3M 2250E Stereo System User Manual

Dynatel™ 2250E/2273E
Advanced Cable and
Fault Locator
Operators Manual
September 1999
78-8097-6500-7-B
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Introduction ............................................................................... 2
Installing or Replacing the Batteries ........................................ 2
Initial Receiver Configuration .................................................. 3
Receiver Battery Test ................................................................ 3
Transmitter Battery Test ........................................................... 4
Using External DC Power and 5 Watt Output .......................... 4
Locating a Buried Cable ........................................................... 5
Transmitter Setup ................................................................ 5
Receiver Setup .................................................................... 10
Determining Cable Depth and Current ..................................... 13
Locating Sheath Faults .............................................................. 14
Locating an Active Duct Probe ................................................. 16
Locating EMS Markers ............................................................. 17
Toning Aerial Faults .................................................................. 18
Cable or Pair Identification ....................................................... 19
Optional Accessories ................................................................. 21
Technical Information ............................................................... 22
Page 1
INTRODUCTION
The 3M™ Dynatel 2250E/2273E Advanced Cable and Fault Locator
consists of a Transmitter and a Receiver for locating buried cables or
Active Duct Probes (sondes). It also measures and pinpoints sheath faults
in buried cables (2273E only) and conductor faults in aerial cables. The
transmitter provides four frequencies to accommodate varying factors such
as distance, cable type, or soil conditions. If desired, all four frequencies
may be transmitted at once. The Transmitter also provides a separate Tone
function for identifying cables and pairs. The Receiver provides four
locating modes to accomplish fast or difficult tracing and to pinpoint or
verify a conductor. The Receiver detects 50 or 60 Hz AC Power signals and
low frequency (LF) radio signals re-radiated from local broadcast
transmitters. It also measures the signal current in a conductor and displays
its magnitude. The depth of buried cables or sondes may also be displayed.
Note: For more detailed locating instructions and advanced locating
techniques, ask your 3M sales representative for a free publication called
Cable and Pipe Locating Techniques.
INSTALLING OR REPLACING THE BATTERIES
6 'LR14'
cells
6 'LR6'
cells
Caution!
Do not connect batteries improperly, charge or dispose of in fire.
Batteries may leak or explode and cause personal injury. Always
remove batteries when storing the units.
Battery Disposal: Since regulations vary, consult applicable regulations
or authorities before disposal.
Page 2
INITIAL RECEIVER CONFIGURATION
Display depth units (inches, feet and inches, or centimeters) may be
changed while holding
and pressing
. For each press, one of
three units will display. To change the passive Power frequency, press and
hold
then press
to toggle between 50 or 60 Hz as displayed in
the lower left corner of the display.
To change the Null bar graph display mode, press and hold
then
press
to toggle between normal Null bar graph display (Null flag will
flash) and inverse Null bar graph display (Null flag is solid). See section
About Trace Modes (page 11) for further information.
RECEIVER BATTERY TEST
Battery Test
Indicator
Battery Level
Mark
The Receiver batteries are tested for two seconds every time the unit is
turned on. The time interval can be extended by pressing and holding
During the battery test, the bar graph should extend to the right of the
battery level mark, otherwise replace the batteries.
Note: When batteries are low, the battery test indicator
Page 3
will flash.
.
TRANSMITTER BATTERY TEST
To test the Batteries, press and hold
. Listen to the tone and watch
the display.
• solid tone and 'OK' indicates batteries good;
• beeping tone and 'LO' indicates batteries low;
• no tone and '- -' indicates replace batteries.
Note: The battery test indicates battery condition for normal output
levels. if the unit resets when the high output level is selected, use the
normal output level or replace the batteries.
USING EXTERNAL DC POWER AND 5 WATT OUTPUT
The Transmitter can be operated from and external 12VDC source as well
as its internal batteries. Use the supplied cigarette lighter adapter cable to
connect the DC power from a vehicle's battery source to the Transmitter's
external power jack located next to the output jack.
Note: The internal batteries will not be recharged with external DC.
5 Watt Output
An external DC source is required for 5 watt output. To select 5 watt
once for high output (3W) and again for 5 watt
operation, press
operation. The High Output flag will turn on for 3W and flash for 5W.
