3Com 510 Universal Remote User Manual

FRONT.FRM Page 1 Thursday, July 10, 1997 10:07 AM
OFFICECONNECT
REMOTE
TM
510, 520, 530
USER GUIDE
Please read the Supplementary Information section of this manual for details of
the OfficeConnect 531 model and an EMC Update
Part No. 980/000033/001
Published January 1996
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3Com Corporation
■
5400 Bayfront Plaza
© 3Com Sonix Limited, 1996. All rights reserved. No part of this
documentation may be reproduced in any form or by any means or
used to make any derivative work (such as translation,
transformation, or adaptation) without permission from 3Com Sonix.
3Com Sonix reserves the right to revise this documentation and to
make changes in content from time to time without obligation on
the part of 3Com Sonix to provide notification of such revision or
change. 3Com Sonix provides this documentation without warranty
of any kind, either implied or expressed, including, but not limited
to, the implied warranties of merchantability and fitness for a
particular purpose. 3Com Sonix may make improvements or
changes in the product(s) and/or the program(s) described in this
documentation at any time.
UNITED STATES GOVERNMENT LEGENDS:
If you are a United States government agency, then this
documentation and the software described herein are provided
to you subject to the following restricted rights:
For units of the Department of Defense: Restricted Rights
Legend: Use, duplication or disclosure by the Government is
subject to restrictions as set forth in subparagraph (c) (1) (ii) for
restricted Rights in Technical Data and Computer Software clause
at 48 C.F.R. 52.227-7013. 3Com Sonix Limited, Merchants’ House,
Wilkinson Road, Cirencester, Gloucestershire, GL7 1YT.
■
Santa Clara, California
■
95052-8154
For civilian agencies: Restricted Rights Legend: Use, reproduction
or disclosure is subject to restrictions set forth in subparagraph (a)
through (d) of the Commercial Computer Software - Restricted
Rights Clause at 48 C.F.R. 52.227-19 and the limitations set forth in
3Com Corporation’s standard commercial agreement for the
software. Unpublished rights reserved under the copyright laws of
the United States.
If there is any software on removable media described in this
documentation, it is furnished under a license agreement included
with the product as a separate document, in the hard copy
documentation, or on the removable media in a directory file
named LICENSE.TXT. If you are unable to locate a copy, please
contact 3Com Sonix and a copy will be provided to you.
Unless otherwise indicated, 3Com registered trademarks are
registered in the United States and may or may not be registered
in other countries.
3Com, Boundary Routing and Transcend are registered
trademarks of 3Com Corporation. OfficeConnect is a trademark of
3Com Corporation. 3Com Laser Library, 3TECH, CacheCard and
SmartAgent are trademarks of 3Com Corporation. 3ComFacts and
are service marks of 3Com Corporation.
CompuServe is a registered trademark of CompuServe, Inc.
Castelle is a registered trademark of Castelle Corporation. Novell
and NetWare are registered trademarks of Novell Inc. Windows is a
trademark of Microsoft Corporation. VT100 is a registered
trademark of Digital Equipment Corporation.
Other brand and product names may be registered trademarks or
trademarks of their respective holders.
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IMPORTANT SAFETY INFORMATION
WARNING: Warnings contain directions that you
must follow for your personal safety. Follow all
instructions carefully.
Ports identified by the labels SERIAL, COAX, 10BASET
and WAN = SELV
TNV (telecoms network voltage) is a circuit which
under normal operating conditions carries
telecommunication signals.
Please read carefully and thoroughly the following
information before installing the OfficeConnect Remote:
■
Exceptional care must be taken during installation
and removal of the unit.
■
Only stack the OfficeConnect Remote with other
OfficeConnect units.
■
Only use the power adapter that is supplied with the
unit to ensure compliance with international safety
standards.
■
It is essential that the mains socket outlet is located
near the unit and is accessible. You can only remove
power to the OfficeConnect Remote by
disconnecting the power adapter from the unit or
from the socket outlet.
■
The safety status of the interconnection port on this
equipment are as follows:
Ports identified by the labels VOICE and ISDN = TNV
SELV (safety extra low voltage) is a secondary circuit
which is designed and protected so that under
normal and single-fault conditions, the voltage
between any two accessible parts does not exceed a
safe value (42.2 V peak or 60 V DC).
Only connect apparatus complying with the relevant
interface requirements to the ports on this unit..
■
There are no user-replaceable fuses or user-serviceable
parts inside the unit. If you have a physical problem
with the unit that cannot be solved with problem
solving actions in this guide, contact your supplier.
■
Disconnect the power adapter before moving the unit.
WARNING: Twisted Pair RJ45 data port. This is a
shielded RJ45 data socket. It cannot be used as a
telephone socket. Only connect RJ45 data connectors
to this socket.
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WICHTIGE SICHERHEITSHINWEISE
ACHTUNG: Die Warnungen enthalten Anweisungen,
die Sie zur eigenen Sicherheit zu befolgen haben.
TNV (Telecoms Network Voltage - Spannung des
Telekommunikationsnetzwerks) ist ein Anschluss, der unter
normalen Umständen Telekommunikationssignale enthält .
Lesen Sie bitte die folgenden Informationen sorgfältig
durch, bevor Sie den OfficeConnect Remote einbauen:
■
SELV (Safety Extra Low Voltage - Extra Sicherheitsspannung) ist
ein weiterer Anschluss, der unter normalen Umständen und
Fehlerkonditionen entworfen und gesichert wurde, so dass die
Spannung zwischen zwei erreichbaren Teilen kein gefährliches
Niveau erreicht (42.2V max. oder 60 V DC).
Auf besondere Vorsicht muß während des Ein- und Ausbaus
des OfficeConnect Remotes geachtet werden.
■
Stapeln Sie den OfficeConnect Remote nur mit anderen
OfficeConnect Einheiten zusammen.
■
Verwenden Sie nur das mit dem OfficeConnect Remote
mitgelieferte Netzteil um die internationalen
Sicherheitsstandards zu erfüllen.
■
Die Netzsteckdose muß sich in unmittelbarer Nähe des
OfficeConnect Remotes befinden und frei zugänglich sein.
Sie können den OfficeConnect Remote nur spannungsfrei
schalten, indem Sie das Steckernetzteil aus der
Netzsteckdose ziehen oder die Verbindung zum Gerät
unterbrechen.
■
Der Sicherheitsstandard der Anschlüsse fuer dieses Gerät
sind wie folgt:
Anschlüsse bezeichnet mit VOICE und ISDN = TNV
Anschlüsse bezeichnet mit SERIAL, COAX, 10BASET und
WAN = SELV
An den Anschlussbuchsen der Geräte dürfen nur die dafür
vorgesehenen Anschlüsse verwendet werden.
■
Es sind keine von dem Benutzer zu ersetzende oder zu
wartende Teile in dem Gerät vorhanden. Wenn Sie ein
Problem mit dem OfficeConnect Remote haben, das nicht
mittels der Fehleranalyse in dieser Anleitung behoben
werden kann, setzen Sie sich mit Ihrem Lieferanten in
Verbindung.
■
Bevor der OfficeConnect Remote ausgebaut wird ist das
Netzteil zu ziehen.
ACHTUNG: gedrehte paarfache RJ45 Datenanschluss.
Es ist eine abgeschirmte RJ45 Datenanschlußbuchse. Sie
darf nicht als Telefonanschluß verwendet werden.
Verbinden Sie nur RJ45 Datenstecker mit diesem Anschluss.
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L’INFORMATION DE SÉCURITÉ IMPORTANTE
AVERTISSEMENT: Les avertissements contiennent les
instructions que vous devez suivre pour votre sécurité
personnelle. Suivre toutes les instructions avec soin.
TNV (Telecoms Network Voltage - tension réseau de
télécommunications) est un circuit qui dans des conditions
d'opérations normales, transfert les signeaux télécoms.
Veuillez lire à fond l’information suivante avant d’installer le
moyeu:
SELV (Safety Extra Low Voltage - tension de sécurité
extra-réduite) est un circuit secondaire désigné et protègé qui
dans des conditions normales et de fautes uniques, assure que
la tension entre deux éléments accessibles n'accedéra pas un
niveau de sécurité (42.2V max. ou 60 V DC).
■
Le soin exceptionnel doit être pris pendant l’installation et
l’enlèvement du moyeu.
■
Seulement entasser le moyeu avec les autres moyeux
OfficeConnects.
■
Seulement utiliser la pièce de raccordement
d’alimentation qui est fournie avec le moyeu pour assurer
la conformité avec les normes de sécurité internationales.
■
C’est essentiel que le socle de prise de courant du réseau
soit localisé proche du moyeu et soit accessible. Vous
pouvez seulement enlever l’alimentation au moyeu en
débranchant la pièce de raccordement d’alimentation de
l’unité ou du socle de prise de courant.
■
Les normes de sécurité des ports d'interconnexion sur cet
équipement sont les suivants:
Les ports marqués par les etiquettes VOICE et ISDN = TNV
Les ports marqués par les etiquettes SERIAL, COAX,
10BASET et WAN = SELV
Connecter uniquement des unités conformes aux normes
relatives des interfaces de cet équipement.
■
Il n’y a pas de parties remplaceables par les utilisateurs ou
entretenues par les utilisateurs à l’intérieur du moyeu. Si
vous avez un problème physique avec le moyeu qui ne
peut pas être résolu avec les actions de la résolution des
problèmes dans ce guide, contacter votre fournisseur.
■
Débrancher la pièce de raccordement d’alimentation
avant de remuer le moyeu.
AVERTISSEMENT: Le port de données RJ45 de paire
tordue. Ceux-ci est un socle de données RJ45 blindé. Il ne
peut pas être utilisé comme socle de téléphone. Seulement
brancher les connecteurs de données RJ45 à ce socle.
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CONTENTS
IMPORTANT SAFETY INFORMATION
WICHTIGE SICHERHEITSHINWEISE
L’INFORMATION DE SÉCURITÉ IMPORTANTE
ABOUT THIS GUIDE
Introduction 1
How to Use This Guide 1
Conventions 2
Additional Safety Information 3
1
GETTING STARTED
Introduction 1-1
OfficeConnect Remote Features 1-1
Benefits of ISDN 1-3
Pack Contents Checklist 1-4
Registering Ownership Of Your OfficeConnect
Remote 1-5
Pre-installation Requirements 1-5
OfficeConnect Remote Front and Rear Panel
Features 1-6
Installation 1-10
Siting the OfficeConnect Remote 1-10
Using the Rubber Feet and Stacking Clips 1-11
Wall Mounting the OfficeConnect Remote 1-12
Connecting the Power Adapter 1-12
Connecting to Your 10BaseT LAN 1-13
Connecting to a Single Workstation 1-14
Connecting to Your 10Base2 LAN 1-14
Connecting to ISDN 1-15
Connecting to the WAN 1-16
Connecting to the VOICE Port 1-16
Connecting a Management Terminal 1-16
Location of OfficeConnect Fax and Print
Servers 1-16
Quick Configuration 1-17
Starting Quick Configuration 1-17
About Quick Configuration 1-19
Setting the Unit Name 1-20
Connecting to a Novell (IPX) Network 1-21
Connecting to an IP Host on the Same IP
Network 1-22
Connecting to an IP Host on a Different IP
Network 1-23
Connecting to the Internet or a PPP Router 1-25
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Monitoring ISDN Line Usage 1-28
Setting Up a WAN Link 1-28
Examples of Typical ISDN Networking Applications 1-30
Novell Network 1-30
IP Host on the Same IP Network 1-31
IP Host on Another IP Network 1-33
Internet or PPP Router 1-34
Multiple Connections from a Single Site 1-35
Troubleshooting 1-36
A
BRIDGING AND ROUTING
Introduction A-1
Bridging and Routing Concepts A-1
Guidelines For Choosing Bridging or Routing A-2
How Bridges Learn A-2
Bridging Between Remote Sites A-3
Building a Larger Network A-4
Multiple Paths Between Bridged LANs A-5
Network Topology A-6
Broadcast Storms A-6
Optimum Use of Resource A-6
Network Organization, Structure and Physical Layout A-7
The Internet A-7
Routing IP and IPX A-7
IP Routing A-9
IPX Routing A-11
IP Addresses A-12
Numbered and Unnumbered Links A-15
B
TECHNICAL INFORMATION
Specifications B-1
LAN Connector Interfaces B-1
WAN Connector Interface B-1
ISDN Connector Interface B-1
Voice Connector Interface B-1
Management Connector Interface B-1
Bridge Characteristics B-2
Performance B-2
Approvals B-2
FCC Requirement B-3
Dimensions B-4
Interface Cable Characteristics B-5
WAN Port Connecting Cable – V.11/X.21
Support B-5
WAN Port Connecting Cable – V.24/V.28
Support B-6
WAN Port Connecting Cable – V.35/V.36
Support B-7
Manager Port Connecting Cable B-8
Modem Cable B-9
LAN Port Connecting Cable - 10BaseT B-9
Ordering Information B-10
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C
GLOSSARY
D
TECHNICAL SUPPORT
On-line Technical Services D-1
3Com Bulletin Board Service D-1
World Wide Web Site D-2
Support from Your Network Supplier D-2
Support from 3Com D-2
Returning Products for Repair D-3
INDEX
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ABOUT THIS GUIDE
Introduction
This guide describes the features, installation and
initial configuration of the OfficeConnect Remote.
The guide has been designed to be used by both
first-time and experienced computer network users
who want to install and use the OfficeConnect
Remote. xxx
If you are working with an ISDN bridge or router for
the first time, it is possible you may make mistakes.
We have tried to identify the likely errors you may
make and have provided hints and tips to help you
recover from error situations.
Once you have carried out the intial configuration of
the unit using the Quick Configuration option you can
carry out additional configuration to optimize the
unit’s performance on your network. Refer to the
Software Reference guide for more details.
How to Use This Guide
This table shows where to find specific information:
If you are looking for information on:
Turn to:
About the OfficeConnect Remote’s features, a
Chapter 1
description of the front panel indicators and rear
panel connectors and step-by-step installation
and configuration instructions.
An overview of bridging and routing and an
introduction to IP and IPX protocols.
Appendix A
Technical Information and cable specifications
Appendix B
Glossary of technical terms
Appendix C
Technical Support information
Appendix D
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2
ABOUT THIS GUIDE
The text conventions used in this guide are:
Conventions
The icon conventions that are used throughout this
guide are:
Icon
Type
Description
Information Note
Information notes call attention to
important features or instructions.
Caution
Warning
Cautions alert you to personal
safety risk, system damage, or loss
of data.
Warnings alert you to the risk of
severe personal injury.
Convention
Description
“Enter” vs. “Type”
When the word “enter” is used in this
guide, it means type something, then
press the [Return] or [Enter] key. Do not
press the [Return] or [Enter] key when an
instruction simply says “type.”
Text represented as
This typeface is used to represent
screen display displays on your screen, for example:
Enter the unit’s IP address:
Text represented as
commands
This typeface is used to represent
commands that you enter, for example:
CO IS NU
Keys
When specific keys are referred to in the
text, they are called out by their labels,
such as “the Return key” or “the Escape
key,” or they may be shown as [Return] or
[Esc].
If two or more keys are to be pressed
simultaneously, the keys are linked with a
plus sign (+), for example:
Press [Ctrl]+[Alt]+[Del].
Italics
Italics are used to denote new terms or
emphasis.
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Additional Safety Information
■
Additional Safety Information
See also the Important Safety Information at the front
of this guide.
■
■
■
If any of the following conditions occur, isolate the
electricity supply and refer to your 3Com reseller.
■
If the case or cover is not correctly fitted.
■
If the case is damaged.
