Serial Attached SCSI
58300, 48300, 44300
HostRAID Controllers
Installation and User’s Guide
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2
Copyright
©2006 Adaptec, Inc. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted
in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise, without the prior written consent of
Adaptec, Inc., 691 South Milpitas Blvd., Milpitas, CA 95035.
Trademarks
Adaptec, Adaptec Storage Manager, and the Adaptec logo are trademarks of Adaptec, Inc., which may be registered in some
jurisdictions.
Microsoft and Windows are trademarks of Microsoft Corporation in the US and other countries, used under license.
All other trademarks are the property of their respective owners.
Changes
The material in this document is for information only and is subject to change without notice. While reasonable efforts have been
made in the preparation of this document to assure its accuracy, Adaptec, Inc. assumes no liability resulting from errors or
omissions in this document, or from the use of the information contained herein.
Adaptec reserves the right to make changes in the product design without reservation and without notification to its users.
Disclaimer
IF THIS PRODUCT DIRECTS YOU TO COPY MATERIALS, YOU MUST HAVE PERMISSION FROM THE COPYRIGHT
OWNER OF THE MATERIALS TO AVOID VIOLATING THE LAW WHICH COULD RESULT IN DAMAGES OR OTHER
REMEDIES.
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3
Adaptec Customer Support
If you have questions about installing or using your Adaptec product, check this document first—you will find answers to most of
your questions. If you need further assistance, use the support options listed below. To expedite your service, have your computer in
front of you.
Technical Support Identification (TSID) Number
●
Before contacting Technical Support, you need your unique 12-digit TSID number. The TSID number identifies your product
and support status.
●
The TSID number is included on a white, bar-coded label, like this example:
●
Affix a copy of the TSID label to the CD jacket so that you don’t lose it.
North America
●
Visit our Web site at www.adaptec.com.
●
Search the Adaptec Support Knowledgebase (ASK) at ask.adaptec.com for articles, troubleshooting tips, and frequently asked
questions for your product. For information about Adaptec’s support options, call +1 408-957-2550,
24 hours per day, 7 days per week. To speak with a Technical Support Specialist,
●
For Hardware products call +1 408-934-7274,
Monday to Friday, 3:00 a.m. to 5:00 p.m., Pacific Time.
●
For RAID and Fibre Channel products call +1 321-207-2000,
Monday to Friday, 3:00 a.m. to 5:00 p.m., Pacific Time.
●
For support via e-mail, submit your question at ask.adaptec.com.
●
You can order Adaptec products, including accessories and cables, by calling +1 408-957-7274. Or, you can order cables online
at www.adaptec.com/buy-cables.
Europe
●
Visit our Web site at www.adaptec-europe.com.
●
German: Call +49 89 43 66 55 22, Monday to Friday, 9:00 to 17:00, CET. For support via e-mail, submit your question at askde.adaptec.com.
●
French: Call +49 89 43 66 55 33, Monday to Friday, 9:00 to 17:00, CET. For support via e-mail, submit your question at askfr.adaptec.com.
●
English: Call +49 89 43 66 55 44, Monday to Friday, 9:00 to 17:00, GMT. For support via e-mail, submit your question at
ask.adaptec.com.
●
You can order Adaptec cables online at www.adaptec.com/buy-cables.
Japan
●
Visit our Web site at www.adaptec.co.jp.
●
Call +81 3 5308 6120, Monday–Friday, 9:00 a.m. to 12:00 p.m and 1:00 p.m. to 6:00 p.m.
●
4
Limited 3-Year Hardware Warranty
1. Adaptec, Inc. (“Adaptec”) warrants to the purchaser of this product that it will be free from defects in material and workmanship for
a period of three (3) years from the date of purchase. If the product should become defective within the warranty period, Adaptec, at
its option, will repair or replace the product, or refund the purchaser’s purchase price for the product, provided it is delivered at the
purchaser’s expense to an authorized Adaptec service facility or to Adaptec.
2. Repair or replacement parts or products will be furnished on an exchange basis and will either be new or reconditioned. All
replaced parts or products shall become the property of Adaptec. This warranty shall not apply if the product has been damaged
by accident, misuse, abuse or as a result of unauthorized service or parts.
3. Warranty service is available to the purchaser by delivering the product during the warranty period to an authorized Adaptec
service facility or to Adaptec and providing proof of purchase price and date. The purchaser shall bear all shipping, packing and
insurance costs and all other costs, excluding labor and parts, necessary to effectuate repair, replacement or refund under this
warranty.
4. For more information on how to obtain warranty service, write or telephone Adaptec at 691 South Milpitas Boulevard,
Milpitas, CA 95035, (800) 959-7274.
5. THIS LIMITED WARRANTY DOES NOT EXTEND TO ANY PRODUCT WHICH HAS BEEN DAMAGED AS A RESULT OF
ACCIDENT, MISUSE, ABUSE, OR AS A RESULT OF UNAUTHORIZED SERVICE OR PARTS.
6. THIS WARRANTY IS IN LIEU OF ALL OTHER EXPRESS WARRANTIES WHICH NOW OR HEREAFTER MIGHT
OTHERWISE ARISE RESPECT TO THIS PRODUCT. IMPLIED WARRANTIES, INCLUDING THOSE OF
MERCHANTABILITY, FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE AND NON-INFRINGEMENT SHALL (A) HAVE NO
GREATER DURATION THAN 3 YEARS FROM THE DATE OF PURCHASE, (B) TERMINATE AUTOMATICALLY AT THE
EXPIRATION OF SUCH PERIOD AND (C) TO THE EXTENT PERMITTED BY LAW BE EXCLUDED. IN THE EVENT THIS
PRODUCT BECOMES DEFECTIVE DURING THE WARRANTY PERIOD, THE PURCHASER’S EXCLUSIVE REMEDY
SHALL BE REPAIR, REPLACEMENT OR REFUND AS PROVIDED ABOVE. INCIDENTAL OR CONSEQUENTIAL
DAMAGES, INCLUDING WITHOUT LIMITATION LOSS OF DATA, ARISING FROM BREACH OF ANY EXPRESS OR
IMPLIED WARRANTY ARE NOT THE RESPONSIBILITY OF ADAPTEC AND, TO THE EXTENT PERMITTED BY LAW,
ARE HEREBY EXCLUDED BOTH FOR PROPERTY DAMAGE, AND TO THE EXTENT NOT UNCONSCIONABLE, FOR
PERSONAL INJURY DAMAGE.
7. SOME STATES DO NOT ALLOW THE EXCLUSION OR LIMITATION OF INCIDENTAL OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES
FOR CONSUMER PRODUCTS, AND SOME STATES DO NOT ALLOW LIMITATIONS ON HOW LONG AN IMPLIED
WARRANTY LASTS, SO THE ABOVE LIMITATION OR EXCLUSIONS MAY NOT APPLY TO YOU.
8. This warranty gives you specific legal rights, and you may also have other rights which vary from state to state.
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5
Regulatory Compliance Statements
Federal Communications Commission Radio Frequency Interference Statement
WARNING: Changes or modifications to this unit not expressly approved by the party responsible for compliance could void the
user’s authority to operate the equipment.
This equipment has been tested and found to comply with the limits for a Class B digital device, pursuant to Part 15 of the FCC
rules. These limits are designed to provide reasonable protection against harmful interference in a residential installation. This
equipment generates, uses, and can radiate radio frequency energy, and if not installed and used in accordance with the instruction
manual, may cause harmful interference to radio communications. However, there is no guarantee that interference will not occur
in a particular installation. However, if this equipment does cause interference to radio or television equipment reception, which
can be determined by turning the equipment off and on, the user is encouraged to try to correct the interference by one or more of
the following measures:
●
Reorient or relocate the receiving antenna.
●
Increase the separation between equipment and receiver.
●
Connect the equipment to an outlet on a circuit different from that to which the receiver is connected.
●
Consult the dealer or an experienced radio/television technician for help.
●
Use a shielded and properly grounded I/O cable and power cable to ensure compliance of this unit to the specified limits of the
rules.
This device complies with part 15 of the FCC rules. Operation is subject to the following two conditions: (1) this device may not
cause harmful interference and (2) this device must accept any interference received, including interference that may cause
undesired operation.
Adaptec, Inc.
ASR-58300SAS/ASR-48300SAS/
ASR-44300SAS
Tested to Comply
With FCC Standards
FOR HOME OR OFFICE USE
European Union Compliance Statement
This Information Technology Equipment has been tested and found to comply with EMC Directive 89/336/EEC, as
amended by 92/31/EEC and 93/68/EEC, in accordance with:
● EN55022 (1998) Emissions
● EN55024 (1998) Immunity:
– EN61000-4-2 (1998) Electrostatic discharge: ±4 kV contact, ±8 kV air
– EN61000-4-3 (1998) Radiated immunity
– EN61000-4-4 (1995) Electrical fast transients/burst: ±1 kV AC, ±0.5 kV I/O
– EN61000-4-5 (1995) Surges ±1 kV differential mode, ±2 kV common mode
– EN61000-4-6 (1996) Conducted immunity: 3 V
– EN61000-4-11 (1994) Supply dips and variation: 30% and 100%
In addition, all equipment requiring U.L. listing has been found to comply with EMC Directive 73/23/EEC as amended by
93/68/EEC in accordance with EN60950 with amendments A1, A2, A3, A4, A11.
Australian/New Zealand Compliance Statement
This device has been tested and found to comply with the limits for a Class B digital device, pursuant to the Australian/New
Zealand standard AS/NZS 3548 set out by the Spectrum Management Agency.
Canadian Compliance Statement
This Class B digital apparatus meets all requirements of the Canadian Interference-Causing Equipment Regulations.
Cet appareil numérique de la classe B respecte toutes les exigences du Règlement sur le matériel brouilleur du Canada.
Japanese Compliance (Voluntary Control Council Initiative)
This equipment complies to class B Information Technology equipment based on VCCI (Voluntary Control Council for
Interface). This equipment is designed for home use but it may causes radio frequency interference problem if used too
near to a television or radio. Please handle it correctly per this documentation.
Contents
About This Guide
What You Need to Know Before You Begin ................................................... 11
Terminology Used in this Guide ...................................................................... 11
How to Find More Information....................................................................... 11
About Your HostRAID Controller
HostRAID Controller Features ........................................................................ 13
Array Level Features ................................................................................... 13
Upgrading the HostRAID Controller Firmware ............................................. 13
About the Adaptec SAS 58300 Controller ....................................................... 14
About the Adaptec SAS 48300 Controller ....................................................... 15
About the Adaptec SAS 44300 Controller ....................................................... 16
Kit Contents and
System Requirements
Kit Contents ...................................................................................................... 18
System Requirements........................................................................................ 18
Getting Started
Choosing a RAID Level..................................................................................... 20
Selecting Disk Drives ........................................................................................ 20
Disk Drives for Your Controller ................................................................ 20
Selecting Cables ................................................................................................. 20
SAS Cables................................................................................................... 20
Installation Options .......................................................................................... 21
Basic Installation Steps ............................................................................... 21
Installing with an Operating System.......................................................... 21
Installing on an Existing Operating System .............................................. 22
Contents
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7
Installing the HostRAID Controller
and Disk Drives
Before You Begin............................................................................................... 24
Installing the HostRAID Controller................................................................. 24
Connecting Disk Drives to HostRAID Controllers......................................... 25
Connecting Directly to the HostRAID Controller.................................... 25
Connecting to a System Backplane ............................................................ 26
Installing the Controller to a SAS Expander ............................................. 27
Next Steps .......................................................................................................... 27
Creating a Bootable Array
Setting the Boot Controller .............................................................................. 29
Creating an Array.............................................................................................. 29
Creating an Array with the ACU...................................................................... 29
Creating an Array with Adaptec Storage Manager.......................................... 30
Making Your Array Bootable ........................................................................... 31
Installing the Driver and
an Operating System
Before You Begin............................................................................................... 33
Creating a Driver Disk ...................................................................................... 33
Installing with Windows................................................................................... 33
Installing with Red Hat Linux .......................................................................... 34
Installing with SuSE Linux ............................................................................... 34
Installing with NetWare.................................................................................... 35
Installing with SCO OpenServer ...................................................................... 36
Installing the Driver on an
Existing Operating System
Before You Begin............................................................................................... 38
Creating a Driver Disk ...................................................................................... 38
Installing on Windows...................................................................................... 38
Installing on Red Hat or SuSE Linux ............................................................... 39
Installing on NetWare....................................................................................... 39
Installing with SCO OpenServer ...................................................................... 40
Managing Your Storage Space
About Adaptec Storage Manager ..................................................................... 42
Installing Adaptec Storage Manager ................................................................ 42
About the HRCONF Command Line Utility .................................................. 42
About the ARC Utility ...................................................................................... 43
About the AFU .................................................................................................. 43
Which Utility Should I Use? ............................................................................. 43
Contents
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8
Understanding Adaptec Storage Manager
Features.............................................................................................................. 45
Overview............................................................................................................ 45
Physical Devices View................................................................................. 46
Logical Devices View .................................................................................. 46
Changing How Drives are Displayed ............................................................... 46
Collapsed and Expanded Views ....................................................................... 47
Component Views............................................................................................. 48
Solving Problems
Troubleshooting Checklist ............................................................................... 50
Recovering from a Disk Drive Failure ............................................................. 50
Failed Disk Drive Protected by a Hot Spare.............................................. 50
Failed Disk Drive Not Protected by a Hot Spare....................................... 51
Failure in Multiple Arrays Simultaneously................................................ 51
Disk Drive Failure in a RAID 0 Array........................................................ 51
Multiple Failures in the Same Array .......................................................... 51
Introduction to SAS
Terminology Used in This Chapter ................................................................. 53
What is SAS?...................................................................................................... 53
How Do SAS Devices Communicate?.............................................................. 53
What’s a Phy? .................................................................................................... 54
What’s a SAS Port?............................................................................................ 54
What’s a SAS Address?...................................................................................... 55
What’s a SAS Connector? ................................................................................. 55
What do SAS Cables Look Like?....................................................................... 55
How are Disk Drives Identified in SAS? .......................................................... 55
What are the SAS Connection Options?.......................................................... 55
Direct-attach Connections ......................................................................... 56
Backplane Connections .............................................................................. 56
SAS Expander Connections........................................................................ 56
How is SAS Different from Parallel SCSI? ....................................................... 57
Understanding RAID
RAID Technology Overview............................................................................. 59
Understanding Drive Segments ................................................................. 59
Stripe-unit Size............................................................................................ 59
Selecting a RAID Level and Tuning Performance..................................... 59
RAID 0 (Non-RAID Arrays) ............................................................................ 60
RAID 1 Arrays ................................................................................................... 61
RAID 10 Arrays ................................................................................................. 61
Contents
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9
Using the ARC Utility
Introduction to the ARC Utility....................................................................... 63
Running the ARC Utility .................................................................................. 63
Creating and Managing Arrays ........................................................................ 63
Creating a New Array ................................................................................. 63
Managing Arrays......................................................................................... 65
Adding/Deleting Hotspares........................................................................ 66
Managing Bootable Arrays and Devices .................................................... 67
Configuring Disk Drives............................................................................. 67
Using SerialSelect............................................................................................... 67
SerialSelect Options..................................................................................... 68
Formatting and Verifying Disk Drives............................................................. 69
Using the AFU for DOS
Introduction ...................................................................................................... 71
System Requirements ................................................................................. 71
Compatibility .............................................................................................. 71
Running the AFU from the GUI ...................................................................... 71
Running the AFU from the Command Line ................................................... 72
HELP ........................................................................................................... 72
LIST ............................................................................................................. 72
SAVE............................................................................................................ 73
UPDATE...................................................................................................... 74
VERIFY........................................................................................................ 74
VERSION .................................................................................................... 75
Command Switches .................................................................................... 75
AFU Command Line – Step-by-Step ............................................................... 75
Safety Information
Electrostatic Discharge (ESD) .......................................................................... 77
Technical Specifications
Environmental Specifications........................................................................... 79
DC Power Requirements .................................................................................. 79
Current Requirements ..................................................................................... 79
Glossary
Index
About This Guide
1
In this chapter...