Page 4
LOCATING A BURIED CABLE
Transmitter Setup
Note: Key descriptions can be found inside the Transmitter lid.
Perform a battery test and then connect the Transmitter using one of the
three methods below to put tracing signal on a cable.
Danger!
Voltage higher than 240 volts will damage equipment and cause personal
injury and death. Make all direct test connections before turning on the
Transmitter. Then activate the Transmitter in the Ohms mode and check
the display for voltage readings. Follow standard procedures for
reducing the voltage.
Warning!
Potential for electrical shock exists when handling connecting cables
while the Transmitter is in the TRACE, FAULT or TONE modes. Turn
the transmitter off before handling connecting cables.
Page 5
DIRECT CONNECT METHOD
Make sure the Transmitter is off. Plug the Direct Connect Cable into the
front panel jack. Connect the Black clip to the ground rod. Place the
ground rod in the earth perpendicular to the suspected cable path. If
necessary, extend the black lead with the Ground Extension Cable. Next,
remove the ground bonding and attach the Red clip to the shield.
Note: Never attach or remove the direct connect cable from the
Transmitter front panel jack while the red and black clips are connected
to a cable.
Press
to turn the Transmitter on in the Ohms mode
. It will
measure the continuity of the cable under test. The results are displayed in
ohms and as a tone (solid tone = good ground; beeping tone = usable
ground; no tone = poor or no ground).
Note: In the ohms mode, the Transmitter can detect voltage as well as
ohms. If voltage is detected, the display will alternate between displaying
will be
ohms and volts. When displaying ohms, the flag over the
visible. When displaying volts, the flag over the 'V' will be visible. When
the voltage magnitude is sufficient to impair the accuracy of the ohms
measurement, only voltage will be displayed. If the voltage is AC, a sine
will be visible on the display. If a high AC voltage is detected, a
wave
rapid beeping tone will be heard.
Page 6
Press
to select Trace mode. Press again to select one or all of the
four frequencies. The display will alternate between displaying the
selected frequency and the output signal current. It is best to choose the
lowest frequency for direct connect with far-end ground and a high
frequency for direct connect with no far-end ground.
to select high output level for longer tracing distances and
Press
deep cables.
Transmitter setup is finished, now go to LOCATING A BURIED
CABLE - RECEIVER SETUP (PAGE 10).
Page 7
DYNA-COUPLER METHOD
Cable Path
Connect the Dyna-Coupler to the Transmitter front panel jack using the
coupler cable.
Clamp the Dyna-Coupler around the cable below any bonds just before
cable enters the earth. The jaws of the coupler must fully close.
Press
133 kHz.
to turn Transmitter on. Press again to select 8 kHz, 33 kHz or
Select high output level by pressing
. Transmitter setup is finished,
now go to LOCATING A BURIED CABLE - RECEIVER SETUP (PAGE 10).
Page 8
INDUCTION METHOD
Place the transmitter on the ground over the target cable with the lid hinge
in line with the cable path. Press
to turn the Transmitter on.
Press again to select either 33 kHz or 133 kHz. For greater tracing range,
.
select high output level by pressing
Note: If the Receiver is less than 15 meters from the Transmitter, it can
pick up signal through the air. For best results, keep the Receiver away
from the Transmitter by at least that distance.
Transmitter setup is finished, now go to LOCATING A BURIED CABLE
- RECEIVER SETUP (PAGE 10).
Page 9
LOCATING A BURIED CABLE
Receiver Setup
Note: Key descriptions can be found on the side of the Receiver.
Press
to turn the Receiver on.
Press
to select the 50/60 Hz power frequency (see Selecting Passive
Power Frequencies, page 12) or LF for passive locating; otherwise, select
the same frequency as the Transmitter.
Note: The Receiver is automatically set to Special Peak mode when LF is
selected. No other modes are allowed in LF frequency.
Press
to adjust the speaker volume as needed: off, normal, high, or
high-expanded. The high-expanded setting causes the audio to cut off below
a certain threshold.
to select a locate mode (Peak
, Null
, or Diff
).
Press
To select Special Peak mode: from Peak mode, press and hold
then
press
to toggle between Peak and Special Peak modes. While in
Special Peak mode, the peak flag will flash.
