Repair manual | Actron 9615 Automobile Parts User Manual

OBD II System
Tester '$#
Table of Contents
Vehicle Service Information . . 2
Safety Precautions . . . . . . . . . . 3
Section 3: Diagnostic Trouble Code
Lookup . . . . . . . . . . . 20
Section 1: Welcome to the OBD II
System Tester . . . . . . 4
Section 4: On-Line Help and
Troubleshooting Tips 22
1-1 Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
1-2 The OBD II System Tester . . . . . . . . 4
1-3 Diagnostic Connector and Location . 4
1-4 Operating the OBD II System Tester . 5
Powering-Up . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
Keypad . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
Display . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
Lists, Menus and Questions . . . . . 6
Other Functions & Keys . . . . . . . . 7
1-5 OBD II System Tester Setup . . . . . . 7
Section 2: Diagnosing with the
Tester . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
2-1 Preliminary Checks . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
2-2 OBD II Functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
Read Codes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
Pending Codes (or Continuous
Test Codes) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
Erase Codes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
View Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
View Freeze Data . . . . . . . . . . . 12
Record Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
Playback Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
O2 Monitor Test . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
Non-Continuous Tests . . . . . . . 17
On-Board Systems . . . . . . . . . . 18
I/M Readiness . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
1
4-1 How to Use On-Line Help . . . . . . . 22
4-2 Tool Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
4-3 Vehicle Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
4-4 OBD II System Tester Self-Tests . . 23
Display Test . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
Keyboard Test . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
Appendix A: Vehicle Computer
Basics . . . . . . . . . 25
Appendix B: Data Parameter List
& Definitions . . . . 31
Appendix C: Glossary of Terms 36
Vehicle Service Information
The following is a list of publishers who have manuals containing
electronic engine control diagnostic information. Some manuals may
be available at auto parts stores or your local public library. For others,
you need to write for availability and pricing, specifying the make,
model and year of your vehicle.
Vehicle Service Manuals
Chilton Book Company
Chilton Way
Radnor, PA 19089
Haynes Publications
861 Lawrence Drive
Newbury Park, CA 91320
Cordura Publications
Mitchell Manuals, Inc.
Post Office Box 26260
San Diego, CA 92126
Motor’s Auto Repair Manual
Hearst Company
250 W. 55th Street
New York, NY 10019
Suitable manuals have titles
such as:
“Electronic Engine Controls”
“Fuel Injection and Feedback
Carburetors”
“Fuel Injection and Electronic
Engine Controls”
“Emissions Control Manual”
. . . or similar titles
Vehicle Service Manuals from General
Motors Corporation:
Buick, Cadillac, Chevrolet, GEO, GMC,
Oldsmobile, & Pontiac
Helm Incorporated
Post Office Box 07130
Detroit, MI 48207
Saturn
Adistra Corporation
c/o Saturn Publications
101 Union St.
Post Office Box 1000
Plymouth, MI 48170
Vehicle Service Manuals from Ford
Motor Company:
Ford, Lincoln, & Mercury
Ford Publication Department
Helm Incorporated
Post Office Box 07150
Detroit, MI 48207
Vehicle Service Manuals from Chrysler
Corporation:
Chrysler, Plymouth, & Dodge
Chrysler Motors Service Training
26001 Lawrence Avenue
Center Line, MI 48015
2
Safety Precautions
General Safety Guidelines to Follow When Working on Vehicles
To prevent accidents that could result in serious injury and/or damage
to your vehicle or test equipment, carefully follow these safety rules
and test procedures at all times when working on vehicles:
• Always wear approved eye protection.
• Always operate the vehicle in a well-ventilated area. Do not inhale exhaust gases
— they are very poisonous!
• Always keep yourself, tools and test equipment away from all moving or hot engine
parts.
• Always make sure the vehicle is in Park (Automatic transmission) or Neutral
(manual transmission) and that the parking brake is firmly set. Block the drive
wheels.
• Never lay tools on vehicle battery. You may short the terminals together causing
harm to yourself, the tools or the battery.
• Never use OBD II System Tester if its internal circuitry has been exposed to any
liquids.
• Never smoke or have open flames near vehicle. Vapors from gasoline and
charging battery are highly flammable and explosive.
• Never leave vehicle unattended while running tests.
• Always keep a fire extinguisher suitable for gasoline/electrical/chemical fires handy.
• Always use extreme caution when working around the ignition coil, distributor cap,
ignition wires, and spark plugs. These components contain High Voltage when the
engine is running.
• When performing a road test, Never operate the OBD II System Tester alone while
driving the vehicle. Always have one person drive the vehicle while an assistant
operates the tester.
• Always turn ignition key OFF when connecting or disconnecting electrical components, unless otherwise instructed.
• Always follow vehicle manufacturer’s warnings, cautions and service procedures.
WARNING!
Some vehicles are equipped with safety air bags. You must follow
vehicle service manual cautions when working around the air bag
components or wiring. If the cautions are not followed, the air bag
may open up unexpectedly, resulting in personal injury. Note that the
air bag can still open up several minutes after the ignition key is off
(or even if the vehicle battery is disconnected) because of a special
energy reserve module.
3
Section 1: Welcome to the OBD II System Tester
1-1 Overview
OBD II (On-Board Diagnostic, second generation) systems are designed to meet or
exceed a set of standards and regulations designed to improve air quality. The
Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), in conjunction with California Air Research
Board (CARB), issued these standards and regulations through the Clean Air Act
of 1990. OBD II systems are required to monitor the performance of emission related
systems and their components. The ability to detect hard and intermittent faults are
further requirements of an OBD II compliant system. The Society of Automotive
Engineers (SAE) defined several standards for OBD II systems. These standards
include criteria for the diagnostic link connector, communication, Diagnostics trouble
codes (DTCs), descriptor names, and other repair information.
This OBD II System Tester will work on OBD II compliant cars and light trucks. If you
use a vehicle service manual along with the tester, you will be able to diagnose and
repair many automotive-related problems. Before proceeding, make sure you have
read and fully understand the material in this Manual.
1-2 The OBD II System Tester
KAL Equip’s OBD II System Tester was developed by experts in the automotive
service industry to help diagnose today’s vehicles and assist in troubleshooting
procedures. When a problem occurs in the vehicle, its computer will store a record of
the event and take corrective action to adjust the circuit at fault. The OBD II System
Tester will allow you to monitor these vehicle events and read DTCs from the
computer’s memory to pinpoint problem areas. The OBD II System Tester will
interpret the computer signals and provide you with a “real time” readout of vehicle
data. In addition, the Code Lookup feature allows you to reference code descriptions
without having to page through an instruction manual. A detailed description of the
functions are provided in Section 2: Diagnosing with the Tester.
1-3 Diagnostic Connector and Location
The OBD II System Tester communicates with
the vehicle via a diagnostic link connector (DLC).
OBD II Specification J1962 defines the DLC’s
physical and electrical properties. The DLC is
known as the J1962 connector. The Specification
J1962 was introduced by the SAE (Society of
Automotive Engineers) to make all compliant
vehicles use the same DLC with the generic link
information available on the same pins, no
matter what make of vehicle. In addition to the
connector specification, there is a guideline on
where to locate the DLC or J1962 connector, which
states it should be located under the dashboard on the
driver’s side of the vehicle. Even with this guideline, not
all OBD II DLCs are located under the dash on the
driver’s side. If the DLC is not located in the specified area, then a note will be placed
where the DLC should be informing the user of the location. If you cannot find the
DLC, see the vehicle service documentation for its location.
4
1-4 Operating the OBD II System Tester
POWERING-UP
Connect the OBD II System Tester to the DLC. This
connection will provide power for the OBD II System
Tester. The DLC contains power even when the ignition
is turned off. Connection to the battery is not necessary.
When the OBD II System Tester powers up, a series of screens are displayed. The
screens start with a “Welcome” screen and end with a “Help for Instructions” screen.
Welcome T o T h e
OBDII SYSTEM TESTER
by
KAL Equip
P r e s s *| * F o r
Instructions
Press ENTER To Cont
Before the “Help for Instructions“ screen, the tool performs a self-test and then displays
the software version “SW ID: xxxx.” Refer to this software version if you need to contact
Actron’s technical support line with a problem.
MAIN MENU
The “Help for Instructions” screen allows the
user to review the keypad definitions. Press the `1)OBDII Functions
2)Tool Setup
[
? key for instructions or the ENTER key to
3)Tool Self Test
|
continue and display the MAIN MENU.
NOTE: Your OBD II System Tester requires a minimum of 8 volts to power up. If the
power-up persists, review Section 4-2: Tool Problems to find the cause.
KEYPAD
The OBD II System Tester software was designed for ease in operation and navigation through the menus. Simply follow the instructions that match the keypad symbols
and you will be using your OBD II System Tester like an expert in no time.
CAUTION! DO NOT use solvents like ALCOHOL! This could remove the keypad paint! Use
a mild detergent or water to clean. Let dry thoroughly before operating tool.
Keyboard Functions
The OBD II System Tester uses 6 keys to navigate through the user-friendly software:
ENTER - Used to select functions and respond
to requests.
? - Used to request help when the (|) symbol is
displayed on the lower right hand corner of
the display.
BACK - Used to move one screen back in OBD II
System Tester flow.
ARROWS
UP & DOWN - are always used to move the solid
cursor (`) in the direction of the arrow or
Tester Keypad
scroll the data list in the direction you want to
move the list.
LEFT/RIGHT - The left/right arrow key is used to answer Yes or No questions.
5
DISPLAY
The OBD II System Tester has a 4 line x 20 character liquid crystal display (LCD) for
easy viewing. This helps make the OBD II System Tester more “user friendly” by
offering a large viewing area to display most Help and Instructional messages. This
puts more information on the display to reduce reference to printed materials. The
display will support a number of helpful symbols that will prompt you through test
routines. These symbols are shown and defined below:
|
`
[
]
Question Mark in lower right corner means there is help available for this screen
or current selectable item.
Pointer (cursor) is used to indicate current selectable choice.
Down Arrow indicates there is additional
2)Pending Codes
information on the next screen.
`3)Erase Codes
]
Up Arrow indicates there is additional
4)View Data
[
information on previous screen.
5)View Freeze Data |
LISTS, MENUS AND QUESTIONS
The OBD II System Tester is designed to be as intuitive as possible. That is, its
functions and controls should be easy to understand and use the first time you try it.
All menu and screen lists operate the same way. By using the UP and DOWN arrow
keys, you can move the cursor to a selection of your choice. The ENTER key selects
that function or item. The screen example above illustrates a few selections available
on the OBD II Function Menu.
Notice, in the screen below on the left, how the cursor (`) is pointing at 1)Read
Codes. If you wish to read the vehicle’s DTCs, press the ENTER key to select that
function. To make a different choice, such as View Data, use the DOWN arrow key to
move the cursor down to 4) View Data and press the ENTER key to select the View
Data function.
O B D II FUNCTION MENU
`1)Read Codes
2)Pending Codes
[
3)Erase Codes
|
1)Read Codes
2)Pending Codes
3)Erase Codes
`4)View Data
]
[
|
Sometimes, a list will be longer than three or four items, and will not fit on a single
screen. In these cases, the down arrow symbol ([) is visible in the last column of the
display, indicating that there are more choices on the next screen, as shown below
on the left. To go to the next choice, use the DOWN arrow key to move the cursor
down the list. Keep going even after you have reached the bottom of the screen. The
display will scroll to the list, shown above on the right:
You should see that there are now arrows in the last column pointing up and pointing
down. This indicates that you can use the UP arrow key to move the cursor to the
previous screen or the DOWN arrow key to move the cursor to the next screen.
Once the bottom of the list is reached, you will notice that there is now only an UP
arrow (]) in the last column. This indicates that you have reached the end of this list,
and that all other choices are on previous screens. You can return to those screens
by pressing the UP arrow key. These up and down arrow characters on the screen
are used throughout the OBD II System Tester. The UP and Down arrow keys work
exactly the same way, even if you are just scrolling through text such as the On-Line
Help screen.
6
Occasionally, you may be asked a question by
Operating
Error
the OBD II System Tester. These will always be
Check
Connections!
YES or NO questions, and are answered in
Try
Again?
almost the same way you make choices in a
<YES>
NO
|
Function Menu. In these screens, brackets < >
will automatically appear next to the default response. If you wish to accept the default
choice, simply press the ENTER key. If you wish to change the answer, use the LEFT/
RIGHT arrow key to move the brackets to the other response and press the ENTER key.
OTHER FUNCTIONS & KEYS
As you have reviewed moving through lists and functions in earlier sections, you
probably noticed another symbol on the screen. In the lower right-hand corner of some
screens, there is a |. This question mark indicates that On-Line Help is available for
that particular screen or item. To enter On-Line
T H E TESTER C A N N O T
Help, press the ? key. The “Operating Error”
COMMUNICATE WITH
help screen is shown at the right.