What You Need to Know Before You Begin .......................................................................... 11
Terminology Used in this Guide............................................................................................ 11
How to Find More Information ............................................................................................ 11
This Installation and User’s Guide explains how to install your Adaptec® Serial Attached SCSI
controller. It also describes the utilities included in your controller kit, and provides a basic
overview of Serial Attached SCSI (SAS) technology.
These HostRAID controller models are described in this Guide:
●
Adaptec SAS 58300, see page 14
●
Adaptec SAS 48300, see page 15
●
Adaptec SAS 44300, see page 16
Chapter 1: About This Guide
●
11
What You Need to Know Before You Begin
You should be familiar with computer hardware, data storage, Redundant Array of
Independent Disks (RAID) technology, and the input/output (I/O) technology—SAS—used
by your HostRAID controller. (For an introduction to SAS, see page 52.)
You should also be familiar with Direct Attached Storage (DAS) and Storage Area Network
(SAN) concepts and technology.
Terminology Used in this Guide
Because you can use your HostRAID controller to manage data storage in a variety of
configurations from DAS to SAN, the generic term “storage space” is used to refer to
controller(s) and disk drives being managed with Adaptec Storage ManagerTM or the other
utilities described in this Guide.
Many of the terms and concepts referred to in this Guide are known to computer users by
multiple names. This Guide uses these terms:
●
Controller (also known as adapter, board, or card)
●
Disk drive (also known as hard disk, hard drive, or hard disk drive)
●
Array (also known as a container or logical drive)
Note: The Adaptec Storage Manager User’s Guide refers to arrays as logical drives. Why?
Your HostRAID controller creates arrays, which your operating system (and Adaptec Storage
Manager) recognizes as logical drives.
How to Find More Information
You can find more information about your HostRAID controller and the software and utilities
included with it by referring to these documents:
●
Readme.txt—Includes updated product information and known issues; located on the
HostRAID Installation CD.
●
Adaptec Storage Manager User’s Guide—Describes how to install and use the Adaptec
Storage Manager software (see page 41); located on the Adaptec Storage Manager
Installation CD.
●
Adaptec Storage Manager online Help—Describes how to use the Adaptec Storage Manager
software; accessible from the main window of Adaptec Storage Manager.
●
Command Line Utility for Internal RAID Storage User’s Guide—Describes how to use the
Adaptec HostRAID Controller Configuration (HRCONF) command line utility to
perform basic array and configuration management functions; located on the Adaptec
Storage Manager Installation CD.
About Your HostRAID Controller
2
In this chapter...
HostRAID Controller Features.............................................................................................. 13
Upgrading the HostRAID Controller Firmware................................................................... 13
About the Adaptec SAS 58300 Controller............................................................................. 14
About the Adaptec SAS 48300 Controller............................................................................. 15
About the Adaptec SAS 44300 Controller............................................................................. 16
This chapter provides an overview of standard HostRAID controller features, and describes the
unique features of your SAS HostRAID controller. It also explains how to upgrade your
controller with enhanced features.
Chapter 2: About Your HostRAID Controller
●
13
HostRAID Controller Features
●
Flash ROM for updates to controller firmware Adaptec Flash Utility (AFU), BIOS, and the
Array Configuration Utility (ACU).
●
Event logging and broadcasting, including messaging for alphanumeric pagers.
●
Support for Adaptec Metadata Format (AMF) allowing the migration of simple volumes
and arrays to Adaptec RAID controller cards.
●
Multiple options for creating and managing RAID arrays—A full software application
(Adaptec Storage Manager), a BIOS-based utility, a command line utility, and a DOS
utility. See Managing Your Storage Space on page 41 for more information.
●
Support for disk drive hot swapping.
●
Support for disk drive enclosures with SAF-TE enclosure management hardware.
●
Support for Adaptec Metadata Format (AMF) that allows the migration of simple volumes
and arrays to Adaptec RAID controller cards.
Array Level Features
Note: For more information, refer to the Adaptec Storage Manager User’s Guide or online
Help.
●
Support for RAID 0, 1, 10, and simple volume.
●
Hot swap rebuild of fault tolerant arrays through the operating system.
●
Support for automatic failover, so arrays are automatically rebuilt when a failed disk drive
is replaced (applies to redundant arrays in SES- or SAF-TE-enabled disk drive enclosures
only).
●
Global hot spare protecting every fault tolerant array that the drive has enough available
capacity to protect.
●
Support for RAID 0 migration. Simple Volume to RAID 0 or from Simple Volume to RAID
1.
Upgrading the HostRAID Controller Firmware
To upgrade the firmware on your HostRAID controller, see Using the AFU for DOS on page 70.
Chapter 2: About Your HostRAID Controller
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14
About the Adaptec SAS 58300 Controller
The Adaptec SAS 58300 is a low-profile PCI-X to 8-Phy SAS 1.0 HostRAID controller with
these features:
External miniSAS Connectors
J1 (LED Connector)
3.3V PCI-X Connector
Mounting bracket
Form factor
Low-profile
PCI compatibility
PCI-X
PCI bus width (max)
64-bit
PCI bus speed (max)
133 MHz
PHYs
8
Connectors, external
2 x4 external SFF 8088 (miniSAS)
miniSAS 1.0 connector
RAID levels
0, 1, 10
Simple volume
Yes
Disk drives
SAS (3.0Gb/s), SATA I (1.5Gb/s),
SATA II 3.0Gb/s)
Maximum number of disk drives
8 or up to 128 using expander
technology
Hot spares
Yes
Enclosure support
Yes
Automatic failover
Yes
Audible alarm
No
Chapter 2: About Your HostRAID Controller
●
About the Adaptec SAS 48300 Controller
The Adaptec SAS 48300 is a low-profile PCI-X to 8-Phy SAS 1.0 HostRAID controller with
these features:
External SAS Connector
J1 (LED Connector)
Internal SAS Connector
3.3 V PCI-X Connector
Mounting bracket
Form factor
Low-profile
PCI compatibility
PCI-X
PCI bus width (max)
64-bit
PCI bus speed (max)
133 MHz
PHYs
8
Connectors, internal
1 x4 internal SFF-8484
SAS 1.1 connector
Connectors, external
1 x4 external SFF-8470
SAS 1.0 connector
RAID levels
0, 1, 10
Simple volume
Yes
Disk drives
SAS (3.0Gbps), SATA I (1.5Gbps),
SATA II (3.0Gbps)
Maximum number of disk drives
8 or up to 128 using expander
technology
Hot spares
Yes
Enclosure support
Yes
Automatic failover
Yes
Audible alarm
No
15
Chapter 2: About Your HostRAID Controller
●
16
About the Adaptec SAS 44300 Controller
The Adaptec SAS 44300 is a low-profile PCI-X to 4-Phy SAS 1.0 HostRAID controller with
these features:
Internal SAS Connector
J1 (LED Connector)
3.3V PCI-X Connector
Mounting bracket
Form factor
Low-profile
PCI compatibility
PCI-X
PCI bus width (max)
64-bit
PCI bus speed (max)
133 MHz
PHYs
4
Connectors, internal
1 x4 internal SFF-8484
SAS 1.1 connector
RAID levels
0, 1, 10
Simple Volume
Yes
Disk drives
SAS (3.0Gbps), SATA I (1.5Gbps),
SATA II (3.0Gbps)
Maximum number of disk drives
4 or up to 128 using expander
technology
Hot spares
Yes
Enclosure support
Yes
Automatic failover
Yes
Audible alarm
No
Kit Contents and
System Requirements
3
In this chapter...
Kit Contents............................................................................................................................ 18
System Requirements ............................................................................................................. 18
This chapter lists the contents of your HostRAID controller kit and the system requirements
that must be met for you to successfully install and use your controller.
Chapter 3: Kit Contents and System Requirements
●
18
Kit Contents
●
Adaptec SAS HostRAID controller
●
HostRAID Installation CD (bootable), including controller drivers, and this Guide
●
Adaptec Storage Manager Installation CD (not bootable), including user guides for
Adaptec Storage Manager and the Adaptec HRCONF (HostRAID Configuration)
command line utility
●
Readme Files
●
Cables (type and quantity vary for cable information about your HostRAID controller, see
Selecting Cables on page 20)
●
Low-profile bracket (Selected models only)
●
Serial Attached SCSI 58300, 48300, 44300 HostRAID Controllers Quick Start Guide
System Requirements
●
PC-compatible computer with Intel Pentium, or equivalent, processor
●
A motherboard with these features:
●
●
Complies with the PCI Local Bus Specification, Revision 2.2 and higher.
●
Supports multifunction devices where one of the devices is a PCI bridge.
●
Large memory-mapped address ranges.
One of these operating systems:
●
Microsoft® Windows®2000, Server 2003, XP
●
Red Hat Linux
●
SuSE Linux
●
Novell® NetWare®
●
SCO®OpenServer®
Note: For up-to-date operating system version support, refer to the Adaptec Web Site
at www.adaptec.com.
●
At least 256 MB (or more) of RAM
●
An available 3.3V 32-/64-bit PCI 2.2 or 3.3V PCI-X 133 slot
●
40 MB of free drive space
●
16-bit SVGA color monitor with a resolution of at least 800 x 600
●
CD drive (that is not part of the HostRAID you are installing)
●
SAS interface cables
Getting Started
4
In this chapter...
Choosing a RAID Level.......................................................................................................... 20
Selecting Disk Drives.............................................................................................................. 20
Selecting Cables ...................................................................................................................... 20
Installation Options ............................................................................................................... 21
This chapter provides the basic information you need to set up your disk drives and arrays the
way you want them. It also describes the options you have for installing your HostRAID
controller and disk drives, and creating arrays for data storage.
Note: Before you begin, familiarize yourself with your HostRAID controller’s physical
features and the RAID levels that it supports (see page 12).
Chapter 4: Getting Started
●
20
Choosing a RAID Level
This section provides a brief overview of the RAID levels supported by your HostRAID
controller, including the minimum and maximum number of disk drives required by each.
RAID 0 (Non-redundant Array)—Stripes data across multiple disk drives. Improved
performance but no redundancy (see page 60).
RAID 1 Array—Created from two disk drives where one disk drive is a mirror of the other (the
same data is stored on each disk drive). Redundancy, but reduced capacity (see page 61).
RAID 10 Array—Built from two or more equal-sized RAID 1 arrays, stripes and mirrors data
across multiple disk drives. Redundancy and improved performance (see page 61).
Use the table on page 60 to see how many disk drives you must connect to your HostRAID
controller to support the RAID level you want.
Selecting Disk Drives
When selecting disk drives for your RAID array, ensure that all the disk drives have the same
performance level. You can use different-sized disk drives in the array, but the array will be
limited to the capacity of the smallest and slowest disk drive.
For more information, refer to the Adaptec Storage Manager User’s Guide or Adaptec Storage
Manager online Help.
Disk Drives for Your Controller
Your SAS controller supports both SAS and SATA (Serial ATA) disk drives. For cable
information, see next section.
Selecting Cables
This section describes the cable options and requirements for your HostRAID controller.
SAS Cables
You need one SAS cable for each disk drive you are connecting to your HostRAID controller.
Chapter 4: Getting Started
●
21
Depending on your requirements, you can use any of these cables:
Internal fan-out cable
SAS Mini external cable
Adaptec recommends using only Adaptec SAS cables. For more information or to purchase
cables, visit the Adaptec Web site at www.adaptec.com.
Installation Options
When you install your HostRAID controller, you can choose to create a bootable array and
then install your operating system and the controller driver on that array.
Alternatively, you can complete a standard installation, where the controller driver is installed
on an existing operating system.
Basic Installation Steps
This section describes the installation process. Follow the steps for the installation option
you’ve chosen.
Installing with an Operating System
1
Install and connect your controller and internal disk drives (see page 23).
2
Set the boot controller (see page 29).
