System information | Acer Series 520 Network Card User Manual

HARDWARE
GUIDE
MegaRAID® SCSI 320-0
Zero-Channel RAID
Controller
September 2002
®
This document contains proprietary information of LSI Logic Corporation. The
information contained herein is not to be used by or disclosed to third parties
without the express written permission of an officer of LSI Logic Corporation.
LSI Logic products are not intended for use in life-support appliances, devices,
or systems. Use of any LSI Logic product in such applications without written
consent of the appropriate LSI Logic officer is prohibited.
Document DB15-000258-00, First Edition (September 2002)
This document describes the initial release of LSI Logic Corporation’s MegaRAID
SCSI 320-0 Controller and will remain the official reference source for all
revisions/releases of this product until rescinded by an update.
LSI Logic Corporation reserves the right to make changes to any products herein
at any time without notice. LSI Logic does not assume any responsibility or
liability arising out of the application or use of any product described herein,
except as expressly agreed to in writing by LSI Logic; nor does the purchase or
use of a product from LSI Logic convey a license under any patent rights,
copyrights, trademark rights, or any other of the intellectual property rights of LSI
Logic or third parties.
Copyright © 2002 by LSI Logic Corporation. All rights reserved.
TRADEMARK ACKNOWLEDGMENT
LSI Logic, the LSI Logic logo design, and MegaRAID are trademarks or
registered trademarks of LSI Logic Corporation. Intel is a registered trademark of
Intel Corporation. MS-DOS, Microsoft Windows and Windows NT are registered
trademarks of Microsoft Corporation. UNIX is a registered trademark of the Open
Group. Novell NetWare is a registered trademark of Novell Corporation. ASPI is
a registered trademark of Adaptec, Inc. All other brand and product names may
be trademarks of their respective companies.
CD
To receive product literature, visit us at http://www.lsilogic.com.
For a current list of our distributors, sales offices, and design resource
centers, view our web page located at
http://www.lsilogic.com/contacts/na_salesoffices.html
ii
Copyright © 2002 by LSI Logic Corporation. All rights reserved.
FCC Regulatory Statement
This device complies with Part 15 of the FCC Rules. Operation is subject to the
following two conditions: (1) this device may not cause harmful interference, and
(2) this device must accept any interference received, including interference that
may cause undesired operation.
Warning:
Changes or modifications to this unit not expressly approved by
the party responsible for compliance could void the user's authority to operate the equipment.
This equipment has been tested and found to comply with the limits for a Class
B digital device, pursuant to Part 15 of the FCC Rules. These limits are designed
to provide reasonable protection against harmful interference in a residential
installation. This equipment generates, uses and can radiate radio frequency
energy and, if not installed and used in accordance with the instructions, may
cause harmful interference to radio communications. However, there is no
guarantee that interference will not occur in a specific installation. If this
equipment does cause harmful interference to radio or television reception, which
can be determined by turning the equipment off and on, try to correct the
interference by one or more of the following measures:
1. Reorient or relocate the receiving antenna.
2. Increase the separation between the equipment and the receiver.
3. Connect the equipment into an outlet on a circuit different from that to which
the receiver is connected.
4. Consult the dealer or an experienced radio/TV technician for help.
Shielded interface cables must be used with this product to ensure compliance
with the Class B FCC limits.
Model Number: Series 520
Disclaimer – LSI LOGIC certifies only that this product will work correctly when
this product is used with the same jumper settings, the same system
configuration, the same memory module parts, and the same peripherals that
were tested by LSI LOGIC with this product. The complete list of tested jumper
settings, system configurations, peripheral devices, and memory modules are
documented in the LSI LOGIC Compatibility Report for this product. Call your LSI
LOGIC sales representative for a copy of the Compatibility Report for this
product.
iii
Copyright © 2002 by LSI Logic Corporation. All rights reserved.
iv
Copyright © 2002 by LSI Logic Corporation. All rights reserved.
Preface
This book is the primary reference and Hardware Guide for the LSI Logic
MegaRAID® SCSI 320-0 Controller. It contains instructions for installing
the MegaRAID controller and for configuring RAID arrays. It also contains
background information on RAID.
The MegaRAID SCSI 320-0 controller supports single-ended and lowvoltage differential (LVD) SCSI devices on an Ultra320 and Wide SCSI
channel with data transfer rates up to 320 Mbytes/s.
Audience
This document is intended for people who need to install the MegaRAID
SCSI 320-0 Controller in a server and then create and configure RAID
arrays.
Organization
This document has the following chapters and appendixes:
·
Chapter 1, Overview, provides an overview of the MegaRAID SCSI
320-0 and basic SCSI features.
·
Chapter 2, Introduction to RAID, introduces important RAID
concepts.
·
Chapter 3, RAID Levels, describes each supported RAID level and
the factors to consider when choosing a RAID level.
·
Chapter 4, Features, explains the features of the MegaRAID® SCSI
320-0.
·
Chapter 5, Configuring Physical Drives, Arrays, and Logical
Drives, explains how to configure SCSI physical drives, arrays, and
logical drives.
MegaRAID SCSI 320-0 Hardware Guide
Copyright © 2002 by LSI Logic Corporation. All rights reserved.
v
·
Chapter 6, Hardware Installation, explains how to install the
MegaRAID SCSI 320-0 controller.
·
Chapter 7, Troubleshooting, provides troubleshooting information
for the MegaRAID SCSI 320-0 controller.
·
Appendix A, Audible Warnings, explains the meaning of the
warning tones generated by the MegaRAID SCSI 320-0 RAID
controller.
Technical Support
If you need help installing, configuring, or running the MegaRAID SCSI
320-0 Controller, you may be able to find the information you need at the
MegaRAID support page at http://megaraid.lsilogic.com
If this does not resolve your problem, you can call your LSI Logic OEM
Technical Support representative at 678-728-1250. Before you call,
please complete the MegaRAID Problem Report form.
MegaRAID Problem Report Form
Customer Information
MegaRAID Information
Name:
Today’s Date:
Company:
Date of Purchase:
Address:
Invoice Number:
City/State:
Serial Number:
Country:
Email Address:
Cache Memory:
Phone:
Firmware Version:
Fax:
BIOS Version:
System Information
vi
Motherboard:
BIOS manufacturer:
Operating System:
BIOS Date:
Op. Sys. Ver.:
Video Adapter:
Preface
Copyright © 2002 by LSI Logic Corporation. All rights reserved.
MegaRAID Problem Report Form (Cont.)
MegaRAID
Driver Ver.:
CPU Type/Speed:
Network Card:
System Memory:
Other disk controllers
installed:
Other adapter cards
Installed:
Description of problem:
Steps necessary to re-create problem:
1.
2.
3.
4.
Logical Drive Configuration
Use this form to record the configuration details for your logical drives.
Logical Drive Configuration
Logical
Drive
RAID
Level
Stripe
Size
Logical Drive
Size
Cache
Policy
Read
Policy
Write
Policy
# of Physical
Drives
LD0
LD1
LD2
LD3
LD4
LD5
LD6
LD7
LD8
Preface
Copyright © 2002 by LSI Logic Corporation. All rights reserved.
vii
Logical Drive Configuration (Cont.)
Logical
Drive
RAID
Level
Stripe
Size
Logical Drive
Size
Cache
Policy
Read
Policy
LD9
LD10
LD11
LD12
LD13
LD14
LD15
LD16
LD17
LD18
LD19
LD20
LD21
LD22
LD23
LD24
LD25
LD26
LD27
LD28
LD29
LD30
LD31
LD32
LD33
viii
Preface
Copyright © 2002 by LSI Logic Corporation. All rights reserved.
Write
Policy
# of Physical
Drives
Logical Drive Configuration (Cont.)
Logical
Drive
RAID
Level
Stripe
Size
Logical Drive
Size
Cache
Policy
Read
Policy
Write
Policy
# of Physical
Drives
LD34
LD35
LD36
LD37
LD38
LD39
Physical Device Layout
Use this form to record the physical device layout.
Physical Device Layout
Channel 0
Channel 1
Target ID
Device type
Logical drive number/Drive number
Manufacturer/Model number
Firmware level
Target ID
Device type
Logical drive number/Drive number
Manufacturer/Model number
Firmware level
Target ID
Device type
Logical drive number/Drive number
Preface
Copyright © 2002 by LSI Logic Corporation. All rights reserved.
ix
Physical Device Layout (Cont.)
Channel 0
Manufacturer/Model number
Firmware level
Target ID
Device type
Logical drive number/Drive number
Manufacturer/Model number
Firmware level
Target ID
Device type
Logical drive number/Drive number
Manufacturer/Model number
Firmware level
Target ID
Device type
Logical drive number/Drive number
Manufacturer/Model number
Firmware level
Target ID
Device type
Logical drive number/Drive number
Manufacturer/Model number
Firmware level
Target ID
Device type
Logical drive number/Drive number
x
Preface
Copyright © 2002 by LSI Logic Corporation. All rights reserved.
Channel 1
Physical Device Layout (Cont.)
Channel 0
Channel 1
Manufacturer/Model number
Firmware level
Target ID
Device type
Logical drive number/Drive number
Manufacturer/Model number
Firmware level
Target ID
Device type
Logical drive number/Drive number
Manufacturer/Model number
Firmware level
Target ID
Device type
Logical drive number/Drive number
Manufacturer/Model number
Firmware level
Target ID
Device type
Logical drive number/Drive number
Manufacturer/Model number
Firmware level
Target ID
Device type
Logical drive number/Drive number
Preface
Copyright © 2002 by LSI Logic Corporation. All rights reserved.
xi
Physical Device Layout (Cont.)
Channel 0
Manufacturer/Model number
Firmware level
Target ID
Device type
Logical drive number/Drive number
Manufacturer/Model number
Firmware level
Target ID
Device type
Logical drive number/Drive number
Manufacturer/Model number
Firmware level
xii
Preface
Copyright © 2002 by LSI Logic Corporation. All rights reserved.
Channel 1
Contents
Chapter 1
Overview
1.1
1.2
1.3
1.4
1.5
1.6
Chapter 2
Introduction to RAID
2.1
2.2
2.3
Features
NVRAM and Flash ROM
Single-Ended and Differential SCSI Buses
Maximum Cable Length for SCSI Standards
SCSI Bus Widths and Maximum Throughput
Documentation
1.6.1
MegaRAID SCSI 320-0 ZCR Hardware Guide
1.6.2
MegaRAID Configuration Software Guide
1.6.3
MegaRAID Operating System Driver Installation
Guide
1-2
1-2
1-2
1-3
1-4
1-4
1-4
1-4
RAID Benefits
2.1.1
Improved I/O
2.1.2
Increased Reliability
MegaRAID SCSI 320-0 – Host-Based RAID Solution
2.2.1
Host-Based RAID
2.2.2
SCSI-to-SCSI External RAID
RAID Overview
2.3.1
Physical Array
2.3.2
Logical Drive
2.3.3
Consistency Check
2.3.4
Fault Tolerance
2.3.5
Disk Striping
2.3.6
Disk Mirroring
2.3.7
Disk Spanning
2-1
2-1
2-2
2-2
2-2
2-3
2-3
2-3
2-3
2-4
2-4
2-4
2-6
2-7
MegaRAID SCSI 320-0 Hardware Guide
Copyright © 2002 by LSI Logic Corporation. All rights reserved.
1-5
xiii
2.3.8
2.3.9
2.3.10
2.3.11
2.3.12
2.3.13
2.3.14
2.3.15
Parity
Hot Spares
Hot Swapping
Disk Rebuild
Logical Drive States
SCSI Drive States
Disk Array Types
Enclosure Management
2-8
2-8
2-9
2-9
2-10
2-10
2-11
2-11
Chapter 3
RAID Levels
3.1
3.2
3.3
3.4
3.5
3.6
Selecting a RAID Level
RAID 0
RAID 1
RAID 5
RAID 10
RAID 50
3-1
3-2
3-3
3-4
3-6
3-7
4.1
4.2
4.3
4.4
4.5
4.6
4.7
4.8
4.9
SMART Technology
Configuration on Disk
Configuration Features
Array Performance Features
RAID Management Features
Fault Tolerance Features
Software Utilities
Operating System Software Drivers
MegaRAID SCSI 320-0 Specifications
4.9.1
PCI Bridge/CPU
4.9.2
Cache Memory
4.9.3
MegaRAID BIOS
4.9.4
SCSI Firmware
RAID Management
4.10.1 MegaRAID BIOS Configuration Utility
4.10.2 WebBIOS Configuration Utility
4.10.3 Power Console Plus
4-1
4-2
4-2
4-3
4-4
4-4
4-5
4-5
4-6
4-6
4-7
4-7
4-7
4-8
4-8
4-8
4-8
Chapter 4
Features
4.10
xiv
Contents
Copyright © 2002 by LSI Logic Corporation. All rights reserved.
4.11
4.10.4 MegaRAID Manager
Compatibility
4.11.1 Server Management
4.11.2 SCSI Device Compatibility
4.11.3 Software
Chapter 5
Configuring Physical Drives, Arrays, and Logical Drives
5.1
Configuring SCSI Physical Drives
5.1.1
Basic Configuration Rules
5.1.2
Current Physical Device Configuration
5.1.3
Logical Drive Configuration
5.1.4
Physical Device Layout
5.2
Configuring Arrays
5.2.1
Arranging Arrays
5.2.2
Creating Hot Spares
5.3
Creating Logical Drives
5.3.1
Configuration Strategies
5.3.2
Assigning RAID Levels
5.4
Configuring Logical Drives
5.4.1
Optimizing Data Storage
5.5
Planning the Array Configuration
5.5.1
Using the Array Configuration Planner
Chapter 6
Hardware Installation
6.1
6.2
6.3
Hardware Requirements
Installation Steps
6.2.1
Step 1: Unpack
6.2.2
Step 2: Power Down
6.2.3
Step 3: Set Jumpers
6.2.4
Step 4: Install MegaRAID SCSI 320-0
6.2.5
Step 5: Power Up
6.2.6
Step 6: Run the MegaRAID BIOS Configuration
Utility
6.2.7
Step 7: Install the Operating System Driver
Summary
Contents
Copyright © 2002 by LSI Logic Corporation. All rights reserved.