VEHICLE. CHECK T H E
[
The text in On-Line Help screens are in
FOLLOWING:
CAPITAL letters to remind you that you are
viewing On-Line Help screens and not screens associated with a function. Some OnLine Help messages are longer than one screen. If this is the case, the arrow
symbols (] [) will appear in the last column of the display. A [ means more
information available on the next screen and a ] means more information available
on the previous screen. Use the UP and DOWN arrow keys to page up or down
through a series of On-Line Help screens.
The On-Line Help screen shown above has a [ in the last column. To view the next
On-Line Help screen, press the DOWN arrow key.
Notice now that both arrow symbols (] [) are 1.IGNITION K E Y O N ?
visible in the last column of the display. This
2.HOOKUP T O VEHICLE ]
indicates that you can either page up to a
TEST CONNECTOR O K ? [
previous On-Line Help screen, or page down to 3.EMISSION LABEL
the next On-Line Help screen by using the UP
and DOWN arrow keys. The previous On-Line Help screen is always the one you just
viewed, just as with Function Menu.
1-5 OBD II System Tester Setup
Tool Setup is used to change the OBD II
System Tester’s default measurement units.
Select the Tool Setup option from the MAIN
MENU and press the ENTER key.
MAIN MENU
1)OBDII Functions
`2)Tool Setup
3)Tool Self Test
The TOOL SETUP MENU appears. Use the UP
TOOL SETUP MENU
and DOWN arrows to select English or Metric
`1)Metric Units
measurement units and then press the
2)English Units
ENTER key. Press ENTER again to accept or
the BACK key to change.
NOTE: If you change the Measurement Units to a setting other than the default, then
it will revert back to the default settings the next time the OBD II System Tester
is used.
7
[
|
Section 2: Diagnosing with the Tester
2-1 Preliminary Checks
Before using the OBD II System Tester on your vehicle, it is a good idea to perform a
complete visual inspection. You can find the cause of many driveability problems by
just looking, thereby saving yourself a lot of time. Check the following items before
proceeding with OBD II System Tester testing:
o Has the vehicle been serviced recently? Sometimes things get reconnected in
the wrong place, or not at all.
o Don’t take shortcuts. Inspect hoses and wiring which may be difficult to see
because of location beneath air cleaner housings, alternators and similar
components.
o Inspect the air cleaner and ductwork for defects.
o Check sensors and actuators for damage.
o Inspect all vacuum hoses for:
• Correct routing. Refer to vehicle service manual, or Vehicle Emission Control
Information (VECI) decal located in the engine compartment.
• Pinches and kinks.
• Splits, cuts or breaks.
o Inspect wiring for:
• Contact with sharp edges (this happens frequently).
• Contact with hot surfaces, such as exhaust manifolds.
• Pinched, burned or chafed insulation.
• Proper routing and connections.
o Check electrical connectors for:
• Corrosion on pins.
• Bent or damaged pins.
• Contacts not properly seated in housing.
• Bad wire crimps to terminals.
NOTE: Problems with connectors are common in the engine control system. Inspect
them carefully for corrosion, bent pins, pushed out pins, or over expanded
pins. Some connectors use a special grease on the contacts to prevent
corrosion. Do not wipe off! Obtain extra grease, if needed, from your vehicle
dealer. It is a special type for this purpose.
2-2 OBD II Functions
During the functions described below, a communication link is established, allowing
the OBD II System Tester and the vehicle’s PCM to exchange information. The way in
which this information is exchanged is referred to as a data stream or data links. The
OBD II Function Menu shows all OBD II Generic functions. Not every vehicle will have
every function that is listed. If the function or part of function selected is not supported
by the vehicle, a message screen informing you of this will be displayed.
8
After you select OBDII Functions from the MAIN MENU the OBD II System Tester will
automatically link to the PCM and check the OBD II Readiness Monitors. OBD II
Readiness Monitors are strategies designed to test the operation of emission related
systems or components. The PCM may perform special tests on a system or
component to complete its monitor. The vehicle may have to be operated under
certain conditions to initiate a monitor. If the PCM loses power or the codes are
erased the monitors will be cleared. The OBD II System Tester will display the
condition of vehicle’s OBD II Monitors.
Below is an example of the screen when the OBD II readiness monitors are completed. If any of the monitors are not completed, the following screen on the right will
be displayed.
On-Board Readiness
Tests a r e Complete
N o t All Supported
On-Board Readiness
Tests A r e Complete.
U s e [ T o View Tests
Press A K e y t o Cont
Press the down arrow key to view a list of the monitors. The monitor list consists of
the OBD II monitor name followed by the monitor’s condition. A monitor that is not
supported by the test vehicle will be followed
by “n/a”, (not applicable). A monitor that has
Misfire Monitor
OK
been completed will be followed by OK. If a
Fuel System M o n inc
monitor has not been completed, it will be
Comp Component n / a [
follower by “inc” for incomplete.
Catalyst Mon
OK
Press the BACK key and the OBD II Function Menu will display. Use the UP and
DOWN arrow keys to scroll through the choices.
IMPORTANT: If you choose a test that your vehicle does not support, you will get a
message telling you that the test is not applicable.
Read Codes
The Read Codes function is used to retrieve Diagnostic Trouble Codes (DTCs) from
the vehicle’s on-board computer. Diagnostic Trouble Codes are set when the PCM
recognizes a condition outside preset ranges. A Malfunction Indicator Lamp (MIL) that
is on indicates that a DTC has been recorded. Because DTCs indicate a circuit or
system failure not component failures they are very useful in diagnosing vehicle
concerns.
NOTE: Changing parts without diagnosing the circuit or system may result in good
components being unnecessarily replaced.
Select Read Codes from the OBD II Function
Menu and press the ENTER key. The PCM will
check it’s memory and report trouble conditions that were stored.
OBDII Function Menu
`1)Read Codes
2)Pending Codes
[
3)Erase Codes
|
NOTE: If you get an Operating Error message, make sure the DLC adapter cable is
properly attached to the vehicle connector. If the problem remains, refer to
Section 4: On-Line Help and Trouble-Shooting Tips.
9
When the tester has finished reading the DTCs, one of two possible screens is
displayed. If there are no DTCs stored in the vehicle’s on-board computer, a
“System Pass” screen is displayed. If there are DTCs stored in the vehicle’s onboard computer, then the OBD II System Tester displays the number of codes found.
System Pass:
N o Faults Detected.
Press A n y K e y F o r
Function Menu
Codes Found:
2
U s e [ T o View Codes
Write Down Codes
[
F o r Reference.
If codes are retrieved, press the DOWN arrow to view the DTC(s). Definitions for
Generic DTCs (SAE J2012) will be displayed. Manufacturer specific DTCs will just
display the code, no definition. Use an appropriate service manual to obtain code
definitions. When more than one DTC is received, the DOWN arrow will be displayed
on the right of the screen. The arrow indicates additional code information is available. Use the DOWN arrow key to view the codes stored in memory. The last code
screen will just have a ] symbol in the last column of the display. This indicates that
this is the last screen and additional code information is found on previous screens.
P0101
MAF Or VAF
CKT Range/Perf
P0102
MAF Or VAF
Circuit L o w Input
[
]
Use the BACK key to return to the OBD II Function Menu.
Pending Codes (or Continuous Test Codes)
The purpose of this function is to obtain test results for continuously monitored
emission-related powertrain components and systems. Certain tests are run
continuously as the vehicle is driven within proper operating conditions. Unlike some
trouble codes this function reports the test results after a single drive cycle. The
Pending Codes function is identical to the Continuous Test function and is useful
after a vehicle repair or after clearing the PCM’s diagnostic information. Test results
reported by this function do not necessarily indicate a faulty component or system.
To view the test results, select Pending Codes or Continuous Test from the OBDII
Function Menu and press the ENTER key.
OBDII FUNCTION MENU
1)Read Codes
`2)Pending Codes
[
3)Erase Codes
|
6)Record Data
7)Playback Data
8)O2 Monitor Test
`9)Continuous Test
If no Pending Codes exist, the OBD II System
Tester will display a single message screen
indicating this condition.
10
System Pass:
N o Faults Detected.
Press A n y K e y F o r
Function Menu
]
[
|
NOTE: If you get an Operating Error message, make sure the DLC adapter cable is
securely attached, and the ignition key is ON, then try again. If the problem
remains, refer to Section 4: On-Line Help and Trouble-Shooting Tips.
If any of these tests indicate a fault, the DTCs
will be displayed in the same format as Read
Codes. The tester will display codes similar to
trouble codes. Press the DOWN arrow to view
the pending code(s).
Codes
Use [
Write
For
Found:
2
T o View Codes
Down Codes
[
Reference.
A DOWN arrow displayed on the right of the screen indicates additional codes can
be found on the next screens. Use the DOWN arrow key to view the codes stored in
memory. The last screen will just have
P0123
a ] symbol in the last column of the display.
T P Sensor Circuit
This indicates no more codes are available.
High Input
[
Use the UP arrow key to view the previous
codes.
Use the BACK key to return to the OBD II Function Menu.
Erase Codes
The Erase Codes function is used to erase the trouble codes from the test vehicle’s
PCM. This function also erases freeze frame data, O2 sensor test data, and on-board
monitoring test results, and resets the system monitors to the “Not Ready” status.
Because of this you should erase codes only after you have checked the systems
completely. Erase Codes should be performed at Key On, Engine Off to properly clear
the PCM.
To Erase Codes from your vehicles on-board
computer, select Erase Codes from the OBDII
Function Menu.
A confirmation screen will be displayed to verify
that you wish to erase codes. Select YES to
erase the diagnostic results from the PCM or
NO to cancel and retain the data.
If YES is selected, press the ENTER key and a
message to “Turn ignition key ON, engine
OFF” will display. Press the ENTER to continue. A “Command Sent” message is momentarily displayed before returning to the
OBD II Function Menu.
OBDII FUNCTION MENU
1)Read Codes
2)Pending Codes
[
`3)Erase Codes
|
Erase Codes A n d
Diagnostic Results?
A r e Y o u Sure?
<Yes>
No
Command Sent
Press A K e y t o Cont
NOTE: If you choose “No”, a Command Cancelled message appears. “Hard” codes,
are trouble codes that will remain in the vehicle’s PCM memory until the
condition is repaired.
NOTE: If you get an Operating Error message, make sure the DLC adapter cable is
securely attached, and the ignition key is ON, then try again. If the problem
remains, refer to Section 4: On-Line Help and Trouble-Shooting Tips.
11
View Data
This function is used to view vehicle Parameter Identification Data (PID) in real time.
Apart from Read Codes, View Data is the most helpful diagnostic function for determining the cause of a driveability problem. View Data is most often used for observing sensor data and the ON/OFF states of switches, solenoids and relays.
NOTE: Multiple Responses to a PID Request - Vehicles equipped with more than
one on-board computer, for example a PCM and TCM (Transmission Control
Module), can respond with multiple results to a certain parameter identification data (PID). In View Data, the OBD II Tester identifies the modules with
their manufacturer assigned names such as $10 or $1F by blinking the
module name near the end of the PID name. A PID that receives multiple
responses, such as Engine (RPM), will display on two lines.
To view your vehicle’s PIDs, select View Data
from the OBD II Function Menu and press the
ENTER key.
The OBD II System Tester will display the
generic OBD II PIDs supported for the vehicle
under test. Not all vehicles will have the same
PIDs. Do not worry this is normal. The PIDs
covered by the OBD II System Tester are
defined in Appendix B.
`4)View Data
5)View Freeze Data ]
6)Record Data
[
7)Playback Data
|
ABSLT T P S (%)
CALC LOAD (%)
COOLANT ( o F )
ENGINE (RPM)
0.0
5.3
180[
865
Press the BACK key to display the OBD II Function Menu.
NOTE: If you get an Operating Error message, make sure the DLC adapter cable is
securely attached and the ignition key is ON, then try again. If the problem
remains, refer to Section 4: On-Line Help and Trouble-Shooting Tips.
View Freeze Data
When an emission related fault is detected by the PCM the engine conditions are
recorded and stored in memory. This recording is known as a freeze frame. The
freeze frame is like a snapshot of the engine operating conditions at the time of a
fault. Freeze frame data can only be overwritten by another fault with higher priority.
The OBD II System Tester will allow you to look at the freeze frame data stored in the
PCM’s memory.
NOTE: If the Erase Codes function was performed, then no freeze frame data will
be stored in the vehicle’s memory.
To view the freeze frame data, select View
Freeze Data from the OBD II Function Menu.
12
4)View Data
`5)View Freeze Data ]
6)Record Data
[
7)Playback Data
|
After selecting View Freeze Data, the OBD II
System Tester establishes a communication
link to the vehicle’s PCM. All PIDs supported by
the vehicle are displayed. Use the UP and
DOWN arrow keys to scroll through all selected data parameters.
COOLANT ( o F )
180
ENGINE (RPM)
865]
FUEL PRES (PSIG) 3 5 [
FUEL SYSTEM 1
OPEN
When done, press the BACK key to return to the OBD II Function Menu.
