User guide | 3Com 6000 Switch User Manual

®
Part No. 801-00257-000
Published December 1995
Revision 01
LANPLEX 6000 EXTENDED
SWITCHING USER GUIDE
3Com Corporation
■
5400 Bayfront Plaza
■
Santa Clara, California
■
95052-8154
© 3Com Corporation, 1995. All rights reserved. No part of this documentation may be reproduced in any form or by any means or used to make
any derivative work (such as translation, transformation, or adaptation) without permission from 3Com Corporation.
3Com Corporation reserves the right to revise this documentation and to make changes in content from time to time without obligation on the
part of 3Com Corporation to provide notification of such revision or change.
3Com Corporation provides this documentation without warranty of any kind, either implied or expressed, including, but not limited to, the
implied warranties of merchantability and fitness for a particular purpose. 3Com may make improvements or changes in the product(s) and/or
the program(s) described in this documentation at any time.
UNITED STATES GOVERNMENT LEGENDS:
If you are a United States government agency, then this documentation and the software described herein are provided to you subject to the
following restricted rights:
For units of the Department of Defense:
Restricted Rights Legend: Use, duplication or disclosure by the Government is subject to restrictions as set forth in subparagraph (c) (1) (ii) for
restricted Rights in Technical Data and Computer Software clause at 48 C.F.R. 52.227-7013. 3Com Corporation, 5400 Bayfront Plaza, Santa Clara,
California 95052-8145.
For civilian agencies:
Restricted Rights Legend: Use, reproduction or disclosure is subject to restrictions set forth in subparagraph (a) through (d) of the Commercial
Computer Software - Restricted Rights Clause at 48 C.F.R. 52.227-19 and the limitations set forth in 3Com’s standard commercial agreement for
the software. Unpublished rights reserved under the copyright laws of the United States.
3ComFacts, Ask3Com, CardFacts, NetFacts, and CardBoard are service marks of 3Com Corporation.
3Com and NETBuilder II are registered trademarks of 3Com Corporation.
LANplex and Transcend are trademarks of 3Com Corporation.
CompuServe is a registered trademark of CompuServe, Inc.
3Com registered trademarks are registered in the United States, and may or may not be registered in other countries.
Other brand and product names may be registered trademarks or trademarks of their respective holders.
Guide written, edited, and illustrated by Trish Crawford, Lynne Gelfand, Michael Jenness, Patricia Johnson, Michael Taillon, and Iain Young.
CONTENTS
ABOUT THIS GUIDE
Introduction 1
How to Use This Guide 1
Conventions 2
LANplex 6000 Documentation 3
Documentation Comments 4
PART I
1
GETTING STARTED
LANPLEX EXTENDED SWITCHING FEATURES
About LANplex Extended Switching
Using Menus to Perform Tasks 1-2
IP Menu 1-3
IPX Menu 1-4
AppleTalk Menu 1-5
2
1-1
INSTALLING EXTENDED SWITCHING SOFTWARE
About Installing Software 2-1
Copying Software to a Hard Disk
Copying to UNIX 2-2
Copying to DOS 2-3
Loading Software 2-4
2-1
PART II
ABOUT ROUTING PROTOCOLS
3
ROUTING AND THE LANPLEX SYSTEM
What is Routing? 3-1
LANplex in a Subnetted Environment 3-2
Integrating Bridging and Routing 3-3
Bridging/Routing Models 3-4
Traditional Bridging/Routing Model 3-4
LANplex Bridging/Routing Model 3-6
4
ROUTING WITH IP
IP Routing and the OSI Model 4-1
The Elements of IP Routing 4-2
IP Addresses 4-2
Address Classes 4-3
The Subnet Part of the IP Address 4-3
Router Interfaces 4-4
Routing Table 4-5
Static Routes 4-6
Dynamic Routes Using RIP 4-6
Default Route 4-7
Address Resolution Protocol (ARP) 4-7
IP Routing Transmission Errors 4-9
IP Routing References 4-10
5
ROUTING WITH IPX
IPX Routing in the NetWare Environment 5-1
Internet Packet Exchange (IPX) 5-2
Routing Information Protocol (RIP) 5-3
Service Advertising Protocol (SAP) 5-3
How IPX Routing Works 5-4
IPX Packet Format 5-4
IPX Packet Delivery 5-6
Sending Node’s Responsibility 5-6
Router’s Responsibility 5-7
The Elements of IPX Routing 5-8
Router Interfaces 5-8
Routing Tables 5-8
Generating Routes 5-9
Selecting the Best Route 5-10
Service Advertising Protocol (SAP) 5-10
Internetwork Service Information 5-10
SAP Packet Structure 5-11
Server Information Table 5-13
Server Information Maintenance 5-14
6
ROUTING WITH APPLETALK
About AppleTalk 6-1
AppleTalk Network Elements 6-1
AppleTalk Networks 6-2
AppleTalk Nodes 6-2
Named Entities 6-2
AppleTalk Zones 6-3
Seed Routers 6-4
AppleTalk Protocols 6-4
Physical Connectivity 6-5
The Datagram Delivery Protocol (DDP)
End-to-End Services 6-6
Transport Layer Protocols 6-6
The Session Layer Protocols 6-9
The Presentation Layer 6-10
About AARP 6-10
PART III
7
6-6
ADMINISTERING ROUTING PROTOCOLS
ADMINISTERING IP ROUTING
Administering Interfaces 7-1
Displaying Interfaces 7-3
Defining an Interface 7-3
Modifying an Interface 7-4
Removing an Interface 7-5
Administering Routes 7-5
Displaying the Routing Table 7-6
Defining a Static Route 7-7
Removing a Route 7-8
Flushing a Route 7-8
Setting the Default Route 7-8
Removing the Default Route 7-9
Administering the ARP Cache 7-9
Displaying the ARP Cache 7-9
Removing an ARP Cache Entry 7-10
Flushing the ARP Cache 7-10
Administering UDP Helper 7-11
Displaying UDP Helper Information 7-11
Defining a Port and IP Forwarding Address 7-12
Removing a Port and IP Forwarding Address 7-12
Setting the Hop Count Limit 7-13
Setting the BOOTP Relay Threshold 7-13
Enabling/ Disabling IP Forwarding 7-13
Setting the RIP Mode 7-14
Pinging an IP Station 7-15
Displaying IP Statistics 7-16
8
ADMINISTERING IPX ROUTING
Administering Interfaces 8-2
Displaying IPX Interfaces 8-3
Defining an Interface 8-3
Modifying an Interface 8-4
Removing an Interface 8-4
Administering Routes 8-5
Displaying the Routing Table 8-6
Defining a Static Route 8-6
Removing a Route 8-7
Flushing Routes 8-7
Administering Servers 8-8
Displaying the Server Table 8-8
Defining a Static Server 8-9
Removing a Server 8-10
Flushing Servers 8-10
Setting IPX Forwarding 8-11
Setting the RIP Mode 8-11
Setting the Enhanced RIP Mode 8-12
Setting the SAP Mode 8-13
Displaying Statistics 8-14
Displaying IPX Summary Statistics 8-14
Displaying IPX RIP Statistics 8-15
Displaying IPX SAP Statistics 8-16
Displaying IPX Forwarding Statistics 8-17
9
ADMINISTERING APPLETALK ROUTING
Administering Interfaces 9-2
Displaying AppleTalk Interfaces 9-3
Defining an Interface 9-3
Removing an Interface 9-4
Administering Routes 9-4
Displaying the Routing Table 9-5
Flushing all Routes 9-6
Administering the AARP Cache 9-6
Displaying the AARP Cache 9-7
Removing an Entry in the Cache 9-8
Flushing All Cache Entries 9-8
Displaying the Zone Table 9-8
Configuring Forwarding 9-10
Configuring Checksum 9-10
Pinging an AppleTalk Node 9-11
Viewing Appletalk Statistics 9-11
Displaying DDP Statistics 9-11
Displaying RTMP Information 9-13
Displaying ZIP Information 9-14
Displaying NBP Information 9-16
PART IV
A
APPENDIX
TECHNICAL SUPPORT
On-line Technical Services A-1
3Com Bulletin Board Service A-1
Access by Modem A-1
Access by ISDN A-2
World Wide Web Site A-2
ThreeComForum on CompuServe A-2
3ComFacts Automated Fax Service A-2
Support from Your Network Supplier A-3
Support from 3Com A-4
Returning Products for Repair A-4
INDEX
ABOUT THIS GUIDE
Introduction
The LANplex 6000 Extended Switching User Guide provides information about
the features included with the LANplex Extended Switching software. These
features include IP, IPX, and AppleTalk routing.
You will use this guide with the LANplex 6000 Administration Console User
Guide when you work with the Administration Console.
Audience description
This guide is intended for the system or network administrator who is
responsible for configuring, using, and managing the LANplex 6000 system. It
assumes a working knowledge of local area network (LAN) operations and a
familiarity with communications protocols used on interconnected LANs.
If the information in the release notes shipped with your product differs from
the information in this guide, follow the release notes.
How to Use This
Guide
The following table shows where to find specific information.
If you are looking for...
Turn to...
An overview of Extended Switching features
Chapter 1
Information on how to install Extended Switching software
Chapter 2
An overview of routing in the LANplex system
Chapter 3
An overview of IP routing
Chapter 4
An overview of IPX routing
Chapter 5
An overview of AppleTalk routing
Chapter 6
Information on how to administer IP routing
Chapter 7
Information on how to administer IPX routing
Chapter 8
Information on how to administer AppleTalk routing
Chapter 9
Information on Technical Support
Appendix A
2
ABOUT THIS GUIDE
Conventions
Table 1 and Table 2 list conventions that are used throughout this guide.
Table 1 Notice Icons
Icon
Type
Description
Information Note Information notes call attention to important features or
instructions.
Caution
Cautions alert you to personal safety risk, system damage,
or loss of data.
Warning
Warnings alert you to the risk of severe personal injury.
Table 2 Text Conventions
Convention
Description
“Enter” vs. “Type”
When the word “enter” is used in this guide, it means type something, then press the
Return or Enter key. Do not press the Return or Enter key when an instruction simply
says “type.”
“Syntax” vs. “Command”
When the word “syntax” is used in this guide, it indicates that the general form of a
command syntax is provided. You must evaluate the syntax and supply the
appropriate port, path, value, address, or string; for example:
The following syntax specifies the time and date:
mm/dd/yy hh:mm:ss
When the word “command” is used in this guide, it indicates that all variables in the
command have been supplied and you can enter the command as shown in text; for
example:
The following command enables Spanning Tree:
bridge stpState enabled
Text represented as screen
display
This typeface is used to represent displays that appear on your terminal screen,
for example:
Login:
Text represented as
commands
(continued)
This typeface is used to represent commands that you enter, for example:
bridge stpState disabled
LANplex 6000 Documentation
3
Table 2 Text Conventions (continued)
Convention
Description
Keys
When specific keys are referred to in the text, they are called out by their labels, such
as “the Return key” or “the Escape key,” or they may be shown as [Return] or [Esc].
If two or more keys are to be pressed simultaneously, the keys are linked with a plus
sign (+), for example:
Press [Ctrl]+[Alt]+[Del].
Italics
Italics are used to denote new terms or emphasis.
LANplex 6000
Documentation
The following documents comprise the LANplex 6000 documentation set.
If you want to order a document that you do not have or order additional
documents, contact your sales representative for assistance.
■
LANplex 6000 Unpacking Instructions
Describe how to unpack your LANplex system. It also provides you with
an inventory list of all the items shipped with your system. (Shipped
with system)
■
LANplex 6000 Software Release Notes
Provide information about the software release, including new features and
bug fixes. It also provides information about any changes to the LANplex
system’s documentation. (Shipped with system)
■
LANplex 6000 Planning Your Site
Provides information on the planning requirements you should consider
when preparing your site for a LANplex 6000 system. (Shipped with
system/Part No. 801-00251-000)
■
LANplex 6000 Getting Started
Describes all the procedures necessary for installing, cabling, powering up,
configuring management access to, and troubleshooting your LANplex system. (Shipped with system/Part No. 801-00252-000)
■
LANplex 6000 Operation Guide
Provides information to help you understand system management and
administration, bridging, FDDI technology, and Token Ring technology. It
also describes how these concepts are implemented in the LANplex system.
(Shipped with system/Part No. 801-00253-000)
4
ABOUT THIS GUIDE
■
LANplex 6000 Administration Console User Guide
Provides information about using the Administration Console to configure
and manage your LANplex system. (Shipped with system/Part No.
801-00254-000)
■
LANplex 6000 Extended Switching User Guide
Describes how the routing protocols are implemented in the LANplex
system and provides information about using the Administration Console to
configure and manage your routing protocols. (shipped with the option
package/Part No. 801-257-000)
■
Command Quick Reference for the 6000 Administration Guide
Contains all of the Administration Console commands for the LANplex
system. (Shipped with the system/Part No. 801-000258-000)
■
LANplex 6000 Control Panel User Guide
Provides information about using the LANplex 6000 control panel to
configure and manage your LANplex system. (Shipped with system/Part
No. 801-00255-000)
■
Module Installation Guides
Provide an overview, installation instructions, LED status information, and
pin-out information for the particular option module. (Shipped with individual modules)
Documentation
Comments
Your suggestions are very important to us and will help make our
documentation more useful to you. Please email comments about this
document to 3Com at: sdtechpubs_comments@3Mail.3Com.com
Please include the following information when commenting:
Example:
■
Document title
■
Document part number (listed on back cover of document)
■
Page number (if appropriate)
LANplex 6000 Planning Your Site
Part No. 801-00128-000
Page 2-5 (chapter 2, page 5)
I
GETTING STARTED
Chapter 1
LANplex Extended Switching Features
Chapter 2
Installing Extended Switching Software
1
LANPLEX EXTENDED SWITCHING
FEATURES
This chapter provides an overview of the Extended Switching software, and
describes the new enhanced Administration Console menus.
About LANplex
Extended
Switching
The LANplex Extended Switching software replaces your existing LANplex
software and adds new functionality to your system. Extended Switching
software contains all the features of standard LANplex software, in addition
to routing capabilities with the following protocol support:
■
IP Routing (an enhanced version of IP from the standard system software)
■
IPX Routing
■
AppleTalk Routing
For information on how to gain access to online help, to use scripts, and to
exit from the Administration Console, see the LANplex 6000 Administration
Console User Guide.
1-2
CHAPTER 1: LANPLEX EXTENDED SWITCHING FEATURES
Using Menus to
Perform Tasks
When you gain access to the Administration Console, the top-level menu
appears. The Extended Switching software contains two new top-level
menus (IPX and AppleTalk) and enhancements to the IP menu option:
Option Descriptions
Options
(These vary per
level of access.)
Menu options:
-------------------------------------------------------------------system
- Administer system-level functions
ethernet
- Administer Ethernet ports
fddi
- Administer FDDI resources
tokenring
- Administer Token Ring Resources
bridge
- Administer bridging
ip
- Administer IP
ipx
- Administer IPX
appletalk
- Administer Appletalk
snmp
- Administer SNMP
analyzer
- Administer Roving Analysis
script
- Run a script of console commands
logout
- Logout of the Administration Console
Type ? for help.
-------------------------------------------------------------------Select a menu option:
The following sections show the new and enhanced menus provided with
Extended Switching software. All other menu items appear in the LANplex
6000 Administration Console User Guide.
Using Menus to Perform Tasks
IP Menu
1-3
From the ip menu, you can view information about and configure Internet
Protocol (IP) interfaces and routes. You can also administer the Address
Resolution Protocol (ARP), the Routing Information Protocol (RIP), UDP
Helper, IP Forwarding, and ping IP stations. See Figure 1-1. For example, to
define a new IP interface, you would enter ip at the top-level menu,
interface at the ip menu, then define at the interface menu.
Top-Level Menu
system
ethernet
fddi
tokenring
bridge
➧ ip
ipx
appletalk
snmp
analyzer
script
logout
ip menu
➧ interface
➧ route
➧ arp
➧ udphelper
forwarding
rip
ping
statistics
interface menu
display
define
modify
remove
route menu
display
static
remove
flush
default
noDefault
arp menu
display
remove
flush
udphelper menu
display
define
remove
hopCountLimit
threshold
Figure 1-1 IP Menu Hierarchy
1-4
CHAPTER 1: LANPLEX EXTENDED SWITCHING FEATURES
IPX Menu
From the ipx menu, you can view information about and configure Internet
Packet Exchange (IPX) interfaces, routes, and servers. You can also
administer the Routing Information Protocol (RIP), Enhanced RIP mode,
Service Advertising Protocol (SAP), and statistics. See Figure 1-2. For
example, to define a new IPX interface, you would enter ipx at the top-level
menu, interface at the ipx menu, then define at the interface menu.
Top-Level Menu
system
ethernet
fddi
tokenring
bridge
ip
➧ ipx
appletalk
snmp
analyzer
script
logout
ipx menu
➧ interface
➧ route
➧ server
forwarding
rip
enhanced
sap
➧ statistics
interface menu
display
define
modify
remove
route menu
display
static
remove
flush
server menu
display
static
remove
flush
statistics menu
summary
rip
sap
forwarding
Figure 1-2 IPX Menu Hierarchy
Using Menus to Perform Tasks
AppleTalk Menu
1-5
From the appletalk menu, you can view information about and configure
Appletalk interfaces, routes, and zones. You can also administer the
Appletalk Address Resolution Protocol (AARP), Appletalk forwarding, and
statistics. See Figure 1-3. For example, to define a new appletalk interface,
you would enter appletalk at the top-level menu, interface at the
AppleTalk menu, then define at the interface menu.
Top-Level Menu
system
ethernet
fddi
tokenring
bridge
ip
ipx
➧ appletalk
snmp
analyzer
script
logout
appletalk menu
➧ interface
➧ route
➧ aarp
zone
forwarding
checksum
ping
➧ statistics
interface menu
display
define
remove
route menu
display
flush
aarp menu
display
remove
flush
statistics menu
ddp
rtmp
zip
nbp
Figure 1-3 AppleTalk Menu Hierarchy
1-6
CHAPTER 1: LANPLEX EXTENDED SWITCHING FEATURES
2
INSTALLING EXTENDED
SWITCHING SOFTWARE
This chapter explains how to install Extended Switching software onto your
system.
Refer to the LANplex 6000 Release Notes for the latest system software
installation information.
About Installing
Software
When you upgrade to the Extended Switching Software, all configuration
information is preserved. You can install a new version from any host
running ftp.
CAUTION: To run LANplex Extended Switching Software, you must have the
LANplex Management Module Plus (LMM+) installed on your system. This
new software does not run on the original LMM.
To install or upgrade the system software, you must perform two tasks:
■
Copy the software from the diskette to your UNIX-based or DOS-based
computer’s hard disk.
■
Load the system software from your computer’s hard disk to flash memory.
Copying
Software to a
Hard Disk
The software is distributed for both UNIX and DOS platforms. The following
media types are used to distribute software releases:
■
UNIX tar format 3 1/2 -inch double-sided, high-density 1.44 MB diskette
■
DOS format 3 1/2 -inch double-sided, high-density 1.44 MB diskette
The software files are compressed on the media.
2-2
CHAPTER 2: INSTALLING EXTENDED SWITCHING SOFTWARE
Copying to UNIX
The LANplex software for a UNIX-based hard disk is distributed on four
floppy diskettes. Diskettes #1, #2, and #3 contain the LANplex software.
Diskette #4 contains the SNMP MIBs.
The SNMP MIBs, on diskette #4, are provided so that you can compile on 3rd
party applications.
To copy software to a UNIX hard disk, follow the instructions below:
If the directory “/usr/lp6000R” does not exist on your computer, create the
directory before proceeding. If your “/usr” directory is full, you can use a
different directory. In this case, substitute the actual directory used for
“/usr” in this and subsequent examples.
1 Insert diskette #1 into a disk drive (these instructions assume drive fd0).
2 Extract the first part of the LANplex software file using the following
commands:
cd /usr/lp6000R
tar xvf /dev/rfd0
3 Remove diskette #1 using the following command:
# eject
4 Insert diskette #2 into a disk drive and extract the second part of the file
using the following commands:
tar xvf /dev/rfd0
5 Remove diskette #2 using the following command:
# eject
The following files should be in your current default directory:
■
README1
■
lp6000R00
■
lp6000R01
■
lp6000R02
■
restore_lpxR
Copying Software to a Hard Disk
2-3
6 Use the supplied script to decompress and restore the split file
(lp6000R00, lp6000R01, and lp6000R02).
# ./restore_lpxR
See the README1 file for size and checksum information.
Copying to DOS
The LANplex software for a DOS-based hard disk is distributed on two
floppy diskettes. Diskette #1 contains the LANplex software. Diskette #2
contains the SNMP MIBs.
The SNMP MIBs, on diskette #3, are provided so that you can compile on 3rd
party applications.
To copy software to a DOS hard disk, follow the instructions below:
If the directory “lp6000R” does not exist on your computer, create the
directory before proceeding.
1 Insert diskette #1 into a disk drive (these instructions assume drive B:).
2 Copy the system software file to the directory of your computer using the
following commands:
cd lp6000R
copy b:lp6000R.exe
The file lp6000R.exe is a self-extracting archive. It decompresses and creates
the loadable lanplex file.
3 Decompress the file using the following command:
lp6000R
This creates a file called lp6000R, which you can then load into flash
memory.