When using the unit, observe the following safety
information:
■
Retain this user’s guide for later use and pass it on in
the event of change of ownership of the unit.
■
The power adapter supplied with the unit is fitted
with a moulded plug, for connection to a standard
electrical mains system supply socket. If this plug is
not suitable for your connection to your mains
supply, contact your reseller for advice. On no
account should you attempt to connect to your
mains supply using an inappropriate mains adapter.
■
Protect the unit from sudden, transient increases
and decreases in electrical power by fitting an in-line
surge suppresser or uninteruptable power supply.
■
Products manufactured by us are safe and without
risk provided they are installed, used and maintained
in good working order in accordance with our
instructions and recommendations.
3
If the unit begins to make an odd noise, smell or
smoke.
If the unit shows signs of a distinct change in
performance.
■
Never install telephone wires during a lightening
storm, or install telephone connection sockets in
wet locations, unless the socket is specifically
designed for wet locations.
■
Do not touch uninstalled telephone wires or
terminals unless the telephone line has been
disconnected at the network interface. Always
exercise caution when installing or modifying
telephone lines.
■
Do not use a telephone, which is connected to the
unit, to report a gas leak in the vicinity of the leak.
■
Do not spill food or liquids on the unit. If the unit
gets wet, isolate the electrical supply and contact
your 3Com reseller.
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ABOUT THIS GUIDE
4
■
Do not push any objects into the openings of the
unit. Doing so can cause fire or electric shock by
shorting out internal components.
■
Avoid using a telephone, which is connected to the
unit (other than a cordless type), during an electrical
storm. There may be a remote risk of electric shock
from lightning.
■
Equipment connected to the Voice port must be
located in the same building as the unit.
■
Be sure nothing rests on the unit’s system cables and
that the cables are not located where they can be
stepped on and cause damage to the unit.
■
Keep the unit away from radiators and heat sources.
Allow 25mm (1 inch) around the unit to provide
adequate air circulation.
■
Install the unit in a clean area that is free from dust
or extreme temperatures.
■
The unit has been designed to be a free standing
unit or stacked with other OfficeConnect units. Do
not place anything else on top of the unit’s case.
■
Allow a clearance gap of at least a 150 mm from the
rear panel of the unit, to allow for cable access.
■
This product ostensibly complies with the
electro-magnetic compatibility (EMC) requirements
of EN 55022 Class A and EN 50082 (susceptibility).
However, to fully comply with Class B of EN55022 the
following prerequisites should be observed;
■
■
the WAN port must be attached to a screened
digital cable.
the ISDN cable must be used in conjunction with
a three turn ferrite.
■
This unit contains a lithium battery which is
attached to a microchip on the printed circuit board.
The defective battery must be disposed of safely
in-line with the manufacturers instructions.
■
Interconnecting directly, or by way of other
apparatus, to ports complying with SELV
requirements may produce hazardous conditions on
the network. Advice should be sought from a
competent engineer before such a connection is
made.
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1
GETTING STARTED
Introduction
Welcome to the world of inter-networking with
3Com® . This chapter contains all the information you
need to install and configure the OfficeConnect
Remote to make it operational. You can carry out more
sophisticated configuration using the information in
the Software Reference guide.
In the modern business environment sharing
information is crucial. Until now only large businesses
could afford the high speed connections between
offices to gain the networking advantage. The
OfficeConnect Remote changes this and provides
high speed, low cost inter-networking for small
offices and home users.
The OfficeConnect Remote is ideal for linking together
remote offices or workgroups. It is compact and
attractively designed for desktop use and is part of
the OfficeConnect™ range which neatly stack together
with clips to provide a host of other facilities, for
example, Ethernet hub, print sharing and network fax.
OfficeConnect Remote Features
The OfficeConnect Remote is designed to connect a
LAN (Local Area Network) at one location with a
number of other LANs at remote locations. The LAN
could comprise any number of PCs, servers or other
computing equipment, which in an office or small
business environment are typically linked together
using a centrally located OfficeConnect hub. In order
to interconnect the hubs in different locations, the
OfficeConnect Remote unit transmits information
over a WAN (Wide Area Network) service provided by
telephone carrier organizations.
The most modern and efficient of these WAN
services includes ISDN (Integrated Services Digital
Network). This provides a high speed dialup facility
to allow your OfficeConnect Remote to
automatically and quickly dial remote offices,
transmit your data between remote PCs just as
speedily and then disconnect the call. You incur
minimum ISDN telephone charges as calls are made
only when needed. This is known as Dial on Demand.
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1-2
CHAPTER 1: GETTING STARTED
ISDN can also be used to make voice calls using the
OfficeConnect Remote from an ordinary telephone
handset, connect faxes and other similar office
equipment. All OfficeConnect Remote models have
facilities for ISDN data transmission. Some models
have an additional port for voice calls and/or a port
to handle a third category of connection over a
serial WAN port.
The WAN port connects to a permanent leased line,
also available from your telephone carrier
organization. Leased lines are available to work at a
range of speeds which incur higher costs the higher
the line speed. The benefit of leased lines is their
permanence and fixed cost. No dialling is required
but unlike ISDN you pay a fixed cost regardless of
whether you transfer little data or high volumes of
data 24 hours a day.
Overall ISDN is probably the most cost effective
solution for small businesses. However, if your
requirements to move data between sites is likely to
increase you should consider purchasing the
OfficeConnect Remote model fitted with both ISDN
and WAN ports to ensure increased flexibility. The
range of OfficeConnect Remote units is as follows:
■
OfficeConnect Remote 510 – Provides connection
from 10BaseT or Thin Ethernet (10Base2) LANs to
ISDN services for data transfer between remote sites.
■
OfficeConnect Remote 520 – In addition to the data
transfer facilities, this model has a Voice port allowing a
telephone (or other equipment such as a Fax) to
communicate via ISDN.
■
OfficeConnect Remote 530 – This model has the
ISDN and Voice port facilities and additionally the
ability to connect via a WAN port to a serial leased
line.
All of the above models are available with U or S
ISDN interfaces.
Typically, the OfficeConnect Remote is used to
interconnect LANs running protocols such as
Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol
(TCP/IP) or Novell Internetwork Packet Exchange (IPX).
Offering full LAN-to-LAN connectivity at speeds up to
64 Kilobits per second (Kbps) on each ISDN channel
and up to2 Megabits per second (Mbps) on the WAN
port (where fitted), the OfficeConnect Remote is a
compact desktop unit with unrivalled price and
performance.
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Introduction
The principal features of the OfficeConnect Remote are:
■
Easy to install, configure and support.
■
ISDN, 2B+D port, supporting Basic Rate interface of
two 64 Kbps (or two 56 Kbps channels in the USA)
and a 16 Kbps control channel.
■
Optional voice port.
■
Optional Leased line wide area network (WAN)
access port.
■
Data terminal equipment (DTE) management port
■
Support for full IP and IPX routing.
■
Protocol transparent bridging.
■
Sophisticated data packet filtering to provide
network security.
■
Provides NetWare protocol spoofing.
■
Data compression based on an optimized Lempel Ziv
algorithm.
■
Remote and local management.
■
Flash erasable programmable read-only memory
(EPROM), allowing the remote upgrading of the
units operating system.
■
Uses simple network management protocol (SNMP)
and provides management information base (MIB) II
support.
1-3
Benefits of ISDN
ISDN is an extension of the national and international
public switched telephone network, which offers a
digital end-to-end telecommunication system,
providing a better quality service than available using
the analog telephone network. The principal
benefits of ISDN are:
■
Fast call setup times, typically taking less than one
second for national calls.
■
Greater bandwidth with multiple channels.
The basic rate service, often referred to as ISDN 2,
carries two 64 Kbps user channels, called B channels
and one 16 Kbps control channel called the
D channel. The line service is presented into the
customers premises through a standard RJ45 socket.
A significant aspect of the ISDN service is that it can be
provided over the same wiring that was installed for
the original telephone service. Therefore, ISDN can be
made available relatively cheaply almost anywhere
that previously had access to the analog system.
The cost of installation and rental of basic rate ISDN
lines has dropped to the point where it is extremely
attractive as regards cost and performance.
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1-4
CHAPTER 1: GETTING STARTED
Using ISDN to Support Leased Line WAN
Circuits
ISDN provides an ideal service to connect remote
LANs. To be effective, the connecting bandwidth
needed is at least 64 Kbps to achieve a realistic
throughput. Slower speed links can be used but
usually only when usage is low and infrequent, or if
higher speed circuits cannot be provided.
Leased digital point-to-point circuits can still be cost
effective if usage spans many hours per day.
However as ISDN tariffs reduce, this balance also
changes. ISDN can be used to provide effective
backup of these point-to-point WAN circuits in two
ways.
■
■
Firstly, if the point-to-point circuit fails, an ISDN
channel can be dialled-up automatically and quickly,
to provide an alternative path to the remote unit.
Secondly, if the leased circuit becomes heavily loaded
due to peaks in the traffic between remote bridges or
routers, additional bandwidth can be automatically
dialled-up to supplement the bandwidth of the
leased circuit. The interconnected bridges would then
treat the leased line and ISDN channel as parallel links,
sharing the load across the two.
Pack Contents Checklist
Before you install your OfficeConnect Remote, check
the contents of the box against the pack contents
checklist below. If any of the items have been
damaged in transit or are missing, then contact the
3Com dealer from whom the equipment was
purchased.
■
1 x OfficeConnect Remote unit.
■
1 x power adapter fitted with an appropriate plug for
your national power supply.
■
1 x 1.5 meter RJ45 to RJ45 male plug ISDN 2
connecting cable.
■
1 x 1.5 meter DB9 to DB9 serial manager port cable.
■
1 x British Telecom to RJ11 convertor (UK models of
OfficeConnect Remote 520 and 530 only).
■
1 x OfficeConnect Remote User Guide.
■
1 x OfficeConnect Remote Software Reference guide.
■
1 x Warranty Registration Card.
It is important that you save the unit’s box and
protective packing material in case you need to
store, or transport it in the future.
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Introduction
Registering Ownership Of Your OfficeConnect
Remote
A warranty registration card is enclosed in the box
with your OfficeConnect Remote. Please take a few
moments before commencing the installation to fill
in the card and post it to us.
1-5
Pre-installation Requirements
Before you install your OfficeConnect Remote you
will need the following:
■
A suitable cable for connection to your LAN (or
workstation if only a single workstation is attached to
this unit).
Although the OfficeConnect Remote has two LAN
connections (10Base2 and 10BaseT), only one port
can be used at a time.
■
A standard ISDN line wall socket to connect the
ISDN cable to the ISDN port of the OfficeConnect
Remote. If a suitably sited wall socket is not already
available, then contact your telecommunications
supplier for assistance.
■
A suitable cable to connect to your ISDN socket.
A 1.5 meter ISDN cable is supplied with this unit.
■
The ISDN telephone number of the remote ISDN
unit in order to carry out the connection
configuration procedure.
■
A suitable WAN cable if you are connecting to the
remote site over a leased line.
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CHAPTER 1: GETTING STARTED
1-6
OfficeConnect Remote Front and Rear Panel Features
Front Panel
Figure 1-1 OfficeConnect Remote Front Panel Features
! ALERT (Orange) This LED indicator shows four
states.
■
■
■
■
Off – Normal operation and no faults detected.
Slow flash – Loading software during power up or
new software is being downloaded to the unit.
Quick flash – Self test during power up.
On – Problem detected. Refer to
“Troubleshooting” on page 1-38 for more
information.
POWER (Green) This LED indicator shows three states:
■
■
On – Power is connected to the unit.
Slow flash – New software is being downloaded
to the unit.
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Introduction
■
■
Quick flash – Self test or software loading during
power up.
Off – No power supplied to the unit. See
“Troubleshooting” on page 1-38 for more details.
1-7
LINK (Orange) This LED indicator shows the
condition of the LAN connection:
■
Off – No LAN connection detected.
■
On – LAN connected.
ISDN OK (Green) This LED indicator provides
confirmation of the state of the ISDN line.
■
■
■
On – Indicates the OfficeConnect Remote is
connected to a working ISDN line. Sometimes
this LED does not light until the first call attempt
is made.
Flashing – A fault condition has been identified
on the ISDN line.
Off – No ISDN connection present.
ISDN1 and ISDN 2 ( Yellow) These LED indicators
provide confirmation that an ISDN call is in progress
on ISDN Channel 1 or Channel 2. You are connected
to a remote ISDN unit and are incurring ISDN call
charges while this LED is lit. If the LED is flashing it
indicates that a call is being made but a connection
has not yet been made to the remote unit.
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CHAPTER 1: GETTING STARTED
1-8
VOICE (Yellow) If a Voice port is fitted this LED shows
the status of the voice connection:
■
■
On – A voice call is in progress.
Flashing – Indicates that handset is off the hook
and a dial tone is present or a call is being dialled
or ringing out. It also shows if the handset is
ringing (receiving an incoming call).
WAN (Yellow) This LED indicator provides
confirmation of the state of the WAN link (if fitted). If
the LED is lit, the WAN connection is valid and can
pass data across the link. If the LED is flashing it
indicates a fault on the WAN port.
ISDN Utilization (Green/Yellow) These LEDs show
the ISDN utilization as a percentage of network
loading. If you consistently see a continuous ISDN
loading of 100% and you require faster throughput,
then you might consider the following:
■
■
You could configure the unit to filter some of
the data. See the Software Reference guide for
more information.
An additional ISDN or WAN link is possibly
required to cope with the amount of data you
need to transfer.
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Introduction
1-9
Rear Panel
Figure 1-2 OfficeConnect Remote Rear Panel Features
POWER Only use the power adapter supplied with
the OfficeConnect Remote to connect to the mains
power supply. Do not use any other adapter with this
unit. If the plug on the power adapter does not
match the mains inlet socket, contact your reseller
for further advice.
SERIAL The Serial Manager port enables a
management PC or terminal to be connected to the
OfficeConnect Remote using the 9-pin V.24 Serial
Manager cable supplied with the unit. The port
provides VT100 terminal emulation, running at 9600
bps. Refer to Appendix B for more information about
cables.
RESET For Technical Support use only.
You also need a proprietary communications
software package such as Windows ‘Terminal’ to
communicate with the OfficeConnect Remote.
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1-10
CHAPTER 1: GETTING STARTED
COAX (10Base2 Coaxial Port) – The coaxial LAN port
allows a 10Base2 Ethernet segment to be connected
directly to the OfficeConnect Remote. If the unit is to
be installed at the end of a cable run, then a 50 Ohm
terminator must be fitted to the 10Base2 cable
connector. This port can be used to connect to
OfficeConnect hubs.
MDI/MDIX Switch Affects the operation of the
10BaseT LAN port. If you are connecting to a hub, leave
the switch in the In position. If you are connecting to a
single PC, set the switch to the Out position to
implement the 10BaseT crossover that is required.
WAN (OfficeConnect Remote 520 and 530 only)
This port is used to provide connection to a WAN, via
a private leased line. The port terminates with a
25-way D-type female connector. This port supports
any of the CCITT data transmission standards;
X.21/V.11 V.24/V.28 (RS232), and V.35/V.36 at data
transfer rates up to 2 Mbps. Provided that connection
cables that follow these standards are used, the
OfficeConnect Remote automatically detects the
type of interface that the port is required to support,
and configure it accordingly.
Refer to Appendix B for information about the WAN
interface cables required. Suitable cables are available
from your 3Com reseller as spare parts, refer to
Appendix B for required item part number
10BASET This RJ45 port is to the left of the ISDN socket
when looking at the rear of the unit and is used to
provide a connection to a 10BaseT LAN. This socket
allows direct connection between the OfficeConnect
Remote and a single piece of equipment, as opposed to
multi-point LAN connections using 10Base2 cabling
systems. The OfficeConnect Remote LAN port simulates
the characteristics of a workstation port, which allows it
to be directly connected to a LAN or network hub port
as required.