If no data exists, a message will display
N o Freeze Frame Data
prompting the user to press any key to return to Stored (Freeze Frame
the OBD II Function Menu.
Event N o t Detected)
Press A K e y T o Cont
NOTE: If you get an Operating Error message, make sure the DLC adapter cable is
securely attached and the ignition key is ON, then try again. If the problem
remains, refer to Section 4: On-Line Help and Trouble-Shooting Tips.
Record Data
The Record Data function is used to record vehicle Parameter Identification Data (PIDs)
while the vehicle is parked or being driven. This function is mainly used for diagnosing
intermittent driveability problems that cannot be diagnosed by any other method. For
example, if your vehicle sometimes loses power while going up steep hills, then you
should start a recording as soon as your vehicle reaches the base of the hill. The OBD II
System Tester records the supported PIDs in Frames at various time intervals. The first
5 Frames are recorded prior to the start time (0.0 seconds) Once started, Frames will
be recorded for 8 to 35 seconds; the number of Frames depends on the vehicle’s data
rate and quantity of PIDs. The Record Data function allows you to diagnose an intermittent problem by analyzing data leading up to the problem, during the problem, and
possibly after the problem, depending on problem duration. The PIDs covered by the
OBD II System Tester are defined in Appendix B.
Select Record Data from the OBD II Function Menu and press the ENTER key. The
Pick Trigger Method menu is displayed next. Select either Manual Trigger or Trigger
on Codes then press the ENTER key.
4)View Data
5)View Freeze Data ]
`6)Record Data
[
7)Playback Data
|
Pick Trigger Method
`1)Manual Trigger
2)Trigger O n Codes
If the memory is full from a previous recording,
it must be erased before recording more data.
To erase memory and continue, select YES
and press the ENTER key and then the Pick
Trigger Method options will display. Otherwise,
select NO and press the ENTER key to return
to the OBD II Function Menu.
Cannot Record. Old
Recording Filled U p
Memory. Erase Old?
<YES>
NO
NOTE: If you get an Operating Error message, make sure the DLC cable is securely
attached, and the ignition key is ON, then try again. If the problem persists,
refer to Section 4 of this Manual: On-Line Help and Trouble-Shooting Tips.
13
The OBD II System Tester initializes by
**INITIALIZING**
establishing the time intervals and then
PRETRIG
FRAME: - 5
recording the first five Frames of data. When
done, the system tester is ready to record data.
Press BACK t o Exit
To cancel this function, press the BACK key to
return to the OBD II Function Menu.
If Manual Trigger was selected, then the OBD
II System Tester will start recording when the
ENTER key is pressed.
If Trigger on Codes was selected, then the
tester will automatically start recording when a
trouble code is set in the vehicle’s on-board
computer. Press the BACK key to cancel and
return to the OBD II Function Menu.
**Ready T o Record**
Press ENTER Anytime
T o Start Recording.
Stops Automatically
Working
Waiting f o r V E H
T o Respond.
*Please Wait*
WARNING! Never operate the OBD II System Tester and drive your vehicle at
the same time. Always have one person drive the vehicle while a
helper operates the tester.
The tester records for a time of varying duration. Remember, your recording will
consist of 5 Frames of data prior to the start of the recording, and a number of
Frames after with time intervals of 5 seconds or longer (depending on the number of
PIDs). All applicable data parameters will be recorded for your vehicle.
When the recording is in progress, screens
**Recording Data**
like the example below are displayed for the
FRAME:
1 Of 30
duration of the recording, displaying the Frame
Number being recorded. You can record all the
Press ENTER t o Stop
frames or press the ENTER key any time to
stop recording.
Next, You will be asked if you want to play back
the recording now. If you answer “YES,” then
the Playback Data function will display,
Answering “NO” returns you to the OBD II
Function Menu.
Playback Data?
<Yes>
No
Playback Data
The Playback Data function is used to playback a recording. This function is very
similar to View Data. The only difference is that View Data is a real time viewing of
vehicle’s PIDs, while Playback Data is a viewing of previously recorded ones.
To view the PIDs recorded in the Record Data
function, select Playback Data from the OBD II
Function Menu.
14
4)View Data
5)View Freeze Data ]
6)Record Data
[
`7)Playback Data
|
If a recording does not exist in the OBD II
N o Recording Present
System Tester’s memory, then the message
Please Make
“No Recording Present, Please Make RecordRecording First
ing First” will display. The Record Data function
must be performed in order to play back the
data. Press the BACK key to return to the OBD II OBD II Function Menu and select
Record Data to make a recording.
If recorded data exists, the PIDs, Frame
number and Time are displayed.
MIL Status
ON
ABSLT T P S (%)
0.0
CALC LOAD (%)
5.3[
Frame: 10
TM: 9.5
NOTE: Multiple-response PIDs (see View Data) are displayed with their module
address in one frame and their measurement values in the next frame. Use
the LEFT/RIGHT arrow key to alternate between the frames to identify the PIDs
and their measurement values.
On the Playback Data screen, lines 1-3 are used to display the vehicle’s PIDs. Use
the UP/DOWN arrow keys to scroll through the PID list. The end of the list is reached
when only the UP arrow is displayed at the right of line 3. The PID list scrolls line-byline and will not wrap around to the beginning.
Use the LEFT/RIGHT arrow key to move through the Frame/Time index. Frame 0/
Time 0.0 is the trigger point; where the recording was started by either Manually
Triggering or by Triggering On Codes. Frames -5 to -1 contain data prior to the trigger
point.
NOTE: After reaching the last Frame/Time interval, the system tester will “wrap” to
the first Frame/Time interval recorded. The Frame/Time display will change
from a positive to the first negative number viewed. This is normal. The LEFT/
RIGHT arrow may be used to scroll through all time intervals.
A Frame is a “snapshot” of engine operating conditions at a certain time. The
relationship between the Frame index and the Time index are based on the vehicle’s
on-board computer data rate and the number of PIDs being read. Remember, not all
OBD II vehicles use the same data stream (communication protocol), data rates
(baud) and the same number of PIDs. For this reason, not all vehicles will start and
end with the same Frame number. The Frame number increases every time data is
transmitted from the vehicle to the OBD II System Tester. The intervals when this
occurs increases for slower data rates and larger PID lists. Frame 0 occurs at the
trigger point, Time 0.0. Thus, negative and positive Frame numbers contain data
before and after the trigger point, respectively.
NOTE: Some vehicles will wait 3 to 4 minutes after the driveability problem first occurs
before storing a trouble code in the vehicle’s on-board computer. If you
selected “Trigger On Codes” when you made your recording, you might not
see any drastic change in data parameters before and after the trigger point.
In cases like this, it is better to manually trigger the start of the recording when
the driveability symptom is first observed.
When you have finished playing back a recording, press the BACK key to return to
the OBD II Function Menu.
15
O2 Monitor Test
NOTE: This is NOT an on-demand test. The O2 sensors are not tested when this
menu selection is made. The O2 sensors were tested at an earlier time when
engine operating conditions were correct.
OBD II regulations require the vehicle to monitor and test the oxygen sensors. The O2
Monitor Test selection allows the technician to retrieve the completed test information
on the oxygen sensors from the PCM. Information on the oxygen sensor monitors will
be helpful in recognizing sensor or system problems related to fuel and emissions. The
oxygen sensor test may include the following information:
•
•
•
•
•
Rich to Lean sensor threshold voltage
Lean to Rich sensor threshold voltage
Low sensor voltage for switch time
High sensor voltage for switch time
Time between sensor transitions
•
•
_
_
Rich to Lean sensor switch time
Lean to Rich sensor switch time
Minimum sensor voltage for test cycle
Maximum sensor voltage for test cycle
To view the oxygen sensor test results, select
O2 Monitor Test from the OBD II Function
Menu and press the ENTER key.
7)Playback Data
` 8)O2 Monitor Test ]
9)Continuous Tests [
10)Non-Contin Tests |
Once the O2 Monitor Test has been selected
the recommended oxygen sensor tests list will
1)
be displayed. Select which test you want to
2)
review using the UP/DOWN arrow keys then
`3)
press the ENTER key.
The OBD II System Tester will display selected
information for all the vehicle’s oxygen sensors. Listing the sensors together makes their
data easier to compare. Tests not supported
by the test vehicle will return three dashes after
the sensor name.
Low
O2S
O2S
O2S
O 2 Sensor Tests
RICH-LN Thresh
LN-RICH Thresh [
L o V f o r Switch |
Volts f o r Switch
BNK1 #1(V)
1.28
BNK1 #2(V)
1.28[
BNK2 #1(V)
1.28
NOTE: If you get an Operating Error message, make sure the DLC adapter cable is
securely attached and the ignition key is ON, then try again. If the problem
remains, refer to Section 4: On-Line Help and Trouble-Shooting Tips.
NOTE: Remember that some sensors are before the catalytic converter (precatalyst)
and some are after (postcatalyst). The precatalyst and postcatalyst O2
sensors may act differently. Use the arrow keys to scroll through list if
necessary.
Press the BACK key to return to the OBD II Function Menu.
16
Non-Continuous Tests
The purpose of this function is to obtain test results for emission-related powertrain
components and systems that are not continuously tested. Certain tests are run only
once per drive cycle when the vehicle is within proper operating conditions. This
function reports the test results after a single drive cycle. The Non-Continuous Test
function is useful after a vehicle repair or after clearing the PCM’s diagnostic information. Test results reported by this function do not necessarily indicate a faulty component or system. Examples of systems not continuously monitored are catalyst and
evaporative OBD II monitors.
To view the Non-Continuous Monitors’ test
results, select Non-Contin Test from the OBD II
Function Menu and press the ENTER key.
7)Playback Data
8)O2 Monitor Test ]
9)Continuous Tests [
`10)Non-Contin Tests |
The OBD II System Tester will request the vehicle to transmit the test IDs for available
non-continuous tests and display them in a list. The vehicle manufacturer is responsible to assign test IDs and component IDs to distinguish between the different
systems and components. Refer to vehicle service manuals for test IDs and definitions.
NOTE: If you get an Operating Error message, make sure the DLC adapter cable is
securely attached, and the ignition key is ON, then try again. If the problem
remains, refer to Section 4: On-Line Help and Trouble-Shooting Tips.
Select a test ($xx) from the list then press the
Non-Cont Tests Avail
ENTER key. Selected test results are re`$01
quested by the OBD II System Tester may also
$03
[
include test limits. Only one test limit is usually
$
0
5
included in a responses message and
displayed on the screen. The single limit could be either minimum or a maximum
test limit. The OBD II System Tester will display the test ID, system or component ID
the test measurement, specification and status.
The first line of the display will show the NonTEST $01
Continuous test that was selected using its ID
I
D MEAS SPEC
STS
number. The ID column displays the system or
7 4 8861 C000min
Low
component ID number, refer to vehicle service
7 4 8861 C000min
Low
manual for ID definitions and explanations. A
column labeled MEAS will contain the measured data of the test. The test measurement data is displayed in hexadecimal number format (a system based on 16 digits
where letters “A” through “F” represent the digits greater than 9. The specification
values for the system tested are found in SPEC column and displayed in hexadecimal number format. The final column, STS (Status) information is calculated by the
OBD II System Tester using the measurement and specification data. The status can
be Low, High or OK, depending upon the measurements relationship to the specification.
Press the BACK key to return to the OBD II Function Menu.
17
On-Board Systems
The purpose of this function is to allow the OBD
operation of vehicle component, test or system.
Certain manufacturers do not allow OBD II
System Testers to control vehicle systems. A
screen informing you that the vehicle does not
support on boards systems will be displayed
in these cases.
II System Tester to control the
Control o f On-Board
Systems Unavailable
O n This Vehicle.
Press a key to cont
An example of a possible On-Board System application is a test mode that enables
the conditions required to conduct an evaporative system leak test, but does not
actually run the test.
To perform the On-Board Systems function,
select On-Board Systems from the OBD II
Function Menu then press the ENTER key.
`11)On-Board Systems
12)I/M Readiness
]
13)Tool Setup
[
14)Tool Self-Test
|
A list of On-Board systems and components available for testing will be displayed if
supported by the test vehicle. Select a test and press the ENTER key to activate the
test. The OBD II System Tester informs you that the command was sent. The manufacturer is responsible to determine the criteria to automatically stop the test. Use the
vehicle service manuals for more detailed information on test procedures.
Press the BACK key to return to the OBD II Function Menu.
NOTE: If you get an Operating Error message, make sure the DLC adapter cable is
securely attached, and the ignition key is ON, then try again. If the problem
remains, refer to Section 4: On-Line Help and Trouble-Shooting Tips.
I/M Readiness
The purpose of the I/M (Inspection and Maintenance) Readiness function is to display
the current status of emissions-related systems required by OBD II regulations. The
operation of emission-related systems and components are verified using monitors. .
