IP address pool contains six
IP addresses, starting from 172.16.0.1.
[3Com-cluster] ip-pool 172.16.0.1 255.255.255.248
# Name and build a cluster.
[3Com-cluster] build aaa
[aaa_0.3Com-cluster]
# Set the holdtime of member device information to 100 seconds.
[aaa_0.3Com-cluster] holdtime 100
# Set the interval between sending handshake packets to 10 seconds.
[aaa_0.3Com-cluster] timer 10
# Configure the TFTP server and SNMP NMS shared by the cluster.
[aaa_0.3Com-cluster] tftp-server 10.1.1.15
[aaa_0.3Com-cluster] snmp-host 10.1.1.16
3 Perform the following operations on the member devices (taking one member as
an example):
After the devices attached to the management device are added to the cluster,
perform the following operations on the member devices.
# Download file aaa.txt from the shared TFTP server to the member device.
<aaa_1.3Com> tftp cluster get aaa.txt
# Upload file bbb.txt from the member device to the shared TFTP server.
<aaa_1.3Com> tftp cluster put bbb.txt
258
CHAPTER 27: CLUSTER CONFIGURATION GUIDE
Complete Configuration
1 Configuration on Switch A
#
ntdp hop 2
ntdp timer port-delay 20
ntdp timer hop-delay 180
ntdp timer 3
#
ndp timer hello 100
ndp timer aging 300
#
cluster
ip-pool 172.16.0.1 255.255.255.248
build aaa
holdtime 100
tftp-server 10.1.1.15
snmp-host 10.1.1.16
#
28
PoE Configuration
Network Diagram
POE/POE PROFILE CONFIGURATION
GUIDE
Power over Ethernet (PoE)-enabled devices use 10BASE-T, 100BASE-TX and
1000BASE-T twisted pair cables to supply power to powered devices (PD) and
implement power supply and data transmission simultaneously.
Figure 77 Network diagram for PoE configuration
Network
Switch A
Eth1/0/1
Eth1/0/8
Eth1/0/2
Switch B
Networking and
Configuration
Requirements
AP
AP
■
Switch A is a Switch 5500 supporting PoE and Switch B can be PoE powered.
■
The Ethernet 1/0/1 and Ethernet 1/0/2 ports of Switch A are connected to
Switch B and an Access Point (AP) respectively; the Ethernet 1/0/8 port is
intended to be connected with an important AP.
■
The PSE processing software of Switch A is first upgraded online. The remotely
accessed PDs are powered by Switch A.
■
The power consumption of the accessed AP is 2,500 milliwatts, and the
maximum power consumption of Switch B is 12,000 milliwatts.
■
It is required to guarantee the power supply to the AP connected to the
Ethernet 1/0/8 even when Switch A is under full load.
■
Applicable Products
Product series
Software version
Hardware version
Switch 5500
Release V03.02.04
Switch 5500 PoE switches
Switch 5500G
Release V03.02.04
Switch 5500 PoE switches
Switch 4500
Release V03.03.00
Switch 5500 PoE switches
260
CHAPTER 28: POE/POE PROFILE CONFIGURATION GUIDE
Configuration Procedure
# Upgrade the power processing software.
<SwitchA> system-view
[SwitchA] poe update refresh 0290_021.s19
Update PoE board successfully
# Enable the PoE feature on ports Ethernet 1/0/1, Ethernet 1/0/2 and Ethernet
1/0/8.
[SwitchA] interface Ethernet 1/0/1
[SwitchA-Ethernet1/0/1] poe enable
[SwitchA-Ethernet1/0/1] quit
[SwitchA]interface Ethernet 1/0/2
[SwitchA-Ethernet1/0/2] poe enable
[SwitchA-Ethernet1/0/2] quit
[SwitchA] interface Ethernet 1/0/8
[SwitchA-Ethernet1/0/8] poe enable
[SwitchA-Ethernet1/0/8] quit
# Set the maximum power that Ethernet 1/0/1 and Ethernet 1/0/2 can provide for
all PDs to 12000 and 2500 milliwatts respectively.
[SwitchA] interface Ethernet 1/0/1
[SwitchA-Ethernet1/0/1] poe max-power 12000
[SwitchA-Ethernet1/0/1] quit
[SwitchA] interface Ethernet 1/0/2
[SwitchA-Ethernet1/0/2] poe max-power 2500
[SwitchA-Ethernet1/0/2] quit
# Set the PoE priority of Ethernet 1/0/8 to critical to guarantee power supply to
the device connected to Ethernet 1/0/8.
[SwitchA] interface Ethernet 1/0/8
[SwitchA-Ethernet1/0/8] poe priority critical
[SwitchA-Ethernet1/0/8] quit
# Set the power supply management mode of the switch to auto (The default
power supply management mode is auto, and this step can be omitted.).
[SwitchA] poe power-management auto
# Enable the PD compatibility detection function to allow the switch to supply
power to the PDs not compliant with the 802.3af standard.
[SwitchA] poe legacy enable
# View the power supply status of all the ports on the switch after the
configuration.
[SwitchA] display poe interface
PORT INDEX
POWER ENABLE
Ethernet1/0/1
on
enable
Ethernet1/0/2
on
enable
Ethernet1/0/3
off enable
Ethernet1/0/4
off enable
Ethernet1/0/5
off enable
Ethernet1/0/6
off enable
Ethernet1/0/7
off enable
MODE PRIORITY
signal low
signal low
signal low
signal low
signal low
signal low
signal low
STATUS
Standard PD was
Standard PD was
detection is in
detection is in
detection is in
detection is in
detection is in
detected
detected
process
process
process
process
process
PoE Profile Configuration
Ethernet1/0/8
......
on
enable
signal
261
critical Standard PD was detected
# View the PoE power information of all the ports on the switch.
<SwitchA> display poe interface power
PORT INDEX
POWER (mW)
Ethernet1/0/1
11500
Ethernet1/0/3
0
Ethernet1/0/5
0
Ethernet1/0/7
0
......
Complete Configuration
PORT INDEX
Ethernet1/0/2
Ethernet1/0/4
Ethernet1/0/6
Ethernet1/0/8
POWER (mW)
2300
0
0
2400
#
poe legacy enable
#
interface Ethernet1/0/1
poe enable
poe max-power 12000
#
interface Ethernet1/0/2
poe enable
poe max-power 2500
#
interface Ethernet1/0/8
poe enable
poe priority critical
Precautions
PoE Profile
Configuration
None
A PoE profile is a set of PoE configurations, including multiple PoE features.
Features of PoE profile:
■
Various PoE profiles can be created. PoE policy configurations applicable to
different user groups are saved in the corresponding PoE profiles. These PoE
profiles can be applied to the ports used by the corresponding user groups.
■
When users connect a PD to a PoE-profile-enabled port, the PoE configurations
in the PoE profile will be enabled on the port.
262
CHAPTER 28: POE/POE PROFILE CONFIGURATION GUIDE
Network Diagram
Figure 78 Network diagram for PoE profile configuration
Network
Switch A
Eth1/0/1~Eth1/0/5
Networking and
Configuration
Requirements
Eth1/0/6~Eth1/0/10
IP phone
AP
IP phone
AP
IP phone
AP
IP phone
AP
Switch A is a Switch 5500 supporting PoE. Ethernet 1/0/1 through Ethernet 1/0/10
of Switch A are used by users of group A, whom have the following requirements:
■
The PoE function can be enabled on all ports in use.
■
Signal mode is used to supply power.
■
The PoE priority for Ethernet 1/0/1 through Ethernet 1/0/5 is critical, whereas
the PoE priority for Ethernet 1/0/6 through Ethernet 1/0/10 is high.
■
The maximum power for Ethernet 1/0/1 through Ethernet 1/0/5 is 3000
milliwatts, whereas the maximum power for Ethernet 1/0/6 through Ethernet
1/0/10 is 15400 milliwatts.
Based on the above requirements, two PoE profiles are made for users of group A.
■
Apply PoE profile 1 for Ethernet 1/0/1 through Ethernet 1/0/5;
■
Apply PoE profile 2 for Ethernet 1/0/6 through Ethernet 1/0/10.
Applicable Products
Product series
Configuration Procedure
Software version
Hardware version
Switch 5500
Release V03.02.04
Switch 5500 PoE switches
Switch 5500G
Release V03.02.04
Switch 5500 PoE switches
Switch 4500
Release V03.03.00
Switch 5500 PoE switches
# Create Profile1 and enter PoE profile view.
<SwitchA> system-view
[SwitchA] poe-profile Profile1
PoE Profile Configuration
263
# In Profile1, add the PoE policy configuration applicable to Ethernet 1/0/1
through Ethernet 1/0/5 for users of group A.
[SwitchA-poe-profile-Profile1]
[SwitchA-poe-profile-Profile1]
[SwitchA-poe-profile-Profile1]
[SwitchA-poe-profile-Profile1]
[SwitchA-poe-profile-Profile1]
poe enable
poe mode signal
poe priority critical
poe max-power 3000
quit
# Create Profile2 and enter PoE profile view.
[SwitchA] poe-profile Profile2
# In Profile2, add the PoE policy configuration applicable to Ethernet 1/0/6
through Ethernet 1/0/10 for users of group A.
[SwitchA-poe-profile-Profile2]
[SwitchA-poe-profile-Profile2]
[SwitchA-poe-profile-Profile2]
[SwitchA-poe-profile-Profile2]
[SwitchA-poe-profile-Profile2]
poe enable
poe mode signal
poe priority high
poe max-power 15400
quit
# Apply the configured Profile1 to Ethernet 1/0/1 through Ethernet 1/0/5.
[SwitchA] apply poe-profile Profile1 interface Ethernet1/0/1 to Ethernet1/0/5
# Apply the configured Profile2 to Ethernet 1/0/6 through Ethernet 1/0/10.
[SwitchA] apply poe-profile Profile2 interface Ethernet1/0/6 to Ethe
rnet1/0/10
Complete Configuration
#
poe-profile Profile1
poe enable
poe max-power 3000
poe priority critical
poe-profile Profile2
poe enable
poe priority high
#
interface Ethernet1/0/1
apply poe-profile Profile1
#
interface Ethernet1/0/2
apply poe-profile Profile1
#
interface Ethernet1/0/3
apply poe-profile Profile1
#
interface Ethernet1/0/4
apply poe-profile Profile1
#
interface Ethernet1/0/5
apply poe-profile Profile1
#
interface Ethernet1/0/6
apply poe-profile Profile2
264
CHAPTER 28: POE/POE PROFILE CONFIGURATION GUIDE
#
interface Ethernet1/0/7
apply poe-profile Profile2
#
interface Ethernet1/0/8
apply poe-profile Profile2
#
interface Ethernet1/0/9
apply poe-profile Profile2
#
interface Ethernet1/0/10
apply poe-profile Profile2
Precautions
1 When the apply poe-profile command is used to apply a PoE profile to a port,
some PoE features can be applied successfully while some cannot. PoE profiles are
applied to Switch 5500/5500G according to the following rules:
■
When the apply poe-profile command is used to apply a PoE profile to a port,
the PoE profile is applied successfully as long as one PoE feature in the PoE
profile is applied properly. When the display current-configuration command is
used for query, it is displayed that the PoE profile is applied properly to the port.
■
If one or more features in the PoE profile are not applied properly on a port, the
switch will prompt explicitly which PoE features in the PoE profile are not
applied properly on which ports.
■
The display current-configuration command can be used to query which PoE
profile is applied to a port. However, the command cannot be used to query
which PoE features in a PoE profile are applied successfully.
2 If you cannot apply a PoE profile to a PoE port, it may be due to the following
reasons:
■
Some of the PoE features in the PoE profile have been configured through
other modes;
■
Some of the PoE features in the PoE profile are not compliant with the
configuration requirements for PoE ports;
■
Another PoE profile has been applied to this PoE port.
You can solve the problem in the following ways:
■
In the first case, you can solve the problem by removing the original
configurations.
■
In the second case, you need to modify some configurations in the PoE profile.
In the third case, you need to remove the application of the undesired PoE profile
from the PoE port.
29
UDP Helper
Configuration Guide
UDP HELPER CONFIGURATION GUIDE
The Switch 5500 provides the UDP Helper function to relay specified UDP packets.
In other words, UDP Helper functions as a relay agent that converts UDP broadcast
packets into unicast packets and forwards them to a specified destination server.
With UDP Helper enabled, the device decides whether to forward a received UDP
broadcast packet according to the UDP destination port number of the packet.
Network Diagram
■
If the destination port number of the packet matches a pre-configured port
number on the device, the device modifies the destination IP address in the IP
header and then sends the packet to the specified destination server.
■
Otherwise, the device sends the packet to the upper layer protocol for
processing.
Figure 79 Network diagram for UDP Helper
Vlan-int1
192.168.1.1/24
Vlan-int2
192.168.10.1/24
PC B
192.168.10.2/24
Switch A
PC A
192.168.1.2/24
Networking and
Configuration
Requirements
PC A resides on network segment 192.168.1.0/24 and PC B on 192.168.10.0/24;
they are connected through Switch A and are reachable to each other.
It is required to configure UDP Helper on the switch, so that PC A can find PC B
through computer search (Computer search uses broadcasts with the destination
UDP port 137).
Applicable Products
Configuration Procedure
Product series
Software version
Hardware version
Switch 5500
Release V03.02.04
All versions
Switch 5500G
Release V03.02.04
All versions
Switch 4500
Release V03.03.00
All versions
# Enable Switch A to receive directed broadcasts to a directly connected network.
[SwitchA] ip forward-broadcast
# Enable UDP Helper on Switch A.
266
CHAPTER 29: UDP HELPER CONFIGURATION GUIDE
[SwitchA] udp-helper enable
# Configure the switch to forward broadcasts containing the destination UDP port
number 137. (By default, the device, after enabled with UDP Helper, forwards the
broadcasts containing the destination UDP port number 137.)