CHAPTER 2: INSTALLING EXTENDED SWITCHING SOFTWARE
2-4
Loading Software
Before loading the system software on the LMM+, you must verify that the
host machine, which has a copy of the updated system software, is
connected to the system by one of the methods described in Chapter 3:
Configuring Management Access to the System in the LANplex 6000
Administration Console User Guide.
You can load the system software into flash memory while the system is
operating. You do not need to bring the system down. After the flash install is
completed, a reboot will put the newly-loaded software to use.
If you are loading software from a PC, the ftp server must be running on the
PC before beginning this procedure.
How long will a
software load take?
Loading software into flash memory takes approximately 10 to 15 minutes
to complete, depending on your network load.
To load the system software:
Top-Level Menu
➧ system
ethernet
fddi
tokenring
bridge
ip
ipx
appletalk
snmp
analyzer
script
logout
display
➧ softwareUpdate
baseline
serialPort
password
name
time
screenHeight
consoleLock
panelLock
ctlKeys
nvData
reboot
1 From the top level of the Administration Console, enter:
system softwareUpdate
You are prompted for the Host IP address, Install file path name, User name,
and Password. The current values are displayed in brackets [ ]. To use the
value in brackets, press [Return]. The password field does not display what
you enter.
2 Enter the IP address of the host machine from which you are installing the
software (such as a Sun workstation or PC).
In the following example, the IP address of the host is 192.9.200.96.
3 Enter the complete path and file name.
For DOS system syntax, you must precede the full pathname with a forward
slash (/). For example, if you are loading software from a DOS host, enter the
following at the Install Filename prompt:
/c:\lp6000R\lp6000R
4 Enter your user name.
5 Enter your password. You must enter a value for this field.
Loading Software
2-5
See the following screen for an example of the software installation
prompts.
Host IP address [192.9.200.14]:192.9.200.96
Install file path name [/usr/lp6000R/lp6000R]:
User name: ronnyk
Password:
After the software is loaded, you are notified that installation has been
completed:
Installation complete.
If the LANplex executable software image stored in Flash is corrupted (for
example, when a power failure occurs while you are updating software),
contact 3Com Technical Support, as described in Appendix A.
2-6
CHAPTER 2: INSTALLING EXTENDED SWITCHING SOFTWARE
II
ABOUT ROUTING PROTOCOLS
Chapter 3
Routing and the LANplex System
Chapter 4
Routing with IP
Chapter 5
Routing with IPX
Chapter 6
Routing with AppleTalk
3
ROUTING AND THE LANPLEX
SYSTEM
This chapter shows how the LANplex system operates in a subnetted
routing environment and describes the LANplex routing methodology —
specifically, how the LANplex bridging and routing model compares with
traditional models.
What is Routing?
Routing is the process of distributing packets over potentially dissimilar
networks. A router (also called a gateway) is the machine that accomplishes
this task. Routers are typically used to:
■
Connect enterprise networks together
■
Connect subnets (client/server networks) to the enterprise network
Figure 3-1 shows where routes are typically used in a network.
The LANplex system performs routing that connects subnets to the
enterprise network, providing connectivity between devices within a
workgroup, department, or building.
CHAPTER 3: ROUTING AND THE LANPLEX SYSTEM
3-2
Connecting
enterprise
networks
Connecting
subnets to the
enterprise
Router
FDDI Backbone
Sales
Router
Marketing
Router
Engineering
Router
Bridge
Bridge
Bridge
Bridge
Bridge
Figure 3-1 Traditional Architecture of a Routed Network
LANplex in a
Subnetted
Environment
The LANplex system allows you to fit Ethernet switching capability into
highly subnetted environments. When you put the LANplex system
into a subnetted network, it streamlines your network architecture and
easily switches traffic between and within subnets over Ethernet and
FDDI. See Figure 3-2.
Router
FDDI backbone
Sales
LANplex
Engineering
LANplex
Figure 3-2 Subnetted Architecture with LANplex Switching Hubs
Marketing
What is Routing?
Integrating
Bridging and
Routing
3-3
The LANplex system has bridging and routing integrated into the
Ethernet/FDDI Switching Module (EFSM) and the Ethernet Switching
Module (ESM). The Token Ring Switching Module (TRSM) supports
bridging only.
Multiple switch ports can be assigned to each subnet. See Figure 3-3.
Traffic between ports assigned to the same subnet is switched
transparently using transparent bridging or Express switching (described
in the LANplex 6000 Operation Guide). Traffic traveling to different
subnets is routed using one of the supported routing protocols.
In the following descriptions of bridging and routing on the LANplex
system, the term MAC address refers to a physical hardware address.
The term network address refers to a logical address that applies to a
specific protocol.
Subnet 4
Ethernet/FDDI
Switching Module
Internal
FDDI Ports
Ethernet Ports
Subnet 3
Subnet 1
Subnet 2
Figure 3-3 Multiple Ports per Subnets with the EFSM
Because the LANplex model of bridging and routing allows several
segments to be connected to the same subnet, you can increase the
level of segmentation in your network without having to create new
subnets or assign network addresses. Instead, you can use additional
3-4
CHAPTER 3: ROUTING AND THE LANPLEX SYSTEM
Ethernet ports to expand your existing subnets. This is in contrast to
more traditional forms of bridging and routing where, at most, one port
is connected to any subnet.
In the traditional model, if you want to increase the level of
segmentation in your network, you must create additional subnets and
assign new network addresses to your existing hosts.
Bridging/Routing
Models
Traditional
Bridging/Routing
Model
The way routing is implemented in the LANplex system differs from
how bridging and routing usually coexist in a system.
■
Traditional Bridging/Routing Model — In this model, bridging and
routing are peer entities; either a packet is bridged or routed. Packets
belonging to recognized protocols are routed; all others are bridged.
■
LANplex Bridging/Routing Model — In this model, the bridge and
router operate hierarchically on the module — routing over bridging.
When a packet enters the system, the module first tries to bridge the
packet. If the packet’s destination network address is not on the same
subnet, then the module routes the packet.
The bridge/router determines whether a packet should be bridged or
routed based on the protocol to which the packet belongs. If the packet
belongs to a recognized protocol, the packet is routed. Otherwise, it is
bridged.
In the traditional bridging/routing model, a packet is bridged as follows
(see Figure 3-4):
1 The packet enters the bridge/router.
2 The bridge/router determines that the packet does not belong to a
recognized routed protocol, so the packet is passed to the bridge.
3 The bridge examines the destination MAC address and forwards the
packet to the port on which that address has been learned.
Bridging/Routing Models
Router
3-5
Bridge
3
2
Router vs. Bridge ?
1
Interfaces (ports)
Networks
Destination Host
Transmitting Host
Figure 3-4 Bridging in the Traditional Bridging/Routing Model
In the traditional bridging/routing model, a packet is routed as follows
(see Figure 3-5):
1 The packet enters the bridge/router.
2 The bridge/router determines that the packet belongs to a recognized
routed protocol, so the packet is passed to the router.
3 The router examines the destination network address and forwards the
packet to the interface (port) connected to the destination subnet.
Router
Bridge
3
2
Router vs. Bridge ?
1
Interfaces (ports)
Networks
Transmitting Host
Destination Host
Figure 3-5 Routing in the Traditional Bridging/Routing Model
3-6
CHAPTER 3: ROUTING AND THE LANPLEX SYSTEM
LANplex
Bridging/Routing
Model
The LANplex 6000 determines whether a packet should be bridged or
routed using the destination MAC address. Before a host sends a packet
to another host, it compares its own network address to the network
address of the other host as follows:
■
If network addresses are on the same subnet, the packet is bridged
directly to the destination host’s address.
■
If network addresses are on different subnets, the packet must be
routed from one subnet to the other. In this case, the host transmits the
packet to the connecting router’s MAC address.
In the LANplex bridging/routing model, a packet is bridged as follows
(see Figure 3-6):
1 The packet enters the module.
2 The packet’s destination MAC address is examined by the bridging layer.
3 The destination MAC address does not correspond to the MAC address
of one of the module ports configured for routing. The bridging layer
selects a segment (port) based on the destination MAC address and
forwards the packet to that segment.
Router
Routing Layer
2
1
3
3
Router Interfaces
Bridge
2
Bridging Layer
1
1
2
3
Subnets
Transmitting Host
Destination Host
Figure 3-6 Bridging and the LANplex Bridging/Routing Model
Bridging/Routing Models
3-7
In the LANplex bridging/routing model, a packet is routed as follows (see
Figure 3-7):
1 The packet enters the module.
2 The packet’s destination address is examined by the bridging layer.
3 The destination address corresponds to the address of one of the module
ports configured for routing (as opposed to a learned end-station address).
The packet is passed to the router interface associated with the port on
which the packet was received.
4 The routing layer:
a Selects a destination interface based on the destination network
address.
b Determines the MAC address of the next hop (either the destination
host or another gateway).
c Passes the packet back to the bridging layer.
5 The bridging layer then selects a segment (port) based on the destination
MAC address and forwards the packet to that segment.
Router
4
Routing Layer
3
2
1
3
Router Interfaces
Bridge
5
2
Bridging Layer
1
1
2
Transmitting Host
Destination Host
Figure 3-7 Routing in the LANplex Bridging/Routing Model
3
Subnets
3-8
CHAPTER 3: ROUTING AND THE LANPLEX SYSTEM
4
ROUTING WITH IP
This chapter gives an overview of IP routing, specifically defining:
IP Routing and
the OSI Model
■
What IP routing involves
■
What elements are necessary for IP routers to effectively transmit packets
■
How IP routing transmission errors are detected and resolved
An IP router, unlike a bridge, operates at the network layer of the OSI
Reference Model. This means that it routes packets by examining the
network layer address (IP address). Bridges use the data-link layer MAC
addresses to make forwarding decisions. See Figure 4-1.
OSI Reference Model
Application Layer
Presentation Layer
Session Layer
Transport Layer
Network Layer
IP
RIP
ICMP
ARP
Data-link Layer
MAC
Physical Layer
Figure 4-1 OSI Reference Model and IP Routing
4-2
CHAPTER 4: ROUTING WITH IP
When an IP router sends a packet over multiple physical networks, it
does not know the complete path to a destination — only the next
hop. Each hop involves the following:
■
The IP routing algorithm computes the next hop IP address (the next
router interface) using the routing table entries.
■
ARP translates the next hop IP address into a physical MAC address.
■
The router sends the packet over the network to the next hop.
These routing elements are described in more detail in the following
section.
The Elements of
IP Routing
IP Addresses
IP Routers use the following elements to transmit packets in a
subnetted environment:
■
IP addresses
■
Router interfaces
■
Routing tables
■
Address Resolution Protocol (ARP)
IP addresses are 32-bit addresses composed of a network part (network
on which the host is located) and a host part (the host on that network).
See Figure 4-2. They differ from Ethernet and FDDI MAC addresses,
which are unique hardware-configured 48-bit addresses.
32 bits
IP Address
network
host
The boundary between
network and host depends
on the class of IP address.
Figure 4-2 IP Address Network Part and Host Part
The IP address network part is assigned by a central agency, and the
host part is assigned by each network’s administrator. All devices
connected to the same network share the same IP address prefix (the
network part of the address).
The Elements of IP Routing
4-3
Address Classes
The boundary of the network part and the host part depends on the
class of network you are assigned by the central agency. The primary
classes of IP addresses are Class A, Class B, and Class C.
■
Class A addresses — have seven bits for the network part and 24 bits
for the host part. Although only a few Class A networks can be created,
each can contain a very large number of hosts.
■
Class B addresses — have 14 bits for the network part and 16 bits for
the host part.
■
Class C addresses — have 21 bits for the network part and eight bits
for the host part. Each Class C network can only contain about 250
hosts, but many such networks can be created.
The class of an IP address is designated in the high-order bits of the
address.
The Subnet Part of the IP Address
In some environments, the IP address contains a subnet part. Subnetting
allows a single Class A, B, or C network to be further subdivided
internally while still appearing as a single network to other networks.
The subnet part of the IP address is only visible to those hosts and
gateways on the subnetted network.
When an IP address contains a subnet part, a subnet mask is used to
identify which bits are the subnet and which are the host. A subnet
mask is a 32-bit number that uses the same format and representation
as IP addresses. Each IP address bit corresponding to a one in the
subnet mask is in the network/subnet part of the address. Each IP
address bit corresponding to a zero is in the host part of the IP address.
See Figure 4-3.
4-4
CHAPTER 4: ROUTING WITH IP
Take the IP address
IP Address
Subnet & Host
Network
Apply the subnet mask
Subnet Mask
1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 11 11 11 1 1 1 1 1 00 0 0 0 00 0
Result = subnet and host boundary
networ
Network
Subnet
subn
Host
Figure 4-3 How a Subnet Mask is Applied to the IP Address
An example of an IP address that includes the network, subnet, and
host parts is 158.101.230.52 with a subnet mask of 255.255.255.0. This
address is divided as follows:
■
158.101 is the network part
■
230 is the subnet part
■
52 is the host part
Router Interfaces
A router interface is the connection between the router and a subnet.
In traditional routing models, the interface would be the same as the
port, since only one interface could exist per port. In the LANplex
system’s IP routing, more than one port can be connected to the same
subnet. Therefore, the router interface is the relationship between the
ports and the subnets in your IP network.
Each router interface has an IP address and a subnet mask. This address
defines both the number of the network the router interface is attached
to and its host number on that network. A router interface’s IP address
serves two functions:
■
The IP address is used when sending IP packets to or from the router
itself.
■
The IP address defines the network and subnet numbers of the
segment connected to that interface. See Figure 4-4.
The Elements of IP Routing
4-5
Network 2
Network 1
Interfaces
158.101.1.2
1
2
158.101.2.2
158.101.2.1
Router
Interface 1
IP Address
158.101.1.1
3
158.101.3.2
158.101.3.1
Interface
Network 3
Figure 4-4 Router Interfaces
Routing Table
A routing table allows a router or host to determine how to send a
packet toward the packet’s ultimate destination. The routing table
contains an entry for every destination network, subnet, or host to
which the router or host is capable of forwarding packets. A router or
host uses the routing table when the destination IP address of the
packet it is sending is not on a network or subnet to which it is directly
connected. The routing table provides the IP address of a router that
can forward the packet toward its destination.
The routing table consists of the following:
■
Destination IP Address — the destination network, subnet, or host
■
Subnet Mask — the subnet mask corresponding to the destination IP
address
■
Metric — a measure of the “distance” to the destination (in the Routing
Information Protocol (RIP), the metric is the number of hops)
■
Gateway — the IP address of the next hop router (the IP address of the
interface through which the packet travels)
■
Interface — the interface number through which a packet must travel
to reach that router
Figure 4-5 shows the routing table of the router in Figure 4-4.
4-6
CHAPTER 4: ROUTING WITH IP
Routing Table
Destination IP Address
Subnet Mask
Metric
Gateway
Interface
158.101.1.1
255.255.255.0
1
158.101.1.2
1
158.101.2.1
255.255.255.0
1
158.101.2.2
2
158.101.3.1
255.255.255.0
1
158.101.3.2
3
default route
255.255.255.0
1
158.101.1.2
1
Figure 4-5 Example of a Routing Table
Routing table information is generated and updated in the following
ways:
■
Statically — You manually enter routes, which do not change until
you change them (that is, they will not time out).
■
Dynamically — The router uses a routing protocol, such as RIP, to
exchange information. Routes are recalculated at regular intervals.
Static Routes
A static route is one that you manually configure in the routing table.
Static routes are useful in environments where no routing protocol is
used, or where you want to override some of the routes generated with
a routing protocol. Because static routes do not automatically change in
response to network topology changes, you should manually configure
only a small number of reasonably stable routes.
Dynamic Routes Using RIP
Automated methods of configuring routes help you keep up with a
changing network environment, allowing routes to be reconfigured
quickly and reliably. Interior Gateway Protocols (IGP), protocols that
operate within networks, provide this automated method. The LANplex
system uses RIP, one of the most widely used IGPs, to configure its
routing tables dynamically.
RIP operates in terms of active and passive devices. The active devices,
usually routers, broadcast their RIP messages to all devices in a network
or subnet; they update their own routing tables when they receive a RIP
message. The passive devices, usually hosts, listen for RIP messages and
update their routing tables; they do not send RIP messages.
The Elements of IP Routing
4-7
An active router sends a RIP message every 30 seconds. This message
contains both the IP address and a metric (the distance to the
destination from that router) for each destination. In RIP, each router
that a packet must travel through to reach a destination equals one
hop.
Default Route
In addition to the routes to specific destinations, the routing table may
contain an entry called the default route. The router uses the default
route to forward packets that do not match any other routing table
entry. A default route is often used in place of routes to numerous
destinations all having the same gateway IP address and interface
number. The default route can be configured statically, or it can be
learned dynamically using RIP.
Address Resolution
Protocol (ARP)
ARP is a low-level protocol used to locate the MAC address corresponding to a given IP address. This allows a host or router to make its routing
decisions using IP addresses while it uses MAC addresses to forward
packets from one hop to the next.
Once the host or router knows the IP address of the next hop to the
destination, the host or router must translate that IP address into a MAC
address before the packet can be sent. To do this, the host or router
first looks in its ARP cache, a table of IP addresses with their corresponding MAC addresses. Each device participating in IP routing maintains an
ARP cache. See Figure 4-6.
ARP Cache
IP Address
MAC Address
158.101.1.1
00308e3d0042
158.101.2.1
0080232b00ab
Figure 4-6 Example of an ARP Cache
If the IP address does not have a corresponding MAC address listed, the
host or router broadcasts an ARP request packet to all the devices on the
network. The ARP request contains information about the hardware and
protocol. The two key elements of the ARP request are the target and
4-8
CHAPTER 4: ROUTING WITH IP
source addresses for both the hardware (MAC addresses) and the
protocol (IP addresses). See Figure 4-7.
ARP Request
00802322b00ad
Source Hardware Address
158.101.2.1
Source Protocol Address
?
Target Hardware Address
158.101.3.1
Target Protocol Address
Figure 4-7 Example of an ARP Request Packet
When the devices on the network receive this packet, they examine it,
and if their address is not the target protocol address, they discard the
packet. When a device receives the packet and confirms that its IP
address is the target protocol address, this device places its MAC
address in the target hardware address field and sends the packet back
to the source hardware address. When the originating host or router
receives the ARP reply, it takes the new MAC address and places it in its
ARP cache next to the corresponding IP address. See Figure 4-8.
ARP Cache
IP Address
MAC Address
158.101.1.1
00308e3d0042
158.101.2.1
0080232b00ab
158.101.3.1
0134650f3000
Figure 4-8 Example of ARP Cache Updated with ARP Reply
Once the MAC address is known, the host or router can send the packet
directly to the next hop.
IP Routing Transmission Errors
IP Routing
Transmission
Errors
4-9
Because each router only knows about the next hop, it is not aware of
problems that may be further “down the road” toward the destination.
Destinations can be unreachable if:
■
Hardware is temporarily out of service
■
You inadvertently specify a nonexistent destination address
■
The router does not have a route to the destination network
To help routers and hosts know of problems in packet transmission, an
error-reporting mechanism called Internet Control Message Protocol
(ICMP) provides error reporting back to the source when routing
problems arise. ICMP is a required part of IP. Without ICMP, you could
not tell if a delivery failure resulted from a local or remote malfunction.
ICMP does the following:
■
Tests the reachability of nodes (ICMP Echo Request and ICMP Echo Reply)
A host or gateway sends an ICMP echo request to a specified
destination. If the destination receives the echo request, it sends an
ICMP echo reply back to the original sender. This process tests that the
destination is reachable and responding, and verifies that the major
pieces of the transport system work. The ping command is often used
to invoke this process.
■
Creates more efficient routing (ICMP Redirect)
Many times the host route configuration specifies the minimal possible
routing information needed to communicate (for example, the address
of a single router). The host relies on routers to update its routing table.
In the process of routing packets, a router may detect a host not using
the best route. The router then sends the host an ICMP redirect,
requesting that the host use a different gateway when sending packets
to that destination. The next time the host sends a packet to that same
destination, the host uses the new route.
■
Informs sources that a packet has exceeded its allocated time to exist
within the network (ICMP Time Exceeded)
4-10
CHAPTER 4: ROUTING WITH IP
IP Routing
References
Comer, Douglas E. Internetworking with TCP/IP Volume I: Principles, Protocols,
and Architecture. Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey: Prentice Hall, Inc., 1991.
Perlman, Radia. Interconnections: Bridges and Routers. Reading,
Massachusetts: Addison-Wesley Publishing Company, Inc., 1992.
Sterns, Richard. TCP/IP Illustrated, Volume 1 The Protocols. Addison-Wesley
Professional Computing Services, 1992
RFC 791. Internet Protocol Specification.
RFC 792. Internet Control Message Protocol Specification.
RFC 1009. Requirements for Internet Gateways.
RFC 1042. A Standard for the Transmission of IP Datagrams over IEEE 802
Networks.
RFC 1058. Routing Information Protocol.
RFC 1122. Requirements for Internet Hosts.