3
Create a bootable array (see page 28).
4
Install your operating system and the driver (see page 32).
5
Install Adaptec Storage Manager and begin to manage your data storage (see page 41).
Chapter 4: Getting Started
●
22
Installing on an Existing Operating System
1
Install and connect your controller and internal disk drives (see page 23).
If your controller has an external connector, you can connect external disk drives as well
(or instead).
2
Install the controller driver (see page 38).
3
Install Adaptec Storage Manager and begin to manage your data storage (see page 41).
Installing the HostRAID Controller
and Disk Drives
5
In this chapter...
Before You Begin .................................................................................................................... 24
Installing the HostRAID Controller ...................................................................................... 24
Connecting Disk Drives to HostRAID Controllers .............................................................. 25
Next Steps ............................................................................................................................... 27
This chapter explains how to install your HostRAID controller, and how to install and connect
internal and external disk drives.
Chapter 5: Installing the HostRAID Controller and Disk Drives
●
24
Before You Begin
●
Read the Safety Information on page 77.
●
Familiarize yourself with your HostRAID controller’s physical features and the RAID levels
that it supports (see page 12).
●
Ensure that you have the right quantity of disk drives for the RAID level you want to use
for your arrays (see page 58).
●
Ensure that you have the proper cables for your controller and disk drives (see page 12).
●
If you have a low-profile computer cabinet, replace the original full-height bracket with the
low-profile bracket supplied in the controller kit.
! Caution: Handle the controller by its bracket or edges only.
Installing the HostRAID Controller
This section describes how to install your HostRAID controller into your computer cabinet.
1
Turn off your computer and disconnect the power cord. Open the cabinet, following the
manufacturer’s instructions.
2
Select an available PCI or PCI-X expansion slot and remove
the slot cover, as shown at right. (see page 12.)
For the best performance, use the available 64-bit slot that’s
compatible with your HostRAID controller.
! Caution: Touch a grounded metal object before
handling the HostRAID controller.
3
As shown at right, insert the HostRAID controller into the
PCI or PCI-X expansion slot and press down gently but
firmly until it clicks into place. When installed properly, the
HostRAID controller should appear level with the
expansion slot.
4
Secure the bracket in the PCI slot, using the retention
device (for instance, a screw or lever) supplied with your
computer.
5
Connect your computer’s disk activity LED cable to the
LED connector on the controller (see page 12).
Ensure that the positive lead of the LED cable (usually a red
wire or a wire marked with a red stripe) is attached to pin 1.
6
Optional—Connect your HostRAID controller’s I2C
connector (not available on all models) to an I2C
connector on an internal backplane or enclosure, using an
I2C cable.
7
Install your disk drives, following the instructions on page 25.
Chapter 5: Installing the HostRAID Controller and Disk Drives
●
25
Connecting Disk Drives to HostRAID Controllers
You can connect SAS disk drives, SATA disk drives, or a combination of both to your
HostRAID controller. There are no jumpers or switches to set before installation.
If you plan to build a bootable array using internal disk drives, ensure you install at least the
minimum number disk drives required to support the RAID level you want. See page 58 for
more information.
Note: Although you can connect both SAS and SATA disk drives to your SAS controller,
Adaptec recommends that you not combine SAS and SATA disk drives within the same
array or logical drive. See page 55 for more information.
You have two connection options:
●
To connect directly to the controller, see page 25.
●
To connect to a backplane, see page 26.
Connecting Directly to the HostRAID Controller
In a direct-attach connection, SAS or SATA disk drives are connected directly to a SAS card
with SAS cables.The number of direct-attached disk drives is limited to four per internal SAS
connector. (For more information about direct-attach connections, see page 56.)
1 Install your internal SAS or SATA disk drives, following the instructions in your system’s
documentation.
2 Use internal SAS cables to attach the disk drives to the controller.
SATA disk drives attached to
controller with fan-out cable
External
SAS cable
External SAS connector
3 When all internal disk drives have been installed and attached to the controller, close your
computer cabinet, reattach the power cord, then continue with Installing the Controller to a
SAS Expander on page 27.
Chapter 5: Installing the HostRAID Controller and Disk Drives
●
26
Connecting to a System Backplane
In a backplane connection, disk drives and SAS cards are attached to and communicate with
each other through a system backplane.
The number of disk drives is limited to the number of slots available on the backplane. Some
backplanes have embedded SAS expanders and can support up to 128 end devices. (For more
information about backplane and expander connections, see page 27.)
1 Connect one or more internal SAS or SATA disk drives to the backplane. (Refer to your
system’s documentation for more information.)
2 Use an internal SAS cable to connect the controller to the backplane.
Disk drives on
backplane
Controller connected
to backplane with
fan-out cable
3 When all internal disk drives have been installed and connected, close your computer
cabinet, reattach the power cord, then continue with Installing the Controller to a SAS
Expander on page 27.
Chapter 5: Installing the HostRAID Controller and Disk Drives
●
27
Installing the Controller to a SAS Expander
You can use a SAS edge expander to connect multiple disk drives to your HostRAID controller
or multiple controllers. Commands can be sent down one link and data returned on another in
a separate connection to increase fault tolerance. Using a SAS expander and dual-port SAS
drives and SATA drives with 2-port adapters, you can design redundant systems for maximum
fault-tolerance.
To install the HostRAID controller to a SAS expander:
1 Using the appropriate cable, connect the HostRAID controller to a PHY connector on the
expander.
2 Connect a cable from a PHYconnector on the expander to a disk drive.
Internal SAS connector
SAS fan-out cable
External SAS
connector
Next Steps
If you are installing the driver and an operating system onto a bootable array, continue with
Creating a Bootable Array on page 28.
If you are completing a standard installation onto an existing operating system, continue with
Installing the Driver on an Existing Operating System on page 37.
Creating a Bootable Array
6
In this chapter...
Setting the Boot Controller.................................................................................................... 29
Creating an Array ................................................................................................................... 29
Creating an Array with the ACU ........................................................................................... 29
Creating an Array with Adaptec Storage Manager ............................................................... 30
Making Your Array Bootable ................................................................................................. 31
This chapter explains how to set your HostRAID controller to be the boot controller, and how
to create a bootable array.
Note: If you are completing a standard installation onto an existing operating system, you
don’t have to complete this task. Skip to Installing the Driver on an Existing Operating
System on page 37.
Chapter 6: Creating a Bootable Array
●
29
Setting the Boot Controller
Note: If your system won't contain more than one bootable controllers, skip this section.
Adaptec HostRAID controller supports bootable disk drives and arrays. The default setting of
the HostRAID controller and system Setup allows you to install and boot from either a disk
drive connected to the motherboard, or from a drive or array connected to the HostRAID
controller. To enable the system to boot from either a disk drive or an array connected to the
HostRAID controller:
Note: Selecting the boot controller is done under the system BIOS Setup Utility. Launching
the system BIOS Setup Utility varies, see the system BIOS user’s manual for more
information.
1
Enter the system BIOS Setup.
2
Navigate to the disk drive boot sequence.
3
Move the boot controller to the top of the list.
Creating an Array
You can create a RAID 0, 1, or 10 array using one of these tools:
●
Array Configuration Utility (ACU)—BIOS-based menus and keyboard navigation (see
page 62).
●
Adaptec Storage Manager—Graphical software application (running from a bootable CD)
that you can navigate with your mouse (see page 42).
You can use either tool, but the ACU is the quicker and easier tool for this task.
Creating an Array with the ACU
The ACU is menu-based and instructions for completing tasks display on-screen. Menus can
be navigated using the arrows, Enter, Esc, and other keys on your keyboard.
Before creating arrays, make sure the disks for the array are connected and installed in your
system. Disks with no usable space are shown in gray and cannot be used. See Physical Devices
View on page 46.
To create an array:
1
Turn on your computer and press Ctrl+A when prompted to access the ARC utility.
2
From the ARC menu, select Array Configuration Utility (ACU).
3
From the ACU Main menu, select Create Array.
4
Select the disks for the new array. RAID 0 and 1 requires a minimum of two disk drives.
RAID 10 requires a minimum of four disk drives. Then press Insert.
To deselect any disk, highlight the disk, then press Delete.
5
Press Enter when all disks for the new array are selected. The Array Properties menu
displays. For Array Property Information see Assigning Array Properties on page 63
6
When you are finished, press Done.
Chapter 6: Creating a Bootable Array
●
30
Creating an Array with Adaptec Storage Manager
This section describes how to use the Adaptec Storage Manager configuration wizard to build a
RAID 0, 1, or 10 array.
Note: You will need the HostRAID Installation CD to complete this task.
To create a RAID 0, 1, or 10 array:
1
Insert the HostRAID Installation CD into your CD drive, then restart your computer.
2
When prompted, select the language you want, then press Enter.
3
Review the license information, then press Enter.
The Main Menu opens.
4
Click Launch Configuration Utility.
Adaptec Storage Manager opens.
5
Click Create.
The Configuration wizard opens.
6
Select Express configuration..., then click Next.
Chapter 6: Creating a Bootable Array
7
●
31
Review the information that is displayed.
Note: Adaptec Storage Manager uses the term logical drives when referring to arrays
(see page 11).
In the following figure, Adaptec Storage Manager has used two equal-sized disk drives to
automatically create one logical drive with RAID 1.
To specify a size for the logical drives, or to make other changes to the configuration, click
Modify logical devices.
8
Click Apply, then click Yes when prompted to confirm applying your new configuration.
Adaptec Storage Manager builds the logical drive(s).
The configuration is saved on the Adaptec controller (as an “array,” see page 11) and on the
physical disk drives.
9
Partition and format your logical drive.
The logical drive you created appears as a physical disk drive on your operating system.
You must partition and format these logical drives before you can use them to store data.
10 Close all windows, then click Reboot to restart your system.
11 Remove the HostRAID Installation CD.
For information on installing and using Adaptec Storage Manager as a full software
application, refer to the online Help or the Adaptec Storage Manager User’s Guide.
12 Continue with Making Your Array Bootable (see next section).
Making Your Array Bootable
Use the ACU to make the array bootable (see Managing Bootable Arrays and Devices on page 67).
Then continue with Installing the Driver and an Operating System on page 32.
Installing the Driver and
an Operating System
7
In this chapter...
Before You Begin .................................................................................................................... 33
Creating a Driver Disk ........................................................................................................... 33
Installing with Windows ........................................................................................................ 33
Installing with Red Hat Linux ............................................................................................... 34
Installing with SuSE Linux..................................................................................................... 34
Installing with NetWare ......................................................................................................... 35
Installing with SCO OpenServer ........................................................................................... 36
This chapter explains how to install your HostRAID controller driver and an operating
system onto a bootable array (see page 28).
Note: To install the driver on an existing operating system, see page 37.
Chapter 7: Installing the Driver and an Operating System
●
33
Before You Begin
●
Install and connect your HostRAID controller and internal disk drives (see page 23).
●
Create a bootable array (see page 28).
●
Create a driver disk (see next section).
Creating a Driver Disk
Before you install your driver, you will need to create a driver disk. You will need a floppy disk
to complete this task. To create a driver disk:
1
Set your system BIOS so that your computer boots from the CD drive. (For instructions,
refer to your computer’s documentation.)
2
Click Create Driver Disk, from the Main Menu.
3
Select one of the operating systems from the list:
●
Windows
●
Linux
●
Netware
●
SCO OpenServer
4
Select the type of operating system you want to use.
5
Select the version of the operating system.
6
When prompted, insert a floppy disk, then click OK.
The system creates the driver disk.
7
Remove and label the driver disk.
8
Continue with the instructions for your operating system:
●
For Windows, see next section.
●
For Red Hat Linux, see page 34.
●
For SuSE Linux, see page 34.
●
For NetWare, see page 35.
●
For SCO OpenServe, see page 36.
Installing with Windows
You will need your Windows Installation CD to complete this task. To install the HostRAID
controller driver while installing Windows:
1
Insert your Windows CD, then restart the computer.
2
Follow the on-screen instructions to begin the Windows installation.
3
When prompted to install a third-party driver, press F6.
Note: When F6 is active, a prompt appears at the bottom of the screen for only 5
seconds. If you miss your chance to press F6, restart your computer.
Chapter 7: Installing the Driver and an Operating System
4
Insert the driver disk, then wait until you are prompted to install a driver.
5
Press S to specify that the driver is on a floppy disk, then press Enter.
●
34
The computer reads the disk.
6
When the Adaptec SAS driver is found, press Enter.
7
Follow the on-screen instructions to complete the installation.
8
Continue with Managing Your Storage Space on page 41.
Installing with Red Hat Linux
You will need your Red Hat Installation CD to complete this task. To install the HostRAID
controller driver while installing Red Hat Linux:
1
Insert the first Red Hat Installation CD.
2
Restart your computer.
3
When the Red Hat Welcome screen displays, type linux dd at the Boot: prompt.
4
When prompted, insert the driver disk, then select OK.
5
Follow the prompts to set up the environment you want.
6
If you are installing other third-party devices, install them now. Otherwise, select Done.
7
Complete the Red Hat Linux installation, following the instructions included with your
operating system.
8
Continue with Managing Your Storage Space on page 41.
Installing with SuSE Linux
To install the HostRAID controller driver while installing SuSE Linux:
1
Insert the first SuSE Installation CD.
2
Restart your computer.
3
When the SuSE installation selection screen displays, do the following:
●
For SLES 9 and 10—press the F6 key, select installation option from the Menu, then press
Enter.
4
When prompted, insert the driver disk, then press any key to continue.
5
Follow the prompts to set up the environment you want.
6
If you are installing other third-party devices, install them now. Otherwise, select Back.
7
Complete the SuSE Linux installation, following the instructions included with your
operating system.
8
Continue with Managing Your Storage Space on page 41.
Chapter 7: Installing the Driver and an Operating System
●
35
Installing with NetWare
You will need your NetWare Installation CD to complete this task. To install the driver when
installing NetWare:
1
Restart your computer, then install NetWare. (For instructions, refer to your NetWare
documentation.)