[SwitchA] udp-helper port 137
# Specify the destination server on VLAN-interface 1.
[SwitchA] interface Vlan-interface 1
[SwitchA-Vlan-interface1] udp-helper server 192.168.10.2
Complete Configuration
Precautions
#
ip forward-broadcast
#
udp-helper enable
#
interface Vlan-interface
udp-helper server 192.168.10.2
#
■
On a Switch 5500, the reception of directed broadcast packets to a directly
connected network is disabled by default, but this feature must be enabled
with the ip forward-broadcast command in system view before you can enable
UDP Helper. For details about the ip forward-broadcast command, refer to “IP
Addressing Configuration” and “IP Performance Configuration” in the
Configuration Guide for your product.
■
You need to enable UDP Helper before specifying any UDP port to match UDP
broadcasts; otherwise, error information is displayed. When the UDP helper
function is disabled, all the specified UDP ports are disabled, including the
default ports.
■
You can specify up to 20 destination server addresses on a VLAN interface.
30
SNMP Configuration
Network Diagram
Networking and
Configuration
Requirements
SNMP-RMON CONFIGURATION
GUIDE
The Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP) is used for ensuring the
transmission of the management information between any two network nodes. In
this way, network administrators can easily retrieve and modify the information
about any node on the network, locate and diagnose network problems, plan for
network growth, and generate reports on network nodes.
Figure 80 Network diagram for SNMP configuration
Switch A
NMS
10.10.10.2/16
10.10.10.1/16
■
An NMS and Switch A (SNMP agent) are connected through the Ethernet. The
IP address of the NMS is 10.10.10.1 and that of the VLAN interface on Switch
A is 10.10.10.2.
■
Perform the following configuration on Switch A: setting the community name
and access right, administrator ID, contact and switch location, and enabling
the switch to sent traps.
Applicable Products
Configuration Procedure
Product series
Software version
Hardware version
Switch 5500
Release V03.02.04
All versions
Switch 5500G
Release V03.02.04
All versions
Switch 4500
Release V03.03.00
All versions
Switch 4210
Release V03.01.00
All versions
Configuring the switch (SNMP agent)
# Enable SNMP agent, and set the SNMPv1 and SNMPv2c community names.
<3Com>
[3Com]
[3Com]
[3Com]
[3Com]
system-view
snmp-agent
snmp-agent sys-info version all
snmp-agent community read readname
snmp-agent community write writename
# Set the access right of the NMS to the MIB of the SNMP agent.
[3Com] snmp-agent mib-view include internet 1.3.6.1
268
CHAPTER 30: SNMP-RMON CONFIGURATION GUIDE
# For SNMPv3, set the SNMPv3 group and user, set the security level to
authentication with privacy, authentication protocol to HMAC-MD5,
authentication password to passmd5, encryption protocol to DES, and encryption
password to cfb128cfb128.
[3Com] snmp-agent group v3 managev3group privacy write-view internet
[3Com] snmp-agent usm-user v3 managev3user managev3group authenticat
ion-mode md5 passmd5 privacy-mode des56 cfb128cfb128
# Configure the IP address of VLAN-interface 2 as 10.10.10.2. Add the port
Ethernet 1/0/2 to VLAN 2.
[3Com] vlan 2
[3Com-vlan2] port Ethernet 1/0/2
[3Com-vlan2] quit
[3Com] interface Vlan-interface 2
[3Com-Vlan-interface2] ip address 10.10.10.2 255.255.255.0
[3Com-Vlan-interface2] quit
# Enable the sending of Traps to the NMS with an IP address of 10.10.10.1, using
public as the community name.
[3Com] snmp-agent
[3Com] snmp-agent
[3Com] snmp-agent
[3Com] snmp-agent
[3Com] snmp-agent
-port 5000 params
trap enable standard authentication
trap enable standard coldstart
trap enable standard linkup
trap enable standard linkdown
target-host trap address udp-domain 10.10.10.1 udp
securityname public
Configuring the NMS
The Switch 5500 supports 3Com’s network management products. SNMPv3
adopts username and password authentication. When you use 3Com’s network
management products, you need to set usernames and choose the security level.
For each security level, you need to set authorization mode, authorization
password, privacy mode, privacy password, and so on. In addition, you need to set
timeout time and maximum retry times.
You can query and configure an Ethernet switch through the NMS.
Complete Configuration
Precautions
#
snmp-agent
snmp-agent local-switch fabricid 800007DB00E0FC0000206877
snmp-agent community read public
snmp-agent community write private
snmp-agent sys-info version all
snmp-agent group v3 managev3group privacy write-view internet
snmp-agent target-host trap address udp-domain 10.10.10.1 udp-port
5000 params securityname public
snmp-agent mib-view included internet internet
snmp-agent usm-user v3 managev3user managev3group authentication-mo
de md5 passmd5 privacy-mode des56 cfb128cfb128
Authentication-related configuration on an NMS must be consistent with that on
the devices for the NMS to manage the devices successfully.
RMON Configuration
RMON Configuration
Network Diagram
269
Remote Monitoring (RMON) is a kind of MIB defined by Internet Engineering Task
Force (IETF). It is an important enhancement to MIB II standards. RMON is mainly
used to monitor the data traffic across a network segment or even the entire
network, and is currently a commonly used network management standard.
Figure 81 Network diagram for RMON configuration
Internet
Console port
Network port
Switch
Networking and
Configuration
Requirements
NMS
■
Before performing RMON configuration, make sure the SNMP agents are
correctly configured.
■
The switch to be tested is connected to a terminal through the console port
and to a remote NMS through the Internet. Create an entry in the extended
alarm table to monitor the statistics on the Ethernet port. If the change rate of
the entry exceeds the configured rising threshold or falling threshold, an alarm
event will be triggered.
Applicable Products
Configuration Procedure
Product series
Software version
Hardware version
Switch 5500
Release V03.02.04
All versions
Switch 5500G
Release V03.02.04
All versions
Switch 4500
Release V03.03.00
All versions
Switch 4210
Release V03.01.00
All versions
# Create the statistics entry numbered 1 to take statistics on Ethernet 1/0/1.
<3Com> system-view
[3Com] interface Ethernet 1/0/1
[3Com-Ethernet1/0/1] rmon statistics 1
[3Com-Ethernet1/0/1] quit
# Add the event entries numbered 1 and 2 to the event table, which will be
triggered by the following extended alarms.
[3Com] rmon event 1 log
[3Com] rmon event 2 trap 10.21.30.55
# Add an entry numbered 2 to the extended alarm table to allow the system to
calculate the alarm variables with the
(.1.3.6.1.2.1.16.1.1.1.9.1+.1.3.6.1.2.1.16.1.1.1.10.1) formula to get the numbers
of all the oversize and undersize packets received by Ethernet 1/0/1 that are in
correct data format and sample the numbers in every 10 seconds. When the
change ratio between samples reaches the rising threshold of 50, event 1 is
triggered; when the change ratio drops under the falling threshold, event 2 is
triggered. Set the sampling type to forever and the owner of the alarm table to
user1.
270
CHAPTER 30: SNMP-RMON CONFIGURATION GUIDE
[3Com] rmon prialarm 2 (.1.3.6.1.2.1.16.1.1.1.9.1+.1.3.6.1.2.1.16.1.
1.1.10.1) test 10 changeratio rising_threshold 50 1 falling_threshol
d 5 2 entrytype forever owner user1
Complete Configuration
Precautions
#
rmon event 1 description null log owner null
rmon event 2 description null trap 10.21.30.55 owner null
rmon prialarm 2 (.1.3.6.1.2.1.16.1.1.1.9.1+.1.3.6.1.2.1.16.1.1.1.10
.1) test 10 changeratio rising_threshold 50 1 falling_threshold 5 2
entrytype forever owner user1
#
interface Ethernet1/0/1
rmon statistics 1 owner null
None
31
NTP Client/Server
Mode Configuration
NTP CONFIGURATION GUIDE
Defined in RFC 1305, the Network Time Protocol (NTP) synchronizes timekeeping
among distributed time servers and clients. NTP runs over the User Datagram
Protocol (UDP), using UDP port 123.
The purpose of using NTP is to keep consistent timekeeping among all
clock-dependent devices within the network so that the devices can provide
diverse applications based on the consistent time.
For a local system running NTP, its time can be synchronized by other reference
sources and can be used as a reference source to synchronize other clocks.
Network Diagram
Figure 82 Network diagram for NTP client/server mode configuration
1.0.1.11/24
1 .0.1.12/24
Device A
Networking and
Configuration
Requirements
Device B
■
The local clock of Device A (switch) is to be used as a reference source, with the
stratum level of 2.
■
Device B is a Switch 5500, which takes Device A as the time server.
■
Set Device B to work in the client mode, and Device A will automatically work
in the server mode.
Applicable Products
Configuration Procedure
Product series
Software version
Hardware version
Switch 5500
Release V03.02.04
All versions
Switch 5500G
Release V03.02.04
All versions
Switch 4500
Release V03.03.00
All versions
Switch 4210
Release V03.01.00
All versions
# Set Device B to take Device A as the time server.
<DeviceB> system-view
[DeviceB] ntp-service unicast-server 1.0.1.11
# View NTP status of Device B.
[DeviceB] display ntp-service status
# View NTP session information of Device B.
272
CHAPTER 31: NTP CONFIGURATION GUIDE
[DeviceB] display ntp-service sessions
Complete Configuration
Precautions
#
ntp-service unicast-server 1.0.1.11
The local clock of a 3Com Switch 5500, 5500G, or 4210 cannot be set as a
reference clock. It can synchronize other devices as a reference clock only when its
clock is synchronized.
NTP Symmetric Peers
Mode Configuration
Network Diagram
Figure 83 Network diagram for NTP symmetric peers mode configuration
Device A
3.0 .1.31/24
3.0.1.32/24
3 .0.1.33/24
Device B
Networking and
Configuration
Requirements
Device C
■
The local clock of Device A is to be used as a reference source, with the stratum
level of 2.
■
Device C is a Switch 5500 which takes Device A as the time server, and Device
A automatically works in the server mode.
■
The local clock of Device B is to be used as a reference source, with the stratum
level of 1. Set Device B to take Device C as the symmetric-peer.
Applicable Products
Configuration Procedure
Product series
Software version
Hardware version
Switch 5500
Release V03.02.04
All versions
Switch 5500G
Release V03.02.04
All versions
Switch 4500
Release V03.03.00
All versions
Switch 4210
Release V03.01.00
All versions
■
Configure Device C.
# Set Device A as the time server.
<DeviceC> system-view
[DeviceC] ntp-service unicast-server 3.0.1.31
■
Configure Device B (after Device C is synchronized to Device A).
NTP Broadcast Mode Configuration
273
# Set Device C as the symmetric-peer.
<DeviceB> system-view
[DeviceB] ntp-service unicast-peer 3.0.1.33
# View NTP status and NTP session information of Device C after clock
synchronization.
[DeviceC] display ntp-service status
[DeviceC] display ntp-service sessions
Complete Configuration
■
Configuration on Device C.
#
ntp-service unicast-server 3.0.1.31
■
Configuration on Device B.
#
ntp-service unicast-peer 3.0.1.33
Precautions
The local clock of a Switch 5500, 5500G, or 4210 cannot be set as a reference
clock. It can synchronize other devices as a reference clock only when its clock is
synchronized.
NTP Broadcast Mode
Configuration
Network Diagram
Figure 84 Network diagram for NTP broadcast mode configuration
Vlan -int2
3.0.1.13 /24
Device C
Vlan-int2
3.0 .1.11/24
Device A
Vlan- int2
3.0.1 .12 /24
Vlan -int2
3.0.1.12 /24
Device B
Vlan -int2
3.0.1.14/24
Device D
Networking and
Configuration
Requirements
■
The local clock of Device C is to be used as a reference source, with the stratum
level of 2. Set Device C to work in the broadcast server mode and send
broadcasts through its VLAN-interface 2.
■
Device A and Device D are two Switch 5500s. Set Device A and Device D to
work in the broadcast client mode and listen to broadcasts through their
VLAN-interface 2 respectively.
274
CHAPTER 31: NTP CONFIGURATION GUIDE
Applicable Products
Configuration Procedure
Product series
Software version
Switch 5500
Release V03.02.04
All versions
Switch 5500G
Release V03.02.04
All versions
Switch 4500
Release V03.03.00
All versions
Switch 4210
Release V03.01.00
All versions
■
Hardware version
Configure Device C.
# Set Device C to work as the broadcast sever and send broadcasts through its
VLAN-interface 2.
<DeviceC> system-view
[DeviceC] interface Vlan-interface 2
[DeviceC-Vlan-interface2] ntp-service broadcast-server
■
Configure Device A (perform the same configuration on Device D).
# Set Device A to work as the broadcast client and listen broadcasts through its
VLAN-interface 2.
<DeviceA> system-view
[DeviceA] interface Vlan-interface 2
[DeviceA-Vlan-interface2] ntp-service broadcast-client
■
View the NTP status and NTP session information of Device D after clock
synchronization. (You can use the same command to view the NTP status and
NTP session information of Device A)
# View NTP status of Device D.
[DeviceD] display ntp-service status
# View NTP session information of Device D.
[DeviceD] display ntp-service sessions
Complete Configuration
■
Configuration on Device C.
#
interface Vlan-interface2
ip address 3.0.1.13 255.255.255.0
ntp-service broadcast-server
■
Configuration on Device A.
#
interface Vlan-interface2
ip address 3.0.1.11 255.255.255.0
ntp-service broadcast-client
■
Configuration on Device D.
#
interface Vlan-interface2
ip address 3.0.1.14 255.255.255.0
ntp-service broadcast-client
NTP Multicast Mode Configuration
Precautions
275
The local clock of the Switch 5500, 5500G, or 4210 cannot be set as a reference
clock. It can synchronize other devices as a reference clock only when its clock is
synchronized.