The scan tool will display the condition of vehicle’s OBD II Monitors. Monitors are
used by the vehicle’s PCM to check the proper operation of systems and components
as well as identifying out-of-range values. The PCM may perform a special test on a
system or component to complete its monitor. A vehicle may have to be operated
under certain conditions for the monitor test to be performed. If the vehicle’s PCM
loses power or the Erase Codes function has been performed, then the status of the
monitors will be reset.
To view the status of supported monitors,
select I/M Readiness from the OBD II Function
Menu and press the ENTER key.
11)On-Board Systems
`12)I/M Readiness
]
13)Tool Setup
[
14)Tool Self-Test
|
NOTE: If you get an Operating Error message, make sure the DLC adapter cable is
securely attached and the ignition key is ON, then try again. If the problem
remains, refer to Section 4: On-line Help and Trouble-Shooting Tips.
18
A message will state whether the “On-Board
Readiness Tests are Complete” or “Not All
Supported On-Board Tests are Complete.
Press the down arrow key to view the monitor
list with their status. Use the vehicle service
manuals for detailed information on required
emissions-related monitors and their status.
N o t All Supported
On-Board Readiness
Tests A r e Complete.
U s e [ T o View Tests
The monitor list consists of the OBD II
monitor name followed by the monitor’s
Misfire Monitor
OK
condition. A monitor that is not supported by
Fuel System M o n i n c
the test vehicle will have “n/a” after it. A
Comp Component n / a[
monitor that has been completed will be
Catalyst M o n
n/a
followed by “OK”. If a monitor has not been
completed “inc” will be displayed after the name. Use the UP/DOWN arrow keys to
scroll through the list.
Press the BACK key to return to the OBD II Function Menu.
19
Section 3: Diagnostic Trouble Code Lookup
Code Lookup is a built-in OBD II Generic Diagnostic Trouble Code (DTC) database.
The database does not include manufacturer specific DTC definitions, only generic.
To look up code definitions, select Code Lookup from either the MAIN MENU or the
OBD II Function Menu, then press the ENTER key.
1)OBDII Functions
2)Tool Setup
3)Tool Self-Test
`4)Code Lookup
12)I/M Readiness
13)Tool Setup
14)Tool Self-Test
`15)Code Lookup
]
[
|
]
|
The OBD II System Tester will display the Code Lookup screen. When entering codes
it is only necessary to enter the last three numbers. The first two characters (P0) of
the DTC are set for OBD II Powertrain.
When the Code Lookup screen is first disLookup Code:
P0000
played, a P0000 is displayed in the columns
Use Arrow Keys
^
that mark the code digit locations. Underneath T o Select O r Press
the third digit there is a “^ ” symbol. The “^”
ENTER t o Lookup.
|
symbol is used as a cursor to identify the digit
that will change when the UP/DOWN arrow keys are pressed to increase/decrease
the digit. The cursor starts at the third digit because the fourth and fifth are fixed
(P0xxx).
_ Entering Third Digit (P0x00)
Set the third digit by using the UP and
DOWN arrow keys to scroll the third digit
characters until the desired character is
displayed.
_
Entering Second Digit (P00x0)
To enter the second code digit, press the
LEFT/RIGHT arrow key to move the cursor
“^” one column to the right. Use the UP/
DOWN arrow keys to increase/decrease
the digit.
_ Entering First Digit (P000x)
To enter the first or final digit, press the
LEFT/RIGHT arrow key to move the cursor
“^” to the last column on the right. Use the
UP/DOWN arrow keys to increase/decrease the digit.
Lookup Code:
P0600
Use Arrow Keys
^
T o Select O r Press
ENTER to Lookup.
|
Lookup Code:
P0620
Use Arrow Keys
^
T o Select O r Press
ENTER to Lookup.
|
Lookup Code:
P0621
Use Arrow Keys
^
T o Select O r Press
ENTER to Lookup.
|
_ Editing A Code Number
If you make a mistake on any of the digits, simply use the LEFT/ RIGHT arrow key
to move the cursor “^ ” underneath the digit you wish to change. Then use the UP
and DOWN arrow keys to change the digit’s value.
20
_ Lookup the Code’s Definition
Press the ENTER key to display the code’s
definition. When done, press the BACK key
to return to the Code Lookup Menu.
Lookup Code:
P0621
Generator
Lamp L Control
Circuit Malfunction.
_ Scrolling the Code Definitions
Once a code definition screen is displayed, you may use the UP/DOWN arrow
keys to scroll through the library of code definitions.
If the trouble code number does not exist a
P0003
No Code Definition Found message will be
Undefined Code
displayed. Press the ENTER key to return
to the Code Lookup screen to enter
ENTER t o T r y Again.
another trouble code number.
Press the BACK key to return to the Code Lookup screen so a different trouble code
number can be looked up. Press the BACK key again to return to the OBD II Function
Menu.
21
Section 4: On-Line Help and Troubleshooting Tips
4-1 How to Use On-Line Help
The tester contains On-Line Help for specific
screens, functions, and error messages.
When the On-Line Help symbol (|) appears in
the lower right-hand corner of the display, OnLine Help is available.
Operating Error.
Check Connections!
T r y Again?
<Yes>
No
|
To enter On-Line Help, press the HELP key. All Help screens are CAPITAL LETTERS.
This is reminder that you are viewing On-Line Help and not screens associated with
a function. Some On-Line Help messages are longer than one screen. Use the UP
and DOWN arrow keys to scroll through a series of On-Line Help screens. For the
screen example above, the help message would look like screens below:
T H E TESTER C A N N O T
COMMUNICATE WITH
VEHICLE. CHECK T H E
FOLLOWING:
1.IGNITION K E Y O N
2.HOOKUP T O VEHICLE ]
TEST CONNECTOR O K ? [
3.EMISSIONS LABEL
[
To exit Help and return to the screen you where, press the BACK key.
4-2 Tool Problems
There may be times when your tester does not seem to be communicating with the
vehicle. Since the tester has built-in diagnostics, it is easy to isolate a problem with
the tester. There will be two basic types of problems that you will deal with: vehicle
problems and tool problems. Both might affect your test. Remember, the OBD II
System Tester always goes through a SELF CHECK each time you power the unit up.
Use the troubleshooting tips below to help diagnose OBD II System Tester problems
before calling Actron’s Technical Support line:
1. The OBD II System Tester will not power up:
_ Check the OBD II connector for power. If not, check the fuse if applicable.
_ Verify vehicle’s battery is 8 volts or higher.
_ Unplug and plug back in the Data Link Connector (DLC) to verify the connector is
properly seated to the vehicle connector.
2. Tool will not “Link” to the vehicle computer:
_ Ignition key is ON.
_ Unplug the DLC adapter from the vehicle and plug it back to verify connection.
3. Your Keyboard does not function properly:
_ Perform the Keyboard Test by entering the Self-Test and select the Keyboard Test
function.
_ If the keyboard test shows nothing and you still experience the problem, then call
Actron’s technical support personnel at 1-800-253-9880.
22
4. One or more modules drops the communication link:
When the OBD II System Tester initially links to the vehicle, it builds a list of all OBD
II compliant computer modules. If in the course scanning the vehicle, a module
drops the link, a message will display.
O n e o r More Modules
Lost. Continue
Without Them?
<Yes>
No
|
Answering YES will continue operation
without the lost module. Answering NO try to
restore the communication links to get all
modules back to an active status.
4-3 Vehicle Problems
If your tester is having difficulty “linking” with the vehicle computer, be sure that you
have double checked the DLC connection. The problem may be with the vehicle’s
electrical system or with the vehicle computer itself. Check the following:
• Verify that the vehicle’s fuse is OK.
• Make sure the vehicle’s battery exhibits at least 8.0 volts (V), the minimum
voltage to power the OBD II System Tester.
• Verify the ignition key is ON and not in the accessories (ACC.) position.
• Check the vehicle’s on-board computer for a blown PCM fuse. The PCM fuse is
located on the fuse block in the passenger compartment. If the PCM fuse is
blown, the vehicle’s on-board computer cannot transmit data.
• Check to be sure your vehicle’s calibration is OBD II compatible.
• Make sure the vehicle’s on-board computer has a good ground. If your vehicle’s
on-board computer has a ground going directly to the computer’s case, then
clean up this connection and apply a conductive grease to the mating surfaces.
• As a last resort, the vehicle’s on-board computer or calibration PROM may be
defective. Check vehicle service manual to determine correct computer tests for
your particular vehicle.
4-4 OBD II System Tester Self-Tests
OBD II System Tester Self-Tests are used to test the operation of the OBD II System
Tester’s display, keyboard, and internal memory. The tool’s Self-Tests menu can be
accessed from the MAIN MENU, when the tester is initially powered up, or from the
OBD II Function Menu.
From either menu, use the UP/DOWN arrow keys to select the Tool Self-Tests option,
then press the ENTER key.
1)OBDII Functions
2)Tool Setup
`3)Tool Self-Test
4)Code Lookup
12)I/M Readiness
13)Tool Setup
`14)Tool Self-Test
15)Code Lookup
]
|
23
]
|
The Tool Self-Test menu will display. Two tests
can be selected, the Display Test and the
Keyboard Test. Use the UP/DOWN arrow keys
to move the cursor to option of your choice,
then press the ENTER key.
Tool Self-Test
`1)Display Test
2)Keyboard Test
|
Display Test
After you have selected Display Test as your choice, a screen detailing the test is
displayed. The Display Test will fill every pixel of the tester’s LCD display with a solid
black character. Look for pixels that are not black. Press the BACK key to exit to the
Tool Self-Test menu. Press the BACK key again to display the OBD II Function Menu.
Look F o r Missing
Spots i n Display.
Y o u Have 1 0 Seconds
Press ENTER t o Test
((((((((((((((((((((
((((((((((((((((((((
((((((((((((((((((((
((((((((((((((((((((
Keyboard Test
The Keyboard Test is used to check the functionality of the OBD II System Tester’s
keypad. Select Keyboard Test from the Tool Self-Test menu then press the ENTER
key. The Keyboard Test screen with instructions is displayed:
Each time you press a key, check OBD II
System Tester display. The key name should
appear. For example, if you press the UP
arrow, the screen will display “Key: UP ARROW.” If the button name is not displayed, the
key is not working.
Press A K e y T o Test
Key: ENTER
Press BACK T o Exit.
The only exception is the BACK key. When the BACK key is pressed, the OBD II
System Tester returns to the Tool Self-Test Menu. If you are not returned to the Tool
Self-Test Menu, then the BACK key is not working
24
Appendix A: Vehicle Computer Basics
Basics of Computer-Controlled Vehicles
This section explains the engine computer control system, the types of sensors and
how the computer controls engine fuel delivery, idle speed and timing. Additional
information may be found in technical support books at your local library or auto parts
store. The more you know about the computer system, the better you can diagnose
vehicle computer problems.
Computer controls were originally installed on vehicles to meet federal government
regulations for lower emissions levels and improved fuel economy. This began in the
early 1980’s when basic mechanical systems were no longer able to accurately
control key engine parameters. A computer could be programmed to control the
engine under various operating conditions, making the engine more reliable. While
these early systems were very limited in the scope of their control, providing only 1014 trouble codes, they did help guide the vehicle repair process.
Today, computer controls have made cars and trucks faster, cleaner, and more
efficient than ever before.
What the computer controls:
The main control areas of the vehicle computer are fuel delivery, idle speed, spark
advance, and emissions controls. Some on-board computers may also control the
transmission, brakes, and suspension systems as well.
What has not changed?
A computer-controlled engine is very similar to the older, non-computerized engine. It
is still an internal combustion engine with pistons, spark plugs, valves, and
camshaft(s). The ignition, charging, starting, and exhaust systems are very similar as
well. You test and repair these systems just as before. The technical manuals for
these components show you how to perform the tests. Additionally, compression
gauges, vacuum pumps, engine analyzers, and timing lights will continue to be used.
The Engine Computer Control system
The vehicle’s on-board computer, or Powertrain Control Module (PCM), is the “heart”
of the system. It is sealed in a metal box and connected to the rest of the engine by a
wiring harness. The PCM is located, in most cases, in the passenger compartment,
behind the dashboard or in the “kick panel” position, although some manufacturers
locate the computer control module in the engine compartment area. Most PCMs can
withstand a lot of vibration and are built to live in a rugged environment.
The PCM is programmed by the factory. The program is a complex list of lookup
tables and instructions telling the computer how to control the engine based on
various driving conditions. To do its job, the computer uses sensors to know what is
happening and then provide instructions back to a network of switches and actuators
throughout the vehicle.
Sensors give the computer information
Sensors are devices which measure operating conditions and translate them into
signals the computer can understand. Some examples of sensors: thermistors (for
temperature readings), potentiometers (like a throttle position sensor), and signal
generators (such as an 02 sensor).
25
The network of sensors has the job of converting
information the computer needs into electrical
signals the computer can understand. Signals
running from sensors to the PCM are referred to as
“inputs.” Sensors monitor the key parameters
shown in the table.
NOTE: Not all engines use every sensor listed.