4-8
4-9
4-9
4-9
4-9
5-1
5-1
5-2
5-3
5-5
5-8
5-8
5-8
5-9
5-9
5-11
5-12
5-12
5-13
5-13
6-1
6-2
6-2
6-3
6-3
6-5
6-6
6-7
6-7
6-8
xv
Chapter 7
Troubleshooting
7.1
7.2
7.3
7.4
General Troubleshooting
BIOS Boot Error Messages
Other BIOS Error Messages
Other Potential Problems
Appendix A
Audible Warnings
Appendix B
Glossary
Index
Customer Feedback
xvi
Contents
Copyright © 2002 by LSI Logic Corporation. All rights reserved.
7-1
7-3
7-4
7-5
Chapter 1
Overview
This chapter provides an overview of the MegaRAID® SCSI 320-0 and
basic SCSI features. It contains the following sections:
·
Section 1.1, “Features”
·
Section 1.2, “NVRAM and Flash ROM”
·
Section 1.3, “Single-Ended and Differential SCSI Buses”
·
Section 1.4, “Maximum Cable Length for SCSI Standards”
·
Section 1.5, “SCSI Bus Widths and Maximum Throughput”
·
Section 1.6, “Documentation”
The MegaRAID SCSI 320-0 zero-channel RAID (ZCR) controller is a
high-performance intelligent PCI-to-SCSI host adapter with RAID control
capabilities. The MegaRAID SCSI 320-0 is a low-profile card that
provides reliability, high performance, and fault-tolerant disk subsystem
management.
MegaRAID SCSI 320-0 can be installed in a special PCI expansion slot
in a computer with a motherboard that has the LSI Logic 53C1030 SCSI
chip. The zero-channel adapter converts a motherboard’s own on-board
SCSI controller into a powerful PCI SCSI RAID solution, and is targeted
for 1U and 2U server environments.
The MegaRAID SCSI 320-0 is part of the LSI Logic Intel i960RM/RSbased MegaRAID controller family, and is an entry-level to mid-range
RAID controller solution. This controller offers a cost-effective way to
implement RAID in a server.
The MegaRAID SCSI 320-0 supports data transfer rates up to 320
Mbytes/s per channel, and it supports up to fifteen non-Ultra SCSI
devices. MegaRAID SCSI 320-0 includes MegaRAID features and
performance.
MegaRAID SCSI 320-0 Hardware Guide
Copyright © 2002 by LSI Logic Corporation. All rights reserved.
1-1
1.1
Features
MegaRAID SCSI 320-0 features include:
1.2
·
Provides a high performance I/O migration path while preserving
existing PCI-SCSI software.
·
Performs SCSI data transfers up to 320 Mbytes/s.
·
Performs synchronous operation on a wide low-voltage differential
(LVD) SCSI bus.
·
Allows up to 15 LVD SCSI devices on the wide bus.
·
Includes an Intel GC80302 integrated I/O processor that performs
RAID calculations and routing.
·
Supports 32 to 128 Mbytes of SDRAM on-board cache memory used
for read and write-back caching, and RAID 5 parity generation.
NVRAM and Flash ROM
A 32 Kbyte x 8 nonvolatile random access memory (NVRAM) stores
RAID system configuration information. The MegaRAID SCSI 320-0
firmware is stored in flash ROM for easy upgrade.
1.3
Single-Ended and Differential SCSI Buses
The SCSI standard defines two electrical buses:
1-2
·
Single-ended bus
·
Low-voltage differential bus
Overview
Copyright © 2002 by LSI Logic Corporation. All rights reserved.
1.4
Maximum Cable Length for SCSI Standards
Table 1.1 lists the maximum SCSI cable length and number of disk drives
that you can use, depending on the SCSI speeds.
Table 1.1
Maximum Cable Length for SCSI Standards
Standard
Single Ended
SCSI
Low-Voltage
Differential SCSI
Maximum # of
Drives
Ultra SCSI
1.5 m
12 m
7
Ultra SCSI
3m
12 m
3
12 m
15
Wide Ultra SCSI
Wide Ultra SCSI
1.5 m
12 m
7
Wide Ultra SCSI
3m
12 m
3
Ultra 2 SCSI
25 m
1
Ultra 2 SCSI
12 m
7
Wide Ultra 2 SCSI
25 m
1
Wide Ultra 2 SCSI
12 m
15
Ultra160 SCSI
25 m
1
Ultra160 SCSI
12 m
7
Wide Ultra160 SCSI
25 m
1
Wide Ultra160 SCSI
12 m
15
Ultra320
12 m
15
Ultra320
20 m
1
Maximum Cable Length for SCSI Standards
Copyright © 2002 by LSI Logic Corporation. All rights reserved.
1-3
1.5
SCSI Bus Widths and Maximum Throughput
Table 1.2 lists the SCSI bus widths and maximum throughput, based on
the SCSI speeds.
Table 1.2
1.6
SCSI Bus Widths and Maximum Throughput
SCSI Standard
SCSI Bus Width
SCSI Throughput
Fast Wide SCSI
16 bits
20 Mbytes/s
Wide Ultra SCSI
16 bits
40 Mbytes/s
Wide Ultra 2 SCSI
16 bits
80 Mbytes/s
Wide Ultra 160 SCSI
16 bits
160 Mbytes/s
Ultra 320 SCSI
16 bits
320 Mbytes/s
Documentation
The MegaRAID SCSI 320-0 documentation set includes:
1.6.1
·
The MegaRAID SCSI 320-0 ZCR Hardware Guide
·
The MegaRAID Configuration Software Guide
·
The MegaRAID Operating System Driver Installation Guide
MegaRAID SCSI 320-0 ZCR Hardware Guide
The Hardware Guide contains the RAID overview, RAID planning, and
RAID system configuration information you need first. Read this
document first.
1.6.2
MegaRAID Configuration Software Guide
This manual describes the software configuration utilities that you can
use to configure and modify RAID systems.
1-4
Overview
Copyright © 2002 by LSI Logic Corporation. All rights reserved.
1.6.3
MegaRAID Operating System Driver Installation Guide
This manual provides detailed information about installing the MegaRAID
SCSI 320-0 operating system drivers.
Documentation
Copyright © 2002 by LSI Logic Corporation. All rights reserved.
1-5
1-6
Overview
Copyright © 2002 by LSI Logic Corporation. All rights reserved.
Chapter 2
Introduction to RAID
This chapter introduces important RAID concepts. It contains the
following sections:
·
Section 2.1, “RAID Benefits”
·
Section 2.2, “MegaRAID SCSI 320-0 – Host-Based RAID Solution”
·
Section 2.3, “RAID Overview”
RAID (Redundant Array of Independent Disks) is a data storage method
in which data, along with parity information, is distributed among two or
more hard disks (called an array) to improve performance and reliability.
The RAID array appears to the host computer as a single storage unit or
as multiple logical units. I/O is expedited because several disks can be
accessed simultaneously. RAID systems provide improved data storage
reliability and fault tolerance compared to single-drive computers. If a
disk drive in a RAID array fails, data can be reconstructed from the data
and parity information on the remaining disk drives.
2.1
RAID Benefits
RAID is widely used because it improves I/O performance and increases
storage subsystem reliability. RAID provides data security through fault
tolerance and redundant data storage. The MegaRAID SCSI 320-0
management software configures and monitors RAID disk arrays.
2.1.1
Improved I/O
Although disk drive capabilities have improved drastically, actual
performance of individual disk drives has been improved only three to
four times in the last decade. RAID provides a way to achieve much
better data throughput.
MegaRAID SCSI 320-0 Hardware Guide
Copyright © 2002 by LSI Logic Corporation. All rights reserved.
2-1
2.1.2
Increased Reliability
The electromechanical components of a disk subsystem operate more
slowly, require more power, and generate more noise and vibration than
electronic devices. These factors reduce the reliability of data stored on
disks. RAID provides a way to achieve much better fault tolerance and
data reliability.
2.2
MegaRAID SCSI 320-0 – Host-Based RAID Solution
RAID products are either host-based or external.
The MegaRAID SCSI 320-0 controller is a host-based RAID solution.
The MegaRAID SCSI 320-0 is a PCI adapter card that is installed in a
PCI expansion slot in a host system with a motherboard that contains the
LSI Logic 53C1030 SCSI chip.
2.2.1
Host-Based RAID
A host-based RAID product puts all of the RAID intelligence on an
adapter card that is installed in a network server. A host-based RAID
product provides the best performance. MegaRAID SCSI 320-0 is part of
the file server, so it can transmit data directly across the computer’s
buses at data transfer speeds up to 132 Mbytes/s.
The available sequential data transfer rate is determined by the following
factors:
·
The sustained data transfer rate on the motherboard PCI bus
·
The sustained data transfer rate on the i960RM PCI to PCI bridge
·
The sustained data transfer rate of the SCSI controller
·
The sustained data transfer rate of the SCSI devices
·
The number of SCSI channels
·
The number of SCSI disk drives
Host-based solutions must provide operating system-specific drivers.
2-2
Introduction to RAID
Copyright © 2002 by LSI Logic Corporation. All rights reserved.
2.2.2
SCSI-to-SCSI External RAID
A SCSI-to-SCSI external RAID product puts the RAID intelligence inside
the RAID chassis and uses a plain SCSI host adapter installed in the
network server. The data transfer rate is limited to the bandwidth of the
SCSI channel. A SCSI-to-SCSI external RAID product that has two wide
SCSI channels operating at speeds up to 320 Mbytes/s must squeeze
the data into a single wide SCSI (320 Mbytes/s) channel back to the host
computer.
In SCSI-to-SCSI external RAID products, the disk drive subsystem uses
only a single SCSI ID, which allows you to connect multiple drive
subsystems to a single SCSI controller.
2.3
RAID Overview
RAID is a collection of specifications that describes a system for ensuring
the reliability and stability of data stored on large disk subsystems. A
RAID system can be implemented in a number of different versions (or
RAID levels). MegaRAID SCSI 320-0 supports standard RAID levels 0,
1, and 5, and RAID levels 10 and 50, special RAID versions supported
by MegaRAID SCSI 320-0.
2.3.1
Physical Array
A RAID array is a collection of physical disk drives governed by the RAID
management software. A RAID array appears to the host computer as
one or more logical drives.
2.3.2
Logical Drive
A logical drive is a partition in a physical array of disks that is made up
of contiguous data segments on the physical disks. A logical drive can
consist of any of the following:
·
An entire physical array
·
More than one entire physical array
·
A part of an array
·
Parts of more than one array
RAID Overview
Copyright © 2002 by LSI Logic Corporation. All rights reserved.
2-3
·
2.3.3
A combination of any two of the above conditions
Consistency Check
A consistency check verifies the correctness of redundant data in a RAID
array. For example, in a system with distributed parity, checking
consistency means computing the parity of the data drives and
comparing the results to the contents of the parity drives.
2.3.4
Fault Tolerance
Fault tolerance is achieved through auto detection of failed drives,
rebuilds with hot spare drive, the ability to hot swap drives, Configuration
on Disk capability, and support for self-monitoring analysis and reporting
technology (SMART). MegaRAID SCSI 320-0 provides hot swapping
through the hot spare feature. A hot spare drive is an unused online
available drive that MegaRAID SCSI 320-0 can instantly plug into the
system when an active drive fails.
After the hot spare is automatically moved into the RAID subsystem, the
failed drive is automatically rebuilt. The RAID disk array continues to
handle request while the rebuild occurs.
2.3.5
Disk Striping
Disk striping writes data across multiple disk drives instead of just one
disk drive, as shown in Figure 2.1.
2-4
Introduction to RAID
Copyright © 2002 by LSI Logic Corporation. All rights reserved.
Figure 2.1
Disk Striping
MegaRAID Controller
Segment 1
Segment 5
Segment 9
Segment 2
Segment 6
Segment 10
Segment 3
Segment 7
Segment 11
Segment 4
Segment 8
Segment 12
Disk striping involves partitioning each disk drive’s storage space into
stripes that can vary in size from 2 to 128 Kbytes. These stripes are
interleaved in a repeated, sequential manner. The combined storage
space is composed of stripes from each drive. MegaRAID SCSI 320-0
supports stripe sizes of 2, 4, 8, 16, 32, 64, or 128 Kbytes.
For example, in a four-disk system using only disk striping (as in RAID
level 0), segment 1 is written to disk 1, segment 2 is written to disk 2,
and so on. Disk striping enhances performance because multiple drives
are accessed simultaneously; but disk striping does not provide data
redundancy.
2.3.5.1
Stripe Width
Stripe width is a measure of the number of disks involved in an array
where striping is implemented. For example, a four-disk array with disk
striping has a stripe width of four.
RAID Overview
Copyright © 2002 by LSI Logic Corporation. All rights reserved.
2-5
2.3.5.2
Stripe Size
The stripe size is the length of the interleaved data segments that
MegaRAID SCSI 320-0 writes across multiple drives. MegaRAID SCSI
320-0 supports stripe sizes of 2, 4, 8, 16, 32, 64, or 128 Kbytes.
2.3.6
Disk Mirroring
With disk mirroring (used in RAID 1), data written to one disk drive is
simultaneously written to another disk drive, as shown in Figure 2.2.
Figure 2.2
Disk Mirroring
MegaRAID Controller
Segment 1
Segment 2
Segment 3
Segment 4
Segment 1 Duplicated
Segment 2 Duplicated
Segment 3 Duplicated
Segment 4 Duplicated
If one disk drive fails, the contents of the other disk drive can be used to
run the system and reconstruct the failed drive. The primary advantage
of disk mirroring is that it provides 100% data redundancy. Since the
contents of the disk drive are completely written to a second drive, it
does not matter if one of the drives fails. Both drives contain the same
data at all times. Either drive can act as the operational drive.
Although disk mirroring provides 100% redundancy, it is expensive
because each drive in the system must be duplicated.
2-6
Introduction to RAID
Copyright © 2002 by LSI Logic Corporation. All rights reserved.