If the LAN port is to be connected directly to a single
PC or workstation, then you must implement the
crossover by setting the MDI/MDIX switch to the out
position. See “MDI/MDIX Switch” for more
information.
ISDN This port is used to connect to the ISDN network.
The port uses an RJ45 connection socket situated to the
left of the 10BaseT LAN socket. A standard ISDN line
wall socket is required to connect the ISDN cable to the
ISDN port of the OfficeConnect Remote.
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Introduction
VOICE (where fitted) This port is used to connect an
optional public switched telephone network (PSTN)
telephone handset, or any other compatible analog
equipment, operating in digital tone multiple
frequency (DTMF) mode, by connecting the
handset’s plug into this port.
This port is in effect an analog to digital convertor
which allows you to use your conventional PSTN
telephone on an ISDN line. It is capable of supporting
ringing current and call progress tones, and
supports analog devices to a maximum ringer
equivalence number (REN) of two (United Kingdom).
Providing one of the two 64 Kbps ISDN channels is
not being used by the unit, then a voice call can be
made.
Incoming ISDN traffic carries both a voice and data
identifier and depending on the type of transmission,
a voice call is automatically directed to the
appropriate port connected to the telephone
handset.
The VOICE port is terminated with an RJ11 socket. If
your telephone equipment uses a different connector
jack, you will need to obtain a suitable convertor to
connect to the VOICE port. A British Telecom to RJ11
1-11
convertor is supplied with UK models fitted with a
Voice port.
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CHAPTER 1: GETTING STARTED
1-12
Installation
Using the Rubber Feet and Stacking Clips
The four self-adhesive rubber feet prevent your hub
from sliding around on your desk. Stick the feet to
the marked areas at each corner of the underside of
your hub.
Siting the OfficeConnect Remote
When siting the OfficeConnect Remote, ensure:
■
It is accessible and cables can be easily connected.
■
It is out of direct sunlight and away from sources of
heat.
■
Cabling is away from:
■
■
The four stacking clips are used for neatly and
securely stacking your OfficeConnect units together.
You can stack up to a maximum of four units.
Large units must be stacked below small units.
To stack your units, secure the clips on one side and
then on the other. Use the following method to
secure one side:
Sources of electrical noise, such as radios,
transmitters and broadband amplifiers.
Power lines and fluorescent lighting fixtures.
■
Water or moisture cannot enter the case of the unit.
■
Air flow around the unit and through the vents in
the side of the case is not restricted. We recommend
that you provide a minimum of 25mm (approx. 1
inch) clearance around the unit.
1
Place your new unit on a flat surface. Your clips fit in
the positions on the side of the unit, as shown in
Figure 1-3 (1).
2
Position a clip over one of these holes and push it in
until it clicks into place, as shown in Figure 1-3 (2).
Repeat this for the other clip position on the same
side.
3
Keeping the front of the units aligned, rest the
bottom of the new unit on the clips’ spikes, as shown
in Figure 1-3 (3). Push the clips firmly into the new
unit until they click into place.
To prolong the operational life of your equipment:
■
Never stack OfficeConnect units more than four high
and ensure that they are clipped securely together.
■
Do not place objects on top of any unit or stack.
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Using the Rubber Feet and Stacking Clips
1-13
Wall Mounting the OfficeConnect Remote
There are two slots on the underside of the
OfficeConnect Remote which are used for wall
mounting. You can mount the unit with the LEDs
facing upwards or downwards, to suit your needs.
When wall mounting your OfficeConnect Remote,
ensure that it is within reach of the mains socket.
You need two suitable screws. Ensure that the wall
you are going to use is smooth, flat, dry and sturdy.
Make two screw holes which are 142 mm (5.6 in)
apart. Fix the screws into the wall, leaving their heads
3 mm (0.12 in) clear of the wall surface.
Figure 1-3 Clipping Your Units Together
Repeat these steps to secure the other side.
To remove a clip, hold the units firmly with one hand
and hook the first finger of your other hand around
the back of the clip. Use reasonable force to pull it
off.
Remove any connections to the units and locate it
over the screw heads. When in line, gently push the
OfficeConnect Remote on to the wall and move it
downwards to secure. When making connections,
be careful not to push the unit up and off the wall.
CAUTION: Only wall mount single units, do not wall
mount stacked units.
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1-14
CHAPTER 1: GETTING STARTED
Connecting the Power Adapter
Connecting to Your 10BaseT LAN
CAUTION: First, read the section; “Important Safety
Information” at the start of this manual.
Isolate the electrical mains system supply before
commencing installation.
Ensure any on/off power switches at the outlet
socket are set to their ‘OFF’ positions.
1
Connect the jack of the power adapter to the socket
on the rear panel of the OfficeConnect Remote (see
“Rear Panel” on page 1-8).
2
Plug the mains lead of the power adapter into an
adjacent electrical mains system socket and if
necessary turn on the power at the outlet socket.
3
The OfficeConnect Remote performs a self test and
loads the software. During the self test and software
loading the ALERT and POWER LEDs flash.
Figure 1-4 Connect The UTP Cable To OfficeConnect hub
You can connect the OfficeConnect Remote to a
hub using 10BaseT cable in the following way:
1
Connect the UTP cable (not supplied) to the 10BaseT
port of the OfficeConnect Remote.
2
Connect the other end to a 10BaseT port on your hub.
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Using the Rubber Feet and Stacking Clips
1-15
Connecting to a Single Workstation
To connect the OfficeConnect Remote to a single
personal computer or workstation:
Figure 1-5 Connect The UTP Cable To In-House Lan Connection Box
To connect the OfficeConnect Remote to in-house
LAN:
1
Connect the UTP cable (not supplied) into RJ45
socket marked LAN on the OfficeConnect Remote.
2
Connect the other end of the cable into the female
socket of the in-house LAN connection box, as shown
in Figure 1-5, or directly to a 10BaseT hub port.
1
Implement the crossover for the 10BaseT port on
the OfficeConnect Remote by setting the MDI/MDIX
switch to MDIX (out).
2
Connect the UTP cable (not supplied) directly into the
RJ45 socket marked LAN on the OfficeConnect
Remote.
3
Connect the other end to the 10BaseT socket on the
workstation’s Ethernet adapter.
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1-16
CHAPTER 1: GETTING STARTED
Connecting to Your 10Base2 LAN
You can use the10Base2 Coaxial port to connect to
your network and to other OfficeConnect units.
When using 10Base2 cable, it is important that both
ends of the segment are properly terminated with
50 Ohm end pieces.
Only use 50 Ohm 10BaseT cables and use a ‘Y’ piece
for each unit to ensure adequate clearance of the
other ports. Due to the small size of the unit, you may
find that a traditional ‘T’ piece does not provide
enough clearance to allow space for fingers and
cables when units are stacked together.
1
Connect a 10Base2 ‘Y’ piece to each OfficeConnect
unit and every other device to be connected.
2
Daisy-chain each ‘Y’ piece with a length of 10Base2
coaxial cable to form a single segment as shown in
Figure 1-6. Remember to terminate the two free ends
of the segment by fitting end pieces.
To disconnect a 10Base2 cable, twist each connector
counter-clockwise to unlock it and remove it.
Figure 1-6 Connecting 10Base2 Cable
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Using the Rubber Feet and Stacking Clips
Connecting to ISDN
1-17
Connecting to the WAN
If your OfficeConnect Remote unit is fitted with a WAN
port, you can connect to a WAN Network Terminating
Unit (NTU) fitted by your WAN service supplier. Using a
suitable WAN cable (as described in Appendix B)
connect one end to the WAN port on the
OfficeConnect Remote unit and the other to the NTU.
Connecting to the VOICE Port
If your OfficeConnect Remote is fitted with a Voice
port, then a standard telephone handset or other
analog telephony equipment, such as a a fax or
answering machine, can be connected to the port
marked VOICE if required. This port can also be used
to connect the OfficeConnect fax server to ISDN.
Figure 1-7 Connect ISDN Cable Into A Proprietary ISDN Wall Box
Connect the supplied ISDN cable from the ISDN port
into the ISDN wall box (NT1). See Figure 1-7.
CAUTION: Do not connect the ISDN line into the
OfficeConnect Remote’s LAN port as the ISDN line
voltage could damage the unit.
Some service providers offer Basic Rate ISDN
connections with a single B-channel. If you connect a
handset to a unit connected to this type of ISDN
service, you cannot pass data while the voice port is
in use. We recommend that you only connect voice
equipment to ISDN services offering the standard
2 B-channel Basic Rate service.
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1-18
CHAPTER 1: GETTING STARTED
The VOICE port is terminated with an RJ-11 socket. If
your telephone equipment uses a different connector,
you will need to obtain a suitable convertor to connect
to the VOICE port. A British Telecom to RJ11 convertor is
supplied with UK models fitted with a Voice port.
A dial tone is not provided to the handset if the ISDN
line is not operational or has been disconnected.
Connecting a Management Terminal
Connect the Serial Manager cable to the Serial
Manager port (marked Serial). Connect the other
end to the serial COM port on your PC workstation.
When you have connected a management terminal,
you can configure the Office Connect Remote to
communicate with the remote site(s). See “Quick
Configuration” overleaf.
Location of OfficeConnect Fax and Print
Servers
If you are connecting the OfficeConnect Fax Server or
Print Server to the OfficeConnect Remote, you must
configure these units to operate with local servers
only. If you do not do this, unnecessary ISDN calls are
made, caused by the fax or print server polling the fax
or print queue on remote servers at regular intervals
(between once every 30 seconds to once a minute).
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Quick Configuration
Quick Configuration
This section describes how you can configure the
unit to bridge or route over ISDN links to suit most
networking requirements using a simple forms-based
user interface. If you want to connect to a remote
site using leased line WAN links see “Setting Up a
WAN Link” on page 1-29.
If you are unsure about the networking configuration
you require, see “Examples of Typical ISDN
Networking Applications” on page 1-31 for more
information.
IMPORTANT The Quick Configuration menu option is
designed to be used only when you set up the unit for
the first time. If you want to make any changes to the
unit’s configuration at a later stage, you should use
the management system menus to make these
changes. For more information, see the Software
Reference guide.
Starting Quick Configuration
1
Using a VT100 compliant terminal emulator, setup the
terminal emulation to VT100 with communications
parameters set as follows; select the COM port to be
1-19
used for data transmission, 9600 bits/s – 8 data bits – 1
stop bit – no parity, with flow control set to none.
Example Using Windows 3.1 Terminal Application
Start the Windows ‘Terminal’ application. Using a
mouse, click on Settings in the status bar to reveal
the menu.
From the menu:
a
Select the Terminal Emulation dialog box; confirm
that DEC VT-100 (ANSI) is selected.
b
Select the Communications dialog box; check the
communications parameters are set as above.
c
Select the Terminal Preferences dialog box;
confirm that all check-boxes have been cleared.
Should the cursor disappear during configuration,
confirm that the Cursor Blink check-box has been
checked (i.e. shows a cross in it).
Should the keyboard arrow keys fail to move the
cursor during configuration, confirm that the ‘Use
Function, Arrow, and Ctrl Keys for Windows’
check-box has not been checked.
d
Now save this configuration as a Windows
terminal emulator file for future use.
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1-20
CHAPTER 1: GETTING STARTED
If you are using Windows 95, use the Hyperterminal
application and configure it in the same way as
described above.
Figure 1-8 The Main Menu Screen
2
If the terminal emulator has been correctly
configured, pressing [RETURN] displays the Enter
Password screen.
3
Enter the default password, PASSWORD using
uppercase characters. The Main Menu appears as
shown in Figure 1-8.
Figure 1-9 Quick Configuration Menu
4
At the command prompt enter QC
The screen changes to display the Quick
Configuration menu shown in Figure 1-9.
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Quick Configuration
About Quick Configuration
You can configure the unit to connect to other Novell
networks, to bridge to hosts on the same IP network
(a network with the same IP network address), to
route to a different IP network (an IP network with a
different IP network address) and to connect to the
Internet or other Point-to-Point Protocol (PPP) router.
By using the commands several times, you can
configure the unit to automatically connect to a
combination of the above networks or to several
different networks of the same type.
For example, if you need to connect to an IPX site, an
IP host on a different network and to the Internet
using an ISDN connection to your Internet service
provider you would do the following.
■
Use the NO command to configure the connection to
the Novell server at the remote site.
■
Use the IPR command to configure the connection
to the remote IP host.
■
Use the IN command to configure the connection to
your Internet service provider’s router.
You cannot configure the unit to be an IP bridge and
IP router at the same time.
1-21
The OfficeConnect Remote talks to other
OfficeConnect Remote units using its own very
efficient FastConnect protocol over the ISDN or WAN
port connections. If you need to communicate with
another manufacturer’s equipment, then you need to
configure the OfficeConnect Remote to use the PPP
protocol using the Internet option. See later in this
section for more information. You can further
configure the PPP parameters using the
management system. See the Software Reference
guide for more information.
Before configuring the unit to use PPP, you should
check with your Internet service provider or with the
system administrator of the remote site to find out
which PPP parameters should be set and what their
values should be. Do not attempt to configure the
unit to use PPP without this information.
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1-22
CHAPTER 1: GETTING STARTED
Setting the Unit Name
Before you configure the unit to connect to any
other network, you must first give the unit a name.
Enter NA at the command prompt on the Quick
Configuration screen to display the screen illustrated
in Figure 1-10.
The fields on this screen are:
Unit Name Type in a suitable name for this unit. The
name can be up to 12 characters long, must contain
no spaces and should, where possible, give an
indication of the geographical location of the unit or
the name of the users.
Manager LAN IP Address Type the IP address for
this unit. It must be a unique IP address on your
network.
Manager LAN IP Mask Enter an appropriate IP
subnet mask. See “Subnet Masking” in Appendix A
for more information about subnet masks.
Network Type Toggle the network type to match
the ISDN service provided by your ISDN service
provider.
Figure 1-10 Setting The Unit Name
SPID 1 and 2 Service Profile IDs (SPID) are used by
some ISDN service providers in the USA. If SPID is
used, enter the value you are given by your ISDN
service provider. Leave this field blank if you have
not been provided a SPID.
Directory Number 1 and 2 Enter the ISDN number
associated with each SPID.
Press [CTRL]+[E] to submit these parameters.
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Quick Configuration
Connecting to a Novell (IPX) Network
To connect to a Novell network using FastConnect,
enter NO at the command prompt on the Quick
Configuration screen to display the screen illustrated
in Figure 1-11.
1-23
Do you have a local server? Use the [Spacebar] to
toggle this field to Yes or No as appropriate.
If you have a local server, the unit’s configuration is
updated to ensure that no data destined for local
servers is passed over the link
Remote ISDN Number Type the ISDN number of the
remote unit that connects to the Novell network.
Call Type Set the Call Type for each ISDN number.
Use 64k Unrestricted for Euro ISDN lines. Use 56k V.110
or 56k_restricted in the USA depending on the
requirements of your ISDN service provider.
Press [CTRL]+[E] to submit this information.
Figure 1-11 Connecting To A Novell Network
Complete the fields on this screen as follows:
When you do this the unit automatically makes a
short call to the remote unit to interrogate the
remote network for information about its servers.
When it has obtained the information it needs the
call is automatically disconnected. The unit then
updates the autocall table so that when data is
destined for a remote server, the unit automatically
dials the correct ISDN number and connects to the
remote network.
Enter SAVE at the command prompt to permanently
store this configuration in the unit’s memory.