Note: Peak, Special Peak or Null mode may require re-setting the Receiver
gain. Press
when the bar graph remains either fully open or fully
closed. This is not necessary in differential mode since the unit
automatically adjusts the receiver gain.
Page 10
About Trace Modes
Peak: In this mode, as the antenna crosses the cable, the Receiver speaker
volume increases to a maximum and the bar graph fills from both sides
toward the middle. As the antenna moves off the cable path, the speaker
volume decreases and the bar graph opens.
to select
Peak with High-Expanded: While in Peak mode, press
High-Expanded (the highest setting). Speaker response is cut off as the
antenna moves away from the cable.
Null: In this mode, the signal is a minimum directly over the cable and is
maximum on either side of the cable. The speaker volume and display
signal strength correspond to the signal being received. In the normal bar
graph display mode (Null flag flashing) the bar graph opens at low signal
strength and closes at high signal strength. In the inverse Null bar graph
display mode (Null flag is on solid), the bar graph closes at low signal
strength and opens at high signal strength.
Differential: In this mode, the Receiver provides an indication of the
relative position of the cable to the Receiver by displaying right or left
arrows (the arrow points toward the cable). The bar graph increases to a
maximum as the Receiver antenna is moved directly over the cable path.
Speaker response is a high warbling tone to the right of the cable path, a
low warbling tone to the left, and a solid tone directly over the cable.
Special Peak Mode: This mode will increase the signal sensitivity of the
Receiver when the signal is too weak for normal tracing. Use special
attention when using this mode because it is more susceptible to congestion
than the normal peak mode.
Numerical Signal Strength Display Resolution: The user may select
between 3 levels of signal strength resolution. The setting will be displayed
on the right end of the bar graph during selection.To change the setting,
press and hold the
key during power up then press the
key.
Display resolution may be changed between the standard 1X, (no bars
illuminated), 2X, (One bar illuminated), and 4X (Two bars illuminated).
The unit saves the last setting until changed.
Note: While tracing cables, keep the Receiver handle in line with the
suspected cable path.
Page 11
Selecting Passive Power Frequencies
See section Initial Receiver Configuration (page 3) to set the power
frequency to 50 Hz or 60 Hz. The Receiver can be tuned to locate 3
different harmonics of the chosen power frequency.
H50 Hz or H60 Hz (high harmonic): Best for general locating of
passive power.
L50 Hz or L60 Hz (low harmonic): Works best on primary power
cables. May be used when high harmonic is weak or erratic.
100 Hz or 120 Hz : For locating rectified AC power signals, often
found on pipelines using impressed current cathodic protection.
When the Power frequency is selected, the Hz symbol will flash, indicating
that alternate frequencies are available. To change the selected power
then press
to select the next Power
frequency, press and hold
frequency.
Selecting Auxiliary Frequencies
Auxiliary frequencies are used to trace cables without using frequencies
supplied by the Transmitter (2273E only). The Receiver may be able to
detect these auxiliary frequencies, depending on the model:
LF: General VLF locating
Other frequencies for locating cables connected to a remote
location transmitter with that frequency.
If your Receiver has multiple auxiliary frequencies, the HZ symbol will
flash when one is selected. To change the selected auxiliary frequency,
press and hold the
frequency.
then press
to select the next auxiliary
Page 12
DETERMINING CABLE DEPTH AND CURRENT
Place the Receiver Antenna on the ground directly above the cable with
the handle parallel to the path. Press
and the display will indicate
the cable depth and relative current
. Current is displayed in the lower
twice to continue tracing. You may
left corner of the display. Press
also press
to return to Trace mode.
Note: During a depth-current measurement, the display will exhibit
' – – – ' when the received signal is too low, too high, or erratic.
Using Current
Indications During Locating
Both the Transmitter and Receiver will indicate cable current. These
current indications will help to select a trace frequency, identify the correct
cable and trouble shoot the set up.
When using the direct connect method, the Transmitter output current
number is displayed. A "LO" display, or number less than 50, indicates a
weak tracing signal. A number higher than 70 represents a strong tracing
signal. When the Receiver is used to find the cable near the Transmitter
connection point, the current number displayed in the Receiver should
correspond (within 5 points) to the Transmitter number: IF you are over the
correct cable, AND most of the signal is flowing in that cable.
