Installation guide | Accton Technology ES4548C Switch User Manual

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ES4512C
ES4524C
ES4548C
12/24/48-Port Gigabit
Intelligent Switch
Management Guide
www.edge-core.com
Installation Guide
ES4512C 12-Port Gigabit Intelligent Switch
Layer 2 Workgroup Switch
with 12 1000BASE-T (RJ-45) Ports,
and 4 Combination (RJ-45/SFP) Ports
ES4524C 24-Port Gigabit Intelligent Switch
Layer 2 Workgroup Switch
with 24 1000BASE-T (RJ-45) Ports,
and 4 Combination (RJ-45/SFP) Ports
ES4548C 48-Port Gigabit Intelligent Switch
Layer 2 Workgroup Switch
with 48 1000BASE-T (RJ-45) Ports,
and 4 Combination (RJ-45/SFP) Ports
ES4512C
ES4524C
ES4548C
E052005-R02
Contents
Chapter 1: Introduction
Key Features
Description of Software Features
System Defaults
1-1
1-1
1-2
1-5
Chapter 2: Initial Configuration
Connecting to the Switch
Configuration Options
Required Connections
Remote Connections
Basic Configuration
Console Connection
Setting Passwords
Setting an IP Address
Manual Configuration
Dynamic Configuration
Enabling SNMP Management Access
Community Strings
Trap Receivers
Saving Configuration Settings
Managing System Files
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Chapter 3: Configuring the Switch
Using the Web Interface
Navigating the Web Browser Interface
Home Page
Configuration Options
Panel Display
Main Menu
Basic Configuration
Displaying System Information
Displaying Switch Hardware/Software Versions
Displaying Bridge Extension Capabilities
Setting the Switch’s IP Address
Manual Configuration
Using DHCP/BOOTP
Managing Firmware
Downloading System Software from a Server
Saving or Restoring Configuration Settings
Downloading Configuration Settings from a Server
Configuring Event Logging
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i
Contents
System Log Configuration
Remote Log Configuration
Displaying Log Messages
Sending Simple Mail Transfer Protocol Alerts
Resetting the System
Setting the System Clock
Configuring SNTP
Setting the Time Zone
Simple Network Management Protocol
Setting Community Access Strings
Specifying Trap Managers and Trap Types
User Authentication
Configuring the Logon Password
Configuring Local/Remote Logon Authentication
Configuring HTTPS
Replacing the Default Secure-site Certificate
Configuring the Secure Shell
Generating the Host Key Pair
Configuring the SSH Server
Configuring Port Security
Configuring 802.1x Port Authentication
Displaying 802.1x Global Settings
Configuring 802.1x Global Settings
Configuring Port Authorization Mode
Displaying 802.1x Statistics
Filtering IP Addresses for Management Access
Access Control Lists
Configuring Access Control Lists
Setting the ACL Name and Type
Configuring a Standard IP ACL
Configuring an Extended IP ACL
Configuring a MAC ACL
Configuring ACL Masks
Specifying the Mask Type
Configuring an IP ACL Mask
Configuring a MAC ACL Mask
Binding a Port to an Access Control List
Port Configuration
Displaying Connection Status
Configuring Interface Connections
Creating Trunk Groups
Statically Configuring a Trunk
Enabling LACP on Selected Ports
Configuring LACP Parameters
Displaying LACP Port Counters
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Contents
Displaying LACP Settings and Status for the Local Side
Displaying LACP Settings and Status for the Remote Side
Setting Broadcast Storm Thresholds
Configuring Port Mirroring
Configuring Rate Limits
Showing Port Statistics
Address Table Settings
Setting Static Addresses
Displaying the Address Table
Changing the Aging Time
Spanning Tree Algorithm Configuration
Displaying Global Settings
Configuring Global Settings
Displaying Interface Settings
Configuring Interface Settings
Configuring Multiple Spanning Trees
Displaying Interface Settings for MSTP
Configuring Interface Settings for MSTP
VLAN Configuration
IEEE 802.1Q VLANs
Enabling or Disabling GVRP (Global Setting)
Displaying Basic VLAN Information
Displaying Current VLANs
Creating VLANs
Adding Static Members to VLANs (VLAN Index)
Adding Static Members to VLANs (Port Index)
Configuring VLAN Behavior for Interfaces
Configuring Private VLANs
Enabling Private VLANs
Configuring Uplink and Downlink Ports
Configuring Protocol-Based VLANs
Configuring Protocol Groups
Mapping Protocols to VLANs
Class of Service Configuration
Layer 2 Queue Settings
Setting the Default Priority for Interfaces
Mapping CoS Values to Egress Queues
Selecting the Queue Mode
Setting the Service Weight for Traffic Classes
Layer 3/4 Priority Settings
Mapping Layer 3/4 Priorities to CoS Values
Selecting IP Precedence/DSCP Priority
Mapping IP Precedence
Mapping DSCP Priority
Mapping IP Port Priority
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iii
Contents
Mapping CoS Values to ACLs
Changing Priorities Based on ACL Rules
Multicast Filtering
Layer 2 IGMP (Snooping and Query)
Configuring IGMP Snooping and Query Parameters
Displaying Interfaces Attached to a Multicast Router
Specifying Static Interfaces for a Multicast Router
Displaying Port Members of Multicast Services
Assigning Ports to Multicast Services
Configuring Domain Name Service
Configuring General DNS Server Parameters
Configuring Static DNS Host to Address Entries
Displaying the DNS Cache
Chapter 4: Command Line Interface
Using the Command Line Interface
Accessing the CLI
Console Connection
Telnet Connection
Entering Commands
Keywords and Arguments
Minimum Abbreviation
Command Completion
Getting Help on Commands
Showing Commands
Partial Keyword Lookup
Negating the Effect of Commands
Using Command History
Understanding Command Modes
Exec Commands
Configuration Commands
Command Line Processing
Command Groups
Line Commands
line
login
password
exec-timeout
password-thresh
silent-time
databits
parity
speed
stopbits
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Contents
disconnect
show line
General Commands
enable
disable
configure
show history
reload
end
exit
quit
System Management Commands
Device Designation Commands
prompt
hostname
User Access Commands
username
enable password
IP Filter Commands
management
show management
Web Server Commands
ip http port
ip http server
ip http secure-server
ip http secure-port
Telnet Server Commands
ip telnet port
ip telnet server
Secure Shell Commands
ip ssh server
ip ssh timeout
ip ssh authentication-retries
ip ssh server-key size
delete public-key
ip ssh crypto host-key generate
ip ssh crypto zeroize
ip ssh save host-key
show ip ssh
show ssh
show public-key
Event Logging Commands
logging on
logging history
logging host
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v
Contents
logging facility
logging trap
clear logging
show logging
SMTP Alert Commands
logging sendmail host
logging sendmail level
logging sendmail source-email
logging sendmail destination-email
logging sendmail
show logging sendmail
Time Commands
sntp client
sntp server
sntp poll
show sntp
clock timezone
calendar set
show calendar
System Status Commands
show startup-config
show running-config
show system
show users
show version
Frame Size Commands
jumbo frame
Flash/File Commands
copy
delete
dir
whichboot
boot system
Authentication Commands
Authentication Sequence
authentication login
authentication enable
RADIUS Client
radius-server host
radius-server port
radius-server key
radius-server retransmit
radius-server timeout
show radius-server
TACACS+ Client
vi
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Contents
tacacs-server host
tacacs-server port
tacacs-server key
show tacacs-server
Port Security Commands
port security
802.1x Port Authentication
authentication dot1x default
dot1x default
dot1x max-req
dot1x port-control
dot1x operation-mode
dot1x re-authenticate
dot1x re-authentication
dot1x timeout quiet-period
dot1x timeout re-authperiod
dot1x timeout tx-period
show dot1x
Access Control List Commands
IP ACLs
access-list ip
permit, deny (Standard ACL)
permit, deny (Extended ACL)
show ip access-list
access-list ip mask-precedence
mask (IP ACL)
show access-list ip mask-precedence
ip access-group
show ip access-group
map access-list ip
show map access-list ip
match access-list ip
show marking
MAC ACLs
access-list mac
permit, deny (MAC ACL)
show mac access-list
access-list mac mask-precedence
mask (MAC ACL)
show access-list mac mask-precedence
mac access-group
show mac access-group
map access-list mac
show map access-list mac
match access-list mac
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vii
Contents
ACL Information
show access-list
show access-group
SNMP Commands
snmp-server community
snmp-server contact
snmp-server location
snmp-server host
snmp-server enable traps
show snmp
DNS Commands
ip host
clear host
ip domain-name
ip domain-list
ip name-server
ip domain-lookup
show hosts
show dns
show dns cache
clear dns cache
Interface Commands
interface
description
speed-duplex
negotiation
capabilities
flowcontrol
combo-forced-mode
shutdown
switchport broadcast packet-rate
clear counters
show interfaces status
show interfaces counters
show interfaces switchport
Mirror Port Commands
port monitor
show port monitor
Rate Limit Commands
rate-limit
Link Aggregation Commands
channel-group
lacp
lacp system-priority
lacp admin-key (Ethernet Interface)
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Contents
lacp admin-key (Port Channel)
lacp port-priority
show lacp
Address Table Commands
mac-address-table static
clear mac-address-table dynamic
show mac-address-table
mac-address-table aging-time
show mac-address-table aging-time
Spanning Tree Commands
spanning-tree
spanning-tree mode
spanning-tree forward-time
spanning-tree hello-time
spanning-tree max-age
spanning-tree priority
spanning-tree pathcost method
spanning-tree transmission-limit
spanning-tree mst configuration
mst vlan
mst priority
name
revision
max-hops
spanning-tree spanning-disabled
spanning-tree cost
spanning-tree port-priority
spanning-tree edge-port
spanning-tree portfast
spanning-tree link-type
spanning-tree mst cost
spanning-tree mst port-priority
spanning-tree protocol-migration
show spanning-tree
show spanning-tree mst configuration
VLAN Commands
Editing VLAN Groups
vlan database
vlan
Configuring VLAN Interfaces
interface vlan
switchport mode
switchport acceptable-frame-types
switchport ingress-filtering
switchport native vlan
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ix
Contents
switchport allowed vlan
switchport forbidden vlan
Displaying VLAN Information
show vlan
Configuring Private VLANs
pvlan
show pvlan
Configuring Protocol-based VLANs
protocol-vlan protocol-group (Configuring Groups)
protocol-vlan protocol-group (Configuring Interfaces)
show protocol-vlan protocol-group
show interfaces protocol-vlan protocol-group
GVRP and Bridge Extension Commands
bridge-ext gvrp
show bridge-ext
switchport gvrp
show gvrp configuration
garp timer
show garp timer
Priority Commands
Priority Commands (Layer 2)
queue mode
switchport priority default
queue bandwidth
queue cos-map
show queue mode
show queue bandwidth
show queue cos-map
Priority Commands (Layer 3 and 4)
map ip port (Global Configuration)
map ip port (Interface Configuration)
map ip precedence (Global Configuration)
map ip precedence (Interface Configuration)
map ip dscp (Global Configuration)
map ip dscp (Interface Configuration)
show map ip port
show map ip precedence
show map ip dscp
Multicast Filtering Commands
IGMP Snooping Commands
ip igmp snooping
ip igmp snooping vlan static
ip igmp snooping version
show ip igmp snooping
show mac-address-table multicast
x
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Contents
IGMP Query Commands (Layer 2)
ip igmp snooping querier
ip igmp snooping query-count
ip igmp snooping query-interval
ip igmp snooping query-max-response-time
ip igmp snooping router-port-expire-time
Static Multicast Routing Commands
ip igmp snooping vlan mrouter
show ip igmp snooping mrouter
IP Interface Commands
ip address
ip dhcp restart
ip default-gateway
show ip interface
show ip redirects
ping
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Appendix A: Software Specifications
Software Features
Management Features
Standards
Management Information Bases
A-1
A-1
A-2
A-2
A-3
Appendix B: Troubleshooting
Problems Accessing the Management Interface
Using System Logs
B-1
B-1
B-2
Glossary
Index
xi
Contents
xii
Tables
Table 1-1.
Table 1-2.
Table 3-1.
Table 3-2.
Table 3-3.
Table 3-4.
Table 3-5.
Table 3-6.
Table 3-7.
Table 3-8.
Table 3-9.
Table 3-10.
Table 3-11.
Table 3-12.
Table 3-13.
Table 3-14.
Table 4-1.
Table 4-2.
Table 4-3.
Table 4-4.
Table 4-5.
Table 4-6.
Table 4-7.
Table 4-8.
Table 4-9.
Table 4-10.
Table 4-11.
Table 4-12.
Table 4-13.
Table 4-14.
Table 4-15.
Table 4-16.
Table 4-17.
Table 4-18.
Table 4-19.
Table 4-20.
Table 4-21.
Table 4-22.
Table 4-23.
Table 4-24.
Table 4-25.
Table 4-26.
Key Features
System Defaults
Web Page Configuration Buttons
Switch Main Menu
Logging Levels
HTTPS System Support
802.1x Statistics
LACP Port Counters
LACP Internal Configuration Information
LACP Neighbor Configuration Information
Port Statistics
Mapping CoS Values to Egress Queues
CoS Priority Levels
Mapping IP Precedence
Mapping DSCP Priority
Mapping CoS Values to IP ACLs
General Command Modes
Configuration Command Modes
Keystroke Commands
Command Group Index
Line Commands
General Commands
System Management Commands
Device Designation Commands
User Access Commands
Default Login Settings
IP Filter Commands
Web Server Commands
HTTPS System Support
re Shell Commands
show ssh - display description
Event Logging Commands
Logging Levels
show logging flash/ram- display description
show logging trap - display description
SMTP Alert Commands
Time Commands
System Status Commands
Frame Size Commands
Flash/File Commands
File Directory Information
Authentication Commands
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1-5
3-3
3-4
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3-136
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xiii
Tables
Table 4-27.
Table 4-28.
Table 4-29.
Table 4-30.
Table 4-31.
Table 4-32.
Table 4-33.
Table 4-34.
Table 4-35.
Table 4-36.
Table 4-37.
Table 4-38.
Table 4-39.
Table 4-40.
Table 4-41.
Table 4-42.
Table 4-43.
Table 4-44.
Table 4-45.
Table 4-46.
Table 4-47.
Table 4-48.
Table 4-49.
Table 4-50.
Table 4-51.
Table 4-52.
Table 4-53.
Table 4-54.
Table 4-55.
Table 4-56.
Table 4-57.
Table 4-58.
Table 4-59.
Table 4-60.
Table 4-61.
Table 4-62.
Table 4-63.
Table 4-64.
Table 4-65.
Table 4-66.
Table 4-67.
Table 4-68.
Table 4-69.
Table B-1
xiv
Authentication Sequence Commands
RADIUS Client Commands
TACACS+ Client Commands
Port Security Commands
802.1x Port Authentication Commands
Access Control List Commands
IP ACL Commands
Mapping CoS Values to IP ACLs
MAC ACL Commands
Mapping CoS Values to MAC ACLs
ACL Information Commands
SNMP Commands
DNS Commands
show dns cache - display description
Interface Commands
interfaces switchport - display description
Mirror Port Commands
Rate Limit Commands
Link Aggregation Commands
show lacp counters - display description
show lacp internal - display description
show lacp neighbors - display description
show lacp sysid - display description
Address Table Commands
Spanning Tree Commands
VLAN Commands
Editing VLAN Groups
Configuring VLAN Interfaces
Show VLAN Commands
Private VLAN Commands
Protocol VLAN Commands
GVRP and Bridge Extension Commands
Priority Commands
Priority Commands (Layer 2)
Default CoS Priority Levels
Priority Commands (Layer 3 and 4)
Mapping IP Precedence to CoS Values
Mapping IP DSCP to CoS Values
Multicast Filtering Commands
IGMP Snooping Commands
IGMP Query Commands (Layer 2)
Static Multicast Routing Commands
IP Interface Commands
Troubleshooting Chart
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B-1
Figures
Figure 3-1.
Figure 3-2.
Figure 3-3.
Figure 3-4.
Figure 3-5.
Figure 3-6.
Figure 3-7.
Figure 3-8.
Figure 3-9.
Figure 3-10.
Figure 3-11.
Figure 3-12.
Figure 3-13.
Figure 3-14.
Figure 3-15.
Figure 3-16.
Figure 3-17.
Figure 3-18.
Figure 3-19.
Figure 3-20.
Figure 3-21.
Figure 3-22.
Figure 3-23.
Figure 3-24.
Figure 3-25.
Figure 3-26.
Figure 3-27.
Figure 3-28.
Figure 3-29.
Figure 3-30.
Figure 3-31.
Figure 3-32.
Figure 3-33.
Figure 3-34.
Figure 3-35.
Figure 3-36.
Figure 3-37.
Figure 3-38.
Figure 3-39.
Figure 3-40.
Figure 3-41.
Figure 3-42.
Home Page
Front Panel Indicators
System Information
Switch Information
Displaying Bridge Extension Configuration
IP Interface Configuration - Manual
IP Interface Configuration - DHCP
Downloading Firmware to the Switch
Setting the Startup Code
Downloading Configuration Settings
Setting the Startup Configuration Settings
System Logs
Remote Logs
Displaying Logs
Enabling and Configuring SMTP Alerts
Resetting the System
Configuring SNTP
Clock Time Zone
Configuring SNMP Community Strings
Configuring SNMP Trap Managers
Authentication Server Settings
HTTPS Settings
SSH Host-Key Settings
SSH Server Settings
Port Security
802.1x Information
802.1X Configuration
802.1x Port Configuration
802.1x Port Statistics
IP Filter
Selecting ACL Type
ACL Configuration - Standard IP
ACL Configuration - Extended IP
ACL Configuration - MAC
Selecting ACL Mask Types
ACL Mask Configuration - IP
ACL Mask Configuration - MAC
ACL Port Binding
Port - Port Information
Port - Port Configuration
Static Trunk Configuration
LACP Trunk Configuration
3-2
3-3
3-9
3-11
3-12
3-14
3-15
3-16
3-17
3-18
3-18
3-20
3-21
3-22
3-24
3-25
3-26
3-27
3-29
3-30
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3-35
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3-45
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3-68
3-70
3-72
xv
Figures
Figure 3-43.
Figure 3-44.
Figure 3-45.
Figure 3-46.
Figure 3-47.
Figure 3-48.
Figure 3-49.
Figure 3-50.
Figure 3-51.
Figure 3-52.
Figure 3-53.
Figure 3-54.
Figure 3-55.
Figure 3-56.
Figure 3-57.
Figure 3-58.
Figure 3-59.
Figure 3-60.
Figure 3-61.
Figure 3-62.
Figure 3-63.
Figure 3-64.
Figure 3-65.
Figure 3-66.
Figure 3-67.
Figure 3-68.
Figure 3-69.
Figure 3-70.
Figure 3-71.
Figure 3-72.
Figure 3-73.
Figure 3-74.
Figure 3-75.
Figure 3-76.
Figure 3-77.
Figure 3-78.
Figure 3-79.
Figure 3-80.
Figure 3-81.
Figure 3-82.
Figure 3-83.
Figure 3-84.
Figure 3-85.
Figure 3-86.
Figure 3-87.
xvi
LACP - Aggregation Port
LACP - Port Counters Information
LACP - Port Internal Information
LACP - Port Neighbors Information
Port Broadcast Control
Mirror Port Configuration
Rate Limit Configuration
Port Statistics
Static Addresses
Dynamic Addresses
Address Aging
STA Information
STA Configuration
STA Port Information
STA Port Configuration
MSTP VLAN Configuration
MSTP Port Information
MSTP Port Configuration
Globally Enabling GVRP
VLAN Basic Information
VLAN Current Table
VLAN Static List - Creating VLANs
VLAN Static Table - Adding Static Members
VLAN Static Membership by Port
VLAN Port Configuration
Private VLAN Status
Private VLAN Link Status
Protocol VLAN Configuration
Protocol VLAN Port Configuration
Default Port Priority
Traffic Classes
Queue Mode
Queue Scheduling
IP Precedence/DSCP Priority Status
IP Precedence Priority
IP DSCP Priority
IP Port Priority Status
IP Port Priority
ACL CoS Priority
ACL Marker
IGMP Configuration
Multicast Router Port Information
Static Multicast Router Port Configuration
IP Multicast Registration Table
IGMP Member Port Table
3-74
3-76
3-78
3-79
3-81
3-82
3-83
3-87
3-89
3-90
3-91
3-94
3-98
3-101
3-104
3-105
3-107
3-109
3-113
3-113
3-114
3-116
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3-118
3-120
3-121
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3-128
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3-134
3-135
3-135
3-137
3-138
3-141
3-142
3-143
3-144
3-145
Figures
Figure 3-88.
Figure 3-89.
Figure 3-90.
DNS General Configuration
DNS Static Host Table
DNS Cache
3-147
3-149
3-150
xvii
Figures
xviii
Chapter 1: Introduction
This switch provides a broad range of features for Layer 2 switching. It includes a
management agent that allows you to configure the features listed in this manual.
The default configuration can be used for most of the features provided by this
switch. However, there are many options that you should configure to maximize the
switch’s performance for your particular network environment.
Key Features
Table 1-1. Key Features
Feature
Description
Configuration Backup
and Restore
Backup to TFTP server
Authentication
Console, Telnet, web – User name / password, RADIUS, TACACS+
Web – HTTPS; Telnet – SSH
SNMP – Community strings, IP address filtering
Port – IEEE 802.1x, MAC address filtering
Access Control Lists
Supports up to 32 IP or MAC ACLs
DHCP Client
Supported
DNS Server
Supported
Port Configuration
Speed, duplex mode and flow control
Rate Limiting
Input and output rate limiting per port
Port Mirroring
One or more ports mirrored to single analysis port
Port Trunking
Supports up to 6 trunks using either static or dynamic trunking (LACP)
Broadcast Storm
Control
Supported
Static Address
Up to 16K MAC addresses in the forwarding table
IEEE 802.1D Bridge
Supports dynamic data switching and addresses learning
Store-and-Forward
Switching
Supported to ensure wire-speed switching while eliminating bad frames
Spanning Tree
Protocol
Supports standard STP, Rapid Spanning Tree Protocol (RSTP), and Multiple
Spanning Tree Protocol (MSTP)
Virtual LANs
Up to 255 using IEEE 802.1Q, port-based, protocol-based, or private VLANs
Traffic Prioritization
Default port priority, traffic class map, queue scheduling, IP Precedence, or
Differentiated Services Code Point (DSCP), and TCP/UDP Port
Multicast Filtering
Supports IGMP snooping and query
1-1
1
Introduction
Description of Software Features
The switch provides a wide range of advanced performance enhancing features.
Flow control eliminates the loss of packets due to bottlenecks caused by port
saturation. Broadcast storm suppression prevents broadcast traffic storms from
engulfing the network. Untagged (port-based), tagged, and protocol-based VLANs,
plus support for automatic GVRP VLAN registration provide traffic security and
efficient use of network bandwidth. CoS priority queueing ensures the minimum
delay for moving real-time multimedia data across the network. While multicast
filtering provides support for real-time network applications. Some of the
management features are briefly described below.
Configuration Backup and Restore – You can save the current configuration
settings to a file on a TFTP server, and later download this file to restore the switch
configuration settings.
Authentication – This switch authenticates management access via the console
port, Telnet or web browser. User names and passwords can be configured locally or
can be verified via a remote authentication server (i.e., RADIUS or TACACS+).
Port-based authentication is also supported via the IEEE 802.1x protocol. This
protocol uses the Extensible Authentication Protocol over LANs (EAPOL) to request
user credentials from the 802.1x client, and then verifies the client’s right to access
the network via an authentication server.
Other authentication options include HTTPS for secure management access via the
web, SSH for secure management access over a Telnet-equivalent connection, IP
address filtering for SNMP/web/Telnet management access, and MAC address
filtering for port access.
Access Control Lists – ACLs provide packet filtering for IP frames (based on
address, protocol, TCP/UDP port number or TCP control code) or any frames
(based on MAC address or Ethernet type). ACLs can by used to improve
performance by blocking unnecessary network traffic or to implement security
controls by restricting access to specific network resources or protocols.
Port Configuration – You can manually configure the speed, duplex mode, and
flow control used on specific ports, or use auto-negotiation to detect the connection
settings used by the attached device. Use the full-duplex mode on ports whenever
possible to double the throughput of switch connections. Flow control should also be
enabled to control network traffic during periods of congestion and prevent the loss
of packets when port buffer thresholds are exceeded. The switch supports flow
control based on the IEEE 802.3x standard.
Rate Limiting – This feature controls the maximum rate for traffic transmitted or
received on an interface. Rate limiting is configured on interfaces at the edge of a
network to limit traffic into or out of the network. Traffic that falls within the rate limit is
transmitted, while packets that exceed the acceptable amount of traffic are dropped.
1-2
Description of Software Features
1
Port Mirroring – The switch can unobtrusively mirror traffic from any port to a
monitor port. You can then attach a protocol analyzer or RMON probe to this port to
perform traffic analysis and verify connection integrity.
Port Trunking – Ports can be combined into an aggregate connection. Trunks can
be manually set up or dynamically configured using IEEE 802.3ad Link Aggregation
Control Protocol (LACP). The additional ports dramatically increase the throughput
across any connection, and provide redundancy by taking over the load if a port in
the trunk should fail. The switch supports up to 6 trunks.
Broadcast Storm Control – Broadcast suppression prevents broadcast traffic from
overwhelming the network. When enabled on a port, the level of broadcast traffic
passing through the port is restricted. If broadcast traffic rises above a pre-defined
threshold, it will be throttled until the level falls back beneath the threshold.
Static Addresses – A static address can be assigned to a specific interface on this
switch. Static addresses are bound to the assigned interface and will not be moved.
When a static address is seen on another interface, the address will be ignored and
will not be written to the address table. Static addresses can be used to provide
network security by restricting access for a known host to a specific port.
IEEE 802.1D Bridge – The switch supports IEEE 802.1D transparent bridging. The
address table facilitates data switching by learning addresses, and then filtering or
forwarding traffic based on this information. The address table supports up to 16K
addresses.
Store-and-Forward Switching – The switch copies each frame into its memory
before forwarding them to another port. This ensures that all frames are a standard
Ethernet size and have been verified for accuracy with the cyclic redundancy check
(CRC). This prevents bad frames from entering the network and wasting bandwidth.
To avoid dropping frames on congested ports, the switch provides 1 MB for frame
buffering for the ES4512/24C and 2 MB for the ES4548C. This buffer can queue
packets awaiting transmission on congested networks.
Spanning Tree Protocol – The switch supports these spanning tree protocols:
Spanning Tree Protocol (STP, IEEE 802.1D) – This protocol adds a level of fault
tolerance by allowing two or more redundant connections to be created between a
pair of LAN segments. When there are multiple physical paths between segments,
this protocol will choose a single path and disable all others to ensure that only one
route exists between any two stations on the network. This prevents the creation of
network loops. However, if the chosen path should fail for any reason, an alternate
path will be activated to maintain the connection.
Rapid Spanning Tree Protocol (RSTP, IEEE 802.1w) – This protocol reduces the
convergence time for network topology changes to about 10% of that required by the
older IEEE 802.1D STP standard. It is intended as a complete replacement for STP,
but can still interoperate with switches running the older standard by automatically
reconfiguring ports to STP-compliant mode if they detect STP protocol messages
from attached devices.
1-3
1
Introduction
Multiple Spanning Tree Protocol (MSTP, IEEE 802.1s) – This protocol is a direct
extension of RSTP. It can provide an independent spanning tree for different VLANs.
It simplifies network management, provides for even faster convergence than RSTP
by limiting the size of each region, and prevents VLAN members from being
segmented from the rest of the group (as sometimes occurs with IEEE 802.1D STP).
Virtual LANs – The switch supports up to 255 VLANs. A Virtual LAN is a collection
of network nodes that share the same collision domain regardless of their physical
location or connection point in the network. The switch supports tagged VLANs
based on the IEEE 802.1Q standard. Members of VLAN groups can be dynamically
learned via GVRP, or ports can be manually assigned to a specific set of VLANs.
This allows the switch to restrict traffic to the VLAN groups to which a user has been
assigned. By segmenting your network into VLANs, you can:
• Eliminate broadcast storms which severely degrade performance in a flat network.
• Simplify network management for node changes/moves by remotely configuring
VLAN membership for any port, rather than having to manually change the network
connection.
• Provide data security by restricting all traffic to the originating VLAN.
• Use private VLANs to restrict traffic to pass only between data ports and the uplink
ports, thereby isolating adjacent ports within the same VLAN, and allowing you to
limit the total number of VLANs that need to be configured.
• Use protocol VLANs to restrict traffic to specified interfaces based on protocol type
Traffic Prioritization – This switch prioritizes each packet based on the required
level of service, using eight priority queues with strict or Weighted Round Robin
Queuing. It uses IEEE 802.1p and 802.1Q tags to prioritize incoming traffic based on
input from the end-station application. These functions can be used to provide
independent priorities for delay-sensitive data and best-effort data.
This switch also supports several common methods of prioritizing layer 3/4 traffic to
meet application requirements. Traffic can be prioritized based on the priority bits in
the IP frame’s Type of Service (ToS) octet or the number of the TCP/UDP port.
When these services are enabled, the priorities are mapped to a Class of Service
value by the switch, and the traffic then sent to the corresponding output queue.
Multicast Filtering – Specific multicast traffic can be assigned to its own VLAN to
ensure that it does not interfere with normal network traffic and to guarantee
real-time delivery by setting the required priority level for the designated VLAN. The
switch uses IGMP Snooping and Query to manage multicast group registration.
1-4
System Defaults
1
System Defaults
The switch’s system defaults are provided in the configuration file
“Factory_Default_Config.cfg.” To reset the switch defaults, this file should be set as
the startup configuration file (page 3-18).
The following table lists some of the basic system defaults.
Table 1-2. System Defaults
Function
Parameter
Default
Console Port
Connection
Baud Rate
auto
Data bits
8
Stop bits
1
Parity
none
Local Console Timeout
0 (disabled)
Privileged Exec Level
Username “admin”
Password “admin”
Normal Exec Level
Username “guest”
Password “guest”
Authentication
Enable Privileged Exec from Normal Password “super”
Exec Level
RADIUS Authentication
Web Management
SNMP
Disabled
TACACS Authentication
Disabled
802.1x Port Authentication
Disabled
HTTPS
Enabled
SSH
Disabled
Port Security
Disabled
IP Filtering
Disabled
HTTP Server
Enabled
HTTP Port Number
80
HTTP Secure Server
Enabled
HTTP Secure Port Number
443
Community Strings
“public” (read only)
“private” (read/write)
Traps
Authentication traps: enabled
Link-up-down events: enabled
1-5
1
Introduction
Table 1-2. System Defaults
Function
Parameter
Default
Port Configuration
Admin Status
Enabled
Auto-negotiation
Enabled
Flow Control
Disabled
Port Capability
1000BASE-T –
10 Mbps half duplex
10 Mbps full duplex
100 Mbps half duplex
100 Mbps full duplex
1000 Mbps full duplex
Full-duplex flow control disabled
Symmetric flow control disabled
Module Port Capability
1000BASE-SX/LX/LH –
1000 Mbps full duplex
Full-duplex flow control disabled
Symmetric flow control disabled
Rate Limiting
Input and output limits
Disabled
Port Trunking
Static Trunks
None
LACP (all ports)
Disabled
Broadcast Storm
Protection
Status
Enabled (all ports)
Broadcast Limit Rate
500 packets per second
Spanning Tree
Protocol
Status
Enabled, MSTP
(Defaults: All values based on IEEE 802.1s)
Fast Forwarding (Edge Port)
Disabled
Address Table
Aging Time
300 seconds
Virtual LANs
Default VLAN
1
PVID
1
Traffic Prioritization
1-6
Acceptable Frame Type
All
Ingress Filtering
Disabled
Switchport Mode (Egress Mode)
Hybrid: tagged/untagged frames
GVRP (global)
Disabled
GVRP (port interface)
Disabled
Ingress Port Priority
0
Weighted Round Robin
Queue: 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
Weight: 1 2 4 6 8 10 12 14
IP Precedence Priority
Disabled
IP DSCP Priority
Disabled
System Defaults
1
Table 1-2. System Defaults
Function
Parameter
Default
IP Settings
IP Address
0.0.0.0
Subnet Mask
255.0.0.0
Default Gateway
0.0.0.0
DHCP
Client: Enabled
BOOTP
Disabled
DNS Server
Lookup
Disabled
Multicast Filtering
IGMP Snooping
Snooping: Enabled
Querier: Enabled
System Log
Status
Enabled
Messages Logged
Levels 0-7 (all)
Messages Logged to Flash
Levels 0-3
SMTP Email Alerts
Event Handler
Disabled
SNTP
Clock Synchronization
Disabled
1-7
1
1-8
Introduction
Chapter 2: Initial Configuration
Connecting to the Switch
Configuration Options
The switch includes a built-in network management agent. The agent offers a variety
of management options, including SNMP, RMON and a Web-based interface. A PC
may also be connected directly to the switch for configuration and monitoring via a
command line interface (CLI).
Note: The IP address for this switch is obtained via DHCP by default. To change this
address, see “Setting an IP Address” on page 2-4.
The switch’s HTTP Web agent allows you to configure switch parameters, monitor
port connections, and display statistics using a standard Web browser such as
Netscape Navigator version 6.2 and higher or Microsoft IE version 5.0 and higher.
The switch’s Web management interface can be accessed from any computer
attached to the network.
The CLI program can be accessed by a direct connection to the RS-232 serial
console port on the switch, or remotely by a Telnet connection over the network.
The switch’s management agent also supports SNMP (Simple Network
Management Protocol). This SNMP agent permits the switch to be managed from
any system in the network using network management software such as
HP OpenView.
The switch’s Web interface, CLI configuration program, and SNMP agent allow you
to perform the following management functions:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Set user names and passwords
Set an IP interface for a management VLAN
Configure SNMP parameters
Enable/disable any port
Set the speed/duplex mode for any port
Configure the bandwidth of any port by limiting input or output rates
Control port access through IEEE 802.1x security or static address filtering
Filter packets using Access Control Lists (ACLs)
Configure up to 255 IEEE 802.1Q VLANs
Enable GVRP automatic VLAN registration
Configure IGMP multicast filtering
Upload and download system firmware via TFTP
Upload and download switch configuration files via TFTP
Configure Spanning Tree parameters
Configure Class of Service (CoS) priority queuing
Configure up to 6 static or LACP trunks
2-1
2
Initial Configuration
• Enable port mirroring
• Set broadcast storm control on any port
• Display system information and statistics
Required Connections
The switch provides an RS-232 serial port that enables a connection to a PC or
terminal for monitoring and configuring the switch. A null-modem console cable is
provided with the switch.
Attach a VT100-compatible terminal, or a PC running a terminal emulation program
to the switch. You can use the console cable provided with this package, or use a
null-modem cable that complies with the wiring assignments shown in the
Installation Guide.
To connect a terminal to the console port, complete the following steps:
1.
Connect the console cable to the serial port on a terminal, or a PC running
terminal emulation software, and tighten the captive retaining screws on the
DB-9 connector.
2.
Connect the other end of the cable to the RS-232 serial port on the switch.
3.
Make sure the terminal emulation software is set as follows:
• Select the appropriate serial port (COM port 1 or COM port 2).
• Set to any of the following baud rates: 9600, 19200, 38400, 57600, 115200
(Note: Set to 9600 baud if want to view all the system initialization messages.)
• Set the data format to 8 data bits, 1 stop bit, and no parity.
• Set flow control to none.
• Set the emulation mode to VT100.
• When using HyperTerminal, select Terminal keys, not Windows keys.
Notes: 1. When using HyperTerminal with Microsoft® Windows® 2000, make sure that
you have Windows 2000 Service Pack 2 or later installed. Windows 2000
Service Pack 2 fixes the problem of arrow keys not functioning in
HyperTerminal’s VT100 emulation. See www.microsoft.com for information
on Windows 2000 service packs.
2. Refer to “Line Commands” on page 4-11 for a complete description of
console configuration options.
3. Once you have set up the terminal correctly, the console login screen will be
displayed.
For a description of how to use the CLI, see “Using the Command Line Interface” on
page 4-1. For a list of all the CLI commands and detailed information on using the
CLI, refer to “Command Groups” on page 4-10.
2-2
2
Basic Configuration
Remote Connections
Prior to accessing the switch’s onboard agent via a network connection, you must
first configure it with a valid IP address, subnet mask, and default gateway using a
console connection, DHCP or BOOTP protocol.
The IP address for this switch is obtained via DHCP by default. To manually
configure this address or enable dynamic address assignment via DHCP or BOOTP,
see “Setting an IP Address” on page 2-4.
Note: This switch supports four concurrent Telnet/SSH sessions.
After configuring the switch’s IP parameters, you can access the onboard
configuration program from anywhere within the attached network. The onboard
configuration program can be accessed using Telnet from any computer attached to
the network. The switch can also be managed by any computer using a web
browser (Internet Explorer 5.0 or above, or Netscape Navigator 6.2 or above), or
from a network computer using SNMP network management software.
Note: The onboard program only provides access to basic configuration functions. To
access the full range of SNMP management functions, you must use
SNMP-based network management software.
Basic Configuration
Console Connection
The CLI program provides two different command levels — normal access level
(Normal Exec) and privileged access level (Privileged Exec). The commands
available at the Normal Exec level are a limited subset of those available at the
Privileged Exec level and allow you to only display information and use basic
utilities. To fully configure the switch parameters, you must access the CLI at the
Privileged Exec level.
Access to both CLI levels are controlled by user names and passwords. The switch
has a default user name and password for each level. To log into the CLI at the
Privileged Exec level using the default user name and password, perform these
steps:
1.
To initiate your console connection, press <Enter>. The “User Access
Verification” procedure starts.
2.
At the Username prompt, enter “admin.”
3.
At the Password prompt, also enter “admin.” (The password characters are not
displayed on the console screen.)
4.
The session is opened and the CLI displays the “Console#” prompt indicating
you have access at the Privileged Exec level.
2-3
2
Initial Configuration
Setting Passwords
Note: If this is your first time to log into the CLI program, you should define new
passwords for both default user names using the “username” command, record
them and put them in a safe place.
Passwords can consist of up to 8 alphanumeric characters and are case sensitive.
To prevent unauthorized access to the switch, set the passwords as follows:
1.
Open the console interface with the default user name and password “admin” to
access the Privileged Exec level.
2.
Type “configure” and press <Enter>.
3.
Type “username guest password 0 password,” for the Normal Exec level, where
password is your new password. Press <Enter>.
4.
Type “username admin password 0 password,” for the Privileged Exec level,
where password is your new password. Press <Enter>.
Username: admin
Password:
CLI session with the 44 10/100/1000 ports + 4 Gigabit Combo
ports L2/L4 managed standalone switch is opened.
To end the CLI session, enter [Exit].
Console#configure
Console(config)#username guest password 0 [password]
Console(config)#username admin password 0 [password]
Console(config)#
Setting an IP Address
You must establish IP address information for the switch to obtain management
access through the network. This can be done in either of the following ways:
Manual — You have to input the information, including IP address and subnet mask.
If your management station is not in the same IP subnet as the switch, you will also
need to specify the default gateway router.
Dynamic — The switch sends IP configuration requests to BOOTP or DHCP
address allocation servers on the network.
Manual Configuration
You can manually assign an IP address to the switch. You may also need to specify
a default gateway that resides between this device and management stations that
exist on another network segment. Valid IP addresses consist of four decimal
numbers, 0 to 255, separated by periods. Anything outside this format will not be
accepted by the CLI program.
Note: The IP address for this switch is obtained via DHCP by default.
2-4
Basic Configuration
2
Before you can assign an IP address to the switch, you must obtain the following
information from your network administrator:
• IP address for the switch
• Default gateway for the network
• Network mask for this network
To assign an IP address to the switch, complete the following steps:
1.
From the Privileged Exec level global configuration mode prompt, type
“interface vlan 1” to access the interface-configuration mode. Press <Enter>.
2.
Type “ip address ip-address netmask,” where “ip-address” is the switch IP
address and “netmask” is the network mask for the network. Press <Enter>.
3.
Type “exit” to return to the global configuration mode prompt. Press <Enter>.
4.
To set the IP address of the default gateway for the network to which the switch
belongs, type “ip default-gateway gateway,” where “gateway” is the IP address
of the default gateway. Press <Enter>.
Console(config)#interface vlan 1
Console(config-if)#ip address 192.168.1.5 255.255.255.0
Console(config-if)#exit
Console(config)#ip default-gateway 192.168.1.254
Console(config)#
Dynamic Configuration
If you select the “bootp” or “dhcp” option, IP will be enabled but will not function until
a BOOTP or DHCP reply has been received. You therefore need to use the “ip dhcp
restart” command to start broadcasting service requests. Requests will be sent
periodically in an effort to obtain IP configuration information. (BOOTP and DHCP
values can include the IP address, subnet mask, and default gateway.)
If the “bootp” or “dhcp” option is saved to the startup-config file (step 6), then the
switch will start broadcasting service requests as soon as it is powered on.
To automatically configure the switch by communicating with BOOTP or DHCP
address allocation servers on the network, complete the following steps:
1.
From the Global Configuration mode prompt, type “interface vlan 1” to access
the interface-configuration mode. Press <Enter>.
2.
At the interface-configuration mode prompt, use one of the following commands:
• To obtain IP settings via DHCP, type “ip address dhcp” and press <Enter>.
• To obtain IP settings via BOOTP, type “ip address bootp” and press <Enter>.
3.
Type “end” to return to the Privileged Exec mode. Press <Enter>.
4.
Type “ip dhcp restart” to begin broadcasting service requests. Press <Enter>.
2-5
2
Initial Configuration
5.
Wait a few minutes, and then check the IP configuration settings by typing the
“show ip interface” command. Press <Enter>.
6.
Then save your configuration changes by typing “copy running-config
startup-config.” Enter the startup file name and press <Enter>.
Console(config)#interface vlan 1
Console(config-if)#ip address dhcp
Console(config-if)#end
Console#ip dhcp restart
Console#show ip interface
IP address and netmask: 192.168.1.54 255.255.255.0 on VLAN 1,
and address mode: User specified.
Console#copy running-config startup-config
Startup configuration file name []: startup
\Write to FLASH Programming.
\Write to FLASH finish.
Success.
Enabling SNMP Management Access
The switch can be configured to accept management commands from Simple
Network Management Protocol (SNMP) applications such as HP OpenView. You
can configure the switch to (1) respond to SNMP requests or (2) generate SNMP
traps.
When SNMP management stations send requests to the switch (either to return
information or to set a parameter), the switch provides the requested data or sets the
specified parameter. The switch can also be configured to send information to
SNMP managers (without being requested by the managers) through trap
messages, which inform the manager that certain events have occurred.
Community Strings
Community strings are used to control management access to SNMP stations, as
well as to authorize SNMP stations to receive trap messages from the switch. You
therefore need to assign community strings to specified users or user groups, and
set the access level.
The default strings are:
• public - with read-only access. Authorized management stations are only able to
retrieve MIB objects.
• private - with read-write access. Authorized management stations are able to both
retrieve and modify MIB objects.
Note: If you do not intend to utilize SNMP, we recommend that you delete both of the
default community strings. If there are no community strings, then SNMP
management access to the switch is disabled.
To prevent unauthorized access to the switch via SNMP, it is recommended that you
change the default community strings.
2-6
Basic Configuration
2
To configure a community string, complete the following steps:
1.
From the Privileged Exec level global configuration mode prompt, type
“snmp-server community string mode,” where “string” is the community access
string and “mode” is rw (read/write) or ro (read only). Press <Enter>. (Note that
the default mode is read only.)
2.
To remove an existing string, simply type “no snmp-server community string,”
where “string” is the community access string to remove. Press <Enter>.
Console(config)#snmp-server community admin rw
Console(config)#snmp-server community private
Console(config)#
Trap Receivers
You can also specify SNMP stations that are to receive traps from the switch.
To configure a trap receiver, complete the following steps:
1.
From the Privileged Exec level global configuration mode prompt, type
“snmp-server host host-address community-string,” where “host-address” is the
IP address for the trap receiver and “community-string” is the string associated
with that host. Press <Enter>.
2.
In order to configure the switch to send SNMP notifications, you must enter at
least one snmp-server enable traps command. Type “snmp-server enable traps
type,” where “type” is either authentication or link-up-down. Press <Enter>.
Console(config)#snmp-server enable traps link-up-down
Console(config)#
Saving Configuration Settings
Configuration commands only modify the running configuration file and are not
saved when the switch is rebooted. To save all your configuration changes in
nonvolatile storage, you must copy the running configuration file to the start-up
configuration file using the “copy” command.
To save the current configuration settings, enter the following command:
1.
From the Privileged Exec mode prompt, type “copy running-config
startup-config” and press <Enter>.
2-7
2
2.
Initial Configuration
Enter the name of the start-up file. Press <Enter>.
Console#copy running-config startup-config
Startup configuration file name []: startup
\Write to FLASH Programming.
\Write to FLASH finish.
Success.
Console#
Managing System Files
The switch’s flash memory supports three types of system files that can be managed
by the CLI program, Web interface, or SNMP. The switch’s file system allows files to
be uploaded and downloaded, copied, deleted, and set as a start-up file.
The three types of files are:
• Configuration — This file stores system configuration information and is created
when configuration settings are saved. Saved configuration files can be selected
as a system start-up file or can be uploaded via TFTP to a server for backup. A file
named “Factory_Default_Config.cfg” contains all the system default settings and
cannot be deleted from the system. See “Saving or Restoring Configuration
Settings” on page 3-17 for more information.
• Operation Code — System software that is executed after boot-up, also known as
run-time code. This code runs the switch operations and provides the CLI and Web
management interfaces. See “Managing Firmware” on page 3-16 for more
information.
• Diagnostic Code — Software that is run during system boot-up, also known as
POST (Power On Self-Test).
Due to the size limit of the flash memory, the switch supports only two operation
code files. However, you can have as many diagnostic code files and configuration
files as available flash memory space allows.
In the system flash memory, one file of each type must be set as the start-up file.
During a system boot, the diagnostic and operation code files set as the start-up file
are run, and then the start-up configuration file is loaded.
Note that configuration files should be downloaded using a file name that reflects the
contents or usage of the file settings. If you download directly to the running-config,
the system will reboot, and the settings will have to be copied from the
running-config to a permanent file.
2-8
Chapter 3: Configuring the Switch
Using the Web Interface
This switch provides an embedded HTTP Web agent. Using a Web browser you can
configure the switch and view statistics to monitor network activity. The Web agent
can be accessed by any computer on the network using a standard Web browser
(Internet Explorer 5.0 or above, or Netscape Navigator 6.2 or above).
Note: You can also use the Command Line Interface (CLI) to manage the switch over a
serial connection to the console port or via Telnet. For more information on using
the CLI, refer to Chapter 4: “Command Line Interface.”
Prior to accessing the switch from a Web browser, be sure you have first performed
the following tasks:
1.
Configure the switch with a valid IP address, subnet mask, and default gateway
using an out-of-band serial connection, BOOTP or DHCP protocol. (See
“Setting an IP Address” on page 2-4.)
2.
Set user names and passwords using an out-of-band serial connection. Access
to the Web agent is controlled by the same user names and passwords as the
onboard configuration program. (See “Setting Passwords” on page 2-4.)
3.
After you enter a user name and password, you will have access to the system
configuration program.
Notes: 1. You are allowed three attempts to enter the correct password; on the third
failed attempt the current connection is terminated.
2. If you log into the Web interface as guest (Normal Exec level), you can view
the configuration settings or change the guest password. If you log in as
“admin” (Privileged Exec level), you can change the settings on any page.
3. If the path between your management station and this switch does not pass
through any device that uses the Spanning Tree Algorithm, then you can set
the switch port attached to your management station to fast forwarding (i.e.,
enable Admin Edge Port) to improve the switch’s response time to
management commands issued through the web interface. See “Configuring
Interface Settings” on page 3-102.
3-1
3
Configuring the Switch
Navigating the Web Browser Interface
To access the web-browser interface you must first enter a user name and
password. The administrator has Read/Write access to all configuration parameters
and statistics. The default user name and password for the administrator is “admin.”
Home Page
When your web browser connects with the switch’s web agent, the home page is
displayed as shown below. The home page displays the Main Menu on the left side
of the screen and System Information on the right side. The Main Menu links are
used to navigate to other menus, and display configuration parameters and
statistics.
Note: The screen captures used in this manual are based on either the ES4512C
ES4524C or ES4548C, but are all the same for both switches except for the port
count.
Figure 3-1. Home Page
Note: Most of the examples in this chapter are based on the ES4524C. Other than the
number of fixed ports, there are no major differences between the ES4512C,
ES4524C and ES4548C.
3-2
Navigating the Web Browser Interface
3
Configuration Options
Configurable parameters have a dialog box or a drop-down list. Once a configuration
change has been made on a page, be sure to click on the “Apply” button to confirm
the new setting. The following table summarizes the web page configuration
buttons.
Table 3-1. Web Page Configuration Buttons
Button
Action
Revert
Cancels specified values and restores current values prior to pressing
Apply.
Apply
Sets specified values to the system.
Help
Links directly to web help.
Notes: 1. To ensure proper screen refresh, be sure that Internet Explorer 5.x is
configured as follows: Under the menu “Tools / Internet Options / General /
Temporary Internet Files / Settings,” the setting for item “Check for newer
versions of stored pages” should be “Every visit to the page.”
2. When using Internet Explorer 5.0, you may have to manually refresh the
screen after making configuration changes by pressing the browser’s refresh
button.
Panel Display
The web agent displays an image of the switch’s ports. The Mode can be set to
display different information for the ports, including Active (i.e., up or down), Duplex
(i.e., half or full duplex, or Flow Control (i.e., with or without flow control). Clicking on
the image of a port opens the Port Configuration page as described on page 3-67.
Figure 3-2. Front Panel Indicators
3-3
3
Configuring the Switch
Main Menu
Using the onboard web agent, you can define system parameters, manage and
control the switch, and all its ports, or monitor network conditions. The following
table briefly describes the selections available from this program.
Table 3-2. Switch Main Menu
Menu
Description
System
Page
3-9
System Information
Provides basic system description, including contact information
Switch Information
Shows the number of ports, hardware/firmware version
numbers, and power status
3-10
Bridge Extension
Shows the bridge extension parameters
3-12
IP Configuration
Sets the IP address for management access
3-13
Firmware
Manages code image files
3-16
Configuration
Manages switch configuration files
File
3-9
3-16
Log
3-17
3-19
Logs
Sends error messages to a logging process
3-22
System Logs
Stores and displays error messages
3-19
Remote Logs
Configures the logging of messages to a remote logging process
3-20
SMTP
Sends an SMTP client message to a participating server
3-23
Restarts the switch
3-25
Reset
SNTP
3-26
Configuration
Configures SNTP client settings, including broadcast mode or a
specified list of servers
3-26
Clock Time Zone
Sets the local time zone for the system clock
3-27
SNMP
Configuration
3-28
Configures community strings and related trap functions
Security
3-28
3-30
Passwords
Assigns a new password for the current user
3-30
Authentication Settings
Configures authentication sequence, RADIUS and TACACS
3-31
HTTPS Settings
Configures secure HTTP settings
SSH
Settings
Host-Key Settings
Port Security
3-4
3-34
3-36
Configures Secure Shell server settings
3-40
Generates the host key pair (public and private)
3-38
Configures per port security, including status, response for
security breach, and maximum allowed MAC addresses
3-41
Navigating the Web Browser Interface
3
Table 3-2. Switch Main Menu
Menu
802.1x
Information
Description
Page
Port authentication
3-43
Displays global configuration settings
3-44
Configuration
Configures protocol parameters
3-46
Port Configuration
Sets the authentication mode for individual ports
3-47
Statistics
Displays protocol statistics for the selected port
ACL
3-48
3-52
Configuration
Configures packet filtering based on IP or MAC addresses
3-52
Mask Configuration
Controls the order in which ACL rules are checked
3-59
Port Binding
Binds a port to the specified ACL
3-63
IP Filter
Configures IP addresses that are allowed management access
Port
3-50
3-64
Port Information
Displays port connection status
3-64
Trunk Information
Displays trunk connection status
3-64
Port Configuration
Configures port connection settings
3-67
Trunk Configuration
Configures trunk connection settings
3-67
Trunk Membership
Specifies ports to group into static trunks
LACP
3-70
3-71
Configuration
Allows ports to dynamically join trunks
Aggregation Port
Configures system priority, admin key, and port priority
3-73
Port Counters Information
Displays statistics for LACP protocol messages
3-76
Port Internal Information
Displays settings and operational state for local side
3-77
Port Neighbors Information Displays settings and operational state for remote side
3-71
3-79
Port Broadcast Control
Sets the broadcast storm threshold for each port
3-80
Trunk Broadcast Control
Sets the broadcast storm threshold for each trunk
3-80
Mirror Port Configuration
Sets the source and target ports for mirroring
3-82
Rate Limit
3-83
Input Port Configuration
Sets the input rate limit for each port
Input Trunk Configuration
Sets the input rate limit for each trunk
3-83
Output Port Configuration
Sets the output rate limit for each port
3-83
Output Trunk Configuration Sets the output rate limit for each trunk
Port Statistics
Lists Ethernet and RMON port statistics
3-83
3-83
3-84
3-5
3
Configuring the Switch
Table 3-2. Switch Main Menu
Menu
Description
Address Table
Static Addresses
Page
3-88
Displays entries for interface, address or VLAN
3-88
Dynamic Addresses
Displays or edits static entries in the Address Table
3-89
Address Aging
Sets timeout for dynamically learned entries
3-91
Spanning Tree
3-91
STA
Information
3-91
Displays STA values used for the bridge
3-92
Configuration
Configures global bridge settings for STA, RSTP and MSTP
3-95
Port Information
Displays individual port settings for STA
3-99
Trunk Information
Displays individual trunk settings for STA
3-99
Port Configuration
Configures individual port settings for STA
3-102
Trunk Configuration
Configures individual trunk settings for STA
MSTP
VLAN Configuration
Configures priority and VLANs for a spanning tree instance
3-104
Port Information
Displays port settings for a specified MST instance
3-107
Trunk Information
Displays trunk settings for a specified MST instance
3-107
Port Configuration
Configures port settings for a specified MST instance
3-108
Trunk Configuration
Configures trunk settings for a specified MST instance
3-108
VLAN
3-110
802.1Q VLAN
3-110
GVRP Status
Enables GVRP VLAN registration protocol
3-113
Basic Information
Displays information on the VLAN type supported by this switch
3-113
Current Table
Shows the current port members of each VLAN and whether or
not the port is tagged or untagged
3-114
Static List
Used to create or remove VLAN groups
3-115
Static Table
Modifies the settings for an existing VLAN
3-116
Static Membership
Configures membership type for interfaces, including tagged,
untagged or forbidden
3-118
Port Configuration
Specifies default PVID and VLAN attributes
3-119
Trunk Configuration
Specifies default trunk VID and VLAN attributes
Private VLAN
3-6
3-102
3-104
3-119
3-121
Status
Enables or disables the private VLAN
3-121
Link Status
Configures the private VLAN
3-122
Navigating the Web Browser Interface
3
Table 3-2. Switch Main Menu
Menu
Description
Protocol VLAN
Page
3-123
Configuration
Creates a protocol group, specifying the supported protocols
Port Configuration
Maps a protocol group to a VLAN
Priority
3-123
3-123
3-125
Default Port Priority
Sets the default priority for each port
3-125
Default Trunk Priority
Sets the default priority for each trunk
3-125
Traffic Classes
Maps IEEE 802.1p priority tags to output queues
3-127
Traffic Classes Status
Enables/disables traffic class priorities (not implemented)
Queue Mode
Sets queue mode to strict priority or Weighted Round-Robin
NA
3-129
Queue Scheduling
Configures Weighted Round Robin queueing
3-129
IP Precedence/
DSCP Priority Status
Globally selects IP Precedence or DSCP Priority, or disables
both.
3-131
IP Precedence Priority
Sets IP Type of Service priority, mapping the precedence tag to
a class-of-service value
3-132
IP DSCP Priority
Sets IP Differentiated Services Code Point priority, mapping a
DSCP tag to a class-of-service value
3-133
IP Port Priority Status
Globally enables or disables IP Port Priority
3-135
IP Port Priority
Sets TCP/UDP port priority, defining the socket number and
associated class-of-service value
3-135
ACL CoS Priority
Sets the CoS value and corresponding output queue for packets
matching an ACL rule
3-135
ACL Marker
Change traffic priorities for frames matching an ACL rule
3-137
IGMP Snooping
3-139
IGMP Configuration
Enables multicast filtering; configures parameters for multicast
query
3-140
Multicast Router
Port Information
Displays the ports that are attached to a neighboring multicast
router for each VLAN ID
3-142
Static Multicast Router Port
Configuration
Assigns ports that are attached to a neighboring multicast router
3-143
IP Multicast Registration
Table
Displays all multicast groups active on this switch, including
multicast IP addresses and VLAN ID
3-144
IGMP Member Port Table
Indicates multicast addresses associated with the selected
VLAN
3-145
3-7
3
Configuring the Switch
Table 3-2. Switch Main Menu
Menu
Description
DNS
General Configuration
Page
3-146
Enables DNS; configures domain name and domain list; and
specifies IP address of name servers for dynamic lookup
3-146
Static Host Table
Configures static entries for domain name to address mapping
3-148
Cache
Displays cache entries discovered by designated name servers
3-150
3-8
Basic Configuration
3
Basic Configuration
Displaying System Information
You can easily identify the system by displaying the device name, location and
contact information.
Field Attributes
•
•
•
•
•
System Name – Name assigned to the switch system.
Object ID – MIB II object ID for switch’s network management subsystem.
Location – Specifies the system location.
Contact – Administrator responsible for the system.
System Up Time – Length of time the management agent has been up.
These additional parameters are displayed for the CLI.
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
MAC Address – The physical layer address for this switch.
Web server – Shows if management access via HTTP is enabled.
Web server port – Shows the TCP port number used by the web interface.
Web secure server – Shows if management access via HTTPS is enabled.
Web secure server port – Shows the TCP port used by the HTTPS interface.
Telnet server – Shows if management access via Telnet is enabled.
Telnet server port – Shows the TCP port used by the Telnet interface.
Authentication login – Shows the user login authentication sequence.
POST result – Shows results of the power-on self-test
Web – Click System, System Information. Specify the system name, location, and
contact information for the system administrator, then click Apply. (This page also
includes a Telnet button that allows access to the Command Line Interface via Telnet.)
Figure 3-3. System Information
3-9
3
Configuring the Switch
CLI – Specify the hostname, location and contact information.
Console(config)#hostname R&D 5
4-25
Console(config)#snmp-server location WC 9
4-113
Console(config)#snmp-server contact Ted
4-113
Console(config)#exit
Console#show version
4-61
Unit1
Serial number
:
Hardware version
:
Number of ports
:24
Main power status
:up
Redundant power status :not present
Agent(master)
Unit id
:1
Loader version
:2.1.0.3
Boot rom version
:2.0.2.11
Operation code version :1.4.0.0
Console#show system
4-60
System description: 20 10/100/1000 ports + 4 Gigabit Combo ports L2/L4
managed standalone switch
System OID string: 1.3.6.1.4.1.259.6.10.51
System information
System Up time: 0 days, 0 hours, 46 minutes, and 20.53 seconds
System Name
: [NONE]
System Location
: [NONE]
System Contact
: [NONE]
MAC address
: 00-12-12-34-12-34
Web server
: enable
Web server port
: 80
Web secure server
: enable
Web secure server port : 443
Telnet server
: enable
Telnet port
: 23
POST result
UART LOOP BACK Test..........PASS
DRAM Test....................PASS
Timer Test...................PASS
PCI Device 1 Test............PASS
PCI Device 2 Test............PASS
Switch Int Loopback test.....PASS
Done All Pass.
Console#
Displaying Switch Hardware/Software Versions
Use the Switch Information page to display hardware/firmware version numbers for
the main board and management software, as well as the power status of the system.
Field Attributes
Main Board
•
•
•
•
Serial Number – The serial number of the switch.
Number of Ports – Number of built-in RJ-45 ports and SFP slots.
Hardware Version – Hardware version of the main board.
Internal Power Status – Displays the status of the internal power supply.
3-10
Basic Configuration
3
• Redundant Power Status* – Displays the status of the redundant power supply.
* CLI only.
Management Software
•
•
•
•
Loader Version – Version number of loader code.
Boot-ROM Version – Version of Power-On Self-Test (POST) and boot code.
Operation Code Version – Version number of runtime code.
Role – Shows that this switch is operating as Master (i.e., operating stand-alone).
Web – Click System, Switch Information.
Figure 3-4. Switch Information
CLI – Use the following command to display version information.
Console#show version
Unit1
Serial number
Hardware version
Number of ports
Main power status
Redundant power status
Agent(master)
Unit id
Loader version
Boot rom version
Operation code version
Console#
4-61
:
:
:24
:up
:not present
:1
:2.1.0.3
:2.0.2.11
:1.4.0.0
3-11
3
Configuring the Switch
Displaying Bridge Extension Capabilities
The Bridge MIB includes extensions for managed devices that support Multicast
Filtering, Traffic Classes, and Virtual LANs. You can access these extensions to
display default settings for the key variables.
Field Attributes
• Extended Multicast Filtering Services – This switch does not support the filtering
of individual multicast addresses based on GMRP (GARP Multicast Registration
Protocol).
• Traffic Classes – This switch provides mapping of user priorities to multiple traffic
classes. (Refer to “Class of Service Configuration” on page 3-125.)
• Static Entry Individual Port – This switch allows static filtering for unicast and
multicast addresses. (Refer to “Setting Static Addresses” on page 3-88.)
• VLAN Learning – This switch uses Independent VLAN Learning (IVL), where each
port maintains its own filtering database.
• Configurable PVID Tagging – This switch allows you to override the default Port
VLAN ID (PVID used in frame tags) and egress status (VLAN-Tagged or
Untagged) on each port. (Refer to “VLAN Configuration” on page 3-110.)
• Local VLAN Capable – This switch does not support multiple local bridges outside
of the scope of 802.1Q defined VLANs.
• GMRP – GARP Multicast Registration Protocol (GMRP) allows network devices to
register endstations with multicast groups. This switch does not support GMRP; it
uses the Internet Group Management Protocol (IGMP) to provide automatic
multicast filtering.
Web – Click System, Bridge Extension.
Figure 3-5. Displaying Bridge Extension Configuration
3-12
Basic Configuration
3
CLI – Enter the following command.
Console#show bridge-ext
Max support vlan numbers: 255
Max support vlan ID: 4094
Extended multicast filtering services: No
Static entry individual port: Yes
VLAN learning: IVL
Configurable PVID tagging: Yes
Local VLAN capable: No
Traffic classes: Enabled
Global GVRP status: Disabled
GMRP: Disabled
Console#
4-188
Setting the Switch’s IP Address
This section describes how to configure an IP interface for management access
over the network. The IP address for this switch is obtained via DHCP by default. To
manually configure an address, you need to change the switch’s default settings
(IP address 0.0.0.0 and netmask 255.0.0.0) to values that are compatible with your
network. You may also need to a establish a default gateway between the switch
and management stations that exist on another network segment.
You can manually configure a specific IP address, or direct the device to obtain an
address from a BOOTP or DHCP server. Valid IP addresses consist of four decimal
numbers, 0 to 255, separated by periods. Anything outside this format will not be
accepted by the CLI program.
Command Attributes
• Management VLAN – ID of the configured VLAN (1-4094, no leading zeroes). By
default, all ports on the switch are members of VLAN 1. However, the management
station can be attached to a port belonging to any VLAN, as long as that VLAN has
been assigned an IP address.
• IP Address Mode – Specifies whether IP functionality is enabled via manual
configuration (Static), Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP), or Boot
Protocol (BOOTP). If DHCP/BOOTP is enabled, IP will not function until a reply has
been received from the server. Requests will be broadcast periodically by the
switch for an IP address. (DHCP/BOOTP values can include the IP address,
subnet mask, and default gateway.)
• IP Address – Address of the VLAN to which the management station is attached.
Valid IP addresses consist of four numbers, 0 to 255, separated by periods.
(Default: 0.0.0.0)
• Subnet Mask – This mask identifies the host address bits used for routing to
specific subnets. (Default: 255.0.0.0)
• Gateway IP Address – IP address of the gateway router between this device and
management stations that exist on other network segments. (Default: 0.0.0.0)
• MAC Address – The physical layer address for this switch.
3-13
3
Configuring the Switch
Manual Configuration
Web – Click System, IP Configuration. Select the VLAN through which the
management station is attached, set the IP Address Mode to “Static,” enter the IP
address, subnet mask and gateway, then click Apply.
Figure 3-6. IP Interface Configuration - Manual
CLI – Specify the management interface, IP address and default gateway.
Console#config
Console(config)#interface vlan 1
Console(config-if)#ip address 10.1.0.254 255.255.255.0
Console(config-if)#exit
Console(config)#ip default-gateway 192.168.1.254
Console(config)#
3-14
4-125
4-213
4-215
3
Basic Configuration
Using DHCP/BOOTP
If your network provides DHCP/BOOTP services, you can configure the switch to be
dynamically configured by these services.
Web – Click System, IP Configuration. Specify the VLAN to which the management
station is attached, set the IP Address Mode to DHCP or BOOTP. Click Apply to
save your changes. Then click Restart DHCP to immediately request a new
address. Note that the switch will also broadcast a request for IP configuration
settings on each power reset.
Figure 3-7. IP Interface Configuration - DHCP
Note: If you lose your management connection, use a console connection and enter
“show ip interface” to determine the new switch address.
CLI – Specify the management interface, and set the IP address mode to DHCP or
BOOTP, and then enter the “ip dhcp restart” command.
Console#config
Console(config)#interface vlan 1
Console(config-if)#ip address dhcp
Console(config-if)#end
Console#ip dhcp restart
Console#show ip interface
IP address and netmask: 192.168.1.54 255.255.255.0 on VLAN 1,
and address mode: DHCP.
Console#
4-125
4-213
4-214
4-215
Renewing DCHP – DHCP may lease addresses to clients indefinitely or for a
specific period of time. If the address expires or the switch is moved to another
network segment, you will lose management access to the switch. In this case, you
can reboot the switch or submit a client request to restart DHCP service via the CLI.
Web – If the address assigned by DHCP is no longer functioning, you will not be
able to renew the IP settings via the web interface. You can only restart DHCP
service via the web interface if the current address is still available.
3-15
3
Configuring the Switch
CLI – Enter the following command to restart DHCP service.
Console#ip dhcp restart
Console#
4-214
Managing Firmware
You can upload/download firmware to or from a TFTP server. By saving runtime
code to a file on a TFTP server, that file can later be downloaded to the switch to
restore operation. You can also set the switch to use new firmware without
overwriting the previous version.
Command Attributes
• TFTP Server IP Address – The IP address of a TFTP server.
• File Name – The file name should not contain slashes (\ or /), the leading letter of
the file name should not be a period (.), and the maximum length for file names on
the TFTP server is 127 characters or 31 characters for files on the switch.
(Valid characters: A-Z, a-z, 0-9, “.”, “-”, “_”)
Note: Up to two copies of the system software (i.e., the runtime firmware) can be stored
in the file directory on the switch. The currently designated startup version of this
file cannot be deleted.
Downloading System Software from a Server
When downloading runtime code, you can specify the destination file name to
replace the current image, or first download the file using a different name from the
current runtime code file, and then set the new file as the startup file.
Web – Click System, File, Firmware. Enter the IP address of the TFTP server, enter
the file name of the software to download, select a file on the switch to overwrite or
specify a new file name, then click Transfer from Server. To start the new firmware,
reboot the system via the System/Reset menu.
Figure 3-8. Downloading Firmware to the Switch
3-16
Basic Configuration
3
If you download to a new destination file, then select the file from the drop-down box
for the operation code used at startup, and click Apply Changes. To start the new
firmware, reboot the system via the System/Reset menu.
Figure 3-9. Setting the Startup Code
CLI – Enter the IP address of the TFTP server, select “config” or “opcode” file type,
then enter the source and destination file names, set the new file to start up the
system, and then restart the switch.
