Adobe 1.5 Music Mixer User Manual

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Adobe
Audition 1.5
®
™
User Guide
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©
2004 Adobe Systems Incorporated. All rights reserved.
Adobe® Audition™ 1.5 User Guide for Windows®.
If this guide is distributed with software that includes an end-user agreement, this guide, as well as the software described in it, is furnished
under license and may be used or copied only in accordance with the terms of such license. Except as permitted by any such license, no part
of this guide may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, recording,
or otherwise, without the prior written permission of Adobe Systems Incorporated. Please note that the content in this guide is protected
under copyright law even if it is not distributed with software that includes an end-user license agreement.
The content of this guide is furnished for informational use only, is subject to change without notice, and should not be construed as a commitment by Adobe Systems Incorporated. Adobe Systems Incorporated assumes no responsibility or liability for any errors or inaccuracies
that may appear in the informational content contained in this guide.
Please remember that existing artwork or images that you may want to include in your project may be protected under copyright law. The
unauthorized incorporation of such material into your new work could be a violation of the rights of the copyright owner. Please be sure to
obtain any permission required from the copyright owner.
Any references to company names in sample templates are for demonstration purposes only and are not intended to refer to any actual organization.
Adobe, the Adobe logo, Adobe Audition, Adobe Encore DVD, Adobe Premiere, and After Effects are either registered trademarks or trademarks of Adobe Systems Incorporated in the United States and/or other countries. Apple, Macintosh, and Mac OS are trademarks of Apple
Computer, Inc., registered in the U. S. and other countries. Microsoft, Windows, and Windows NT are registered trademarks of Microsoft
Corporation in the U.S. and/or other countries. mp3PRO audio coding technology licensed from Coding Technologies, Fraunhofer IIS and
Thomson Multimedia. VST is a trademark of Steinberg Media Technologies AG. ReWire is a product of Propellerhead Software. All other
trademarks are the property of their respective owners.
Supply of this product does not convey a license nor imply any right to distribute MP3-encoded or mp3PRO-encoded data created with this
product in revenue-generating broadcast systems (terrestrial, satellite, cable, and/or other distribution channels), streaming applications (via
Internet, intranets, and/or other networks), other content distribution systems (pay-audio or audio-on-demand applications and the like)
or on physical media (compact discs, digital versatile discs, semiconductor chips, hard drives, memory cards, and the like). An independent
license for such use is required. For details, please visit http://mp3licensing.com
Notice to U.S. government end users. The software and documentation are “Commercial Items,” as that term is defined at 48 C.F.R. §2.101,
consisting of “Commercial Computer Software” and “Commercial Computer Software Documentation,” as such terms are used in 48 C.F.R.
§12.212 or 48 C.F.R. §227.7202, as applicable. Consistent with 48 C.F.R. §12.212 or 48 C.F.R. §§227.7202-1 through 227.7202-4, as applicable, the Commercial Computer Software and Commercial Computer Software Documentation are being licensed to U.S. Government end
users (a) only as Commercial items and (b) with only those rights as are granted to all other end users pursuant to the terms and conditions
herein. Unpublished-rights reserved under the copyright laws of the United States. Adobe Systems Incorporated, 345 Park Avenue, San Jose,
CA 95110-2704, USA. For U.S. Government End Users, Adobe agrees to comply with all applicable equal opportunity laws including, if appropriate, the provisions of Executive Order 11246, as amended, Section 402 of the Vietnam Era Veterans Readjustment Assistance Act of
1974 (38 USC 4212), and Section 503 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973, as amended, and the regulations at 41 C.F.R Parts 60-1 through 6060, 60-250, and 60-741. The affirmative action clause and regulations contained in the preceding sentence shall be incorporated by reference.
Part number: 90050796 (05/2004)
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iii
Contents
Learning about Adobe Audition
Getting help . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
Working with Adobe Audition
.................................3
What’s New in Adobe Audition 1.5
Use integrated tools . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
Chapter 1
Sound your best
..............................................6
Work efficiently
...............................................7
Looking at the Work Area
About the work area . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
About using Edit View and Multitrack View
Switching between views
Choosing commands
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
Using toolbars
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
Using windows
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
Navigating in the display window
Using the status bar
Organizing files and effects
Working with effects
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
Setting up Adobe Audition
About setting up Adobe Audition
Setting up devices
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
Undoing and redoing changes
Chapter 2
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36
Setting Adobe Audition preferences
Managing temporary files
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57
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iv CONTENTS
Chapter 3
Importing, Recording, and Playing Audio
Opening audio files and multitrack sessions
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61
Inserting audio files into multitrack sessions
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63
Importing audio from CD
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64
Setting the current-time indicator
Monitoring time
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69
Using the transport controls
Recording audio
Playing audio
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75
Stopping, pausing, and adjusting the playback cursor
Monitoring recording and playback levels
Chapter 4
Editing Audio
About editing audio
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83
Creating new audio files
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84
Viewing waveforms
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85
Selecting audio data
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87
Copying, cutting, pasting, and deleting
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 92
Working with cues
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 96
Creating play lists
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .102
Creating and deleting silence
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .103
Inverting and reversing audio
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .106
Generating audio
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .106
Converting the sample type
Adding file properties
Chapter 5
. . . . . . . . . 78
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .110
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .116
Enhancing and Restoring Audio
About enhancing and restoring audio
About the mastering process
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .117
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .117
Analyzing frequency, phase, and dynamic range
Removing noise
Filtering audio
. . . . . . . . . . . . . .118
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .125
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .129
Optimizing amplitude
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .134
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v
Chapter 6
Applying Stereo, Pitch, and Delay Effects
About using stereo, pitch, and delay effects
Changing stereo imagery
Using chorus, flanger, and phaser effects
Changing pitch
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .147
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .150
Creating special effects
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .153
Using multitrack-only effects
Chapter 7
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .143
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .145
Adding delays and echoes
Adding reverb
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .139
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .139
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .156
Mixing Multitrack Sessions
About mixing multitrack sessions
Working with sessions
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .161
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .162
Setting advanced session properties
Working with clips
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .167
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .168
Working with audio tracks
Working with ReWire tracks
Working with MIDI tracks
Using real-time effects
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .179
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .184
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .185
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .185
Automating mixes with clip envelopes
Using the Mixers window
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .188
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .190
Mixing down ReWire tracks and specific audio clips
Chapter 8
Using Loops
About loops
Defining loops
. . . . . . . . . .196
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .197
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .198
Calculating the tempo of selected ranges
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .199
Setting permanent loop properties in Edit View
. . . . . . . . . . . . . .200
Setting impermanent loop properties in Multitrack View
Setting the tempo, time signature, and key for sessions
Working with loops in the track display
. . . . .202
. . . . . . .204
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .205
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vi CONTENTS
Chapter 9
Working with Video
About working with video
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .207
Working with Adobe Premiere Pro and After Effects
Importing audio and video from video files
Working with video clips
Previewing video
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .208
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .209
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .210
Preparing video mixdowns for export
Chapter 10
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .211
Creating Surround Sound
About surround sound . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .213
Using the Multichannel Encoder
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .214
Panning tracks and buses for surround sound
Adjusting volume levels
Previewing the multichannel project
Exporting surround-sound files
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .221
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .221
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .223
Saving, Exporting, and Closing Files
Saving audio files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .227
Saving and exporting sessions
Closing files
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .228
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .231
Choosing an audio file format
Chapter 12
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .215
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .220
Zooming into and out of the waveform display
Chapter 11
. . . . . . . . . .207
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .231
Scripting and Batch Processing
About scripting and batch processing
Batch processing cue ranges
Normalizing groups of files
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .243
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .243
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .244
Batch processing files
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .247
Working with scripts
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .249
Using favorites (Edit View only)
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .253
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vii
Chapter 13
Burning Audio CDs
Using CD Project View
Assembling tracks
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .257
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .257
Editing the source audio for tracks
Setting track properties
Writing a CD
Appendix A
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .260
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .260
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .261
Keyboard Shortcuts
About keyboard shortcuts
Keys for playing audio
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .263
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .263
Keys for selecting ranges, channels, and tracks
Keys for copying waveforms
Keys for editing clips
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .264
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .265
Keys for repeating commands
Keys for using markers
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .265
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .265
Keys for scrolling waveforms and sessions
Keys for viewing windows
Appendix B
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .266
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .266
Digital Audio Primer
Sound fundamentals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .267
Waveforms
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .268
Analog audio
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .270
Digital audio
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .270
Sampling rate
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .270
Bit depth
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .271
Where Adobe Audition fits into the process
Introducing MIDI
Conclusion
Appendix C
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .264
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .272
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .273
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .273
Glossary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .275
Index
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .291
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1
Learning about Adobe Audition
W
elcome to Adobe® AuditionTM 1.5, the ultimate software tool for audio editing,
mixing, and mastering.
Adobe provides a variety of options you can use to learn Adobe Audition, including online
Help and tool tips. You can also use the Adobe Web site to easily access a wide range of
continually updated Web resources, from tutorials to technical support information.
Many files on the Adobe Web site are in Adobe PDF format. To view these files, use
Adobe Reader®, included on the Adobe Audition CD.
Getting help
There are a number of ways to get the help you need in Adobe Audition. The following
three tables can help you find specific resources related to Adobe Audition features,
training resources, and support.
Finding Help for Adobe Audition features
If you . . .
Try this . . .
Want information about
installing Adobe Audition
• Insert the Adobe Audition application CD into your CD drive, and follow
the on-screen installation instructions. (You cannot run Adobe Audition
from the CD.)
• See the ReadMe file on the application CD.
• For information about specific tasks, see “Working with Adobe Audition”
Are new to Adobe Audition
and want an overview of tools on page 3.
and features
• For information about the user interface, see “About the work area” on
page 9.
• Move the pointer over tools and buttons to view tool and button names.
• See the beginning tutorials in Help.
Are upgrading from a previous See “What’s New in Adobe Audition 1.5” on page 5 to get an overview of
version of Adobe Audition
new features. Or, for more detailed information, see the NewFeatures.pdf
file on the Adobe Audition application CD.
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2
Learning about Adobe Audition
Finding Help for Adobe Audition features
If you . . .
Try this . . .
Are looking for detailed
information about a feature
• In Help, use the Index or Search tabs.
Want a list of keyboard
shortcuts
• In windows and dialog boxes, click the Help button or press F1.
See “Keyboard Shortcuts” on page 263.
Finding Adobe Audition training resources
If you . . .
Try this . . .
Want to obtain in-depth
Adobe Audition training
• See the tutorials on the Adobe Studio Web site at www.studio.adobe.com.
• Browse the Adobe Press materials at www.adobepress.com (English only)
and the training resources at www.adobe.com/support/training.html.
• For step-by-step lessons, consider the Adobe Classroom in a Book series.
Are looking for background
information on digital audio
See the “Glossary” on page 275 and “Digital Audio Primer” on page 267.
Want information about
becoming an Adobe Certified
Expert
Visit the Partnering with Adobe Web site at http://partners.adobe.com.
Certification is available for several different geographical regions.
Want training from an Adobe
Certified Training Provider
See the Training page of the Adobe Web site at
www.adobe.com/support/training.html.
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ADOBE AUDITION 1.5 3
User Guide
Finding support for Adobe Audition
If you . . .
Want customer or technical
support
Try this . . .
• Refer to the technical support card provided with your software.
• See the Adobe Audition support page at
www.adobe.com/support/products/audition.html.
• See the ReadMe file installed with Adobe Audition for information that
became available after this guide went to press.
Want answers to common
troubleshooting questions
Visit the Adobe Audition support page at
www.adobe.com/support/products/audition.html.
Want to register your copy of
Adobe Audition
• When you first start Adobe Audition, you’re prompted to register online.
Fill out the form, and then submit it directly or fax a printed copy.
• Fill out and return the registration card included with your software package.
Want to access downloads or
links to user forums
Visit the main Adobe Audition page at www.adobe.com/audition.
Working with Adobe Audition
You can work with Adobe Audition in many different ways. In this section, you’ll find directions to specific information to help you accomplish some common Adobe Audition tasks.
If you want to increase productivity
• Use the Organizer window to quickly organize files, preview loops, and apply effects.
(See “Organizing files and effects” on page 24 and “Previewing audio by using the
Organizer window” on page 77.)
• Automatically convert audio from a CD into an editable waveform. (See “Importing
audio from CD” on page 64.)
• Store selections and start points in cues to speed up editing and navigation tasks. (See
“Working with cues” on page 96.)
• Batch process files to quickly apply favorite processing or prepare audio for specific
mediums, such as audio CD or the Web. (See “Scripting and Batch Processing” on
page 243.)
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4
Learning about Adobe Audition
If you want to create video soundtracks
• Easily create and remix soundtracks used in Adobe® Premiere® Pro and After Effects®
projects. (See “Working with Adobe Premiere Pro and After Effects” on page 207.)
• Time stretch audio clips to match video. (See “Time stretching audio clips” on
page 177.)
• Generate noises and tones for sound effects. (See “Generating audio” on page 106.)
• Create surround-sound mixes. (See “About surround sound” on page 213.)
If you want to record and mix musical compositions
• Nondestructively record and edit multitrack sessions of up to 128 tracks. (See “About
mixing multitrack sessions” on page 161.)
• Automate mixes with clip envelopes. (See “Automating mixes with clip envelopes” on
page 188.)
• Apply, edit, and rearrange real-time effects, without making any permanent changes.
(See “Using real-time effects” on page 185.)
• Build compositions with musical loops. (See “About loops” on page 197.)
• Synchronize with ReWire and SMPTE. (See “Setting up ReWire connections” on
page 42 and “Setting up for SMPTE synchronization” on page 40.)
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5
What’s New in Adobe
Audition 1.5
T
his overview introduces you to the key new features of Adobe Audition 1.5,
including streamlined workflow with other Adobe products, powerful new effects,
integrated CD burning, and more.
Use integrated tools
Adobe Audition tightly integrates with flexible audio technology like ReWire and VST, and
video applications like Adobe Premiere Pro and Adobe After Effects.
ReWire support Stream full-resolution audio data in real-time between Adobe Audition
and other audio software such as Propellerhead Reason and Ableton Live. (See “Setting up
ReWire connections” on page 42.)
VST plug-in support Expand your options with integrated support for third-party VST
plug-ins, which can also be used in Adobe Premiere Pro. (See “Using plug-in effects” on
page 32.)
Enhanced video integration Edit video soundtracks with ease. View video frames in the
track display, and import a wide range of video file formats, including AVI, MPEG, and
WMV. (See “About working with video” on page 207.)
Improved workflow with other Adobe products Work smoothly with Adobe Premiere
Pro, Adobe After Effects, and Adobe® EncoreTM DVD by using similar tools, menus, and
keyboard shortcuts. (See “Working with Adobe Premiere Pro and After Effects” on
page 207.)
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6
What’s New in Adobe Audition 1.5
Sound your best
With high fidelity, 32-bit internal processing, Adobe Audition supports up to 32-bit files
and sample rates up to 10 MHz. Powerful effects, restoration, and pitch correction tools
let you create the exact sound you're after.
Pitch correction tool Correct off-pitch performances and create pitch-based effects. Use
automatic mode for quick results, or manual mode for precise control. (See “Using the
Pitch Correction effect (Edit View only)” on page 146.)
Frequency space editing Visually isolate, select, and modify sounds in frequency and
time using the Marquee Selection tool. (See “Selecting audio frequencies in Spectral View”
on page 88.)
Automatic elimination of clicks and pops Quickly and easily restore digital recordings of
vinyl source material, wireless mics, DV cameras, and other production audio. (See “Using
the Auto Click/Pop Eliminator effect (Edit View only)” on page 125.)
Studio reverb Apply high-quality reverb that conserves processing resources, while
offering extensive controls. (See “Using the Studio Reverb effect” on page 153.)
New sample sessions Get up to speed quickly by using any of the 20 sample sessions
included with Adobe Audition. Modify the samples to create your own music. (See “About
mixing multitrack sessions” on page 161.)
New royalty-free loops Use more than 500 new music loops—for a total of more than
5,000—in a variety of styles including 70’s disco, classic rhumba, and wedding and event.
(See “About loops” on page 197.)
Vocal extraction Quickly and easily extract the vocal portions of a track to create either
a cappella or karaoke-ready tracks, while preserving the stereo image. (See “Using the
Center Channel Extractor effect” on page 141.)
Flexible envelope scaling Rescale control points on pan, volume, and effects envelopes to
quickly modify a clip in a multitrack mix. Scale all points simultaneously while
maintaining relative or absolute relationships between points. (See “Automating mixes
with clip envelopes” on page 188.)
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ADOBE AUDITION 1.5 7
User Guide
Work efficiently
Adobe Audition puts all the tools you need at your fingertips so you can get your work
done quickly and efficiently. An intuitive interface gets you up and running in no time,
and integrated editing, mixing, and CD burning streamline your audio workflow.
Integrated CD burning Create masters of your audio compositions by burning gapless
audio CDs directly from Adobe Audition. (See “Using CD Project View” on page 257.)
Time stretching Visually drag the edge of any audio clip in a multitrack mix to fit a specific
length of time, with or without affecting the clip's pitch. Quickly fit sound effects and
dialog to video clips. (See “Time stretching audio clips” on page 177.)
Preroll and postroll playback Speed the process of performing destructive edits and
applying effects by listening to the audio preceding and following a selection. (See
“Playing audio by using the transport controls” on page 75.)
Custom keyboard shortcut sets Customize keyboard shortcut sets to configure Adobe
Audition for your working style. (See “Using shortcuts” on page 12.)
In-time loop previews Use the Organizer window to preview loops in the tempo and pitch
of the current session before adding them to your mix. (See “Previewing audio by using
the Organizer window” on page 77.)
Task-based documentation Quickly learn how to complete audio production tasks using
an updated Help system and user guide organized by subjects such as editing, looping, and
video.
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9
Chapter 1: Looking at the
Work Area
W
elcome to Adobe Audition. Adobe Audition gives you an efficient work area and
user interface to edit and mix audio files.
About the work area
Adobe Audition is divided into three main work areas: Edit View, Multitrack View, and CD
Project View. This division is intended to help you focus on the major tasks of editing audio
files, mixing sessions, and burning CDs. For more information on the differences between Edit
View and Multitrack View, see “About using Edit View and Multitrack View” on page 10. For
more information on CD Project View, see “Using CD Project View” on page 257.
A
B
C
D
E
F
G
Adobe Audition work area
A. Edit View tab B. Multitrack View tab C. CD Project View tab D. menus E. toolbars
F. display window G. various windows
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10 CHAPTER 1
Looking at the Work Area
All three views have a similar user interface, including the following components:
Menus The menus in the menu bar contain commands for performing tasks. (See
“Choosing commands” on page 12.)
Toolbars The toolbars hold buttons for applying commonly used functions. (See “Using
toolbars” on page 13.)
Windows Windows—including the Organizer, Transport Controls, Zoom Controls, Level
Meters, and Selection/View Controls—help you monitor and modify audio files. (See
“Using windows” on page 14.)
Display window The display window shows you sound in an easy-to-manipulate form. In
Edit View, the display window is where you modify single waveforms. In Multitrack View,
the display window is where you mix multiple audio files in a session. (See “About editing
audio” on page 83 and “About mixing multitrack sessions” on page 161.)
You can change many aspects of Adobe Audition’s appearance, including the color
scheme, the appearance of buttons, and the appearance of the waveform display, in the
Settings dialog box. (See “Setting Adobe Audition preferences” on page 43.)
About using Edit View and Multitrack View
Adobe Audition provides different work areas for editing single waveforms and creating
multitrack mixes. To edit single waveforms, you use Edit View. To mix multiple waveforms
with MIDI and video files, you use Multitrack View.
Edit View and Multitrack View use different editing methods, and each has unique advantages. Edit View uses a destructive method, which changes audio data, permanently altering
saved files. Such permanent changes are preferable when converting sample rate and bit
depth, mastering, or batch processing. Multitrack View uses a nondestructive method, which
is impermanent and instantaneous, requiring more processing power, but increasing flexibility. This flexibility is preferable when gradually building and reevaluating a multilayered
musical composition or video soundtrack.
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ADOBE AUDITION 1.5 11
User Guide
You can combine destructive and nondestructive editing to suit the needs of a project. If a
multitrack clip requires destructive editing, for example, simply double-click it to access
Edit View. Likewise, if an edited waveform contains recent changes that you dislike, use the
Undo command to revert to previous states—destructive edits aren’t applied until you
save a file. For more information on using Edit View, see “About editing audio” on page 83;
for more information on using Multitrack View, see “About mixing multitrack sessions”
on page 161.
Switching between views
You can use the tabs above the display window or menu commands to switch between Edit
View, Multitrack View, and CD Project View. If you prefer not to use the tabs above the
display window, you can hide them.
View tabs above the display window
To switch between views:
Do one of the following:
• Choose View > Edit Waveform View, View > Multitrack View, or View > CD Project View.
• Click the Edit View tab, the Multitrack View tab, or the CD Project View tab above the
display window.
• Click the Edit Waveform View button
View button
, Multitrack View button , or CD Project
in the View toolbar. (See “Using toolbars” on page 13.)
• In Multitrack View, double-click a file in the Files tab of the Organizer window or select
a file and click the Edit File button
the display window.
. Alternatively, double-click a waveform block in
To show and hide view tabs above the display window:
Choose View > Show View Tabs. A check mark indicates that the tabs are showing.
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Looking at the Work Area
Choosing commands
Commands let you perform a wide variety of tasks. You can choose commands from the
menus at the top of your screen or click buttons in a toolbar. You can also use contextsensitive (right-click) menus and keyboard shortcuts to quickly execute commands.
Using context-sensitive menus
Adobe Audition makes liberal use of context-sensitive menus. Whenever you see a simple
function button, control, window, or waveform action, try right-clicking it. Chances are
you’ll be surprised by a useful shortcut menu or a set of handy options that can make
Adobe Audition’s operation even easier.
Using shortcuts
Adobe Audition provides a set of standard keyboard shortcuts to help you speed up the
editing process. For example, instead of using your mouse to go to the Edit menu and
choose the Cut command, you can simply press Ctrl + X to cut the selected portion of a
waveform. When available, the keyboard shortcut appears to the right of the command
name in the menu or in the tool tip for a button or icon. Adobe Audition also provides
keyboard shortcuts for performing certain mouse actions. These shortcuts are listed in the
Keyboard Shortcuts appendix.
If a shortcut isn’t working, it’s likely that the window you’re trying to run the shortcut in
doesn’t have focus. For example, if you’re in Edit View and you push F11 to bring up the
Convert Sample Type dialog box and nothing happens, the waveform display probably isn’t the
active window. Click the waveform display to give it focus, and then try the shortcut again.
You can change nearly all of the default shortcuts and add shortcuts for other functions.
In addition, you can add shortcuts that let you execute commands using keys on a MIDI
keyboard, a sequencer, or any other device capable of issuing a MIDI command. This type
of shortcut is referred to as a MIDI Trigger. For example, you can assign the Play command
in Adobe Audition to the C4 note on your MIDI keyboard.