5
ROUTING WITH IPX
This chapter provides an overview of IPX routing, specifically defining:
IPX Routing in
the NetWare
Environment
■
What part IPX plays in the NetWare environment
■
How IPX works
■
What elements are necessary for IPX routers to transmit packets effectively
NetWare is a network operating system (NOS) developed and introduced to
the market by NovellTM, Inc. in the early 1980s. Much of the NetWare
networking technology was derived from Xerox Network System (XNS) TM, a
networking system developed by Xerox CorporationTM.
As a network operating system environment, NetWare specifies the upper
five layers of the OSI reference model. It provides file and printer sharing
and supports various applications such as electronic mail and database
access. NetWare is based on a client/server architecture where clients
request certain services from servers such as file and printer access.
Figure 5-1 illustrates a simplified view of NetWare’s better-known protocols
and their relationship to the OSI reference model.
5-2
CHAPTER 5: ROUTING WITH IPX
Application
NetWare
Control
Protocol
(NCP)
Appplications
Service
Advertising
Protocol
(SAP)
Routing
Information
Protocol
(RIP)
NetWare
Shell
(Client)
Presentation
Session
Netbios
SPX
Transport
Network
IPX
Data Link
Media Access Protocols
(Ethernet, FDDI)
Physical
Figure 5-1 NetWare Protocols and the OSI Reference Model
The LANplex system uses the following protocols for routing in a Netware
environment:
Internet Packet
Exchange (IPX)
■
Internet Packet Exchange (IPX)
■
Routing Information Protocol (RIP)
■
Service Advertisement Protocol (SAP)
IPX is the primary protocol used for routing in a netware environment. This
datagram, connectionless protocol does not require an acknowledgment for
each packet sent. Any packet acknowledgment, or connection control, must
be provided by protocols above IPX.
IPX defines internetwork and intranode addressing schemes. IPX
internetwork addressing is based on network numbers that are assigned to
each interface in an IPX network. IPX intranode addressing is in the form of
socket numbers. Since several processes are normally operating within a
node, socket numbers provide a type of mail slot so that each process can
distinguish itself to IPX.
IPX Routing in the NetWare Environment
Routing
Information
Protocol (RIP)
5-3
RIP allows the exchange of routing information on a NetWare network. IPX
routers use RIP to dynamically create and maintain their routing tables.
RIP allows a router to exchange routing information with a neighboring
router. As a router becomes aware of any changes in the network layout,
it broadcasts this information to any neighboring routers. IPX routers also
send periodic RIP broadcast packets containing all routing information
known to the router. These broadcasts synchronize all routers on the
network and age those networks that might become inaccessible due to a
router going down abnormally.
Service Advertising
Protocol (SAP)
SAP provides routers and servers (that contain SAP agents) with a means of
exchanging network service information.
Through SAP, servers advertise their services and addresses. Routers gather
this information and share it with other routers. This allows routers to
dynamically create and maintain a database (server table) of network
service information. Clients on the network can determine what services are
available and obtain the network address of the nodes (servers) where they
can access those services. Clients require this information to initiate a
session with a file server.
SAP allows a router to exchange information with a neighboring SAP agent.
As a router’s SAP agent becomes aware of any change in the network server
layout, it immediately broadcasts this information to any neighboring SAP
agents. SAP broadcast packets containing all server information known to
the SAP agent are also periodically sent. These broadcasts synchronize all
servers on the network and age those servers that might become
inaccessible due to any abnormal shut down of the router or server.
5-4
CHAPTER 5: ROUTING WITH IPX
How IPX Routing
Works
IPX Packet Format
A router operates at the network layer of the OSI Reference Model. This
means that it receives its instructions to route packets from one segment to
another from a network layer protocol. IPX, with the help of RIP and SAP,
performs these network layer tasks. These tasks include addressing, routing,
and switching information packets to move single packets from one
location to another. This section describes the information included in an
IPX packet that helps it get delivered and the IPX packet delivery process.
The IPX packet format consists of two parts: a 30-byte header and a data
portion. The network, node, and socket address for both the destination and
source are held within the packet’s IPX header.
Figure 5-2 shows the IPX packet format.
Checksum
(2 Bytes)
Packet Length
(2 Bytes)
Transport Control
(1 Byte)
Packet Type
(1 Byte)
Destination Network (4 Bytes)
Destination Node
(6 Bytes)
Destination Socket
(2 Bytes)
Source Network
(4 Bytes)
Source Node
(6 Bytes)
Source Socket
(2 Bytes)
Upper-layer Data
Figure 5-2 IPX Packet Format
How IPX Routing Works
5-5
The packet format consists of the following elements:
■
Checksum — The IPX packet begins with a 16-bit checksum field that is set
to ones.
■
Packet Length — This 16-bit field contains the length, in bytes, of the
complete network packet. This includes both the IPX header and the data.
The IPX length must be at least 30 bytes.
■
Transport Control — This 1-byte field indicates how many routers a packet
has passed through on its way to its destination. Packets are discarded
when this value reaches 16. Sending nodes always set this field to zero
when building an IPX packet.
■
Packet Type — This 1-byte field specifies the upper-layer protocol to
receive the packet’s information.
■
Destination Network — This 4-byte field provides the destination node’s
network number. When a sending node sets this field to zero, the
destination node is assumed to be on the same local segment as the
sending node.
■
Destination Node — This 6-byte field contains the physical address of the
destination node.
■
Destination Socket — This 2-byte field contains the socket address of the
packet’s destination process.
■
Source Network — This 4-byte field provides the source node’s network
number. If a sending node sets this field to zero, it means the source’s local
network is unknown.
■
Source Node — This 6-byte field contains the physical address of the
source node. Broadcast addresses are not allowed.
■
Source Socket — This 2-byte field contains the socket address of the
process that transmitted the packet.
■
Upper-Layer Data — The data field follows the destination and source
fields. It contains information for the upper-layer processes.
5-6
CHAPTER 5: ROUTING WITH IPX
IPX Packet Delivery
On a NetWare network, the successful delivery of a packet depends on the
proper addressing of the packet and the internetwork configuration. Packet
addressing is handled in its Media Access Control (MAC) protocol header
and IPX header address fields.
To send a packet to another node, the sending node must know the
complete internetwork address (network, node, and socket) of the node it
wishes to send to. Once the sending node has the destination node’s
address, it can proceed with addressing the packet. However, the way the
MAC header of that packet is addressed depends on whether the sending
and destination nodes are separated by a router. See Figure 5-3.
Sending Node
Router
Network = 000000AA
Node =
000000000001
Socket =
4003
Node
000000000020
Destination Node
Node
000000000021
Network = 000000BB
Node =
000000000003
Socket =
0451
MAC Header
Destination Node = 000000000020
Source Node =
000000000001
MAC Header
Destination Node = 000000000003
Source Node =
000000000021
IPX Header
Checksum =
Packet Length =
Tranport Control =
Packet Type =
IPX Header
Checksum =
Packet Length =
Tranport Control =
Packet Type =
Dest Network =
Dest Node =
Dest Socket =
FFFF
011E
00
11
000000BB
000000000003
0451
Dest Network =
Dest Node =
Dest Socket =
Source Network = 000000AA
Source Node =
000000000001
Source Socket = 4003
Data
FFFF
011E
01
11
000000BB
000000000003
0451
Source Network = 000000AA
Source Node =
000000000001
Source Socket = 4003
Data
Figure 5-3 IPX Packet Routing
Sending Node’s Responsibility
When a node wants to send information to another node with the same
network number, the sending node can simply address and send packets
directly to the destination node. However, if the two nodes have different
network numbers, the sending node must find a router on its own segment
that can forward packets to the destination node’s network segment.
To find this router, the sending node broadcasts a RIP packet requesting the
best route to the destination node’s network number. The router residing on
the sending nodes segment with the shortest path to the destination
How IPX Routing Works
5-7
segment responds to the RIP request. The router’s response includes its
network and node address in the IPX header. If the sending node is a router
rather than a workstation, the router can get this information from its
internal routing tables and need not send a RIP request.
Once the sending node knows the router’s node address, it can send
packets to the destination node.
Router’s Responsibility
When a router receives an IPX packet, it handles the packet in one of the
following methods:
■
If the packet is destined for a network number that the router is directly
connected to, the router performs the following:
a It places the destination node address from the IPX header in the
destination address field of the MAC header.
b It places its own node address in the source address field of the MAC
header.
c It increments the Transport Control field of the IPX header and transmits
the packet on the destination node segment.
■
If the router is not directly connected to the segment that the final
destination node resides on, it sends the packet to the next router in the
path to the destination node as follows:
a The router places the node address of the next router in the destination
address field of the MAC header. This information is obtained from the
Routing Information Table.
b It places its own node address in the source address field of the MAC
header.
c It increments the Transport Control field in the IPX header and sends the
packet to the next router.
5-8
CHAPTER 5: ROUTING WITH IPX
The Elements of
IPX Routing
IPX routers use the following elements to transmit packets over an
intranetwork:
■
Router interfaces
■
Routing tables
■
SAP
Router Interfaces
A router interface is the connection between the router and the network
number (address). In traditional routing models, the interface would be the
same as the port, since only one interface could exist per port.
In the LANplex system’s IPX routing, more than one port can be connected
to the network number. Therefore, the router interface is the relationship
between the ports and the network number (address) in your IPX network.
Each router interface has a network address. This address defines the
network number that the router interface is attached to. A router interface’s
IPX address serves two functions:
■
It is used when sending IPX packets to or from the router itself.
■
It defines the network number of the segment connected to that interface.
Routing Tables
A routing table holds information about all the network segments. It allows
a router to send a packet toward its ultimate destination using the best
possible route. The routing information table contains an entry for every
network number that the router currently knows exists. A router uses the
routing information table when the destination network number of the
packet it is sending is not on a network to which it is directly connected.
The routing information table provides the immediate address of a
forwarding router that can forward the packet toward its destination.
The routing table consists of the following elements:
■
Interface — Identifies the router’s interface that will be used to reach the
specific network segment.
■
Address — Identifies the addresses for segments that the router currently
knows exists.
The Elements of IPX Routing
5-9
■
Hops to Network — Provides the number of routers that must be crossed
to reach the network segment.
■
Ticks to Network — Provides an estimate of the time necessary to reach
the destination segment.
■
Node — The node address of the router that can forward packets to each
segment. When set to all zeroes, the route is directly connected.
■
Aging Timer — The time since the network’s last update.
Figure 5-4 shows a typical example of a routing information table.
Routing Table
Interface Address
Hops
Ticks
Node
Age
1
1
1
1
00-00-00-00-00-00
0
2
45469f30
1
1
00-00-00-00-00-00
0
2
45469f33
2
3
08-00-17-04-33-45
40
Figure 5-4 Routing Table Example
Generating Routes
The routing information table is generated and updated as follows:
■
Statically — You manually enter routes, which do not change until you
change them (they do not time out).
■
Dynamically — The router uses RIP to exchange information. Routes are
recalculated at regular intervals.
Static Routes. A static route is one you manually configure in the routing
table. Static routes are useful in environments where no routing protocol is
used, or where you want to override some of the routes generated with a
routing protocol. Because static routes do not automatically change in
response to network topology changes, you should only manually configure
a small number of reasonably stable routes.
Dynamic Routes Using RIP. Automated methods of learning routes help
you keep up with a changing network environment, allowing routes to be
reconfigured quickly and reliably. Interior Gateway Protocols (IGP), protocols
that operate within intranetworks, provide this automated method. The
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CHAPTER 5: ROUTING WITH IPX
LANplex system uses RIP (one of the most widely used IGPs), to dynamically
build its routing tables.
RIP operates in terms of active and passive devices. The active devices,
usually routers, broadcast their RIP messages to all devices in a network;
they update their own routing tables when they receive a RIP message. The
passive devices, usually hosts, listen for RIP messages and update their
routing tables; they do not send RIP messages.
An active router sends a RIP message every 60 seconds. This message
contains both the network number and the number of hops for each
destination. In RIP, each router that a packet must travel through to reach a
destination equals one hop.
Selecting the Best Route
On large networks, there may be multiple routes to a single network. The
criteria that should be used by the routers in selecting the “best route” to a
network when choosing between alternate routes are listed below:
Service Advertising
Protocol (SAP)
■
Select the route that requires the lowest number of ticks
■
If multiple routes exist with the number of ticks equal, select the route that
also has the lowest number of hops
■
If multiple routes exist with both ticks and hops equal, the router is free to
choose any of the routes as the “best” route
The Service Advertising Protocol allows servers (for example, file servers,
print servers, and gateway servers) to advertise their addresses and services.
Through the use of SAP, adding and removing services on an internetwork
becomes dynamic. As servers are booted up, they advertise their services
using SAP. When they are brought down, they use SAP to indicate that their
services are no longer available.
Internetwork Service Information
Using SAP, routers create and maintain a database of internetwork service
information. This allows clients on the network to determine what services
are available on the network and to obtain the internetwork address of the
nodes (servers) where they can access those services.
The Elements of IPX Routing
5-11
Workstations cannot initiate a session with a file server without first knowing
the server’s address.
SAP Packet Structure
SAP uses IPX and the medium-access protocols for its transport. The packet
structure allows for the following functions:
■
A workstation request for the name and address of the nearest server of a
certain type
■
A router request for the names and addresses of either all the servers or all
the servers of a certain type on the internetwork
■
A response to either a workstation or router request
■
Periodic broadcasts by servers and routers
■
Changed server information broadcasts
Figure 5-5 provides an overview of the SAP packet structure. Notice that the
packet structure is encapsulated within the data area of IPX.
IPX Packet Format
Server Entry Structure
SAP Packet Structure
IPX Header (30 Bytes)
Packet Type = 4
Socket =452h
Operation
Server Entry (1)
Data
Service Type
(2 Bytes)
(2 Bytes)
Server Name
(48 Bytes)
(64 Bytes)
Network Address
(4 Bytes)
Node Address
(6 Bytes)
Socket Address
(2 Bytes)
Hops to Server
(2 Bytes)
.
.
.
.
Server Entry (n)
(n <= 7)
(64 Bytes)
Figure 5-5 SAP Packet Structure
A SAP packet consists of the following fields:
■
Operation — This field indicates the type of operation the SAP packet
performs and can be set to one of the following values:
1=Request
2=Response
3=Get Nearest Server Request
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CHAPTER 5: ROUTING WITH IPX
4=Get Nearest Server Response
■
Server Entry — Each server entry includes information regarding a
particular server and consists of the following fields:
■
Service Type — This field identifies the type of service the server
provides.
Although IPX routers use SAP, routers typically do not act as servers and
require no Server Type assignment.
■
Server Name — This field contains the 48 byte character string name
that is assigned to a server. The Server Name, in combination with the
Service Type, uniquely identifies a server on an internetwork.
■
Network Address — This field contains the server’s network address.
■
Node Address — This field contains the server’s node address.
■
■
Socket Address — This field contains the socket number the server
uses to receive service requests.
Hops to Server — This field indicates the number of intermediate
networks that must be passed through to reach the server associated
with this field entry. Each time the packet passes through an
intermediate network, the field is incremented by one.
By using SAP, servers can advertise their services and addresses. The
information that these servers broadcast is not directly used by clients but is
collected by a SAP agent within each router on the server’s segment. The
SAP agents store this information in a server information table. If the agents
reside within a server, the information is also stored in their server’s bindery.
The clients can then contact the nearest router or file server SAP agent for
server information.
The SAP broadcasts that servers and routers send are local broadcasts and,
therefore, only received by SAP agents on their connected segments.
However, SAP agents periodically broadcast their server information so that
all SAP agents on the internetwork have information about all servers that
are active on the internetwork.
The Elements of IPX Routing
5-13
Server Information Table
A server information table holds information about all the servers on the
internetwork. It is this table that SAP agents use to store information
received in SAP broadcasts. Figure 5-6 shows an example of a typical server
information table.
Server Table
Interface Name
Type
Network
Node
1
LPX1102
4
45469f33
1
LPX1103
4
2
LPX2001
4
Socket
Hops
Age
00-00-00-00-00-01 451
2
102
45469f44
00-00-00-00-00-01 451
5
65
45470001
00-00-00-00-00-01 451
4
33
Figure 5-6 Server Information Table
The server information table provides the following information:
■
Interface — indicates which interface the information was received from
■
Server Name — the name of the server
■
Server Type — indicates the type of service provided
■
Network Address — the address of the network on which the server
resides
■
Node Address — the node of the server
■
Socket Address — the socket number on which the server will receive
service requests
■
Hops to Server — the number of intermediate networks that must be
passed through to reach the server associated with this entry
■
Age of Server — the time since the last update for that server
The server information table is either statically or dynamically generated
and updated.
Static Servers. A static server is one you manually configure in the server
information table. Static servers are useful in environments where no
routing protocol is used, or where you want to override some of the servers
generated with a routing/servers protocol. Because static servers do not
5-14
CHAPTER 5: ROUTING WITH IPX
automatically change in response to network topology changes, you
should only manually configure a small number of servers.
Dynamic Routes Using SAP. The automated method of adding and
removing services help you keep up with a changing network environment,
allowing servers to advertise their services and addresses quickly and
reliably. SAP provides this automated method.
As servers are booted up, they advertise their services using SAP. When
servers are brought down, they use SAP to indicate that their services are
no longer available.
The information that these servers broadcast is not directly used by clients
but instead is collected by a SAP agent within each router on the server’s
segment. The SAP agents store this information in the server information
table. Clients can then contact the nearest router or file server SAP agent for
server information.
Server Information Maintenance
When a router’s SAP agent receives a SAP broadcast response indicating a
change in the internetwork server configuration (for example, a server has
gone down, been brought up, or is accessible through a better route), the
agent must update its server information table and inform other SAP agents
of these changes.
To relay this information to the rest of the internetwork, the SAP agent
immediately sends a broadcast to all of its directly connected segments
except the segment from which the information was received. This
broadcast packet contains information regarding the server change that
occurred. This information is also reflected in all future periodic broadcasts.
SAP Aging. Router SAP agents implement an aging mechanism to handle
those conditions (for example, hardware failure, power glitch, power
outage) that cause a SAP agent to go down suddenly without sending a
DOWN broadcast. SAP agents maintain a timer for each entry in their server
information table that keeps track of how much time has elapsed since
information was received concerning a particular table entry. Since this
information is either new or changed, the SAP agents that receive this
information immediately pass it on and the change is quickly permeated
throughout the internetwork.
The Elements of IPX Routing
5-15
SAP Request Handling. When a SAP agent receives a general request, a
SAP response packet containing information about all servers of any type
known to the SAP agent is sent to the sending source. This response
includes the same information sent out in a periodic broadcast. When the
request is specific, the SAP agent sends a SAP response directly to the
requesting node. This response contains information regarding all servers of
the type asked for by the requesting source (as far as the router knows this
information).
5-16
CHAPTER 5: ROUTING WITH IPX
6
ROUTING WITH APPLETALK
This chapter provides an overview of AppleTalk routing, and specifically
defines these topics:
■
Appletalk Network Elements
■
AppleTalk Protocols
■
About AARP
About AppleTalk
AppleTalk is a protocol suite defined by Apple Computer, Inc., for
connecting computers and peripherals, and other devices on a network.
AppleTalk protocols support most of the functions offered by the Open
Standards Interconnection (OSI) reference model.
The AppleTalk protocols work together to provide file and printer sharing,
and different applications such as electronic mail and database access. All
Macintosh computers have Appletalk connectivity options built into them,
making it the de facto standard for Apple computer networks.
AppleTalk
Network
Elements
An AppleTalk network consists of different nodes in groups of networks in
an AppleTalk internet. These nodes can include workstations, routers, and
printers, or services for other computers, or clients.
This section describes the different elements of an AppleTalk internet, which
are as follows:
■
AppleTalk Networks
■
AppleTalk Nodes
■
AppleTalk Zones
■
Seed Routers
6-2
CHAPTER 6: ROUTING WITH APPLETALK
AppleTalk Networks
A network in an AppleTalk internet is a cable segment attached to a router.
Each network is identified by a network number or range of network
numbers. The network administrator assigns these numbers from a range of
valid network numbers.
Two AppleTalk network numbering systems are currently in use:
nonextended (Phase 1) and extended (Phase 2). 3Com routers support
extended network numbers. While the LANplex system will not translate
Phase 1 packets to Phase 2 packets, it will route packets to a Phase 1
network. When a LANplex system router does this, it anticipates that a
gateway exists between the two networks to translate the packets.
An extended network can span a range of logical networks. Network
numbers in an extended network consist of a range of numbers, such as
15-20. This numbering scheme allows for as many as 16,580, 608 nodes,
although the actual cables will not support this many nodes.
AppleTalk Nodes
A node in a AppleTalk network is any addressable device, including
workstations, printers, and routers. Nodes are physically attached to a
network. All AppleTalk nodes are identified by a unique AppleTalk address
that each node selects at initialization time. The address consists of the
node’s network number and a unique node number.
Named Entities
When a device on the network provides a service for other users, the
network administrator can give the device a name. The name appears on
the Chooser of the Macintosh with an associated icon. For example, the
Chooser of the Macintosh can include a printer icon. When you select the
printer icon, several printer names can appear in a list, such as Laser1,
Laser2, Laser3, etc. The Name Binding Protocol (NBP), described later in this
chapter, translates device names into AppleTalk addresses.
AppleTalk Network Elements
AppleTalk Zones
6-3
An AppleTalk zone is a logical collection of nodes on an AppleTalk internet.