Console#copy tftp file
TFTP server ip address: 10.1.0.19
Choose file type:
1. config: 2. opcode: <1-2>: 2
Source file name: M100000.bix
Destination file name: V1.0
\Write to FLASH Programming.
-Write to FLASH finish.
Success.
Console#config
Console(config)#boot system opcode:V1.0
Console(config)#exit
Console#reload
4-63
4-67
4-22
Saving or Restoring Configuration Settings
You can upload/download configuration settings to/from a TFTP server. The
configuration file can be later downloaded to restore the switch’s settings.
Command Attributes
• TFTP Server IP Address – The IP address of a TFTP server.
• File Name — The configuration file name should not contain slashes (\ or /), the
leading letter of the file name should not be a period (.), and the maximum length
for file names on the TFTP server is 127 characters or 31 characters for files on
the switch. (Valid characters: A-Z, a-z, 0-9, “.”, “-”, “_”)
Note: The maximum number of user-defined configuration files is limited only by
available flash memory space.
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3
Configuring the Switch
Downloading Configuration Settings from a Server
You can download the configuration file under a new file name and then set it as the
startup file, or you can specify the current startup configuration file as the destination
file to directly replace it. Note that the file “Factory_Default_Config.cfg” can be
copied to the TFTP server, but cannot be used as the destination on the switch.
Web – Click System, File, Configuration. Enter the IP address of the TFTP server,
enter the name of the file to download, select a file on the switch to overwrite or
specify a new file name, and then click Transfer from Server.
Figure 3-10. Downloading Configuration Settings
If you download to a new file name, then select the new file from the drop-down box
for Startup Configuration File, and press Apply Changes. To use the new settings,
reboot the system via the System/Reset menu.
Figure 3-11. Setting the Startup Configuration Settings
CLI – Enter the IP address of the TFTP server, specify the source file on the server,
set the startup file name on the switch, and then restart the switch.
Console#copy tftp startup-config
TFTP server ip address: 192.168.1.19
Source configuration file name: config-1
Startup configuration file name [] : startup
\Write to FLASH Programming.
-Write to FLASH finish.
Success.
Console#reload
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Basic Configuration
3
If you download the startup configuration file under a new file name, you can set this
file as the startup file at a later time, and then restart the switch.
Console#config
Console(config)#boot system config: startup-new
Console(config)#exit
Console#reload
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Configuring Event Logging
The switch allows you to control the logging of error messages, including the type of
events that are recorded in switch memory, logging to a remote System Log (syslog)
server, and displays a list of recent event messages.
System Log Configuration
The system allows you to enable or disable event logging, and specify which levels
are logged to RAM or flash memory.
Severe error messages that are logged to flash memory are permanently stored in
the switch to assist in troubleshooting network problems. Up to 4096 log entries can
be stored in the flash memory, with the oldest entries being overwritten first when the
available log memory (256 kilobytes) has been exceeded.
The System Logs page allows you to configure and limit system messages that are
logged to flash or RAM memory. The default is for event levels 0 to 3 to be logged to
flash and levels 0 to 7 to be logged to RAM.
Command Attributes
• System Log Status – Enables/disables the logging of debug or error messages to
the logging process. (Default: Enabled)
• Flash Level – Limits log messages saved to the switch’s permanent flash memory
for all levels up to the specified level. For example, if level 3 is specified, all
messages from level 0 to level 3 will be logged to flash. (Range: 0-7, Default: 3)
Table 3-3. Logging Levels
Level
Severity Name
Description
7
Debug
Debugging messages
6
Informational
Informational messages only
5
Notice
Normal but significant condition, such as cold start
4
Warning
Warning conditions (e.g., return false, unexpected return)
3
Error
Error conditions (e.g., invalid input, default used)
2
Critical
Critical conditions (e.g., memory allocation, or free memory
error - resource exhausted)
1
Alert
Immediate action needed
0
Emergency
System unusable
* There are only Level 2, 5 and 6 error messages for the current firmware release.
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3
Configuring the Switch
• RAM Level – Limits log messages saved to the switch’s temporary RAM memory
for all levels up to the specified level. For example, if level 7 is specified, all
messages from level 0 to level 7 will be logged to RAM. (Range: 0-7, Default: 7)
Note: The Flash Level must be equal to or less than the RAM Level.
Web – Click System, Logs, System Logs. Specify System Log Status, set the level of
event messages to be logged to RAM and flash memory, then click Apply.
Figure 3-12. System Logs
CLI – Enable system logging and then specify the level of messages to be logged to
RAM and flash memory. Use the show logging command to display the current
settings.
Console(config)#logging on
Console(config)#logging history ram 0
Console(config)#
Console#show logging flash
Syslog logging: Disable
History logging in FLASH: level errors
Console#
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Remote Log Configuration
The Remote Logs page allows you to configure the logging of messages that are
sent to syslog servers or other management stations. You can also limit the event
messages sent to only those messages at or above a specified level.
Command Attributes
• Remote Log Status – Enables/disables the logging of debug or error messages
to the remote logging process. (Default: Disabled)
• Logging Facility – Sets the facility type for remote logging of syslog messages.
There are eight facility types specified by values of 16 to 23. The facility type is
used by the syslog server to dispatch log messages to an appropriate service.
The attribute specifies the facility type tag sent in syslog messages. (See RFC
3164.) This type has no effect on the kind of messages reported by the switch.
However, it may be used by the syslog server to process messages, such as
sorting or storing messages in the corresponding database. (Range: 16-23,
Default: 23)
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Basic Configuration
3
• Logging Trap – Limits log messages that are sent to the remote syslog server for
all levels up to the specified level. For example, if level 3 is specified, all messages
from level 0 to level 3 will be sent to the remote server. (Range: 0-7, Default: 7)
• Host IP List – Displays the list of remote server IP addresses that will receive
syslog messages. The maximum number of host IP addresses allowed is five.
• Host IP Address – Specifies a new server IP address to add to the Host IP List.
Web – Click System, Logs, Remote Logs. To add an IP address to the Host IP List,
type the new IP address in the Host IP Address box, and then click Add. To delete
an IP address, click the entry in the Host IP List, and then click Remove.
Figure 3-13. Remote Logs
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3
Configuring the Switch
CLI – Enter the syslog server host IP address, choose the facility type and set the
logging trap.
Console(config)#logging host 10.1.0.9
Console(config)#logging facility 23
Console(config)#logging trap 4
Console(config)#logging trap
Console(config)#
Console#show logging trap
Syslog logging:
Enabled
REMOTELOG status:
Disabled
REMOTELOG facility type:
local use 7
REMOTELOG level type:
Warning conditions
REMOTELOG server ip address: 10.1.0.9
REMOTELOG server ip address: 0.0.0.0
REMOTELOG server ip address: 0.0.0.0
REMOTELOG server ip address: 0.0.0.0
REMOTELOG server ip address: 0.0.0.0
Console#
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Displaying Log Messages
Use the Logs page to scroll through the logged system and event messages. The
switch can store up to 2048 log entries in temporary random access memory (RAM;
i.e., memory flushed on power reset) and up to 4096 entries in permanent flash
memory.
Web – Click System, Log, Logs.
Figure 3-14. Displaying Logs
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3
Basic Configuration
CLI – This example shows that system logging is enabled, the message level for
flash memory is “errors” (i.e., default level 3 - 0), the message level for RAM is
“debugging” (i.e., default level 7 - 0), and lists one sample error.
Console#show logging flash
Syslog logging: Enable
History logging in FLASH: level errors
[0] 0:0:5 1/1/1 "PRI_MGR_InitDefault function fails."
level: 3, module: 13, function: 0, and event no.: 0
Console#show logging ram
Syslog logging: Enable
History logging in RAM: level debugging
[0] 0:0:5 1/1/1 PRI_MGR_InitDefault function fails."
level: 3, module: 13, function: 0, and event no.: 0
Console#
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Sending Simple Mail Transfer Protocol Alerts
To alert system administrators of problems, the switch can use SMTP (Simple Mail
Transfer Protocol) to send email messages when triggered by logging events of a
specified level. The messages are sent to specified SMTP servers on the network
and can be retrieved using POP or IMAP clients.
Command Attributes
• Admin Status – Enables/disables the SMTP function. (Default: Enabled)
• Email Source Address – Sets the email address used for the “From” field in alert
messages. You may use a symbolic email address that identifies the switch, or the
address of an administrator responsible for the switch.
• Severity – Sets the syslog severity threshold level (see table on page 4-48) used
to trigger alert messages. All events at this level or higher will be sent to the
configured email recipients. For example, using Level 7 will report all events from
level 7 to level 0. (Default: Level 7)
• SMTP Server List – Specifies a list of up to three recipient SMTP servers. The
switch attempts to connect to the other listed servers if the first fails. Use the New
SMTP Server text field and the Add/Remove buttons to configure the list.
• Email Destination Address List – Specifies the email recipients of alert
messages. You can specify up to five recipients. Use the New Email Destination
Address text field and the Add/Remove buttons to configure the list.
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Configuring the Switch
Web – Click System, Log, SMTP. Enable SMTP, specify a source email address,
and select the minimum severity level. To add an IP address to the SMTP Server
List, type the new IP address in the SMTP Server field and click Add. To delete an IP
address, click the entry in the SMTP Server List and click Remove. Specify up to five
email addresses to receive the alert messages, and click Apply.
Figure 3-15. Enabling and Configuring SMTP Alerts
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3
Basic Configuration
CLI – Enter the IP address of at least one SMTP server, set the syslog severity level
to trigger an email message, and specify the switch (source) and up to five recipient
(destination) email addresses. Enable SMTP with the logging sendmail command
to complete the configuration. Use the show logging sendmail command to display
the current SMTP configuration.
Console(config)#logging sendmail host 192.168.1.4
Console(config)#logging sendmail level 3
Console(config)#logging sendmail source-email
big-wheels@matel.com
Console(config)#logging sendmail destination-email
chris@matel.com
Console(config)#logging sendmail
Console(config)#exit
Console#show logging sendmail
SMTP servers
-----------------------------------------------
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Active SMTP server: 0.0.0.0
SMTP minimum severity level: 4
SMTP destination email addresses
----------------------------------------------1. chris@this-company.com
SMTP source email address: big-wheels@matel.com
SMTP status:
Console#
Enabled
Resetting the System
Web – Click System, Reset. Click the Reset button to restart the switch. When
prompted, confirm that you want reset the switch.
Figure 3-16. Resetting the System
CLI – Use the reload command to restart the switch.
Console#reload
System will be restarted, continue <y/n>?
4-22
Note: When restarting the system, it will always run the Power-On Self-Test.
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3
Configuring the Switch
Setting the System Clock
Simple Network Time Protocol (SNTP) allows the switch to set its internal clock
based on periodic updates from a time server (SNTP or NTP). Maintaining an
accurate time on the switch enables the system log to record meaningful dates and
times for event entries. You can also manually set the clock using the CLI. (See
“calendar set” on page 4-55.) If the clock is not set, the switch will only record the
time from the factory default set at the last bootup.
When the SNTP client is enabled, the switch periodically sends a request for a time
update to a configured time server. You can configure up to three time server IP
addresses. The switch will attempt to poll each server in the configured sequence.
Configuring SNTP
You can configure the switch to send time synchronization requests to time servers.
Command Attributes
• SNTP Client – Configures the switch to operate as an SNTP client. This requires
at least one time server to be specified in the SNTP Server field. (Default: Disabled)
• SNTP Poll Interval – Sets the interval between sending requests for a time update
from a time server. (Range: 16-16384 seconds; Default: 16 seconds)
• SNTP Server – Sets the IP address for up to three time servers. The switch
attempts to update the time from the first server, if this fails it attempts an update
from the next server in the sequence.
Web – Select SNTP, Configuration. Modify any of the required parameters, and click
Apply.
Figure 3-17. Configuring SNTP
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3
Basic Configuration
CLI – This example configures the switch to operate as an SNTP client and then
displays the current time and settings.
Console(config)#sntp client
Console(config)#sntp poll 16
Console(config)#sntp server 10.1.0.19 137.82.140.80 128.250.36.2
Console(config)#exit
Console#show sntp
Current time: Jan 6 14:56:05 2004
Poll interval: 60
Current mode: unicast
SNTP status : Enabled
SNTP server 10.1.0.19 137.82.140.80 128.250.36.2
Current server: 128.250.36.2
Console(config)#
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4-54
Setting the Time Zone
SNTP uses Coordinated Universal Time (or UTC, formerly Greenwich Mean Time,
or GMT) based on the time at the Earth’s prime meridian, zero degrees longitude. To
display a time corresponding to your local time, you must indicate the number of
hours and minutes your time zone is east (before) or west (after) of UTC.
Command Attributes
•
•
•
•
•
Current Time – Displays the current time.
Name – Assigns a name to the time zone. (Range: 1-29 characters)
Hours (0-12) – The number of hours before/after UTC.
Minutes (0-59) – The number of minutes before/after UTC.
Direction – Configures the time zone to be before (east) or after (west) UTC.
Web – Select SNTP, Clock Time Zone. Set the offset for your time zone relative to
the UTC, and click Apply.
Figure 3-18. Clock Time Zone
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3
Configuring the Switch
CLI - This example shows how to set the time zone for the system clock.
Console(config)#clock timezone Dhaka hours 6 minute 0 after-UTC
Console#
4-55
Simple Network Management Protocol
Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP) is a communication protocol
designed specifically for managing devices on a network. Equipment commonly
managed with SNMP includes switches, routers and host computers. SNMP is
typically used to configure these devices for proper operation in a network
environment, as well as to monitor them to evaluate performance or detect potential
problems.
The switch includes an onboard SNMP agent that continuously monitors the status
of its hardware, as well as the traffic passing through its ports. A network
management station can access this information using software such as HP
OpenView. Access rights to the onboard agent are controlled by community strings.
To communicate with the switch, the management station must first submit a valid
community string for authentication. The options for configuring community strings,
trap functions, and restricting access to clients with specified IP addresses are
described in the following sections.
Setting Community Access Strings
You may configure up to five community strings authorized for management access.
All community strings used for IP Trap Managers should be listed in this table. For
security reasons, you should consider removing the default strings.
Command Attributes
• SNMP Community Capability – Indicates that the switch supports up to five
community strings.
• Community String – A community string that acts like a password and permits
access to the SNMP protocol.
Default strings: “public” (read-only access), “private” (read/write access)
Range: 1-32 characters, case sensitive
• Access Mode
- Read-Only – Specifies read-only access. Authorized management stations are
only able to retrieve MIB objects.
- Read/Write – Specifies read-write access. Authorized management stations are
able to both retrieve and modify MIB objects.
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3
Simple Network Management Protocol
Web – Click SNMP, Configuration. Add new community strings as required, select
the access rights from the Access Mode drop-down list, then click Add.
Figure 3-19. Configuring SNMP Community Strings
CLI – The following example adds the string “spiderman” with read/write access.
Console(config)#snmp-server community spiderman rw
Console(config)#
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Specifying Trap Managers and Trap Types
Traps indicating status changes are issued by the switch to specified trap managers.
You must specify trap managers so that key events are reported by this switch to
your management station (using network management platforms such as HP
OpenView). You can specify up to five management stations that will receive
authentication failure messages and other trap messages from the switch.
Command Attributes
• Trap Manager Capability – This switch supports up to five trap managers.
• Trap Manager IP Address – IP address of a new management station to receive
trap messages.
• Trap Manager Community String – Community string sent with the notification
operation. (Range: 1-32 characters, case sensitive)
• Trap Version – Specifies whether to send notifications as SNMP v1 or v2c traps.
(Default: v1)
• Enable Authentication Traps – Issues a trap message whenever an invalid
community string is submitted during the SNMP access authentication process.
(Default: Enabled)
• Enable Link-up and Link-down Traps – Issues link-up or link-down traps.
(Default: Enabled)
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3
Configuring the Switch
Web – Click SNMP, Configuration. Fill in the IP address and community string for
each trap manager that will receive these messages, specify the SNMP version,
mark the trap types required, and then click Add.
Figure 3-20. Configuring SNMP Trap Managers
CLI – This example adds a trap manager and enables both authentication and
link-up, link-down traps.
Console(config)#snmp-server host 192.168.1.19 private version 2c
Console(config)#snmp-server enable traps
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User Authentication
You can restrict management access to this switch using the following options:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Passwords – Configures the password for the current user.
Authentication Settings – Use remote authentication to configure access rights.
HTTPS Settings – Provide a secure web connection.
SSH Settings – Provide a secure shell (for secure Telnet access).
Port Security – Configure secure addresses for individual ports.
802.1x – Use IEEE 802.1x port authentication to control access to specific ports.
IP Filter – Filters management access to the web, SNMP or Telnet interface.
Configuring the Logon Password
The guest only has read access for most configuration parameters. However, the
administrator has write access for all parameters governing the onboard agent. You
should therefore assign a new administrator password as soon as possible, and
store it in a safe place.
The default guest name is “guest” with the password “guest.” The default
administrator name is “admin” with the password “admin.” Note that user names can
only be assigned via the CLI.
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User Authentication
3
Command Attributes
• User Name* – The name of the user.
(Maximum length: 8 characters)
• Access Level* – Specifies the user level.
(Options: Normal and Privileged)
• Password – Specifies the user password.
(Range: 0-8 characters plain text, case sensitive)
* CLI only.
Web – Click Security, Passwords. To change the password for the current user,
enter the old password, the new password, confirm it by entering it again, then click
Apply.
CLI – Assign a user name to access-level 15 (i.e., administrator), then specify the
password.
Console(config)#username bob access-level 15
Console(config)#username bob password 0 smith
Console(config)#
4-26
Configuring Local/Remote Logon Authentication
Use the Authentication Settings menu to restrict management access based on
specified user names and passwords. You can manually configure access rights on
the switch, or you can use a remote access authentication server based on RADIUS
or TACACS+ protocols.
Remote Authentication Dial-in
User Service (RADIUS) and
Terminal Access Controller
Access Control System Plus
console
Web
(TACACS+) are logon
Telnet
authentication protocols that
use software running on a
1. Client attempts management access.
central server to control
2. Switch contacts authentication server.
3. Authentication server challenges client.
RADIUS/
access to RADIUS-aware or
4. Client responds with proper password or key.
TACACS+
5. Authentication server approves access.
TACACS-aware devices on
server
6. Switch grants management access.
the network. An authentication
server contains a database of multiple user name/password pairs with associated
privilege levels for each user that requires management access to the switch.
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3
Configuring the Switch
RADIUS uses UDP while TACACS+ uses TCP. UDP only offers best effort delivery,
while TCP offers a connection-oriented transport. Also, note that RADIUS encrypts
only the password in the access-request packet from the client to the server, while
TACACS+ encrypts the entire body of the packet.
Command Usage
• By default, management access is always checked against the authentication
database stored on the local switch. If a remote authentication server is used, you
must specify the authentication sequence and the corresponding parameters for
the remote authentication protocol. Local and remote logon authentication control
management access via the console port, web browser, or Telnet.
• RADIUS and TACACS+ logon authentication assign a specific privilege level for
each user name/password pair. The user name, password, and privilege level
must be configured on the authentication server.
• You can specify up to three authentication methods for any user to indicate the
authentication sequence. For example, if you select (1) RADIUS, (2) TACACS and
(3) Local, the user name and password on the RADIUS server is verified first. If the
RADIUS server is not available, then authentication is attempted using the
TACACS+ server, and finally the local user name and password is checked.
Command Attributes
• Authentication – Select the authentication, or authentication sequence required:
- Local – User authentication is performed only locally by the switch.
- Radius – User authentication is performed using a RADIUS server only.
- TACACS – User authentication is performed using a TACACS+ server only.
- [authentication sequence] – User authentication is performed by up to three
authentication methods in the indicated sequence.
• RADIUS Settings
- Server IP Address – Address of authentication server. (Default: 10.1.0.1)
- Server Port Number – Network (UDP) port of authentication server used for
authentication messages. (Range: 1-65535; Default: 1812)
- Secret Text String – Encryption key used to authenticate logon access for
client. Do not use blank spaces in the string. (Maximum length: 20 characters)
- Number of Server Transmits – Number of times the switch tries to authenticate
logon access via the authentication server. (Range: 1-30; Default: 2)
- Timeout for a reply – The number of seconds the switch waits for a reply from
the RADIUS server before it resends the request. (Range: 1-65535; Default: 5)
• TACACS Settings
- Server IP Address – Address of the TACACS+ server. (Default: 10.11.12.13)
- Server Port Number – Network (TCP) port of TACACS+ server used for
authentication messages. (Range: 1-65535; Default: 49)
- Secret Text String – Encryption key used to authenticate logon access for
client. Do not use blank spaces in the string. (Maximum length: 20 characters)
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User Authentication
3
Note: The local switch user database has to be set up by manually entering user names
and passwords using the CLI. (See “username” on page 4-26.)
Web – Click Security, Authentication Settings. To configure local or remote
authentication preferences, specify the authentication sequence (i.e., one to three
methods), fill in the parameters for RADIUS or TACACS+ authentication if selected,
and click Apply.
Figure 3-21. Authentication Server Settings
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3
Configuring the Switch
CLI – Specify all the required parameters to enable logon authentication.
Console(config)#authentication login radius
Console(config)#radius-server host 192.168.1.25
Console(config)#radius-server port 181
Console(config)#radius-server key green
Console(config)#radius-server retransmit 5
Console(config)#radius-server timeout 10
Console#show radius-server
Remote radius server configuration:
Server IP address: 192.168.1.25
Communication key with radius server:
Server port number: 1812
Retransmit times: 5
Request timeout: 10
Console(config)#authentication login tacacs
Console(config)#tacacs-server host 10.20.30.40
Console(config)#tacacs-server port 200
Console(config)#tacacs-server key green
Console(config)#end
Console#show tacacs-server
Remote TACACS server configuration:
Server IP address: 10.20.30.40
Communication key with tacacs server: green
Server port number: 200
Console#
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Configuring HTTPS
You can configure the switch to enable the Secure Hypertext Transfer Protocol
(HTTPS) over the Secure Socket Layer (SSL), providing secure access (i.e., an
encrypted connection) to the switch’s web interface.
Command Usage
• Both the HTTP and HTTPS service can be enabled independently on the switch.
However, you cannot configure both services to use the same UDP port.
• If you enable HTTPS, you must indicate this in the URL that you specify in your
browser: https://device[:port_number]
• When you start HTTPS, the connection is established in this way:
- The client authenticates the server using the server’s digital certificate.
- The client and server negotiate a set of security protocols to use for the
connection.
- The client and server generate session keys for encrypting and decrypting data.
• The client and server establish a secure encrypted connection.
A padlock icon should appear in the status bar for Internet Explorer 5.x or above
and Netscape Navigator 4.x or above.
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User Authentication
3
• The following web browsers and operating systems currently support HTTPS:
Table 3-4. HTTPS System Support
Web Browser
Operating System
Internet Explorer 5.0 or later
Windows 98,Windows NT (with service pack 6a),
Windows 2000, Windows XP
Netscape Navigator 4.76 or later
Windows 98,Windows NT (with service pack 6a),
Windows 2000, Windows XP, Solaris 2.6
• To specify a secure-site certificate, see “Replacing the Default Secure-site
Certificate” on page 3-35.
Command Attributes
• HTTPS Status – Allows you to enable/disable the HTTPS server feature on the
switch. (Default: Enabled)
• Change HTTPS Port Number – Specifies the UDP port number used for HTTPS/
SSL connection to the switch’s web interface. (Default: Port 443)
Web – Click Security, HTTPS Settings. Enable HTTPS and specify the port number,
then click Apply.
Figure 3-22. HTTPS Settings
CLI – This example enables the HTTP secure server and modifies the port number.
Console(config)#ip http secure-server
Console(config)#ip http secure-port 441
Console(config)#
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Replacing the Default Secure-site Certificate
When you log onto the web interface using HTTPS (for secure access), a Secure
Sockets Layer (SSL) certificate appears for the switch. By default, the certificate that
Netscape and Internet Explorer display will be associated with a warning that the
site is not recognized as a secure site. This is because the certificate has not been
signed by an approved certification authority. If you want this warning to be replaced
by a message confirming that the connection to the switch is secure, you must
obtain a unique certificate and a private key and password from a recognized
certification authority.
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3
Configuring the Switch
Caution: For maximum security, we recommend you obtain a unique Secure Sockets
Layer certificate at the earliest opportunity. This is because the default
certificate for the switch is not unique to the hardware you have purchased.
When you have obtained these, place them on your TFTP server, and use the
following command at the switch's command-line interface to replace the default
(unrecognized) certificate with an authorized one:
Console#copy tftp https-certificate
TFTP server ip address: <server ip-address>
Source certificate file name: <certificate file name>
Source private file name: <private key file name>
Private password: <password for private key>
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Note: The switch must be reset for the new certificate to be activated. To reset the
switch, type: Console#reload
Configuring the Secure Shell
The Berkley-standard includes remote access tools originally designed for Unix
systems. Some of these tools have also been implemented for Microsoft Windows
and other environments. These tools, including commands such as rlogin (remote
login), rsh (remote shell), and rcp (remote copy), are not secure from hostile attacks.
The Secure Shell (SSH) includes server/client applications intended as a secure
replacement for the older Berkley remote access tools. SSH can also provide
remote management access to this switch as a secure replacement for Telnet.
When the client contacts the switch via the SSH protocol, the switch generates a
public-key that the client uses along with a local user name and password for access
authentication. SSH also encrypts all data transfers passing between the switch and
SSH-enabled management station clients, and ensures that data traveling over the
network arrives unaltered.
Note that you need to install an SSH client on the management station to access the
switch for management via the SSH protocol.
Note: The switch supports both SSH Version 1.5 and 2.0.
Command Usage
The SSH server on this switch supports both password and public key
authentication. If password authentication is specified by the SSH client, then the
password can be authenticated either locally or via a RADIUS or TACACS+ remote
authentication server, as specified on the Authentication Settings page
(page 3-31). If public key authentication is specified by the client, then you must
configure authentication keys on both the client and the switch as described in the
following section. Note that regardless of whether you use public key or password
authentication, you still have to generate authentication keys on the switch (SSH
Host Key Settings) and enable the SSH server (Authentication Settings).
3-36
3
User Authentication
To use the SSH server, complete these steps:
1.
Generate a Host Key Pair – On the SSH Host Key Settings page, create a host
public/private key pair.
2.
Provide Host Public Key to Clients – Many SSH client programs automatically
import the host public key during the initial connection setup with the switch.
Otherwise, you need to manually create a known hosts file on the management
station and place the host public key in it. An entry for a public key in the known
hosts file would appear similar to the following example:
10.1.0.54 1024 35 15684995401867669259333946775054617325313674890836547254
15020245593199868544358361651999923329781766065830956 10825913212890233
76546801726272571413428762941301196195566782 59566410486957427888146206
51941746772984865468615717739390164779355942303577413098022737087794545
24083971752646358058176716709574804776117
3.
Import Client’s Public Key to the Switch – Use the copy tftp public-key
command (page 4-63) to copy a file containing the public key for all the SSH
client’s granted management access to the switch. (Note that these clients
must be configured locally on the switch via the User Accounts page as
described on page 3-30.) The clients are subsequently authenticated using
these keys. The current firmware only accepts public key files based on
standard UNIX format as shown in the following example for an RSA Version 1
key:
1024 35 1341081685609893921040944920155425347631641921872958921143173880
05553616163105177594083868631109291232226828519254374603100937187721199
69631781366277414168985132049117204830339254324101637997592371449011938
00609025394840848271781943722884025331159521348610229029789827213532671
31629432532818915045306393916643 steve@192.168.1.19
4.
Set the Optional Parameters – On the SSH Settings page, configure the
optional parameters, including the authentication timeout, the number of retries,
and the server key size.
5.
Enable SSH Service – On the SSH Settings page, enable the SSH server on
the switch.
6.
Challenge-Response Authentication – When an SSH client attempts to contact
the switch, the SSH server uses the host key pair to negotiate a session key
and encryption method. Only clients that have a private key corresponding to
the public keys stored on the switch can access. The following exchanges take
place during this process:
a.
b.
c.
d.
The client sends its public key to the switch.
The switch compares the client's public key to those stored in memory.
If a match is found, the switch uses the public key to encrypt a random
sequence of bytes, and sends this string to the client.
The client uses its private key to decrypt the bytes, and sends the
decrypted bytes back to the switch.
3-37
3
Configuring the Switch
e.
The switch compares the decrypted bytes to the original bytes it sent. If the
two sets match, this means that the client's private key corresponds to an
authorized public key, and the client is authenticated.
Notes: 1. To use SSH with only password authentication, the host public key must still
be given to the client, either during initial connection or manually entered into
the known host file. However, you do not need to configure the client’s keys.
2. The SSH server supports up to four client sessions. The maximum number
of client sessions includes both current Telnet sessions and SSH sessions.
Generating the Host Key Pair
A host public/private key pair is used to provide secure communications between an
SSH client and the switch. After generating this key pair, you must provide the host
public key to SSH clients and import the client’s public key to the switch as
described in the proceeding section (Command Usage).
Field Attributes
• Public-Key of Host-Key – The public key for the host.
- RSA (Version 1): The first field indicates the size of the host key (e.g., 1024), the
second field is the encoded public exponent (e.g., 65537), and the last string is
the encoded modulus.
- DSA (Version 2): The first field indicates that the encryption method used by
SSH is based on the Digital Signature Standard (DSS). The last string is the
encoded modulus.
• Host-Key Type – The key type used to generate the host key pair (i.e., public and
private keys). (Range: RSA (Version 1), DSA (Version 2), Both: Default: RSA)
The SSH server uses RSA or DSA for key exchange when the client first
establishes a connection with the switch, and then negotiates with the client to
select either DES (56-bit) or 3DES (168-bit) for data encryption.
• Save Host-Key from Memory to Flash – Saves the host key from RAM (i.e.,
volatile memory to flash memory. Otherwise, the host key pair is stored to RAM by
default. Note that you must select this item prior to generating the host-key pair.
• Generate – This button is used to generate the host key pair. Note that you must
first generate the host key pair before you can enable the SSH server on the SSH
Server Settings page.
3-38
User Authentication
3
Web – Click Security, SSH Host-Key Settings. Select the host-key type from the
drop-down box, select the option to save the host key from memory to flash (if
required) prior to generating the key, and then click Generate.
Figure 3-23. SSH Host-Key Settings
CLI – This example generates a host-key pair using both the RSA and DSA
algorithms, stores the keys to flash memory, and then displays the host’s public keys.
Console#ip ssh crypto host-key generate
4-39
Console#ip ssh save host-key
4-40
Console#show public-key host
4-42
Host:
RSA:
1024 65537 127250922544926402131336514546131189679055192360076028653006761
82409690947448320102524878965977592168322225584652387791546479807396314033
86925793105105765212243052807865885485789272602937866089236841423275912127
60325919683697053439336438445223335188287173896894511729290510813919642025
190932104328579045764891
DSA:
ssh-dss AAAAB3NzaC1kc3MAAACBAN6zwIqCqDb3869jYVXlME1sHL0EcE/Re6hlasfEthIwmj
hLY4O0jqJZpcEQUgCfYlum0Y2uoLka+Py9ieGWQ8f2gobUZKIICuKg6vjO9XTs7XKc05xfzkBi
KviDa+2OrIz6UK+6vFOgvUDFedlnixYTVo+h5v8r0ea2rpnO6DkZAAAAFQCNZn/x17dwpW8RrV
DQnSWw4Qk+6QAAAIEAptkGeB6B5hwagH4gUOCY6i1TmrmSiJgfwO9OqRPUMbCAkCC+uzxatOo7
drnIZypMx+Sx5RUdMGgKS+9ywsa1cWqHeFY5ilc3lDCNBueeLykZzVS+RS+azTKIk/zrJh8GLG
Nq375R55yRxFvmcGIn/Q7IphPqyJ3o9MK8LFDfmJEAAACAL8A6tESiswP2OFqX7VGoEbzVDSOI
RTMFy3iUXtvGyQAOVSy67Mfc3lMtgqPRUOYXDiwIBp5NXgilCg5z7VqbmRm28mWc5a//f8TUAg
PNWKV6W0hqmshQdotVzDR1e+XKNTZj0uTwWfjO5Kytdn4MdoTHgrbl/DMdAfjnte8MZZs=
Console#
3-39
3
Configuring the Switch
Configuring the SSH Server
The SSH server includes basic settings for authentication.
Field Attributes
• SSH Server Status – Allows you to enable/disable the SSH server on the switch.
(Default: Disabled)
• Version – The Secure Shell version number. Version 2.0 is displayed, but the
switch supports management access via either SSH Version 1.5 or 2.0 clients.
• SSH Authentication Timeout – Specifies the time interval in seconds that the
SSH server waits for a response from a client during an authentication attempt.
(Range: 1 to 120 seconds; Default: 120 seconds)
• SSH Authentication Retries – Specifies the number of authentication attempts
that a client is allowed before authentication fails and the client has to restart the
authentication process. (Range: 1-5 times; Default: 3)
• SSH Server-Key Size – Specifies the SSH server key size. (Range: 512-896 bits)
- The server key is a private key that is never shared outside the switch.
- The host key is shared with the SSH client, and is fixed at 1024 bits.
Web – Click Security, SSH, Settings. Enable SSH and adjust the authentication
parameters as required, then click Apply. Note that you must first generate the host
key pair on the SSH Host-Key Settings page before you can enable the SSH server.
Figure 3-24. SSH Server Settings
3-40
User Authentication
3
CLI – This example enables SSH, sets the authentication parameters, and displays
the current configuration. It shows that the administrator has made a connection via
SHH, and then disables this connection.
Console(config)#ip ssh server
Console(config)#ip ssh timeout 100
Console(config)#ip ssh authentication-retries 5
Console(config)#ip ssh server-key size 512
Console(config)#end
Console#show ip ssh
SSH Enabled - version 2.0
Negotiation timeout: 120 secs; Authentication retries: 3
Server key size: 768 bits
Console#show ssh
Information of secure shell
Session Username Version Encrypt method Negotiation state
------- -------- ------- -------------- ----------------0
admin
2.0
cipher-3des
session-started
Console#disconnect 0
Console#
4-36
4-37
4-37
4-38
4-40
4-41
4-18
Configuring Port Security
Port security is a feature that allows you to configure a switch port with one or more
device MAC addresses that are authorized to access the network through that port.
When port security is enabled on a port, the switch stops learning new MAC
addresses on the specified port when it has reached a configured maximum
number. Only incoming traffic with source addresses already stored in the dynamic
or static address table will be accepted as authorized to access the network through
that port. If a device with an unauthorized MAC address attempts to use the switch
port, the intrusion will be detected and the switch can automatically take action by
disabling the port and sending a trap message.
To use port security, specify a maximum number of addresses to allow on the port
and then let the switch dynamically learn the <source MAC address, VLAN> pair for
frames received on the port. Note that you can also manually add secure addresses
to the port using the Static Address Table (page 3-88). When the port has reached
the maximum number of MAC addresses the selected port will stop learning. The
MAC addresses already in the address table will be retained and will not age out.
Any other device that attempts to use the port will be prevented from accessing the
switch.
Command Usage
• A secure port has the following restrictions:
- It cannot use port monitoring.
- It cannot be a multi-VLAN port.
- It cannot be used as a member of a static or dynamic trunk.
- It should not be connected to a network interconnection device.
• The default maximum number of MAC addresses allowed on a secure port is zero.
You must configure a maximum address count from 1 - 20 for the port to allow
access.
3-41
3
Configuring the Switch
• If a port is disabled (shut down) due to a security violation, it must be manually
re-enabled from the Port/Port Configuration page (page 3-67).
Command Attributes
• Port – Port number.
• Name – Descriptive text (page 4-126).
• Action – Indicates the action to be taken when a port security violation is detected:
- None: No action should be taken. (This is the default.)
- Trap: Send an SNMP trap message.
- Shutdown: Disable the port.
- Trap and Shutdown: Send an SNMP trap message and disable the port.
• Security Status – Enables or disables port security on the port. (Default: Disabled)
• Max MAC Count – The maximum number of MAC addresses that can be learned
on a port. (Range: 0 - 20)
• Trunk – Trunk number if port is a member (page 3-70 and 3-71).
Web – Click Security, Port Security. Set the action to take when an invalid address is
detected on a port, mark the checkbox in the Status column to enable security for a
port, set the maximum number of MAC addresses allowed on a port, and click Apply.
Figure 3-25. Port Security
3-42
3
User Authentication
CLI – This example selects the target port, sets the port security action to send a
trap and disable the port, specifies a maximum address count, and then enables
port security for the port.
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/5
Console(config-if)#port security action trap-and-shutdown
Console(config-if)#port security max-mac-count 20
Console(config-if)#port security
Console(config-if)#
4-76
Configuring 802.1x Port Authentication
Network switches can provide open and easy access to network resources by
simply attaching a client PC. Although this automatic configuration and access is a
desirable feature, it also allows unauthorized personnel to easily intrude and
possibly gain access to sensitive network data.
The IEEE 802.1x (dot1x) standard defines a port-based access control procedure
that prevents unauthorized access to a network by requiring users to first submit
credentials for authentication. Access to all switch ports in a network can be
centrally controlled from a server, which means that authorized users can use the
same credentials for authentication from any point within the network.
This switch uses the
Extensible Authentication
Protocol over LANs (EAPOL)
802.1x
to exchange authentication
client
protocol messages with the
client, and a remote RADIUS
1. Client attempts to access a switch port.
authentication server to verify
2. Switch sends client an identity request.
3. Client sends back identity information.
RADIUS
user identity and access
4. Switch forwards this to authentication server.
server
5. Authentication server challenges client.
rights. When a client (i.e.,
6. Client responds with proper credentials.
Supplicant) connects to a
7. Authentication server approves access.
8. Switch grants client access to this port.
switch port, the switch (i.e.,
Authenticator) responds with an EAPOL identity request. The client provides its
identity (such as a user name) in an EAPOL response to the switch, which it
forwards to the RADIUS server. The RADIUS server verifies the client identity and
sends an access challenge back to the client. The EAP packet from the RADIUS
server contains not only the challenge, but the authentication method to be used.
The client can reject the authentication method and request another, depending on
the configuration of the client software and the RADIUS server. The authentication
method currently supported is MD5 only. The client responds to the appropriate
method with its password. The RADIUS server verifies the client credentials and
responds with an accept or reject packet. If authentication is successful, the switch
allows the client to access the network. Otherwise, network access is denied and the
port remains blocked.
3-43
3
Configuring the Switch
The operation of 802.1x on the switch requires the following:
• The switch must have an IP address assigned.
• RADIUS authentication must be enabled on the switch and the IP address of the
RADIUS server specified.
• Each switch port that will be used must be set to dot1x “Auto” mode.
• Each client that needs to be authenticated must have dot1x client software
installed and properly configured.
• The RADIUS server and 802.1x client support EAP. (The switch only supports
EAPOL in order to pass the EAP packets from the server to the client.)
• The RADIUS server and client also have to support the same EAP authentication
type – MD5, (Some clients have native support in Windows, otherwise the dot1x
client must support it.)
Displaying 802.1x Global Settings
The dot1x protocol includes global parameters that control the client authentication
process that runs between the client and the switch (i.e., authenticator), as well as
the client identity lookup process that runs between the switch and authentication
server. These parameters are described in this section.
Command Attributes
• 802.1X Re-authentication – Indicates if switch port requires a client to be
re-authenticated after a certain period of time.
• 802.1X Max Request Count – The maximum number of times the switch port will
retransmit an EAP request packet to the client before it times out the authentication
session.
• Timeout For Quiet Period – Indicates the time that a switch port waits after the
Max Request Count has been exceeded before attempting to acquire a new client.
• Timeout For Re-authentication Period – Indicates the time period after which a
connected client must be re-authenticated.
• Timeout For Tx Period – The time period during an authentication session that
the switch waits before re-transmitting an EAP packet.
• Supplicant Timeout – The time the switch waits for a client response to an EAP
request.
• Server Timeout – The time the switch waits for a response from the authentication
server (RADIUS) to an authentication request.
• Re-authentication Max Count – The number of times the switch will attempt to
re-authenticate a connected client before the port becomes unauthorized.
3-44
User Authentication
3
Web – Click Security, 802.1x, Information.
Figure 3-26. 802.1x Information
CLI – This example shows the default protocol settings for 802.1x. For a description
of the additional entries displayed in the CLI, See “show dot1x” on page 4-83.
Console#show dot1x
Global 802.1X Parameters
reauth-enabled: yes
reauth-period: 3600
quiet-period:
60
tx-period:
30
supp-timeout:
30
server-timeout: 30
reauth-max:
2
max-req:
2
802.1X Port
Port Name
1/1
1/2
.
.
.
1/47
1/48
4-83
Summary
Status
disabled
disabled
Operation Mode
Single-Host
Single-Host
Mode
ForceAuthorized
ForceAuthorized
Authorized
n/a
n/a
disabled
enabled
Single-Host
Single-Host
ForceAuthorized
Auto
n/a
yes
802.1X Port Details
802.1X is disabled on port 1/1
802.1X is disabled on port 1/2
.
.
.
.
802.1X is disabled on port
1/47
3-45
3
Configuring the Switch
802.1X is enabled on port 1/48
Status
Authorized
Operation mode
Single-Host
Max count
5
Port-control
Auto
Supplicant
00-00-e8-49-5e-dc
Current Identifier 3
Authenticator State Machine
State
Authenticated
Reauth Count
0
Backend State Machine
State
Idle
Request Count
0
Identifier(Server) 2
Reauthentication State Machine
State
Initialize
Console#
Configuring 802.1x Global Settings
The dot1x protocol includes global parameters that control the client authentication
process that runs between the client and the switch (i.e., authenticator), as well as
the client identity lookup process that runs between the switch and authentication
server. The configuration options for parameters are described in this section.
Command Attributes
• 802.1X Re-authentication – Sets the client to be re-authenticated after the interval
specified by the Timeout for Re-authentication Period. Re-authentication can be
used to detect if a new device is plugged into a switch port. (Default: Disabled)
• 802.1X Max Request Count – Sets the maximum number of times the switch port
will retransmit an EAP request packet to the client before it times out the
authentication session. (Range: 1-10; Default 2)
• Timeout For Quiet Period – Sets the time that a switch port waits after the dot1X
Max Request Count has been exceeded before attempting to acquire a new client.
(Range: 1-65535 seconds; Default: 60 seconds)
• Timeout For Re-authentication Period – Sets the time period after which a
connected client must be re-authenticated. (Range: 1-65535 seconds;
Default: 3600 seconds)
• Timeout For Tx Period – Sets the time period during an authentication session
that the switch waits before re-transmitting an EAP packet. (Range: 1-65535;
Default: 30 seconds)
• authentication dot1x default* – Sets the default authentication server type. Note
that the specified authentication server type must be enabled and properly
configured for dot1x to function properly. (Options: radius).
* CLI only.
3-46
User Authentication
3
Web – Select Security, 802.1x, Configuration. Enable dot1x globally for the switch,
modify any of the parameters required, and then click Apply.
Figure 3-27. 802.1X Configuration
CLI – This enables re-authentication and sets all of the global parameters for 802.1x.
Console(config)#dot1x re-authentication
Console(config)#dot1x max-req 5
Console(config)#dot1x timeout quiet-period 40
Console(config)#dot1x timeout re-authperiod 5
Console(config)#dot1x timeout tx-period 40
Console(config)#authentication dot1x default radius
Console(config)#
4-81
4-79
4-82
4-82
4-83
4-79
Configuring Port Authorization Mode
When dot1x is enabled, you need to specify the dot1x authentication mode
configured for each port.
Command Attributes
• Status – Indicates if authentication is enabled or disabled on the port.
• Operation Mode – Allows single or multiple hosts (clients) to connect to an
802.1X-authorized port. (Range: Single-Host, Multi-Host; Default: Single-Host)
• Max Count – The maximum number of hosts that can connect to a port when the
Multi-Host operation mode is selected. (Range: 1-20; Default: 5)
• Mode – Sets the authentication mode to one of the following options:
- Auto – Requires a dot1x-aware client to be authorized by the authentication
server. Clients that are not dot1x-aware will be denied access.
- Force-Authorized – Forces the port to grant access to all clients, either
dot1x-aware or otherwise.
- Force-Unauthorized – Forces the port to deny access to all clients, either
dot1x-aware or otherwise.
3-47
3
Configuring the Switch
• Authorized –
- Yes – Connected client is authorized.
- No – Connected client is not authorized.
- Blank – Displays nothing when dot1x is disabled on a port.
• Supplicant – Indicates the MAC address of a connected client.
• Trunk – Indicates if the port is configured as a trunk port.
Web – Click Security, 802.1x, Port Configuration. Select the authentication mode
from the drop-down box and click Apply.
Figure 3-28. 802.1x Port Configuration
CLI – This example sets the authentication mode to enable 802.1x on port 2, and
allows up to ten clients to connect to this port.
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/2
Console(config-if)#dot1x port-control auto
Console(config-if)#dot1x operation-mode multi-host max-count 10
Console(config-if)#
4-125
4-80
4-80
Displaying 802.1x Statistics
This switch can display statistics for dot1x protocol exchanges for any port.
Table 3-5. 802.1x Statistics
Parameter
Description
Rx EAPOL Start
The number of EAPOL Start frames that have been received by this
Authenticator.
Rx EAPOL Logoff
The number of EAPOL Logoff frames that have been received by this
Authenticator.
Rx EAPOL Invalid
The number of EAPOL frames that have been received by this
Authenticator in which the frame type is not recognized.
Rx EAPOL Total
The number of valid EAPOL frames of any type that have been received
by this Authenticator.
Rx EAP Resp/Id
The number of EAP Resp/Id frames that have been received by this
Authenticator.
3-48
3
User Authentication
Table 3-5. 802.1x Statistics
Parameter
Description
Rx EAP Resp/Oth
The number of valid EAP Response frames (other than Resp/Id frames)
that have been received by this Authenticator.
Rx EAP LenError
The number of EAPOL frames that have been received by this
Authenticator in which the Packet Body Length field is invalid.
Rx Last EAPOLVer
The protocol version number carried in the most recently received EAPOL
frame.
Rx Last EAPOLSrc
The source MAC address carried in the most recently received EAPOL
frame.
Tx EAPOL Total
The number of EAPOL frames of any type that have been transmitted by
this Authenticator.
Tx EAP Req/Id
The number of EAP Req/Id frames that have been transmitted by this
Authenticator.
Tx EAP Req/Oth
The number of EAP Request frames (other than Rq/Id frames) that have
been transmitted by this Authenticator.
Web – Select Security, 802.1x, Statistics. Select the required port and then click
Query. Click Refresh to update the statistics.
Figure 3-29. 802.1x Port Statistics
3-49
3
Configuring the Switch
CLI – This example displays the 802.1x statistics for port 4.
Console#show dot1x statistics interface ethernet 1/4
Eth 1/4
Rx: EAPOL
Start
2
Last
EAPOLVer
1
Tx: EAPOL
Total
2017
Console#
EAPOL
Logoff
0
EAPOL
Invalid
0
EAPOL
Total
1007
EAP
Resp/Id
672
4-83
EAP
EAP
Resp/Oth LenError
0
0
Last
EAPOLSrc
00-00-E8-98-73-21
EAP
Req/Id
1005
EAP
Req/Oth
0
Filtering IP Addresses for Management Access
You can create a list of up to 16 IP addresses or IP address groups that are allowed
management access to the switch through the web interface, SNMP, or Telnet.
Command Usage
• The management interfaces are open to all IP addresses by default. Once you add
an entry to a filter list, access to that interface is restricted to the specified
addresses.
• If anyone tries to access a management interface on the switch from an invalid
address, the switch will reject the connection, enter an event message in the
system log, and send a trap message to the trap manager.
• IP address can be configured for SNMP, web and Telnet access respectively. Each
of these groups can include up to five different sets of addresses, either individual
addresses or address ranges.
• When entering addresses for the same group (i.e., SNMP, web or Telnet), the
switch will not accept overlapping address ranges. When entering addresses for
different groups, the switch will accept overlapping address ranges.
• You cannot delete an individual address from a specified range. You must delete
the entire range, and reenter the addresses.
• You can delete an address range just by specifying the start address, or by
specifying both the start address and end address.
Command Attributes
•
•
•
•
•
•
Web IP Filter – Configures IP address(es) for the web group.
SNMP IP Filter – Configures IP address(es) for the SNMP group.
Telnet IP Filter – Configures IP address(es) for the Telnet group.
IP Filter List – IP address which are allowed management access to this interface.
Start IP Address – A single IP address, or the starting address of a range.
End IP Address – The end address of a range.
3-50
User Authentication
3
Web – Click Security, IP Filter. Enter the addresses that are allowed management
access to an interface, and click Add IP Filtering Entry.
Figure 3-30. IP Filter
CLI – This example allows SNMP access for a specific client.
Console(config)#management snmp-client 10.1.2.3
Console(config)#end
Console#show management all-client
Management Ip Filter
Http-Client:
Start ip address End ip address
-----------------------------------------------
4-28
Snmp-Client:
Start ip address End ip address
----------------------------------------------1. 10.1.2.3
10.1.2.3
Telnet-Client:
Start ip address End ip address
----------------------------------------------Console#
3-51
3
Configuring the Switch
Access Control Lists
Access Control Lists (ACL) provide packet filtering for IP frames (based on address,
protocol, Layer 4 protocol port number or TCP control code) or any frames (based
on MAC address or Ethernet type). To filter incoming packets, first create an access
list, add the required rules, specify a mask to modify the precedence in which the
rules are checked, and then bind the list to a specific port.
Configuring Access Control Lists
An ACL is a sequential list of permit or deny conditions that apply to IP addresses,
MAC addresses, or other more specific criteria. This switch tests ingress or egress
packets against the conditions in an ACL one by one. A packet will be accepted as
soon as it matches a permit rule, or dropped as soon as it matches a deny rule. If no
rules match for a list of all permit rules, the packet is dropped; and if no rules match
for a list of all deny rules, the packet is accepted.
You must configure a mask for an ACL rule before you can bind it to a port or set the
queue or frame priorities associated with the rule. This is done by specifying masks
that control the order in which ACL rules are checked. The switch includes two
system default masks that pass/filter packets matching the permit/deny rules
specified in an ingress ACL. You can also configure up to seven user-defined masks
for an ingress or egress ACL.
Command Usage
The following restrictions apply to ACLs:
• Each ACL can have up to 32 rules.
• The maximum number of ACLs is also 32.
• However, due to resource restrictions, the average number of rules bound to the
ports should not exceed 20.
• You must configure a mask for an ACL rule before you can bind it to a port or set
the queue or frame priorities associated with the rule.
• When an ACL is bound to an interface as an egress filter, all entries in the ACL
must be deny rules. Otherwise, the bind operation will fail.
• The switch does not support the explicit “deny any any” rule for the egress IP ACL
or the egress MAC ACLs. If these rules are included in ACL, and you attempt to
bind the ACL to an interface for egress checking, the bind operation will fail.
The order in which active ACLs are checked is as follows:
1. User-defined rules in the Egress MAC ACL for egress ports.
2. User-defined rules in the Egress IP ACL for egress ports.
3. User-defined rules in the Ingress MAC ACL for ingress ports.
4. User-defined rules in the Ingress IP ACL for ingress ports.
5. Explicit default rule (permit any any) in the ingress IP ACL for ingress ports.
6. Explicit default rule (permit any any) in the ingress MAC ACL for ingress ports.
7. If no explicit rule is matched, the implicit default is permit all.
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Access Control Lists
Setting the ACL Name and Type
Use the ACL Configuration page to designate the name and type of an ACL.
Command Attributes
• Name – Name of the ACL. (Maximum length: 16 characters)
• Type – There are three filtering modes:
- Standard: IP ACL mode that filters packets based on the source IP address.
- Extended: IP ACL mode that filters packets based on source or destination IP
address, as well as protocol type and protocol port number. If the “TCP” protocol
is specified, then you can also filter packets based on the TCP control code.
- MAC: MAC ACL mode that filters packets based on the source or destination
MAC address and the Ethernet frame type (RFC 1060).
Web – Click Security, ACL, Configuration. Enter an ACL name in the Name field,
select the list type (IP Standard, IP Extended, or MAC), and click Add to open the
configuration page for the new list.
Figure 3-31. Selecting ACL Type
CLI – This example creates a standard IP ACL named bill.
Console(config)#access-list ip standard bill
Console(config-std-acl)#
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Configuring a Standard IP ACL
Command Attributes
• Action – An ACL can contain all permit rules or all deny rules.
(Default: Permit rules)
• IP – Specifies the source IP address. Use “Any” to include all possible addresses,
“Host” to specify a specific host address in the Address field, or “IP” to specify a
range of addresses with the Address and SubMask fields. (Options: Any, Host, IP;
Default: Any)
• Address – Source IP address.
• SubMask – A subnet mask containing four integers from 0 to 255, each separated
by a period. The mask uses 1 bits to indicate “match” and 0 bits to indicate “ignore.”
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Configuring the Switch
The mask is bitwise ANDed with the specified source IP address, and compared
with the address for each IP packet entering the port(s) to which this ACL has been
assigned.
Web – Specify the action (i.e., Permit or Deny). Select the address type (Any, Host,
or IP). If you select “Host,” enter a specific address. If you select “IP,” enter a subnet
address and the mask for an address range. Then click Add.
Figure 3-32. ACL Configuration - Standard IP
CLI – This example configures one permit rule for the specific address 10.1.1.21
and another rule for the address range 168.92.16.x – 168.92.31.x using a bitmask.
Console(config-std-acl)#permit host 10.1.1.21
Console(config-std-acl)#permit 168.92.16.0 255.255.240.0
Console(config-std-acl)#
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3
Configuring an Extended IP ACL
Command Attributes
• Action – An ACL can contain either all permit rules or all deny rules.
(Default: Permit rules)
• Src/Dst IP – Specifies the source or destination IP address. Use “Any” to include
all possible addresses, “Host” to specify a specific host address in the Address
field, or “IP” to specify a range of addresses with the Address and SubMask fields.
(Options: Any, Host, IP; Default: Any)
• Src/Dst Address – Source or destination IP address.
• Src/Dst SubMask – Subnet mask for source or destination address. (See the
description for SubMask on page 3-53.)
• Service Type – Packet priority settings based on the following criteria:
- Precedence – IP precedence level. (Range: 0-7)
- TOS – Type of Service level. (Range: 0-15)
- DSCP – DSCP priority level. (Range: 0-64)
• Protocol – Specifies the protocol type to match as TCP, UDP or Others, where
others indicates a specific protocol number (0-255). (Options: TCP, UDP, Others;
Default: TCP)
• Src/Dst Port – Source/destination port number for the specified protocol type.
(Range: 0-65535)
• Src/Dst Port Bitmask – Decimal number representing the port bits to match.
(Range: 0-65535)
• Control Code – Decimal number (representing a bit string) that specifies flag bits
in byte 14 of the TCP header. (Range: 0-63)
• Control Bitmask – Decimal number representing the code bits to match.
The control bitmask is a decimal number (for an equivalent binary bit mask) that is
applied to the control code. Enter a decimal number, where the equivalent binary
bit “1” means to match a bit and “0” means to ignore a bit. The following bits may
be specified:
- 1 (fin) – Finish
- 2 (syn) – Synchronize
- 4 (rst) – Reset
- 8 (psh) – Push
- 16 (ack) – Acknowledgement
- 32 (urg) – Urgent pointer
For example, use the code value and mask below to catch packets with the
following flags set:
- SYN flag valid, use control-code 2, control bitmask 2
- Both SYN and ACK valid, use control-code 18, control bitmask 18
- SYN valid and ACK invalid, use control-code 2, control bitmask 18
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Configuring the Switch
Web – Specify the action (i.e., Permit or Deny). Specify the source and/or
destination addresses. Select the address type (Any, Host, or IP). If you select
“Host,” enter a specific address. If you select “IP,” enter a subnet address and the
mask for an address range. Set any other required criteria, such as service type,
protocol type, or TCP control code. Then click Add.
Figure 3-33. ACL Configuration - Extended IP
CLI – This example adds three rules:
(1) Accept any incoming packets if the source address is in subnet 10.7.1.x. For
example, if the rule is matched; i.e., the rule (10.7.1.0 & 255.255.255.0) equals
the masked address (10.7.1.2 & 255.255.255.0), the packet passes through.
(2) Allow TCP packets from class C addresses 192.168.1.0 to any destination
address when set for destination TCP port 80 (i.e., HTTP).
(3) Permit all TCP packets from class C addresses 192.168.1.0 with the TCP control
code set to “SYN”.
Console(config-ext-acl)#permit 10.7.1.1 255.255.255.0 any
Console(config-ext-acl)#permit 192.168.1.0 255.255.255.0 any
destination-port 80
Console(config-ext-acl)#permit tcp 192.168.1.0 255.255.255.0 any
control-flag 2 2
Console(config-ext-acl)#
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3
Configuring a MAC ACL
Command Attributes
• Action – An ACL can contain all permit rules or all deny rules.
(Default: Permit rules)
• Source/Destination MAC – Use “Any” to include all possible addresses, “Host” to
indicate a specific MAC address, or “MAC” to specify an address range with the
Address and Bitmask fields. (Options: Any, Host, MAC; Default: Any)
• Source/Destination MAC Address – Source or destination MAC address.
• Source/Destination MAC Bitmask – Hexidecimal mask for source or destination
MAC address.
• VID – VLAN ID. (Range: 1-4095)
• VID Mask – VLAN bitmask. (Range: 1-4095)
• Ethernet Type – This option can only be used to filter Ethernet II formatted
packets. (Range: 600-fff hex.)
A detailed listing of Ethernet protocol types can be found in RFC 1060. A few of the
more common types include 0800 (IP), 0806 (ARP), 8137 (IPX).
• Ethernet Type Mask – Protocol bitmask. (Range: 600-fff hex.)
• Packet Format – This attribute includes the following packet types:
- Any – Any Ethernet packet type.
- Untagged-eth2 – Untagged Ethernet II packets.
- Untagged-802.3 – Untagged Ethernet 802.3 packets.
- Tagged-eth2 – Tagged Ethernet II packets.
- Tagged-802.3 – Tagged Ethernet 802.3 packets.
Command Usage
• Egress MAC ACLs only work for destination-mac-known packets, not for multicast,
broadcast, or destination-mac-unknown packets.
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Configuring the Switch
Web – Specify the action (i.e., Permit or Deny). Specify the source and/or
destination addresses. Select the address type (Any, Host, or MAC). If you select
“Host,” enter a specific address (e.g., 11-22-33-44-55-66). If you select “MAC,” enter
a base address and a hexidecimal bitmask for an address range. Set any other
required criteria, such as VID, Ethernet type, or packet format. Then click Add.
Figure 3-34. ACL Configuration - MAC
CLI – This rule permits packets from any source MAC address to the destination
address 00-e0-29-94-34-de where the Ethernet type is 0800.
Console(config-mac-acl)#permit any host 00-e0-29-94-34-de
ethertype 0800
Console(config-mac-acl)#
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3
Configuring ACL Masks
You can specify optional masks that control the order in which ACL rules are
checked. The switch includes two system default masks that pass/filter packets
matching the permit/deny rules specified in an ingress ACL. You can also configure
up to seven user-defined masks for an ingress or egress ACL. A mask must be
bound exclusively to one of the basic ACL types (i.e., Ingress IP ACL, Egress IP
ACL, Ingress MAC ACL or Egress MAC ACL), but a mask can be bound to up to four
ACLs of the same type.
Command Usage
• Up to seven entries can be assigned to an ACL mask.
• Packets crossing a port are checked against all the rules in the ACL until a match
is found. The order in which these packets are checked is determined by the mask,
and not the order in which the ACL rules are entered.
• First create the required ACLs and the ingress or egress masks before mapping an
ACL to an interface.
• You must configure a mask for an ACL rule before you can bind it to a port or set
the queue or frame priorities associated with the rule.
Specifying the Mask Type
Use the ACL Mask Configuration page to edit the mask for the Ingress IP ACL,
Egress IP ACL, Ingress MAC ACL or Egress MAC ACL.
Web – Click Security, ACL, ACL Mask Configuration. Click Edit for one of the basic
mask types to open the configuration page.
Figure 3-35. Selecting ACL Mask Types
CLI – This example creates an IP ingress mask, and then adds two rules. Each rule
is checked in order of precedence to look for a match in the ACL entries. The first
entry matching a mask is applied to the inbound packet.
Console(config)#access-list ip mask-precedence in
Console(config-ip-mask-acl)#mask host any
Console(config-ip-mask-acl)#mask 255.255.255.0 any
Console(config-ip-mask-acl)#
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Configuring the Switch
Configuring an IP ACL Mask
This mask defines the fields to check in the IP header.
Command Usage
• Masks that include an entry for a Layer 4 protocol source port or destination port
can only be applied to packets with a header length of exactly five bytes.
Command Attributes
• Src/Dst IP – Specifies the source or destination IP address. Use “Any” to match
any address, “Host” to specify a host address (not a subnet), or “IP” to specify a
range of addresses. (Options: Any, Host, IP; Default: Any)
• Src/Dst IP Bitmask – Source or destination address of rule must match this
bitmask. (See the description for SubMask on page 3-53.)
• Protocol Bitmask – Check the protocol field.
• Service Type – Check the rule for the specified priority type.
(Options: Precedence, TOS, DSCP; Default: TOS)
• Src/Dst Port Bitmask – Protocol port of rule must match this bitmask.
(Range: 0-65535)
• Control Bitmask – Control flags of rule must match this bitmask. (Range: 0-63)
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3
Web – Configure the mask to match the required rules in the IP ingress or egress
ACLs. Set the mask to check for any source or destination address, a specific host
address, or an address range. Include other criteria to search for in the rules, such
as a protocol type or one of the service types. Or use a bitmask to search for specific
protocol port(s) or TCP control code(s). Then click Add.
Figure 3-36. ACL Mask Configuration - IP
CLI – This shows that the entries in the mask override the precedence in which the
rules are entered into the ACL. In the following example, packets with the source
address 10.1.1.1 are dropped because the “deny 10.1.1.1 255.255.255.255” rule
has the higher precedence according the “mask host any” entry.
Console(config)#access-list ip standard A2
Console(config-std-acl)#permit 10.1.1.0 255.255.255.0
Console(config-std-acl)#deny 10.1.1.1 255.255.255.255
Console(config-std-acl)#exit
Console(config)#access-list ip mask-precedence in
Console(config-ip-mask-acl)#mask host any
Console(config-ip-mask-acl)#mask 255.255.255.0 any
Console(config-ip-mask-acl)#
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Configuring the Switch
Configuring a MAC ACL Mask
This mask defines the fields to check in the packet header.
Command Usage
You must configure a mask for an ACL rule before you can bind it to a port.
Command Attributes
• Source/Destination MAC – Use “Any” to match any address, “Host” to specify the
host address for a single node, or “MAC” to specify a range of addresses.
(Options: Any, Host, MAC; Default: Any)
• Source/Destination MAC Bitmask – Address of rule must match this bitmask.
• VID Bitmask – VLAN ID of rule must match this bitmask.
• Ethernet Type Bitmask – Ethernet type of rule must match this bitmask.
• Packet Format Bitmask – A packet format must be specified in the rule.
Web – Configure the mask to match the required rules in the MAC ingress or egress
ACLs. Set the mask to check for any source or destination address, a host address,
or an address range. Use a bitmask to search for specific VLAN ID(s) or Ethernet
type(s). Or check for rules where a packet format was specified. Then click Add.
Figure 3-37. ACL Mask Configuration - MAC
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CLI – This example shows how to create an Ingress MAC ACL and bind it to a port.
You can then see that the order of the rules have been changed by the mask.
Console(config)#access-list mac M4
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Console(config-mac-acl)#permit any any
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Console(config-mac-acl)#deny tagged-eth2 00-11-11-11-11-11
ff-ff-ff-ff-ff-ff any vid 3
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Console(config-mac-acl)#end
Console#show access-list
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MAC access-list M4:
permit any any
deny tagged-eth2 host 00-11-11-11-11-11 any vid 3
Console(config)#access-list mac mask-precedence in
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Console(config-mac-mask-acl)#mask pktformat ff-ff-ff-ff-ff-ff any vid4-105
Console(config-mac-mask-acl)#exit
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/12
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Console(config-if)#mac access-group M4 in
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Console(config-if)#end
Console#show access-list
MAC access-list M4:
deny tagged-eth2 host 00-11-11-11-11-11 any vid 3
permit any any
MAC ingress mask ACL:
mask pktformat host any vid
Console#
Binding a Port to an Access Control List
After configuring the Access Control Lists (ACL), you can bind the ports that need to
filter traffic to the appropriate ACLs. You can only bind a port to one ACL for each
basic type – IP ingress, IP egress, MAC ingress and MAC egress.
Command Usage
• You must configure a mask for an ACL rule before you can bind it to a port.
• This switch supports ACLs for both ingress and egress filtering. However, you can
only bind one IP ACL and one MAC ACL to any port for ingress filtering, and one
IP ACL and one MAC ACL to any port for egress filtering. In other words, only four
ACLs can be bound to an interface – Ingress IP ACL, Egress IP ACL, Ingress MAC
ACL and Egress MAC ACL.
• When an ACL is bound to an interface as an egress filter, all entries in the ACL
must be deny rules. Otherwise, the bind operation will fail.
• The switch does not support the explicit “deny any any” rule for the egress IP ACL
or the egress MAC ACLs. If these rules are included in ACL, and you attempt to
bind the ACL to an interface for egress checking, the bind operation will fail.
Command Attributes
•
•
•
•
•
•
Port – Fixed port or SFP module. (Range: 1-24, 1-48)
IP – Specifies the IP ACL to bind to a port.
MAC – Specifies the MAC ACL to bind to a port.
IN – ACL for ingress packets.
OUT – ACL for egress packets.
ACL Name – Name of the ACL.
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Configuring the Switch
Web – Click Security, ACL, Port Binding. Mark the Enable field for the port you want
to bind to an ACL for ingress or egress traffic, select the required ACL from the
drop-down list, then click Apply.
Figure 3-38. ACL Port Binding
CLI – This examples assigns an IP and MAC ingress ACL to port 1, and an IP
ingress ACL to port 2.
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/1
Console(config-if)#ip access-group david in
Console(config-if)#mac access-group jerry in
Console(config-if)#exit
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/2
Console(config-if)#ip access-group david in
Console(config-if)#
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Port Configuration
Displaying Connection Status
You can use the Port Information or Trunk Information pages to display the current
connection status, including link state, speed/duplex mode, flow control, and
auto-negotiation.
Field Attributes (Web)
•
•
•
•
•
Name – Interface label.
Type – Indicates the port type. (1000BASE-T or SFP)
Admin Status – Shows if the interface is enabled or disabled.
Oper Status – Indicates if the link is Up or Down.
Speed Duplex Status – Shows the current speed and duplex mode.
(Auto, or fixed choice)
• Flow Control Status – Indicates the type of flow control currently in use.
(IEEE 802.3x, Back-Pressure or None)
• Autonegotiation – Shows if auto-negotiation is enabled or disabled.
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3
• Forced Mode1 – Shows the forced/preferred port type to use for combination ports
21-24 or 45-48. (Copper-Forced, Copper-Preferred-Auto, SFP-Forced,
SFP-Preferred-Auto)
• Trunk Member1 – Shows if port is a trunk member.
• Creation2 – Shows if a trunk is manually configured or dynamically set via LACP.
1: Port Information only.
2: Trunk Information only
Web – Click Port, Port Information or Trunk Information.
Figure 3-39. Port - Port Information
Field Attributes (CLI)
Basic information:
• Port type – Indicates the port type. (1000BASE-T or SFP)
• MAC address – The physical layer address for this port. (To access this item on
the web, see “Setting the Switch’s IP Address” on page 3-13.)
Configuration:
•
•
•
•
Name – Interface label.
Port admin – Shows if the interface is enabled or disabled (i.e., up or down).
Speed-duplex – Shows the current speed and duplex mode. (Auto, or fixed choice)
Capabilities – Specifies the capabilities to be advertised for a port during
auto-negotiation. (To access this item on the web, see “Configuring Interface
Connections” on page 3-48.) The following capabilities are supported.