To enable MIDI triggering:
Choose Options > MIDI Trigger Enable. A check mark indicates the MIDI triggering is on.
Important: Before attempting to enable MIDI triggering, you must choose a device for MIDI
In that’s recognized by Windows. For more information, see “Designating which devices you
want to use” on page 36.
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ADOBE AUDITION 1.5 13
User Guide
To customize a shortcut:
1 Choose Options > Keyboard Shortcuts And MIDI Trigger.
2 Select the function you want to assign the shortcut to.
Note: You can filter the list of functions by choosing an option from the Category menu and
clicking the Multitrack View or Edit View button. To show all functions, choose (show all)
from the Category menu, and deselect the Multitrack View and Edit View buttons.
3 Do any of the following:
• To assign a keyboard shortcut to the function, click in the Keyboard Shortcut text box
and press the desired keyboard combination. Many Adobe Audition users find single
key shortcuts (such as n for Normalize) faster to use and easier to remember.
• To assign a MIDI trigger to the function, click in the MIDI Trigger text box and press
the desired key on the MIDI keyboard. You can also apply MIDI events other than
pressing keys (such as pressing the foot pedal).
• To remove a keyboard shortcut or MIDI trigger from the function, click Clear.
4 If you enter a key combination that’s already in use, Adobe Audition notifies you of the
conflict in the Conflicting Keys text box. Click Clear, and enter a different shortcut before
continuing.
5 Click OK.
To restore the default keyboard shortcuts:
1 Choose Options > Keyboard Shortcuts And MIDI Trigger.
2 Choose Adobe Audition Default from the Set list, and click OK.
Using toolbars
Many of Adobe Audition’s most commonly used functions are represented as buttons within
toolbars, which appear near the top of the main interface. These buttons give you instant
access to effects, file handling functions, viewing options, and more, at the press of a button.
To see what a button does, hold your mouse pointer over it to display a tool tip that
describes the function in simple terms.
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Looking at the Work Area
To show or hide a toolbar:
Choose View > Toolbars, and choose a toolbar name from the submenu. A check mark
indicates that the toolbar is showing.
To specify how many rows of buttons are displayed:
Choose View > Toolbars, and choose a number of rows from the submenu.
Using windows
Many windows in the Adobe Audition interface can be repositioned and resized to better
suit your requirements. You can also hide windows that you’re not currently using, and
then show them again when needed. For more information on specific windows, see the
index or search Help.
Repositioning and resizing windows
When you reposition a window, you can dock it in a specific location in the interface, or
you can undock the window so that it floats above the main window. To identify docked
windows, look for two thin vertical or horizontal lines. These lines are the handle (or grab
bar) of a docked window. Move your mouse over a handle, and the cursor looks like a plus
sign with arrows at each end .
Some docked windows can also be resized. If resizing is possible, the docked window will
have a single, thicker horizontal or vertical bar, called a resize bar. When you move your
mouse over a resize bar, the cursor takes on the appearance of two lines with two
arrows
.
A
Docked window
A. Handle B. Resize bar
B
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ADOBE AUDITION 1.5 15
User Guide
To undock a window:
Drag the window’s handle to the middle of the work area until you see an outline of the
window.
The window is now a standard floating window. You can move the window by dragging its
title bar.
Press Ctrl while moving a floating window around to force it to not dock. That way you
can float the window over an area that it would normally try to dock to. To disable this
feature, select Ctrl Key Allows Dockable Windows to Dock in the General tab of the Settings
dialog box. (See “Setting Adobe Audition preferences” on page 43.)
To dock a window in a different location:
1 Drag the window’s handle around the work area to locate potential docking areas. The
resize bars of other docked windows will light up wherever docking is possible.
2 When you locate the desired docking area, release the mouse button. The window snaps
into its new location.
If a window is docked in the same row with other windows, you can force the window into
a new row by right-clicking the window’s handle and selecting Force New Row. Likewise,
deselecting Force New Row causes the window to dock in the previous row (if there’s room).
To resize a docked window:
Drag the window’s resize bar.
Even if the resize bar is visible, resizing might not be possible due to the other windows
that are in the row with the window you’re trying to resize.
To reset windows to the default layout, select Restore Default Workspace in the General
tab of the Settings dialog box. (See “Setting Adobe Audition preferences” on page 43.)
Showing and hiding windows
You can free up space in the work area by closing windows when you aren’t using them,
and then redisplay the windows as needed. The Window menu lists all available windows;
a check mark indicates that a window is currently showing.
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16 CHAPTER 1
Looking at the Work Area
To hide a window:
Do one of the following:
• Choose the window name from the Window menu.
• Click the button that corresponds to the window name in the View toolbar. (See “Using
toolbars” on page 13.)
• For docked windows, right-click the window’s handle and choose Close.
• For undocked windows, click the X button on the window’s title bar.
To show a window:
Choose the window name from the Window menu, or click the window’s button in the
View toolbar.
Using placekeeper windows
Placekeeper windows let you define the aspect ratio of a docking area. For example, if you
try docking the Track EQ controls above the transport controls, they end up going underneath the whole session display, which creates a view that isn’t very useful (or aesthetically
pleasing). You can use a placekeeper, though, on either side of the Track EQ to force the
EQ into a certain aspect ratio. You can also use placekeepers just for appearance’s sake, just
because you like the way they let you customize the work area.
You can create up to four placekeeper windows, and insert them wherever docking is
allowed. You can also change the appearance of placekeeper windows by filling them with
a pattern.
To insert a placekeeper window:
1 Choose Window > Placekeeper.
2 Dock the placekeeper in the desired location. The window is automatically resized to fit
the docked area.
To change the appearance of a placekeeper window:
Right-click the window’s handle, and choose a fill option: Nothing, Cool Texture, or Squares.
To make future placekeeper windows adopt the current appearance, choose Make Default.
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ADOBE AUDITION 1.5 17
User Guide
To delete a placekeeper window:
Right-click the window’s handle, and choose Close.
Navigating in the display window
The display window shows you the current waveform (in Edit View) or session (in Multitrack View). You can control how much of the waveform or session is displayed by
zooming and scrolling. You can also use the selection and view controls to determine the
beginning time, ending time, and length of audio data in the display window.
Zooming
Zooming lets you adjust the view in the display window to best meet your needs. For
example, you can zoom in to clearly see the samples in a waveform, or you can zoom out
to get a visual overview of a waveform or session.
The Zoom Controls window provides a variety of tools for zooming. You can also zoom
by dragging in the horizontal scroll bar, vertical scroll bar (Multitrack View only), or
vertical ruler.
Zoom controls
To show or hide the zoom controls:
Do one of the following:
• Choose Window > Zoom Controls. A check mark indicates that the controls are visible.
• Click the Hide/Show Zoom Controls button
in the View toolbar. (See “Using
toolbars” on page 13.)
If you don’t like the default location of the zoom controls, you can reposition them or
detach them so they float above the main window. (See “Using windows” on page 14.)
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Looking at the Work Area
To zoom in or out by using the zoom controls:
Do any of the following:
• Click the Zoom In Horizontally button
to zoom in on the center of the visible
waveform window or session.
• Click the Zoom In Vertically button
to increase the vertical scale resolution of a
waveform’s amplitude display (in Edit View) or decrease the number of viewed tracks
in the session display (in Multitrack View).
• Click the Zoom To Selection button
to zoom in on the actively selected waveform or
session range.
• Click the Zoom In To Right Edge Of Selection button
to zoom in on the right
boundary of the actively selected waveform range or session.
• Click the Zoom In To Left Edge Of Selection button
to zoom in on the left boundary
of the actively selected waveform range or session.
• Click the Zoom Out Horizontally button
to zoom out from the center of the visible
waveform window or session.
• Click the Zoom Out Full Both Axis button
to zoom out to display the entire
waveform or blocks that are contained within a session.
• Click the Zoom Out Vertically button
to decrease the vertical scale resolution of a
waveform’s amplitude display (in Edit View) or to show more tracks in the session
display (in Multitrack View).
To zoom in or out by using a scroll bar or ruler:
Do either of the following:
• To change the viewable range of time, position the pointer in the timeline or over the
left or right edge of the horizontal scroll bar. Then drag to the left or right. A magnifying
glass with arrows icon appears as you drag.
• To change the viewable range of amplitude (in Edit View) or tracks (in Multitrack
View), hold down the right mouse button in the vertical ruler, and drag up or down.
The magnifying glass with arrows icon appears as you drag.
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ADOBE AUDITION 1.5 19
User Guide
You can also use the wheel on your mouse to zoom in and out. To do so, place the pointer
over the horizontal scroll bar, timeline, vertical scroll bar (Multitrack View only), or
vertical ruler, and roll the mouse wheel. To set a zoom percentage for the mouse wheel, enter
a value for Zoom Factor in the General tab of the Settings dialog box. (See “Setting Adobe
Audition preferences” on page 43.)
Scrolling
The display window provides several scrolling devices. The horizontal scroll bar—which,
by default, is at the top of the display window—lets you scroll forwards and backwards in
time throughout a waveform (in Edit View) or session (in Multitrack View). The vertical
ruler on the right side of the display window lets you scroll through amplitude ranges (in
Edit View) or tracks (in Multitrack View). In Multitrack View, there’s an additional vertical
scroll bar on the left side of the display window that lets you scroll through tracks.
B
A
C
Scrolling devices
A. Vertical scroll bar B. Horizontal scroll bar C. Vertical ruler
To scroll in the display window:
Do either of the following:
• To scroll to the left or right, drag the horizontal scroll bar. Or, click to the left or right
of the scroll bar to page through the display one screen at a time.
• To scroll up or down, drag in the vertical ruler. In Multitrack View, you can also drag
the vertical scroll bar or click above or below the scroll bar to page through the display
one screen at a time.
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20 CHAPTER 1
Looking at the Work Area
You can also use the wheel on your mouse to scroll in the display window. To do so, place
the pointer over the display window, and roll the mouse wheel.
To change the position of the horizontal scroll bar:
Right-click the horizontal scroll bar, and choose a display option: Above Display or Below
Display.
Using the selection and view controls
The Selection/View Controls window shows the beginning and ending points, as well as
the total length of both the selection and the section of the waveform or session that’s
currently visible. Both the selection and display range is shown in the current time-display
format. For information on changing the time-display format, see “Monitoring time” on
page 69.
In addition to viewing time information, you can also use the selection and view controls
to adjust selections and change the section of audio data that is visible in the display
window. Simply enter new values for Begin, End, and Length. After you click in a text box,
you can right-click to access additional context-menu commands.
Selection and view controls
To display the selection and view controls:
Do one of the following:
• Choose Window > Selection/View Controls. A check mark indicates that the window is
showing.
• Click the Hide/Show Selection/View Controls button
in the View toolbar. (See
“Using toolbars” on page 13.)
If you don’t like the default location of the selection and view controls, you can reposition
them or detach them so they float above the main window. (See “Using windows” on
page 14.)
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ADOBE AUDITION 1.5 21
User Guide
Using the status bar
The status bar runs along the very bottom of Adobe Audition’s main window. It can
display information such as sample format, file size, and free disk space.
A
B
C
D
E
F
G
H
Status bar
A. Data Under Cursor B. Sample Format C. File Size D. File Size (time) E. Free Space
F. Free Space (time) G. Keyboard Modifiers H. SMPTE Slave Stability
To show or hide the status bar:
Do one of the following:
• Choose View > Status Bar > Show. A check mark indicates that the status bar is visible.
• Click the Hide/Show Status Bar button
in the View toolbar. (See “Using toolbars” on
page 13.)
To change the type of information that is displayed in the Status Bar:
Choose View > Status Bar or right-click the Status Bar, and select the desired display
options. Selected items appear in the Status Bar; unselected items are hidden.
You can choose from the following options:
Data Under Cursor Shows useful information such as the channel (if a current
waveform is stereo), the amplitude (measured in decibels), and the time
(hours:minutes:seconds:hundredths of seconds) from the beginning of the audio file.
This data is computed at the precise point where your mouse pointer is placed within the
wave display, and changes dynamically when you move the pointer. For example, if you see
R: –15.2 dB @ 0:00:242 in the Status Bar when in Edit View, this means that your pointer
is over the right channel at 0.242 seconds into the waveform, and the amplitude at that
precise point is –15.2 dB.
In the Multitrack View, you’ll see even more beneficial data such as Pan and Volume
envelope positions, envelope positions for effects envelopes, dynamic effect settings, and
the current position of the wave block as you drag it around.
Sample Format Displays sample information about the currently opened waveform. For
example, a 44,100 kHz 16-bit stereo file shows up as 44100 – 16-bit – stereo.
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File Size) Represents how large the active audio file is, measured in kilobytes. If you see
308 K in the Status Bar, then the current waveform or session is 308 kilobytes (KB) in size.
File Size (time) Shows you the length (measured in time) of the current waveform or
session. For example, 0:01:247 means the waveform or session is 1.247 seconds long.
Free Space In Edit View and Multitrack View, shows how much space is available on your
hard drive. In CD Project View, shows how much space remains on a CD based on which
View menu item is selected: 74 min CD or 80 min CD.
Free Space (time) In Edit View and Multitrack View, displays the amount of available time
left for recording, based upon the currently selected sample rate. This value is shown as
minutes, seconds, and thousandths of seconds. For example, if Adobe Audition is set to
record an 8-bit mono waveform at 11,025 kHz, the time left might read something like
4399:15.527 free. Change the recording options to 16-bit stereo at 44,100 kHz, and the
remaining time value becomes 680:44.736 free.
In CD Project View, shows how much space remains on a CD based on which View menu
item is selected: 74 min CD or 80 min CD.
Keyboard Modifiers Displays the status of your keyboard’s Ctrl, Shift, and Alt keys.
SMPTE Slave Stability Indicates the stability of incoming SMPTE timecode compared to
Adobe Audition’s internal clock. For example, 95.0% SMPTE indicate a very strong
SMPTE signal. Percentages above 80% should be stable enough to maintain sync. For
more information on SMPTE synchronization, see “Setting up for SMPTE synchronization” on page 40 and “Using sessions as SMPTE masters or slaves” on page 166.
Undoing and redoing changes
Adobe Audition keeps track of the edits you perform during the course of an editing session.
These changes are stored in a temporary file on your hard drive. They aren’t permanently
applied to the file until you save and close it, giving you unlimited undo and redo capability.
When you work with very large audio files, you might not have enough free disk space to
save the Undo data before continuing with an edit. In addition, the time required to save
the Undo information might slow down your work. You can solve either problem by
disabling the Undo function.
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ADOBE AUDITION 1.5 23
User Guide
To undo a change:
Choose Edit > Undo [name of change]. Or, click the Undo button
in the toolbar.
The Undo command conveniently indicates which change you’re undoing. For example,
it may appear as Undo Delete or Undo Normalize. If you haven’t yet edited a waveform,
or if Undo is disabled, this command appears as Can’t Undo.
If you forgot which editing action you last performed on a waveform, look at the Undo
command to refresh your memory, whether you want to undo the action or not.
To discard edits made since you last saved the file:
In Edit View, choose File > Revert To Saved.
To redo a change:
In Edit View, choose Edit > Redo [name of change]. Or, click the Redo button
toolbar.
in the
To repeat the last command:
In Edit View, choose Edit > Repeat Last Command. You can repeat most editing functions
in Adobe Audition by using this command; however, there are a few exceptions (such as
Delete).
To disable or enable the Undo function:
Do one of the following:
• In Edit View, choose Edit > Enable Undo/Redo. A check mark indicates that the Undo
function is enabled.
• Choose Options > Settings, and click the System tab. Select or deselect Enable Undo,
and click OK. You can also specify the minimum number of undo levels, and you can
purge all undo files. (See “System options” on page 45.)
If you don’t have enough disk space to save the undo information, you can change the
Temp folder to a different drive, if available.
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Organizing files and effects
The Organizer window appears in Edit View, Multitrack View, and CD Project View. This
handy, tabbed window lets you easily open and close files, see a list of all open waveforms
and MIDI files, choose effects with ease, and more. By default, the Organizer window is
docked to the left of the waveform or session display; however, you can reposition it or
detach it so it floats above the main window. (See “Using windows” on page 14.)
Organizing files
The Files tab in the Organizer window displays a list of open waveforms, MIDI files, and
video files. You can use the Files tab to import files, select files for editing, insert clips into
sessions, insert tracks into CDs, and close files.
The Files tab also provides a variety of advanced options that let you show and hide cues,
change the listing and sort order of files, and play files. You can choose to hide advanced
options if you don’t use them.
Files tab in the Organizer window
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To display the Files tab:
1 If the Organizer window isn’t showing, choose Window > Organizer to display it.
2 Click the Files tab in the Organizer window. The following buttons appear at the top of
the Files tab:
• The Import File button
lets you import audio, MIDI, and video files into Adobe
Audition.
• The Close Files button
lets you close all selected files in the Files tab.
• The Insert Into Multitrack button
lets you insert all selected files, each into their
own track, in Multitrack View. (See “Inserting audio files into multitrack sessions” on
page 63.)
• The Insert Into CD Project button
lets you insert all selected files into CD Project
View. (See “Inserting tracks” on page 258.)
• The Edit File button
lets you open the selected file in Edit View. (See “Switching
between views” on page 11.)
To select files in the Files tab:
Do any of the following:
• To select a single file, click it.
• To select adjacent (or contiguous) files, click the first file in the desired range, and then
Shift-click the last.
• To select nonadjacent (or noncontiguous) files, Ctrl-click them.
Note: If you select multiple files, only the last file you click appears in Edit View.
To show or hide advanced options in the Files tab:
Click the Advanced Options button
at the top of the Files tab. When showing, the
advanced options appear at the bottom of the Files tab.
For information on the play controls in the Files tab, see “Previewing audio by using the
Organizer window” on page 77.
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To change the listing and sort order of files in the Files tab:
Make sure that the advanced options are showing, and do any of the following:
• To show or hide files, select a Show File Types option. An X indicates that files of the
specified type are showing.
• To change the sort order of files, choose an option from the Sort By menu.
• To display the full path [drive, folder(s), filename] of the entries in the File tab, select the
Full Path button. To display only the filenames, deselect this button.
To show or hide cues in the Files tab:
Make sure that the advanced options are showing, and click Show Cues.
When Show Cues is selected, a plus icon appears next to files that contain cues. Click the
plus icon to display the cue names. For more information on cues, see “Working with
cues” on page 96.
Organizing effects
The Effects tab in the Organizer window lists all of the effects at your disposal. The listing
includes all of Adobe Audition’s effects as well as all installed DirectX and VST audio plugins. You can change the grouping of effects to best meet your needs.
Effects tab in the Organizer window
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User Guide
To display the Effects tab:
1 If the Organizer window isn’t showing, choose Window > Organizer to display it.
2 Click the Effects tab in the Organizer window.
To change how the effects are grouped:
Click the buttons at the bottom of the Effects tab:
• Select Group By Category to list effects in a hierarchy where categories and their entries
are shown in the same order as they appear in the Effects menu.
• Deselect Group By Category to display all effects in roughly the same order as they
appear in the Effects and Generate menus.
• Select Group Real-Time Effects to list effects in a hierarchy where all of the Real-Time
Effects are grouped together, the Off-Line Effects are grouped together, and the Multitrack Effects are grouped together.
• Deselect Group Real-Time Effects to return to the previous view.
Organizing favorites
Favorites are effects, scripts, and even third-party tools that you’ve saved for easy access.
The Favorites tab in the Organizer window lists all of the favorites you’ve created. (These
same items are listed in the Favorites menu.)
Favorites tab in the Organizer window
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To display the Favorites tab:
1 If the Organizer window isn’t showing, choose Window > Organizer to display it.
2 Click the Favorites tab in the Organizer window.
For more information on creating and editing favorites, see “Using favorites (Edit View
only)” on page 253.
Working with effects
Effects provide much of the functionality in Adobe Audition. For example, you use effects to
remove noise, optimize volume, change pitch, and add reverb. If Adobe Audition doesn’t
provide the effect you want, you may be able to purchase a plug-in effect to do the job.
As you apply effects, you’ll notice similarities between Adobe Audition’s effect dialog boxes.
For example, many effect dialog boxes provide presets for storing and recalling your favorite
settings. Some effect dialog boxes also provide graph controls for adjusting settings. As you
adjust settings, you can use the Preview option to preview effects in real time.
For information on using specific effects, search for the effect name in Help or look in
the index.
Using presets
Many of Adobe Audition’s effects and other functions have presets that are available for easily
storing and recalling your favorite settings. You can add and remove presets at any time.
Presets in the Amplify/Fade dialog box
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User Guide
To apply a preset:
Double-click the preset name. The settings defined by the preset are reflected in the dialog box.
To add a preset:
1 Adjust the effect settings as desired.
2 Click Add in the Presets area of the effect dialog box.
3 Enter a name for the preset, and click OK. Your new preset is added to the list of other
presets, which is automatically sorted alphabetically.
To modify a preset:
1 Double-click the preset name, and adjust the settings as desired.
2 Click Add, enter the name of the current preset, and click OK.
3 Click OK when prompted to replace the preset.
To remove a preset
Select the preset, and click Del.
Using graph controls
Many of Adobe Audition’s effects use graph controls for adjusting parameters. By adding and
moving control points on the graph, you can tailor the effect to precisely meet your needs.
By default, graphs display straight lines between control points. However, some graphs
provide a Splines or Spline Curves option for generating a curve between control points.
Using spline curves lets you create smoother transitions between points.
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Graph with straight lines between control points compared to graph with spline curves
When you use spline curves, the line won’t travel directly through the control points.
Instead, the points control the shape of the curve. To get the curve closer to a control
point, click to create more control points near the point in question. The more control points
there are clustered together, the closer the spline curve will be to those points.
To use graph controls:
Do any of the following:
• To add a control point to the graph, click in the grid at the location where you want to
place the point.
• To enter the values for a control point numerically, right-click the point to bring up the
edit box, or double-click the graph’s curve.
• To move a point on the graph, drag it to a new location.
• To remove a point from the graph, drag it off the graph.
Note: When the pointer is located over a control point, you’ll see it change from an arrow to
a hand.
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Previewing effects in Edit View
Many dialog boxes provide a Preview button for previewing effects in real time. This means
that you can monitor the processed signal before applying the effect to the waveform. The
preview feature updates in real time, meaning that changes you make to effect settings while
in the dialog box for that effect become audible immediately, while the audio is playing.
Keep in mind that your system’s performance affects the preview feature. On slower systems,
some effects may tend to break up or skip during preview. In Multitrack View, the preview
is not necessary, as effects are used nondestructively. Basically, every effect in the Multitrack
View is in preview all the time. For more information on the differences between destructive
and nondestructive editing, see “About using Edit View and Multitrack View” on page 10.
In Edit View, you can add an optional preroll or postroll amount to the duration of the
preview. This is especially useful when previewing effects for small ranges and marquee
selections because it lets you hear how the in and out transitions are affected by the effects
settings.
To preview effects in real time:
1 Click the Preview button to start playing the audio.
2 Adjust the effect settings as desired.
3 To compare the original audio to the processed audio, select and deselect the Bypass
option. When the option is selected, you hear the original audio; when the option is
deselected, you hear the processed audio.