Engine Temperature
Throttle position
Incoming Air Temperature
Air Fuel Ratio, in percentage (%)
Intake Manifold Vacuum
Engine RPM
Volume of Incoming air
Relays and Actuators
Relays and Actuators are electric devices energized by the computer to allow commands to perform a specific function. Relays can be called switches (such as the
coolant fan switch). Actuators might include solenoids (such as fuel injector valves)
and small motors (such as the Idle Speed Control). Not all of the computer’s outgoing signals are routed to relays and actuators. Sometimes information is sent to
other system computers like transmission, brakes, ignition modules, and trip
computers. These signals are also called “outputs.”
How the computer controls fuel delivery
Engine operation and emissions performance depend upon precise fuel delivery and
ignition control. Early computer systems controlled fuel by electronically adjusting the
carburetor metering and jet systems. Soon, however, this was replaced by the more
precise fuel delivery of fuel injection.
In an electronically carbureted system, the computer simply controls fuel flow based
on how far the throttle is opened by the driver. The computer “knows” how much air
can flow through the carburetor at various throttle openings, and adds the appropriate
amount of fuel to the mixture at the carburetor.
Fuel injection is some what more sophisticated in the way it delivers fuel. The
computer still adds an appropriate amount of fuel to the entering air, but now it uses
fuel injectors (either in a throttle body or at each intake port). Fuel injectors are far
more precise than carburetor jets, and create a much finer fuel “mist” for better
combustion and increased efficiency. In addition, most fuel injection systems have
ways of measuring exactly how much air is entering the engine, and can calculate the
proper air/fuel ratio using lookup tables. Computers no longer have to “estimate” how
much air the engine is using.
In many modern systems, the computer also uses information provided by sensors
to give it an idea of how well it is doing its job, and how to do it better. Sensors can tell
the computer how warm the engine is, how rich or lean the fuel mixture is, and
whether accessories (like the air conditioner) are running. This feedback information
allows the computer to “fine tune” the air/fuel mixture, keeping the engine operating at
its peak.
What the Computer needs to know:
• Engine operating condition. Sensors used are: coolant temperature, throttle
position, manifold pressure (vacuum), air flow and RPM.
• Air intake. Sensors used are: mass air flow, manifold absolute pressure, manifold
air temperature and RPM.
• Air/fuel mixture status. Sensors used are: oxygen sensor(s).
26
Open and Closed Loop Modes:
Open or closed loop operation refers to the way the computer is deciding how much
fuel to add to the air entering the engine. During cold start and other low temperature
situations, the computer operates in open loop mode. This means that it is relying on
a set of internal calculations and data tables to decide how much fuel to add to the
incoming air. It uses sensors such as the coolant temperature sensor (CTS), the
throttle position sensor (TPS), and the manifold absolute pressure sensor (MAP) to
determine optimum mixtures. The important difference here is that it does not check
to see if the mixtures are correct, leaving the computer adjustment loop open.
In closed loop mode, the computer still decides how much fuel to add by using the
sensors listed above, and by looking up the appropriate numbers on a data table.
However, it now checks itself to determine whether the fuel mixture is correct. It is
able to check itself by using the information provided by the oxygen sensor(s) (O2S)
in the exhaust manifold. The oxygen sensors will tell the computer if the engine is
running rich or lean, and the computer can take steps to correct the situation. In this
way, the computer closes the adjustment loop by checking itself and making necessary corrections. It should be noted that the O2 sensors must be at a very high
operating temperature (approximately 650° F) before they will begin to feed information back to the computer. This is why open loop mode is necessary—to give the O2
sensors time to warm up to operating temperature.
As long as the engine and O2 and Coolant Temperature Sensors are at operating
temperature, the computer can operate in the closed loop mode. Closed loop mode
constantly corrects to obtain an air/fuel mixture at the ideal 14.7:1. But in stop and go
cycles, the O2 sensor may in fact cool down enough that the computer will need to
rely on a set of internal parameters and go into open loop mode again. In some
cases, this may also happen during extended periods of idling. Many newer vehicles
now use heated O2 (HO2S) sensors to prevent this condition.
In many vehicles, the computer controls other systems related to open and closed
loop modes, including idle speed, electronic spark control, exhaust gas recirculation,
and transmission torque converter clutches. In open loop mode, some of these
systems will be adjusted to speed the warming of the engine and get the computer
into closed loop mode as quickly as possible.
OBD II
In 1994, manufacturers began equipping vehicles with a new class of computer
technology which puts more processing power under your dash than ever before. It is
called On-Board Diagnostics, Second Generation, or OBD II. It is required on all
vehicles sold in the US beginning January 1, 1996 (though most domestic manufacturers introduced it earlier than required), and offers increased system monitoring
and diagnostic information. This new system stores a library of more than 650
general trouble codes and another approximately 400 manufacturer-specific codes,
all of which you can access with the OBD II System Tester. These codes cover Body
Systems (B-Codes), Chassis Systems (C-Codes), Communications Codes (UCodes), and Power Train Systems (P-Codes). Now, basic terms are standardized
and all generic codes will share a common format and terminology that the manufacturers and the Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) designed. You will be glad to
know that as your vehicle gets smarter, it will be easier for you to keep track of what is
going on under the hood.
27
About Diagnostic Trouble Codes (DTCs)
Where do they come from and what are they for?
Engine computers can find problems
The computer systems in today’s vehicles do more than control engine operations—
they can help you find problems, too! Special testing abilities are permanently
programmed into the computer by engineers. These tests check the components
connected to the computer which are used for (typically): fuel delivery, idle speed
control, spark timing, emission systems, and transmission shifting. Mechanics have
used these tests for years. Now you can do the same thing by using your Actron OBD
II System Tester!
Engine computers perform special tests
The engine computer runs the special tests, depending on the manufacturer, engine,
model year, etc. There is no “universal” test that is the same for all vehicles. The tests
examine INPUTS (electrical signals going INTO the computer) and OUTPUTS
(electrical signals coming OUT of the computer), as well as internal calculations
made by the computer. Input signals which have “incorrect” values, or output circuits
which do not operate properly are noted by the test program and the results are
stored in the computer’s memory. These tests are important. The computer cannot
control the engine properly if it has incorrect input information or faulty output circuits.
Code numbers reveal test results
The test results are stored by using code numbers, usually called “diagnostic trouble
codes” or “DTCs.” For example, a code P0122 might mean “throttle position sensor
signal voltage is too low.” Generic code meanings are a part of your OBD II System
Tester’s software—all you have to do is look them up! Manufacturer specific DTCs will
require the use of a vehicle service manual. See page 2 for more information on
ordering service manuals.
Read Trouble Codes with the OBD II System Tester
You can obtain DTCs from the engine computer by using the OBD II System Tester.
You can also monitor the operation of systems throughout the vehicle, helping to
pinpoint the system where there may be a problem. Once you have read the DTCs,
you can either:
_ Have your vehicle professionally serviced.
or
_ Repair the vehicle yourself using the diagnostic trouble codes to help locate
the source of the problem.
Diagnostic Trouble Codes and Diagnostics help you fix the problem
To find the cause of the problem yourself, you need to perform special test procedures called “diagnostics.” These procedures are in the vehicle’s service manual.
There are many possible causes for any problem. For example, suppose you turned
on a wall switch in your home and the ceiling light did not turn on. Is it a bad bulb or
light socket? Are there problems with the wiring or wall switch? Maybe there is no
power coming into the house! As you can see, there are many possible causes. The
diagnostics are written for servicing a particular trouble code take into account all the
possibilities. If you follow these procedures, you should be able to find the problem
causing the code and fix it yourself.
28
KAL makes it easy to fix computer-controlled vehicles
Using the KAL OBD II System Tester to obtain trouble codes is fast and easy. Trouble
codes give you valuable knowledge - whether you go for professional service or do it
yourself. Now that you know what trouble codes are and where they come from, you
are well on your way to fixing today’s computer-controlled vehicles!
When to Read Codes
Many vehicles have a “Malfunction Indicator Lamp” or MIL,
which has been referred to as a “Check Engine” light in the
past. With the advent of OBD II, all engine trouble lights are
now called “Malfunction Indicator Lamps” or MIL.
Use the Malfunction Indicator Lamp to tell you
when trouble codes have
been stored in memory
About the Malfunction Indicator Lamp
_ Malfunction Indicator Lamp: normal operation
The engine computer turns the Malfunction Indicator Lamp on and off as needed.
This dashboard message is either amber or red and labeled:
“Check Engine”, “Service Engine Soon”, “Service Engine Now”, or marked with a
small engine picture or diagram
The Malfunction Indicator Lamp is normally OFF when the engine is RUNNING.
NOTE: The Malfunction Indicator Lamp will turn on when the ignition key is in ON
position, but the engine is OFF prior to starting the vehicle. This is a normal
test of all the dashboard message lights.
_ Malfunction Indicator Lamp: problem spotted
If the Malfunction Indicator Lamp does not come on, you may have an electrical
problem which needs repair. Refer to the “Diagnostic Circuit Check” steps in the
“Basic Diagnostic Procedures” section of your vehicle service manual.
_ Malfunction Indicator Lamp: intermittent problem
When the light remains ON after the engine is RUNNING, the computer sees a
problem that does not go away (known as a “current” failure). The light will stay on
as long as the problem is present. A trouble code is stored in computer memory
(a “history” or “memory” code). Use the OBD II System Tester at the earliest
convenient time to obtain codes.
When the light comes ON, then goes OFF while the engine is RUNNING, the
computer saw a problem, but the problem went away (known as an “intermittent”
failure). A trouble code is stored in computer memory (a “history” or “memory”
code). The light went out because the problem went away, but the code stays in
memory. Use the OBD II System Tester at the earliest convenient time to obtain
codes.
NOTE: The computer will automatically erase these codes after repeated restarts
if the problem does not return.
29
• Poorly running engine, No Malfunction Indicator Lamp
Most likely, this condition is not due to computer system failures, but reading
codes can still be useful as part of a basic troubleshooting procedure. Check
wiring and bulb for “Check Engine” light failures. Refer to vehicle service manual
for additional diagnostic information.
On OBD II vehicles, the Malfunction Indicator Lamp also signals an emissionscontrol related failure. The vehicle may not run any differently, but the OBD II
system is designed to note very small changes in the engine’s operation which
could lead to emissions damage or failure.
30
Appendix B: Data Parameter List & Definitions
All data parameters or parameter identification data (PID) listed in Appendix B were
verified on actual vehicles to guarantee their accuracy. Definitions used to describe all
PIDs were obtained from reliable sources and are accurate at the time of printing. It is
possible that some newer vehicles may contain data different from that listed in
Appendix B. Always refer to a vehicle service manual for vehicle-specific PIDs.
Data Parameter List Format
The data parameter list is organized in alphabetical order — the same way as on the
OBD II System Tester. For all data parameters, Appendix B will define the data
parameter, tell what type of reading it is (i.e. input, output, or calculated) and give
some helpful tips on what to do if the reading is unsatisfactory. Remember to always
refer to a vehicle service manual for detailed diagnostic procedures for troubleshooting incorrect data parameter readings.
Types of Data Parameters
INPUT: These data parameters are obtained from sensor circuit outputs.
Sensor circuit outputs are inputs to the vehicle’s PCM. For example, if
the Oxygen Sensor circuit was generating a 400mV signal, then the
OBD II System Tester would display O2S (v) 0.40.
OUTPUT: These data parameters are outputs or commands that come directly
from the PCM. For example; the ignition spark advance is controlled
by PCM, on most vehicles, monitoring this PID shows the spark output
from the PCM. The OBD II System Tester would display IGN ADV(°) 10.
CALCULATED: These data parameters are calculated after analyzing various inputs
VALUE inputs to the vehicle’s PCM. For example, the engine load. The PCM
calculates this from sensor inputs and displays it in a percentage.
PCM VALUE: Is information that is stored in the PCM’s memory and determined to
be useful to the service technician. An example of this is the TROUBLE
CODE value, the DTC that caused a freeze frame capture.
NOTE: Several different causes can have the same parameter indication. For
information on diagnostics consult the vehicle service manuals .
DATA PARAMETER LIST
ABSLT TPS (%) (Absolute Throttle Position Sensor - PCM input)
Display: 0 - 100%
This PID represents how far the throttle plate has been opened by the driver. The TPS
produces a voltage signal proportional to the throttle position. This voltage is converted to
a percentage by the PCM. A low voltage reading calculates to 0%, closed throttle while a
high voltage which equates to 100% reading indicates fully opened throttle.
CALC LOAD (%) (Calculated Engine Load - PCM calculated value)
Display: 0 - 100%
The percentage reading of this PID indicates the amount of load on the engine. The
higher the reading the greater the load on the engine.
The PCM uses engine load to help determine correct air/fuel ratios, spark advance,
idle speed, and emission device operation. Higher engine load conditions will cause the
PCM to increase the injector pulse widths.