• 10half - Supports 10 Mbps half-duplex operation
• 10full - Supports 10 Mbps full-duplex operation
• 100half - Supports 100 Mbps half-duplex operation
• 100full - Supports 100 Mbps full-duplex operation
• 1000full - Supports 1000 Mbps full-duplex operation
• Sym - Transmits and receives pause frames for flow control
• FC - Supports flow control
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Configuring the Switch
• Broadcast storm – Shows if broadcast storm control is enabled or disabled.
• Broadcast storm limit – Shows the broadcast storm threshold. (500 - 262143
packets per second)
• Flow control – Shows if flow control is enabled or disabled.
• LACP – Shows if LACP is enabled or disabled.
• Port Security – Shows if port security is enabled or disabled.
• Max MAC count – Shows the maximum number of MAC address that can be
learned by a port. (0 - 20 addresses)
• Port security action – Shows the response to take when a security violation is
detected. (shutdown, trap, trap-and-shutdown)
• Combo forced mode – Shows the forced/preferred port type to use for
combination ports 21-24 or 45-48. (copper forced, copper preferred auto, SFP
forced, SFP preferred auto)
Current status:
• Link Status – Indicates if the link is up or down.
• Operation speed-duplex – Shows the current speed and duplex mode.
• Flow control type – Indicates the type of flow control currently in use.
(IEEE 802.3x, Back-Pressure or none)
CLI – This example shows the connection status for Port 5.
Console#show interfaces status ethernet 1/5
Information of Eth 1/13
Basic information:
Port type: 1000T
Mac address: 00-30-f1-47-58-46
Configuration:
Name:
Port admin: Up
Speed-duplex: Auto
Capabilities: 10half, 10full, 100half, 100full, 1000full,
Broadcast storm: Enabled
Broadcast storm limit: 500 packets/second
Flow control: Disabled
Lacp: Disabled
Port security: Disabled
Max MAC count: 0
Port security action: None
Combo forced mode: None
Current status:
Link status: Down
Operation speed-duplex: 100full
Flow control type: None
Console#
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3
Configuring Interface Connections
You can use the Port Configuration or Trunk Configuration page to enable/disable an
interface, set auto-negotiation and the interface capabilities to advertise, or manually
fix the speed, duplex mode, and flow control.
Command Attributes
• Name – Allows you to label an interface. (Range: 1-64 characters)
• Admin – Allows you to manually disable an interface. You can disable an interface
due to abnormal behavior (e.g., excessive collisions), and then reenable it after the
problem has been resolved. You may also disable an interface for security
reasons.
• Speed/Duplex – Allows you to manually set the port speed and duplex mode.
• Flow Control – Allows automatic or manual selection of flow control.
• Autonegotiation (Port Capabilities) – Allows auto-negotiation to be enabled/
disabled. When auto-negotiation is enabled, you need to specify the capabilities to
be advertised. When auto-negotiation is disabled, you can force the settings for
speed, mode, and flow control.The following capabilities are supported.
- 10half - Supports 10 Mbps half-duplex operation
- 10full - Supports 10 Mbps full-duplex operation
- 100half - Supports 100 Mbps half-duplex operation
- 100full - Supports 100 Mbps full-duplex operation
- 1000full - Supports 1000 Mbps full-duplex operation
- Sym (Gigabit only) - Check this item to transmit and receive pause frames, or
clear it to auto-negotiate the sender and receiver for asymmetric pause frames.
(The current switch chip only supports symmetric pause frames.)
- FC - Supports flow control
Flow control can eliminate frame loss by “blocking” traffic from end stations or
segments connected directly to the switch when its buffers fill. When enabled,
back pressure is used for half-duplex operation and IEEE 802.3x for full-duplex
operation. (Avoid using flow control on a port connected to a hub unless it is
actually required to solve a problem. Otherwise back pressure jamming signals
may degrade overall performance for the segment attached to the hub.)
(Default: Autonegotiation enabled; Advertised capabilities for 1000BASE-T –
10half, 10full, 100half, 100full, 1000full; 1000BASE-SX/LX/LH – 1000full)
• Forced Mode – Shows the forced/preferred port type to use for the combination
ports 21-24 or 45-48.
- Copper-Forced - Always uses the built-in RJ-45 port.
- Copper-Preferred-Auto - Uses the built-in RJ-45 port if both combination types
are functioning and the RJ-45 port has a valid link.
- SFP-Forced - Always uses the SFP port (even if module is not installed).
- SFP-Preferred-Auto - Uses SFP port if both combination types are functioning
and the SFP port has a valid link.
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Configuring the Switch
• Trunk – Indicates if a port is a member of a trunk. To create trunks and select port
members, see “Creating Trunk Groups” on page 3-69.
Note: Auto-negotiation must be disabled before you can configure or force the interface
to use the Speed/Duplex Mode or Flow Control options.
Web – Click Port, Port Configuration or Trunk Configuration. Modify the required
interface settings, and click Apply.
Figure 3-40. Port - Port Configuration
CLI – Select the interface, and then enter the required settings.
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/13
Console(config-if)#description RD SW#13
Console(config-if)#shutdown
.
Console(config-if)#no shutdown
Console(config-if)#no negotiation
Console(config-if)#speed-duplex 100half
Console(config-if)#flowcontrol
.
Console(config-if)#negotiation
Console(config-if)#capabilities 100half
Console(config-if)#capabilities 100full
Console(config-if)#capabilities flowcontrol
Console(config-if)#exit
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/21
Console(config-if)#combo-forced-mode copper-forced
Console(config-if)#
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3
Creating Trunk Groups
You can create multiple links between devices that work as one virtual, aggregate
link. A port trunk offers a dramatic increase in bandwidth for network segments
where bottlenecks exist, as well as providing a fault-tolerant link between two
devices. You can create up to six trunks at a time.
The switch supports both static trunking and dynamic Link Aggregation Control
Protocol (LACP). Static trunks have to be manually configured at both ends of the
link, and the switches must comply with the Cisco EtherChannel standard. On the
other hand, LACP configured ports can automatically negotiate a trunked link with
LACP-configured ports on another device. You can configure any number of ports
on the switch as LACP, as long as they are not already configured as part of a static
trunk. If ports on another device are also configured as LACP, the switch and the
other device will negotiate a trunk link between them. If an LACP trunk consists of
more than four ports, all other ports will be placed in a standby mode. Should one
link in the trunk fail, one of the standby ports will automatically be activated to
replace it.
Command Usage
Besides balancing the load across each port in the trunk, the other ports provide
redundancy by taking over the load if a port in the trunk fails. However, before
making any physical connections between devices, use the web interface or CLI to
specify the trunk on the devices at both ends. When using a port trunk, take note of
the following points:
• Finish configuring port trunks before you connect the corresponding network
cables between switches to avoid creating a loop.
• You can create up to six trunks on the switch, with up to eight ports per trunk.
• The ports at both ends of a connection must be configured as trunk ports.
• When configuring static trunks on switches of different types, they must be
compatible with the Cisco EtherChannel standard.
• The ports at both ends of a trunk must be configured in an identical manner,
including communication mode (i.e., speed, duplex mode and flow control), VLAN
assignments, and CoS settings.
• All the ports in a trunk have to be treated as a whole when moved from/to, added
or deleted from a VLAN.
• STP, VLAN, and IGMP settings can only be made for the entire trunk.
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Configuring the Switch
Statically Configuring a Trunk
Command Usage
statically
configured
}
• When configuring static trunks, you may not be
able to link switches of different types,
depending on the manufacturer’s
implementation. However, note that the static
trunks on this switch are Cisco EtherChannel
compatible.
• To avoid creating a loop in the network, be sure
you add a static trunk via the configuration
interface before connecting the ports, and also
disconnect the ports before removing a static
trunk via the configuration interface.
active
links
Web – Click Port, Trunk Membership. Enter a trunk ID of 1-6 in the Trunk field,
select any of the switch ports from the scroll-down port list, and click Add. After you
have completed adding ports to the member list, click Apply.
Figure 3-41. Static Trunk Configuration
3-70
Port Configuration
3
CLI – This example creates trunk 2 with ports 1 and 2. Just connect these ports to
two static trunk ports on another switch to form a trunk.
Console(config)#interface port-channel 1
Console(config-if)#exit
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/1
Console(config-if)#channel-group 1
Console(config-if)#exit
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/2
Console(config-if)#channel-group 1
Console(config-if)#end
Console#show interfaces status port-channel 1
Information of Trunk 1
Basic information:
Port type: 1000T
Mac address: 00-00-E8-AA-AA-01
Configuration:
Name:
Port admin: Up
Speed-duplex: Auto
Capabilities: 10half, 10full, 100half, 100full, 1000full,
Flow control: Disabled
Port security: Disabled
Max MAC count: 0
Current status:
Created by: User
Link status: Down
Operation speed-duplex: 1000full
Flow control type: None
Member Ports: Eth1/1, Eth1/2,
Console#
4-125
4-125
4-140
4-133
Enabling LACP on Selected Ports
Command Usage
}
}
• To avoid creating a loop in the network, be sure
dynamically
enabled
you enable LACP before connecting the ports,
and also disconnect the ports before disabling
LACP.
active
backup
• If the target switch has also enabled LACP on the
links
link
connected ports, the trunk will be activated
automatically.
• A trunk formed with another switch using LACP
will automatically be assigned the next available
configured
members
trunk ID.
• If more than four ports attached to the same target
switch have LACP enabled, the additional ports will be placed in standby mode,
and will only be enabled if one of the active links fails.
• All ports on both ends of an LACP trunk must be configured for full duplex, either
by forced mode or auto-negotiation.
3-71
3
Configuring the Switch
Web – Click Port, LACP, Configuration. Select any of the switch ports from the
scroll-down port list and click Add. After you have completed adding ports to the
member list, click Apply.
Figure 3-42. LACP Trunk Configuration
CLI – The following example enables LACP for ports 1 to 6. Just connect these ports
to LACP-enabled trunk ports on another switch to form a trunk.
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/1
Console(config-if)#lacp
Console(config-if)#exit
.
.
.
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/6
Console(config-if)#lacp
Console(config-if)#end
Console#show interfaces status port-channel 1
Information of Trunk 1
Basic information:
Port type: 1000T
Mac address: 22-22-22-22-22-2d
Configuration:
Name:
Port admin status: Up
Speed-duplex: Auto
Capabilities: 10half, 10full, 100half, 100full, 1000full,
Flow control status: Disabled
Port security: Disabled
Max MAC count: 0
Port security action: None
Combo forced mode: None
Current status:
Created by: Lacp
Link status: Up
Port operation status: Up
Operation speed-duplex: 1000full
Flow control type: None
Member Ports: Eth1/1, Eth1/2, Eth1/3, Eth1/4, Eth1/5, Eth1/6,
Console#
3-72
4-125
4-141
4-133
Port Configuration
3
Configuring LACP Parameters
Dynamically Creating a Port Channel –
Ports assigned to a common port channel must meet the following criteria:
• Ports must have the same LACP System Priority.
• Ports must have the same LACP port Admin Key.
• However, if the “port channel” Admin Key is set (page 4-142), then the port Admin
Key must be set to the same value for a port to be allowed to join a channel group.
Note – If the port channel admin key (lacp admin key, page 4-144) is not set (through
the CLI) when a channel group is formed (i.e., it has a null value of 0), this key is set to
the same value as the port admin key used by the interfaces that joined the group (lacp
admin key, as described in this section and on page 4-143).
Command Attributes
Set Port Actor – This menu sets the local side of an aggregate link; i.e., the ports on
this switch.
• Port – Port number. (Range:1-24, 1-48)
• System Priority – LACP system priority is used to determine link aggregation
group (LAG) membership, and to identify this device to other switches during LAG
negotiations. (Range: 0-65535; Default: 32768)
- Ports must be configured with the same system priority to join the same LAG.
- System priority is combined with the switch’s MAC address to form the LAG
identifier. This identifier is used to indicate a specific LAG during LACP
negotiations with other systems.
• Admin Key – The LACP administration key must be set to the same value for ports
that belong to the same LAG. (Range: 0-65535; Default: 0)
• Port Priority – If a link goes down, LACP port priority is used to select a backup
link. (Range: 0-65535; Default: 32768)
Set Port Partner – This menu sets the remote side of an aggregate link; i.e., the
ports on the attached device. The command attributes have the same meaning as
those used for the port actor. However, configuring LACP settings for the partner
only applies to its administrative state, not its operational state, and will only take
effect the next time an aggregate link is established with the partner.
3-73
3
Configuring the Switch
Web – Click Port, LACP, Aggregation Port. Set the System Priority, Admin Key, and
Port Priority for the Port Actor. You can optionally configure these settings for the
Port Partner. (Be aware that these settings only affect the administrative state of the
partner, and will not take effect until the next time an aggregate link is formed with
this device.) After you have completed setting the port LACP parameters, click Apply.
Figure 3-43. LACP - Aggregation Port
3-74
Port Configuration
3
CLI – The following example configures LACP parameters for ports 1-6. Ports 1-4
are used as active members of the LAG; ports 5 and 6 are set to backup mode.
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/1
4-125
Console(config-if)#lacp actor system-priority 3
4-142
Console(config-if)#lacp actor admin-key 120
4-143
Console(config-if)#lacp actor port-priority 128
4-144
Console(config-if)#exit
.
.
.
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/6
Console(config-if)#lacp actor system-priority 3
Console(config-if)#lacp actor admin-key 120
Console(config-if)#lacp actor port-priority 512
Console(config-if)#end
Console#show lacp sysid
4-145
Channel Group
System Priority
System MAC Address
------------------------------------------------------------------------1
32768
00-00-E9-31-31-31
2
32768
00-00-E9-31-31-31
3
32768
00-00-E9-31-31-31
4
32768
00-00-E9-31-31-31
5
32768
00-00-E9-31-31-31
6
32768
00-00-E9-31-31-31
Console#show lacp 1 internal
4-145
Channel group : 1
------------------------------------------------------------------------Oper Key : 120
Admin Key : 120
Console#
3-75
3
Configuring the Switch
Displaying LACP Port Counters
You can display statistics for LACP protocol messages.
Table 3-6. LACP Port Counters
Field
Description
LACPDUs Sent
Number of valid LACPDUs transmitted from this channel group.
LACPDUs Received
Number of valid LACPDUs received on this channel group.
Marker Sent
Number of valid Marker PDUs transmitted from this channel group.
Marker Received
Number of valid Marker PDUs received by this channel group.
LACPDUs Unknown Pkts
Number of frames received that either (1) Carry the Slow Protocols
Ethernet Type value, but contain an unknown PDU, or (2) are addressed
to the Slow Protocols group MAC Address, but do not carry the Slow
Protocols Ethernet Type.
LACPDUs Illegal Pkts
Number of frames that carry the Slow Protocols Ethernet Type value, but
contain a badly formed PDU or an illegal value of Protocol Subtype.
Web – Click Port, LACP, Port Counters Information. Select a member port to display
the corresponding information.
Figure 3-44. LACP - Port Counters Information
CLI – The following example displays LACP counters for port channel 1.
Console#show lacp 1 counters
4-145
Channel group : 1
------------------------------------------------------------------------Eth 1/ 1
------------------------------------------------------------------------LACPDUs Sent : 21
LACPDUs Received : 21
Marker Sent : 0
Marker Received : 0
LACPDUs Unknown Pkts : 0
LACPDUs Illegal Pkts : 0
.
.
.
Console#
3-76
Port Configuration
3
Displaying LACP Settings and Status for the Local Side
You can display configuration settings and the operational state for the local side of
an link aggregation.
Table 3-7. LACP Internal Configuration Information
Field
Description
Oper Key
Current operational value of the key for the aggregation port.
Admin Key
Current administrative value of the key for the aggregation port.
LACPDUs Internal
Number of seconds before invalidating received LACPDU information.
LACP System Priority
LACP system priority assigned to this port channel.
LACP Port Priority
LACP port priority assigned to this interface within the channel group.
Admin State,
Oper State
Administrative or operational values of the actor’s state parameters:
• Expired – The actor’s receive machine is in the expired state;
• Defaulted – The actor’s receive machine is using defaulted operational partner
information, administratively configured for the partner.
• Distributing – If false, distribution of outgoing frames on this link is disabled; i.e.,
distribution is currently disabled and is not expected to be enabled in the absence
of administrative changes or changes in received protocol information.
• Collecting – Collection of incoming frames on this link is enabled; i.e., collection
is currently enabled and is not expected to be disabled in the absence of
administrative changes or changes in received protocol information.
• Synchronization – The System considers this link to be IN_SYNC; i.e., it has
been allocated to the correct Link Aggregation Group, the group has been
associated with a compatible Aggregator, and the identity of the Link Aggregation
Group is consistent with the System ID and operational Key information
transmitted.
• Aggregation – The system considers this link to be aggregatable; i.e., a potential
candidate for aggregation.
• Long timeout – Periodic transmission of LACPDUs uses a slow transmission rate.
• LACP-Activity – Activity control value with regard to this link.
(0: Passive; 1: Active)
3-77
3
Configuring the Switch
Web – Click Port, LACP, Port Internal Information. Select a port channel to display
the corresponding information.
Figure 3-45. LACP - Port Internal Information
CLI – The following example displays the LACP configuration settings and
operational state for the local side of port channel 1.
Console#show lacp 1 internal
4-145
Channel group : 1
------------------------------------------------------------------------Oper Key : 4
Admin Key : 0
Eth 1/1
------------------------------------------------------------------------LACPDUs Internal : 30 sec
LACP System Priority : 32768
LACP Port Priority : 32768
Admin Key : 4
Oper Key : 4
Admin State : defaulted, aggregation, long timeout, LACP-activity
Oper State : distributing, collecting, synchronization, aggregation,
long timeout, LACP-activity
.
.
.
Console#
3-78
Port Configuration
3
Displaying LACP Settings and Status for the Remote Side
You can display configuration settings and the operational state for the remote side
of an link aggregation.
Table 3-8. LACP Neighbor Configuration Information
Field
Description
Partner Admin System ID
LAG partner’s system ID assigned by the user.
Partner Oper System ID
LAG partner’s system ID assigned by the LACP protocol.
Partner Admin Port Number Current administrative value of the port number for the protocol Partner.
Partner Oper Port Number
Operational port number assigned to this aggregation port by the port’s
protocol partner.
Port Admin Priority
Current administrative value of the port priority for the protocol partner.
Port Oper Priority
Priority value assigned to this aggregation port by the partner.
Admin Key
Current administrative value of the Key for the protocol partner.
Oper Key
Current operational value of the Key for the protocol partner.
Admin State
Administrative values of the partner’s state parameters. (See preceding table.)
Oper State
Operational values of the partner’s state parameters. (See preceding table.)
Web – Click Port, LACP, Port Neighbors Information. Select a port channel to
display the corresponding information.
Figure 3-46. LACP - Port Neighbors Information
3-79
3
Configuring the Switch
CLI – The following example displays the LACP configuration settings and
operational state for the remote side of port channel 1.
Console#show lacp 1 neighbors
4-145
Channel group 1 neighbors
------------------------------------------------------------------------Eth 1/1
------------------------------------------------------------------------Partner Admin System ID : 32768, 00-00-00-00-00-00
Partner Oper System ID : 32768, 00-00-00-00-00-01
Partner Admin Port Number : 1
Partner Oper Port Number : 1
Port Admin Priority : 32768
Port Oper Priority : 32768
Admin Key : 0
Oper Key : 4
Admin State : defaulted, distributing, collecting, synchronization,
long timeout,
Oper State : distributing, collecting, synchronization, aggregation,
long timeout, LACP-activity
.
.
.
Console#
Setting Broadcast Storm Thresholds
Broadcast storms may occur when a device on your network is malfunctioning, or if
application programs are not well designed or properly configured. If there is too
much broadcast traffic on your network, performance can be severely degraded or
everything can come to complete halt.
You can protect your network from broadcast storms by setting a threshold for
broadcast traffic for each port. Any broadcast packets exceeding the specified
threshold will then be dropped.
Command Usage
•
•
•
•
Broadcast Storm Control is enabled by default.
The default threshold is 500 packets per second.
Broadcast control does not effect IP multicast traffic.
The specified threshold applies to all ports on the switch.
Command Attributes
• Port – Port number.
• Type – Indicates the port type. (1000BASE-T or SFP)
• Protect Status – Shows whether or not broadcast storm control has been enabled.
(Default: Enabled)
• Threshold – Threshold as percentage of port bandwidth.
(Range: 500-262143 packets per second; Default: 500)
• Trunk – Shows if port is a trunk member.
3-80
3
Port Configuration
Web – Click Port, Port/Trunk Broadcast Control. Check the Enabled box for any
interface, set the threshold and click Apply.
Figure 3-47. Port Broadcast Control
CLI – Specify any interface, and then enter the threshold. The following disables
broadcast storm control for port 1, and then sets broadcast suppression at 600
packets per second for port 2.
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/1
Console(config-if)#no switchport broadcast
Console(config-if)#exit
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/2
Console(config-if)#switchport broadcast packet-rate 600
Console(config-if)#end
Console#show interfaces switchport ethernet 1/2
Information of Eth 1/2
Broadcast threshold: Enabled, 600 packets/second
Lacp status: Disabled
Ingress rate limit: disable,1000M bits per second
Egress rate limit: disable,1000M bits per second
VLAN membership mode: Hybrid
Ingress rule: Disabled
Acceptable frame type: All frames
Native VLAN: 1
Priority for untagged traffic: 0
Gvrp status: Disabled
Allowed Vlan:
1(u),
Forbidden Vlan:
Console#
4-125
4-131
4-131
4-135
3-81
3
Configuring the Switch
Configuring Port Mirroring
You can mirror traffic from any source port to a
target port for real-time analysis. You can then
attach a logic analyzer or RMON probe to the
target port and study the traffic crossing the
source port in a completely unobtrusive manner.
Source
port(s)
Command Usage
Single
target
port
• Monitor port speed should match or exceed source port speed, otherwise traffic
may be dropped from the monitor port.
• All mirror sessions have to share the same destination port.
• When mirroring port traffic, the target port must be included in the same VLAN as
the source port.
Command Attributes
• Mirror Sessions – Displays a list of current mirror sessions.
• Source Port – The port whose traffic will be monitored.
• Type – Allows you to select which traffic to mirror to the target port, Rx (receive),
Tx (transmit), or Both.
• Target Port – The port that will “duplicate” or “mirror” the traffic on the source port.
Web – Click Port, Mirror Port configuration. Specify the source port, the traffic type to
be mirrored, and the monitor port, then click Add.
Figure 3-48. Mirror Port Configuration
CLI – Use the interface command to select the monitor port, then use the port
monitor command to specify the source port. Note that default mirroring under the
CLI is for both received and transmitted packets.
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/10
Console(config-if)#port monitor ethernet 1/13
Console(config-if)#
3-82
4-125
4-136
Port Configuration
3
Configuring Rate Limits
This function allows the network manager to control the maximum rate for traffic
transmitted or received on an interface. Rate limiting is configured on interfaces at
the edge of a network to limit traffic coming out of the switch. Traffic that falls within
the rate limit is transmitted, while packets that exceed the acceptable amount of
traffic are dropped.
Rate limiting can be applied to individual ports or trunks. When an interface is
configured with this feature, the traffic rate will be monitored by the hardware to
verify conformity. Non-conforming traffic is dropped, conforming traffic is forwarded
without any changes.
Command Attribute
• Rate Limit – Sets the output rate limit for an interface.
Default Status – Disabled
Default Rate – 1000 Mbps
Range – 1 - 1000 Mbps
Web – Click Rate Limit, Input/Output Port/Trunk Configuration. Set the Input Rate
Limit Status or Output Rate Limit Status, then set the rate limit for the individual
interfaces, and click Apply.
Figure 3-49. Rate Limit Configuration
CLI - This example sets the rate limit for input and output traffic passing through
port 1 to 600 Mbps.
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/1
Console(config-if)#rate-limit input 600
Console(config-if)#rate-limit output 600
Console(config-if)#
4-125
4-138
3-83
3
Configuring the Switch
Showing Port Statistics
You can display standard statistics on network traffic from the Interfaces Group and
Ethernet-like MIBs, as well as a detailed breakdown of traffic based on the RMON
MIB. Interfaces and Ethernet-like statistics display errors on the traffic passing
through each port. This information can be used to identify potential problems with
the switch (such as a faulty port or unusually heavy loading). RMON statistics
provide access to a broad range of statistics, including a total count of different
frame types and sizes passing through each port. All values displayed have been
accumulated since the last system reboot, and are shown as counts per second.
Statistics are refreshed every 60 seconds by default.
Note: RMON groups 2, 3 and 9 can only be accessed using SNMP management
software such as HP OpenView.
Table 3-9. Port Statistics
Parameter
Description
Interface Statistics
Received Octets
The total number of octets received on the interface, including framing
characters.
Received Unicast Packets
The number of subnetwork-unicast packets delivered to a higher-layer
protocol.
Received Multicast Packets
The number of packets, delivered by this sub-layer to a higher (sub-)layer,
which were addressed to a multicast address at this sub-layer.
Received Broadcast Packets
The number of packets, delivered by this sub-layer to a higher (sub-)layer,
which were addressed to a broadcast address at this sub-layer.
Received Discarded Packets
The number of inbound packets which were chosen to be discarded even
though no errors had been detected to prevent their being deliverable to a
higher-layer protocol. One possible reason for discarding such a packet
could be to free up buffer space.
Received Unknown Packets
The number of packets received via the interface which were discarded
because of an unknown or unsupported protocol.
Received Errors
The number of inbound packets that contained errors preventing them
from being deliverable to a higher-layer protocol.
Transmit Octets
The total number of octets transmitted out of the interface, including
framing characters.
Transmit Unicast Packets
The total number of packets that higher-level protocols requested be
transmitted to a subnetwork-unicast address, including those that were
discarded or not sent.
Transmit Multicast Packets
The total number of packets that higher-level protocols requested be
transmitted, and which were addressed to a multicast address at this
sub-layer, including those that were discarded or not sent.
Transmit Broadcast Packets
The total number of packets that higher-level protocols requested be
transmitted, and which were addressed to a broadcast address at this
sub-layer, including those that were discarded or not sent.
3-84
3
Port Configuration
Table 3-9. Port Statistics
Parameter
Description
Transmit Discarded Packets
The number of outbound packets which were chosen to be discarded even
though no errors had been detected to prevent their being transmitted.
One possible reason for discarding such a packet could be to free up
buffer space.
Transmit Errors
The number of outbound packets that could not be transmitted because of
errors.
Etherlike Statistics
Alignment Errors
The number of alignment errors (missynchronized data packets).
Late Collisions
The number of times that a collision is detected later than 512 bit-times
into the transmission of a packet.
FCS Errors
A count of frames received on a particular interface that are an integral
number of octets in length but do not pass the FCS check. This count does
not include frames received with frame-too-long or frame-too-short error.
Excessive Collisions
A count of frames for which transmission on a particular interface fails due
to excessive collisions. This counter does not increment when the
interface is operating in full-duplex mode.
Single Collision Frames
The number of successfully transmitted frames for which transmission is
inhibited by exactly one collision.
Internal MAC Transmit Errors
A count of frames for which transmission on a particular interface fails due
to an internal MAC sublayer transmit error.
Multiple Collision Frames
A count of successfully transmitted frames for which transmission is
inhibited by more than one collision.
Carrier Sense Errors
The number of times that the carrier sense condition was lost or never
asserted when attempting to transmit a frame.
SQE Test Errors
A count of times that the SQE TEST ERROR message is generated by the
PLS sublayer for a particular interface.
Frames Too Long
A count of frames received on a particular interface that exceed the
maximum permitted frame size.
Deferred Transmissions
A count of frames for which the first transmission attempt on a particular
interface is delayed because the medium was busy.
Internal MAC Receive Errors
A count of frames for which reception on a particular interface fails due to
an internal MAC sublayer receive error.
RMON Statistics
Drop Events
The total number of events in which packets were dropped due to lack of
resources.
Jabbers
The total number of frames received that were longer than 1518 octets
(excluding framing bits, but including FCS octets), and had either an FCS
or alignment error.
Received Bytes
Total number of bytes of data received on the network. This statistic can
be used as a reasonable indication of Ethernet utilization.
Collisions
The best estimate of the total number of collisions on this Ethernet
segment.
3-85
3
Configuring the Switch
Table 3-9. Port Statistics
Parameter
Description
Received Frames
The total number of frames (bad, broadcast and multicast) received.
Broadcast Frames
The total number of good frames received that were directed to the
broadcast address. Note that this does not include multicast packets.
Multicast Frames
The total number of good frames received that were directed to this
multicast address.
CRC/Alignment Errors
The number of CRC/alignment errors (FCS or alignment errors).
Undersize Frames
The total number of frames received that were less than 64 octets long
(excluding framing bits, but including FCS octets) and were otherwise well
formed.
Oversize Frames
The total number of frames received that were longer than 1518 octets
(excluding framing bits, but including FCS octets) and were otherwise well
formed.
Fragments
The total number of frames received that were less than 64 octets in length
(excluding framing bits, but including FCS octets) and had either an FCS
or alignment error.
64 Bytes Frames
The total number of frames (including bad packets) received and
transmitted that were 64 octets in length (excluding framing bits but
including FCS octets).
65-127 Byte Frames
128-255 Byte Frames
256-511 Byte Frames
512-1023 Byte Frames
1024-1518 Byte Frames
1519-1536 Byte Frames
The total number of frames (including bad packets) received and
transmitted where the number of octets fall within the specified range
(excluding framing bits but including FCS octets).
3-86
Port Configuration
3
Web – Click Port, Port Statistics. Select the required interface, and click Query. You
can also use the Refresh button at the bottom of the page to update the screen.
Figure 3-50. Port Statistics
3-87
3
Configuring the Switch
CLI – This example shows statistics for port 13.
Console#show interfaces counters ethernet 1/13
4-134
Ethernet 1/13
Iftable stats:
Octets input: 868453, Octets output: 3492122
Unicast input: 7315, Unitcast output: 6658
Discard input: 0, Discard output: 0
Error input: 0, Error output: 0
Unknown protos input: 0, QLen output: 0
Extended iftable stats:
Multi-cast input: 0, Multi-cast output: 17027
Broadcast input: 231, Broadcast output: 7
Ether-like stats:
Alignment errors: 0, FCS errors: 0
Single Collision frames: 0, Multiple collision frames: 0
SQE Test errors: 0, Deferred transmissions: 0
Late collisions: 0, Excessive collisions: 0
Internal mac transmit errors: 0, Internal mac receive errors: 0
Frame too longs: 0, Carrier sense errors: 0
Symbol errors: 0
RMON stats:
Drop events: 0, Octets: 4422579, Packets: 31552
Broadcast pkts: 238, Multi-cast pkts: 17033
Undersize pkts: 0, Oversize pkts: 0
Fragments: 0, Jabbers: 0
CRC align errors: 0, Collisions: 0
Packet size <= 64 octets: 25568, Packet size 65 to 127 octets: 1616
Packet size 128 to 255 octets: 1249, Packet size 256 to 511 octets: 1449
Packet size 512 to 1023 octets: 802, Packet size 1024 to 1518 octets: 871
Console#
Address Table Settings
Switches store the addresses for all known devices. This information is used to pass
traffic directly between the inbound and outbound ports. All the addresses learned
by monitoring traffic are stored in the dynamic address table. You can also manually
configure static addresses that are bound to a specific port.
Setting Static Addresses
A static address can be assigned to a specific interface on this switch. Static
addresses are bound to the assigned interface and will not be moved. When a static
address is seen on another interface, the address will be ignored and will not be
written to the address table.
Command Attributes
•
•
•
•
•
Static Address Counts* – The number of manually configured addresses.
Current Static Address Table – Lists all the static addresses.
Interface – Port or trunk associated with the device assigned a static address.
MAC Address – Physical address of a device mapped to this interface.
VLAN – ID of configured VLAN (1-4094).
*
Web Only
3-88
3
Address Table Settings
Web – Click Address Table, Static Addresses. Specify the interface, the MAC
address and VLAN, then click Add Static Address. Then set this as a permanent
address or to be deleted on reset.
Figure 3-51. Static Addresses
CLI – This example adds an address to the static address table, but sets it to be
deleted when the switch is reset.
Console(config)#mac-address-table static 00-e0-29-94-34-de interface
ethernet 1/1 vlan 1 delete-on-reset
4-150
Console(config)#
Displaying the Address Table
The Dynamic Address Table contains the MAC addresses learned by monitoring the
source address for traffic entering the switch. When the destination address for
inbound traffic is found in the database, the packets intended for that address are
forwarded directly to the associated port. Otherwise, the traffic is flooded to all ports.
Command Attributes
•
•
•
•
Interface – Indicates a port or trunk.
MAC Address – Physical address associated with this interface.
VLAN – ID of configured VLAN (1-4094).
Address Table Sort Key – You can sort the information displayed based on MAC
address, VLAN or interface (port or trunk).
• Dynamic Address Counts – The number of addresses dynamically learned.
• Current Dynamic Address Table – Lists all the dynamic addresses.
3-89
3
Configuring the Switch
Web – Click Address Table, Dynamic Addresses. Specify the search type (i.e., mark
the Interface, MAC Address, or VLAN checkbox), select the method of sorting the
displayed addresses, and then click Query.
Figure 3-52. Dynamic Addresses
CLI – This example also displays the address table entries for port 1.
Console#show mac-address-table interface ethernet 1/1
Interface Mac Address
Vlan Type
--------- ----------------- ---- ----------------Eth 1/ 1 00-E0-29-94-34-DE
1 Permanent
Eth 1/ 1 00-20-9C-23-CD-60
2 Learned
Console#
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Spanning Tree Algorithm Configuration
3
Changing the Aging Time
You can set the aging time for entries in the dynamic address table.
Command Attributes
• Aging Status – Enables or disables the aging time.
• Aging Time – The time after which a learned entry is discarded.
(Range: 10-1000000 seconds; Default: 300 seconds)
Web – Click Address Table, Address Aging. Specify the new aging time, click Apply.
Figure 3-53. Address Aging
CLI – This example sets the aging time to 400 seconds.
Console(config)#mac-address-table aging-time 400
Console(config)#
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Spanning Tree Algorithm Configuration
The Spanning Tree Algorithm (STA) can be used to detect and disable network
loops, and to provide backup links between switches, bridges or routers. This allows
the switch to interact with other bridging devices (that is, an STA-compliant switch,
bridge or router) in your network to ensure that only one route exists between any
two stations on the network, and provide backup links which automatically take over
when a primary link goes down.
The spanning tree algorithms supported by this switch include these versions:
• STP – Spanning Tree Protocol (IEEE 802.1D)
• RSTP – Rapid Spanning Tree Protocol (IEEE 802.1w)
• MSTP – Multiple Spanning Tree Protocol (IEEE 802.1s)
STA uses a distributed algorithm to select a bridging device (STA-compliant switch,
bridge or router) that serves as the root of the spanning tree network. It selects a
root port on each bridging device (except for the root device) which incurs the lowest
path cost when forwarding a packet from that device to the root device. Then it
selects a designated bridging device from each LAN which incurs the lowest path
cost when forwarding a packet from that LAN to the root device. All ports connected
to designated bridging devices are assigned as designated ports. After determining
the lowest cost spanning tree, it enables all root ports and designated ports, and
disables all other ports. Network packets are therefore only forwarded between root
ports and designated ports, eliminating any possible network loops.
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Configuring the Switch
Designated
Root
x
x
x
Designated
Bridge
x
Designated
Port
Root
Port
x
Once a stable network topology has been established, all bridges listen for Hello
BPDUs (Bridge Protocol Data Units) transmitted from the Root Bridge. If a bridge
does not get a Hello BPDU after a predefined interval (Maximum Age), the bridge
assumes that the link to the Root Bridge is down. This bridge will then initiate
negotiations with other bridges to reconfigure the network to reestablish a valid
network topology.
RSTP is designed as a general replacement for the slower, legacy STP. RSTP is
also incorporated into MSTP. RSTP achieves must faster reconfiguration (i.e.,
around one tenth of the time required by STP) by reducing the number of state
changes before active ports start learning, predefining an alternate route that can be
used when a node or port fails, and retaining the forwarding database for ports
insensitive to changes in the tree structure when reconfiguration occurs.
When using STP or RSTP, it may be difficult to maintain a stable path between all
VLAN members. Frequent changes in the tree structure can easily isolate some of
the group members. MSTP (an extension of RSTP) is designed to support
independent spanning trees based on VLAN groups. Once you specify the VLANs to
include in a Multiple Spanning Tree Instance (MSTI), the protocol will automatically
build an MSTI tree to maintain connectivity among each of the VLANs. MSTP
maintains contact with the global network because each instance is treated as an
RSTP node in the Common Spanning Tree (CST).
Displaying Global Settings
You can display a summary of the current bridge STA information that applies to the
entire switch using the STA Information screen.
Field Attributes
• Spanning Tree State – Shows if the switch is enabled to participate in an
STA-compliant network.
• Bridge ID – A unique identifier for this bridge, consisting of the bridge priority and
MAC address (where the address is taken from the switch system).
• Max Age – The maximum time (in seconds) a device can wait without receiving a
configuration message before attempting to reconfigure. All device ports (except
for designated ports) should receive configuration messages at regular intervals.
Any port that ages out STA information (provided in the last configuration
message) becomes the designated port for the attached LAN. If it is a root port, a
new root port is selected from among the device ports attached to the network.
(References to “ports” in this section mean “interfaces,” which includes both ports
and trunks.)
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Spanning Tree Algorithm Configuration
3
• Hello Time – Interval (in seconds) at which the root device transmits a
configuration message.
• Forward Delay – The maximum time (in seconds) the root device will wait before
changing states (i.e., discarding to learning to forwarding). This delay is required
because every device must receive information about topology changes before it
starts to forward frames. In addition, each port needs time to listen for conflicting
information that would make it return to a discarding state; otherwise, temporary
data loops might result.
• Designated Root – The priority and MAC address of the device in the Spanning
Tree that this switch has accepted as the root device.
• Root Port – The number of the port on this switch that is closest to the root. This
switch communicates with the root device through this port. If there is no root
port, then this switch has been accepted as the root device of the Spanning Tree
network.
• Root Path Cost – The path cost from the root port on this switch to the root
device.
• Configuration Changes – The number of times the Spanning Tree has been
reconfigured.
• Last Topology Change – Time since the Spanning Tree was last reconfigured.
These additional parameters are only displayed for the CLI:
• Spanning tree mode – Specifies the type of spanning tree used on this switch:
- STP: Spanning Tree Protocol (IEEE 802.1D)
- RSTP: Rapid Spanning Tree (IEEE 802.1w)
- MSTP: Multiple Spanning Tree (IEEE 802.1s)
• Instance – Instance identifier of this spanning tree. (This is always 0 for the CIST.)
• Vlans configuration – VLANs assigned to the CIST.
• Priority – Bridge priority is used in selecting the root device, root port, and
designated port. The device with the highest priority becomes the STA root device.
However, if all devices have the same priority, the device with the lowest MAC
address will then become the root device.
• Root Hello Time – Interval (in seconds) at which this device transmits a
configuration message.
• Root Maximum Age – The maximum time (in seconds) this device can wait
without receiving a configuration message before attempting to reconfigure. All
device ports (except for designated ports) should receive configuration messages
at regular intervals. If the root port ages out STA information (provided in the last
configuration message), a new root port is selected from among the device ports
attached to the network. (References to “ports” in this section means “interfaces,”
which includes both ports and trunks.)
• Root Forward Delay – The maximum time (in seconds) this device will wait before
changing states (i.e., discarding to learning to forwarding). This delay is required
because every device must receive information about topology changes before it
starts to forward frames. In addition, each port needs time to listen for conflicting
3-93
3
•
•
•
•
•
Configuring the Switch
information that would make it return to a discarding state; otherwise, temporary
data loops might result.
Root Hold Time – The interval (in seconds) during which no more than two bridge
configuration protocol data units shall be transmitted by this node.
Max hops – The max number of hop counts for the MST region.
Remaining hops – The remaining number of hop counts for the MST instance.
Transmission limit – The minimum interval between the transmission of
consecutive RSTP/MSTP BPDUs.
Path Cost Method – The path cost is used to determine the best path between
devices. The path cost method is used to determine the range of values that can
be assigned to each interface.
Web – Click Spanning Tree, STA, Information.
Figure 3-54. STA Information
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Spanning Tree Algorithm Configuration
3
CLI – This command displays global STA settings, followed by settings for each port.
Console#show spanning-tree
Spanning-tree information
--------------------------------------------------------------Spanning tree mode
:MSTP
Spanning tree enable/disable
:enable
Instance
:0
Vlans configuration
:1-4094
Priority
:32768
Bridge Hello Time (sec.)
:2
Bridge Max Age (sec.)
:20
Bridge Forward Delay (sec.)
:15
Root Hello Time (sec.)
:2
Root Max Age (sec.)
:20
Root Forward Delay (sec.)
:15
Max hops
:20
Remaining hops
:20
Designated Root
:32768.0.0000ABCD0000
Current root port
:1
Current root cost
:200000
Number of topology changes
:1
Last topology changes time (sec.):13380
Transmission limit
:3
Path Cost Method
:long
.
.
.
4-170
Note: The current root port and current root cost display as zero when this device is not
connected to the network.
Configuring Global Settings
Global settings apply to the entire switch.
Command Usage
• Spanning Tree Protocol
Uses RSTP for the internal state machine, but sends only 802.1D BPDUs. This
creates one spanning tree instance for the entire network. If multiple VLANs are
implemented on a network, the path between specific VLAN members may be
inadvertently disabled to prevent network loops, thus isolating group members.
When operating multiple VLANs, we recommend selecting the MSTP option.
• Rapid Spanning Tree Protocol
RSTP supports connections to either STP or RSTP nodes by monitoring the
incoming protocol messages and dynamically adjusting the type of protocol
messages the RSTP node transmits, as described below:
- STP Mode – If the switch receives an 802.1D BPDU (i.e., STP BPDU) after a
port’s migration delay timer expires, the switch assumes it is connected to an
802.1D bridge and starts using only 802.1D BPDUs.
- RSTP Mode – If RSTP is using 802.1D BPDUs on a port and receives an RSTP
BPDU after the migration delay expires, RSTP restarts the migration delay timer
and begins using RSTP BPDUs on that port.
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Configuring the Switch
• Multiple Spanning Tree Protocol
- To allow multiple spanning trees to operate over the network, you must configure
a related set of bridges with the same MSTP configuration, allowing them to
participate in a specific set of spanning tree instances.
- A spanning tree instance can exist only on bridges that have compatible VLAN
instance assignments.
- Be careful when switching between spanning tree modes. Changing modes
stops all spanning-tree instances for the previous mode and restarts the system
in the new mode, temporarily disrupting user traffic.
Command Attributes
Basic Configuration of Global Settings
• Spanning Tree State – Enables/disables STA on this switch. (Default: Enabled)
• Spanning Tree Type – Specifies the type of spanning tree used on this switch:
- STP: Spanning Tree Protocol (IEEE 802.1D); i.e., when this option is selected,
the switch will use RSTP set to STP forced compatibility mode).
- RSTP: Rapid Spanning Tree (IEEE 802.1w)
- MSTP: Multiple Spanning Tree (IEEE 802.1s); MSTP is the default.
• Priority – Bridge priority is used in selecting the root device, root port, and
designated port. The device with the highest priority becomes the STA root device.
However, if all devices have the same priority, the device with the lowest MAC
address will then become the root device. (Note that lower numeric values indicate
higher priority.)
• Default: 32768
• Range: 0-61440, in steps of 4096
• Options: 0, 4096, 8192, 12288, 16384, 20480, 24576, 28672, 32768, 36864,
40960, 45056, 49152, 53248, 57344, 61440
Root Device Configuration
• Hello Time – Interval (in seconds) at which the root device transmits a
configuration message.
• Default: 2
• Minimum: 1
• Maximum: The lower of 10 or [(Max. Message Age / 2) -1]
• Maximum Age – The maximum time (in seconds) a device can wait without
receiving a configuration message before attempting to reconfigure. All device
ports (except for designated ports) should receive configuration messages at
regular intervals. Any port that ages out STA information (provided in the last
configuration message) becomes the designated port for the attached LAN. If it is
a root port, a new root port is selected from among the device ports attached to the
network. (References to “ports” in this section mean “interfaces,” which includes
both ports and trunks.)
• Default: 20
• Minimum: The higher of 6 or [2 x (Hello Time + 1)].
• Maximum: The lower of 40 or [2 x (Forward Delay - 1)]
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Spanning Tree Algorithm Configuration
3
• Forward Delay – The maximum time (in seconds) this device will wait before
changing states (i.e., discarding to learning to forwarding). This delay is required
because every device must receive information about topology changes before it
starts to forward frames. In addition, each port needs time to listen for conflicting
information that would make it return to a discarding state; otherwise, temporary
data loops might result.
• Default: 15
• Minimum: The higher of 4 or [(Max. Message Age / 2) + 1]
• Maximum: 30
Configuration Settings for RSTP
The following attributes apply to both RSTP and MSTP:
• Path Cost Method – The path cost is used to determine the best path between
devices. The path cost method is used to determine the range of values that can
be assigned to each interface.
• Long: Specifies 32-bit based values that range from 1-200,000,000.
(This is the default.)
• Short: Specifies 16-bit based values that range from 1-65535.
• Transmission Limit – The maximum transmission rate for BPDUs is specified by
setting the minimum interval between the transmission of consecutive protocol
messages. (Range: 1-10; Default: 3)
Configuration Settings for MSTP
• Max Instance Numbers – The maximum number of MSTP instances to which this
switch can be assigned. (Default: 65)
• Configuration Digest – An MD5 signature key that contains the VLAN ID to MST
ID mapping table. In other words, this key is a mapping of all VLANs to the CIST.
• Region Revision* – The revision for this MSTI. (Range: 0-65535; Default: 0)
• Region Name* – The name for this MSTI. (Maximum length: 32 characters)
• Maximum Hop Count – The maximum number of hops allowed in the MST region
before a BPDU is discarded. (Range: 1-40; Default: 20)
*
The MST name and revision number are both required to uniquely identify an MST region.
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3
Configuring the Switch
Web – Click Spanning Tree, STA, Configuration. Modify the required attributes, and
click Apply.
Figure 3-55. STA Configuration
3-98
3
Spanning Tree Algorithm Configuration
CLI – This example enables Spanning Tree Protocol, sets the mode to MST, and
then configures the STA and MSTP parameters.
Console(config)#spanning-tree
Console(config)#spanning-tree
Console(config)#spanning-tree
Console(config)#spanning-tree
Console(config)#spanning-tree
Console(config)#spanning-tree
Console(config)#spanning-tree
Console(config)#spanning-tree
Console(config)#spanning-tree
Console(config-mstp)#revision
Console(config-mstp)#name R&D
Console(config-mstp)#max-hops
Console(config-mstp)#
mode mst
priority 45056
hello-time 5
max-age 14
forward-time 20
pathcost method long
transmission-limit 4
mst configuration
1
30
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4-154
4-157
4-156
4-157
4-155
4-158
4-159
4-159
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4-161
4-163
Displaying Interface Settings
The STA Port Information and STA Trunk Information pages display the current
status of ports and trunks in the Spanning Tree.
Field Attributes
• Spanning Tree – Shows if STA has been enabled on this interface.
• STA Status – Displays current state of this port within the Spanning Tree:
• Discarding - Port receives STA configuration messages, but does not forward
packets.
• Learning - Port has transmitted configuration messages for an interval set by
the Forward Delay parameter without receiving contradictory information. Port
address table is cleared, and the port begins learning addresses.
• Forwarding - Port forwards packets, and continues learning addresses.
The rules defining port status are:
- A port on a network segment with no other STA compliant bridging device is
always forwarding.
- If two ports of a switch are connected to the same segment and there is no other
STA device attached to this segment, the port with the smaller ID forwards
packets and the other is discarding.
- All ports are discarding when the switch is booted, then some of them change
state to learning, and then to forwarding.
• Forward Transitions – The number of times this port has transitioned from the
Learning state to the Forwarding state.
• Designated Cost – The cost for a packet to travel from this port to the root in the
current Spanning Tree configuration. The slower the media, the higher the cost.
• Designated Bridge – The bridge priority and MAC address of the device through
which this port must communicate to reach the root of the Spanning Tree.
• Designated Port – The port priority and number of the port on the designated
bridging device through which this switch must communicate with the root of the
Spanning Tree.
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3
Configuring the Switch
• Oper Link Type – The operational point-to-point status of the LAN segment
attached to this interface. This parameter is determined by manual configuration or
by auto-detection, as described for Admin Link Type in STA Port Configuration on
page 3-102.
• Oper Edge Port – This parameter is initialized to the setting for Admin Edge Port
in STA Port Configuration on page 3-102 (i.e., true or false), but will be set to false
if a BPDU is received, indicating that another bridge is attached to this port.
• Port Role – Roles are assigned according to whether the port is part of the active
topology connecting the bridge to the root bridge (i.e., root port), connecting a LAN
through the bridge to the root bridge (i.e., designated port), or is the MSTI regional
root (i.e., master port); or is an alternate or backup port that may provide
connectivity if other bridges, bridge ports, or LANs fail or are removed. The role is
set to disabled (i.e., disabled port) if a port has no role within the spanning tree.
R: Root Port
A: Alternate Port
D: Designated Port
B: Backup Port
Alternate port receives more
useful BPDUs from another
bridge and is therefore not
selected as the designated
R
port.
R
A
D
x
R
A
x
Backup port receives more
useful BPDUs from the same
bridge and is therefore not
selected as the designated
port.
R
D
B
B
• Trunk Member – Indicates if a port is a member of a trunk.
(STA Port Information only)
These additional parameters are only displayed for the CLI:
• Admin status – Shows if this interface is enabled.
• External path cost – The path cost for the IST. This parameter is used by the
STA to determine the best path between devices. Therefore, lower values should
be assigned to ports attached to faster media, and higher values assigned to ports
with slower media. (Path cost takes precedence over port priority.)
• Internal path cost – The path cost for the MST. See the proceeding item.
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Spanning Tree Algorithm Configuration
3
• Priority – Defines the priority used for this port in the Spanning Tree Algorithm. If
the path cost for all ports on a switch is the same, the port with the highest priority
(i.e., lowest value) will be configured as an active link in the Spanning Tree. This
makes a port with higher priority less likely to be blocked if the Spanning Tree
Algorithm is detecting network loops. Where more than one port is assigned the
highest priority, the port with the lowest numeric identifier will be enabled.
• Designated root – The priority and MAC address of the device in the Spanning
Tree that this switch has accepted as the root device.
• Fast forwarding – This field provides the same information as Admin Edge port,
and is only included for backward compatibility with earlier products.
• Admin Edge Port – You can enable this option if an interface is attached to a LAN
segment that is at the end of a bridged LAN or to an end node. Since end nodes
cannot cause forwarding loops, they can pass directly through to the spanning tree
forwarding state. Specifying Edge Ports provides quicker convergence for devices
such as workstations or servers, retains the current forwarding database to reduce
the amount of frame flooding required to rebuild address tables during
reconfiguration events, does not cause the spanning tree to reconfigure when the
interface changes state, and also overcomes other STA-related timeout problems.
However, remember that Edge Port should only be enabled for ports connected to
an end-node device.
• Admin Link Type – The link type attached to this interface.
• Point-to-Point – A connection to exactly one other bridge.
• Shared – A connection to two or more bridges.
• Auto – The switch automatically determines if the interface is attached to a
point-to-point link or to shared media.
Web – Click Spanning Tree, STA, Port Information or Trunk Information.
Figure 3-56. STA Port Information
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Configuring the Switch
CLI – This example shows the STA attributes for port 5.
Console#show spanning-tree ethernet 1/5
Eth 1/ 5 information
-------------------------------------------------------------Admin status
: enable
Role
: disable
State
: discarding
External path cost
: 10000
Internal path cost
: 10000
Priority
: 128
Designated cost
: 200000
Designated port
: 128.5
Designated root
: 61440.0.0000E9313131
Designated bridge
: 61440.0.0000E9313131
Fast forwarding
: enable
Forward transitions : 0
Admin edge port
: enable
Oper edge port
: enable
Admin Link type
: auto
Oper Link type
: point-to-point
Spanning Tree Status : enable
4-170
Console#
Configuring Interface Settings
You can configure RSTP and MSTP attributes for specific interfaces, including port
priority, path cost, link type, and edge port. You may use a different priority or path
cost for ports of the same media type to indicate the preferred path, link type to
indicate a point-to-point connection or shared-media connection, and edge port to
indicate if the attached device can support fast forwarding.
Command Attributes
The following attributes are read-only and cannot be changed:
• STA State – Displays current state of this port within the Spanning Tree.
(See Displaying Interface Settings on page 3-99 for additional information.)
• Discarding - Port receives STA configuration messages, but does not forward
packets.
• Learning - Port has transmitted configuration messages for an interval set by
the Forward Delay parameter without receiving contradictory information. Port
address table is cleared, and the port begins learning addresses.
• Forwarding - Port forwards packets, and continues learning addresses.
• Trunk – Indicates if a port is a member of a trunk. (STA Port Configuration only)
The following interface attributes can be configured:
• Spanning Tree – Enables/disables STA on this interface. (Default: Enabled).
• Priority – Defines the priority used for this port in the Spanning Tree Protocol. If
the path cost for all ports on a switch are the same, the port with the highest priority
(i.e., lowest value) will be configured as an active link in the Spanning Tree. This
makes a port with higher priority less likely to be blocked if the Spanning Tree
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3
Spanning Tree Algorithm Configuration
Protocol is detecting network loops. Where more than one port is assigned the
highest priority, the port with lowest numeric identifier will be enabled.
• Default: 128
• Range: 0-240, in steps of 16
• Path Cost – This parameter is used by the STP to determine the best path
between devices. Therefore, lower values should be assigned to ports attached to
faster media, and higher values assigned to ports with slower media. (Path cost
takes precedence over port priority.) Note that when the Path Cost Method is set
to short (page 3-63), the maximum path cost is 65,535.
• Range –
- Ethernet: 200,000-20,000,000
- Fast Ethernet: 20,000-2,000,000
- Gigabit Ethernet: 2,000-200,000
• Default –
- Ethernet – Half duplex: 2,000,000; full duplex: 1,000,000; trunk: 500,000
- Fast Ethernet – Half duplex: 200,000; full duplex: 100,000; trunk: 50,000
- Gigabit Ethernet – Full duplex: 10,000; trunk: 5,000
• Admin Link Type – The link type attached to this interface.
• Point-to-Point – A connection to exactly one other bridge.
• Shared – A connection to two or more bridges.
• Auto – The switch automatically determines if the interface is attached to a
point-to-point link or to shared media. (This is the default setting.)
• Admin Edge Port (Fast Forwarding) – You can enable this option if an interface is
attached to a LAN segment that is at the end of a bridged LAN or to an end node.
Since end nodes cannot cause forwarding loops, they can pass directly through to
the spanning tree forwarding state. Specifying Edge Ports provides quicker
convergence for devices such as workstations or servers, retains the current
forwarding database to reduce the amount of frame flooding required to rebuild
address tables during reconfiguration events, does not cause the spanning tree to
initiate reconfiguration when the interface changes state, and also overcomes
other STA-related timeout problems. However, remember that Edge Port should
only be enabled for ports connected to an end-node device. (Default: Disabled)
• Migration – If at any time the switch detects STP BPDUs, including Configuration
or Topology Change Notification BPDUs, it will automatically set the selected
interface to forced STP-compatible mode. However, you can also use the Protocol
Migration button to manually re-check the appropriate BPDU format (RSTP or
STP-compatible) to send on the selected interfaces. (Default: Disabled)
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Configuring the Switch
Web – Click Spanning Tree, STA, Port Configuration or Trunk Configuration. Modify
the required attributes, then click Apply.
Figure 3-57. STA Port Configuration
CLI – This example sets STA attributes for port 7.
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/7
Console(config-if)#no spanning-tree spanning-disabled
Console(config-if)#spanning-tree port-priority 0
Console(config-if)#spanning-tree cost 50
Console(config-if)#spanning-tree link-type auto
Console(config-if)#no spanning-tree edge-port
Console(config-if)#
4-125
4-163
4-164
4-164
4-167
4-165
Configuring Multiple Spanning Trees
MSTP generates a unique spanning tree for each instance. This provides multiple
pathways across the network, thereby balancing the traffic load, preventing
wide-scale disruption when a bridge node in a single instance fails, and allowing for
faster convergence of a new topology for the failed instance.
By default all VLANs are assigned to the Internal Spanning Tree (MST Instance 0)
that connects all bridges and LANs within the MST region. This switch supports up
to 65 instances. You should try to group VLANs which cover the same general area
of your network. However, remember that you must configure all bridges within the
same MSTI Region (page 3-97) with the same set of instances, and the same
instance (on each bridge) with the same set of VLANs. Also, note that RSTP treats
each MSTI region as a single node, connecting all regions to the Common Spanning
Tree.
To use multiple spanning trees:
1.
2.
3.
Set the spanning tree type to MSTP (STA Configuration, page 3-95).
Enter the spanning tree priority for the selected MST instance (MSTP VLAN
Configuration).
Add the VLANs that will share this MSTI (MSTP VLAN Configuration).
Note: All VLANs are automatically added to the IST (Instance 0).
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Spanning Tree Algorithm Configuration
To ensure that the MSTI maintains connectivity across the network, you must
configure a related set of bridges with the same MSTI settings.
Command Attributes
• MST Instance – Instance identifier of this spanning tree. (Default: 0)
• Priority – The priority of a spanning tree instance. (Range: 0-61440 in steps of
4096; Options: 0, 4096, 8192, 12288, 16384, 20480, 24576, 28672, 32768, 36864,
40960, 45056, 49152, 53248, 57344, 61440; Default: 32768)
• VLANs in MST Instance – VLANs assigned this instance.
• MST ID – Instance identifier to configure. (Range: 0-4094; Default: 0)
• VLAN ID – VLAN to assign to this selected MST instance. (Range: 1-4094)
The other global attributes are described under “Displaying Global Settings,” page 3-95. The
attributes displayed by the CLI for individual interfaces are described under “Displaying Interface
Settings,” page 3-99.
Web – Click Spanning Tree, MSTP, VLAN Configuration. Select an instance
identifier from the list, set the instance priority, and click Apply. To add the VLAN
members to an MSTI instance, enter the instance identifier, the VLAN identifier, and
click Add.
Figure 3-58. MSTP VLAN Configuration
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3
Configuring the Switch
CLI – This displays STA settings for instance 1, followed by settings for each port.
Console#show spanning-tree mst 1
Spanning-tree information
--------------------------------------------------------------Spanning tree mode
:MSTP
Spanning tree enable/disable
:enable
Instance
:1
Vlans configuration
:1-5
Priority
:32768
Bridge Hello Time (sec.)
:2
Bridge Max Age (sec.)
:20
Bridge Forward Delay (sec.)
:15
Root Hello Time (sec.)
:2
Root Max Age (sec.)
:20
Root Forward Delay (sec.)
:15
Max hops
:20
4-170
Remaining hops
:20
Designated Root
:4096.2.0000E9313131
Current root port
:0
Current root cost
:0
Number of topology changes
:0
Last topology changes time (sec.):646
Transmission limit
:3
Path Cost Method
:long
--------------------------------------------------------------Eth 1/ 7 information
--------------------------------------------------------------Admin status
: enable
Role
: disable
State
: discarding
External path cost
: 10000
Internal path cost
: 10000
Priority
: 128
Designated cost
: 0
Designated port
: 128.7
Designated root
: 4096.2.0000E9313131
Designated bridge
: 4096.2.0000E9313131
Fast forwarding
: enable
Forward transitions : 0
Admin edge port
: enable
Oper edge port
: enable
Admin Link type
: auto
Oper Link type
: point-to-point
Spanning Tree Status : enable
.
.
.
CLI – This example sets the priority for MSTI 1, and adds VLANs 1-5 to this MSTI.
Console(config)#spanning-tree mst configuration
Console(config-mst)#mst 1 priority 4096
Console(config-mstp)#mst 1 vlan 1-5
Console(config-mst)#
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4-161
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Spanning Tree Algorithm Configuration
3
Displaying Interface Settings for MSTP
The MSTP Port Information and MSTP Trunk Information pages display the current
status of ports and trunks in the selected MST instance.
Field Attributes
• MST Instance ID – Instance identifier to configure. (Range: 0-4094; Default: 0)
The other attributes are described under “Displaying Interface Settings,” page 3-99.
Web – Click Spanning Tree, MSTP, Port Information or Trunk Information. Select the
required MST instance to display the current spanning tree values.
Figure 3-59. MSTP Port Information
CLI – This displays STA settings for instance 0, followed by settings for each port.
The settings for instance 0 are global settings that apply to the IST (page 3-92), the
settings for other instances only apply to the local spanning tree.
Console#show spanning-tree mst 0
Spanning-tree information
--------------------------------------------------------------Spanning tree mode
:MSTP
Spanning tree enable/disable
:enable
Instance
:0
Vlans configuration
:1-4094
Priority
:32768
Bridge Hello Time (sec.)
:2
Bridge Max Age (sec.)
:20
Bridge Forward Delay (sec.)
:15
Root Hello Time (sec.)
:2
Root Max Age (sec.)
:20
Root Forward Delay (sec.)
:15
Max hops
:20
Remaining hops
:20
Designated Root
:32768.0.0000ABCD0000
Current root port
:1
Current root cost
:200000
Number of topology changes
:1
Last topology changes time (sec.):645
Transmission limit
:3
Path Cost Method
:long
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3
Configuring the Switch
--------------------------------------------------------------Eth 1/ 1 information
--------------------------------------------------------------Admin status
: enable
Role
: root
State
: forwarding
External path cost
: 100000
Internal path cost
: 100000
Priority
: 128
Designated cost
: 200000
Designated port
: 128.24
Designated root
: 32768.0.0000ABCD0000
Designated bridge
: 32768.0.0030F1552000
Fast forwarding
: disable
Forward transitions : 1
Admin edge port
: enable
Oper edge port
: disable
Admin Link type
: auto
Oper Link type
: point-to-point
Spanning Tree Status : enable
.
.
.
Configuring Interface Settings for MSTP
You can configure the STA interface settings for an MST Instance using the MSTP
Port Configuration and MSTP Trunk Configuration pages.
Field Attributes
The following attributes are read-only and cannot be changed:
• STA State – Displays current state of this port within the Spanning Tree.
(See Displaying Interface Settings on page 3-99 for additional information.)
• Discarding - Port receives STA configuration messages, but does not forward
packets.
• Learning - Port has transmitted configuration messages for an interval set by
the Forward Delay parameter without receiving contradictory information. Port
address table is cleared, and the port begins learning addresses.
• Forwarding - Port forwards packets, and continues learning addresses.
• Trunk – Indicates if a port is a member of a trunk.
(STA Port Configuration only)
The following interface attributes can be configured:
• MST Instance ID – Instance identifier to configure. (Range: 0-4094; Default: 0)
• Priority – Defines the priority used for this port in the Spanning Tree Protocol. If
the path cost for all ports on a switch are the same, the port with the highest priority
(i.e., lowest value) will be configured as an active link in the Spanning Tree. This
makes a port with higher priority less likely to be blocked if the Spanning Tree
Protocol is detecting network loops. Where more than one port is assigned the
highest priority, the port with lowest numeric identifier will be enabled.
• Default: 128
• Range: 0-240, in steps of 16
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Spanning Tree Algorithm Configuration
3
• MST Path Cost – This parameter is used by the MSTP to determine the best path
between devices. Therefore, lower values should be assigned to ports attached to
faster media, and higher values assigned to ports with slower media. (Path cost
takes precedence over port priority.) Note that when the Path Cost Method is set
to short (page 3-63), the maximum path cost is 65,535.
• Range –
- Ethernet: 200,000-20,000,000
- Fast Ethernet: 20,000-2,000,000
- Gigabit Ethernet: 2,000-200,000
• Default –
- Ethernet – Half duplex: 2,000,000; full duplex: 1,000,000; trunk: 500,000
- Fast Ethernet – Half duplex: 200,000; full duplex: 100,000; trunk: 50,000
- Gigabit Ethernet – Full duplex: 10,000; trunk: 5,000
Web – Click Spanning Tree, MSTP, Port Configuration or Trunk Configuration. Enter
the priority and path cost for an interface, and click Apply.
Figure 3-60. MSTP Port Configuration
CLI – This example sets the MSTP attributes for port 4.
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/4
Console(config-if)#spanning-tree mst port-priority 0
Console(config-if)#spanning-tree mst cost 50
Console(config-if)
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3
Configuring the Switch
VLAN Configuration
IEEE 802.1Q VLANs
In large networks, routers are used to isolate broadcast traffic for each subnet into
separate domains. This switch provides a similar service at Layer 2 by using VLANs
to organize any group of network nodes into separate broadcast domains. VLANs
confine broadcast traffic to the originating group, and can eliminate broadcast
storms in large networks. This also provides a more secure and cleaner network
environment.
An IEEE 802.1Q VLAN is a group of ports that can be located anywhere in the
network, but communicate as though they belong to the same physical segment.
VLANs help to simplify network management by allowing you to move devices to a
new VLAN without having to change any physical connections. VLANs can be easily
organized to reflect departmental groups (such as Marketing or R&D), usage groups
(such as e-mail), or multicast groups (used for multimedia applications such as
videoconferencing).
VLANs provide greater network efficiency by reducing broadcast traffic, and allow
you to make network changes without having to update IP addresses or IP subnets.
VLANs inherently provide a high level of network security since traffic must pass
through a configured Layer 3 link to reach a different VLAN.
This switch supports the following VLAN features:
• Up to 255 VLANs based on the IEEE 802.1Q standard
• Distributed VLAN learning across multiple switches using explicit or implicit tagging
and GVRP protocol
• Port overlapping, allowing a port to participate in multiple VLANs
• End stations can belong to multiple VLANs
• Passing traffic between VLAN-aware and VLAN-unaware devices
• Priority tagging
Assigning Ports to VLANs
Before enabling VLANs for the switch, you must first assign each port to the VLAN
group(s) in which it will participate. By default all ports are assigned to VLAN 1 as
untagged ports. Add a port as a tagged port if you want it to carry traffic for one or
more VLANs, and any intermediate network devices or the host at the other end of
the connection supports VLANs. Then assign ports on the other VLAN-aware
network devices along the path that will carry this traffic to the same VLAN(s), either
manually or dynamically using GVRP. However, if you want a port on this switch to
participate in one or more VLANs, but none of the intermediate network devices nor
the host at the other end of the connection supports VLANs, then you should add
this port to the VLAN as an untagged port.
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3
VLAN Configuration
Note: VLAN-tagged frames can pass through VLAN-aware or VLAN-unaware network
interconnection devices, but the VLAN tags should be stripped off before passing it
on to any end-node host that does not support VLAN tagging.
tagged frames
VA
VA
VA: VLAN Aware
VU: VLAN Unaware
tagged
frames
VA
untagged
frames
VA
VU
VLAN Classification – When the switch receives a frame, it classifies the frame in
one of two ways. If the frame is untagged, the switch assigns the frame to an
associated VLAN (based on the default VLAN ID of the receiving port). But if the
frame is tagged, the switch uses the tagged VLAN ID to identify the port broadcast
domain of the frame.
Port Overlapping – Port overlapping can be used to allow access to commonly
shared network resources among different VLAN groups, such as file servers or
printers. Note that if you implement VLANs which do not overlap, but still need to
communicate, you can connect them by using a Layer-3 router or switch.
Untagged VLANs – Untagged (or static) VLANs are typically used to reduce
broadcast traffic and to increase security. A group of network users assigned to a
VLAN form a broadcast domain that is separate from other VLANs configured on the
switch. Packets are forwarded only between ports that are designated for the same
VLAN. Untagged VLANs can be used to manually isolate user groups or subnets.
However, you should use IEEE 802.3 tagged VLANs with GVRP whenever possible
to fully automate VLAN registration.
Automatic VLAN Registration – GVRP (GARP VLAN Registration Protocol)
defines a system whereby the switch can automatically learn the VLANs to which
each end station should be assigned. If an end station (or its network adapter)
supports the IEEE 802.1Q VLAN protocol, it can be configured to broadcast a
message to your network indicating the VLAN groups it wants to join. When this
switch receives these messages, it will automatically place the receiving port in the
specified VLANs, and then forward the message to all other ports. When the
message arrives at another switch that supports GVRP, it will also place the
receiving port in the specified VLANs, and pass the message on to all other ports.