2.3.7
Disk Spanning
Disk spanning allows multiple disk drives to function like one big drive.
Spanning overcomes lack of disk space and simplifies storage
management by combining existing resources or adding relatively
inexpensive resources. For example, four 60 Gbyte disk drives can be
combined to appear to the operating system as one single 240 Gbyte
drive.
Disk spanning alone does not provide reliability or performance
enhancements. Spanned logical drives must have the same stripe size
and must be contiguous. In Figure 2.3, two RAID 1 arrays are turned into
a RAID 10 array.
Figure 2.3
Disk Spanning
MegaRAID Controller
Data Flow
RAID 1
Disk 1
Segment 1
Segment 3
Segment 5
RAID 1
Disk 2
Disk 3
Segment 1
Segment 3
Segment 5
Segment 2
Segment 4
Segment 6
Disk 4
Segment 2
Segment 4
Segment 6
RAID 0
RAID Overview
Copyright © 2002 by LSI Logic Corporation. All rights reserved.
2-7
Table 2.1 describes how disk spanning is used for RAID 10 and RAID 50.
Table 2.1
Spanning for RAID 10 and RAID 50
Level Description
10
Configure RAID 10 by spanning two contiguous RAID 1 logical drives.
The RAID 1 logical drives must have the same stripe size.
50
Configure RAID 50 by spanning two contiguous RAID 5 logical drives.
The RAID 5 logical drives must have the same stripe size.
Note:
2.3.8
Spanning two contiguous RAID 0 logical drives does not
produce a new RAID level or add fault tolerance. It does
increase the size of the logical volume and improves
performance by doubling the number of spindles.
Parity
Parity generates a set of redundancy data from two or more parent data
sets. The redundancy data can be used to reconstruct one of the parent
data sets. Parity data does not fully duplicate the parent data sets. In
RAID, this method is applied to entire drives (dedicated parity) or to
stripes across all disk drives in an array (distributed parity).
RAID 5 combines distributed parity with disk striping. If a single disk drive
fails, it can be rebuilt from the parity and the data on the remaining
drives. Parity provides redundancy for one drive failure without
duplicating the contents of entire disk drives, but parity generation can
slow the write process.
2.3.9
Hot Spares
A hot spare is an extra, unused disk drive that is part of the disk
subsystem. It is usually in standby mode, ready for service if a drive fails.
Hot spares permit you to replace failed drives without system shutdown
or user intervention.
MegaRAID SCSI 320-0 implements automatic and transparent rebuilds
using hot spare drives, providing a high degree of fault tolerance and
zero downtime. The MegaRAID SCSI 320-0 RAID Management software
allows you to specify physical drives as hot spares. When a hot spare is
needed, the MegaRAID SCSI 320-0 controller assigns the hot spare that
2-8
Introduction to RAID
Copyright © 2002 by LSI Logic Corporation. All rights reserved.
has a capacity closest to and at least as great as that of the failed drive
to take the place of the failed drive.
Note:
Hot spares are employed only in arrays with redundancy—
for example, RAID levels 1, 5, 10, and 50. A hot spare
connected to a specific MegaRAID SCSI 320-0 controller
can be used only to rebuild a drive that is connected to the
same controller.
2.3.10 Hot Swapping
Hot swapping is the manual replacement of a defective physical disk unit
while the computer is still running. When a new drive has been installed,
you must issue a command to rebuild the drive.
2.3.11 Disk Rebuild
You rebuild a disk drive by recreating the data that had been stored on
the drive before the drive failed. Rebuilding can be done only in arrays
with data redundancy such as RAID level 1, 5, 10, and 50.
Standby (warm spare) rebuild is employed in a mirrored (RAID 1)
system. If a disk drive fails, an identical drive is immediately available.
The primary data source disk drive is the original disk drive.
A hot spare can be used to rebuild disk drives in RAID 1, 5, 10, or 50
systems. If a hot spare is not available, the failed disk drive must be
replaced with a new disk drive so that the data on the failed drive can be
rebuilt.
The MegaRAID SCSI 320-0 controller automatically and transparently
rebuilds failed drives with user-definable rebuild rates. If a hot spare is
available, the rebuild starts automatically when a drive fails. MegaRAID
SCSI 320-0 automatically restarts the system and the rebuild if the
system goes down during a rebuild.
2.3.11.1
Rebuild Rate
The rebuild rate is the fraction of the compute cycles dedicated to
rebuilding failed drives. A rebuild rate of 100% means the system is
totally dedicated to rebuilding the failed drive.
RAID Overview
Copyright © 2002 by LSI Logic Corporation. All rights reserved.
2-9
The MegaRAID SCSI 320-0 rebuild rate can be configured between 0%
and 100%. At 0%, the rebuild is only done if the system is not doing
anything else. At 100%, the rebuild has a higher priority than any other
system activity.
2.3.12 Logical Drive States
Table 2.2 describes the logical drive states.
Table 2.2
Logical Drive States
State
Description
Optimal
The drive operating condition is good. All configured drives are
online.
Degraded
The drive operating condition is not optimal. One of the
configured drives has failed or is offline.
Failed
The drive has failed.
Offline
The drive is not available to MegaRAID SCSI 320-0.
2.3.13 SCSI Drive States
A SCSI disk drive can be in one of the states described in Table 2.3.
Table 2.3
2-10
SCSI Drive States
State
Description
Online
(ONLIN)
The drive is functioning normally and is a part of a configured
logical drive.
Ready
(READY)
The drive is functioning normally but is not part of a configured
logical drive and is not designated as a hot spare.
Hot Spare
(HOTSP)
The drive is powered up and ready for use as a spare in case an
online drive fails.
Fail
(FAIL)
A fault has occurred in the drive, placing it out of service.
Rebuild
(REB)
The drive is being rebuilt with data from a failed drive.
Introduction to RAID
Copyright © 2002 by LSI Logic Corporation. All rights reserved.
2.3.14 Disk Array Types
Table 2.4 describes the RAID disk array types.
Table 2.4
Disk Array Types
Type
Description
SoftwareBased
The array is managed by software running in a host computer
using the host CPU bandwidth. The disadvantages associated
with this method are the load on the host CPU and the need
for different software for each operating system.
SCSI to SCSI The array controller resides outside of the host computer and
communicates with the host through a SCSI adapter in the
host. The array management software runs in the controller. It
is transparent to the host and independent of the host
operating system. The disadvantage is the limited data transfer
rate of the SCSI channel between the SCSI adapter and the
array controller.
Bus-Based
The array controller resides on the bus (for example, a PCI or
EISA bus) in the host computer and has its own CPU to
generate the parity and handle other RAID functions. A busbased controller can transfer data at the speed of the host bus
(PCI, ISA, EISA, VL-Bus) but is limited to the bus it is designed
for. MegaRAID SCSI 320-0 resides on a PCI bus, which can
handle data transfer at up to 132 Mbytes/s. With MegaRAID
SCSI 320-0, the channel can handle data transfer rates up to
320 Mbytes/s per SCSI channel.
2.3.15 Enclosure Management
Enclosure management is the intelligent monitoring of the disk
subsystem by software and/or hardware.
The disk subsystem can be part of the host computer or can be separate
from it. Enclosure management helps you stay informed of events in the
disk subsystem, such as a drive or power supply failure. Enclosure
management increases the fault tolerance of the disk subsystem.
RAID Overview
Copyright © 2002 by LSI Logic Corporation. All rights reserved.
2-11
2-12
Introduction to RAID
Copyright © 2002 by LSI Logic Corporation. All rights reserved.
Chapter 3
RAID Levels
This chapter describes each supported RAID level and the factors to
consider when choosing a RAID level. It contains the following sections:
3.1
·
Section 3.1, “Selecting a RAID Level”
·
Section 3.2, “RAID 0”
·
Section 3.3, “RAID 1”
·
Section 3.4, “RAID 5”
·
Section 3.5, “RAID 10”
·
Section 3.6, “RAID 50”
Selecting a RAID Level
To ensure the best performance, you should select the optimal RAID
level when you create a system drive. The optimal RAID level for your
disk array depends on a number of factors:
·
The number of drives in the disk array
·
The capacity of the drives in the array
·
The need for data redundancy
·
The disk performance requirements
Note:
The SCSI 320-0 controller supports a maximum of 15
physical drives.
MegaRAID SCSI 320-0 Hardware Guide
Copyright © 2002 by LSI Logic Corporation. All rights reserved.
3-1
3.2
RAID 0
RAID 0 provides disk striping across all drives in the RAID subsystem.
RAID 0 does not provide any data redundancy, but does offer the best
performance of any RAID level. RAID 0 breaks up data into smaller
blocks and then writes a block to each drive in the array. The size of each
block is determined by the stripe size parameter, set during the creation
of the RAID set. RAID 0 offers high bandwidth. By breaking up a large
file into smaller blocks, MegaRAID SCSI 320-0 can use several drives to
read or write the file faster. RAID 0 involves no parity calculations to
complicate the write operation. This makes RAID 0 ideal for applications
that require high bandwidth but do not require fault tolerance.
Uses
RAID 0 provides high data throughput, especially for large
files. Suitable for any environment that does not require
fault tolerance.
Strong Points
Provides increased data throughput for large files. No
capacity loss penalty for parity.
Weak Points
Does not provide fault tolerance. All data lost if any drive
fails.
Drives
1 to 30
The MegaRAID SCSI 320-0 controller supports one or two
SCSI channels, with up to 15 SCSI devices on each
channel.
Figure 3.1 shows a RAID 0 array with four disk drives.
3-2
RAID Levels
Copyright © 2002 by LSI Logic Corporation. All rights reserved.
Figure 3.1
RAID 0 Array
MegaRAID Controller
Segment 1
Segment 5
Segment 9
3.3
Segment 2
Segment 6
Segment 10
Segment 3
Segment 7
Segment 11
Segment 4
Segment 8
Segment 12
RAID 1
In RAID 1, the MegaRAID SCSI 320-0 duplicates all data from one drive
to a second drive. RAID 1 provides complete data redundancy, but at the
cost of doubling the required data storage capacity.
Uses
Use RAID 1 for small databases or any other environment
that requires fault tolerance but small capacity.
Strong Points
Provides complete data redundancy. RAID 1 is ideal for any
application that requires fault tolerance and minimal capacity.
Weak Points
Requires twice as many disk drives. Performance is impaired
during drive rebuilds.
Drives
2
Figure 3.2 shows a RAID 1 array.
RAID 1
Copyright © 2002 by LSI Logic Corporation. All rights reserved.
3-3
Figure 3.2
RAID 1 Array
MegaRAID Controller
Segment 1
Segment 2
Segment 3
Segment 4
3.4
Segment 1 Duplicated
Segment 2 Duplicated
Segment 3 Duplicated
Segment 4 Duplicated
RAID 5
RAID 5 includes disk striping at the byte level and parity. In RAID 5, the
parity information is written to several drives. RAID 5 is best suited for
networks that perform many small I/O transactions simultaneously.
RAID 5 addresses the bottleneck issue for random I/O operations. Since
each drive contains both data and parity, numerous writes can take place
concurrently. In addition, robust caching algorithms and hardware based
exclusive-or assist make RAID 5 performance exceptional in many
different environments.
3-4
RAID Levels
Copyright © 2002 by LSI Logic Corporation. All rights reserved.
Uses
Provides high data throughput, especially for large files. Use
RAID 5 for transaction processing applications, because each
drive can read and write independently. If a drive fails, the
MegaRAID SCSI 320-0 uses the parity data to recreate all
missing information. Use also for office automation and online
customer service that requires fault tolerance. Use for any
application that has high read request rates but low write
request rates.
Strong Points
Provides data redundancy and good performance in most
environments
Weak Points
Disk drive performance is reduced if a drive is being rebuilt.
Environments with few processes do not perform as well
because the RAID overhead is not offset by the performance
gains in handling simultaneous processes.
Drives
3 to 30
The MegaRAID SCSI 320-0 controller supports one or two
SCSI channels, with up to 15 SCSI devices on each channel.
Figure 3.3 shows a RAID 5 array with six disk drives.
Figure 3.3
RAID 5 Array
MegaRAID Controller
Note: Parity is distributed
across drives in the array.
Disk 1
Segment 1
Segment 7
Parity (9–12)
Data Flow
Disk 2
Segment 2
Segment 8
Disk 3
Segment 3
Segment 9
Parity (5–8)
Disk 4
Segment 4
Segment 10
RAID 5
Copyright © 2002 by LSI Logic Corporation. All rights reserved.
Disk 5
Segment 5
Segment 11
Parity (1–4)
Disk 6
Segment 6
Segment 12
3-5
3.5
RAID 10
RAID 10 is a combination of RAID 0 and RAID 1. RAID 10 has mirrored
drives. RAID 10 breaks up data into smaller blocks, and then stripes the
blocks of data to each RAID 1 RAID set. Each RAID 1 RAID set then
duplicates its data to its other drive. The size of each block is determined
by the stripe size parameter, which is set during the creation of the RAID
set. RAID 10 can sustain one to four drive failures while maintaining data
integrity, if each failed disk is in a different RAID 1 array.
Uses
Works best for data storage that must have 100%
redundancy of mirrored arrays and that also needs the
enhanced I/O performance of RAID 0 (striped arrays). RAID
10 works well for medium-sized databases or any
environment that requires a higher degree of fault tolerance
and moderate to medium capacity.
Strong Points
Provides both high data transfer rates and complete data
redundancy.
Weak Points
Requires twice as many drives as all other RAID levels
except RAID 1.
Drives
4 to 18
Must be a multiple of two.
Figure 3.4 shows a RAID 10 array with four disk drives.
3-6
RAID Levels
Copyright © 2002 by LSI Logic Corporation. All rights reserved.