NTP Multicast Mode
Configuration
Network Diagram
Figure 85 Network diagram for NTP multicast mode configuration
Vlan -int2
3.0.1.13 /24
Device C
Vlan-int2
3.0 .1.11/24
Vlan- int2
3.0.1 .12 /24
Device A
Vlan -int2
3.0.1.12 /24
Device B
Vlan -int2
3.0.1.14/24
Device D
Networking and
Configuration
Requirements
■
The local clock of Device C is to be used as a reference source, with the stratum
level of 2. Set Device C to work in the multicast server mode and send
multicast through its VLAN-interface 2.
■
Device A and Device D are Switch 5500s. Set Device A and Device D to work in
the multicast client mode and listen to multicasts through their VLAN-interface
2 respectively.
Applicable Products
Configuration Procedure
Product series
Software version
Hardware version
Switch 5500
Release V03.02.04
All versions
Switch 5500G
Release V03.02.04
All versions
Switch 4500
Release V03.03.00
All versions
Switch 4210
Release V03.01.00
All versions
■
Configure Device C.
# Set Device C to work as the multicast server and send multicasts through its
VLAN-interface 2.
<DeviceC> system-view
[DeviceC] interface Vlan-interface 2
[DeviceC-Vlan-interface2] ntp-service multicast-server
■
Configure Device A (perform the same configuration on Device D).
# Set Device A to work as the multicast client and listen multicasts through its
VLAN-interface 2.
276
CHAPTER 31: NTP CONFIGURATION GUIDE
<DeviceA> system-view
[DeviceA] interface Vlan-interface 2
[DeviceA-Vlan-interface2] ntp-service multicast-client
■
View the NTP status and NTP session information of Device D after clock
synchronization (You can use the same command to view the NTP status and
NTP session information of Device A).
# View NTP status of Device D.
[DeviceD] display ntp-service status
# View NTP session information of Device D.
[DeviceD] display ntp-service sessions
Complete Configuration
■
Configuration on Device C.
#
interface Vlan-interface2
ip address 3.0.1.13 255.255.255.0
ntp-service multicast-server
■
Configuration on Device A.
#
interface Vlan-interface2
ip address 1.0.1.11 255.255.255.0
ntp-service multicast-client
■
Configuration on Device D.
#
interface Vlan-interface2
ip address 3.0.1.14 255.255.255.0
ntp-service multicast-client
Precautions
The local clock of the Switch 5500, 5500G, or 4210 cannot be set as a reference
clock. It can synchronize other devices as a reference clock only when its clock is
synchronized.
NTP Client/Server
Mode with
Authentication
Configuration
Network Diagram
Figure 86 Network diagram for NTP client/server mode with authentication configuration
1.0.1.11/24
Device A
Networking and
Configuration
Requirements
■
1 .0.1.12/24
Device B
The local clock of Device A is to be used as a reference source, with the stratum
level of 2.
NTP Client/Server Mode with Authentication Configuration
277
■
Device B is a Switch 5500, which takes Device A as the time server and works
in the client mode. Device A automatically works in the server mode.
■
Configure NTP authentication between Device A and Device B.
Applicable Products
Configuration Procedure
Product series
Software version
Hardware version
Switch 5500
Release V03.02.04
All versions
Switch 5500G
Release V03.02.04
All versions
Switch 4500
Release V03.03.00
All versions
Switch 4210
Release V03.01.00
All versions
■
Configure Device B.
# Set Device A as the time server.
<DeviceB> system-view
[DeviceB] ntp-service unicast-server 1.0.1.11
# Enable the NTP authentication function.
[DeviceB] ntp-service authentication enable
# Set MD5 key numbered 42, with the key content aNiceKey.
[DeviceB] ntp-service authentication-keyid 42 authentication-mode md
5 aNiceKey
# Specify key 42 as a trusted key.
[DeviceB] ntp-service reliable authentication-keyid 42
[DeviceB] ntp-service unicast-server 1.0.1.11 authentication-keyid 42
■
Configure Device A.
# Enable the NTP authentication function.
<DeviceA> system-view
[DeviceA] ntp-service authentication enable
# Set MD5 key numbered 42, with the key content aNiceKey.
[DeviceA] ntp-service authentication-keyid 42 authentication-mode md
5 aNiceKey
# Specify key 42 as a trusted key.
[DeviceA] ntp-service reliable authentication-keyid 42
Complete Configuration
■
Configuration on Device B.
#
ntp-service authentication enable
ntp-service authentication-keyid 42 authentication-mode md5 X&9#$^U
(!:[Q=^Q‘MAF4<1!!
278
CHAPTER 31: NTP CONFIGURATION GUIDE
ntp-service reliable authentication-keyid 42
ntp-service unicast-server 1.0.1.11
■
Configuration on Device A.
#
ntp-service authentication enable
ntp-service authentication-keyid 42 authentication-mode md5 X&9#$^U
(!:[Q=^Q‘MAF4<1!!
ntp-service reliable authentication-keyid 42
Precautions
The local clock of the Switch 5500, 5500G, or 4210 cannot be set as a reference
clock. It can synchronize other devices as a reference clock only when its clock is
synchronized.
32
SSH CONFIGURATION GUIDE
Configuring the
Switch to Act as the
SSH Server and Use
Password
Authentication
Network Diagram
Figure 87 Network diagram for configuring the switch to act as the SSH server and use
password authentication
SSH client
192.168.0.2/24
SSH server
Vlan -int1
192 .168 .0.1/24
Host
Networking and
Configuration
Requirements
Switch
In scenarios where users log into a switch over an insecure network, SSH can be
used to ensure the security of data exchange to the maximum extent. As shown in
Figure 87, establish an SSH connection between the host (SSH client) and the
switch (SSH server) for secure data exchange. The host runs SSH2 client software.
Password authentication is required.
Applicable Products
Configuration Procedure
Product series
Software version
Hardware version
Switch 5500
Release V03.02.04
All versions
Switch 5500G
Release V03.02.04
All versions
Switch 4500
Release V03.03.00
All versions
Switch 4210
Release V03.01.00
All versions
■
Configure the SSH server
# Create a VLAN interface on the switch and assign an IP address for it. The SSH
client will use this address as the destination for SSH connection.
<3Com> system-view
[3Com] interface vlan-interface 1
[3Com-Vlan-interface1] ip address 192.168.0.1 255.255.255.0
[3Com-Vlan-interface1] quit
# Generate an RSA key pair.
[3Com] rsa local-key-pair create
280
CHAPTER 32: SSH CONFIGURATION GUIDE
# Set the authentication mode for the user interfaces to AAA.
[3Com] user-interface vty 0 4
[3Com-ui-vty0-4] authentication-mode scheme
# Enable the user interfaces to support SSH.
[3Com-ui-vty0-4] protocol inbound ssh
[3Com-ui-vty0-4] quit
# Create local user client001, and set the authentication password to abc,
protocol type to SSH, and command privilege level to 3 for the user.
[3Com] local-user client001
[3Com-luser-client001] password simple abc
[3Com-luser-client001] service-type ssh level 3
[3Com-luser-client001] quit
# Specify the authentication method of user client001 as password.
[3Com] ssh user client001 authentication-type password
■
Configure the SSH client
# Configure an IP address (192.168.0.2 in this case) for the SSH client.
This IP address and that of the VLAN interface on the switch must be in the same
network segment.
# Configure the SSH client software to establish a connection to the SSH server.
Configuring the Switch to Act as the SSH Server and Use Password Authentication
281
Take SSH client software PuTTY v0.58 as an example:
1 Run PuTTY.exe to enter the following configuration interface.
Figure 88 SSH client configuration interface
In the Host Name (or IP address) text box, enter the IP address of the SSH server.
2 From the category on the left pane of the window, select SSH under Connection.
The window as shown in Figure 89 appears.
282
CHAPTER 32: SSH CONFIGURATION GUIDE
Figure 89 SSH client configuration interface 2
Under Protocol options, select 2 from Preferred SSH protocol version.
3 As shown in Figure 89, click Open. If the connection is normal, you can enter the
username client001 and password abc at prompt. Once authentication succeeds,
you will log onto the server.
Complete Configuration
■
Configure the SSH server
#
local-user client001
password simple abc
service-type ssh
level 3
#
interface Vlan-interface1
ip address 192.168.0.1 255.255.255.0
#
ssh user client001 authentication-type password
ssh user client001 service-type stelnet
#
user-interface vty 0 4
authentication-mode scheme
protocol inbound ssh
Configuring the Switch to Act as the SSH Server and Use RSA Authentication
283
Configuring the
Switch to Act as the
SSH Server and Use
RSA Authentication
Network Diagram
Figure 90 Network diagram for configuring the switch to act as the SSH server and use
RSA authentication
SSH client
192.168.0.2/24
SSH server
Vlan -int1
192 .168 .0.1/24
Host
Networking and
Configuration
Requirements
Switch
In scenarios where users log into a switch over an insecure network, SSH can be
used to ensure the security of data exchange to the maximum extent. As shown in
Figure 90, establish an SSH connection between the host (SSH client) and the
switch (SSH server) for secure data exchange. The host runs SSH2 client software.
RSA authentication is required.
Applicable Products
Configuration Procedure
Product series
Software version
Hardware version
Switch 5500
Release V03.02.04
All versions
Switch 5500G
Release V03.02.04
All versions
Switch 4500
Release V03.03.00
All versions
Switch 4210
Release V03.01.00
All versions
■
Configure the SSH server
# Create a VLAN interface on the switch and assign an IP address for it. The SSH
client will use this address as the destination for SSH connection.
<3Com> system-view
[3Com] interface vlan-interface 1
[3Com-Vlan-interface1] ip address 192.168.0.1 255.255.255.0
[3Com-Vlan-interface1] quit
# Generate an RSA key pair.
[3Com] rsa local-key-pair create
# Set the authentication mode for the user interfaces to AAA.
[3Com] user-interface vty 0 4
[3Com-ui-vty0-4] authentication-mode scheme
# Enable the user interfaces to support SSH.
[3Com-ui-vty0-4] protocol inbound ssh
# Set the client’s command privilege level to 3.
284
CHAPTER 32: SSH CONFIGURATION GUIDE
[3Com-ui-vty0-4] user privilege level 3
[3Com-ui-vty0-4] quit
# Configure the authentication method of the SSH client named client001 as
RSA.
[3Com] ssh user client001 authentication-type rsa
n
Before performing the following steps, you must generate an RSA key pair by
using the client software on the client, save the public key in a file named public,
and then upload the file to the SSH server through FTP or TFTP. For details, refer to
“Configure the SSH client” on page 284.
# Import the client’s public key named Switch001 from file public.
[3Com] rsa peer-public-key Switch001 import sshkey public
# Assign the public key Switch001 to client client001.
[3Com] ssh user client001 assign rsa-key Switch001
■
Configure the SSH client
# Generate an RSA key pair, taking PuTTYGen as an example.
1 Run PuTTYGen.exe, choose SSH-2 RSA and click Generate.
Figure 91 Client key pair generation interface 1
Configuring the Switch to Act as the SSH Server and Use RSA Authentication
n
285
During the generation process, you must move the mouse continuously and keep
the mouse off the green process bar shown in Figure 92. Otherwise, the process
bar stops moving and the key pair generation process is stopped.
Figure 92 Client key pair generation interface 2
After the key pair is generated, click Save public key and enter the name of the
file for saving the public key (public in this case).
286
CHAPTER 32: SSH CONFIGURATION GUIDE
Figure 93 Client key pair generation interface 3
Likewise, to save the private key, click Save private key. A warning window pops
up to prompt you whether to save the private key without any protection. Click
Yes and enter the name of the file for saving the private key (private.ppk in this
case).
Figure 94 Client key pair generation interface 4
# Configure the SSH client software to establish a connection to the SSH server.
Configuring the Switch to Act as the SSH Server and Use RSA Authentication
287
Take SSH client software PuTTY v0.58 as an example:
1 Run PuTTY.exe to enter the following configuration interface.
Figure 95 SSH client configuration interface 1
In the Host Name (or IP address) text box, enter the IP address of the SSH server.
2 From the category on the left pane of the window, select SSH under Connection.
The window as shown in Figure 96 appears.
288
CHAPTER 32: SSH CONFIGURATION GUIDE
Figure 96 SSH client configuration interface 2
Under Protocol options, select 2 from Preferred SSH protocol version.
3 From the category, select Connection/SSH/Auth. The following window appears.
Configuring the Switch to Act as the SSH Server and Use RSA Authentication
289
Figure 97 SSH client configuration interface 2
Click Browse... to bring up the file selection window, navigate to the private key
file and click OK.
4 In the window shown in Figure 97, click Open. If the connection is normal, you
will be prompted to enter the username.
Complete Configuration
■
Configure the SSH server
#
interface Vlan-interface1
ip address 192.168.0.1 255.255.255.0
#
ssh user client001 assign rsa-key Switch001
ssh user client001 authentication-type rsa
ssh user client001 service-type stelnet
#
user-interface vty 0 4
authentication-mode scheme
user privilege level 3
protocol inbound ssh
Precautions
When acting as an SSH server, the Switch 4210 does not support configuring the
client host public key by importing from a public key file. You need to configure it
manually.
290
CHAPTER 32: SSH CONFIGURATION GUIDE
Configuring the
Switch to Act as the
SSH Client and Use
Password
Authentication
Network Diagram
Figure 98 Network diagram for configuring the switch to act as the SSH client and use
password authentication
SSH server
SSH client
Vlan -int1
10 .165 .87.136 /24
Vlan -int1
10.165.87.137/24
Switch B
Networking and
Configuration
Requirements
Switch A
In scenarios where users log into a switch over an insecure network by using
another switch, SSH can be used to ensure the security of data exchange to the
maximum extent. As shown in Figure 98:
■
Switch A acts as the SSH client and the login username is client001.
■
Switch B acts as the SSH server, whose IP address is 10.165.87.136.
■
Password authentication is required.