31
COOLANT (°F)
(Engine Coolant Temperature - PCM input)
COOLANT (°C)
Display: Numeric temperature value: -40 to 419 (°F) or -40 to 215 (°C).
This is a measure of the engine’s coolant temperature. A voltage signal is sent to
the PCM from a sensor that is in contact with the coolant. The voltage signal increases as temperature increases. The PCM converts this voltage reading to a
degree measurement.
The PCM uses coolant temperature to help determine correct air/fuel ratios, spark
advance, idle speed, and emission device operation depending on the engine’s
temperature. Coolant temperature is also used to decide whether to run the engine
in open or closed loop mode.
The coolant parameter may be displayed in English or Metric, depending upon the
tool setup.
ENGINE (RPM)
(Engine Speed in Revolutions Per Minute - PCM input)
Display: 0 to (maximum RPM)
This signal is sent from a triggering device (usually on the crankshaft or in the
distributor) to the PCM indicating engine speed.
Engine speed measurements can be used in the calculation on fuel injector pulse
widths and other powertrain operating strategies.
FUEL PRES (PSIG) (Fuel Pressure - PCM input)
FUEL PRES (KPA)
Display: 0 - 110 (psig) or 0 - 765 (kPa)
Fuel pressure is a measurement of the fuel rail (regulated) pressure. A sensor
sends the PCM an electrical signal which is converted to psig or kPa depending
upon English or Metric tool setup.
FUEL SYSTEM 1 (Fuel System Bank 1/2 - PCM calculated value)
FUEL SYSTEM 2
Display: OPEN, CLSD, OPEN1, OPEN2, CLSD1
The fuel system PIDs show the loop status of the fuel system banks. If the vehicle
calibration only uses one loop status for the fuel system the FUEL SYSTEM 1 PID will
be used.
There are four states the fuel system can be running in:
1. OPEN PCM is operating in the Open Loop control strategy. The vehicle has not yet
satisfied conditions for the PCM to go closed loop.
2. CLSD PCM currently functioning in Closed loop control strategy, using O2
sensor(s) as feedback for fuel control
3. OPEN1 Open Loop control strategy is being used by the PCM due to driving
conditions. Driving conditions that may cause this to happen are power
enrichment and deceleration enrichment.
4. OPEN2 The PCM is operating in Open Loop control strategy due to detected
system fault. Certain actuator or sensor faults will cause the PCM to use
an open loop strategy.
5. CLSD1 Closed Loop control is current storage being used by the PCM, but a fault
with at least one O2 sensor has been detected. The control system may
be using single O2 for fuel control calculations.
32
IAT TEMP (°C)
(Intake Air Temperature - PCM input)
IAT TEMP (°F)
Display: Numeric temperature value: -40 to 419 (°F) or -40 to 215 (°C)
This is a measure of intake air temperature to determine correct air/fuel ratios and
spark timing operations. The voltage from a thermistor in the intake manifold is sent
to the PCM. The PCM converts this voltage signal to a numerical temperature value.
IGN ADV (DEG) (Ignition Advance - PCM output)
Display:-64 to +63.5
This is a signal from the PCM to the Ignition Control Module (ICM) telling it how
much spark advance to add to base engine timing (expressed in crankshaft degrees).
The ICM sends a base timing signal taken from a sensor (either in the distributor
or on the crankshaft) and sends it to the PCM. The PCM decides how much advance
to add to the signal based on operating conditions, then sends the signal back to the
ignition to fire the spark plugs. Depending on the vehicle, this signal may mean one
of two things. In some systems, the display shows exact timing (base timing plus
PCM-directed advance). In other systems, the display will show only the amount of
advance the PCM is adding to the base timing supplied by the ICM.
LT FL TRM 1(%) (Long-Term Fuel Trim Bank 1/2 - PCM calculated value)
LT FL TRM 2(%)
Display: Positive (rich fuel trim) or Negative (lean fuel trim) Percentage
This value represents the long-term correction to the fuel control calculations. The
Long Term Fuel Trim is an indication of the PCM’s commanded fuel mixture adjustments. The number can range from -100% to +100%, with the midpoint being 0. A
positive reading indicates that the PCM has commanded a long-term rich mixture
correction in response to a lean operating condition. A negative reading indicates that
the PCM has commanded a long-term lean mixture in response to a rich operating
condition. Fuel Trim is used to adjust the fuel injector pulse width calculations.
Long-Term Fuel Trim corrections usually operate in closed loop mode only. In
open loop mode, the number typically defaults to a fixed value of 0. Depending on the
vehicle, the Long Term Fuel Trim values may be reset to the default of 0 every time
the engine is shut off, or corrected values may be retained in computer memory.
Retained values are reapplied when the vehicle is restarted.
Some PCMs are able to control the left and right cylinder bank Fuel Trim individually, shown by the LT FL TRM 1 & 2 parameters. LT FL TRM 1 is use in injection Bank
1 fuel correction and LT FL TRM 2 for Bank 2.
MAF (LB/M)
(Mass-Air Flow rate - PCM calculated value)
MAF (GM/S)
Display: 0 - 86.5 lb/min or 0 - 655.35 gm/s
A signal sent from the Mass Air Flow Sensor to the PCM indicating the mass of the
air entering the engine, as a voltage reading. This voltage reading may be used with
other engine information obtained to calculate the Mass Air Flow Rate. This information is used to determine the correct injector pulsewidths to maintain proper air/fuel
ratio. MAF readings should be low at idle and increase as the throttle opens.
NOTE: Some engines may display an MAF reading even with the engine off.
Most MAF Sensor operates on a hot film or wire in the air intake between the air
filter and the throttle body. The wire is heated to a preset temperature. As incoming air
cools the wire or film, the PCM measures the voltage required to maintain the preset
temperature. The PCM translates this voltage reading into airflow measurements
based on internal lookup tables.
33
MAP (“HG)
(Manifold Absolute Pressure - PCM input)
MAP (KPA)
Display: numeric inches of Mercury (“HG) or kiloPascals (KPA)
The Manifold Absolute Pressure sensor converts intake manifold vacuum or
pressure to an electric signal and sends it to the PCM. The PCM converts this signal
into a numerical pressure value expressed in kiloPascals (kPa) or inches of Mercury
(“Hg). The MAP reading will vary with engine speed and load. Vehicles should show a
MAP Sensor reading even if the engine is not running (indicating atmospheric
pressure in the manifold).
MIL STATUS
(Malfunction Indicator Lamp Status - PCM output)
Display: ON or OFF
This PID shows the state that the PCM is commanding of Malfunction Indicator
Lamp. ON indicates that the PCM is requesting that the MIL to be ON (illuminated). If
the MIL Status is ON and the Malfunction Indicator Lamp is not on there is a problem
in MIL circuit. A MIL status of OFF show the request for the MIL to be off.
The PCM commands the MIL on when it wants to show the operator there is a problem.
OBD2 STATUS (OBD II Status - PCM value)
Display: CAL, FED, CA/FED, or OBD 1
This data parameter shows you the OBD requirement to which the vehicle was
designed.
CAL - Indicates that the test vehicle meets California OBD II requirements
FED - Informs you the test vehicle meets Federal OBD II requirements
CA/FED - California and Federal OBD II requirements are meet when this status is
displayed.
OBD 1 - A display of OBD 1 informs you that the test vehicle does not meet OBD II
requirements
O2 BNK1 #1 (V) (Oxygen Sensor Bank 1 Sensor 1 - PCM input)
O2 BNK1 #1 (%)
Display: 0.00 - 1.00 volts or -100 - +100 %
The Oxygen Sensor sends a signal to the PCM indicating whether the engine is
running rich or lean. The Oxygen Sensor generates a voltage signal ranging from 0 to
approximately 1000 mV (1 volt). A lean signal is .450V or less. A rich signal is .450V
or higher.
In normal operation, the Oxygen Sensor signal should be constantly switching
between rich and lean values. NOTE: The Oxygen Sensor must be above 500° and
the PCM must be in closed loop mode before the PCM will respond to the sensor
signals. Because of this most oxygen sensors are now heated to speed closed loop
operation and improve cold-start emissions and efficiency
The Bank (BNK) in the PID name refers to the exhaust manifold bank if more than
one is used on a vehicle. The Number (#) indicates the oxygen sensor location in the
exhaust system, 1 usually meaning before the catalytic convert and 2 after. Refer to
the vehicle’s service manual for correct identification.
PTO STATUS
(Power Take-Off - PCM input)
Display: Active - InAct
This input allows the PCM keep track of the Power Take-Off status. Either the PTO
is engaged/active or disengaged/ inactive.
34
SECONDARY AIR
(Secondary Air System Status - PCM output)
Display: UPSTR, DNSTR, ATMSP
The secondary air injection system on newer vehicles is controlled by the PCM.
The PCM use actuators to control this pollution control system. Secondary air can be
added the exhaust system near the exhaust manifold (before any catalytic converts),
at the catalytic convert(s) or not at all.
UPSTR - UP STREAM the PCM is demanding that secondary air be added at the
exhaust manifolds
DNSTR - DOWN STREAM the PCM is demanding secondary air to added at the
catalytic converter
ATMSP - ATMOSPHERE the PCM is demanding no secondary air to be added,
because the air pump can not be turned off the air will simply be dumped to the
outside air (Atmosphere).
ST FL TRM 1 (%) (Short-term Fuel Trim Bank 1/2 - PCM calculated value)
ST FL TRM 2 (%)
Display: Positive (rich fuel trim) or Negative (lean fuel trim) Percentage
This value represents the short-term correction of the fuel metering on a fuelinjected engine. The ST Trim indicates whether the PCM is commanding a rich or
lean fuel mixture for the engine. The SF Trim number can range from -100% to
+100%, with the midpoint being 0. A positive ST Trim reading indicates that the PCM
has commanded a short-term rich mixture correction in response to a lean operating
condition. A negative ST Trim reading indicates that the PCM has commanded a
short-term lean mixture in response to a rich operating condition. Fuel Trim is
adjusted by varying the fuel injector pulse widths.
Short-term Fuel Trim corrections operate only in closed loop mode. In open loop
mode, the number usually defaults to a 0 (fixed value). Depending on the vehicle, the
ST Trim values may be reset to the default of 0 every time the engine is shut off, or
corrected values may be retained in computer memory. Retained values are reapplied
when the vehicle is restarted. All values are erased when the battery is disconnected.
Some PCMs are able to control the left and right cylinder bank Fuel Trim individually, shown by the ST TRIM1 & 2 parameters.
TROUBLE CODE (Trouble Code - PCM value)
Display: any code possible of causing a freeze frame capture
The Trouble Code parameter will give you the diagnostic trouble code that caused
a freeze frame capture. This information is helpful in diagnosing the cause of a
driveability. If no freeze frame data has been captured this PID will be zero.
VEH SPEED (KPH)
(Vehicle Speed Sensor - PCM input)
VEH SPEED (MPH)
Display: numeric speed indication (kph or mph)
This is a value calculated by the PCM using electric pulses from the Vehicle Speed
Sensor to determine actual vehicle speed, expressed in either miles per hour (mph)
or kilometers per hour (kph). The PCM uses the vehicle speed measurements
primarily for torque converter clutch engagement and electronic cruise control
systems. Vehicles not equipped with automatic transmissions or cruise control may
not have a Vehicle Speed Sensor. The OBD II System Tester may display a Vehicle
Speed value, but it should always be 0.
35
Appendix C: Glossary of Terms
A/C:
Air Conditioning.
A/F:
Air/Fuel ratio. This refers to the proportion of
air and fuel delivered to the cylinder for combustion. For example, if you have 14 times
more air than fuel (by weight) then the A/F
ratio is 14:1 (read as “fourteen to one”). The
ideal operating A/F ratio in an automotive
application is 14.7:1.
AC Clutch Relay:
The PCM uses this relay to energize the A/C
clutch, turning the A/C system on or off.
AC Pressure Sensor:
This sensor is connected to the A/C refrigerant line. It measures refrigerant pressure
and sends a voltage signal to the PCM. The
PCM will turn off the A/C system (by de-energizing the A/C Clutch Relay) to prevent compressor damage if the pressure is too high
or low.
AC Pressure Switch:
This is a mechanical switch connected to
the A/C refrigerant line. The switch is activated (sending a signal to the PCM) when
the A/C refrigerant pressure becomes too
low. The PCM will turn off the A/C system (by
de-energizing the A/C Clutch Relay) to prevent compressor damage. Some vehicles
have a second switch activated when the
refrigerant pressure is too high.
Actuator:
Devices that are powered by the PCM to control things. Actuator types include relays,
solenoids, and motors. Actuators allow the
PCM to control system operation.
Air Injection Reaction (AIR) System:
This is an emission control system operated by the PCM. During cold starts, an air
pump injects outside air into the exhaust
manifold to help burn hot exhaust gases.
This reduces pollution and speeds warmup of oxygen sensors and catalytic converters. After the engine is warm, the air will ei-
36
ther be “dumped” back to the atmosphere
(or into the air cleaner assembly) or sent to
the catalytic converter. There are several
versions of the AIR system, depending on
the vehicle.