VLAN requirements are propagated in this way throughout the network. This allows
GVRP-compliant devices to be automatically configured for VLAN groups based
solely on endstation requests.
To implement GVRP in a network, first add the host devices to the required VLANs
(using the operating system or other application software), so that these VLANs can
be propagated onto the network. For both the edge switches attached directly to
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Configuring the Switch
these hosts, and core switches in the network, enable GVRP on the links between
these devices. You should also determine security boundaries in the network and
disable GVRP on the boundary ports to prevent advertisements from being
propagated, or forbid those ports from joining restricted VLANs.
Note: If you have host devices that do not support GVRP, you should configure static or
untagged VLANs for the switch ports connected to these devices (as described in
“Adding Static Members to VLANs (VLAN Index)” on page 3-116). But you can still
enable GVRP on these edge switches, as well as on the core switches in the
network.
Port-based VLAN
2
1
9
10 11
3
4
5
13
12
14
6
15 16
7
8
18
19
Forwarding Tagged/Untagged Frames
If you want to create a small port-based VLAN for devices attached directly to a
single switch, you can assign ports to the same untagged VLAN. However, to
participate in a VLAN group that crosses several switches, you should create a
VLAN for that group and enable tagging on all ports.
Ports can be assigned to multiple tagged or untagged VLANs. Each port on the
switch is therefore capable of passing tagged or untagged frames. When forwarding
a frame from this switch along a path that contains any VLAN-aware devices, the
switch should include VLAN tags. When forwarding a frame from this switch along a
path that does not contain any VLAN-aware devices (including the destination host),
the switch must first strip off the VLAN tag before forwarding the frame. When the
switch receives a tagged frame, it will pass this frame onto the VLAN(s) indicated by
the frame tag. However, when this switch receives an untagged frame from a
VLAN-unaware device, it first decides where to forward the frame, and then inserts a
VLAN tag reflecting the ingress port’s default VID.
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3
VLAN Configuration
Enabling or Disabling GVRP (Global Setting)
GARP VLAN Registration Protocol (GVRP) defines a way for switches to exchange
VLAN information in order to register VLAN members on ports across the network.
VLANs are dynamically configured based on join messages issued by host devices
and propagated throughout the network. GVRP must be enabled to permit automatic
VLAN registration, and to support VLANs which extend beyond the local switch.
(Default: Disabled)
Web – Click VLAN, 802.1Q VLAN, GVRP Status. Enable or disable GVRP, and click
Apply.
Figure 3-61. Globally Enabling GVRP
CLI – This example enables GVRP for the switch.
Console(config)#bridge-ext gvrp
Console(config)#
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Displaying Basic VLAN Information
The VLAN Basic Information page displays basic information on the VLAN type
supported by the switch.
Field Attributes
• VLAN Version Number* – The VLAN version used by this switch as specified in
the IEEE 802.1Q standard.
• Maximum VLAN ID – Maximum VLAN ID recognized by this switch.
• Maximum Number of Supported VLANs – Maximum number of VLANs that can
be configured on this switch.
*
Web Only
Web – Click VLAN, 802.1Q VLAN, Basic Information.
Figure 3-62. VLAN Basic Information
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3
Configuring the Switch
CLI – Enter the following command.
Console#show bridge-ext
Max support vlan numbers: 255
Max support vlan ID: 4094
Extended multicast filtering services: No
Static entry individual port: Yes
VLAN learning: IVL
Configurable PVID tagging: Yes
Local VLAN capable: No
Traffic classes: Enabled
Global GVRP status: Enabled
GMRP: Disabled
Console#
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Displaying Current VLANs
The VLAN Current Table shows the current port members of each VLAN and
whether or not the port supports VLAN tagging. Ports assigned to a large VLAN
group that crosses several switches should use VLAN tagging. However, if you just
want to create a small port-based VLAN for one or two switches, you can disable
tagging.
Command Attributes (Web)
• VLAN ID – ID of configured VLAN (1-4094).
• Up Time at Creation – Time this VLAN was created (i.e., System Up Time).
• Status – Shows how this VLAN was added to the switch.
- Dynamic GVRP: Automatically learned via GVRP.
- Permanent: Added as a static entry.
• Egress Ports – Shows all the VLAN port members.
• Untagged Ports – Shows the untagged VLAN port members.
Web – Click VLAN, 802.1Q VLAN, Current Table. Select any ID from the list.
Figure 3-63. VLAN Current Table
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VLAN Configuration
3
Command Attributes (CLI)
• VLAN – ID of configured VLAN (1-4094, no leading zeroes).
• Type – Shows how this VLAN was added to the switch.
- Dynamic: Automatically learned via GVRP.
- Static: Added as a static entry.
• Name – Name of the VLAN (1 to 32 characters).
• Status – Shows if this VLAN is enabled or disabled.
- Active: VLAN is operational.
- Suspend: VLAN is suspended; i.e., does not pass packets.
• Ports / Channel groups – Shows the VLAN interface members.
CLI – Current VLAN information can be displayed with the following command.
Console#show
VLAN Type
---- ------1
Static
Console#
vlan id 1
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Name
Status
Ports/Channel groups
----------- ----------------------------------------DefaultVlan Active Eth1/1 Eth1/2
Creating VLANs
Use the VLAN Static List to create or remove VLAN groups. To propagate
information about VLAN groups used on this switch to external network devices, you
must specify a VLAN ID for each of these groups.
Command Attributes
• Current – Lists all the current VLAN groups created for this system. Up to 255
VLAN groups can be defined. VLAN 1 is the default untagged VLAN.
• New – Allows you to specify the name and numeric identifier for a new VLAN
group. (The VLAN name is only used for management on this system; it is not
added to the VLAN tag.)
• VLAN ID – ID of configured VLAN (1-4094, no leading zeroes).
• VLAN Name – Name of the VLAN (1 to 32 characters).
• Status (Web) – Enables or disables the specified VLAN.
- Enable: VLAN is operational.
- Disable: VLAN is suspended; i.e., does not pass packets.
• State (CLI) – Enables or disables the specified VLAN.
- Active: VLAN is operational.
- Suspend: VLAN is suspended; i.e., does not pass packets.
• Add – Adds a new VLAN group to the current list.
• Remove – Removes a VLAN group from the current list. If any port is assigned to
this group as untagged, it will be reassigned to VLAN group 1 as untagged.
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Configuring the Switch
Web – Click VLAN, 802.1Q VLAN, Static List. To create a new VLAN, enter the
VLAN ID and VLAN name, mark the Enable checkbox to activate the VLAN, and
then click Add.
Figure 3-64. VLAN Static List - Creating VLANs
CLI – This example creates a new VLAN.
Console(config)#vlan database
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Console(config-vlan)#vlan 2 name R&D media ethernet state active
4-174
Console(config-vlan)#end
Console#show vlan
4-181
VLAN Type
Name
Status
Ports/Channel groups
---- ------- ---------------- --------- ---------------------------------1 Static
DefaultVlan
Active Eth1/ 1 Eth1/ 2
2 Static
R&D
Active Eth1/ 3 Eth1/ 4
3 Static
Active Eth1/ 5 Eth1/ 6
4 Static
Active Eth1/ 7 Eth1/ 8
5 Static
Active Eth1/ 9 Eth1/10
6 Static
Active Eth1/11 Eth1/12
7 Static
Active Eth1/13 Eth1/14
8 Static
Active Eth1/15 Eth1/16
.
.
.
Console(config-vlan)#
Adding Static Members to VLANs (VLAN Index)
Use the VLAN Static Table to configure port members for the selected VLAN index.
Assign ports as tagged if they are connected to 802.1Q VLAN compliant devices, or
untagged they are not connected to any VLAN-aware devices. Or configure a port
as forbidden to prevent the switch from automatically adding it to a VLAN via the
GVRP protocol.
Notes: 1. You can also use the VLAN Static Membership by Port page to configure
VLAN groups based on the port index (page 3-118). However, note that this
configuration page can only add ports to a VLAN as tagged members.
2. VLAN 1 is the default untagged VLAN containing all ports on the switch, and
can only be modified by first reassigning the default port VLAN ID as
described under “Configuring VLAN Behavior for Interfaces” on page 3-119.
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VLAN Configuration
3
Command Attributes
• VLAN – ID of configured VLAN (1-4094, no leading zeroes).
• Name – Name of the VLAN (1 to 32 characters).
• Status – Enables or disables the specified VLAN.
- Enable: VLAN is operational.
- Disable: VLAN is suspended; i.e., does not pass packets.
• Port – Port identifier.
• Trunk – Trunk identifier.
• Membership Type – Select VLAN membership for each interface by marking the
appropriate radio button for a port or trunk:
- Tagged: Interface is a member of the VLAN. All packets transmitted by the port
will be tagged, that is, carry a tag and therefore carry VLAN or CoS information.
- Untagged: Interface is a member of the VLAN. All packets transmitted by the
port will be untagged, that is, not carry a tag and therefore not carry VLAN or
CoS information. Note that an interface must be assigned to at least one group
as an untagged port.
- Forbidden: Interface is forbidden from automatically joining the VLAN via
GVRP. For more information, see “Automatic VLAN Registration” on page 3-111.
- None: Interface is not a member of the VLAN. Packets associated with this
VLAN will not be transmitted by the interface.
• Trunk Member – Indicates if a port is a member of a trunk. To add a trunk to the
selected VLAN, use the last table on the VLAN Static Table page.
Web – Click VLAN, 802.1Q VLAN, Static Table. Select a VLAN ID from the
scroll-down list. Modify the VLAN name and status if required. Select the
membership type by marking the appropriate radio button in the list of ports or
trunks. Click Apply.
Figure 3-65. VLAN Static Table - Adding Static Members
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3
Configuring the Switch
CLI – The following example adds tagged and untagged ports to VLAN 2.
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/1
Console(config-if)#switchport allowed vlan add 2 tagged
Console(config-if)#exit
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/2
Console(config-if)#switchport allowed vlan add 2 untagged
Console(config-if)#exit
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/13
Console(config-if)#switchport allowed vlan add 2 tagged
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4-179
Adding Static Members to VLANs (Port Index)
Use the VLAN Static Membership by Port menu to assign VLAN groups to the
selected interface as a tagged member.
Command Attributes
• Interface – Port or trunk identifier.
• Member – VLANs for which the selected interface is a tagged member.
• Non-Member – VLANs for which the selected interface is not a tagged member.
Web – Open VLAN, 802.1Q VLAN, Static Membership. Select an interface from the
scroll-down box (Port or Trunk). Click Query to display membership information for
the interface. Select a VLAN ID, and then click Add to add the interface as a tagged
member, or click Remove to remove the interface. After configuring VLAN
membership for each interface, click Apply.
Figure 3-66. VLAN Static Membership by Port
CLI – This example adds Port 3 to VLAN 1 as a tagged port, and removes Port 3
from VLAN 2.
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/3
Console(config-if)#switchport allowed vlan add 1 tagged
Console(config-if)#switchport allowed vlan remove 2
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4-179
VLAN Configuration
3
Configuring VLAN Behavior for Interfaces
You can configure VLAN behavior for specific interfaces, including the default VLAN
identifier (PVID), accepted frame types, ingress filtering, GVRP status, and GARP
timers.
Command Usage
• GVRP – GARP VLAN Registration Protocol defines a way for switches to
exchange VLAN information in order to automatically register VLAN members on
interfaces across the network.
• GARP – Group Address Registration Protocol is used by GVRP to register or
deregister client attributes for client services within a bridged LAN. The default
values for the GARP timers are independent of the media access method or data
rate. These values should not be changed unless you are experiencing difficulties
with GVRP registration/deregistration.
Command Attributes
• PVID – VLAN ID assigned to untagged frames received on the interface. (Default: 1)
- If an interface is not a member of VLAN 1 and you assign its PVID to this VLAN,
the interface will automatically be added to VLAN 1 as an untagged member. For
all other VLANs, an interface must first be configured as an untagged member
before you can assign its PVID to that group.
• Acceptable Frame Type – Sets the interface to accept all frame types, including
tagged or untagged frames, or only tagged frames. When set to receive all frame
types, any received frames that are untagged are assigned to the default VLAN.
(Option: All, Tagged; Default: All)
• Ingress Filtering – Determines how to process frames tagged for VLANs for which
the ingress port is not a member. (Default: Disabled)
- Ingress filtering only affects tagged frames.
- If ingress filtering is disabled and a port receives frames tagged for VLANs for
which it is not a member, these frames will be flooded to all other ports (except
for those VLANs explicitly forbidden on this port).
- If ingress filtering is enabled and a port receives frames tagged for VLANs for
which it is not a member, these frames will be discarded.
- Ingress filtering does not affect VLAN independent BPDU frames, such as GVRP
or STP. However, they do affect VLAN dependent BPDU frames, such as GMRP.
• GVRP Status – Enables/disables GVRP for the interface. GVRP must be globally
enabled for the switch before this setting can take effect. (See “Displaying Bridge
Extension Capabilities” on page 3-12.) When disabled, any GVRP packets
received on this port will be discarded and no GVRP registrations will be
propagated from other ports. (Default: Disabled)
• GARP Join Timer* – The interval between transmitting requests/queries to
participate in a VLAN group. (Range: 20-1000 centiseconds; Default: 20)
• GARP Leave Timer* – The interval a port waits before leaving a VLAN group. This
time should be set to more than twice the join time. This ensures that after a Leave
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3
Configuring the Switch
or LeaveAll message has been issued, the applicants can rejoin before the port
actually leaves the group. (Range: 60-3000 centiseconds; Default: 60)
• GARP LeaveAll Timer* – The interval between sending out a LeaveAll query
message for VLAN group participants and the port leaving the group. This interval
should be considerably larger than the Leave Time to minimize the amount of traffic
generated by nodes rejoining the group.
(Range: 500-18000 centiseconds; Default: 1000)
• Mode – Indicates VLAN membership mode for an interface. (Default: 1Q Trunk)
- 1Q Trunk – Specifies a port as an end-point for a VLAN trunk. A trunk is a direct
link between two switches, so the port transmits tagged frames that identify the
source VLAN. Note that frames belonging to the port’s default VLAN (i.e.,
associated with the PVID) are also transmitted as tagged frames.
- Hybrid – Specifies a hybrid VLAN interface. The port may transmit tagged or
untagged frames.
• Trunk Member – Indicates if a port is a member of a trunk. To add a trunk to the
selected VLAN, use the last table on the VLAN Static Table page.
*
Timer settings must follow this rule: 2 x (join timer) < leave timer < leaveAll timer
Web – Click VLAN, 802.1Q VLAN, Port Configuration or VLAN Trunk Configuration.
Fill in the required settings for each interface, click Apply.
Figure 3-67. VLAN Port Configuration
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3
VLAN Configuration
CLI – This example sets port 3 to accept only tagged frames, assigns PVID 3 as the
native VLAN ID, enables GVRP, sets the GARP timers, and then sets the switchport
mode to hybrid.
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/3
Console(config-if)#switchport acceptable-frame-types tagged
Console(config-if)#switchport ingress-filtering
Console(config-if)#switchport native vlan 3
Console(config-if)#switchport gvrp
Console(config-if)#garp timer join 20
Console(config-if)#garp timer leave 90
Console(config-if)#garp timer leaveall 2000
Console(config-if)#switchport mode hybrid
Console(config-if)#
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4-177
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4-189
4-189
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Configuring Private VLANs
Private VLANs provide port-based security and isolation between ports within the
assigned VLAN. Data traffic on downlink ports can only be forwarded to, and from,
uplink ports. (Note that private VLANs and normal VLANs can exist simultaneously
within the same switch.)
Uplink Ports
Primary VLAN
(promiscuous ports)
x
Downlink Ports
Secondary VLAN
(private ports)
Enabling Private VLANs
Use the Private VLAN Status page to enable/disable the Private VLAN function.
(Default: Disabled)
Web – Click VLAN, Private VLAN, Status. Select Enable or Disable from the
scroll-down box, and click Apply.
Figure 3-68. Private VLAN Status
CLI – This example enables private VLANs.
Console(config)#pvlan
Console(config)#
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3
Configuring the Switch
Configuring Uplink and Downlink Ports
Use the Private VLAN Link Status page to set ports as downlink or uplink ports.
Ports designated as downlink ports can not communicate with any other ports on the
switch except for the uplink ports. Uplink ports can communicate with any other ports
on the switch and with any designated downlink ports.
Web – Click VLAN, Private VLAN, Link Status. Mark the ports that will serve as
uplinks and downlinks for the private VLAN, then click Apply.
Figure 3-69. Private VLAN Link Status
CLI – This configures ports 3 and 4 as uplinks and ports 5 and 6 as downlinks.
Console(config)#pvlan uplink ethernet 1/3-4 downlink ethernet 1/5-6
Console(config)#
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Configuring Protocol-Based VLANs
The network devices required to support multiple protocols cannot be easily grouped
into a common VLAN. This may require non-standard devices to pass traffic
between different VLANs in order to encompass all the devices participating in a
specific protocol. This kind of configuration deprives users of the basic benefits of
VLANs, including security and easy accessibility.
To avoid these problems, you can configure this switch with protocol-based VLANs
that divide the physical network into logical VLAN groups for each required protocol.
When a frame is received at a port, its VLAN membership can then be determined
based on the protocol type being used by the inbound packets.
Command Usage
To configure protocol-based VLANs, follow these steps:
1.
2.
3.
First configure VLAN groups for the protocols you want to use (page 3-115).
Although not mandatory, we suggest configuring a separate VLAN for each
major protocol running on your network. Do not add port members at this time.
Create a protocol group for each of the protocols you want to assign to a VLAN
using the Protocol VLAN Configuration page.
Then map the protocol for each interface to the appropriate VLAN using the
Protocol VLAN Port Configuration page.
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VLAN Configuration
Configuring Protocol Groups
Create a protocol group for one or more protocols.
Command Attributes
• Protocol Group ID – Group identifier of this protocol group.
(Range: 1-2147483647)
• Frame Type – Frame type used by this protocol. (Options: Ethernet, RFC_1042,
LLC_other)
• Protocol Type – The only option for the LLC_other frame type is IPX_raw. The
options for all other frames types include: IP, ARP, RARP.
Web – Click VLAN, Protocol VLAN, Configuration. Enter a protocol group ID, frame
type and protocol type, then click Apply.
Figure 3-70. Protocol VLAN Configuration
CLI – The following creates protocol group 1, and then specifies Ethernet frames
with IP and ARP protocol types.
Console(config)#protocol-vlan protocol-group 1
add frame_type ethernet protocol-type ip
Console(config)#protocol-vlan protocol-group 1
add frame_type ethernet protocol-type arp
Console(config)#
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Mapping Protocols to VLANs
Map a protocol group to a VLAN for each interface that will participate in the group.
Command Usage
• When creating a protocol-based VLAN, only assign interfaces using this
configuration screen. If you assign interfaces using any of the other VLAN
commands such as VLAN Static Table (page 3-116) or VLAN Static Membership
(page 3-118), these interfaces will admit traffic of any protocol type into the
associated VLAN.
• When a frame enters a port that has been assigned to a protocol VLAN, it is
processed in the following manner:
- If the frame is tagged, it will be processed according to the standard rules applied
to tagged frames.
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3
Configuring the Switch
- If the frame is untagged and the protocol type matches, the frame is forwarded
to the appropriate VLAN.
- If the frame is untagged but the protocol type does not match, the frame is
forwarded to the default VLAN for this interface.
Command Attributes
• Interface – Port or trunk identifier.
• Protocol Group ID – Group identifier of this protocol group.
(Range: 1-2147483647)
• VLAN ID – VLAN to which matching protocol traffic is forwarded. (Range: 1-4094)
Web – Click VLAN, Protocol VLAN, Port Configuration. Select a a port or trunk,
enter a protocol group ID, the corresponding VLAN ID, and click Apply.
Figure 3-71. Protocol VLAN Port Configuration
CLI – The following maps the traffic entering Port 1 which matches the protocol type
specified in protocol group 1 to VLAN 3.
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/1
Console(config-if)#protocol-vlan protocol-group 1 vlan 3
Console(config-if)#
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Class of Service Configuration
3
Class of Service Configuration
Class of Service (CoS) allows you to specify which data packets have greater
precedence when traffic is buffered in the switch due to congestion. This switch
supports CoS with eight priority queues for each port. Data packets in a port’s
high-priority queue will be transmitted before those in the lower-priority queues. You
can set the default priority for each interface, and configure the mapping of frame
priority tags to the switch’s priority queues.
Layer 2 Queue Settings
Setting the Default Priority for Interfaces
You can specify the default port priority for each interface on the switch. All untagged
packets entering the switch are tagged with the specified default port priority, and
then sorted into the appropriate priority queue at the output port.
Command Usage
• This switch provides four priority queues for each port. It uses Weighted Round
Robin to prevent head-of-queue blockage.
• The default priority applies for an untagged frame received on a port set to accept
all frame types (i.e, receives both untagged and tagged frames). This priority does
not apply to IEEE 802.1Q VLAN tagged frames. If the incoming frame is an IEEE
802.1Q VLAN tagged frame, the IEEE 802.1p User Priority bits will be used.
• If the output port is an untagged member of the associated VLAN, these frames are
stripped of all VLAN tags prior to transmission.
Command Attributes
• Default Priority* – The priority that is assigned to untagged frames received on
the specified interface. (Range: 0 - 7, Default: 0)
• Number of Egress Traffic Classes – The number of queue buffers provided for
each port.
*
CLI displays this information as “Priority for untagged traffic.”
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3
Configuring the Switch
Web – Click Priority, Default Port Priority or Default Trunk Priority. Modify the default
priority for any interface, then click Apply.
Figure 3-72. Default Port Priority
CLI – This example assigns a default priority of 5 to port 3.
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/3
Console(config-if)#switchport priority default 5
Console(config-if)#end
Console#show interfaces switchport ethernet 1/5
Information of Eth 1/3
Broadcast threshold: Enabled, 500 packets/second
Lacp status: Disabled
Ingress rate limit: disable,1000M bits per second
Egress rate limit: disable,1000M bits per second
VLAN membership mode: Hybrid
Ingress rule: Disabled
Acceptable frame type: All frames
Native VLAN: 1
Priority for untagged traffic: 5
Gvrp status: Disabled
Allowed Vlan:
1(u),
Forbidden Vlan:
Console#
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3
Class of Service Configuration
Mapping CoS Values to Egress Queues
This switch processes Class of Service (CoS) priority tagged traffic by using eight
priority queues for each port, with service schedules based on strict or Weighted
Round Robin (WRR). Up to eight separate traffic priorities are defined in IEEE
802.1p. The default priority levels are assigned according to recommendations in
the IEEE 802.1p standard as shown in the following table.
Table 3-10. Mapping CoS Values to Egress Queues
Queue
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
Priority
2
0
1
3
4
5
6
7
The priority levels recommended in the IEEE 802.1p standard for various network
applications are shown in the following table. However, you can map the priority
levels to the switch’s output queues in any way that benefits application traffic for
your own network.
Table 3-11. CoS Priority Levels
Priority Level
Traffic Type
1
Background
2
(Spare)
0 (default)
Best Effort
3
Excellent Effort
4
Controlled Load
5
Video, less than 100 milliseconds latency and jitter
6
Voice, less than 10 milliseconds latency and jitter
7
Network Control
Command Attributes
• Priority – CoS value. (Range: 0-7, where 7 is the highest priority)
• Traffic Class* – Output queue buffer. (Range: 0-7, where 7 is the highest CoS
priority queue)
*
CLI shows Queue ID.
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Configuring the Switch
Web – Click Priority, Traffic Classes. Mark an interface and click Select to display
the current mapping of CoS values to output queues. Assign priorities to the traffic
classes (i.e., output queues) for the selected interface, then click Apply.
Figure 3-73. Traffic Classes
CLI – The following example shows how to change the CoS assignments to a
one-to-one mapping.
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/1
Console(config-if)#queue cos-map 0 0
Console(config-if)#queue cos-map 1 1
Console(config-if)#queue cos-map 2 2
Console(config-if)#end
Console#show queue cos-map ethernet 1/1
Information of Eth 1/1
CoS Value
: 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
Priority Queue: 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
console#
*
Mapping specific values for CoS priorities is implemented as an interface configuration
command, but any changes will apply to the all interfaces on the switch.
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Class of Service Configuration
3
Selecting the Queue Mode
You can set the switch to service the queues based on a strict rule that requires all
traffic in a higher priority queue to be processed before lower priority queues are
serviced, or use Weighted Round-Robin (WRR) queuing that specifies a relative
weight of each queue. WRR uses a predefined relative weight for each queue that
determines the percentage of service time the switch services each queue before
moving on to the next queue. This prevents the head-of-line blocking that can occur
with strict priority queuing.
Command Attributes
• WRR - Weighted Round-Robin shares bandwidth at the egress ports by using
scheduling weights 1, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 14 for queues 0 through 7 respectively.
(This is the default selection.)
• Strict - Services the egress queues in sequential order, transmitting all traffic in the
higher priority queues before servicing lower priority queues.
Web – Click Priority, Queue Mode. Select Strict or WRR, then click Apply.
Figure 3-74. Queue Mode
CLI – The following sets the queue mode to strict priority service mode.
Console(config)#queue mode strict
Console(config)#exit
Console#show queue mode
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Queue mode: strict
Console#
Setting the Service Weight for Traffic Classes
This switch uses the Weighted Round Robin (WRR) algorithm to determine the
frequency at which it services each priority queue. As described in “Mapping CoS
Values to Egress Queues” on page 3-127, the traffic classes are mapped to one of
the eight egress queues provided for each port. You can assign a weight to each of
these queues (and thereby to the corresponding traffic priorities). This weight sets
the frequency at which each queue will be polled for service, and subsequently
affects the response time for software applications assigned a specific priority value.
Command Attributes
• WRR Setting Table* – Displays a list of weights for each traffic class (i.e., queue).
• Weight Value – Set a new weight for the selected traffic class. (Range: 1-15)
*
CLI shows Queue ID.
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3
Configuring the Switch
Web – Click Priority, Queue Scheduling. Select the interface, highlight a traffic class
(i.e., output queue), enter a weight, then click Apply.
Figure 3-75. Queue Scheduling
CLI – The following example shows how to assign WRR weights to each of the
priority queues.
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/1
Console(config-if)#queue bandwidth 1 3 5 7 9 11 13 15
Console(config-if)#end
Console#show queue bandwidth
Information of Eth 1/1
Queue ID Weight
-------- -----0
1
1
3
2
5
3
7
4
9
5
11
6
13
7
15
Information of Eth 1/2
Queue ID Weight
.
.
.
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3
Class of Service Configuration
Layer 3/4 Priority Settings
Mapping Layer 3/4 Priorities to CoS Values
This switch supports several common methods of prioritizing layer 3/4 traffic to meet
application requirements. Traffic priorities can be specified in the IP header of a
frame, using the priority bits in the Type of Service (ToS) octet or the number of the
TCP port. If priority bits are used, the ToS octet may contain three bits for IP
Precedence or six bits for Differentiated Services Code Point (DSCP) service. When
these services are enabled, the priorities are mapped to a Class of Service value by
the switch, and the traffic then sent to the corresponding output queue.
Because different priority information may be contained in the traffic, this switch
maps priority values to the output queues in the following manner:
• The precedence for priority mapping is IP Port Priority, IP Precedence or DSCP
Priority, and then Default Port Priority.
• IP Precedence and DSCP Priority cannot both be enabled. Enabling one of these
priority types will automatically disable the other.
Selecting IP Precedence/DSCP Priority
The switch allows you to choose between using IP Precedence or DSCP priority.
Select one of the methods or disable this feature.
Command Attributes
• Disabled – Disables both priority services. (This is the default setting.)
• IP Precedence – Maps layer 3/4 priorities using IP Precedence.
• IP DSCP – Maps layer 3/4 priorities using Differentiated Services Code Point
Mapping.
Web – Click Priority, IP Precedence/DSCP Priority Status. Select Disabled,
IP Precedence or IP DSCP from the scroll-down menu.
Figure 3-76. IP Precedence/DSCP Priority Status
CLI – The following example enables IP Precedence service on the switch.
Console(config)#map ip precedence
Console(config)#
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3
Configuring the Switch
Mapping IP Precedence
The Type of Service (ToS) octet in the IPv4 header includes three precedence bits
defining eight different priority levels ranging from highest priority for network control
packets to lowest priority for routine traffic. The default IP Precedence values are
mapped one-to-one to Class of Service values (i.e., Precedence value 0 maps to
CoS value 0, and so forth). Bits 6 and 7 are used for network control, and the other
bits for various application types. ToS bits are defined in the following table.
Table 3-12. Mapping IP Precedence
Priority Level
Traffic Type
Priority Level
Traffic Type
7
Network Control
3
Flash
6
Internetwork Control
2
Immediate
5
Critical
1
Priority
4
Flash Override
0
Routine
Command Attributes
• IP Precedence Priority Table – Shows the IP Precedence to CoS map.
• Class of Service Value – Maps a CoS value to the selected IP Precedence value.
Note that “0” represents low priority and “7” represent high priority.
Web – Click Priority, IP Precedence Priority. Select an entry from the IP Precedence
Priority Table, enter a value in the Class of Service Value field, and then click Apply.
Figure 3-77. IP Precedence Priority
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Class of Service Configuration
3
CLI – The following example globally enables IP Precedence service on the switch,
maps IP Precedence value 1 to CoS value 0 (on port 1), and then displays the IP
Precedence settings.
Console(config)#map ip precedence
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/1
Console(config-if)#map ip precedence 1 cos 0
Console(config-if)#end
Console#show map ip precedence ethernet 1/1
Precedence mapping status: disabled
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4-201
Port
Precedence COS
--------- ---------- --Eth 1/ 1
0
0
Eth 1/ 1
1
0
Eth 1/ 1
2
2
Eth 1/ 1
3
3
Eth 1/ 1
4
4
Eth 1/ 1
5
5
Eth 1/ 1
6
6
Eth 1/ 1
7
7
Console#
*
Mapping specific values for IP Precedence is implemented as an interface configuration
command, but any changes will apply to the all interfaces on the switch.
Mapping DSCP Priority
The DSCP is six bits wide, allowing coding for up to 64 different forwarding
behaviors. The DSCP replaces the ToS bits, but it retains backward compatibility
with the three precedence bits so that non-DSCP compliant, ToS-enabled devices,
will not conflict with the DSCP mapping. Based on network policies, different kinds of
traffic can be marked for different kinds of forwarding. The DSCP default values are
defined in the following table. Note that all the DSCP values that are not specified
are mapped to CoS value 0.
Table 3-13. Mapping DSCP Priority
IP DSCP Value
CoS Value
0
0
8
1
10, 12, 14, 16
2
18, 20, 22, 24
3
26, 28, 30, 32, 34, 36
4
38, 40, 42
5
48
6
46, 56
7
Command Attributes
• DSCP Priority Table – Shows the DSCP Priority to CoS map.
• Class of Service Value – Maps a CoS value to the selected DSCP Priority value.
Note that “0” represents low priority and “7” represent high priority.
Note: IP DSCP settings apply to all interfaces.
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3
Configuring the Switch
Web – Click Priority, IP DSCP Priority. Select an entry from the DSCP table, enter a
value in the Class of Service Value field, then click Apply.
Figure 3-78. IP DSCP Priority
CLI – The following example globally enables DSCP Priority service on the switch,
maps DSCP value 0 to CoS value 1 (on port 1), and then displays the DSCP Priority
settings.
Console(config)#map ip dscp
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/1
Console(config-if)#map ip dscp 1 cos 0
Console(config-if)#end
Console#show map ip dscp ethernet 1/1
DSCP mapping status: enabled
Port
DSCP COS
--------- ---- --Eth 1/ 1
0
0
Eth 1/ 1
1
0
Eth 1/ 1
2
0
Eth 1/ 1
3
0
.
.
.
Eth 1/ 1
61
0
Eth 1/ 1
62
0
Eth 1/ 1
63
0
Console#
*
Mapping specific values for IP DSCP is implemented as an interface configuration
command, but any changes will apply to the all interfaces on the switch.
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Class of Service Configuration
3
Mapping IP Port Priority
You can also map network applications to Class of Service values based on the IP
port number (i.e., TCP/UDP port number) in the frame header. Some of the more
common TCP service ports include: HTTP: 80, FTP: 21, Telnet: 23 and POP3: 110.
Command Attributes
• IP Port Priority Status – Enables or disables the IP port priority.
(Default: Disabled)
• Interface – Selects the port or trunk interface to which the settings apply.
• IP Port Priority Table – Shows the IP port to CoS map.
• IP Port Number (TCP/UDP) – Set a new IP port number.
• Class of Service Value – Sets a CoS value for a new IP port. Note that “0”
represents low priority and “7” represents high priority.
Note: IP Port Priority settings apply to all interfaces.
Web – Click Priority, IP Port Priority Status. Set IP Port Priority Status to Enabled.
Figure 3-79. IP Port Priority Status
Click Priority, IP Port Priority. Enter the port number for a network application in the
IP Port Number box and the new CoS values in the Class of Service box, and then
click Apply.
Figure 3-80. IP Port Priority
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3
Configuring the Switch
CLI – The following example globally enables IP Port Priority service on the switch,
maps HTTP traffic on port 5 to CoS value 0, and then displays the IP Port Priority
settings for that port.
Console(config)#map ip port
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/5
Console(config-if)#map ip port 80 cos 0
Console(config-if)#end
Console#show map ip port ethernet 1/5
TCP port mapping status: disabled
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Port
Port no. COS
--------- -------- --Eth 1/ 5
80
0
Console#
*
Mapping specific values for IP Precedence is implemented as an interface configuration
command, but any changes will apply to the all interfaces on the switch.
Mapping CoS Values to ACLs
Use the ACL CoS Mapping page to set the output queue for packets matching an
ACL rule as shown in the following table. Note that the specified CoS value is only
used to map the matching packet to an output queue; it is not written to the packet
itself. For information on mapping the CoS values to output queues, see page 3-127.
Table 3-14. Mapping CoS Values to IP ACLs
Priority
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
Queue
1
2
0
3
4
5
6
7
Command Usage
You must configure an ACL mask before you can map CoS values to the rule.
Command Attributes
•
•
•
•
Port – Port identifier.
Name* – Name of ACL.
Type – Type of ACL (IP or MAC).
CoS Priority – CoS value used for packets matching an IP ACL rule. (Range: 0-7)
*
For information on configuring ACLs, see page 3-52.
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3
Class of Service Configuration
Web – Click Priority, ACL CoS Priority. Enable mapping for any port, select an ACL
from the scroll-down list, then click Apply.
Figure 3-81. ACL CoS Priority
CLI – This example assigns a CoS value of zero to packets matching rules within
the specified ACL on port 24.
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/24
Console(config-if)#map access-list ip bill cos 0
Console(config-if)#
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Changing Priorities Based on ACL Rules
You can change traffic priorities for frames matching the defined ACL rule. (This
feature is commonly referred to as ACL packet marking.) This switch can change the
IEEE 802.1p priority, IP Precedence, or DSCP Priority of IP frames; or change the
IEEE 802.1p priority of Layer 2 frames.
Command Usage
• You must configure an ACL mask before you can change priorities based on a rule.
• Traffic priorities may be included in the IEEE 802.1p priority tag. This tag is also
incorporated as part of the overall IEEE 802.1Q VLAN tag. The 802.1p priority may
be set for either Layer 2 or IP frames.
• The IP frame header also includes priority bits in the Type of Service (ToS) octet.
The Type of Service octet may contain three bits for IP Precedence or six bits for
Differentiated Services Code Point (DSCP) service. Note that the IP frame header
can include either the IP Precedence or DSCP priority type.
• The precedence for priority mapping by this switch is IP Precedence or DSCP
Priority, and then 802.1p priority.
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3
Configuring the Switch
Command Attributes
•
•
•
•
•
•
Port – Port identifier.
Name* – Name of ACL.
Type – Type of ACL (IP or MAC).
Precedence – IP Precedence value. (Range: 0-7)
DSCP – Differentiated Services Code Point value. (Range: 0-63)
802.1p Priority – Class of Service value in the IEEE 802.1p priority tag.
(Range: 0-7; 7 is the highest priority)
*
For information on configuring ACLs, see page 3-52.
Web – Click Priority, ACL Marker. Select a port and an ACL rule. To specify a ToS
priority, mark the Precedence/DSCP check box, select Precedence or DSCP from
the scroll-down box, and enter a priority. To specify an 802.1p priority, mark the
802.1p Priority check box, and enter a priority. Then click Add.
Figure 3-82. ACL Marker
CLI – This example changes the DSCP priority for packets matching an IP ACL rule,
and the 802.1p priority for packets matching a MAC ACL rule.
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/1
Console(config-if)#match access-list ip bill set dscp 0
Console(config-if)#match access-list mac mike set priority 0
Console(config-if)#end
Console#show marking
Interface ethernet 1/1
match access-list IP bill set DSCP 0
match access-list MAC a set priority 0
Console#
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Multicast Filtering
3
Multicast Filtering
Multicasting is used to support real-time
applications such as videoconferencing or
streaming audio. A multicast server does not have
to establish a separate connection with each
client. It merely broadcasts its service to the
network, and any hosts that want to receive the
multicast register with their local multicast switch/
router. Although this approach reduces the
network overhead required by a multicast server,
the broadcast traffic must be carefully pruned at
every multicast switch/router it passes through to
ensure that traffic is only passed on to the hosts
which subscribed to this service.
Unicast
Flow
Multicast
Flow
This switch uses IGMP (Internet Group
Management Protocol) to query for any attached
hosts that want to receive a specific multicast
service. It identifies the ports containing hosts
requesting to join the service and sends data out
to those ports only. It then propagates the service request up to any neighboring
multicast switch/router to ensure that it will continue to receive the multicast service.
This procedure is called multicast filtering.
The purpose of IP multicast filtering is to optimize a switched network’s
performance, so multicast packets will only be forwarded to those ports containing
multicast group hosts or multicast routers/switches, instead of flooding traffic to all
ports in the subnet (VLAN).
Layer 2 IGMP (Snooping and Query)
IGMP Snooping and Query – If multicast routing is not supported on other switches
in your network, you can use IGMP Snooping and Query (page 3-140) to monitor
IGMP service requests passing between multicast clients and servers, and
dynamically configure the switch ports which need to forward multicast traffic.
Static IGMP Router Interface – If IGMP snooping cannot locate the IGMP querier,
you can manually designate a known IGMP querier (i.e., a multicast router/switch)
connected over the network to an interface on your switch (page 3-143). This
interface will then join all the current multicast groups supported by the attached
router/switch to ensure that multicast traffic is passed to all appropriate interfaces
within the switch.
Static IGMP Host Interface – For multicast applications that you need to control
more carefully, you can manually assign a multicast service to specific interfaces on
the switch (page 3-145).
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3
Configuring the Switch
Configuring IGMP Snooping and Query Parameters
You can configure the switch to forward multicast traffic intelligently. Based on the
IGMP query and report messages, the switch forwards traffic only to the ports that
request multicast traffic. This prevents the switch from broadcasting the traffic to all
ports and possibly disrupting network performance.
Command Usage
• IGMP Snooping – This switch can passively snoop on IGMP Query and Report
packets transferred between IP multicast routers/switches and IP multicast host
groups to identify the IP multicast group members. It simply monitors the IGMP
packets passing through it, picks out the group registration information, and
configures the multicast filters accordingly.
• IGMP Querier – A router, or multicast-enabled switch, can periodically ask their
hosts if they want to receive multicast traffic. If there is more than one router/switch
on the LAN performing IP multicasting, one of these devices is elected “querier”
and assumes the role of querying the LAN for group members. It then propagates
the service requests on to any upstream multicast switch/router to ensure that it will
continue to receive the multicast service.
Note: Multicast routers use this information, along with a multicast routing protocol such
as DVMRP or PIM, to support IP multicasting across the Internet.
Command Attributes
• IGMP Status — When enabled, the switch will monitor network traffic to determine
which hosts want to receive multicast traffic. This is also referred to as IGMP
Snooping. (Default: Enabled)
• Act as IGMP Querier — When enabled, the switch can serve as the Querier,
which is responsible for asking hosts if they want to receive multicast traffic.
(Default: Enabled)
• IGMP Query Count — Sets the maximum number of queries issued for which
there has been no response before the switch takes action to drop a client from the
multicast group. (Range: 2-10, Default: 2)
• IGMP Query Interval — Sets the frequency at which the switch sends IGMP
host-query messages. (Range: 60-125 seconds, Default: 125)
• IGMP Report Delay — Sets the time between receiving an IGMP Report for an IP
multicast address on a port before the switch sends an IGMP Query out of that port
and removes the entry from its list. (Range: 5-30 seconds, Default: 10)
• IGMP Query Timeout — The time the switch waits after the previous querier stops
before it considers the router port (i.e., the interface which had been receiving
query packets) to have expired. (Range: 300-500 seconds, Default: 300)
• IGMP Version — Sets the protocol version for compatibility with other devices on
the network. (Range: 1-2; Default: 2)
Notes: 1. All systems on the subnet must support the same version.
2. Some attributes are only enabled for IGMPv2, including IGMP Report Delay
and IGMP Query Timeout.
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3
Multicast Filtering
Web – Click IGMP Snooping, IGMP Configuration. Adjust the IGMP settings as
required, and then click Apply. (The default settings are shown below.)
Figure 3-83. IGMP Configuration
CLI – This example modifies the settings for multicast filtering, and then displays the
current status.
Console(config)#ip igmp snooping
Console(config)#ip igmp snooping querier
Console(config)#ip igmp snooping query-count 10
Console(config)#ip igmp snooping query-interval 100
Console(config)#ip igmp snooping query-max-response-time 20
Console(config)#ip igmp snooping router-port-expire-time 300
Console(config)#ip igmp snooping version 2
Console(config)#exit
Console#show ip igmp snooping
Service status
: Enabled
Querier status
: Enabled
Query count
: 10
Query interval
: 100 sec
Query max response time : 20 sec
Router port expire time : 300 sec
IGMP snooping version
: Version 2
Console#
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4-208
4-209
4-210
4-210
4-206
4-206
3-141
3
Configuring the Switch
Displaying Interfaces Attached to a Multicast Router
Multicast routers that are attached to ports on the switch use information obtained
from IGMP, along with a multicast routing protocol such as DVMRP or PIM, to
support IP multicasting across the Internet. These routers may be dynamically
discovered by the switch or statically assigned to an interface on the switch.
You can use the Multicast Router Port Information page to display the ports on this
switch attached to a neighboring multicast router/switch for each VLAN ID.
Command Attributes
• VLAN ID – ID of configured VLAN (1-4094).
• Multicast Router List – Multicast routers dynamically discovered by this switch or
those that are statically assigned to an interface on this switch.
Web – Click IGMP Snooping, Multicast Router Port Information. Select the required
VLAN ID from the scroll-down list to display the associated multicast routers.
Figure 3-84. Multicast Router Port Information
CLI – This example shows that Port 11 has been statically configured as a port
attached to a multicast router.
Console#show ip igmp snooping mrouter vlan 1
VLAN M'cast Router Port Type
---- ------------------ ------1
Eth 1/11 Static
console#
3-142
4-212
3
Multicast Filtering
Specifying Static Interfaces for a Multicast Router
Depending on your network connections, IGMP snooping may not always be able to
locate the IGMP querier. Therefore, if the IGMP querier is a known multicast router/
switch connected over the network to an interface (port or trunk) on your switch, you
can manually configure the interface (and a specified VLAN) to join all the current
multicast groups supported by the attached router. This can ensure that multicast
traffic is passed to all the appropriate interfaces within the switch.
Command Attributes
• Interface – Activates the Port or Trunk scroll down list.
• VLAN ID – Selects the VLAN to propagate all multicast traffic coming from the
attached multicast router.
• Port or Trunk – Specifies the interface attached to a multicast router.
Web – Click IGMP Snooping, Static Multicast Router Port Configuration. Specify the
interfaces attached to a multicast router, indicate the VLAN which will forward all the
corresponding multicast traffic, and then click Add. After you have finished adding
interfaces to the list, click Apply.
Figure 3-85. Static Multicast Router Port Configuration
CLI – This example configures port 11 as a multicast router port within VLAN 1.
Console(config)#ip igmp snooping vlan 1 mrouter ethernet 1/11
Console(config)#exit
Console#show ip igmp snooping mrouter vlan 1
VLAN M'cast Router Port Type
---- ------------------ ------1
Eth 1/11 Static
Console#
4-211
4-212
3-143
3
Configuring the Switch
Displaying Port Members of Multicast Services
You can display the port members associated with a specified VLAN and multicast
service.
Command Attribute
• VLAN ID – Selects the VLAN for which to display port members.
• Multicast IP Address – The IP address for a specific multicast service.
• Multicast Group Port List – Shows the interfaces that have already been
assigned to the selected VLAN to propagate a specific multicast service.
Web – Click IGMP Snooping, IP Multicast Registration Table. Select a VLAN ID and
the IP address for a multicast service from the scroll-down lists. The switch will
display all the interfaces that are propagating this multicast service.
Figure 3-86. IP Multicast Registration Table
CLI – This example displays all the known multicast services supported on VLAN 1,
along with the ports propagating the corresponding services. The Type field shows if
this entry was learned dynamically or was statically configured.
Console#show mac-address-table multicast vlan 1
VLAN M'cast IP addr. Member ports Type
---- --------------- ------------ ------1
224.1.1.12
Eth1/12
USER
1
224.1.2.3
Eth1/12
IGMP
Console#
3-144
4-207
3
Multicast Filtering
Assigning Ports to Multicast Services
Multicast filtering can be dynamically configured using IGMP Snooping and IGMP
Query messages as described in “Configuring IGMP Snooping and Query
Parameters” on page 3-140. For certain applications that require tighter control, you
may need to statically configure a multicast service on the switch. First add all the
ports attached to participating hosts to a common VLAN, and then assign the
multicast service to that VLAN group.
Command Usage
• Static multicast addresses are never aged out.
• When a multicast address is assigned to an interface in a specific VLAN, the
corresponding traffic can only be forwarded to ports within that VLAN.
Command Attribute
• Interface – Activates the Port or Trunk scroll down list.
• VLAN ID – Selects the VLAN to propagate all multicast traffic coming from the
attached multicast router/switch.
• Multicast IP – The IP address for a specific multicast service
• Port or Trunk – Specifies the interface attached to a multicast router/switch.
Web – Click IGMP Snooping, IGMP Member Port Table. Specify the interface
attached to a multicast service (via an IGMP-enabled switch or multicast router),
indicate the VLAN that will propagate the multicast service, specify the multicast IP
address, and click Add. After you have completed adding ports to the member list,
click Apply.
Figure 3-87. IGMP Member Port Table
CLI – This example assigns a multicast address to VLAN 1, and then displays all the
known multicast services supported on VLAN 1.
Console(config)#ip igmp snooping vlan 1 static 224.1.1.12
ethernet 1/12
Console(config)#exit
Console#show mac-address-table multicast vlan 1
VLAN M'cast IP addr. Member ports Type
---- --------------- ------------ ------1
224.1.1.12
Eth1/12
USER
1
224.1.2.3
Eth1/12
IGMP
Console#
4-205
4-207
3-145
3
Configuring the Switch
Configuring Domain Name Service
The Domain Naming System (DNS) service on this switch allows host names to be
mapped to IP addresses using static table entries or by redirection to other name
servers on the network. When a client device designates this switch as a DNS
server, the client will attempt to resolve host names into IP addresses by forwarding
DNS queries to the switch, and waiting for a response.
You can manually configure entries in the DNS table used for mapping domain
names to IP addresses, configure default domain names, or specify one or more
name servers to use for domain name to address translation.
Configuring General DNS Server Parameters
Command Usage
• To enable DNS service on this switch, first configure one or more name servers,
and then enable domain lookup status.
• To append domain names to incomplete host names received from a DNS client
(i.e., not formatted with dotted notation), you can specify a default domain name or
a list of domain names to be tried in sequential order.
• If there is no domain list, the default domain name is used. If there is a domain list,
the default domain name is not used.
• When an incomplete host name is received by the DNS server on this switch and
a domain name list has been specified, the switch will work through the domain list,
appending each domain name in the list to the host name, and checking with the
specified name servers for a match.
• When more than one name server is specified, the servers are queried in the
specified sequence until a response is received, or the end of the list is reached
with no response.
• Note that if all name servers are deleted, DNS will automatically be disabled.
Command Attributes
• Domain Lookup Status – Enables DNS host name-to-address translation.
• Default Domain Name* – Defines the default domain name appended to
incomplete host names. (Range: 1-64 alphanumeric characters)
• Domain Name List* – Defines define a list of domain names that can be appended
to incomplete host names. (Range: 1-64 alphanumeric characters. 1-5 names)
• Name Server List – Specifies the address of one or more domain name servers
to use for name-to-address resolution. (Range: 1-6 IP addresses)
* Do not include the initial dot that separates the host name from the domain name.
3-146
3
Configuring Domain Name Service
Web – Select DNS, General Configuration. Set the default domain name or list of
domain names, specify one or more name servers to use to use for address
resolution, enable domain lookup status, and click Apply.
Figure 3-88. DNS General Configuration
CLI - This example sets a default domain name and a domain list. However,
remember that if a domain list is specified, the default domain name is not used.
Console(config)#ip domain-name sample.com
Console(config)#ip domain-list sample.com.uk
Console(config)#ip domain-list sample.com.jp
Console(config)#ip name-server 192.168.1.55 10.1.0.55
Console(config)#ip domain-lookup
Console(config)#end
Console#show dns
Domain Lookup Status:
DNS enabled
Default Domain Name:
sample.com
Domain Name List:
sample.com.uk
sample.com.jp
Name Server List:
192.168.1.55
10.1.0.55
Console#
4-118
4-119
4-120
4-121
4-123
3-147
3
Configuring the Switch
Configuring Static DNS Host to Address Entries
You can manually configure static entries in the DNS table that are used to map
domain names to IP addresses.
Command Usage
• Static entries may be used for local devices connected directly to the attached
network, or for commonly used resources located elsewhere on the network.
• Servers or other network devices may support one or more connections via
multiple IP addresses. If more than one IP address is associated with a host name
in the static table or via information returned from a name server, a DNS client can
try each address in succession, until it establishes a connection with the target
device.
Field Attributes
• Host Name – Name of a host device that is mapped to one or more IP addresses.
(Range: 1-64 characters)
• IP Address – Internet address(es) associated with a host name.
(Range: 1-8 addresses)
• Alias – Displays the host names that are mapped to the same address(es) as a
previously configured entry.
3-148
Configuring Domain Name Service
3
Web – Select DNS, Static Host Table. Enter a host name and one or more
corresponding addresses, then click Apply.
Figure 3-89. DNS Static Host Table
CLI - This example maps two address to a host name, and then configures an alias
host name for the same addresses.
Console(config)#ip host rd5 192.168.1.55 10.1.0.55
Console(config)#ip host rd6 10.1.0.55
Console(config)#end
Console#show hosts
4-117
4-122
Hostname
rd5
Inet address
10.1.0.55 192.168.1.55
Alias
1.rd6
Console#
3-149
3
Configuring the Switch
Displaying the DNS Cache
You can display entries in the DNS cache that have been learned via the designated
name servers.
Field Attributes
• No – The entry number for each resource record.
• Flag – The flag is always “4” indicating a cache entry and therefore unreliable.
• Type – This field includes CNAME which specifies the canonical or primary name
for the owner, and ALIAS which specifies multiple domain names which are
mapped to the same IP address as an existing entry.
• IP – The IP address associated with this record.
• TTL – The time to live reported by the name server.
• Domain – The domain name associated with this record.
Web – Select DNS, Cache.
Figure 3-90. DNS Cache
3-150
3
Configuring Domain Name Service
CLI - This example displays all the resource records learned from the designated
name servers.
Console#show dns cache
NO
FLAG
TYPE
0
4
CNAME
1
4
CNAME
2
4
CNAME
3
4
CNAME
4
4
CNAME
5
4
ALIAS
6
4
CNAME
7
4
ALIAS
8
4
CNAME
9
4
ALIAS
10
4
CNAME
Console#
IP
207.46.134.222
207.46.134.190
207.46.134.155
207.46.249.222
207.46.249.27
POINTER TO:4
207.46.68.27
POINTER TO:6
65.54.131.192
POINTER TO:8
165.193.72.190
TTL
51
51
51
51
51
51
71964
71964
605
605
87
4-123
DOMAIN
www.microsoft.akadns.net
www.microsoft.akadns.net
www.microsoft.akadns.net
www.microsoft.akadns.net
www.microsoft.akadns.net
www.microsoft.com
msn.com.tw
www.msn.com.tw
passportimages.com
www.passportimages.com
global.msads.net
3-151
3
Configuring the Switch
3-152
Chapter 4: Command Line Interface
This chapter describes how to use the Command Line Interface (CLI).
Using the Command Line Interface
Accessing the CLI
When accessing the management interface for the switch over a direct connection
to the server’s console port, or via a Telnet connection, the switch can be managed
by entering command keywords and parameters at the prompt. Using the switch's
command-line interface (CLI) is very similar to entering commands on a UNIX
system.
Console Connection
To access the switch through the console port, perform these steps:
1.
At the console prompt, enter the user name and password. (The default user
names are “admin” and “guest” with corresponding passwords of “admin” and
“guest.”) When the administrator user name and password is entered, the CLI
displays the “Console#” prompt and enters privileged access mode
(i.e., Privileged Exec). But when the guest user name and password is entered,
the CLI displays the “Console>” prompt and enters normal access mode
(i.e., Normal Exec).
2.
Enter the necessary commands to complete your desired tasks.
3.
When finished, exit the session with the “quit” or “exit” command.
After connecting to the system through the console port, the login screen displays:
User Access Verification
Username: admin
Password:
CLI session with the 44 10/100/1000 ports 4 Gigabit Combo ports
L2/L4 managed standalone switch is opened.
To end the CLI session, enter [Exit].
Console#
Telnet Connection
Telnet operates over the IP transport protocol. In this environment, your
management station and any network device you want to manage over the network
must have a valid IP address. Valid IP addresses consist of four numbers, 0 to 255,
separated by periods. Each address consists of a network portion and host portion.
For example, the IP address assigned to this switch, 10.1.0.1, consists of a network
portion (10.1.0) and a host portion (1).
Note: The IP address for this switch is obtained via DHCP by default.
4-1
4
Command Line Interface
To access the switch through a Telnet session, you must first set the IP address for
the switch, and set the default gateway if you are managing the switch from a
different IP subnet. For example,
Console(config)#interface vlan 1
Console(config-if)#ip address 10.1.0.254 255.255.255.0
Console(config-if)#exit
Console(config)#ip default-gateway 10.1.0.254
If your corporate network is connected to another network outside your office or to
the Internet, you need to apply for a registered IP address. However, if you are
attached to an isolated network, then you can use any IP address that matches the
network segment to which you are attached.
After you configure the switch with an IP address, you can open a Telnet session by
performing these steps:
1.
From the remote host, enter the Telnet command and the IP address of the
device you want to access.
2.
At the prompt, enter the user name and system password. The CLI will display
the “Vty-n#” prompt for the administrator to show that you are using privileged
access mode (i.e., Privileged Exec), or “Vty-n>” for the guest to show that you
are using normal access mode (i.e., Normal Exec), where n indicates the
number of the current Telnet session.
3.
Enter the necessary commands to complete your desired tasks.
4.
When finished, exit the session with the “quit” or “exit” command.
After entering the Telnet command, the login screen displays:
Username: admin
Password:
CLI session with the 44 10/100/1000 ports 4 Gigabit Combo ports
L2/L4 managed standalone switch is opened.
To end the CLI session, enter [Exit].
Vty-0#
Note: You can open up to four sessions to the device via Telnet.
4-2
Entering Commands
4
Entering Commands
This section describes how to enter CLI commands.
Keywords and Arguments
A CLI command is a series of keywords and arguments. Keywords identify a
command, and arguments specify configuration parameters. For example, in the
command “show interfaces status ethernet 1/5,” show interfaces and status are
keywords, ethernet is an argument that specifies the interface type, and 1/5
specifies the unit/port.
You can enter commands as follows:
• To enter a simple command, enter the command keyword.
• To enter multiple commands, enter each command in the required order. For
example, to enable Privileged Exec command mode, and display the startup
configuration, enter:
Console>enable
Console#show startup-config
• To enter commands that require parameters, enter the required parameters after
the command keyword. For example, to set a password for the administrator,
enter:
Console(config)#username admin password 0 smith
Minimum Abbreviation
The CLI will accept a minimum number of characters that uniquely identify a
command. For example, the command “configure” can be entered as con. If an
entry is ambiguous, the system will prompt for further input.
Command Completion
If you terminate input with a Tab key, the CLI will print the remaining characters of a
partial keyword up to the point of ambiguity. In the “logging history” example, typing
log followed by a tab will result in printing the command up to “logging.”
Getting Help on Commands
You can display a brief description of the help system by entering the help
command. You can also display command syntax by using the “?” character to list
keywords or parameters.
4-3
4
Command Line Interface
Showing Commands
If you enter a “?” at the command prompt, the system will display the first level of
keywords for the current command class (Normal Exec or Privileged Exec) or
configuration class (Global, ACL, Interface, Line, VLAN Database, or MSTP). You
can also display a list of valid keywords for a specific command. For example, the
command “show ?” displays a list of possible show commands:
Console#show ?
access-group
access-list
bridge-ext
calendar
dns
dot1x
garp
gvrp
history
hosts
interfaces
ip
lacp
line
logging
mac
mac-address-table
management
map
marking
port
protocol-vlan
public-key
pvlan
queue
radius-server
running-config
snmp
sntp
spanning-tree
ssh
startup-config
system
tacacs-server
users
version
vlan
Console#show
Access groups
Access lists
Bridge extend information
Date information
DNS information
Show 802.1x content
Garp property
Show GVRP information of interface
Information of history
Host information
Information of interfaces
IP information
Show lacp statistic
TTY line information
Show the contents of logging buffers
MAC access lists
Set configuration of the address table
Show management ip filter
Map priority
Specify marker
Characteristics of the port
Protocol-vlan information
Show information of public key
Information of private VLAN
Information of priority queue
RADIUS server information
The system configuration of running
SNMP statistics
Sntp
Specify spanning-tree
Secure shell
The system configuration of starting up
Information of system
Login by tacacs server
Display information about terminal lines
System hardware and software status
Switch VLAN Virtual Interface
The command “show interfaces ?” will display the following information:
Console#show interfaces ?
counters
Information of interfaces counters
protocol-vlan Protocol-vlan information
status
Information of interfaces status
switchport
Information of interfaces switchport
Console#
4-4
Entering Commands
4
Partial Keyword Lookup
If you terminate a partial keyword with a question mark, alternatives that match the
initial letters are provided. (Remember not to leave a space between the command
and question mark.) For example “s?” shows all the keywords starting with “s.”
Console#show s?
snmp
sntp
system
console#show s
spanning-tree
ssh
startup-config
Negating the Effect of Commands
For many configuration commands you can enter the prefix keyword “no” to cancel
the effect of a command or reset the configuration to the default value. For example,
the logging command will log system messages to a host server. To disable
logging, specify the no logging command. This guide describes the negation effect
for all applicable commands.
Using Command History
The CLI maintains a history of commands that have been entered. You can scroll
back through the history of commands by pressing the up arrow key. Any command
displayed in the history list can be executed again, or first modified and then
executed.
Using the show history command displays a longer list of recently executed
commands.
4-5
4
Command Line Interface
Understanding Command Modes
The command set is divided into Exec and Configuration classes. Exec commands
generally display information on system status or clear statistical counters.
Configuration commands, on the other hand, modify interface parameters or enable
certain switching functions. These classes are further divided into different modes.
Available commands depend on the selected mode. You can always enter a
question mark “?” at the prompt to display a list of the commands available for the
current mode. The command classes and associated modes are displayed in the
following table:
Table 4-1. General Command Modes
Class
Mode
Exec
Normal
Privileged
Configuration
Global*
Access Control List
Interface
Line
Multiple Spanning Tree
VLAN Database
* You must be in Privileged Exec mode to access the Global configuration mode.
You must be in Global Configuration mode to access any of the other configuration modes.
Exec Commands
When you open a new console session on the switch with the user name and
password “guest,” the system enters the Normal Exec command mode (or guest
mode), displaying the “Console>” command prompt. Only a limited number of the
commands are available in this mode. You can access all commands only from the
Privileged Exec command mode (or administrator mode). To access Privilege Exec
mode, open a new console session with the user name and password “admin.” The
system will now display the “Console#” command prompt. You can also enter
Privileged Exec mode from within Normal Exec mode, by entering the enable
command, followed by the privileged level password “super” (page 4-27).
To enter Privileged Exec mode, enter the following user names and passwords:
Username: admin
Password: [admin login password]
CLI session with the 44 10/100/1000 ports 4 Gigabit Combo ports
L2/L4 managed standalone switch is opened.
To end the CLI session, enter [Exit].
Console#
4-6
Entering Commands
4
Username: guest
Password: [guest login password]
CLI session with the 44 10/100/1000 ports 4 Gigabit Combo ports
L2/L4 managed standalone switch is opened.
To end the CLI session, enter [Exit].
Console#enable
Password: [privileged level password]
Console#
Configuration Commands
Configuration commands are privileged level commands used to modify switch
settings. These commands modify the running configuration only and are not saved
when the switch is rebooted. To store the running configuration in non-volatile
storage, use the copy running-config startup-config command.
The configuration commands are organized into different modes:
• Global Configuration - These commands modify the system level configuration,
and include commands such as hostname and snmp-server community.
• Access Control List Configuration - These commands are used for packet filtering.
• Interface Configuration - These commands modify the port configuration such as
speed-duplex and negotiation.
• Line Configuration - These commands modify the console port and Telnet
configuration, and include command such as parity and databits.
• VLAN Configuration - Includes the command to create VLAN groups.
• Multiple Spanning Tree Configuration - These commands configure settings for the
selected multiple spanning tree instance.
To enter the Global Configuration mode, enter the command configure in Privileged
Exec mode. The system prompt will change to “Console(config)#” which gives you
access privilege to all Global Configuration commands.
Console#configure
Console(config)#
4-7
4
Command Line Interface
To enter the other modes, at the configuration prompt type one of the following
commands. Use the exit or end command to return to the Privileged Exec mode.
Table 4-2. Configuration Command Modes
Mode
Command
Prompt
Line
line {console | vty}
Console(config-line)#
Page
4-11
Access
Control List
access-list ip standard
access-list ip extended
access-list ip mask-precedence
access-list mac
access-list mac mask-precedence
Console(config-std-acl)
Console(config-ext-acl)
Console(config-ip-mask-acl)
Console(config-mac-acl)
Console(config-mac-mask-acl)
4-86
Interface
interface {ethernet port | port-channel id| vlan id} Console(config-if)#
VLAN
vlan database
Console(config-vlan)
4-172
MSTP
spanning-tree mst-configuration
Console(config-mstp)#
4-159
4-125
For example, you can use the following commands to enter interface configuration
mode, and then return to Privileged Exec mode
Console(config)#interface
ethernet 1/5
.
.
.
Console(config-if)#exit
Console(config)#
4-8
Entering Commands
4
Command Line Processing
Commands are not case sensitive. You can abbreviate commands and parameters
as long as they contain enough letters to differentiate them from any other currently
available commands or parameters. You can use the Tab key to complete partial
commands, or enter a partial command followed by the “?” character to display a list
of possible matches. You can also use the following editing keystrokes for
command-line processing:
Table 4-3. Keystroke Commands
Keystroke
Function
Ctrl-A
Shifts cursor to start of command line.
Ctrl-B
Shifts cursor to the left one character.
Ctrl-C
Terminates the current task and displays the command prompt.
Ctrl-E
Shifts cursor to end of command line.
Ctrl-F
Shifts cursor to the right one character.
Ctrl-K
Deletes all characters from the cursor to the end of the line.
Ctrl-L
Repeats current command line on a new line.
Ctrl-N
Enters the next command line in the history buffer.
Ctrl-P
Enters the last command.
Ctrl-R
Repeats current command line on a new line.
Ctrl-U
Deletes from the cursor to the beginning of the line.
Ctrl-W
Deletes the last word typed.
Esc-B
Moves the cursor back one word.
Esc-D
Deletes from the cursor to the end of the word.
Esc-F
Moves the cursor forward one word.
Delete key or backspace key
Erases a mistake when entering a command.
4-9
4
Command Line Interface
Command Groups
The system commands can be broken down into the functional groups shown below.
Table 4-4. Command Group Index
Command Group
Description
Line
Sets communication parameters for the serial port and Telnet,
including baud rate and console time-out
Page
4-11
General
Basic commands for entering privileged access mode, restarting the
system, or quitting the CLI
4-20
System Management
Controls system logs, system passwords, user name, browser
management options, and a variety of other system information
4-24
Flash/File
Manages code image or switch configuration files
4-63
Authentication
Configures logon access using local or remote authentication;
also configures port security and IEEE 802.1x port access control
4-68
Access Control List
Provides filtering for IP frames (based on address, protocol, TCP/UDP
port number or TCP control code) or non-IP frames (based on MAC
address or Ethernet type)
4-86
SNMP
Activates authentication failure traps; configures community access
strings, and trap managers; also configures IP address filtering
DNS
Configures DNS services.
4-117
Interface
Configures the connection parameters for all Ethernet ports,
aggregated links, and VLANs
4-125
Mirror Port
Mirrors data to another port for analysis without affecting the data
passing through or the performance of the monitored port
4-136
Rate Limiting
Controls the maximum rate for traffic transmitted or received on a port
4-138
Link Aggregation
Statically groups multiple ports into a single logical trunk; configures
Link Aggregation Control Protocol for port trunks
4-139
Address Table
Configures the address table for filtering specified addresses, displays
current entries, clears the table, or sets the aging time
4-149
4-112
Spanning Tree
Configures Spanning Tree settings for the switch
4-153
VLANs
Configures VLAN settings, and defines port membership for VLAN
groups; also enables or configures private VLANs and protocol VLANs
4-172
GVRP and
Bridge Extension
Configures GVRP settings that permit automatic VLAN learning;
shows the configuration for the bridge extension MIB
4-187
Priority
Sets port priority for untagged frames, selects strict priority or weighted
round robin, relative weight for each priority queue, also sets priority for
TCP traffic types, IP precedence, and DSCP
4-191
Multicast Filtering
Configures IGMP multicast filtering, query parameters, and specifies
ports attached to a multicast router
4-204
IP Interface
Configures IP address for the switch
4-213
4-10
4
Line Commands
The access mode shown in the following tables is indicated by these abbreviations:
NE (Normal Exec)
PE (Privileged Exec)
GC (Global Configuration)
ACL (Access Control List Configuration)
IC (Interface Configuration)
LC (Line Configuration)
VC (VLAN Database Configuration)
MST (Multiple Spanning Tree)
Line Commands
You can access the onboard configuration program by attaching a VT100
compatible device to the server’s serial port. These commands are used to set
communication parameters for the serial port or Telnet (i.e., a virtual terminal).
Table 4-5. Line Commands
Command
Function
Mode
line
Identifies a specific line for configuration and starts the line
configuration mode
GC
Page
4-12
login
Enables password checking at login
LC
4-12
password
Specifies a password on a line
LC
4-13
exec-timeout
Sets the interval that the command interpreter waits until user
input is detected
LC
4-14
password-thresh
Sets the password intrusion threshold, which limits the number of LC
failed logon attempts
4-15
silent-time*
Sets the amount of time the management console is inaccessible LC
after the number of unsuccessful logon attempts exceeds the
threshold set by the password-thresh command
4-15
databits*
Sets the number of data bits per character that are interpreted and LC
generated by hardware
4-16
parity*
Defines the generation of a parity bit
LC
4-17
speed*
Sets the terminal baud rate
LC
4-17
stopbits*
Sets the number of the stop bits transmitted per byte
LC
4-18
disconnect
Terminates a line connection
PE
4-18
show line
Displays a terminal line's parameters
NE, PE
4-19
* These commands only apply to the serial port.