To be able to load additional drivers later, select Manual install mode during the first part
of the installation.
2
Click Continue to load additional drivers:
a
Select Modify when the storage adapters are displayed.
b
Select Storage Adapters, then press the Insert key twice to add an unlisted driver from
the floppy disk.
3
When the Device Types screen displays, check the Storage adapters list, then select Modify
to add another driver.
4
Select Storage Adapters, then press Enter.
All recognized controllers are displayed.
5
If necessary, remove the default HostRAID SAS driver (<driver-name>.sys).
6
Press the Delete key to remove it.
7
Press Insert to add another driver.
The available drivers are displayed.
8
Insert the driver floppy disk.
9
Press the Insert key to scan the floppy disk drive.
Once the driver is selected, the Parameter screen is displayed.
10 From the lower window menu, select Continue, then press Enter.
If the driver installation process fails, the server console is displayed so you can see the
cause of the failure.
To modify disk partitions, apply hot fixes, or perform volume maintenance, refer to your
NetWare documentation.
11 Continue with Managing Your Storage Space on page 41.
Chapter 7: Installing the Driver and an Operating System
●
36
Installing with SCO OpenServer
You will need the SCO OpenServer CD to complete this task. To install the driver when
installing OpenServer:
1
Insert the OpenServer Installation CD.
2
Restart your computer.
3
Follow the on-screen instructions to begin the OpenServer installation.
4
When prompted to load more HBA drivers, insert the driver disk, then select Yes. (To load
more HBA drivers, repeat this step.)
5
Insert the driver diskette, then press Enter twice to load the driver.
6
If you are installing other third-party devices, install them now. Otherwise, select No.
7
Complete the SCO OpenServer installation, following the instructions included with your
operating system.
8
Continue with Managing Your Storage Space on page 41.
Installing the Driver on an
Existing Operating System
8
In this chapter...
Before You Begin .................................................................................................................... 38
Creating a Driver Disk ........................................................................................................... 38
Installing on Windows ........................................................................................................... 38
Installing on Red Hat or SuSE Linux .................................................................................... 39
Installing on NetWare ............................................................................................................ 39
Installing with SCO OpenServer ........................................................................................... 40
This chapter explains how to install your HostRAID controller driver on an existing operating
system.
Note: To install the driver while you’re installing an operating system, see page 32.
Chapter 8: Installing the Driver on an Existing Operating System
●
38
Before You Begin
Before you begin, install and connect your HostRAID controller and internal disk drives (see
page 23).
You must also create a driver disk (see next section) before you begin installing the controller
driver.
Creating a Driver Disk
Before you install your driver, you will need to create a driver disk. You will need a floppy disk
to complete this task. To create a driver disk:
1
Set your system BIOS so that your computer boots from the CD drive. (For instructions,
refer to your computer’s documentation.)
2
Turn on your computer, then insert the HostRAID Installation CD included in your
controller kit.
3
Follow the on-screen instructions to get to the Adaptec Start Menu.
4
Click Create Driver Disk, from the Main Menu.
5
Select one of the operating systems from this list:
●
Windows
●
Linux
●
Netware
●
SCO OpenServer
6
Select the type of operating system you want to use.
7
Select the version of the operating system.
8
When prompted, insert the floppy disk, then click OK.
The system creates the driver disk.
9
Remove and label the driver disk.
10 Continue the driver installation for your operating system:
●
For Windows, see next section.
●
For Red Hat or SuSE Linux, see page 39.
●
For NetWare, see page 39.
●
For SCO OpenServer, see page 40.
Installing on Windows
To install the driver on Windows:
1
Start or restart Windows.
The Found New Hardware Wizard opens and searches for the driver.
2
Insert the driver disk, select Floppy drive, then click Next.
3
Click Next, then click Next again.
Chapter 8: Installing the Driver on an Existing Operating System
4
Follow the on-screen instructions to complete the driver installation.
5
Remove the driver disk and restart your computer.
6
Continue with Managing Your Storage Space on page 41.
●
39
Installing on Red Hat or SuSE Linux
To install the module on Red Hat or SuSE Linux:
1
Insert and mount the RAID Installation CD:
Red Hat—mount /dev/cdrom /mnt/cdrom
SuSE—mount /dev/cdrom /media/cdrom
2
Install the module RPM:
rpm -Uvh mount-point/xxx/yyy.rpm
where mount-point is the specific mount point on the Linux system, xxx is the driver path,
and yyy.rpm is the rpm file.
3
Run fdisk, mkfs, and create mount points for any new disk drives.
4
Continue with Managing Your Storage Space on page 41.
Installing on NetWare
Note: Before you begin, ensure that your NetWare operating system has been upgraded to
the minimum patch level specified by Novell. Refer to the Novell Web site for more
information.
To install the driver on NetWare:
1
Start your computer.
2
From the NetWare server console prompt, type load hdetect, then press Enter.
3
From the Device types menu, select Continue, then press Enter.
4
From the Device type option, select Modify, then press Enter.
5
Select Storage Adapters, then press Enter.
6
From the Additional Driver Options menu, select Modify, then press Enter.
7
From the Driver Name menu, press the Insert key.
8
Insert the driver disk, press the Insert key, then press F3.
9
From the A:\ prompt, press Enter.
The driver installs.
10 From the Additional Driver Option menu, select Return to driver summary, then press
Enter.
11 From the Driver type menu, select Load on Additional Driver Options.
12 After the driver loads, select Continue.
13 Continue with Managing Your Storage Space on page 41.
Chapter 8: Installing the Driver on an Existing Operating System
Installing with SCO OpenServer
To install the driver on OpenServer:
1
Start your computer, then insert the driver disk.
2
Begin the driver package installer:
# pkgadd -d diskette1
OR
# pkgadd -d diskette1 adp94xx
3
At the installer prompt, type go.
4
Select 1 for the aacraid package.
5
When the installation is complete, select q to quit the installer.
6
Reboot your computer and remove the driver disk.
Continue with Managing Your Storage Space on page 41.
●
40
Managing Your Storage Space
9
In this chapter...
About Adaptec Storage Manager........................................................................................... 42
Installing Adaptec Storage Manager...................................................................................... 42
About the HRCONF Command Line Utility........................................................................ 42
About the ARC Utility............................................................................................................ 43
About the AFU ....................................................................................................................... 43
Which Utility Should I Use? .................................................................................................. 43
Once you have installed your HostRAID controller, disk drives (or other devices), and device
driver, you can begin to build and manage your storage space.
This chapter introduces Adaptec Storage Manager, and describes the other utilities included
with your HostRAID controller.
Chapter 9: Managing Your Storage Space
●
42
About Adaptec Storage Manager
Adaptec Storage Manager is a full-featured software application that helps you build a storage
space for your online data, using HostRAID controllers and disk drives.
With Adaptec Storage Manager, you can group disk drives into logical drives and build in
redundancy to protect your data and improve system performance.
You can also use Adaptec Storage Manager to monitor and manage all the controllers and disk
drives in your storage space from a single location.
When Adaptec Storage Manager is installed on a computer, the Adaptec Storage Manager agent
is also installed automatically. The agent is like a service that keeps your storage space running.
It’s designed to run in the background, without user intervention, and its job is to monitor and
manage system health, event notifications, tasks schedules, and other on-going processes on
that system. It sends notices when tasks are completed successfully, and sounds an alarm when
errors or failures occur on that system.
The agent uses less memory than the full application. If your storage space includes systems
that won’t be connected to monitors (and therefore won’t require the user interface), you can
choose to run the agent only on those systems instead of the full application. For more
information, refer to the Adaptec Storage Manager User’s Guide or online Help.
Installing Adaptec Storage Manager
Adaptec Storage Manager is included on the Adaptec Storage Manager Installation CD. For
installation instructions, refer to the Adaptec Storage Manager User’s Guide, also included on
the Adaptec Storage Manager Installation CD.
About the HRCONF Command Line Utility
HRCONF (HostRAID Configuration Utility) is a command line utility that you can use to
perform some basic array and configuration management functions.
With HRCONF, you can:
●
Create and delete logical drives
●
Modify and copy configuration settings
●
Recover from disk drive failures and troubleshoot
Installing and Using the Command Line Utility on page 76, describes how to use HRCONF.
Note: Adaptec recommends that only advanced users familiar with command line
interfaces use HRCONF.
Chapter 9: Managing Your Storage Space
●
43
About the ARC Utility
The Adaptec RAID Configuration (ARC) utility is a BIOS-based utility that you can use to
create and manage controllers, disk drives and other devices, and arrays. The ARC utility
comprises these tools:
●
Array Configuration Utility (ACU)—For creating and managing arrays, and initializing
and rescanning disk drives.
●
SerialSelect Utility—Used to change device and HostRAID controller settings.
●
Disk Utilities—For formatting or verifying disk drives.
The ARC utility is included in your controller’s BIOS. For more information, see Using the
ARC Utility on page 62.
Note: The ARC utility is primarily intended for pre-operating system installation
configuration.
About the AFU
The Adaptec Flash Utility (AFU) is a text-based DOS utility that you can use to update, save, or
verify your HostRAID controller’s firmware BIOS and Non-Volatile Random Access Memory
(NVRAM).
! Caution: Although the AFU contains safeguards to prevent you from accidentally damaging
your HostRAID controller’s flash contents, it is still important to use the AFU carefully and
correctly to avoid rendering your HostRAID controller inoperable. Adaptec recommends that
only advanced users familiar with working in DOS use the AFU.
Which Utility Should I Use?
To create a bootable array, Adaptec recommends that you use the BIOS-based ARC utility
(see above).
For all subsequent storage management tasks, Adaptec recommends that you install and use
Adaptec Storage Manager (see page 42). As a full-featured software application with a graphical
user interface (GUI), it is the easiest to use and offers the widest range of management
functions.
Understanding Adaptec Storage
Manager
10
In this chapter...
Features ................................................................................................................................... 45
Overview ................................................................................................................................. 45
Changing How Drives are Displayed..................................................................................... 46
Collapsed and Expanded Views............................................................................................. 47
Component Views.................................................................................................................. 48
This chapter provides an overview of Adaptec Storage Manager, the user-friendly GUI that you
use to easily create and manage arrays. For more details on using Adaptec Storage Manager to
set up and manage arrays, refer to the online Help.
Chapter 10: Understanding Adaptec Storage Manager
●
45
Features
You can use Adaptec Storage Manager to:
●
Create, verify, modify, and delete arrays
●
Add and remove hot spares
●
View the RAID configuration
●
View information about managed systems and subsystems such as arrays, logical drives,
hot-spare drives, physical drives
●
Notify systems of all events occurring on the local system
●
Add or remove a remote system
Overview
Adaptec Storage Manager provides an expandable tree view of the systems and controllers you
are managing. You can perform most configuration and management tasks by selecting a
controller from the tree and working with related objects. The figure below shows how Adaptec
Storage Manager displays information about Physical and Logical devices.
Using the buttons in the Physical devices and Logical devices views, you can:
●
Change how drives are displayed
●
Collapse and expand a view
●
Identify components of a logical device
●
Create and delete hotspares
Chapter 10: Understanding Adaptec Storage Manager
●
46
Physical Devices View
This view displays information about the drives, enclosures, and other physical devices
attached to the controller. The devices are organized numerically. The display for each channel
or port includes information on maximum speed, the number of the channels on the
controller, and the number of devices attached to the controller.
Indicators, next to the controller name, report status of the fan and temperature modules on
SAF-TE (enclosure management) devices and other devices that monitor these conditions. The
indicator colors are:
●
Blue—Normal
●
Yellow—Warning
●
Red—Error
●
Gray—Not applicable to the devices.
For example, the fan indicator changes to yellow when one fan fails; it changes to red when a
second fan fails and cooling is no longer adequate.
Logical Devices View
This view displays information about the logical devices created using the physical devices,
including the number of logical devices, the RAID level of each device, and whether a logical
device is protected by a hot spare.
You can create and delete logical devices in the Logical devices view by selecting the Create
option and using the Create wizard.
Changing How Drives are Displayed
You can choose how information is displayed in the Physical devices view by clicking one of the
following buttons in the Logical devices view.
Displays physical device information in text format. This is the default view.
Displays physical device information in full size capacity format. A fulllength bar is displayed for each drive, regardless of capacity. A small
segment on each drive is reserved for the RAID signature; this area is
indicated by a gray cap at the end of each bar.
Note: Note: A drive shaded in light blue is not part of any disk
group.
Displays physical device information in relative size capacity format. A fulllength bar is displayed for the largest drive; proportionally shorter bars are
displayed for other drives.
Chapter 10: Understanding Adaptec Storage Manager
●
47
Collapsed and Expanded Views
You can display a collapsed or expanded view of the system configuration. Initially, Storage
Manager displays a collapsed textual view of the configuration information in both the Logical
devices and Physical devices views.
In the Logical devices view...
Click to expand and collapse information about disk groups and logical
devices. The expanded display shows the following information about
each logical device:
●
Disk group name and capacity (if available)
●
Logical device size
●
Logical device state
●
Build progress
In the Physical devices view...
Click to expand and collapse information about physical drives. The
expanded display shows the following information about each drive:
●
Capacity of the drive
●
Drive ID
●
Drive state
Chapter 10: Understanding Adaptec Storage Manager
●
48
Component Views
When you click a physical or logical device in the device views, the related components are
highlighted in the other view.
●
When you click a logical device in the Logical devices view, the physical drives that make
up the logical device are highlighted in the Physical devices view, and vice-versa.
●
When you click a hot spare, the logical devices protected by that spare are highlighted.
●
In the graphical views, if the logical device uses only part of the available storage, only
those segments are highlighted (in dark blue).
Solving Problems
11
In this chapter...
Troubleshooting Checklist ..................................................................................................... 50
Recovering from a Disk Drive Failure ................................................................................... 50
This chapter provides basic troubleshooting information and solutions for solving your
HostRAID controller problems.