4 When you’re satisfied with the settings, click Stop.
To add a preroll and postroll duration to a preview:
1 In Edit View, right-click the Play button
or the Play To End button
controls, and choose Preroll And Postroll Options.
in the transport
2 In the Effects Preview section of the Preroll And Postroll Options dialog box, enter
durations for the preroll and postroll, and click OK.
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3 Do one of the following:
• Choose Effects > Enable Preroll And Postroll Preview.
• In an effects dialog box, select Enable Preroll And Postroll Preview. This option appears
below the Presets. If a dialog box does not have Preset, the Enable Preroll And Postroll
Preview option will not appear; however, you can still enable preroll and postroll
preview by choosing Effects > Enable Preroll And Postroll Preview.
4 Preview an effect as described in the previous procedure.
Using plug-in effects
DirectX and VST plug-ins let you extend the already powerful effects at your disposal in
Adobe Audition. Before you can start using plug-in effects, you must set them up in Adobe
Audition. For DirectX effects, this process involves enabling the effects and then refreshing
the effects list. For VST effects, you need to verify that Adobe Audition is scanning the
directories where the effects are installed; then, you must refresh the effects list.
After that, using plug-in effects is as easy as using any other Adobe Audition effect. Just
select an area to process, and choose the effect from the Effects > DirectX or Effects > VST
menu (or from the Effects tab of the Organizer Window). Of course, you'll need to consult
the documentation provided by the plug-in manufacturer for any help with its features.
Note: If Adobe Premiere Pro and Adobe Audition are installed on the same computer, Adobe
Audition automatically displays the VST plug-ins that come with Adobe Premiere Pro.
To enable DirectX effects:
Do one of the following:
• In Edit View, choose Effects > Enable DirectX Effects.
• In Multitrack View, click the FX button in the track controls. In the Track Effects Rack
dialog box, click Enable DirectX Effects, and then click OK.
This causes Adobe Audition to scan your system for DirectX plug-ins. After the plug-ins
are activated, the Enable DirectX Effects option is removed from the menu and dialog box.
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To set up directories for VST effects:
1 In Edit View, choose Effects > Add/Remove VST Directory.
The Add/Remove VST Directory lists the directories that Adobe Audition will scan for VST
plug-ins when you choose Effects > Refresh Effects List.
2 Do either of the following:
• To add a new directory, click Add, locate or create the folder you want Adobe Audition
to scan for VST plug-ins, and click OK.
• To remove a directory, select the directory and click Remove.
To refresh the effects list after installing new effects:
In Edit View, choose Effects > Refresh Effects List.
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35
Chapter 2: Setting up Adobe
Audition
Y
ou can customize the way Adobe Audition works by setting up devices and internal
preferences.
About setting up Adobe Audition
Setup tasks fall into several categories. Perhaps the most important is setting up the devices
you want to use with Adobe Audition. If you have multiple sound cards, or a single card that
has multiple inputs and outputs, you need to specify which devices you want to use for
playback and recording. In addition, you can set up MIDI devices, external controllers, and
ReWire connections for use with Adobe Audition. For more information on these tasks, see
“Setting up devices” on page 36.
Another category of setup tasks is customizing internal Adobe Audition preferences to
best suit your needs. For example, you can change the appearance of the workspace, set
buffer sizes to optimize performance, change the locations of temporary folders to better
utilize disk space, and customize the wave and session displays. For more information on
these tasks, see “Setting Adobe Audition preferences” on page 43.
A final category of setup tasks is managing the size of temporary files. The size of
temporary files is limited only by the amount of disk space that is available; however, when
you’re working with very large files (or when you have many files open at the same time),
your disk space may run low. If this happens, you can delete temporary files you’re not
using, clear specific Undo items, and change the amount of reserve space. For more information on these tasks, see “Managing temporary files” on page 57.
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Setting up Adobe Audition
Setting up devices
You can use a wide range of devices with Adobe Audition. Sound card inputs let you bring
audio signals into Adobe Audition through sources such as microphones, tape decks, and
digital effects units. Sound card outputs let you monitor audio signals through sources
such as speakers and headphones. MIDI ports let you connect Adobe Audition to MIDI
keyboards and synthesizers. You can also synchronize Adobe Audition with ReWire applications and hardware or software components that support SMPTE/MTC timecode.
Designating which devices you want to use
The Device Order dialog box lets you designate which devices you want to use with Adobe
Audition. When working in Edit View, you can designate one stereo output device to use
for playback and one stereo input device to use for recording. When working in Multitrack
View, you can assign different input and output devices to each audio track. However,
before you can do this, you must specify which devices you plan to use and the order in
which you want to view them.
If your audio system includes MIDI devices, you can also designate which MIDI input and
output devices you want to use. For example, you can designate a MIDI keyboard to use
for triggering commands and a MIDI synthesizer channel to use for playback. (See “About
using MIDI devices” on page 39.)
To designate the devices you want to use:
1 Choose Options > Device Order.
2 Click the tab for the type of device you want to designate: Playback, Recording, MIDI
Output, or MIDI Input.
3 Move the devices you want to use into the Multitrack Device Preference Order list by
selecting devices in the Unused list and clicking Use. Remove the devices you don’t want
to use by selecting devices in the Multitrack Device Preference Order list and clicking
Remove.
Note: You can specify up to 16 stereo devices or 32 mono devices in the Multitrack Device
Preference Order list.
4 Designate the device you want to use in Edit View by selecting the device and clicking
Use in EV. [EV] appears after the device name.
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5 Adjust the order of devices for use in Multitrack View by selecting a device and clicking
Move Up or Move Down.
The first device in the list is the default device. This means that, by default, the first playback
device is assigned as the output for all audio tracks in a session and the first recording device
is assigned as the input for all audio tracks. Likewise, the first MIDI Out device is assigned
as the output for all MIDI tracks. However, you can easily reassign the devices for a track.
(See “Using the Track Properties window” on page 180.)
6 If desired, click a different tab to set up ordering for another type of device. When you
are finished, click OK.
To quickly view or change the properties for a device, select the device and click
Properties.
Setting properties for audio output devices
The Device Properties dialog box lets you specify Adobe Audition’s parameters for playing
back waveforms. If you have multiple sound cards, or a single card that has multiple audio
outputs, you can customize the properties for each output.
To set properties for audio output devices:
1 Choose Options > Device Properties, and click the Wave Out tab.
2 Select a device from the list at the top of the dialog box.
The capabilities of the selected output device are shown in the Supported Formats table.
A Yes or No indicates different combinations of sample rate and bit resolution. This table
also shows what (if any) 32-bit formats the output device can handle, and whether it can
accept the WDM driver extensible wave format.
3 Set any of the following properties. When you are finished, you can choose a different
device to set up, or you can click OK to close the dialog box:
Order Displays the order of the device for use in Multitrack View. Click Change to open
the Device Order dialog box and change the order of devices. (See “Designating which
devices you want to use” on page 36.)
Use This Device In Edit View Indicates that Adobe Audition will use the device to play
waveforms in Edit View.
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Limit Playback To Downsamples audio data for playback. Use this option to compensate
for limitations imposed by your hardware. For example, if your sound card doesn’t handle
32-bit audio correctly, you can have Adobe Audition limit the playback of 32-bit files to
either 16-bit or 8-bit.
Send 32-bit Audio As Specifies how Adobe Audition sends 32-bit audio data to the output
device. This option is not available if you select a Limit Playback To option. If the output
device supports it, you can send 32-bit audio as 3-byte Packed PCM, 4-byte PCM, or 4-byte
IEEE float.
Enable Dithering Activates dithering when playing back audio at a limited bit depth. If
you deselect this option, Adobe Audition truncates the audio data instead. This means that
bits that aren’t used are simply chopped off and discarded. Enabling dithering is recommended when working with audio files that have a higher bit depth than your sound card
supports. You can set the following options when dithering is enabled:
• bits specifies the number of bits to dither to. If you have a 20-bit sound card, for
example, you will want to dither to 20 bits since any more bits will not be used by the
card. Even for 16-bit-only sound cards, choosing to dither to 16-bit will improve the
quality when playing back 32-bit audio.
• p.d.f. (probability distribution function) controls how the dithered noise is distributed
away from the original audio sample value. Usually one of the Triangular p.d.f.
functions is a wise choice, because it gives the best tradeoff between SNR, distortion,
and noise modulation.
• Shaping specifies a noise shaping curve for moving noise to different frequencies. You
can also specify that no noise shaping is used.
Setting properties for audio input devices
The Device Properties dialog box lets you specify Adobe Audition’s parameters for
recording waveforms. If you have multiple sound cards, or a single card that has multiple
inputs, you can customize the properties for each audio input device.
To set properties for audio input devices:
1 Choose Options > Device Properties, and click the Wave In tab.
2 Select a device from the list at the top of the dialog box.
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The capabilities of the selected recording device are shown in the Supported Formats
table. A Yes or No indicates different combinations of sample rate and bit resolution.
3 Set any of the following properties. When you are finished, you can choose a different
device to set up, or you can click OK to close the dialog box:
Order Displays the order of the device for use in Multitrack View. Click Change to open
the Device Order dialog box and change the order of devices. (See “Designating which
devices you want to use” on page 36.)
Use This Device In Edit View Indicates that Adobe Audition will use the device to record
waveforms in Edit View.
Get 32-bit Audio Specifies how the input device sends 32-bit audio data to Adobe
Audition. If supported by the recording device, you can send 32-bit audio as 3-byte Packed
PCM, 4-byte PCM, or 4-byte IEEE float.
Multitrack Latency Specifies the delay time (or latency) that the device introduces during
recording. Many sound cards allow for monitoring input source signals with no latency.
However, if you notice that tracks are out of sync, it is probably because one of the devices
you used for recording introduced latency. Once you determine how out of sync a particular
device gets, you can enter the number of milliseconds to delay a track’s playback in
relationship to all other tracks' playback to achieve synchronization.
Adjust To Zero-DC When Recording Removes any detected DC bias when recording.
About using MIDI devices
MIDI stands for Musical Instrument Digital Interface, and is a way of communicating
performance information from one piece of software or hardware to another. This performance information can take the simple shape of a note instruction, as in E4, or it can
transmit detailed information on things such as timing or sound patch data. Windows
provides a way of transmitting MIDI information internally between programs, plus you
can transmit MIDI information into and out of your computer to or from external devices
(such as a MIDI Keyboard) through the MIDI port of a sound card, or other MIDI
interface device.
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Setting up Adobe Audition
You cannot record audio directly from a MIDI input device into Adobe Audition. In order
to work with MIDI data in Adobe Audition, you must save the MIDI data to a file using a
MIDI sequencing application, and then import the MIDI file into a session as a clip. Once
you have MIDI clips in a session, you can map them to a specific MIDI output device and
channel for playback. (See “Working with MIDI tracks” on page 185.)
If you have a MIDI input device connected to your system’s MIDI interface, you can use it
to execute commands in Adobe Audition. For example, you can assign the Play command
in Adobe Audition to the C4 note on your MIDI keyboard. This is called MIDI triggering.
(See “Using shortcuts” on page 12.)
You can also use your system’s MIDI Out and In ports to send and receive SMPTE/MTC
timecode. This process lets you synchronize Adobe Audition’s Multitrack playback and
recording with other hardware or software components that also support SMPTE/MTC.
(See “Using sessions as SMPTE masters or slaves” on page 166.)
Setting up for SMPTE synchronization
You can use SMPTE (Society of Motion Picture and Television Engineers) timecode to
synchronize Adobe Audition’s transport controls with a MIDI sequencing application or
an external hardware device, such as a videotape machine. (See “Using sessions as SMPTE
masters or slaves” on page 166.)
Adobe Audition sends and receives SMPTE timecode via MIDI timecode (MTC), which
Windows transmits through your system’s MIDI Out and MIDI In ports. MTC is a digital
signal; to convert analog SMPTE timecode from a video or audio tape deck to digital
MTC, you must use an appropriate MIDI interface.
To designate the devices with which you want to synchronize:
1 Choose Options > Device Properties.
2 Click the MIDI Out tab, and choose a device for SMPTE Output. This is the device to
which Adobe Audition will send the MIDI timecode.
3 Click the MIDI In tab, and choose the device for SMPTE Slave Device. This is the device
from which Adobe Audition will receive the MIDI timecode.
4 Click OK.
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To set options for incoming SMPTE timecode:
1 If your MIDI interface supports sample-accurate synchronization, choose Options >
Sample Accurate Sync.
2 Choose Options > Settings, and click the SMPTE tab.
3 Set the following options:
Lead Time Specifies the amount of time (in milliseconds) in which Adobe Audition estab-
lishes synchronization with incoming timecode. Lower settings (200 and lower) result in
faster transport response but may prevent Adobe Audition from establishing synchronization. Settings of 500 to 1000 are sufficient on most systems.
Stopping Time Specifies the amount of time (in milliseconds) Adobe Audition will
continue playing if it encounters a dropout in timecode.
Lag Time Specifies the number of samples between incoming timecode and outgoing
audio data. This value accounts for discrepancies introduced by sound card buffers. The
default value is 10 samples.
Slack Specifies the number of frames Adobe Audition can fall out of sync with timecode
before either repositioning the current-time indicator to match the code or performing a
full resynchronization. A setting of up to 2.5 frames is recommended, as incorrect
timecode is usually corrected on the next frame sent. The default value is 1 frame.
Clock Drift Correction Time Specifies the number of samples to crossfade when making
time corrections to chase audio to timecode. The default value is 200 samples.
Reposition Playback Cursor When Shuttling Readjusts the playback position if synchroni-
zation is off by the Slack value.
Full Re-Sync When Shuttling Performs a full re-synchronization if synchronization is off
by the Slack value.
Setting up external controllers
You can use external controllers, such as the Mackie Control, when recording and mixing
in Adobe Audition. These devices let you edit audio tracks using real knobs and automated
faders, instead of your mouse and computer keyboard. The Device Properties dialog box
lets you configure external controllers and specify a volume increment.
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Setting up Adobe Audition
To set up external controllers:
1 Choose Options > Device Properties, and click the Ext. Controller tab.
2 Select the external controller you want to use, and specify a volume increment for the
device.
3 Click Configure to set additional options for the device. These options are provided by
the controller software. Refer to your controller documentation for more information.
4 Click OK.
Setting up ReWire connections
ReWire (a product of Propellerhead Software) is a technology for synchronizing audio
applications. You can configure Adobe Audition to accept audio input from any ReWirecompatible application. When Adobe Audition is configured to accept ReWire input, it is
referred to as a ReWire host. Applications that supply audio input are called ReWire slaves
and the output channels they expose to the host are called devices.
To establish a ReWire connection, you first enable ReWire support in Adobe Audition and
then activate a ReWire slave application and assign output from the slave to one or more
Audition tracks. Adobe Audition serves as a ReWire host until you close the application.
You can also manually disable ReWire support. For more information on using Adobe
Audition as a ReWire host, see “Working with ReWire tracks” on page 184.
Note: Before enabling ReWire in Adobe Audition you must close all other ReWire host and
slave applications. After activating a slave application from within Adobe Audition, you will
launch the application to establish the ReWire connection.
To establish a ReWire connection:
1 In Multitrack view, choose Options > Device Properties and select the ReWire tab.
2 Click Enable. The dialog box automatically populates with a list of installed ReWire
slave applications.
3 Select the check box next to the application you want to activate as a slave.
4 Choose one of the following track assignment options:
• Insert Summed Stereo Output Into First Available Track. All ReWire devices offer one
summed stereo output. This option routes the summed stereo output into the first
unoccupied track in the current session.
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• Insert All Outputs To Individual Tracks. ReWire devices may offer multiple channel
outputs. This option routes each available ReWire output to its own track, starting with
the first unoccupied track and following contiguously to additional unoccupied tracks.
• Insert Outputs Manually Using Track Device Input Dialogs. Choose this option if you
want to assign outputs manually by using the Input Device dialog box. (See “Working
with ReWire tracks” on page 184.)
5 Click Launch to launch the ReWire slave application and establish the ReWire
connection. Adobe Audition assigns output from the ReWire slave to one or more tracks,
as specified by the track assignment option you selected.
6 Open the session you want to work with in the ReWire slave application to make the
audio available to Adobe Audition.
Note: Because only one ReWire host can be active at a time, you need to disable ReWire in
Adobe Audition before enabling any other ReWire host application.
To disable ReWire support:
1 In Multitrack view, choose Options > Device Properties and select the ReWire Devices tab.
2 Click Disable, and then click OK.
Setting Adobe Audition preferences
The Settings dialog box lets you customize Adobe Audition’s workspace, use of memory and
hard disk space, spectral view, behavior when pasting, and other miscellaneous settings.
To use the Settings dialog box:
1 Choose Options > Settings.
2 Click a tab at the top of the dialog box to view the desired sets of options.
3 When you’re finished setting options, click OK. To close the Settings dialog box without
changing any options, click Cancel.
Once you click OK, most changes take effect immediately. If a change requires that you
close and reopen Adobe Audition, you'll be prompted to do so. For example, you need to
close and reopen Adobe Audition when you set up a different temporary folder.
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General options
The General tab in the Settings dialog box provides options for adjusting mouse behavior
in Adobe Audition, as well as parameters for auto-play, live update, auto-scroll, and more.
Force Spacebar To Always Trigger Play Forces the spacebar to always trigger playback
regardless of which dockable window has focus.
Auto-Play On Command-Line Load Enables the ability to start Adobe Audition and play a
file from the command line. For example, if you go to the Run command in the Windows
Start menu and type "c:\Pro g r am Files\Adobe\Audit ion 1.5\Audit ion.exe"
"c:\Pro g r am Files\Adobe\Audit ion 1.5\Audit ion Theme\TalkBackVer b. ce l" at the
command line, Adobe Audition will start and begin playing TalkBackVerb.cel.
Live Update During Recording Enables live waveform drawing while recording. On faster
computers, you can have the waveform displayed in real time as audio is being recorded.
However, if you find the recorded audio becoming choppy, disable this option.
In Edit View’s Spectral View mode, and at lower spectral resolutions (around 256), you
can perform a nice scrolling spectral plot while recording with this option on.
Auto-Scroll During Playback And Recording Enables scrolling of the waveform display in
sync with playback. Auto-scrolling only takes affect when you are zoomed in on a portion
of a waveform and play past the viewed portion.
Note: The display refresh rate is directly related to the Total Buffer Size setting in the System
tab of the Settings dialog box. A low buffer size (such as 1) results in a smooth scrolling display,
where as a high buffer size (such as 8) results in a more choppy display. (See “System options”
on page 45.)
Upon A Manual Scroll/Zoom/Selection Change Determines auto-scrolling behavior when
a manual scroll, a zoom, or a selection change occurs in Adobe Audition. You can abort
auto-scrolling until the next time you play or record; resume auto-scrolling only when the
play cursor enters the view; or resume auto-scrolling immediately. Choose the one that
best suits your needs.
Custom Time Code Display Defines the number of frames per second (FPS) assigned to
the Custom time format in the View > Display Time Format menu.
Restore Default Workspace Resets all window sizes and positions to Adobe Audition’s
default arrangement.
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Ctrl Key Allows Dockable Windows To Dock Disables the Ctrl key from preventing a
window to dock when moving the window around the work area.
Mouse Wheel Determines the amount to zoom in when rotating the mouse wheel found
on Intellipoint-compatible pointing devices. Values from 10% to 80% work well. The
higher the value, the further you’ll zoom in when you roll the mouse wheel.
Time Selection Mouse Cursor Determines whether you want your mouse pointer to
appear as an arrow or as an I-beam when it’s over the waveform display.
Edit View Right-Clicks Determines the behavior for a right-click in the waveform display.
• Popup Menu: When right-clicking in the waveform display, a menu pops up if this
option is selected. You can then Shift-click to extend a selection.
• Extend Selection: If you select this option, right-clicking in the Edit View’s waveform
display lets you extend the edge of a waveform selection instead of displaying the popup menu. To see the pop-up menu, hold down the Ctrl key as you right-click.
Default Selection Range Determines the amount of waveform data that automatically
gets selected (if nothing is already highlighted) when you apply an effect.
• View: If this option is selected, the area that’s automatically selected is limited to the area
you can currently see on-screen.
• Entire Wave: When you choose this option, the entire waveform is automatically
selected, even if you’re only viewing a portion of it.
Double-clicking always selects the current view. Triple-clicking always selects the entire
waveform.
Highlight After Paste Highlights the inserted selection when performing a Paste
operation. Deselect this option to have the cursor placed at the end of the pasted selection
instead.
Deselect this option for easier multiple pastes, one after the other.
System options
The System tab in the Settings dialog box provides options for configuring how Adobe
Audition interacts with your system.
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Edit View Play/Record Buffer Determines the buffer size (in seconds) to be used when
sending data to and from your sound card when playing back or recording in Edit View.
Different sound card devices may require different memory buffer settings. The default
settings should work fine for most sound cards, but if you hear choppiness (skips or
dropouts) in recording or playback, you may need to adjust the buffer size or number of
buffers used. For example, if you experience breakups in your audio, or you can’t stop a
recording in progress, increase the buffer size.
Use the two fields in the Edit View Play/Record Buffer area to reserve more memory for
recording and playback by entering a higher buffer size, both in seconds and a number
of buffers.
Keep in mind that while a greater buffer size will allow for increased multitasking when
audio is being played, it does so at the expense of taking more of your computer’s memory.
Wave Cache Determines the amount of memory that Adobe Audition reserves for
processing data. Recommended cache sizes are from 8192 to 32768 KB (8192 KB is the
default).
Select Use System’s Cache to let Windows handle all disk caching. Keep in mind that Adobe
Audition usually handles caching better than Windows can. However, this option reserves
the least amount of memory, so it may be desired for systems with low amounts of RAM.
EV Preview Buffer Determines the minimum buffer size used when sending data to your
sound card for the real-time Preview feature found in many effect dialog boxes. The
default value is 250 milliseconds.
Different sound card ports may require different memory buffer settings. If you hear
choppiness (skips or dropouts) when you use the Preview feature, try adjusting the buffer
size used. (Choppiness can be caused by insufficient processing power as well.) Keep in
mind that a larger Minimum Preview Buffer Size requires more computer memory.
Use Sound Card Positioning Info Allows Adobe Audition to query the sound card for the
actual location and sync up the cursor with audio. This option is useful if a sound card
doesn’t play or record at 44,100 Hz (some sound cards, for example, work at 44,050 Hz or
44,130 Hz). Leave this option unselected unless the cursor is out-of-sync with the audio.
CD Device Options Specifies the SCSI interface used by your CD device: ASPI (Advanced
SCSI Programming Interface) or SPTI (SCSI Pass Through Interface).