Applicable Products
Configuration Procedure
Product series
Software version
Switch 5500
Release V03.02.04
All versions
Switch 5500G
Release V03.02.04
All versions
Switch 4500
Release V03.03.00
All versions
Switch 4210
Release V03.01.00
All versions
■
Hardware version
Configure Switch B
# Create a VLAN interface on the switch and assign an IP address for it. The SSH
client will use this address as the destination for SSH connection.
<3Com> system-view
[3Com] interface vlan-interface 1
[3Com-Vlan-interface1] ip address 10.165.87.136 255.255.255.0
[3Com-Vlan-interface1] quit
# Generate an RSA key pair.
[3Com] rsa local-key-pair create
# Set the authentication mode for the user interfaces to AAA.
[3Com] user-interface vty 0 4
[3Com-ui-vty0-4] authentication-mode scheme
# Enable the user interfaces to support SSH.
Configuring the Switch to Act as the SSH Client and Use Password Authentication
291
[3Com-ui-vty0-4] protocol inbound ssh
[3Com-ui-vty0-4] quit
# Create local user client001, and set the authentication password to abc,
protocol type to SSH, and command privilege level to 3 for the client.
[3Com] local-user client001
[3Com-luser-client001] password simple abc
[3Com-luser-client001] service-type ssh level 3
[3Com-luser-client001] quit
# Specify the authentication method of user client001 as password.
[3Com] ssh user client001 authentication-type password
■
Configure Switch A
# Create a VLAN interface on the switch and assign an IP address for it. This
address will serve as the SSH client’s address for SSH connection.
<3Com> system-view
[3Com] interface vlan-interface 1
[3Com-Vlan-interface1] ip address 10.165.87.137 255.255.255.0
[3Com-Vlan-interface1] quit
# Establish a connection to the server 10.165.87.136.
[3Com] ssh2 10.165.87.136
Username: client001
Trying 10.165.87.136 ...
Press CTRL+K to abort
Connected to 10.165.87.136 ...
The Server is not authenticated. Do you continue to access it?(Y/N):y
Do you want to save the server’s public key?(Y/N):n
Enter password:
**********************************************************************
* Copyright(c) 2004-2007 Hangzhou 3Com Tech. Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.*
* Without the owner’s prior written consent,
*
* no decompiling or reverse-switch fabricering shall be allowed.
*
**********************************************************************
<3Com>
Complete Configuration
■
Configure Switch B
#
local-user client001
password simple abc
service-type ssh
level 3
#
interface Vlan-interface1
ip address 10.165.87.136 255.255.255.0
#
ssh user client001 authentication-type password
ssh user client001 service-type stelnet
#
user-interface vty 0 4
292
CHAPTER 32: SSH CONFIGURATION GUIDE
authentication-mode scheme
protocol inbound ssh
■
Configure Switch A
#
interface Vlan-interface1
ip address 10.165.87.137 255.255.255.0
#
Precautions
None
Configuring the
Switch to Act as the
SSH Client and Use
RSA Authentication
Network Diagram
Figure 99 Network diagram for configuring the switch to act as the SSH client and use
RSA authentication
SSH server
SSH client
Vlan -int1
10 .165 .87.136 /24
Vlan -int1
10.165.87.137/24
Switch B
Networking and
Configuration
Requirements
Switch A
In scenarios where users log into a switch over an insecure network by using
another switch, SSH can be used to ensure the security of data exchange to the
maximum extent. As shown in Figure 99:
■
Switch A acts as the SSH client and the login username is client001.
■
Switch B acts as the SSH server, whose IP address is 10.165.87.136.
■
RSA authentication is required.
Applicable Products
Configuration Procedure
Product series
Software version
Switch 5500
Release V03.02.04
All versions
Switch 5500G
Release V03.02.04
All versions
Switch 4500
Release V03.03.00
All versions
Switch 4210
Release V03.01.00
All versions
■
Hardware version
Configure Switch B
# Create a VLAN interface on the switch and assign an IP address for it. The SSH
client will use this address as the destination for SSH connection.
<3Com> system-view
[3Com] interface vlan-interface 1
[3Com-Vlan-interface1] ip address 10.165.87.136 255.255.255.0
[3Com-Vlan-interface1] quit
# Generate an RSA key pair.
Configuring the Switch to Act as the SSH Client and Use RSA Authentication
293
[3Com] rsa local-key-pair create
# Set the authentication mode for the user interfaces to AAA.
[3Com] user-interface vty 0 4
[3Com-ui-vty0-4] authentication-mode scheme
# Enable the user interfaces to support SSH.
[3Com-ui-vty0-4] protocol inbound ssh
# Set the client’s command privilege level to 3.
[3Com-ui-vty0-4] user privilege level 3
[3Com-ui-vty0-4] quit
# Configure the authentication method of the SSH client named client001 as
RSA.
[3Com] ssh user client001 authentication-type rsa
n
After generating an RSA key pair on the SSH client, manually configure the RSA
public key on the SSH server. For details, refer to “Configure Switch A” on page
293.
# Configure the client public key Switch001.
[3Com] rsa peer-public-key Switch001
RSA public key view: return to System View with "peer-public-key end".
[3Com-rsa-public-key] public-key-code begin
RSA key code view: return to last view with "public-key-code end".
[3Com-rsa-key-code] 3047
[3Com-rsa-key-code] 0240
[3Com-rsa-key-code] C8969B5A 132440F4 0BDB4E5E 40308747 804F608B
[3Com-rsa-key-code] 349EBD6A B0C75CDF 8B84DBE7 D5E2C4F8 AED72834
[3Com-rsa-key-code] 74D3404A 0B14363D D709CC63 68C8CE00 57C0EE6B
[3Com-rsa-key-code] 074C0CA9
[3Com-rsa-key-code] 0203
[3Com-rsa-key-code] 010001
[3Com-rsa-key-code] public-key-code end
[3Com-rsa-public-key] peer-public-key end
[3Com]
# Assign the public key Switch001 to client client001.
[3Com] ssh user client001 assign rsa-key Switch001
■
Configure Switch A
# Create a VLAN interface on the switch and assign an IP address for it. This
address will serve as the SSH client’s address for SSH connection.
<3Com> system-view
[3Com] interface vlan-interface 1
[3Com-Vlan-interface1] ip address 10.165.87.137 255.255.255.0
[3Com-Vlan-interface1] quit
# Generate an RSA key pair.
[3Com] rsa local-key-pair create
294
CHAPTER 32: SSH CONFIGURATION GUIDE
# Display the host public key.
<3Com> display rsa local-key-pair public
=====================================================
Time of Key pair created: 05:15:04 2006/12/08
Key name: 3Com_Host
Key type: RSA encryption Key
=====================================================
Key code:
3047
0240
C8969B5A 132440F4 0BDB4E5E 40308747 804F608B
349EBD6A B0C75CDF 8B84DBE7 D5E2C4F8 AED72834
74D3404A 0B14363D D709CC63 68C8CE00 57C0EE6B
074C0CA9
0203
010001
Omitted
n
After generating a key pair on a client, you need to manually configure the host
public key on the server and have the configuration on the server done before
continuing configuration on the client.
# Establish a connection to the server 10.165.87.136.
[3Com] ssh2 10.165.87.136
Username: client001
Trying 10.165.87.136 ...
Press CTRL+K to abort
Connected to 10.165.87.136 ...
The Server is not authenticated. Do you continue to access it?(Y/N):y
Do you want to save the server’s public key?(Y/N):n
**********************************************************************
* Copyright(c) 2004-2007 Hangzhou 3Com Tech. Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.*
* Without the owner’s prior written consent,
*
* no decompiling or reverse-switch fabricering shall be allowed.
*
**********************************************************************
<3Com>
Complete Configuration
■
Configure Switch B
#
rsa peer-public-key Switch001
public-key-code begin
3047
0240
C8969B5A 132440F4 0BDB4E5E 40308747 804F608B 349EBD6A B0C75CD
F 8B84DBE7
D5E2C4F8 AED72834 74D3404A 0B14363D D709CC63 68C8CE00 57C0EE6
B 074C0CA9
0203
010001
public-key-code end
peer-public-key end
#
interface Vlan-interface1
Configuring the Switch to Act as the SSH Client and Not to Support First-Time Authentication
295
ip address 10.165.87.136 255.255.255.0
#
ssh user client001 assign rsa-key Switch001
ssh user client001 authentication-type rsa
ssh user client001 service-type stelnet
#
user-interface vty 0 4
authentication-mode scheme
user privilege level 3
protocol inbound ssh
■
Configure Switch A
#
interface Vlan-interface1
ip address 10.165.87.137 255.255.255.0
#
Precautions
None
Configuring the
Switch to Act as the
SSH Client and Not to
Support First-Time
Authentication
Network Diagram
Figure 100 Network diagram for configuring the switch to act as the SSH client and not
to support first-time authentication
SSH server
SSH client
Vlan -int1
10 .165 .87.136 /24
Vlan -int1
10.165.87.137/24
Switch B
Networking and
Configuration
Requirements
Switch A
In scenarios where users log into a switch over an insecure network by using
another switch, SSH can be used to ensure the security of data exchange to the
maximum extent. As shown in Figure 100:
■
Switch A acts as the SSH client and the login username is client001.
■
Switch B acts as the SSH server, whose IP address is 10.165.87.136.
■
RSA authentication is required.
Applicable Products
Configuration Procedure
Product series
Software version
Hardware version
Switch 5500
Release V03.02.04
All versions
Switch 5500G
Release V03.02.04
All versions
Switch 4500
Release V03.03.00
All versions
Switch 4210
Release V03.01.00
All versions
■
Configure Switch B
296
CHAPTER 32: SSH CONFIGURATION GUIDE
# Create a VLAN interface on the switch and assign an IP address for it. The SSH
client will use this address as the destination for SSH connection.
<3Com> system-view
[3Com] interface vlan-interface 1
[3Com-Vlan-interface1] ip address 10.165.87.136 255.255.255.0
[3Com-Vlan-interface1] quit
# Generate an RSA key pair.
[3Com] rsa local-key-pair create
# Set the authentication mode for the user interfaces to AAA.
[3Com] user-interface vty 0 4
[3Com-ui-vty0-4] authentication-mode scheme
# Enable the user interfaces to support SSH.
[3Com-ui-vty0-4] protocol inbound ssh
# Set the client’s command privilege level to 3.
[3Com-ui-vty0-4] user privilege level 3
[3Com-ui-vty0-4] quit
# Configure the authentication method of the SSH client named client001 as
RSA.
[3Com] ssh user client001 authentication-type rsa
n
After generating an RSA key pair on the SSH client, manually configure the RSA
public key on the SSH server. For details, refer to “Configure Switch A” on page
297.
# Configure the client public key Switch001.
[3Com] rsa peer-public-key Switch001
RSA public key view: return to System View with "peer-public-key end".
[3Com-rsa-public-key] public-key-code begin
RSA key code view: return to last view with "public-key-code end".
[3Com-rsa-key-code] 3047
[3Com-rsa-key-code] 0240
[3Com-rsa-key-code] C8969B5A 132440F4 0BDB4E5E 40308747 804F608B
[3Com-rsa-key-code] 349EBD6A B0C75CDF 8B84DBE7 D5E2C4F8 AED72834
[3Com-rsa-key-code] 74D3404A 0B14363D D709CC63 68C8CE00 57C0EE6B
[3Com-rsa-key-code] 074C0CA9
[3Com-rsa-key-code] 0203
[3Com-rsa-key-code] 010001
[3Com-rsa-key-code] public-key-code end
[3Com-rsa-public-key] peer-public-key end
[3Com]
# Assign the public key Switch001 to client client001.
[3Com] ssh user client001 assign rsa-key Switch001
n
When the switch acting as the SSH client does not support first-time
authentication, you need to manually configure the server host public key on it.
Configuring the Switch to Act as the SSH Client and Not to Support First-Time Authentication
# Display the server host public key.
[3Com] display rsa local-key-pair public
=====================================================
Time of Key pair created: 09:04:41 2000/04/04
Key name: 3Com_Host
Key type: RSA encryption Key
=====================================================
Key code:
308188
028180
C9330FFD 2E2A606F 3BFD5554 8DACDFB8 4D754E86
FC2D15E8 1996422A 0F6A2A6A A94A207E 1E25F3F9
E0EA01A2 4E0F2FF7 B1D31505 39F02333 E443EE74
5C3615C3 E5B3DC91 D41900F0 2AE8B301 E55B1420
024ECF2C 28A6A454 C27449E0 46EB1EAF 8A918D33
BAF53AF3 63B1FB17 F01E4933 00BE2EEA A272CD78
C289B7DD 2BE0F7AD
0203
010001
Omitted
■
Configure Switch A
# Create a VLAN interface on the switch and assign an IP address for it. This
address will serve as the SSH client’s address for SSH connection.
<3Com> system-view
[3Com] interface vlan-interface 1
[3Com-Vlan-interface1] ip address 10.165.87.137 255.255.255.0
[3Com-Vlan-interface1] quit
# Generate an RSA key pair.
[3Com] rsa local-key-pair create
# Display the client host public key.
<3Com> display rsa local-key-pair public
=====================================================
Time of Key pair created: 05:15:04 2006/12/08
Key name: 3Com_Host
Key type: RSA encryption Key
=====================================================
Key code:
3047
0240
C8969B5A 132440F4 0BDB4E5E 40308747 804F608B
349EBD6A B0C75CDF 8B84DBE7 D5E2C4F8 AED72834
74D3404A 0B14363D D709CC63 68C8CE00 57C0EE6B
074C0CA9
0203
010001
Omitted
297
298
CHAPTER 32: SSH CONFIGURATION GUIDE
n
After generating a key pair on a client, you need to manually configure the host
public key on the server and have the configuration on the server done before
continuing configuration on the client.
# Disable first-time authentication.
[3Com] undo ssh client first-time
n
When the switch acting as the SSH client does not support first-time
authentication, you need to manually configure the server host public key on it.