Chapter 11: Solving Problems
●
50
Troubleshooting Checklist
If you encounter difficulties installing or using your HostRAID controller, check these items
first:
●
With your computer powered off, check the connections to each disk drive, the power
supply, the LED connector, and so on.
●
Try disconnecting and reconnecting disk drives from the HostRAID controller.
●
Check that your HostRAID controller is installed in a compatible expansion slot (PCI-X).
To double-check the bus compatibility of your controller, see About Your HostRAID
Controller on page 12.
●
Ensure that your HostRAID controller is firmly seated and secured in the PCI-X expansion
slot.
●
If your HostRAID controller is not detected during system boot, try installing it in a
different PCI-X expansion slot. (See page 24 for instructions.)
●
Did the driver install correctly?
If you are still unable to resolve a problem, you can find additional troubleshooting
information and direction on the Adaptec Web site at www.adaptec.com and the Adaptec
Support Knowledgebase at ask.adaptec.com.
Recovering from a Disk Drive Failure
This section explains how to recover when a disk drive fails:
●
If the array was protected by a hot spare (see next section).
●
If the array was not protected by a hot spare (see page 51).
●
If there is a disk drive failure in more than one array simultaneously (see page 51).
●
If it is a RAID 0 array (see page 51).
●
If multiple disk drives fail within the same array (see page 51).
Note: Adaptec Storage Manager uses the term logical drives when referring to arrays
(see page 11).
Failed Disk Drive Protected by a Hot Spare
When an array is protected by a hot spare, if a disk drive in that array fails the hot spare is
automatically incorporated into the array and takes over for the failed drive.
To recover from the failure:
●
Remove and replace the failed disk drive (following manufacturer’s instructions).
Chapter 11: Solving Problems
●
51
Failed Disk Drive Not Protected by a Hot Spare
When an array is not protected by a hot spare, if a disk drive in that array fails, remove and
replace the failed disk drive. The controller detects the new disk drive and begins to rebuild the
array.
If the controller fails to rebuild the array, check that the cables, disk drives, and controllers are
properly installed and connected. Then, if necessary, use Adaptec Storage Manager to rebuild
the array. For instructions, refer to the Adaptec Storage Manager User’s Guide or online Help.
Failure in Multiple Arrays Simultaneously
If there’s a disk drive failure in more than one array at the same time (one failure per array),
and the arrays have hot spares protecting them, the controller rebuilds the arrays with these
limitations:
●
A hot spare must be of equal or greater size than the failed disk drive it’s replacing.
●
Failed disk drives are replaced with hot spares in the order in which they failed. (The array
that includes the disk drive that failed first is rebuilt first, assuming an appropriate hot
spare is available—see bullet above.)
If there are more disk drive failures than hot spares, see Failed Disk Drive Not Protected by a Hot
Spare in previous section.
Disk Drive Failure in a RAID 0 Array
Because RAID 0 volumes do not include redundancy, if a disk drive fails in a RAID 0 array, the
data can’t be recovered.
Correct the cause of the failure or replace the failed disk drives. Then, restore your data (if
available).
Multiple Failures in the Same Array
If more than one disk drive fails at the same time in the same RAID 1 array, the data can’t be
recovered.
Correct the cause of the failure or replace the failed disk drives. Then, restore your data (if
available).
In some instances, RAID 10 arrays may survive multiple disk drive failures, depending on
which disk drives fail. For more information, refer to the Adaptec Storage Manager User’s Guide
or online Help.
Introduction to SAS
A
In this chapter...
Terminology Used in This Chapter ....................................................................................... 53
What is SAS? ........................................................................................................................... 53
How Do SAS Devices Communicate? ................................................................................... 53
What’s a Phy? .......................................................................................................................... 54
What’s a SAS Port?.................................................................................................................. 54
What’s a SAS Address?............................................................................................................ 55
What’s a SAS Connector? ....................................................................................................... 55
What do SAS Cables Look Like? ............................................................................................ 55
How are Disk Drives Identified in SAS? ................................................................................ 55
What are the SAS Connection Options? ............................................................................... 55
How is SAS Different from Parallel SCSI?............................................................................. 57
This section provides a basic overview of the main features of SAS, introduces some common
SAS terms, and explains how SAS differs from parallel SCSI.
Note: For technical articles and tutorials about SAS, refer to the SCSI Trade Association
(STATM) Web site at www.scsita.org.
Appendix A: Introduction to SAS
●
53
Terminology Used in This Chapter
For convenience, SAS HostRAID controllers are referred to generically in this chapter as SAS
cards. HBAs, HostRAID controllers, disk drives, and external disk drive enclosures are referred
to as end devices and expanders are referred to as expander devices.
For convenience, this chapter refers to end devices and expander devices collectively as SAS
devices.
What is SAS?
Legacy parallel SCSI is an interface that lets devices such as computers and disk drives
communicate with each other. Parallel SCSI moves multiple bits of data in parallel (at the same
time), using the SCSI command set.
SAS is an evolution of parallel SCSI to a point-to-point serial interface. SAS also uses the SCSI
command set, but moves multiple bits of data one at a time. SAS links end devices through
direct-attach connections, or through expander devices.
SAS cards can typically support up to 128 end devices and can communicate with both SAS
and SATA devices. (You can add 128 end devices—or even more—with the use of SAS
expanders. See page 56.)
Although you can use both SAS and SATA disk drives in the same SAS domain (see page 56),
Adaptec recommends that you not combine SAS and SATA disk drives within the same array or
logical drive. The difference in performance between the two types of disk drives may adversely
affect the performance of the array.
Data can move in both directions simultaneously across a SAS connection (called a link—see
next section). Link speed is 600 MB/sec in full-duplex mode. A SAS card with eight links has a
maximum bandwidth of 4800 MB/sec in full-duplex mode.
Although they share the SCSI command set, SAS is conceptually different from parallel SCSI
physically, and has its own types of connectors, cables, connection options, and terminology, as
described in the rest of this chapter.
To compare SAS to parallel SCSI, see How is SAS Different from Parallel SCSI? on page 57.
How Do SAS Devices Communicate?
SAS devices communicate with each other through links. A link is a physical connection
between two phys.
Appendix A: Introduction to SAS
●
54
As shown in the following figure, SAS devices contain ports which contain phys (see next
section), and each phy contains one transmitter and one receiver—one transceiver. A phy can
belong to one port only.
SAS Device
SAS Device
link
Narrow
Phy
Port
Receiver
Transmitter
SAS Device
Wide
Port
Phy
Receiver
Transmitter
Phy
Receiver
Transmitter
Transmitter
Receiver
Phy
Transmitter
Receiver
Phy
Transmitter
Receiver
Phy
Narrow
Port
Wide
Port
SAS Device
Wide
Port
Phy
Receiver
Transmitter
Transmitter
Receiver
Phy
Phy
Receiver
Transmitter
Transmitter
Receiver
Phy
Phy
Receiver
Transmitter
Transmitter
Receiver
Phy
Phy
Receiver
Transmitter
Transmitter
Receiver
Phy
Wide
Port
What’s a Phy?
Phys are part of the physical communication connection between SAS devices. Each phy
contains a transceiver that sends data back and forth between SAS devices.
When a connection is formed between two end devices, a link is established from a phy in one
port to a phy in the other port. As shown in the figure above, a wide port can support multiple
independent links simultaneously.
Phys are internal, within SAS connectors (see page 55).
SAS cables physically connect one or more phys on one SAS device to one or more phys on
another SAS device.
What’s a SAS Port?
Note: Because the physical link between SAS devices is from phy to phy, rather than port
to port, a “port” is more of a virtual concept, different from what is normally considered a
port on other types of RAID controllers and storage devices.
A port is one or more phys. A narrow port contains one phy. A wide port typically contains four
phys.
Each port has its own unique SAS address (see page 55), and all the phys in a port share that
same SAS address.
SAS card port options vary. A SAS card with four phys could be configured with one wide port,
with two wide ports that comprise two phys, or with four narrow ports each containing one
phy. (A wide port with four phys is referred to as a 4-wide or 4x port.)
Appendix A: Introduction to SAS
●
55
What’s a SAS Address?
Each SAS port is identified with a unique SAS address, which is shared by all phys on that port.
For example, a SAS disk drive might have two narrow ports. Each port has one unique SAS
address. The single phy in each port uses its port’s SAS address.
In another example, a SAS device might have one 4-wide port. That port has one SAS address,
which is shared by all four phys in the port.
Unlike SCSI devices and SCSI IDs, SAS devices self-configure their SAS addresses. User
intervention is not required to set SAS addresses, and SAS addresses cannot be modified.
What’s a SAS Connector?
A SAS connector is the physical plug or receptacle that you see on a SAS device. It supports the
power and signal line cable. It’s what you plug a SAS cable into, or the end of the SAS cable
that’s being plugged in.
A connector is what forms physical links between phys. Some SAS connectors can support
multiple links. The number of links a SAS connector can support is referred to as its width.
Narrow connectors support a single link; wide connectors support up to four links.
A single SAS device may have one or more connectors. A single SAS connector may help form
links between more than two SAS devices. (For instance, as shown in the figure on page 54, the
4-wide internal SAS connector forms links with four independent disk drives.)
What do SAS Cables Look Like?
Internal SAS cables are narrower than internal parallel SCSI cables. The connectors vary in size
depending on the number of links they support, from single link connectors to 4-wide (or
larger) connectors. Internal fan-out cables let you attach four disk drives to a single 4-wide
connector.
For an example of some internal SAS cables and an external SAS cable, see Selecting Cables on
page 20.
How are Disk Drives Identified in SAS?
In the BIOS and in the management utilities (see page 69), disk drives are identified with
numbers in this format:
XX:YY:ZZ
where XX is the disk drive count number, YY is the enclosure number, and ZZ is the slot
number (within the enclosure). If the disk drive is not installed in an enclosure, a double
dashes (--) appear instead of YY and ZZ (for instance, 01:--:--).
In parallel SCSI, XX is the disk drive’s channel number, YY is the target number, and ZZ is the
logical unit number (LUN).
What are the SAS Connection Options?
You can connect end devices to each other through direct cable connections and through
backplane connections. When you use one or more expander devices (see page 56), you can
create large configurations.
Appendix A: Introduction to SAS
●
56
Direct-attach Connections
In a direct-attach connection, SAS or SATA disk drives are connected directly to a SAS card
with SAS cables. One disk drive is attached to one SAS connector with one SAS cable (or
multiple disk drives are attached to one SAS connector with one fan-out cable). The figure on
page 25 shows an example of direct-attach connections.
The number of direct-attached disk drives is limited to the number of phys supported by the
SAS card. (Note that there may be multiple phys within a single connector. See page 55.)
Backplane Connections
In a backplane connection, disk drives and SAS cards are attached to and communicate with
each other through a system backplane. The figure on page 26 shows an example of backplane
connections.
The number of end devices is limited to the number of slots available on the backplane. For
example, the Adaptec S50 enclosure, which contains an expander, is a backplane connection
that supports up to 12 SAS or SATA disk drives.
Some backplanes support daisy-chain expansion to other backplanes. For example, you can
daisy-chain (connect one to the next) up to nine Adaptec S50 enclosures to a single SAS card in
a host system.
SAS Expander Connections
A SAS expander device literally expands the number of end devices that you can connect
together. Expander devices, typically embedded into a system backplane (see page 26), support
large configurations of SAS end devices, including SAS cards and SAS and SATA disk drives.
With expander devices, you can build large and complex storage topologies.
There are two types of SAS expanders: fanout expanders and edge expanders. Each performs a
different role in a storage system. (For more information about how SAS expanders work, refer
to the STA Web site at www.scsita.org.)
You can connect up to 128 SAS ports to an edge expander. (A single edge expander can
therefore support up to 128 SAS addresses.)
You can connect up to 128 edge expanders to a fanout expander.
You can use only one fanout expander in any single SAS domain (a topology of SAS—and
possibly SATA—end devices and expander devices). A single SAS domain can therefore
comprise up to 16,384 SAS ports (and therefore up to 16,384 SAS addresses).
Appendix A: Introduction to SAS
●
57
The following figure illustrates (in very basic terms) a SAS domain and shows how SAS cards,
SAS and SATA disk drives, and expander devices can fit together in a large data storage
topology.
SAS Domain
SATA
Disk Drives
SATA
SATA
Edge
Expander
Edge
Expander
SAS
Disk Drives
SATA
SAS
Edge
Expander
Fanout Expander
SAS Card
SAS
SAS Card
SATA
Disk Drives
SAS
Edge
Expander
SAS
Disk Drives
SATA
SAS Card
Edge
Expander
Disk Drives
SATA
Disk Drives
SAS
SATA
Disk Drives
How is SAS Different from Parallel SCSI?
In summary, although SAS and parallel SCSI both use the SCSI command set, how they move
data from one place to another is very different. To support point-to-point serial data
transport, SAS introduces new types of connectors, cables, connection options, and
terminology.
Generally speaking, SAS is faster and more flexible than parallel SCSI, and provides more
options for building your storage space. SAS lets you mix SAS and SATA disk drives together,
and lets you connect many, many more devices.
The following table describes many of the main differences between the two interfaces.
Parallel SCSI
Serial Attached SCSI
Parallel interface
Serial interface
Maximum speed 320 MB/sec
shared by all devices on the bus
Maximum speed 600 MB/sec per phy
when in full-duplex mode
Supports SCSI devices only
Supports SATA and SAS disk drives
simultaneously
Up to 16 devices per SCSI
channel
More than 128 disk drives per SAS
card, using an expander (see page 56)
Supports single-port devices only
Supports single- and dual-port
devices
Uses SCSI IDs to differentiate
between devices connected to
the same adapter
Uses unique SAS addresses to
differentiate between devices
User intervention required to set
SCSI IDs
SAS addresses self-configured by
SAS devices
Requires bus termination
Requires no bus termination
Standard SCSI connectors
SAS connectors (see page 20)
Understanding RAID
B
In this chapter...
RAID Technology Overview .................................................................................................. 59
RAID 0 (Non-RAID Arrays).................................................................................................. 60
RAID 1 Arrays ........................................................................................................................ 61
RAID 10 Arrays ...................................................................................................................... 61
When you create arrays (or logical drives), you can assign a RAID level to protect your data.