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Temporary Folders Specifies the folders in which you want Adobe Audition to store
temporary files. Adobe Audition creates temporary files for use when performing edits on
your audio. All temporary files begin with CEP and have the .tmp extension. The rest of
the filename is chosen at random when the file is created. If there are no copies of Adobe
Audition running, none of these files should be present, since Adobe Audition normally
deletes temporary files when it exits. However, these files can be left behind in extreme
circumstances if Adobe Audition crashes, or if Windows unexpectedly quits while Adobe
Audition is active. As long as Adobe Audition isn’t running, you can safely delete these
files. You can also use the Manage Temporary Folder Reserve Space to delete temporary
files you aren’t using while Adobe Audition is running. (See “Managing temporary files”
on page 57.)
Important: You need to have enough space available in these folders to accommodate the total
size of all the audio files you wish to edit simultaneously.
Use the reserve free fields to specify an amount to leave available for headroom purposes
for both the primary and secondary temporary folders.
• Temp Folder: Specifies Adobe Audition’s main temporary folder. Ideally it should be on
your fastest hard drive.
• Secondary Temp: Specifies Adobe Audition’s secondary temporary folder. For best
results, this should be on a different physical hard drive than the primary temp folder.
This is especially true when recording more than one track at a time in Multitrack View,
because odd track recordings go to one temp folder while the even tracks are recorded
to the other temp folder, dividing the workload.
Note: Providing you have enough free space on the drive that holds the primary temporary
folder, Adobe Audition will work just fine if no Secondary Temp folder is specified.
Undo Specifies options for Adobe Audition’s Undo feature, which lets you revert back to
your last edit with a keyboard shortcut (Ctrl+Z), menu command, or toolbar button.
• Enable Undo: Activates the Undo function. Because Undo requires extra disk space for
its temporary files and time to save them before processing, you may sometimes want
to turn this feature off.
• Levels (minimum): Specifies the fewest number of Undo levels.
• Purge Undo: Deletes all of Adobe Audition’s Undo files. This frees up disk space, but
ends your ability to revert to previous edits.
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Delete Clipboard Files On Exit Deletes Adobe Audition clipboard files when you exit. In
general, leave this option enabled: Usually, after you finish with an Adobe Audition session,
these clipboard files are no longer needed and just take up valuable hard disk space.
Deselect this option to retain Adobe Audition’s clipboard files on your hard drive after you
exit the program.
Force Complete Flush Before Saving Disables the quick save feature, in which Adobe
Audition quickly saves files that contain only minor modifications. If you enable this
option and force a flush before saving, Adobe Audition saves all files by making a backup
copy of the file internally and then writing the entire file back.
This option is disabled by default. When enabled, it considerably increases the save time
for large files. It is intended for use only if you have trouble saving back to the same
filename or you have a problem with Adobe Audition’s quick save feature.
Colors options
The Colors tab in the Settings dialog box provides options for changing Adobe Audition’s
color scheme.
Color Presets Lists color scheme presets that come with the program as well as those
you’ve created yourself. To choose one, select it from the list. The currently selected color
scheme is displayed in the Example window.
Save As Saves the currently selected color scheme as a preset.
Delete Deletes the currently highlighted color scheme preset.
Waveform Tab Lists all of Adobe Audition’s waveform elements to which you can assign
custom colors. Choose an item from the list and click the Change Color button to change
the color.
To adjust the appearance of the selected (highlighted) portions of waveforms and blocks,
select a Selection option:
• Transparency: Drag the slider or enter a value to adjust the transparent value (in
percentage) of a selection; 0 is no transparency and 100 is maximum transparency.
• Invert: Select to set the selection colors to the inverse of the nonselected colors.
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Spectral Tab Lists the display elements for Adobe Audition’s spectral display. Select an
item from the list and click the Change Color button to adjust the element’s color.
For Spectrum, choose one of these options:
• Reverse Direction: Inverts the normal colors of the spectrum display, similar to an
Invert or Negative command in a photo editor.
• Gamma: Adjusts the overall brightness of the Spectral View. Positive numbers make the
display brighter, while negative numbers darken the display. This setting works just like
the Gamma function in many image editors.
To adjust the appearance of the selected (highlighted) portions of waveforms in spectral
display, choose a Selection option.
• Transparency: Drag the slider or enter a value to adjust the transparent value (in
percentage) of a selection; 0 is no transparency, and 100 is maximum transparency.
• Invert: Select to set the selection colors to the inverse of the nonselected colors.
Controls Tab Lists the Adobe Audition control elements for which you can change colors.
Select an item from the list and click the Change Color button to adjust the element’s color.
Select Segmented Progress Bar to make the progress bar segmented instead of solid. The
progress bar appears when you apply an effect, or open or save large waveforms.
Select White Progress Background to make the background of the progress bar white.
For Dockable Windows, select one of the following options:
• Use System 3D Color: Select to make dockable windows use your system’s 3D color.
This is the color Windows uses to render most windows on your system.
• Use Darkened System 3D Color: Select to make dockable windows use the darkened
version of your system’s 3D color.
• Use Specified 3D Color: Select to make Adobe Audition’s dockable windows use the 3D
color you specify.
To change the 3D color, select Dockable Windows 3D Color in the controls list, and then
click the Change Color button to select a new color.
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Display options
The Display tab in the Settings dialog box provides options for adjusting Adobe Audition’s
Spectral View and Waveform View modes.
Windowing Function Determines the method Adobe Audition uses to segment the
spectral data before it displays it. The segments (windows) are listed in order from the
narrowest frequency band/most noise to the widest frequency band/least noise.
Blackmann or Blackmann-Harris are good choices.
Resolution Specifies the number of vertical bands used in drawing frequencies. Keep in
mind that the larger this number, the longer it will take for Adobe Audition to render the
spectral display. Performance will vary based on the speed of your computer.
Window Width Specifies the width of the window (or frame size) used in plotting the
spectral data, where 100% is a frame size of the FFT (Fast Fourier Transform) size.
Window Width basically lets you increase time resolution at the expense of some
frequency resolution. So the display will become more accurate along the timeline (left
and right) and less accurate along the frequency scale (up and down) as the window width
decreases. The default setting is 75%, but you should lower the value (50 to 75% works
best) if you want to increase the resolution horizontally—for example, to find out exactly
where a certain frequency starts.
Plot Style Specifies a style for plotting frequencies:
• Logarithmic Energy Plot: In this mode, colors change with the decibel value of the
energy at any particular time and frequency. In this mode, you can see more details in
the very quiet ranges, especially if the Range is quite high (above 150 dB). Use the Range
value to adjust the sensitivity in plotting frequencies.
• Linear Energy Plot: When selected, colors are chosen based on percentage of maximum
amplitude instead of decibel amplitude. Liner Energy Plot can be useful for viewing the
general overview of a signal without getting bogged down by detail at much quieter
levels. You can adjust the Scaling factor to highlight audio of different intensities.
Show Cue And Range Lines Displays cue marker and range lines in the waveform display.
Cue marker and range entries in the Cue List appear with vertical dotted lines overlaying
the audio, connecting the arrows from the top to the bottom of the display.
Show Grid Lines Displays grid lines in the waveform display. The grid lines mark off time
on the horizontal x-axis and amplitude on the vertical y-axis.
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Show Center Lines Displays center lines in the waveform display. The center lines
represent zero amplitude of the waveform’s right and left channels.
Show Boundary Lines Displays boundary lines in the waveform display. Boundary lines
are the horizontal lines that visually indicate where the waveform’s amplitude approaches
or exceeds the clipping level. The value in the Display Boundary Lines At option specifies
the amplitude at which the boundary lines appear.
Peak Files Specifies options for peak (.pk) files, which Adobe Audition uses to store information about how to display WAV files. Peak files make file opening almost instantaneous
by greatly reducing the time it takes to draw the waveform (especially with larger files).
• Peaks Cache: Determines the number of samples per block to be used when storing
peak files. Larger values reduce the RAM requirement for large files at the expense of
slightly slower drawing at some zoom levels. If RAM is an issue on your system, and
you’re working with very large files (several hundred megabytes or more in size),
consider increasing the Peaks Cache to 1024 or even 1536 or 2048.
• Save Peak Cache Files: Specifies that peak files are saved with all .wav files (in the same
folder) with the extension .pk following the original audio filename.
• Rebuild Wave Display Now: Click to rescan the current file for sample amplitudes and
redraw the waveform.
Data options
The Data tab in the Settings dialog box provides options for controlling how Adobe
Audition handles audio data.
Embed Project Link Data For Edit Original Functionality Links session files with exported
mixdown files. Once these files are linked, you can select a mixdown file in Adobe
Premiere Pro or After Effects, and then open and remix the related session in Adobe
Audition’s Multitrack View.
Auto-Convert All Data To 32-Bit Upon Opening Converts all 8-bit and 16-bit data to
32-bit when a file is opened, and all subsequent operations will keep the data in the
32-bit realm.
Interpret 32-Bit PCM .wav Files As 16.8 Float Causes this version of Adobe Audition to be
compatible with previous versions when it comes to handling 32-bit PCM .wav files.
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Dither Transform Results (increases dynamic range) Enables dithering when processing
effects such as FFT Filter or Amplify. Most processing done by Adobe Audition uses arithmetic greater than 16-bit, with the results converted back to 16-bit when complete. During
this conversion, dithering provides a higher dynamic range and cleaner results, with less
distortions and negative artifacts. With dithering, you get almost 24-bit sample performance in only 16 bits, as the dynamic range is increased by another 10 dB or so, allowing
signals as quiet as –105 dB.
If this option is disabled, the results are truncated to 16 bits when converting back, thus
losing the more subtle information.
When enabled, the addition of dither retains this subtle information. The drawback is that
with each operation a small amount of white noise is added at the quietest volume level.
However, the trade-off between using dither (thus adding noise) and truncating the data
(thus creating artifacts and correlated quantization noise) generally favor using dither, so
it’s best to leave this option enabled.
Use Symmetric Dithering Enables symmetric dithering. In most cases, it’s best to leave
this option selected. If unselected, a DC offset of one-half sample is added each time data
is dithered. Symmetric dithering has just as many samples added above zero as below zero.
By contrast, nonsymmetric dithering just toggles between 0 and 1. Sometimes in a final
dither, this may be desired to reduce the bit range of the dither. However, both methods
produce identical audible results in every respect.
Smooth Delete And Cut Boundaries Smooths Cut and Delete operations at the splicing
point, preventing audible clicks at these locations.
Smooth All Edit Boundaries By Crossfading Automatically applies a crossfade to the
starting and ending boundaries of the selection. This option smooths any abrupt transitions at these endpoints, thus preventing audible clicks when filtering small portions of
audio. You can enter a value (in milliseconds) in the crossfade time box to specify the
crossfade duration to be applied.
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Auto-Convert Settings For Paste When pasting different sample formats, Adobe Audition
uses these settings when auto-converting the clipboard to the current sample format. Valid
settings range from 30 to 1000.
• Downsampling Quality Level: Enter a value (30 to 1000) for downsampling quality.
Higher values retain more high frequencies while still preventing the aliasing of higher
frequencies to lower ones. A lower quality setting requires less processing time, but
results in certain high frequencies being rolled off, leading to muffled-sounding audio.
Because the filter’s cutoff slope is much steeper at higher quality settings, the chance of
ringing at high frequencies is greater. Usually values between 80 and 400 do a great job
for most conversion needs. The default value is 80.
• Pre-Filter: To prevent any chance of aliasing, the pre-filter on downsampling removes
all frequencies above the Nyquist limit, thus keeping them from generating false
frequencies at the low end of the spectrum. In general, select this option for best results.
• Upsampling Quality Level: Enter a value (30 to 1000) for upsampling quality. Higher
values retain more high frequencies while still preventing the aliasing of higher
frequencies to lower ones. A lower quality setting requires less processing time but
results in certain high frequencies being rolled off, leading to muffled-sounding audio.
Because the filter’s cutoff slope is much steeper at higher quality settings, the chance of
ringing at high frequencies is greater. Usually values between 100 and 400 do a great job
for most conversion needs. The default value is 120.
You should use a higher value whenever you downsample from a high sample rate to a low
rate. For upsampling, a lower value produces quality almost identical to a higher value.
The difference lies in the larger phase shift that exists at higher frequencies, but since the phase
shift is completely linear, it’s very difficult to notice. Downsampling, at even the lowest values,
generally doesn't introduce any undesired noisy artifacts. Instead, the sound might be slightly
muffled because of the increased high-end filtering.
• Post-Filter: To prevent any chance of aliasing, the post-filter on upsampling removes all
frequencies above the Nyquist limit, thus keeping them from generating false
frequencies at the low end of the spectrum. In general, select this option for best results.
Dither Amount For Saving 32-Bit Data To 16-Bit Files Enables dithering when pasting
32-bit audio to 16-bit. The default value of 1 (bit) enables dithering, while a value of 0
disables dithering. For semi-dithering, choose a value of 0.5.
With dithering, you get almost 24-bit sample performance in only 16 bits, as the dynamic
range is increased by another 10 dB or so. This allows signals as quiet as –105 dB.
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Allow For Partially Processed Data After Canceling Effect Determines what happens after
you click the Cancel button while in the middle of applying an effect to a waveform. When
selected, Adobe Audition leaves the effect applied to all data processed up until the point
you clicked Cancel. When deselected, Adobe Audition automatically removes the effect on
already processed data when you click Cancel.
Multitrack options
The Multitrack tab in the Settings dialog box provides options that let you optimize
performance during recording, playback, and mixdown.
Playback Buffer Size Determines the buffer size (in seconds) used when sending data to
your sound card when playing back a multitrack session. Different sound card drivers may
require different memory buffer size settings. Adobe Audition’s default settings should
work fine for most sound cards. If you hear choppiness (skips or dropouts) in multitrack
playback, adjust the buffer size. (Choppiness in multitrack playback can also be attributed
to the background mixing process not being far enough ahead). A larger buffer size
requires more computer memory. The default setting is 1.
Playback Buffers Specifies the number of buffers Adobe Audition uses for playback in
the multitrack environment. If you experience break-up in your audio, try reducing the
number of buffers. Increasing this number might also be helpful for some configurations.
The default setting is 10.
Recording Buffer Size Reserves memory for recording in a multitrack session by entering
a buffer size (in seconds). Different sound card drivers may require different memory
buffer size settings. Adobe Audition’s default settings should work fine for most sound
cards. If you experience dropouts while recording in multitrack (especially when playback
seems fine), try increasing this setting. (First, be sure the background mixing process is
sufficiently complete when you go to record as this may cause the same symptom.) A
larger buffer size requires more computer memory. The default setting is 2 seconds.
Recording Buffers Specifies the number of buffers used for recording in the multitrack
environment. If you experience break-ups in your audio, try reducing the number of buffers.
Increasing this number may also help for some configurations. The default setting is 10.
Background Mixing Priority Specifies the priority level of the background mixing process
in a multitrack session. Lower values indicate a higher level of priority above other system
events. You can use fractional numbers (such as 0.8). The default setting is 2.
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Open Order Determines the order in which Adobe Audition opens a sound card’s playback
(in) and record (out) ports for use in the multitrack environment. This order is relevant
only for older sound cards that don’t support full-duplex capability.
Start Order Determines the order in which Adobe Audition starts a sound card’s playback
(in) and record (out) ports for use in the multitrack environment. This order is relevant
only for older sound cards that don’t support full-duplex capability.
Correct For Drift In Recordings Synchronizes the master audio playback device (generally,
the first Out device listed in the session—the one on Track 1) and the record device of the
waveform being recorded. If the true sample rates on the cards differ enough that the
recording would have drifted out of sync with the original if both were played back at
exactly the same sample rate, then the recording is corrected by resampling to make it the
proper length. This option only works with new record tracks, not with recording on top
of existing waveforms, or punch-ins.
Note: On sound cards that support sample accurate devices (that is, synchronized device
starting, and all devices keyed off of the same clock) you don’t need to select this option. This
option allows for some measure of near sample-accurate synchronization across different
sound cards, or when using with a single sound card that doesn’t use the same clock for
playback and recording (which is common in consumer and other low-end sound cards).
Correct For Start Sync In Recordings Compares the exact true time that the record device
started with the time the master playback device started. If different, the recorded block’s
position is adjusted so the recording starts in perfect sync with the playback. This option
only works with new record tracks, not with recording on top of existing waveforms, or
punch-ins.
If this option is enabled, and you do a loopback test (by connecting the audio Out to the
audio In and recording some ticks) and each recording is still a fixed amount out of sync,
then you can adjust for this by entering this amount (in milliseconds) in the Latency field of
Options > Device Properties for the recording device being used. To compute milliseconds,
look at the difference in samples, multiply by 1000, and then divide by the sample rate. For
instance, if the recording consistently appears 27 samples ahead of the playback, the latency
would be 27 x 1000 / 44,100, or about 0.61 milliseconds. (The reason for the milliseconds
format and not samples is because at various sample rates this latency will be different in
terms of samples, but will be the same in terms of milliseconds.)
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Note: On sound cards that support sample accurate devices (that is, synchronized device starting,
and all devices keyed off of the same clock) you don’t need to select this option. This option allows
for some measure of near sample-accurate synchronization across different sound cards or a
situation where a single sound card uses different clocks for playback and recording. (This
situation is common for consumer and other low-end sound cards.)
Delete Old Takes After Merging Automatically deletes any unused takes created during a
punch-in when you select a take. If you don’t select this option, unused takes remain
available to the Session (in the Insert menu) and occupy hard drive space.
Crossfade Time Determines the amount of time (in milliseconds) over which crossfading
occurs when a take created using punch-in is merged back into the surrounding waveform.
Mixdowns Determines the bit-resolution that is used when performing a mixdown.
Regardless of the session format (16-bit or 32-bit), you can generate mixdowns at either
16-bit or 32-bit quality with this option. The default is 16-bit. Click Dithering Option to
specify how to dither the 16-bit mixdown.
Track Record Specifies how waveforms are created when recording directly into the Multi-
track View: as mono or stereo, and as 16-bit or 32-bit.
Pre-Mixing Determines the bit size used for the background mixing process. Best quality
is achieved by leaving this at the default 32-bit setting. However, if you’re using multiple
sound cards, it may be advantageous and faster to choose 16-bit for pre-mixing, as less
data will be transferred across the hard drives. For single output device situations, or faster
hard drives, 32-bit is better as it provides optimization at mixdown.
Panning Mode Specifies the method used for panning waveforms in a multitrack session.
• L/R Cut (log): Pans left by reducing the volume of the right channel, and pans right by
reducing the left channel volume. The channel being panned to doesn’t increase in
volume as panning gets closer to 100%.
• Equal-power Sine: Pans left and right channels with equal power, so a hard pan left will
contain the same loudness as both channels together. This results in an increase of 3 dB
RMS on the channel being panned to when at 100%.
Note: Because panning can actually make one channel louder than the original waveform,
audible clipping can occur in 16-bit sessions. To avoid this, work in the 32-bit realm if you’re
using the Equal-power Sine panning method.
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Auto Zero-Cross Edits Automatically adjusts the beginning and end points of all Cut,
Copy, and Paste-type edits to the nearest place where the waveform crosses the center line
(zero amplitude point).
If the amplitudes aren’t lined up on both sides of the selection, the endpoints are at
different amplitudes. This often results in an audible pop or click at that point.
Smooth Auto-Scrolling During Playback Enables smooth scrolling when playing back
audio in Multitrack View. By default Adobe Audition uses a paging method of scrolling in
Multitrack View instead of the smooth scrolling technique used in Edit View. This saves
on system resources.
Save Locked Track Files After Closing Sessions Saves the temporary files associated with
locked tracks. When you reopen the session, Adobe Audition uses the temporary file
instead of mixing down the locked tracks.
SMTPE options
The SMTPE tab in the Settings dialog box provides options for adjusting the settings for
incoming SMTPE timecode. For more information, see “Setting up for SMPTE synchronization” on page 40.
Managing temporary files
When you edit a file, Adobe Audition converts the audio data into an internal, temporary
waveform. This process allows for quicker editing, better handling of large files, and the
ability to undo changes. You can specify the folders where you want Adobe Audition to
save temporary files and customize Undo options in the System tab of the Settings dialog
box. (See “Setting Adobe Audition preferences” on page 43.)
One advantage to using temporary files is virtually unlimited waveform sizes, since the
maximum waveform size depends only on the size of your hard drive. The drawback, of
course, is that the temporary file can get extremely large, potentially preventing you from
being able to save a masterpiece on the same drive. If you notice long delays between edits
or stuttering sounds on playback, you may be running out of free disk space in which to
save the temporary file. In this case, you can use the Manage Temporary Folder Reserve
Space dialog box to delete temporary files you’re not using, clear specific Undo items, and
change the amount of reserve space. This dialog box automatically appears when available
hard drive space nears zero kilobytes.
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A
B
C
Manage Temporary Folder Reserve Space dialog box
A. Open waveforms B. Undo items for the selected waveform C. Location of primary and
secondary temporary folders
Use the Status Bar to monitor the amount of free disk space. (See “Using the status bar”
on page 21).
Adobe Audition doesn’t create a temporary file for a waveform until you edit the waveform.
However, you can force Adobe Audition to create a temporary file by using the Flush
Virtual File command. This is useful when you need to use a waveform simultaneously in
Adobe Audition and another application.
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To manage temporary folder reserve space:
1 Choose File > Manage Temporary Folder Reserve Space.
2 Do any of the following:
• To close a temporary file you’re no longer using, select the file in the Waveform list, and
click Close File. (The currently active waveform can’t be closed this way, however.)
• To clear Undo items for a file, select the file in the Waveform list. The Undo History list
displays the actions that are currently being retained on your system and the amount of
hard drive space each instance consumes. Select an item and click Clear Undo(s). All
items at the selected level and below are removed.
• To change the amount of space you want to keep free on the drives where the temporary
files reside, enter a value in the Reserve text box, and click Set New Reserves.
• To stop any action in progress, such as the application of an effect or any other edit, click
Cancel Last Operation. This option is useful only if the dialog box automatically
appeared because you ran out of storage space.
If Adobe Audition crashes, there may be a temp file (CEPx*.tmp) in your temporary
folder that you should manually delete.
To force Adobe Audition to create a temporary file for the current waveform:
In Edit View, choose File > Flush Virtual File.
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61
Chapter 3: Importing,
Recording, and Playing Audio
Y
ou can bring audio into Adobe Audition by importing it from an audio or video file
or by recording it from an external source, such as a microphone or a computer’s
CD player. When you play back the audio, Adobe Audition provides an assortment
of features for monitoring the sound.
Opening audio files and multitrack sessions
Both Edit View and Multitrack View provide a variety of methods for opening files. In Edit
View, you can open audio files; in Multitrack View, you can open session files.
Opening audio files in Edit View
In Edit View, you can open audio from a variety of audio file formats, including MP3,
WAV, and AIFF. For more information on supported file formats, see “Choosing an audio
file format” on page 231.
If desired, you can change the sample type of the audio when you import it or append the
audio to the end of the current waveform. Whichever method you choose for opening
files, Adobe Audition provides options that let you preview the contents of files before you
open them.
To open an audio file:
1 In Edit View, choose File > Open. Alternatively, click the Open button
or the Import button
in the Files tab of the Organizer window.
in the toolbar
2 Locate and select the file you want to open. To select multiple, adjacent files, click the
first file and Shift-click the last. To select multiple, nonadjacent files, Ctrl-click them.