Note: On the Transmitter every ten units on the current display represents
a factor of two in current magnitude. On the Receiver, trace current
readings for the additional auxiliary frequencies (except LF) are displayed
in milliamps. For all other trace frequencies every ten units on the Current
display represents a factor of two in current magnitude.
When the Transmitter signal is applied using the Dyna-Coupler, the
Transmitter current display indicates the current in the coupler and not in
the cable. In order to get a measure of the cable current, point the Receiver
at the exposed cable about one meter from the Dyna-Coupler. This will be
the current number that should be used to identify the correct cable.
Page 13
In general, when the Transmitter is set up to apply more current on the
target cable than any other cable, the cable can easily be identified because
the Receiver current reading will be highest.
Note: Since some of the signal in the cable will bleed into the earth, it is
expected that the Receiver current indication along the cable will decrease
gradually away from the Transmitter. This effect is more pronounced at
higher frequencies.
LOCATING SHEATH FAULTS (2273E ONLY)
Transmitter Setup
Remove both the near-end and far-end shield bonds from the test section.
Perform a battery test then with the Transmitter off, connect the Black clip
to the ground rod. Place the ground rod behind the Transmitter, away from
the faulted section, and in line with the cable path. If necessary, extend the
ground lead with the Ground Extension Cable.
to turn the Transmitter on in the
Attach the Red clip to shield. Press
Ohms mode
. Measure the fault resistance. The results are displayed in
ohms. Note that failure to disconnect the shield bonds at either the nearend or the far-end produces a heavy fault indication.
again, to select the Fault mode
. For maximum fault
Press
sensitivity, select high output level by pressing
.
Receiver Setup
Press
to turn the Receiver on.
Press
to select Fault mode
. Connect the Earth Contact Frame
to the accessory jack on the Receiver using the earth frame cable. Near the
location of the ground rod (about one step away), insert the frame probes
fully into the ground with the green-banded leg towards the fault and in
to record a fault level reference visible
line with the cable path. Press
in the lower left corner of display.
Page 14
The Receiver bar graph is visible on the right side (green). This indicates
that the fault is ahead of the operator in the direction of the green-banded
leg. Continue along the cable path, reinserting the frame probes every few
steps while watching the Receiver bar graph.
When the bar graph is visible on the left side (red), the fault has been
passed and is now behind the operator.
Move back, inserting the frame every few inches, until the bar graph
returns to the green side. Turn the frame ninety degrees to the cable path.
The fault is located beneath the center of the frame when the bar graph
changes from one side to the other.
To verify the fault location, insert the frame’s red leg directly on the spot
identified above. Pivot the frame in a circle around red leg re-inserting the
green leg in ground every few degrees of the circle. The bar graph should
always be on the left (red) indicating that the fault is directly below red leg.
cable
path
Red
leg
After a fault is found and pinpointed, move the Earth Contact Frame about
one frame width away from the fault and insert it into the ground with the
green-banded leg towards the fault. Compare the numeric indicator reading
with the fault level reference in the lower left corner of the display. If they
are close, the fault is the major one. If the fault reading is 20 points less
than the reference reading, multiple faults may exist. Further searching is
necessary to find the fault with the highest reading.
Page 15
LOCATING AN ACTIVE DUCT PROBE (ADP)
Press
to turn the Receiver on.
Press
to select the 33 kHz frequency.
Press
to select the Peak mode
. If you find that the received
signal is too weak in this mode, try the Special Peak mode. To select
Special Peak mode: from Peak mode, press and hold
, then press
to toggle between Peak and Special Peak modes. While in Special
Peak mode, the Peak flag will flash.
With the Receiver handle perpendicular to the conduit path, locate the
ADP position by moving along the path until a peak is found. Press
when the bar graph remains either fully open or fully closed. Refer to the
ADP operating instructions for further information.
Determining ADP Depth
Place the Receiver Antenna on the ground directly above the located ADP
position maintaining the handle orientation perpendicular to the path.
Press
twice to display ADP depth
To return to trace mode, press
or
.
.