Figure 3.4
RAID 10 Array
MegaRAID Controller
Data Flow
RAID 1
Disk 1
Segment 1
Segment 3
Segment 5
RAID 1
Disk 2
Disk 3
Segment 2
Segment 4
Segment 6
Segment 1
Segment 3
Segment 5
Disk 4
Segment 2
Segment 4
Segment 6
RAID 0
3.6
RAID 50
RAID 50 provides the features of both RAID 0 and RAID 5, including both
parity and disk striping across multiple drives. RAID 50 is best
implemented on two RAID 5 disk arrays with data striped across both
disk arrays. RAID 50 breaks up data into smaller blocks, and then stripes
the blocks of data to each RAID 5 RAID set. RAID 5 breaks up data into
smaller blocks, calculates parity by performing an exclusive-or on the
blocks, and then writes the blocks of data and parity to each drive in the
array. The size of each block is determined by the stripe size parameter,
which is set during the creation of the RAID set.
RAID 50
Copyright © 2002 by LSI Logic Corporation. All rights reserved.
3-7
RAID 50 can sustain one to four drive failures while maintaining data
integrity, if each failed disk is in a different RAID 5 array.
Uses
Works best when used with data that requires high reliability,
high request rates, high data transfer, and medium to large
capacity.
Strong Points
Provides high data throughput, data redundancy, and very
good performance.
Weak Points
Requires 2 to 4 times as many parity drives as RAID 5.
Drives
6 to 30
The MegaRAID SCSI 320-0 controller supports one or two
SCSI channels, with up to 15 SCSI devices on each channel.
Figure 3.5 shows a RAID 50 array with six disk drives.
Figure 3.5
RAID 50 Array
MegaRAID Controller
Data Flow
RAID 5
Disk 1
Segment 1
Segment 6
Parity (9-10)
RAID 5
Disk 2
Segment 2
Parity (5-6)
Segment 9
Disk 4
Disk 3
Parity (1-2)
Segment 5
Segment 10
Segment 3
Segment 8
Parity (11-12)
RAID 0
3-8
RAID Levels
Copyright © 2002 by LSI Logic Corporation. All rights reserved.
Disk 5
Segment 4
Parity (7-8)
Segment 11
Disk 6
Parity (3-4)
Segment 7
Segment 12
Chapter 4
Features
This chapter explains the features of the MegaRAID SCSI 320-0. It
contains the following sections:
·
Section 4.1, “SMART Technology”
·
Section 4.2, “Configuration on Disk”
·
Section 4.3, “Configuration Features”
·
Section 4.4, “Array Performance Features”
·
Section 4.5, “RAID Management Features”
·
Section 4.6, “Fault Tolerance Features”
·
Section 4.7, “Software Utilities”
·
Section 4.8, “Operating System Software Drivers”
·
Section 4.9, “MegaRAID SCSI 320-0 Specifications”
·
Section 4.10, “RAID Management”
·
Section 4.11, “Compatibility”
MegaRAID is a family of high performance intelligent PCI-to-SCSI host
adapters with RAID control capabilities. MegaRAID SCSI 320-0 supports
Ultra320 and Wide SCSI at data transfer rates up to 320 Mbytes/s, and
up to 15 Wide devices and up to seven non-Wide devices.
4.1
SMART Technology
The MegaRAID SCSI 320-0 Self Monitoring Analysis and Reporting
Technology (SMART) detects up to 70% of all predictable drive failures.
SMART monitors the internal performance of all motors, heads, and drive
electronics.
MegaRAID SCSI 320-0 Hardware Guide
Copyright © 2002 by LSI Logic Corporation. All rights reserved.
4-1
4.2
Configuration on Disk
Configuration on Disk (drive roaming) saves configuration information
both in nonvolatile random access memory (NVRAM) on the MegaRAID
SCSI 320-0, and on the disk drives controlled by the MegaRAID SCSI
320-0. If the MegaRAID SCSI 320-0 is replaced, the new MegaRAID
SCSI 320-0 controller can detect the actual RAID configuration,
maintaining the integrity of the data on each drive, even if the drives have
changed channel and/or target ID.
4.3
Configuration Features
Table 4.1 contains the configuration features for the MegaRAID 320-0.
Table 4.1
Configuration Features
Specification
Feature
RAID levels
0, 1, 5, 10, and 50
SCSI channels
0 (The MegaRAID 320-0 enables
RAID capability on one or two SCSI
channels controlled by the LSI Logic
53C1030 SCSI chip installed on the
motherboard.)
Maximum number of drives per channel 15
4-2
Array interface to host
PCI 2.2
Drive interface
Fast and Wide, Ultra320 singleended and low-voltage differential
(LVD)
Upgradeable cache size
Cache memory onboard
Cache function
Write-through, write-back, adaptive
read-ahead, no read-ahead, readahead
Multiple logical drives/arrays per
controller
Up to 40 logical drives per controller
Maximum number of MegaRAID SCSI
320-0 controllers per system
1
Features
Copyright © 2002 by LSI Logic Corporation. All rights reserved.
Table 4.1
Configuration Features (Cont.)
Specification
Feature
Online capacity expansion
Yes
Hot spare support
Yes
Flashable firmware
Yes
Hot swap devices supported
Yes
Non-disk devices supported
Yes
Mixed capacity hard disk drives
Yes
Support for hard disk drives with
capacities of more than 8 Gbytes.
Yes
Clustering support (Failover control)
No
Online RAID level migration
Yes
RAID remapping
Yes
No reboot necessary after expansion
Yes
More than 200 Qtags per physical drive Yes
4.4
Hardware clustering support on the
board
Yes
User-specified rebuild rate
Yes
Array Performance Features
Table 4.2 lists the array performance features.
Table 4.2
Array Performance Features
Specification
Feature
Host data transfer rate
533 Mbytes/s
Drive data transfer rate
320 Mbytes/s
Stripe sizes
2, 4, 8, 16, 32, 64, or 128 Kbytes
Array Performance Features
Copyright © 2002 by LSI Logic Corporation. All rights reserved.
4-3
4.5
RAID Management Features
Table 4.3 lists the RAID management features.
Table 4.3
4.6
RAID Management Features
Specification
Feature
Support for SNMP
Yes
Performance Monitor provided
Yes
Remote control and monitoring
Yes
Support for concurrent multiple stripe sizes
Yes
Windows NT, 2000, XP, and .NET server support using a GUI
client utility
Yes
Fault Tolerance Features
Table 4.4 lists the fault tolerance features.
Table 4.4
4-4
Fault Tolerance Features
Specification
Feature
Support for SMART
Yes
Enclosure management
SCSI-accessed fault-tolerant
enclosure (SAF-TE) compliant
Drive failure detection
Automatic
Manual disk replacement without system
shutdown
Yes, by using hot swap features
Drive rebuild using hot spares
Automatic
Parity generation for RAID
Hardware
Features
Copyright © 2002 by LSI Logic Corporation. All rights reserved.
4.7
Software Utilities
Table 4.5 lists the software utility features.
Table 4.5
4.8
Software Utilities
Specification
Feature
Graphical user interface
Yes
Management utility
Yes
Bootup configuration using MegaRAID Manager
Yes
Online read, write, and cache policy switching
Yes
Operating System Software Drivers
MegaRAID SCSI 320-1 includes a DOS software configuration utility, and
drivers for:
·
Windows NT 4.0
·
Windows 2000
·
Windows .NET
·
Windows XP
·
Novell NetWare 5.1, 6.0
·
Red Hat Linux 7.2, 7.3
·
DOS version 6.xx or later
The DOS drivers for MegaRAID are contained in the firmware on
MegaRAID, except for the DOS ASPI and CD drivers. Call LSI Logic
Technical Support at 678-728-1250 or access the web site at
www.lsilogic.com for information about drivers for other operating
systems.
Software Utilities
Copyright © 2002 by LSI Logic Corporation. All rights reserved.
4-5
4.9
MegaRAID SCSI 320-0 Specifications
Table 4.6 lists the specifications for the SCSI 320-0.
Table 4.6
MegaRAID SCSI 320-0 Specifications
Parameter
Specification
Card size
2.536 x 6.6 inches (low-profile PCI)
Processor
Intel GC80302 integrated I/O processor
Bus type
PCI 2.2
PCI controller
Intel GC80302
Bus data transfer rate
Up to 132 Mbytes/s
BIOS
MegaRAID BIOS
Cache configuration
Predefined during manufacturing; ECC through a
66MHz 72-bit unbuffered 3.3V SDRAM.
Firmware
1 MB × 8 flash ROM
Nonvolatile RAM
32 Kbytes × 8 for storing RAID configuration
Operating voltage
5.00 V ± 0.25 V
SCSI data transfer rate Up to 320 Mbytes/s
4.9.1
SCSI device types
supported
Synchronous or asynchronous. Disk and non-disk.
RAID levels supported
0, 1, 5, 10, and 50
PCI Bridge/CPU
MegaRAID SCSI 320-0 uses the Intel i960RM PCI bridge with an
embedded 80960JX RISC processor running at 66 MHz. The RM bridge
handles data transfers between the primary (host) PCI bus, the
secondary PCI bus, cache memory, and the SCSI bus. The DMA
controller supports chaining and unaligned data transfers. The
embedded 80960JX CPU directs all controller functions, including
command processing, SCSI bus transfers, RAID processing, drive
rebuilding, cache management, and error recovery.
4-6
Features
Copyright © 2002 by LSI Logic Corporation. All rights reserved.
4.9.2
Cache Memory
MegaRAID SCSI 320-0 supports 32 to 128 Mbytes of ECC SDRAM
DIMM on-board cache memory. MegaRAID supports write-through or
write-back caching, which can be selected for each logical drive. To
improve performance in sequential disk accesses, MegaRAID does not
use read-ahead caching for the current logical drive. The default setting
for the read policy is Normal, meaning no read-ahead caching. You can
disable read-ahead caching.
Warning:
4.9.3
Write caching is not recommended for the physical drives.
When write cache is enabled, loss of data can occur when
power is interrupted.
MegaRAID BIOS
The BIOS resides on a 1 Mbyte × 8 flash ROM for easy upgrade. The
MegaRAID BIOS supports INT 13h calls to boot DOS without special
software or device drivers. The MegaRAID BIOS provides an extensive
setup utility that can be accessed by pressing <Ctrl><M> at BIOS
initialization. The MegaRAID BIOS Configuration Utility is described in
the MegaRAID Configuration Software Guide.
4.9.4
SCSI Firmware
The MegaRAID SCSI 320-0 firmware handles all RAID and SCSI
command processing and also supports the items in Table 4.7.
Table 4.7
SCSI Firmware
Feature
Description
Disconnect/
reconnect
Optimizes SCSI bus seek.
Stripe size
Variable for all logical drives: 2, 4, 8, 16, 32, 64, or 128
Kbytes.
Rebuild
Multiple rebuilds and consistency checks with userdefinable priority.
MegaRAID SCSI 320-0 Specifications
Copyright © 2002 by LSI Logic Corporation. All rights reserved.
4-7
4.10 RAID Management
RAID management is provided by software utilities that manage and
configure the RAID system and MegaRAID SCSI 320-0, create and
manage multiple disk arrays, control and monitor multiple RAID servers,
provide error statistics logging, and provide online maintenance. They
include:
·
MegaRAID BIOS Configuration Utility
·
WebBIOS Configuration Utility
·
Power Console Plus
·
MegaRAID Manager
4.10.1 MegaRAID BIOS Configuration Utility
BIOS Configuration Utility is used to configure and maintain RAID arrays,
format hard drives, and manage the RAID system. It is independent of
any operating system. See the MegaRAID Configuration Software Guide
for additional information.
4.10.2 WebBIOS Configuration Utility
The WebBIOS Configuration Utility is an HTML-based utility used to
configure and maintain RAID arrays, format hard drives, and manage the
RAID system. See the MegaRAID Configuration Software Guide for
additional information.
4.10.3 Power Console Plus
Power Console Plus runs in Windows NT, 2000, XP, and .NET. It
configures, monitors, and maintains multiple RAID servers from any
network node or a remote location. See the MegaRAID Configuration
Software Guide for additional information.
4.10.4 MegaRAID Manager
This is a character-based utility that works in DOS, Novell NetWare, and
Red Hat Linux. See the MegaRAID Configuration Software Guide for
additional information.
4-8
Features
Copyright © 2002 by LSI Logic Corporation. All rights reserved.
4.11 Compatibility
MegaRAID SCSI 320-0 compatibility issues include:
·
Server management
·
SCSI device compatibility
·
Software compatibility
4.11.1 Server Management
As a simple network management protocol (SNMP) agent, MegaRAID
SCSI 320-0 supports all SNMP managers.
4.11.2 SCSI Device Compatibility
MegaRAID SCSI 320-0 supports SCSI hard drives, CD drives, and tape
drives.
4.11.3 Software
All SCSI backup and utility software should work with MegaRAID SCSI
320-0. This software is not provided with MegaRAID SCSI 320-0.
Compatibility
Copyright © 2002 by LSI Logic Corporation. All rights reserved.
4-9
4-10
Features
Copyright © 2002 by LSI Logic Corporation. All rights reserved.
Chapter 5
Configuring Physical Drives,
Arrays, and Logical Drives
This chapter explains how to configure SCSI physical drives, arrays, and
logical drives. It contains the following sections:
5.1
·
Section 5.1, “Configuring SCSI Physical Drives”
·
Section 5.2, “Configuring Arrays”
·
Section 5.3, “Creating Logical Drives”
·
Section 5.4, “Configuring Logical Drives”
·
Section 5.5, “Planning the Array Configuration”
Configuring SCSI Physical Drives
Physical SCSI drives must be organized into logical drives. The arrays
and logical drives that you construct must be able to support the RAID
level that you select. The MegaRAID SCSI 320-0 controller does not
have a SCSI channel; the number of SCSI channels depends on the
SCSI controller on the motherboard.
5.1.1
Basic Configuration Rules
You should observe the following guidelines when connecting and
configuring SCSI devices in a RAID array:
·
You can place up to 15 physical drives in an array, depending on the
RAID level.
·
Include all drives that have the same capacity in the same array.
·
Make sure any hot spare has a capacity that is at least as large as
the largest drive that may be replaced by the hot spare.
·
When replacing a failed drive, make sure that the replacement drive
has a capacity that is at least as large as the drive being replaced.
MegaRAID SCSI 320-0 Hardware Guide
Copyright © 2002 by LSI Logic Corporation. All rights reserved.