Note: If you don’t see the name of the file you want, choose All Supported Media from the Files
Of Type menu. If you still don’t see the file, it might be stored in a format that Adobe Audition
can’t read.
3 Click Open.
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To preview the contents of a selected file:
Do any of the following:
• Click Play to listen to the file once.
• Select Loop to repeat the file until you click Stop.
• Click Auto Play to play files automatically when you select them.
To append an audio file to the current waveform:
1 In Edit View, choose File > Open Append.
If the new audio has a different sample rate, resolution, or channel type than the current
waveform, Adobe Audition converts it to match the current waveform. For the best results,
append files that have the same sample rate as the waveform.
2 Locate and select the file you want to open. To select multiple, adjacent files, click the
first file and then Shift-click the last. To select multiple, nonadjacent files, Ctrl-click them.
3 Click Open.
To convert audio to a different sample rate, resolution, or channel type during import:
1 In Edit View, choose File > Open As.
2 Locate and select the file you want to open, and click Open.
3 Set the desired options in the Open File(s) As dialog box, and click OK:
Sample Rate Determines how many frequencies can be encoded in the audio signal.
(Higher sampling rates mean wider bandwidth.) For more information, see “About
sample rates” on page 110.
Channels Determines if the waveform is mono or stereo. Select Mono to create a
waveform with just one channel of audio information. This option works well for a voiceonly recording. Select Stereo to create a two-channel waveform with separate right and left
channels. This option is usually best for a music recording. Because they contain twice as
much data, stereo waveforms consume twice the storage space of mono waveforms.
Resolution Determines the number of unique amplitude levels Adobe Audition can use
to represent a sound. The 32-bit level is best while you work in Adobe Audition, and you
convert down for output if necessary.
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Note: Older sound cards might not be able to play 32-bit files properly. To check the capabilities of your sound card, choose Options > Device Properties. If your sound card doesn’t
support 32-bit files, you can convert the files to a lower bit rate (such as 16-bit) for playback.
Opening session files in Multitrack View
Session files contain no audio data themselves. Instead, they are small files that point to
other audio files on the hard drive. A session file keeps track of what files are a part of the
session, where they go in the multitrack, what envelopes and effects are applied to the
tracks, and so on. For more information on creating session files, see “Creating new
sessions” on page 162.
In Multitrack View, you can open individual session files and you can append one session
to another to quickly build elaborate compositions with shared themes. When you append
sessions, appended tracks appear below current tracks. For example, if the current session
uses tracks 1-4, Adobe Audition appends tracks 5 and greater and places them at the
beginning of the timeline. If desired, you can then move clips in appended tracks to a new
position. (See “Selecting and moving clips” on page 168.)
Note: You can append a session only if it uses the same sample rate and bit depth as the current
session. The sample rate and bit depth of the current session is displayed in the status bar.
To open a session file:
1 In Multitrack View, choose File > Open Session. Alternatively, click the Open button
in the toolbar.
2 Locate and select the file you want to open, and click Open.
To append a session file to the end of the current session:
1 In Multitrack View, choose File > Append To Session.
2 Locate and select the file you want to open, and click Open.
Inserting audio files into multitrack sessions
When you insert an audio file in Multitrack View, the file becomes an audio clip on the
selected track. For more information about audio clips, see “Working with clips” on
page 168.
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To insert an audio file into a multitrack session:
1 In Multitrack View, position the current-time indicator at the desired insertion point.
2 Select the desired track.
3 Do one of the following:
• Choose Insert > Audio, select the audio file, and click Open. To preview the contents of
a selected file, click Play to listen to the file once, or click Auto Play to play the file
automatically when you select it. Select Loop to repeat the file until you click Stop.
• Choose Insert, and select the name of a recently opened waveform from the submenu.
• Choose Insert > File/Cue List. A window appears that lists all of the files that are
currently open in Edit View. If a file has cues in it, a plus sign (+) appears next to its
name to let you expand that file and see all the cue ranges in it. Click the file or cue you
want to insert. Alternatively, drag the file or cue into the track display.
• Select one or more files in the Files tab of the Organizer window, and click the Insert
Into Multitrack button . If you select multiple files, each is inserted into a separate
track. This method lets you insert a file into a session without leaving Edit View. (See
“Organizing files” on page 24.)
Note: If the audio file is longer than the space available on the selected track, Adobe Audition
inserts the new clip on the nearest empty track.
Importing audio from CD
If you want to import audio into Adobe Audition from a CD, you can digitally extract it
or record it internally. Digital extraction is the recommended method because it produces
higher-quality audio than internal recording. Only use internal recording if your CD-ROM
drive doesn’t support digital extraction.
Extracting tracks from CDs
If your computer’s CD-ROM drive supports audio digital extraction (also known as
ripping), you can extract tracks from audio CDs. Once the audio is in Adobe Audition, you
can edit it like any other waveform. Of course, if the CD is a typical read-only compact
disc, you won’t be able to save those changes back to CD. Instead, save modified CD tracks
to a hard disk or burn them onto a new CD.
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Adobe Audition provides two methods for ripping tracks from CDs: using the Open
command and using the Extract Audio From CD command. Using the Open command is
the quickest method and is preferred for ripping entire tracks. Using the Extract Audio
From CD command gives you more control, such as the abilities to rip partial tracks and
specify the ripping process used.
To extract tracks from a CD by using the Open command:
1 Place an audio CD in the computer’s CD-ROM drive.
2 In Edit View, choose File > Open.
3 Choose CD Digital Audio (*.cda) as the file type, and navigate to the computer’s
CD-ROM drive.
4 Select the tracks you want to rip, and click Open.
To extract tracks from a CD by using the Extract Audio From CD command:
1 Place an audio CD in the computer’s CD-ROM drive.
2 In Edit View or CD Project View, choose File > Extract Audio From CD.
3 For Device, choose the drive that contains the audio CD.
4 For Source Selection, do one of the following:
• Select Track to extract one or more complete CD tracks. A list of all tracks on the CD
appears, along with their lengths stated in Min:Sec:Frame format. (Each second of CD
audio has 75 frames.)
• Select Time to extract part of a track or a segment of audio that spans multiple tracks.
Enter the beginning frame in the Start box, and the total number of frames you wish to
extract in the Length box. (Each second of CD audio has 75 frames.) The actual start
and length times appear in Min:Sec:Frame format above their respective boxes. The
Range bar provides a graphical representation of how much audio will be extracted and
where the audio appears within the CD. However, if you select only a short bit of audio
to extract, you might not see any change in the Range bar.
The Time option is great for pulling hidden tracks from CDs, as well as for joining
tracks that have been broken up by track indexes (such as performance track CDs and
live albums).
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5 For Interface Option, choose Generic Win32 or ASPI/SPTI. In most cases, ASPI/SPTI
is the best choice. Select Generic Win32 only if the ASPI/SPTI option doesn’t produce
satisfactory results. The Generic Win32 option causes the Extract Audio From CD feature
to use Input/Output control codes instead of SCSI commands.
For more information, see “Extract Audio From CD options” in Help.
6 For Error Correction, CDDA Accurate is automatically selected if the CD-ROM drive
has built-in ripping error correction. For these types of drives, no error correction is
needed, so you won’t be able to select any options from this part of the Extract Audio From
CD dialog box.
However, if your drive isn’t CDDA Accurate, you have access to No Correction and Jitter
Correction options. No Correction, as you’d expect, means that no error correction will
be performed. Jitter Correction compensates for data reading problems that older drives
might have.
7 To listen to the selected tracks before extracting them, click Preview.
8 To save the settings for future use, save a preset. (See “Using presets” on page 28.)
9 After you finish setting options, click OK.
Extract Audio From CD options
If you select ASPI/SPTI in the Extract Audio from CD dialog box, set the following options
as desired:
Read Method Lets you choose the way Adobe Audition reads CD audio. Several methods
are provided, many of them developed before the SCSI 3 specifications were published.
(The SCSI 2 specs don’t accommodate CD ripping.)
• MMC – Read CD is a SCSI 3-specific setting, and it works with most all recent drives.
If you have a newer CD-ROM drive, try this setting first.
• SBC – Read10 is a standard SCSI read setting that uses a 10-byte SRB (SCSI Request
Block). All SCSI devices are required to support this setting.
• SBC – Read6 is a standard SCSI read setting that uses a 6-byte SRB (SCSI Request
Block). Many SCSI devices support this setting, but because it’s optional, not all do.
• Plextor (D8) sends the D8 SCSI Op Code to the CD-ROM drive. Use this setting with
older Plextor CD-ROM drives.
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• D5 sends the D5 SCSI Op Code to the CD-ROM drive.
• NEC works with older NEC CD-ROM drives.
CD Speed Lists all extraction speeds that the selected CD-ROM drive supports and lets
you specify the speed you want to use. The Max (Maximum) Speed option usually
produces satisfactory results, but if it produces errors, specify a slower speed.
Buffer Size Specifies how much data Adobe Audition calls into the CD Extraction module
to fetch, therefore determining how much data is pulled from the CD in each call to the
read command. The default is 16 KB, but you can experiment with other sizes (which
range all the way to the highest buffer size the CD-ROM drive supports). Although higher
sizes mean faster ripping, they could introduce errors into the ripped file.
Swap Byte Order Changes the byte order from Little Endian to Big Endian, or vice-versa.
Some CD-ROM drives designed to work only with other types of computers (like DEC
and Macintosh systems) report data by using the Little Endian byte order, while PCs use
the Big Endian method. Normally, you should leave this box unchecked; check it only if
the extraction process seems to work fine but the audio results are “garbage.”
Swap Channels Places the left channel of a CD’s audio in the right channel of the Wave
Display, and places the right channel of the audio in the Wave Display’s left channel.
Spin Up Before Extraction Causes the CD-ROM drive to start spinning before Adobe
Audition extracts the data. Some CD-ROM drives have better accuracy if they first read
the CD after the drive is spinning. Selecting this option for other drives, however, doesn’t
provide any advantage.
Recording from CDs internally
If you have an older CD-ROM drive that doesn’t support digital extraction, or if you have
problems ripping a track into Adobe Audition, then you can record from a CD in real-time
through the sound card on your computer. This method is called internal recording. Keep
in mind that not all PC's have an analog cable from a CD drive, and not all computers react
the same way when recording from CD internally. As a result, this method is never
preferable to extracting from CD digitally.
Before you record from a CD internally, you should always preview the CD Audio input
level to make sure that clipping won’t occur.
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To preview the CD Audio input level:
1 Open your favorite third-party CD player application (such as Windows Media Player).
2 Start playing the loudest part of the CD. Then, switch to Adobe Audition, and choose
Options > Monitor Record Level.
3 Use the Level Meters in Adobe Audition to monitor the amplitude of the incoming
signal. You want the input level to be as loud as possible without exceeding 0 dB. If the
input level exceeds 0 dB, clipping occurs.(See “Monitoring recording and playback levels”
on page 79.)
4 If you need to adjust the CD Audio input level, choose Options > Windows Recording
Mixer to open the Windows Recording Control panel. Adjust the CD Audio input level as
desired.
5 After you finish monitoring the input level, choose Options > Monitor Record Level.
To record from a CD internally:
1 In Edit View, create a new file.
2 Click the Record button
.
3 Start the desired track in your CD player application.
4 When desired, stop recording in both Adobe Audition and the CD player application.
Setting the current-time indicator
The current-time indicator is a vertical, dotted line in the display window. You set the
current-time indicator in order to start playback or recording at a specific point in a
waveform.
When you work with multiple files in Edit View, you can use the Synchronize Cursor Across
Windows command to retain the position of the current-time indicator between files. This
command is useful if you switch between different versions of the same waveform during
editing. In Multitrack View, you can use the Synchronize Clips With Edit View command to
maintain the position of the current-time indicator when you switch between Multitrack
View and Edit View.
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Current-time indicator
To set the current-time indicator:
Do one of the following in the display window:
• Click exactly where you want to set the current time.
• Position the pointer over the triangle above or below the current-time indicator. (This
triangle is the current-time indicator’s handle.) Drag the handle to the desired position
in the timeline.
After you set the current-time indicator, you can save it as a cue for later reference. For
more information, see “Working with cues” on page 96.
To synchronize the current-time indicator between waveforms:
In Edit View, choose Options > Synchronize Cursor Across Windows.
To synchronize the current-time indicator between Multitrack View and Edit View:
In Multitrack View, choose Options > Synchronize Clips With Edit View.
Monitoring time
Adobe Audition provides several features to help you monitor time during recording and
playback. The playback cursor—a vertical, white line that appears in the display window—
shows you the current time in the waveform. The Time window shows the current time in
numerical format. The default display format is mm:ss:ddd (minutes:seconds:thousandths
of a second), but you can easily change it. The display format is also used by the timeline
along the bottom of the display window.
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A
B
C
Features that help you monitor time
A. Playback cursor B. Timeline C. Time window
To display the Time window:
Do one of the following:
• Choose Window > Time. A check mark indicates that the window is visible.
• Click the Hide/Show Time Window button
in the View toolbar. (See “Using
toolbars” on page 13.)
If you don’t like the default location of the Time window, you can reposition it or detach
it so it floats above the main window. (See “Using windows” on page 14.)
To change the time display format:
Choose View > Display Time Format, and choose the desired option:
• Decimal (mm:ss.ddd) displays time in minutes, seconds, and thousandths of a second.
• Compact Disc 75 fps displays time in the same format utilized by audio compact discs,
where each second equals 75 frames.
• SMPTE 30 fps displays time in the SMPTE format, where each second equals 30 frames.
• SMPTE Drop (29.97 fps) displays time in the SMPTE drop-frame format, where each
second equals 29.97 frames.
• SMPTE 29.97 fps displays time in the SMPTE non-drop-frame format, where each
second equals 29.97 frames.
• SMPTE 25 fps (EBU) displays time using the standard European frame rate, where each
second equals 25 frames.
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• SMPTE 24 fps (Film) displays time in a format where each second equals 24 frames,
suitable for film.
• Samples displays time numerically, using as a reference the actual number of samples
that have passed since the beginning of the edited file.
• Bars and Beats displays time in a musical measures format of bars:beats:ticks. To adjust
the settings, choose Edit Tempo. For more information, see “Calculating the tempo of
selected ranges” on page 199.
• Custom (X frames/sec) displays time in a custom format. To modify a custom format,
choose Edit Custom Time Format, enter a number of frames per second for Custom
Time Code Display, and click OK.
Using the transport controls
Just like many hardware-based audio recording and playback devices, Adobe Audition
provides transport controls for playing, recording, stopping, pausing, fast forwarding, and
rewinding waveforms and sessions.
Right-click the transport control buttons to set options for playing, recording, fast
forwarding, and rewinding audio.
Transport controls
To show or hide the transport controls:
Do one of the following:
• Choose Window > Transport Controls. A check mark indicates that the controls are
visible.
• Click the Hide/Show Transport Controls button
in the View toolbar. (See “Using
toolbars” on page 13.)
If you don’t like the default location of the transport controls, you can reposition them or
detach them so they float above the main window. (See “Using windows” on page 14.)
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Recording audio
You can record audio from a microphone or any signal you can plug into the Line In port
of a sound card.
Note: You may need to adjust the input signal to obtain the optimum recording and signal-tonoise levels. (See “Adjusting a sound card’s levels” on page 82.)
By default, Adobe Audition displays waveforms in real time while recording. However, if
the recorded audio is choppy, deselect Live Update During Recording in the General tab
of the Settings dialog box. (See “Setting Adobe Audition preferences” on page 43.)
Recording audio in Edit View
In Edit View, you can record audio into a new file or over existing audio. You can also
disable the Record button so you don’t start recording accidentally.
To record in Edit View:
1 Do one of the following:
• Create a new file. (See “Creating new audio files” on page 84.)
• In an existing file, place the current-time indicator where you want to start recording.
(See “Setting the current-time indicator” on page 68.)
2 Click the Record button
3 Click the Stop button
to begin recording.
to stop recording.
To disable the Record button:
Right-click the Record button, and choose Disable Record Button. Repeat to reenable the
button.
Using timed record mode
Use timed record mode to set start and stop times for recording. You can specify a maximum
recording time and you can set a time for recording to start and stop automatically.
To enable or disable timed record mode:
Choose File > Timed Record Mode. Alternatively, right-click the Record button, and
choose Timed Record Mode. A check mark indicates that timed record mode is enabled.
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To set start and stop times for recording:
1 Enable timed record mode.
2 Click the Record button
.
3 Specify the maximum recording time:
• Select No Time Limit to record until you click the Stop button (or until disk space
runs out).
• Select Recording Length to record for the duration you specify in the Recording
Length box.
4 Specify when to start recording:
• Select Right Away to begin recording as soon as you click OK.
• Select Time/Date to begin recording at a time you specify (for example, to have Adobe
Audition capture a radio broadcast at a certain time). Enter the starting time and date
in the appropriate text boxes, and set the desired time and date options.
5 Click OK.
Recording audio in Multitrack View
In Multitrack View, you can record audio on multiple tracks by overdubbing. When you
overdub tracks, you can hear previously recorded tracks and play along with them to
create sophisticated, layered compositions.
Each recording becomes a new audio clip on a track. If you are unsatisfied with a section
of a recorded clip, you can select that section and punch in a new recording—leaving the
remainder of the original clip intact. For particularly important or difficult sections, you
can punch in multiple takes (different versions), and then select the take with the best
performance.
A take created with the Punch In command
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To record a new clip in a track:
1 In the track controls area for the track, click the In 1 button, select the desired input of
your sound card, and then click OK.
2 Click the Record-enable button
for the track.
3 To simultaneously record on multiple tracks, repeat steps 1-2 for each track.
4 Position the current-time indicator at the desired starting point for recording, or select
the range where you want to record the clip.
5 Click the Record button
6 Click the Stop button
to begin recording.
to stop recording.
To record in a loop:
1 Specify the input source, track, and starting point (or range) for recording, as described
in the previous procedure.
2 Right-click the Record button
, and choose one of the following options:
• Loop While Recording (View or Sel) to loop when the cursor reaches the end of the
viewable range of track. If a range is selected, looping occurs when the cursor reaches
the end of the range.
• Loop While Recording (Entire or Sel) to loop when the cursor reaches the end of the
track. If a range is selected, looping occurs when the cursor reaches the end of the range.
3 Click the Record button
4 Click the Stop button
to begin recording.
to stop recording.
If you use either of the Loop While Recording options for punching in audio, a new take
is created with each loop.
To punch into a range of a clip:
1 In the track display, select the range of the clip.
2 Choose Edit > Punch In.
3 Position the current-time indicator a few seconds prior to the selected range.
4 In the Transport Controls window, click the Record button
5 To punch in multiple takes, repeat step 4 for each take.
.
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Note: You can't punch into a loop-enabled clip. For information about disabling loops, see
“Setting impermanent loop properties in Multitrack View” on page 202.
To select from multiple takes in a clip:
1 Select the clip.
2 Choose Edit > Take History, and then select the desired take.
To merge a selected take into a clip:
Choose Edit > Take History > Merge This Take (Destructive).
Note: Merging destructively adds a 30 millisecond crossfade at take edges.
To delete a selected take:
Choose Edit > Take History > Delete This Take.
Playing audio
Adobe Audition provides several ways to play audio, including using the transport
controls to play the currently active file, using the Organizer window to preview files, and
using the Windows Run command to start Adobe Audition and begin playing a file.
Playing audio by using the transport controls
The transport controls provide several options for playing the currently active file. For
example, you can play just the visible section of a waveform, the duration from the
current-time indicator to the end of the file, or the entire waveform. In addition, you can
set preroll and postroll options to play a selection with just a bit of audio preceding or
following it.
To start playback without using the transport controls, press the space bar. Press the
space bar again to stop playback.
To play a range of audio:
Select the range you want to play, and click the Play button
window.
in the Transport Controls
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To play from the current-time indicator to the end of the current view:
Set the current-time indicator where you want playback to start, and click the Play button
in the Transport Controls window.
To play from the current-time indicator to the end of the file:
Set the current-time indicator where you want playback to start, and click the Play To End
button
in the Transport Controls window.
To play the visible portion of the file:
Right-click the Play button or Play To End button, and choose Play View. Then click the
button again to start playback.
To play an entire file:
Right-click the Play button or Play To End button, and choose Play Entire File. Then click
the button again to start playback.
To loop audio during playback:
Do one of the following:
• To play the currently-visible portion of the audio in a continuous loop, click the Play
Looped button
in the Transport Controls window.
• To loop the entire waveform or session (or just the selected range), right-click the Play
Looped button and choose Play Entire (or Selection). Then click the button again to
start playback.
Note: By default, the display window scrolls in sync with playback that extends beyond the
visible section of a waveform. In the General tab of the Settings dialog box, you can set options
for auto-scrolling or you can disable this feature. (See “Setting Adobe Audition preferences”
on page 43.)
Using preroll and postroll during playback (Edit View only)
In Edit View, you can play back the audio just before and after a selected range. This audio
is known as preroll and postroll. Playing preroll and postroll is useful for fine-tuning selections and listening to transitions without destroying a selection. By default, the duration
of preroll and postroll is one second; however, you can adjust this duration to best meet
your needs.
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To play a selected range of audio with preroll and postroll:
1 In Edit View, right-click the Play button or the Play To End button
in the
Transport Controls window, and choose one of the following options: Play Preroll and
Postroll, Play Preroll and Selection, Play Postroll, or Play Preroll, Postroll, and Selection
2 Click the button again to start playback.
You can also use keyboard shortcuts to play preroll and postroll. For information on
specific keyboard shortcuts, “Keys for playing audio” on page 263.
To set a duration for preroll and postroll:
1 In Edit View, right-click the Play button
Transport Controls window.
or the Play To End button
in the
2 Choose Preroll and Postroll Options.
3 In the Edit View–Play section of the Preroll and Postroll Options dialog box, specify a
duration for preroll and postroll.
4 Click OK.
Previewing audio by using the Organizer window
The Files tab in the Organizer window provides several play options that make it easy to
preview loops and other files. These options are particularly handy when you work in
Multitrack View because they let you preview loops at the session tempo. For more information on using the Files tab in the Organizer window, see “Organizing files” on page 24.
To preview a file:
1 Make sure that the advanced options—including the preview and sorting controls—
appear in the Files tab of the Organizer window. If they don’t, click the Advanced Options
button
at the top of the Files tab.
2 Select the file you want to preview, and then click the Play button . Click the Stop
button to stop the preview. Use the volume slider to adjust the volume of the preview.
To enable auto-play:
Click the Auto-play button on the Files tab. Adobe Audition automatically previews files
you select. To disable auto-play, click the Auto-play button again.
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To preview a file at the session tempo (Multitrack View only):
In Multitrack View, select Follow Session on the Files tab, and then click the Play button
or enable auto-play, and select a file.
Note: Only files that are loop-enabled can be previewed at the session tempo. Loop-enabled
files are identified with a loop icon in the Files tab.
To enable continuous loop preview:
Click the Loop button on the Files tab, and then click the Play button or enable autoplay, and select a file. To disable continuous loop preview, click the Loop button again.