A zone can include all nodes in a single network or a collection of nodes in
different networks. You assign a unique name to each zone to identify it in
the internet. Figure 6-1 illustrates the relationship between physical
AppleTalk networks and logical AppleTalk zones.
Network 8-8
Network 20-40
Router
Router
Network 47-47
Zone: Administration
Zone: Accounting
Router
Zone: Marketing
Figure 6-1 AppleTalk Networks and Zones
Figure 6-1 shows an AppleTalk internet with three networks: 47-47, 20-40,
and 8-8. Three AppleTalk zones span the networks in this internet:
administration, accounting, and marketing. Network 20-40 includes two
nodes in the administration zone and five nodes in the accounting zone.
Network 47-47 includes a node from the accounting zone as well as the
marketing nodes. Network 8-8 consists of nodes in the administration zone
only.
Creating zones within a network reduces the amount of searching a router
has to do to find a resource on the network. For example, you may want to
gain access to a printer on the network. Instead of searching the whole
network for that printer, the router searches for it within a particular zone.
6-4
CHAPTER 6: ROUTING WITH APPLETALK
You will gain access to the printer more quickly within the zone because the
zone includes fewer devices than the entire internet.
Seed Routers
A seed router initializes the internet with AppleTalk configuration
information including network numbers and zone names. The seed router
broadcasts this information so that nonseed routers can learn it. You can
designate a seed router through the Administration Console.
Nonseed routers listen for a seed router and then take the configuration
information from the first seed router they detect. After a nonseed router
obtains the configuration information, it can participate in the network as if
it were a seed router as well.
AppleTalk
Protocols
AppleTalk protocols work together to ensure the seamless flow of
information throughout the AppleTalk internet. Figure 6-2 shows a
simplified view of AppleTalk protocols and their relationship to the OSI
reference model. Together, these protocols provide the following services:
■
Physical Connectivity
■
End-to-End Services
■
Reliable Data Delivery
AppleTalk Protocols
6-5
OSI Reference Model
Application
AppleTalk
Filing
Protocol (AFP)
PostScript
Presentation
Session
Transport
AppleTalk
Data Stream
Protocol (ADSP)
Zone Information
Protocol (ZIP)
Routing Table
Maintenance
Protocol (RTMP)
Network
Link
Physical
AppleTalk Echo
Protocol (AEP)
AppleTalk
Session
Protocol (ASP)
Printer Access
Protocoo (PAP)
AppleTalk
Transaction
Protocol (ATP)
Name Binding
Protocol (NBP)
Datagram Delivery Protocol (DDP)
TokenTalk
Link Access
Protocol (TLAP)
EtherTalk
Link Access
Protocol (ELAP)
LocalTalk
Link Access
Protocol (LLAP)
Token Ring
Hardware
Ethernet
Hardware
LocalTalk
Hardware
Figure 6-2 AppleTalk Protocols and the OSI Reference Model
The AppleTalk six-layer protocol suite is not fully compliant with the OSI
seven-layer reference model. However, AppleTalk provides many of the
functions and services provided by OSI. Note that AppleTalk has no specific
protocols for the application layer, since the lower levels provide printer and
file service.
Physical
Connectivity
The physical layer of the protocol stack defines the network hardware. You
can use standard network hardware, such as that defined for Ethernet and
token ring networks with AppleTalk. Apple has also defined its own network
hardware, called LocalTalk, which uses a synchronous RS-422A bus for
communications.
The data link layer provides the interface between the network hardware
and the upper layers of the protocol stack. The AppleTalk data link layer
includes three link access protocols, or LAPs: TokenTalk LAP (TLAP), Ethernet
LAP (ELAP), and LocalTalk Link Access Protocol (LLAP).
6-6
CHAPTER 6: ROUTING WITH APPLETALK
The AppleTalk Address Resolution Protocol (AARP), which translates
hardware addresses to AppleTalk addresses, also exists at the datalink layer
because it is closely related to the Ethernet and token ring LAPs. This
protocol is usually included in the definition of each LAP, so it does not
appear in the reference model. Refer to the section “About AARP” for more
information about this protocol.
The Datagram
Delivery Protocol
(DDP)
The network layer accepts data from the layers above it and divides the data
into packets that can be sent over the network through the layers below it.
One protocol is present at the AppleTalk network layer: the Datagram
Delivery Protocol (DDP).
The DDP transfers data in packets called datagrams. Datagram delivery is
the basis for building other AppleTalk services, such as electronic mail. The
DDP allows AppleTalk to run as a process-to-process, best-effort delivery
system where the processes running in the nodes of interconnected
networks can exchange packets with each other.
End-to-End Services
The transport layer and the session layer provide end-to-end services in the
AppleTalk network. These services ensure that routers transmit data
accurately between one another. Each layer includes four protocols that
work together to support these services. This section describes all these
protocols, and provides more detail for those that you can view using
Administration Console.
Transport Layer Protocols
The four transport layer protocols are these:
■
The Routing Table Maintenance Protocol (RTMP)
■
The AppleTalk Echo Protocol (AEP)
■
The Apple Talk Transaction Protocol (ATP)
■
The Name Binding Protocol (NBP)
The Routing Table Maintenance Protocol (RTMP). The RTMP maintains
information about AppleTalk addresses and connections between different
networks. The RTMP specifies that each router learns about new routes from
the other routers and deletes routes after a certain period if the local router
no longer broadcasts the route to the network.
AppleTalk Protocols
6-7
Each router builds a routing table that is the basis of dynamic routing
operations in an AppleTalk internet. Every ten seconds, each router sends an
RTMP data packet to the network. Routers use the information that they
receive in the RTMP broadcasts to build their routing tables. Each entry in
the routing table contains these items:
■
The network range
■
The distance in hops to the destination network
■
The interface number of the destination network
■
The state of each port (good, suspect, bad, really bad)
The router uses these items to determine the best path to forward a data
packet to its destination on the network. The routing table contains an
entry for each network that a datagram can reach within 15 hops of the
router. The table is aged at set intervals as follows:
1 After a period of time, the RTMP changes the status of an entry from good
to suspect.
2 After an additional period of time, the RTMP changes the status of an entry
from suspect to bad.
3 After an additional period of time, the RTMP changes the status of an entry
from bad to really bad.
4 Finally, the router will remove the entry of a nonresponding router with a
really bad status from the table.
The data in the routing table is cross-referenced to the Zone Information
Table (ZIT). This table maps networks into zones. The section on the session
layer protocols includes information about the Zone Information Table.
Figure 6-3 represents a simple AppleTalk network and Table 6-1 shows the
corresponding routing table.
6-8
CHAPTER 6: ROUTING WITH APPLETALK
Network 5-5
802
Network 64-64
801
36
Network 18-20
Interface 2
200
24
Interface 1
Interface 3
Network 12-12
Network 103-103
Figure 6-3 A Simple AppleTalk Network
Table 6-1 The Routing Table for Router 24
Network Range
Distance
Interface
State
5-5
1
2
Good
12-12
3
3
Good
18-20
2
3
Good
103-103
0
1
Good
64-64
1
3
Good
You can view the AppleTalk routing tables in your network through the
Administration Console.
The AppleTalk Echo Protocol (AEP). AppleTalk nodes use the AEP to send
datagrams to other nodes in the network. The AEP causes the destination
node to return, or echo, the datagram to the sending node. This protocol
can determine whether a node is accessible before any sessions are started,
and can enable users to estimate the round-trip delay time between two
nodes.
AppleTalk Protocols
6-9
The AppleTalk Transaction Protocol (ATP). ATP, along with the AppleTalk
Data Stream Protocol (ADSP), ensures that DDP packets are delivered to a
destination without any losses or corruption.
The Name Binding Protocol (NBP). The NBP translates alphanumeric
entity names to AppleTalk addresses. The NBP maintains a table that
references the addresses of nodes and named entities that reside in that
node. Because each node maintains its own list of named entities, the
names directory within an AppleTalk network is not centralized. It is a
distributed database of all nodes on the internet.
The Session Layer Protocols
The four session layer protocols are these:
■
The Zone Information Protocol (ZIT)
■
The AppleTalk Data Stream Protocol (ADSP)
■
The AppleTalk Session Layer Protocol (ASP)
■
The Printer Access Protocol (PAP)
The Zone Information Protocol (ZIP). ZIP works with RTMP to maintain a
table that maps network numbers to network zones for the entire AppleTalk
internet. Network zones are the logical groupings of AppleTalk networks.
The table created by ZIP is called the Zone Information Table (ZIT). The
Administration Console allows you to view the zone information table by
network number or network zone.
ZIP creates a zone information table in each router. Each entry in the ZIT is a
“tuple,” or pair, that includes a network number and a network zone name.
When an NBP packet arrives at the router, it includes the zone name which
the router compares with entries in the zone table. The router then matches
the network number from the matching ZIT tuple to that in the RTMP table
to find the interface where it can route the packets.
6-10
CHAPTER 6: ROUTING WITH APPLETALK
The AppleTalk Data Stream Protocol (ADSP). The ADSP works with the
ATP to ensure reliable data transmission. Unlike ATP, however, ADSP provides
full-duplex byte-stream delivery. This means that two nodes can
communicate simultaneously. ASDP also includes flow control, so that a
fast sender does not overwhelm a slow receiver.
The AppleTalk Session Protocol (ASP). The ASP passes commands
between a workstation and a server once a connection is made between
the two. ASP ensures that the commands are delivered in the same order as
they were sent, and returns the results of these commands to the
workstation.
The Printer Access Protocol (PAP). The PAP maintains communications
between a workstation and a printer, or print service. The PAP functions
include setting up and maintaining a connection, transferring the data, and
tearing down the connection on completion of the job. Like other protocols
at the session layer, PAP relies on NBP to find the addresses of named
entities. PAP also depends on ATP for sending data.
The Presentation
Layer
About AARP
The presentation layer maintains information about files, formats, and
translations between formats. Two protocols are present at the
presentation layer: the AppleTalk Filing Protocol (AFP) and PostScript. AFP
provides remote access to files on the network. PostScript is a paged
description language used by many printers.
The AppleTalk Address Resolution Protocol (AARP) maps the hardware
address of an AppleTalk node to an AppleTalk protocol address. It does this
for both extended and nonextended networks.
When a node on the network initializes, it randomly selects an AppleTalk
address for itself. At the same time, it sends out 10 AARP probe packets. The
probe packets determine whether any other nodes on the network are
using the address it has chosen. If a node on the network is already using
that address, the node randomly selects another address and sends out
another probe packet.
The AARP maintains an Address Mapping Table (AMT) with the most
recently used hardware addresses and their corresponding AARP addresses.
About AARP
6-11
If an address is not in this table, AARP sends a request to the protocol
address and adds the hardware address to the table when the destination
node replies. You can view this table, called the AARP Cache, through the
Administration Console.
6-12
CHAPTER 6: ROUTING WITH APPLETALK
III
ADMINISTERING ROUTING
PROTOCOLS
Chapter 7
Administering IP Routing
Chapter 8
Administering IPX Routing
Chapter 9
Administering AppleTalk Routing
7
ADMINISTERING IP ROUTING
This chapter describes how to set up your LANplex system to route packets
using IP. For more information about how IP works, see Part II of this Guide.
You can display and/or configure the following:
■
IP interfaces
■
Routes
■
Address Resolution Protocol (ARP) cache
■
UDP Helper
■
IP forwarding
■
Routing Information Protocol (RIP)
■
Ping
■
IP statistics
Each switching module operates as a separate IP router. This means that
each module has its own interfaces, routing table, ARP cache, and statistics.
Administering
Interfaces
You define interfaces to establish the relationship between the ports on
your switching modules and the subnets in your IP network. You must
define one interface for each group of ports that are connected to the same
subnet. This means that every switching module has one interface defined
for each subnet to which it is directly connected.
An IP interface has the following information associated with it:
■
IP Address
This is the address specific to your network. It should be chosen from the
range of addresses assigned to your organization. An interface’s IP address
serves two functions. First, it is the address that is used when sending IP
7-2
CHAPTER 7: ADMINISTERING IP ROUTING
packets to or from the switching module itself. Second, the IP address
defines the network and subnet numbers of the segments connected to
that interface.
Packets to be forwarded by the switching module contain the IP addresses of
the original source and the ultimate destination.
■
Subnet Mask
A subnet mask is a 32 bit number that uses the same format and
representation as IP addresses. The subnet mask determines which bits in
the IP address are interpreted as the network number, the subnet number,
and the host number. Each IP address bit corresponding to a 1 in the
subnet mask is in the network/subnet part of the address. Each IP address
bit corresponding to a 0 is in the host part of the IP address.
■
Broadcast Address
This is the IP address to be used by the switching module when it
broadcasts packets to other stations on the same subnet. In particular, this
address is used for sending RIP updates. By default the switching module
uses a directed broadcast (all ones in the host field).
■
Cost
This is a number between one and fifteen that is used when calculating
route metrics. Unless your network has special requirements, you should
assign a cost of 1 to all interfaces.
■
Ports
A single interface may contain several bridge ports. All of the ports
corresponding to one interface share the same IP address, subnet mask,
broadcast address, and cost. An ESM contains nine ports: one FDDI and nine
Ethernet. The port indices are always the following: 1 = FDDI and 2 – 9 =
Ethernet. An EFSM contains a maximum of eighteen ports: two FDDI and
sixteen Ethernet. The port indices for the maximum configuration are the
following: 1, 2 = FDDI and 3 – 18 = Ethernet.
You do not have to include every switching module port in an interface
(that is, some ports may remain unassigned). Packets will be bridged to and
from unassigned ports. However, IP packets will not be forwarded to ports
that are not assigned to any IP interface.
Administering Interfaces
Displaying
Interfaces
7-3
You can display a table that shows all IP interfaces configured for each
switching module in the system, including their parameter settings.
To display IP interface information:
Top-Level Menu
system
ethernet
➧ interface
fddi
route
tokenring
➧ display
arp
bridge
define
udpHelper
➧ ip
modify
forwarding
ipx
remove
rip
appletalk ping
snmp
statistics
analyzer
script
logout
1 From the Administration Console top-level menu, enter:
ip interface display
2 Enter the slot(s) of the switching module(s) for which you want to display
the interface information. Separate non-consecutive ports with commas (,).
Enter a consecutive series of slots using a dash (-).
As shown in the following example, the current configuration appears in the
display. It contains IP forwarding and RIP information for that slot as well as
the IP interface information.
Slot 3 - IP forwarding is enabled, RIP is passive.
Index
1
IP address
158.101.112.225
Defining an
Interface
Subnet mask
255.255.255.0
Cost
1
Ports (1-2=FDDI, 3-18=Ethernet)
3
When you define an interface, you define the interface’s IP address, subnet
mask, broadcast address, cost, and the collection of switching module ports
associated with the interface.
To define an IP interface:
Top-Level Menu
system
ethernet
fddi
➧ interface
display
tokenring
route
bridge
➧ define
arp
➧ ip
udpHelper modify
ipx
forwarding remove
appletalk rip
snmp
ping
analyzer statistics
script
logout
1 From the top level of the Administration Console, enter:
ip interface define
2 Enter the slot of the switching module for which you want to define an
interface.
You are prompted for the interface’s parameters. To use the value in
brackets, press [Return] at the prompt.
3 Enter the IP address of the interface.
4 Enter the subnet mask of the network to which the interface is to be
connected.
5 Enter the broadcast address to be used on the interface.
7-4
CHAPTER 7: ADMINISTERING IP ROUTING
6 Enter the cost value of the interface.
7 Enter the port(s) that you want to include in the interface. Separate
nonconsecutive ports with commas (,). Enter a consecutive series of ports
using a dash (-).
See the example below:
Select slot {3-4} [3-4]: 3
Enter IP address: 158.101.1.1
Enter subnet mask [255.255.0.0]: 255.255.255.0
Enter broadcast address [158.101.1.255]:
Enter cost [1]:
Enter ports (1=FDDI, 2-9=Ethernet) (1-9|all): 2-4,8
Modifying an
Interface
You may want to change the configuration of an interface you have already
defined.
To modify an IP interface:
Top-Level Menu
system
ethernet
fddi
tokenring ➧ interface
display
route
bridge
define
arp
➧ ip
➧ modify
udpHelper
ipx
remove
appletalk forwarding
rip
snmp
analyzer ping
statistics
script
1 From the top level of the Administration Console, enter:
ip interface modify
2 Enter the slot of the switching module for which you want to modify an
interface.
You are prompted for the interface parameters. Press [Return] at the
prompts for the parameters you do not want to modify.
logout
3 Modify the existing interface parameters by entering a new value at the
prompt.
Administering Routes
Removing an
Interface
Top-Level Menu
system
ethernet
➧ interface
fddi
display
tokenring route
define
arp
bridge
udpHelper modify
➧ ip
forwarding ➧ remove
ipx
appletalk rip
ping
snmp
analyzer statistics
script
logout
7-5
You may want to remove an interface if you no longer route on the ports
associated with the interface.
To remove an IP interface definition:
1 From the top level of the Administration Console, enter:
ip interface remove
2 Enter the slot of the switching module from which you want to remove an
interface.
3 Enter the index number(s) of the interface(s) you want to remove.
Administering
Routes
Each switching module maintains a table of routes to other IP networks,
subnets, and hosts. You can either make static entries in this table using the
Administration Console or configure switching modules to use RIP to
exchange routing information automatically.
Each routing table entry contains the following information:
■
Destination IP Address and Subnet Mask
These elements define the address of the destination network, subnet, or
host. A route matches a given IP address if the bits in the IP address
corresponding to the bits set in the route subnet mask match the route
destination address. When forwarding a packet, if the switching module
finds more than one routing table entry matching an address (for example,
a route to the destination network and a route to the specific subnet within
that network), it will use the most specific route (that is, the route with the
most bits set in its subnet mask).
■
Routing Metric
This metric specifies the number of networks or subnets that a packet must
pass through to reach its destination. The switching module includes the
metric in its RIP updates to allow other routers to compare routing
information received from different sources.
■
Gateway IP Address
This address tells the router how to forward packets whose destination
address matches the route’s IP address and subnet mask. The switching
module forwards such packets to the indicated gateway.
7-6
CHAPTER 7: ADMINISTERING IP ROUTING
■
Status
The status of the route provides the information described in Table 7-1.
Table 7-1 Route Status
Status
Description
Direct
Route to a directly connected network
Static
Route was statically configured
Learned
Route was learned using indicated protocol
Timing out
Route was learned but is partially timed out
Timed out
Route has timed out and is no longer valid
In addition to the routes to specific destinations, the routing table may
contain an additional entry called the default route. The switching module
uses the default route to forward packets that do not match any other
routing table entry. You may want to use a default route in place of routes
to numerous destinations all having the same gateway IP address.
Displaying the
Routing Table
You can display a switching module’s routing table to determine which
routes are configured and if they are operational.
To display the contents of the routing table:
Top-Level Menu
system
ethernet
fddi
tokenring interface ➧ display
bridge ➧ route
static
arp
➧ ip
remove
udpHelper
ipx
flush
forwarding
appletalk
default
rip
snmp
noDefault
ping
analyzer
statistics
script
logout
1 From the Administration Console top-level menu, enter:
ip route display
2 Enter the slot(s) of the switching module(s) for which you want to display
the routing table. Separate non-consecutive slots with commas (,). Enter a
consecutive series of slots using a dash (-).
In the following example, routes for an ESM in slot 3 are displayed. The
configuration of IP forwarding and RIP is indicated in the display. The default
route is displayed as “Default Route”.
Administering Routes
7-7
Slot 3 - IP forwarding is enabled, RIP is passive.
Destination
Default Route
10.0.0.0
129.213.0.0
137.39.0.0
139.87.0.0
Defining a Static
Route
Subnet mask
-255.0.0.0
255.255.0.0
255.255.0.0
255.255.0.0
Metric
2
8
7
2
4
Gateway
158.101.112.250
158.101.112.254
158.101.112.254
158.101.112.250
158.101.112.254
Status
Learned
Learned
Learned
Learned
Learned
(RIP)
(RIP)
(RIP)
(RIP)
(RIP)
Prior to defining static routes on a given switching module, you must define
at least one IP interface. Static routes remain in the table until you remove
them, or until you remove the corresponding interface. Static routes take
precedence over dynamically-learned routes to the same destination.
Static routes are not included in periodic RIP updates sent by the switching
module.
To define a static route:
Top-Level Menu
system
ethernet
fddi
interface
tokenring
display
bridge ➧ route
➧ static
arp
➧ ip
udpHelper remove
ipx
forwarding flush
appletalk
default
rip
snmp
noDefault
ping
analyzer
statistics
script
logout
1 From the top level of the Administration Console, enter:
ip route static
You are prompted for the route’s parameters. To use the value in brackets,
press [Return] at the prompt.
2 Enter the slot of the switching module for which you want to define a static
route.
You are prompted for the route’s parameters. To use the value in brackets,
press [Return] at the prompt.
3 Enter the destination IP address of the route.
4 Enter the subnet mask of the route.
5 Enter the gateway IP address of the route.
A static route is defined in the following example:
Select slot {3-4} [3-4]: 3
Enter destination IP address: 158.101.4.0
Enter subnet mask [255.255.0.0]: 255.255.255.0
Enter gateway IP address: 158.101.2.8
7-8
CHAPTER 7: ADMINISTERING IP ROUTING
Removing a Route
Top-Level Menu
system
ethernet
fddi
interface
tokenring
display
bridge ➧ route
static
arp
➧ ip
➧ remove
udpHelper
ipx
forwarding flush
appletalk
default
rip
snmp
noDefault
ping
analyzer
statistics
script
logout
To remove a route:
1 From the top level of the Administration Console, enter:
ip route remove
2 Enter the slot of the switching module for which you want to remove a
static route.