Analog Signal:
A voltage signal which can have any voltage reading. For example, thermistors
send analog signals indicating small
changes in temperature. In contrast are
digital signals, which are either “high” or
“low” with no variations in between. Also
see “Digital Signal” definition.
BARO:
Barometric Pressure Sensor. See “MAP
Sensor” definition for full explanation.
Boost Control Solenoid:
Used on certain supercharger-equipped
engines. This solenoid is normally energized by the PCM, allowing the supercharger
system to operate normally. Under high engine speed and load conditions, the PCM
de-energizes the solenoid to reduce boost
pressure.
Brake Switch Signal:
An input signal to the PCM indicating that
the brake pedal is being pressed. Vehicles
with Cruise Control Systems monitor the
brake switch to determine when to engage
or disengage the cruise control function.
The brake switch may also have a circuit
supplying power to the Torque Converter
Clutch (TCC) solenoid. This connection
insures the TCC solenoid will disengage
when the brake pedal is depressed. Also
see “TCC” definition.
CAM:
Camshaft Position Sensor. This sensor
sends a frequency signal to the PCM. Vehicles with sequential fuel injection (SFI) use
this signal to synchronize the injector firing
order. Some DIS type ignition systems use
this signal to synchronize spark plug firing.
CARB:
California Air Research Board
CKP REF:
Crankshaft Reference.
coolant. It sends a voltage signal to the PCM
indicating the temperature of the coolant.
The PCM uses this signal for control of fuel
delivery, spark advance, and EGR flow.
CKP:
Crankshaft Position Sensor.
Closed Loop (C/L):
This is when a control system performs an
action (expecting a certain result), then
checks the results and corrects its actions
(if necessary) until the desired results are
achieved. Example: Fuel delivery. The PCM
operates a fuel injector in a way that should
deliver an optimum air/fuel mixture, as long
as everything in the fuel system is operating
as expected. In closed loop operation, the
PCM uses the oxygen sensor to check the
results (fuel delivery may be different than
expected because of variations in fuel pressure or injector operation). If the oxygen sensor indicates a “rich” condition, the PCM will
compensate by reducing fuel delivery until
the oxygen sensor signals an optimum air/
fuel mixture. Likewise, the PCM will compensate for a “lean” condition by adding fuel
until the oxygen sensor once again signals
an optimum air/fuel mixture. Thus, closed
loop operation means the PCM can “fine
tune” control of a system to achieve an exact
result providing the PCM has a means to
check results (like an oxygen sensor).
CO:
Carbon Monoxide
Continuous Memory Codes:
See Pending Codes.
CPS:
Crankshaft Position Sensor. This sensor
sends a frequency signal to the PCM. It is
used to reference fuel injector operation and
synchronize spark plug firing on distributorless ignition systems (DIS).
CTS:
Coolant Temperature Sensor. IA thermistor
— a sensor whose resistance decreases
with increases in temperature — is threaded
into the engine block, contacting the engine
37
Data Link Connector (DLC):
The Data Link Connector (DLC) is a universal term for the interface port between
the vehicle’s on-board computer and a diagnostic tool. Vehicles with OBD II use a
16-pin connector located in the passenger
compartment.
Data Stream:
This is the actual data communications
broadcast from the vehicle’s PCM to the
data connector. The individual manufacturers determine the number of “data bytes” a
specific engine will broadcast. The size of
the data stream is usually dependent on
the complexity of the engine, transmission,
ABS, and other systems supported by the
PCM. All manufacturers supply program
documents for each year, engine, and option combination that a particular PCM supports in all the manufacturer’s vehicles.
This information is used to design and build
aftermarket diagnostic equipment.
DEPS:
Digital Engine Position Sensor.
Detonation:
Uncontrolled ignition of the air/fuel mixture
in the cylinder. Also referred to as “knock,”
detonation indicates extreme cylinder pressures or “hotspots” which are causing the
air/fuel mixture to detonate early. High cylinder pressures may be caused by excessive load (trailer towing, A/C operation, etc.)
or by excessive spark advance. High octane fuel has a higher resistance to uncontrolled ignition, and may be used to control
detonation when the PCM is unable to retard timing sufficiently to prevent it from occurring. NOTE: High octane fuel is not a
cure for the problem, only the symptom. If
your vehicle experiences long-term detonation, check for other causes.
DiagnosticTrouble Codes:
Diagnostic Trouble Codes (DTC) indicate
a malfunction flagged by a vehicle computer. The computer will display a corresponding code based on a lookup table in
the program of the on-board computer.
Most systems have the ability to store codes
in memory, which are commonly referred
to as “history codes” or “soft codes.” Malfunctioning circuits will generate continuous Check Engine lamp illumination, called
“current codes” or “hard codes.” OBD II
Systems will transmit many more DTCs
than the past systems, and therefore will
allow a technician the ability to better pinpoint failures and past events. The only
way to clear codes on OBD II systems will
be with a scan tool that has the proper programming to perform the function.
means the signal is always at a “low” value
and not changing. A duty cycle of 100%
means the signal is always at a “high”
value and not changing. The PCM uses
duty cycle type signals when it wants more
than just “on-off” control of an actuator. This
is how it works: 50% duty cycle signal going to a vacuum switching solenoid means
the solenoid will be “on” (passing full
vacuum) half the time, and “off” (passing
no vacuum) half the time. The average
amount of vacuum passing through the
solenoid will be one half the full value because the solenoid is only “on” for half the
time. This signal changes at a rapid rate,
as often as ten times per second. Thus
the PCM can get a vacuum controlled actuator to move halfway between “no
vacuum” and “full vacuum.” Other positions
can be achieved by changing the duty cycle
Digital Signal:
of the control signal which in turn changes
An electronic signal which has only two (2) the average amount of control vacuum.
voltage values: a “low” value (close to zero)
and a “high” value (usually 5 volts or more). DVM:
Sometimes the low voltage condition is Digital Volt Meter. An instrument using a
called OFF and the high voltage condition numeric readout to display measured voltis called ON. Signals which can have any age values as opposed to a moving needle
voltage value are called “analog” signals. on a gauge face. Usually the instrument
has other measuring capabilities, such as
DIS:
resistance and current, and may be called
Distributorless Ignition System or Direct a Digital Multi-Meter (DMM). Most DVMs
Ignition System. A system that produces have 10 Megohm input impedance. This
the ignition spark without the use of a dis- means the circuit under test will not be
tributor.
electronically disturbed when the DVM is
connected for a measurement.
Driver:
ECT:
Engine Coolant Sensor. A thermistor — a
sensor whose resistance decreases with
increases in temperature — is threaded
into the engine block, contacting the engine
Duty Cycle:
coolant. It sends a voltage signal to the PCM
A term applied to frequency signals — those indicating the temperature of the coolant.
which are constantly switching between a The PCM uses this signal for control of fuel
small voltage value (close to zero) and a delivery, spark advance, and EGR flow.
larger value (usually 5 volts or more). Duty
cycle is the percentage of time the signal EFI:
has a large voltage value. For example, if Electronic Fuel Injection. A term applied to
the signal is “high” (large voltage) half of any system where a computer controls
the time, the duty cycle is 50%. If the signal fuel delivery to the engine by using fuel
is “high” only one fourth of the time, then injectors.
the duty cycle is 25%. A duty cycle of 0%
A transistor “switch” inside the PCM used
to apply power to an external device. This
allows the PCM to control relays, solenoids,
and small motors.
38
EGR:
Exhaust Gas Recirculation. The EGR system recirculates exhaust gases back into
the intake manifold to reduce NOx emissions. The EGR valve controls the flow of
exhaust gases back into the intake manifold. Some EGR valves are operated with a
vacuum signal while others are electrically
controlled. The amount of EGR valve opening determines the flow through the valve.
EGR Recirculation is only used during warm
engine cruise conditions. EGR flow at other
times can cause stalling or no starts. There
are many different types of EGR systems
controlled by the PCM.
Engine Parameters:
This is the translated information that is displayed on the system tester screen. Parameters will include the information inputs and
the output information from the PCM. Engine Parameters are often referred to as
PIDs (Parameter Identification Data).
EPA:
Environmental Protection Agency.
ESC:
Electronic Spark Control. This is an ignition system function that works on vehicles
having a knock sensor mounted on the
engine block. The knock sensor is wired
to circuitry in a separate module (early version) or inside the PCM (later versions). If
the sensor detects engine knock, the ESC
function alerts the PCM that will immediately retard the spark to eliminate the
knocking condition.
EST:
Electronic Spark Timing. An ignition system
where the PCM controls the spark advance
timing. A signal called EST goes from the
PCM to the ignition module that fires the
spark coil. The PCM determines optimum
spark timing from sensor information —
engine speed, throttle position, coolant temperature, engine load, vehicle speed, Park/
Neutral switch position, and knock sensor
condition.
EVAP:
Evaporative Emissions System.
39
EVRV:
Electronic Vacuum Regulator Valve. This
actuator is controlled by the PCM and is
used to control the amount of vacuum applied to a vacuum-operated device.
Fuel Injector:
An electronically controlled flow valve. Fuel
injectors are connected to a pressurized
fuel supply (fuel pressure is created by a
fuel pump). No flow occurs when the injector is off (not energized). When the injector
is energized, it opens fully, allowing fuel to
flow. The PCM controls fuel delivery by varying the amount of time the injector solenoids are turned on.
Fuel Pump Relay:
The PCM energizes this relay to apply power
to the vehicle fuel pump. For safety reasons, the PCM removes power from the
fuel pump when ignition signals are not
present.
Fuel Pump Signal:
This is a wire between the PCM and the
fuel pump motor power terminal. The PCM
uses this signal to verify when voltage is at
the fuel pump (for diagnosing fuel pump
problems).
Gear Switches:
These are switches (usually two) located
inside certain automatic transmissions.
The PCM monitors the switches to determine what transmission gear is engaged.
The switches are activated by hydraulic
pressure and may be normally open or
closed, depending on the vehicle. The PCM
uses gear information for control of the
torque converter clutch, some emission
systems, and for transmission diagnostic
purposes.
Ground:
Ground is the return path for current to flow
back to its source (Usually the negative battery terminal). It is also the reference point
from which voltage measurements are
made (the connection place for the negative (-) test lead from a voltmeter).
Hall Effect Sensor:
This sensor is a three wire-type of sensor
containing electronic circuitry. Two wires
supply power and ground, while a third
wire carries the sensor signal back to the
PCM. The sensor consists of a permanent magnet and a small module containing a transistorized Hall Effect switch.
A small air gap separates the sensor and
the magnet. The magnetic field causes
the Hall switch to turn on and send out a
low voltage signal. If a metal strip (iron or
steel) is placed in the gap, it will block the
magnetic field from reaching the Hall device. This causes the Hall switch to turn off
and send a high voltage signal out on the
signal wire.
The metal strips (blades) are part of a cup
or disk attached to a rotating component
such as the crankshaft or camshaft. As
the blades pass through the sensor gap,
the signal voltage will switch high and low,
creating a series of pulses. The PCM determines the speed of rotation by measuring how fast pulses appear. Hall Effect
type sensors may be used to measure
speed and position of the crankshaft or
camshaft — for spark timing and fuel injector control.
HO2S
Heated Oxygen Sensor.
IAC:
Idle Air Control. This is a device mounted
on the throttle body which adjusts the
amount of air bypassing a closed throttle
so that the PCM can control idle speed.
The IAC moves a pintle within the air bypass passage. When the PCM wants to
change idle speed, it will move the pintle
backwards for more air and a fast idle, or
forward for less air and a slower idle.
Inputs:
Electrical signals running into the PCM.
These signals come from sensors, switches
or other electronic modules. They give the
PCM information about vehicle operation.
ISC:
Idle Speed Control. This refers to a small
electric motor mounted on the throttle body
and controlled by the PCM. The ISC motor
moves a spindle back and forth. When the
throttle is released during idle, it rests on
this spindle. The PCM can control idle speed
by adjusting this spindle position. The PCM
determines the desired idle speed by looking at battery voltage, coolant temperature,
engine load, and RPM.
Knock Sensor (KS):
This sensor is used to detect engine detonation or “knock.” When spark knock occurs,
the sensor emits a pulsing signal. Depending on the vehicle, this signal either goes to
the PCM or a separate ESC (Electronic Spark
Control) module. Then the spark advance is
retarded until detonation stops. The sensor
contains a piezoelectric element and is
threaded into the engine block. Vibrating the
element generates the signal pulse. Special construction makes the element sensitive only to engine vibrations associated with
detonation “knocking.”
Knock:
See “Detonation.”
KOEO:
Key On, Engine Off.
KOER:
Key On, Engine Running.
LCD:
Liquid Crystal Display.
ICM:
Ignition Control Module.
LT:
Long Term fuel trim.
I/M:
Inspection and Maintenance.
M/T:
Manual transmission or manual transaxle.