4-11
4
Command Line Interface
line
This command identifies a specific line for configuration, and to process subsequent
line configuration commands.
Syntax
line {console | vty}
• console - Console terminal line.
• vty - Virtual terminal for remote console access (i.e., Telnet).
Default Setting
There is no default line.
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Command Usage
Telnet is considered a virtual terminal connection and will be shown as “Vty” in
screen displays such as show users. However, the serial communication
parameters (e.g., databits) do not affect Telnet connections.
Example
To enter console line mode, enter the following command:
Console(config)#line console
Console(config-line)#
Related Commands
show line (4-19)
show users (4-61)
login
This command enables password checking at login. Use the no form to disable
password checking and allow connections without a password.
Syntax
login [local]
no login
local - Selects local password checking. Authentication is based on the
user name specified with the username command.
Default Setting
login local
Command Mode
Line Configuration
4-12
4
Line Commands
Command Usage
• There are three authentication modes provided by the switch itself at login:
- login selects authentication by a single global password as specified by the
password line configuration command. When using this method, the
management interface starts in Normal Exec (NE) mode.
- login local selects authentication via the user name and password
specified by the username command (i.e., default setting). When using this
method, the management interface starts in Normal Exec (NE) or Privileged
Exec (PE) mode, depending on the user’s privilege level (0 or 15
respectively).
- no login selects no authentication. When using this method, the
management interface starts in Normal Exec (NE) mode.
• This command controls login authentication via the switch itself. To configure
user names and passwords for remote authentication servers, you must use
the RADIUS or TACACS software installed on those servers.
Example
Console(config-line)#login local
Console(config-line)#
Related Commands
username (4-26)
password (4-13)
password
This command specifies the password for a line. Use the no form to remove the
password.
Syntax
password {0 | 7} password
no password
• {0 | 7} - 0 means plain password, 7 means encrypted password
• password - Character string that specifies the line password.
(Maximum length: 8 characters plain text, 32 encrypted, case sensitive)
Default Setting
No password is specified.
Command Mode
Line Configuration
Command Usage
• When a connection is started on a line with password protection, the system
prompts for the password. If you enter the correct password, the system
shows a prompt. You can use the password-thresh command to set the
4-13
4
Command Line Interface
number of times a user can enter an incorrect password before the system
terminates the line connection and returns the terminal to the idle state.
• The encrypted password is required for compatibility with legacy password
settings (i.e., plain text or encrypted) when reading the configuration file
during system bootup or when downloading the configuration file from a TFTP
server. There is no need for you to manually configure encrypted passwords.
Example
Console(config-line)#password 0 secret
Console(config-line)#
Related Commands
login (4-12)
password-thresh (4-15)
exec-timeout
This command sets the interval that the system waits until user input is detected.
Use the no form to restore the default.
Syntax
exec-timeout [seconds]
no exec-timeout
seconds - Integer that specifies the number of seconds.
(Range: 0 - 65535 seconds; 0: no timeout)
Default Setting
CLI: No timeout
Telnet: 10 minutes
Command Mode
Line Configuration
Command Usage
• If user input is detected within the timeout interval, the session is kept open;
otherwise the session is terminated.
• This command applies to both the local console and Telnet connections.
• The timeout for Telnet cannot be disabled.
• Using the command without specifying a timeout restores the default setting.
Example
To set the timeout to two minutes, enter this command:
Console(config-line)#exec-timeout 120
Console(config-line)#
4-14
Line Commands
4
password-thresh
This command sets the password intrusion threshold which limits the number of
failed logon attempts. Use the no form to remove the threshold value.
Syntax
password-thresh [threshold]
no password-thresh
threshold - The number of allowed password attempts.
(Range: 1-120; 0: no threshold)
Default Setting
The default value is three attempts.
Command Mode
Line Configuration
Command Usage
• When the logon attempt threshold is reached, the system interface becomes
silent for a specified amount of time before allowing the next logon attempt.
(Use the silent-time command to set this interval.) When this threshold is
reached for Telnet, the Telnet logon interface shuts down.
• This command applies to both the local console and Telnet connections.
Example
To set the password threshold to five attempts, enter this command:
Console(config-line)#password-thresh 5
Console(config-line)#
Related Commands
silent-time (4-15)
silent-time
This command sets the amount of time the management console is inaccessible
after the number of unsuccessful logon attempts exceeds the threshold set by the
password-thresh command. Use the no form to remove the silent time value.
Syntax
silent-time [seconds]
no silent-time
seconds - The number of seconds to disable console response.
(Range: 0-65535; 0: no silent-time)
Default Setting
The default value is no silent-time.
Command Mode
Line Configuration
4-15
4
Command Line Interface
Example
To set the silent time to 60 seconds, enter this command:
Console(config-line)#silent-time 60
Console(config-line)#
Related Commands
password-thresh (4-15)
databits
This command sets the number of data bits per character that are interpreted and
generated by the console port. Use the no form to restore the default value.
Syntax
databits {7 | 8}
no databits
• 7 - Seven data bits per character.
• 8 - Eight data bits per character.
Default Setting
8 data bits per character
Command Mode
Line Configuration
Command Usage
The databits command can be used to mask the high bit on input from
devices that generate 7 data bits with parity. If parity is being generated,
specify 7 data bits per character. If no parity is required, specify 8 data bits per
character.
Example
To specify 7 data bits, enter this command:
Console(config-line)#databits 7
Console(config-line)#
Related Commands
parity (4-17)
4-16
Line Commands
4
parity
This command defines the generation of a parity bit. Use the no form to restore the
default setting.
Syntax
parity {none | even | odd}
no parity
• none - No parity
• even - Even parity
• odd - Odd parity
Default Setting
No parity
Command Mode
Line Configuration
Command Usage
Communication protocols provided by devices such as terminals and modems
often require a specific parity bit setting.
Example
To specify no parity, enter this command:
Console(config-line)#parity none
Console(config-line)#
speed
This command sets the terminal line’s baud rate. This command sets both the
transmit (to terminal) and receive (from terminal) speeds. Use the no form to restore
the default setting.
Syntax
speed bps
no speed
bps - Baud rate in bits per second.
(Options: 9600, 19200, 38400, 57600, 115200 bps, or auto)
Default Setting
auto
Command Mode
Line Configuration
4-17
4
Command Line Interface
Command Usage
Set the speed to match the baud rate of the device connected to the serial
port. Some baud rates available on devices connected to the port might not be
supported. The system indicates if the speed you selected is not supported. If
you select the “auto” option, the switch will automatically detect the baud rate
configured on the attached terminal, and adjust the speed accordingly.
Example
To specify 57600 bps, enter this command:
Console(config-line)#speed 57600
Console(config-line)#
stopbits
This command sets the number of the stop bits transmitted per byte. Use the no
form to restore the default setting.
Syntax
stopbits {1 | 2}
• 1 - One stop bit
• 2 - Two stop bits
Default Setting
1 stop bit
Command Mode
Line Configuration
Example
To specify 2 stop bits, enter this command:
Console(config-line)#stopbits 2
Console(config-line)#
disconnect
Use this command to terminate an SSH, Telnet, or console connection.
Syntax
disconnect session-id
session-id – The session identifier for an SSH, Telnet or console
connection. (Range: 0-4)
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
4-18
Line Commands
4
Command Usage
Specifying session identifier “0” will disconnect the console connection.
Specifying any other identifiers for an active session will disconnect an SSH or
Telnet connection.
Example
Console#disconnect 1
Console#
Related Commands
show ssh (4-41)
show users (4-61)
show line
This command displays the terminal line’s parameters.
Syntax
show line [console | vty]
• console - Console terminal line.
• vty - Virtual terminal for remote console access (i.e., Telnet).
Default Setting
Shows all lines
Command Mode
Normal Exec, Privileged Exec
Example
To show all lines, enter this command:
Console#show line
Console configuration:
Password threshold: 3 times
Interactive timeout: Disabled
Silent time: Disabled
Baudrate: 9600
Databits: 8
Parity: none
Stopbits: 1
Vty configuration:
Password threshold: 3 times
Interactive timeout: 600 sec
Console#
4-19
4
Command Line Interface
General Commands
Table 4-6. General Commands
Command
Function
Mode
enable
Activates privileged mode
NE
Page
4-20
disable
Returns to normal mode from privileged mode
PE
4-21
configure
Activates global configuration mode
PE
4-21
show history
Shows the command history buffer
NE, PE
4-22
reload
Restarts the system
PE
4-22
end
Returns to Privileged Exec mode
any
config.
mode
4-23
exit
Returns to the previous configuration mode, or exits the CLI
any
4-23
quit
Exits a CLI session
NE, PE
4-24
help
Shows how to use help
any
NA
?
Shows options for command completion (context sensitive)
any
NA
enable
This command activates Privileged Exec mode. In privileged mode, additional
commands are available, and certain commands display additional information. See
“Understanding Command Modes” on page 4-6.
Syntax
enable [level]
level - Privilege level to log into the device.
The device has two predefined privilege levels: 0: Normal Exec,
15: Privileged Exec. Enter level 15 to access Privileged Exec mode.
Default Setting
Level 15
Command Mode
Normal Exec
Command Usage
• “super” is the default password required to change the command mode from
Normal Exec to Privileged Exec. (To set this password, see the enable
password command on page 4-27.)
• The “#” character is appended to the end of the prompt to indicate that the
system is in privileged access mode.
4-20
4
General Commands
Example
Console>enable
Password: [privileged level password]
Console#
Related Commands
disable (4-21)
enable password (4-27)
disable
This command returns to Normal Exec mode from privileged mode. In normal
access mode, you can only display basic information on the switch's configuration or
Ethernet statistics. To gain access to all commands, you must use the privileged
mode. See “Understanding Command Modes” on page 4-6.
Default Setting
None
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
Command Usage
The “>” character is appended to the end of the prompt to indicate that the
system is in normal access mode.
Example
Console#disable
Console>
Related Commands
enable (4-20)
configure
This command activates Global Configuration mode. You must enter this mode to
modify any settings on the switch. You must also enter Global Configuration mode
prior to enabling some of the other configuration modes, including Interface
Configuration, Line Configuration, VLAN Database Configuration, and Multiple
Spanning Tree Configuration. See “Understanding Command Modes” on page 4-6.
Default Setting
None
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
Example
Console#configure
Console(config)#
4-21
4
Command Line Interface
Related Commands
end (4-23)
show history
This command shows the contents of the command history buffer.
Default Setting
None
Command Mode
Normal Exec, Privileged Exec
Command Usage
The history buffer size is fixed at 10 Execution commands and
10 Configuration commands.
Example
In this example, the show history command lists the contents of the command
history buffer:
Console#show history
Execution command history:
2 config
1 show history
Configuration command history:
4 interface vlan 1
3 exit
2 interface vlan 1
1 end
Console#
The ! command repeats commands from the Execution command history buffer
when you are in Normal Exec or Privileged Exec Mode, and commands from the
Configuration command history buffer when you are in any of the configuration
modes. In this example, the !2 command repeats the second command in the
Execution history buffer (config).
Console#!2
Console#config
Console(config)#
reload
This command restarts the system.
Note: When the system is restarted, it will always run the Power-On Self-Test. It will also
retain all configuration information stored in non-volatile memory by the copy
running-config startup-config command.
Default Setting
None
4-22
General Commands
4
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
Command Usage
This command resets the entire system.
Example
This example shows how to reset the switch:
Console#reload
System will be restarted, continue <y/n>? y
end
This command returns to Privileged Exec mode.
Default Setting
None
Command Mode
Global Configuration, Interface Configuration, Line Configuration, VLAN
Database Configuration, and Multiple Spanning Tree Configuration.
Example
This example shows how to return to the Privileged Exec mode from the Interface
Configuration mode:
Console(config-if)#end
Console#
exit
This command returns to the previous configuration mode or exit the configuration
program.
Default Setting
None
Command Mode
Any
Example
This example shows how to return to the Privileged Exec mode from the Global
Configuration mode, and then quit the CLI session:
Console(config)#exit
Console#exit
Press ENTER to start session
User Access Verification
Username:
4-23
4
Command Line Interface
quit
This command exits the configuration program.
Default Setting
None
Command Mode
Normal Exec, Privileged Exec
Command Usage
The quit and exit commands can both exit the configuration program.
Example
This example shows how to quit a CLI session:
Console#quit
Press ENTER to start session
User Access Verification
Username:
System Management Commands
These commands are used to control system logs, passwords, user names, browser
configuration options, and display or configure a variety of other system information.
Table 4-7. System Management Commands
Command Group
Function
Device Designation
Configures information that uniquely identifies this switch
Page
4-25
User Access
Configures the basic user names and passwords for management access
4-26
IP Filter
Configures IP addresses that are allowed management access
4-28
Web Server
Enables management access via a Web browser
4-30
Telnet Server
Enables management access via Telnet
4-33
Secure Shell
Provides secure replacement for Telnet
4-34
Event Logging
Controls logging of error messages
4-43
SMTP Alerts
Configures SMTP email alerts
4-48
Time (System Clock)
Sets the system clock automatically via NTP/SNTP server or manually
4-52
System Status
Displays system configuration, active managers, and version information
4-57
Frame Size
Enables support for jumbo frames
4-62
4-24
4
System Management Commands
Device Designation Commands
Table 4-8. Device Designation Commands
Command
Function
Mode
prompt
Customizes the prompt used in PE and NE mode
GC
Page
4-25
hostname
Specifies the host name for the switch
GC
4-25
snmp-server contact
Sets the system contact string
GC
4-113
snmp-server location
Sets the system location string
GC
4-113
prompt
This command customizes the CLI prompt. Use the no form to restore the default
prompt.
Syntax
prompt string
no prompt
string - Any alphanumeric string to use for the CLI prompt. (Maximum
length: 255 characters)
Default Setting
Console
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Example
Console(config)#prompt RD2
RD2(config)#
hostname
This command specifies or modifies the host name for this device. Use the no form
to restore the default host name.
Syntax
hostname name
no hostname
name - The name of this host. (Maximum length: 255 characters)
Default Setting
None
Command Mode
Global Configuration
4-25
4
Command Line Interface
Example
Console(config)#hostname RD#1
Console(config)#
User Access Commands
The basic commands required for management access are listed in this section.
This switch also includes other options for password checking via the console or a
Telnet connection (page 4-11), user authentication via a remote authentication
server (page 4-68), and host access authentication for specific ports (page 4-78).
Table 4-9. User Access Commands
Command
Function
Mode
username
Establishes a user name-based authentication system at login
GC
Page
4-26
enable password
Sets a password to control access to the Privileged Exec level
GC
4-27
username
This command adds named users, requires authentication at login, specifies or
changes a user's password (or specify that no password is required), or specifies or
changes a user's access level. Use the no form to remove a user name.
Syntax
username name {access-level level | nopassword |
password {0 | 7} password}
no username name
• name - The name of the user.
(Maximum length: 8 characters, case sensitive. Maximum users: 16)
• access-level level - Specifies the user level.
The device has two predefined privilege levels:
0: Normal Exec, 15: Privileged Exec.
• nopassword - No password is required for this user to log in.
• {0 | 7} - 0 means plain password, 7 means encrypted password.
• password password - The authentication password for the user.
(Maximum length: 8 characters plain text, 32 encrypted, case sensitive)
Default Setting
• The default access level is Normal Exec.
• The factory defaults for the user names and passwords are:
Table 4-10. Default Login Settings
4-26
username
access-level
password
guest
admin
0
15
guest
admin
System Management Commands
4
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Command Usage
The encrypted password is required for compatibility with legacy password
settings (i.e., plain text or encrypted) when reading the configuration file during
system bootup or when downloading the configuration file from a TFTP server.
There is no need for you to manually configure encrypted passwords.
Example
This example shows how the set the access level and password for a user.
Console(config)#username bob access-level 15
Console(config)#username bob password 0 smith
Console(config)#
enable password
After initially logging onto the system, you should set the Privileged Exec password.
Remember to record it in a safe place. This command controls access to the
Privileged Exec level from the Normal Exec level. Use the no form to reset the
default password.
Syntax
enable password [level level] {0 | 7} password
no enable password [level level]
• level level - Level 15 for Privileged Exec. (Levels 0-14 are not used.)
• {0 | 7} - 0 means plain password, 7 means encrypted password.
• password - password for this privilege level.
(Maximum length: 8 characters plain text, 32 encrypted, case sensitive)
Default Setting
• The default is level 15.
• The default password is “super”
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Command Usage
• You cannot set a null password. You will have to enter a password to change
the command mode from Normal Exec to Privileged Exec with the enable
command (page 4-20).
• The encrypted password is required for compatibility with legacy password
settings (i.e., plain text or encrypted) when reading the configuration file
during system bootup or when downloading the configuration file from a TFTP
server. There is no need for you to manually configure encrypted passwords.
4-27
4
Command Line Interface
Example
Console(config)#enable password level 15 0 admin
Console(config)#
Related Commands
enable (4-20)
IP Filter Commands
Table 4-11. IP Filter Commands
Command
Function
management
Configures IP addresses that are allowed management access GC
Mode
Page
4-28
show management
Displays the switch to be monitored or configured from a
browser
4-29
PE
management
This command specifies the client IP addresses that are allowed management
access to the switch through various protocols. Use the no form to restore the
default setting.
Syntax
[no] management {all-client | http-client | snmp-client | telnet-client}
start-address [end-address]
•
•
•
•
•
•
all-client - Adds IP address(es) to the SNMP, Web and Telnet groups.
http-client - Adds IP address(es) to the Web group.
snmp-client - Adds IP address(es) to the SNMP group.
telnet-client - Adds IP address(es) to the Telnet group.
start-address - A single IP address, or the starting address of a range.
end-address - The end address of a range.
Default Setting
All addresses
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Command Usage
• If anyone tries to access a management interface on the switch from an invalid
address, the switch will reject the connection, enter an event message in the
system log, and send a trap message to the trap manager.
• IP address can be configured for SNMP, Web and Telnet access respectively.
Each of these groups can include up to five different sets of addresses, either
individual addresses or address ranges.
4-28
System Management Commands
4
• When entering addresses for the same group (i.e., SNMP, Web or Telnet), the
switch will not accept overlapping address ranges. When entering addresses
for different groups, the switch will accept overlapping address ranges.
• You cannot delete an individual address from a specified range. You must
delete the entire range, and reenter the addresses.
• You can delete an address range just by specifying the start address, or by
specifying both the start address and end address.
Example
This example restricts management access to the indicated addresses.
Console(config)#management all-client 192.168.1.19
Console(config)#management all-client 192.168.1.25 192.168.1.30
Console#
show management
This command displays the client IP addresses that are allowed management
access to the switch through various protocols.
Syntax
show management {all-client | http-client | snmp-client | telnet-client}
•
•
•
•
all-client - Adds IP address(es) to the SNMP, Web and Telnet groups.
http-client - Adds IP address(es) to the Web group.
snmp-client - Adds IP address(es) to the SNMP group.
telnet-client - Adds IP address(es) to the Telnet group.
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
Example
Console#show management all-client
Management Ip Filter
Http-Client:
Start ip address
End ip address
----------------------------------------------1. 192.168.1.19
192.168.1.19
2. 192.168.1.25
192.168.1.30
Snmp-Client:
Start ip address
End ip address
----------------------------------------------1. 192.168.1.19
192.168.1.19
2. 192.168.1.25
192.168.1.30
Telnet-Client:
Start ip address
End ip address
----------------------------------------------1. 192.168.1.19
192.168.1.19
2. 192.168.1.25
192.168.1.30
Console#
4-29
4
Command Line Interface
Web Server Commands
Table 4-12. Web Server Commands
Command
Function
Mode
ip http port
Specifies the port to be used by the Web browser interface
GC
Page
4-30
ip http server
Allows the switch to be monitored or configured from a browser GC
4-30
ip http secure-server
Enables HTTPS/SSL for encrypted communications
GC
4-31
ip http secure-port
Specifies the UDP port number for HTTPS/SSL
GC
4-32
ip http port
This command specifies the TCP port number used by the Web browser interface.
Use the no form to use the default port.
Syntax
ip http port port-number
no ip http port
port-number - The TCP port to be used by the browser interface.
(Range: 1-65535)
Default Setting
80
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Example
Console(config)#ip http port 769
Console(config)#
Related Commands
ip http server (4-30)
ip http server
This command allows this device to be monitored or configured from a browser. Use
the no form to disable this function.
Syntax
[no] ip http server
Default Setting
Enabled
Command Mode
Global Configuration
4-30
System Management Commands
4
Example
Console(config)#ip http server
Console(config)#
Related Commands
ip http port (4-30)
ip http secure-server
This command enables the secure hypertext transfer protocol (HTTPS) over the
Secure Socket Layer (SSL), providing secure access (i.e., an encrypted connection)
to the switch’s Web interface. Use the no form to disable this function.
Syntax
[no] ip http secure-server
Default Setting
Enabled
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Command Usage
• Both HTTP and HTTPS service can be enabled independently on the switch.
However, you cannot configure the HTTP and HTTPS servers to use the
same UDP port.
• If you enable HTTPS, you must indicate this in the URL that you specify in
your browser: https://device[:port_number]
• When you start HTTPS, the connection is established in this way:
- The client authenticates the server using the server’s digital certificate.
- The client and server negotiate a set of security protocols to use for the
connection.
- The client and server generate session keys for encrypting and decrypting
data.
• The client and server establish a secure encrypted connection.
A padlock icon should appear in the status bar for Internet Explorer 5.x and
Netscape Navigator 4.x or later versions.
• The following Web browsers and operating systems currently support HTTPS:
Table 4-13. HTTPS System Support
Web Browser
Operating System
Internet Explorer 5.0 or later
Windows 98,Windows NT (with service pack 6a),
Windows 2000, Windows XP
Netscape Navigator 4.76 or later
Windows 98,Windows NT (with service pack 6a),
Windows 2000, Windows XP, Solaris 2.6
• To specify a secure-site certificate, see “Replacing the Default Secure-site
Certificate” on page 3-35. Also refer to the copy command on page 4-63.
4-31
4
Command Line Interface
Example
Console(config)#ip http secure-server
Console(config)#
Related Commands
ip http secure-port (4-32)
copy tftp https-certificate (4-63)
ip http secure-port
This command specifies the UDP port number used for HTTPS/SSL connection to
the switch’s Web interface. Use the no form to restore the default port.
Syntax
ip http secure-port port_number
no ip http secure-port
port_number – The UDP port used for HTTPS/SSL.
(Range: 1-65535)
Default Setting
443
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Command Usage
• You cannot configure the HTTP and HTTPS servers to use the same port.
• If you change the HTTPS port number, clients attempting to connect to the
HTTPS server must specify the port number in the URL, in this format:
https://device:port_number
Example
Console(config)#ip http secure-port 1000
Console(config)#
Related Commands
ip http secure-server (4-31)
4-32
System Management Commands
4
Telnet Server Commands
Command
Function
Mode
Page
ip telnet port
Specifies the port to be used by the Telnet interface
GC
4-30
ip telnet server
Allows the switch to be monitored or configured from Telnet
GC
4-30
ip telnet port
This command specifies the TCP port number used by the Telnet interface. Use the
no form to use the default port.
Syntax
ip telnet port port-number
no ip telnet port
port-number - The TCP port to be used by the browser interface.
(Range: 1-65535)
Default Setting
23
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Example
Console(config)#ip telnet port 123
Console(config)#
Related Commands
ip telnet server (4-33)
ip telnet server
This command allows this device to be monitored or configured from Telnet. Use the
no form to disable this function.
Syntax
[no] ip telnet server
Default Setting
Enabled
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Example
Console(config)#ip telnet server
Console(config)#
4-33
4
Command Line Interface
Related Commands
ip telnet port (4-33)
Secure Shell Commands
The Berkley-standard includes remote access tools originally designed for Unix
systems. Some of these tools have also been implemented for Microsoft Windows
and other environments. These tools, including commands such as rlogin (remote
login), rsh (remote shell), and rcp (remote copy), are not secure from hostile attacks.
The Secure Shell (SSH) includes server/client applications intended as a secure
replacement for the older Berkley remote access tools. SSH can also provide
remote management access to this switch as a secure replacement for Telnet.
When a client contacts the switch via the SSH protocol, the switch uses a public-key
that the client must match along with a local user name and password for access
authentication. SSH also encrypts all data transfers passing between the switch and
SSH-enabled management station clients, and ensures that data traveling over the
network arrives unaltered.
This section describes the commands used to configure the SSH server. However,
note that you also need to install a SSH client on the management station when
using this protocol to configure the switch.
Note: The switch supports both SSH Version 1.5 and 2.0.
Table 4-14. re Shell Commands
Command
Function
Mode
Page
ip ssh server
Enables the SSH server on the switch
GC
4-36
ip ssh timeout
Specifies the authentication timeout for the SSH server
GC
4-37
ip ssh
authentication-retries
Specifies the number of retries allowed by a client
GC
4-37
ip ssh server-key size
Sets the SSH server key size
GC
4-38
copy tftp public-key
Copies the user’s public key from a TFTP server to the switch
PE
4-63
delete public-key
Deletes the public key for the specified user
PE
4-38
ip ssh crypto host-key
generate
Generates the host key
PE
4-39
ip ssh crypto zeroize
Clear the host key from RAM
PE
4-39
ip ssh save host-key
Saves the host key from RAM to flash memory
PE
4-40
disconnect
Terminates a line connection
PE
4-18
show ip ssh
Displays the status of the SSH server and the configured values PE
for authentication timeout and retries
4-40
show ssh
Displays the status of current SSH sessions
PE
4-41
show public-key
Shows the public key for the specified user or for the host
PE
4-42
show users
Shows SSH users, including privilege level and public key type PE
4-61
4-34
System Management Commands
4
The SSH server on this switch supports both password and public key
authentication. If password authentication is specified by the SSH client, then the
password can be authenticated either locally or via a RADIUS or TACACS+ remote
authentication server, as specified by the authentication login command on
page 4-69. If public key authentication is specified by the client, then you must
configure authentication keys on both the client and the switch as described in the
following section. Note that regardless of whether you use public key or password
authentication, you still have to generate authentication keys on the switch and
enable the SSH server.
To use the SSH server, complete these steps:
1.
Generate a Host Key Pair – Use the ip ssh crypto host-key generate
command to create a host public/private key pair.
2.
Provide Host Public Key to Clients – Many SSH client programs automatically
import the host public key during the initial connection setup with the switch.
Otherwise, you need to manually create a known hosts file on the management
station and place the host public key in it. An entry for a public key in the known
hosts file would appear similar to the following example:
10.1.0.54 1024 35 15684995401867669259333946775054617325313674890836547254
15020245593199868544358361651999923329781766065830956 10825913212890233
76546801726272571413428762941301196195566782 59566410486957427888146206
51941746772984865468615717739390164779355942303577413098022737087794545
24083971752646358058176716709574804776117
3.
Import Client’s Public Key to the Switch – Use the copy tftp public-key
command to copy a file containing the public key for all the SSH client’s granted
management access to the switch. (Note that these clients must be configured
locally on the switch with the username command as described on page 4-26.)
The clients are subsequently authenticated using these keys. The current
firmware only accepts public key files based on standard UNIX format as shown
in the following example for an RSA Version 1 key:
1024 35 1341081685609893921040944920155425347631641921872958921143173880
05553616163105177594083868631109291232226828519254374603100937187721199
69631781366277414168985132049117204830339254324101637997592371449011938
00609025394840848271781943722884025331159521348610229029789827213532671
31629432532818915045306393916643 steve@192.168.1.19
4.
Set the Optional Parameters – Set other optional parameters, including the
authentication timeout, the number of retries, and the server key size.
5.
Enable SSH Service – Use the ip ssh server command to enable the SSH
server on the switch.
6.
Configure Challenge-Response Authentication – When an SSH client attempts
to contact the switch, the SSH server uses the host key pair to negotiate a
session key and encryption method. Only clients that have a private key
4-35
4
Command Line Interface
corresponding to the public keys stored on the switch can gain access. The
following exchanges take place during this process:
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
The client sends its public key to the switch.
The switch compares the client's public key to those stored in memory.
If a match is found, the switch uses the public key to encrypt a random
sequence of bytes, and sends this string to the client.
The client uses its private key to decrypt the bytes, and sends the
decrypted bytes back to the switch.
The switch compares the decrypted bytes to the original bytes it sent. If the
two sets match, this means that the client's private key corresponds to an
authorized public key, and the client is authenticated.
Note: To use SSH with only password authentication, the host public key must still be
given to the client, either during initial connection or manually entered into the
known host file. However, you do not need to configure the client’s keys.
ip ssh server
Use this command to enable the Secure Shell (SSH) server on this switch. Use the
no form to disable this service.
Syntax
[no] ip ssh server
Default Setting
Disabled
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Command Usage
• The SSH server supports up to four client sessions. The maximum number of
client sessions includes both current Telnet sessions and SSH sessions.
• The SSH server uses DSA or RSA for key exchange when the client first
establishes a connection with the switch, and then negotiates with the client
to select either DES (56-bit) or 3DES (168-bit) for data encryption.
• You must generate the host key before enabling the SSH server.
Example
Console#configure
Console(config)#ip ssh server
Console(config)#
Related Commands
ip ssh crypto host-key generate (4-39)
show ssh (4-41)
4-36
System Management Commands
4
ip ssh timeout
Use this command to configure the timeout for the SSH server. Use the no form to
restore the default setting.
Syntax
ip ssh timeout seconds
no ip ssh timeout
seconds – The timeout for client response during SSH negotiation.
(Range: 1-120)
Default Setting
10 seconds
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Command Usage
The timeout specifies the interval the switch will wait for a response from the
client during the SSH negotiation phase. Once an SSH session has been
established, the timeout for user input is controlled by the exec-timeout
command for vty sessions.
Example
Console(config)#ip ssh timeout 60
Console(config)#
Related Commands
exec-timeout (4-14)
show ip ssh (4-40)
ip ssh authentication-retries
Use this command to configure the number of times the SSH server attempts to
reauthenticate a user. Use the no form to restore the default setting.
Syntax
ip ssh authentication-retries count
no ip ssh authentication-retries
count – The number of authentication attempts permitted after which the
interface is reset. (Range: 1-5)
Default Setting
3
Command Mode
Global Configuration
4-37
4
Command Line Interface
Example
Console(config)#ip ssh authentication-retires 2
Console(config)#
Related Commands
show ip ssh (4-40)
ip ssh server-key size
Use this command to set the SSH server key size. Use the no form to restore the
default setting.
Syntax
ip ssh server-key size key-size
no ip ssh server-key size
key-size – The size of server key. (Range: 512-896 bits)
Default Setting
768 bits
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Command Usage
• The server key is a private key that is never shared outside the switch.
• The host key is shared with the SSH client, and is fixed at 1024 bits.
Example
Console(config)#ip ssh server-key size 512
Console(config)#
delete public-key
Use this command to delete the specified user’s public key.
Syntax
delete public-key username [dsa | rsa]
• username – Name of an SSH user. (Range: 1-8 characters)
• dsa – DSA public key type.
• rsa – RSA public key type.
Default Setting
Deletes both the DSA and RSA key.
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
4-38
System Management Commands
4
Example
Console#delete public-key admin dsa
Console#
ip ssh crypto host-key generate
Use this command to generate the host key pair (i.e., public and private).
Syntax
ip ssh crypto host-key generate [dsa | rsa]
• dsa – DSA (Version 2) key type.
• rsa – RSA (Version 1) key type.
Default Setting
Generates both the DSA and RSA key pairs.
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
Command Usage
• This command stores the host key pair in memory (i.e., RAM). Use the ip ssh
save host-key command to save the host key pair to flash memory.
• Some SSH client programs automatically add the public key to the known
hosts file as part of the configuration process. Otherwise, you must manually
create a known hosts file and place the host public key in it.
• The SSH server uses this host key to negotiate a session key and encryption
method with the client trying to connect to it.
Example
Console#ip ssh crypto host-key generate dsa
Console#
Related Commands
ip ssh crypto zeroize (4-39)
ip ssh save host-key (4-40)
ip ssh crypto zeroize
Use this command to clear the host key from memory (i.e. RAM).
Syntax
ip ssh crypto zeroize [dsa | rsa]
• dsa – DSA key type.
• rsa – RSA key type.
Default Setting
Clears both the DSA and RSA key.
4-39
4
Command Line Interface
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
Command Usage
• This command clears the host key from volatile memory (RAM). Use the no
ip ssh save host-key command to clear the host key from flash memory.
• The SSH server must be disabled before you can execute this command.
Example
Console#ip ssh crypto zeroize dsa
Console#
Related Commands
ip ssh crypto host-key generate (4-39)
ip ssh save host-key (4-40)
no ip ssh server (4-36)
ip ssh save host-key
Use this command to save host key from RAM to flash memory.
Syntax
ip ssh save host-key
Default Setting
Saves both the DSA and RSA key.
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
Example
Console#ip ssh save host-key
Console#
Related Commands
ip ssh crypto host-key generate (4-39)
show ip ssh
Use this command to display the connection settings used when authenticating
client access to the SSH server.
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
4-40
System Management Commands
4
Example
Console#show ip ssh
SSH Enabled - version 1.99
Negotiation timeout: 120 secs; Authentication retries: 3
Server key size: 768 bits
Console#
show ssh
Use this command to display the current SSH server connections.
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
Example
Console#show ssh
Connection Version State
0
2.0
Session-Started
Username Encryption
admin
ctos aes128-cbc-hmac-md5
stoc aes128-cbc-hmac-md5
Console#
Table 4-15. show ssh - display description
Field
Description
Session
The session number. (Range: 0-3)
Version
The Secure Shell version number.
State
The authentication negotiation state.
(Values: Negotiation-Started, Authentication-Started, Session-Started)
Username
The user name of the client.
Encryption
The encryption method is automatically negotiated between the client and server.
Options for SSHv1.5 include: DES, 3DES
Options for SSHv2.0 can include different algorithms for the client-to-server (ctos)
and server-to-client (stoc):
aes128-cbc-hmac-sha1
aes192-cbc-hmac-sha1
aes256-cbc-hmac-sha1
3des-cbc-hmac-sha1
blowfish-cbc-hmac-sha1
aes128-cbc-hmac-md5
aes192-cbc-hmac-md5
aes256-cbc-hmac-md5
3des-cbc-hmac-md5
blowfish-cbc-hmac-md5
Terminology:
DES – Data Encryption Standard (56-bit key)
3DES – Triple-DES (Uses three iterations of DES, 112-bit key)
aes – Advanced Encryption Standard (160 or 224-bit key)
blowfish – Blowfish (32-448 bit key)
cbc – cypher-block chaining
sha1 – Secure Hash Algorithm 1 (160-bit hashes)
md5 – Message Digest algorithm number 5 (128-bit hashes)
4-41
4
Command Line Interface
show public-key
Use this command to show the public key for the specified user or for the host.
Syntax
show public-key [user [username]| host]
username – Name of an SSH user. (Range: 1-8 characters)
Default Setting
Shows all public keys.
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
Command Usage
• If no parameters are entered, all keys are displayed. If the user keyword is
entered, but no user name is specified, then the public keys for all users are
displayed.
• When an RSA key is displayed, the first field indicates the size of the host key
(e.g., 1024), the second field is the encoded public exponent (e.g., 35), and
the last string is the encoded modulus. When a DSA key is displayed, the first
field indicates that the encryption method used by SSH is based on the Digital
Signature Standard (DSS), and the last string is the encoded modulus.
Example
Console#show public-key host
Host:
RSA:
1024 35
1568499540186766925933394677505461732531367489083654725415020245593199868
5443583616519999233297817660658309586108259132128902337654680172627257141
3428762941301196195566782595664104869574278881462065194174677298486546861
5717739390164779355942303577413098022737087794545240839717526463580581767
16709574804776117
DSA:
ssh-dss AAAB3NzaC1kc3MAAACBAPWKZTPbsRIB8ydEXcxM3dyV/yrDbKStIlnzD/Dg0h2Hxc
YV44sXZ2JXhamLK6P8bvuiyacWbUW/a4PAtp1KMSdqsKeh3hKoA3vRRSy1N2XFfAKxl5fwFfv
JlPdOkFgzLGMinvSNYQwiQXbKTBH0Z4mUZpE85PWxDZMaCNBPjBrRAAAAFQChb4vsdfQGNIjw
bvwrNLaQ77isiwAAAIEAsy5YWDC99ebYHNRj5kh47wY4i8cZvH+/p9cnrfwFTMU01VFDly3IR
2G395NLy5Qd7ZDxfA9mCOfT/yyEfbobMJZi8oGCstSNOxrZZVnMqWrTYfdrKX7YKBw/Kjw6Bm
iFq7O+jAhf1Dg45loAc27s6TLdtny1wRq/ow2eTCD5nekAAACBAJ8rMccXTxHLFAczWS7EjOy
DbsloBfPuSAb4oAsyjKXKVYNLQkTLZfcFRu41bS2KV5LAwecsigF/+DjKGWtPNIQqabKgYCw2
o/dVzX4Gg+yqdTlYmGA7fHGm8ARGeiG4ssFKy4Z6DmYPXFum1Yg0fhLwuHpOSKdxT3kk475S7
w0W
Console#
4-42
System Management Commands
4
Event Logging Commands
Table 4-16. Event Logging Commands
Command
Function
Mode
logging on
Controls logging of error messages
GC
Page
4-43
logging history
Limits syslog messages saved to switch memory based on
severity
GC
4-44
logging host
Adds a syslog server host IP address that will receive logging
messages
GC
4-45
logging facility
Sets the facility type for remote logging of syslog messages
GC
4-45
logging trap
Limits syslog messages saved to a remote server based on
severity
GC
4-46
clear logging
Clears messages from the logging buffer
PE
4-46
show logging
Displays the state of logging configuration
PE
4-47
logging on
This command controls logging of error messages, sending debug or error
messages to switch memory. The no form disables the logging process.
Syntax
[no] logging on
Default Setting
None
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Command Usage
The logging process controls error messages saved to switch memory. You
can use the logging history command to control the type of error messages
that are stored.
Example
Console(config)#logging on
Console(config)#
Related Commands
logging history (4-44)
clear logging (4-46)
4-43
4
Command Line Interface
logging history
This command limits syslog messages saved to switch memory based on severity.
The no form returns the logging of syslog messages to the default level.
Syntax
logging history {flash | ram} level
no logging history {flash | ram}
• flash - Event history stored in flash memory (i.e., permanent memory).
• ram - Event history stored in temporary RAM (i.e., memory flushed on
power reset).
• level - One of the levels listed below. Messages sent include the selected
level down to level 0. (Range: 0-7)
Table 4-17. Logging Levels
Level Name
Level
Description
debugging
7
Debugging messages
informational
6
Informational messages only
notifications
5
Normal but significant condition, such as cold start
warnings
4
Warning conditions (e.g., return false, unexpected return)
errors
3
Error conditions (e.g., invalid input, default used)
critical
2
Critical conditions (e.g., memory allocation, or free
memory error - resource exhausted)
alerts
1
Immediate action needed
emergencies
0
System unusable
* There are only Level 2, 5 and 6 error messages for the current firmware release.
Default Setting
Flash: errors (level 3 - 0)
RAM: warnings (level 7 - 0)
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Command Usage
The message level specified for flash memory must be a higher priority (i.e.,
numerically lower) than that specified for RAM.
Example
Console(config)#logging history ram 0
Console(config)#
4-44
4
System Management Commands
logging host
This command adds a syslog server host IP address that will receive logging
messages. Use the no form to remove a syslog server host.
Syntax
[no] logging host host_ip_address
host_ip_address - The IP address of a syslog server.
Default Setting
None
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Command Usage
• By using this command more than once you can build up a list of host IP
addresses.
• The maximum number of host IP addresses allowed is five.
Example
Console(config)#logging host 10.1.0.3
Console(config)#
logging facility
This command sets the facility type for remote logging of syslog messages. Use the
no form to return the type to the default.
Syntax
[no] logging facility type
type - A number that indicates the facility used by the syslog server to
dispatch log messages to an appropriate service. (Range: 16-23)
Default Setting
23
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Command Usage
The command specifies the facility type tag sent in syslog messages. (See
RFC 3164.) This type has no effect on the kind of messages reported by the
switch. However, it may be used by the syslog server to sort messages or to
store messages in the corresponding database.
Example
Console(config)#logging facility 19
Console(config)#
4-45
4
Command Line Interface
logging trap
This command enables the logging of system messages to a remote server, or limits
the syslog messages saved to a remote server based on severity. Use this
command without a specified level to enable remote logging. Use the no form to
disable remote logging.
Syntax
logging trap [level]
no logging trap
level - One of the level arguments listed below. Messages sent include the
selected level up through level 0. (Refer to the table on page 4-44.)
Default Setting
Disabled
Level 7 - 0
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Command Usage
• Using this command with a specified level enables remote logging and sets
the minimum severity level to be saved.
• Using this command without a specified level also enables remote logging, but
restores the minimum severity level to the default.
Example
Console(config)#logging trap 4
Console(config)#
clear logging
This command clears messages from the log buffer.
Syntax
clear logging [flash | ram]
• flash - Event history stored in flash memory (i.e., permanent memory).
• ram - Event history stored in temporary RAM (i.e., memory flushed on
power reset).
Default Setting
Flash and RAM
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
Example
Console#clear logging
Console#
4-46
4
System Management Commands
Related Commands
show logging (4-47)
show logging
This command displays the logging configuration, along with any system and event
messages stored in memory.
Syntax
show logging {flash | ram | sendmail | trap}
• flash - Event history stored in flash memory (i.e., permanent memory).
• ram - Event history stored in temporary RAM (i.e., memory flushed on
power reset).
• sendmail - Displays settings for the SMTP event handler (page 4-51).
• trap - Displays settings for the trap function.
Default Setting
None
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
Example
The following example shows that system logging is enabled, the message level for
flash memory is “errors” (i.e., default level 3 - 0), the message level for RAM is
“debugging” (i.e., default level 7 - 0), and lists one sample error.
Console#show logging flash
Syslog logging: Enable
History logging in FLASH: level errors
Console#show logging ram
Syslog logging: Enable
History logging in RAM: level debugging
[0] 02:07:30 01/01/2001
"STA topology change notification."
level: 6, module: 6, function: 1, and event no.: 1
Console#
Table 4-18. show logging flash/ram- display description
Field
Description
Syslog logging
Shows if system logging has been enabled via the logging on command.
History logging in FLASH The message level(s) reported based on the logging history command.
History logging in RAM
The message level(s) reported based on the logging history command.
Messages
Any system and event messages stored in memory.
4-47
4
Command Line Interface
The following example displays settings for the trap function.
Console#show logging trap
Syslog logging: Enable
REMOTELOG status: disable
REMOTELOG facility type: local use 7
REMOTELOG level type: Debugging messages
REMOTELOG server IP address: 1.2.3.4
REMOTELOG server IP address: 0.0.0.0
REMOTELOG server IP address: 0.0.0.0
REMOTELOG server IP address: 0.0.0.0
REMOTELOG server IP address: 0.0.0.0
Console#
Table 4-19. show logging trap - display description
Field
Description
Syslog logging
Shows if system logging has been enabled via the logging on command.
REMOTELOG status
Shows if remote logging has been enabled via the logging trap command.
REMOTELOG
facility type
The facility type for remote logging of syslog messages as specified in the logging
facility command.
REMOTELOG level type The severity threshold for syslog messages sent to a remote server as specified in
the logging trap command.
REMOTELOG
server IP address
The address of syslog servers as specified in the logging host command.
Related Commands
show logging sendmail (4-51)
SMTP Alert Commands
These commands configure SMTP event handling, and forwarding of alert
messages to the specified SMTP servers and email recipients.
Table 4-20. SMTP Alert Commands
Command
Function
logging sendmail host
SMTP servers to receive alert messages
GC
4-49
logging sendmail level
Severity threshold used to trigger alert messages
GC
4-49
logging sendmail
source-email
Email address used for “From” field of alert messages
GC
4-50
logging sendmail
destination-email
Email recipients of alert messages
GC
4-50
logging sendmail
Enables SMTP event handling
GC
4-51
show logging sendmail
Displays SMTP event handler settings
NE, PE
4-51
4-48
Mode
Page
4
System Management Commands
logging sendmail host
This command specifies SMTP servers that will be sent alert messages. Use the no
form to remove an SMTP server.
Syntax
[no] logging sendmail host ip_address
ip_address - IP address of an SMTP server that will be sent alert
messages for event handling.
Default Setting
None
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Command Usage
• You can specify up to three SMTP servers for event handing. However, you
must enter a separate command to specify each server.
• To send email alerts, the switch first opens a connection, sends all the email
alerts waiting in the queue one by one, and finally closes the connection.
• To open a connection, the switch first selects the server that successfully sent
mail during the last connection, or the first server configured by this command.
If it fails to send mail, the switch selects the next server in the list and tries to
send mail again. If it still fails, the system will repeat the process at a periodic
interval. (A trap will be triggered if the switch cannot successfully open a
connection.)
Example
Console(config)#logging sendmail host 192.168.1.19
Console(config)#
logging sendmail level
This command sets the severity threshold used to trigger alert messages.
Syntax
logging sendmail level level
level - One of the system message levels (page 4-44). Messages sent
include the selected level down to level 0. (Range: 0-7; Default: 7)
Default Setting
Level 7
Command Mode
Global Configuration
4-49
4
Command Line Interface
Command Usage
The specified level indicates an event threshold. All events at this level or
higher will be sent to the configured email recipients. (For example, using
Level 7 will report all events from level 7 to level 0.)
Example
This example will send email alerts for system errors from level 3 through 0.
Console(config)#logging sendmail level 3
Console(config)#
logging sendmail source-email
This command sets the email address used for the “From” field in alert messages.
Syntax
logging sendmail source-email email-address
email-address - The source email address used in alert messages.
(Range: 1-41 characters)
Default Setting
None
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Command Usage
You may use a symbolic email address that identifies the switch, or the
address of an administrator responsible for the switch.
Example
This example will send email alerts for system errors from level 3 through 0.
Console(config)#logging sendmail source-email bill@this-company.com
Console(config)#
logging sendmail destination-email
This command specifies the email recipients of alert messages. Use the no form to
remove a recipient.
Syntax
[no] logging sendmail destination-email email-address
email-address - The source email address used in alert messages.
(Range: 1-41 characters)
Default Setting
None
Command Mode
Global Configuration
4-50
4
System Management Commands
Command Usage
You can specify up to five recipients for alert messages. However, you must
enter a separate command to specify each recipient.
Example
Console(config)#logging sendmail destination-email ted@this-company.com
Console(config)#
logging sendmail
This command enables SMTP event handling. Use the no form to disable this
function.
Syntax
[no] logging sendmail
Default Setting
Disabled
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Example
Console(config)#logging sendmail
Console(config)#
show logging sendmail
This command displays the settings for the SMTP event handler.
Command Mode
Normal Exec, Privileged Exec
Example
Console#show logging sendmail
SMTP servers
----------------------------------------------Active SMTP server: 192.168.1.19
SMTP minimum severity level: 7
SMTP destination email addresses
----------------------------------------------1. ted@this-company.com
SMTP source email address: bill@this-company.com
SMTP status: Enable
Console#
4-51
4
Command Line Interface
Time Commands
The system clock can be dynamically set by polling a set of specified time servers
(NTP or SNTP), or by using information broadcast by local time servers.
Table 4-21. Time Commands
Command
Function
Mode
sntp client
Accepts time from specified time servers
GC
Page
4-52
sntp server
Specifies one or more time servers
GC
4-53
sntp poll
Sets the interval at which the client polls for time
GC
4-54
show sntp
Shows current SNTP configuration settings
NE, PE
4-54
clock timezone
Sets the time zone for the switch’s internal clock
GC
4-55
calendar set
Sets the system date and time
PE
4-55
show calendar
Displays the current date and time setting
NE, PE
4-56
sntp client
This command enables SNTP client requests for time synchronization from NTP or
SNTP time servers specified with the sntp servers command. Use the no form to
disable SNTP client requests.
Syntax
[no] sntp client
Default Setting
Disabled
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Command Usage
• The time acquired from time servers is used to record accurate dates and
times for log events. Without SNTP, the switch only records the time starting
from the factory default set at the last bootup (i.e., 00:00:00, Jan. 1, 2001).
• This command enables client time requests to time servers specified via the
sntp servers command. It issues time synchronization requests based on the
interval set via the sntp poll command.
4-52
System Management Commands
4
Example
Console(config)#sntp server 10.1.0.19
Console(config)#sntp poll 60
Console(config)#sntp client
Console(config)#end
Console#show sntp
Current time: Jul 10 02:52:44 2003
Poll interval: 60
Current mode: unicast
SNTP status : Enabled
SNTP server 137.92.140.80 0.0.0.0 0.0.0.0
Current server: 137.92.140.80
Console#
Related Commands
sntp server (4-53)
sntp poll (4-54)
show sntp (4-54)
sntp server
This command sets the IP address of the servers to which SNTP time requests are
issued. Use the this command with no arguments to clear all time servers from the
current list.
Syntax
sntp server [ip1 [ip2 [ip3]]]
ip - IP address of an time server (NTP or SNTP).
(Range: 1 - 3 addresses)
Default Setting
None
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Command Usage
This command specifies time servers from which the switch will poll for time
updates when set to SNTP client mode. The client will poll the time servers in
the order specified until a response is received. It issues time synchronization
requests based on the interval set via the sntp poll command.
Example
Console(config)#sntp server 10.1.0.19
Console#
Related Commands
sntp client (4-52)
sntp poll (4-54)
show sntp (4-54)
4-53
4
Command Line Interface
sntp poll
This command sets the interval between sending time requests when the switch is
set to SNTP client mode. Use the no form to restore to the default.
Syntax
sntp poll seconds
no sntp poll
seconds - Interval between time requests. (Range: 16-16384 seconds)
Default Setting
16 seconds
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Command Usage
This command is only applicable when the switch is set to SNTP client mode.
Example
Console(config)#sntp poll 60
Console#
Related Commands
sntp client (4-52)
show sntp
This command displays the current time and configuration settings for the SNTP
client, and indicates whether or not the local time has been properly updated.
Command Mode
Normal Exec, Privileged Exec
Command Usage
This command displays the current time, the poll interval used for sending
time synchronization requests, and the current SNTP mode (i.e., unicast).
Example
Console#show sntp
Current time: Jul 10 05:13:28 2003
Poll interval: 16
Current mode: broadcast
Console#
4-54
4
System Management Commands
clock timezone
This command sets the time zone for the switch’s internal clock.
Syntax
clock timezone name hour hours minute minutes {before-utc | after-utc}
•
•
•
•
•
name - Name of timezone, usually an acronym. (Range: 1-29 characters)
hours - Number of hours before/after UTC. (Range: 0-12 hours)
minutes - Number of minutes before/after UTC. (Range: 0-59 minutes)
before-utc - Sets the local time zone before (east) of UTC.
after-utc - Sets the local time zone after (west) of UTC.
Default Setting
None
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Command Usage
This command sets the local time zone relative to the Coordinated Universal
Time (UTC, formerly Greenwich Mean Time or GMT), based on the earth’s
prime meridian, zero degrees longitude. To display a time corresponding to
your local time, you must indicate the number of hours and minutes your time
zone is east (before) or west (after) of UTC.
Example
Console(config)#clock timezone Japan hours 8 minute 0 after-UTC
Console(config)#
Related Commands
show sntp (4-54)
calendar set
This command sets the system clock.
Syntax
calendar set hour min sec {day month year | month day year}
•
•
•
•
•
hour - Hour in 24-hour format. (Range: 0 - 23)
min - Minute. (Range: 0 - 59)
sec - Second. (Range: 0 - 59)
day - Day of month. (Range: 1 - 31)
month - january | february | march | april | may | june | july | august |
september | october | november | december
• year - Year (4-digit). (Range: 2001 - 2101)
4-55
4
Command Line Interface
Default Setting
None
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
Example
This example shows how to set the system clock to 15:12:34, February 1st, 2004.
Console#calendar set 15 12 34 1 February 2004
Console#
show calendar
This command displays the system clock.
Default Setting
None
Command Mode
Normal Exec, Privileged Exec
Example
Console#show calendar
15:12:34 February 1 2004
Console#
4-56
System Management Commands
4
System Status Commands
Table 4-22. System Status Commands
Command
Function
Mode
show startup-config
Displays the contents of the configuration file (stored in flash
memory) that is used to start up the system
PE
Page
4-57
show running-config
Displays the configuration data currently in use
PE
4-58
show system
Displays system information
NE, PE
4-60
show users
Shows all active console and Telnet sessions, including user
name, idle time, and IP address of Telnet clients
NE, PE
4-61
show version
Displays version information for the system
NE, PE
4-61
show startup-config
This command displays the configuration file stored in non-volatile memory that is
used to start up the system.
Default Setting
None
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
Command Usage
• Use this command in conjunction with the show running-config command to
compare the information in running memory to the information stored in
non-volatile memory.
• This command displays settings for key command modes. Each mode group
is separated by “!” symbols, and includes the configuration mode command,
and corresponding commands. This command displays the following
information:
-
SNMP community strings
Users (names and access levels)
VLAN database (VLAN ID, name and state)
VLAN configuration settings for each interface
Multiple spanning tree instances (name and interfaces)
IP address configured for VLANs
Spanning tree settings
Any configured settings for the console port and Telnet
4-57
4
Command Line Interface
Example
Console#show startup-config
building startup-config, please wait.....
!
username admin access-level 15
username admin password 0 admin
!
username guest access-level 0
username guest password 0 guest
!
enable password level 15 0 super
!
snmp-server community public ro
snmp-server community private rw
!
vlan database
vlan 1 name DefaultVlan media ethernet state active
!
interface vlan 1
ip address dhcp
!
line console
!
line vty
!
end
Console#
Related Commands
show running-config (4-58)
show running-config
This command displays the configuration information currently in use.
Default Setting
None
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
Command Usage
• Use this command in conjunction with the show startup-config command to
compare the information in running memory to the information stored in
non-volatile memory.
• This command displays settings for key command modes. Each mode group
is separated by “!” symbols, and includes the configuration mode command,
and corresponding commands. This command displays the following
information:
- SNMP community strings
- Users (names, access levels, and encrypted passwords)
- VLAN database (VLAN ID, name and state)
4-58
System Management Commands
-
4
VLAN configuration settings for each interface
Multiple spanning tree instances (name and interfaces)
IP address configured for VLANs
Spanning tree settings
Any configured settings for the console port and Telnet
Example
Console#show running-config
building running-config, please wait.....
!
phymap 00-00-a3-42-00-80
!
sntp server 0.0.0.0 0.0.0.0 0.0.0.0
!
snmp-server community private rw
snmp-server community public ro
!
username admin access-level 15
username admin password 7 21232f297a57a5a743894a0e4a801fc3
username guest access-level 0
username guest password 7 084e0343a0486ff05530df6c705c8bb4
enable password level 15 7 1b3231655cebb7a1f783eddf27d254ca
!
logging sendmail destination-email ted
logging sendmail source-email bill
!
vlan database
vlan 1 name DefaultVlan media ethernet state active
.
.
!
spanning-tree mst-configuration
!
interface ethernet 1/1
switchport allowed vlan add 1 untagged
switchport native vlan 1
.
.
.
!
interface vlan 1
ip address 10.1.0.1 255.255.255.0
!
!
no spanning-tree
!
!
no ip igmp snooping
!
no map ip precedence
no map ip dscp
!
line console
!
line vty
!
end
Console#
4-59
4
Command Line Interface
Related Commands
show startup-config (4-57)
show system
This command displays system information.
Default Setting
None
Command Mode
Normal Exec, Privileged Exec
Command Usage
• For a description of the items shown by this command, refer to “Displaying
System Information” on page 3-9.
• The POST results should all display “PASS.” If any POST test indicates
“FAIL,” contact your distributor for assistance.
Example
Console#show system
System description: 20 10/100/1000 ports + 4 Gigabit Combo ports L2/L4
managed standalone switch
System OID string: 1.3.6.1.4.1.259.6.10.51
System information
System Up time: 0 days, 1 hours, 41 minutes, and 43.31 seconds
System Name
: [NONE]
System Location
: [NONE]
System Contact
: [NONE]
MAC address
: 00-12-12-34-12-34
Web server
: enable
Web server port
: 80
Web secure server
: enable
Web secure server port : 443
Telnet server
: enable
Telnet port
: 23
POST result
UART LOOP BACK Test..........PASS
DRAM Test....................PASS
Timer Test...................PASS
PCI Device 1 Test............PASS
PCI Device 2 Test............PASS
Switch Int Loopback test.....PASS
Done All Pass.
Console#
4-60
System Management Commands
4
show users
Shows all active console and Telnet sessions, including user name, idle time, and IP
address of Telnet client.
Default Setting
None
Command Mode
Normal Exec, Privileged Exec
Command Usage
The session used to execute this command is indicated by a “*” symbol next to
the Line (i.e., session) index number.
Example
Console#show users
Username accounts:
Username Privilege Public-Key
-------- --------- ---------admin
15
None
guest
0
None
steve
15
RSA
Online users:
Line
Username Idle time (h:m:s) Remote IP addr.
----------- -------- ----------------- --------------0
console
admin
0:14:14
* 1
VTY 0
admin
0:00:00
192.168.1.19
2
SSH 1
steve
0:00:06
192.168.1.19
Web online users:
Line
Remote IP addr Username Idle time (h:m:s).
----------- -------------- -------- -----------------1
HTTP
192.168.1.19
admin
0:00:00
Console#
show version
This command displays hardware and software version information for the system.
Default Setting
None
Command Mode
Normal Exec, Privileged Exec
Command Usage
See “Displaying Switch Hardware/Software Versions” on page 3-10 for
detailed information on the items displayed by this command.
4-61
4
Command Line Interface
Example
Console#show version
Unit1
Serial number
Hardware version
Number of ports
Main power status
Redundant power status
Agent(master)
Unit id
Loader version
Boot rom version
Operation code version
Console#
:
:
:24
:up
:not present
:1
:2.1.0.3
:2.0.2.11
:1.4.0.0
Frame Size Commands
Table 4-23. Frame Size Commands
Command
Function
Mode
jumbo frame
Enables support for jumbo frames
GC
Page
4-62
jumbo frame
This command enables support for jumbo frames. Use the no form to disable it.
Syntax
[no] jumbo frame
Default Setting
Disabled
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Command Usage
• This switch provides more efficient throughput for large sequential data
transfers by supporting jumbo frames up to 9216 bytes. Compared to
standard Ethernet frames that run only up to 1.5 KB, using jumbo frames
significantly reduces the per-packet overhead required to process protocol
encapsulation fields.
• To use jumbo frames, both the source and destination end nodes (such as a
computer or server) must support this feature. Also, when the connection is
operating at full duplex, all switches in the network between the two end nodes
must be able to accept the extended frame size. And for half-duplex
connections, all devices in the collision domain would need to support jumbo
frames.
• Enabling jumbo frames will limit the maximum threshold for broadcast storm
control to 64 packets per second. (See the switchport broadcast command
on page 4-131.)
4-62
Flash/File Commands
4
Example
Console(config)#jumbo frame
Console(config)#
Flash/File Commands
These commands are used to manage the system code or configuration files.
Table 4-24. Flash/File Commands
Command
Function
Mode
copy
Copies a code image or a switch configuration to or from flash
memory or a TFTP server
PE
Page
4-63
delete
Deletes a file or code image
PE
4-65
dir
Displays a list of files in flash memory
PE
4-66
whichboot
Displays the files booted
PE
4-67
boot system
Specifies the file or image used to start up the system
GC
4-67
copy
This command moves (upload/download) a code image or configuration file
between the switch’s flash memory and a TFTP server. When you save the system
code or configuration settings to a file on a TFTP server, that file can later be
downloaded to the switch to restore system operation. The success of the file
transfer depends on the accessibility of the TFTP server and the quality of the
network connection.
Syntax
copy file {file | running-config | startup-config | tftp}
copy running-config {file | startup-config | tftp}
copy startup-config {file | running-config | tftp}
copy tftp {file | running-config | startup-config | https-certificate |
public-key}
file - Keyword that allows you to copy to/from a file.
• running-config - Keyword that allows you to copy to/from the current
running configuration.
• startup-config - The configuration used for system initialization.
• tftp - Keyword that allows you to copy to/from a TFTP server.
• https-certificate - Copies an HTTPS certificate from an TFTP server to the
switch.
• public-key - Keyword that allows you to copy a SSH key from a TFTP
server. (“Secure Shell Commands” on page 4-34.)
Default Setting
None
4-63
4
Command Line Interface
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
Command Usage
• The system prompts for data required to complete the copy command.
• The destination file name should not contain slashes (\ or /), the leading letter
of the file name should not be a period (.), and the maximum length for file
names on the TFTP server is 127 characters or 31 characters for files on the
switch. (Valid characters: A-Z, a-z, 0-9, “.”, “-”, “_”)
• Due to the size limit of the flash memory, the switch supports only two
operation code files.
• The maximum number of user-defined configuration files depends on
available memory.
• You can use “Factory_Default_Config.cfg” as the source to copy from the
factory default configuration file, but you cannot use it as the destination.
• To replace the startup configuration, you must use startup-config as the
destination.
• The Boot ROM and Loader cannot be uploaded or downloaded from the TFTP
server. You must follow the instructions in the release notes for new firmware,
or contact your distributor for help.
• For information on specifying an https-certificate, see “Replacing the Default
Secure-site Certificate” on page 3-35. For information on configuring the
switch to use HTTPS/SSL for a secure connection, see “ip http secure-server”
on page 4-31.
Example
The following example shows how to upload the configuration settings to a file on
the TFTP server:
Console#copy file tftp
Choose file type:
1. config: 2. opcode: <1-2>: 1
Source file name: startup
TFTP server ip address: 10.1.0.99
Destination file name: startup.01
TFTP completed.
Success.
Console#
The following example shows how to copy the running configuration to a startup file.
Console#copy running-config file
destination file name: startup
Write to FLASH Programming.
\Write to FLASH finish.
Success.
Console#
4-64
4
Flash/File Commands
The following example shows how to download a configuration file:
Console#copy tftp startup-config
TFTP server ip address: 10.1.0.99
Source configuration file name: startup.01
Startup configuration file name [startup]:
Write to FLASH Programming.
\Write to FLASH finish.
Success.
Console#
This example shows how to copy a secure-site certificate from an TFTP server. It
then reboots the switch to activate the certificate:
Console#copy tftp https-certificate
TFTP server ip address: 10.1.0.19
Source certificate file name: SS-certificate
Source private file name: SS-private
Private password: ********
Success.
Console#reload
System will be restarted, continue <y/n>? y
This example shows how to copy a public-key used by SSH from an TFTP server.
Note that public key authentication via SSH is only supported for users configured
locally on the switch:
Console#copy tftp public-key
TFTP server IP address: 192.168.1.19
Choose public key type:
1. RSA: 2. DSA: <1-2>: 1
Source file name: steve.pub
Username: steve
TFTP Download
Success.
Write to FLASH Programming.
Success.
Console#
delete
This command deletes a file or image.
Syntax
delete filename
filename - Name of the configuration file or image name.
Default Setting
None
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
4-65
4
Command Line Interface
Command Usage
• If the file type is used for system startup, then this file cannot be deleted.
• “Factory_Default_Config.cfg” cannot be deleted.
Example
This example shows how to delete the test2.cfg configuration file from flash memory.
Console#delete test2.cfg
Console#
Related Commands
dir (4-66)
delete public-key (4-38)
dir
This command displays a list of files in flash memory.
Syntax
dir [boot-rom | config | opcode [:filename]]
The type of file or image to display includes:
•
•
•
•
boot-rom - Boot ROM (or diagnostic) image file.
config - Switch configuration file.
opcode - Run-time operation code image file.
filename - Name of the file or image. If this file exists but contains errors,
information on this file cannot be shown.
Default Setting
None
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
Command Usage
• If you enter the command dir without any parameters, the system displays all
files.
• File information is shown below:
Table 4-25. File Directory Information
4-66
Column Heading
Description
file name
The name of the file.
file type
File types: Boot-Rom, Operation Code, and Config file.
startup
Shows if this file is used when the system is started.
size
The length of the file in bytes.
Flash/File Commands
4
Example
The following example shows how to display all file information:
Console#dir
file name
file type startup size (byte)
-------------------------------- -------------- ------- ----------Unit1:
Diag.bix Boot-Rom image
Y
818812
V11022 Operation Code
Y
2402452
Factory_Default_Config.cfg
Config File
N
374
startup
Config File
Y
7606
------------------------------------------------------------------Total free space:
3932160
Console#
whichboot
This command displays which files were booted when the system powered up.
Default Setting
None
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
Example
This example shows the information displayed by the whichboot command. See
the table under the dir command for a description of the file information displayed by
this command.
Console#whichboot
file name
file type startup size (byte)
-------------------------------- -------------- ------- ----------Unit1:
Diag.bix Boot-Rom image
Y
818812
V11022 Operation Code
Y
2402452
startup
Config File
Y
7606
Console#
boot system
This command specifies the image used to start up the system.
Syntax
boot system {boot-rom| config | opcode}: filename
The type of file or image to set as a default includes:
•
•
•
•
boot-rom* - Boot ROM.
config* - Configuration file.
opcode* - Run-time operation code.
filename - Name of the configuration file or image name.
* The colon (:) is required.
4-67
4
Command Line Interface
Default Setting
None
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Command Usage
• A colon (:) is required after the specified file type.
• If the file contains an error, it cannot be set as the default file.
Example
Console(config)#boot system config: startup
Console(config)#
Related Commands
dir (4-66)
whichboot (4-67)
Authentication Commands
You can configure this switch to authenticate users logging into the system for
management access using local or RADIUS authentication methods. You can also
enable port-based authentication for network client access using IEEE 802.1x.
Table 4-26. Authentication Commands
Command Group
Function
Authentication Sequence
Defines logon authentication method and precedence
Page
4-69
RADIUS Client
Configures settings for authentication via a RADIUS server
4-70
TACACS+ Client
Configures settings for authentication via a TACACS+ server
4-74
Port Security
Configures secure addresses for a port
4-76
Port Authentication
Configures host authentication on specific ports using 802.1x
4-78
4-68
Authentication Commands
4
Authentication Sequence
Table 4-27. Authentication Sequence Commands
Command
Function
Mode
authentication login
Defines logon authentication method and precedence
GC
Page
4-69
authentication enable
Defines the authentication method and precedence for
command mode change
GC
4-70
authentication login
This command defines the login authentication method and precedence. Use the no
form to restore the default.
Syntax
authentication login {[local] [radius] [tacacs]}
no authentication login
• local - Use local password.
• radius - Use RADIUS server password.
• tacacs - Use TACACS server password.
Default Setting
Local
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Command Usage
• RADIUS uses UDP while TACACS+ uses TCP. UDP only offers best effort
delivery, while TCP offers a connection-oriented transport. Also, note that
RADIUS encrypts only the password in the access-request packet from the
client to the server, while TACACS+ encrypts the entire body of the packet.
• RADIUS and TACACS+ logon authentication assigns a specific privilege level
for each user name and password pair. The user name, password, and
privilege level must be configured on the authentication server.
• You can specify three authentication methods in a single command to indicate
the authentication sequence. For example, if you enter “authentication login
radius tacacs local,” the user name and password on the RADIUS server is
verified first. If the RADIUS server is not available, then authentication is
attempted on the TACACS+ server. If the TACACS+ server is not available,
the local user name and password is checked.
Example
Console(config)#authentication login radius
Console(config)#
Related Commands
username - for setting the local user names and passwords (4-26)
4-69
4
Command Line Interface
authentication enable
This command defines the authentication method and precedence to use when
changing from Exec command mode to Privileged Exec command mode with the
enable command (see page 4-20). Use the no form to restore the default.
Syntax
authentication enable {[local] [radius] [tacacs]}
no authentication enable
• local - Use local password only.
• radius - Use RADIUS server password only.
• tacacs - Use TACACS server password.
Default Setting
Local
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Command Usage
• RADIUS uses UDP while TACACS+ uses TCP. UDP only offers best effort
delivery, while TCP offers a connection-oriented transport. Also, note that
RADIUS encrypts only the password in the access-request packet from the
client to the server, while TACACS+ encrypts the entire body of the packet.
• RADIUS and TACACS+ logon authentication assigns a specific privilege level
for each user name and password pair. The user name, password, and
privilege level must be configured on the authentication server.