Each RAID level offers a unique combination of performance and redundancy. RAID levels
also vary by the number of disk drives they support.
This appendix describes the RAID levels supported by your HostRAID controller, and provides
a basic overview of each to help you select the best level of protection for your data storage.
Appendix B: Understanding RAID
●
59
RAID Technology Overview
RAID is the technology of grouping several physical drives in a computer into an array that you
can define as one or more logical drives. Each logical drive appears to the operating system as a
single drive. This grouping technique greatly enhances logical-drive capacity and performance
beyond the physical limitations of a single physical drive.
When you group multiple physical drives into a logical drive, the HostRAID controller can
transfer data in parallel from the multiple drives in the array. This parallel transfer yields datatransfer rates that are many times higher than with non-arrayed drives, enabling the system to
better meet the throughput (amount of data processed in a given amount of time) or
productivity needs of the multiple-user network environment.
The ability to respond to multiple data requests provides not only an increase in throughput,
but also a decrease in response time. The combination of parallel transfers and simultaneous
responses to multiple requests enables disk arrays to provide a high level of performance in
network environments.
Understanding Drive Segments
A drive segment is a disk drive or portion of a disk drive that is used to create an array. A disk
drive can include both RAID segments (segments that are part of an array) and available
segments. Each segment can be part of only one logical device at a time. If a disk drive is not
part of any logical device, the entire disk is an available segment.
Stripe-unit Size
With RAID technology, data is striped across an array of physical drives. This data-distribution
scheme complements the way the operating system requests data.
The granularity at which data is stored on one drive of the array before subsequent data is
stored on the next drive of the array is called the stripe-unit size.
You can set the stripe-unit size to 16, 32, or 64 KB. You can maximize the performance of your
HostRAID controller by setting the stripe-unit size to a value that is close to the size of the
system I/O requests. For example, performance in transaction-based environments, which
typically involve large blocks of data, might be optimal when the stripe-unit size is set to 32 or
64 KB. However, performance in file and print environments, which typically involve multiple
small blocks of data, might be optimal when the stripe-unit size is set to 16 KB.
The collection of stripe units, from the first drive of the array to the last drive of the array, is
called a stripe.
Selecting a RAID Level and Tuning Performance
Disk arrays are used to improve performance and reliability. The amount of improvement
depends on the application programs that you run on the server and the RAID levels that you
assign to the logical drives.
Each RAID level provides different levels of fault-tolerance (data redundancy), utilization of
physical drive capacity, and read and write performance. In addition, the RAID levels differ in
regard to the minimum and maximum number of physical drives that are supported.
Appendix B: Understanding RAID
●
60
When selecting a RAID level for your system, consider the following factors.
RAID
Level
Data
Redundancy
Physical
Drive
Capacity
Utilization
Read
Performance
Write
Performance
Built-In
Spare Drive
Min Number
of Drives
Max Number
of Drives
0
No
100%
Superior
Superior
No
1
4
1
Yes
50%
Very high
Very high
No
2
2
10
Yes
50%
Very high
Very high
No
4
4
Physical drive utilization, read performance, and write performance depend on the number of
drives in the array. Generally, the more drives in the array, the better the performance.
RAID 0 (Non-RAID Arrays)
An array with RAID 0 includes two or more disk drives (maximum twelve) and provides data
striping, where data is distributed evenly across the disk drives in equal-sized sections.
RAID 0 arrays do not maintain redundant data, so they offer no data protection. However,
compared to an equal-sized group of independent disks, a RAID 0 array provides improved
I/O performance.
Drive segment size is limited to the size of the smallest disk drive in the array. For instance, an
array with two 250 GB disk drives and two 400 GB disk drives can create a RAID 0 drive
segment of 250 GB, for a total of 1000 GB for the volume, as shown in the following figure.
Disk Drive 1
250 GB
Drive Segment Size (Smallest Disk Drive)
Disk Drive 2
250 GB
Disk Drive 1
1
Disk Drive 2
2
Disk Drive 3
400 GB
Disk Drive 3
5
...
6
...
7
...
997
998
3
999
Not Used
Disk Drive 4
Disk Drive 4
400 GB
4
8
...
1000
Not Used
Disk Drives in Logical Drive
Unused Space: 150 GB
Unused Space: 150 GB
RAID 0 Logical Drive = 1000 GB
Appendix B: Understanding RAID
●
61
RAID 1 Arrays
A RAID 1 array is built from two disk drives, where one disk drive is a mirror of the other (the
same data is stored on each disk drive). Compared to independent disk drives, RAID 1 arrays
provide improved performance, with twice the read rate and an equal write rate of single disks.
However, capacity is only 50 percent of independent disk drives.
If the RAID 1 array is built from different-sized disk drives, the free space, drive segment size is
the size of the smaller disk drive, as shown in the following figure.
Drive Segment Size (Smaller Disk Drive)
Disk Drive 1
Disk Drive 2
250 GB
400 GB
Disk Drive 1
1 – 250
Disk Drive 2
1 – 250
Not Used
Disk Drives in Logical Drive
Unused Space: 150 GB
RAID 1 Logical Drive = 250 GB
RAID 10 Arrays
A RAID 10 array is built from two or more equal-sized RAID 1 arrays. Adaptec RAID
controllers support a maximum number of 48 disk drives in a RAID 10 array.
Data in a RAID 10 array is both striped and mirrored. Mirroring provides data protection, and
striping improves performance.
Drive segment size is limited to the size of the smallest disk drive in the array. For instance, an
array with two 250 GB disk drives and two 400 GB disk drives can create two mirrored drive
segments of 250 GB, for a total of 500 GB for the array, as shown in the following figure.
Disk Drive 1
Drive Segment Size (Smallest Disk Drive)
250 GB
Disk Drive 2
250 GB
Disk Drive 1
Disk Drive 2
Disk Drive 3
1
2
400 GB
Disk Drive 3
3
...
4
...
3
...
1
499
500
499
Unused Space: 150 GB
Not Used
Disk Drive 4
400 GB
Disk Drive 4
2
4
...
Not Used
Disk Drives in Logical Drive
500
Unused Space: 150 GB
RAID 10 Logical Drive = 500 GB
Using the ARC Utility
C
In this chapter...
Introduction to the ARC Utility ............................................................................................ 63
Running the ARC Utility........................................................................................................ 63
Creating and Managing Arrays.............................................................................................. 63
Using SerialSelect ................................................................................................................... 67
Formatting and Verifying Disk Drives .................................................................................. 69
The Adaptec RAID Configuration (ARC) utility is an embedded BIOS-based utility that you
can use to create, configure, and manage arrays, and format or verify disk drives.
Note: Adaptec recommends that only advanced users familiar with working in a computer
BIOS use the ARC utility tools.
Appendix C: Using the ARC Utility
●
63
Introduction to the ARC Utility
The ARC utility comprises these tools:
●
The Array Configuration Utility (ACU)—Used to create, configure, and manage arrays,
and initialize and rescan disk drives.
●
SerialSelect Utility—Used to change device and HostRAID controller settings.
●
Disk Utilities—Used to format or verify disk drives (see page 69).
Running the ARC Utility
All the tools within the ARC utility are menu-based and instructions for completing tasks
display on-screen. Menus can be navigated using the arrows, Enter, Esc, and other keys on
your keyboard.
To run the Utility:
1
Start or restart your computer. When prompted, press Ctrl+A.
The ARC utility menu displays presenting these options:
●
Array Configuration Utility (ACU)
●
SerialSelect Utility
●
Disk utilities
To select an option from this menu, or from any of the menus within the ARC utility setup,
browse with the arrow keys, then press Enter. In some cases, selecting an options displays
another menu. To return to the previous menu at any time, press Esc.
Creating and Managing Arrays
Before creating arrays, make sure the disks for the array are connected and installed in your
system. Note that disks with no usable space are shown in gray and cannot be used.
Creating a New Array
To create an array:
1
Select Create Array from the main ACU menu.
Note: For more information about RAID levels and using disk drives to create arrays, see
Understanding RAID on page 58.
2
Select the disks for the new array, then press Insert. To deselect any disk, highlight the disk,
then press Delete.
3
Press Enter when all disks for the new array are selected. The Array Properties menu
displays.
Assigning Array Properties
Once the array is created and its properties are assigned, you cannot change the array
properties using the ACU. Instead, use Adaptec Storage Manager (See Chapter 10, for details.)
Appendix C: Using the ARC Utility
●
64
To assign properties to the new array:
1
In the Array Properties menu, select an array type, then press Enter.
Only the available array types, RAID 0, 1, and 10 are displayed. RAID 0 and 1 requires two
to four drives. RAID 10 requires a minimum of four disk drives.
2
Optional: Type a label of no more than 15 characters for the array, then press Enter.
3
For RAID 0, select the desired stripe size. Available stripe sizes are 16, 32, and 64 KB
(default).
Note: It is recommended that you do not change the default.
4
The options under Create RAID Via allows you to select between the different creation
methods for RAID 0, 1, and 10. The following table gives examples of when each is
appropriate.
RAID
Level
Create
RAID Via
When Appropriate
RAID 0
Quick Init
Creating a RAID 0 on new drives.
RAID 0
Migrate
Creating a RAID 0 and you want to preserve data on an existing
drive. You will be asked to select the source drive. The contents
of the source drive are preserved and any data on the new drive
is lost.
RAID 1
Build
Creating a RAID 1 and you want to preserve data on an existing
drive. You will be asked to select the source drive. The contents
of the source drive are preserved and any data on the new drive
is lost.
RAID 1,
10
Clear
Creating a RAID 1 or 10 on new drives, or when you want to
ensure that the new array contains no existing data.
RAID 1,
10
Quick Init
Fastest way to create a RAID 1 or 10. Appropriate when using a
new drive.
Note:
●
Before adding a new drive to an array, back up any data contained on the new drive.
Otherwise, all data will be lost.
●
Only disk drives that were previously configured as simple volumes can be used for
RAID 0 or 1 migration when the single/source drive has data on it. See Configuring
Disk Drives on page 67 to create a simple volume.
●
If you stop the build or clear process on a RAID 1 from ACU, you can restart it by
pressing Ctrl+R.
●
A RAID 1 and 10 created using the Quick Init option may return some data
miscompares if you later run a consistency check. This is normal and is not a cause for
concern.
●
If you stop the migration process on a RAID 0, you can restart it by pressing Ctrl+R.
●
To modify the Write Cache setting for an array, press Ctrl+W.
●
The ACU allows you to use drives of different sizes in a RAID 1. However, during a
build operation, only the smaller drive can be selected as the source drive.
Appendix C: Using the ARC Utility
5
●
65
●
When migrating from single volume to RAID 0, migrating from a larger drive to a
smaller drive is allowed. However, the destination drive must be at least half the
capacity of the source drive.
●
It is not recommend that you migrate or build an array on Windows dynamic disks
(volumes), as it will result in data loss.
When you are finished, press Done.
Managing Arrays
Select the Manage Arrays option to perform these tasks:
●
Rebuild Arrays
●
View Array Properties
●
Delete Arrays
●
Enable/Disable Write Cache
●
Verify Arrays
The following sections describe these operations in greater detail.
Rebuilding Arrays
Note: Rebuilding applies to Fault Tolerant arrays (RAID 1) only.
By replacing a failed drive of a RAID 1 array with a new drive, you can rebuild to get the array
to Optimal status and assume fault tolerance. You can perform a rebuild in the following ways:
Note: If no spare exists and a hard disk drive fails, you need to create a spare before you
can rebuild an array. See Adding/Deleting Hotspares on page 66 before continuing your
rebuild.
●
System Shutdown Rebuild
You can shut down the system and replace the failed drive with a new one (of equal or
greater capacity). When the system is booted, you can assign the new drive as a spare, and
this will start the Rebuild task. All the data from the good drive is copied to the new one,
and the original RAID 1 array is recreated.
●
Manual Rebuild
a
From the Main Menu, select Manage Arrays. From the List of Arrays, select the array
you want to rebuild.
b
Press Ctrl+R to rebuild.
Viewing Array Properties
To view the properties of an existing array:
1
From the ACU menu, select Manage Arrays.
2
From the List of Arrays dialog box, select the array you want to view, then press Enter.
The Array Properties dialog box appears, showing detailed information on the array. The
physical disks associated with the array are displayed here.
3
Press Esc to return to the previous menu.
Appendix C: Using the ARC Utility
●
66
Deleting Arrays
! Caution: Back up the data on an array before you delete it. Otherwise, all data on the
array is lost. Deleted arrays cannot be restored.
To delete an existing array:
1
From the ACU menu, select Manage Arrays.
2
Select the array you wish to delete, then press Delete.
3
In the Array Properties dialog box, select Delete, then press Enter. The following prompt is
displayed:
For RAID 1 and 10 arrays:
Warning: Deleting the array will render array unusable. Do you want to delete the
array? (Yes/No):
For RAID 0 arrays:
Warning: Deleting the array will result in data loss! Do you want to delete the array?
(Yes/No):
4
If you press Yes, select the member when the following prompt is displayed:
To delete the partition table, choose which member:
member #0, member #1, both, none
5
Press Esc to return to the previous menu.
Enabling/Disabling Write Cache
To Enable/Disable Write Cache for an array:
1
From the Main menu, select Manage Arrays.
2
From the List of Arrays, select the array you want to modify the Write Cache setting for,
then press Ctrl+W. A confirmation dialog appears to modify setting. Press Y to change the
current Write Cache setting.
Note: Write Cache is disabled by default when creating all array types. The disk operation
may be very slow with Write Cache off.
Adding/Deleting Hotspares
Select the Add/Delete Hotspares option to add, delete, or view hot spares.
1
From the ACU menu, select Add/Delete Hotspares.
2
Use the up and down arrow keys to highlight the disk you want to designate as a hot spare,
then select Insert>Enter.