Note: During a depth-current measurement, the display will exhibit
' – – – ' when the received signal is too low, too high, or erratic.
Page 16
LOCATING EMS MARKERS
EMS markers may be detected and located using either the Dynatel™ 2205
or 2206 EMS Marker Locating Accessory. To attach the accessory, slide
the Receiver horizontally into EMS Marker Locating Accessory mounting
slot. Make sure the locking button holds the Receiver securely in the slot.
To separate the units, press the locking button down and slide the Receiver
out of the EMS Marker Locating Accessory mounting slot.
Locating Markers while Tracing Cable Path
To detect markers while tracing the cable path, set the 2205 or 2206
accessory mode switch to the Alert position, and trace the cable path
normally. The internal buzzer in the accessory will alert you to the
proximity of a detected marker.
Note: Do not use Null or Differential modes when using the 2205 or 2206.
Locating Markers using the Receiver
If the buzzer response is too broad, the exact marker position may be
pinpointed by using the Receiver.
Select 577 Hz or 33 kHz on the Accessory. Use a different frequency from
the tracing signal.
Turn the Receiver ON, select Peak mode, and set the frequency to match
the Accessory setting.
Note: The initial Receiver gain in Peak mode is optimized for interfacing
with the 2205 or 2206 Accessory while searching for a marker. Press
only when a marker is detected and the signal is too strong. To search for
a new marker, reset the Receiver gain to the initial setting by turning its
power OFF and back ON, or pressing
and then re-selecting the Peak
mode.
Refer the EMS Marker Locating Accessory operating instructions for
further information.
Page 17
TONING AERIAL FAULTS
Transmitter Setup
Perform a battery test; then with the Transmitter off, plug the direct
connect cable into the front panel jack.
If fault is a shorted pair, connect Red clip to tip and the Black clip to ring.
If the fault is a cross (two pair involved), connect the Red clip to crossed
conductor of one pair and the Black clip to the crossed of the other pair.
If the fault is a ground, connect the Red clip to the faulted conductor and
the Black clip to ground.
to turn the Transmitter on in the Ohms mode
Press
fault. Press twice more to select the Tone mode
.
Press
to verify the
to change the high output level.
Receiver Setup
Press
to turn the Receiver on.
Press
to select Tone mode
.
Connect a toning coil to the Receiver accessory jack.
Press
to select the low toning frequency (577 Hz).
Move the toning coil along the cable and find a peak signal then press
to adjust the Receiver gain.
Press
to adjust the speaker volume as needed.
Follow the cable with the toning coil. An aerial fault is located at the point
where the tone stops or drops off sharply.
Page 18
CABLE OR PAIR IDENTIFICATION
Transmitter Setup
Transmitter setup is the same to identify cables or pairs; however, Receiver
setups are different. Perform a battery test; then with the transmitter off,
connect the Dyna-Coupler to the Transmitter front panel jack using the
coupler cable.
Note: Cable Identification requires two Dyna-Couplers: one at the
Transmitter and one at the Receiver.
Clamp the Dyna-Coupler around the cable or both and tip and ring of a pair
and make sure the jaws fully close.
to turn the Transmitter on and then twice more to select the
Press
Tone mode
.
Press
to change the high output level.
CABLE IDENTIFICATION
Receiver Setup
Press
to turn the Receiver on.
Press
to select Tone mode
.
Connect a second Dyna-Coupler to the Receiver accessory jack using the
earth frame cable or another coupler cable.
to select the highest toning frequency (133 kHz). Check the
Press
first cable in the group by clamping the Dyna-Coupler around the cable.
Press
and observe the numeric display, which is relative signal
strength. Remember the number and continue by clamping the DynaCoupler around the next cable in the group. If the signal strength is greater
. If the signal strength is less than
than the previous observation, press
before, ignore it. After checking all the cables in the group, the cable with
the highest reading is the one being identified.
Page 19
PAIR IDENTIFICATION
Receiver Setup
Press
to turn the Receiver on.
Press
to select Tone mode
.
Connect the inductive probe to Receiver accessory jack using probe cable.
Press
to select the highest toning frequency (133 kHz).
Insert Probe into the bundle of pairs (or group, if known) and press
.