# Configure the server public key Switch002 on the client.
[3Com] rsa peer-public-key Switch002
RSA public key view: return to System View with "peer-public-key end".
[3Com-rsa-public-key] public-key-code begin
RSA key code view: return to last view with "public-key-code end".
[3Com-rsa-key-code] 308188
[3Com-rsa-key-code] 028180
[3Com-rsa-key-code] C9330FFD 2E2A606F 3BFD5554 8DACDFB8 4D754E86
[3Com-rsa-key-code] FC2D15E8 1996422A 0F6A2A6A A94A207E 1E25F3F9
[3Com-rsa-key-code] E0EA01A2 4E0F2FF7 B1D31505 39F02333 E443EE74
[3Com-rsa-key-code] 5C3615C3 E5B3DC91 D41900F0 2AE8B301 E55B1420
[3Com-rsa-key-code] 024ECF2C 28A6A454 C27449E0 46EB1EAF 8A918D33
[3Com-rsa-key-code] BAF53AF3 63B1FB17 F01E4933 00BE2EEA A272CD78
[3Com-rsa-key-code] C289B7DD 2BE0F7AD
[3Com-rsa-key-code] 0203
[3Com-rsa-key-code] 010001
[3Com-rsa-key-code] public-key-code end
[3Com-rsa-public-key] peer-public-key end
[3Com]
# Specify the server public key on the client.
[3Com] ssh client 10.165.87.136 assign rsa-key Switch002
# Establish a connection to the server 10.165.87.136.
[3Com] ssh2 10.165.87.136
Username: client001
Trying 10.165.87.136 ...
Press CTRL+K to abort
Connected to 10.165.87.136 ...
**********************************************************************
* Copyright(c) 2004-2007 Hangzhou 3Com Tech. Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.*
* Without the owner’s prior written consent,
*
* no decompiling or reverse-switch fabricering shall be allowed.
*
**********************************************************************
<3Com>
Complete Configuration
■
Configure Switch B
#
rsa peer-public-key Switch001
public-key-code begin
3047
0240
C8969B5A 132440F4 0BDB4E5E 40308747 804F608B 349EBD6A B0C75CD
F 8B84DBE7
Configuring the Switch to Act as the SSH Client and Not to Support First-Time Authentication
299
D5E2C4F8 AED72834 74D3404A 0B14363D D709CC63 68C8CE00 57C0EE6
B 074C0CA9
0203
010001
public-key-code end
peer-public-key end
#
vlan 1
#
interface Vlan-interface1
ip address 10.165.87.136 255.255.255.0
#
ssh user client001 assign rsa-key Switch001
ssh user client001 authentication-type RSA
ssh user client001 service-type stelnet
#
user-interface vty 0 4
authentication-mode scheme
user privilege level 3
protocol inbound ssh
■
Configure Switch A
#
rsa peer-public-key Switch002
public-key-code begin
308188
028180
C9330FFD 2E2A606F 3BFD5554 8DACDFB8 4D754E86
A 0F6A2A6A
A94A207E 1E25F3F9 E0EA01A2 4E0F2FF7 B1D31505
4 5C3615C3
E5B3DC91 D41900F0 2AE8B301 E55B1420 024ECF2C
0 46EB1EAF
8A918D33 BAF53AF3 63B1FB17 F01E4933 00BE2EEA
D 2BE0F7AD
0203
010001
public-key-code end
peer-public-key end
#
interface Vlan-interface1
ip address 10.165.87.137 255.255.255.0
#
undo ssh client first-time
ssh client 10.165.87.136 assign rsa-key Switch002
#
Precautions
None
FC2D15E8 1996422
39F02333 E443EE7
28A6A454 C27449E
A272CD78 C289B7D
300
CHAPTER 32: SSH CONFIGURATION GUIDE
Configuring SFTP
Network Diagram
Figure 101 Network diagram for configuring SFTP
SSH server
SSH client
Vlan -int1
10 .165 .87.136 /24
Vlan -int1
10.165.87.137/24
Switch B
Networking and
Configuration
Requirements
Switch A
As shown in Figure 101, establish an SSH connection between the SFTP client
(Switch A) and the SFTP server (Switch B). Log in to Switch B with the username
client001 and password abc through Switch A to manage and transfer files.
Applicable Products
Configuration Procedure
Product series
Software version
Hardware version
Switch 5500
Release V03.02.04
All versions
Switch 5500G
Release V03.02.04
All versions
Switch 4500
Release V03.03.00
All versions
Switch 4210
Release V03.01.00
All versions
■
Configure the SFTP server (Switch B)
# Generate an RSA key pair.
<3Com>system-view
[3Com] rsa local-key-pair create
# Create a VLAN interface on the switch and assign an IP address for it. The SSH
client will use this address as the destination for SSH connection.
[3Com] interface vlan-interface 1
[3Com-Vlan-interface1] ip address 192.168.0.1 255.255.255.0
[3Com-Vlan-interface1] quit
# Set the authentication mode for the user interfaces to AAA.
[3Com] user-interface vty 0 4
[3Com-ui-vty0-4] authentication-mode scheme
# Enable the user interfaces to support SSH.
[3Com-ui-vty0-4] protocol inbound ssh
[3Com-ui-vty0-4] quit
# Create a local user named client001.
[3Com] local-user client001
[3Com-luser-client001] password simple abc
[3Com-luser-client001] service-type ssh
[3Com-luser-client001] quit
# Configure the authentication method as password.
Configuring SFTP
301
[3Com] ssh user client001 authentication-type password
# Specify the service type as SFTP.
[3Com] ssh user client001 service-type sftp
# Enable the SFTP server.
[3Com] sftp server enable
■
Configure the SFTP client (Switch A)
# Create a VLAN interface on the switch and assign an IP address for it. This
address must be in the same segment with the IP address of the VLAN interface on
switch B. In this example, configure it as 192.168.0.2.
<3Com> system-view
[3Com] interface vlan-interface 1
[3Com-Vlan-interface1] ip address 192.168.0.2 255.255.255.0
[3Com-Vlan-interface1] quit
# Connect to the remote SFTP server using the username client001 and password
abc to enter SFTP client view.
[3Com] sftp 192.168.0.1
Input Username: client001
Trying 192.168.0.1 ...
Press CTRL+K to abort
Connected to 192.168.0.1 ...
The Server is not authenticated. Do you continue access it? [Y/N]:y
Do you want to save the server’s public key? [Y/N]:n
Enter password:
sftp-client>
# Display the current directory of the server, delete the file z and verify the
deletion.
sftp-client> dir
-rwxrwxrwx
1 noone
nogroup
1759 Aug 23 06:52
-rwxrwxrwx
1 noone
nogroup
225 Aug 24 08:01
-rwxrwxrwx
1 noone
nogroup
283 Aug 24 07:39
drwxrwxrwx
1 noone
nogroup
0 Sep 01 06:22
-rwxrwxrwx
1 noone
nogroup
225 Sep 01 06:55
-rwxrwxrwx
1 noone
nogroup
0 Sep 01 08:00
sftp-client> delete z
The following files will be deleted:
flash:/z
Are you sure to delete it?(Y/N):y
This operation may take a long time.Please wait...
File successfully Removed
sftp-client> dir
-rwxrwxrwx
1 noone
nogroup
-rwxrwxrwx
1 noone
nogroup
-rwxrwxrwx
1 noone
nogroup
config.cfg
pubkey2
pubkey1
new
pub
z
1759 Aug 23 06:52 config.cfg
225 Aug 24 08:01 pubkey2
283 Aug 24 07:39 pubkey1
302
CHAPTER 32: SSH CONFIGURATION GUIDE
drwxrwxrwx
-rwxrwxrwx
1 noone
1 noone
nogroup
nogroup
0 Sep 01 06:22 new
225 Sep 01 06:55 pub
# Add a directory named new1, and then check that the new directory has been
successfully created.
sftp-client> mkdir new1
New directory created
sftp-client> dir
-rwxrwxrwx
1 noone
-rwxrwxrwx
1 noone
-rwxrwxrwx
1 noone
drwxrwxrwx
1 noone
-rwxrwxrwx
1 noone
drwxrwxrwx
1 noone
nogroup
nogroup
nogroup
nogroup
nogroup
nogroup
1759
225
283
0
225
0
Aug
Aug
Aug
Sep
Sep
Sep
23
24
24
01
01
02
06:52
08:01
07:39
06:22
06:55
06:30
config.cfg
pubkey2
pubkey1
new
pub
new1
# Rename the directory to new2, and then verify the operation.
sftp-client> rename new1 new2
File successfully renamed
sftp-client> dir
-rwxrwxrwx
1 noone
nogroup
-rwxrwxrwx
1 noone
nogroup
-rwxrwxrwx
1 noone
nogroup
drwxrwxrwx
1 noone
nogroup
-rwxrwxrwx
1 noone
nogroup
drwxrwxrwx
1 noone
nogroup
1759
225
283
0
225
0
Aug
Aug
Aug
Sep
Sep
Sep
23
24
24
01
01
02
06:52
08:01
07:39
06:22
06:55
06:33
config.cfg
pubkey2
pubkey1
new
pub
new2
# Download the file pubkey2 from the server, renaming it to public.
sftp-client> get pubkey2 public
This operation may take a long time, please wait...
Remote
file:flash:/pubkey2 --->
Local file: public..
Downloading file successfully ended
# Upload file pu to the server and rename it to puk, and then verify the operation.
sftp-client> put pu puk
This operation may take a long time, please wait...
Local file: pu ---> Remote file: flash:/puk
Uploading file successfully ended
sftp-client> dir
-rwxrwxrwx
1 noone
nogroup
1759 Aug 23 06:52
-rwxrwxrwx
1 noone
nogroup
225 Aug 24 08:01
-rwxrwxrwx
1 noone
nogroup
283 Aug 24 07:39
drwxrwxrwx
1 noone
nogroup
0 Sep 01 06:22
drwxrwxrwx
1 noone
nogroup
0 Sep 02 06:33
-rwxrwxrwx
1 noone
nogroup
283 Sep 02 06:35
-rwxrwxrwx
1 noone
nogroup
283 Sep 02 06:36
sftp-client>
# Exit SFTP.
sftp-client> quit
Bye
config.cfg
pubkey2
pubkey1
new
new2
pub
puk
Configuring SFTP
Complete Configuration
■
Configure Switch B
#
local-user client001
password simple abc
service-type ssh
#
interface Vlan-interface1
ip address 192.168.0.1 255.255.255.0
#
sftp server enable
ssh user client001 authentication-type password
ssh user client001 service-type sftp
#
user-interface vty 0 4
authentication-mode scheme
user privilege level 3
protocol inbound ssh
#
■
Configure Switch A
#
interface Vlan-interface1
ip address 192.168.0.2 255.255.255.0
Precautions
None
303
304
CHAPTER 32: SSH CONFIGURATION GUIDE
33
Configuring a Switch
as FTP Server
Network Diagram
FTP AND TFTP CONFIGURATION
GUIDE
The Ethernet switch can act as an FTP server to provide file transfer services. You
can run FTP client software on a PC to log into the FTP server to access the files on
the server. Note that you need to configure the IP address of the FTP server
correctly for the server to provide FTP services.
Figure 102 Network diagram for configuring a switch as FTP server
SFTP server
Vlan-int1
192.168.0.1/24
SFTP client
Vlan-int1
192.168.0.2/24
Switch B
Networking and
Configuration
Requirements
Switch A
A switch operates as an FTP server and a remote PC as an FTP client.
■
Configure the IP address of VLAN-interface 1 on the switch as 1.1.1.1/16, and
that of the PC as 2.2.2.2/16. Ensure that the switch and PC can reach each
other.
■
Create an FTP user with the username switch and the password hello on the
FTP server.
■
An application named switch.bin is stored on the PC. The PC uploads the
application to the switch through FTP to implement switch application
upgrade.
■
The PC downloads the configuration file config.cfg from the switch for
backup.
Applicable Products
Configuration Procedure
Product series
Software version
Hardware version
Switch 5500
Release V03.02.04
All versions
Switch 5500G
Release V03.02.04
All versions
Switch 4500
Release V03.03.00
All versions
Switch 4210
Release V03.01.00
All versions
■
Configure the switch
306
CHAPTER 33: FTP AND TFTP CONFIGURATION GUIDE
# Assign IP address 1.1.1.1/16 to VLAN-interface 1. (You can log in to the switch
through the Console port. For detailed information, refer to “Logging in through
the Console Port” in the Configuration Guide for your product.)
<3Com>
<3Com> system-view
[3Com] interface Vlan-interface 1
[3Com-Vlan-interface1] ip address 1.1.1.1 16
[3Com-Vlan-interface1] quit
# Enable the FTP server function, and configure the username and password for
the FTP client to access FTP services.
[3Com] ftp server enable
[3Com] local-user switch
[3Com-luser-switch] password simple hello
[3Com-luser-switch] service-type ftp
■
Run an FTP client application on the PC to connect to the FTP server.
The following takes the command line window tool provided by Windows as an
example:
# Enter the command line window and browse to the directory where the file
switch.bin is located. In this example it is in the root directory of C:.
C:\>
# Access the Ethernet switch through FTP. Input the username switch and
password hello to log in and enter FTP view.
C:\> ftp 1.1.1.1
ftp>
# Switch data transfer mode to binary.
[ftp] binary
n
3Com recommends that you set the transfer mode to binary before performing
data transfer operation, so as to ensure that the device can receive data normally.
ftp> put switch.bin
# Download file config.cfg.
ftp> get config.cfg
■
Upgrade the application of the switch.
# Use the boot boot-loader command to specify the uploaded application to be
the startup file for next startup and restart the switch to complete the switch
application upgrade.
<3Com> boot boot-loader switch.bin
<3Com> reboot
Configuring a Switch as FTP Client
Complete Configuration
307
Configure the switch
#
local-user switch
password simple hello
service-type ftp
#
vlan 1
#
interface Vlan-interface1
ip address 1.1.1.1 255.255.0.0
#
FTP server enable
Precautions
Configuring a Switch
as FTP Client
Network Diagram
■
If the free Flash memory of the switch is not enough for the application file to
be uploaded, remove those unused applications from the Flash memory first.