40
MAF:
Mass Air Flow Sensor. This sensor measures the amount of air entering the engine
using a wire or film heated to a specific temperature. Incoming air cools the wire. The
MAF sensor sends a frequency or voltage
signal (depending on sensor type) to the
PCM based on the voltage required to maintain that temperature. The signal frequency
or voltage increases when the mass of the
incoming air goes up. This gives the PCM
information required for control of fuel delivery and spark advance.
MAP:
Manifold Absolute Pressure Sensor. This
sensor measures manifold vacuum or pressure and sends a frequency or voltage signal (depending on sensor type) to the PCM.
This gives the PCM information on engine
load for control of fuel delivery, spark advance, and EGR flow.
MAT:
Manifold Air Temperature sensor. A thermistor — a sensor whose resistance decreases with increases in temperature —
is threaded into the intake manifold. It sends
a voltage signal to the PCM indicating the
temperature of the incoming air. The PCM
uses this signal for fuel delivery calculations.
MFI:
Multi-Port Fuel Injection. See “MPFI.”
MIL:
Malfunction Indicator Lamp. The MIL is also
known as a Check Engine Light or CEL.
Mode:
Refers to a type of operating condition, such
as “idle mode” or “cruise mode.”
MPFI:
Multi-Port Fuel Injection. MPFI is a fuel injection system using one (or more) injector(s)
for each cylinder. The injectors are mounted
in the intake manifold, and fired in groups
rather than individually.
O2S:
This is an oxygen sensor that is threaded
into the exhaust system, directly in the
stream of exhaust gases. The PCM uses
the sensor to “fine tune” fuel delivery. The
sensor generates a voltage of 0.6 to 1.1 volts
when the exhaust gas is rich (low oxygen
content). The voltage changes to 0.4 volts or
less when the exhaust gas is lean (high
oxygen content). The sensor only operates
after it reaches a temperature of approximately 349°C (660°F).
ODM:
Output Device Monitor.
On-Board Diagnostics, Second Generation (OBD II):
With the passing of the 1990 Clean Air Act
Amendment, the EPA imposed more stringent requirements. These requirements include the addition of multiple oxygen sensors, one before the catalytic converter and
one after to provide the PCM with information on catalyst efficiency and condition.
There are also computer-controlled EGR,
fuel pressure regulators, and smart ignition
systems.
OBD II requires a common data connector
and connector location. Further requirements include an industry-standard data
message, defined by both an industry committee of engineers from most major manufacturers and the SAE. Vehicle manufacturers are required by law to provide at least a
minimum amount of data for emissions programs to access the critical emissions data
available through OBD II. OBD II began to
appear in vehicles in late 1994, and is supposed to be equipment on all cars sold in
the US after January 1, 1996.
Open (Circuit):
A break in the continuity of a circuit such that
no current may flow through it.
Open Loop (O/L):
This is when the control system performs
an action (expecting a certain result), but
NOx:
does not verify if the desired results were
Oxides of Nitrogen. A pollutant. The EGR sys- achieved; i.e. the PCM operates a fuel injectem injects exhaust gases into the intake mani- tor expecting a certain amount of fuel to be
fold to reduce these gases at the tailpipe.
41
delivered (The PCM assumes everything
in the fuel system is performing properly).
In open loop operation, the PCM does not
check the actual amount of fuel delivered.
Thus, a faulty fuel injector or incorrect fuel
pressure can change the amount of fuel
delivered and the PCM would not know it.
In general, a control system operates in
open loop mode only when there is no practical way to monitor the results of an action;
i.e. Fuel delivery during cold engine warmup. The computer runs in open loop mode
because the oxygen sensors are ready to
send a signal. Without the sensor signal,
the computer cannot check the actual
amount of fuel delivered.
Outputs:
Electrical signals sent from the PCM. These
signals may activate relays or other actuators for control purposes throughout the vehicle. The signals can also send information from the PCM to other electronic modules, such as the ignition or trip computer.
P/N:
Park/Neutral Switch. This switch tells the
PCM when the gear shift lever is in the Park
or Neutral position. Then the PCM will operate the engine in an “idle” mode.
PCM:
Powertrain Control Module. The “brains” of
the engine control system. It is a computer
housed in a metal box with a number of
sensors and actuators connected with a
wiring harness. Its job is to control fuel delivery, idle speed, spark advance timing, and
emission systems. The PCM receives information from sensors, then energizes
various actuators to control the engine. The
PCM is frequently called the ECM (Engine
Control Module).
PROM:
Programmable Read-Only Memory. The
PROM contains programming information
the PCM needs to operate a specific vehicle model.
Pending Codes:
Also referred to as Continuous Memory
codes and Maturing Diagnostic Trouble
codes. These codes are set when intermittent faults occur while driving. If the fault does
not occur after a certain number of drive
cycles, the code is erased from memory.
Purge Solenoid:
This device controls the flow of fuel vapors
from the carbon canister to the intake manifold. The canister collects vapors evaporating from the fuel tank, preventing them from
escaping to the atmosphere and causing
pollution. During warm engine cruise conditions, the PCM energizes the Purge Solenoid so the trapped vapors are drawn into
the engine and burned.
Relay:
An electric/mechanical device for switching
high current circuits on and off. It is electronically controlled by a low current circuit.
Relays allow a low power PCM signal to
control a high power device such as an electric cooling fan.
Reluctance Sensor:
Crankshaft or Camshaft - Speed, position
(for spark timing or fuel injector control).
Driveshaft - Vehicle speed (transmission or
torque converter control, cooling fan use,
variable assist power steering, and cruise
control). Wheel Speed - Anti-lock brakes or
traction control systems
ROM:
Read-Only Memory. Permanent programming information stored inside the PCM,
containing the information to operate a specific vehicle model.
SAE:
Society of Automotive Engineers.
Sensor:
Devices which give the PCM information. The
PCM can only work with electrical signals.
The job of the sensor is to take something
the PCM needs to know, such as engine
temperature, and convert it to an electrical
signal that the PCM can understand. The
42
TBI:
Throttle Body Injection. A fuel injection system having one or more injectors mounted
in a centrally located throttle body, as opposed to positioning the injectors close to
SFI or SEFI:
an intake valve port. TBI is also called CenSequential Fuel Injection or Sequential Elec- tral Fuel Injection (CFI) in some vehicles.
tronic Fuel Injection. A fuel injection system
that uses one or more injectors for each cyl- TDC:
inder. The injectors are mounted in the in- Top Dead Center. When a piston is at its
uppermost position in the cylinder.
take manifold, and are fired individually.
PCM uses sensors to measure such things
as throttle position, coolant temperature,
engine speed, incoming air mass and temperature, etc.
Shift Solenoid:
Used in computer controlled transmissions,
the solenoids are located in the transmission
housing and are controlled by the PCM. The
PCM energizes the solenoids individually or in
combination to select a specific gear. The solenoids control the flow of hydraulic fluid to the
transmission shifting valves. The PCM selects
the appropriate gear ratio and shift point based
on engine operating conditions.
Thermistor:
A resistor whose resistance changes with
temperature. Thermistors are used as sensors for vehicle coolant and manifold air temperature. The resistance decreases as temperature goes up, sending a voltage signal
to the PCM where it is converted to a temperature measurement.
Throttle Body:
A device which performs the same function
as a carburetor in a fuel injection system.
On a throttle body injection (TBI) system, the
throttle body is both the air door and the location of the fuel injectors. On port fuel injection systems (PFI, MPFI, SFI, etc.) the throttle
body is simply an air door. Fuel is not added
until the injectors at each intake port are activated. In each case, the throttle body is attached to the accelerator pedal.
Solenoid:
A solenoid is a device to convert an electrical signal to mechanical movement. It consists of a coil with a wire and a moveable
metal rod in the center. When the power is
applied to the coil, the resulting electromagnetism moves the rod and performs some
mechanical action. The PCM often uses
solenoids to switch vacuum lines on and
off. This allows the PCM to control vacuum
operated devices such as the EGR valve. TPS:
Fuel injectors are operated by another type Throttle Position Sensor. This is a rotary-type
potentiometer connected to the throttle shaft.
of solenoid.
It has a voltage signal output which increases
ST:
as the throttle is opened. This sensor is used
by the PCM for idle speed, spark advance,
Short Term fuel trim.
fuel delivery, emission systems, and elecStepper Motor:
tronic automatic transmission control.
A special type of electric motor with a shaft
that rotates in small “steps” instead of con- TTS:
tinuous motion. A certain sequence of fre- Transmission Temperature Sensor. A therquency-type signals is required to step the mistor, a sensor whose resistance demotor shaft. A different signal sequence will creases with increases in temperature, is
step the motor in the opposite direction. No mounted in the transmission housing in
signal maintains current shaft position A contact with the transmission fluid. It sends
constant signal drive will continuously ro- the transmission temperature as a voltage
tate the shaft. The shaft is usually connected signal to the PCM.
to a threaded assembly which moves back
and forth to control things such as idle speed VECI:
Vehicle Emission Control Information.
bypass air flow (see “IAC” definition).
43
VIN:
Vehicle Identification Number. This is the
factory-assigned vehicle serial number.
This number is stamped on a number
of locations throughout the vehicle, but
the most prominent location is on top of
the dashboard on the driver’s side, visible from outside the vehicle. The VIN
includes information about the vehicle,
including where it was built, body and
engine codes, and a sequential build
number.
VSS:
Vehicle Speed Sensor. This sensor
sends a frequency signal to the PCM.
The frequency increases as the vehicle
moves faster to give the PCM vehicle
speed information used to determine
shift points, engine load, and cruise
control functions.
WOT:
Wide-Open Throttle. The vehicle operating condition brought about when the
throttle is completely (or nearly) open.
The PCM will typically deliver extra fuel
to the engine and de-energize the A/C
compressor at this time for acceleration purposes. The PCM uses a switch
or the Throttle Position Sensor to identify the WOT condition.
44
NOTES
45
NOTES
46
NOTES
47
THREE (3) YEAR LIMITED WARRANTY
Actron Manufacturing Company (“Actron”) warrants to the original purchaser that this
product will be free from defects in materials and workmanship for a period of three (3)
years from the date of original purchase. Any unit that fails within this period will be
replaced or repaired at Actron’s discretion without charge. If you need to return product,
please follow the instructions below. This warranty does not apply to damages (intentional or accidental), alterations or improper or unreasonable use.
DISCLAIMER OF WARRANTY
ACTRON DISCLAIMS ALL EXPRESS WARRANTIES EXCEPT THOSE THAT APPEAR ABOVE.
FURTHER, ACTRON DISCLAIMS ANY IMPLIED WARRANTY OF MERCHANTABILITY OF
THE GOODS OR FITNESS OF THE GOODS FOR ANY PURPOSE. (TO THE EXTENT ALLOWED BY LAW, ANY IMPLIED WARRANTY OF MERCHANTABILITY OR OF FITNESS
APPLICABLE TO ANY PRODUCT IS SUBJECT TO ALL THE TERMS AND CONDITIONS OF
THIS LIMITED WARRANTY. SOME STATES DO NOT ALLOW LIMITATIONS ON HOW LONG
AN IMPLIED WARRANTY LASTS, SO THIS LIMITATION MAY NOT APPLY TO A SPECIFIC
BUYER.)
LIMITATION OF REMEDIES
IN NO CASE SHALL ACTRON BE LIABLE FOR ANY SPECIAL, INCIDENTAL OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES BASED UPON ANY LEGAL THEORY INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED
TO, DAMAGES FOR LOST PROFITS AND/OR INJURY TO PROPERTY. SOME STATES DO
NOT ALLOW THE EXCLUSION OR LIMITATION OF INCIDENTAL OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES, SO THIS LIMITATION OR EXCLUSION MAY NOT APPLY TO A SPECIFIC BUYER. THIS
WARRANTY GIVES YOU SPECIFIC LEGAL RIGHTS, AND YOU MAY ALSO HAVE OTHER
RIGHTS WHICH VARY FROM STATE TO STATE.
TO USE YOUR WARRANTY
If you need to return the unit, please follow this procedure:
1. Call Actron Tech Support at (800) 253-9880. Our Technical Service representatives are trained to assist you.
2. Proof of purchase is required for all warranty claims. For this reason we ask that you retain your sales receipt.
3. In the event that product needs to be returned, you will be given a Return Material Authorization number.
4. If possible, return the product in its original package with cables and accessories.
5. Print the RMA number and your return address on the outside of the package and send to the address provided
by your Customer Service representative.
6. You will be responsible for shipping charges in the event that your repair is not covered by warranty.
If
OUT OF WARRANTY REPAIR
you need product repaired after your warranty has expired, please call Tech Support at
(800) 253-9880. You will be advised of the cost of repair and any freight charges.
©2001 Actron Manufacturing Co.
Printed in USA
0002-001-2252
ACTRON MANUFACTURING CO.
15825 Industrial Parkway
Cleveland, Ohio 44135-9946
USA
Internet and e-mail - http://www.actron.com
48
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