3 Enter the destination IP address of the route.
4 Enter the subnet mask of the route.
The route is immediately deleted from the routing table.
Flushing a Route
Flushing deletes all learned routes from the routing table.
To flush all learned routes:
Top-Level Menu
system
ethernet
fddi
tokenring interface
display
bridge ➧ route
static
arp
➧ ip
remove
udpHelper
ipx
➧ flush
forwarding
appletalk
default
rip
snmp
noDefault
analyzer ping
statistics
script
logout
Setting the Default
Route
1 From the top level of the Administration Console, enter:
ip route flush
2 Enter the slot of the switching module for which you want to delete the
learned routes.
All learned routes are immediately deleted from the routing table.
The default route is used by the switching module to forward packets that
do not match any other routing table entry. A switching module can learn a
default route using RIP, or you can configure a default route statically.
To statically configure the default route:
Top-Level Menu
system
ethernet
fddi
tokenring interface
display
bridge ➧ route
static
arp
➧ ip
remove
udpHelper
ipx
flush
forwarding
appletalk
➧ default
rip
snmp
noDefault
analyzer ping
statistics
script
logout
1 From the top level of the Administration Console, enter:
ip route default
2 Enter the slot of the switching module for which you want to set a default
route. Enter the gateway IP address of the route.
The default route is immediately added to the routing table.
Administering the ARP Cache
Removing the
Default Route
Top-Level Menu
system
ethernet
fddi
tokenring interface
display
bridge ➧ route
static
arp
➧ ip
remove
udpHelper
ipx
flush
forwarding
appletalk
default
rip
snmp
➧ noDefault
ping
analyzer
statistics
script
logout
Administering
the ARP Cache
Displaying the ARP
Cache
7-9
If a switching module’s routing table does not contain a default route —
either statically configured or learned using RIP — then it cannot forward a
packet that does not match any other routing table entry. If this occurs,
then the module drops the packet and sends an ICMP “destination
unreachable” message to the host that sent the packet to notify it of the
problem.
To remove a default route:
1 From the Administration Console top-level menu, enter:
ip route noDefault
2 Enter the slot of the switching module for which you want to remove the
default route.
The default route is immediately removed from the routing table.
The switching modules use the Address Resolution Protocol (ARP) to find
the MAC addresses corresponding to the IP addresses of hosts and other
routers on the same subnets. Each device participating in routing maintains
an ARP cache — a table of known IP addresses and their corresponding
MAC addresses.
You can display the contents of the ARP cache for each switching module in
your LANplex system.
To display the contents of the ARP cache:
Top-Level Menu
system
ethernet
fddi
tokenring interface ➧ display
route
bridge
remove
➧ arp
➧ ip
flush
udpHelper
ipx
forwarding
appletalk
rip
snmp
analyzer ping
statistics
script
logout
1 From the Administration Console top-level menu, enter:
ip arp display
2 Enter the slot(s) of the switching module(s) for which you want to display
the ARP cache. Separate non-consecutive slots with commas (,). Enter a
consecutive series of slots using a dash (-).
7-10
CHAPTER 7: ADMINISTERING IP ROUTING
The contents of the ARP cache are displayed as shown in the example
below.
Slot 3- IP forwarding is enabled,
IP Address
MAC Address
158.101.1.112
08-00-1e-31-a6-2
158.101.1.117
08-00-1e-65-21-07
Slot 3- IP forwarding is enabled
Removing an ARP
Cache Entry
Top-Level Menu
system
ethernet
fddi
interface
tokenring
display
route
bridge
➧ remove
➧
arp
➧ ip
udpHelper flush
ipx
forwarding
appletalk
rip
snmp
ping
analyzer
statistics
script
logout
Flushing the ARP
Cache
Top-Level Menu
system
ethernet
fddi
interface
display
tokenring
route
remove
bridge
➧ arp
➧ flush
➧ ip
udpHelper
ipx
forwarding
appletalk
rip
snmp
ping
analyzer
statistics
script
logout
Interface
1
1
You may want to remove an entry from the ARP cache if the MAC address
has changed. To remove an entry from the ARP cache:
1 From the top level of the Administration Console, enter:
ip arp remove
2 Enter the slot of the switching module for which you want to remove an
ARP cache entry.
3 Enter the IP address you want to remove.
The address is immediately removed from the table. If necessary, the
switching module will subsequently use ARP to find the new MAC address
corresponding to that IP address.
You may want to delete all entries from the ARP cache if the MAC address
has changed. To remove all entries from the ARP cache:
1 From the top level of the Administration Console, enter:
ip arp flush
2 Enter the slot of the switching module for which you want to remove all
entries from the ARP cache.
The ARP cache entries are immediately removed from the table.
Administering UDP Helper
Administering
UDP Helper
7-11
UDP Helper allows you to send User Datagram Protocol (UDP) packets
between routed networks. UDP Helper provides support for UDP services
such as BOOTP or DHCP (Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol), that rely on
the BOOTP relay agent. For example, by configuring the logical BOOTP port,
you can boot hosts through the router. It also provides a relay agent for
DHCP broadcasts. UDP packets that rely on the BOOTP relay agent are
modified and then forwarded through the router.
The following are the ports for the UDP services mentioned in this section
on UDP Helper:
■
BOOTP (including DHCP) = 67
■
TIME = 37
■
DNS = 53
UDP Helper allows you to configure the amount of time a UDP packet is
forwarded between subnetworks. UDP packets are discarded based on the
hop count and seconds value only for BOOTP and DHCP.
Displaying UDP
Helper Information
You can display the Hop and Threshold configuration and list the ports with
their IP forwarding addresses that are defined for each switching module in
your LANplex system.
To display UDP Helper information:
Top-Level Menu
system
ethernet
fddi
tokenring interface ➧ display
route
bridge
define
arp
➧ ip
➧ udpHelper remove
ipx
hopCountLimit
appletalk forwarding threshold
rip
snmp
analyzer ping
statistics
script
logout
1 From the Administration Console top-level menu, enter:
ip udpHelper display
2 Enter the slot(s) of the switching module(s) for which you want to display
the UDP Helper information. Separate non-consecutive slots with commas
(,). Enter a consecutive series of slots using a dash (-).
The contents of the UDP Helper are displayed as shown in the example
below.
Slot 3- IP forwarding is enabled, BOOTP relay hopcount limit is 4,
BOOTP relay threshold is 0.
UDP port
67
forwarding address
<158.101.1.112
7-12
CHAPTER 7: ADMINISTERING IP ROUTING
Defining a Port and
IP Forwarding
Address
Top-Level Menu
system
ethernet
fddi
interface
tokenring
display
route
bridge
➧ define
arp
➧ ip
➧ udpHelper remove
ipx
forwarding hopCountLimit
appletalk
threshold
rip
snmp
ping
analyzer
statistics
script
logout
You can define port numbers and IP forwarding addresses for the UDP
Helper. You can have up to 32 combinations of port numbers/IP forwarding
addresses per router. You can also have multiple IP address entries for the
same ports.
To define port numbers and IP forwarding addresses:
1 From the top level of the Administration Console, enter:
ip udpHelper define
2 Enter the slot of the switching module for which you want to define port
numbers and IP forwarding addresses.
3 Enter the port numbers and IP forwarding addresses you want to define.
Removing a Port
and IP Forwarding
Address
Top-Level Menu
system
ethernet
fddi
interface
tokenring
route
bridge
arp
➧ ip
➧ udpHelper
ipx
forwarding
appletalk
rip
snmp
ping
analyzer
statistics
script
logout
To remove a port number or IP forwarding address defined for UDP Helper:
1 From the top level of the Administration Console, enter:
ip udpHelper remove
display
define
2
➧ remove
hopCountLimit
threshold
Enter the slot of the switching module for which you want to remove an
port number/IP forwarding address.
3 Enter the UDP port number that you want to remove.
4 Enter the IP forwarding address that you want to remove.
The port numbers/IP forwarding addresses are immediately removed.
Enabling/ Disabling IP Forwarding
Setting the Hop
Count Limit
7-13
You can set the maximum hop count that a packet is forwarded through
the router. The range is 0 through 16. The default is 4.
To set the hop count limit:
Top-Level Menu
system
ethernet
fddi
interface
tokenring
route
bridge
arp
➧ ip
➧ udpHelper
ipx
forwarding
appletalk
rip
snmp
ping
analyzer
statistics
script
logout
1 From the top level of the Administration Console, enter:
ip udpHelper hopCountLimit
display
define
2
remove
➧ hopCountLimit
threshold
3 Enter the BOOTP relay hop count limit.
Setting the BOOTP
Relay Threshold
Top-Level Menu
system
ethernet
fddi
interface
tokenring
route
bridge
arp
➧ ip
➧
udpHelper
ipx
forwarding
appletalk
rip
snmp
ping
analyzer
statistics
script
logout
Enter the slot of the switching module for which you want to set the hop
count limit.
display
define
remove
hopCountLimit
➧ threshold
You can set the maximum time limit that a packet is forwarded through the
router. If zero is used as the value, the seconds field is ignored by the router.
If a non-zero value is used, the router uses that value along with the hop
count value to determine whether to forward the UDP packet.
To set the BOOTP relay threshold:
1 From the top level of the Administration Console, enter:
ip udpHelper threshold
2 Enter the slot of the switching module for which you want to set the BOOTP
relay threshold.
3 Enter the BOOTP relay threshold.
Enabling/
Disabling IP
Forwarding
IP forwarding default
You can control whether a switching module forwards or discards IP packets
addressed to other hosts. When you enable IP forwarding, the switching
module acts as a normal IP router, forwarding IP packets from one subnet to
another when required. When you disable IP forwarding, the switching
module discards any IP packets not addressed directly to one of its defined
IP interfaces.
By default, IP forwarding is enabled on all switching modules.
7-14
CHAPTER 7: ADMINISTERING IP ROUTING
To enable or disable IP forwarding:
Top-Level Menu
system
ethernet
fddi
interface
tokenring
route
bridge
arp
➧ ip
udpHelper
ipx
➧ forwarding
appletalk
rip
snmp
ping
analyzer
statistics
script
logout
1 From the top level of the Administration Console, enter:
ip forwarding
2 Enter the slot(s) of the switching module(s) for which you want to enable IP
forwarding. Separate non-consecutive slots with commas (,). Enter a
consecutive series of slots using a dash (-).
3 Enter the IP forwarding state (enable or disable).
Setting the RIP
Mode
RIP default mode
You can select a RIP mode that is appropriate for your network. RIP can
operate in any of three modes:
■
Off — The switching module ignores all incoming RIP packets and does not
generate any RIP packets of its own.
■
Passive — The switching module processes all incoming RIP packets and
responds to explicit requests for routing information, but does not
broadcast periodic or triggered RIP updates.
■
Active — The switching module processes all incoming RIP packets,
responds to explicit requests for routing information, and broadcasts
periodic and triggered RIP updates.
By default, RIP operates in passive mode.
To set the RIP operating mode:
Top-Level Menu
system
ethernet
fddi
interface
tokenring
route
bridge
arp
➧ ip
udpHelper
ipx
forwarding
appletalk
➧ rip
snmp
ping
analyzer
statistics
script
logout
1 From the top level of the Administration Console, enter:
ip rip
2 Enter the slot(s) of the switching module(s) for which you want to set the
RIP mode. Separate non-consecutive slots with commas (,). Enter a
consecutive series of slots using a dash (-).
3 Enter the RIP mode (off, passive, or active). To use the value in
brackets, press [Return] at the prompt.
Pinging an IP Station
7-15
See the example below:
Select slot(s) (3-4|all) [3-4]: all
Slot 3 - Select RIP mode (off,passive,active) [passive]:
active
Slot 4 - Select RIP mode (off,passive,active) [passive]:
active
Pinging an IP
Station
Ping uses the Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP) echo facility to send
an ICMP echo request packet to the IP station you specify. It then waits for
an ICMP echo reply packet. Possible responses from ping are:
■
Alive
■
No answer
■
Network is unreachable
A network is unreachable when there is no route to that network.
To ping an IP station:
Top-Level Menu
system
ethernet
fddi
tokenring interface
route
bridge
arp
➧ ip
udpHelper
ipx
forwarding
appletalk
rip
snmp
➧ ping
analyzer
statistics
script
logout
1 From the top level of the Administration Console, enter:
ip ping
2 Enter the IP address of the station you want to ping.
IP Address: 192.9.200.40
You may receive one of the following responses:
192.9.200.40 is alive
OR
no answer from 192.9.200.40
For a remote IP address, you can also receive the following response:
Network is unreachable
7-16
CHAPTER 7: ADMINISTERING IP ROUTING
Displaying IP
Statistics
The IP statistics you can view are described in Table 7-2.
Table 7-2 IP Statistics
Field
Description
forwDatagrams
Number of datagrams that the IP station attempted to forward
inAddrErrors
Number of datagrams that the IP station discarded because of an
error in the source or destination IP address
inDelivers
Number of datagrams that the IP station delivered to local IP client
protocols
inHdrErrors
Number of datagrams that the IP station discarded because the IP
header contained errors
inReceives
Total number of IP datagrams received, including those with errors
outNoRoutes
Number of datagrams that the IP station discarded because there
was no route to the destination
outRequests
Number of datagrams that local IP client protocols passed to IP for
transmission
To display IP statistics:
Top-Level Menu
system
ethernet interface
route
fddi
tokenring arp
forwarding
bridge
rip
➧ ip
ping
ipx
appletalk ➧ statistics
snmp
analyzer
script
logout
1 From the Administration Console top-level menu, enter:
ip statistics
2 Enter the slot(s) of the switching module(s) for which you want to view IP
routing statistics. Separate non-consecutive slots with commas (,). Enter a
consecutive series of slots using a dash (-).
Statistics are displayed, as shown in the example below:
Slot 3 - IP forwarding is enabled, Slot 3- IP forwarding is
enabled,
inReceives
51213
forwDatagrams
inDelivers
49743
3227
outNoRoutes
inHdrErrors
273
7
Slot 4 - IP forwarding is enabled, RIP is active.
inReceives
forwDatagrams
inDelivers
11
11
11
outNoRoutes
0
inHdrErrors
0
outRequests
2285
inAddrErrors
0
outRequests
20
inAddrErrors
0
8
ADMINISTERING IPX ROUTING
This chapter describes how to set up your LANplex system to use the
Internet Packet Exchange (IPX) protocol to route packets. For more
information about how IPX works, see Part II of this Guide.
You can display and/or configure the following:
■
IPX interfaces
■
Routes
■
Servers
■
IPX forwarding
■
Routing Information Protocol (RIP)
■
Enhanced RIP mode
■
Service Advertising Protocol (SAP)
■
IPX statistics
Each Ethernet/FDDI Switching Module (EFSM) operates as a separate IPX
router. This means that each module has its own interfaces, routing table,
and statistics. IPX routing does not operate on the Ethernet Switching
Module (ESM) or the Token Ring Switching Module (TRSM).
8-2
CHAPTER 8: ADMINISTERING IPX ROUTING
Administering
Interfaces
You define interfaces to establish the relationship between the ports on
your EFSMs and the network in your IPX network. You must define one
interface for each group of ports that are connected to the same
network. This means that every EFSM has one interface defined for each
network to which it is directly connected.
An IPX interface has the following information associated with it:
■
IPX Network Address
This is a 4-byte address set by the network administrator. Each address
within the network should be unique.
■
Cost
This is the number between one and fifteen that is used when calculating route metrics. Unless your network has special requirements, such
as the need for redundant paths, you should assign a cost of 1 to all
interfaces.
■
Encapsulation Format
There are four Ethernet encapsulation formats and two FDDI
encapsulation formats used in IPX routing. The Ethernet encapsulation
formats are Ethernet Type II, Novell 802.3 raw, 802.2 LLC, and 802.3
SNAP. The FDDI encapsulation formats are FDDI 802.2 and FDDI SNAP.
The two FDDI encapsulation formats correspond to the Ethernet 802.2
LLC and 802.3 SNAP encapsulation formats. If you select either of these
Ethernet encapsulation formats, the corresponding FDDI encapsulation
format is automatically selected for shared Ethernet and FDDI ports.
■
Ports
A single interface may contain several bridge ports. All of the ports
corresponding to one interface share the same IPX address, cost, and
encapsulation format. An EFSM contains a maximum of eighteen ports:
two FDDI and sixteen Ethernet. The port indices for the maximum
configuration are the following: 1,2 = FDDI; 3 – 18 = Ethernet.
You do not have to include every EFSM port in an interface (that is,
some ports may remain unassigned). Packets will be bridged to and
from unassigned ports. However, IPX packets will not be forwarded to
ports that are not assigned to an IPX interface.
Administering Interfaces
Displaying IPX
Interfaces
8-3
You can display a table that shows all IPX interfaces and their parameter
settings configured for each EFSM in the system.
To display IPX interface information:
Top-Level Menu
system
ethernet ➧ interface
fddi
route
➧ display
tokenring server
define
bridge
forwarding modify
ip
rip
remove
enhanced
➧ ipx
appletalk sap
statistics
snmp
analyzer
script
logout
1 From the Administration Console top-level menu, enter:
ipx interface display
2 Enter the slot(s) of the EFSM(s) for which you want to display the
interface information. Separate non-consecutive slots with commas (,).
Enter a consecutive series of slots using a dash (-).
As shown in the following example, the current configuration is
displayed. It contains IPX forwarding and RIP and SAP information for
that slot as well as IPX interface information.
ot 3 - IPX forwarding is enabled, RIP is active, SAP is active
Index
1
2
IPX Address
45469f30
5d41a110
Cost
1
1
Defining an
Interface
Format
802.2
802.2
Ports (1-2=FDDI, 3-18=Ethernet)
3-10
11-18
When you define an interface, you define the interface’s IPX address,
cost, format, and the EFSM ports associated with the interface.
To define an IPX interface:
Top-Level Menu
system
ethernet ➧ interface
fddi
display
route
tokenring server
➧ define
bridge
forwarding modify
ip
rip
remove
enhanced
➧ ipx
appletalk sap
statistics
snmp
analyzer
script
logout
1 From the Administration Console top-level menu, enter:
ipx interface define
2 Enter the slot of the EFSM for which you want to define an interface.
You are prompted for the interface’s parameters. To use the value in
brackets, press [Return] at the prompt.
3 Enter the IPX network address of the interface.
4 Enter the cost of the interface.
5 Enter the format of the interface.
8-4
CHAPTER 8: ADMINISTERING IPX ROUTING
6 Enter the port(s) that you want to include in the interface. Separate
non-consecutive ports with commas (,). Enter a consecutive series of
ports using a dash (-).
See the example below:
Select slot {3-4} [3-4]: 3
Enter
Enter
Enter
Enter
IPX Address: 0x45469f30
Cost: 1
Frame Format (Ethernet II: 0, 802.2: 1, Raw 802.3: 2, SNAP: 3): 1
ports(s) (1-2=FDDI, 3-18=Ethernet) (1-18|all): 3-10,13,16
Modifying an
Interface
You may want to change the configuration of an interface you have
already defined.
To modify an IPX interface:
Top-Level Menu
system
ethernet ➧ interface
fddi
display
route
tokenring server
define
bridge
forwarding ➧ modify
ip
rip
remove
enhanced
➧ ipx
appletalk sap
statistics
snmp
analyzer
script
logout
Removing an
Interface
1 From the Administration Console top-level menu, enter:
ipx interface modify
2 Enter the slot of the EFSM for which you want to modify an interface.
You are prompted for the interface parameters. Press [Return] at the
prompts for which you do not want to modify the value.
3 Modify the existing interface parameters by entering a new value at the
prompt.
You may want to remove an interface if you no longer perform routing
on the ports associated with the interface.
To remove an IPX interface definition:
Top-Level Menu
system
ethernet ➧ interface
fddi
display
route
tokenring server
define
bridge
forwarding modify
ip
rip
➧ remove
enhanced
➧ ipx
appletalk sap
statistics
snmp
analyzer
script
logout
1 From the Administration Console top-level menu, enter:
ipx interface remove
2 Enter the slot of the EFSM from which you want to remove an interface.
3 Enter the index number(s) of the interface(s) you want to remove.
Administering Routes
Administering
Routes
8-5
Each EFSM maintains a table of routes to other IPX networks. You can
either use the Routing Information Protocol (RIP) to exchange routing
information automatically or make static entries in this table using the
Administration Console.
Each routing table entry contains the following information:
■
Address
The 4-byte IPX network address of a segment currently known to the
router.
■
Hops
The number of routers that must be crossed to reach the network
segment. The maximum number of routers a packet can cross is fifteen.
The maximum number of routers an IPX NetBIOS packet can cross is
seven.
■
Tics
An estimate of how long it will take the packet to reach this segment. A
tic is approximately 55 milliseconds.
■
Node
The 6-byte address of the router that can forward packets to the
segment. A node address of all zeroes (00-00-00-00-00-00) means that
the route is connected directly to the router.