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1-24
CHAPTER 1: GETTING STARTED
Connecting to an IP Host on the Same IP
Network
To connect to an IP host on the same network using
FastConnect, enter IPB at the command prompt on
the Quick Configuration screen to display the screen
illustrated in Figure 1-12.
Remote ISDN Number Type the ISDN number of the
remote unit that connects to the IP network.
Call Type Set the Call Type for each ISDN number.
Use 64k Unrestricted for Euro ISDN lines. Use 56k V.110
or 56k_restricted in the USA depending on the
requirements of your ISDN service provider.
Remote IP Address Type the IP address of the
remote IP host to which you want to connect.
Press [CTRL]+[E] to submit this information.
An entry is made in the autocall table so that if any
data destined to the remote host, a call is made
automatically and a connection made to the remote
IP network.
Enter SAVE at the command prompt to permanently
store this configuration in the unit’s memory.
Figure 1-12 Connecting To An IP Host On The Same Network
Complete the fields on this screen as follows:
Although calls to the remote site are only generated
when data is addressed to a specific IP host or hosts
(in our example, 191.000.000.100), any data that
cannot be identified as local is also passed over the
link while it is open. This can prevent the link from
closing after the intended data has been transferred.
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Quick Configuration
To avoid this situation you can also configure the
units at both ends of the link to implement a Firewall
and/or set the Maximum Call Duration in the ISDN
parameters screen to reduce the amount of traffic
permitted to pass across the link. See the Software
Reference guide for more information about these
features.
1-25
Connecting to an IP Host on a Different IP
Network
To connect to an IP host on a different network using
FastConnect, enter IPR at the command prompt on
the Quick Configuration screen to display the screen
illustrated in Figure 1-13.
Alternatively, you may wish to configure the unit to
operate as a router to prevent this problem occurring
altogether. However, this requires that each site
consists of separate subnets. See the next section for
more information.
Figure 1-13 Connecting to an IP Host on a Different Network
Complete the fields on this screen as follows:
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1-26
CHAPTER 1: GETTING STARTED
Remote ISDN Number Type the ISDN number of the
remote unit that connects to the remote IP network.
Call Type Set the Call Type for each ISDN number.
Use 64k Unrestricted for Euro ISDN lines. Use 56k V.110
or 56k_restricted in the USA depending on the
requirements of your ISDN service provider.
IP Address of this unit’s LAN Type the IP address of
this unit. This the address you entered on the Name
screen.
IP Mask of this unit’s LAN Type the IP subnet mask
you entered for this unit on the Name screen. See
Appendix A for more information about subnet masks.
IP Address of this end of the ISDN link By default
this field is set to UNNUMBERED which allows
unnumbered links to be used. This options is suitable
for most network configurations. See Appendix A for
more information about numbered and unnumbered
links.
If you want to use numbered links, you must enter
an IP address for this port that is on a different
network or subnetwork than the unit’s IP address.
IP Address at the other end of the ISDN link By
default this field is set to 0.0.0.0 indicating unnumbered
links are being used. If you are using numbered links,
type the IP address of the remote ISDN port on the unit
to which you want to connect. It must be on the same
network or subnetwork as the local ISDN port.
IP Mask of the ISDN Link If you are using
unnumbered links, leave this field set to 0.0.0.0. If you
are using numbered links, type a subnet mask
suitable use with the IP addresses you have selected
for the ISDN ports at both ends of the link. See
Appendix A for more information about subnet masks.
IP Address of the Remote Host Type the IP address
of remote host to which you want to connect.
Remote IP Mask Type an IP subnet mask to match
the address type being used. See Appendix A for
more information about subnet masks.
Press [CTRL]+[E] to submit this information.
An entry is made in the autocall table so if any data
destined to the remote host, an automatic call is made
and a connection made to the remote IP network.
Enter SAVE at the command prompt to permanently
store this configuration in the unit’s memory.
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Quick Configuration
Connecting to the Internet or a PPP Router
To connect to an Internet router or to a router using
Point-to-Point Protocol (PPP), enter IN at the
command prompt on the Quick Configuration screen
to display the screen illustrated in Figure 1-14.
1-27
If you are connecting to the Internet, your service
provider will be able to give you the correct values for
each of these fields.
If you are connecting to a remote PPP router, check
with the system administrator of the remote network
for the correct values for these fields.
Name of your Internet Provider or remote site
Type the name of your Internet service provider or of
the remote unit that connects to the remote IP network.
ISDN Number of the remote unit Type the ISDN
number of the remote unit that connects to the
remote IP network.
Call Type Set the Call Type for each ISDN number.
Use 64k Unrestricted for Euro ISDN lines. Use 56k V.110
or 56k_restricted in the USA depending on the
requirements of your ISDN service provider.
Figure 1-14 Connecting To The Internet Or PPP Router
Complete the fields on this screen as follows:
IP Address of this unit’s LAN Type the IP address of
this unit. This the address you entered on the Name
screen.
IP Mask of this unit’s LAN Type the IP subnet mask
you entered for this unit on the Name screen. See
Appendix A for more information about subnet masks.
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1-28
CHAPTER 1: GETTING STARTED
IP Address of this end of the ISDN link By default
this field is set to UNNUMBERED which allows
unnumbered links to be used. This options is suitable
for most network configurations. See Appendix A for
more information about numbered and unnumbered
links.
If you want to use numbered links, you must enter
an IP address for this port that is on a different
network or subnetwork than the unit’s IP address.
If you are routing IPX using PPP, you must use
numbered links.
IP Address at the other end of the ISDN link By
default this field is set to UNNUMBERED indicating
unnumbered links are being used. If you are using
numbered links, type the IP address of the remote
ISDN port on the unit to which you want to connect.
It must be on the same network or subnetwork as
the local ISDN port.
IP Mask of the ISDN Link If you are using
unnumbered links, leave this field set to 0.0.0.0. If you
are using numbered links, type a subnet mask
suitable use with the IP addresses you have selected
for the ISDN ports at both ends of the link. See
Appendix A for more information about subnet masks.
IP Address of the Remote Host Type the IP address
of a host on the remote network to which you want
to connect.
IP Mask of the remote host’s network Type an IP
subnet mask to filter connections to inappropriate
hosts. See Appendix A for more information about
subnet masks.
Make of remote router This option sets PPP
parameters needed to connect to the remote unit in
its default configuration. If the remote unit’s PPP
configuration has been altered, you will need to
amend the PPP parameters on this unit to reflect the
changes. Refer to the Software Reference guide for
more information
Toggle this field to the type of remote router to
which you are connecting. The PPP options for the
default settings at the remote router are then
automatically configured when you press [CTRL]+[E]
to exit this screen. The options are:
■
Default – Use this option if you are connecting to
another OfficeConnect Remote. Also use this
option if the remote unit is none of the following
and amend the PPP parameters accordingly.
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Quick Configuration
■
3Com – 3Com NETBuilder router.
■
Cisco – Cisco router.
■
Ascend – Ascend router.
■
Spider – Spider/Shiva router.
If you are connecting to a Spider/Shiva router, you
need also to edit the ISDN port’s configuration and set
the PAP field in the LCP Configuration screen to
Incoming. See the Software Reference guide for details.
PAP Password to login to Remote Site By default
this is set to UNUSED. If you need to use a PAP
password, enter the password provided by your
Internet service provider or the system administrator
responsible for the remote router. This password is
submitted to the remote unit for it to verify.
The password is case-sensitive.
PAP Password for others to login to you By default
this is set to UNUSED. If you need to use a PAP
password, enter the password provided by your
Internet service provider or the system administrator
responsible for the remote router. Your unit verifies
that the remote unit is valid by comparing its
submitted PAP password with the entry in this field.
The password is case-sensitive.
1-29
CHAP Password to login to Remote Site By default
this is set to UNUSED. If you need to use a CHAP
password, enter the password provided by your
Internet service provider or the system administrator
responsible for the remote router. This password is
submitted to the remote unit for it to verify. The
password is case-sensitive. To ensure security, it is
recommended that the local password is different
from the remote password.
CHAP Password for others to login to you By
default this is set to UNUSED. If you need to use a
CHAP password, enter the password provided by your
Internet service provider or the system administrator
responsible for the remote router. Your unit verifies
that the remote unit is valid by comparing its
submitted CHAP password with the entry in this
field. The password is case-sensitive.
Press [CTRL]+[E] to save this information.
An entry is made in the autocall table so that if any
data destined for the Internet or Remote PPP routed
network, a call is made automatically and a
connection made to the remote router.
Enter SAVE at the command prompt to permanently
store this configuration in the unit’s memory.
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1-30
CHAPTER 1: GETTING STARTED
Monitoring ISDN Line Usage
Setting Up a WAN Link
After you have first configured the unit for use with
ISDN, it is important to monitor ISDN line usage to
ensure that the unit is working in the way you expect.
Check the ISDN 1 and ISDN 2 LEDs to ensure that
unexpected calls are not being made or that
connections are not remaining open when you
expect them to have closed.
Even if the ISDN Utilization LEDs are not lit, call with
little or no data transfer may be in progress depending
on how you have connected or configured the unit.
As in a conventional telephone call, charges are made
regardless of what is sent down the line until the call is
dropped.
If you want to ensure that ISDN line usage is limited,
set up ISDN Timebands or set the Maximum Call
Duration parameter. See the Software Reference guide
for more information on these features.
If you are using the OfficeConnect Remote to
connect to a remote site over a leased line link, the
initial setup is very simple.
1
Before you power on the unit, connect an
appropriate WAN cable to the WAN port on the rear
of the unit. If you have already powered on the unit,
switch it off and connect the cable.
For more information about suitable cables, see
Appendix B.
2
Power on the unit.
The OfficeConnect Remote automatically configures
the WAN port to the appropriate line speed.
3
Refer to the Software Reference guide and edit the
WAN port’s configuration as follows:
a
From the main menu, enter CO PO.
b
Highlight the WAN port.
c
Enter ED to display the Edit WAN Port screen
shown in Figure 1-15.
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Setting Up a WAN Link
d
If you are routing, edit the Port IP address to set
it to UNNUMBERED or to a valid IP address for the
WAN link.
See Appendix A for more information about
using numbered and unnumbered links.
If you are bridging, leave this field at the default
setting.
e
If necessary, change any of the other parameters
to suit your WAN link. In most cases the defaults
can be used.
f
Press [CTRL]+[E] to submit this configuration.
The WAN port is now configured and provided the
remote unit’s WAN port has also been configured,
data will be passed across the link.
Enter SAVE at the command prompt to permanently
store this configuration in the unit’s memory.
Figure 1-15 Edit WAN Port Screen
1-31
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1-32
CHAPTER 1: GETTING STARTED
Examples of Typical ISDN Networking
Applications
This section describes four of the most common
applications of the OfficeConnect Remote. All of
these configurations can be carried out using the
Quick Configuration option and no further
configuration is necessary to make the unit
operational. However, you may want to fine tune
the performance of the OfficeConnect Remote. The
information provided in the Software Reference guide
will help you do this.
The four typical applications are:
■
Connecting to a Novell Network.
■
Connecting to an IP host on the same IP network.
■
Connecting to an IP host on another IP network.
■
Connecting to the Internet or a PPP router.
You may need to combine two or more of these
applications to provide full connectivity to your
network. This is easily done by repeating the Quick
Configuration option as many times as is needed.
Novell Network
Many organizations base their local area networks
on Novell NetWare servers and users may need to
access information stored on servers in other
locations. If you are using ISDN to connect to the
remote site, you can configure the OfficeConnect
Remote to automatically call and connect to remote
Novell servers when connection is required.
During configuration, once you have entered the
ISDN number for the remote site, the OfficeConnect
Remote makes a call to the remote site and
autodiscovers the Novell servers on that network. It is
then able to autocall the remote site whenever a
connection to one of the remote servers is
requested. To the user at the local site it will appear
as though the server is on the same network.
When no data is being passed between the workstation
and server, the OfficeConnect Remote closes the ISDN
connection and the units at each end of the link spoof
the Novell IPX protocol so that both the workstation
and server believe the connection is still valid. As soon
as the unit identifies that data needs to be passed to
the server, the ISDN connection is re-established
without the user being aware of ever being
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Examples of Typical ISDN Networking Applications
disconnected. In this way ISDN calls are kept to a
minimum.
Figure 1-16 Connecting to a Remote Novell Network
In the example shown in Figure 1-16, the Local Site is
connected to a Remote Site. The Local Site shown
has several workstations and a server but could
equally consist solely of workstations or even a single
workstation (such as in the case of a homeworker).
The Remote Site may be a central site for an
organization or simply another like-sized office.
If you are connecting to the remote site over a WAN
leased line link, the OfficeConnect Remote has no
need to spoof the IPX protocol as there is a
permanent connection in place. Once the
1-33
OfficeConnect Remote has determined that the
server is on the Remote Site all data between the
server and workstation is passed over the link.
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1-34
CHAPTER 1: GETTING STARTED
IP Host on the Same IP Network
If your organization operates a TCP/IP network and
needs to extend the IP network over geographically
remote sites, it is possible to bridge the network
using the OfficeConnect Remote. It is only possible to
bridge where both sites have the same network
address and the devices are on the same subnet. In a
class C IP address, the network address is the first
three groups of numbers. For example:
192.000.000.xxx
where xxx represents the host ID of the individual
devices on the subnet. See “IP Addresses” in
Appendix A for more information about addresses.
Typically IP bridging would be used to connect a
back office or home office into a main site. Any
further network connections would be carried out
from the main site. An example of such a network is
shown in Figure 1-17.
During configuration, you enter the ISDN number and
the IP addresses of any hosts to which you want to
connect. In the example in Figure 1-17, the IP address
of the host 191.000.000.100 is used and only when data
destined for this device is received by the OfficeConnect
Remote, is a call made to the remote site.
Figure 1-17 IP Bridged Network
There are some issues about which you should be
aware when implementing an IP bridging solution.
■
Although calls to the remote site are only generated
when data is addressed to a specific IP host or hosts
(in our example, 191.000.000.100), any data that
cannot be identified as local is also passed over the
link while it is open. This can prevent the link from
closing after the intended data has been transferred.
■
Some devices and applications (for example
autodiscovery programs on SNMP managers) poll all
devices on a subnet at regular intervals and this
could lead to frequent ISDN calls if you have entered
Rc.bk : RC01.FRM Page 35 Thursday, July 10, 1997 9:53 AM
Examples of Typical ISDN Networking Applications
several IP hosts to generate autocalls to the remote
site. When combined with the problem described
above, you could find your ISDN line permanently
connected.
To avoid this situation you need to be sure that no
devices or applications exist on your local site that
could make unnecessary and costly calls to your
remote site. You can also configure the
OfficeConnect Remote units at both ends of the link
to implement a Firewall and/or Call Guillotine to
reduce the amount of traffic permitted to pass across
the link. See the Software Reference guide for more
information about these features.
Alternatively, you may wish to configure the
OfficeConnect Remote to operate as a router to
prevent this problem occurring altogether. This
however requires that each site consists of separate
subnets. See the next section for more information
about IP routing.
1-35
IP Host on Another IP Network
Most organizations using TCP/IP protocols on their
network, choose to subnet remote sites or even to
have them on different networks. This requires that
connections to remote sites are routed rather than
bridged. The advantage of routing over bridging is
that calls to the remote site are only made when
data is specifically addressed to a remote network.
Bridging passes any data not known to be for the
local network to the remote network whether that is
its destination or not.
Because the ISDN number can be associated with a
remote network rather than just a specific IP host,
any data for the remote network can generate an
autocall and be routed over the OfficeConnect
Remote. If you need to connect to IP hosts on several
networks, you will need to use routing to be able to
communicate with the different hosts.