■
It is not recommended to directly remove applications in use. If removing some
applications in use is a must to get enough space, you can use the BootROM
menu to remove them.
The Ethernet switch can act as an FTP client. You can use an emulation program or
Telnet to log in to the switch and then use the ftp command to log in the FTP
server and access the files on the server.
Figure 103 Network diagram for configuring a switch as FTP client
IP network
Switch
Networking and
Configuration
Requirements
PC
A switch operates as an FTP client and a remote PC as the FTP server.
■
Configure the IP address of VLAN-interface 1 on the switch as 1.1.1.1/16, and
that of the PC as 2.2.2.2/16. Ensure that the switch and PC can reach each
other.
■
Create an FTP user with the username switch and password hello on the FTP
server, and allow the user to read and write under the directory switch of the
PC.
■
An application named switch.bin is stored on the PC. The switch downloads
switch.bin from the PC through FTP to upgrade the application.
■
The switch uploads the configuration file config.cfg to the PC for backup.
308
CHAPTER 33: FTP AND TFTP CONFIGURATION GUIDE
Applicable Products
Configuration Procedure
Product series
Software version
Hardware version
Switch 5500
Release V03.02.04
All versions
Switch 5500G
Release V03.02.04
All versions
Switch 4500
Release V03.03.00
All versions
Switch 4210
Release V03.01.00
All versions
■
Perform FTP service-related configurations on the PC, that is, create a user
account on the FTP server with the username switch and password hello. For
detailed configuration, refer to the configuration instruction of the FTP server
software.
■
Configure the switch
# Assign IP address 1.1.1.1/16 to VLAN-interface 1. (You can log in to the switch
through the Console port. For detailed information, see “Logging in through the
Console Port” in the Configuration Guide for your product.)
<3Com>
<3Com> system-view
[3Com] interface Vlan-interface 1
[3Com-Vlan-interface1] ip address 1.1.1.1 16
[3Com-Vlan-interface1] return
# Connect to the FTP server using the ftp command in user view. You need to
provide the username and password to log in to the FTP server.
<3Com> ftp 2.2.2.2
[ftp]
# Switch data transfer mode to binary.
[ftp] binary
n
You are recommended to set the transfer mode to binary before performing data
transfer operation, so as to ensure that the device can receive data normally.
# Browse to the authorized directory on the FTP server, upload configuration file
config.cfg to the FTP server, and download the file named switch.bin. Then,
terminate the FTP connection and return to user view.
n
Before downloading a file, use the dir command to check that the remaining
space of the Flash memory is enough for the file to be downloaded.
[ftp] cd switch
[ftp] put config.cfg
[ftp] get switch.bin
[ftp] quit
<3Com>
# Use the boot boot-loader command to specify the downloaded file as the
application for next startup and then restart the switch. Thus the switch
application is upgraded.
Configuring a Switch as TFTP Client
309
<3Com> boot boot-loader switch.bin
<3Com> reboot
Complete Configuration
Precautions
Configuring a Switch
as TFTP Client
Network Diagram
#
vlan 1
#
interface Vlan-interface1
ip address 1.1.1.1 255.255.0.0
■
If the free Flash memory of the switch is not enough for downloading the
application file from the FTP server, remove those unused applications from the
Flash memory before downloading the file.
■
It is not recommended to directly remove applications in use. If removing some
applications in use is a must to get enough space, you can use the BootROM
menu to remove them.
Compared with FTP, Trivial File Transfer Protocol (TFTP) features simple interactive
interface with no authentication control and is therefore applicable to the
networks where client-server interactions are relatively simple.
Figure 104 Network diagram for configuring a switch as TFTP client
IP network
Switch
Networking and
Configuration
Requirements
PC
A switch operates as a TFTP client and a remote PC as a TFTP server.
■
Configure the IP address of VLAN-interface 1 on the switch as 1.1.1.1/16, and
that of the PC as 2.2.2.2/16. The switch and PC can reach each other.
■
An application named switch.bin is stored on the PC. The switch downloads
switch.bin through TFTP to upgrade the application.
■
The switch uploads the configuration file config.cfg to the PC for backup.
Applicable Products
Configuration Procedure
Product series
Software version
Hardware version
Switch 5500
Release V03.02.04
All versions
Switch 5500G
Release V03.02.04
All versions
Switch 4500
Release V03.03.00
All versions
Switch 4210
Release V03.01.00
All versions
■
Configure the TFTP working folder on the TFTP server. For detailed
configurations, refer to the usage instructions about the TFTP server software.
310
CHAPTER 33: FTP AND TFTP CONFIGURATION GUIDE
■
Configure the TFTP client (the switch):
# Assign IP address 1.1.1.1/16 to VLAN-interface 1. (You can log in to the switch
through the Console port. For detailed information, see “Logging in through the
Console Port” in the Configuration Guide for your product.)
<3Com>
<3Com> system-view
[3Com] interface Vlan-interface 1
[3Com-Vlan-interface1] ip address 1.1.1.1 16
[3Com-Vlan-interface1] return
# Download the switch application named switch.bin from the TFTP server to the
switch, and upload the switch configuration file named config.cfg to the TFTP
server.
<3Com> tftp 2.2.2.2 get switch.bin switch.bin
<3Com> tftp 2.2.2.2 put config.cfg config.cfg
# Use the boot boot-loader command to specify the downloaded file to be the
startup file for next startup of the switch and restart the switch to complete the
switch application upgrade.
<3Com> boot boot-loader switch.bin
<3Com> reboot
Complete Configuration
Configure the switch
#
vlan 1
#
interface Vlan-interface1
ip address 1.1.1.1 255.255.0.0
Precautions
■
If the free Flash memory of the switch is not enough for downloading the
application file from the TFTP server, remove those unused applications from
the Flash memory before downloading the file.
■
It is not recommended to directly remove applications in use. If removing some
applications in use is a must to get enough space, you can use the BootROM
menu to remove them.
34
INFORMATION CENTER
CONFIGURATION GUIDE
Outputting Log
Information to a Unix
Log Host
Network Diagram
Figure 105 Network diagram for outputting log information to a Unix log host
IP network
Switch
Networking and
Configuration
Requirements
PC
Send log information with severity higher than informational to a Unix log host
with an IP address of 202.38.1.10. The information source modules are ARP and
IP.
Applicable Products
Configuration Procedure
Product series
Software version
Hardware version
Switch 5500
Release V03.02.04
All versions
Switch 5500G
Release V03.02.04
All versions
Switch 4500
Release V03.03.00
All versions
Switch 4210
Release V03.01.00
All versions
■
Configuration on the switch.
# Enable the information center.
<3Com> system-view
[3Com] info-center enable
# By default, the system outputs information of all modules to the loghost
channel. To obtain the system information of the ARP and IP modules, you need to
disable the output of information of all modules to the log host.
[3Com] undo info-center source default channel loghost
# Set the host with an IP address of 202.38.1.10 to be the log host, set the
severity to informational, and the information source modules to ARP and IP.
[3Com] info-center loghost 202.38.1.10 facility local4
[3Com] info-center source arp channel loghost log level informationa
l debug state off trap state off
312
CHAPTER 34: INFORMATION CENTER CONFIGURATION GUIDE
[3Com] info-center source ip channel loghost log level informational
debug state off trap state off
■
Configuration on the log host.
The following configurations were performed on SunOS 4.0 which has similar
configurations with the Unix operating systems implemented by other vendors.
# Execute the following commands as a root user.
# mkdir /var/log/3Com
# touch /var/log/3Com/information
# Edit the file /etc/syslog.conf as a root user and add the following selector/action
pairs.
# 3Com configuration messages
local4.info
/var/log/3Com/information
# After the log file information has been created and the configuration file
/etc/syslog.conf has been modified, ensure that the configuration file
/etc/syslog.conf is reread by executing the following commands:
# ps -ae | grep syslogd
147
# kill -HUP 147
Complete Configuration
■
Configuration on the switch.
#
info-center source ARP channel 2 trap state off
info-center source IP channel 2 trap state off
undo info-center source default channel 2
info-center loghost 202.38.1.10 facility local4
■
Configuration on the log host.
#
# mkdir /var/log/3Com
# touch /var/log/3Com/information
# 3Com configuration messages
local4.info
/var/log/3Com/information
#
# ps -ae | grep syslogd
147
# kill -HUP 147
Precautions
Note the following issues while editing the /etc/syslog.conf file:
■
Comments must be on a separate line and must begin with the # sign.
■
The selector/action pair must be separated with a tab key, rather than a space.
■
No redundant spaces are allowed in the file name.
■
The device name and the accepted severity of log information specified by the
/etc/syslog.conf file must be identical to those configured on the device using
the info-center loghost and info-center source commands; otherwise the
log information may not be output properly to the log host.
Outputting Log Information to a Linux Log Host
313
Outputting Log
Information to a Linux
Log Host
Network Diagram
Figure 106 Network diagram for outputting log information to a Linux log host
Network
Switch
Networking and
Configuration
Requirements
Unix host
Send log information to a Linux log host with an IP address of 202.38.1.10; Log
information with severity higher than errors will be output to the log host; The
information source modules are all modules.
Applicable Products
Configuration Procedure
Product series
Software version
Hardware version
Switch 5500
Release V03.02.04
All versions
Switch 5500G
Release V03.02.04
All versions
Switch 4500
Release V03.03.00
All versions
Switch 4210
Release V03.01.00
All versions
■
Configuration on the switch.
# Enable the information center.
<3Com> system-view
[3Com] info-center enable
# Set the host with an IP address of 202.38.1.10 to be the log host, set the
severity to errors, and the information source modules to all modules.
[3Com] info-center loghost 202.38.1.10 facility local7
[3Com] info-center source default channel loghost log level errors d
ebug state off trap state off
■
Configuration on the log host.
# Execute the following commands as a root user.
# mkdir /var/log/3Com
# touch /var/log/3Com/information
# Edit the file /etc/syslog.conf as a root user and add the following selector/action
pairs.
# 3Com configuration messages
local7.info
/var/log/3Com/information
# After the log file information has been created and the /etc/syslog.conf file has
been modified, execute the following commands to display the process ID of
syslogd, terminate a syslogd process, and restart syslogd using the -r option.
314
CHAPTER 34: INFORMATION CENTER CONFIGURATION GUIDE
# ps -ae | grep syslogd
147
# kill -9 147
# syslogd -r &
Complete Configuration
■
Configuration on the switch.
#
info-center source default channel 2 log level error trap state off
info-center loghost 202.38.1.10
■
Configuration on the log host.
#
# mkdir /var/log/3Com
# touch /var/log/3Com/information
# 3Com configuration messages
local7.info
/var/log/3Com/information
#
# ps -ae | grep syslogd
147
# kill -9 147
# syslogd -r &
Precautions
Ensure that the syslogd process is started with the -r option on a Linux log host.
Note the following issues while editing the /etc/syslog.conf file:
■
Comments must be on a separate line and must begin with the # sign.
■
The selector/action pair must be separated with a tab key, rather than a space.
■
No redundant spaces are allowed in the file name.
■
The device name and the accepted severity of log information specified by the
/etc/syslog.conf file must be identical to those configured on the device using
the info-center loghost and info-center source commands; otherwise the
log information may not be output properly to the log host.
Outputting Log and
Trap Information to a
Log Host Through the
Same Channel
Network Diagram
Figure 107 Network diagram for outputting log and trap information to a log host
through the same channel
Network
Switch
Networking and
Configuration
Requirements
Linux host
Send log and trap information with severity higher than informational to the log
host through the same channel channel6. The information source module is L2INF
(interface management module).
Outputting Log and Trap Information to a Log Host Through the Same Channel
315
Applicable Products
Configuration Procedure
Product series
Software version
Hardware version
Switch 5500
Release V03.02.04
All versions
Switch 5500G
Release V03.02.04
All versions
Switch 4500
Release V03.03.00
All versions
Switch 4210
Release V03.01.00
All versions
■
Configuration on the switch.
# Enable the information center.
<3Com> system-view
[3Com] info-center enable
# The system outputs information of all modules through channel6 by default.
Therefore, you need to disable the function first.
[3Com] undo info-center source default channel channel6
# Set the host with an IP address of 10.153.116.65 to be the log host, set to send
log and trap information with severity higher than informational to the log host
through the same channel channel6, and set the information source module to
L2INF.
[3Com] info-center loghost 10.153.116.65 channel 6
[3Com] info-center source L2INF channel 6 log level informational st
ate on trap level informational state on debug state off
■
Configuration on the log host.
For the configuration of the log host, see “Configuration Procedure” on page 311
and “Configuration Procedure” on page 313.
The following takes receiving log information through log host software on a
Windows operating system as an example:
# The log host software used in this example is TFTPD32, the version of which is as
follows:
316
CHAPTER 34: INFORMATION CENTER CONFIGURATION GUIDE
# Open the TFTPD32 application program on the Windows operating system as
shown in the following figure:
1 Current Directory indicates the directory of the log file syslog.txt. You can click
the Browse button to set it. In this example, the directory is D:ToolsTFTP.
2 Server interface indicates the IP address of the log host. It is 10.153.116.65 in
this example.
3 Select the syslog server tab.
# The system information with the required severity level will be output to the log
host as shown in the following figure:
# After receiving the system information, the log host will save it in the log file
syslog.txt under D:ToolsTFTP. You can view the saved system information as
shown in the following figure (the information in the blue colour is the L2INF
module trap information received by the log host):
Complete Configuration
#
info-center source L2INF channel 6
undo info-center source default channel 6
info-center loghost 10.153.116.65 channel 6
Outputting Log Information to the Console
Precautions
317
On the Windows operating system, software settings vary with log host software.