■
Age
This is the number of seconds that have elapsed since the last time the
route was heard from.
8-6
CHAPTER 8: ADMINISTERING IPX ROUTING
Displaying the
Routing Table
You can display the routing tables for the EFSMs in a system to
determine which routes are configured and if they are operational.
To display the contents of the routing table:
Top-Level Menu
system
ethernet interface
fddi
➧ route
➧ display
tokenring server
static
bridge
forwarding remove
ip
rip
flush
enhanced
➧ ipx
appletalk sap
statistics
snmp
analyzer
script
logout
1 From the Administration Console top-level menu, enter:
ipx route display
2 Enter the slot(s) of the EFSM(s) for which you want to display the
routing table. Separate non-consecutive slots with commas (,). Enter a
consecutive series of slots using a dash (-).
In the following example, routes are displayed. The configuration of IPX
forwarding, RIP, and SAP is indicated in the display.
Slot 3 - IPX forwarding is enabled, RIP is active, SAP is active
Interface
2
2
2
Defining a Static
Route
Address
45469f02
c2c028ca
aaaaaaaa
Hops
5
4
6
Tics
6
28
671
Node
08-00-02-04-80-b6
08-00-02-04-80-b6
08-00-02-04-80-b6
Age
44
85
85
Prior to defining static routes on a given EFSM, you must define at least
one IPX interface (see the section “Defining an Interface” on page 8-3).
Static routes remain in the table until you remove them, or until you
remove the corresponding interface. Static routes take precedence over
dynamically-learned routes to the same destination. You can set up to
16 static routes.
To define a static route:
Top-Level Menu
system
ethernet interface
fddi
➧ route
display
tokenring server
➧ static
bridge
forwarding remove
ip
rip
flush
enhanced
➧ ipx
appletalk sap
statistics
snmp
analyzer
script
logout
1 From the Administration Console top-level menu, enter:
ipx route static
2 Enter the slot of the EFSM for which you want to define a static route.
3 Enter the 4-byte IPX network address of the route.
4 Enter the cost of the route.
5 Enter the interface number of the route.
Administering Routes
8-7
6 Enter the node address of the route.
A static route is defined in the following example:
Select slot {3-4} [3-4]: 3
Enter
Enter
Enter
Enter
Removing a Route
Top-Level Menu
system
ethernet interface
fddi
➧ route
display
tokenring server
static
bridge
forwarding ➧ remove
ip
rip
flush
enhanced
➧ ipx
appletalk sap
statistics
snmp
analyzer
script
logout
Flushing Routes
IPX address: 0x45469f30
Cost: 1
Interface number: 1
node address: 08-00-3e-22-15-78
To remove a route:
1 From the Administration Console top-level menu, enter:
ipx route remove
2 Enter the slot of the EFSM for which you want to remove any static or
dynamic route.
3 Enter the 4-byte IPX network address.
The route is immediately deleted from the routing table.
Flushing deletes all dynamically-learned routes from the routing table.
To flush all learned routes:
Top-Level Menu
system
ethernet interface
fddi
➧ route
display
tokenring server
static
bridge
forwarding remove
ip
rip
➧ flush
enhanced
➧ ipx
appletalk sap
statistics
snmp
analyzer
script
logout
1 From the Administration Console top-level menu, enter:
ipx route flush
2 Enter the slot of the EFSM for which you want to delete the learned
routes.
All learned routes are immediately deleted from the routing table.
8-8
CHAPTER 8: ADMINISTERING IPX ROUTING
Administering
Servers
Each EFSM maintains a table of servers on other IPX networks. You can
either use the Service Advertising Protocol (SAP) to exchange server
information automatically or make static entries in this table using the
Administration Console.
Each server table contains the following information:
■
Name
The user-defined name of the server.
■
Type
The type of service provided by the server.
■
Node
The 6-byte address of the server that can forward packets to the
segment.
■
Socket
The 2-byte socket address on which the server will receive service
requests.
■
Hops
The number of networks that must be crossed to reach the server. The
maximum number is fifteen.
■
Age
This is the number of seconds that have elapsed since the last time a
server in the table was heard from.
Displaying the
Server Table
Top-Level Menu
system
ethernet interface
route
fddi
➧ display
tokenring ➧ server
static
bridge
forwarding remove
ip
rip
flush
enhanced
➧ ipx
appletalk sap
statistics
snmp
analyzer
script
logout
You can display the server tables for the EFSMs in a system to
determine which routes are configured and if they are operational.
To display the contents of the server table:
1 From the Administration Console top-level menu, enter:
ipx server display
2 Enter the slot(s) of the EFSM(s) for which you want to display the server
table. Separate non-consecutive slots with commas (,). Enter a
consecutive series of slots using a dash (-).
Administering Servers
8-9
In the following example, servers known to an EFSM in slot 3 are
displayed. The configuration of IPX forwarding, RIP, and SAP is indicated
in the display.
Slot 3 - IPX forwarding is enabled, RIP is active, SAP is active
Interface
2
2
Defining a Static
Server
Name Type Network
GB201 39b 8c141bfe
GB3COM2 39b af0bc60f
Node Socket Hops
08-00-02-04-80-b6
8059
4
00-00-00-00-00-01
85fa
4
Age
73
85
Prior to defining static servers on a given EFSM, you must define at least
one IPX interface (see the section “Defining an Interface” on page 8-3).
Static servers remain in the table until you remove them, or until you
remove the corresponding interface. Static servers take precedence over
dynamically-learned servers to the same destination. You can have a
maximum of eight static servers.
To define a static server:
Top-Level Menu
system
ethernet interface
route
fddi
tokenring ➧ server
bridge
forwarding
ip
rip
enhanced
➧ ipx
appletalk sap
statistics
snmp
analyzer
script
logout
1 From the Administration Console top-level menu, enter:
display
➧ static
remove
flush
ipx server static
2 Enter the slot of the EFSM for which you want to define a static server.
3 Enter the interface number of the server.
4 Enter the service type of the server.
5 Enter the service name of the server.
6 Enter the IPX network address of the server.
7 Enter the socket value of the server.
8 Enter the node address of the server.
9 Enter the number of hops to the server.
A static server is defined in the following example:
8-10
CHAPTER 8: ADMINISTERING IPX ROUTING
Select slot {3-4} [3-4]: 3
Enter
Enter
Enter
Enter
Enter
Enter
Enter
Removing a Server
Top-Level Menu
system
ethernet interface
route
fddi
display
tokenring ➧ server
static
bridge
forwarding ➧ remove
ip
rip
flush
enhanced
➧ ipx
sap
appletalk
statistics
snmp
analyzer
script
logout
Interface number: 1
service type: 4
service name: gb201
IPX address: 0x8c14a238
socket: 0x8059
node address: 00-00-2e-f3-56-01
hops: 2
To remove a server:
1 From the Administration Console top-level menu, enter:
ipx server remove
2 Enter the slot of the EFSM for which you want to remove any static or
dynamic server.
3 Enter the service type of the server.
4 Enter the service name of the server.
The server is immediately deleted from the server table.
Flushing Servers
Flushing deletes all dynamically-learned servers from the server table.
To flush all learned servers:
Top-Level Menu
system
ethernet interface
route
fddi
display
tokenring ➧ server
static
bridge
forwarding remove
ip
rip
➧ flush
enhanced
➧ ipx
appletalk sap
statistics
snmp
analyzer
script
logout
1 From the Administration Console top-level menu, enter:
ipx server flush
2 Enter the slot of the EFSM for which you want to delete the learned server.
All learned servers are immediately deleted from the server table.
Setting IPX Forwarding
Setting IPX
Forwarding
8-11
You can control whether an EFSM forwards or discards IPX packets
addressed to other routers. When you enable IPX forwarding, the EFSM acts
as a normal IPX router, forwarding IPX packets from one network to another
when required. When you disable IPX forwarding, the EFSM discards any IPX
packets not addressed directly to one of its defined IPX interfaces.
By default, IPX forwarding is disabled on all EFSMs.
IPX forwarding default
To enable or disable IPX forwarding:
Top-Level Menu
system
ethernet interface
route
fddi
tokenring server
bridge ➧ forwarding
ip
rip
enhanced
➧ ipx
appletalk sap
statistics
snmp
analyzer
script
logout
1 From the Administration Console top-level menu, enter:
ipx forwarding
2 Enter the slot(s) of the EFSM(s) for which you want to enable or disable IPX
forwarding. Separate non-consecutive slots with commas (,). Enter a
consecutive series of slots using a dash (-).
3 Enter the IPX forwarding state (enabled or disabled). To use the value in
brackets, press [Return] at the prompt.
Setting the RIP
Mode
You can select a RIP mode that is appropriate for your network. RIP can
operate in any of three modes:
■
Off — The EFSM ignores all incoming RIP packets and does not generate
any RIP packets of its own.
■
Passive — The EFSM processes all incoming RIP packets, but does not
broadcast periodic or triggered RIP updates, or respond to RIP requests.
■
Active — The EFSM processes all incoming RIP packets, responds to explicit
requests for routing information, and broadcasts periodic and triggered RIP
updates.
8-12
CHAPTER 8: ADMINISTERING IPX ROUTING
RIP default mode
By default, RIP is off.
To set the RIP operating mode:
Top-Level Menu
system
ethernet interface
route
fddi
tokenring server
forwarding
bridge
ip
➧ rip
enhanced
➧ ipx
appletalk sap
statistics
snmp
analyzer
script
logout
Setting the
Enhanced RIP
Mode
Enhanced RIP default
1 From the Administration Console top-level menu, enter:
ipx rip
2 Enter the slot(s) of the EFSM(s) for which you want to set the RIP mode.
Separate non-consecutive slots with commas (,). Enter a consecutive series
of slots using a dash (-).
3 Enter the RIP mode (off, passive, or active). To use the value in
brackets, press [Return] at the prompt.
Standard IPX RIP packets can include up to 50 route advertisements, but
some routers allow up to 68. Enhanced RIP mode increases the number of
entries in a RIP packet that the EFSM will accept, allowing the EFSM to have
greater interoperability with routers that do not explicitly follow the IPX
router implementation guidelines.
By default, enhanced RIP is disabled on all EFSMs.
To enable or disable enhanced RIP mode:
Top-Level Menu
system
ethernet interface
route
fddi
tokenring server
forwarding
bridge
rip
ip
➧ enhanced
➧ ipx
appletalk sap
statistics
snmp
analyzer
script
logout
1 From the Administration Console top-level menu, enter:
ipx enhanced
2 Enter the slot(s) of the EFSM(s) for which you want to set the enhanced RIP
mode. Separate non-consecutive slots with commas (,). Enter a consecutive
series of slots using a dash (-).
3 Enter the enhanced RIP state (enabled or disabled). To use the value in
brackets, press [Return] at the prompt.
Setting the SAP Mode
Setting the SAP
Mode
8-13
You can select a SAP mode that is appropriate for your network. SAP can
operate in any of three modes:
■
Off — The EFSM ignores all incoming SAP packets and does not generate
any SAP packets of its own.
■
Passive — The EFSM processes all incoming SAP packets, but does not
broadcast periodic or triggered SAP updates, or respond to SAP requests.
Active — The EFSM processes all incoming SAP packets, responds to
explicit requests for routing information, and broadcasts periodic and
triggered SAP updates.
SAP default mode
By default, SAP is off.
To set the SAP operating mode:
Top-Level Menu
system
ethernet interface
route
fddi
tokenring server
forwarding
bridge
rip
ip
enhanced
➧ ipx
appletalk ➧ sap
statistics
snmp
analyzer
script
logout
1 From the Administration Console top-level menu, enter:
ipx sap
2 Enter the slot(s) of the EFSM(s) for which you want to set the RIP mode.
Separate non-consecutive slots with commas (,). Enter a consecutive series
of slots using a dash (-).
3 Enter the SAP mode (off, passive, or active). To use the value in
brackets, press [Return] at the prompt.
8-14
CHAPTER 8: ADMINISTERING IPX ROUTING
Displaying
Statistics
The Administration Console allows you to display four types of IPX-related
statistics:
Displaying IPX
Summary Statistics
■
IPX Summary statistics
■
IPX RIP statistics
■
IPX SAP statistics
■
IPX Forwarding statistics
To display IPX summary statistics:
1 From the Administration Console top-level menu, enter:
Top-Level Menu
system
ethernet interface
route
fddi
➧ summary
tokenring server
rip
forwarding
bridge
sap
rip
ip
forwarding
enhanced
➧ ipx
sap
appletalk
➧ statistics
snmp
analyzer
script
logout
ipx statistics summary
2 Enter the slot(s) of the EFSM(s) for which you want to view IPX statistics.
Separate non-consecutive slots with commas (,). Enter a consecutive series
of slots using a dash (-).
Statistics appear as in the example below:
Slot 3 - IPX forwarding is enabled, RIP is active, SAP is active
Received
1170878
Transmitted
565099
Dropped
0
Msg Pool Empty
0
The IPX summary statistics you can view are described in Table 8-1.
Table 8-1 IPX Summary Statistics
Field
Description
Received
Number of IPX packets received
Transmitted
Number of IPX packets transmitted
Dropped
Number of IPX packets dropped
Msg Pool Empty Number of IPX RIP or IPX SAP messages delivered to the IPX
application that are dropped due to resource limitations
Displaying Statistics
Displaying IPX RIP
Statistics
8-15
To display IPX RIP statistics:
1 From the Administration Console top-level menu, enter:
Top-Level Menu
system
ethernet interface
route
fddi
summary
tokenring server
➧ rip
forwarding sap
bridge
rip
ip
forwarding
enhanced
➧ ipx
appletalk sap
➧ statistics
snmp
analyzer
script
logout
ipx statistics rip
2 Enter the slot(s) of the EFSM(s) for which you want to view IPX RIP statistics.
Separate non-consecutive slots with commas (,). Enter a consecutive series
of slots using a dash (-).
Statistics appear as in the example below:
Slot 3 - IPX forwarding is enabled, RIP is active, SAP is active
RIP Received
106195
RIP Transmitted
7929
RIP dropped
0
RIP Responses
100552
RIP Requests
5643
RIP Entries
2
The IPX RIP statistics you can view are described in Table 8-2.
Table 8-2 IPX RIP Statistics
Field
Description
RIP Received
Number of IPX RIP packets received
RIP Transmitted
Number of IPX RIP packets transmitted
RIP Dropped
Number of IPX RIP packets dropped
RIP Responses
Number of IPX RIP Responses that have been processed
RIP Requests
Number of IPX RIP Requests that have been processed
RIP Entries
Number of routes in the routing table
8-16
CHAPTER 8: ADMINISTERING IPX ROUTING
Displaying IPX SAP
Statistics
To display IPX SAP statistics
1 From the Administration Console top-level menu, enter:
Top-Level Menu
system
ethernet interface
route
fddi
summary
tokenring server
rip
forwarding ➧ sap
bridge
rip
ip
forwarding
enhanced
➧ ipx
appletalk sap
➧ statistics
snmp
analyzer
script
logout
ipx statistics sap
2 Enter the slot(s) of the EFSM(s) for which you want to view IPX SAP statistics.
Separate non-consecutive slots with commas (,). Enter a consecutive series
of slots using a dash (-).
Statistics are displayed, as shown in the example below:
Slot 3 - IPX forwarding is enabled, RIP is active, SAP is active
SAP Received
1064015
SAP Transmitted
22493
SAP dropped
0
SAP Responses
1063532
SAP Requests
45
SAP Entries
0
SAP GNS Responses
0
SAP GNS Requests
438
The IPX SAP statistics you can view are described in Table 8-3.
Table 8-3 IPX SAP Statistics
Field
Description
SAP Received
Number of IPX SAP packets received
SAP Transmitted
Number of IPX SAP packets transmitted
SAP Dropped
Number of IPX SAP packets dropped
SAP Responses
Number of IPX SAP Responses that have been processed
SAP Requests
Number of IPX SAP Requests that have been processed
SAP Entries
Number of servers in the server table
SAP GNS Responses
Number of IPX SAP Get Nearest Service Responses that have
been received
SAP GNS Requests
Number of IPX SAP Get Nearest Service Requests processed
Displaying Statistics
Displaying IPX
Forwarding
Statistics
8-17
To display IPX Forwarding statistics:
1 From the Administration Console top-level menu, enter:
Top-Level Menu
system
ethernet interface
route
summary
fddi
rip
tokenring server
forwarding sap
bridge
rip
ip
➧ forwarding
enhanced
➧ ipx
appletalk sap
➧ statistics
snmp
analyzer
script
logout
ipx statistics forwarding
2 Enter the slot(s) of the EFSM(s) for which you want to view IPX forwarding
statistics. Separate non-consecutive slots with commas (,). Enter a
consecutive series of slots using a dash (-).
Statistics are displayed, as shown in the example below:
The IPX forwarding statistics you can view are described in Table 8-4.
Slot 3 - IPX forwarding is enabled, RIP is active, SAP is active
Received
1335653
Transmitted
565105
Forwarded
0
Hdr Errors
13758
Hop Count Errors
0
Addr Errors
13758
No Routes
2
Misc Errors
411
NetBIOS Rx
150604
NetBIOS Tx
125781
Host Rx
1171190
Host Tx
565105
NetBIOS Max Hops
0
8-18
CHAPTER 8: ADMINISTERING IPX ROUTING
Table 8-4 IPX Forwarding Statistics
Field
Description
Received
Number of IPX Forwarding packets received
Transmitted
Number of IPX Forwarding packets transmitted
Forwarded
Number of IPX packets forwarded by the IPX router
Hdr Errors
Number of IPX packets dropped due to IPX Network
layer header errors
Hop Count Errors
Number of IPX packets dropped due to exceeded
maximum transport control
Addr Errors
Number of IPX packet dropped due to IPX Address
errors in network layer header
No Routes
Number of IPX packets dropped because the IPX route
is unknown
Misc Errors
Number of multicasts attempted to be forwarded
NetBios Rx
Number of IPX NetBIOS packets received
NetBios Tx
Number of IPX NetBIOS packets transmitted
NetBios Max Hops
Number of IPX NetBIOS packets that exceeded the
Transport control maximum
Host Rx
Number of IPX packets delivered to the IPX host’s RIP
and SAP applications
Host Tx
Number of IPX packets transmitted from IPX host’s RIP
and SAP applications
ADMINISTERING APPLETALK
ROUTING
9
This chapter describes how to set up your LANplex system to use the
AppleTalk protocol to route packets. For more information on how
AppleTalk routing works, see Part II of this Guide.
You can display and/or configure the following:
■
AppleTalk interfaces
■
Routes
■
AARP cache
■
Zones
■
AppleTalk Forwarding
■
Checksum generation/verification
■
AppleTalk statistics
Each Ethernet/FDDI Switching Module (EFSM) operates as a separate
AppleTalk router. This means that each module has its own interfaces,
routing table, and statistics. AppleTalk routing does not operate on the
Ethernet Switching Module (ESM) or the Token Ring Switching Module
(TRSM).
9-2
CHAPTER 9: ADMINISTERING APPLETALK ROUTING
Administering
Interfaces
You define interfaces to establish the relationship between the ports on
your EFSMs and the subnets in your network. You must define one interface
for each group of ports that are connected to the same subnet. This means
that every EFSM has one interface defined for each network to which it is
directly connected.
The maximum number of interfaces you can configure per router is 18.
An AppleTalk interface has the following information associated with it:
■
Seed Interface
You can configure the interface to be a seed interface or nonseed interface.
Seed interfaces initialize the network with the configuration information the
administrator enters (network range, address, zone name, and ports).
Nonseed interfaces wait and listen for a seed interface and then take this
configuration initialization information from the first seed interface they
hear. After the nonseed interface obtains a network configuration, it begins
to participate in the routing of the network.
■
Network Range
A range of numbers used to designate a network segment’s identity. This
allows the physical segment between two LANplex systems to be a range of
multiple networks.
■
Address
The AARP address based on the network range and the network node
(1-253).
■
Zone
The default zone name, as well as up to 15 additional defined zones.
■
Ports
A single interface may contain several bridge ports. All of the ports
corresponding to one interface share the same AppleTalk address, cost, and
format. An EFSM contains a maximum of eighteen ports: two FDDI and
sixteen Ethernet. The port indices for the maximum configuration are the
following: 1,2 = FDDI; 3 – 18 = Ethernet.
You do not have to include every EFSM port in an interface (that is, some
ports may remain unassigned). Packets will be bridged to and from
Administering Interfaces
9-3
unassigned ports. However, AppleTalk packets will not be forwarded to
ports that are not assigned to an AppleTalk interface.
Displaying
AppleTalk Interfaces
You can display a table that shows all AppleTalk interfaces and their
parameter settings configured for each EFSM in the system.
To display the AppleTalk interfaces defined on the router:
Top-Level Menu
system
ethernet ➧ interface
fddi
route
➧ display
tokenring aarp
define
bridge
zone
remove
ip
forwarding
ipx
checksum
➧ appletalk ping
statistics
snmp
analyzer
script
logout
1 From the Administration Console top-level menu, enter:
appletalk interface display
2 Enter the slot(s) of the EFSM(s) for which you want to display the interface
information. Separate non-consecutive slots with commas (,). Enter a
consecutive series of slots using a dash (-).
An example of interfaces defined is shown below:
Slot 2 - DDP forwarding is enabled.