The example shown in Figure 1-18 shows the Local
Site connected to two Remote sites over ISDN. All
sites are connected using OfficeConnect Remote
units.
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1-36
CHAPTER 1: GETTING STARTED
Internet or PPP Router
Some small businesses need high-speed connections
into the Internet or need to connect to large global
networks used by larger organizations. When
communicating with another OfficeConnect Remote,
the unit uses FastConnect, its own proprietary high
speed protocol. However, in order to connect with
other routers it needs to be configured to use the
slower PPP protocol. PPP is used by many other routers.
Increasingly Internet service providers are offering
access to the Internet over ISDN via an ISDN router.
PPP routing over ISDN allows a simple cost-effective
connection to the Internet or into a large
organization’s global network.
Figure 1-18 IP routed network
Rc.bk : RC01.FRM Page 37 Thursday, July 10, 1997 9:53 AM
Examples of Typical ISDN Networking Applications
Figure 1-19 PPP Connections to the Internet and Corporate Network
1-37
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1-38
CHAPTER 1: GETTING STARTED
Multiple Connections from a Single Site
In some instances it is likely that you will need to
connect to Novell servers on one site, IP hosts on the
same remote site or possibly a different remote site
and a connection into the Internet. This can all be
achieved by running the simple configuration several
times until all the desired types of connection have
been configured. The only thing you need to be
aware of is that you cannot bridge and route the
same protocol.
The local site shown in Figure 1-20 is a small business
that needs data links to several of its clients and a
connection to the Internet. It has an IPX connection
to access information on one client’s NetWare server
and IP routed connections to several IP hosts at
different clients’ sites. Finally, there is a connection to
the local Internet service provider’s PPP router giving
fast access to the Internet. All connections can be
set up with an autocall so that connections to the
remote sites are made as soon as the OfficeConnect
Remote identifies data not destined for the local
network.
Figure 1-20 Multiple Connections from a Single Site
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Troubleshooting
Troubleshooting
WARNING: There are no user serviceable components
inside the case of the unit.
CAUTION: Read the section ‘Important Safety
information’, at the start of this manual.
The OfficeConnect Remote is fully performance
tested after assembly. Providing the unit has been
correctly installed, and is used in accordance with the
instructions contained in this manual, difficulties
should not arise. If unit or system maintenance is
required, then it must be carried out by a
competent network engineer.
In the unlikely event that you experience problems
with the unit, the following procedure will enable
you to undertake basic troubleshooting before
contacting your 3Com reseller.
1-39
Malfunction
Remedy
If you cannot
connect your
OfficeConnect
Remote to the
network or PC.
Verify that your computer is equipped with
an available serial port and that the correct
cables and connectors are being used. If in
doubt contact the unit’s supplier.
The POWER LED
does not light.
Confirm that:
a) The switched outlet socket of the
electrical mains system supply is turned
on. The main lead is correctly plugged
into the unit’s electrical mains system inlet
socket.
b) The switched outlet socket is ‘live’ by
plugging the unit into an alternate socket
to see if it functions.
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1-40
CHAPTER 1: GETTING STARTED
Malfunction
Remedy
Malfunction
Remedy
The ISDN OK LED
does not light.
Follow the procedures as outlined for “The
POWER LED does not light.”
If other LEDs do
not light during
operation of the
unit.
During normal operation the remaining unit
LEDs should light and extinguish depending
on the action being taken. If the LEDs fail to
light in accordance with their function (refer
to “Front Panel” on page 1-6), then contact
your supplying 3Com reseller.
The local unit
does not connect
to the remote
unit.
a) Check the connections between the unit,
the network, or PC and the ISDN line.
a) Ensure that the OfficeConnect Remote is
powered up and the POWER LED is lit.
b) Confirm that the ISDN UTP cable is
correctly connected, and that the cable is
attached to the socket marked ISDN.
c) Confirm that the ISDN line socket that is
connected to the unit is conveying an
ISDN service.
d) Check that the ISDN port is configured
using the CO PO command. See the
Software Reference guide for more
information about this command.
e) Try making an ISDN call using a telephone
connected to the ISDN line to confirm if
the line is operational.
f)
If the LED still fails to light, plug the UTP
cable into an alternate ISDN service socket
to confirm that it functions.
g) Try using an alternate UTP cable to
connect the unit to the ISDN service
socket.
b) Confirm that the line is working by
connecting a telephone to the ISDN line
to make a call.
c) Check that the number which you are
dialling is connected to the remote unit
and that the unit is configured to be able
to answer calls.
Rc.bk : RCAPPA.FRM Page 1 Thursday, July 10, 1997 9:53 AM
A
BRIDGING AND ROUTING
Introduction
During the initial configuration of the OfficeConnect
Remote you must decide whether to configure the
unit as a bridge or as a router although we may help
you with this choice with our Quick Configuration
options. If you are unsure which option you should
choose, read this appendix to help you decide.
Bridges and routers are used to connect networks
together. The cost of connecting networks together
is generally proportional to the distance over which
the network extends and the amount of bandwidth
required. Large amounts of bandwidth can be
provided easily within a LAN by connecting different
segments together with a local bridge. However, it
becomes impractical and expensive to extend this
bandwidth over larger distances, and it is, therefore,
usual to interconnect local high speed networks
using bridges or routers connecting over slower
speed terrestrial and satellite links.
In the following sections we describe the concepts
behind bridging and routing, and discuss the
different ways in which LANs can be configured and
operated to optimize performance and minimize
disruption of traffic on each individual LAN.
Bridging and Routing Concepts
A bridge connects one or more LANs together. It
examines each data frame received at a LAN port
and forwards any frames that it assumes are for a
destination device not connected to that LAN port.
The bridge is able to do this by learning which
devices are connected to each LAN port.
A router learns much more about the networks
connected to it and is able to be much more selective
about the data it passes on to other networks and to
which networks it transmits. By default routers reject or
filter data unless it matches predefined attributes (for
example specific protocols or destination network
addresses). In large interconnected networks a router
selects the best route for data to travel.
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A-2
BRIDGING AND ROUTING
Guidelines For Choosing Bridging or Routing
The list below outlines some of the reasons why you
might choose to configure the OfficeConnect Remote
as a bridge or a router. Read through the rest of this
appendix for more explanation and to help decide
which of the above conditions apply to your network.
■
A bridge is simpler to configure but a router can
provide more security on a busy network and filter
unwanted data transmissions more effectively.
■
If your network consists of only one or two links
between different sites and your network is not
heavily loaded, in most circumstances you can
configure your OfficeConnect Remote units as
bridges.
■
If your network structure is complicated and consists
of a mixture of leased line and ISDN links, or if it uses
several different protocols, you may obtain better
performance from the OfficeConnect Remote units if
you configure them as routers.
■
If you are connecting to a routed corporate network
that is already running IP and/or IPX protocols or if you
are using the OfficeConnect Remote to connect to the
Internet you must configure the unit as a router.
How Bridges Learn
When a bridge is first powered on, it does not know
the number or the locations of stations that are
connected to the LAN. To minimize the amount of
data passed over the bridge it must learn the
whereabouts (address) of stations to ensure that it
passes only the data that is intended to be passed
over the bridge.
Like the envelope of a letter, the header of each
frame of data transmitted on the network has a From
(source) address and To (destination) address. This
ensures that data reaches its destination on the LAN
and that the receiving station can reply. The bridge
reads every frame of data received at the LAN port
and extracts the source address of the frame. From
this information it builds an address table of stations
it knows to be on the LAN.
To decide if data should be passed over the bridge,
the bridge examines the destination address of the
frame. If the address is already in its address table,
the bridge knows the destination is on the LAN and
therefore rejects or filters the frame.
If the destination address is not in the address table,
the bridge transmits the data across the bridge. It
does this even if the destination device is on the
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Bridging and Routing Concepts
local LAN because it does not recognize the
destination station as local. However, if the
destination device is on the local LAN, once it replies
to the original source station, its own source address
is part of the data frame and it is learned by the
bridge and added to the address table.
By operating in this way, the amount of data
forwarded by the bridge is kept to a minimum.
Traffic that is for devices on the attached LAN is
rarely forwarded over the bridge.
A bridge can be configured to forget or age a
station’s address after a period of inactivity, a facility
which is used to ensure that stations which are no
longer attached to the LAN, do not remain in the
bridge’s address table, using up space that may be
required for other stations’ addresses.
Some bridges allow address information to be
manually configured into the bridge, provided the
automatic learning facility is turned off, although this
will not normally prove necessary unless specific
traffic filtering is required.
A-3
You can also configure a number of other features
to improve the performance and operation of the
OfficeConnect Remote. These include sophisticated
frame filtering techniques so that only certain types
of frame, or those associated with particular work
groups, are passed between specific segments.
Bridging Between Remote Sites
The OfficeConnect Remote is able to send frames
between LANs that may be separated by
considerable physical distances. It achieves this by
making use of Wide Area Network (WAN) links. WANs
can be established by using either digital leased lines
or ISDN and are usually operated by telephone
companies (PTTs) or other service providers.
Figure A-1 shows two LAN segments, A and B, which
are connected by a pair of OfficeConnect Remote
units, 1 and 2. The type of link between the two
depends on the WAN services available at each of
the remote bridge locations, and the price the
network administrator is willing to pay for those
services.
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A-4
BRIDGING AND ROUTING
being used on incoming calls and switches to the
protocol necessary for that connection.
If you are using ISDN to connect to different networks,
the two B channels can be used independently to
connect to different networks at the same time.
Building a Larger Network
Large networks of interconnected LANs can be
established by using multiple bridges as illustrated
in Figure A-2.
Figure A-1 Simple Remote Bridging
The OfficeConnect Remote uses FastConnect, its own
protocol, to ensure the most efficient connection
with other OfficeConnect Remote units. However, if
you are connecting to a different type of
bridge/router the standard PPP communications
protocol is required to establish the link. You can
configure outgoing calls to use either FastConnect
or PPP as required. The ISDN port on the
OfficeConnect Remote autosenses the protocol
The bridges build up their address tables. If the
destination unit is not registered as being accessed
via the bridge’s LAN interface, the frame will not be
placed on LAN A. Therefore, frames passing between
LAN B and LANs C or D will not impact the overall
performance of the LAN.
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Bridging and Routing Concepts
A-5
Multiple Paths Between Bridged LANs
With only a single physical path between LANs, the
network is susceptible to link and bridge failures. In
the event of a failure, the connection between any of
the LANs upstream or downstream of the point of
failure will be broken. A more resilient network of
interconnected LANs can be established by providing
more than one link between any two of the LANs.
Normally, this network would soon encounter serious
problems resulting from a loop, around which frames
could endlessly travel if precautions aren’t taken by
the bridges. Over ISDN links a proprietary form of
loop control is implemented. On WAN leased line
links the Spanning Tree Protocol (STP) prevents data
loops.
On startup, the bridges send out frames to enquire if
there are other bridges on the network. By
exchanging information, the bridges block ports that
cause the loops and ensure that there is only ever
one active path through the network. If one of the
links or bridges fail, the other bridges detect this and
reconfigure their ports so that there is once again an
active data path through the network.
Figure A-2 Multiple Remote Bridges
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A-6
BRIDGING AND ROUTING
Network Topology
If your network topology is star shaped, a
combination of ISDN and bridging is usually the
most efficient and successful option. Routing is a
better solution if your network topology is a complex
mix of both leased line and ISDN circuits, running at
64 Kbps to 2 Mbps.
Broadcast Storms
Bridges are programmed to automatically forward
data packets by default while routers filter data
packets by default. These attributes have an impact
on the overall flow of data across the network. Much
has been made of broadcast storms in connection
with bridged networks, where the broadcast signals
from bridges propagate to fill all of the wide area
bandwidth, and bring the network down. Broadcast
storms cannot be attributed to installation of
bridges or routers, but by poor protocol
implementation and network design. However the
deployment of routers can effectively firewall one
logical network from another.
Optimum Use of Resource
Bridged networks use Spanning Tree Protocol (STP)
to provide network resilience, by retaining redundant
links on stand-by, in case the primary link fails. This
means that you are not making maximum use of
available resources.
Routing protocols make each node aware of the
primary and alternate routes available, ensuring that
resources (particularly WAN links) are not wasted.
Routers have been designed to provide the optimum
route through the network from the workstation
through to the destination resource with which the
user wishes to communicate. In a very large network
there could be multiple paths available, and these
could change as dedicated links go in or out of
service. These changes in network topology are
handled by routing protocols. However, when using
the ISDN the source network can dial direct to the
destination network, and establish a point-to-point
bridged or routed connection. Generally, when
using this type of ISDN dial-up link, routing does not
provide much extra benefit.
Rc.bk : RCAPPA.FRM Page 7 Thursday, July 10, 1997 9:53 AM
Routing IP and IPX
Network Organization, Structure and
Physical Layout
Some organizations are structured into departments
determined by the physical layout of their work
environment, so it is natural to divide the corporate
network into separate logical networks. Routing
becomes the obvious candidate for handling these
individual LANs.
A-7
Routing IP and IPX
Running a bridged network allows workstations to
communicate directly between one another. A PC
user wishing to communicate with a remote network
server is totally unaware of any intervening bridges.
This is known as transparent operation.
The Internet
The protocol adopted by the Defense Data Network
(DDN) for the Internet, is based on obtaining and
abiding by, a registered Internet address range. This
makes a router the ideal choice for accessing the
Internet. Unfortunately, new applicants are likely to
only get a Class C registered Internet address,
preventing more than 254 connections on one
bridged IP LAN.
Figure A-3 Example Network
Rc.bk : RCAPPA.FRM Page 8 Thursday, July 10, 1997 9:53 AM
TRANSPORT
SESSION
Telnet
User
Database
Protocol
(UDP)
NETWORK
However, if there were NetWare nodes throughout the
three bridged sites, they would also share the same
IPX network number. If each of the bridged LANs
supported a network server, each with its own unique
network number, and an IPX address is
misconfigured, the NetWare network server consoles
will report the message ‘Router Configuration Error –
Router XXXXX claims that LAN is XX-XX-XX-XX’. (The
router it refers to is in fact the network server).
File
Transfer
Protocol
(FTP)
Network
File Store
(NFS)
Internet Protocol (IP) and
Internet Control Message Protocol
(ICMP)
DATA LINK
It is important to understand that in a bridged
network the addressing structure for both IP and IPX
relates to a single network. If the units in Figure A-3
were bridges and not routers, then an IP node on
LAN A could, for example, have an address
140.56.10.0, the node on LAN B an address
140.56.10.2, and the node on LAN C, an address of
140.56.10.3. All the nodes, therefore, are able to share
the same Class B network address, regardless of their
location on the bridged network.
PRESENTATION APPLICATION
BRIDGING AND ROUTING
Link Level Control
PHYSICAL
A-8
Ethernet
Hardware
Transmission
Control
Protocol
(TCP)
ARP
RARP
Others
Figure A-4 Open Systems Interconnection Network Layer Model
Rc.bk : RCAPPA.FRM Page 9 Thursday, July 10, 1997 9:53 AM
Routing IP and IPX
A-9
A routing environment allows stations to communicate
indirectly. Following the example in Figure A-3, let us
assume that a station on LAN 1 wants to communicate
with a network server on LAN 2. The station on LAN 1,
constructs a Layer 2 datalink header (see Figure A-5),
with the source station’s hardware address, and also
the destination hardware address of the local router. To
direct the packet to its final network destination, the
source station must complete the Layer 3 network
header with the destination network address of LAN 2.