Outputting Log
Information to the
Console
Network Diagram
Figure 108 Network diagram for outputting log information to the console
Console
Switch
PC
Networking and
Configuration
Requirements
Log information with a severity higher than informational will be output to the
console, and the information source modules are ARP and IP.
Applicable Products
Configuration Procedure
Product series
Software version
Hardware version
Switch 5500
Release V03.02.04
All versions
Switch 5500G
Release V03.02.04
All versions
Switch 4500
Release V03.03.00
All versions
Switch 4210
Release V03.01.00
All versions
# Enable the information center.
<3Com> system-view
[3Com] info-center enable
# By default, the system outputs information of all modules to the console.
Therefore, to obtain the system information of the ARP and IP modules, you need
to disable the output of information of all modules to the console.
[3Com] undo info-center source default channel console
# Set the severity to informational, and the information source modules to ARP
and IP.
[3Com] info-center console channel console
[3Com] info-center source arp channel console log level informationa
l debug state off trap state off
[3Com] info-center source ip channel console log level informational
debug state off trap state off
# Enable terminal display.
<3Com> terminal monitor
<3Com> terminal logging
Complete Configuration
#
info-center source ARP channel 0 trap state off
318
CHAPTER 34: INFORMATION CENTER CONFIGURATION GUIDE
info-center source IP channel 0 trap state off
undo info-center source default channel 0
Precautions
None
Displaying the Time
Stamp with the UTC
Time Zone
Network Diagram
Figure 109 Network diagram for displaying the time stamp with the UTC time zone
Network
Switch
Networking and
Configuration
Requirements
Log host
■
The switch is in the time zone of GMT+ 08:00:00.
■
The time stamp format of output log information is date.
■
UTC time zone will be added to the output information of the information
center.
Applicable Products
Configuration Procedure
Product series
Software version
Hardware version
Switch 5500
Release V03.02.04
All versions
Switch 5500G
Release V03.02.04
All versions
Switch 4500
Release V03.03.00
All versions
Switch 4210
Release V03.01.00
All versions
# Name the local time zone z8 and set it to eight hours ahead of UTC time.
<3Com> clock timezone z8 add 08:00:00
# Set the time stamp format of output log information to date.
<3Com> system-view
[3Com] info-center timestamp loghost date
# Configure to add UTC time to the output information of the information center.
[3Com] info-center timestamp utc
Complete Configuration
Precautions
#
info-center timestamp utc
None
Use of the Facility Argument in Log Information Output
319
Use of the Facility
Argument in Log
Information Output
Network Diagram
Figure 110 Network diagram for use of the facility argument in log information output
Loghost
192.168.0.208
Eth1/0/10
Eth1 /0/11
Switch E
Switch C
Eth1/0/3
Eth1/0/1
Eth1 /0/1
Eth1/0/2
Eth1 /0/2
Eth1/0/1
Eth1 /0/2
Switch A
PC 1
Networking and
Configuration
Requirements
Network Requirements
Analysis
Eth1/0/3
Eth1/0/1
BLOCK
Eth1/0/2
Switch D
Switch B
PC 2
PC 3
PC 4
Multiple switches in a LAN send log information to the same log host. You can
know the running status of each switch by displaying log information received.
As multiple switches send log information to the same log host, you can set
different values of the facility keyword for each switch to filter information on the
log host, thus avoiding failure in recognizing information source (for example, if
the two hosts have the same name and the facility keywords are set to the default
value local7, you cannot recognize the information source.).
Applicable Products
Configuration Procedure
Product series
Software version
Hardware version
Switch 5500
Release V03.02.04
All versions
Switch 5500G
Release V03.02.04
All versions
Switch 4500
Release V03.03.00
All versions
Switch 4210
Release V03.01.00
All versions
■
Perform the following configurations on Switch A.
320
CHAPTER 34: INFORMATION CENTER CONFIGURATION GUIDE
[SwitchA]info-center enable
[SwitchA]info-center source default channel loghost log level debugging
[SwitchA]info-center loghost 192.168.0.208 facility local0 channel loghost
Complete Configuration
■
Perform the same configurations on Switch B, Switch C, Switch D and Switch
E, and specify the facility argument as local1, local2, local3 and local4
respectively.
■
You can know the running status of all the devices by filtering information
through the facility keyword.
■
Configuration on Switch A.
#
info-center source default channel 2 log level debugging
info-center loghost 192.168.0.208 facility local0
■
Configuration on Switch B, Switch C, Switch D and Switch E.
<Omitted>
Precautions
The log host must support the information filtering with the facility keyword
function.
35
Configuring
VLAN-VPN
VLAN-VPN CONFIGURATION GUIDE
With VLAN-VPN enabled, a device tags a private network packet with an outer
VLAN tag, thus enabling the packet to be transmitted through the service
providers’ backbone network with both inner and outer VLAN tags. After reaching
the peer private network, the packet’s outer VLAN tag will be removed and the
inner tag will be used for packet forwarding.
VLAN-VPN tunnels private network packets over the public backbone network in a
simple way.
Network Diagram
Figure 111 Network diagram for configuring VLAN-VPN
P C S erver
V LA N100
S w itchB
E th 1/0/21
E th 1/0/22
V LA N200
TPID-0x9200
VLAN 1040
T erm in alS erver
E th 1/0/12
E th 1/0/11
S w itchA
Networking and
Configuration
Requirements
As shown in Figure 111, Switch A and Switch B are both Switch 5500s. They
connect the users to the servers through the public network.
■
The PC users and PC servers are in VLAN 100, while the terminal users and
terminal servers are in VLAN 200. Both VLAN 100 and VLAN 200 are private.
On the public network, there is VLAN 1040.
■
Switches of other vendors are used on the public network. They use the TPID
value 0x9200.
322
CHAPTER 35: VLAN-VPN CONFIGURATION GUIDE
n
Only the Switch 5500 supports the configuration of TPID. The Switch 5500G and
the Switch 4210 do not support that configuration.
■
Configure VLAN-VPN on Switch A and Switch B to enable the PC users and the
terminal users to communicate with their respective servers.
Applicable Products
Product series
Software version
Hardware version
Switch 5500
Release V03.02.04
All versions
Switch 5500G
Release V03.02.04
All versions
Switch 4500
Release V03.03.00
All versions
Switch 4210
Release V03.01.00
All versions
Configuration Procedure
n
VLAN-VPN is mutually exclusive with each of the following functions
■
GVRP
■
NTDP
■
STP
■
802.1x
■
MAC authentication
■
XRN Fabric
By default, NTDP and STP are enabled on a port. You need to disable the two
features using the undo ntdp enable and stp disable commands before enabling
VLAN-VPN on the port.
■
Configure Switch A
# Enable VLAN-VPN on Ethernet 1/0/11 of Switch A, using the tag of VLAN 1040
as the outer VLAN tag for packets received on the port.
<SwitchA> system-view
[SwitchA] vlan 1040
[SwitchA-vlan1040] port Ethernet 1/0/11
[SwitchA-vlan1040] quit
[SwitchA] interface Ethernet 1/0/11
[SwitchA-Ethernet1/0/11] undo ntdp enable
[SwitchA-Ethernet1/0/11] stp disable
[SwitchA-Ethernet1/0/11] vlan-vpn enable
# Set the TPID value of Ethernet 1/0/11 to 0x9200 for intercommunication with
the devices in the public network.
[SwitchA-Ethernet1/0/11] vlan-vpn tpid 9200
[SwitchA-Ethernet1/0/11] quit
# Configure Ethernet 1/0/12 as a trunk port that permits tagged packets of VLAN
1040.
[SwitchA] interface Ethernet 1/0/12
[SwitchA-Ethernet1/0/12] port link-type trunk
[SwitchA-Ethernet1/0/12] port trunk permit vlan 1040
Configuring VLAN-VPN
323
# Set the TPID value of Ethernet 1/0/12 to 0x9200.
[SwitchA-Ethernet1/0/12] vlan-vpn tpid 9200
■
Configure Switch B
# Enable VLAN-VPN on Ethernet 1/0/21 of Switch B, using the tag of VLAN 1040
as the outer VLAN tag for packets received on this port.
<SwitchB> system-view
[SwitchB] vlan 1040
[SwitchB-vlan1040] port Ethernet 1/0/21
[SwitchB-vlan1040] quit
[SwitchB] interface Ethernet 1/0/21
[SwitchB-Ethernet1/0/21] undo ntdp enable
[SwitchB-Ethernet1/0/21] stp disable
[SwitchB-Ethernet1/0/21] vlan-vpn enable
# Set the TPID value of Ethernet 1/0/21 to 0x9200 for intercommunication with
the devices in the public network.
[SwitchB-Ethernet1/0/21] vlan-vpn tpid 9200
[SwitchB-Ethernet1/0/21] quit
# Configure Ethernet 1/0/22 as a trunk port that permits tagged packets of VLAN
1024.
[SwitchA] interface Ethernet 1/0/22
[SwitchA-Ethernet1/0/22] port link-type trunk
[SwitchA-Ethernet1/0/22] port trunk permit vlan 1040
# Set the TPID value of Ethernet 1/0/22 to 0x9200.
[SwitchA-Ethernet1/0/22] vlan-vpn tpid 9200
■
Configure the devices in the public network
# As the devices in the public network are from other vendors, only a basic
principle is introduced here. That is, you need to configure the devices connecting
to Ethernet 1/0/12 of Switch A and Ethernet 1/0/22 of Switch B to permit tagged
packets of VLAN 1040.
Complete Configuration
■
Configure Switch A
#
vlan 1040
#
interface Ethernet1/0/11
port access vlan 1040
undo ntdp enable
stp disable
vlan-vpn enable
vlan-vpn tpid 9200
#
interface Ethernet1/0/12
port link-type trunk
port trunk permit vlan 1 1040
vlan-vpn tpid 9200
324
CHAPTER 35: VLAN-VPN CONFIGURATION GUIDE
■
Configure Switch B
#
vlan 1040
#
interface Ethernet1/0/21
port access vlan 1040
undo ntdp enable
stp disable
vlan-vpn enable
vlan-vpn tpid 9200
#
interface Ethernet1/0/22
port link-type trunk
port trunk permit vlan 1 1040
vlan-vpn tpid 9200
Precautions
Configuring BPDU
Tunnel
Network Diagram
■
Do not configure VLAN 1040 as the default VLAN of Ethernet 1/0/12 of Switch
A or Ethernet 1/0/22 of Switch B. Otherwise, the outer tag will be removed
before a packet is transmitted.
■
This example assumes that Ethernet 1/0/11 of Switch A and Ethernet 1/0/21 of
Switch B are both access ports. If the two ports are trunk or hybrid ports,
specify the default VLAN of the two ports as VLAN 1040, and configure the
ports to send untagged packets of VLAN 1040. For detailed information, refer
to “Port Basic Configuration” in the Configuration Guide for your product.
With the BPDU tunnel feature, a switch can transmit Layer 2 protocol packets
(NDP packets in this example) along tunnels established on the public network,
implementing unified network calculation and maintenance for the private
networks connected through the public network.
Figure 112 Network diagram for configuring BPDU tunnel
P rovider 1
E th 1/0/2
P rovider 2
Network
E th 1/0/3
E th 1/0/1
E th 1/0/4
C ustom er1
Networking and
Configuration
Requirements
C ustom er2
■
Customer 1 and Customer 2 are customer side devices, while Provider 1 and
Provider 2 are edge devices of the service provider. Customer 1 and Customer 2
are connected to Ethernet 1/0/1 of Provider 1 and Ethernet 1/0/4 of Provider 2
respectively.
■
Provider 1 and Provider 2 are connected through trunk a link, which permits
packets of all VLANs.
Configuring BPDU Tunnel
325
■
Configure the service provider network to transmit NDP packets of the
customer network through a BPDU tunnel.
■
Enable VLAN-VPN for the service provider network, and enable the service
provider network to use VLAN 100 to transmit data packets of the customer
network.
Applicable Products
Configuration Procedure
Product series
Software version
Hardware version
Switch 5500
Release V03.02.04
All versions
Switch 5500G
Release V03.02.04
All versions
Switch 4500
Release V03.03.00
All versions
■
Configure Provide 1.
# Disable NDP on Ethernet 1/0/1.
<3Com> system-view
[3Com] interface Ethernet 1/0/1
[3Com-Ethernet1/0/1] undo ndp enable
# Enable the BPDU tunnel feature for NDP BPDUs on Ethernet 1/0/1.
[3Com-Ethernet1/0/1] bpdu-tunnel ndp
# Enable the VLAN-VPN feature on Ethernet 1/0/1 and use VLAN 100 to tunnel
user data packets.
[3Com-Ethernet1/0/1] port access vlan 100
[3Com-Ethernet1/0/1] vlan-vpn enable
# Configure Ethernet 1/0/2 as a trunk port that permits packets of VLAN 100.
[3Com] interface Ethernet 1/0/2
[3Com-Ethernet1/0/2] port link-type trunk
[3Com-Ethernet1/0/2] port trunk permit vlan 100
■
Configure Provide 2
# Disable NDP on Ethernet 1/0/4.
<3Com> system-view
[3Com] interface Ethernet 1/0/4
[3Com-Ethernet1/0/4] undo ndp enable
# Enable BPDU tunnel for NDP BPDUs on Ethernet 1/0/4.
[3Com-Ethernet1/0/4] bpdu-tunnel ndp
# Enable the VLAN-VPN feature on Ethernet 1/0/4 and use VLAN 100 to tunnel
user data packets.