Index
1
2
3
Network Range
20112-20112
20124-20124
20125-20125
Defining an
Interface
Address
20112.27
20124.1
20125.1
State
enabled
enabled
enabled
Ports (1-2=FDDI, 3-18=Ethernet)
3
4-10
11-18
When you define an interface, you define the interface’s network range,
zone name, and the EFSM ports associated with the interface.
To define an AppleTalk interface:
Top-Level Menu
system
ethernet ➧ interface
fddi
display
route
tokenring aarp
➧ define
bridge
zone
remove
ip
forwarding
ipx
checksum
➧ appletalk ping
statistics
snmp
analyzer
script
logout
1 At the Administration Console’s top-level menu, enter:
appletalk interface define
2 Enter the slot of the EFSM for which you want to define an interface.
You are prompted for the interface’s parameters. To use the value in
brackets, press [Return] at the prompt.
The following message appears:
Configure seed interface? (n,y) [y]:
3 Enter n (no) or y (yes).
4 Enter the start of the network range associated with the interface.
9-4
CHAPTER 9: ADMINISTERING APPLETALK ROUTING
5 Enter the end of the network range associated with the interface.
6 Enter the default zone name.
The default zone name is used by clients that have not been configured to
use a particular zone.
7 Enter the zone name.
You can enter up to 16 zone names per interface.
8 Type q after entering all the zone names.
9 Enter the ports you want to include on the interface. Separate
non-consecutive ports with commas (,). Enter a consecutive series of ports
using a dash (-).
Removing an
Interface
You may want to remove an interface if you no longer perform routing on
the ports associated with the interface.
To remove an AppleTalk interface:
Top-Level Menu
system
ethernet ➧ interface
fddi
display
route
tokenring aarp
define
bridge
zone
➧ remove
ip
forwarding
ipx
checksum
➧ appletalk ping
statistics
snmp
analyzer
script
logout
1 At the Administration Console’s top-level menu, enter:
appletalk interface remove
2 Enter the slot of the EFSM from which you want to remove an interface.
3 Enter the index number(s) of the interface(s) you want to remove.
The interface is no longer defined on the router.
Administering
Routes
Each EFSM maintains a table of routes to other AppleTalk networks. The
routing table is generated automatically by the Routing Table Maintenance
Protocol (RTMP). RTMP defines the rules for exchanging information
between routers so that the routers can maintain their routing tables, as
well as the rules for the information contained within each routing table.
Each routing table entry contains the following information:
■
Network Range
A range of numbers used to designate a network segment’s identity
Administering Routes
■
9-5
Distance
The distance in hops to the destination network
■
Interface
The defined interface number
■
State
The status (good, suspect, bad, or really bad) of each route
Displaying the
Routing Table
You can display the routing tables for the EFSMs in a system to determine
which routes are configured and if they are operational.
To display the contents of the routing table:
Top-Level Menu
system
ethernet interface
fddi
➧ route
➧ display
tokening aarp
flush
bridge
zone
ip
forwarding
ipx
checksum
➧ appletalk ping
statistics
snmp
analyzer
script
logout
1 From the Administration Console top-level menu, enter:
appletalk route display
2 Enter the slot(s) of the EFSM(s) for which you want to display the routing
table. Separate non-consecutive slots with commas (,). Enter a consecutive
series of slots using a dash (-).
An example of a routing table display is shown below:
Slot 2 - DDP forwarding is enabled.
Network Range
1-1
3
10-14
15-19
61
100-100
201-300
2010-2015
10009-10009
10010-10010
10060-10060
10110-10113
10116-10117
10118-10118
10119-10119
10120-10120
10122-10122
10310-10329
10410-10410
11010-11019
Distance
10
4
6
7
6
10
7
2
5
7
8
5
5
6
4
7
9
10
8
9
Interface
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
State
good
good
good
good
good
good
good
good
good
good
good
good
good
good
good
good
good
good
good
good
9-6
CHAPTER 9: ADMINISTERING APPLETALK ROUTING
Flushing all Routes
Top-Level Menu
system
ethernet interface
fddi
➧ route
display
tokenring aarp
➧ flush
bridge
zone
ip
forwarding
ipx
checksum
➧ appletalk ping
statistics
snmp
analyzer
script
logout
Flushing deletes all dynamically learned routes from the routing table.
To flush all learned routes:
1 At the Administration Console’s top-level menu, enter:
appletalk route flush
2 Enter the slot(s) of the EFSM(S) for which you want to flush all learned
routes.
Administering
the AARP Cache
AARP allows hardware addresses to be mapped to an AppleTalk protocol
address. AppleTalk uses dynamically assigned 24-bit addresses, unlike the
statically-assigned 48-bit addresses used by Ethernet and token ring.
To make the address mapping process easier, AARP uses an Address
Mapping Table (AMT). The most recently used addresses are maintained in
the AMT. If an address is not in the AMT, AARP sends a request to the
desired protocol address and the hardware address is added to the table
when the destination node replies.
AARP is also responsible for registering a node’s dynamically assigned
address on the network. This process is described below:
■
AARP randomly assigns an address.
■
AARP broadcasts AARP probe packets to this address to determine if
another node is already using the address.
■
If there is no reply, the address becomes that node’s address.
■
If there is a reply, AARP repeats this process until an available address is
discovered.
In the Administration Console, you can:
■
Display the cache
■
Remove entries
■
Flush the cache
Administering the AARP Cache
Displaying the
AARP Cache
Top-Level Menu
system
ethernet interface
route
fddi
➧ display
tokenring ➧ aarp
remove
bridge
zone
flush
ip
forwarding
ipx
checksum
➧ appletalk ping
statistics
snmp
analyzer
script
logout
9-7
You can display the AARP cache for the EFSMs in a system to determine
which routes are configured and if they are operational.
To display the contents of the AARP cache:
1 From the Administration Console top-level menu, enter:
appletalk aarp display
2 Enter the slot(s) of the EFSM(s) for which you want to display the server
table. Separate non-consecutive slots with commas (,). Enter a consecutive
series of slots using a dash (-).
An example of an AARP cache display is shown below:
Slot 2 - DDP forwarding is enabled.
AARP Address
20112.125
20112.177
20112.192
20112.150
20112.1
20125.193
20125.76
20125.67
20124.41
20112.225
20112.135
20112.147
20112.132
20112.112
20112.148
20112.244
20112.21
20112.131
20124.35
20112.97
20112.4
20112.180
20112.108
20112.56
20112.110
20112.155
20112.243
20112.253
20125.104
20112.236
MAC Address
00-20-af-0b-e1-7c
00-00-89-01-91-f0
00-00-89-01-91-f3
00-00-89-01-8b-51
08-00-02-04-80-b6
08-00-07-d7-69-1f
08-00-07-66-62-9d
08-00-07-ee-10-a2
08-00-07-7c-c3-d8
00-20-af-0b-d8-f1
00-20-af-9e-68-62
00-00-94-41-de-79
08-00-09-7f-98-c5
08-00-07-7c-20-61
08-00-07-ac-56-4b
00-20-af-0b-ff-72
08-00-07-dc-e5-c4
08-00-07-54-88-b1
08-00-07-57-ec-58
08-00-07-9e-09-86
08-00-07-ec-98-3d
08-00-07-f7-cf-de
08-00-07-4f-74-7e
08-00-07-bc-10-fc
00-40-10-56-1a-b5
08-00-07-6c-88-77
08-00-07-66-72-c7
08-00-20-12-75-bf
08-00-07-66-2b-c2
00-80-3e-02-81-66
Interface
1
1
1
1
1
3
3
3
2
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
2
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
3
1
Age (secs)
211
20
6
18
31
388
862
851
864
270
174
26
24
121
1098
35
8932
397
368
1925
121
110
5833
120
110
5536
4940
70
848
3841
9-8
CHAPTER 9: ADMINISTERING APPLETALK ROUTING
Removing an Entry
in the Cache
Top-Level Menu
system
ethernet interface
route
fddi
display
tokenring ➧ aarp
➧ remove
bridge
zone
flush
ip
forwarding
ipx
checksum
➧ appletalk ping
statistics
snmp
analyzer
script
logout
Flushing All Cache
Entries
Top-Level Menu
system
ethernet interface
route
fddi
display
tokenring ➧ aarp
remove
bridge
zone
➧ flush
ip
forwarding
ipx
checksum
➧ appletalk ping
statistics
snmp
analyzer
script
logout
Displaying the
Zone Table
To remove an AARP cache entry:
1 At the Administration Console’s top-level menu, enter:
appletalk aarp remove
2 Enter the slot(s) of the EFSM(s) for which you want to remove the AARP
cache entry.
3 Enter the AARP address at the prompt.
The entry is removed.
To flush all AARP cache entries:
1 At the Administration Console’s top-level menu, enter:
appletalk aarp flush
2 Enter the slot(s) of the EFSM(s) for which you want to flush all AARP cache
entries.
AppleTalk allows for the logical grouping of nodes into zones to make
navigation through the network easier. This is done with the Zone
Information Protocol (ZIP). ZIP helps routers maintain a mapping of network
numbers to zones in the entire network. To do this, ZIP creates and
maintains a Zone Information Table (ZIT) in each router. The entries in this
table match the network numbers with the zone names.
Displaying the Zone Table
9-9
In the Administration Console, you can display the zone table either by
network numbers or by zones.
To display the zone table:
Top-Level Menu
system
ethernet interface
route
fddi
tokenring aarp
bridge ➧ zone
➧ network
ip
forwarding
ipx
checksum ➧ zone
➧ appletalk ping
statistics
snmp
analyzer
script
logout
1 From the Administration Console top-level menu, enter:
appletalk zone display network
OR
appletalk zone display zone
2 Enter the slot(s) of the EFSM(s) for which you want to display the server
table. Separate non-consecutive slots with commas (,). Enter a consecutive
series of slots using a dash (-).
Depending on the command entered, the zone table is displayed by
network or zone. An example of each type of display is shown below:
Zone Table by Network Numbers
Slot 2 - DDP forwarding is enabled.
Network 1-1 has 1 known zone
Munich GmbH
Network 3 has 1 known zone
Ethernet A5D85800
Network 10-14 has 1 known zone
Freds_Ethernet
Network 15-19 has 1 known zone
Freds_Token
Network 61 has 1 known zone
DevMacNet
Network 100-100 has 1 known zone
France Les Ulis
Network 201-300 has 1 known zone
Fred_Wilma
Network 2010-2015 has 1 known zone
NY
Network 10009-10009 has 2 known zones
Hemel NSOPS
3Com Arpeggio
Network 10010-10010 has 1 known zone
Marlow EUR
Zone Table by Zones
Slot 2 - DDP forwarding is enabled.
Zone Holmdel is assigned to 2 networks
21105-21105
21010-21010
Zone NY is assigned to 2 networks
63535-63535
2010-2015
Zone Manchester UK is assigned to 1 network
10310-10329
Zone DC8 is assigned to 1 network
30110-30129
Zone Chicago is assigned to 1 network
22030-22030
Zone Startek-Enet1 is assigned to 1 network
20033-20033
Zone Startek-TR1 is assigned to 1 network
20037-20037
Zone Test GmbH is assigned to 1 network
12010-12012
Zone Madrid3Com is assigned to 1 network
14010-14029
Zone NSDEng is assigned to 1 network
32910-32910
9-10
CHAPTER 9: ADMINISTERING APPLETALK ROUTING
Configuring
Forwarding
Top-Level Menu
system
interface
ethernet
route
fddi
tokenring aarp
zone
bridge
ip
➧ forwarding
ipx
checksum
➧ appletalk ping
statistics
snmp
analyzer
script
logout
Configuring
Checksum
You can control whether the router forwards or discards AppleTalk packets
addressed to other hosts. When you enable forwarding, the router processes
packets as usual, forwarding AppleTalk packets from one subnet to another
when required. When you disable IP forwarding, the router discards any
AppleTalk packets not addressed directly to one of its defined interfaces.
1 At the Administration Console’s top-level menu, enter:
appletalk forwarding
2 Enter the slot(s) of the EFSM(s) for which you want to enable AppleTalk
forwarding.
3 Enter enable or disable at the prompt.
Checksum is a simple method used for detecting errors in the transmission
of data. Checksum generation totals the bytes comprising the data and
adds this sum to the end of the data packet. Checksum verification allows
you to verify the integrity of the data that is routed. You can enable or
disable checksum generation and verification states.
To enable or disable checksum generation/verification:
Top-Level Menu
system
interface
ethernet
route
fddi
tokenring aarp
zone
bridge
forwarding
ip
ipx
➧ checksum
➧ appletalk ping
statistics
snmp
analyzer
script
logout
1 At the Administration Console’s top-level menu, enter:
appletalk checksum
2 Enter enable or disable at the checksum generation prompt.
3 Enter enable or disable at the checksum verification prompt.
Pinging an AppleTalk Node
Pinging an
AppleTalk Node
The AppleTalk Echo Protocol (AEP) sends a datagram (an Echo Request)
from one node to another, which causes the destination node to return or
echo, the datagram (an Echo Reply) to the sender. This allows you to
determine whether a node is accessible before any sessions are started.
To ping an AppleTalk node:
Top-Level Menu
system
ethernet interface
route
fddi
tokenring aarp
zone
bridge
forwarding
ip
checksum
ipx
➧ appletalk ➧ ping
statistics
snmp
analyzer
script
logout
1 At the Administration Console’s top-level menu, enter:
appletalk ping
You are prompted for a node address.
2 Enter the address of the node you want to ping.
If the node is accessible, you receive a response.
Viewing Appletalk
Statistics
Displaying DDP
Statistics
Top-Level Menu
system
ethernet interface
route
fddi
➧ ddp
tokenring aarp
rtmp
zone
bridge
zip
forwarding
ip
nbp
checksum
ipx
ping
➧ appletalk
➧ statistics
snmp
analyzer
script
logout
9-11
You can view statistics specific to the following AppleTalk protocols:
■
Datagram Delivery Protocol (DDP)
■
Routing Table Maintenance Protocol (RTMP)
■
Zone Information Protocol (ZIP)
■
Name Binding Protocol (NBP)
To display DDP statistics:
1 From the Administration Console top-level menu, enter:
appletalk statistics ddp
2 Enter the slot(s) of the EFSM(s) for which you want to view AppleTalk
statistics. Separate non-consecutive slots with commas (,). Enter a
consecutive series of slots using a dash (-).
9-12
CHAPTER 9: ADMINISTERING APPLETALK ROUTING
An example of summary statistics is shown below:
Slot 2 - DDP forwarding is enabled.
inReceives
131131
inForwards
113171
inLocals
17906
inNoRoutes
22
inNoClients
0
inTooShorts
0
inTooLongs
0
inShortDdps
0
inCsumErrors
0
inBcastErrors
0
inTooFars
0
inDiscards
54
outLocals
15600
The AppleTalk DDP statistics you can view are described in Table 9-1:
Table 9-1 AppleTalk Statistics
Field
Description
inReceives
Total number of packets received, including those with errors
inForwards
Total number of packets forwarded, including those with errors
inLocals
Number of DDP datagrams for which this entity was their final DDP
destination
inNoRoutes
Number of DDP datagrams dropped because a route could not be
found
inNoClients
Number of DDP datagrams dropped because of an unknown DDP
type
inTooShorts
Number of input DDP datagrams dropped because the received
data length was less than the data length specified in the DDP
header or the received data length was less than the length of the
expected DDP header
inTooLongs
Number of input DDP datagrams dropped because they exceeded
the maximum DDP datagram size
inShortDdps
Number of input DDP datagrams dropped because this entity was
not their final destination and their type was short DDP
inCsumErrors
Number of DDP datagrams which were dropped because of a
checksum error
inBcastErrors
Number of DDP datagrams for which this DDP entity was their final
destination, and which were dropped because of a broadcast error
(continued)
Viewing Appletalk Statistics
9-13
Table 9-1 AppleTalk Statistics (continued)
Displaying RTMP
Information
Field
Description
inTooFars
Number of input datagrams dropped because this entity was not
their final destination and their hop count would exceed 15
inDiscards
Number of DDP Datagrams thrown out during the routing process
outLocals
Number of host-generated DDP datagrams
To display RTMP statistics:
1 From the Administration Console top-level menu, enter:
Top-Level Menu
system
ethernet interface
route
fddi
summary
tokenring aarp
➧ rtmp
zone
bridge
zip
forwarding nbp
ip
checksum
ipx
➧ appletalk ping
➧ statistics
snmp
analyzer
script
logout
appletalk statistics rtmp
2 Enter the slot(s) of the EFSM(s) for which you want to view RTMP statistics.
Separate non-consecutive slots with commas (,). Enter a consecutive series
of slots using a dash (-).
An example of summary statistics is shown below:
Slot 2 - DDP forwarding is enabled.
inDatas
7204
inRequests
0
routeEqChgs
0
routeLessChgs
0
inVersionErrs
0
inOtherErrs
119
outDatas
4865
outRequests
6
routeDeletes routeOverflows
0
0
The RTMP statistics you can view are described in Table 9-2:
Table 9-2 RTMP Statistics
Field
Description
inDatas
Number of good RTMP data packets received
inRequests
Number of good RTMP request packets received
outDatas
Number of good RTMP data packets sent
outRequests
Number of RTMP request packets sent
(continued)
9-14
CHAPTER 9: ADMINISTERING APPLETALK ROUTING
Table 9-2 RTMP Statistics (continued)
Displaying ZIP
Information
Field
Description
routeEqChgs
Number of times RTMP changes the Next Internet Router in a
routing entry because the hop count advertised in a routing table
was equal to the current hop count for a particular network
routeLessChgs
Number of times RTMP changes the Next Internet Router in a
routing entry because the hop count advertised in a routing table
was less than the current hop count for a particular network
routeDeletes
Number of times RTMP deletes a route because it was aged out of
the table
routeOverflows
Number of times RTMP attempted to add a route to the RTMP table
but failed due to lack of space
inVersionErrs
Number of RTMP packets received that were rejected due to a
version mismatch
inOtherErrs
Number of RTMP packets received that were rejected for an error
other than due to a version mismatch
To display ZIP statistics:
1 From the Administration Console top-level menu, enter:
Top-Level Menu
system
interface
ethernet
route
fddi
tokenring aarp
zone
bridge
forwarding
ip
checksum
ipx
➧ appletalk ping
➧ statistics
snmp
analyzer
script
logout
appletalk statistics zip
ddp
rtmp
➧ zip
nbp
2 Enter the slot(s) of the EFSM(s) for which you want to view ZIP statistics.
Separate non-consecutive slots with commas (,). Enter a consecutive series
of slots using a dash (-).
Viewing Appletalk Statistics
9-15
An example of summary statistics is shown below:
Slot 2 - DDP forwarding is enabled.
inQueries
248
inReplies
14
inExReplies
0
inGniReplies
22
inLocalZones
30
inZoneLists
0
inObsoletes
0
inZoneCons
0
inZoneInvs
22
outQueries
9
outReplies
0
outGniReplies
182
outLocalZones
0
outZoneInvs
outAddrInvs
inGniRequests
182
inErrors
0
outExReplies outGniRequests
277
13
outZoneLists
30
The ZIP statistics you can view are described in Table 9-3:
Table 9-3 ZIP Statistics
Field
Description
inQueries
Number of ZIP queries received
inReplies
Number of ZIP replies received
inExReplies
Number of ZIP extended replies received
inGniRequests
Number of ZIP GetNetInfo request packets received
inGniReplies
Number of ZIP GetNetInfo reply packets received
inLocalZones
Number of Zip GetLocalZones requests packets received
inZoneLists
Number of Zip GetZoneLists requests packets received
inObsoletes
Number of ZIP Takedown or ZIP Bringup packets received
inZoneCons
Number of times a conflict has been detected between this entity’s
zone information and another entity’s zone information
inZoneInvs
Number of times this entity has received a ZIP GetNetInfo reply with
the zone invalid bit set because the corresponding GetNetInfo
request had an invalid zone name
inErrors
Number of ZIP packets received that were rejected for any error
outQueries
Number of ZIP queries sent
(continued)
9-16
CHAPTER 9: ADMINISTERING APPLETALK ROUTING
Table 9-3 ZIP Statistics (continued)
Displaying NBP
Information
Field
Description
outReplies
Number of ZIP replies sent
outExReplies
Number of ZIP extended replies sent
outGniRequests
Number of ZIP GetNetInfo packets sent
outGniReplies
Number of ZIP GetNetInfo reply packets sent out of this port
outzoneInvs
Number of times this entity has sent a ZIP GetNetInfo reply with the
zone invalid bit set in response to a GetNetInfo request with an
invalid zone name
outAddrInvs
Number of times this entity had to broadcast a ZIP GetNetInfo reply
because the GetNetInfo request had an invalid address
The NBP handles the translations between the numeric internet address and
the alphanumeric entity names used by AppleTalk.
To display NBP statistics:
Top-Level Menu
system
ethernet interface
route
fddi
ddp
tokenring aarp
rtmp
zone
bridge
zip
forwarding ➧ nbp
ip
checksum
ipx
➧ appletalk ping
➧ statistics
snmp
analyzer
script
logout
1 From the Administration Console top-level menu, enter:
appletalk statistics nbp
2 Enter the slot(s) of the EFSM(s) for which you want to view NBP statistics.
Separate non-consecutive slots with commas (,). Enter a consecutive series
of slots using a dash (-).