Next, divide the pairs into two bundles and insert the Probe into each of the
bundles and observe the numeric display. The bundle with the highest
reading will contain the target pair. Continue by dividing the bundle with
the target pair into two parts and checking each part for the highest signal.
In this way the target pair will be isolated.
Page 20
OPTIONAL ACCESSORIES
1196
2200
2205
2206
3005
3011
3019
3229
9011
9023
9043
6 inch Dyna-Coupler (includes Pouch)
Series Carrying Bag
EMS Marker Locating Accessory (single frequencies)
EMS Marker Locating Accessory (all frequencies)
1 inch Dyna-Coupler
Inductive Probe
3 inch Dyna-Coupler Kit (includes 9011 Coupler Cable and Pouch)
ADP (sonde)
Coupler Cable
Probe Cable
Ground Extension Cable
Page 21
TECHNICAL INFORMATION
Transmitter
Frequencies:
Trace mode:
577 Hz, 8 kHz, 33 kHz, 133 kHz
Sheath Fault mode: 10 and 20 Hz for faults and
(2273E only)
577 Hz & 33 kHz for tracing
Tone mode:
577 Hz & 133 kHz pulsed at 8 Hz
Induction mode:
33 kHz and 133 kHz
Output Power:
3 watts maximum or 5 watts w/external DC source
Battery Life:
50 hours, typical (Normal output level)
10 hours, typical (High output level)
Recommended Batteries: six Duracell™ Alkaline size LR14 (MN1400)
External DC Power: 9 - 18 VCD (1A)
Receiver
Frequencies:
Active Trace/Tone: 577 Hz, 8 kHz, 33 kHz, 133 kHz
Passive Power:
50 Hz, 60 Hz (user selectable)
L50/60 (5th harmonic), H50/60 (9th harmonic)
100/120 (for rectified power frequencies)
Auxiliary:
E Models: Passive VLF, LF 15 Khz-30 Khz
E LD Models: 273 Hz, 333 Hz, LF
Passive VLF:
15 kHz - 30 kHz
Trace Modes:
Dual Peak, Special Peak, Dual Null, Differential
Depth Range:
0 to 914 cm (0 to 360 inches)
Depth Accuracy:
+10% + 1 digit for 0 to 150 cm (0 to 59 inches)
+15% for 150 cm to 457 cm (60 to 180 inches)
+20% for 457 cm to 914 cm (180 to 360 inches)
Battery Life:
50 hours, typical
Recommended Batteries: six Duracell Alkaline LR6 (MN1500)
Environmental
Temperature Range:
Operating :
-20° to 50° C (-4° to 122° F)
Storage:
-40° to 70° C (-40° to 158° F)
Physical
Receiver Weight:
1.9 kg (4.1 lbs)
Transmitter Weight: 2.4 kg (5.2 lbs)
Page 22
Dynatel™ is a registered trademark of 3M.
Duracell™ is a registered trademark of Duracell Inc.
This product is in accordance with the requirements of the
European directive 89/336/EEC
Important Notice
All statements, technical information, and recommendations related to 3M’s
products are based on information believed to be reliable, but the accuracy or
completeness is not guaranteed. Before using this product, you must evaluate
it and determine if it is suitable for your intended application. You assume all
risks and liability associated with such use. Any statements related to the
product which are not contained in 3M’s current publications, or any contrary
statements contained on your purchase order shall have no force or effect
unless expressly agreed upon, in writing, by an authorized officer of 3M.
Warranty; Limited Remedy; Limited Liability.
This product will be free from defects in material and manufacture for a period
of one year from the date of purchase. 3M MAKES NO OTHER WARRANTIES
INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, ANY IMPLIED WARRANTY OF
MERCHANTABILITY OR FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. If this
product is defective within the shelf life period stated above, your exclusive
remedy shall be, at 3M’s option, to replace or repair the 3M product or refund
the purchase price of the 3M product. Except where prohibited by law, 3M
will not be liable for any loss or damage arising from this 3M product,
whether direct, indirect, special, incidental or consequential regardless of
the legal theory asserted.
Telecom Systems Division
6801 River Place Blvd.
Austin, Texas 78726-9000
Litho in USA
3M 1999