Playing audio by using the Windows Run command
You can start Adobe Audition and begin playing a file by using the Windows Run command.
Before using the command, make sure that Auto-Play On Command-Line Load in the
General tab of the Settings dialog box is selected. (See “Setting Adobe Audition preferences”
on page 43.)
To play audio from the command line:
In the Windows Run dialog box, type the following text, and click OK:
" [dr ive]:\Pro g r am Files\Adobe\Audit ion 1.5\Audit ion.exe" " [ pa th to fi le ] "
For example, type the following to play the TalkBackVerb loop file:
"c:\Pro g r am Files\Adobe\Audit ion 1.5\Audit ion.exe" "c:\Pro g r am
Files\Adobe\Audit ion 1.5\Audit ion Theme\TalkBackVer b. ce l"
Stopping, pausing, and adjusting the playback cursor
The transport controls provide buttons for stop recording and playback, pausing
recording and playback, and adjusting the playback cursor.
To stop playback without using the transport controls, press the spacebar. Press the
spacebar again to start playback.
To stop playing or recording audio:
Click the Stop button
in the Transport Controls window.
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To pause playing or recording audio:
Click the Pause button in the Transport Controls window. Click the Pause button again
to resume playback or recording.
To adjust the playback cursor:
Click one of the following buttons in the Transport Controls window:
• The Go to Beginning button
places the playback cursor at the beginning of the
waveform or session.
• The Rewind button
shuttles the playback cursor backward in time. This function
supports scrubbing, meaning that on some sound cards, the audio file plays back at a
lower volume as the playback cursor shuttles over the waveform or session.
Right-click the Rewind button to set the rate at which the cursor moves.
• The Fast Forward button
shuttles the playback cursor forward in time. This
function supports scrubbing, meaning that on some sound cards, the audio file plays
back at a lower volume as the playback cursor shuttles over the waveform or session.
Right-click the Fast Forward button to set the rate at which the cursor moves.
• The Go to End button
places the playback cursor at the end of a waveform (in Edit
View) or at the end of the list clip in a session (in Multitrack View).
Monitoring recording and playback levels
Adobe Audition provides the Level Meters to help you monitor the amplitude of the signal
during recording and playback. If the amplitude is too high, clipping occurs and results in
distortion; if the amplitude is too low, the sound quality is reduced.
If you find that the signal is too high or low during recording and playback, you can adjust
the input and output levels of your sound card.
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Using the Level Meters
The Level Meters represent the incoming signal in dBFS (decibels below full scale), where
a level of 0 dB is the maximum amplitude possible before clipping occurs. Yellow peak
indicators remain for 1.5 seconds to allow for reading of the peak amplitude. If clipping
does occur, the clip indicator to the right of the meter lights up and stays on until you clear
it. When stereo audio is displayed, the top meter represents the left channel, and the
bottom represents the right.
You can customize the Level Meters in a variety of ways, such as changing the decibel
range, showing valley (minimum amplitude) indicators, and changing the mode of the
peak indicators.
Right-click the Level Meters to set metering options.
C
D
A
B
The Level Meters
A. Left channel B. Right channel C. Peak indicators D. Clip indicators
To show or hide the Level Meters:
Do one of the following:
• Choose Window > Level Meters. A check mark indicates that the Level Meters are visible.
• Click the Hide/Show Level Meters button
in the View toolbar. (See “Using toolbars”
on page 13.)
If you don’t like the default location of the Level Meters, you can reposition them or detach
them so they float above the main window. (See “Using windows” on page 14.)
To start or stop monitoring the levels of an input source:
Choose Options > Monitor Record Level, or double-click the Level Meters.
To disable or enable the Level Meters during recording or playback:
Choose Options > Show Levels On Play And Record. Disabling the Level Meters improves
performance on lower specification computers.
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To clear a clip indicator:
Click the clip indicator, or right-click the Level Meters and choose Clear Clip Indicator.
Note: The clip indicators always light up if clipping occurs, but if Adjust For DC is enabled,
the indicators light up if audio has a DC offset.
To adjust for DC offset:
Right-click the Level Meters, and choose Adjust For DC.
Many sound cards record audio with a slight DC offset, meaning that the center of the
waveform being recorded is a little above or below the center of the waveform display. This
offset can dramatically throw off the level meters since the offset amount could be interpreted as a constant sound at that volume. You should have this option enabled when
recording.
To show or hide valley indicators:
Right-click the Level Meters, and choose Show Valleys.
If the valley indicators are close to the peak indicators, the dynamic range (the difference
between the quietest and loudest sounds) is low. If they’re spread far apart, the dynamic
range is high.
To change the decibel range of the Level Meters:
Right-click the Level Meters, and choose a Range option.
To change the mode of peak indicators:
Right-click the Level Meters, and choose one of the following options:
• Dynamic Peaks causes the yellow peak level indicators to reset to a new peak level after
1.5 seconds, letting you easily see the peak amplitude “right now.” As the audio gets
quieter, the peak indicators start backing off.
• Static Peaks keeps the peak levels from being reset, letting you retain the maximum
amplitude of the signal since monitoring, playing, or recording began. The peak can still
be reset manually at any time by clearing the clip indicators (that is, by clicking the clip
indicator at the right).
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Select Static Peaks as a great way to find out how loud a song will get before you record
it. Just start monitoring levels and then play the song. After the song ends, the peak
indicators show the volume of the loudest part.
Adjusting a sound card’s levels
Adobe Audition doesn’t directly control a sound card’s record levels (input gain) and
playback levels (output volume). Instead, you can adjust these levels with the mixer application that comes with the sound card or with the mixer built into Windows. You may
need to adjust levels if recordings are too quiet (causing unwanted noise), too loud
(leading to clipped, distorted sound), or not audible when played in Adobe Audition.
To get the best sounding results, you should record audio as loud as possible without
clipping. Try to keep the loudest point somewhere between –2 dB and 0 dB when setting
the recording levels.
To adjust a sound card’s record and playback levels by using Windows:
1 Open the Windows Volume Control program.
You can usually access this program in the Programs > Accessories > Entertainment (or
Multimedia) menu of the Windows Start menu. On many systems, you can also doubleclick the speaker icon in the system tray to access the Volume Control program, which
resembles a small mixing board with vertical sliders.
2 To adjust the sound card’s playback (output) level, turn up the sliders on the Windows
mixer to the desired volume. Make sure that Mute underneath both sliders isn’t selected.
3 To adjust the sound card’s record (input) level, choose Options > Properties in Volume
Control. Select Recording and click OK. Be sure that the input source you want to use is
selected, and adjust other sliders on the Windows mixer as needed.
To quickly access the Record section of the Windows mixer, choose Options > Windows
Recording Mixer in Adobe Audition.
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83
Chapter 4: Editing Audio
dobe Audition provides a powerful and easy-to-use interface for preforming a
variety of editing tasks, such as copying, pasting, and deleting; adding and
removing silence; generating noise and tones; changing the sample type; and
adding information to audio files.
A
About editing audio
When you open an audio file in Edit View, you see the waveform display, a visual representation of the sound wave, or waveform. If you open a stereo file, the waveform for the left
channel appears at the top and the waveform for the right channel appears at the bottom.
If you open a mono file, the waveform utilizes the total height of the waveform display. The
peaks and valleys in the waveform represent positive and negative air pressure. Quiet
audio has both lower peaks and lower valleys than loud audio.
For background information on working with digital audio, see “Sound fundamentals”
on page 267.
Stereo waveform in Edit View
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Many editing tasks require that you select a precise range of a waveform. When selecting
a range, you’ll probably want to zoom in to view the waveform in more detail. (See
“Zooming” on page 17.) Adobe Audition provides a variety of ways to select audio data
precisely, such as adjusting selections to zero-crossings, finding beats, and using snapping.
(See “Selecting audio data” on page 87.)
As you edit a waveform, keep in mind that you can undo your changes until you save the
file. (See “Undoing and redoing changes” on page 22.)
Creating new audio files
The File > New command lets you create an empty audio file. Doing so is useful when you
want to paste audio into an empty file before you edit it or when you want to record audio
into a new file.
You can quickly create a new file from a selection by choosing Edit > Copy to New.
(See “Copying audio data” on page 92.)
To create a new audio file:
1 Choose File > New. Alternatively, click the New File button
in the toolbar.
2 Select a sample rate in the list, or type a custom sample rate in the text box.
The sample rate determines how many frequencies can be encoded in the audio signal.
(Higher sampling rates mean a wider bandwidth.) For more information, see “About
sample rates” on page 110.
3 Select a number of channels:
• Mono creates a waveform with just one channel of audio information. This setting is
good for voice-only recordings.
• Stereo creates a waveform with separate right and left channels. This setting is usually
best for music recordings. Because stereo waveforms contain twice as much data as
mono waveforms, they consume twice as much storage space.
4 Select a resolution, and click OK:
• 8-bit creates a waveform where quality is not much of a concern, but small file size is.
8-bit waveforms are usually fine for telephony applications or for embedded sounds in Web
pages. Although they tend to be noisier than their 16-bit counterparts, they’re half the size.
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• 16-bit produces a CD-quality waveform. This setting is suitable for most broadcast and
music recordings.
• 32-bit creates a waveform that supports the most precise audio processing, and 32-bit
is the recommended resolution for editing files in Adobe Audition. After you edit a file,
you can downsample it to 16- or 8-bit for output and achieve better results than if you
edit an 8- or a 16-bit file. (See “Changing the bit depth” on page 113.)
Note: Older sound cards might not be able to play 32-bit files properly. To check the capabilities of your sound card, choose Options > Device Properties. If your sound card doesn't
support 32-bit files, you can limit playback to 16-bits while retaining the 32-bit depth internally. (See “Setting properties for audio output devices” on page 37.)
Viewing waveforms
The waveform display in Edit View shows you a visual representation of a waveform. By
default, this representation shows the amplitude of a waveform over time. However, you
can view the frequency of a waveform over time by switching to Spectral View. You can also
control the scale with which Adobe Audition measures the amplitude or frequency of
waveforms.
Switching between Waveform View and Spectral View
The waveform display offers two ways to represent audio data: Waveform View and
Spectral View.
Waveform View and Spectral View
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• Waveform View (the default) displays a waveform as a series of positive and negative
peaks. The x-axis (horizontal ruler) represents time, and the y-axis (vertical ruler)
measures spikes, or increased amplitude, in a waveform.”
• Spectral View displays a waveform by its frequency components, where the x-axis repre-
sents time and the y-axis (vertical ruler) measures frequency. This view lets you analyze
audio data to see which frequencies are most prevalent. The greater a signal’s amplitude
component within a specific frequency range, the brighter the displayed color. Colors
range from dark blue (meaning that the frequencies are very low in amplitude) to bright
yellow (meaning that the frequencies are high in amplitude).
To switch between Waveform View and Spectral View:
Choose View > Waveform View or View > Spectral View. Alternatively, click the Toggle
Between Waveform And Spectral Views button
in the toolbar.
Adobe Audition lets you customize certain features of Waveform View and Spectral View.
For example, you can show or hide grid lines in Waveform View and change the resolution
in Spectral View. For more information, see “Display options” on page 50.
Changing the vertical scale
In Waveform View, the vertical ruler shows the decibel value of the audio data. However,
you can change the scale of the ruler to Sample Values, Normalized Values, or Percentage.
Note: In Spectral View, the vertical scale is always in hertz (Hz).
To change the scale of the vertical ruler:
Choose View > Vertical Scale Format, and choose the desired scale:
• Sample Values indicates amplitude as the data’s exact sample value of the data.
• Normalized Values indicates amplitude on a normalized scale value that ranges from
– 1 to 1.
• Percentage indicates amplitude on a percentage scale value that ranges from –100%
to 100%.
• Decibels indicates amplitude using a decibel scale value that ranges from –Infinity to Zero.
Double-click the vertical ruler to cycle through the scales.
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Selecting audio data
To edit a waveform, you must first select the audio data that you want to modify. Adobe
Audition provides several methods for making and adjusting selections.
Using cues ranges can save you time when making selections. (See “Working with cues”
on page 96.)
Selecting with the mouse
You can select a range of audio data by dragging in the waveform display. When precision
is important, you may want to zoom in to view the waveform in more detail. (See “Zooming”
on page 17.)
Dragging to select a range
To select a range of a waveform:
Drag to select the desired range of the waveform.
To extend or shorten a selection:
Shift-click the end of the selection that you wish to modify, and drag to extend or shorten it.
Note: If you prefer, you can right-click to extend or shorten a selection. To enable this feature,
select Extend Selection in the General tab of the Settings dialog box. (See “Setting Adobe
Audition preferences” on page 43.)
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To select a range in only one channel:
Do one of the following:
• Drag near the top of the left (upper) channel. The cursor displays an L icon to indicate
the left channel.
• Drag near the bottom of the right (lower) channel. The cursor displays an R icon to
indicate the right channel.
To select the visible range of a waveform:
Double-click in the waveform display.
Selecting all of a waveform
The Select Entire Wave command lets you select all of the audio data in a waveform. You
can use the mouse to do this as well.
To select all of a waveform:
Choose Edit > Select Entire Wave, or triple-click in the waveform display.
Selecting audio frequencies in Spectral View
When working in Spectral View, you can use the Marquee Selection tool to select audio
data within specific frequencies. This method allows for band-limited editing and
processing, as well as greater flexibility in audio restoration work. For example, if you
detect an audio anomaly or error, you can select and edit just the affected frequencies,
resulting in superior results and faster processing.
Making a marquee selection in Spectral View
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To make a marquee selection:
1 In Spectral View, click the Marquee Selection button
in the toolbar.
If this button isn’t visible, choose View > Toolbars > Spectral Selection.
2 Drag in the waveform display to select the desired audio data.
When making a marquee selection in a stereo waveform, the selection is applied to both
channels. To select audio data in just one channel, choose Edit > Edit Channel, and
then choose Edit Left Channel or Edit Right Channel.
To move a marquee selection:
Position the cursor in the selection, and drag it to the desired location.
To resize a marquee selection:
Position the cursor on the corner or edge of the selection, and drag it to the desired size.
Adjusting selections to zero-crossing points
For many editing tasks, such as deleting or inserting audio in the middle of a waveform,
the best places to make selections are the points where the amplitude is zero (called zerocrossings). Selecting the zero-crossing points reduces the chance that an edit will create an
audible pop or click. You can easily adjust a selection to the closest zero-crossing points by
using a Zero Crossing command.
To adjust a selection to zero-crossing points:
Choose Edit > Zero Crossing, and choose one of the following commands:
• Adjust Selection Inward adjusts both range boundaries inward to the next zero-crossing
point. Alternatively, click the Zero Crossing button
in the toolbar.
• Adjust Selection Outward adjusts both range boundaries outward to the next zero-
crossing point.
• Adjust Left Side To Left adjusts the left range boundary leftward to the next zero-
crossing point.
• Adjust Left Side To Right adjusts the left range boundary rightward to the next zero
crossing point.
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• Adjust Right Side To Left adjusts the right range boundary leftward to the next zero
crossing point.
• Adjust Right Side to Right adjusts the right range boundary rightward to the next zero
crossing point.
Finding beats
For some editing tasks, such as constructing drum loops and similar musical phrases, you
need to select audio between beats. You can usually pick out where the beats are by looking
for the peaks in a waveform. You can also use a Find Beats command.
Once you find beats, you can save them as Beat Cues, making it easy to locate the beats
again. (See “Working with cues” on page 96.)
To find the beginning of a beat:
1 Click in the waveform display to the left of the first beat you want to find.
2 Choose Edit > Find Beats > Find Next Beat (Left). The cursor moves to the beginning
of the next beat.
To select audio between beats:
1 Find the beginning of a beat.
2 Choose Edit > Find Beats > Find Next Beat (Right) to select from the current cursor
position to the next beat.
3 If you want to select more than one beat, choose Edit > Find Beats > Find Next Beat
(Right) again. Each time you choose this command, Adobe Audition adds the next beat to
the selection.
When you select audio to construct a loop, click the Play Looped button in the transport
controls to preview the loop. After any necessary tweaking, you can then save, paste, or
add the loop to the Cue List.
To adjust the settings that Adobe Audition uses to find beats:
Choose Edit > Find Beats > Beat Settings. Enter new values for Decibel Rise and Rise
Time, and click OK.
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For finding beats with material that has fast transient attacks, such as drums, specify a
quick Rise Time and a high Decibel Rise so as not to cut off the beginning of the attack.
For material with softer attacks, such as bass, the Rise Time can be slightly slower relative to
Decibel Rise.
Snapping
Snapping causes selection boundaries, as well as the current-time indicator, to move to items
such as cues, ruler ticks, zero-crossing points, and frames. Enabling snapping helps you
make accurate selections; however, if you prefer, you can disable snapping for specific items.
To enable or disable snapping:
Choose Edit > Snapping, and choose any of the following commands. A check mark
indicates that a command is enabled:
• Snap To Cues allows the cursor to snap to a cue point. For more information on
defining cues, see “Working with cues” on page 96.
• Snap To Ruler (Coarse) allows the cursor to snap only to the major numeric divisions
(decimal, SMPTE, samples, and so on) in the timeline.
Note: You can enable only one Snap To Ruler command at a time.
• Snap To Ruler (Fine) allows the cursor to snap to each of the subdivisions (decimal,
SMPTE, samples, and so on) within the timeline. Zooming in (by right-clicking as you
drag across the timeline) breaks the display down into more accurate subdivisions,
letting you place the cursor more accurately within the timeline.
• Snap To Zero Crossings allows the cursor to snap to the nearest place where the
waveform crosses the center line (in other words, the zero amplitude point).
• Snap To Frames (Always) allows the cursor to snap to a frame boundary, as long as the
time format is measured in frames (such as Compact Disc and SMPTE). This command
is especially handy for working on audio for CD.
You can access snapping commands by right-clicking the timeline.
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Specifying which channel of a stereo waveform to edit
By default, Adobe Audition applies selections and edits to both channels of a stereo
waveform. However, you can easily select and edit just the left or right channel of a stereo
waveform.
To specify which channel you want to edit:
Do either of the following:
• Choose Edit > Edit Channel, and choose which channel you want to edit.
• Click the Edit Left Channel button
Both Channels button
, the Edit Right Channel button , or the Edit
in the View toolbar. (See “Using toolbars” on page 13.)
Copying, cutting, pasting, and deleting
Adobe Audition supports all of the basic editing functions, as well as several commands
designed specifically for audio editing.
Choosing a clipboard
Adobe Audition gives you access to five internal clipboards for temporary data storage.
Each works similarly to the Windows clipboard, except that they can handle more data at
a faster rate.
To choose a clipboard:
Choose Edit > Set Current Clipboard, and choose a clipboard.
Choose the Windows clipboard if you want to copy audio data to other Windows
applications.
Copying audio data
The Copy command lets you copy audio data to the active clipboard. The Copy To New
command lets you copy and paste the data to a new file in one step.
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To copy audio data:
1 In the waveform display, select the audio data you want to copy. Or, to copy the entire
waveform, deselect all audio data.
2 Choose Edit > Copy or Edit > Copy To New. Alternatively, click the Copy button
in
the toolbar.
Cutting audio data
The Cut command lets you remove audio data from the current waveform and copy it to
the active clipboard.
To cut audio data:
1 Select the audio data you want to cut. Or, to cut the entire waveform, deselect all audio data.
2 Choose Edit > Cut. Alternatively, click the Cut button
in the toolbar.
Pasting audio data
The Paste command lets you paste audio data from the active clipboard to the current
waveform. If the format of the data on the clipboard differs from the format of the file it’s
being pasted into, Adobe Audition automatically converts the format before pasting the data.
The Paste To New command lets you create a new file and insert audio data from the active
clipboard. The new file automatically inherits the properties (sample rate, sample frequency,
and so on) from the original clipboard material.
The Highlight After Paste option in the General tab of the Settings dialog box determines whether or not data is highlighted after you paste it into a file.
To paste audio data into the current file:
1 In the waveform display, place the cursor where you want to insert the audio data or
select the audio data you want to replace.
2 Choose Edit > Paste. Alternatively, click the Paste button
To paste audio data into a new file:
Choose Edit > Paste To New.
in the toolbar.
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Mixing audio data when pasting
The Mix Paste command lets you mix audio data from the clipboard or a file with the
current waveform. If the format of the data on the clipboard differs from the format of the
file it’s being pasted into, Adobe Audition automatically converts the format before pasting
the data.
The Mix Paste command provides a quick alternative to using the more powerful and
flexible multitrack functions in Adobe Audition.
To mix audio data with the current waveform:
1 In the waveform display, place the cursor where you want to start mixing the audio data.
Alternately, select the audio data you want to replace.
2 Choose Edit > Mix Paste. Alternatively, click the Mix Paste button
in the toolbar.
3 Set the following options as desired, and click OK.
Volume Adjusts the sound level of the left and right channels before pasting. Move the
volume sliders, or enter a percentage in the text boxes to the right of them.
Paste in single channels (either left or right) by adjusting the level of the opposite
channel to zero.
Invert Turns that channel of the waveform upside-down. (Any samples above the center
line are placed below it, and those below the center line are placed above it.)
This option is handy when you want to take the difference between two samples (or
subtract one signal from another).
Lock Left/Right Locks the volume sliders so that they move together.
Insert Inserts audio at the current location or selection, replacing any selected data. If no
data is selected, Adobe Audition inserts audio at the cursor location, moving any existing
data to the end of the inserted material.
Overlap Mixes audio at the selected volume level with the current waveform. If the audio
is longer than the current waveform, the current waveform is lengthened to accommodate
the pasted audio.
Replace Overdubs the audio beginning at the cursor location, and replaces the existing
material thereafter for the duration of audio. For example, pasting 5 seconds of material
replaces the first 5 seconds after the cursor.
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Modulate Modulates the audio with the current waveform for an interesting effect. The
result is similar to overlapping, except that the values of the two waveforms are multiplied
by each other, sample by sample, instead of added.
You can create fantastic combo effects by selecting part of a wave and using the Mix
Paste command with Modulate selected. The selection is modulated with the audio
signal on the clipboard.
Crossfade Applies a fade to the beginning and end of the pasted audio. Enter a value to
specify how many milliseconds of the audio are faded.
Use this option for smoother transitions to and from pasted audio.
From Clipboard [number] Pastes audio data from the active internal clipboard.
From Windows Clipboard Pastes audio data from the Windows clipboard. If the Windows
clipboard contains no audio data, this option is disabled.
From File Pastes audio data from a file. Click Select File to browse for the file.
Loop Paste Pastes audio data the specified number of times. If the audio is longer than the
current selection, the current selection is automatically lengthened accordingly.
Deleting audio data
Adobe Audition provides two methods for deleting audio: The Delete Selection command
lets you remove a range from a waveform, whereas the Trim command lets you remove
unwanted audio from both sides of the selected audio.
Note: Deleted data doesn’t go to the clipboard and can be retrieved only by choosing Edit >
Undo or File > Revert To Saved, but only if you haven’t saved the file since deleting the data.