[3Com-Ethernet1/0/4] port access vlan 100
[3Com-Ethernet1/0/4] vlan-vpn enable
# Configure Ethernet 1/0/3 as a trunk port that permits packets of VLAN 100.
326
CHAPTER 35: VLAN-VPN CONFIGURATION GUIDE
[3Com] interface Ethernet 1/0/3
[3Com-Ethernet1/0/3] port link-type trunk
[3Com-Ethernet1/0/3] port trunk permit vlan 100
Complete Configuration
■
Configure Provider 1
#
interface Ethernet1/0/1
undo ndp enable
port access vlan 100
vlan-vpn enable
bpdu-tunnel ndp
#
interface Ethernet1/0/2
port link-type trunk
port trunk permit vlan 1 100
#
■
Configure Provider 2
#
interface Ethernet1/0/3
port link-type trunk
port trunk permit vlan 1 100
#
interface Ethernet1/0/4
undo ndp enable
port access vlan 100
vlan-vpn enable
bpdu-tunnel ndp
#
Precautions
None
REMOTE-PING CONFIGURATION GUIDE
36
Remote-ping
Configuration
Remote-ping is a network diagnostic tool. It is used to test the performance of
various protocols running in networks. Remote-ping provides more functions than
the ping command.
The ping command can only use the Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP) to
test the round trip time (RTT) between the local end and a specified destination
end for you to judge whether the destination end is reachable.
A Remote-ping test group is a set of Remote-ping test parameters. A test group
contains several test parameters and is uniquely identified by an administrator
name and a test operation tag.
After creating a Remote-ping test group and configuring the test parameters, you
can perform a Remote-ping test with the test-enable command.
Different from the ping command, Remote-ping does not display the RTT or
timeout status of each packet on the console terminal in real time. To view the
statistic results of your Remote-ping test operation, you need to execute the
display pemote-ping command. Remote-ping also allows you to set parameters
for Remote-ping test groups, start Remote-ping tests and view statistical test
results through a network management device.
ICMP Test
Network diagram
Figure 113 Network diagram for the ICMP test
IP network
10.1.1.1 /8
Switch A
10.2.2 .2/8
Switch B
HWPing Client
Networking and configuration requirements
A Remote-ping ICMP test between two switches uses ICMP to test the round trip
time (RTT) for packets generated by the Remote-ping client.
Applicable Products
Product series
Software version
Hardware version
Switch 5500
Release V03.02.04
All versions
Switch 5500G
Release V03.02.04
All versions
Switch 4500
Release V03.03.00
All versions
328
CHAPTER 36: REMOTE-PING CONFIGURATION GUIDE
Configuration procedure
# Enable the Remote-ping client.
<3Com> system-view
System View: return to User View with Ctrl+Z.
[3Com] remote-ping-agent enable
# Create a Remote-ping test group, configuring the administrator name as
administrator and test operation tag as ICMP.
[3Com] remote-ping administrator icmp
# Configure the test type as ICMP.
[3Com-remote-ping-administrator-icmp] test-type icmp
# Configure the destination IP address as 10.2.2.2.
[3Com-remote-ping-administrator-icmp] destination-ip 10.2.2.2
# Configure the number of probes in one test as 10.
[3Com-remote-ping-administrator-icmp] count 10
# Configure the probe timeout time as 5 seconds.
[3Com-remote-ping-administrator-icmp] timeout 5
# Start the test.
[3Com-remote-ping-administrator-icmp] test-enable
# View the test results.
[3Com-remote-ping-administrator-icmp] display remote-ping results ad
ministrator icmp
[3Com-remote-ping-administrator-icmp] display remote-ping history ad
ministrator icmp
For detailed output description, see the corresponding command manual.
Complete configuration
Configuration on Switch A.
#
remote-ping-agent enable
remote-ping administrator icmp
test-type icmp
destination-ip 10.2.2.2
count 10
timeout 5
Precautions
None
37
Static Domain Name
Resolution
Configuration Guide
Network Diagram
DNS CONFIGURATION GUIDE
Static domain name resolution is based on manually configured domain
name-to-IP address mappings. If you telnet a remote device using its name, the
local device will look up the corresponding IP address in the static domain name
resolution table.
Figure 114 Network diagram for static domain name resolution configuration
10.1.1.1/24
Switch
Networking and
Configuration
Requirements
10.1.1.2 /24
host.com
Host
As shown in the above figure, the switch can use static domain name resolution to
access host 10.1.1.2 through domain name host.com.
Applicable Products
Configuration Procedure
Product series
Software version
Hardware version
Switch 5500
Release V03.02.04
All versions
Switch 5500G
Release V03.02.04
All versions
Switch 4500
Release V03.03.00
All versions
Switch 4210
Release V03.01.00
All versions
# Map host name host.com to IP address 10.1.1.2.
<3Com> system-view
[3Com] ip host host.com 10.1.1.2
# Execute the ping host.com command to verify that Switch can get the IP
address 10.1.1.2 of name host.com.
[3Com] ping host.com
PING host.com (10.1.1.2): 56 data bytes, press CTRL_C to
Reply from 10.1.1.2: bytes=56 Sequence=1 ttl=127 time=3
Reply from 10.1.1.2: bytes=56 Sequence=2 ttl=127 time=3
Reply from 10.1.1.2: bytes=56 Sequence=3 ttl=127 time=2
Reply from 10.1.1.2: bytes=56 Sequence=4 ttl=127 time=5
Reply from 10.1.1.2: bytes=56 Sequence=5 ttl=127 time=3
--- host.com ping statistics --5 packet(s) transmitted
5 packet(s) received
break
ms
ms
ms
ms
ms
330
CHAPTER 37: DNS CONFIGURATION GUIDE
0.00% packet loss
round-trip min/avg/max = 2/3/5 ms
Complete Configuration
Dynamic Domain
Name Resolution
Configuration Guide
Network Diagram
#
ip host host.com 10.1.1.2
Domain Name System (DNS) is a distributed database used by TCP/IP applications
to translate domain names into corresponding IP addresses. With DNS, you can
use easy-to-remember domain names in some applications and let the DNS server
translate them into correct IP addresses.
Figure 115 Network diagram for dynamic domain name resolution configuration
IP network
2.1.1.2 /16
2.1.1.1/16
DNS server
Networking and
Configuration
Requirements
1.1.1.1 /16
Switch
DNS client
3.1.1 .1/16
host.com
Host
■
Switch serves as a DNS client to access the host at 3.1.1.1/16 through domain
name host.
■
The DNS server has the IP address 2.1.1.2/16. The domain name suffix is com.
Applicable Products
Configuration Procedure
Product series
Software version
Hardware version
Switch 5500
Release V03.02.04
All versions
Switch 5500G
Release V03.02.04
All versions
Switch 4500
Release V03.03.00
All versions
# Enable dynamic domain name resolution.
<3Com> system-view
[3Com] dns resolve
# Specify the DNS server 2.1.1.2.
[3Com] dns server 2.1.1.2
# Configure com as the DNS suffix.
[3Com] dns domain com
Execute the ping host command on Switch. The ping is successful and the
corresponding IP address is 3.1.1.1.
[3Com] ping host
Trying DNS server (2.1.1.2)
Dynamic Domain Name Resolution Configuration Guide
PING host.com (3.1.1.1): 56 data bytes, press CTRL_C to
Reply from 3.1.1.1: bytes=56 Sequence=1 ttl=125 time=4
Reply from 3.1.1.1: bytes=56 Sequence=2 ttl=125 time=4
Reply from 3.1.1.1: bytes=56 Sequence=3 ttl=125 time=4
Reply from 3.1.1.1: bytes=56 Sequence=4 ttl=125 time=4
Reply from 3.1.1.1: bytes=56 Sequence=5 ttl=125 time=5
331
break
ms
ms
ms
ms
ms
--- host.com ping statistics --5 packet(s) transmitted
5 packet(s) received
0.00% packet loss
round-trip min/avg/max = 4/4/5 ms
Complete Configuration
#
dns resolve
dns server 2.1.1.2
dns domain com
Precautions
■
The routes between the DNS server, Switch, and Host are reachable. Necessary
configurations are done on the devices.
■
There is a mapping between domain name host and IP address 3.1.1.1/16 on
the DNS server. The DNS server works normally.
332
CHAPTER 37: DNS CONFIGURATION GUIDE
38
Configuring Access
Management
ACCESS MANAGEMENT
CONFIGURATION GUIDE
The access management function is designed to control user accesses on access
switches. It allows you to control the access of hosts to external networks.
The idea is to bind a range of IP addresses to a port by configuring an access
management IP address pool on the port.
Network Diagram
■
If an access management IP address pool is available on a port, a host
connected to the port can access external networks only when its IP address is
contained in the address pool.
■
If no access management IP address pool is available on a port, a host
connected to the port can access external networks so long as its IP address is
not in the access management IP address pools of any other switch port.
Figure 116 Network diagram for access management configuration
Internet
Switch A
Eth1/0/1
Vlan-int 1
202.10.20.200/24
Switch B
PC1_1
PC2
PC3
PC1_20
202. 10. 20.1 /24 to 202.10. 20. 20/ 24 202.10.20.100/24 202.10.20.101/24
Organization 1
Networking and
Configuration
Requirements
PC1_2
Client PCs access the Internet through Switch A. The IP addresses of PCs
belonging to organization 1 are in the range of 202.10.20.1/24 to
202.10.20.20/24, the IP address of PC 2 is 202.10.20.100/24, and the IP address
of PC 3 is 202.10.20.101/24.
334
CHAPTER 38: ACCESS MANAGEMENT CONFIGURATION GUIDE
■
Permit all the PCs of organization 1 to access the Internet through Ethernet
1/0/1 on Switch A. Ethernet 1/0/1 carries VLAN 1. The IP address assigned to
the interface of VLAN 1 is 202.10.20.200/24.
■
PCs that do not belong to organization 1, such as PC 2 and PC 3, are not
allowed to access the Internet through Ethernet 1/0/1 on Switch A.
Applicable Products
Configuration Procedure
Product series
Software version
Hardware version
Switch 5500
Release V03.02.04
All versions
Switch 5500G
Release V03.02.04
All versions
Switch 4500
Release V03.03.00
All versions
# Enable access management on Switch A.
[SwitchA] am enable
# Configure the IP address of VLAN-interface 1 as 202.10.20.200/24.
[SwitchA] interface Vlan-interface 1
[SwitchA-Vlan-interface1] ip address 202.10.20.200 24
[SwitchA-Vlan-interface1] quit
# Configure an access management IP address pool for Ethernet 1/0/1.
[SwitchA] interface Ethernet 1/0/1
[SwitchA-Ethernet1/0/1] am ip-pool 202.10.20.1 20
Complete Configuration
Precautions
#
am enable
#
interface Vlan-interface1
ip address 202.10.20.200 255.255.255.0
#
interface Ethernet1/0/1
am ip-pool 202.10.20.1 20
#
■
The IP addresses in the access management IP address pool configured for a
port must be on the same segment as the VLAN-interface IP address of the
VLAN to which the port belongs.
■
If the access management IP address pool to be configured for a port contains
an IP address in a static ARP entry of another port, the system will ask you to
delete the ARP entry to ensure that the access management IP address pool
can take effect.
■
To allow only the hosts bound with a port and with their IP addresses in the
access management IP address pool of the port to access external networks,
configure static ARP entries only for IP addresses in the address pool.
Configuring Access Management with Port Isolation
335
Configuring Access
Management with
Port Isolation
Network Diagram
Figure 117 Network diagram for access management and port isolation configuration
Internet
Switch A
Eth1/0/1
Eth1/0/2
Vlan-int1
202.10.20.200/24
Switch B
PC1_1
Switch C
PC1_2
PC1_20
202.10.20.1/24̚202.10.20.20/24
PC2_1
PC2_2
PC2_37
202.10.20.25/24̚202.10.20.50/24
202.10.20.55/24̚202.10.20.65/24
Organization1
Networking and
Configuration
Requirements
Organization2
Client PCs are connected to the Internet through Switch A. The IP address range
for organization 1 is 202.10.20.1/24 to 202.10.20.20/24; and the IP address
ranges for organization 2 are 202.10.20.25/24 to 202.10.20.50/24 and
202.10.20.55/24 to 202.10.20.65/24.
■
PCs of organization 1 are allowed to access the Internet through Ethernet 1/0/1
of Switch A.
■
PCs of organization 2 are allowed to access the Internet through Ethernet 1/0/2
of Switch A.
■
Both Ethernet 1/0/1 and Ethernet 1/0/2 belong to VLAN 1, and the IP address
of VLAN-interface 1 is 202.10.20.200/24.
■
PCs of organization 1 are isolated from those of organization 2 at Layer 2.
Applicable Products
Configuration Procedure
Product series
Software version
Hardware version
Switch 5500
Release V03.02.04
All versions
Switch 5500G
Release V03.02.04
All versions
Switch 4500
Release V03.03.00
All versions
# Enable access management on Switch A.
[SwitchA] am enable
336
CHAPTER 38: ACCESS MANAGEMENT CONFIGURATION GUIDE
# Configure the IP address of VLAN-interface 1 as 202.10.20.200/24.
[SwitchA] interface Vlan-interface 1
[SwitchA-Vlan-interface1] ip address 202.10.20.200 24
[SwitchA-Vlan-interface1] quit
# Configure an access management IP address pool for Ethernet 1/0/1.
[SwitchA] interface Ethernet 1/0/1
[SwitchA-Ethernet1/0/1] am ip-pool 202.10.20.1 20
# Add Ethernet 1/0/1 to the isolation group.
[SwitchA-Ethernet1/0/1] port isolate
[SwitchA-Ethernet1/0/1] quit
# Configure an access management IP address pool for Ethernet 1/0/2.
[SwitchA] interface Ethernet 1/0/2
[SwitchA-Ethernet1/0/2] am ip-pool 202.10.20.25 26 202.10.20.55 11
# Add Ethernet 1/0/2 to the isolation group.
[SwitchA-Ethernet1/0/2] port isolate
[SwitchA-Ethernet1/0/2] quit
Complete Configuration
Precautions
#
am enable
#
interface Vlan-interface1
ip address 202.10.20.200 255.255.255.0
#
interface Ethernet1/0/1
port isolate
am ip-pool 202.10.20.1 20
#
interface Ethernet1/0/2
port isolate
am ip-pool 202.10.20.25 26 202.10.20.55 11
#
Refer to “Precautions” on page 334 for details.