• You can specify three authentication methods in a single command to indicate
the authentication sequence. For example, if you enter “authentication
enable radius tacacs local,” the user name and password on the RADIUS
server is verified first. If the RADIUS server is not available, then
authentication is attempted on the TACACS+ server. If the TACACS+ server
is not available, the local user name and password is checked.
Example
Console(config)#authentication enable radius
Console(config)#
Related Commands
enable password - sets the password for changing command modes (4-27)
4-70
Authentication Commands
4
RADIUS Client
Remote Authentication Dial-in User Service (RADIUS) is a logon authentication
protocol that uses software running on a central server to control access to
RADIUS-aware devices on the network. An authentication server contains a
database of multiple user name/password pairs with associated privilege levels for
each user or group that require management access to a switch.
Table 4-28. RADIUS Client Commands
Command
Function
Mode
radius-server host
Specifies the RADIUS server
GC
Page
4-71
radius-server port
Sets the RADIUS server network port
GC
4-71
radius-server key
Sets the RADIUS encryption key
GC
4-72
radius-server retransmit
Sets the number of retries
GC
4-72
radius-server timeout
Sets the interval between sending authentication requests GC
4-73
show radius-server
Shows the current RADIUS settings
4-73
PE
radius-server host
This command specifies the RADIUS server. Use the no form to restore the default.
Syntax
radius-server host host_ip_address
no radius-server host
host_ip_address - IP address of server.
Default Setting
10.1.0.1
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Example
Console(config)#radius-server host 192.168.1.25
Console(config)#
radius-server port
This command sets the RADIUS server network port. Use the no form to restore the
default.
Syntax
radius-server port port_number
no radius-server port
port_number - RADIUS server UDP port used for authentication
messages. (Range: 1-65535)
4-71
4
Command Line Interface
Default Setting
1812
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Example
Console(config)#radius-server port 181
Console(config)#
radius-server key
This command sets the RADIUS encryption key. Use the no form to restore the
default.
Syntax
radius-server key key_string
no radius-server key
key_string - Encryption key used to authenticate logon access for client.
Do not use blank spaces in the string. (Maximum length: 20 characters)
Default Setting
None
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Example
Console(config)#radius-server key green
Console(config)#
radius-server retransmit
This command sets the number of retries. Use the no form to restore the default.
Syntax
radius-server retransmit number_of_retries
no radius-server retransmit
number_of_retries - Number of times the switch will try to authenticate
logon access via the RADIUS server. (Range: 1 - 30)
Default Setting
2
Command Mode
Global Configuration
4-72
Authentication Commands
4
Example
Console(config)#radius-server retransmit 5
Console(config)#
radius-server timeout
This command sets the interval between transmitting authentication requests to the
RADIUS server. Use the no form to restore the default.
Syntax
radius-server timeout number_of_seconds
no radius-server timeout
number_of_seconds - Number of seconds the switch waits for a reply
before resending a request. (Range: 1-65535)
Default Setting
5
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Example
Console(config)#radius-server timeout 10
Console(config)#
show radius-server
This command displays the current settings for the RADIUS server.
Default Setting
None
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
Example
Console#show radius-server
Remote radius server configuration:
Server IP address: 10.1.0.1
Communication key with radius server:
Server port number: 1812
Retransmit times: 2
Request timeout: 5
Console#
4-73
4
Command Line Interface
TACACS+ Client
Terminal Access Controller Access Control System (TACACS+) is a logon
authentication protocol that uses software running on a central server to control
access to TACACS-aware devices on the network. An authentication server
contains a database of multiple user name/password pairs with associated privilege
levels for each user or group that require management access to a switch.
Table 4-29. TACACS+ Client Commands
Command
Function
Mode
tacacs-server host
Specifies the TACACS+ server
GC
Page
tacacs-server port
Specifies the TACACS+ server network port
GC
4-74
tacacs-server key
Sets the TACACS+ encryption key
GC
4-75
show tacacs-server
Shows the current TACACS+ settings
GC
4-75
tacacs-server host
This command specifies the TACACS+ server. Use the no form to restore the
default.
Syntax
tacacs-server host host_ip_address
no tacacs-server host
host_ip_address - IP address of a TACACS+ server.
Default Setting
10.11.12.13
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Example
Console(config)#tacacs-server host 192.168.1.25
Console(config)#
tacacs-server port
This command specifies the TACACS+ server network port. Use the no form to
restore the default.
Syntax
tacacs-server port port_number
no tacacs-server port
port_number - TACACS+ server TCP port used for authentication
messages. (Range: 1-65535)
Default Setting
49
4-74
4-74
4
Authentication Commands
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Example
Console(config)#tacacs-server port 181
Console(config)#
tacacs-server key
This command sets the TACACS+ encryption key. Use the no form to restore the
default.
Syntax
tacacs-server key key_string
no tacacs-server key
key_string - Encryption key used to authenticate logon access for the
client. Do not use blank spaces in the string.
(Maximum length: 20 characters)
Default Setting
None
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Example
Console(config)#tacacs-server key green
Console(config)#
show tacacs-server
This command displays the current settings for the TACACS+ server.
Default Setting
None
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
Example
Console#show tacacs-server
Remote TACACS server configuration:
Server IP address: 10.11.12.13
Communication key with radius server: green
Server port number: 49
Console#
4-75
4
Command Line Interface
Port Security Commands
These commands can be used to enable port security on a port. When using port
security, the switch stops learning new MAC addresses on the specified port when it
has reached a configured maximum number. Only incoming traffic with source
addresses already stored in the dynamic or static address table for this port will be
authorized to access the network. The port will drop any incoming frames with a
source MAC address that is unknown or has been previously learned from another
port. If a device with an unauthorized MAC address attempts to use the switch port,
the intrusion will be detected and the switch can automatically take action by
disabling the port and sending a trap message.
Table 4-30. Port Security Commands
Command
Function
Mode
port security
Configures a secure port
IC
Page
4-76
mac-address-table static
Maps a static address to a port in a VLAN
GC
4-150
show mac-address-table
Displays entries in the bridge-forwarding database
PE
4-151
port security
This command enables or configures port security. Use the no form without any
keywords to disable port security. Use the no form with the appropriate keyword to
restore the default settings for a response to security violation or for the maximum
number of allowed addresses.
Syntax
port security [action {shutdown | trap | trap-and-shutdown}
| max-mac-count address-count]
no port security [action | max-mac-count]
• action - Response to take when port security is violated.
- shutdown - Disable port only.
- trap - Issue SNMP trap message only.
- trap-and-shutdown - Issue SNMP trap message and disable port.
• max-mac-count
- address-count - The maximum number of MAC addresses that can be
learned on a port. (Range: 0 - 20)
Default Setting
Status: Disabled
Action: None
Maximum Addresses: 0
Command Mode
Interface Configuration (Ethernet)
4-76
Authentication Commands
4
Command Usage
• If you enable port security, the switch stops learning new MAC addresses on
the specified port when it has reached a configured maximum number. Only
incoming traffic with source addresses already stored in the dynamic or static
address table will be accepted.
• First use the port security max-mac-count command to set the number of
addresses, and then use the port security command to enable security on
the port.
• Use the no port security max-mac-count command to disable port security
and reset the maximum number of addresses to the default.
• You can also manually add secure addresses with the mac-address-table
static command.
• A secure port has the following restrictions:
- Cannot use port monitoring.
- Cannot be a multi-VLAN port.
- Cannot be connected to a network interconnection device.
- Cannot be a trunk port.
• If a port is disabled due to a security violation, it must be manually re-enabled
using the no shutdown command.
Example
The following example enables port security for port 5, and sets the response to a
security violation to issue a trap message:
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/5
Console(config-if)#port security action trap
Related Commands
shutdown (4-130)
mac-address-table static (4-150)
show mac-address-table (4-151)
4-77
4
Command Line Interface
802.1x Port Authentication
The switch supports IEEE 802.1x (dot1x) port-based access control that prevents
unauthorized access to the network by requiring users to first submit credentials for
authentication. Client authentication is controlled centrally by a RADIUS server
using EAP (Extensible Authentication Protocol).
Table 4-31. 802.1x Port Authentication Commands
Command
Function
Mode
authentication dot1x default
Sets the default authentication server type
GC
dot1x default
Resets all dot1x parameters to their default values
GC
4-79
dot1x max-req
Sets the maximum number of times that the switch
retransmits an EAP request/identity packet to the client
before it times out the authentication session
GC
4-79
dot1x port-control
Sets dot1x mode for a port interface
IC
4-80
dot1x operation-mode
Allows single or multiple hosts on an dot1x port
IC
4-80
dot1x re-authenticate
Forces re-authentication on specific ports
PE
4-81
dot1x re-authentication
Enables re-authentication for all ports
GC
4-81
dot1x timeout quiet-period
Sets the time that a switch port waits after the Max
Request Count has been exceeded before attempting to
acquire a new client
GC
4-82
dot1x timeout re-authperiod
Sets the time period after which a connected client must
be re-authenticated
GC
4-82
dot1x timeout tx-period
Sets the time period during an authentication session that GC
the switch waits before re-transmitting an EAP packet
4-83
show dot1x
Shows all dot1x related information
4-83
PE
authentication dot1x default
This command sets the default authentication server type. Use the no form to
restore the default.
Syntax
authentication dot1x default radius
no authentication dot1x
Default Setting
RADIUS
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Example
Console(config)#authentication dot1x default radius
Console(config)#
4-78
Page
4-78
4
Authentication Commands
dot1x default
This command sets all configurable dot1x global and port settings to their default
values.
Syntax
dot1x default
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Example
Console(config)#dot1x default
Console(config)#
dot1x max-req
This command sets the maximum number of times the switch port will retransmit an
EAP request/identity packet to the client before it times out the authentication
session. Use the no form to restore the default.
Syntax
dot1x max-req count
no dot1x max-req
count – The maximum number of requests (Range: 1-10)
Default
2
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Example
Console(config)#dot1x max-req 2
Console(config)#
4-79
4
Command Line Interface
dot1x port-control
This command sets the dot1x mode on a port interface. Use the no form to restore
the default.
Syntax
dot1x port-control {auto | force-authorized | force-unauthorized}
no dot1x port-control
• auto – Requires a dot1x-aware connected client to be authorized by the
RADIUS server. Clients that are not dot1x-aware will be denied access.
• force-authorized – Configures the port to grant access to all clients, either
dot1x-aware or otherwise.
• force-unauthorized – Configures the port to deny access to all clients,
either dot1x-aware or otherwise.
Default
force-authorized
Command Mode
Interface Configuration
Example
Console(config)#interface eth 1/2
Console(config-if)#dot1x port-control auto
Console(config-if)#
dot1x operation-mode
This command allows single or multiple hosts (clients) to connect to an
802.1X-authorized port. Use the no form with no keywords to restore the default to
single host. Use the no form with the multi-host max-count keywords to restore the
default maximum count.
Syntax
dot1x operation-mode {single-host | multi-host [max-count count]}
no dot1x operation-mode [multi-host max-count]
• single-host – Allows only a single host to connect to this port.
• multi-host – Allows multiple host to connect to this port.
• max-count – Keyword for the maximum number of hosts.
- count – The maximum number of hosts that can connect to a port.
(Range: 1-20; Default: 5)
Default
Single-host
Command Mode
Interface Configuration
4-80
Authentication Commands
4
Command Usage
• The “max-count” parameter specified by this command is only effective if the
dot1x mode is set to “auto” by the dot1x port-control command (page 4-105).
• In “multi-host” mode, only one host connected to a port needs to pass
authentication for all other hosts to be granted network access. Similarly, a
port can become unauthorized for all hosts if one attached host fails
re-authentication or sends an EAPOL logoff message.
Example
Console(config)#interface eth 1/2
Console(config-if)#dot1x operation-mode multi-host max-count 10
Console(config-if)#
dot1x re-authenticate
This command forces re-authentication on all ports or a specific interface.
Syntax
dot1x re-authenticate [interface]
interface
• ethernet unit/port
- unit - This is device 1.
- port - Port number.
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
Example
Console#dot1x re-authenticate
Console#
dot1x re-authentication
This command enables periodic re-authentication globally for all ports. Use the no
form to disable re-authentication.
Syntax
[no] dot1x re-authentication
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Example
Console(config)#dot1x re-authentication
Console(config)#
4-81
4
Command Line Interface
dot1x timeout quiet-period
This command sets the time that a switch port waits after the Max Request Count
has been exceeded before attempting to acquire a new client. Use the no form to
reset the default.
Syntax
dot1x timeout quiet-period seconds
no dot1x timeout quiet-period
seconds - The number of seconds. (Range: 1-65535)
Default
60 seconds
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Example
Console(config)#dot1x timeout quiet-period 350
Console(config)#
dot1x timeout re-authperiod
This command sets the time period after which a connected client must be
re-authenticated.
Syntax
dot1x timeout re-authperiod seconds
no dot1x timeout re-authperiod
seconds - The number of seconds. (Range: 1-65535)
Default
3600 seconds
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Example
Console(config)#dot1x timeout re-authperiod 300
Console(config)#
4-82
Authentication Commands
4
dot1x timeout tx-period
This command sets the time that the switch waits during an authentication session
before re-transmitting an EAP packet. Use the no form to reset to the default value.
Syntax
dot1x timeout tx-period seconds
no dot1x timeout tx-period
seconds - The number of seconds. (Range: 1-65535)
Default
30 seconds
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Example
Console(config)#dot1x timeout tx-period 300
Console(config)#
show dot1x
This command shows general port authentication related settings on the switch or a
specific interface.
Syntax
show dot1x [statistics] [interface interface]
• statistics - Displays dot1x status for each port.
• interface
• ethernet unit/port
- unit - This is device 1.
- port - Port number.
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
Command Usage
This command displays the following information:
• Global 802.1X Parameters – Displays the global port access control
parameters that can be configured for this switch as described in the
preceding pages, including reauth-enabled (page 4-81), reauth-period
(page 4-82), quiet-period (page 4-82), tx-period (page 4-83), and max-req
4-83
4
Command Line Interface
(page 4-79). It also displays the following global parameters which are set
to a fixed value, including the following items:
- supp-timeout
– Supplicant timeout.
- server-timeout
– Server timeout.
- reauth-max
– Maximum number of reauthentication attempts.
• 802.1X Port Summary – Displays the port access control parameters for
each interface, including the following items:
- Status
– Administrative state for port access control.
- Operation Mode – Dot1x port operation mode (page 4-80).
- Mode
– Dot1x port control mode (page 4-80).
- Authorized
– Authorization status (yes or n/a - not authorized).
• 802.1X Port Details – Displays detailed port access control settings for each
interface as described in the preceding pages, including Operation mode
(page 4-80), Max count (page 4-80), Port-control (page 4-80), and Current
Identifier. It also displays the following information:
- Status
– Authorization status (authorized or unauthorized).
- Supplicant
– MAC address of authorized client.
• Authenticator State Machine
- State
– Current state (including initialize, disconnected,
connecting, authenticating, authenticated, aborting,
held, force_authorized, force_unauthorized).
- Reauth Count
– Number of times connecting state is re-entered.
• Backend State Machine
- State
– Current state (including request, response,
success, fail, timeout, idle, initialize).
- Request Count
– Number of EAP Request packets sent to the
Supplicant without receiving a response.
- Identifier(Server) – Identifier carried in the most recent EAP Success,
Failure or Request packet received from the
Authentication Server.
• Reauthentication State Machine
- State
– Current state (including initialize, reauthenticate).
4-84
Authentication Commands
4
Example
Console#show dot1x
Global 802.1X Parameters
reauth-enabled: yes
reauth-period: 3600
quiet-period:
60
tx-period:
30
supp-timeout:
30
server-timeout: 30
reauth-max:
2
max-req:
2
802.1X Port
Port Name
1/1
1/2
.
.
.
1/47
1/48
Summary
Status
disabled
disabled
Operation Mode
Single-Host
Single-Host
Mode
ForceAuthorized
ForceAuthorized
Authorized
n/a
n/a
disabled
enabled
Single-Host
Single-Host
ForceAuthorized
Auto
n/a
yes
802.1X Port Details
802.1X is disabled on port 1/1
802.1X is disabled on port 1/2
.
.
.
.
802.1X is disabled on port
1/47
802.1X is enabled on port 1/48
Status
Authorized
Operation mode
Single-Host
Max count
5
Port-control
Auto
Supplicant
00-00-e8-49-5e-dc
Current Identifier 3
Authenticator State Machine
State
Authenticated
Reauth Count
0
Backend State Machine
State
Idle
Request Count
0
Identifier(Server) 2
Reauthentication State Machine
State
Initialize
Console#
4-85
4
Command Line Interface
Access Control List Commands
Access Control Lists (ACL) provide packet filtering for IP frames (based on address,
protocol, Layer 4 protocol port number or TCP control code) or any frames (based
on MAC address or Ethernet type). To filter packets, first create an access list, add
the required rules, specify a mask to modify the precedence in which the rules are
checked, and then bind the list to a specific port.
Access Control Lists
An ACL is a sequential list of permit or deny conditions that apply to IP addresses,
MAC addresses, or other more specific criteria. This switch tests ingress or egress
packets against the conditions in an ACL one by one. A packet will be accepted as
soon as it matches a permit rule, or dropped as soon as it matches a deny rule. If no
rules match for a list of all permit rules, the packet is dropped; and if no rules match
for a list of all deny rules, the packet is accepted.
There are three filtering modes:
• Standard IP ACL mode (STD-ACL) filters packets based on the source IP address.
• Extended IP ACL mode (EXT-ACL) filters packets based on source or destination
IP address, as well as protocol type and protocol port number. If the TCP protocol
is specified, then you can also filter packets based on the TCP control code.
• MAC ACL mode (MAC-ACL) filters packets based on the source or destination
MAC address and the Ethernet frame type (RFC 1060).
The following restrictions apply to ACLs:
• This switch supports ACLs for both ingress and egress filtering. However, you can
only bind one IP ACL and one MAC ACL to any port for ingress filtering, and one
IP ACL and one MAC ACL to any port for egress filtering. In other words, only four
ACLs can be bound to an interface – Ingress IP ACL, Egress IP ACL, Ingress MAC
ACL and Egress MAC ACL.
• When an ACL is bound to an interface as an egress filter, all entries in the ACL
must be deny rules. Otherwise, the bind operation will fail.
• Each ACL can have up to 32 rules.
• The maximum number of ACLs is also 32.
• However, due to resource restrictions, the average number of rules bound the
ports should not exceed 20.
• You must configure a mask for an ACL rule before you can bind it to a port or set
the queue or frame priorities associated with the rule.
• The switch does not support the explicit “deny any any” rule for the egress IP ACL
or the egress MAC ACLs. If these rules are included in ACL, and you attempt to
bind the ACL to an interface for egress checking, the bind operation will fail.
• Egress MAC ACLs only work for destination-mac-known packets, not for multicast,
broadcast, or destination-mac-unknown packets.
The order in which active ACLs are checked is as follows:
1. User-defined rules in the Egress MAC ACL for egress ports.
2. User-defined rules in the Egress IP ACL for egress ports.
4-86
4
Access Control List Commands
3. User-defined rules in the Ingress MAC ACL for ingress ports.
4. User-defined rules in the Ingress IP ACL for ingress ports.
5. Explicit default rule (permit any any) in the ingress IP ACL for ingress ports.
6. Explicit default rule (permit any any) in the ingress MAC ACL for ingress ports.
7. If no explicit rule is matched, the implicit default is permit all.
Masks for Access Control Lists
You must specify masks that control the order in which ACL rules are checked. The
switch includes two system default masks that pass/filter packets matching the
permit/deny the rules specified in an ingress ACL. You can also configure up to
seven user-defined masks for an ACL. A mask must be bound exclusively to one of
the basic ACL types (i.e., Ingress IP ACL, Egress IP ACL, Ingress MAC ACL or
Egress MAC ACL), but a mask can be bound to up to four ACLs of the same type.
Table 4-32. Access Control List Commands
Page
Command Groups
Function
IP ACLs
Configures ACLs based on IP addresses, TCP/UDP port number,
protocol type, and TCP control code
MAC ACLs
Configures ACLs based on hardware addresses, packet format, and
Ethernet type
4-101
ACL Information
Displays ACLs and associated rules; shows ACLs assigned to each port
4-111
4-87
IP ACLs
Table 4-33. IP ACL Commands
Command
Function
Mode
Page
access-list ip
Creates an IP ACL and enters configuration mode
GC
4-88
permit, deny
Filters packets matching a specified source IP address
STD-ACL
4-89
permit, deny
Filters packets meeting the specified criteria, including
EXT-ACL
source and destination IP address, TCP/UDP port number,
protocol type, and TCP control code
4-90
show ip access-list
Displays the rules for configured IP ACLs
PE
4-92
access-list ip
mask-precedence
Changes to the mode for configuring access control masks GC
4-92
mask
Sets a precedence mask for the ACL rules
IP-Mask
4-93
show access-list ip
mask-precedence
Shows the ingress or egress rule masks for IP ACLs
PE
4-96
ip access-group
Adds a port to an IP ACL
IC
4-97
show ip access-group
Shows port assignments for IP ACLs
PE
4-97
map access-list ip
Sets the CoS value and corresponding output queue for
packets matching an ACL rule
IC
4-98
show map access-list ip
Shows CoS value mapped to an access list for an interface PE
4-99
4-87
4
Command Line Interface
Table 4-33. IP ACL Commands
Mode
Command
Function
match access-list ip
Changes the 802.1p priority, IP Precedence, or DSCP
IC
Priority of a frame matching the defined rule (i.e., also called
packet marking)
show marking
Displays the current configuration for packet marking
PE
Page
4-99
4-100
access-list ip
This command adds an IP access list and enters configuration mode for standard or
extended IP ACLs. Use the no form to remove the specified ACL.
Syntax
[no] access-list ip {standard | extended} acl_name
• standard – Specifies an ACL that filters packets based on the source IP
address.
• extended – Specifies an ACL that filters packets based on the source or
destination IP address, and other more specific criteria.
• acl_name – Name of the ACL. (Maximum length: 16 characters)
Default Setting
None
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Command Usage
• An egress ACL must contain all deny rules.
• When you create a new ACL or enter configuration mode for an existing ACL,
use the permit or deny command to add new rules to the bottom of the list.
To create an ACL, you must add at least one rule to the list.
• To remove a rule, use the no permit or no deny command followed by the
exact text of a previously configured rule.
• An ACL can contain up to 32 rules.
Example
Console(config)#access-list ip standard david
Console(config-std-acl)#
Related Commands
permit, deny 4-89
ip access-group (4-97)
show ip access-list (4-92)
4-88
Access Control List Commands
4
permit, deny (Standard ACL)
This command adds a rule to a Standard IP ACL. The rule sets a filter condition for
packets emanating from the specified source. Use the no form to remove a rule.
Syntax
[no] {permit | deny} {any | source bitmask | host source}
•
•
•
•
any – Any source IP address.
source – Source IP address.
bitmask – Decimal number representing the address bits to match.
host – Keyword followed by a specific IP address.
Default Setting
None
Command Mode
Standard ACL
Command Usage
• New rules are appended to the end of the list.
• Address bitmasks are similar to a subnet mask, containing four integers from
0 to 255, each separated by a period. The binary mask uses 1 bits to indicate
“match” and 0 bits to indicate “ignore.” The bitmask is bitwise ANDed with the
specified source IP address, and then compared with the address for each IP
packet entering the port(s) to which this ACL has been assigned.
Example
This example configures one permit rule for the specific address 10.1.1.21 and
another rule for the address range 168.92.16.x – 168.92.31.x using a bitmask.
Console(config-std-acl)#permit host 10.1.1.21
Console(config-std-acl)#permit 168.92.16.0 255.255.240.0
Console(config-std-acl)#
Related Commands
access-list ip (4-88)
4-89
4
Command Line Interface
permit, deny (Extended ACL)
This command adds a rule to an Extended IP ACL. The rule sets a filter condition for
packets with specific source or destination IP addresses, protocol types, source or
destination protocol ports, or TCP control codes. Use the no form to remove a rule.
Syntax
[no] {permit | deny} [protocol-number | udp]
{any | source address-bitmask | host source}
{any | destination address-bitmask | host destination}
[precedence precedence] [tos tos] [dscp dscp]
[source-port sport [bitmask]] [destination-port dport [port-bitmask]]
[no] {permit | deny} tcp
{any | source address-bitmask | host source}
{any | destination address-bitmask | host destination}
[precedence precedence] [tos tos] [dscp dscp]
[source-port sport [bitmask]] [destination-port dport [port-bitmask]]
[control-flag control-flags flag-bitmask]
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
protocol-number – A specific protocol number. (Range: 0-255)
source – Source IP address.
destination – Destination IP address.
address-bitmask – Decimal number representing the address bits to match.
host – Keyword followed by a specific IP address.
precedence – IP precedence level. (Range: 0-7)
tos – Type of Service level. (Range: 0-15)
dscp – DSCP priority level. (Range: 0-63)
sport – Protocol* source port number. (Range: 0-65535)
dport – Protocol* destination port number. (Range: 0-65535)
port-bitmask – Decimal number representing the port bits to match.
(Range: 0-65535)
• control-flags – Decimal number (representing a bit string) that specifies flag
bits in byte 14 of the TCP header. (Range: 0-63)
• flag-bitmask – Decimal number representing the code bits to match.
(Range: 0-63)
* Includes TCP, UDP or other protocol types.
Default Setting
None
Command Mode
Extended ACL
4-90
Access Control List Commands
4
Command Usage
• All new rules are appended to the end of the list.
• Address bitmasks are similar to a subnet mask, containing four integers from
0 to 255, each separated by a period. The binary mask uses 1 bits to indicate
“match” and 0 bits to indicate “ignore.” The bitmask is bitwise ANDed with the
specified source IP address, and then compared with the address for each IP
packet entering the port(s) to which this ACL has been assigned.
• You can specify both Precedence and ToS in the same rule. However, if
DSCP is used, then neither Precedence nor ToS can be specified.
• The control-code bitmask is a decimal number (representing an equivalent bit
mask) that is applied to the control code. Enter a decimal number, where the
equivalent binary bit “1” means to match a bit and “0” means to ignore a bit.
The following bits may be specified:
- 1 (fin) – Finish
- 2 (syn) – Synchronize
- 4 (rst) – Reset
- 8 (psh) – Push
- 16 (ack) – Acknowledgement
- 32 (urg) – Urgent pointer
For example, use the code value and mask below to catch packets with the
following flags set:
- SYN flag valid, use “control-code 2 2”
- Both SYN and ACK valid, use “control-code 18 18”
- SYN valid and ACK invalid, use “control-code 2 18”
Example
This example accepts any incoming packets if the source address is within subnet
10.7.1.x. For example, if the rule is matched; i.e., the rule (10.7.1.0 & 255.255.255.0)
equals the masked address (10.7.1.2 & 255.255.255.0), the packet passes through.
Console(config-ext-acl)#permit 10.7.1.1 255.255.255.0 any
Console(config-ext-acl)#
This allows TCP packets from class C addresses 192.168.1.0 to any destination
address when set for destination TCP port 80 (i.e., HTTP).
Console(config-ext-acl)#permit 192.168.1.0 255.255.255.0 any
destination-port 80
Console(config-ext-acl)#
This permits all TCP packets from class C addresses 192.168.1.0 with the TCP
control code set to “SYN.”
Console(config-ext-acl)#permit tcp 192.168.1.0 255.255.255.0 any
control-flag 2 2
Console(config-ext-acl)#
4-91
4
Command Line Interface
Related Commands
access-list ip (4-88)
show ip access-list
This command displays the rules for configured IP ACLs.
Syntax
show ip access-list {standard | extended} [acl_name]
• standard – Specifies a standard IP ACL.
• extended – Specifies an extended IP ACL.
• acl_name – Name of the ACL. (Maximum length: 16 characters)
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
Example
Console#show ip access-list standard
IP standard access-list david:
permit host 10.1.1.21
permit 168.92.0.0 0.0.15.255
Console#
Related Commands
permit, deny 4-89
ip access-group (4-97)
access-list ip mask-precedence
This command changes to the IP Mask mode used to configure access control
masks. Use the no form to delete the mask table.
Syntax
[no] access-list ip mask-precedence {in | out}
• in – Ingress mask for ingress ACLs.
• out – Egress mask for egress ACLs.
Default Setting
Default system mask: Filter inbound packets according to specified IP ACLs.
Command Mode
Global Configuration
4-92
Access Control List Commands
4
Command Usage
• A mask can only be used by all ingress ACLs or all egress ACLs.
• The precedence of the ACL rules applied to a packet is not determined by
order of the rules, but instead by the order of the masks; i.e., the first mask
that matches a rule will determine the rule that is applied to a packet.
• You must configure a mask for an ACL rule before you can bind it to a port or
set the queue or frame priorities associated with the rule.
Example
Console(config)#access-list ip mask-precedence in
Console(config-ip-mask-acl)#
Related Commands
mask (IP ACL) (4-93)
ip access-group (4-97)
mask (IP ACL)
This command defines a mask for IP ACLs. This mask defines the fields to check in
the IP header. Use the no form to remove a mask.
Syntax
[no] mask [protocol]
{any | host | source-bitmask}
{any | host | destination-bitmask}
[precedence] [tos] [dscp]
[source-port [port-bitmask]] [destination-port [port-bitmask]]
[control-flag [flag-bitmask]]
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
protocol – Check the protocol field.
any – Any address will be matched.
host – The address must be for a host device, not a subnetwork.
source-bitmask – Source address of rule must match this bitmask.
destination-bitmask – Destination address of rule must match this bitmask.
precedence – Check the IP precedence field.
tos – Check the TOS field.
dscp – Check the DSCP field.
source-port – Check the protocol source port field.
destination-port – Check the protocol destination port field.
port-bitmask – Protocol port of rule must match this bitmask.
(Range: 0-65535)
• control-flag – Check the field for control flags.
• flag-bitmask – Control flags of rule must match this bitmask. (Range: 0-63)
Default Setting
None
4-93
4
Command Line Interface
Command Mode
IP Mask
Command Usage
• Packets crossing a port are checked against all the rules in the ACL until a
match is found. The order in which these packets are checked is determined
by the mask, and not the order in which the ACL rules were entered.
• First create the required ACLs and ingress or egress masks before mapping
an ACL to an interface.
• If you enter dscp, you cannot enter tos or precedence. You can enter both
tos and precedence without dscp.
• Masks that include an entry for a Layer 4 protocol source port or destination
port can only be applied to packets with a header length of exactly five bytes.
Example
This example creates an IP ingress mask with two rules. Each rule is checked in
order of precedence to look for a match in the ACL entries. The first entry matching
a mask is applied to the inbound packet.
Console(config)#access-list ip mask-precedence in
Console(config-ip-mask-acl)#mask host any
Console(config-ip-mask-acl)#mask 255.255.255.0 any
Console(config-ip-mask-acl)#
This shows that the entries in the mask override the precedence in which the rules
are entered into the ACL. In the following example, packets with the source address
10.1.1.1 are dropped because the “deny 10.1.1.1 255.255.255.255” rule has the
higher precedence according the “mask host any” entry.
Console(config)#access-list ip standard A2
Console(config-std-acl)#permit 10.1.1.0 255.255.255.0
Console(config-std-acl)#deny 10.1.1.1 255.255.255.255
Console(config-std-acl)#exit
Console(config)#access-list ip mask-precedence in
Console(config-ip-mask-acl)#mask host any
Console(config-ip-mask-acl)#mask 255.255.255.0 any
Console(config-ip-mask-acl)#
4-94
4
Access Control List Commands
This shows how to create a standard ACL with an ingress mask to deny access to
the IP host 171.69.198.102, and permit access to any others.
Console(config)#access-list ip standard A2
Console(config-std-acl)#permit any
Console(config-std-acl)#deny host 171.69.198.102
Console(config-std-acl)#end
Console#show access-list
IP standard access-list A2:
deny host 171.69.198.102
permit any
Console#configure
Console(config)#access-list ip mask-precedence in
Console(config-ip-mask-acl)#mask host any
Console(config-ip-mask-acl)#exit
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/1
Console(config-if)#ip access-group A2 in
Console(config-if)#end
Console#show access-list
IP standard access-list A2:
deny host 171.69.198.102
permit any
Console#
This shows how to create an extended ACL with an egress mask to drop packets
leaving network 171.69.198.0 when the Layer 4 source port is 23.
Console(config)#access-list ip extended A3
Console(config-ext-acl)#deny host 171.69.198.5 any
Console(config-ext-acl)#deny 171.69.198.0 255.255.255.0 any source-port 23
Console(config-ext-acl)#end
Console#show access-list
IP extended access-list A3:
deny host 171.69.198.5 any
deny 171.69.198.0 255.255.255.0 any source-port 23
Console#config
Console(config)#access-list ip mask-precedence out
Console(config-ip-mask-acl)#mask 255.255.255.0 any source-port
Console(config-ip-mask-acl)#exit
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/15
Console(config-if)#ip access-group A3 out
Console(config-if)#end
Console#show access-list
IP extended access-list A3:
deny 171.69.198.0 255.255.255.0 any source-port 23
deny host 171.69.198.5 any
IP egress mask ACL:
mask 255.255.255.0 any source-port
Console#
4-95
4
Command Line Interface
This is a more comprehensive example. It denies any TCP packets in which the
SYN bit is ON, and permits all other packets. It then sets the ingress mask to check
the deny rule first, and finally binds port 1 to this ACL. Note that once the ACL is
bound to an interface (i.e., the ACL is active), the order in which the rules are
displayed is determined by the associated mask.
Switch(config)#access-list ip extended A6
Switch(config-ext-acl)#permit any any
Switch(config-ext-acl)#deny tcp any any control-flag 2 2
Switch(config-ext-acl)#end
Console#show access-list
IP extended access-list A6:
permit any any
deny tcp any any control-flag 2 2
Console#configure
Switch(config)#access-list ip mask-precedence in
Switch(config-ip-mask-acl)#mask protocol any any control-flag 2
Switch(config-ip-mask-acl)#end
Console#sh access-list
IP extended access-list A6:
permit any any
deny tcp any any control-flag 2 2
IP ingress mask ACL:
mask protocol any any control-flag 2
Console#configure
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/1
Console(config-if)#ip access-group A6 in
Console(config-if)#end
Console#show access-list
IP extended access-list A6:
deny tcp any any control-flag 2 2
permit any any
IP ingress mask ACL:
mask protocol any any control-flag 2
Console#
show access-list ip mask-precedence
This command shows the ingress or egress rule masks for IP ACLs.
Syntax
show access-list ip mask-precedence [in | out]
• in – Ingress mask precedence for ingress ACLs.
• out – Egress mask precedence for egress ACLs.
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
Example
Console#show access-list ip mask-precedence
IP ingress mask ACL:
mask host any
mask 255.255.255.0 any
Console#
4-96
Access Control List Commands
4
Related Commands
mask (IP ACL) (4-93)
ip access-group
This command binds a port to an IP ACL. Use the no form to remove the port.
Syntax
[no] ip access-group acl_name {in | out}
• acl_name – Name of the ACL. (Maximum length: 16 characters)
• in – Indicates that this list applies to ingress packets.
• out – Indicates that this list applies to egress packets.
Default Setting
None
Command Mode
Interface Configuration (Ethernet)
Command Usage
• A port can only be bound to one ACL.
• If a port is already bound to an ACL and you bind it to a different ACL, the
switch will replace the old binding with the new one.
• You must configure a mask for an ACL rule before you can bind it to a port.
Example
Console(config)#int eth 1/25
Console(config-if)#ip access-group david in
Console(config-if)#
Related Commands
show ip access-list (4-92)
show ip access-group
This command shows the ports assigned to IP ACLs.
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
Example
Console#show ip access-group
Interface ethernet 1/25
IP access-list david in
Console#
4-97
4
Command Line Interface
Related Commands
ip access-group (4-97)
map access-list ip
This command sets the output queue for packets matching an ACL rule. The
specified CoS value is only used to map the matching packet to an output queue; it
is not written to the packet itself. Use the no form to remove the CoS mapping.
Syntax
[no] map access-list ip acl_name cos cos-value
• acl_name – Name of the ACL. (Maximum length: 16 characters)
• cos-value – CoS value. (Range: 0-7)
Default Setting
None
Command Mode
Interface Configuration (Ethernet)
Command Usage
• You must configure an ACL mask before you can map CoS values to the rule.
• A packet matching a rule within the specified ACL is mapped to one of the
output queues as shown in the following table. For information on mapping the
CoS values to output queues, see queue cos-map on page 4-194.
Table 4-34. Mapping CoS Values to IP ACLs
Priority
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
Queue
1
2
0
3
4
5
6
7
Example
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/25
Console(config-if)#map access-list ip david cos 0
Console(config-if)#
Related Commands
queue cos-map (4-194)
show map access-list ip (4-99)
4-98
Access Control List Commands
4
show map access-list ip
This command shows the CoS value mapped to an IP ACL for the current interface.
(The CoS value determines the output queue for packets matching an ACL rule.)
Syntax
show map access-list ip [interface]
interface
• ethernet unit/port
- unit - This is device 1.
- port - Port number.
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
Example
Console#show map access-list ip
Eth 1/25
access-list ip david cos 0
Console#
Related Commands
map access-list ip (4-98)
match access-list ip
This command changes the IEEE 802.1p priority, IP Precedence, or DSCP Priority
of a frame matching the defined ACL rule. (This feature is commonly referred to as
ACL packet marking.) Use the no form to remove the ACL marker.
Syntax
match access-list ip acl_name {[set priority priority]
[set precedence precedence_value | set dscp dscp_value]}
no match access-list ip acl_name
• acl_name – Name of the ACL. (Maximum length: 16 characters)
• priority – Class of Service value in the IEEE 802.1p priority tag.
(Range: 0-7; 7 is the highest priority)
• precedence_value – IP Precedence value. (Range: 0-7)
• dscp_value – Differentiated Services Code Point value. (Range: 0-63)
Default Setting
None
Command Mode
Interface Configuration (Ethernet)
4-99
4
Command Line Interface
Command Usage
• You must configure an ACL mask before you can change frame priorities
based on an ACL rule.
• Traffic priorities may be included in the IEEE 802.1p priority tag. This tag is
also incorporated as part of the overall IEEE 802.1Q VLAN tag. To specify this
priority, use the set priority keywords.
• The IP frame header also includes priority bits in the Type of Service (ToS)
octet. The Type of Service octet may contain three bits for IP Precedence or
six bits for Differentiated Services Code Point (DSCP) service. To specify the
IP precedence priority, use the set tos keywords. To specify the DSCP
priority, use the set dscp keywords. Note that the IP frame header can include
either the IP Precedence or DSCP priority type.
• The precedence for priority mapping by this switch is IP Precedence or DSCP
Priority, and then 802.1p priority.
Example
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/12
Console(config-if)#match access-list ip bill set dscp 0
Console(config-if)#
Related Commands
show marking (4-100)
show marking
This command displays the current configuration for packet marking.
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
Example
Console#show marking
Interface ethernet 1/12
match access-list IP bill set DSCP 0
match access-list MAC a set priority 0
Console#
Related Commands
match access-list ip (4-99)
4-100
Access Control List Commands
4
MAC ACLs
Table 4-35. MAC ACL Commands
Command
Function
Mode
Page
access-list mac
Creates a MAC ACL and enters configuration mode
GC
4-101
permit, deny
Filters packets matching a specified source and
destination address, packet format, and Ethernet type
MAC-ACL
4-102
show mac access-list
Displays the rules for configured MAC ACLs
PE
4-103
access-list mac
mask-precedence
Changes to the mode for configuring access control masks GC
4-104
mask
Sets a precedence mask for the ACL rules
MAC-Mask
4-105
show access-list mac
mask-precedence
Shows the ingress or egress rule masks for MAC ACLs
PE
4-107
mac access-group
Adds a port to a MAC ACL
IC
4-107
show mac access-group
Shows port assignments for MAC ACLs
PE
4-108
map access-list mac
Sets the CoS value and corresponding output queue for
packets matching an ACL rule
IC
4-108
show map access-list mac Shows CoS value mapped to an access list for an interface PE
4-109
match access-list mac
Changes the 802.1p priority the priority of a frame
IC
matching the defined rule (i.e., also called packet marking)
4-110
show marking
Displays the current configuration for packet marking
4-100
PE
access-list mac
This command adds a MAC access list and enters MAC ACL configuration mode.
Use the no form to remove the specified ACL.
Syntax
[no] access-list mac acl_name
acl_name – Name of the ACL. (Maximum length: 16 characters)
Default Setting
None
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Command Usage
• An egress ACL must contain all deny rules.
• When you create a new ACL or enter configuration mode for an existing ACL,
use the permit or deny command to add new rules to the bottom of the list.
To create an ACL, you must add at least one rule to the list.
• To remove a rule, use the no permit or no deny command followed by the
exact text of a previously configured rule.
• An ACL can contain up to 32 rules.
4-101
4
Command Line Interface
Example
Console(config)#access-list mac jerry
Console(config-mac-acl)#
Related Commands
permit, deny 4-102
mac access-group (4-107)
show mac access-list (4-103)
permit, deny (MAC ACL)
This command adds a rule to a MAC ACL. The rule filters packets matching a
specified MAC source or destination address (i.e., physical layer address), or
Ethernet protocol type. Use the no form to remove a rule.
Syntax
[no] {permit | deny}
{any | host source | source address-bitmask}
{any | host destination | destination address-bitmask}
[vid vid vid-bitmask] [ethertype protocol [protocol-bitmask]]
Note:- The default is for Ethernet II packets.
[no] {permit | deny} tagged-eth2
{any | host source | source address-bitmask}
{any | host destination | destination address-bitmask}
[vid vid vid-bitmask] [ethertype protocol [protocol-bitmask]]
[no] {permit | deny} untagged-eth2
{any | host source | source address-bitmask}
{any | host destination | destination address-bitmask}
[ethertype protocol [protocol-bitmask]]
[no] {permit | deny} tagged-802.3
{any | host source | source address-bitmask}
{any | host destination | destination address-bitmask}
[vid vid vid-bitmask]
[no] {permit | deny} untagged-802.3
{any | host source | source address-bitmask}
{any | host destination | destination address-bitmask}
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
4-102
tagged-eth2 – Tagged Ethernet II packets.
untagged-eth2 – Untagged Ethernet II packets.
tagged-802.3 – Tagged Ethernet 802.3 packets.
untagged-802.3 – Untagged Ethernet 802.3 packets.
any – Any MAC source or destination address.
host – A specific MAC address.
source – Source MAC address.
4
Access Control List Commands
•
•
•
•
•
•
destination – Destination MAC address range with bitmask.
address-bitmask* – Bitmask for MAC address (in hexidecimal format).
vid – VLAN ID. (Range: 1-4095)
vid-bitmask* – VLAN bitmask. (Range: 1-4095)
protocol – A specific Ethernet protocol number. (Range: 600-fff hex.)
protocol-bitmask* – Protocol bitmask. (Range: 600-fff hex.)
* For all bitmasks, “1” means care and “0” means ignore.
Default Setting
None
Command Mode
MAC ACL
Command Usage
• New rules are added to the end of the list.
• The ethertype option can only be used to filter Ethernet II formatted packets.
• A detailed listing of Ethernet protocol types can be found in RFC 1060. A few
of the more common types include the following:
- 0800 - IP
- 0806 - ARP
- 8137 - IPX
Example
This rule permits packets from any source MAC address to the destination address
00-e0-29-94-34-de where the Ethernet type is 0800.
Console(config-mac-acl)#permit any host 00-e0-29-94-34-de ethertype 0800
Console(config-mac-acl)#
Related Commands
access-list mac (4-101)
show mac access-list
This command displays the rules for configured MAC ACLs.
Syntax
show mac access-list [acl_name]
acl_name – Name of the ACL. (Maximum length: 16 characters)
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
4-103
4
Command Line Interface
Example
Console#show mac access-list
MAC access-list jerry:
permit any 00-e0-29-94-34-de ethertype 0800
Console#
Related Commands
permit, deny 4-102
mac access-group (4-107)
access-list mac mask-precedence
This command changes to MAC Mask mode used to configure access control
masks. Use the no form to delete the mask table.
Syntax
[no] access-list ip mask-precedence {in | out}
• in – Ingress mask for ingress ACLs.
• out – Egress mask for egress ACLs.
Default Setting
Default system mask: Filter inbound packets according to specified MAC ACLs.
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Command Usage
• You must configure a mask for an ACL rule before you can bind it to a port or
set the queue or frame priorities associated with the rule.
• A mask can only be used by all ingress ACLs or all egress ACLs.
• The precedence of the ACL rules applied to a packet is not determined by
order of the rules, but instead by the order of the masks; i.e., the first mask
that matches a rule will determine the rule that is applied to a packet.
Example
Console(config)#access-list mac mask-precedence in
Console(config-mac-mask-acl)#
Related Commands
mask (MAC ACL) (4-105)
mac access-group (4-107)
4-104
Access Control List Commands
4
mask (MAC ACL)
This command defines a mask for MAC ACLs. This mask defines the fields to check
in the packet header. Use the no form to remove a mask.
Syntax
[no] mask [pktformat]
{any | host | source-bitmask} {any | host | destination-bitmask}
[vid [vid-bitmask]] [ethertype [ethertype-bitmask]]
• pktformat – Check the packet format field. (If this keyword must be used in
the mask, the packet format must be specified in ACL rule to match.)
• any – Any address will be matched.
• host – The address must be for a single node.
• source-bitmask – Source address of rule must match this bitmask.
• destination-bitmask – Destination address of rule must match this bitmask.
• vid – Check the VLAN ID field.
• vid-bitmask – VLAN ID of rule must match this bitmask.
• ethertype – Check the Ethernet type field.
• ethertype-bitmask – Ethernet type of rule must match this bitmask.
Default Setting
None
Command Mode
MAC Mask
Command Usage
• Up to seven masks can be assigned to an ingress or egress ACL.
• Packets crossing a port are checked against all the rules in the ACL until a
match is found. The order in which these packets are checked is determined
by the mask, and not the order in which the ACL rules were entered.
• First create the required ACLs and inbound or outbound masks before
mapping an ACL to an interface.
4-105
4
Command Line Interface
Example
This example shows how to create an Ingress MAC ACL and bind it to a port. You
can then see that the order of the rules have been changed by the mask.
Console(config)#access-list mac M4
Console(config-mac-acl)#permit any any
Console(config-mac-acl)#deny tagged-eth2 00-11-11-11-11-11
ff-ff-ff-ff-ff-ff any vid 3
Console(config-mac-acl)#end
Console#show access-list
MAC access-list M4:
permit any any
deny tagged-eth2 host 00-11-11-11-11-11 any vid 3
Console(config)#access-list mac mask-precedence in
Console(config-mac-mask-acl)#mask pktformat ff-ff-ff-ff-ff-ff any vid
Console(config-mac-mask-acl)#exit
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/12
Console(config-if)#mac access-group M4 in
Console(config-if)#end
Console#show access-list
MAC access-list M4:
deny tagged-eth2 host 00-11-11-11-11-11 any vid 3
permit any any
MAC ingress mask ACL:
mask pktformat host any vid
Console#
This example creates an Egress MAC ACL.
Console(config)#access-list mac M5
Console(config-mac-acl)#deny tagged-802.3 host 00-11-11-11-11-11 any
Console(config-mac-acl)#deny tagged-eth2 00-11-11-11-11-11
ff-ff-ff-ff-ff-ff any vid 3 ethertype 0806
Console(config-mac-acl)#end
Console#show access-list
MAC access-list M5:
deny tagged-802.3 host 00-11-11-11-11-11 any
deny tagged-eth2 host 00-11-11-11-11-11 any vid 3 ethertype 0806
Console#configure
Console(config)#access-list mac mask-precedence out
Console(config-mac-mask-acl)#mask pktformat ff-ff-ff-ff-ff-ff any vid
Console(config-mac-mask-acl)#exit
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/5
Console(config-if)#mac access-group M5 out
Console(config-if)#end
Console#show access-list
MAC access-list M5:
deny tagged-eth2 host 00-11-11-11-11-11 any vid 3 ethertype 0806
deny tagged-802.3 host 00-11-11-11-11-11 any
MAC ingress mask ACL:
mask pktformat host any vid ethertype
Console#
4-106
4
Access Control List Commands
show access-list mac mask-precedence
This command shows the ingress or egress rule masks for MAC ACLs.
Syntax
show access-list mac mask-precedence [in | out]
• in – Ingress mask precedence for ingress ACLs.
• out – Egress mask precedence for egress ACLs.
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
Example
Console#show access-list mac mask-precedence
MAC egress mask ACL:
mask pktformat host any vid ethertype
Console#
Related Commands
mask (MAC ACL) (4-105)
mac access-group
This command binds a port to a MAC ACL. Use the no form to remove the port.
Syntax
mac access-group acl_name {in | out}
• acl_name – Name of the ACL. (Maximum length: 16 characters)
• in – Indicates that this list applies to ingress packets.
• out – Indicates that this list applies to egress packets.
Default Setting
None
Command Mode
Interface Configuration (Ethernet)
Command Usage
• A port can only be bound to one ACL.
• If a port is already bound to an ACL and you bind it to a different ACL, the
switch will replace the old binding with the new one.
• You must configure a mask for an ACL rule before you can bind it to a port.
Example
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/25
Console(config-if)#mac access-group jerry in
Console(config-if)#
4-107
4
Command Line Interface
Related Commands
show mac access-list (4-103)
show mac access-group
This command shows the ports assigned to MAC ACLs.
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
Example
Console#show mac access-group
Interface ethernet 1/5
MAC access-list M5 out
Console#
Related Commands
mac access-group (4-107)
map access-list mac
This command sets the output queue for packets matching an ACL rule. The
specified CoS value is only used to map the matching packet to an output queue; it
is not written to the packet itself. Use the no form to remove the CoS mapping.
Syntax
[no] map access-list mac acl_name cos cos-value
• acl_name – Name of the ACL. (Maximum length: 16 characters)
• cos-value – CoS value. (Range: 0-7)
Default Setting
None
Command Mode
Interface Configuration (Ethernet)
Command Usage
• You must configure an ACL mask before you can map CoS values to the rule.
• A packet matching a rule within the specified ACL is mapped to one of the
output queues as shown below.
Table 4-36. Mapping CoS Values to MAC ACLs
4-108
Priority
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
Queue
1
2
0
3
4
5
6
7
4
Access Control List Commands
Example
Console(config)#int eth 1/5
Console(config-if)#map access-list mac M5 cos 0
Console(config-if)#
Related Commands
queue cos-map (4-194)
show map access-list mac (4-109)
show map access-list mac
This command shows the CoS value mapped to a MAC ACL for the current
interface. (The CoS value determines the output queue for packets matching an
ACL rule.)
Syntax
show map access-list mac [interface]
interface
• ethernet unit/port
- unit - This is device 1.
- port - Port number.
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
Example
Console#show map access-list mac
Access-list to COS of Eth 1/5
Access-list M5 cos 0
Console#
Related Commands
map access-list mac (4-108)
4-109
4
Command Line Interface
match access-list mac
This command changes the IEEE 802.1p priority of a Layer 2 frame matching the
defined ACL rule. (This feature is commonly referred to as ACL packet marking.)
Use the no form to remove the ACL marker.
Syntax
match access-list mac acl_name set priority priority
no match access-list mac acl_name
• acl_name – Name of the ACL. (Maximum length: 16 characters)
• priority – Class of Service value in the IEEE 802.1p priority tag.
(Range: 0-7; 7 is the highest priority)
Default Setting
None
Command Mode
Interface Configuration (Ethernet)
Command Usage
You must configure an ACL mask before you can change frame priorities
based on an ACL rule.
Example
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/12
Console(config-if)#match access-list mac jerry set priority 0
Console(config-if)#
Related Commands
show marking (4-100)
4-110
4
Access Control List Commands
ACL Information
Table 4-37. ACL Information Commands
Function
Mode
Page
show access-list
Show all ACLs and associated rules
PE
4-111
show access-group
Shows the ACLs assigned to each port
PE
4-111
Command
show access-list
This command shows all ACLs and associated rules, as well as all the user-defined
masks.
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
Command Usage
Once the ACL is bound to an interface (i.e., the ACL is active), the order in
which the rules are displayed is determined by the associated mask.
Example
Console#show access-list
IP standard access-list david:
permit host 10.1.1.21
permit 168.92.0.0 0.0.15.255
IP extended access-list bob:
permit 10.7.1.1 0.0.0.255 any
permit 192.168.1.0 255.255.255.0 any destination-port 80 80
permit 192.168.1.0 255.255.255.0 any protocol tcp control-code 2 2
MAC access-list jerry:
permit any host 00-30-29-94-34-de ethertype 800 800
IP extended access-list A6:
deny tcp any any control-flag 2 2
permit any any
IP ingress mask ACL:
mask protocol any any control-flag 2
Console#
show access-group
This command shows the port assignments of ACLs.
Command Mode
Privileged Executive
Example
Console#show access-group
Interface ethernet 1/25
IP standard access-list david
MAC access-list jerry
Console#
4-111
4
Command Line Interface
SNMP Commands
Controls access to this switch from management stations using the Simple Network
Management Protocol (SNMP), as well as the error types sent to trap managers.
Table 4-38. SNMP Commands
Command
Function
Mode
snmp-server community
Sets up the community access string to permit access to
SNMP commands
GC
Page
snmp-server contact
Sets the system contact string
GC
4-113
snmp-server location
Sets the system location string
GC
4-113
snmp-server host
Specifies the recipient of an SNMP notification operation
4-112
GC
4-114
snmp-server enable traps Enables the device to send SNMP traps (i.e., SNMP
notifications)
GC
4-115
show snmp
NE, PE
4-115
Displays the status of SNMP communications
snmp-server community
This command defines the community access string for the Simple Network
Management Protocol. Use the no form to remove the specified community string.
Syntax
snmp-server community string [ro|rw]
no snmp-server community string
• string - Community string that acts like a password and permits access to
the SNMP protocol. (Maximum length: 32 characters, case sensitive;
Maximum number of strings: 5)
• ro - Specifies read-only access. Authorized management stations are only
able to retrieve MIB objects.
• rw - Specifies read/write access. Authorized management stations are able
to both retrieve and modify MIB objects.
Default Setting
• public - Read-only access. Authorized management stations are only able to
retrieve MIB objects.
• private - Read/write access. Authorized management stations are able to both
retrieve and modify MIB objects.
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Command Usage
The first snmp-server community command you enter enables SNMP
(SNMPv1). The no snmp-server community command disables SNMP.
4-112
SNMP Commands
4
Example
Console(config)#snmp-server community alpha rw
Console(config)#
snmp-server contact
This command sets the system contact string. Use the no form to remove the
system contact information.
Syntax
snmp-server contact string
no snmp-server contact
string - String that describes the system contact information.
(Maximum length: 255 characters)
Default Setting
None
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Example
Console(config)#snmp-server contact Paul
Console(config)#
Related Commands
snmp-server location (4-113)
snmp-server location
This command sets the system location string. Use the no form to remove the
location string.
Syntax
snmp-server location text
no snmp-server location
text - String that describes the system location.
(Maximum length: 255 characters)
Default Setting
None
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Example
Console(config)#snmp-server location WC-19
Console(config)#
4-113
4
Command Line Interface
Related Commands
snmp-server contact (4-113)
snmp-server host
This command specifies the recipient of a Simple Network Management Protocol
notification operation. Use the no form to remove the specified host.
Syntax
snmp-server host host-addr community-string [version {1 | 2c}]
no snmp-server host host-addr
• host-addr - Internet address of the host (the targeted recipient).
(Maximum host addresses: 5 trap destination IP address entries)
• community-string - Password-like community string sent with the
notification operation. Although you can set this string using the
snmp-server host command by itself, we recommend that you define this
string using the snmp-server community command prior to using the
snmp-server host command. (Maximum length: 32 characters)
• version - Specifies whether to send notifications as SNMP v1 or v2c traps.
Default Setting
Host Address: None
SNMP Version: 1
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Command Usage
• If you do not enter an snmp-server host command, no notifications are sent.
In order to configure the switch to send SNMP notifications, you must enter at
least one snmp-server host command. In order to enable multiple hosts, you
must issue a separate snmp-server host command for each host.
• The snmp-server host command is used in conjunction with the
snmp-server enable traps command. Use the snmp-server enable traps
command to specify which SNMP notifications are sent globally. For a host to
receive notifications, at least one snmp-server enable traps command and
the snmp-server host command for that host must be enabled.
• Some notification types cannot be controlled with the snmp-server enable
traps command. For example, some notification types are always enabled.
• The switch can send SNMP version 1 or version 2c notifications to a host IP
address, depending on the SNMP version that the management station
supports. If the snmp-server host command does not specify the SNMP
version, the default is to send SNMP version 1 notifications.
Example
Console(config)#snmp-server host 10.1.19.23 batman
Console(config)#
4-114
SNMP Commands
4
Related Commands
snmp-server enable traps (4-115)
snmp-server enable traps
This command enables this device to send Simple Network Management Protocol
traps (SNMP notifications). Use the no form to disable SNMP notifications.
Syntax
[no] snmp-server enable traps [authentication | link-up-down]
• authentication - Keyword to issue authentication failure traps.
• link-up-down - Keyword to issue link-up or link-down traps.
Default Setting
Issue authentication and link-up-down traps.
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Command Usage
• If you do not enter an snmp-server enable traps command, no notifications
controlled by this command are sent. In order to configure this device to send
SNMP notifications, you must enter at least one snmp-server enable traps
command. If you enter the command with no keywords, both authentication
and link-up-down notifications are enabled. If you enter the command with a
keyword, only the notification type related to that keyword is enabled.
• The snmp-server enable traps command is used in conjunction with the
snmp-server host command. Use the snmp-server host command to
specify which host or hosts receive SNMP notifications. In order to send
notifications, you must configure at least one snmp-server host command.
Example
Console(config)#snmp-server enable traps link-up-down
Console(config)#
Related Commands
snmp-server host (4-114)
show snmp
This command checks the status of SNMP communications.
Default Setting
None
Command Mode
Normal Exec, Privileged Exec
4-115
4
Command Line Interface
Command Usage
This command provides information on the community access strings, counter
information for SNMP input and output protocol data units, and whether or not
SNMP logging has been enabled with the snmp-server enable traps
command.
Example
Console#show snmp
System Contact: Paul
System Location: WC-19
SNMP traps:
Authentication: enable
Link-up-down: enable
SNMP communities:
1. alpha, and the privilege is read-write
2. private, and the privilege is read-write
3. public, and the privilege is read-only
0 SNMP packets input
0 Bad SNMP version errors
0 Unknown community name
0 Illegal operation for community name supplied
0 Encoding errors
0 Number of requested variables
0 Number of altered variables
0 Get-request PDUs
0 Get-next PDUs
0 Set-request PDUs
0 SNMP packets output
0 Too big errors
0 No such name errors
0 Bad values errors
0 General errors
0 Response PDUs
0 Trap PDUs
SNMP logging: enabled
Logging to 10.1.19.23 batman version 1
Console#
4-116
DNS Commands
4
DNS Commands
These commands are used to configure Domain Naming System (DNS) services.
You can manually configure entries in the DNS domain name to IP address mapping
table, configure default domain names, or specify one or more name servers to use
for domain name to address translation.
Note that domain name services will not be enabled until at least one name server is
specified with the ip name-server command and domain lookup is enabled with the
ip domain-lookup command.
Table 4-39. DNS Commands
Command
Function
Mode
ip host
Creates a static host name-to-address mapping
GC
Page
clear host
Deletes entries from the host name-to-address table
PE
4-118
ip domain-name
Defines a default domain name for incomplete host names
GC
4-118
4-117
ip domain-list
Defines a list of default domain names for incomplete host names GC
4-119
ip name-server
Specifies the address of one or more name servers to use for host GC
name-to-address translation
4-120
ip domain-lookup
Enables DNS-based host name-to-address translation
GC
4-121
show hosts
Displays the static host name-to-address mapping table
PE
4-122
show dns
Displays the configuration for DNS services
PE
4-123
show dns cache
Displays entries in the DNS cache
PE
4-123
clear dns cache
Clears all entries from the DNS cache
PE
4-124
ip host
This command creates a static entry in the DNS table that maps a host name to an
IP address. Use the no form to remove an entry.
Syntax
[no] ip host name address1 [address2 … address8]
• name - Name of the host. (Range: 1-64 characters)
• address1 - Corresponding IP address.
• address2 … address8 - Additional corresponding IP addresses.
Default Setting
No static entries
Command Mode
Global Configuration
4-117
4
Command Line Interface
Command Usage
Servers or other network devices may support one or more connections via
multiple IP addresses. If more than one IP address is associated with a host
name using this command, a DNS client can try each address in succession,
until it establishes a connection with the target device.
Example
This example maps two address to a host name.
Console(config)#ip host rd5 192.168.1.55 10.1.0.55
Console(config)#end
Console#show hosts
Hostname
rd5
Inet address
192.168.1.55 10.1.0.55
Alias
Console#
clear host
This command deletes entries from the DNS table.
Syntax
clear host {name | *}
• name - Name of the host. (Range: 1-64 characters)
• * - Removes all entries.
Default Setting
None
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
Example
This example clears all static entries from the DNS table.
Console#clear host *
Console#
ip domain-name
This command defines the default domain name appended to incomplete host
names (i.e., host names passed from a client that are not formatted with dotted
notation). Use the no form to remove the current domain name.
Syntax
ip domain-name name
no ip domain-name
name - Name of the host. Do not include the initial dot that separates the
host name from the domain name. (Range: 1-64 characters)
4-118
DNS Commands
4
Default Setting
None
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Example
Console(config)#ip domain-name sample.com
Console(config)#end
Console#show dns
Domain Lookup Status:
DNS disabled
Default Domain Name:
sample.com
Domain Name List:
Name Server List:
Console#
Related Commands
ip domain-list (4-119)
ip name-server (4-120)
ip domain-lookup (4-121)
ip domain-list
This command defines a list of domain names that can be appended to incomplete
host names (i.e., host names passed from a client that are not formatted with dotted
notation). Use the no form to remove a name from this list.
Syntax
[no] ip domain-list name
name - Name of the host. Do not include the initial dot that separates the
host name from the domain name. (Range: 1-64 characters)
Default Setting
None
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Command Usage
• Domain names are added to the end of the list one at a time.
• When an incomplete host name is received by the DNS server on this switch,
it will work through the domain list, appending each domain name in the list to
the host name, and checking with the specified name servers for a match.
• If there is no domain list, the domain name specified with the ip domain-name
command is used. If there is a domain list, the default domain name is not used.
4-119
4
Command Line Interface
Example
This example adds two domain names to the current list and then displays the list.
Console(config)#ip domain-list sample.com.jp
Console(config)#ip domain-list sample.com.uk
Console(config)#end
Console#show dns
Domain Lookup Status:
DNS disabled
Default Domain Name:
sample.com
Domain Name List:
sample.com.jp
sample.com.uk
Name Server List:
Console#
Related Commands
ip domain-name (4-118)
ip name-server
This command specifies the address of one or more domain name servers to use for
name-to-address resolution. Use the no form to remove a name server from this list.
Syntax
[no] ip name-server server-address1 [server-address2 … server-address6]
• server-address1 - IP address of domain-name server.
• server-address2 … server-address6 - IP address of additional
domain-name servers.
Default Setting
None
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Command Usage
The listed name servers are queried in the specified sequence until a
response is received, or the end of the list is reached with no response.
4-120
4
DNS Commands
Example
This example adds two domain-name servers to the list and then displays the list.
Console(config)#ip name-server 192.168.1.55 10.1.0.55
Console(config)#end
Console#show dns
Domain Lookup Status:
DNS disabled
Default Domain Name:
sample.com
Domain Name List:
sample.com.jp
sample.com.uk
Name Server List:
192.168.1.55
10.1.0.55
Console#
Related Commands
ip domain-name (4-118)
ip domain-lookup (4-121)
ip domain-lookup
This command enables DNS host name-to-address translation. Use the no form to
disable DNS.
Syntax
[no] ip domain-lookup
Default Setting
Disabled
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Command Usage
• At least one name server must be specified before you can enable DNS.
• If all name servers are deleted, DNS will automatically be disabled.
4-121
4
Command Line Interface
Example
This example enables DNS and then displays the configuration.
Console(config)#ip domain-lookup
Console(config)#end
Console#show dns
Domain Lookup Status:
DNS enabled
Default Domain Name:
sample.com
Domain Name List:
sample.com.jp
sample.com.uk
Name Server List:
192.168.1.55
10.1.0.55
Console#
Related Commands
ip domain-name (4-118)
ip name-server (4-120)
show hosts
This command displays the static host name-to-address mapping table.
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
Example
Note that a host name will be displayed as an alias if it is mapped to the same
address(es) as a previously configured entry.
Console#show hosts
Hostname
rd5
Inet address
10.1.0.55 192.168.1.55
Alias
1.rd6
Console#
4-122
4
DNS Commands
show dns
This command displays the configuration of the DNS server.
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
Example
Console#show dns
Domain Lookup Status:
DNS enabled
Default Domain Name:
sample.com
Domain Name List:
sample.com.jp
sample.com.uk
Name Server List:
192.168.1.55
10.1.0.55
Console#
show dns cache
This command displays entries in the DNS cache.
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
Example
Console#show dns cache
NO
FLAG
TYPE
0
4
CNAME
1
4
CNAME
2
4
CNAME
3
4
CNAME
4
4
CNAME
5
4
CNAME
6
4
CNAME
7
4
CNAME
8
4
ALIAS
Console#
IP
10.2.44.96
10.2.44.3
66.218.71.84
66.218.71.83
66.218.71.81
66.218.71.80
66.218.71.89
66.218.71.86
POINTER TO:7
TTL
893
898
298
298
298
298
298
298
298
DOMAIN
pttch_pc.accton.com.tw
ahten.accton.com.tw
www.yahoo.akadns.net
www.yahoo.akadns.net
www.yahoo.akadns.net
www.yahoo.akadns.net
www.yahoo.akadns.net
www.yahoo.akadns.net
www.yahoo.com
Table 4-40. show dns cache - display description
Field
Description
NO
The entry number for each resource record.
FLAG
The flag is always “4” indicating a cache entry and therefore unreliable.
TYPE
This field includes CNAME which specifies the canonical or primary name for the
owner, and ALIAS which specifies multiple domain names which are mapped to
the same IP address as an existing entry.
IP
The IP address associated with this record.
TTL
The time to live reported by the name server.
DOMAIN
The domain name associated with this record.
4-123
4
Command Line Interface
clear dns cache
This command clears all entries in the DNS cache.
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
Example
Console#clear dns cache
Console#show dns cache
NO
FLAG
TYPE
IP
Console#
4-124
TTL
DOMAIN
Interface Commands
4
Interface Commands
These commands are used to display or set communication parameters for an
Ethernet port, aggregated link, or VLAN.
Table 4-41. Interface Commands
Command
Function
interface
Configures an interface type and enters interface configuration GC
mode
Mode
Page
4-125
description
Adds a description to an interface configuration
IC
4-126
speed-duplex
Configures the speed and duplex operation of a given interface IC
when autonegotiation is disabled
4-126
negotiation
Enables autonegotiation of a given interface
IC
4-127
capabilities
Advertises the capabilities of a given interface for use in
autonegotiation
IC
4-128
flowcontrol
Enables flow control on a given interface
IC
4-129
combo-forced-mode
Force port type selected for combination ports
IC
4-130
shutdown
Disables an interface
IC
4-130
switchport broadcast
packet-rate
Configures the broadcast storm control threshold
IC
4-131
clear counters
Clears statistics on an interface
PE
4-132
show interfaces status Displays status for the specified interface
NE, PE
4-133
show interfaces
counters
Displays statistics for the specified interfaces
NE, PE
4-134
show interfaces
switchport
Displays the administrative and operational status of an
interface
NE, PE
4-135
interface
This command configures an interface type and enter interface configuration mode.
Use the no form to remove a trunk.
Syntax
interface interface
no interface port-channel channel-id
interface
• ethernet unit/port
- unit - This is device 1.
- port - Port number.
• port-channel channel-id (Range: 1-6)
• vlan vlan-id (Range: 1-4094)
Default Setting
None
4-125
4
Command Line Interface
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Example
To specify port 24, enter the following command:
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/24
Console(config-if)#
description
This command adds a description to an interface. Use the no form to remove the
description.