Once the packet is received by the Router A,
attached to LAN 1, it strips off the network header
(refer to Figure A-5) and examines the Layer 3
datalink header information. It then reviews its
routing tables in order to establish where to forward
the data packet. It is possible that the LAN 1 router
has multiple outgoing ports that would allow
different transmission routes to the destination
network. In our example using Figure A-3, a packet
could go via Router D to get to Router B, or it could
go more directly across a single direct link between
Router A and Router B.
Figure A-5 Data Packet Containing Hardware And Software Addresses
IP Routing
The local router contains, within its routing table,
information which will allow it to determine the best
data transmission route. The type of information the
router uses to make these assessments is protocol
dependent, and some communications protocols
may employ a range of routing algorithms, and
accompanying routing protocols. In the case of the
TCP/IP protocol suite, the OfficeConnect Remote
utilizes the Routing Information Protocol (RIP). RIP is
also known as a distance vector protocol.
Rc.bk : RCAPPA.FRM Page 10 Thursday, July 10, 1997 9:53 AM
A-10
BRIDGING AND ROUTING
Different protocols use differing network
characteristics or metrics when making routing
decisions. The metric employed by RIP is a Hop
Count. A hop count is defined by the number of
routing nodes there are between the source and
destination units. In our example, there are two
hops between LAN1 and LAN 2 going via Routers A
and B. If traffic was directed via Routers A, D, and
then B, this would be three hops.
The algorithm will automatically select to forward the
data packet via Router A, as this route contains the
least number of hop counts which makes it the
preferred direct route.
Every thirty seconds, each IP router will advertise via
RIP datagrams, to all other routers on the
internetwork, how many hops it takes to reach all
connected logical networks, based on the routers
network position and the state of its physical links.
In an ISDN environment, making ISDN calls every
thirty seconds to pass on and receive RIP updates
would be costly. When initially setting up the
network, the OfficeConnect Remote is manually
connected over the ISDN for a three minute period,
in order to learn the topology of the rest of the
network. Once this has been performed the
OfficeConnect Remote will only make ISDN calls to
transmit data packets. While this data transfer is in
progress, RIP updates will be piggybacked on to the
call, updating both parts of the network with the
latest RIP information.
It is also possible to assign what are known as static
routes, which are manually entered fixed routes. The
network manager may be aware of specific traffic
patterns, or needs to enforce a particular routing
policy. Static routes provide an option to force traffic
through the network in a particular way. The
disadvantage with this approach is that routing
protocols dynamically update all the routers on the
network, with the current network topology,
enabling backup routes to be deployed. In a static
route situation, if the WAN links in that routing
definition are down, then traffic cannot be passed.
Implementing a static route prohibits the router from
being able to offer alternative data paths.
Rc.bk : RCAPPA.FRM Page 11 Thursday, July 10, 1997 9:53 AM
Routing IP and IPX
IPX Routing
Novell IPX also uses RIP for routing purposes.
Although it is similarly named to the IP equivalent, it
uses a different protocol. IPX RIP broadcasts
datagrams out onto the network every sixty
seconds. Upon receipt of a RIP datagram, a router
adds one to the hop count of each route advertised
and broadcasts a RIP datagram to the other
networks, with which it is connected.
The cost of a route in an IPX network is determined
by the metric known as ticks. In a LAN only
environment this is the hop count plus one, e.g.
three hops or four ticks. For an internetwork
connected via a WAN or ISDN links, the tick count is
factored on the speed of the WAN link.
We saw above the common network numbering
scheme employed for a bridged network. By
employing routing, LAN A, LAN B and LAN C become
three separate networks on a network. The network
numbering must reflect that situation.
In a Novell IPX environment we could allocate IPX
network numbers 00000111 to LAN A, 00000222 to
LAN B and 00000333 to LAN C. Having configured
A-11
the ports of the OfficeConnect Remote to accept
this protocol, routing will now occur between the
remote network servers and workstations but
addressed by different network numbers.
It should be noted that NetWare 3.X and later, uses
the concept of internal IPX addresses, which is
somewhat similar to network addressing. The
internal address refers to the internal network within
that server allowing internal processes to
communicate. These numbers must be unique for
all servers right across the network. Although
network servers may appeared wired correctly, and
in other respects seem to be working correctly,
duplicated internal IPX addresses will not allow
correct operation.
NetWare has a hop count limitation imposed by the
RIP. On an IPX network a data packet can cross a
maximum of fifteen routers before being discarded.
Rc.bk : RCAPPA.FRM Page 12 Thursday, July 10, 1997 9:53 AM
A-12
BRIDGING AND ROUTING
IP Addresses
TCP/IP Numbering and subnet masking IP numbers
or addresses are normally made up of four fields
(normally called bytes), with each byte having a
whole number value of between 0 and 255, and the
bytes separated by a full stop. For example:
■
For a Class C IP address the numbers in the first,
second & third bytes will be in the range 192.000.001
to 223.255.254
For example:
Class A
1.|123.123.123
Network
Host
123.123.123.123
An IP address is divided into two sections, one is the
Network Address section and the other is the Host
Address section. For example:
123.123.|123.123
Network
Host
The divider | between the two sections is moveable
according to what class of IP address it is. The class of
address is defined by what the number is in the first
address byte:
■
For a Class A IP address the number in the first byte
will be in the range 00 to 126
■
For a Class B IP address the numbers in the first &
second bytes will be in the range 128.001 to 191.254
Class B
128.001.|123.123
Network
Host
Class C
192.123.123.|123
Network
Host
Using of any of the address classes in a private
TCP/IP network is not a problem, providing that
connections outside of that private network to
external public or private TCP/IP networks are never
needed. If a private IP addressing number scheme is
established within a private corporate network,
connections out of that network to external public or
other private TCP/IP networks, can be achieved via a
computer which has software which enables it to
act as an IP gateway. These devices, if configured
correctly, provide the IP numbering/address
translation between the two networks.
Rc.bk : RCAPPA.FRM Page 13 Thursday, July 10, 1997 9:53 AM
Routing IP and IPX
Subnet Masking
Subnet Masking is a mechanism which can be
enabled in computer and communications
equipment which tells the equipment and the
network, which parts of the IP address are to be used
as the Network identifier and which are the Host
identifier.
A subnet mask consists of a similar field structure to
that of the IP address (123.123.123.123). For example:
255.255.0.0
A-13
Normally, a subnet mask would be set so that any IP
address, in a range of hosts on a destination LAN which
are detected on the unit’s locally connected LAN port,
causes an ISDN Autocall to be made out to that
destination.
This is achieved by the addition of a /xx number at
the end of the configured address. For example:
193.123.123.123/32
The /32 appended to the IP number indicates that all
four of the bytes are used and must have valid entries.
A /24 mask, for example:
This means that the first two three digit bytes of the
IP address (the fields masked by - 255.255) are to be
recognized and used as the Network address, and
the last two bytes (those set to .0.0) are to be used to
identify the Host address.
An alternative way of expressing a subnet mask is a
single number indicating how many bits of the IP
address are to be used for the network address. For
example 255.255.0.0 can be expressed as 16 while
255.255.255.192 can be expressed as 24.
The OfficeConnect Remote can be configured to use
subnet masking to enable ISDN Autocalls to be made
on groups of IP addresses or on specific IP addresses.
193.123.123.0/24
means that only the first three bytes are to be
recognized and used, and the last byte can be
ignored. In this case, any IP address appearing on the
locally connected LAN in the range 193.123.123.0 to
193.123.123.255 will cause an autocall to be made to
the destination network who’s name is associated
with that number in the ISDN Autocall table. The
name is then looked up in the ISDN Numbers table
and a call made to the ISDN number which has
been assigned to that name.
Rc.bk : RCAPPA.FRM Page 14 Thursday, July 10, 1997 9:53 AM
A-14
BRIDGING AND ROUTING
Obtaining an IP Address
If you want to use a unique IP addressing system on
your network so you can connect to the Internet,
there are three organizations responsible for
allocating network addresses. These details are
correct at the time of printing but may change.
USA - InterNIC, Network Solutions
Attention:
InterNIC Registration Services
505 Huntmar park Drive
Herndon
VA 22070
Telephone:
1-800-444-4345 (Toll Free)
1-619-455-4600
1-703-742 4777
You can also send e-mail to these addresses:
■
hostmaster@rs.internic.net
(host, domain, network changes and updates)
■
action@rs.internic.net
(computer operations)
■
mailserv@rs.internic.net
(automatic mail service)
■
info@internic.net
(automatic mail service for general enquiries)
■
refdesk@is.internic.net
(enquiries not handled by the services above).
Europe -RIPE
Attention:
RIPE NCC
Kruislaan 409
NL-1098 SJ Amsterdam
The Netherlands
Telephone:
Fax:
e-mail:
+31 20 592 5065
+31 20 592 5090
ncc@ripe.net
Asia Pacific Network Information Center
(APNIC-DOM)
Attention:
Asia Pacific Network Information
Center (APNIC-DOM)
c/o Computer Center
University of Tokyo
2-11-16 Yahoi
Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113
Japan
Rc.bk : RCAPPA.FRM Page 15 Thursday, July 10, 1997 9:53 AM
Numbered and Unnumbered Links
Admin. Contact:
Telephone:
e-mail:
Nakayama, Masaya (MN89)
+81 3 3812 211 ext2720
nakayama@nic.ad.jp
Technical Contact:
Telephone:
Fax:
e-mail:
Conrad, David (DC296)
81 3 3580 3781 or 3580
81 3 3580 3782
davidc@apnic.net
A-15
Numbered and Unnumbered Links
When routing and using the OfficeConnect
Remote’s FastConnect protocol over ISDN or serial
WAN links as opposed to PPP, you have the option of
using numbered or unnumbered links.
A numbered link requires a valid IP address to be
configured for both ports connected to each end of
the link. The IP address used must be for a different
subnet or network than that used by either LAN at
each end of the link. An example is shown in Figure
A-6. In this example, the Local Site uses the network
address 191.000.100.xxx on its LAN. The remote site
uses the network address 191.000.200 on its LAN and
the link uses 191.000.300.
Figure A-6 Example of a Numbered Link
By default the WAN port and ISDN port have an IP
address of 10.0.0.1. This is set to allow remote Telnet
connections to the unit to enable configuration but
must be changed when configuring the unit to allow
correct operation. If you use the Quick Configuration
(QC) option to configure the unit to operate over
ISDN, the Port IP Address is set to unnumbered.
In most instances you should use unnumbered links.
This is easier to configure and does not use network
addresses which may be in short supply.
Rc.bk : RCAPPA.FRM Page 16 Thursday, July 10, 1997 9:53 AM
A-16
BRIDGING AND ROUTING
Rc.bk : RCAPPB.FRM Page 1 Thursday, July 10, 1997 9:53 AM
B
TECHNICAL INFORMATION
Specifications
Voice Connector Interface
Provides interface for analog telephony equipment
via RJ11 connector socket. Adaptors may be
required for some telephone equipment
connections.
LAN Connector Interfaces
■
10Base2 via a coaxial connector.
■
10BaseT via an RJ45 connector socket for UTP.
Only one LAN connection can be used at a time
Management Connector Interface
9-way D-type connector for use with a VT100
compliant terminal or PC.
WAN Connector Interface
25-way D-type female connector, configured to
support one of:
■
V.11 (X.21) for speeds up to 2.048 Mbps.
■
V.28 (V.24/RS232) for speeds up to 19.2 Kbps.
■
V.35/V.36 for speeds up to 2.048 Mbps.
ISDN Connector Interface
Provides a twin interface to a 2B+D basic rate ISDN
service, via an RJ45 connector socket.
■
Local and remote terminal management.
■
TCP/IP Telnet menu driven management interface for
remote management.
■
Software upgrades, enhancements and
configurations downloadable from network
attached terminal or PC.
■
SNMP MIB II support with private extensions for
management of unique features.
Rc.bk : RCAPPB.FRM Page 2 Thursday, July 10, 1997 9:53 AM
B-2
TECHNICAL INFORMATION
Bridge Characteristics
■
802.3 MAC layer bridge.
■
802.1D spanning tree algorithm.
■
Support for bridge triangulation and link load
sharing.
Performance
■
LAN filtering rate: 10000 frames per second.
■
LAN forwarding rate: 4000 frames per second.
Approvals
This product ostensibly complies with the
electro-magnetic compatibility (EMC) requirements
of EN 55022 Class A and EN 50082 (susceptibility).
However, to fully comply with Class B of EN55022 the
following prerequisites should be observed:
■
The WAN port must be attached to a screened digital
cable.
■
The ISDN cable must be used in conjunction with a
three turn ferrite.
ISDN and WAN forwarding rates are dependent on
the link speed.
The product carries the CE certification mark to
indicate conformance with the following EU directives:
■
LVD (Low Voltage Directive (Safety) 73/23/EEC.
■
EMC (Electro Magnetic Compatibility) Directive
89/336/EEC.
■
TTE (Telecommunication Terminal Equipment)
Directive 91/263/EEC.
The product conforms to I-CTR3 (based on NET3 –
ISDN interface).
Rc.bk : RCAPPB.FRM Page 3 Thursday, July 10, 1997 9:53 AM
Approvals
FCC Requirement
This product has been verified to comply with the
limits of Class B computing device pursuant to
Subpart J of Part 15 of the FCC Rules.
WARNING: This product generates and uses radio
frequency energy and, if not installed and used
properly, that is, in strict accordance with the
manufacturer’s instructions, may cause interference
to radio or television reception.
The product has been tested and found to comply
with the limits for a Class B computing device in
accordance with the specifications of Subpart J of
Part 15 of FCC Rules, which are designed to provide
reasonable protection against such interference in a
residential installation. However, the is no guarantee
that interference will not occur in a particular
installation.
If this equipment does cause interference to radio or
television reception, which can be determined by
turning the equipment off and on, the user is
encouraged to try to correct the interference by one
or more of the following measures:
B-3
■
Reorientate the receiving antenna.
■
Relocate the product away from the receiver.
■
Plug the unit into a different outlet so that the
computer and the receiver are in different branch
circuits.
■
Ensure that all product fixing screws, attachment
connector screws and ground wires are tightly
secured.
If necessary, consult your dealer, service
representative, or an experienced radio/television
technician for additional suggestions.
The manufacturer is not responsible for any radio or
television interference caused by unauthorized
modifications to the product. It is the responsibility
of the user to correct such interference.
You must use shielded interface cables and a ferrite in
order to maintain compliance with the limits for a
Class B device.
CAUTION: Changes or modifications not expressly
approved by the party responsible for compliance
could void the user’s authority to operate the product.
Rc.bk : RCAPPB.FRM Page 4 Thursday, July 10, 1997 9:53 AM
B-4
TECHNICAL INFORMATION
Dimensions
Rc.bk : RCAPPB.FRM Page 5 Thursday, July 10, 1997 9:53 AM
Interface Cable Characteristics
Interface Cable Characteristics
WAN Port Connecting Cable – V.11/X.21
Support
The WAN port terminates with a 25-way D-type
female connector. The port can be configured to
support V.11 signalling characteristics at data transfer
rates up to 2.048 Mbps. The WAN port connecting
cable is not supplied with the unit. The following
signalling characteristics should be observed when
purchasing or fabricating a suitable cable.
Pin
Links 3Com end
pin no.
Signal name
B-5
Client end pin
no.
(15-way male
D-type connector)
(25-way male)
2
Transmit Data A (TXDA) 2
3
Receive Data (RXDA)
7
Signal Ground (Receive 8
Data)
12
Signal Ground
13
Indicate B (INDB)
14
Transmit Data B (TXDB) 9
15
Indicate A (INDA)
5
16
Receive Data B (RXDB)
11
17
Clock A (CLKA)
6
19
Clock B (CLKB)
13
23
Control B (CTRLB)
10
24
Control A (CTRLA)
3
4
12
Rc.bk : RCAPPB.FRM Page 6 Thursday, July 10, 1997 9:53 AM
TECHNICAL INFORMATION
B-6
WAN Port Connecting Cable – V.24/V.28
Support
The WAN port terminates with a 25-way D-type
female connector. The port can be configured to
support V.24 or V.28 signalling characteristics at data
transfer rates up to 19.2 Kbps. The WAN port
connecting cable is not supplied with the unit. The
following signalling characteristics should be
observed when purchasing or fabricating a suitable
cable.