To delete audio data:
1 In the waveform display, select the audio data you want to delete.
2 Choose Edit > Delete Selection. Alternatively, click the Delete button
in the toolbar.
To trim audio data:
1 In the waveform display, select the audio data you want to keep.
2 Choose Edit > Trim. Alternatively, click the Trim button
in the toolbar.
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Working with cues
Cues are locations in a waveform that you define. Using cues makes it easy to navigate
within a waveform in order to make a selection, perform edits, or play back audio.
About cues
In Adobe Audition, a cue can be either a point or a range. A point refers to an exact position
within a waveform (for instance, 1:08.566 from the start of the wave). A range has both a
start time and an end time (for example, all of the waveform from 1:08.566 to 3:07.379).
If a cue is a range, you can drag its beginning and end points to different times.
Cues have triangular handles that appear at the top and bottom of the waveform display.
You use cue handles to select and adjust cues. You can also right-click a cue handle to view
commands for working with cues.
B
C
D
A
Examples of cues
A. Cue handle B. Cue point C. Cue range D. Nonsplit cue range
Note: To preserve cues when you save a file, make sure that you select Save Extra Non-Audio
Information.
Defining and selecting cues
You use the Cue List window to define and select cues. You can also define cues by using
context commands and keyboard shortcuts.
To display the Cue List:
Choose Window > Cue List. Alternatively, click the Hide/Show Cue List button
toolbar.
in the
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To define a cue:
1 Do one of the following:
• Place the cursor exactly where you want the cue point to be in the waveform display.
• Select the audio data you want to define as a cue range in the waveform display.
2 Click Add in the Cue List window. Alternatively, click the Add To Cue List button
the toolbar.
in
To select cues:
Do one of the following:
• Click a cue in the cue list.
• Double-click a cue handle in the waveform display.
• To select adjacent (contiguous) cues, click the first cue you want to select in the cue list,
and then Shift-click the last.
• To select nonadjacent (noncontiguous) cues, Ctrl-click them in the cue list.
Playing cues
The Auto Play feature in the Cue List window causes Adobe Audition to automatically play
cues when you select them.
To enable or disable the Auto Play feature for cues:
Click the Auto Play button in the Cue List window.
Choosing a cue type
Adobe Audition provides four cue types. All four can be ranges as well as points, although
it doesn’t really make sense for index cues to be ranges. Consider the following when
choosing a cue type:
• Basic Cues lets you mark important sections of a waveform for later reference (for
example, to remind yourself of an editing point). Basic cues are also useful for specifying stop and start positions for the play list.
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• Beat Cues is just like Basic Cues, but you use it to mark musical beats. Beat cues are a
very powerful feature because an audio file saved with them allows the beat mapping
loop method to be very accurate. For more information on creating and using loops,
see “About loops” on page 197.
• Track Cues lets you indicate a split in tracks for an audio compact disc. Use these cues
only for burning CDs. (See “Inserting tracks” on page 258.)
• Index Cues lets you set markers within a CD track. (Some CD players offer controls for
cueing indexes.) Also, the time between the track cue that begins a track and the first
index cue in that track shows up on the player as “negative time.”
To change the cue type:
1 Select a cue.
2 Click Edit Cue Info in the Cue List window.
3 Choose a cue type from the Type menu.
Alternatively, right-click the cue handle, and choose a cue type from the context menu.
Naming cues
After you create a cue, you can rename it and add descriptive information.
To rename a cue and add a description:
1 Select a cue.
2 Click Edit Cue Info in the Cue List window.
3 Do either or both of the following:
• Enter a new name in the Label text box.
• Enter a description in the Desc text box.
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Adjusting cues
You can easily adjust the position of cues, as well as the duration of range cues.
To reposition a cue:
Do one of the following:
• For point cues, drag the cue handle to a new location in the waveform display.
• For range cues, drag the red start handle to a new location in the waveform display.
• Select the cue, and click Edit Cue Info in the Cue List window. Enter a new value in the
Begin text box.
To change the duration of a range cue:
• Drag the blue end handle to a new location in the waveform display.
• Select the cue, and click Edit Cue Info in the Cue List window. Enter a new value in the
End or Length text box.
Merging, converting, and deleting cues
Adobe Audition lets you merge cues, and it also lets you convert point cues to range cues,
and vice versa. If you find that you don’t need a cue, you can delete it.
To merge cues:
1 Select the cues you want to merge. You can select only two cue ranges to merge, but you
can select any number of cue points.
2 Click Merge in the Cue List window.
Note: The new merged cue inherits its name from the first cue. You lose any information in
the Label and Desc text boxes for the subsequent merged cue.
To convert a point cue to a range cue:
Right-click the cue handle, and choose Make Range. The cue handle splits into two handles.
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To convert a range cue to a point cue:
Right-click a cue handle, and choose Make Point. The two parts of the range cue handle
merge into a single handle, with the start time of the range becoming the time for the
point cue.
To delete cues:
1 Select one or more cues.
2 Click Del in the Cue List window. Alternatively, right-click the cue handle, and choose
Delete.
Batch processing cues
You can use the Batch feature in the Cue List window to add silence between cues and save
the audio between cues to new files.
To batch process cues:
1 Select one or more cues. At least one of the cues you select must be a range.
2 Click Batch in the Cue List window.
3 Set the following options as desired, and click OK:
Set Amount Of Silence Adds silence between cue points in the waveform. Enter the
desired values (measured in seconds) in the Add Silence Before and Add Silence After
text boxes.
Save To Files Saves the audio between cue points to new files.
Filename Prefix Specifies a prefix for the new files. Adobe Audition automatically adds
numbers after the prefix (phrase02, phrase03, and so on) as well as the correct extension
based upon the output format you choose.
Destination Folder Specifies the folder where Adobe Audition places the new files. Click
Browse to specify a different folder.
Output Format Specifies the desired output format for the new files. If the specified
format has options, the Options button is enabled. Click this button to select options.
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Setting cues automatically
The Auto-Cue feature lets you locate phrases or beats and automatically add them to the
cue list. You can also use this feature to remove silence from the beginning and end of a file.
To set cues automatically:
1 Select the general range in which you want to find phrases or beats.
2 Choose Edit > Auto-Cue, and choose one of the following commands:
• Adjust Selection To Phrase selects a phrase within the selected range by adjusting the
highlight inward, ignoring any silence before and after the audio. Nothing is added to
the cue list.
• Find Phrases And Mark scans the selected range, marking nonsilent ranges as basic cues
in the cue list.
• Find Beats And Mark scans the selected range, marking beats as beat cues in the cue list.
To customize Auto-Cue settings:
1 Choose Edit > Auto-Cue > Auto-Cue Settings.
2 Adjust the following options, and click OK:
• Audio Will Be Considered “Silence” When specifies parameters for finding silence. In
the Signal Is Below text box, enter the amplitude value (in decibels) you want Adobe
Audition to consider as the maximum level for silence. In the For More Than text box,
enter the duration (in milliseconds) of this maximum amplitude value.
For very quiet, high-quality audio, enter a lower amplitude value (such as –60 dB). For
noisier audio, the value might be much higher (such as –30 dB). Enter a longer duration
to keep groups of words together, for example.
• Audio Will Be Considered As Valid When specifies parameters for determining if audio
is valid. In the Signal Is Above text box, enter the amplitude value (in decibels) you want
Adobe Audition to consider as the minimum level for audio. In the For More Than text
box, enter the duration (in milliseconds) of this minimum amplitude.
Enter a longer duration to ignore short periods of undesired audio (like clicks, static, or
other noise). However, if the value is too high (above 200 milliseconds), short words
may be skipped.
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• Find Levels scans the waveform (or a selected range) to have Adobe Audition automat-
ically determine a good starting point for signal levels. Suggested values appear in the
appropriate text boxes.
If these values don’t do the job—for example, words or phrases get chopped off—lower
the signal level values. Increase the signal level values if not enough silence is removed.
To trim silence from the beginning and ending of a file:
Choose Edit > Auto-Cue > Trim Digital Silence.
If you select the middle of a waveform, this command functions like the normal Trim
command, trimming out everything else, in addition to any digital silence in the
highlighted range at the endpoints.
Creating play lists
A play list is an arrangement of cue ranges that you can play back in any order and loop a
specified number of times. The advantage of using a play list is that you can try different
versions of an arrangement before you commit to the edits. You create play lists in the Play
List window.
To display the Play List window:
Choose Window > Play List. Alternatively, click the Hide/Show Play List button
toolbar.
in the
To create a play list:
1 If the Cue List window isn’t visible, click Show Cue List in the Play List window.
2 In the Cue List window, select the cue ranges you want to add to the play list. (See
“Defining and selecting cues” on page 96.)
3 Click Insert Cues in the Play List window. The selection is inserted either before the
currently selected item or at the end if nothing is selected.
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To play items in a play list:
Do one of the following:
• To play the entire play list, select the first item in the list, and click Play in the Play List
window.
• To play part of the list, select the first item you want to play, and click Play in the Play
List window.
• To play a specific item in the list, select that item, and click Autocue in the Play List window.
To change the order of items in a play list:
1 Select the item you want to move.
2 Click Move Up or Move Down.
To set up looping for an item in a play list:
Select the item, and enter a number in the Loop text box. Each item in the play list can loop
a different number of times.
To delete items from a play list:
Select the items you want to delete, and click Remove in the Play List window.
Creating and deleting silence
Adobe Audition provides several ways to create silence in and delete silence from a
waveform. Creating silence is useful for inserting pauses and removing nonessential noise
from an audio file. Removing silence is useful for cleaning up voice prompts and speeding
up narratives without affecting the foreground audio.
Creating silence
Adobe Audition provides two ways to create silence in a waveform: by muting part of the
existing waveform or by inserting a new duration of silence.
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To mute existing audio data:
1 Select the desired range of audio data.
2 Choose Effects > Silence.
Unlike deleting or cutting a selection, which splices the surrounding material together,
applying the Silence effect leaves the duration of the selection intact, and simply zeros the
amplitude within it.
To insert a new duration of silence:
1 Place the cursor where you want to insert the silence. Or, if you want to replace part of
the existing waveform, select the desired range of audio data.
2 Choose Generate > Silence.
3 Enter the number of seconds of silence you want to generate. Use decimals to enter
partial seconds. For example, enter .3 to generate three-tenths of a second of silence.
4 Click OK. Any audio to the right of the cursor is pushed out in time, thereby lengthening the waveform’s duration.
Deleting silence
The Delete Silence command detects and removes silence between words or other audio.
It’s ideal for cleaning up voice prompts and speeding up narratives without affecting the
foreground audio.
To delete silence:
1 If you want to delete silence from part of a waveform, select the desired range of audio
data. If you don’t select a range, Adobe Audition deletes silence from the entire waveform.
2 Choose Edit > Delete Silence.
3 Set the following options as desired, and click OK:
“Silence” Is Defined As Determines what Adobe Audition considers silence. In the Signal
Is Below text box, enter the amplitude value (in decibels) you want Adobe Audition to
consider as the maximum level for silence. In the For More Than text box, enter the
duration (in milliseconds) of this maximum amplitude value.
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For very quiet, low-noise-floor audio, enter a lower amplitude value (such as –60 dB).
For noisier audio, you might enter a higher value (such as –30 dB). Enter a longer
duration to keep groups of words together, for example.
“Audio” Is Defined As Determines what Adobe Audition considers audio. In the Signal Is
Above text box, enter the amplitude value (in decibels) you want Adobe Audition to
consider as the minimum level for audio. In the For More Than text box, enter the
duration (in milliseconds) of this minimum amplitude value.
Enter a higher duration to ignore short periods of undesired audio (like clicks, static, or
other noise). However, if the value is too high (above 200 milliseconds), short words
might be skipped.
Find Levels Scans the waveform (or selected range) to have Adobe Audition automatically
determine a good starting point for signal levels. Suggested values appear in the appropriate text boxes.
If these values don’t do the job—for example, words or phrases are chopped off—lower
the signal level values. Increase the signal level values if not enough silence is removed.
Mark Deletions In Cue List Adds each location where silence is removed to the cue list.
Limit Continuous Silence To Specifies the minimum amount of silence (in milliseconds)
to keep at all times. Silent ranges shorter than this length aren’t removed; silent ranges
greater than this length are shortened so that exactly the specified amount of silence
remains. Set this value to zero to remove as much silence as possible.
When shortening speech segments, use a setting of 150 milliseconds or so to leave a more
realistic, natural sounding pause. Higher values can lead to an artificial sounding pause.
Scan For Silence Now Previews the silence to be removed. This option reports how much
silence will be removed and how many sections of silence were found. This option doesn’t
actually remove silence, but it gives you an idea of what to expect with the current settings
when you actually choose the Delete Silence command.
If you have an audio presentation that consists of many cuts separated by silence (such
as a reel of several jingles), choose Edit > Delete Silence to make sure that the duration
of silence between each cut is the same. For example, if the difference between cuts 1 and 2 is
3.2 seconds, the difference between cuts 2 and 3 is 4.1 seconds, and the difference between cuts
3 and 4 is 3.7 seconds, you can use Delete Silence to make the silence duration between all four
cuts exactly 3 seconds.
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Inverting and reversing audio
The Invert effect simply inverts the waveform’s samples, making all positive offsets
negative and all negative offsets positive. Inverting is useful for lining up amplitude curves
when creating loops or pasting. By inverting one channel of a stereo recording, you can
also correct out-of-phase channels or create interesting phasing effects. For more information on phase, see the Glossary.
The Reverse effect reverses the order of a waveform’s samples so that they play backwards.
Reversing is useful for creating special effects.
To invert a waveform:
1 If you want to invert part of a waveform, select the desired range. Otherwise, deselect
all audio data to invert the entire waveform.
2 Choose Effects > Invert.
To reverse a waveform:
1 If you want to reverse part of the waveform, select the desired range. Otherwise, deselect
all audio data to reverse the entire waveform.
2 Choose Effects > Reverse.
Generating audio
Adobe Audition provides several commands that let you generate new audio data. These
commands are different from effects in that they insert new sounds into a waveform rather
than alter existing sounds.
Generating DTMF signals
Dual Tone Multi-Frequency (DTMF) signals (also know as touch tones) are used for
dialing telephone numbers over phone lines that are capable of responding to touch tone
signals. These signals are recommended internationally by the International Telegraph
and Telephone Consultative Committee as the signals for push button telephones.
Keep in mind that the DTMF signals generated by telephone push button keypads are
different from the Multi-Frequency (MF) tones generated by the telephone network to
transmit information. You can use the DTMF Signals command to generate MF tones as well.
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To generate DTMF signals:
1 Place the cursor where you want to insert the signals. Or, if you want to replace part of
the existing waveform, select the desired range of audio data.
2 Choose Generate > DTMF Signals.
3 Set the following options as desired, and click OK:
Dial String Specifies the phone number for which you want to generate tones. You can
also enter other characters, such as the asterisk (*) and pound (#) symbols, as well as the
letters “A,” “B,” “C,” and “D.” Entering the pause character (see “Pause Character” in this
list) inserts a pause of a defined length.
Tone Time Specifies the milliseconds for which the tones will last. The standard time for
DTMF tones is 100 milliseconds.
Break Time Specifies the number of milliseconds of silence between successive tones.
Pause Time Specifies the length that is assigned to the pause character when it is used in
the Dial String text box.
Pause Character Specifies which character Adobe Audition interprets as a pause.
DTMF Signals Generates DTMF signals by using combinations of the frequencies 697 Hz,
770 Hz, 852 Hz, 941 Hz and 1209 Hz, 1336 Hz, 1477 Hz, and 1633Hz.
MF Signals (CCITT R1) Generates MF signals (tones that are internal to telephone
networks) using paired combinations of the frequencies 700 Hz, 900 Hz, 1100 Hz, 1300 Hz,
1500 Hz, and 1700 Hz.
Custom Specifies the combinations of frequencies to be used in generating signals. Select
this option, and then enter values in the Hz text boxes of the keypad.
Amplitude Determines the volume level (as a percentage) of the tones generated, where
100% means maximum volume without clipping.
Twist Specifies how much louder the higher frequency tone is from the lower frequency
tone. Enter a value (in decibels) in the Twist text box to increase the volume of the higher
frequency tone accordingly.
Reset To DTMF Clears any custom frequency entries and replaces them with the standard
DTMF frequency combinations.
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Generating noise
The Noise command lets you generate random noise in a variety of colors. (Traditionally,
color is used to describe the spectral composition of noise. Each color has its own characteristics.) Generating noise is useful for creating soothing sounds like waterfalls (perfect
for use with the Binaural Auto-Panner function of Adobe Audition) and for generating
signals that can be used to check out the frequency response of a speaker, microphone, or
other audio system component.
To generate noise:
1 Place the cursor where you want to insert the noise. Or, if you want to replace part of
the existing waveform, select the desired range of audio data.
2 Choose Generate > Noise.
3 Set the following options as desired, and click OK:
Color Specifies a color for the noise:
• Brown noise has a spectral frequency of 1/f^2, which means, in layman’s terms, that the
noise has much more low-frequency content. Its sounds are thunder- and waterfall-like.
Brown noise is so called because, when viewed, the wave follows a Brownian motion
curve. That is, the next sample in the waveform is equal to the previous sample, plus a
small random amount. When graphed, this waveform looks like a mountain range.
• Pink noise has a spectral frequency of 1/f and is found mostly in nature. It is the most
natural sounding of the noises. By equalizing the sounds, you can generate rainfall,
waterfalls, wind, rushing river, and other natural sounds. Pink noise is exactly between
brown and white noise (hence, some people used to call it tan noise). It is neither
random nor predictable; it is fractal-like when viewed. When zoomed in, the pattern
looks identical to when zoomed out, except at a lower amplitude.
• White noise has a spectral frequency of 1, meaning that equal proportions of all
frequencies are present. Because the human ear is more susceptible to high frequencies,
white noise sounds very hissy. Adobe Audition generates white noise by choosing
random values for each sample.
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Style Specifies a style for the noise:
• Spatial Stereo generates noise by using three unique noise sources and spatially
encoding them to seem as if one comes from the left, one from the center, and one from
the right. When you listen to the result with stereo headphones, your mind perceives
sound coming from all around. To specify the distance from center of the left and right
noise sources, enter a delay value in microseconds. About 900 to 1000 microseconds
correspond to the maximum delay perceivable. A delay of zero is identical to monaural
noise, where left and right channels are the same.
• Independent Channels generates noise by using two unique noise sources, one for each
channel. The left channel’s noise is completely independent of the right channel’s noise.
• Mono generates noise by using a single noise source, with the left and right channels set
equally to that source.
• Inverse generates noise by using a single noise source (similar to the Mono option).
However, the left channel’s noise is exactly inverse of the right channel’s noise. When
you listen to the result with stereo headphones, your mind perceives sound coming
from within your head instead of from somewhere externally.
Intensity Specifies the intensity of the noise on a scale of 2 to 40. At higher intensities, the
noise becomes more erratic and sounds harsher and louder.
Duration Determines the number of seconds of noise that Adobe Audition generates.
For very long periods of noise, it’s faster to generate a shorter period (say, about 10 to 20
seconds) and delete excess noise at the beginning and end so that the waves start and end
at the midpoint. Then, copy and loop (choose Edit > Mix Paste) as many times as needed.
Generating tones
The Tones command lets you create a simple waveform and gives you control over
numerous amplitude- and frequency-related settings. Generating tones is a great place to
start when you create new sound effects.
To generate tones:
1 Place the cursor where you want to insert the tones. Or, if you want to replace part of
the existing waveform, select the desired range of audio data.
2 Choose Generate > Tones.
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3 Do one of the following:
• To create a constant tone, select Lock To These Settings Only. Then, set options as
desired, and click OK.
• To create a tone that changes dynamically over time, deselect Lock To These Settings
Only. Use the Initial Settings tab to set options for the initial tone, and use the Final
Settings tab to set options for the final tone. After you set options, click OK. The tone
generated will gradually go from the initial state to the final state.
For more information, search for “Generate Tones options” in Help.
Converting the sample type
A file’s sample type determines its sample rate and bit depth, as well as the channel format
(whether the waveform is mono or stereo). You can convert the sample type to change any
of these attributes.
When you convert the sample type of a file, Adobe Audition directly processes the samples
within the file, or resamples the data, so that the audio retains the same pitch and duration
as the original file.
About sample rates
During the sampling process, an incoming analog signal is sampled at discrete time
intervals. Each interval of analog signal is momentarily observed, and thus, each represents a specific, measurable voltage level. A mathematical conversion generates a digital
series of numbers that represent the signal level at that particular point in time. The
generated data can be digitally stored or processed.
The sample rate is the number of samples (or snapshots) that are taken of an audio signal
per second. For example, a sample rate of 44,100 Hz means that 44,100 samples are taken
per second. Since sampling is tied directly to the component of time, a system’s sample rate
determines a system’s overall bandwidth—in other words, how many frequencies can be
encoded within the audio signal. Higher sample rates generally yield a better quality
waveform.
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The most common sample rates for digital audio editing are as follows:
• 11,025 Hz Poor AM Radio Quality/Speech (low-end multimedia)
• 22,050 Hz Near FM Radio Quality (high-end multimedia)
• 32,000 Hz Better than FM Radio Quality (standard broadcast rate)
• 44,100 Hz CD Quality
• 48,000 Hz DAT Quality
• 96,000 Hz DVD Quality
Previewing a different sample rate
The Adjust Sample Rate command lets you preview how an audio file will sound at a different
sample rate. This command doesn’t convert the sample rate of the audio file—use the Convert
Sample Type command to do that. (See “Changing the sample rate” on page 111.)
To adjust the sample rate:
1 Choose Edit > Adjust Sample Rate.
2 Enter a sample rate in the text box, or choose a common sample rate from the list.
3 Click OK.
Note: Although you can create and edit any sample rate in Adobe Audition, your sound card
may not be capable of playing it properly. To check the capabilities of your sound card, choose
Options > Device Properties. (See “Setting properties for audio output devices” on page 37.)
Changing the sample rate
The sample rate of a file determines the overall bandwidth of the waveform (that is, how
many frequencies can be encoded within the audio signal). When changing the sample
rate, keep in mind that most sound cards support only certain sample rates.
To change the sample rate of a file:
1 Choose Edit > Convert Sample Type. Alternatively, click the Convert Sample Type
button
in the toolbar.
2 Select a rate from the Sample Rate list, or enter a custom rate in the text box.
3 Drag the Low/High Quality slider to adjust the quality of the sampling conversion.
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Higher values retain more high frequencies (they prevent aliasing of higher frequencies to
lower ones), but the conversion takes longer. Lower values requires less processing time
but result in certain high frequencies being “rolled off,” leading to muffled-sounding
audio. Usually, values between 100 and 400 are fine for most conversion needs.
Use higher values whenever you downsample a high rate to a low rate. When upsampling, results from lower values sound almost identical to those from higher values.
4 Select Pre/Post Filter to prevent false frequencies from being generated at the low end
of the audio spectrum. Select this option for the best results.