Syntax
description string
no description
string - Comment or a description to help you remember what is attached
to this interface. (Range: 1-64 characters)
Default Setting
None
Command Mode
Interface Configuration (Ethernet, Port Channel)
Example
The following example adds a description to port 24.
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/24
Console(config-if)#description RD-SW#3
Console(config-if)#
speed-duplex
This command configures the speed and duplex mode of a given interface when
autonegotiation is disabled. Use the no form to restore the default.
Syntax
speed-duplex {1000full | 100full | 100half | 10full | 10half}
no speed-duplex
•
•
•
•
•
4-126
1000full - Forces 1000 Mbps full-duplex operation
100full - Forces 100 Mbps full-duplex operation
100half - Forces 100 Mbps half-duplex operation
10full - Forces 10 Mbps full-duplex operation
10half - Forces 10 Mbps half-duplex operation
4
Interface Commands
Default Setting
• Auto-negotiation is enabled by default.
• When auto-negotiation is disabled, the default speed-duplex setting is 100half
for 100BASE-TX ports and 1000full for Gigabit Ethernet ports.
Command Mode
Interface Configuration (Ethernet, Port Channel)
Command Usage
• To force operation to the speed and duplex mode specified in a speed-duplex
command, use the no negotiation command to disable auto-negotiation on
the selected interface.
• When using the negotiation command to enable auto-negotiation, the
optimal settings will be determined by the capabilities command. To set the
speed/duplex mode under auto-negotiation, the required mode must be
specified in the capabilities list for an interface.
Example
The following example configures port 5 to 100 Mbps, half-duplex operation.
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/5
Console(config-if)#speed-duplex 100half
Console(config-if)#no negotiation
Console(config-if)#
Related Commands
negotiation (4-127)
capabilities (4-128)
negotiation
This command enables autonegotiation for a given interface. Use the no form to
disable autonegotiation.
Syntax
[no] negotiation
Default Setting
Enabled
Command Mode
Interface Configuration (Ethernet, Port Channel)
Command Usage
• When auto-negotiation is enabled the switch will negotiate the best settings
for a link based on the capabilities command. When auto-negotiation is
disabled, you must manually specify the link attributes with the speed-duplex
and flowcontrol commands.
4-127
4
Command Line Interface
• If autonegotiation is disabled, auto-MDI/MDI-X pin signal configuration will
also be disabled for the RJ-45 ports.
Example
The following example configures port 11 to use autonegotiation.
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/11
Console(config-if)#negotiation
Console(config-if)#
Related Commands
capabilities (4-128)
speed-duplex (4-126)
capabilities
This command advertises the port capabilities of a given interface during
autonegotiation. Use the no form with parameters to remove an advertised
capability, or the no form without parameters to restore the default values.
Syntax
[no] capabilities {1000full | 100full | 100half | 10full | 10half | flowcontrol |
symmetric}
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
1000full - Supports 1000 Mbps full-duplex operation
100full - Supports 100 Mbps full-duplex operation
100half - Supports 100 Mbps half-duplex operation
10full - Supports 10 Mbps full-duplex operation
10half - Supports 10 Mbps half-duplex operation
flowcontrol - Supports flow control
symmetric (Gigabit only) - When specified, the port transmits and receives
pause frames; when not specified, the port will auto-negotiate to determine
the sender and receiver for asymmetric pause frames. (The current switch
ASIC only supports symmetric pause frames.)
Default Setting
• 100BASE-TX: 10half, 10full, 100half, 100full
• 1000BASE-T: 10half, 10full, 100half, 100full, 1000full
• 1000BASE-SX/LX/LH: 1000full
Command Mode
Interface Configuration (Ethernet, Port Channel)
Command Usage
When auto-negotiation is enabled with the negotiation command, the switch
will negotiate the best settings for a link based on the capabilites command.
When auto-negotiation is disabled, you must manually specify the link
attributes with the speed-duplex and flowcontrol commands.
4-128
Interface Commands
4
Example
The following example configures Ethernet port 5 capabilities to 100half, 100full and
flow control.
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/5
Console(config-if)#capabilities 100half
Console(config-if)#capabilities 100full
Console(config-if)#capabilities flowcontrol
Console(config-if)#
Related Commands
negotiation (4-127)
speed-duplex (4-126)
flowcontrol (4-129)
flowcontrol
This command enables flow control. Use the no form to disable flow control.
Syntax
[no] flowcontrol
Default Setting
Flow control enabled
Command Mode
Interface Configuration (Ethernet, Port Channel)
Command Usage
• Flow control can eliminate frame loss by “blocking” traffic from end stations or
segments connected directly to the switch when its buffers fill. When enabled,
back pressure is used for half-duplex operation and IEEE 802.3x for
full-duplex operation.
• To force flow control on or off (with the flowcontrol or no flowcontrol
command), use the no negotiation command to disable auto-negotiation on
the selected interface.
• When using the negotiation command to enable auto-negotiation, the
optimal settings will be determined by the capabilities command. To enable
flow control under auto-negotiation, “flowcontrol” must be included in the
capabilities list for any port
• Avoid using flow control on a port connected to a hub unless it is actually
required to solve a problem. Otherwise back pressure jamming signals may
degrade overall performance for the segment attached to the hub.
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Command Line Interface
Example
The following example enables flow control on port 5.
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/5
Console(config-if)#flowcontrol
Console(config-if)#no negotiation
Console(config-if)#
Related Commands
negotiation (4-127)
capabilities (flowcontrol, symmetric) (4-128)
combo-forced-mode
This command forces the port type selected for combination ports 21-24/45-48. Use
the no form to restore the default mode.
Syntax
combo-forced-mode mode
no combo-forced-mode
• mode
- copper-forced - Always uses the built-in RJ-45 port.
- copper-preferred-auto - Uses the built-in RJ-45 port if both combination
types are functioning and the RJ-45 port has a valid link.
- sfp-forced - Always uses the SFP port (even if module not installed).
- sfp-preferred-auto - Uses SFP port if both combination types are
functioning and the SFP port has a valid link.
Default Setting
sfp-preferred-auto
Command Mode
Interface Configuration (Ethernet)
Example
This forces the switch to use the built-in RJ-45 port for the combination port 48.
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/48
Console(config-if)#combo-forced-mode copper-forced
Console(config-if)#
shutdown
This command disables an interface. To restart a disabled interface, use the no
form.
Syntax
[no] shutdown
4-130
4
Interface Commands
Default Setting
All interfaces are enabled.
Command Mode
Interface Configuration (Ethernet, Port Channel)
Command Usage
This command allows you to disable a port due to abnormal behavior
(e.g., excessive collisions), and then reenable it after the problem has been
resolved. You may also want to disable a port for security reasons.
Example
The following example disables port 5.
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/5
Console(config-if)#shutdown
Console(config-if)#
switchport broadcast packet-rate
This command configures broadcast storm control. Use the no form to disable
broadcast storm control.
Syntax
switchport broadcast packet-rate rate
no switchport broadcast
rate - Threshold level as a rate; i.e., packets per second.
(Range: 500 - 262143)
Default Setting
Enabled for all ports
Packet-rate limit: 500 packets per second
Command Mode
Interface Configuration (Ethernet)
Command Usage
• When broadcast traffic exceeds the specified threshold, packets above that
threshold are dropped.
• This command can enable or disable broadcast storm control for the selected
interface. However, the specified threshold value applies to all ports on the
switch.
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Command Line Interface
Example
The following shows how to configure broadcast storm control at 600 packets per
second:
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/5
Console(config-if)#switchport broadcast packet-rate 600
Console(config-if)#
clear counters
This command clears statistics on an interface.
Syntax
clear counters interface
interface
• ethernet unit/port
- unit - This is device 1.
- port - Port number.
• port-channel channel-id (Range: 1-6)
Default Setting
None
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
Command Usage
Statistics are only initialized for a power reset. This command sets the base
value for displayed statistics to zero for the current management session.
However, if you log out and back into the management interface, the statistics
displayed will show the absolute value accumulated since the last power reset.
Example
The following example clears statistics on port 5.
Console#clear counters ethernet 1/5
Console#
4-132
4
Interface Commands
show interfaces status
This command displays the status for an interface.
Syntax
show interfaces status [interface]
interface
• ethernet unit/port
- unit - This is device 1.
- port - Port number.
• port-channel channel-id (Range: 1-6)
• vlan vlan-id (Range: 1-4094)
Default Setting
Shows the status for all interfaces.
Command Mode
Normal Exec, Privileged Exec
Command Usage
If no interface is specified, information on all interfaces is displayed. For a
description of the items displayed by this command, see “Displaying
Connection Status” on page 3-64.
Example
Console#show interfaces status ethernet 1/5
Information of Eth 1/5
Basic information:
Port type: 1000T
Mac address: 00-00-AB-CD-00-01
Configuration:
Name:
Port admin: Up
Speed-duplex: Auto
Capabilities: 10half, 10full, 100half, 100full, 1000full,
Broadcast storm: Enabled
Broadcast storm limit: 500 packets/second
Flow control: Disabled
Lacp: Disabled
Port security: Disabled
Max MAC count: 0
Port security action: None
Combo forced mode: None
Current status:
Link status: Up
Operation speed-duplex: 1000full
Flow control type: None
Console#show interfaces status vlan 1
Information of VLAN 1
MAC address: 00-00-A3-42-00-80
Console#
4-133
4
Command Line Interface
show interfaces counters
This command displays interface statistics.
Syntax
show interfaces counters [interface]
interface
• ethernet unit/port
- unit - This is device 1.
- port - Port number.
• port-channel channel-id (Range: 1-6)
Default Setting
Shows the counters for all interfaces.
Command Mode
Normal Exec, Privileged Exec
Command Usage
If no interface is specified, information on all interfaces is displayed. For a
description of the items displayed by this command, see “Showing Port
Statistics” on page 3-84.
Example
Console#show interfaces counters ethernet 1/7
Ethernet 1/7
Iftable stats:
Octets input: 30658, Octets output: 196550
Unicast input: 6, Unicast output: 5
Discard input: 0, Discard output: 0
Error input: 0, Error output: 0
Unknown protos input: 0, QLen output: 0
Extended iftable stats:
Multi-cast input: 0, Multi-cast output: 3064
Broadcast input: 262, Broadcast output: 1
Ether-like stats:
Alignment errors: 0, FCS errors: 0
Single Collision frames: 0, Multiple collision frames: 0
SQE Test errors: 0, Deferred transmissions: 0
Late collisions: 0, Excessive collisions: 0
Internal mac transmit errors: 0, Internal mac receive errors: 0
Frame too longs: 0, Carrier sense errors: 0
Symbol errors: 0
RMON stats:
Drop events: 0, Octets: 227208, Packets: 3338
Broadcast pkts: 263, Multi-cast pkts: 3064
Undersize pkts: 0, Oversize pkts: 0
Fragments: 0, Jabbers: 0
CRC align errors: 0, Collisions: 0
Packet size <= 64 octets: 3150, Packet size 65 to 127 octets: 139
Packet size 128 to 255 octets: 49, Packet size 256 to 511 octets: 0
Packet size 512 to 1023 octets: 0, Packet size 1024 to 1518 octets: 0
Console#
4-134
4
Interface Commands
show interfaces switchport
This command displays the administrative and operational status of the specified
interfaces.
Syntax
show interfaces switchport [interface]
interface
• ethernet unit/port
- unit - This is device 1.
- port - Port number.
• port-channel channel-id (Range: 1-6)
Default Setting
Shows all interfaces.
Command Mode
Normal Exec, Privileged Exec
Command Usage
If no interface is specified, information on all interfaces is displayed.
Example
This example shows the configuration setting for port 24.
Console#show interfaces switchport ethernet 1/24
Information of Eth 1/24
Broadcast threshold: Enabled, 500 packets/second
Lacp status: Disabled
Ingress rate limit: disable,1000M bits per second
Egress rate limit: disable,1000M bits per second
VLAN membership mode: Hybrid
Ingress rule: Disabled
Acceptable frame type: All frames
Native VLAN: 1
Priority for untagged traffic: 0
Gvrp status: Disabled
Allowed Vlan:
1(u),
Forbidden Vlan:
Console#
Table 4-42. interfaces switchport - display description
Field
Description
Broadcast threshold
Shows if broadcast storm suppression is enabled or disabled; if enabled it also
shows the threshold level (page 4-131).
Lacp status
Shows if Link Aggregation Control Protocol has been enabled or disabled
(page 4-141).
Ingress/Egress rate limit
Shows if rate limiting is enabled, and the current rate limit. (page 4-138).
VLAN membership mode Indicates membership mode as Trunk or Hybrid (page 4-176).
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Command Line Interface
Table 4-42. interfaces switchport - display description
Field
Description
Ingress rule
Shows if ingress filtering is enabled or disabled (page 4-177).
Acceptable frame type
Shows if acceptable VLAN frames include all types or tagged frames only
(page 4-176).
Native VLAN
Indicates the default Port VLAN ID (page 4-178).
Priority for untagged traffic Indicates the default priority for untagged frames (page 4-191).
Gvrp status
Shows if GARP VLAN Registration Protocol is enabled or disabled (page 4-188).
Allowed Vlan
Shows the VLANs this interface has joined, where “(u)” indicates untagged and
“(t)” indicates tagged (page 4-179).
Forbidden Vlan
Shows the VLANs this interface can not dynamically join via GVRP (page 4-180).
Mirror Port Commands
This section describes how to mirror traffic from a source port to a target port.
Table 4-43. Mirror Port Commands
Command
Function
Mode
Page
port monitor
Configures a mirror session
IC
4-136
show port monitor
Shows the configuration for a mirror port
PE
4-137
port monitor
This command configures a mirror session. Use the no form to clear a mirror
session.
Syntax
port monitor interface [rx | tx | both]
no port monitor interface
• interface - ethernet unit/port (source port)
- unit - Switch (unit 1).
- port - Port number.
• rx - Mirror received packets.
• tx - Mirror transmitted packets.
• both - Mirror both received and transmitted packets.
Default Setting
No mirror session is defined. When enabled, the default mirroring is for both
received and transmitted packets.
Command Mode
Interface Configuration (Ethernet, destination port)
4-136
Mirror Port Commands
4
Command Usage
• You can mirror traffic from any source port to a destination port for real-time
analysis. You can then attach a logic analyzer or RMON probe to the
destination port and study the traffic crossing the source port in a completely
unobtrusive manner.
• The destination port is set by specifying an Ethernet interface.
• The mirror port and monitor port speeds should match, otherwise traffic may
be dropped from the monitor port.
• You can create multiple mirror sessions, but all sessions must share the same
destination port. However, you should avoid sending too much traffic to the
destination port from multiple source ports.
Example
The following example configures the switch to mirror all packets from port 6 to 11:
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/11
Console(config-if)#port monitor ethernet 1/6 both
Console(config-if)#
show port monitor
This command displays mirror information.
Syntax
show port monitor [interface]
interface - ethernet unit/port (source port)
• unit - Switch (unit 1).
• port - Port number.
Default Setting
Shows all sessions.
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
Command Usage
This command displays the currently configured source port, destination port,
and mirror mode (i.e., RX, TX, RX/TX).
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Command Line Interface
Example
The following shows mirroring configured from port 6 to port 11:
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/11
Console(config-if)#port monitor ethernet 1/6
Console(config-if)#end
Console#show port monitor
Port Mirroring
------------------------------------Destination port(listen port):Eth1/1
Source port(monitored port) :Eth1/6
Mode
:RX/TX
Console#
Rate Limit Commands
This function allows the network manager to control the maximum rate for traffic
transmitted or received on an interface. Rate limiting is configured on interfaces at
the edge of a network to limit traffic into or out of the network. Traffic that falls within
the rate limit is transmitted, while packets that exceed the acceptable amount of
traffic are dropped.
Rate limiting can be applied to individual ports or trunks. When an interface is
configured with this feature, the traffic rate will be monitored by the hardware to
verify conformity. Non-conforming traffic is dropped, conforming traffic is forwarded
without any changes.
Table 4-44. Rate Limit Commands
Command
Function
Mode
rate-limit
Configures the maximum input or output rate for a port
IC
Page
4-138
rate-limit
This command defines the rate limit for a specific interface. Use this command
without specifying a rate to restore the default rate. Use the no form to restore the
default status of disabled.
Syntax
rate-limit {input | output} [rate]
no rate-limit {input | output}
• input – Input rate
• output – Output rate
• rate – Maximum value in Mbps. (Range: 1 to 1000 Mbps)
Default Setting
1000 Mbps
Command Mode
Interface Configuration (Ethernet, Port Channel)
4-138
Link Aggregation Commands
4
Example
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/1
Console(config-if)#rate-limit input 600
Console(config-if)#
Link Aggregation Commands
Ports can be statically grouped into an aggregate link (i.e., trunk) to increase the
bandwidth of a network connection or to ensure fault recovery. Or you can use the
Link Aggregation Control Protocol (LACP) to automatically negotiate a trunk link
between this switch and another network device. For static trunks, the switches have
to comply with the Cisco EtherChannel standard. For dynamic trunks, the switches
have to comply with LACP. This switch supports up to six trunks. For example, a
trunk consisting of two 1000 Mbps ports can support an aggregate bandwidth of
4 Gbps when operating at full duplex.
Table 4-45. Link Aggregation Commands
Command
Function
Mode
Page
Manual Configuration Commands
interface port-channel
Configures a trunk and enters interface
configuration mode for the trunk
GC
4-125
channel-group
Adds a port to a trunk
IC (Port Channel)
4-140
Configures LACP for the current interface
IC (Ethernet)
4-141
lacp system-priority
Configures a port's LACP system priority
IC (Ethernet)
4-142
lacp admin-key
Configures a port's administration key
IC (Ethernet)
4-143
lacp admin-key
Configures an port channel’s administration key
IC (Port Channel)
4-144
lacp port-priority
Configures a port's LACP port priority
IC (Ethernet)
4-144
Dynamic Configuration Command
lacp
Trunk Status Display Command
show interfaces status
port-channel
Shows trunk information
NE, PE
4-133
show lacp
Shows LACP information
PE
4-145
Guidelines for Creating Trunks
General Guidelines –
• Finish configuring port trunks before you connect the corresponding network
cables between switches to avoid creating a loop.
• A trunk can have up to eight ports.
• The ports at both ends of a connection must be configured as trunk ports.
• All ports in a trunk must be configured in an identical manner, including
communication mode (i.e., speed, duplex mode and flow control), VLAN
assignments, and CoS settings.
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Command Line Interface
• All the ports in a trunk have to be treated as a whole when moved from/to,
added or deleted from a VLAN via the specified port-channel.
• STP, VLAN, and IGMP settings can only be made for the entire trunk via the
specified port-channel.
Dynamically Creating a Port Channel –
Ports assigned to a common port channel must meet the following criteria:
• Ports must have the same LACP system priority.
• Ports must have the same port admin key (Ethernet Interface).
• If the port channel admin key (lacp admin key - Port Channel) is not set when
a channel group is formed (i.e., it has the null value of 0), this key is set to the
same value as the port admin key (lacp admin key - Ethernet Interface) used
by the interfaces that joined the group.
• However, if the port channel admin key is set, then the port admin key must
be set to the same value for a port to be allowed to join a channel group.
• If a link goes down, LACP port priority is used to select the backup link.
channel-group
This command adds a port to a trunk. Use the no form to remove a port from a trunk.
Syntax
channel-group channel-id
no channel-group
channel-id - Trunk index (Range: 1-6)
Default Setting
The current port will be added to this trunk.
Command Mode
Interface Configuration (Ethernet)
Command Usage
• When configuring static trunks, the switches must comply with the Cisco
EtherChannel standard.
• Use no channel-group to remove a port group from a trunk.
• Use no interfaces port-channel to remove a trunk from the switch.
Example
The following example creates trunk 1 and then adds port 11:
Console(config)#interface port-channel 1
Console(config-if)#exit
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/11
Console(config-if)#channel-group 1
Console(config-if)#
4-140
Link Aggregation Commands
4
lacp
This command enables 802.3ad Link Aggregation Control Protocol (LACP) for the
current interface. Use the no form to disable it.
Syntax
[no] lacp
Default Setting
Disabled
Command Mode
Interface Configuration (Ethernet)
Command Usage
• The ports on both ends of an LACP trunk must be configured for full duplex,
either by forced mode or auto-negotiation.
• A trunk formed with another switch using LACP will automatically be assigned
the next available port-channel ID.
• If the target switch has also enabled LACP on the connected ports, the trunk
will be activated automatically.
• If more than four ports attached to the same target switch have LACP
enabled, the additional ports will be placed in standby mode, and will only be
enabled if one of the active links fails.
Example
The following shows LACP enabled on ports 11-13. Because LACP has also been
enabled on the ports at the other end of the links, the show interfaces status
port-channel 1 command shows that Trunk1 has been established.
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/11
Console(config-if)#lacp
Console(config-if)#exit
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/12
Console(config-if)#lacp
Console(config-if)#exit
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/13
Console(config-if)#lacp
Console(config-if)#exit
Console(config)#exit
Console#show interfaces status port-channel 1
Information of Trunk 1
Basic information:
Port type: 1000T
Mac address: 00-00-e8-00-00-0b
Configuration:
Name:
Port admin status: Up
Speed-duplex: Auto
Capabilities: 10half, 10full, 100half, 100full, 1000full,
Flow control status: Disabled
Port security: Disabled
Max MAC count: 0
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4
Command Line Interface
Current status:
Created by: lacp
Link status: Up
Operation speed-duplex: 1000full
Flow control type: None
Member Ports: Eth1/11, Eth1/12, Eth1/13,
Console#
lacp system-priority
This command configures a port's LACP system priority. Use the no form to restore
the default setting.
Syntax
lacp {actor | partner} system-priority priority
no lacp {actor | partner} system-priority
• actor - The local side an aggregate link.
• partner - The remote side of an aggregate link.
• priority - This priority is used to determine link aggregation group (LAG)
membership, and to identify this device to other switches during LAG
negotiations. (Range: 0-65535)
Default Setting
32768
Command Mode
Interface Configuration (Ethernet)
Command Usage
• Port must be configured with the same system priority to join the same LAG.
• System priority is combined with the switch’s MAC address to form the LAG
identifier. This identifier is used to indicate a specific LAG during LACP
negotiations with other systems.
• Once the remote side of a link has been established, LACP operational
settings are already in use on that side. Configuring LACP settings for the
partner only applies to its administrative state, not its operational state, and
will only take effect the next time an aggregate link is established with the
partner.
Example
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/5
Console(config-if)#lacp actor system-priority 3
Console(config-if)#
4-142
4
Link Aggregation Commands
lacp admin-key (Ethernet Interface)
This command configures a port's LACP administration key. Use the no form to
restore the default setting.
Syntax
lacp {actor | partner} admin-key key
[no] lacp {actor | partner} admin-key
• actor - The local side an aggregate link.
• partner - The remote side of an aggregate link.
• key - The port admin key must be set to the same value for ports that belong
to the same link aggregation group (LAG). (Range: 0-65535)
Default Setting
0
Command Mode
Interface Configuration (Ethernet)
Command Usage
• Ports are only allowed to join the same LAG if (1) the LACP system priority
matches, (2) the LACP port admin key matches, and (3) the LACP port
channel admin key matches (if configured).
• If the port channel admin key (lacp admin key - Port Channel) is not set when
a channel group is formed (i.e., it has the null value of 0), this key is set to the
same value as the port admin key (lacp admin key - Ethernet Interface) used
by the interfaces that joined the group.
• Once the remote side of a link has been established, LACP operational
settings are already in use on that side. Configuring LACP settings for the
partner only applies to its administrative state, not its operational state, and
will only take effect the next time an aggregate link is established with the
partner.
Example
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/5
Console(config-if)#lacp actor admin-key 120
Console(config-if)#
4-143
4
Command Line Interface
lacp admin-key (Port Channel)
This command configures a port channel's LACP administration key string. Use the
no form to restore the default setting.
Syntax
lacp admin-key key
[no] lacp admin-key
key - The port channel admin key is used to identify a specific link
aggregation group (LAG) during local LACP setup on this switch.
(Range: 0-65535)
Default Setting
0
Command Mode
Interface Configuration (Port Channel)
Command Usage
• Ports are only allowed to join the same LAG if (1) the LACP system priority
matches, (2) the LACP port admin key matches, and (3) the LACP port
channel key matches (if configured).
• If the port channel admin key (lacp admin key - Port Channel) is not set when
a channel group is formed (i.e., it has the null value of 0), this key is set to the
same value as the port admin key (lacp admin key - Ethernet Interface) used
by the interfaces that joined the group. Note that when the LAG is no longer
used, the port channel admin key is reset to 0.
Example
Console(config)#interface port channel 1
Console(config-if)#lacp admin-key 3
Console(config-if)#
lacp port-priority
This command configures LACP port priority. Use the no form to restore the default
setting.
Syntax
lacp {actor | partner} port-priority priority
no lacp {actor | partner} port-priority
• actor - The local side an aggregate link.
• partner - The remote side of an aggregate link.
• priority - LACP port priority is used to select a backup link. (Range: 0-65535)
Default Setting
32768
4-144
Link Aggregation Commands
4
Command Mode
Interface Configuration (Ethernet)
Command Usage
• Setting a lower value indicates a higher effective priority.
• If an active port link goes down, the backup port with the highest priority is
selected to replace the downed link. However, if two or more ports have the
same LACP port priority, the port with the lowest physical port number will be
selected as the backup port.
• Once the remote side of a link has been established, LACP operational
settings are already in use on that side. Configuring LACP settings for the
partner only applies to its administrative state, not its operational state, and
will only take effect the next time an aggregate link is established with the
partner.
Example
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/5
Console(config-if)#lacp actor port-priority 128
show lacp
This command displays LACP information.
Syntax
show lacp [port-channel] {counters | internal | neighbors | sysid}
•
•
•
•
•
port-channel - Local identifier for a link aggregation group. (Range: 1-6)
counters - Statistics for LACP protocol messages.
internal - Configuration settings and operational state for local side.
neighbors - Configuration settings and operational state for remote side.
sysid - Summary of system priority and MAC address for all channel groups.
Default Setting
Port Channel: all
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
4-145
4
Command Line Interface
Example
Console#show lacp 1 counters
Channel group : 1
------------------------------------------------------------------------Eth 1/ 1
------------------------------------------------------------------------LACPDUs Sent : 21
LACPDUs Received : 21
Marker Sent : 0
Marker Received : 0
LACPDUs Unknown Pkts : 0
LACPDUs Illegal Pkts : 0
.
.
.
Table 4-46. show lacp counters - display description
Field
Description
LACPDUs Sent
Number of valid LACPDUs transmitted from this channel group.
LACPDUs Received
Number of valid LACPDUs received on this channel group.
Marker Sent
Number of valid Marker PDUs transmitted from this channel group.
Marker Received
Number of valid Marker PDUs received by this channel group.
LACPDUs Unknown Pkts Number of frames received that either (1) Carry the Slow Protocols Ethernet
Type value, but contain an unknown PDU, or (2) are addressed to the Slow
Protocols group MAC Address, but do not carry the Slow Protocols Ethernet
Type.
LACPDUs Illegal Pkts
4-146
Number of frames that carry the Slow Protocols Ethernet Type value, but contain
a badly formed PDU or an illegal value of Protocol Subtype.
Link Aggregation Commands
4
Console#show lacp 1 internal
Channel group : 1
------------------------------------------------------------------------Oper Key : 4
Admin Key : 0
Eth 1/1
------------------------------------------------------------------------LACPDUs Internal : 30 sec
LACP System Priority : 32768
LACP Port Priority : 32768
Admin Key : 4
Oper Key : 4
Admin State : defaulted, aggregation, long timeout, LACP-activity
Oper State : distributing, collecting, synchronization, aggregation,
long timeout, LACP-activity
.
.
.
Table 4-47. show lacp internal - display description
Field
Description
Oper Key
Current operational value of the key for the aggregation port.
Admin Key
Current administrative value of the key for the aggregation port.
LACPDUs Internal
Number of seconds before invalidating received LACPDU information.
LACP System Priority LACP system priority assigned to this port channel.
LACP Port Priority
LACP port priority assigned to this interface within the channel group.
Admin State,
Oper State
Administrative or operational values of the actor’s state parameters:
• Expired – The actor’s receive machine is in the expired state;
• Defaulted – The actor’s receive machine is using defaulted operational partner
information, administratively configured for the partner.
• Distributing – If false, distribution of outgoing frames on this link is disabled; i.e.,
distribution is currently disabled and is not expected to be enabled in the absence
of administrative changes or changes in received protocol information.
• Collecting – Collection of incoming frames on this link is enabled; i.e., collection is
currently enabled and is not expected to be disabled in the absence of
administrative changes or changes in received protocol information.
• Synchronization – The System considers this link to be IN_SYNC; i.e., it has been
allocated to the correct Link Aggregation Group, the group has been associated
with a compatible Aggregator, and the identity of the Link Aggregation Group is
consistent with the System ID and operational Key information transmitted.
• Aggregation – The system considers this link to be aggregatable; i.e., a potential
candidate for aggregation.
• Long timeout – Periodic transmission of LACPDUs uses a slow transmission rate.
• LACP-Activity – Activity control value with regard to this link. (0: Passive; 1: Active)
4-147
4
Command Line Interface
Console#show lacp 1 neighbors
Channel group 1 neighbors
------------------------------------------------------------------------Eth 1/1
------------------------------------------------------------------------Partner Admin System ID : 32768, 00-00-00-00-00-00
Partner Oper System ID : 32768, 00-00-00-00-00-01
Partner Admin Port Number : 1
Partner Oper Port Number : 1
Port Admin Priority : 32768
Port Oper Priority : 32768
Admin Key : 0
Oper Key : 4
Admin State : defaulted, distributing, collecting, synchronization,
long timeout,
Oper State : distributing, collecting, synchronization, aggregation,
long timeout, LACP-activity
.
.
.
Table 4-48. show lacp neighbors - display description
Field
Description
Partner Admin System ID
LAG partner’s system ID assigned by the user.
Partner Oper System ID
LAG partner’s system ID assigned by the LACP protocol.
Partner Admin
Port Number
Current administrative value of the port number for the protocol Partner.
Partner Oper
Port Number
Operational port number assigned to this aggregation port by the port’s protocol
partner.
Port Admin Priority
Current administrative value of the port priority for the protocol partner.
Port Oper Priority
Priority value assigned to this aggregation port by the partner.
Admin Key
Current administrative value of the Key for the protocol partner.
Oper Key
Current operational value of the Key for the protocol partner.
Admin State
Administrative values of the partner’s state parameters. (See preceding table.)
Oper State
Operational values of the partner’s state parameters. (See preceding table.)
4-148
Address Table Commands
4
Console#show lacp sysid
Channel group
System Priority
System MAC Address
------------------------------------------------------------------------1
32768
00-30-F1-8F-2C-A7
2
32768
00-30-F1-8F-2C-A7
3
32768
00-30-F1-8F-2C-A7
4
32768
00-30-F1-8F-2C-A7
5
32768
00-30-F1-8F-2C-A7
6
32768
00-30-F1-8F-2C-A7
Console#
Table 4-49. show lacp sysid - display description
Field
Description
Channel group
A link aggregation group configured on this switch.
System Priority*
LACP system priority for this channel group.
System MAC Address*
System MAC address.
* The LACP system priority and system MAC address are concatenated to form the LAG system ID.
Address Table Commands
These commands are used to configure the address table for filtering specified
addresses, displaying current entries, clearing the table, or setting the aging time.
Table 4-50. Address Table Commands
Command
Function
Mode
mac-address-table static
Maps a static address to a port in a VLAN
GC
Page
4-150
clear mac-address-table
dynamic
Removes any learned entries from the forwarding database PE
4-151
show mac-address-table
Displays entries in the bridge-forwarding database
PE
4-151
mac-address-table
aging-time
Sets the aging time of the address table
GC
4-152
show mac-address-table
aging-time
Shows the aging time for the address table
PE
4-152
4-149
4
Command Line Interface
mac-address-table static
This command maps a static address to a destination port in a VLAN. Use the no
form to remove an address.
Syntax
mac-address-table static mac-address interface interface
vlan vlan-id [action]
no mac-address-table static mac-address vlan vlan-id
• mac-address - MAC address.
• interface
• ethernet unit/port
- unit - This is device 1.
- port - Port number.
• port-channel channel-id (Range: 1-6)
• vlan-id - VLAN ID (Range: 1-4094)
• action - delete-on-reset - Assignment lasts until the switch is reset.
- permanent - Assignment is permanent.
Default Setting
No static addresses are defined. The default mode is permanent.
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Command Usage
The static address for a host device can be assigned to a specific port within
a specific VLAN. Use this command to add static addresses to the MAC
Address Table. Static addresses have the following characteristics:
• Static addresses will not be removed from the address table when a given
interface link is down.
• Static addresses are bound to the assigned interface and will not be moved.
When a static address is seen on another interface, the address will be
ignored and will not be written to the address table.
• A static address cannot be learned on another port until the address is
removed with the no form of this command.
Example
Console(config)#mac-address-table static 00-e0-29-94-34-de interface
ethernet 1/1 vlan 1 delete-on-reset
4-150
4
Address Table Commands
clear mac-address-table dynamic
This command removes any learned entries from the forwarding database and
clears the transmit and receive counts for any static or system configured entries.
Default Setting
None
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
Example
Console#clear mac-address-table dynamic
show mac-address-table
This command shows classes of entries in the bridge-forwarding database.
Syntax
show mac-address-table [address mac-address [mask]] [interface interface]
[vlan vlan-id] [sort {address | vlan | interface}]
• mac-address - MAC address.
• mask - Bits to match in the address.
• interface
• ethernet unit/port
- unit - This is device 1.
- port - Port number.
• port-channel channel-id (Range: 1-6)
• vlan-id - VLAN ID (Range: 1-4094)
• sort - Sort by address, vlan or interface.
Default Setting
None
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
Command Usage
• The MAC Address Table contains the MAC addresses associated with each
interface. Note that the Type field may include the following types:
- Learned - Dynamic address entries
- Permanent - Static entry
- Delete-on-reset - Static entry to be deleted when system is reset
• The mask should be hexadecimal numbers (representing an equivalent bit
mask) in the form xx-xx-xx-xx-xx-xx that is applied to the specified MAC
address. Enter hexadecimal numbers, where an equivalent binary bit “0”
means to match a bit and “1” means to ignore a bit. For example, a mask of
4-151
4
Command Line Interface
00-00-00-00-00-00 means an exact match, and a mask of
FF-FF-FF-FF-FF-FF means “any.”
• The maximum number of address entries is 8191.
Example
Console#show mac-address-table
Interface Mac Address
Vlan Type
--------- ----------------- ---- ----------------Eth 1/ 1 00-e0-29-94-34-de
1 Delete-on-reset
Console#
mac-address-table aging-time
This command sets the aging time for entries in the address table. Use the no form
to restore the default aging time.
Syntax
mac-address-table aging-time seconds
no mac-address-table aging-time
seconds - Aging time. (Range: 10-1000000 seconds; 0 to disable aging)
Default Setting
300 seconds
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Command Usage
The aging time is used to age out dynamically learned forwarding information.
Example
Console(config)#mac-address-table aging-time 100
Console(config)#
show mac-address-table aging-time
This command shows the aging time for entries in the address table.
Default Setting
None
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
Example
Console#show mac-address-table aging-time
Aging time: 300 sec.
Console#
4-152
Spanning Tree Commands
4
Spanning Tree Commands
This section includes commands that configure the Spanning Tree Algorithm (STA)
globally for the switch, and commands that configure STA for the selected interface.
Table 4-51. Spanning Tree Commands
Command
Function
Mode
spanning-tree
Enables the spanning tree protocol
GC
4-154
spanning-tree mode
Configures STP, RSTP or MSTP mode
GC
4-154
spanning-tree forward-time
Configures the spanning tree bridge forward time
GC
4-155
spanning-tree hello-time
Configures the spanning tree bridge hello time
GC
4-156
spanning-tree max-age
Configures the spanning tree bridge maximum age
GC
4-157
spanning-tree priority
Configures the spanning tree bridge priority
GC
4-157
spanning-tree
path-cost method
Configures the path cost method for RSTP/MSTP
GC
4-158
spanning-tree
transmission-limit
Configures the transmission limit for RSTP/MSTP
GC
4-159
spanning-tree
mst-configuration
Changes to MSTP configuration mode
GC
4-159
mst vlan
Adds VLANs to a spanning tree instance
MST
4-160
mst priority
Configures the priority of a spanning tree instance
MST
4-161
name
Configures the name for the multiple spanning tree
MST
4-161
revision
Configures the revision number for the multiple spanning
tree
MST
4-162
max-hops
Configures the maximum number of hops allowed in the
region before a BPDU is discarded
MST
4-163
spanning-tree
spanning-disabled
Disables spanning tree for an interface
IC
4-163
spanning-tree cost
Configures the spanning tree path cost of an interface
IC
4-164
spanning-tree port-priority
Configures the spanning tree priority of an interface
IC
4-164
spanning-tree edge-port
Enables fast forwarding for edge ports
IC
4-165
spanning-tree portfast
Sets an interface to fast forwarding
IC
4-166
spanning-tree link-type
Configures the link type for RSTP/MSTP
IC
4-167
spanning-tree mst cost
Configures the path cost of an instance in the MST
IC
4-167
spanning-tree mst
port-priority
Configures the priority of an instance in the MST
IC
4-168
spanning-tree
protocol-migration
Re-checks the appropriate BPDU format
PE
4-170
show spanning-tree
Shows spanning tree configuration for the common
PE
spanning tree (i.e., overall bridge), a selected interface, or
an instance within the multiple spanning tree
4-170
show spanning-tree mst
configuration
Shows the multiple spanning tree configuration
4-172
PE
Page
4-153
4
Command Line Interface
spanning-tree
This command enables the Spanning Tree Algorithm globally for the switch. Use the
no form to disable it.
Syntax
[no] spanning-tree
Default Setting
Spanning tree is enabled.
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Command Usage
The Spanning Tree Algorithm (STA) can be used to detect and disable
network loops, and to provide backup links between switches, bridges or
routers. This allows the switch to interact with other bridging devices (that is,
an STA-compliant switch, bridge or router) in your network to ensure that only
one route exists between any two stations on the network, and provide backup
links which automatically take over when a primary link goes down.
Example
This example shows how to enable the Spanning Tree Algorithm for the switch:
Console(config)#spanning-tree
Console(config)#
spanning-tree mode
This command selects the spanning tree mode for this switch. Use the no form to
restore the default.
Syntax
spanning-tree mode {stp | rstp | mstp}
no spanning-tree mode
• stp - Spanning Tree Protocol (IEEE 802.1D)
• rstp - Rapid Spanning Tree Protocol (IEEE 802.1w)
• mstp - Multiple Spanning Tree (IEEE 802.1s)
Default Setting
mstp
Command Mode
Global Configuration
4-154
4
Spanning Tree Commands
Command Usage
• Spanning Tree Protocol
Uses RSTP for the internal state machine, but sends only 802.1D BPDUs.
- This creates one spanning tree instance for the entire network. If multiple
VLANs are implemented on a network, the path between specific VLAN
members may be inadvertently disabled to prevent network loops, thus
isolating group members. When operating multiple VLANs, we recommend
selecting the MSTP option.
• Rapid Spanning Tree Protocol
RSTP supports connections to either STP or RSTP nodes by monitoring
the incoming protocol messages and dynamically adjusting the type of
protocol messages the RSTP node transmits, as described below:
- STP Mode – If the switch receives an 802.1D BPDU after a port’s migration
delay timer expires, the switch assumes it is connected to an 802.1D bridge
and starts using only 802.1D BPDUs.
- RSTP Mode – If RSTP is using 802.1D BPDUs on a port and receives an
RSTP BPDU after the migration delay expires, RSTP restarts the migration
delay timer and begins using RSTP BPDUs on that port.
• Multiple Spanning Tree Protocol
- To allow multiple spanning trees to operate over the network, you must
configure a related set of bridges with the same MSTP configuration,
allowing them to participate in a specific set of spanning tree instances.
- A spanning tree instance can exist only on bridges that have compatible
VLAN instance assignments.
- Be careful when switching between spanning tree modes. Changing modes
stops all spanning-tree instances for the previous mode and restarts the
system in the new mode, temporarily disrupting user traffic.
Example
The following example configures the switch to use Rapid Spanning Tree:
Console(config)#spanning-tree mode rstp
Console(config)#
spanning-tree forward-time
This command configures the spanning tree bridge forward time globally for this
switch. Use the no form to restore the default.
Syntax
spanning-tree forward-time seconds
no spanning-tree forward-time
seconds - Time in seconds. (Range: 4 - 30 seconds)
The minimum value is the higher of 4 or [(max-age / 2) + 1].
4-155
4
Command Line Interface
Default Setting
15 seconds
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Command Usage
This command sets the maximum time (in seconds) the root device will wait
before changing states (i.e., discarding to learning to forwarding). This delay is
required because every device must receive information about topology
changes before it starts to forward frames. In addition, each port needs time to
listen for conflicting information that would make it return to the discarding
state; otherwise, temporary data loops might result.
Example
Console(config)#spanning-tree forward-time 20
Console(config)#
spanning-tree hello-time
This command configures the spanning tree bridge hello time globally for this switch.
Use the no form to restore the default.
Syntax
spanning-tree hello-time time
no spanning-tree hello-time
time - Time in seconds. (Range: 1-10 seconds).
The maximum value is the lower of 10 or [(max-age / 2) -1].
Default Setting
2 seconds
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Command Usage
This command sets the time interval (in seconds) at which the root device
transmits a configuration message.
Example
Console(config)#spanning-tree hello-time 5
Console(config)#
4-156
Spanning Tree Commands
4
spanning-tree max-age
This command configures the spanning tree bridge maximum age globally for this
switch. Use the no form to restore the default.
Syntax
spanning-tree max-age seconds
no spanning-tree max-age
seconds - Time in seconds. (Range: 6-40 seconds)
The minimum value is the higher of 6 or [2 x (hello-time + 1)].
The maximum value is the lower of 40 or [2 x (forward-time - 1)].
Default Setting
20 seconds
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Command Usage
This command sets the maximum time (in seconds) a device can wait without
receiving a configuration message before attempting to reconfigure. All device
ports (except for designated ports) should receive configuration messages at
regular intervals. Any port that ages out STA information (provided in the last
configuration message) becomes the designated port for the attached LAN. If
it is a root port, a new root port is selected from among the device ports
attached to the network.
Example
Console(config)#spanning-tree max-age 40
Console(config)#
spanning-tree priority
This command configures the spanning tree priority globally for this switch. Use the
no form to restore the default.
Syntax
spanning-tree priority priority
no spanning-tree priority
priority - Priority of the bridge. (Range: 0 - 65535)
(Range – 0-61440, in steps of 4096; Options: 0, 4096, 8192, 12288,
16384, 20480, 24576, 28672, 32768, 36864, 40960, 45056, 49152,
53248, 57344, 61440)
Default Setting
32768
4-157
4
Command Line Interface
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Command Usage
Bridge priority is used in selecting the root device, root port, and designated
port. The device with the highest priority becomes the STA root device.
However, if all devices have the same priority, the device with the lowest MAC
address will then become the root device.
Example
Console(config)#spanning-tree priority 45056
Console(config)#
spanning-tree pathcost method
This command configures the path cost method used for Rapid Spanning Tree and
Multiple Spanning Tree. Use the no form to restore the default.
Syntax
spanning-tree pathcost method {long | short}
no spanning-tree pathcost method
• long - Specifies 32-bit based values that range from 1-200,000,000.
• short - Specifies 16-bit based values that range from 1-65535.
Default Setting
Long method
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Command Usage
The path cost method is used to determine the best path between devices.
Therefore, lower values should be assigned to ports attached to faster media,
and higher values assigned to ports with slower media. Note that path cost
(page 4-164) takes precedence over port priority (page 4-164).
Example
Console(config)#spanning-tree pathcost method long
Console(config)#
4-158
Spanning Tree Commands
4
spanning-tree transmission-limit
This command configures the minimum interval between the transmission of
consecutive RSTP/MSTP BPDUs. Use the no form to restore the default.
Syntax
spanning-tree transmission-limit count
no spanning-tree transmission-limit
count - The transmission limit in seconds. (Range: 1-10)
Default Setting
3
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Command Usage
This command limits the maximum transmission rate for BPDUs.
Example
Console(config)#spanning-tree transmission-limit 4
Console(config)#
spanning-tree mst configuration
Use this command to change to Multiple Spanning Tree (MST) configuration mode.
Default Setting
• No VLANs are mapped to any MST instance.
• The region name is set the switch’s MAC address.
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Example
Console(config)#spanning-tree mst configuration
Console(config-mstp)#
Related Commands
mst vlan (4-160)
mst priority (4-161)
name (4-161)
revision (4-162)
max-hops (4-163)
4-159
4
Command Line Interface
mst vlan
This command adds VLANs to a spanning tree instance. Use the no form to remove
the specified VLANs. Using the no form without any VLAN parameters to remove all
VLANs.
Syntax
[no] mst instance_id vlan vlan-range
• instance_id - Instance identifier of the spanning tree. (Range: 0-4094)
• vlan-range - Range of VLANs. (Range: 1-4094)
Default Setting
none
Command Mode
MST Configuration
Command Usage
• Use this command to group VLANs into spanning tree instances. MSTP
generates a unique spanning tree for each instance. This provides multiple
pathways across the network, thereby balancing the traffic load, preventing
wide-scale disruption when a bridge node in a single instance fails, and
allowing for faster convergence of a new topology for the failed instance.
• By default all VLANs are assigned to the Internal Spanning Tree (MSTI 0) that
connects all bridges and LANs within the MST region. This switch supports up
to 58 instances. You should try to group VLANs which cover the same general
area of your network. However, remember that you must configure all bridges
within the same MSTI Region (page 4-161) with the same set of instances,
and the same instance (on each bridge) with the same set of VLANs. Also,
note that RSTP treats each MSTI region as a single node, connecting all
regions to the Common Spanning Tree.
Example
Console(config-mstp)#mst 1 vlan 2-5
Console(config-mstp)#
4-160
Spanning Tree Commands
4
mst priority
This command configures the priority of a spanning tree instance. Use the no form
to restore the default.
Syntax
mst instance_id priority priority
no mst instance_id priority
• instance_id - Instance identifier of the spanning tree. (Range: 0-4094)
• priority - Priority of the a spanning tree instance.
(Range: 0-61440 in steps of 4096; Options: 0, 4096, 8192, 12288, 16384,
20480, 24576, 28672, 32768, 36864, 40960, 45056, 49152, 53248, 57344,
61440)
Default Setting
32768
Command Mode
MST Configuration
Command Usage
• MST priority is used in selecting the root bridge and alternate bridge of the
specified instance. The device with the highest priority (i.e., lowest numerical
value) becomes the MSTI root device. However, if all devices have the same
priority, the device with the lowest MAC address will then become the root
device.
• You can set this switch to act as the MSTI root device by specifying a priority
of 0, or as the MSTI alternate device by specifying a priority of 16384.
Example
Console(config-mstp)#mst 1 priority 4096
Console(config-mstp)#
name
This command configures the name for the multiple spanning tree region in which
this switch is located. Use the no form to clear the name.
Syntax
name name
name - Name of the spanning tree.
Default Setting
Switch’s MAC address
Command Mode
MST Configuration
4-161
4
Command Line Interface
Command Usage
The MST region name and revision number (page 4-162) are used to
designate a unique MST region. A bridge (i.e., spanning-tree compliant device
such as this switch) can only belong to one MST region. And all bridges in the
same region must be configured with the same MST instances.
Example
Console(config-mstp)#name R&D
Console(config-mstp)#
Related Commands
revision (4-162)
revision
This command configures the revision number for this multiple spanning tree
configuration of this switch. Use the no form to restore the default.
Syntax
revision number
number - Revision number of the spanning tree. (Range: 0-65535)
Default Setting
0
Command Mode
MST Configuration
Command Usage
The MST region name (page 4-161) and revision number are used to
designate a unique MST region. A bridge (i.e., spanning-tree compliant device
such as this switch) can only belong to one MST region. And all bridges in the
same region must be configured with the same MST instances.
Example
Console(config-mstp)#revision 1
Console(config-mstp)#
Related Commands
name (4-161)
4-162
Spanning Tree Commands
4
max-hops
This command configures the maximum number of hops in the region before a
BPDU is discarded. Use the no form to restore the default.
Syntax
max-hops hop-number
hop-number - Maximum hop number for multiple spanning tree.
(Range: 1-40)
Default Setting
20
Command Mode
MST Configuration
Command Usage
A MSTI region is treated as a single node by the STP and RSTP protocols.
Therefore, the message age for BPDUs inside a MSTI region is never
changed. However, each spanning tree instance within a region, and the
internal spanning tree (IST) that connects these instances use a hop count to
specify the maximum number of bridges that will propagate a BPDU. Each
bridge decrements the hop count by one before passing on the BPDU. When
the hop count reaches zero, the message is dropped.
Example
Console(config-mstp)#max-hops 30
Console(config-mstp)#
spanning-tree spanning-disabled
This command disables the spanning tree algorithm for the specified interface. Use
the no form to reenable the spanning tree algorithm for the specified interface.
Syntax
[no] spanning-tree spanning-disabled
Default Setting
Enabled
Command Mode
Interface Configuration (Ethernet, Port Channel)
Example
This example disables the spanning tree algorithm for port 5.
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/5
Console(config-if)#spanning-tree spanning-disabled
Console(config-if)#
4-163
4
Command Line Interface
spanning-tree cost
This command configures the spanning tree path cost for the specified interface.
Use the no form to restore the default.
Syntax
spanning-tree cost cost
no spanning-tree cost
cost - The path cost for the port. (Range: 1-200,000,000))
The recommended range is:
• Ethernet: 200,000-20,000,000
• Fast Ethernet: 20,000-2,000,000
• Gigabit Ethernet: 2,000-200,000
Default Setting
• Ethernet – half duplex: 2,000,000; full duplex: 1,000,000; trunk: 500,000
• Fast Ethernet – half duplex: 200,000; full duplex: 100,000; trunk: 50,000
• Gigabit Ethernet – full duplex: 10,000; trunk: 5,000
Command Mode
Interface Configuration (Ethernet, Port Channel)
Command Usage
• This command is used by the Spanning Tree Algorithm to determine the best
path between devices. Therefore, lower values should be assigned to ports
attached to faster media, and higher values assigned to ports with slower
media.
• Path cost takes precedence over port priority.
• When the spanning-tree pathcost method (page 4-158) is set to short, the
maximum value for path cost is 65,535.
Example
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/5
Console(config-if)#spanning-tree cost 50
Console(config-if)#
spanning-tree port-priority
This command configures the priority for the specified interface. Use the no form to
restore the default.
Syntax
spanning-tree port-priority priority
no spanning-tree port-priority
priority - The priority for a port. (Range: 0-240, in steps of 16)
4-164
Spanning Tree Commands
4
Default Setting
128
Command Mode
Interface Configuration (Ethernet, Port Channel)
Command Usage
• This command defines the priority for the use of a port in the Spanning Tree
Algorithm. If the path cost for all ports on a switch are the same, the port with
the highest priority (that is, lowest value) will be configured as an active link in
the spanning tree.
• Where more than one port is assigned the highest priority, the port with lowest
numeric identifier will be enabled.
Example
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/5
Console(config-if)#spanning-tree port-priority 0
Related Commands
spanning-tree cost (4-164)
spanning-tree edge-port
This command specifies an interface as an edge port. Use the no form to restore the
default.
Syntax
[no] spanning-tree edge-port
Default Setting
Disabled
Command Mode
Interface Configuration (Ethernet, Port Channel)
Command Usage
• You can enable this option if an interface is attached to a LAN segment that
is at the end of a bridged LAN or to an end node. Since end nodes cannot
cause forwarding loops, they can pass directly through to the spanning tree
forwarding state. Specifying Edge Ports provides quicker convergence for
devices such as workstations or servers, retains the current forwarding
database to reduce the amount of frame flooding required to rebuild address
tables during reconfiguration events, does not cause the spanning tree to
initiate reconfiguration when the interface changes state, and also overcomes
other STA-related timeout problems. However, remember that Edge Port
should only be enabled for ports connected to an end-node device.
• This command has the same effect as the spanning-tree portfast.
4-165
4
Command Line Interface
Example
Console(config)#interface ethernet ethernet 1/5
Console(config-if)#spanning-tree edge-port
Console(config-if)#
Related Commands
spanning-tree portfast (4-166)
spanning-tree portfast
This command sets an interface to fast forwarding. Use the no form to disable fast
forwarding.
Syntax
[no] spanning-tree portfast
Default Setting
Disabled
Command Mode
Interface Configuration (Ethernet, Port Channel)
Command Usage
• This command is used to enable/disable the fast spanning-tree mode for the
selected port. In this mode, ports skip the Discarding and Learning states, and
proceed straight to Forwarding.
• Since end-nodes cannot cause forwarding loops, they can be passed through
the spanning tree state changes more quickly than allowed by standard
convergence time. Fast forwarding can achieve quicker convergence for
end-node workstations and servers, and also overcome other STA related
timeout problems. (Remember that fast forwarding should only be enabled for
ports connected to a LAN segment that is at the end of a bridged LAN or for
an end-node device.)
• This command is the same as spanning-tree edge-port, and is only included
for backward compatibility with earlier products. Note that this command may
be removed for future software versions.
Example
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/5
Console(config-if)#bridge-group 1 portfast
Console(config-if)#
Related Commands
spanning-tree edge-port (4-165)
4-166
Spanning Tree Commands
4
spanning-tree link-type
This command configures the link type for Rapid Spanning Tree and Multiple
Spanning Tree. Use the no form to restore the default.
Syntax
spanning-tree link-type {auto | point-to-point | shared}
no spanning-tree link-type
• auto - Automatically derived from the duplex mode setting.
• point-to-point - Point-to-point link.
• shared - Shared medium.
Default Setting
auto
Command Mode
Interface Configuration (Ethernet, Port Channel)
Command Usage
• Specify a point-to-point link if the interface can only be connected to exactly
one other bridge, or a shared link if it can be connected to two or more bridges.
• When automatic detection is selected, the switch derives the link type from the
duplex mode. A full-duplex interface is considered a point-to-point link, while
a half-duplex interface is assumed to be on a shared link.
• RSTP only works on point-to-point links between two bridges. If you designate
a port as a shared link, RSTP is forbidden. Since MSTP is an extension of
RSTP, this same restriction applies.
Example
Console(config)#interface ethernet ethernet 1/5
Console(config-if)#spanning-tree link-type point-to-point
spanning-tree mst cost
This command configures the path cost on a spanning instance in the Multiple
Spanning Tree. Use the no form to restore the default.
Syntax
spanning-tree mst instance_id cost cost
no spanning-tree mst instance_id cost
• instance_id - Instance identifier of the spanning tree.
(Range: 1-4094, no leading zeroes)
• cost - Path cost for an interface. (Range: 1-200,000,000)
The recommended range is - Ethernet: 200,000-20,000,000
- Fast Ethernet: 20,000-2,000,000
- Gigabit Ethernet: 2,000-200,000
4-167
4
Command Line Interface
Default Setting
• Ethernet – half duplex: 2,000,000; full duplex: 1,000,000; trunk: 500,000
• Fast Ethernet – half duplex: 200,000; full duplex: 100,000; trunk: 50,000
• Gigabit Ethernet – full duplex: 10,000; trunk: 5,000
Command Mode
Interface Configuration (Ethernet, Port Channel)
Command Usage
• Each spanning-tree instance is associated with a unique set of VLAN IDs.
• This command is used by the multiple spanning-tree algorithm to determine
the best path between devices. Therefore, lower values should be assigned
to interfaces attached to faster media, and higher values assigned to
interfaces with slower media.
• Path cost takes precedence over interface priority.
Example
Console(config)#interface ethernet ethernet 1/5
Console(config-if)#spanning-tree mst 1 cost 50
Console(config-if)#
Related Commands
spanning-tree mst port-priority (4-168)
spanning-tree mst port-priority
This command configures the interface priority on a spanning instance in the
Multiple Spanning Tree. Use the no form to restore the default.
Syntax
spanning-tree mst instance_id port-priority priority
no spanning-tree mst instance_id port-priority
• instance_id - Instance identifier of the spanning tree.
(Range: 1-4094, no leading zeroes)
• priority - Priority for an interface. (Range: 0-240 in steps of 16)
Default Setting
128
Command Mode
Interface Configuration (Ethernet, Port Channel)
Command Usage
• This command defines the priority for the use of an interface in the multiple
spanning-tree. If the path cost for all interfaces on a switch are the same, the
4-168
4
Spanning Tree Commands
interface with the highest priority (that is, lowest value) will be configured as
an active link in the spanning tree.
• Where more than one interface is assigned the highest priority, the interface
with lowest numeric identifier will be enabled.
Example
Console(config)#interface ethernet ethernet 1/5
Console(config-if)#spanning-tree mst 1 port-priority 0
Console(config-if)#
Related Commands
spanning-tree mst cost (4-167)
spanning-tree protocol-migration
This command re-checks the appropriate BPDU format to send on the selected
interface.
Syntax
spanning-tree protocol-migration interface
interface
• ethernet unit/port
- unit - This is device 1.
- port - Port number.
• port-channel channel-id (Range: 1-6)
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
Command Usage
If at any time the switch detects STP BPDUs, including Configuration or
Topology Change Notification BPDUs, it will automatically set the selected
interface to forced STP-compatible mode. However, you can also use the
spanning-tree protocol-migration command at any time to manually
re-check the appropriate BPDU format to send on the selected interfaces (i.e.,
RSTP or STP-compatible).
Example
Console(config)#interface ethernet ethernet 1/5
Console(config-if)#spanning-tree protocol-migration
Console(config-if)#
4-169
4
Command Line Interface
show spanning-tree
This command shows the configuration for the common spanning tree (CST) or for
an instance within the multiple spanning tree (MST).
Syntax
show spanning-tree [interface | mst instance_id]
• interface
• ethernet unit/port
- unit - This is device 1.
- port - Port number.
• port-channel channel-id (Range: 1-6)
• instance_id - Instance identifier of the multiple spanning tree.
(Range: 0-4094, no leading zeroes)
Default Setting
None
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
Command Usage
• Use the show spanning-tree command with no parameters to display the
spanning tree configuration for the switch for the Common Spanning Tree
(CST) and for every interface in the tree.
• Use the show spanning-tree interface command to display the spanning tree
configuration for an interface within the Common Spanning Tree (CST).
• Use the show spanning-tree mst instance_id command to display the
spanning tree configuration for an instance within the Multiple Spanning Tree
(MST).
• For a description of the items displayed under “Spanning-tree information,”
see “Configuring Global Settings” on page 3-95. For a description of the items
displayed for specific interfaces, see “Displaying Interface Settings” on
page 3-99.
4-170
Spanning Tree Commands
4
Example
Console#show spanning-tree
Spanning-tree information
--------------------------------------------------------------Spanning tree mode
:MSTP
Spanning tree enable/disable
:enable
Instance
:0
Vlans configuration
:1-4094
Priority
:32768
Bridge Hello Time (sec.)
:2
Bridge Max Age (sec.)
:20
Bridge Forward Delay (sec.)
:15
Root Hello Time (sec.)
:2
Root Max Age (sec.)
:20
Root Forward Delay (sec.)
:15
Max hops
:20
Remaining hops
:20
Designated Root
:32768.0.0000ABCD0000
Current root port
:1
Current root cost
:200000
Number of topology changes
:1
Last topology changes time (sec.):22
Transmission limit
:3
Path Cost Method
:long
--------------------------------------------------------------Eth 1/ 1 information
--------------------------------------------------------------Admin status
: enable
Role
: root
State
: forwarding
External path cost
: 100000
Internal path cost
: 100000
Priority
: 128
Designated cost
: 200000
Designated port
: 128.24
Designated root
: 32768.0.0000ABCD0000
Designated bridge
: 32768.0.0030F1552000
Fast forwarding
: disable
Forward transitions : 1
Admin edge port
: enable
Oper edge port
: disable
Admin Link type
: auto
Oper Link type
: point-to-point
Spanning Tree Status : enable
.
.
.
Console#
4-171
4
Command Line Interface
show spanning-tree mst configuration
This command shows the configuration of the multiple spanning tree.
Syntax
show spanning-tree mst configuration
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
Example
Console#show spanning-tree mst configuration
Mstp Configuration Information
-------------------------------------------------------------Configuration name:00 00 a3 42 00 80
Revision level:0
Instance Vlans
-------------------------------------------------------------0
1-4094
Console#
VLAN Commands
A VLAN is a group of ports that can be located anywhere in the network, but
communicate as though they belong to the same physical segment. This section
describes commands used to create VLAN groups, add port members, specify how
VLAN tagging is used, and enable automatic VLAN registration for the selected
interface.
Table 4-52. VLAN Commands
Command Groups
Function
Editing VLAN Groups
Sets up VLAN groups, including name, VID and state
4-173
Configuring VLAN
Interfaces
Configures VLAN interface parameters, including ingress and egress
tagging mode, ingress filtering, PVID, and GVRP
4-175
Displaying VLAN
Information
Displays VLAN groups, status, port members, and MAC addresses
4-181
Configuring Private VLANs
Configures private VLANs, including uplink and downlink ports
Configuring Protocol VLANs Configures protocol-based VLANs based on frame type and protocol
4-172
Page
4-182
4-183
VLAN Commands
4
Editing VLAN Groups
Table 4-53. Editing VLAN Groups
Command
Function
Mode
vlan database
Enters VLAN database mode to add, change, and delete
VLANs
GC
Page
4-173
vlan
Configures a VLAN, including VID, name and state
VC
4-174
vlan database
This command enters VLAN database mode. All commands in this mode will take
effect immediately.
Default Setting
None
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Command Usage
• Use the VLAN database command mode to add, change, and delete VLANs.
After finishing configuration changes, you can display the VLAN settings by
entering the show vlan command.
• Use the interface vlan command mode to define the port membership mode
and add or remove ports from a VLAN. The results of these commands are
written to the running-configuration file, and you can display this file by
entering the show running-config command.
Example
Console(config)#vlan database
Console(config-vlan)#
Related Commands
show vlan (4-181)
4-173
4
Command Line Interface
vlan
This command configures a VLAN. Use the no form to restore the default settings or
delete a VLAN.
Syntax
vlan vlan-id [name vlan-name] media ethernet [state {active | suspend}]
no vlan vlan-id [name | state]
• vlan-id - ID of configured VLAN. (Range: 1-4094, no leading zeroes)
• name - Keyword to be followed by the VLAN name.
- vlan-name - ASCII string from 1 to 32 characters.
• media ethernet - Ethernet media type.
• state - Keyword to be followed by the VLAN state.
- active - VLAN is operational.
- suspend - VLAN is suspended. Suspended VLANs do not pass packets.
Default Setting
By default only VLAN 1 exists and is active.
Command Mode
VLAN Database Configuration
Command Usage
•
•
•
•
no vlan vlan-id deletes the VLAN.
no vlan vlan-id name removes the VLAN name.
no vlan vlan-id state returns the VLAN to the default state (i.e., active).
You can configure up to 255 VLANs on the switch.
Example
The following example adds a VLAN, using VLAN ID 105 and name RD5. The VLAN
is activated by default.
Console(config)#vlan database
Console(config-vlan)#vlan 105 name RD5 media ethernet
Console(config-vlan)#
Related Commands
show vlan (4-181)
4-174
4
VLAN Commands
Configuring VLAN Interfaces
Table 4-54. Configuring VLAN Interfaces
Command
Function
Mode
interface vlan
Enters interface configuration mode for a specified VLAN
IC
Page
switchport mode
Configures VLAN membership mode for an interface
IC
4-176
switchport
acceptable-frame-types
Configures frame types to be accepted by an interface
IC
4-176
switchport ingress-filtering
Enables ingress filtering on an interface
IC
4-177
switchport native vlan
Configures the PVID (native VLAN) of an interface
IC
4-178
switchport allowed vlan
Configures the VLANs associated with an interface
IC
4-179
switchport gvrp
Enables GVRP for an interface
IC
4-188
switchport forbidden vlan
Configures forbidden VLANs for an interface
IC
4-180
switchport priority default
Sets a port priority for incoming untagged frames
IC
4-193
4-175
interface vlan
This command enters interface configuration mode for VLANs, which is used to
configure VLAN parameters for a physical interface.
Syntax
interface vlan vlan-id
vlan-id - ID of the configured VLAN. (Range: 1-4094, no leading zeroes)
Default Setting
None
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Example
The following example shows how to set the interface configuration mode to
VLAN 1, and then assign an IP address to the VLAN:
Console(config)#interface vlan 1
Console(config-if)#ip address 192.168.1.254 255.255.255.0
Console(config-if)#
Related Commands
shutdown (4-130)
4-175
4
Command Line Interface
switchport mode
This command configures the VLAN membership mode for a port. Use the no form
to restore the default.
Syntax
switchport mode {trunk | hybrid}
no switchport mode
• trunk - Specifies a port as an end-point for a VLAN trunk. A trunk is a direct
link between two switches, so the port transmits tagged frames that identify
the source VLAN. Note that frames belonging to the port’s default VLAN
(i.e., associated with the PVID) are also transmitted as tagged frames.
• hybrid - Specifies a hybrid VLAN interface. The port may transmit tagged
or untagged frames.
Default Setting
All ports are in hybrid mode with the PVID set to VLAN 1.
Command Mode
Interface Configuration (Ethernet, Port Channel)
Example
The following shows how to set the configuration mode to port 1, and then set the
switchport mode to hybrid:
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/1
Console(config-if)#switchport mode hybrid
Console(config-if)#
Related Commands
switchport acceptable-frame-types (4-176)
switchport acceptable-frame-types
This command configures the acceptable frame types for a port. Use the no form to
restore the default.
Syntax
switchport acceptable-frame-types {all | tagged}
no switchport acceptable-frame-types
• all - The port accepts all frames, tagged or untagged.
• tagged - The port only receives tagged frames.
Default Setting
All frame types
4-176
VLAN Commands
4
Command Mode
Interface Configuration (Ethernet, Port Channel)
Command Usage
When set to receive all frame types, any received frames that are untagged
are assigned to the default VLAN.
Example
The following example shows how to restrict the traffic received on port 1 to tagged
frames:
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/1
Console(config-if)#switchport acceptable-frame-types tagged
Console(config-if)#
Related Commands
switchport mode (4-176)
switchport ingress-filtering
This command enables ingress filtering for an interface. Use the no form to restore
the default.
Syntax
[no] switchport ingress-filtering
Default Setting
Disabled
Command Mode
Interface Configuration (Ethernet, Port Channel)
Command Usage
• Ingress filtering only affects tagged frames.
• If ingress filtering is disabled and a port receives frames tagged for VLANs for
which it is not a member, these frames will be flooded to all other ports (except
for those VLANs explicitly forbidden on this port).
• If ingress filtering is enabled and a port receives frames tagged for VLANs for
which it is not a member, these frames will be discarded.
• Ingress filtering does not affect VLAN independent BPDU frames, such as
GVRP or STA. However, they do affect VLAN dependent BPDU frames, such
as GMRP.
4-177
4
Command Line Interface
Example
The following example shows how to set the interface to port 1 and then enable
ingress filtering:
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/1
Console(config-if)#switchport ingress-filtering
Console(config-if)#
switchport native vlan
This command configures the PVID (i.e., default VLAN ID) for a port. Use the no
form to restore the default.
Syntax
switchport native vlan vlan-id
no switchport native vlan
vlan-id - Default VLAN ID for a port. (Range: 1-4094, no leading zeroes)
Default Setting
VLAN 1
Command Mode
Interface Configuration (Ethernet, Port Channel)
Command Usage
• If an interface is not a member of VLAN 1 and you assign its PVID to this
VLAN, the interface will automatically be added to VLAN 1 as an untagged
member. For all other VLANs, an interface must first be configured as an
untagged member before you can assign its PVID to that group.
• If acceptable frame types is set to all or switchport mode is set to hybrid, the
PVID will be inserted into all untagged frames entering the ingress port.