3Com end
Pin
Links pin no.
(25-way male
D-type
connector)
Signal name
3Com end
Pin
Links pin no.
(25-way male
D-type
connector)
Signal name
Client end
pin no.
(25-way male
D-type
connector)
7
Signal Ground (102)
7
8
Data Carrier Detect (DCD
109)
8
11
Signal Ground (AutoSense)
12
Signal Ground (AutoSense)
Client end
pin no.
15
Transmit Clock (TXCLK
114)
(25-way male
D-type
connector)
17
Receive Clock (RXCLK 115) 17
18
Analog Loop Test (141)
18
20
Data Terminal Ready (DTR
108)
20
21
Remote Digital Loop Test
(140)
21
22
2
Transmit Data (TXD 103)
2
3
Receive Data (RXD 104)
3
4
Request To Send (RTS 105) 4
5
Clear To Send (RTS 106)
5
22
Ring Indicator (RI 125)
6
Data Set Ready (DSR 107)
6
24
External Clock (EXCLK)
15
If clock signals are required, connect Pin 24 to Pins 15 &
17 at the 3Com end only.
Rc.bk : RCAPPB.FRM Page 7 Thursday, July 10, 1997 9:53 AM
Interface Cable Characteristics
WAN Port Connecting Cable – V.35/V.36
Support
The WAN port terminates with a 25-way D-type
female connector. The port can be configured to
support V.36 signalling characteristics at data transfer
rates up to 48 Kbps. The WAN port connecting cable
is not supplied with the unit. The following signalling
characteristics should be observed when purchasing
or fabricating a suitable cable.
Signal name
(25-way male)
Signal name
Client end
pin no.
(34-way MRAC
connector)
(25-way male)
7
Signal Ground
(102)(Clear To Send)
B
8
Data Carrier Detect (DCD
109)
F
11
Signal Ground
13
Serial Clock Transmit B
(SCTB 114)
AA
(34-way MRAC
connector)
14
Transmit Data B (TXDB
103)
S
15
Serial Clock Transmit A
(SCTA 114)
Y
16
Receive Data B (RXDB
104)
T
17
Serial Clock Receive A
(SCRA 115)
V
19
Serial Clock Receive B
(SCRB 115)
X
20
Data Terminal Ready (DTR H
108)
7
Pin
Links 3Com end
pin no.
Pin
Links 3Com end
pin no.
Client end
pin no.
2
Transmit Data (TXD 103)
P
3
Receive Data (RXD 104)
R
4
Request To Send (RTS
105)
C
5
Clear To Send (RTS 106)
D
6
Data Set Ready (DSR 107) E
B-7
Rc.bk : RCAPPB.FRM Page 8 Thursday, July 10, 1997 9:53 AM
B-8
TECHNICAL INFORMATION
Manager Port Connecting Cable
(9-way male
connector)
Terminal
or Com
Signal Name Pin
Signal Name port end
pin number
Links
(25-way
male/female
connector)
Shell
Screen
Screen
1
3
TxD
RxD
3
2
RxD
TxD
2
5
Ground
Ground
7
(9-way male
connector)
Terminal
or Com
Signal Name Pin
Signal Name port end
pin number
Links
(9-way
male/female
connector)
7
RTS
RTS
4
(not connected)
(not connected)
Shell
Screen
Screen
Shell
8
CTS
DTR
20
3
TxD
RxD
2
6
DSR
CTS
5
2
RxD
TxD
3
1
DCD
DSR
6
5
Ground
Ground
5
4
DTR
DCD
8
7
RTS
RTS
7
(not connected)
(not connected)
8
CTS
DTR
4
6
DSR
CTS
8
1
DCD
DSR
6
4
DTR
DCD
1
The manager port cable terminates with a 9 pin
female connector at one end and a 9-pin
male/female D-type connector or 25-pin D-type
male/female connector. The pin-out tables below
show the pin outs for both variants.
3Com end
pin no.
3Com end
pin no.
Rc.bk : RCAPPB.FRM Page 9 Thursday, July 10, 1997 9:53 AM
Interface Cable Characteristics
Modem Cable
LAN Port Connecting Cable - 10BaseT
If you want to connect to the manager port using a
modem, you will need a cable as shown in the table
below. This connects the manager port’s 9 pin
D-type connector to a 25-pin serial port on a
modem.
(9-way male
connector)
Terminal
or Com
Signal Name Pin
Signal Name port end
pin number
Links
(25-way
male/female
connector)
Shell
Screen
Screen
1
3
TxD
TxD
2
2
RxD
RxD
3
7
RTS
RTS
4
8
CTS
CTS
5
6
DSR
DSR
6
5
Ground
Ground
7
1
DCD
DCD
8
4
DTR
DTR
20
3Com end
pin no.
B-9
The 10BaseT port terminates with an RJ45 connector
which can be connected to the 10BaseT port on
another device. The table below shows the pin-outs
for a straight through cable.
Client end
pin no.
3Com end
pin no.
Pin
Links (RJ45)
Signal name
(RJ45)
1
TxD+
1
2
TxD-
2
3
RxD+
3
4
not used
4
5
not used
5
6
RxD-
6
7
not used
9
8
not used
10
Rc.bk : RCAPPB.FRM Page 10 Thursday, July 10, 1997 9:53 AM
B-10
TECHNICAL INFORMATION
Ordering Information
3C410000
3C410005
3C4100010
3C4100015
3C4100020
3C4100025
OfficeConnect Remote 510s
OfficeConnect Remote 520s
OfficeConnect Remote 530s
OfficeConnect Remote 510u
OfficeConnect Remote 520u
OfficeConnect Remote 530u
3C16740
3C16741
3C16742
3C16743
3C16744
3C16745
Power adapter (US)
Power adapter (UK)
Power adapter (Mainland Europe)
Power adapter (Japan)
Power adapter (Australasia)
Power Adapter (South Africa)
731/000036 9-pin D-type plug to 9-pin D-type
socket, gender changer (Serial Management port cable).
731/000024 9-pin D-type plug to RJ45 plug, with
3 meters of cable.
733/000028 RJ45 to RJ45 plug, with 1.5 meters of
UTP cable (ISDN cable).
733/000001 RJ45 to RJ45 plug, with 3 meters of
UTP cable (ISDN cable).
25-pin to 25-pin D-type plug, with 3
3C409000
meters of cable (V.24).
25-pin D-type plug to 34-way MRAC
3C409001
connector, with 3 meters of cable (V.35).
25-pin to 15-pin D-type plug, with 3
3C409004
meters of cable (X.21).
733/000026 British Telecom socket to RJ11
converter (UK only).
980/000033 OfficeConnect Remote User Guide.
Rc.bk : GLOSSARY.FRM Page 1 Thursday, July 10, 1997 9:53 AM
C
GLOSSARY
10Base2 An IEEE standard for using IEEE 802.3
protocol at 10 Mbps over thin Ethernet cable.
Age The process of removing an address from the
unit’s filtering database after the device has not
transmitted for a given period of time.
10Base5 An IEEE standard for using IEEE 802.3
protocol at 10 Mbps over thick Ethernet cable.
ANSI American National Standards Institute.
10BaseT An IEEE standard for using IEEE 802.3
protocol at 10 Mbps over unshielded twisted-pair
cable (the T stands for twisted pair).
Application layer Layer seven, the uppermost part
of the OSI network layer model. This layer contains
the user and application programs.
100BaseVG An IEEE standard for using the new IEEE
802.12 protocol at 100 Mbps over unshielded
twisted-pair cable of type 5 or type 3.
ASCII American Standard Code for Information
Interchange, a standard that defines the values that
are used for letters, numbers, and symbols.
100BaseT A proprietary standard for using IEEE 802.3
protocol at 100 Mbps over unshielded twisted-pair
cable. IEEE standards approval pending.
Attenuation The progressive degradation of a
signal as it travels through a cable.
802.3 An IEEE standard for the physical layer that
specifies a CSMA/CD protocol. This is the standard
protocol used for Ethernet. Refer to CSMA/CD.
Address The unique code assigned to each device or
workstation connected to the LAN.
AUI Attachment user interface, the interface
between the unit and the data terminal equipment,
usually in the form of a connecting cable.
Rc.bk : GLOSSARY.FRM Page 2 Thursday, July 10, 1997 9:53 AM
C-2
CHAPTER C: GLOSSAR Y
B Channel A digital data communications channel
running at 64 Kbps. The basic rate ISDN 2 service
carries two B channels plus one control D channel.
Refer to ISDN and D Channel.
Backbone A network cabling segment that
interconnects a group of network segments or
systems.
Bandwidth The capacity of data communications
system or channel.
Baseband A communication technique in which
network cable is used to carry a single stream of data
at a time.
Baud A unit of signalling speed equal to the
number of signalling events in one second.
Bit Either of the digits 0 or 1 when used in the binary
numeration system. Eight bits equals a single byte.
Bridge A device that links two or more local or
remote area networks together. A bridge may be
used to extend the network or to connect two
different network transport technologies together.
Broadband A communications technique in which
network cabling is used to carry multiple streams of
data simultaneously.
Broadcast Storm A rare event in which broadcast
frames are propagated endlessly through the
network because poorly configured bridge and
router connections.
Bus A single segment through which devices are
connected. An Ethernet LAN is based on a bus
network which connects all communicating
workstations with a common cable.
Byte A string that consists of eight data bits treated
as a unit.
Call Guillotine A feature that disconnects a call
after a certain period of time irrespective of whether
data is being passed across the link or not.
CCITT Comité Consultatif International
Téléphonique et Télégraphique, now renamed ITU,
International Telecommunication Union.
Rc.bk : GLOSSARY.FRM Page 3 Thursday, July 10, 1997 9:53 AM
C-3
CHAP Challenge Handshake Authentication
Protocol. Part of the PPP protocol to ensure
authentication of the connection between two
devices.
Client A user whom is making use of a particular
system resource or peripheral through a workstation
attached to a local or wide area network.
CSMA/CD Carrier Sense Multiple Access with
Collision Detection, the Ethernet protocol that
allows each device to create and send its own data
packets. CSMA/CD is used to avoid excessive
collisions between packets as they are randomly
transmitted. A CSMA/CD device first listens for other
carriers, if it detects no other carriers, it will then
allow the data packet to be transmitted. If a collision
is detected, the device stops transmitting, waits a
random length of time, and begins transmitting
again.
Client/server A user who is attached to a file server
to recover and store files, but the processing of the
data or use of an application is carried out on the
client machine.
D Channel A control channel carrying signalling
information, running at 16 Kbps. The basic rate ISDN
2 service carries two B channels plus one control D
channel. Refer to ISDN and B Channel.
Coaxial cable A twin-conductor cable used for
computer networking, in either a thick or thin form.
This cable consists of a centre core wire (stranded or
single core) covered by insulation, a second
conductor of woven wire, and an external covering
of rubber. Thin coaxial cable resembles television
cable. Thick coaxial cable has an increased diameter
outer bore and is often yellow or orange in color.
Data Characters or code either entered by the user
or passed between devices that are part of the
computer or network.
Class Type of IP address. IP addresses fall into three
main classes, A, B and C.
Data communications The transfer of data via
transceiver equipment by means of data
transmission according to a protocol. Refer to
Protocol.
Rc.bk : GLOSSARY.FRM Page 4 Thursday, July 10, 1997 9:53 AM
C-4
CHAPTER C: GLOSSAR Y
Datagram A message that is sent from one
computer or device to another to confirm it location
or status on a network.
Data link layer The second layer of the OSI
reference model. This layer is responsible for
controlling message traffic.
Data packet (packet) A sequence of binary digits,
including data and control signals that is transmitted
across a LAN or WAN.
DCE Data circuit-terminating equipment.
DTE Data Terminal Equipment. The physical
interface and link access procedures between DTE
and data circuit-terminating equipment (DCE).
DTMF Dial tone multi-frequency, the signalling
system used by PSTN. Refer to PSTN.
Downloading A user initiated transfer of data from a
server to the user’s own workstation. Also used to
classify the transfer of files from one system to
another, usually to upgrade or revise system
software.
EPROM Erasable programmable read-only memory.
A chip whose memory can be erased and reused.
Ethernet A 10 Mbps baseband local area network
protocol, compatible with IEEE 802.3 standards.
FastConnect The OfficeConnect Remote’s
proprietary connection protocol that allows fast
connection between units either over the ISDN link
or over a permanent leased line WAN link.
Fiber optics A technology that uses laser light
pulses, sent over thin glass fibres, which is able to
deliver data at speed up to several gigabits per
second.
File server A computer running a special operating
system that allows workstations to access files.
Filter A configuration that removes types of data
frames based on user-entered parameters.
Firewall A method of preventing unauthorized
access to a network or a host on a network. A firewall
is usually implemented within a router’s software.
Rc.bk : GLOSSARY.FRM Page 5 Thursday, July 10, 1997 9:53 AM
C-5
Frame The method by which a data packet is
constructed to be sent across a network. Usually
assembled with header and footer information.
ISDN Integrated Services Digital Network. A
multi-channel digital end-to-end
telecommunications network that provides a virtually
error free transmission of data.
Gateway Another name for a router on a network.
HDLC High-level Data Link Control. OSI’s bit
orientated protocol.
Hop count The number of routing nodes between a
source and destination device on a LAN or WAN.
ISO International Standards Organization. Refer to
Open Systems Interconnection.
Kbps A measurement of data transmission speed in
kilo bits per second.
Host A device or computer on an IP network to
which you can connect.
Keep alives A message sent by one network device
to inform another network device that the virtual
circuit between them is still active.
Hub A cabling centre in a star topology that either
amplifies a signal and transmits it (active hub) or
simply passes the signal along (passive hub).
LAN Local area network, a network that covers a
group of local workstations and peripherals that
require to share information.
Hyperterminal The terminal emulation program
provided with Microsoft Windows 95™.
Learn A bridge learns addresses received at any of its
interfaces and adds them to its filter address table.
IEEE The Institute of Electronic and Electrical
Engineers.
MAC Medium access control, a protocol for
determining which device has access to the network
at any one time.
IPX Internetwork Packet Exchange, the default data
packet protocol for Novell’s NetWare operating
system.
Mbps A measurement of data transmission speed in
megabits per second.
Rc.bk : GLOSSARY.FRM Page 6 Thursday, July 10, 1997 9:53 AM
C-6
CHAPTER C: GLOSSAR Y
MAN Metropolitan area network, a network that
covers a city.
Node An alternative name for a computer or device
(such as a printer or modem) that is connected to a
network.
MIB Management information base.
NOS Network operating system.
NETBIOS Network Basic Input/Output System, a
standard for supporting network communications
that is independent of the underlying network
transport type.
NetWare Novell’s Network Operating System (NOS)
line.
OSI Open Systems Interconnection, a body of
standards set by the International Standards
Organization to define the activities that must occur
when computers communicate. There are seven
layers, and each contains a specific set of rules to
follow at that point in the communication.
Network A method of connecting computers and
other devices together with cabling so that they can
communicate with each other.
PAP Password Authentication Protocol. Part of the
PPP protocol to ensure authentication of the
connection between two devices.
NIC Network interface card, an expansion card that
enables a PC to communicate on a network.
Peer-to-peer network A network which contains
workstations which are able to act as both client and
client servers.