5-1
Note:
5.1.2
Be sure to back up your data regularly, even when using
RAID.
Current Physical Device Configuration
Use Table 5.1 to describe the current configuration for your physical
devices.
Table 5.1
Physical Device Configuration
SCSI ID Device Description
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
5-2
Configuring Physical Drives, Arrays, and Logical Drives
Copyright © 2002 by LSI Logic Corporation. All rights reserved.
Termination?
5.1.3
Logical Drive Configuration
Use Table 5.2 to record the configuration for your logical drives.
Table 5.2
Logical
Drive
Logical Drive Configuration
RAID
Level
Stripe
Size
Logical Drive
Size
Cache
Policy
Read
Policy
Write
Policy
# of Physical
Drives
LD0
LD1
LD2
LD3
LD4
LD5
LD6
LD7
LD8
LD9
LD10
LD11
LD12
LD13
LD14
LD15
LD16
LD17
LD18
LD19
LD20
LD21
Configuring SCSI Physical Drives
Copyright © 2002 by LSI Logic Corporation. All rights reserved.
5-3
Table 5.2
Logical
Drive
Logical Drive Configuration (Cont.)
RAID
Level
Stripe
Size
Logical Drive
Size
Cache
Policy
Read
Policy
Write
Policy
LD22
LD23
LD24
LD25
LD26
LD27
LD28
LD29
LD30
LD31
LD32
LD33
LD34
LD35
LD36
LD37
LD38
LD39
5-4
Configuring Physical Drives, Arrays, and Logical Drives
Copyright © 2002 by LSI Logic Corporation. All rights reserved.
# of Physical
Drives
5.1.4
Physical Device Layout
Use Table 5.3 to record the physical device layout.
Table 5.3
Physical Device Layout
Channel 0
Channel 1
Target ID
Device type
Logical drive number/Drive number
Manufacturer/Model number
Firmware level
Target ID
Device type
Logical drive number/Drive number
Manufacturer/Model number
Firmware level
Target ID
Device type
Logical drive number/Drive number
Manufacturer/Model number
Firmware level
Target ID
Device type
Logical drive number/Drive number
Manufacturer/Model number
Firmware level
Target ID
Device type
Logical drive number/Drive number
Configuring SCSI Physical Drives
Copyright © 2002 by LSI Logic Corporation. All rights reserved.
5-5
Table 5.3
Physical Device Layout (Cont.)
Channel 0
Manufacturer/Model number
Firmware level
Target ID
Device type
Logical drive number/Drive number
Manufacturer/Model number
Firmware level
Target ID
Device type
Logical drive number/Drive number
Manufacturer/Model number
Firmware level
Target ID
Device type
Logical drive number/Drive number
Manufacturer/Model number
Firmware level
Target ID
Device type
Logical drive number/Drive number
Manufacturer/Model number
Firmware level
Target ID
Device type
Logical drive number/Drive number
5-6
Configuring Physical Drives, Arrays, and Logical Drives
Copyright © 2002 by LSI Logic Corporation. All rights reserved.
Channel 1
Table 5.3
Physical Device Layout (Cont.)
Channel 0
Channel 1
Manufacturer/Model number
Firmware level
Target ID
Device type
Logical drive number/Drive number
Manufacturer/Model number
Firmware level
Target ID
Device type
Logical drive number/Drive number
Manufacturer/Model number
Firmware level
Target ID
Device type
Logical drive number/Drive number
Manufacturer/Model number
Firmware level
Target ID
Device type
Logical drive number/Drive number
Manufacturer/Model number
Firmware level
Configuring SCSI Physical Drives
Copyright © 2002 by LSI Logic Corporation. All rights reserved.
5-7
Table 5.3
Physical Device Layout (Cont.)
Channel 0
Channel 1
Target ID
Device type
Logical drive number/Drive number
Manufacturer/Model number
Firmware level
5.2
Configuring Arrays
You organize the physical disk drives in arrays after they are connected
to the SCSI channels controlled by the LSI Logic SCSI chip on the
motherboard, and after they are formatted. An array can consist of up to
15 physical disk drives, depending on the RAID level.
The MegaRAID SCSI 320-0 supports up to eight arrays. The number of
drives in an array determines the RAID levels that can be supported.
5.2.1
Arranging Arrays
You must arrange the arrays to provide additional organization for the
drive array. You must arrange arrays so that you can create system drives
that can function as boot devices.
You can sequentially arrange arrays with an identical number of drives
so that the drives in the group are spanned. Spanned drives can be
treated as one large drive. Data can be striped across multiple arrays as
one logical drive.
You can create spanned drives by using the MegaRAID BIOS Setup
utility or the MegaRAID Manager.
5.2.2
Creating Hot Spares
Any drive that is present, formatted, and initialized, but is not included in
a array or logical drive is automatically designated as a hot spare.
5-8
Configuring Physical Drives, Arrays, and Logical Drives
Copyright © 2002 by LSI Logic Corporation. All rights reserved.
You can designate drives as hot spares using the MegaRAID BIOS
Configuration Utility, the MegaRAID Manager, or Power Console Plus.
5.3
Creating Logical Drives
Logical drives are arrays or spanned arrays that are presented to the
operating system. You must create one or more logical drives.
The logical drive capacity can include all or any portion of an array. The
logical drive capacity can also be larger than an array by using spanning.
The MegaRAID SCSI 320-0 supports up to 40 logical drives.
5.3.1
Configuration Strategies
The most important factors in RAID array configuration are: drive
capacity, drive availability (fault tolerance), and drive performance. You
cannot configure a logical drive that optimizes all three factors, but it is
easy to choose a logical drive configuration that maximizes one factor at
the expense of the other two factors, although needs are seldom that
simple.
5.3.1.1
Maximize Capacity
RAID 0 achieves maximum drive capacity, but does not provide data
redundancy. Maximum drive capacity for each RAID level is shown
below. OEM-level firmware that can span up to 4 logical drives is
assumed. Table 5.4 describes the RAID levels, including the number of
drives required, and the capacity.
Table 5.4
RAID
Level
Capacity for RAID Levels
Description
Drives
Required
Capacity
0
Striping
without parity
1 – 30
(Number of disks) X
smallest disk
1
Mirroring
2
(Capacity of smallest disk) X (1)
5
Striping with
floating parity
drive
3 – 30
(Number of disks) X (capacity of
smallest disk) - (capacity of 1 disk)
Creating Logical Drives
Copyright © 2002 by LSI Logic Corporation. All rights reserved.
capacity of
5-9
Table 5.4
RAID
Level
5.3.1.2
Capacity for RAID Levels (Cont.)
Description
Drives
Required
Capacity
10
Mirroring and
Striping
4 – 18
(Number of disks) X (capacity of
(Must be a
smallest disk) / (2)
multiple of 2.)
50
RAID 5 and
Striping
6 – 30 (Must
be a multiple
of arrays.)
(Number of disks) X (capacity of
smallest disk) – (capacity of 1 disk X
number of Arrays)
Maximizing Drive Availability
You can maximize the availability of data on the physical disk drive in the
logical array by maximizing the level of fault tolerance. Table 5.5
describes the levels of fault tolerance for the RAID levels.
Table 5.5
RAID Level
5.3.1.3
Fault Tolerance for RAID Levels
Fault Tolerance Protection
0
No fault tolerance.
1
100% protection through data mirroring.
5
100% protection through striping and parity. The data is striped
and parity data is written across a number of physical disk
drives.
10
100% protection through data mirroring.
50
100% protection through data striping and parity. All data is
striped and parity data is written across all drives in two or
more arrays.
Maximizing Drive Performance
You can configure an array for optimal performance. But optimal drive
configuration for one type of application will probably not be optimal for
any other application. A basic guideline of the performance
characteristics for RAID drive arrays at each RAID level is shown in
Table 5.6.
5-10
Configuring Physical Drives, Arrays, and Logical Drives
Copyright © 2002 by LSI Logic Corporation. All rights reserved.
Table 5.6
Performance Characteristics for RAID Levels
RAID Level
5.3.2
Performance Characteristics
0
Excellent for all types of I/O activity, but provides no data
security.
1
Provides data redundancy and good performance.
5
Provides data redundancy and good performance in most
environments.
10
Provides data redundancy and excellent performance.
50
Provides data redundancy and very good performance.
Assigning RAID Levels
Only one RAID level can be assigned to each logical drive. Table 5.7
shows the drives required per RAID level.
Table 5.7
RAID
Level
Number of Physical Drives for RAID Levels
Minimum # of Physical Drives Maximum # of Physical Drives
0
1
30
1
2
2
5
3
30
10
4
18
50
6
30
Note:
The MegaRAID SCSI 320-0 controller supports one or two SCSI
channels, with up to 15 SCSI devices on each channel.
Creating Logical Drives
Copyright © 2002 by LSI Logic Corporation. All rights reserved.
5-11
5.4
Configuring Logical Drives
After you have installed the MegaRAID SCSI 320-0 controller in the
server and have attached all physical disk drives, perform the following
actions to prepare a RAID array:
1. Optimize MegaRAID SCSI 320-0 controller options for your system.
See Chapter 6 for additional information.
2. Press <Ctrl><M> to run the BIOS Configuration Utility.
3. If necessary, perform a low-level format of the SCSI drives that will
be included in the array and the drives to be used for hot spares.
4. Customize the RAID array and define and configure one or more
logical drives by selecting Easy Configuration or New Configuration.
5. Create and configure one or more system drives (logical drives) by
selecting the RAID level, cache policy, read policy, and write policy.
6. Save the configuration.
7. Initialize the system drives.
After initialization, you can install the operating system.
5.4.1
Optimizing Data Storage
5.4.1.1
Data Access Requirements
Each type of data stored in the disk subsystem has a different frequency
of read and write activity. If you know the data access requirements, you
can more successfully determine a strategy for optimizing the disk
subsystem capacity, availability, and performance.
Servers that support Video on Demand typically read the data often, but
write data infrequently. Both the read and write operations tend to be
long. Data stored on a general-purpose file server involves relatively
short read and write operations with relatively small files.
5.4.1.2
Array Functions
You must first define the major purpose of the disk array. Will this disk
array increase the system storage capacity for general-purpose file and
5-12
Configuring Physical Drives, Arrays, and Logical Drives
Copyright © 2002 by LSI Logic Corporation. All rights reserved.
print servers? Does this disk array support any software system that
must be available 24 hours per day? Will the information stored in this
disk array contain large audio or video files that must be available on
demand? Will this disk array contain data from an imaging system? You
must identify the purpose of the data to be stored in the disk subsystem
before you can confidently choose a RAID level and a RAID
configuration.
5.5
Planning the Array Configuration
Fill out Table 5.8 to help plan this array.
Table 5.8
Factors for Planning the Array Configuration
Question
Answer
Number of physical disk drives in the array
Purpose of this array. Rank the following factors:
Maximize drive capacity
Maximize the safety of the data (fault tolerance)
Maximize hard drive performance and throughput
Number of hot spares
Amount of cache memory installed on MegaRAID SCSI 320-0
Are all of the disk drives and the server protected by a UPS?
5.5.1
Using the Array Configuration Planner
The following table lists the possible RAID levels, fault tolerance, and
effective capacity for all possible drive configurations for an array
consisting of one to eight drives. This table does not take into account
any hot spare (standby) drives. You should always have a hot spare drive
in case of drive failure. RAID 1 requires two drives, RAID 10 at least four,
and RAID 50 at least six.
Planning the Array Configuration
Copyright © 2002 by LSI Logic Corporation. All rights reserved.
5-13
Use Table 5.9 to plan the array configuration.
Table 5.9
5-14
Array Configuration Planner
# of Drives
Possible
RAID Levels
Relative
Performance
Fault
Tolerance
Effective
Capacity
1
None
Excellent
No
100%
1
RAID 0
Excellent
No
100%
2
None
Excellent
No
100%
2
RAID 0
Excellent
No
100%
2
RAID 1
Good
Yes
50%
3
None
Excellent
No
100%
3
RAID 0
Excellent
No
100%
3
RAID 5
Good
Yes
67%
4
None
Excellent
No
100%
4
RAID 0
Excellent
No
100%
4
RAID 5
Good
Yes
75%
4
RAID 10
Good
Yes
50%
5
None
Excellent
No
100%
5
RAID 0
Excellent
No
100%
5
RAID 5
Good
Yes
80%
6
None
Excellent
No
100%
6
RAID 0
Excellent
No
100%
6
RAID 5
Good
Yes
83%
6
RAID 10
Good
Yes
50%
6
RAID 50
Good
Yes
67%
7
None
Excellent
No
100%
7
RAID 0
Excellent
No
100%
7
RAID 5
Good
Yes
86%
8
None
Excellent
No
100%
Configuring Physical Drives, Arrays, and Logical Drives
Copyright © 2002 by LSI Logic Corporation. All rights reserved.
Table 5.9
Array Configuration Planner (Cont.)
# of Drives
Possible
RAID Levels
Relative
Performance
Fault
Tolerance
Effective
Capacity
8
RAID 0
Excellent
No
100%
8
RAID 5
Good
Yes
87%
8
RAID 10
Good
Yes
50%
8
RAID 50
Good
Yes
75%
Planning the Array Configuration
Copyright © 2002 by LSI Logic Corporation. All rights reserved.
5-15
5-16
Configuring Physical Drives, Arrays, and Logical Drives
Copyright © 2002 by LSI Logic Corporation. All rights reserved.
Chapter 6
Hardware Installation
This chapter explains how to install the MegaRAID SCSI 320-0 controller.
It contains the following sections:
6.1
·
Section 6.1, “Hardware Requirements”
·
Section 6.2, “Installation Steps”
·
Section 6.3, “Summary”
Hardware Requirements
You must have the following in order to install the MegaRAID SCSI 320-0
controller and create arrays:
·
A host computer with the following:
–
Special ZCR PCI expansion slot
–
Installed LSI Logic 53C1030 SCSI chip
–
Support for PCI version 2.2 or later
–
Intel Pentium, Pentium Pro, or more powerful CPU
–
Floppy drive, color monitor, VGA adapter card, mouse, and
keyboard
·
The MegaRAID SCSI 320-0 Installation CD
·
An Uninterruptible Power Supply (UPS) for the entire system
·
Ultra320, Ultra, Fast SCSI 2 or Wide SCSI hard disk drives
MegaRAID SCSI 320-0 Hardware Guide
Copyright © 2002 by LSI Logic Corporation. All rights reserved.