3
Press Yes when the following prompt is displayed:
Do you want to create spare? (Yes/No)
The Spare you have selected appears in the Selected Drive menu.
Appendix C: Using the ARC Utility
●
67
Managing Bootable Arrays and Devices
Select the Manager Boot Unit option to add or remove a bootable array or single drive.
1
From the ACU menu, select Manage Boot Unit.
2
Use the up and down arrow keys to highlight the array or single drive you want to
designate as a bootable device, then select Insert>Enter.
Configuring Disk Drives
! Caution:
●
If the drive is used in an array, you may not be able to use the array again. Do not
configure a drive that is part of a boot array. To determine which drives are associated
with a particular array, see Viewing Array Properties on page 65.
●
The partition table on the disk will be deleted when deleting a simple volume.
Note: Configuring disk drives makes a simple volume. A simple volume can be managed
like normal arrays by using the Manage Arrays option on your Main menu.
To configure drives:
1
From the menu, select Configure Drives.
2
Use the up and down arrow keys to highlight the disk you wish to configure, then press
Insert.
3
Repeat Step 2 if you want to add another drive to be configured.
4
Press Enter.
5
Read the warning message and ensure that you have selected the correct disk drives to
configure. Type Y to continue.
Using SerialSelect
The SerialSelect utility allows you to change the BIOS and HostRAID controller and device
settings without opening the computer cabinet.
For information on the SerialSelect options, see SerialSelect Options on page 68. To access
SerialSelect:
1
Restart the computer, then press Ctrl+A when prompted to access the ARC utility.
2
If multiple HostRAID controllers are installed, select the HostRAID controller you want to
configure, then press Enter.
3
From the ARC menu, select SerialSelect Utility.
4
To select a menu option, browse with the arrow keys to the option, then press Enter. In
some cases, selecting an option displays another menu. You can return to the previous
menu at any time by pressing Esc.
5
To restore the original SerialSelect default values, press F6 from within the SAS Driver and
Controller Configuration screens.
6
To exit SerialSelect, press Esc until a message prompts you to exit (if you changed any
settings, you are prompted to save the changes before you exit).
Appendix C: Using the ARC Utility
7
●
68
At the prompt, select Yes to exit, then press any key to restart the computer. Any changes
you made in SerialSelect take effect after the computer restarts.
SerialSelect Options
The following table lists the available and default settings for each SerialSelect option and the
description of each option. The default settings are appropriate for most systems and appear in
bold type in the table. Adaptec recommends that you do not change the settings.
SerialSelect Options
Available Settings
Description
Runtime BIOS
Enabled
Disabled
Disabled:Scan bus
Controls the state of the BIOS at POST time.
When Enabled, the HostRAID controller BIOS
allows the controller to act as a bootable
device. Disabling the BIOS allows another
suitable HostRAID controller to act as the boot
device.
BBS Support
Device
Controller
When BBS support is set to Device base, the
system’s BIOS will list each attached bootable
device to the HostRAID controller as an
individual entry. When BBS support is set to
Controller base, the system’s BIOS will only list
the HostRAID controller in the system boot
order. This is useful in a multi-HostRAID
controller configuration.
RAID Support
Enabled
Disabled
When there are active arrays in the system, will
not allow you to Disable RAID support.
POST Banner Display
Enabled
Disabled
When Enabled, the Adaptec banner, version,
and copyright is displayed. When Disabled, the
Adaptec banner, version, and copyright is not
displayed.
CTRL-A Message
Enabled
Disabled
When set to Enabled, the SAS HostRAID
controller BIOS displays the Press <Ctrl> <A> for
ARC Utility message on your screen during
system bootup. If this setting is disabled, you
can still invoke the ARC utility by pressing
Ctrl+A after the SAS card BIOS banner appears.
Physical Drives Display
during Post
Enabled
Disabled
When Enabled, attached physical devices are
displayed during system POST. Displaying the
devices adds a few seconds to the overall POST
time.
PHY Rate
Auto, 1.5, 3.0
The data transfer rate between the HostRAID
controller and devices. The default setting is
Automatic, which allows the SAS card to adjust
the speed as needed.
SAS Address
0-F
Specifies the last digit of a 64-bit SAS address
of the HostRAID controller, device, and each
port using a globally unique worldwide name
(WWN) identifier.
PCI Slot: Bus:
Device:Function
None
Displays the path of the storage devices in a
Host RAID controller.
Interrupt (IRQ) Channel
None
Displays interrupt
I/O Port Address
None
Displays I/O port address
Controller Configuration
PHY Configuration
Controller Properties
Appendix C: Using the ARC Utility
SerialSelect Options
Available Settings
Description
Device ID
None
Displays device ID
Controller Serial
Number
None
Displays controller serial number
Controller WWN
None
Displays the controller WWN
●
69
Formatting and Verifying Disk Drives
You can use the disk utilities to low-level format or verify your disk drives. (New disk drives
are low-level formatted at the factory and do not need to be low-level formatted again.)
! Caution: Before you format a disk drive, back up all data. Formatting destroys all data on
a disk drive.
To use the disk utilities:
1
Turn on your computer and press Ctrl+A when prompted to access the ARC utility.
2
From the ARC utility menu, select Disk Utilities.
3
Select the desired disk, then press Enter.
You are offered the following options:
●
Format Disk—Simulates a low-level format of the disk drive by writing zeros to the
entire disk. SATA drives are low-level formatted at the factory and do not need to be
low-level formatted again.
! Caution: Formatting destroys all data on the disk. Be sure to back up your data
before performing this operation.
●
Verify Disk Media—Scans the media of a disk drive for defects.
Using the AFU for DOS
D
In this chapter...
Introduction ........................................................................................................................... 71
Running the AFU from the GUI............................................................................................ 71
Running the AFU from the Command Line......................................................................... 72
AFU Command Line – Step-by-Step .................................................................................... 75
This chapter describes how to use the Adaptec Flash Utility (AFU), a text-based DOS utility
that you can use to update, save, or verify the HostRAID controller’s firmware BIOS.
! Caution: Although the AFU contains safeguards to prevent you from accidentally damaging
your HostRAID controller’s flash contents, it is still important to use the AFU carefully and
correctly to avoid rendering your HostRAID controller inoperable. Adaptec recommends that
only advanced users familiar with working in DOS use the AFU. For more information, see
Managing Your Storage Space on page 41.
Appendix D: Using the AFU for DOS
●
71
Introduction
The AFU is a DOS utility used to update, save, or verify the HostRAID controller’s firmware
BIOS.
The AFU is easy to use and contains safeguards to prevent you from accidentally damaging the
HostRAID controller’s flash contents. Still, you must be careful to use the AFU correctly,
otherwise, you could render the HostRAID controller inoperable.
The AFU is used to:
●
Update—Updates all the flash components on a HostRAID controller with the flash image
data from a User Flash Image (UFI) file.
The AFU updates the HostRAID controller’s flash by reading UFI files and writing them to
the controller’s flash components.
Note: The UFI includes the HostRAID controller’s type, thereby ensuring that the AFU
uses the correct file.
●
Save—Updates and verifies the BIOS image of the controller.
●
Verify—Reads the contents of a HostRAID controller’s flash components and compares it
to the contents of the specified UFI file.
●
Version—Displays version information about a HostRAID controller’s flash components.
●
List—Lists all supported HostRAID controllers detected in your system.
System Requirements
The requirements for AFU are as follows:
●
MS–DOS version 5.0 or later. It cannot run from a DOS command prompt window under
any version of Windows.
Note: You cannot create a bootable floppy using Windows 2000.
●
At least 8 MB of extended memory.
Compatibility
The AFU has the following compatibility issues:
●
Supports HIMEM.SYS and is compatible with other DOS drivers running under
HIMEM.SYS (for example, SMARTDRV.SYS and SETVER.SYS).
●
Does not support DOS extenders installed in memory, such as EMM386.SYS and
DOS4GW.
Running the AFU from the GUI
The easy way to run the AFU is to use its GUI. If you prefer to run the AFU from the command
line, see Running the AFU from the Command Line on page 72.
Appendix D: Using the AFU for DOS
●
72
To access the AFU:
1
Shut down your operating system and reboot to DOS from a bootable MS-DOS floppy
disk or from a DOS partition on a bootable drive. (You can use the drive connected to the
HostRAID controller you are updating.)
Note: When updating the HostRAID controller flash, controller activity is not possible.
Before you can use the HostRAID controller again, complete the flash operation and restart
the computer.
2
At the DOS command prompt (typically A:\>) type AFU, then press Enter.
The AFU’s main menu is displayed.
3
Select Select Controllers, then select the Adaptec HostRAID controllers to be flashed.
When selecting a single controller, the system automatically selects it. When selecting
multiple controllers, use the spacebar, then press Enter.
4
Select Select an Operation and choose one of the available options, then follow the
on-screen instructions.
Running the AFU from the Command Line
At the DOS command prompt (typically A:\>), type AFU followed by a command and any
switches. The AFU processes the command, prompts you to insert additional floppy disks as
needed, exits, and reports success or an error message code. The following available commands
are summarized in alphabetical order.
HELP
The HELP command displays a summary of AFU functions and command switches.
Examples
The following are examples of command syntax that will work to get help:
A:\> AFU HELP
A:\> AFU /?
LIST
The LIST command displays the AFU-supported HostRAID controllers installed on your
computer. Use this command to see which HostRAID controllers are installed, or to identify
the ID numbers assigned to each physical controller.
You do not have to restart the computer after completing this command.
Example
This example shows a typical system response to a LIST command:
A:\> AFU LIST
Adaptec Flash Utility V1.0-0 B1406
(c)Adaptec Inc. 1999–2005. All Rights Reserved.
Controllers Detected and Recognized:
Controller #0 (03:01:00) Adaptec ASC-48300
Appendix D: Using the AFU for DOS
●
73
SAVE
The SAVE command saves the contents of a HostRAID controller’s flash in a UFI file. The name
of the UFI file is based on the HostRAID controller type and cannot be changed.
Command Syntax
The command syntax for the SAVE command is as follows:
AFU SAVE [/C<Controller ID>] [/D <UFI File Path>]
Command Switches
The following switches are available:
●
/C <Controller ID> is one or more HostRAID controller IDs representing the set of
controllers on which to perform the specified command. The default is 0, which means
that if the computer has multiple HostRAID controllers, the AFU defaults to controller 0
unless you specify otherwise.
You can specify a single HostRAID controller ID, for example:
/C 0
multiple IDs separated by commas, for example:
/C 0,2
or ALL to indicate all HostRAID controllers.
Note: If you are using multiple HostRAID controllers, you must specify the controller
you want by using the /C switch; otherwise, the AFU displays an error message and
exits. You cannot select ALL HostRAID controllers when specifying SAVE.
●
/D <UFI File Path> specifies the path (drive and directory) where the UFI files are located.
If you do not specify the /D switch, the AFU looks for, or creates, UFI files in the default
location.
Note: You cannot specify the name of a UFI file, only its path. UFI filenames are
predefined, based on the HostRAID controller type.
Examples
In the following example, the AFU saves flash contents from HostRAID controller 0 to a UFI
file in the current default drive and directory:
A:\> AFU SAVE /C 0
In the following example, the AFU saves flash contents from Controller 1 to a UFI file in
C:\UFI_FILES.
A:\> AFU SAVE /C 1 /D C:\UFI_FILES
Appendix D: Using the AFU for DOS
●
74
UPDATE
The UPDATE command updates a HostRAID controller’s flash components from the flash
image data in a UFI file. You can use the UPDATE command to update a single HostRAID
controller’s flash components or to update multiple HostRAID controllers on your computer.
You must restart the computer following an UPDATE command.
Command Syntax
The command syntax for the UPDATE command is as follows:
AFU UPDATE [/C<Controller ID>] [/D <UFI File Path>]
Command Switches
For details on the /C and /D switches, see SAVE on page 73.
Examples
The following example shows a typical system response after an update has been performed:
A:\> AFU UPDATE /C 0
Adaptec Flash Utility V1.0-0 B1406
(c)Adaptec Inc. 1999–2005. All Rights Reserved.
Updating Controller 0 (Adaptec ASC-48300)
Reading flash image file (Build 1406)
AFU is about to update firmware on controller(s) Adaptec ASC-48300
***PLEASE DO NOT REBOOT THE SYSTEM DURING THE UPDATE***
This might take a few minutes.
Writing Adaptec ASC-48300 (4MB) Flash Image to controller 0...OK.
Verifying...OK
Please restart the computer to allow firmware changes to take effect.
VERIFY
The VERIFY command compares the contents of each of the flash components on a HostRAID
controller to the corresponding image in a UFI file and indicates whether they match. Use this
command to determine whether a HostRAID controller’s flash components are up-to-date
when compared to a specific UFI file.
Command Syntax
The command syntax for the VERIFY command is as follows:
AFU VERIFY [/C<Controller ID>] [/D <UFI File Path>]
Command Switches
For details on the /C and /D switches, see SAVE on page 73.
Appendix D: Using the AFU for DOS
●
Example
The following example shows a typical system response after a VERIFY command has been
performed:
A:\> AFU VERIFY /C 0
Adaptec Flash Utility V1.0-0 B1406
(c)Adaptec Inc. 1999–2005. All Rights Reserved.
Reading flash image file (Build 1406)
Controller #0: Adaptec ASC-48300
File: Checksum: 642C [VALID] (Build 1406)
File: Checksum: 642C [VALID] (Build 1406)
Verified Successfully
VERSION
The VERSION command displays version information about the flash components on a
HostRAID controller.
Command Syntax
The command syntax for the VERSION command is as follows:
AFU VERSION [/C<Controller ID>]
Command Switches
For details on the /C switch, see SAVE on page 73.
Example
The following example displays version information about all supported HostRAID
controllers:
A:\> AFU VERSION /C 0
Adaptec Flash Utility V1.0-0 B1406
(c)Adaptec Inc. 1999–2005. All Rights Reserved.
Version Information for Controller #0 (Adaptec ASC-48300)
ROM: Build 1406 [VALID]
AFU Command Line – Step-by-Step
This section provides step-by step instructions for updating the flash.