An example of summary statistics is shown below:
Slot 2 - DDP forwarding is enabled.
inLkupReqs
3093
inErrors
0
inBcastReqs
611
inFwdReqs
5951
inLkupReplies
0
Viewing Appletalk Statistics
9-17
The NBP statistics you can view are described in Table 9-4:
Table 9-4 NBP Statistics
Field
Description
inLkupReqs
Number of NBP Lookup Requests received
inBcastsReqs
Number of NBP Broadcast Requests received
inFwdReqs
Number of NBP Forward Requests received
inLkupReplies
Number of NBP Lookup Replies received
inErrors
Number of NBP packets received that were rejected for any error
9-18
CHAPTER 9: ADMINISTERING APPLETALK ROUTING
IV
APPENDIX
Appendix A
Technical Support
A
TECHNICAL SUPPORT
3Com provides easy access to technical support information through a
variety of services. This appendix describes these services.
On-line Technical
Services
3Com offers worldwide product support seven days a week, 24 hours a day,
through the following on-line systems:
■
■
■
■
3Com Bulletin
Board Service
3Com Bulletin Board Service (3ComBBS)
World Wide Web site
3ComForum on CompuServe®
3ComFactsSM automated fax service
3ComBBS contains patches, software, and drivers for all 3Com products, as
well as technical articles. This service is available via modem or ISDN seven
days a week, 24 hours a day.
Access by Modem
To reach the service by modem, set your modem to 8 data bits, no parity,
and 1 stop bit. Call the telephone number nearest you:
Country
Data Rate
Telephone Number
Australia
up to 14400 bps
(61) (2) 9955 2073
France
up to 14400 bps
(33) (1) 69 86 69 54
Germany
up to 9600 bps
(49) (89) 627 32 188 or (49) (89) 627 32 189
Hong Kong
up to 14400 bps
(852) 2537 5608
Italy (fee required)
up to 14400 bps
(39) (2) 273 00680
Japan
up to 14400 bps
(81) (3) 3345 7266
Singapore
up to 14400 bps
(65) 534 5693
Taiwan
up to 14400 bps
(886) (2) 377 5838
U.K.
up to 28800 bps
(44) (1442) 278278
A-2
APPENDIX A: TECHNICAL SUPPORT
Country
Data Rate
Telephone Number
U.S.
up to 28800 bps
(1) (408) 980 8204
Access by ISDN
ISDN users can dial-in to 3ComBBS using a digital modem for fast access up
to 56 Kbps. To access 3ComBBS using ISDN, dial the following number:
(408) 654-2703
World Wide Web
Site
Access the latest networking information on 3Com’s World Wide Web site by
entering our URL into your Internet browser:
http://www.3Com.com/
This service features news and information about 3Com products, customer
service and support, 3Com’s latest news releases, selected articles from
3TECH™ (3Com’s award-winning technical journal) and more.
3ComForum on
CompuServe
3ComForum is a CompuServe-based service containing patches, software,
drivers, and technical articles about all 3Com products, as well as a
messaging section for peer support. To use 3ComForum, you need a
CompuServe account.
To use 3ComForum:
1 Log on to CompuServe.
2 Enter go threecom .
3 Press [Return] to see the 3ComForum main menu.
3ComFacts
Automated Fax
Service
3Com Corporation’s interactive fax service, 3ComFacts, provides data sheets,
technical articles, diagrams, and troubleshooting instructions on 3Com
products 24 hours a day, seven days a week.
Call 3ComFacts using your touch-tone telephone. International access
numbers are:
Country
Telephone Number
Hong Kong
(852) 2537 5610
Support from Your Network Supplier
Country
Telephone Number
U.K.
(44) (1442) 278279
U.S.
(1) (408) 727 7021
A-3
Local access numbers are available within the following countries:
Support from
Your Network
Supplier
Country
Telephone Number
Country
Telephone Number
Australia
800 123853
Netherlands
06 0228049
Belgium
0800 71279
Norway
800 11062
Denmark
800 17319
Portugal
0505 442607
Finland
98 001 4444
Russia (Moscow only)
956 0815
France
05 90 81 58
Spain
900 964445
Germany
0130 8180 63
Sweden
020 792954
Italy
1678 99085
U.K.
0800 626403
If additional assistance is required, contact your network supplier. Many
suppliers are authorized 3Com service partners who are qualified to provide
a variety of services, including network planning, installation, hardware
maintenance, application training, and support services.
When you contact your network supplier for assistance, have the following
information ready:
■
Diagnostic error messages
■
A list of system hardware and software, including revision levels
■
Details about recent configuration changes, if applicable
If you are unable to contact your network supplier, see the following section
on how to contact 3Com.
A-4
APPENDIX A: TECHNICAL SUPPORT
Support from
3Com
If you are unable to receive support from your network supplier, technical
support contracts are available from 3Com.
In the U.S. and Canada, call (800) 876-3266 for customer service.
If you are outside the U.S. and Canada, contact your local 3Com sales office
to find your authorized service provider:
Country
Telephone Number
Country
Telephone Number
Japan
(81) (3) 3345 7251
(61) (3) 653 9515
Mexico
(525) 531 0591
0800 71429
Netherlands*
06 0227788
Brazil
(55) (11) 546 0869
Norway*
800 13376
Canada
(905) 882 9964
Singapore
(65) 538 9368
Denmark*
800 17309
South Africa
(27) (11) 803 7404
Finland*
Australia (Sydney) (61) (2) 959 3020
(Melbourne)
Belgium*
0800 113153
Spain*
900 983125
France*
05 917959
Sweden*
120 795482
Germany*
0130 821502
Taiwan
(886) (2) 577 4352
Hong Kong
(852) 868 9111
United Arab Emirates (971) (4) 349049
Ireland*
1 800 553117
U.K.*
0800 966197
Italy*
1678 79489
U.S.
(1) (408) 492 1790
* These numbers are toll-free.
Returning
Products for Repair
A product sent directly to 3Com for repair must first be assigned a Return
Materials Authorization (RMA) number. A product sent to 3Com without an
RMA number will be returned to the sender unopened, at the sender’s
expense.
To obtain an RMA number, call or fax:
10/25/95
Country
Telephone Number
Fax Number
U.S. and Canada
(800) 876 3266, option 2
(408) 764 7120
Europe
31 30 60 29900, option 5
(44) (1442) 275822
Outside Europe, U.S., and Canada
(1) (408) 492 1790
(1) (408) 764 7290
INDEX
Numerics
3Com Bulletin Board Service (3ComBBS) A-1
3Com sales offices A-4
3ComFacts A-2
A
AARP 6-10
AARP cache
administering 9-6
displaying 9-7
removing an entry from 9-8
address
classes 4-3
IP 7-1
IP to MAC, translating 7-9
MAC 3-3
network 3-3
Address Resolution Protocol. See ARP
Administration Console
menu descriptions 1-2
top-level menu 1-2
ADSP 6-10
AEP 6-8
AppleTalk
address resolution protocol (AARP) 6-10
checksum 9-10
configuring forwarding 9-10
data stream protocol (ADSP) 6-10
echo protocol (AEP) 6-8
interface, displaying 9-3
main menu 1-5
name binding protocol (NBP) 6-9
network layer 6-6
nodes 6-2
physical layer 6-5
printer access protocol (PAP) 6-10
protocols, about 6-1
protocols, and OSI levels 6-4
routing table maintenance protocol (RTMP) 6-6
routing tables 6-8
session layer protocol (ASP) 6-10
statistics, viewing 9-11
transaction protocol (ATP) 6-9
zone information protocol (ZIP) 6-9
zones 6-3
AppleTalk networks 6-2
extended 6-2
nonextended 6-2
AppleTalk node
pinging an 9-11
AppleTalk routing 6-1
ARP
cache 4-7
defined 4-7, 7-9
location in OSI reference model 4-1
reply 4-8
request 4-8
See also ARP cache 7-9
ARP cache 4-7, 7-9
displaying 7-9
displaying contents 7-9
flushing 7-10
removing an entry from 7-10, 7-12, 7-13
ASP 6-10
ATP 6-9
B
BOOTP relay threshhold 7-13
bridge
menus 1-3
bridging/routing
LANplex model 3-4
traditional model 3-4
broadcast address 7-2
bulletin board service A-1
C
checksum
configuring AppleTalk 9-10
chooser, Macintosh 6-2
CompuServe A-2
2
INDEX
conventions
notice icons 2
text 2
cost
of IP interface 7-2
See also metric
G
gateway
IP address 7-5
routing table, and the 4-5
See also router
D
H
datagram delivery protocol 6-6
datagrams, statistics 7-16
data-link layer 4-1
DDP statistics 9-11
default route, IP
defined 4-7, 7-6
removing 7-9
setting 7-8
direct, route status 7-6
documentation
for the LANplex system 3
DOS
copying software to 2-3
software media 2-1
dynamic routes 4-6, 5-14
See also RIP
See also SAP
dynamic routes, IPX 5-9
hard disk
copying software to 2-1
E
extended network numbers 6-2
extended switching, overview 1-1
F
fax service. See 3ComFacts
flushing
ARP cache 7-10
learned routes, AppleTalk 9-6
learned routes, IP 7-8
learned routes, IPX 8-7
for 8-8
forwarding
configuring AppleTalk 9-10
ftp
IP address 7-1
server in software load 2-4
I
ICMP
defined 4-9
echo (request and reply) 7-15
Echo Reply 4-9
Echo Request 4-9
ping and 7-15
Redirect 4-9
Time Exceeded 4-9
installing software 2-1
interface
defining an IP 7-3
interface, AppleTalk
defining an 9-3
displaying an 9-3
removing an 9-4
interface, IP
displaying an 7-3
parts of 7-1
parts of an 7-2
removing definition 7-5
interface, IPX
defining an 8-3
displaying an 8-3
modifying an 8-4
removing an 8-4
Interior Gateway Protocols (IGP) 4-6, 5-9
Internet address. See IP address
Internet Control Message Protocol. See ICMP
Internet Protocol. See IP
intranetwork routing
diagram 3-2
IP
address translation 7-9
ARP cache 7-9
enabling forwarding 7-13
interface 7-1
main menu 1-3
pinging a station 7-15
INDEX
RIP mode 7-14
routes 7-5
statistics, displaying 7-16
IP address
address classes 4-3
configuring 7-3
defined 4-2
derived from 4-2
division of network and host 4-2
example 4-4
for IP interface 7-1
network layer and the 4-1
RIP, and 4-6
routing table, and the 4-5
software installation, and 2-4
subnet mask, and the 4-3
subnet part 4-3
IP forwarding
configuring 7-13
IP interface
address 7-1
broadcast address 7-2
cost 7-2
defining 7-3
displaying 7-3
removing definition 7-5
subnet mask 7-2
IP route
default 7-6, 7-8
defining static 7-7
displaying table 7-6
gateway IP address 7-5
metric 7-5
removing from table 7-8
status 7-6
IP router
transmission process 4-2
IP routing
address classes 4-3
basic elements 4-2
ICMP 4-9
OSI reference model 4-1
references 4-10
router interface 4-4
routing table 4-5
transmission errors 4-9
IPX
forwarding statistics, displaying 8-17
main menu 1-4
RIP statistics, displaying 8-15
SAP statistics 8-16
IPX routing
and RIP 5-10
packet format 5-5
router interface 5-8
routing table 5-8
SAP, and 5-10
server table 5-13
L
LANplex
bridging/routing model 3-6
documentation 3
intranetwork router, as an 3-2
subnetting with 3-2
learned routes
flushing AppleTalk 9-6
flushing IP 7-8
flushing IPX 8-7
learned, IP route status 7-6
M
MAC address 3-3
ARP and 7-9
bridging in switching modules, and 3-6
compared to IP address 4-2
in ARP Request 4-8
located with ARP 4-7
use in IP routing 4-8
Macintosh, chooser 6-2
management
IP interface 7-1
media types 2-1
menu
AppleTalk main 1-5
bridge 1-3
IP main 1-3
IPX main 1-4
metric
defined 4-5
in IP routing table 7-5
N
name binding protocol 6-9
named entities 6-2
NBP 6-9
NetWare
defined 5-1
OSI reference model, and the 5-2
protocols 5-1 to 5-3
network address 3-3
network layer, and IP address 4-1
3
4
INDEX
network layer, AppleTalk 6-6
network numbers
extended 6-2
nonextended 6-2
network supplier support A-3
nodes
AppleTalk 6-2
nonextended network numbers 6-2
O
on-line technical services A-1
OSI 6-5
OSI Reference Model
AppleTalk routing and 6-5
IP routing and 4-1
IPX routing and 5-2
P
PAP 6-10
physical layer, AppleTalk 6-5
pinging
AppleTalk node 9-11
IP station 7-15
port
including in IP interface 7-2
printer access protocol 6-10
protocol
AppleTalk routing table maintenance 6-6
R
references
Comer 4-10
Perlman 4-10
routing RFCs 4-10
returning products for repair A-4
RIP
active mode 7-14
broadcast address, and 7-2
default mode 7-14
defined 4-6, 5-10
displaying state 7-3
off mode 7-14
passive mode 7-14
route configuration, and 4-6, 5-9
setting mode 7-14
using for dynamic routes 5-9
RIP statistics
IPX RIP 8-15
route, IP
default 7-6
defining static 7-7
gateway address 7-5
metric 7-5
removing default 7-9
removing from table 7-8
status 7-6
subnet mask 7-5
route, IPX
defining a static 8-6
removing a 8-7
router interface, IP
described 4-4
diagram 4-5
routing table, and the 4-5
router interface, IPX
described 5-8
routers, seed 6-4
routing
and bridging in switching modules 3-4
and bridging, traditional model 3-4
implementation in LANplex 3-4
LANplex system, and the 3-1 to 3-7
See also IP routing, IPX routing, and AppleTalk routing
Routing Information Protocol. See RIP
routing table, IP
contents 4-5, 7-5
default route 4-7
default route, setting 7-8
described 4-5
display routes 7-6
dynamic routes 4-6
example 4-6
flushing learned routes 7-8
metric 4-5
removing default route 7-9
removing route 7-8
static routes 4-6
routing table, IPX
contents 5-8
described 5-8
displaying 8-6
dynamic routes 5-9
example 5-9
flushing learned routes 8-7
removing a route 8-7
static routes 5-9
routing table, AppleTalk 6-8
RTMP
description of 6-6
INDEX
S
T
SAP
technical support A-1
ThreeComForum A-2
timing out, IP route status 7-6
transmission errors
ICMP Redirect 4-9
reasons for 4-9
aging mechanism 5-14
packet structure 5-11
request handling 5-15
using for dynamic routes 5-14
SAP mode
setting 8-13
SAP statistics, displaying 8-16
seed routers 6-4
segmentation, increasing 3-3
server
defining a static IPX 8-8
server table
contents 5-13
described 5-13
displaying 8-8
Service Advertisement Protocol. See SAP
session layer protocols
AppleTalk 6-9
software
copying to hard disk 2-1
corrupted on install 2-5
installation 1-1, 2-1
loading time 2-4
static route, IP 4-6
defining 7-7
status of 7-6
static route, IPX 5-9
defining 8-6
static server, IPX
defining a 8-8
statistics
AppleTalk, viewing 9-11
IP 7-16
IPX forwarding 8-17
IPX SAP 8-16
ZIP, displaying 9-14
subnet mask
defined 4-3
diagram 4-4
example 4-4
for IP address 7-2
in IP routing table 7-5
in routing table 4-5
subnetting
defined 4-3
Ethernet switching and 3-2
subnet mask, and the 4-3
with the LANplex 3-2
U
UNIX
copying software to 2-2
software media 2-1
Z
ZIP 6-9
statistics, displaying 9-14
zone information protocol (ZIP) 6-9
zone information table (ZIT) 6-9
displaying the 9-8
zone, AppleTalk
default 9-4
example of 6-3
naming 9-4
5
6
INDEX
LIMITED WARRANTY
HARDWARE: 3Com warrants its hardware products to be free from defects in workmanship and materials, under normal use and service, for the
following lengths of time from the date of purchase from 3Com or its Authorized Reseller:
Internetworking products
Network adapters
Ethernet stackable hubs and Unmanaged Ethernet fixed port repeaters
Power supply and fans in these stackable hubs and unmanaged repeaters
Other hardware products
Spare parts and spares kits
One year
Lifetime
Lifetime Oneyearifnotregistered
One year
One year
0 days
If a product does not operate as warranted during the applicable warranty period, 3Com shall, at its option and expense, repair the defective
product or part, deliver to Customer an equivalent product or part to replace the defective item, or refund to Customer the purchase price paid
for the defective product. All products that are replaced will become the property of 3Com. Replacement products may be new or
reconditioned. Any replaced or repaired product or part has a ninety (90) day warranty or the remainder of the initial warranty period,
whichever is longer.
3Com shall not be responsible for any software, firmware, information, or memory data of Customer contained in, stored on, or integrated with
any products returned to 3Com pursuant to any warranty.
SOFTWARE: 3Com warrants that the software programs licensed from it will perform in substantial conformance to the program specifications
therefor for a period of ninety (90) days from the date of purchase from 3Com or its Authorized Reseller. 3Com warrants the magnetic media
containing software against failure during the warranty period. No updates are provided. 3Com's sole obligation hereunder shall be (at 3Com's
discretion) to refund the purchase price paid by Customer for any defective software products, or to replace any defective media with software
which substantially conforms to 3Com's applicable published specifications. Customer assumes responsibility for the selection of the
appropriate applications program and associated reference materials. 3Com makes no warranty that its software products will work in
combination with any hardware or applications software products provided by third parties, that the operation of the software products will be
uninterrupted or error free, or that all defects in the software products will be corrected. For any third party products listed in the 3Com
software product documentation or specifications as being compatible, 3Com will make reasonable efforts to provide compatibility, except
where the non-compatibility is caused by a “bug” or defect in the third party's product.
STANDARD WARRANTY SERVICE: Standard warranty service for hardware products may be obtained by delivering the defective product,
accompanied by a copy of the dated proof of purchase, to 3Com's Corporate Service Center or to an Authorized 3Com Service Center during
the applicable warranty period. Standard warranty service for software products may be obtained by telephoning 3Com's Corporate Service
Center or an Authorized 3Com Service Center, within the warranty period. Products returned to 3Com's Corporate Service Center must be
pre-authorized by 3Com with a Return Material Authorization (RMA) number marked on the outside of the package, and sent prepaid, insured,
and packaged appropriately for safe shipment. The repaired or replaced item will be shipped to Customer, at 3Com's expense, not later than
thirty (30) days after receipt by 3Com.
WARRANTIES EXCLUSIVE: IF A 3COM PRODUCT DOES NOT OPERATE AS WARRANTED ABOVE, CUSTOMER’S SOLE REMEDY SHALL BE REPAIR,
REPLACEMENT, OR REFUND OF THE PURCHASE PRICE PAID, AT 3COM’S OPTION. THE FOREGOING WARRANTIES AND REMEDIES ARE EXCLUSIVE
AND ARE IN LIEU OF ALL OTHER WARRANTIES, EXPRESS OR IMPLIED, EITHER IN FACT OR BY OPERATION OF LAW, STATUTORY OR OTHERWISE,
INCLUDING WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. 3COM NEITHER ASSUMES NOR AUTHORIZES ANY
OTHER PERSON TO ASSUME FOR IT ANY OTHER LIABILITY IN CONNECTION WITH THE SALE, INSTALLATION, MAINTENANCE OR USE OF ITS
PRODUCTS.
3COM SHALL NOT BE LIABLE UNDER THIS WARRANTY IF ITS TESTING AND EXAMINATION DISCLOSE THAT THE ALLEGED DEFECT IN THE
PRODUCT DOES NOT EXIST OR WAS CAUSED BY CUSTOMER'S OR ANY THIRD PERSON'S MISUSE, NEGLECT, IMPROPER INSTALLATION OR
TESTING, UNAUTHORIZED ATTEMPTS TO REPAIR, OR ANY OTHER CAUSE BEYOND THE RANGE OF THE INTENDED USE, OR BY ACCIDENT, FIRE,
LIGHTNING, OR OTHER HAZARD.
LIMITATION OF LIABILITY: IN NO EVENT, WHETHER BASED IN CONTRACT OR TORT (INCLUDING NEGLIGENCE) SHALL 3COM BE LIABLE FOR
INCIDENTAL, CONSEQUENTIAL, INDIRECT, SPECIAL, OR PUNITIVE DAMAGES OF ANY KIND, OR FOR LOSS OF REVENUE, LOSS OF BUSINESS, OR
OTHER FINANCIAL LOSS ARISING OUT OF OR IN CONNECTION WITH THE SALE, INSTALLATION, MAINTENANCE, USE, PERFORMANCE, FAILURE, OR
INTERRUPTION OF ITS PRODUCTS, EVEN IF 3COM OR ITS AUTHORIZED RESELLER HAS BEEN ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGES.
Some states do not allow the exclusion of implied warranties or the limitation of incidental or consequential damages for consumer products,
so the above limitations and exclusions may not apply to you. This warranty gives you specific legal rights which may vary from state to state.
GOVERNING LAW: This Limited Warranty shall be governed by the laws of the state of California.
3Com Corporation
5400 Bayfront Plaza
Santa Clara, CA 95052-8145
(408) 764-5000
1/1/94
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