6-1
6.2
Installation Steps
The MegaRAID SCSI 320-0 provides extensive customization options. If
you need only basic MegaRAID SCSI 320-0 features and your computer
does not use other adapter cards with resource settings that may conflict
with MegaRAID SCSI 320-0 settings, even custom installation can be
quick and easy.
Table 6.1 lists the hardware installation steps. Each step is described in
detail in the following pages.
Table 6.1
Step
6.2.1
Hardware Installation Steps
Action
Additional Information
1
Unpack the MegaRAID controller and
inspect for damage. Make sure all items
are in the package.
If damaged, call your LSI
Logic OEM support
representative.
2
Turn the computer off and remove the
cover.
3
Check the jumper settings on the
MegaRAID SCSI 320-0 controller.
4
Install the MegaRAID SCSI 320-0 card.
5
Replace the computer cover and turn the
power on.
6
Run MegaRAID BIOS Configuration Utility. Optional.
7
Install software drivers for the desired
operating systems.
See page 6-3for the
MegaRAID SCSI 320-0
jumper settings.
Be sure the SCSI devices
are powered up before or
at the same time as the
host computer.
Step 1: Unpack
Unpack and install the hardware in a static-free environment. Remove
the MegaRAID SCSI 320-0 controller card from the anti-static bag and
inspect it for damage. If the card appears damaged, or if any item listed
below is missing, contact LSI Logic or your MegaRAID OEM support
representative. The MegaRAID SCSI 320-0 controller is shipped with the
following:
6-2
Hardware Installation
Copyright © 2002 by LSI Logic Corporation. All rights reserved.
·
·
6.2.2
The Driver and Documentation CD, which contains these items:
–
The MegaRAID Configuration Software Guide
–
The MegaRAID Operating System Driver Installation Guide
–
The MegaRAID SCSI 320-0 ZCR Hardware Guide
–
The software license agreement
–
The MegaRAID SCSI 320-0 configuration utilities for DOS
The warranty registration card
Step 2: Power Down
Turn off the computer, remove the power cord, then remove the cover.
Make sure the computer is turned off and disconnected from any
networks before installing the controller card.
6.2.3
Step 3: Set Jumpers
Make sure the jumper settings on the MegaRAID SCSI 320-0 card are
correct. The jumpers are set at the factory and you probably do not need
to change them. Table 6.2 lists the jumpers (and a connector).
Table 6.2
Item
Jumpers for the MegaRAID SCSI 320-0
Description
Type
J2
Dirty cache LED
2-pin header
J3
Clear EPROM
2-pin header
J4
BIOS enable
2-pin header
J8
BBU daughter card connector 40-pin connector
Figure 6.1 shows the location of these items on the MegaRAID SCSI
320-0 controller.
Installation Steps
Copyright © 2002 by LSI Logic Corporation. All rights reserved.
6-3
Figure 6.1
MegaRAID SCSI 320-0 Controller Layout
J2 J3 J4
Optional Backup
Battery Unit J8
Connector
6.2.3.1
J2 Dirty Cache LED
J2 is a two-pin header for the dirty cache LED. This can be connected
to an LED on the computer enclosure. The LED will be lit when data in
the cache has not yet been written to the storage device.
6.2.3.2
J3 Clear EPROM
J3 is a two-pin header that clears the erasable progammable read-only
memory (EPROM) configuration data.
6.2.3.3
J4 BIOS Enable
J4 is a 2-pin header that enables or disables the MegaRAID onboard
BIOS. The onboard BIOS should be enabled (J4 unjumpered) for normal
board position. Table 6.3 contains the pinout for J4.
Table 6.3
6-4
Pinout for J4 BIOS Enable
J4 Setting
Onboard BIOS Status
Unjumpered
Enabled
Jumpered
Disabled
Hardware Installation
Copyright © 2002 by LSI Logic Corporation. All rights reserved.
6.2.3.4
J8 Connector for Optional BBU Daughter Card
J8 is 40-pin connector that is used to mount an optional battery backup
unit that is on a daughtercard.
6.2.4
Step 4: Install MegaRAID SCSI 320-0
Select the ZCR 3.3 V or 5 V PCI slot and align the MegaRAID SCSI
320-0 controller bus connector with the slot. Figure 6.2 shows the
differences between the 3.3 V and 5 V slots.
Figure 6.2
Note:
3.3 V and 5V Slots
The slot must be a specific ZCR slot on a motherboard that
has an installed LSI Logic 53C1030 SCSI chip; see your
motherboard manual for this information.
Insert the MegaRAID SCSI 320-0 card in the ZCR PCI slot, as shown in
Figure 6.3. Press down gently but firmly to make sure that the card is
properly seated in the slot. The bottom edge of the controller card should
be flush with the slot. Attach the bracket to the computer frame with the
bracket screw.
Installation Steps
Copyright © 2002 by LSI Logic Corporation. All rights reserved.
6-5
Figure 6.3
Installing the MegaRAID SCSI 320-0 Controller
Bracket Screw
32-Bit Slots
(3.3 V)
64-Bit Slots
(5 V)
6.2.5
Step 5: Power Up
Replace the computer cover and reconnect the AC power cords. Turn
power on to the host computer. Set up the power supplies so that the
SCSI devices are powered up at the same time as or before the host
computer. If the computer is powered up before a SCSI device, the
device might not be recognized.
During boot, the MegaRAID SCSI 320-0 BIOS message appears:
MegaRAID SCSI 320-0 Disk Array Adapter BIOS Version x.xx
date
Copyright (c) LSI Logic Corporation
Firmware Initializing... [ Scanning SCSI Device ...(etc.)... ]
6-6
Hardware Installation
Copyright © 2002 by LSI Logic Corporation. All rights reserved.
The firmware takes several seconds to initialize. During this time the
adapter will scan the SCSI channel(s). When ready, the following
appears:
Host Adapter-1 Firmware Version x.xx DRAM Size 16 MB
0 Logical Drives found on the Host Adapter
0 Logical Drives handled by BIOS
Press <Ctrl><M> to run MegaRAID SCSI 320-0 BIOS
Configuration Utility
The <Ctrl><M> utility prompt times out after several seconds. The
MegaRAID SCSI 320-0 host adapter (controller) number, firmware
version, and cache DRAM size are displayed in the second portion of the
BIOS message. The numbering of the controllers follows the PCI slot
scanning order used by the host motherboard.
6.2.6
Step 6: Run the MegaRAID BIOS Configuration Utility
Press <Ctrl><M> to run the MegaRAID BIOS Configuration Utility. See
the MegaRAID Configuration Software Guide for information about
running this utility.
6.2.7
Step 7: Install the Operating System Driver
MegaRAID can operate under MS-DOS or any DOS-compatible
operating system using the standard AT BIOS INT 13h Hard Disk Drive
interface. To operate with other operating systems, you must install
software drivers. MegaRAID provides software drivers on the Driver and
Documentation CD for the following operating systems:
·
MS-DOS version 6.xx or later
·
Microsoft Windows NT 4.0, Windows 2000, Windows XP, Windows
.NET
·
Novell NetWare 5.1, 6.0
·
Red Hat Linux 7.2, 7.3
Note:
Important:
Refer to the MegaRAID Driver Installation Guide for the
procedures used to install operating system drivers.
When booting the system from a drive connected to a
MegaRAID controller and using EMM386.EXE,
MEGASPI.SYS must be loaded in CONFIG.SYS before
Installation Steps
Copyright © 2002 by LSI Logic Corporation. All rights reserved.
6-7
EMM386.EXE is loaded. If you do not do this, you cannot
access the boot drive after EMM386 is loaded.
6.3
Summary
This chapter discussed hardware installation. Configure the RAID system
using software configuration utilities. See the MegaRAID Configuration
Software Guide for all information about MegaRAID SCSI 320-0 software
utilities. The utility programs for configuring MegaRAID SCSI 320-0 are
shown in Table 6.4.
Table 6.4
6-8
Configuration Utilities and Operating Systems
Configuration Utility
Operating System
MegaRAID BIOS Configuration Utility
Independent of the operating system
WebBIOS Configuration Utility
Independent of the operating system
MegaRAID Manager
DOS
Red Hat Linux 7.2, 7.3
Novell NetWare 5.1, 6.0
Power Console Plus
Microsoft
Windows
Windows
Windows
Hardware Installation
Copyright © 2002 by LSI Logic Corporation. All rights reserved.
Windows NT
2000
XP
.NET
Chapter 7
Troubleshooting
This chapter provides troubleshooting information for the MegaRAID
SCSI 320-0 controller. It contains the following sections:
7.1
·
Section 7.1, “General Troubleshooting”
·
Section 7.2, “BIOS Boot Error Messages”
·
Section 7.3, “Other BIOS Error Messages”
·
Section 7.4, “Other Potential Problems”
General Troubleshooting
This section lists the general problems that can occur, along with
suggested solutions. Table 7.1 describes general problems you might
encounter, along with suggested solutions.
Table 7.1
General Problems and Suggested Solutions
Problem
Suggested Solution
The system hangs during the boot
process after installation.
Make sure the SCSI BIOS on the motherboard has been
disabled.
Make sure the MegaRAID SCSI 320-0 adapter card is
installed in the proper PCI expansion slot. It must be
installed in the RAID Upgrade PCI slot.
Some operating systems do not load in
a computer with a MegaRAID SCSI
320-0 adapter.
Check the system BIOS configuration for PCI interrupt
assignments. Make sure some Interrupts are assigned for
PCI.
Initialize the logical drive before installing the operating
system.
MegaRAID SCSI 320-0 Hardware Guide
Copyright © 2002 by LSI Logic Corporation. All rights reserved.
7-1
Table 7.1
General Problems and Suggested Solutions (Cont.)
Problem
Suggested Solution
One of the hard drives in the array fails
often.
Check the drive error counts using Power Console Plus. See
the MegaRAID Configuration Software Guide for more
information.
Format the drive.
Rebuild the drive
If the drive continues to fail, replace the drive with another
drive with the same capacity.
Pressed <Ctrl><M>. Ran
Megaconf.exe and tried to make a new
configuration. The system hangs when
scanning devices.
Check the drives IDs on each channel to make sure each
device has a different ID.
Check the termination. The device at the end of the channel
must be terminated.
Replace the drive cable.
Multiple drives using the same power
supply. There is a problem spinning the
drives all at once.
Set the drives to spin on command. This will allow
MegaRAID SCSI 320-0 to spin two devices simultaneously.
Pressing <Ctrl><M> or running
megaconf.exe does not display the
Management Menu.
These utilities require a color monitor.
Cannot flash or update the EEPROM.
You may need a new EEPROM.
Firmware Initializing...
Make sure that TERMPWR is being properly provided to
each peripheral device populated channel.
appears and remains on the screen.
Make sure that each end of the channel chain is properly
terminated using the recommended terminator type for the
peripheral device.
Make sure (on a channel basis) only two types of cables are
connected at any one time.
Make sure that the MegaRAID SCSI 320-0 controller is
properly seated in the ZCR PCI slot.
What SCSI IDs can a non-hard disk
device have and what is maximum
number allowed per adapter?
7-2
Non-hard disk devices can accommodate only SCSI IDs 1,
2, 3, 4, 5 or 6, regardless of the channel used. A maximum
of six non-hard disk devices are supported per MegaRAID
SCSI 320-0 adapter.
Troubleshooting
Copyright © 2002 by LSI Logic Corporation. All rights reserved.
7.2
BIOS Boot Error Messages
Table 7.2 describes error messages that can display when you boot the
system, and suggested solutions.
Table 7.2
BIOS Boot Error Messages
Message
Problem
Suggested Solution
Adapter BIOS Disabled.
No Logical Drives
Handled by BIOS
The MegaRAID BIOS is
disabled. Sometimes the
BIOS is disabled to
prevent booting from the
BIOS.
Enable the BIOS using the MegaRAID BIOS
Configuration Utility.
Host Adapter at
Baseport xxxx Not
Responding
The BIOS cannot
communicate with the
adapter firmware.
Make sure MegaRAID SCSI 320-0 is properly
installed.
No MegaRAID SCSI
320-0 Adapter
The BIOS cannot
communicate with the
adapter firmware.
Make sure MegaRAID SCSI 320-0 is properly
installed.
Configuration of
nonvolatile RAM
(NVRAM) and drives
mismatch.
Run View/Add
Configuration option of
Configuration Utility.
Press any key to run the
Configuration Utility.
The configuration stored
in the MegaRAID SCSI
320-0 adapter does not
match the configuration
stored in the drives.
1. Press a key to run MegaRAID Manager.
2. Select View/Add Configuration from the
Configure menu.
3. Use View/Add Configuration to examine
both the configuration in NVRAM and the
configuration stored on the disk drives.
4. Resolve the problem by selecting one of the
configurations.
1 Logical Drive Failed
A logical drive failed to
sign on.
Make sure all physical drives are properly
connected and are powered on.
Run MegaRAID Manager to find out if any
physical drives are not responding. Reconnect,
replace, or rebuild any drive that is not
responding.
X Logical Drives
Degraded
x number of logical
drives signed on in a
degraded state.
Make sure all physical drives are properly
connected and are powered on.
Run MegaRAID Manager to find if any physical
drives are not responding. Reconnect, replace,
or rebuild any drive that is not responding.
BIOS Boot Error Messages
Copyright © 2002 by LSI Logic Corporation. All rights reserved.
7-3
Table 7.2
BIOS Boot Error Messages (Cont.)
Message
Problem
Suggested Solution
1 Logical Drive
Degraded
A logical drive signed on
in a degraded state.
Make sure all physical drives are properly
connected and are powered on.
Run MegaRAID Manager to find out if any
physical drives are not responding. Reconnect,
replace, or rebuild any drive that is not
responding.