Network layer The third layer of the OSI reference
model. This layer is responsible for controlling
message traffic.
NFS A network file system developed by Sun
Microsystems for shared files over a UNIX platform.
Piggyback A way of transmitting routing
information over ISDN lines by adding it to valid data
frames. This avoids ISDN calls being generated solely
for passing routing information.
Rc.bk : GLOSSARY.FRM Page 7 Thursday, July 10, 1997 9:53 AM
C-7
Physical layer The first layer of the OSI network layer
model. This layer manages the transfer of individual
bits of data over wires, or whatever medium, that is
used to connect workstations and peripherals.
Polling A method of controlling terminals on a
multi-point network where each device is
interrogated, in turn, to determine if the device is
ready to receive or transmit data.
PPP Point-to-Point Protocol. The de facto standard
protocol for routing between devices made by
different manufacturers.
REN Ringer equivalence number.
RIP Routing information protocol.
Router A protocol transparent device that links
networks. A router can be used to separate unwanted
traffic on either side of the bridge, reduce the traffic, or
to provide security from unauthorized users.
SAP Source address protocol.
Segment A section of an Ethernet network, typically
connected by repeater or a bridge to another
segment.
Presentation layer The sixth layer of the OSI
network layer model. This layer controls the
formatting and translation of data.
SPX Sequenced Packet Exchange, Novell’s
guaranteed-delivery version of IPX.
Protocol A set of rules and procedures that govern
the exchange of data between two communicating
systems.
Session A logical connection between two
communicating systems that allows for the transfer
of data.
PSTN Public switched telephone network.
Session layer The fifth layer of the OSI network
layer model. This layer is responsible for the security
and administrative tasks of communicating.
Quick Configuration A set of menu driven forms in
the management system that allow you to configure
the unit for most types of ISDN connection.
Rc.bk : GLOSSARY.FRM Page 8 Thursday, July 10, 1997 9:53 AM
C-8
CHAPTER C: GLOSSAR Y
SNMP Simple network management protocol, a
software program to allow the remote management
of bridge and routing devices.
Thin Ethernet A cabling system for Ethernet
connections that uses a lightweight coaxial cable.
Suitable for small networks.
Static Route A route you have entered and made
permanent rather than a route that the unit has
learned by connecting to other routers.
Ticks A measurement of the time taken to pass
information through a routed network.
STP Spanning tree protocol, a protocol which
prevents network loops.
Terminal The Microsoft Windows™ terminal
emulation program.
Terminators Devices that are used at the ends of a
linear bus network segment to reflect the signal back
and prevent failure of the segment.
TCP/IP Transmission control protocol/Internet
protocol, a set of communication protocols that
support peer-to-peer connectivity functions for both
local and wide area networks.
Thick Ethernet A cabling system for Ethernet
connections that uses a heavyweight coaxial cable.
Suitable for large networks.
Token Ring A network transport technology in
which an electronic token that allows access to the
network is passed around stations in the ring.
Topology The way that a network is physically laid
out.
Transport layer The fourth layer of the OSI network
layer model. This is responsible for error checking
and correction, and some message flow control.
WAN Wide area network, a network that covers a wide
area and requires special communication devices
(bridges and/or routers) to make connection possible.
WANs make connections over long distances and need
telephone, satellite, or microwave equipment to allow
connections to be made.
Workstation Another name for a computer or
device (such as a printer or modem) that is
connected to a network.
Rc.bk : TECHSUPP.FRM Page 1 Thursday, July 10, 1997 9:53 AM
D
TECHNICAL SUPPORT
3Com provides easy access to technical support
information through a variety of services. This
appendix describes these services.
Country
Data Rate
Telephone Number
Australia
up to 14400 bps
(61) (2) 9955 2073
France
up to 14400 bps
(33) (1) 69 86 69 54
Germany
up to 9600 bps
up to 9600 bps
(49) (89) 627 32 188
(49) (89) 627 32 189
3Com offers worldwide product support seven days
a week, 24 hours a day, through the following
on-line systems:
Hong Kong
up to 14400 bps
(852) 2537 5601
Italy (fee required)
up to 9600 bps
(39) (2) 273 00680
Japan
up to 14400 bps
(81) (3) 3345 7266
■
3Com Bulletin Board Service (3ComBBS)
Singapore
up to 14400 bps
(65) 534 5693
■
World Wide Web site
Taiwan
up to 14400 bps
(886) (2) 377 5838
U.K.
up to 14400 bps
(44) (1442) 278278
U.S.
up to 14400 bps
(1) (408) 980 8204
On-line Technical Services
3Com Bulletin Board Service
3ComBBS contains patches, software, and drivers for
all 3Com products, as well as technical articles. This
service is available via modem or ISDN seven days a
week, 24 hours a day.
Access by Modem To reach the service by modem,
set your modem to 8 data bits, no parity, and 1 stop
bit. Call the telephone number nearest you:
Access by ISDN ISDN users can dial-in to 3ComBBS
using a digital modem for fast access up to 56kbps.
To access 3ComBBS using ISDN, dial the following
number: (1) (408) 654 2703
Rc.bk : TECHSUPP.FRM Page 2 Thursday, July 10, 1997 9:53 AM
D-2
TECHNICAL SUPPORT
World Wide Web Site
Access the latest networking information on 3Com’s
World Wide Web site by entering our URL into your
Internet browser:
http://www.3com.com/
This service features news and information about
3Com products, customer service and support,
3Com’s latest news releases, selected articles from
3TECH™ (3Com’s award-winning technical journal)
and more.
Support from Your Network Supplier
If additional assistance is required, contact your
network supplier. Many suppliers are authorized
3Com service partners who are qualified to provide
a variety of services, including network planning,
installation, hardware maintenance, application
training, and support services.
When you contact your network supplier for
assistance, have the following information ready:
■
Diagnostic error messages.
■
A list of system hardware and software, including
revision levels.
■
Details about recent configuration changes, if
applicable.
If you are unable to contact your network supplier,
see the following section on how to contact 3Com.
Support from 3Com
If you are unable to receive support from your
network supplier, technical support contracts are
available from 3Com.
In the U.S. and Canada, call (800) 876-3266 for
customer service.
If you are outside the U.S. and Canada, contact your
local 3Com sales office to find your authorized
service provider:
Country
Telephone Number
Australia (Sydney)
(61) (2) 959 3020
(Melbourne)
(61) (3) 653 9515
Rc.bk : TECHSUPP.FRM Page 3 Thursday, July 10, 1997 9:53 AM
Returning Products for Repair
Country
D-3
Telephone Number
Country
Telephone Number
Belgium
0800 71429
U.K.*
0800 966197
Brazil
(55) (11) 546 0869
U.S.
(1) (408) 492 1790
Canada
(905) 882 9964
Denmark*
800 17309
Finland*
0800 113153
France*
05 91 79 59
Germany*
0130 821502
Hong Kong
(852) 868 9111
Ireland*
1 800 553117
Italy*
1678 79489
A product sent directly to 3Com for repair must first
be assigned a Return Materials Authorization (RMA)
number. A product sent to 3Com without an RMA
number will be returned to the sender unopened, at
the sender’s expense.
Japan
(81) (3) 3345 7251
To obtain an RMA number, call or fax:
Mexico
(525) 531 0591
Netherlands*
06 0227788
Country
Telephone Number
Norway*
80013376
U.S. and Canada
(800) 876 3266, option 2 (408) 764 7120
Singapore
(65) 538 9368
Europe
31 30 60 29900 (option 5) (44) (1442) 275822
South Africa
(27) (11) 803 7404
(1) (408) 492 1790
Spain*
900 983125
Outside Europe,
U.S. and Canada
Sweden*
120 795482
Taiwan
(886) (2) 577 4352
United Arab Emirates
(971) (4) 349049
*
* These numbers are toll free
Returning Products for Repair
Fax Number
(1) (408) 764 7290
Rc.bk : TECHSUPP.FRM Page 4 Thursday, July 10, 1997 9:53 AM
D-4
TECHNICAL SUPPORT
Rc.bk : RC.IX Page 1 Thursday, July 10, 1997 9:53 AM
INDEX
B
IPR 1-23
NA 1-20
NO 1-21
QC 1-18
concepts - bridging and routing A-1
configuring your unit 1-17
connecting
to a PC 1-9
connecting telephony equipment 1-16
connecting to 1-25
Internet 1-25
IP hosts on different networks 1-23
IP hosts on same network 1-22
Novell networks 1-21
WAN leased line link 1-28
contents checklist 1-4
crossover switch 1-9
bridging and routing concepts A-1
bulletin board service D-1
D
Numerics
10Base2 1-9
connections 1-14
10BaseT
connections 1-13
crossover 1-9
port 1-9
3Com Bulletin Board Service
(3ComBBS) D-1
3Com sales offices D-2
A
ALERT LED 1-6
default password 1-18
C
clipping hubs together 1-11
clips 1-11
coaxial cable 1-9
commands
IN 1-25
IPB 1-22
E
Ethernet
10Base2 port 1-14
10BaseT port 1-9, 1-13
example networks 1-30
F
feet 1-11
front panel LEDs 1-6
H
hub
clipping 1-11
I
installation 1-10
10Base2 connections 1-14
10BaseT connections 1-13
ISDN connection 1-15
management terminal connection 1-16
power adapter 1-12
pre-requisites 1-5
siting the unit 1-10
voice port connection 1-16
wall mounting 1-12
ISDN
connection 1-5, 1-9, 1-15
port 1-9
ISDN OK LED 1-7
ISDN1 LED 1-7
ISDN2 LED 1-7
Rc.bk : RC.IX Page 2 Thursday, July 10, 1997 9:53 AM
L
O
S
LAN
10Base2 connections 1-14
10BaseT connections 1-13
10BaseT port 1-9
LEDs
Alert 1-6
ISDN OK 1-7
ISDN1 1-7
ISDN2 1-7
LINK STATE 1-7
Network Utilization 1-7
POWER 1-6
SERIAL WAN 1-7
VOICE 1-7
LINK STATE LED 1-7
on-line technical services D-1
serial port 1-8
SERIAL WAN LED 1-7
setting up your unit 1-17
siting the unit 1-10
stacking clips 1-11
P
package contents 1-4
password 1-18
power adapter 1-12
power inlet 1-8
POWER LED 1-6
PPP routers 1-25
problem solving 1-36
Q
management
configuring your unit 1-17
port 1-8
MDI/MDIX switch 1-9
N
network supplier support D-2
Network Utilization LEDs 1-7
technical support 1-5
troubleshooting 1-36
U
unit name 1-20
Quick Configuration 1-17
R
M
T
rear panel
10BaseT port 1-9
ISDN port 1-9
power socket 1-8
reset button 1-8
serial port 1-8
voice port 1-10
WAN port 1-9
rear panel connections 1-8
registration card 1-5
reset button 1-8
returning products for repair D-3
rubber feet 1-11
V
VOICE LED 1-7
voice port 1-10
VT100
terminal connection 1-16
W
wall mounting 1-12
WAN
connection 1-9
port 1-9
WAN configuration 1-28
Rc.bk : WARRANTY.FRM Page 3 Thursday, July 10, 1997 9:53 AM
LIMITED WARRANTY
HARDWARE: 3Com warrants its hardware products to be free from defects
in workmanship and materials, under normal use and service, for the
following lengths of time from the date of purchase from 3Com or its
Authorized Reseller:
Internetworking products
One year
Network adapters
Lifetime
Ethernet stackable hubs and
Unmanaged Ethernet fixed port repeaters Lifetime* (One year if not registered)
*Power supply and fans in these stackable
hubs and unmanaged repeaters
One year
Other hardware products
One year
Spare parts and spares kits
90 days
If a product does not operate as warranted during the applicable warranty
period, 3Com shall, at its option and expense, repair the defective product or
part, deliver to Customer an equivalent product or part to replace the
defective item, or refund to Customer the purchase price paid for the
defective product. All products that are replaced will become the property of
3Com. Replacement products may be new or reconditioned. Any replaced or
repaired product or part has a ninety (90) day warranty or the remainder of
the initial warranty period, whichever is longer.
3Com shall not be responsible for any software, firmware, information, or
memory data of Customer contained in, stored on, or integrated with any
products returned to 3Com pursuant to any warranty.
SOFTWARE: 3Com warrants that the software programs licensed from it will
perform in substantial conformance to the program specifications therefor
for a period of ninety (90) days from the date of purchase from 3Com or its
Authorized Reseller. 3Com warrants the magnetic media containing
software against failure during the warranty period. No updates are provided.
3Com's sole obligation hereunder shall be (at 3Com's discretion) to refund
the purchase price paid by Customer for any defective software products, or
to replace any defective media with software which substantially conforms
to 3Com's applicable published specifications. Customer assumes
responsibility for the selection of the appropriate applications program and
associated reference materials. 3Com makes no warranty that its software
products will work in combination with any hardware or applications
software products provided by third parties, that the operation of the
software products will be uninterrupted or error free, or that all defects in the
software products will be corrected. For any third party products listed in the
3Com software product documentation or specifications as being
compatible, 3Com will make reasonable efforts to provide compatibility,
except where the non-compatibility is caused by a “bug” or defect in the
third party's product.
STANDARD WARRANTY SERVICE: Standard warranty service for hardware
products may be obtained by delivering the defective product, accompanied
by a copy of the dated proof of purchase, to 3Com's Corporate Service
Center or to an Authorized 3Com Service Center during the applicable
warranty period. Standard warranty service for software products may be
obtained by telephoning 3Com's Corporate Service Center or an Authorized
3Com Service Center, within the warranty period. Products returned to
3Com's Corporate Service Center must be pre-authorized by 3Com with a
Return Material Authorization (RMA) number marked on the outside of the
package, and sent prepaid, insured, and packaged appropriately for safe
shipment. The repaired or replaced item will be shipped to Customer, at
3Com's expense, not later than thirty (30) days after receipt by 3Com.
WARRANTIES EXCLUSIVE: IF A 3COM PRODUCT DOES NOT OPERATE AS
WARRANTED ABOVE, CUSTOMER’S SOLE REMEDY SHALL BE REPAIR,
REPLACEMENT, OR REFUND OF THE PURCHASE PRICE PAID, AT 3COM’S
OPTION. THE FOREGOING WARRANTIES AND REMEDIES ARE EXCLUSIVE AND
ARE IN LIEU OF ALL OTHER WARRANTIES, EXPRESS OR IMPLIED, EITHER IN
FACT OR BY OPERATION OF LAW, STATUTORY OR OTHERWISE, INCLUDING
WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR
PURPOSE. 3COM NEITHER ASSUMES NOR AUTHORIZES ANY OTHER PERSON
TO ASSUME FOR IT ANY OTHER LIABILITY IN CONNECTION WITH THE SALE,
INSTALLATION, MAINTENANCE OR USE OF ITS PRODUCTS.
981-0771.frm Page 1 Thursday, July 10, 1997 9:49 AM
OFFICECONNECT REMOTE
SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION
OfficeConnect Remote 531
The OfficeConnect Remote 531 provides the same functionality as the
OfficeConnect 530, with the additional on-board memory allowing
more sophisticated software (such as that provided by the
OfficeConnect Remote /A software upgrade) to be installed in the unit.
Follow the OfficeConnect Remote 530 installation instructions
described in the OfficeConnect Remote User Guide. Refer to the
OfficeConnect Remote Software Reference if further configuration
information is required.
EMC Update
The statement on page 4 of the About This Guide section in the
OfficeConnect Remote User Guide, stating that the ISDN cable must be
used in conjunction with a three turn ferrite to meet Class B of EN 55022,
no longer applies.
© 3Com Europe Limited, December 1996
Part Number: 981-000077/001