To update the flash using the AFU command line:
1
Shut down the computer.
2
Insert the bootable disk that contains the AFU utility.
3
Turn on the computer.
4
Enter the system setup utility and verify that your computer is set up to boot from the
bootable disk.
75
Appendix D: Using the AFU for DOS
5
●
76
If you have multiple HostRAID controllers only—At the DOS prompt, type afu list,
then press Enter.
This command displays the Adaptec SAS HostRAID controllers in your system. Note the
HostRAID controller number for the controller you want to update; you may need it in
Step 6 to perform the update.
6
You can update the flash using any of the following alternatives:
a
Updating the Flash on a Single HostRAID Controller—To flash the firmware on a
single HostRAID controller, type:
afu update /C <controller_number>
Where controller_number is the number of the controller whose firmware you are
updating. For example, to upgrade Controller 0, type:
afu update /C 0
b
Updating the Flash on Multiple Controllers—To flash the firmware on multiple
HostRAID controllers, type:
afu update /C <controller_number_a>,<controller_number_b>
Where <controller_number_a> and <controller_number_b> are the number of one
of the Adaptec HostRAID controllers whose firmware you are updating.
To upgrade HostRAID controllers 0, 2, and 3 for example, type:
afu update /C 0, 2, 3
c
Updating the Flash on All HostRAID Controllers Simultaneously—To flash the
firmware on all HostRAID controllers, type:
afu update /C all
Note: The UFI file identifies the appropriate HostRAID controllers, so you do not
have to worry about flashing the wrong controller.
7
The AFU prompts you to put in the first firmware disk.
When it detects that the disk is in the drive, the AFU reads the part of the firmware image
contained on the first disk.
8
When prompted, remove the first firmware disk and insert the second firmware disk.
9
If necessary, repeat Step 8 until the process is complete.
Safety Information
E
To ensure your personal safety and the safety of your equipment:
●
Keep your work area and the computer clean and clear of debris.
●
Before opening the system cabinet, unplug the power cord.
Electrostatic Discharge (ESD)
! Caution: ESD can damage electronic components when they are improperly handled, and
can result in total or intermittent failures. Always follow ESD-prevention procedures when
removing and replacing components.
To prevent ESD damage:
●
Use an ESD wrist or ankle strap and ensure that it makes skin contact. Connect the
equipment end of the strap to an unpainted metal surface on the chassis.
●
If a wrist strap is not available, ground yourself by touching the metal chassis before
handling the controller or any other part of the computer.
●
Avoid touching the controller against your clothing. The wrist strap protects components
from ESD on the body only.
●
Handle the controller by its bracket or edges only. Avoid touching the printed circuit board
or the connectors.
●
Put the controller down only on an antistatic surface such as the bag supplied in your kit.
●
If you are returning the controller to Adaptec, put it back in its antistatic bag immediately.
Technical Specifications
F
In this chapter...
Environmental Specifications................................................................................................ 79
DC Power Requirements........................................................................................................ 79
Current Requirements............................................................................................................ 79
Appendix F: Technical Specifications
Environmental Specifications
Relative humidity
10% to 90%, noncondensing
Altitude
up to 3,000 meters
Note: Forced airflow is recommended, but not required.
DC Power Requirements
Ripple and noise
50 mV peak-to-peak (max)
DC Voltage
3.3 V ± 10%
Current Requirements
Adaptec Model
Maximum Current (A)
ASC-58300
0.56A
ASC-48300
1.322A
ASC-44300
.445A
●
79
Glossary
A
activity
See task.
ACU
Array Configuration Utility. An application used to create, configure, and manage arrays from the
controller’s BIOS or MS-DOS.
array
A logical disk created from available space and made up of one or more segments on one or more physical
disks. Arrays are typically used to provide data redundancy or enhanced I/O performance. See volume,
spanned volume, RAID 0, RAID 1, RAID 10. Also known as a container.
array initialization
See configure.
ATA
AT Bus Attachment. Standard parallel interface to IDE hard disks typically used in desktop computers and
some entry-level servers. Serial ATA (SATA), is a successor to parallel ATA, which is sometimes referred to
as PATA.
available space/segment
Unused space on a configured disk from which logical devices (arrays) are created. When an array is
deleted, the space that it used is returned to the available space pool.
B
background consistency check
Option that forces the controller to constantly check all portions of disks used by all arrays to see if the disks
can return data from the blocks. See consistency check command.
bad segment
Segment that is in an unknown state.
bootable array
Array configured as the boot device.
Glossary
●
89
build
Background initialization of a redundant array. The array is accessible throughout. RAID 1 copies the
contents of the primary drive to a secondary drive. See clear.
bus
See channel.
C
cache
Fast-access memory on the controller that serves as intermediate storage for data that is read from, or
written to, drives.
capacity
Total usable space available in megabytes or gigabytes.
channel
Any path, or bus, used for the transfer of data and the control of information between storage devices and a
RAID controller. For SATA channels, each channel has a single drive capacity.
check point
A feature that enables you to exit the ACU when an operation is in progress and be able to continue without
interruption. The driver then resumes the operation from where the BIOS left off and the BIOS resumes the
operation where the driver left off.
chunk
See stripe.
clear
Foreground initialization of a fault-tolerant array. A clear operation zeros all blocks of the array. The array
is not accessible until the clear task is complete.
concatenation
Joining of physical or logical drives in sequential order.
configure
Process of preparing a disk for use by the controller. When a disk is configured, the controller records the
RAID signature on the disk.
configured array
An array that is ready for data reads and writes. Arrays can be configured by build or clear.
consistency check command
Command that reads all the blocks of a RAID 1 to determine if the blocks are consistent. Any inconsistent
blocks are fixed.
D
dead partition
See failed.
degraded
A redundant (for example, a RAID 1) array in which one or more members have failed. The data is intact
but redundancy has been compromised. Any further failure would cause the array to fail and result in data
loss.
disk
Physical disk drive. Randomly accessible, rewriteable data storage device. Also called hard disk.
Glossary
●
90
disk ID
Unique disk identifier that consists of the channel number, SATA ID. For example, (channel:ID:LUN)
1:04:0. See channel.
drive LED
Disk indicator LED that illuminates during read or write operations.
E
event
Notification or alert from the system, indicating that a change has occurred.
event log
File used to maintain information about prior controller activities or errors.
event notification
Process for transmitting events.
F
failed
State of a nonredundant array that has suffered a single drive failure, or a redundant array that has suffered
multiple drive failures. A failed array is inaccessible and data is lost.
fault-tolerant array
Refers to an array that can continue to function after a disk drive failure without loss of data. Fault tolerant,
or redundant arrays, include RAID 1 arrays. See redundant.
foreign disk
Disk that has previously been configured on another Adaptec RAID controller. The RAID signature on the
disk allows the RAID controller to identify whether or not the disk was configured on the controller it is
currently connected to.
H
hard disk drive
Basic unit of nonvolatile, nonremovable, magnetic storage media. See disk.
hot spare
A spare hard disk that automatically replaces a failed hard disk on any array associated with any HBA.
hot swap
To remove a component from a system, and install a new component while the power is on and the system
is running.
I
impacted
An impacted array is one which has been created but for some reason the initial build operation did not
complete. All member drives are present and operational, and all data written to the array is protected. To
optimize the array, run a Verify with Fix Task.
initialize
See configure.
Glossary
●
91
L
legacy disk
Disk that contained a valid partition table when connected to the controller. The controller manages the
disk as a legacy disk array where there is a one-to-one logical-to-physical mapping of array to disk.
logical device
Volume comprised of space from one or more physical drives and presented to the operating system as if it
were a single storage unit.
low-level format
Process performed by the drive firmware that completely cleans any data off the hard disk.
M
mirrored array/mirroring
See RAID 1, RAID 10.
monitoring
Process of receiving, displaying, and logging system events.
N
Native Command Queuing
Allows disk drives to arrange commands into the most efficient order for optimum performance.
O
offline array
Array that can no longer be accessed.
optimal
The state of an array when it is fully operational. For redundant arrays, the entire array is protected.
P
partition
A section of a disk storage device created by the operating system disk management program, in which data
and/or software programs are stored. Computers have a primary operating system partition that contains
the special files needed to boot the computer. Each operating system partition is assigned a unique drive
letter, such as C or D. A single disk device can have multiple partitions.
phantom object
Object that represents a component that cannot be configured by the controller management software; for
example, a missing drive.
Q
quick init
An array configured using the Quick Init option is available immediately, with no on-going background
controller activity. All data written to an array that has been quick configured is protected.
Glossary
●
92
R
RAID
Redundant Array of Independent Disks (alternative definition Redundant Array of Inexpensive Disks).
RAID 0
A single-level array consisting of two or more equal-sized segments residing on different disks. RAID 0
distributes data evenly across its respective drives in equal-sized sections called stripes. RAID 0 arrays are
not redundant.
RAID 1
Single-level array consisting of two equal segments residing on two different drives. Provides redundancy
by storing identical copies on two drives. See mirrored array/mirroring.
RAID 10
Spanned array consisting of two or more equal-sized RAID 1 arrays. Provides redundancy by striping and
mirroring. Mirroring provides data protection, and striping improves performance. See mirrored array/
mirroring, RAID 0.
RAID signature
The area on each disk reserved for use by the RAID controller.
RAID volume
Concatenates two or more arrays of the same type.
rebuild
Background regeneration of redundant data on a RAID 1.
redundant
The ability of an array to maintain operability when one or more hardware failures occur. RAID 1 is
redundant. In the event of a drive failure, redundant arrays can be restored to normal operation by
replacing the failed drive and rebuilding the array.
rescan
Process of updating the current screen to show all currently available resources.
S
Serial ATA (SATA)
A successor to ATA that uses a serial, instead of parallel, interface.
simple volume
A volume made up of disk space from a single disk. It can consist of a single region on a disk, or
concatenated multiple regions of the same disk.
single-level array
Array created from one or more segments. See volume, spanned volume, RAID 0, RAID 1, RAID 10.
snapshot
Instantaneous read-only copy of an array at a precise point in time.
spanned volume
A simple volume that spans two or more drives.
stripe
Contiguous set of data distributed across all the disks in an array. A striped array distributes data evenly
across all members in equal-sized sections called stripes.
Glossary
●
93
stripe size
The amount of data in each section of a striped array.
striped array
See RAID 0, RAID 10.
T
task
An operation that occurs only on the RAID controller, asynchronous to all other operations; for example,
initializing a disk or verifying an array. Some tasks can take an extended period of time, particularly if the
RAID controller is also performing intensive data I/O while the task is running.
V
verify
Low-level check that a drive, logical device, or hot spare is good. In a RAID 1, verify is a low-level check that
contents of both members’ segments are consistent and, optionally, corrects errors while assuming that the
master drive is correct. In a simple volume, verify performs a low-level check that the whole drive can be
read.
volume
See simple volume, spanned volume.
Index
installing on Windows 38
A
ACU
creating arrays 63
Adaptec Flash Utility. See AFU
Adaptec RAID Configuration Utility. See HRCONF
Adaptec Storage Manager
installing 42
AFU 43
Array Configuration Utility. See ACU
arrays
creating (ACU) 63
non-RAID 60
RAID 1 61
RAID 10 61
E
B
H
backplane connections 26, 56
hard disk, hard disk drive, hard drive. See disk drives
D
I
data striping 59
direct-attach connections 25, 56
disk drives
connecting to SAS controllers 25
failure recovery
multiple arrays 51
multiple disk drives 51
with hot spare 50
without hot spare 51
formatting 69
recovering from failure 50
SAS identifiers 55
verifying 69
drivers
installing on Linux 39
installing on NetWare 39
installation
disk drives (SAS) 25
SAS backplane 26
SAS direct-attach 25
electrostatic discharge 77
end devices 53
expander connections 56
expander devices 53
F
failed disk drives
multiple arrays 51
multiple disk drives 51
without hot spare 51
formatting disk drives 69
L
links (SAS) 53
Linux
driver installation 39
N
NetWare
driver installation 39
non-RAID arrays 60
Index
P
performance tuning
selecting a RAID level 60
stripe-unit size 59
phys 54
R
RAID
definition 59
performance tuning 60
RAID 0 60
RAID 1 61
RAID 10 61
recovering from disk drive failure
Red Hat
driver installation 39
Redundant Array of Independent Disks. See RAID
replacing failed disk drives
S
SAS
4-wide ports 54
backplane connections 26, 56
cables 55
comparison to parallel SCSI 57
connectors 55
description 53
direct-attach connections 25, 56
disk drive identifiers 55
edge expanders 56
end devices 53
expander connections 56
expander devices 53
fanout expanders 56
link speed 53
links 53
narrow connectors 55
narrow ports 54
phys 54
ports 53, 54
SAS address 55
SAS cards 53
SAS devices 53
SAS domain 56
terminology 53
transceivers 53
wide connectors 55
wide ports 54
SAS controllers
connecting disk drives 25
SAS devices 53
SCSI
comparison to SAS 57
Serial Attached SCSI. See SAS
SerialSelect
using settings 67
Small Computer System Interface. See SCSI
storage management
ACU 63
AFU 43
SerialSelect 67
storage space 11
stripe, definition 59
stripe-unit size
definition 59
performance tuning 59
SuSE
driver installation 39
T
terminology 11
Adaptec Storage Manager 11
SAS 53
throughput 59
tools
ACU 63
AFU 43
ARC 63
disk utilities 69
SerialSelect 67
U
utilities
AFU 43
ARC 63
Disk Drive 69
SerialSelect 67
V
verifying disk drives 69
W
Windows
driver installation 38
●
95
Adaptec, Inc.
691 South Milpitas Boulevard
Milpitas, CA 95035 USA
©2006 Adaptec, Inc.
All rights reserved. Adaptec and the Adaptec logo are
trademarks of Adaptec, Inc. which may be
registered in some jurisdictions.
Part Number: CDP-00138-01-A, Rev. B
JB 10/06