The following SCSI IDs
are not responding:
Channel x:a.b.c
7.3
The physical drives with
SCSI IDs a, b, and c are
not responding on SCSI
channel x.
Make sure the physical drives are properly
connected and are powered on.
Other BIOS Error Messages
Table 7.3 describes other BIOS error messages, their meaning, and
suggested solutions.
Table 7.3
Other BIOS Error Messages
Message
Problem
Suggested Solution
Following SCSI disk
not found and no
empty slot available
for mapping it
The physical disk roaming
feature did not find the
physical disk with the
displayed SCSI ID. No slot is
available to map the physical
drive. MegaRAID cannot
resolve the physical drives
into the current configuration.
Reconfigure the array.
Following SCSI IDs
have the same data y,
z
Channel x: a, b, c
The physical drive roaming
feature found the same data
on two or more physical drive
on channel x with SCSI IDs a,
b, and c. MegaRAID cannot
determine the drive that has
the duplicate information.
Remove the drive or drives that should not
be used.
7-4
Troubleshooting
Copyright © 2002 by LSI Logic Corporation. All rights reserved.
Table 7.3
Other BIOS Error Messages (Cont.)
Message
Problem
Suggested Solution
Unresolved
configuration
mismatch between
disks and NVRAM on
the adapter
The configuration stored in the
MegaRAID NVRAM does not
match the configuration stored
on the drives.
1. Press a key to run MegaRAID Manager.
2. Select View/Add Configuration from the
Configure menu.
3. Use View/Add Configuration to examine
both the configuration in NVRAM and the
configuration stored on the disk drives.
4. Resolve the problem by selecting one of
the configurations.
7.4
Other Potential Problems
Table 7.4 describes other potential problems.
Table 7.4
Other Potential Problems
Topic
Information
DOS ASPI
MEGASPI.SYS, the MegaRAID DOS ASPI manager, uses 6 Kbytes of system
memory once it is loaded.
CD drives under
DOS
At this time, copied CDs are not accessible from DOS even after loading
MEGASPI.SYS and MEGACDR.SYS.
Physical drive errors To display the MegaRAID Manager Media Error and Other Error options, select
the Objects menu, then Physical Drive. Select a physical drive and press <F2>.
The windows displays the number of errors.
A Media Error is an error that occurred while actually transferring data. An
Other Error is an error that occurs at the hardware level because of a device
failure, poor cabling, bad termination, signal loss, etc.
Virtual sizing
The virtual sizing option enables RAID expansion. Virtual sizing must be
enabled to increase the size of a logical drive or add a physical drive to an
existing logical drive.
Run the BIOS Configuration Utility by pressing <Ctrl><M> to enable virtual
sizing. Select Objects, then Logical Drive. Next, select View/Update
Parameters, then set virtual sizing to Enabled.
BSD Unix
We do not provide a driver for BSDI Unix. MegaRAID SCSI 320-0 does not
support BSDI Unix.
Multiple LUNs
MegaRAID SCSI 320-0 supports one logical unit number (LUN) per each target
ID. No multiple LUN devices are supported.
Other Potential Problems
Copyright © 2002 by LSI Logic Corporation. All rights reserved.
7-5
Table 7.4
Other Potential Problems (Cont.)
Topic
Information
MegaRAID power
requirements
The maximum MegaRAID SCSI 320-0 power requirements are 15 W at 5 V
and 3 A.
SCSI bus
requirements
The ANSI specification dictates the following:
· The maximum signal path length between terminators is 3 meters when
using up to 4 maximum capacitance (25 pF) devices and 1.5 meters when
using more than 4 devices.
· SCSI devices should be uniformly spaced between terminators, with the end
devices located as close as possible to the terminators.
· The characteristic impedance of the cable should be 90 +/- 6 ohms for the
/REQ and /ACK signals and 90 +/- 10 ohms for all other signals.
· The stub length (the distance from the controller's external connector to the
mainline SCSI bus) shall not exceed 0.1m (approximately 4 inches).
· The spacing of devices on the mainline SCSI bus should be at least three
times the stub length.
· All signal lines shall be terminated once at both ends of the bus powered
by the TERMPWR line.
Windows NT
Installation
When Windows NT is installed using a bootable CD, the devices on the
MegaRAID SCSI 320-0 will not be recognized until after the initial reboot. The
Microsoft documented workaround is in SETUP.TXT. SETUP.TXT is on the CD.
To install drivers when Setup recognizes one of the supported SCSI host
adapters without making the devices attached to it available for use:
1. Restart Windows NT Setup.
2. Press <F6> to prevent Windows NT Setup from performing disk controller
detection when Windows NT Setup displays the following:
Setup is inspecting your computer's hardware configuration...,
This allows you to install the driver from the drivers disk you created. All
SCSI adapters must be installed manually.
3. Press <S> to display a list of supported SCSI host adapters when Windows
NT Setup displays the following:
Setup could not determine the type of one or more mass storage devices
installed in your system, or you have chosen to manually specify an
adapter,
4. Select Other from the bottom of the list.
5. Insert the drivers disk you made when prompted to do so and select MegaRAID SCSI 320-0 from this list.
In some cases, Windows NT Setup repeatedly prompts to swap disks.
Windows NT will recognize any devices attached to this adapter.
6. Repeat this step for each host adapter not already recognized by Windows
NT Setup.
7-6
Troubleshooting
Copyright © 2002 by LSI Logic Corporation. All rights reserved.
Appendix A
Audible Warnings
The MegaRAID SCSI 320-0 RAID controller has an onboard tone
generator that indicates events and errors.
Note:
Table A.1
This is available only if the optional series 502 Battery
Backup Unit (BBU) is installed.
Audible Warnings and Descriptions
Tone Pattern
Meaning
Examples
Three seconds on
and one second off
A logical drive is
offline.
One or more drives in a RAID 0
configuration failed.
Two or more drives in a RAID 1,
or 5 configuration failed.
One second on and
one second off
A logical drive is running in degraded
mode.
One drive in a RAID 5 configuration failed.
One second on and
three seconds off
An automatically initiated rebuild has been
completed.
While you were away from the
system, a disk drive in a RAID 1,
or 5 configuration failed and was
rebuilt.
MegaRAID SCSI 320-0 Hardware Guide
Copyright © 2002 by LSI Logic Corporation. All rights reserved.
A-1
A-2
Audible Warnings
Copyright © 2002 by LSI Logic Corporation. All rights reserved.
Appendix B
Glossary
Array
A grouping of individual disk drives that combines the storage space on
the disk drives into a single segment of contiguous storage space.
MegaRAID can group disk drives on one or more SCSI channels into an
array.
Array
Management
Software
Software that provides common control and management for a disk array.
Array management software most often executes in a disk controller or
intelligent host bus adapter, but it can also execute in a host computer.
When array management software executes in a disk controller or
adapter, it is often called firmware.
Array Spanning
Array spanning by a logical drive combines storage space in two arrays
of disk drives into a single, contiguous storage space in a logical drive.
MegaRAID logical drives can span consecutively numbered arrays that
have the same number of disk drives. Array spanning promotes RAID
levels 1 and 5 to RAID levels 10 and 50, respectively. See also Disk
Spanning.
Asynchronous
Operations
Operations that bear no relationship to each other in time and can
overlap. The concept of asynchronous I/O operations is central to
independent access arrays in throughput-intensive applications.
Cache I/O
A small amount of fast memory that holds recently accessed data.
Caching speeds subsequent access to the same data. It is most often
applied to processor-memory access, but it can also be used to store a
copy of data accessible over a network. When data is read from or
written to main memory, a copy is also saved in cache memory with the
associated main memory address. The cache memory software monitors
the addresses of subsequent reads to see if the required data is already
stored in cache memory. If it is already in cache memory (a cache hit),
the data is read from cache memory immediately and the main memory
read is aborted (or not started.) If the data is not cached (a cache miss),
it is fetched from main memory and saved in cache memory.
MegaRAID SCSI 320-0 Hardware Guide
Copyright © 2002 by LSI Logic Corporation. All rights reserved.
B-1
Channel
An electrical path for the transfer of data and control information between
a disk and a disk controller.
Consistency
Check
An examination of the disk system to determine whether all conditions
are valid for the specified configuration (such as parity.)
Cold Swap
A cold swap requires that you turn the power off before replacing a
defective disk drive in a disk subsystem.
Data Transfer
Capacity
The amount of data per unit time moved through a channel. For disk I/O,
data transfer capacity (bandwidth) is expressed in megabytes per second
(Mbytes/s).
Degraded
Used to describe a disk drive that has become non-functional or has
decreased in performance.
Disk
A nonvolatile, randomly addressable, rewritable mass storage device,
including both rotating magnetic and optical disks and solid-state disks,
or nonvolatile electronic storage elements. It does not include specialized
devices such as write-once-read-many (WORM) optical disks, nor does
it include so-called RAM disks implemented using software to control a
dedicated portion of a host computer volatile random access memory.
Disk Array
A collection of disks from one or more disk subsystems combined with
array management software. The software controls the disks and
presents them to the array operating environment as one or more virtual
disks.
Disk Duplexing
A variation on disk mirroring in which a second disk adapter or host
adapter and redundant disk drives are present.
Disk Mirroring
Writing duplicate data to more than one (usually two) disk drives to
protect against data loss in the event of device failure. Disk mirroring is
a common feature of RAID systems.
Disk Spanning
Disk spanning allows multiple disk drives to function like one big drive.
Spanning overcomes lack of disk space and simplifies storage
management by combining existing resources or adding relatively
inexpensive resources. For example, four 36 Gbyte disk drives can be
combined to appear to the operating system as one single 144 Gbyte
drive. See also Array Spanning and Spanning.
Disk Striping
A type of disk array mapping. Consecutive stripes of data are mapped
round-robin to consecutive array members. A striped array (RAID 0)
B-2
Glossary
Copyright © 2002 by LSI Logic Corporation. All rights reserved.
provides high I/O performance at low cost, but provides lowers data
reliability than any of its member disks.
Disk Subsystem
A collection of disks and the hardware that connects them to one or more
host computers. The hardware can include an intelligent controller, or the
disks can attach directly to a host computer I/O bus adapter.
Double
Buffering
A technique that achieves maximum data transfer bandwidth by
constantly keeping two I/O requests for adjacent data outstanding. A
software component begins a double-buffered I/O stream by issuing two
requests in rapid sequence. Thereafter, each time an I/O request
completes, another is immediately issued. If the disk subsystem is
capable of processing requests fast enough, double buffering allows data
to be transferred at the full-volume transfer rate.
Failed Drive
A drive that has ceased to function or consistently functions improperly.
Fast SCSI
A variant on the SCSI-2 standard. It uses the same 8-bit bus as the
original SCSI-1, but runs at up to 10 Mbytes (double the speed of SCSI1.)
Firmware
Software stored in read-only memory (ROM) or Programmable ROM
(PROM). Firmware often controls the behavior of a system when it is first
turned on. A typical example would be a monitor program in a computer
that loads the full operating system from disk or from a network and then
passes control to the operating system.
FlexRAID Power
Fail Option
The FlexRAID Power Fail option allows a reconstruction to restart if a
power failure occurs. This is the advantage of this option. The
disadvantage is, once the reconstruction is active, the performance is
slower because an additional activity is added.
Format
The process of writing zeros to all data fields in a physical drive (disk
drive) to map out unreadable or bad sectors. Because most disk drives
are factory formatted, formatting is usually only done if a hard disk
generates many media errors.
GByte
Gigabyte. Shorthand for 1,000,000,000 (10 to the ninth power) bytes.
One Gbyte is equivalent to 1,000 Mbytes.
Host-based
Array
A disk array with an array management software in its host computer
rather than in a disk subsystem.
B-3
Copyright © 2002 by LSI Logic Corporation. All rights reserved.
Host Computer
Any computer to which disks are directly attached. Mainframes, servers,
workstations, and personal computers can all be considered host
computers.
Hot Spare
A stand-by disk drive ready for use if a drive in an array fails. A hot spare
does not contain any user data. Up to eight disk drives can be assigned
as hot spares for an adapter. A hot spare can be dedicated to a single
redundant array, or it can be part of the global hot-spare pool for all
arrays controlled by the adapter.
Hot Swapping
The substitution of a replacement unit in a disk subsystem for a defective
one, where the substitution can be performed while the subsystem is
running. Hot swaps are done manually.
I/O Driver
A host computer software component (usually part of the operating
system) that controls the operation of peripheral controllers or adapters
attached to the host computer. I/O drivers communicate between
applications and I/O devices, and in some cases they participate in data
transfer.
Initialization
The process of writing zeros to the data fields of a logical drive and
generating the corresponding parity to put the logical drive in a Ready
state. Initializing erases previous data and generates parity so that the
logical drive will pass a consistency check. Arrays can work without
initialization, but they can fail a consistency check because the parity
fields have not been generated.
Logical Disk
A set of contiguous chunks on a physical disk. Logical disks are used in
array implementations as constituents of logical volumes or partitions.
Logical disks are normally transparent to the host environment, except
when the array containing them is being configured.
Logical Drive
A virtual drive within an array that can consist of more than one physical
drive. Logical drives divide the contiguous storage space of an array of
disk drives or a spanned group of arrays of drives. The storage space in
a logical drive is spread across all the physical drives in the array or
spanned arrays. Configure at least one logical drive for each array.
Mapping
The conversion between multiple data addressing schemes, especially
conversions between member disk block addresses and block addresses
of the virtual disks presented to the operating environment by array
management software.
B-4
Glossary
Copyright © 2002 by LSI Logic Corporation. All rights reserved.
Mbyte
(Megabyte) An abbreviation for 1,000,000 (10 to the sixth power) bytes.
One Mbyte equals 1,000 Kbytes (kilobytes).
Multi-threaded
Having multiple concurrent or pseudo-concurrent execution sequences.
Used to describe processes in computer systems. Multi-threaded
processes allow throughput-intensive applications to efficiently use a disk
array to increase I/O performance.
Operating
Environment
The operating environment includes the host computer where the array
is attached, any I/O buses and adapters, the host operating system, and
any additional software required to operate the array. For host-based
arrays, the operating environment includes I/O driver software for the
member disks, but does not include array management software, which
is regarded as part of the array itself.