Example
The following example shows how to set the PVID for port 1 to VLAN 3:
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/1
Console(config-if)#switchport native vlan 3
Console(config-if)#
4-178
VLAN Commands
4
switchport allowed vlan
This command configures VLAN groups on the selected interface. Use the no form
to restore the default.
Syntax
switchport allowed vlan {add vlan-list [tagged | untagged] |
remove vlan-list}
no switchport allowed vlan
• add vlan-list - List of VLAN identifiers to add.
• remove vlan-list - List of VLAN identifiers to remove.
• vlan-list - Separate nonconsecutive VLAN identifiers with a comma and no
spaces; use a hyphen to designate a range of IDs. Do not enter leading
zeros. (Range: 1-4094).
Default Setting
All ports are assigned to VLAN 1 by default.
The default frame type is untagged.
Command Mode
Interface Configuration (Ethernet, Port Channel)
Command Usage
• A port, or a trunk with switchport mode set to hybrid, must be assigned to at
least one VLAN as untagged.
• If a trunk has switchport mode set to trunk (i.e., 1Q Trunk), then you can only
assign an interface to VLAN groups as a tagged member.
• Frames are always tagged within the switch. The tagged/untagged parameter
used when adding a VLAN to an interface tells the switch whether to keep or
remove the tag from a frame on egress.
• If none of the intermediate network devices nor the host at the other end of the
connection supports VLANs, the interface should be added to these VLANs
as an untagged member. Otherwise, it is only necessary to add at most one
VLAN as untagged, and this should correspond to the native VLAN for the
interface.
• If a VLAN on the forbidden list for an interface is manually added to that
interface, the VLAN is automatically removed from the forbidden list for that
interface.
Example
The following example shows how to add VLANs 1, 2, 5 and 6 to the allowed list as
tagged VLANs for port 1:
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/1
Console(config-if)#switchport allowed vlan add 1,2,5,6 tagged
Console(config-if)#
4-179
4
Command Line Interface
switchport forbidden vlan
This command configures forbidden VLANs. Use the no form to remove the list of
forbidden VLANs.
Syntax
switchport forbidden vlan {add vlan-list | remove vlan-list}
no switchport forbidden vlan
• add vlan-list - List of VLAN identifiers to add.
• remove vlan-list - List of VLAN identifiers to remove.
• vlan-list - Separate nonconsecutive VLAN identifiers with a comma and no
spaces; use a hyphen to designate a range of IDs. Do not enter leading
zeros. (Range: 1-4094).
Default Setting
No VLANs are included in the forbidden list.
Command Mode
Interface Configuration (Ethernet, Port Channel)
Command Usage
• This command prevents a VLAN from being automatically added to the
specified interface via GVRP.
• If a VLAN has been added to the set of allowed VLANs for an interface, then
you cannot add it to the set of forbidden VLANs for that same interface.
Example
The following example shows how to prevent port 1 from being added to VLAN 3:
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/1
Console(config-if)#switchport forbidden vlan add 3
Console(config-if)#
4-180
VLAN Commands
4
Displaying VLAN Information
Table 4-55. Show VLAN Commands
Command
Function
Mode
show vlan
Shows VLAN information
NE, PE
Page
show interfaces status vlan
Displays status for the specified VLAN interface
NE, PE
4-133
show interfaces switchport
Displays the administrative and operational status of an
interface
NE, PE
4-135
4-181
show vlan
This command shows VLAN information.
Syntax
show vlan [id vlan-id | name vlan-name]
• id - Keyword to be followed by the VLAN ID.
- vlan-id - ID of the configured VLAN. (Range: 1-4094, no leading zeroes)
• name - Keyword to be followed by the VLAN name.
- vlan-name - ASCII string from 1 to 32 characters.
Default Setting
Shows all VLANs.
Command Mode
Normal Exec, Privileged Exec
Example
The following example shows how to display information for VLAN 1:
Console#show vlan id 1
VLAN Type
Name
Status
Ports/Channel groups
---- ------- ---------------- --------- ---------------------------------1 Static
DefaultVlan
Active Eth1/ 1 Eth1/ 2 Eth1/ 3 Eth1/ 4 Eth1/ 5
Eth1/ 6 Eth1/ 7 Eth1/ 8 Eth1/ 9 Eth1/10
Eth1/11 Eth1/12 Eth1/13 Eth1/14 Eth1/15
Eth1/16 Eth1/17 Eth1/18 Eth1/19 Eth1/20
Eth1/21 Eth1/22 Eth1/23 Eth1/24 Eth1/25
Eth1/26 Eth1/27 Eth1/28 Eth1/29 Eth1/30
Eth1/31 Eth1/32 Eth1/33 Eth1/34 Eth1/35
Eth1/36 Eth1/37 Eth1/38 Eth1/39 Eth1/40
Eth1/41 Eth1/42 Eth1/43 Eth1/44 Eth1/45
Eth1/46 Eth1/47 Eth1/48
Console#
4-181
4
Command Line Interface
Configuring Private VLANs
Private VLANs provide port-based security and isolation between ports within the
assigned VLAN. This section describes commands used to configure private VlANs.
Table 4-56. Private VLAN Commands
Command
Function
Mode
pvlan
Enables and configured private VLANS
GC
Page
4-182
show pvlan
Displays the configured private VLANS
PE
4-183
pvlan
This command enables or configures a private VLAN. Use the no form to disable the
private VLAN.
Syntax
pvlan [up-link interface-list down-link interface-list]
no pvlan
• up-link – Specifies an uplink interface.
• down-link – Specifies a downlink interface.
Default Setting
No private VLANs are defined.
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Command Usage
• A private VLAN provides port-based security and isolation between ports
within the VLAN. Data traffic on the downlink ports can only be forwarded to,
and from, the uplink port.
• Private VLANs and normal VLANs can exist simultaneously within the same
switch.
• Entering the pvlan command without any parameters enables the private
VLAN. Entering no pvlan disables the private VLAN.
Example
This example enables the private VLAN, and then sets port 24 as the uplink and
ports 1-4 as the downlinks.
Console(config)#pvlan
Console(config)#pvlan up-link ethernet 1/24 down-link ethernet 1/1-4
Console(config)#
4-182
VLAN Commands
4
show pvlan
This command displays the configured private VLAN.
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
Example
Console#show pvlan
Private VLAN status: Enabled
Up-link port:
Ethernet 1/24
Down-link port:
Ethernet 1/1
Ethernet 1/2
Ethernet 1/3
Ethernet 1/4
Console#
Configuring Protocol-based VLANs
The network devices required to support multiple protocols cannot be easily grouped
into a common VLAN. This may require non-standard devices to pass traffic
between different VLANs in order to encompass all the devices participating in a
specific protocol. This kind of configuration deprives users of the basic benefits of
VLANs, including security and easy accessibility.
To avoid these problems, you can configure this switch with protocol-based VLANs
that divide the physical network into logical VLAN groups for each required protocol.
When a frame is received at a port, its VLAN membership can then be determined
based on the protocol type in use by the inbound packets.
Table 4-57. Protocol VLAN Commands
Command
Function
Mode
protocol-vlan protocol-group Create a protocol group, specifying the supported protocols GC
Page
4-184
protocol-vlan protocol-group Maps a protocol group to a VLAN
IC
4-184
show protocol-vlan
protocol-group
PE
4-185
Shows the interfaces mapped to a protocol group and the PE
show interfaces
protocol-vlan protocol-group corresponding VLAN
4-186
Shows the configuration of protocol groups
To configure protocol-based VLANs, follow these steps:
1.
2.
3.
First configure VLAN groups for the protocols you want to use (page 4-174).
Although not mandatory, we suggest configuring a separate VLAN for each
major protocol running on your network. Do not add port members at this time.
Create a protocol group for each protocol you want to assign to a VLAN using
the protocol-vlan protocol-group command (General Configuration mode).
Then map the protocol for each interface to the appropriate VLAN using the
protocol-vlan protocol-group command (Interface Configuration mode).
4-183
4
Command Line Interface
protocol-vlan protocol-group (Configuring Groups)
This command creates a protocol group, or to add specific protocols to a group. Use
the no form to remove a protocol group.
Syntax
protocol-vlan protocol-group group-id [{add | remove} frame_type frame
protocol-type protocol]
no protocol-vlan protocol-group group-id
• group-id - Group identifier of this protocol group. (Range: 1-2147483647)
• frame - Frame type used by this protocol. (Options: ethernet, rfc_1042,
llc_other)
• protocol - Protocol type. The only option for the llc_other frame type is
ipx_raw. The options for all other frames types include: ip, arp, rarp.
Default Setting
No protocol groups are configured.
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Example
The following creates protocol group 1, and specifies Ethernet frames with IP and
ARP protocol types:
Console(config)#protocol-vlan protocol-group 1 add frame-type ethernet
protocol-type ip
Console(config)#protocol-vlan protocol-group 1 add frame-type ethernet
protocol-type arp
Console(config)#
protocol-vlan protocol-group (Configuring Interfaces)
This command maps a protocol group to a VLAN for the current interface. Use the
no form to remove the protocol mapping for this interface.
Syntax
protocol-vlan protocol-group group-id vlan vlan-id
no protocol-vlan protocol-group group-id vlan
• group-id - Group identifier of this protocol group. (Range: 1-2147483647)
• vlan-id - VLAN to which matching protocol traffic is forwarded.
(Range: 1-4094)
Default Setting
No protocol groups are mapped for any interface.
Command Mode
Interface Configuration (Ethernet, Port Channel)
4-184
VLAN Commands
4
Command Usage
• When creating a protocol-based VLAN, only assign interfaces via this
command. If you assign interfaces using any of the other VLAN commands
(such as vlan on page 4-174), these interfaces will admit traffic of any protocol
type into the associated VLAN.
• When a frame enters a port that has been assigned to a protocol VLAN, it is
processed in the following manner:
- If the frame is tagged, it will be processed according to the standard rules
applied to tagged frames.
- If the frame is untagged and the protocol type matches, the frame is
forwarded to the appropriate VLAN.
- If the frame is untagged but the protocol type does not match, the frame is
forwarded to the default VLAN for this interface.
Example
The following example maps the traffic entering Port 1 which matches the protocol
type specified in protocol group 1 to VLAN 2.
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/1
Console(config-if)#protocol-vlan protocol-group 1 vlan 2
Console(config-if)#
show protocol-vlan protocol-group
This command shows the frame and protocol type associated with protocol groups.
Syntax
show protocol-vlan protocol-group [group-id]
group-id - Group identifier for a protocol group. (Range: 1-2147483647)
Default Setting
All protocol groups are displayed.
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
Example
This shows protocol group 1 configured for IP over Ethernet:
Console#show protocol-vlan protocol-group
ProtocolGroup ID
Frame Type
Protocol Type
------------------ ------------- --------------1
ethernet
08 00
Console#
4-185
4
Command Line Interface
show interfaces protocol-vlan protocol-group
This command shows the mapping from protocol groups to VLANs for the selected
interfaces.
Syntax
show interfaces protocol-vlan protocol-group [interface]
interface
• ethernet unit/port
- unit - This is device 1.
- port - Port number.
• port-channel channel-id (Range: 1-6)
Default Setting
The mapping for all interfaces is displayed.
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
Example
This shows that traffic entering Port 1 that matches the specifications for protocol
group 1 will be mapped to VLAN 2:
Console#show interfaces protocol-vlan protocol-group
Port
ProtocolGroup ID
Vlan ID
---------- ------------------ ----------Eth 1/1
1
vlan2
Console#
4-186
GVRP and Bridge Extension Commands
4
GVRP and Bridge Extension Commands
GARP VLAN Registration Protocol defines a way for switches to exchange VLAN
information in order to automatically register VLAN members on interfaces across
the network. This section describes how to enable GVRP for individual interfaces
and globally for the switch, as well as how to display default configuration settings
for the Bridge Extension MIB.
Table 4-58. GVRP and Bridge Extension Commands
Command
Function
Mode
bridge-ext gvrp
Enables GVRP globally for the switch
GC
Page
4-187
show bridge-ext
Shows the global bridge extension configuration
PE
4-188
switchport gvrp
Enables GVRP for an interface
IC
4-188
switchport forbidden vlan
Configures forbidden VLANs for an interface
IC
show gvrp configuration
Displays GVRP configuration for the selected interface NE, PE
4-189
garp timer
Sets the GARP timer for the selected function
IC
4-189
show garp timer
Shows the GARP timer for the selected function
NE, PE
4-190
4-180
bridge-ext gvrp
This command enables GVRP globally for the switch. Use the no form to disable it.
Syntax
[no] bridge-ext gvrp
Default Setting
Disabled
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Command Usage
GVRP defines a way for switches to exchange VLAN information in order to
register VLAN members on ports across the network. This function should be
enabled to permit automatic VLAN registration, and to support VLANs which
extend beyond the local switch.
Example
Console(config)#bridge-ext gvrp
Console(config)#
4-187
4
Command Line Interface
show bridge-ext
This command shows the configuration for bridge extension commands.
Default Setting
None
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
Command Usage
See “Displaying Basic VLAN Information” on page 3-113 and “Displaying
Bridge Extension Capabilities” on page 3-12 for a description of the displayed
items.
Example
Console#show bridge-ext
Max support vlan numbers: 255
Max support vlan ID: 4094
Extended multicast filtering services: No
Static entry individual port: Yes
VLAN learning: IVL
Configurable PVID tagging: Yes
Local VLAN capable: No
Traffic classes: Enabled
Global GVRP status: Enabled
GMRP: Disabled
Console#
switchport gvrp
This command enables GVRP for a port. Use the no form to disable it.
Syntax
[no] switchport gvrp
Default Setting
Disabled
Command Mode
Interface Configuration (Ethernet, Port Channel)
Example
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/1
Console(config-if)#switchport gvrp
Console(config-if)#
4-188
4
GVRP and Bridge Extension Commands
show gvrp configuration
This command shows if GVRP is enabled.
Syntax
show gvrp configuration [interface]
interface
• ethernet unit/port
- unit - This is device 1.
- port - Port number.
• port-channel channel-id (Range: 1-6)
Default Setting
Shows both global and interface-specific configuration.
Command Mode
Normal Exec, Privileged Exec
Example
Console#show gvrp configuration ethernet 1/7
Eth 1/ 7:
Gvrp configuration: Disabled
Console#
garp timer
This command sets the values for the join, leave and leaveall timers. Use the no
form to restore the timers’ default values.
Syntax
garp timer {join | leave | leaveall} timer_value
no garp timer {join | leave | leaveall}
• {join | leave | leaveall} - Which timer to set.
• timer_value - Value of timer.
Ranges:
join: 20-1000 centiseconds
leave: 60-3000 centiseconds
leaveall: 500-18000 centiseconds
Default Setting
• join: 20 centiseconds
• leave: 60 centiseconds
• leaveall: 1000 centiseconds
Command Mode
Interface Configuration (Ethernet, Port Channel)
4-189
4
Command Line Interface
Command Usage
• Group Address Registration Protocol is used by GVRP and GMRP to register
or deregister client attributes for client services within a bridged LAN. The
default values for the GARP timers are independent of the media access
method or data rate. These values should not be changed unless you are
experiencing difficulties with GMRP or GVRP registration/deregistration.
• Timer values are applied to GVRP for all the ports on all VLANs.
• Timer values must meet the following restrictions:
- leave >= (2 x join)
- leaveall > leave
Note: Set GVRP timers on all Layer 2 devices connected in the same network to
the same values. Otherwise, GVRP may not operate successfully.
Example
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/1
Console(config-if)#garp timer join 100
Console(config-if)#
Related Commands
show garp timer (4-190)
show garp timer
This command shows the GARP timers for the selected interface.
Syntax
show garp timer [interface]
interface
• ethernet unit/port
- unit - This is device 1.
- port - Port number.
• port-channel channel-id (Range: 1-6)
Default Setting
Shows all GARP timers.
Command Mode
Normal Exec, Privileged Exec
Example
Console#show garp timer ethernet 1/1
Eth 1/ 1 GARP timer status:
Join timer: 20 centiseconds
Leave timer: 60 centiseconds
Leaveall timer: 1000 centiseconds
Console#
4-190
Priority Commands
4
Related Commands
garp timer (4-189)
Priority Commands
The commands described in this section allow you to specify which data packets
have greater precedence when traffic is buffered in the switch due to congestion.
This switch supports CoS with eight priority queues for each port. Data packets in a
port’s high-priority queue will be transmitted before those in the lower-priority
queues. You can set the default priority for each interface, the relative weight of each
queue, and the mapping of frame priority tags to the switch’s priority queues.
Table 4-59. Priority Commands
Command Groups
Function
Priority (Layer 2)
Configures default priority for untagged frames, sets queue weights,
and maps class of service tags to hardware queues
Page
4-191
Priority (Layer 3 and 4)
Maps TCP ports, IP precedence tags, or IP DSCP tags to class of
service values
4-197
Priority Commands (Layer 2)
Table 4-60. Priority Commands (Layer 2)
Command
Function
Mode
queue mode
Sets the queue mode to strict priority or Weighted
Round-Robin (WRR)
GC
Page
4-192
switchport priority default
Sets a port priority for incoming untagged frames
IC
4-193
queue bandwidth
Assigns round-robin weights to the priority queues
IC
4-193
queue cos map
Assigns class-of-service values to the priority queues
IC
4-194
show queue mode
Shows the current queue mode
PE
4-195
show queue bandwidth
Shows round-robin weights assigned to the priority queues
PE
4-196
show queue cos-map
Shows the class-of-service map
PE
4-196
PE
4-135
show interfaces switchport Displays the administrative and operational status of an
interface
4-191
4
Command Line Interface
queue mode
This command sets the queue mode to strict priority or Weighted Round-Robin
(WRR) for the class of service (CoS) priority queues. Use the no form to restore the
default value.
Syntax
queue mode {strict | wrr}
no queue mode
• strict - Services the egress queues in sequential order, transmitting all
traffic in the higher priority queues before servicing lower priority queues.
• wrr - Weighted Round-Robin shares bandwidth at the egress ports by using
scheduling weights 1, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 14 for queues 0 - 7 respectively.
Default Setting
Weighted Round Robin
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Command Usage
You can set the switch to service the queues based on a strict rule that
requires all traffic in a higher priority queue to be processed before lower
priority queues are serviced, or use Weighted Round-Robin (WRR) queuing
that specifies a relative weight of each queue. WRR uses a predefined relative
weight for each queue that determines the percentage of service time the
switch services each queue before moving on to the next queue. This
prevents the head-of-line blocking that can occur with strict priority queuing.
Example
The following example sets the queue mode to strict priority service mode:
Console(config)#queue mode strict
Console(config)#
4-192
4
Priority Commands
switchport priority default
This command sets a priority for incoming untagged frames. Use the no form to
restore the default value.
Syntax
switchport priority default default-priority-id
no switchport priority default
default-priority-id - The priority number for untagged ingress traffic.
The priority is a number from 0 to 7. Seven is the highest priority.
Default Setting
The priority is not set, and the default value for untagged frames received on
the interface is zero.
Command Mode
Interface Configuration (Ethernet, Port Channel)
Command Usage
• The precedence for priority mapping is IP Port, IP Precedence or IP DSCP,
and default switchport priority.
• The default priority applies for an untagged frame received on a port set to
accept all frame types (i.e, receives both untagged and tagged frames). This
priority does not apply to IEEE 802.1Q VLAN tagged frames. If the incoming
frame is an IEEE 802.1Q VLAN tagged frame, the IEEE 802.1p User Priority
bits will be used.
• This switch provides eight priority queues for each port. It is configured to use
Weighted Round Robin, which can be viewed with the show queue
bandwidth command. Inbound frames that do not have VLAN tags are
tagged with the input port’s default ingress user priority, and then placed in the
appropriate priority queue at the output port. The default priority for all ingress
ports is zero. Therefore, any inbound frames that do not have priority tags will
be placed in queue 0 of the output port. (Note that if the output port is an
untagged member of the associated VLAN, these frames are stripped of all
VLAN tags prior to transmission.)
Example
The following example shows how to set a default priority on port 3 to 5:
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/3
Console(config-if)#switchport priority default 5
4-193
4
Command Line Interface
queue bandwidth
This command assigns weighted round-robin (WRR) weights to the eight class of
service (CoS) priority queues. Use the no form to restore the default weights.
Syntax
queue bandwidth weight1...weight4
no queue bandwidth
weight1...weight4 - The ratio of weights for queues 0 - 3 determines the
weights used by the WRR scheduler. (Range: 1 - 15)
Default Setting
Weights 1, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 14 are assigned to queues 0 - 7 respectively.
Command Mode
Interface Configuration (Ethernet, Port Channel)
Command Usage
WRR controls bandwidth sharing at the egress port by defining scheduling
weights.
Example
This example shows how to assign WRR weights to each of the priority queues:
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/8
Console(config-if)#queue bandwidth 1 3 5 7 9 11 13 15
Console(config-if)#
Related Commands
show queue bandwidth (4-196)
queue cos-map
This command assigns class of service (CoS) values to the priority queues (i.e.,
hardware output queues 0 - 7). Use the no form set the CoS map to the default
values.
Syntax
queue cos-map queue_id [cos1 ... cosn]
no queue cos-map
• queue_id - The ID of the priority queue.
Ranges are 0 to 7, where 7 is the highest priority queue.
• cos1 .. cosn - The CoS values that are mapped to the queue ID. It is a
space-separated list of numbers. The CoS value is a number from 0 to 7,
where 7 is the highest priority.
4-194
4
Priority Commands
Default Setting
This switch supports Class of Service by using eight priority queues, with
Weighted Round Robin queuing for each port. Eight separate traffic classes
are defined in IEEE 802.1p. The default priority levels are assigned according
to recommendations in the IEEE 802.1p standard as shown below.
Table 4-61. Default CoS Priority Levels
Queue
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
Priority
2
0
1
3
4
5
6
7
Command Mode
Interface Configuration (Ethernet, Port Channel)
Command Usage
• CoS values assigned at the ingress port are also used at the egress port.
• This command sets the CoS priority for all interfaces.
Example
The following example shows how to change the CoS assignments to a one-to-one
mapping:
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/1
Console(config-if)#queue cos-map 0 0
Console(config-if)#queue cos-map 1 1
Console(config-if)#queue cos-map 2 2
Console(config-if)#exit
Console#show queue cos-map ethernet 1/1
Information of Eth 1/1
Cos Value
: 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
Priority Queue: 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
Console#
Related Commands
show queue cos-map (4-196)
show queue mode
This command shows the current queue mode.
Default Setting
None
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
4-195
4
Command Line Interface
Example
Console#show queue mode
Queue mode: strict
Console#
show queue bandwidth
This command displays the weighted round-robin (WRR) bandwidth allocation for
the eight priority queues.
Default Setting
None
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
Example
Console#show queue bandwidth
Information of Eth 1/1
Queue ID Weight
-------- -----0
1
1
2
2
4
3
6
4
8
5
10
6
12
7
14
.
.
.
Console#
show queue cos-map
This command shows the class of service priority map.
Syntax
show queue cos-map [interface]
interface
• ethernet unit/port
- unit - This is device 1.
- port - Port number.
• port-channel channel-id (Range: 1-6)
Default Setting
None
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
4-196
Priority Commands
4
Example
Console#show queue
Information of Eth
CoS Value
: 0
Priority Queue: 0
Console#
cos-map ethernet 1/1
1/1
1 2 3 4 5 6 7
1 2 3 4 5 6 7
Priority Commands (Layer 3 and 4)
Table 4-62. Priority Commands (Layer 3 and 4)
Command
Function
Mode
map ip port
Enables TCP class of service mapping
GC
map ip port
Maps TCP socket to a class of service
IC
4-198
map ip precedence
Enables IP precedence class of service mapping
GC
4-198
map ip precedence
Maps IP precedence value to a class of service
IC
4-199
map ip dscp
Enables IP DSCP class of service mapping
GC
4-200
map ip dscp
Maps IP DSCP value to a class of service
IC
4-200
map access-list ip
Sets the CoS value and corresponding output queue for
packets matching an ACL rule
IC
4-98
map access-list mac
Sets the CoS value and corresponding output queue for
packets matching an ACL rule
IC
4-108
show map ip port
Shows the IP port map
PE
4-201
show map ip precedence
Shows the IP precedence map
PE
4-202
show map ip dscp
Shows the IP DSCP map
PE
4-203
show map access-list ip
Shows CoS value mapped to an access list for an interface
PE
4-99
PE
4-109
show map access-list mac Shows CoS value mapped to an access for an interface
Page
4-197
map ip port (Global Configuration)
This command enables IP port mapping (i.e., class of service mapping for TCP/UDP
sockets). Use the no form to disable IP port mapping.
Syntax
[no] map ip port
Default Setting
Disabled
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Command Usage
The precedence for priority mapping is IP Port, IP Precedence or IP DSCP,
and default switchport priority.
4-197
4
Command Line Interface
Example
The following example shows how to enable TCP/UDP port mapping globally:
Console(config)#map ip port
Console(config)#
map ip port (Interface Configuration)
This command enables IP port mapping (i.e., TCP/UDP port priority). Use the no
form to remove a specific setting.
Syntax
map ip port port number cos cos-value
no map ip port port-number
• port-number - 16-bit TCP/UDP port number.(Range 1-65535)
• cos-value - Class-of-Service value. (Range: 0-7)
Default Setting
None
Command Mode
Interface Configuration (Ethernet, Port Channel)
Command Usage
• The precedence for priority mapping is IP Port, IP Precedence or IP DSCP,
and default switchport priority.
• This command sets the IP port priority for all interfaces.
Example
The following example shows how to map HTTP traffic to CoS value 0:
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/5
Console(config-if)#map ip port 80 cos 0
Console(config-if)#
map ip precedence (Global Configuration)
This command enables IP precedence mapping (i.e., IP Type of Service). Use the
no form to disable IP precedence mapping.
Syntax
[no] map ip precedence
Default Setting
Disabled
Command Mode
Global Configuration
4-198
4
Priority Commands
Command Usage
• The precedence for priority mapping is IP Port, IP Precedence or IP DSCP,
and default switchport priority.
• IP Precedence and IP DSCP cannot both be enabled. Enabling one of these
priority types will automatically disable the other type.
Example
The following example shows how to enable IP precedence mapping globally:
Console(config)#map ip precedence
Console(config)#
map ip precedence (Interface Configuration)
This command sets IP precedence priority (i.e., IP Type of Service priority). Use the
no form to restore the default table.
Syntax
map ip precedence ip-precedence-value cos cos-value
no map ip precedence
• precedence-value - 3-bit precedence value. (Range: 0-7)
• cos-value - Class-of-Service value (Range: 0-7)
Default Setting
The list below shows the default priority mapping.
Table 4-63. Mapping IP Precedence to CoS Values
IP Precedence Value
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
CoS Value
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
Command Mode
Interface Configuration (Ethernet, Port Channel)
Command Usage
• The precedence for priority mapping is IP Port, IP Precedence or IP DSCP,
and default switchport priority.
• IP Precedence values are mapped to default Class of Service values on a
one-to-one basis according to recommendations in the IEEE 802.1p standard,
and then subsequently mapped to the eight hardware priority queues.
• This command sets the IP Precedence for all interfaces.
Example
The following example shows how to map IP precedence value 1 to CoS value 0:
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/5
Console(config-if)#map ip precedence 1 cos 0
Console(config-if)#
4-199
4
Command Line Interface
map ip dscp (Global Configuration)
This command enables IP DSCP mapping (i.e., Differentiated Services Code Point
mapping). Use the no form to disable IP DSCP mapping.
Syntax
[no] map ip dscp
Default Setting
Disabled
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Command Usage
• The precedence for priority mapping is IP Port, IP Precedence or IP DSCP,
and default switchport priority.
• IP Precedence and IP DSCP cannot both be enabled. Enabling one of these
priority types will automatically disable the other type.
Example
The following example shows how to enable IP DSCP mapping globally:
Console(config)#map ip dscp
Console(config)#
map ip dscp (Interface Configuration)
This command sets IP DSCP priority (i.e., Differentiated Services Code Point
priority). Use the no form to restore the default table.
Syntax
map ip dscp dscp-value cos cos-value
no map ip dscp
• dscp-value - DSCP value. (Range: 0-63)
• cos-value - Class-of-Service value (Range: 0-7)
4-200
Priority Commands
4
Default Setting
The DSCP default values are defined in the following table. Note that all the
DSCP values that are not specified are mapped to CoS value 0.
Table 4-64. Mapping IP DSCP to CoS Values
IP DSCP Value
CoS Value
0
0
8
1
10, 12, 14, 16
2
18, 20, 22, 24
3
26, 28, 30, 32, 34, 36
4
38, 40, 42
5
48
6
46, 56
7
Command Mode
Interface Configuration (Ethernet, Port Channel)
Command Usage
• The precedence for priority mapping is IP Port, IP Precedence or IP DSCP,
and default switchport priority.
• DSCP priority values are mapped to default Class of Service values according
to recommendations in the IEEE 802.1p standard, and then subsequently
mapped to the eight hardware priority queues.
• This command sets the IP DSCP priority for all interfaces.
Example
The following example shows how to map IP DSCP value 1 to CoS value 0:
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/5
Console(config-if)#map ip dscp 1 cos 0
Console(config-if)#
show map ip port
This command shows the IP port priority map.
Syntax
show map ip port [interface]
interface
• ethernet unit/port
- unit - This is device 1.
- port - Port number.
• port-channel channel-id (Range: 1-6)
4-201
4
Command Line Interface
Default Setting
None
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
Example
The following shows that HTTP traffic has been mapped to CoS value 0:
Console#show map ip port ethernet 1/5
TCP port mapping status: enabled
Port
Port no. COS
--------- ---------- --Eth 1/ 5
80
0
Console#
Related Commands
map ip port (Global Configuration) (4-197)
map ip port (Interface Configuration) (4-198)
show map ip precedence
This command shows the IP precedence priority map.
Syntax
show map ip precedence [interface]
interface
• ethernet unit/port
- unit - This is device 1.
- port - Port number.
• port-channel channel-id (Range: 1-6)
Default Setting
None
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
4-202
Priority Commands
4
Example
Console#show map ip precedence ethernet 1/5
Precedence mapping status: disabled
Port
Precedence COS
--------- ---------- --Eth 1/ 5
0
0
Eth 1/ 5
1
1
Eth 1/ 5
2
2
Eth 1/ 5
3
3
Eth 1/ 5
4
4
Eth 1/ 5
5
5
Eth 1/ 5
6
6
Eth 1/ 5
7
7
Console#
Related Commands
map ip port (Global Configuration) (4-197)
map ip precedence (Interface Configuration) (4-199)
show map ip dscp
This command shows the IP DSCP priority map.
Syntax
show map ip dscp [interface]
interface
• ethernet unit/port
- unit - This is device 1.
- port - Port number.
• port-channel channel-id (Range: 1-6)
Default Setting
None
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
4-203
4
Command Line Interface
Example
Console#show map ip dscp ethernet 1/1
DSCP mapping status: disabled
Port
DSCP COS
--------- ---- --Eth 1/ 1
0
0
Eth 1/ 1
1
0
Eth 1/ 1
2
0
Eth 1/ 1
3
0
.
.
.
Eth 1/ 1
61
0
Eth 1/ 1
62
0
Eth 1/ 1
63
0
Console#
Related Commands
map ip dscp (Global Configuration) (4-200)
map ip dscp (Interface Configuration) (4-200)
Multicast Filtering Commands
This switch uses IGMP (Internet Group Management Protocol) to query for any
attached hosts that want to receive a specific multicast service. It identifies the ports
containing hosts requesting a service and sends data out to those ports only. It then
propagates the service request up to any neighboring multicast switch/router to
ensure that it will continue to receive the multicast service.
Table 4-65. Multicast Filtering Commands
Command Groups
Function
IGMP Snooping
Configures multicast groups via IGMP snooping or static assignment,
sets the IGMP version, displays current snooping and query settings,
and displays the multicast service and group members
Page
4-204
IGMP Query
Configures IGMP query parameters for multicast filtering at Layer 2
4-208
Static Multicast Routing
Configures static multicast router ports
4-211
IGMP Snooping Commands
Table 4-66. IGMP Snooping Commands
Command
Function
Mode
ip igmp snooping
Enables IGMP snooping
GC
4-205
GC
4-205
ip igmp snooping vlan static Adds an interface as a member of a multicast group
Page
ip igmp snooping version
Configures the IGMP version for snooping
GC
4-206
show ip igmp snooping
Shows the IGMP snooping and query configuration
PE
4-206
show mac-address-table
multicast
Shows the IGMP snooping MAC multicast list
PE
4-207
4-204
4
Multicast Filtering Commands
ip igmp snooping
This command enables IGMP snooping on this switch. Use the no form to disable it.
Syntax
[no] ip igmp snooping
Default Setting
Enabled
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Example
The following example enables IGMP snooping.
Console(config)#ip igmp snooping
Console(config)#
ip igmp snooping vlan static
This command adds a port to a multicast group. Use the no form to remove the port.
Syntax
[no] ip igmp snooping vlan vlan-id static ip-address interface
• vlan-id - VLAN ID (Range: 1-4094)
• ip-address - IP address for multicast group
• interface
• ethernet unit/port
- unit - This is device 1.
- port - Port number.
• port-channel channel-id (Range: 1-6)
Default Setting
None
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Example
The following shows how to statically configure a multicast group on a port:
Console(config)#ip igmp snooping vlan 1 static 224.0.0.12 ethernet 1/5
Console(config)#
4-205
4
Command Line Interface
ip igmp snooping version
This command configures the IGMP snooping version. Use the no form to restore
the default.
Syntax
ip igmp snooping version {1 | 2}
no ip igmp snooping version
• 1 - IGMP Version 1
• 2 - IGMP Version 2
Default Setting
IGMP Version 2
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Command Usage
• All systems on the subnet must support the same version. If there are legacy
devices in your network that only support Version 1, you will also have to
configure this switch to use Version 1.
• Some commands are only enabled for IGMPv2, including ip igmp
query-max-response-time and ip igmp query-timeout.
Example
The following configures the switch to use IGMP Version 1:
Console(config)#ip igmp snooping version 1
Console(config)#
show ip igmp snooping
This command shows the IGMP snooping configuration.
Default Setting
None
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
Command Usage
See “Configuring IGMP Snooping and Query Parameters” on page 3-140 for a
description of the displayed items.
4-206
4
Multicast Filtering Commands
Example
The following shows the current IGMP snooping configuration:
Console#show ip igmp snooping
Service status: Enabled
Querier status: Enabled
Query count: 2
Query interval: 125 sec
Query max response time: 10 sec
Router port expire time: 300 sec
IGMP snooping version: Version 2
Console#
show mac-address-table multicast
This command shows known multicast addresses.
Syntax
show mac-address-table multicast [vlan vlan-id] [user | igmp-snooping]
• vlan-id - VLAN ID (1 to 4094)
• user - Display only the user-configured multicast entries.
• igmp-snooping - Display only entries learned through IGMP snooping.
Default Setting
None
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
Command Usage
Member types displayed include IGMP or USER, depending on selected
options.
Example
The following shows the multicast entries learned through IGMP snooping for
VLAN 1:
Console#show mac-address-table multicast vlan 1 igmp-snooping
VLAN M'cast IP addr. Member ports Type
---- --------------- ------------ ------1
224.1.2.3
Eth1/11
IGMP
Console#
4-207
4
Command Line Interface
IGMP Query Commands (Layer 2)
Table 4-67. IGMP Query Commands (Layer 2)
Command
Function
ip igmp snooping querier
Allows this device to act as the querier for IGMP snooping GC
Mode
Page
4-208
ip igmp snooping
query-count
Configures the query count
GC
4-208
ip igmp snooping
query-interval
Configures the query interval
GC
4-209
ip igmp snooping
query-max-response-time
Configures the report delay
GC
4-210
ip igmp snooping
router-port-expire-time
Configures the query timeout
GC
4-210
ip igmp snooping querier
This command enables the switch as an IGMP querier. Use the no form to disable it.
Syntax
[no] ip igmp snooping querier
Default Setting
Enabled
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Command Usage
If enabled, the switch will serve as querier if elected. The querier is
responsible for asking hosts if they want to receive multicast traffic.
Example
Console(config)#ip igmp snooping querier
Console(config)#
ip igmp snooping query-count
This command configures the query count. Use the no form to restore the default.
Syntax
ip igmp snooping query-count count
no ip igmp snooping query-count
count - The maximum number of queries issued for which there has been
no response before the switch takes action to drop a client from the
multicast group. (Range: 2-10)
4-208
Multicast Filtering Commands
4
Default Setting
2 times
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Command Usage
The query count defines how long the querier waits for a response from a
multicast client before taking action. If a querier has sent a number of queries
defined by this command, but a client has not responded, a countdown timer
is started using the time defined by ip igmp snooping query-maxresponse-time. If the countdown finishes, and the client still has not
responded, then that client is considered to have left the multicast group.
Example
The following shows how to configure the query count to 10:
Console(config)#ip igmp snooping query-count 10
Console(config)#
Related Commands
ip igmp snooping query-max-response-time (4-210)
ip igmp snooping query-interval
This command configures the query interval. Use the no form to restore the default.
Syntax
ip igmp snooping query-interval seconds
no ip igmp snooping query-interval
seconds - The frequency at which the switch sends IGMP host-query
messages. (Range: 60-125)
Default Setting
125 seconds
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Example
The following shows how to configure the query interval to 100 seconds:
Console(config)#ip igmp snooping query-interval 100
Console(config)#
4-209
4
Command Line Interface
ip igmp snooping query-max-response-time
This command configures the query report delay. Use the no form to restore the
default.
Syntax
ip igmp snooping query-max-response-time seconds
no ip igmp snooping query-max-response-time
seconds - The report delay advertised in IGMP queries. (Range: 5- 25)
Default Setting
10 seconds
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Command Usage
• The switch must be using IGMPv2 for this command to take effect.
• This command defines the time after a query, during which a response is
expected from a multicast client. If a querier has sent a number of queries
defined by the ip igmp snooping query-count, but a client has not
responded, a countdown timer is started using an initial value set by this
command. If the countdown finishes, and the client still has not responded,
then that client is considered to have left the multicast group.
Example
The following shows how to configure the maximum response time to 20 seconds:
Console(config)#ip igmp snooping query-max-response-time 20
Console(config)#
Related Commands
ip igmp snooping version (4-206)
ip igmp snooping router-port-expire-time
This command configures the query timeout. Use the no form to restore the default.
Syntax
ip igmp snooping router-port-expire-time seconds
no ip igmp snooping router-port-expire-time
seconds - The time the switch waits after the previous querier stops before
it considers the router port (i.e., the interface which had been receiving
query packets) to have expired.
(Range: 300-500)
4-210
Multicast Filtering Commands
4
Default Setting
300 seconds
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Command Usage
The switch must use IGMPv2 for this command to take effect.
Example
The following shows how to configure the default timeout to 300 seconds:
Console(config)#ip igmp snooping router-port-expire-time 300
Console(config)#
Related Commands
ip igmp snooping version (4-206)
Static Multicast Routing Commands
Table 4-68. Static Multicast Routing Commands
Command
Function
Mode
ip igmp snooping vlan
mrouter
Adds a multicast router port
GC
Page
4-211
show ip igmp snooping
mrouter
Shows multicast router ports
PE
4-212
ip igmp snooping vlan mrouter
This command statically configures a multicast router port. Use the no form to
remove the configuration.
Syntax
[no] ip igmp snooping vlan vlan-id mrouter interface
• vlan-id - VLAN ID (Range: 1-4094)
• interface
• ethernet unit/port
- unit - This is device 1.
- port - Port number.
• port-channel channel-id (Range: 1-6)
Default Setting
No static multicast router ports are configured.
Command Mode
Global Configuration
4-211
4
Command Line Interface
Command Usage
Depending on your network connections, IGMP snooping may not always be
able to locate the IGMP querier. Therefore, if the IGMP querier is a known
multicast router/switch connected over the network to an interface (port or
trunk) on your router, you can manually configure that interface to join all the
current multicast groups.
Example
The following shows how to configure port 11 as a multicast router port within VLAN 1:
Console(config)#ip igmp snooping vlan 1 mrouter ethernet 1/11
Console(config)#
show ip igmp snooping mrouter
This command displays information on statically configured and dynamically learned
multicast router ports.
Syntax
show ip igmp snooping mrouter [vlan vlan-id]
vlan-id - VLAN ID (Range: 1-4094)
Default Setting
Displays multicast router ports for all configured VLANs.
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
Command Usage
Multicast router port types displayed include Static or Dynamic.
Example
The following shows that port 11 in VLAN 1 is attached to a multicast router:
Console#show ip igmp snooping mrouter vlan 1
VLAN M'cast Router Port Type
---- ------------------- ------1
Eth 1/11 Static
2
Eth 1/12 Dynamic
Console#
4-212
IP Interface Commands
4
IP Interface Commands
An IP addresses may be used for management access to the switch over your
network. The IP address for this switch is obtained via DHCP by default. You can
manually configure a specific IP address, or direct the device to obtain an address
from a BOOTP or DHCP server when it is powered on. You may also need to a
establish a default gateway between this device and management stations or other
devices that exist on another network segment.
Table 4-69. IP Interface Commands
Command
Function
Mode
ip address
Sets the IP address for the current interface
IC
Page
4-213
ip dhcp restart
Submits a BOOTP or DHCP client request
PE
4-214
ip default-gateway
Defines the default gateway through which this switch can reach GC
other subnetworks
4-215
show ip interface
Displays the IP settings for this device
PE
4-215
show ip redirects
Displays the default gateway configured for this device
PE
4-216
ping
Sends ICMP echo request packets to another node on the
network
NE,
PE
4-216
ip address
This command sets the IP address for the currently selected VLAN interface. Use
the no form to restore the default IP address.
Syntax
ip address {ip-address netmask | bootp | dhcp}
no ip address
• ip-address - IP address
• netmask - Network mask for the associated IP subnet. This mask identifies
the host address bits used for routing to specific subnets.
• bootp - Obtains IP address from BOOTP.
• dhcp - Obtains IP address from DHCP.
Default Setting
DHCP
Command Mode
Interface Configuration (VLAN)
Command Usage
• You must assign an IP address to this device to gain management access
over the network. You can manually configure a specific IP address, or direct
the device to obtain an address from a BOOTP or DHCP server. Valid IP
addresses consist of four numbers, 0 to 255, separated by periods. Anything
outside this format will not be accepted by the configuration program.
4-213
4
Command Line Interface
• If you select the bootp or dhcp option, IP is enabled but will not function until
a BOOTP or DHCP reply has been received. Requests will be broadcast
periodically by this device in an effort to learn its IP address. (BOOTP and
DHCP values can include the IP address, default gateway, and subnet mask).
• You can start broadcasting BOOTP or DHCP requests by entering an ip dhcp
restart command, or by rebooting the switch.
Note: Before you can change the IP address, you must first clear the current
address with the no form of this command.
Example
In the following example, the device is assigned an address in VLAN 1.
Console(config)#interface vlan 1
Console(config-if)#ip address 192.168.1.5 255.255.255.0
Console(config-if)#
Related Commands
ip dhcp restart (4-214)
ip dhcp restart
This command submits a BOOTP or DHCP client request.
Default Setting
None
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
Command Usage
• This command issues a BOOTP or DHCP client request for any IP interface
that has been set to BOOTP or DHCP mode via the ip address command.
• DHCP requires the server to reassign the client’s last address if available.
• If the BOOTP or DHCP server has been moved to a different domain, the
network portion of the address provided to the client will be based on this new
domain.
Example
In the following example, the device is reassigned the same address.
Console(config)#interface vlan 1
Console(config-if)#ip address dhcp
Console(config-if)#end
Console#ip dhcp restart
Console#show ip interface
IP address and netmask: 192.168.1.54 255.255.255.0 on VLAN 1,
and address mode: DHCP.
Console#
4-214
IP Interface Commands
4
Related Commands
ip address (4-213)
ip default-gateway
This command establishes a static route between this switch and management
stations that exist on another network segment. Use the no form to remove the static
route.
Syntax
ip default-gateway gateway
no ip default-gateway
gateway - IP address of the default gateway
Default Setting
No static route is established.
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Command Usage
A gateway must be defined if the management station is located in a different
IP segment.
Example
The following example defines a default gateway for this device:
Console(config)#ip default-gateway 10.1.1.254
Console(config)#
Related Commands
show ip redirects (4-216)
show ip interface
This command displays the settings of an IP interface.
Default Setting
All interfaces
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
Example
Console#show ip interface
IP address and netmask: 192.168.1.54 255.255.255.0 on VLAN 1,
and address mode: User specified.
Console#
4-215
4
Command Line Interface
Related Commands
show ip redirects (4-216)
show ip redirects
This command shows the default gateway configured for this device.
Default Setting
None
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
Example
Console#show ip redirects
ip default gateway 10.1.0.254
Console#
Related Commands
ip default-gateway (4-215)
ping
This command sends ICMP echo request packets to another node on the network.
Syntax
ping host [size size] [count count]
• host - IP address or IP alias of the host.
• size - Number of bytes in a packet. (Range: 32-512, default: 32)
The actual packet size will be eight bytes larger than the size specified
because the switch adds header information.
• count - Number of packets to send. (Range: 1-16, default: 5)
Default Setting
This command has no default for the host.
Command Mode
Normal Exec, Privileged Exec
Command Usage
• Use the ping command to see if another site on the network can be reached.
• Following are some results of the ping command:
- Normal response - The normal response occurs in one to ten seconds,
depending on network traffic.
- Destination does not respond - If the host does not respond, a “timeout”
appears in ten seconds.
- Destination unreachable - The gateway for this destination indicates that
the destination is unreachable.
4-216
IP Interface Commands
4
- Network or host unreachable - The gateway found no corresponding entry
in the route table.
• Press <Esc> to stop pinging.
Example
Console#ping 10.1.0.9
Type ESC to abort.
PING to 10.1.0.9, by 5 32-byte payload ICMP packets, timeout is 5 seconds
response time: 10 ms
response time: 10 ms
response time: 10 ms
response time: 10 ms
response time: 0 ms
Ping statistics for 10.1.0.9:
5 packets transmitted, 5 packets received (100%), 0 packets lost (0%)
Approximate round trip times:
Minimum = 0 ms, Maximum = 10 ms, Average = 8 ms
Console#
Related Commands
interface (4-125)
4-217
4
Command Line Interface
4-218
Appendix A: Software Specifications
Software Features
Authentication
Local, RADIUS, TACACS, Port (802.1x), HTTPS, SSH, Port Security
Access Control Lists
IP, MAC (up to 32 lists)
DHCP Client
DNS Server
Port Configuration
1000BASE-T: 10/100 Mbps at half/full duplex, 1000 Mbps at full duplex
1000BASE-SX/LX/LH: 1000 Mbps, full duplex
Flow Control
Full Duplex: IEEE 802.3x
Half Duplex: Back pressure
Broadcast Storm Control
Traffic throttled above a critical threshold
Port Mirroring
Multiple source ports, one destination port
Rate Limits
Input Limit
Output limit
Range (configured per port)
Port Trunking
Static trunks (Cisco EtherChannel compliant)
Dynamic trunks (Link Aggregation Control Protocol)
Spanning Tree Protocol
Spanning Tree Protocol (STP, IEEE 802.1D)
Rapid Spanning Tree Protocol (RSTP, IEEE 802.1w)
Multiple Spanning Tree Protocol (MSTP, IEEE 802.1s)
VLAN Support
Up to 255 groups; port-based, protocol-based, or tagged (802.1Q),
GVRP for automatic VLAN learning, private VLANs
Class of Service
Supports eight levels of priority and Weighted Round Robin Queueing
(which can be configured by VLAN tag or port),
Layer 3/4 priority mapping: IP Precedence, IP DSCP
Multicast Filtering
IGMP Snooping (Layer 2)
A-1
A
Software Specifications
Additional Features
BOOTP client
SNTP (Simple Network Time Protocol)
SNMP (Simple Network Management Protocol)
RMON (Remote Monitoring, groups 1, 2, 3, 9)
SMTP Email Alerts
Management Features
In-Band Management
Telnet, Web-based HTTP or HTTPS, SNMP manager, or Secure Shell
Out-of-Band Management
RS-232 DB-9 console port
Software Loading
TFTP in-band or XModem out-of-band
SNMP
Management access via MIB database
Trap management to specified hosts
RMON
Groups 1, 2, 3, 9 (Statistics, History, Alarm, Event)
Standards
IEEE 802.3 Ethernet,
IEEE 802.3u Fast Ethernet
IEEE 802.3x Full-duplex flow control (ISO/IEC 8802-3)
IEEE 802.3z Gigabit Ethernet,
IEEE 802.3ab 1000BASE-T
IEEE 802.3ac VLAN tagging
IEEE 802.1Q VLAN
IEEE 802.1v Protocol-based VLANs
IEEE 802.3ad Link Aggregation Control Protocol
IEEE 802.1D Spanning Tree Protocol and traffic priorities
IEEE 802.1p Priority tags
IEEE 802.1s Multiple Spanning Tree Protocol
IEEE 802.1w Rapid Spanning Tree Protocol
IEEE 802.1x Port Authentication
ARP (RFC 826)
DHCP (RFC 1541)
HTTPS
ICMP (RFC 792)
IGMP (RFC 1112)
IGMPv2 (RFC 2236)
RADIUS+ (RFC 2618)
A-2
Management Information Bases
A
RMON (RFC 1757 groups 1,2,3,9)
SNMP (RFC 1157)
SNMPv2 (RFC 1907)
SNTP (RFC 2030)
SSH (Version 2.0)
TFTP (RFC 1350)
Management Information Bases
Bridge MIB (RFC 1493)
Entity MIB (RFC 2737)
Ether-like MIB (RFC 2665)
Extended Bridge MIB (RFC 2674)
Extensible SNMP Agents MIB (RFC 2742)
Forwarding Table MIB (RFC 2096)
IGMP MIB (RFC 2933)
Interface Group MIB (RFC 2233)
Interfaces Evolution MIB (RFC 2863)
IP Multicasting related MIBs
MAU MIB (RFC 2668)
MIB II (RFC 1212, 1213)
Port Access Entity MIB (IEEE 802.1x)
Private MIB
Quality of Service MIB
RADIUS Authentication Client MIB (RFC 2621)
RMON MIB (RFC 2819)
RMON II Probe Configuration Group (RFC 2021, partial implementation)
TACACS+ Authentication Client MIB
TCP MIB (RFC 2013)
Trap (RFC 1215)
UDP MIB (RFC 2012)
A-3
A
A-4
Software Specifications
Appendix B: Troubleshooting
Problems Accessing the Management Interface
Table B-1 Troubleshooting Chart
Symptom
Action
Cannot connect using Telnet, • Be sure the switch is powered up.
web browser, or SNMP
• Check network cabling between the management station and the switch.
software
• Check that you have a valid network connection to the switch and that the
port you are using has not been disabled.
• Be sure you have configured the VLAN interface through which the
management station is connected with a valid IP address, subnet mask
and default gateway.
• Be sure the management station has an IP address in the same subnet as
the switch’s IP interface to which it is connected.
• If you are trying to connect to the switch via the IP address for a tagged
VLAN group, your management station, and the ports connecting
intermediate switches in the network, must be configured with the
appropriate tag.
• If you cannot connect using Telnet, you may have exceeded the maximum
number of concurrent Telnet/SSH sessions permitted. Try connecting
again at a later time.
Cannot connect using
Secure Shell
• If you cannot connect using SSH, you may have exceeded the maximum
number of concurrent Telnet/SSH sessions permitted. Try connecting
again at a later time.
• Be sure the control parameters for the SSH server are properly configured
on the switch, and that the SSH client software is properly configured on
the management station.
• Be sure you have generated a public key on the switch, and exported this
key to the SSH client.
• Be sure you have set up an account on the switch for each SSH user,
including user name, authentication level, and password.
• Be sure you have imported the client’s public key to the switch (if public
key authentication is used).
Cannot access the on-board • Be sure you have set the terminal emulator program to VT100 compatible,
configuration program via a
8 data bits, 1 stop bit, no parity, and the baud rate set to any of the
serial port connection
following (9600, 19200, 38400, 57600, 115200 bps).
• Check that the null-modem serial cable conforms to the pin-out
connections provided in the Installation Guide.
Forgot or lost the password
• Contact your local distributor.
B-1
B
Troubleshooting
Using System Logs
If a fault does occur, refer to the Installation Guide to ensure that the problem you
encountered is actually caused by the switch. If the problem appears to be caused
by the switch, follow these steps:
1.
Enable logging.
2.
Set the error messages reported to include all categories.
3.
Designate the SNMP host that is to receive the error messages.
4.
Repeat the sequence of commands or other actions that lead up to the error.
5.
Make a list of the commands or circumstances that led to the fault. Also make a
list of any error messages displayed.
6.
Contact your distributor’s service engineer.
For example:
Console(config)#logging on
Console(config)#logging history flash 7
Console(config)#snmp-server host 192.168.1.23
.
.
.
B-2
Glossary
Access Control List (ACL)
ACLs can limit network traffic and restrict access to certain users or devices by
checking each packet for certain IP or MAC (i.e., Layer 2) information.
Boot Protocol (BOOTP)
BOOTP is used to provide bootup information for network devices, including IP
address information, the address of the TFTP server that contains the devices
system files, and the name of the boot file.
Class of Service (CoS)
CoS is supported by prioritizing packets based on the required level of service, and
then placing them in the appropriate output queue. Data is transmitted from the
queues using weighted round-robin service to enforce priority service and prevent
blockage of lower-level queues. Priority may be set according to the port default, the
packet’s priority bit (in the VLAN tag), TCP/UDP port number, IP Precedence bit, or
DSCP priority bit.
Differentiated Services Code Point Service (DSCP)
DSCP uses a six-bit tag to provide for up to 64 different forwarding behaviors. Based
on network policies, different kinds of traffic can be marked for different kinds of
forwarding. The DSCP bits are mapped to the Class of Service categories, and then
into the output queues.
Domain Name Service (DNS)
A system used for translating host names for network nodes into IP addresses.
Dynamic Host Control Protocol (DHCP)
Provides a framework for passing configuration information to hosts on a TCP/IP
network. DHCP is based on the Bootstrap Protocol (BOOTP), adding the capability
of automatic allocation of reusable network addresses and additional configuration
options.
Extensible Authentication Protocol over LAN (EAPOL)
EAPOL is a client authentication protocol used by this switch to verify the network
access rights for any device that is plugged into the switch. A user name and
password is requested by the switch, and then passed to an authentication server
(e.g., RADIUS) for verification. EAPOL is implemented as part of the IEEE 802.1x
Port Authentication standard.
Glossary-1
Glossary
GARP VLAN Registration Protocol (GVRP)
Defines a way for switches to exchange VLAN information in order to register
necessary VLAN members on ports along the Spanning Tree so that VLANs defined
in each switch can work automatically over a Spanning Tree network.
Generic Attribute Registration Protocol (GARP)
GARP is a protocol that can be used by endstations and switches to register and
propagate multicast group membership information in a switched environment so
that multicast data frames are propagated only to those parts of a switched LAN
containing registered endstations. Formerly called Group Address Registration
Protocol.
Generic Multicast Registration Protocol (GMRP)
GMRP allows network devices to register end stations with multicast groups. GMRP
requires that any participating network devices or end stations comply with the IEEE
802.1p standard.
Group Attribute Registration Protocol (GARP)
See Generic Attribute Registration Protocol.
IEEE 802.1D
Specifies a general method for the operation of MAC bridges, including the
Spanning Tree Protocol.
IEEE 802.1Q
VLAN Tagging—Defines Ethernet frame tags which carry VLAN information. It
allows switches to assign endstations to different virtual LANs, and defines a
standard way for VLANs to communicate across switched networks.
IEEE 802.1p
An IEEE standard for providing quality of service (QoS) in Ethernet networks. The
standard uses packet tags that define up to eight traffic classes and allows switches
to transmit packets based on the tagged priority value.
IEEE 802.1s
An IEEE standard for the Multiple Spanning Tree Protocol (MSTP) which provides
independent spanning trees for VLAN groups.
IEEE 802.1x
Port Authentication controls access to the switch ports by requiring users to first
enter a user ID and password for authentication.
IEEE 802.3ac
Defines frame extensions for VLAN tagging.
Glossary-2
Glossary
IEEE 802.3x
Defines Ethernet frame start/stop requests and timers used for flow control on
full-duplex links.
IGMP Snooping
Listening to IGMP Query and IGMP Report packets transferred between IP Multicast
Routers and IP Multicast host groups to identify IP Multicast group members.
IGMP Query
On each subnetwork, one IGMP-capable device will act as the querier — that is, the
device that asks all hosts to report on the IP multicast groups they wish to join or to
which they already belong. The elected querier will be the device with the lowest IP
address in the subnetwork.
Internet Group Management Protocol (IGMP)
A protocol through which hosts can register with their local router for multicast
services. If there is more than one multicast switch/router on a given subnetwork,
one of the devices is made the “querier” and assumes responsibility for keeping
track of group membership.
In-Band Management
Management of the network from a station attached directly to the network.
IP Multicast Filtering
A process whereby this switch can pass multicast traffic along to participating hosts.
IP Precedence
The Type of Service (ToS) octet in the IPv4 header includes three precedence bits
defining eight different priority levels ranging from highest priority for network control
packets to lowest priority for routine traffic. The eight values are mapped one-to-one
to the Class of Service categories by default, but may be configured differently to
suit the requirements for specific network applications.
Layer 2
Data Link layer in the ISO 7-Layer Data Communications Protocol. This is related
directly to the hardware interface for network devices and passes on traffic based on
MAC addresses.
Link Aggregation
See Port Trunk.
Link Aggregation Control Protocol (LACP)
Allows ports to automatically negotiate a trunked link with LACP-configured ports on
another device.
Glossary-3
Glossary
Management Information Base (MIB)
An acronym for Management Information Base. It is a set of database objects that
contains information about a specific device.
Multicast Switching
A process whereby the switch filters incoming multicast frames for services for
which no attached host has registered, or forwards them to all ports contained within
the designated multicast VLAN group.
Network Time Protocol (NTP)
NTP provides the mechanisms to synchronize time across the network. The time
servers operate in a hierarchical-master-slave configuration in order to synchronize
local clocks within the subnet and to national time standards via wire or radio.
Out-of-Band Management
Management of the network from a station not attached to the network.
Port Authentication
See IEEE 802.1x.
Port Mirroring
A method whereby data on a target port is mirrored to a monitor port for
troubleshooting with a logic analyzer or RMON probe. This allows data on the target
port to be studied unobstructively.
Port Trunk
Defines a network link aggregation and trunking method which specifies how to
create a single high-speed logical link that combines several lower-speed physical
links.
Private VLANs
Private VLANs provide port-based security and isolation between ports within the
assigned VLAN. Data traffic on downlink ports can only be forwarded to, and from,
uplink ports.
Remote Authentication Dial-in User Service (RADIUS)
RADIUS is a logon authentication protocol that uses software running on a central
server to control access to RADIUS-compliant devices on the network.
Remote Monitoring (RMON)
RMON provides comprehensive network monitoring capabilities. It eliminates the
polling required in standard SNMP, and can set alarms on a variety of traffic
conditions, including specific error types.
Glossary-4
Glossary
Rapid Spanning Tree Protocol (RSTP)
RSTP reduces the convergence time for network topology changes to about 10% of
that required by the older IEEE 802.1D STP standard.
Secure Shell (SSH)
A secure replacement for remote access functions, including Telnet. SSH can
authenticate users with a cryptographic key, and encrypt data connections between
management clients and the switch.
Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP)
A standard host-to-host mail transport protocol that operates over TCP, port 25.
Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP)
The application protocol in the Internet suite of protocols which offers network
management services.
Simple Network Time Protocol (SNTP)
SNTP allows a device to set its internal clock based on periodic updates from a
Network Time Protocol (NTP) server. Updates can be requested from a specific NTP
server, or can be received via broadcasts sent by NTP servers.
Spanning Tree Protocol (STP)
A technology that checks your network for any loops. A loop can often occur in
complicated or backup linked network systems. Spanning Tree detects and directs
data along the shortest available path, maximizing the performance and efficiency of
the network.
Telnet
Defines a remote communication facility for interfacing to a terminal device over
TCP/IP.
Terminal Access Controller Access Control System Plus (TACACS+)
TACACS+ is a logon authentication protocol that uses software running on a central
server to control access to TACACS-compliant devices on the network.
Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP)
Protocol suite that includes TCP as the primary transport protocol, and IP as the
network layer protocol.
Trivial File Transfer Protocol (TFTP)
A TCP/IP protocol commonly used for software downloads.
Glossary-5
Glossary
User Datagram Protocol (UDP)
UDP provides a datagram mode for packet-switched communications. It uses IP as
the underlying transport mechanism to provide access to IP-like services. UDP
packets are delivered just like IP packets – connection-less datagrams that may be
discarded before reaching their targets. UDP is useful when TCP would be too
complex, too slow, or just unnecessary.
Virtual LAN (VLAN)
A Virtual LAN is a collection of network nodes that share the same collision domain
regardless of their physical location or connection point in the network. A VLAN
serves as a logical workgroup with no physical barriers, and allows users to share
information and resources as though located on the same LAN.
XModem
A protocol used to transfer files between devices. Data is grouped in 128-byte
blocks and error-corrected.
Glossary-6
Index
Symbols
3-31
Numerics
802.1x, port authentication 3-43, 4-78
A
acceptable frame type 3-119, 4-174
Access Control List See ACL
ACL
Extended IP 3-53, 4-86, 4-87, 4-90
MAC 3-53, 4-86, 4-101,
4-101–4-103
Standard IP 3-53, 4-86, 4-87, 4-89
address table 3-88, 4-147
aging time 3-91, 4-150
B
BOOTP 3-15, 4-211
BPDU 3-92
broadcast storm, threshold 3-80, 4-129
C
Class of Service See CoS
CLI, showing commands 4-4
command line interface See CLI
community string 2-6, 3-28, 4-112
configuration settings, saving or
restoring 2-7, 3-17, 4-63
console port, required connections 2-2
CoS
configuring 3-125, 4-189
DSCP 3-133, 3-136, 3-137, 4-198
IP precedence 3-132, 4-195, 4-196
layer 3/4 priorities 3-131, 4-195
queue mapping 3-127, 4-192
queue mode 3-129, 4-190
traffic class weights 3-129, 4-192
D
default gateway, configuration 3-13,
4-213
default priority, ingress port 3-125,
4-191
default settings, system 1-5
DHCP 3-15, 4-211
client 3-13, 4-117
dynamic configuration 2-5
Differentiated Code Point Service See
DSCP
DNS
default domain name 3-146
displaying the cache 3-150
domain name list 3-146
enabling lookup 3-146
name server list 3-146
static entries 3-148
Domain Name Service 3-146
downloading software 3-16, 4-63
DSCP
enabling 3-131, 4-198
mapping priorities 3-133, 3-136,
3-137, 4-198
dynamic addresses, displaying 3-89,
4-149
Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol
See DHCP
E
edge port, STA 3-101, 3-103, 4-163
event logging 4-43
F
firmware
displaying version 3-10, 4-61
upgrading 3-16, 4-63
G
GARP VLAN Registration Protocol See
GVRP
gateway, default 3-13, 4-213
GVRP
global setting 3-113, 4-185
interface configuration 3-119, 4-186
Index-1
Index
H
hardware version, displaying 3-10,
4-61
HTTPS 3-34, 4-31
HTTPS, secure server 3-34, 4-31
I
IEEE 802.1D 3-91, 4-152
IEEE 802.1s 4-152
IEEE 802.1w 3-91, 4-152
IEEE 802.1x 3-43, 4-78
IGMP
groups, displaying 3-144, 4-205
Layer 2 3-139, 4-202
query 3-139, 4-206
query, Layer 2 3-140, 4-206
snooping 3-139, 4-203
snooping, configuring 3-140, 4-202
ingress filtering 3-119, 4-175
IP address
BOOTP/DHCP 3-15, 4-211, 4-212
setting 2-4, 3-13, 4-211
IP precedence
enabling 3-131, 4-195, 4-196
mapping priorities 3-132, 4-197
J
jumbo frame 4-62
L
link type, STA 3-101, 3-103, 4-165
logging
to syslog servers 4-45
log-in, Web interface 3-2
logon authentication 3-30, 4-68
RADIUS client 3-31, 4-71
RADIUS server 3-31, 4-71
TACACS+ client 3-31, 4-74
TACACS+ server 3-31, 4-74
logon authentication, sequence 3-32,
4-69, 4-70
M
main menu 3-4
Index-2
Management Information Bases
(MIBs) A-3
mirror port, configuring 3-82, 4-134
MSTP 4-152
global settings 3-104, 4-151
interface settings 4-151
multicast filtering 3-139, 4-202
multicast groups 3-144, 4-205
displaying 4-205
static 3-144, 4-203, 4-205
multicast services
configuring 3-145, 4-203
displaying 3-144, 4-205
multicast, static router port 3-143,
4-209
P
password, line 4-13
passwords 2-4
administrator setting 3-30, 4-26
path cost 3-93, 3-100
method 3-97, 4-156
STA 3-93, 3-100, 4-156
port authentication 3-43, 4-78
port priority
configuring 3-125, 4-189
default ingress 3-125, 4-191
STA 3-101, 4-162
port security, configuring 3-41, 4-76
port, statistics 3-84, 4-132
ports
autonegotiation 3-67, 4-125
broadcast storm threshold 3-80,
4-129
capabilities 3-67, 4-126
configuring 3-64, 4-123
duplex mode 3-67, 4-124
flow control 3-67, 4-127
forced selection on combo
ports 3-66, 4-128
mirroring 3-82, 4-134
speed 3-67, 4-124
priority, default port ingress 3-125,
4-191
problems, troubleshooting B-1
protocol migration 3-103, 4-167
Index
Q
queue weights 3-129, 4-192
R
RADIUS, logon authentication 3-31,
4-71
rate limits, setting 3-83, 4-136
restarting the system 3-25, 4-22
RSTP 3-91, 4-152
global configuration 3-92, 4-152
standards, IEEE A-2
startup files
creating 3-18, 4-63
displaying 3-16, 4-57
setting 3-16, 4-67
static addresses, setting 3-88, 4-148
statistics, port 3-84, 4-132
STP 3-95, 4-152
STP Also see STA
system clock, setting 3-26, 4-52
system software, downloading from
server 3-16, 4-63
S
Secure Shell 3-36, 4-34
configuration 3-36, 4-37
Secure Shell configuration 4-37
serial port
configuring 4-11
Simple Network Management Protocol
See SNMP
SNMP 3-28
community string 3-28, 4-112
enabling traps 3-29, 4-115
filtering IP addresses 3-50
trap manager 3-29, 4-114
software
displaying version 3-10, 4-61
downloading 3-16, 4-63
Spanning Tree Protocol See STA
specifications, software A-1
SSH, configuring 3-36, 4-37
STA 3-91, 4-151
edge port 3-101, 3-103, 4-163
global settings, configuring 3-95,
4-152–4-157
global settings, displaying 3-92,
4-168
interface settings 3-99, 3-107,
3-108, 4-162–4-167, 4-168
link type 3-101, 3-103, 4-165
path cost 3-93, 3-100, 4-162
path cost method 3-97, 4-156
port priority 3-101, 4-162
protocol migration 3-103, 4-167
transmission limit 3-97, 4-157
T
TACACS+, logon authentication 4-74
time, setting 3-26, 4-52
traffic class weights 3-129, 4-192
trap manager 2-7, 3-29, 4-114
troubleshooting B-1
trunk
configuration 3-69, 4-137
LACP 3-71, 4-139
static 3-70, 4-138
U
upgrading software 3-16, 4-63
user password 3-30, 4-26, 4-27
V
VLANs 3-110–3-122, 4-170–4-181
adding static members 3-116,
3-118, 4-177
creating 3-115, 4-172
description 3-110
displaying basic information 3-113,
4-186
displaying port members 3-114,
4-179
egress mode 3-120, 4-174
interface configuration 3-119,
4-174–4-178
private 3-121, 4-180
protocol 3-122, 4-181
Index-3
Index
W
Web interface
access requirements 3-1
configuration buttons 3-3
home page 3-2
menu list 3-3, 3-4
panel display 3-3
Index-4
ES4512C
ES4524C
ES4548C
E052005-R02
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