Parity
Parity is an extra bit added to a byte or word to reveal errors in storage
(in RAM or disk) or transmission. Parity is used to generate a set of
redundancy data from two or more parent data sets. The redundancy
data can be used to reconstruct one of the parent data sets, although it
does not fully duplicate the parent data sets. In RAID, this method is
applied to entire drives or stripes across all disk drives in an array. Parity
data is distributed among all the drives in the system. If a single disk
drive fails, the drive can be rebuilt from the parity of the respective data
on the remaining drives.
Partition
An array virtual disk made up of logical disks rather than physical ones.
Also known as logical volume.
Physical Disk
A hard disk drive that stores data. A hard disk drive consists of one or
more rigid magnetic discs rotating about a central axle with associated
read/write heads and electronics.
Physical Disk
Roaming
The ability of some adapters to detect when disk drives have been
moved to a different slot in the computer—for example, after a hot swap.
Protocol
A set of formal rules describing how to transmit data, especially across
a network. Low level protocols define the electrical and physical
standards to be observed, bit- and byte- ordering, and the transmission
and error detection and correction of the bit stream. High level protocols
deal with the data formatting, including the message syntax, the terminalto-computer dialogue, character sets, and sequencing of messages.
B-5
Copyright © 2002 by LSI Logic Corporation. All rights reserved.
RAID
Redundant Array of Independent Disks. A data storage method in which
data, along with parity information, is distributed among two or more hard
disks (called an array) to improve performance and reliability. A RAID
disk subsystem improves I/O performance on a server using only a single
drive. The RAID array appears to the host server as a single storage unit.
I/O is expedited because several disks can be accessed simultaneously.
RAID Levels
A style of redundancy applied to a logical drive. It can increase the
performance of the logical drive and can decrease usable capacity. Each
logical drive must have a RAID level assigned to it. The RAID level drive
requirements are: RAID 0 requires one or more physical drives, RAID 1
requires exactly two physical drives, RAID 5 requires at least three
physical drives. RAID levels 10 and 50 result when logical drives span
arrays. RAID 10 results when a RAID 1 logical drive spans arrays. RAID
50 results when a RAID 5 logical drive spans arrays.
RAID Migration
RAID migration is used to move between optimal RAID levels or to
change from a degraded redundant logical drive to an optimal RAID 0.
In Novell, the utility used for RAID migration is MEGAMGR; in
Windows NT, it is Power Console Plus. If a RAID 1 array is being
converted to a RAID 0 array, instead of performing RAID migration, one
drive can be removed and the other reconfigured on the controller as a
RAID 0. This is due to the same data being written to each drive.
Read-Ahead
A memory caching capability in some adapters that allows them to read
sequentially ahead of requested data and store the additional data in
cache memory, anticipating that the additional data will be needed soon.
Read-Ahead supplies sequential data faster, but it is not as effective
when accessing random data.
Ready State
A condition in which a workable disk drive is neither online nor a hot
spare and is available to add to an array or to designate as a hot spare.
Rebuild
The regeneration of all data from a failed disk in a RAID level 1, or 5
array to a replacement disk. A disk rebuild normally occurs without
interruption of application access to data stored on the array virtual disk.
Rebuild Rate
The percentage of CPU resources devoted to rebuilding.
Reconstruct
The act of remaking a logical drive after changing RAID levels or adding
a physical drive to an existing array.
B-6
Glossary
Copyright © 2002 by LSI Logic Corporation. All rights reserved.
Redundancy
The provision of multiple interchangeable components to perform a
single function to cope with failures or errors. Redundancy normally
applies to hardware; disk mirroring is a common form of hardware
redundancy.
Replacement
Disk
A disk available to replace a failed member disk in a RAID array.
Replacement
Unit
A component or collection of components in a disk subsystem that is
always replaced as a unit when any part of the collection fails. Typical
replacement units in a disk subsystem includes disks, controller logic
boards, power supplies, and cables. Also called a hot spare.
SAF-TE
SCSI-accessed fault-tolerant enclosure. An industry protocol for
managing RAID enclosures and reporting enclosure environmental
information.
SCSI
(Small computer system interface) A processor-independent standard for
system-level interfacing between a computer and intelligent devices,
including hard disks, floppy disks, CD-ROM, printers, scanners, etc.
Multiple SCSI devices can be connected to a single host adapter on the
computer's bus. SCSI transfers eight or 16 bits in parallel and can
operate in either asynchronous or synchronous modes. The synchronous
transfer rate is up to 320 Mbytes/s (for Ultra320 SCSI). SCSI connections
normally use single-ended drivers, as opposed to differential drivers.
SCSI Channel
MegaRAID controls the disk drives through SCSI-2 buses (channels)
over which the system transfers data in either Fast and Wide or Ultra
SCSI mode. Each adapter can control up to three SCSI channels.
Internal and external disk drives can be mixed on channels 0 and 1, but
not on channel 2.
SCSI Drive State
A SCSI physical drive can be in one of these states:
·
Online: Powered-on and operational.
·
Ready: Functioning normally, but not part of a configured logical
drive and not designated as a hot spare.
·
Hot Spare: Powered-on stand-by disk drive, ready for use if an
online disk fails.
·
Fail: Out of service, due to a fault occurring on the drive.
·
Rebuild: Currently being rebuilt with data from a failed drive.
B-7
Copyright © 2002 by LSI Logic Corporation. All rights reserved.
Service
Provider
The Service Provider (SP) is a program that resides in the desktop
system or server and is responsible for all DMI activities. This layer
collects management information from products (whether system
hardware, peripherals, or software), stores that information in the DMI
database, and passes it to management applications as requested.
SNMP
Simple Network Management Protocol. The most widely used protocol
for communicating management information between the managed
elements of a network and a network manager. SNMP focuses primarily
on the network backbone. The Internet standard protocol that manages
nodes on an Internet Protocol (IP) network.
Spanning
Array spanning by a logical drive combines storage space in two arrays
of disk drives into a single, contiguous storage space in a logical drive.
MegaRAID logical drives can span consecutively numbered arrays that
each consist of the same number of disk drives. Array spanning
promotes RAID levels 1 and 5 to RAID levels 10 and 50, respectively.
See also Disk Spanning.
Spare
A disk drive available to back up the data of other drives.
Stripe Size
The amount of data contiguously written to each disk. You can specify
stripe sizes of 4, 8, 16, 32, 64, and 128 Kbytes for each logical drive. For
best performance, choose a stripe size equal to or smaller than the block
size used by the host computer.
Stripe Width
The number of disk drives across which the data is striped.
Striping
Segmentation of logically sequential data, such as a single file, so that
segments can be written to multiple physical devices in a round-robin
fashion. This technique is useful if the processor can read or write data
faster than a single disk can supply or accept it. While data is being
transferred from the first disk, the second disk can locate the next
segment. Data striping is used in some modern databases and in certain
RAID devices.
Terminator
A resistor connected to a signal wire in a bus or network for impedance
matching to prevent reflections—for example, a 50 ohm resistor
connected across the end of an Ethernet cable. SCSI buses and some
LocalTalk wiring schemes also require terminators.
B-8
Glossary
Copyright © 2002 by LSI Logic Corporation. All rights reserved.
Ultra320
A subset of Ultra3 SCSI that allows a maximum throughput of 320
Mbytes/s, which is twice as fast as Wide Ultra2 SCSI. Ultra320 SCSI
provides 320 Mbytes/s on a 16-bit connection.
Virtual Sizing
FlexRAID virtual sizing is used to create a logical drive up to 80 Gbytes.
A maximum of 40 logical drives can be configured on a RAID controller,
and RAID migration is possible for all logical drives except the fortieth.
Because it is not possible to do migration on the last logical drive, the
maximum space available for RAID migration is 560 Gbytes.
Wide SCSI
A variant on the SCSI-2 interface. Wide SCSI uses a 16-bit bus, double
the width of the original SCSI-1. Wide SCSI devices cannot be
connected to a SCSI-1 bus. Like Fast SCSI, Wide SCSI supports transfer
rates up to 20 Mbytes/s.
B-9
Copyright © 2002 by LSI Logic Corporation. All rights reserved.
B-10
Glossary
Copyright © 2002 by LSI Logic Corporation. All rights reserved.
Index
A
Array B-1
Array Configuration Planner 5-14
Array management software B-1
Array performance features 4-3
Array spanning B-1
Assigning RAID levels 5-11
Asynchronous operations B-1
Audible Warnings A-1
Automatic failed drive detection and rebuild 4-4
B
E
BIOS 4-6
BIOS Boot Error Messages 7-3
BIOS Configuration Utility 6-7
BIOS message 6-6
Bus data transfer rate 4-6
Bus type 4-6
Bus-based 2-11
C
Cache configuration 4-6
Cache I/O B-1
Cache Memory 4-7
Card size 4-6
Channel B-2
Cold swap B-2
Compatibility 4-9
Configuration on Disk 4-2
Configuration Strategies 5-9
Configuring Arrays 5-8
Configuring Logical Drives 5-12
Configuring SCSI physical drives 5-1
Consistency check 2-4, B-2
CPU 4-6
Creating hot spares 5-8
Creating logical drives 5-9
D
Data redundancy
Using mirroring 2-6
Data transfer capacity B-2
Dedicated parity 2-8
Degraded 2-10, B-2
Disconnect/reconnect 4-7
Disk B-2
Disk array B-2
Disk Array Types 2-11
Disk duplexing B-2
Disk mirroring 2-6, B-2
Disk rebuild 2-9
Disk spanning 2-7, B-2
Disk striping 2-4, B-2
Disk subsystem B-3
Documentation 1-4
DOS 4-5
Double buffering B-3
Drive roaming 4-2
Drivers 6-7
Enclosure management 2-11
F
Fail 2-10
Failed 2-10
Failed drive B-3
Fast SCSI B-3
Fault tolerance 2-4
Fault tolerance features 4-4
Features 1-2, 4-1
Firmware 4-6, B-3
Flash ROM 1-2
FlexRAID Power Fail option B-3
Format B-3
G
GB B-3
Glossary B-1
H
Hardware Installation 6-1
Host computer B-4
Host-based array B-3
Host-based RAID solution 2-2
Hot spare 2-8, 2-10, B-4
Using during disk rebuild 2-9
Hot swap 2-9, 4-4, B-4
I
I/O driver B-4
Initialization B-4
MegaRAID SCSI 320-0 Hardware Guide
Copyright © 2002 by LSI Logic Corporation. All rights reserved.
IX-1
R
Install Drivers 6-7
Installation steps
Custom 6-2
Nonvolatile RAM 4-6
Novell NetWare 4-5, 6-7
NVRAM 1-2
RAID B-6
Benefits 2-1
Introduction to 2-1
RAID 0 3-2
RAID 1 3-3
Spanning to configure RAID 10 2-8
RAID 10 3-6
Configuring 2-8
RAID 5 3-4
Spanning to make RAID 50 2-8
RAID 50 3-7
Configuring 2-8
RAID benefits
Improved I/O 2-1
Increased reliability 2-2
RAID levels 1-v, 3-1, B-6
RAID levels supported 4-6
RAID management 4-8
RAID management features 4-4
RAID migration B-6
RAID overview 2-3
Read-ahead B-6
Ready 2-10
Ready state B-6
Rebuild 2-10, 4-7
Rebuild rate 2-9, B-6
Rebuilding a disk 2-9
Reconnect 4-7
Reconstruct B-6
Reconstruction B-6
Red Hat Linux 6-7
RedAlert 4-9
Redundancy B-7
Replacement disk B-7
Replacement unit B-7
O
S
Offline 2-10
Online
Drive state 2-10
Operating environment B-5
Operating system software drivers 4-5
Operating voltage 4-6
Optimal 2-10
Optimizing Data Storage 5-12
Other BIOS error messages 7-4
SAF-TE B-7
SCSI B-7
SCSI backup and utility software 4-9
SCSI bus widths and maximum throughput 1-4
SCSI buses 1-2
SCSI channel B-7
SCSI data transfer rate 4-6
SCSI Device Compatibility 4-9
SCSI device types supported 4-6
SCSI Drive State B-7
SCSI firmware 4-7
SCSI to SCSI 2-11
SCSI-to-SCSI RAID product 2-3
Server management 4-9
Service provider B-8
SMART Technology 4-1
SNMP B-8
SNMP agent 4-9
SNMP managers 4-9
Software utilities 4-5
Software-based 2-11
Spanning 2-7, B-8
Spare B-8
Standby rebuild 2-9
Stripe size 2-6, 4-7, B-8
Stripe width 2-5, B-8
J
Jumpers
Setting 6-3
L
Linux
Red Hat 4-5
Logical disk B-4
Logical drive 2-3, B-4
Logical drive states 2-10
M
Mapping B-4
MB B-5
MegaRAID BIOS 4-7
MegaRAID BIOS Configuration Utility 4-8
MegaRAID Manager 4-8
MegaRAID SCSI 320-0 card
Installing 6-5
MegaRAID SCSI 320-0 card layout 6-3
Mirroring 2-6
MS-DOS 6-7
Multi-threaded B-5
N
P
Parity 2-8, B-5
Partition B-5
PCI controller 4-6
Physical array 2-3
Physical disk B-5
Physical disk roaming B-5
Physical drive 2-3
Power Console Plus 4-8
Processor 4-6
Product specifications 4-6
Protocol B-5
IX-2
Index
Copyright © 2002 by LSI Logic Corporation. All rights reserved.
Striping B-8
T
Technical Support 1-vi
Terminator B-8
Troubleshooting 7-1
U
Ultra320 and Wide SCSI 4-1
Ultra3-SCSI (320M) B-9
Unpack 6-2
V
Virtual sizing B-9
W
WebBIOS Configuration Utility 4-8
Wide SCSI B-9
Windows .NET 6-7
Windows 2000 6-7
Windows NT 4-5, 6-7
Windows XP 6-7
Index
Copyright © 2002 by LSI Logic Corporation. All rights reserved.
IX-3
IX-4
Index
Copyright © 2002 by LSI Logic Corporation. All rights reserved.
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