5 Click OK.
Converting between stereo and mono
The Convert Sample Type command is the quickest way to convert a mono waveform into
a stereo waveform, and vice versa. (You can also copy the waveform at its current volume
directly into one channel or the other.) If you want to place separate waveforms on each
channel of a stereo file and mix them at different volume levels, you can use the Mix Paste
command instead.
To convert a waveform from mono to stereo, or vice versa:
1 Choose Edit > Convert Sample Type. Alternatively, click the Convert Sample Type
button
in the toolbar.
2 Select Mono or Stereo.
3 Enter percentages for Left Mix and Right Mix:
• When you convert a waveform from mono to stereo, the Left Mix and Right Mix
options let you specify the relative amplitude with which the original mono signal is
placed into each side of the new stereo signal. For example, you can place the mono
source on the left channel only, the right channel only, or any balance point in between.
• When you convert from stereo to mono, the Left Mix and Right Mix options let you
control the amount of signal from the respective channel that will be mixed into the
final mono waveform. The most common mixing method is to use 50% of both
channels.
4 Click OK.
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To remove all or most of the lead vocals from many stereo music recordings, you can
convert a stereo waveform to mono with a Left Mix of 100% and a Right Mix of –100%.
Most vocal tracks are positioned in the middle of the stereo field in-phase, so converting the
signal so that it’s out of phase often greatly reduces or eliminates the vocal track’s level.
To create a stereo waveform with different waveforms in each channel:
1 Copy the mono waveform you want to place in the left channel.
2 Create a new file, and choose Edit > Mix Paste.
3 Select Overlap, and deselect Lock L/R. Set the left volume to 100%, set the right volume
to 0%, and click OK.
4 Copy the mono waveform you want to place in the right channel.
5 Switch back to the new file you just created, and choose Edit > Mix Paste.
6 This time, set the left volume to 0% and the right volume to 100%. Click OK.
Changing the bit depth
The bit depth of a file determines the dynamic range of the audio. For example, 8-bit
resolution provides 256 possible unique volumes, while 16-bit resolution provides 65,536
possible unique volumes. Adobe Audition supports up to 32-bit resolution.
You can raise the bit depth of a file to gain a greater dynamic range, or you can lower the
bit depth to reduce the file size. When converting to a lower bit depth, Adobe Audition
provides dithering options to help reduce noise and distortion. Although dithering introduces a small amount of white noise, the result is far preferable to the increased distortion
that you would otherwise hear at low signal levels. Dithering also lets you hear sounds that
would otherwise be masked by the noise and distortion limits of 8-bit audio.
Work at the 32-bit level when processing audio, even if you plan to downsample to 16or 8-bit for output. You’ll achieve better results than at the 16- or 8-bit level. The only
time you may want to work at the 16- or 8-bit level is when processing a very large file on a
slow computer.
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To change the bit depth of a file:
1 Choose Edit > Convert Sample Type. Alternatively, click the Convert Sample Type
button
in the toolbar.
2 Select a bit depth from the Resolution list, or enter a custom bit depth in the text box.
3 When you select a lower bit depth, options in the Dither section are enabled. Set the
following options as desired, and click OK:
Enable Dithering Enables or disables dithering. If dithering is enabled, Adobe Audition
truncates the audio, meaning that unused bits are simply chopped off and discarded. The
result gives a crackly effect that fades in and out on very quiet audio passages.
Dither Depth (Bits) Sets the bit amount of dithering to be applied. In general, values of 0.2
to 0.7 give the best results without adding too much noise. Note, however, that as this value
is lowered, other unwanted harmonic distortion noise appears. (Lower values are usually
okay if you also apply Noise Shaping.)
p.d.f. (probability distribution function) Controls how the dithered noise is distributed
away from the original audio sample value.
Usually, Triangular p.d.f. is a wise choice because it gives the best tradeoff among SNR
(Signal-to-Noise ratio), distortion, and noise modulation. Triangular p.d.f. chooses
random numbers that are generally closer to 0 than to the edges –1 or +1 (that is, the
chance of 0 being chosen is twice as great as the chance of 0.5 or –0.5).
p.d.f.
SNR loss
Modulation
Rectangular
3 dB
Yes
Triangular
4.8 dB
No
Gaussian
6 dB
Negligible
Shaped Triangular
4.8 dB
No
Shaped Gaussian
6 dB
Negligible
Noise Shaping Determines the placement when you move noise to different frequencies.
The same amount of overall noise is present, but you can place less noise at one frequency
at the expense of placing more noise at another. You may also specify that no noise shaping
is used.
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Different curves result in different types of background noise. The type of curve to use
depends on the source audio, final sample rate, and bit depth. By introducing noise
shaping, you may be able to get away with a lower dither depths to reduce the overall
background noise level, without introducing a lot of unwanted harmonic noise.
Curve
Sample Rate
Noise Shaping A
44.1 kHz or 48 kHz
Noise Shaping B
44.1 kHz or 48 kHz
Noise Shaping C1
44.1 kHz or 48 kHz
Noise Shaping C2
44.1 kHz or 48 kHz
Noise Shaping C3
44.1 kHz or 48 kHz
Noise Shaping D
44.1 kHz or 48 kHz
Noise Shaping E
44.1 kHz or 48 kHz
Noise Shaping E2
44.1 kHz or 48 kHz
Noise Shaping (44.1KHZ)
44.1 kHz
Noise Shaping (48KHZ)
48 kHz
Noise Shaping (96KHZ)
96 kHz
Note: In general, there are no really good noise shaping curves for audio at 32 kHz or lower.
With audio at those sampling frequencies, try the different curves to see if they help, and just
choose the one that sounds the best.
Converting multiple files to the same sample rate
If you need to make the same conversion on multiple files, you can save time by creating
a sample rate conversion preset.
To create a sample rate conversion preset:
1 Choose Edit > Convert Sample Type. Alternatively, click the Convert Sample Type
button
in the toolbar.
2 Adjust the settings as desired.
3 Click Save As, type a name for the preset, and click OK.
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To apply a sample rate conversion preset:
Choose a preset from the list. The sample type settings change to the settings defined in
the preset.
To delete a sample rate conversion preset:
Choose the preset from the list, and click Delete.
Adding file properties
The Wave Properties command opens a tabbed window that lets you add and get information about the active waveform.
Note: To preserve file properties when you save a file, make sure that you select Save Extra
Non-Audio Information.
To add file information:
1 Choose View > Wave Properties. Alternatively, click the Add Information button
the toolbar.
2 Click the tabs at the top of the dialog box to navigate between different sets of
properties.
3 Set the properties as desired, and click OK.
For more information, search for “Adding file properties” in Help.
in
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Chapter 5: Enhancing and
Restoring Audio
A
dobe Audition provides many tools you can use to repair audio and improve
sound quality. Powerful noise reduction features let you bring old recordings into
the digital age. And with a wide range of filter and amplification effects, you can
process audio to produce radio-ready sound or unique special effects.
About enhancing and restoring audio
If you need to add brilliance and impact to a new recording, or clean up the sound of an
old one, you can use several types of audio enhancement and restoration effects:
• Noise reduction effects that let you remove unwanted hiss, hum, clicks, or pops. (See
“Removing noise” on page 125.)
• Filter effects that let you change overall tonal balance, from rumbling bass tones to
sparkling highs. (See “Filtering audio” on page 129.)
• Amplitude effects that let you precisely control audio volume for increased radio
impact, detailed fade outs, and more. (See “Optimizing amplitude” on page 134.)
All of these effects are available in Edit View, but some don’t exist in Multitrack View.
Because the two views are linked, however, you can easily overcome this limitation. If a
multitrack clip requires noise reduction, for example, simply double-click the clip to
process it in Edit View.
About the mastering process
Mastering describes the complete process of restoring and enhancing audio files for a
particular medium, such as radio, video, CD, or the Web. In Adobe Audition, you can
master either individual audio files in Edit View or groups of files in a batch process.
(Batch processing is particularly useful if you plan to burn a group of files to CD. See
“About scripting and batch processing” on page 243.)
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The mastering process consists of several stages, which are usually performed in the
following order:
1. Analysis To determine the overall frequency and dynamic range of the existing file. (See
“Analyzing frequency, phase, and dynamic range” on page 118.)
2. Noise reduction To remove unwanted hiss, hum, clicks, or pops. (See “Removing
noise” on page 125.)
3. Equalization To achieve the desired tonal balance. (See “Filtering audio” on page 129.)
4. Compression To maximize perceived volume. (See “Optimizing amplitude” on
page 134.)
5. Normalization To ensure that the loudest sounds reach the highest possible level that
digital systems allow—0 dBFS. (See “Using the Normalize effect (Edit View only)” on
page 137.)
You can reverse the order of the equalization and compression stages, but be aware that
the volume of some tonal ranges may be over- or under-emphasized.
Before mastering audio, consider the requirements of the destination medium. If the
destination is the Web, for example, the file will likely be played over speakers that poorly
reproduce bass sounds. To compensate, you can boost bass frequencies during the equalization stage of the mastering process.
Analyzing frequency, phase, and dynamic range
In Edit View, you can analyze the frequency, phase, and dynamic range of an audio file.
These analysis options are particularly helpful when used in conjunction with the many
enhancement and restoration effects in Adobe Audition. For example, you can use the
Frequency Analysis window to identify problematic frequency bands, which you can then
correct with a filter effect. Similarly, you can use the Waveform Statistics dialog box to
determine dynamic range and then compress that range with an amplitude effect.
To analyze a multitrack clip, double-click it to access Edit View.
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Analyzing frequency range
In Edit View, you can use the Frequency Analysis window to analyze frequency range
either statically for a selected area or dynamically during playback. In this window, the
horizontal axis represents frequency (measured in Hz), while the vertical axis represents
amplitude (measured in decibels).
To zoom in on a particular area of the Frequency Analysis graph, use the horizontal and
vertical rulers. See “Zooming graphs for frequency and phase analysis” on page 122.
A
B
C
D
F
E
G
Frequency Analysis window displaying Advanced options
A. Musical note B. Vertical ruler C. Horizontal ruler D. Left status area
E. Display options menu F. Right status area G. FFT type menu
To analyze frequency range:
1 In Edit View, select or play a range of the waveform.
2 Choose Window > Frequency Analysis, and set options as desired:
Linear View Sets the graph display to a linear horizontal frequency scale when selected or
a logarithmic scale when deselected.
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Hold buttons Take up to four frequency snapshots as a waveform is playing. The frequency
outline (which is rendered in the same color as the button clicked) is frozen on the graph and
overlaid on other frequency outlines. Up to four frozen frequency outlines may be shown at
once. To clear a frozen frequency outline, click its corresponding Hold button again.
Status areas Display frequency and amplitude information directly underneath the
graph. The left status area displays the highest frequency of the entire waveform and the
maximum amplitude for each channel. The right status area displays the overall frequency
(and equivalent musical note) at the center point of the selected range. The numbers
beside musical notes indicate keyboard position and variance from standard tuning. For
example, A2 +7 equals the second-lowest A on a keyboard tuned 7% higher than normal.
By default, the musical note of the left channel also appears at the top of the window.
To hide that note, dock the window, right-click the window handle, and deselect Show
Big Notes. For more information, see “Using windows” on page 14.
Display style menu Select from the following graph display options:
• Lines displays amplitude at each frequency with simple lines. The left channel is blue;
the right is red.
• Area (Left On Top) also displays lines for amplitude, but this option fills the area
beneath the lines in a solid color, smooths out amplitude differences in the same area,
and places the left channel in front.
• Area (Right On Top) functions identically to the option above, but places the right
channel in front.
• Bars (Left On Top) shows the limitations on analysis resolution by splitting the display
into rectangular segments, and places the left channel in front. The higher the FFT size,
the greater the analysis resolution, and the narrower the bar.
• Bars (Right On Top) functions identically to the option above but places the right
channel in front.
Scan Click this button to scan the highlighted selection and show all frequencies present
in that selection.
By default, Adobe Audition analyzes only the center point of a selected range. To analyze
the overall frequency of a selected range, click Scan.
For more information, search for “Advanced frequency analysis options” in Help.
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Analyzing phase
In Edit View, you can use the Phase Analysis window to analyze phase either statically for
a selected range or dynamically during playback. You should analyze phase only for stereo
waveforms, as phase differences don’t exist in mono waveforms. Phase analysis can reveal
out-of-phase channels, which you can correct with the Invert command. (See “Inverting
and reversing audio” on page 106.)
The Phase Analysis window includes a Lissajou Plot graph. By default, this graph displays
phase differences between the left and right channels as follows:
• A mono waveform appears as a diagonal line ascending from left to right.
• A right-channel-only waveform appears as a horizontal line.
• A left-channel-only waveform appears as a vertical line.
• A completely out-of-phase stereo waveform appears as a diagonal line descending from
left to right.
• A typical stereo waveform appears as many wavy lines descending from right to left.
• A stereo waveform with wide separation appears as many wavy lines extending in all
directions.
To zoom in on a particular area of the Phase Analysis graph, use the horizontal and
vertical rulers. See “Zooming graphs for frequency and phase analysis” on page 122.
Phase Analysis window with display menu revealed
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To analyze phase:
1 In Edit View, select or play a range of the waveform.
2 Choose Analyze > Show Phase Analysis, and set options as desired:
Normalize Enlarges the phase analysis lines so that they reach the edge of the graph.
Display menu Select from the following options:
• Left/Right to display the defaults noted in the introduction above.
• Mid/Side to rotate the display to the left by 45 degrees. The horizontal ruler (x-axis)
plots the side channel [(right - left)/2] while the vertical ruler (y-axis) plots the mid
channel [(right + left)/2].
• Spin to display the waveform on a phase graph rather than an amplitude graph.
Samples Defines the number of samples displayed concurrently. Higher sample sizes give
you more accurate results, but they require much more processing power to be effective.
Choose the sample size that best suits your system.
For more information, search for “Advanced phase analysis options” in Help.
Zooming graphs for frequency and phase analysis
In the Frequency Analysis and Phase Analysis windows, you can zoom graphs to analyze
frequency and phase in more detail.
Zooming and navigating a Phase Analysis graph
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To zoom in on a graph:
In the vertical or horizontal ruler, right-click and drag the magnifying glass icon.
To navigate a magnified graph:
In the vertical or horizontal ruler, left-click and drag the hand icon
.
To zoom out on a magnified graph:
Right-click in the vertical or horizontal ruler, and choose one of the following from the
pop-up menu:
• Zoom Out to return to the previous magnification. (This option is available only in the
Frequency Analysis window.)
• Zoom Out Full to zoom out completely.
Viewing waveform statistics
In Edit View, you can use the Waveform Statistics dialog box to evaluate a variety of information about audio amplitude. This dialog box contains two tabs, General and Histogram,
both of which share an RMS Settings section. The General tab displays numerical text boxes
that indicate dynamic range, identify clipped samples, and note any DC offset. The
Histogram tab displays a graph that shows the relative prevalence of each amplitude: The
horizontal ruler measures amplitude in decibels, and the vertical ruler measures prevalence using the RMS formula.
Use the Histogram tab to identify prevalent amplitudes, and then compress, limit, or
normalize them with an amplitude effect. (See “Optimizing amplitude” on page 134.)
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Waveform Statistics dialog box, Histogram tab
To view a waveform histogram:
1 In Edit View, select an audio range.
2 Choose Analyze > Statistics, and click the Histogram tab.
3 Select Left or Right to display either the left or right channel in the foreground.
To view numerical waveform statistics:
1 In Edit View, select an audio range.
2 Choose Analyze > Statistics, and click the General tab.
For more information, search for “Waveform Statistics options” in Help.
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Removing noise
In Edit View, you can use effects in the Noise Reduction menu to reduce background noise
and broadband noise without reducing audio quality.
Using the Auto Click/Pop Eliminator effect (Edit View only)
If you need to quickly remove crackle and static from vinyl recordings, first try the Auto
Click/Pop Eliminator effect. You can easily select and correct a large area of audio or a
single click or pop. This effect provides the same processing quality as the Click/Pop Eliminator effect, but it offers simplified controls and a helpful preview.
To use the Auto Click/Pop Eliminator effect:
1 In Edit View, select an audio range.
2 In the Effects tab of the Organizer window, expand Noise Reduction, and double-click
Auto Click/Pop Eliminator.
3 Set the desired options.
For more information, search for “Auto Click/Pop Eliminator options” in Help.
Using the Click/Pop Eliminator effect (Edit View only)
The Click/Pop Eliminator effect detects and removes clicks and pops. Like the Auto
Click/Pop Eliminator, this effect is ideal if you want to clean up the sound of vinyl
recordings before transferring them to CD or another digital medium. The Click/Pop
Eliminator, however, provides a much wider range of controls, letting you highly
customize settings for unique audio content.
For this effect, the most important parameters are the Detect and Reject thresholds. (To
enable the latter, you must select Second Level Verification.) For Detect thresholds, try
settings ranging from 10 for a lot of correction to 50 for very little correction. For Reject
thresholds, try settings ranging from 5 to 40. Run Size is the second most important
parameter. A setting of about 25 is best for high-quality work. For the highest quality,
apply the Click/Pop Eliminator in three successive passes (where each pass is faster than
the previous one).
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A
B
Click/Pop detection graph
A. Level of detected clicks and pops B. Level of rejected clicks and pops
To visually identify clicks, zoom in and use Spectral View with a resolution of 256 bands
and a window width of 40%. (You can access these settings in the Display tab of the
Settings dialog box.) Most clicks appear as bright vertical bars that extend from the top to the
bottom of the waveform display.
To use the Click/Pop Eliminator effect:
1 In Edit View, select an audio range.
2 In the Effects tab of the Organizer window, expand Noise Reduction, and double-click
Click/Pop Eliminator.
3 Set the desired options.
For more information, search for “Click/Pop Eliminator options” in Help.
Using the Clip Restoration effect (Edit View only)
The Clip Restoration effect repairs clipped waveforms by filling in clipped sections with
new audio data. Clipping occurs when the amplitude of a signal exceeds the maximum
level for the current bit resolution (for example, levels above 256 in 8-bit audio).
Commonly, clipping results from recording levels that are too high. You can monitor
clipping during recording or playback by watching the Level Meters; when clipping occurs,
the boxes on the far right of the meters turn red.
Visually, clipped audio appears as broad flat areas at the top of a waveform. Sonically,
clipped audio is a static-like distortion.
Note: If you need to adjust the DC offset of clipped audio, first use the Clip Restoration effect.
If you instead adjust DC offset first, the Clip Restoration effect won’t identify clipped areas that
fall below 0 dBFS.
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To restore clipped audio:
1 In Edit View, select an audio range.
2 In the Effects tab of the Organizer window, expand Noise Reduction, and double-click
Clip Restoration.
3 Set the desired options.
For more information, search for “Clip Restoration options” in Help.
Using the Hiss Reduction effect (Edit View only)
The Hiss Reduction effect reduces hiss from sources such as audio cassettes, vinyl records,
or microphones. This effect greatly lowers the amplitude of a frequency range if it falls
below an amplitude threshold called the noise floor. Audio in frequency ranges that are
louder than the threshold remain untouched. If audio has a consistent level of background
hiss, that hiss can be removed completely.
Using the Hiss Reduction graph to adjust the noise floor
To reduce other types of noise that have a wide frequency range, try the Noise Reduction
effect. (See “Using the Noise Reduction effect (Edit View only)” on page 128.)
To reduce hiss:
1 In Edit View, select an audio range.
2 In the Effects tab of the Organizer window, expand Noise Reduction, and double-click
Hiss Reduction.
3 Set the desired options.
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For more information, search for “Hiss Reduction options” in Help.
Using the Noise Reduction effect (Edit View only)
The Noise Reduction effect dramatically reduces background and broadband noise with a
minimal reduction in signal quality. This effect can remove a wide range of noise,
including tape hiss, microphone background noise, 60-cycle hum, or any noise that is
constant throughout a waveform.
The proper amount of noise reduction depends upon the type of background noise and
the acceptable loss in quality for the remaining signal. In general, you can increase the
signal-to-noise ratio by 5 to 20 dB and retain high audio quality.
To achieve the best results with the Noise Reduction effect, apply it to 16- or 32-bit audio
with no DC offset. With 8-bit audio, this effect cannot reduce noise below –45 dB, which
is very audible. (To achieve a lower noise floor with 8-bit audio, upsample the file to 16
bits, apply the Noise Reduction effect, and downsample the file back to 8 bits.) With a DC
offset, this effect may introduce clicks in quiet passages. (To remove a DC offset, select the
Center Wave preset provided by the Amplify/Fade effect.)
C
A
D
B
Adjusting frequency-specific settings with the Noise Reduction graphs:
A. Noise floor B. Reduction graph C. Original audio D. Processed audio
To reduce noise added by a sound card during recording, start the recording with a
second of silence. After recording is complete, use that silence as the Noise Reduction
Profile, and then remove it from the complete recording. In some cases, this process can
increase dynamic range by 10 dB.
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To reduce noise:
1 In Edit View, select a range that contains only noise and is at least half a second long.
To select noise in a specific frequency range, use the Marquee Selection tool. (See
“Selecting audio frequencies in Spectral View” on page 88.)
2 In the Effects tab of the Organizer window, expand Noise Reduction, and double-click
Capture Noise Reduction Profile.
3 In the waveform display, select the range from which you want to remove noise.
4 In the Effects tab of the Organizer window, double-click Noise Reduction.
5 Set the desired options.
For more information, search for “Noise Reduction options” in Help.
Filtering audio
Filter effects change the frequency content of audio, letting you adjust tonal range to
enhance audio or create special effects. (Be aware, however, that significantly boosting a
frequency can cause clipping.)
Using the Dynamic EQ effect
The Dynamic EQ effect varies the amount of equalization over time. For example, during
the first half of a waveform, you can boost high frequencies; during the second half, you
can change the bandwidth of affected frequencies. The Dynamic EQ dialog box provides
three areas of controls: Gain, Frequency, and Q (bandwidth).
Frequency graph of the Dynamic EQ effect in Edit View (Rhythmic Sweep preset)
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Dynamic EQ is especially effective as a real-time effect in Multitrack View, where you
can use clip envelopes to adjust the Gain, Frequency, and Q parameters.
To use the Dynamic EQ effect:
1 Select an audio range (Edit View) or track (Multitrack View).
2 In the Effects tab of the Organizer window, expand Filters, and double-click Dynamic EQ.
3 Set the desired options.
For more information, search for “Dynamic EQ options” in Help.
Using the FFT Filter effect (Edit View only)
The graphic nature of the FFT (Fast Fourier Transform) Filter effect makes it easy to draw
curves or notches that reject or boost specific frequencies. This effect can produce broad
band-pass filters such as high- and low-pass filters (to maintain high and low frequencies,
respectively), narrow band-pass filters (to simulate the sound of a telephone call), or notch
filters (to eliminate very narrow frequency bands). The noise level of the FFT Filter effect
is lower than that of 16-bit samples, so it introduces no noise when processing audio at
16-bit resolution or lower.
FFT Filter graph (De-Esser preset)
For optimal results, filter 32-bit samples. If the source audio is 8-bit or 16-bit, convert
it to 32-bit first, and after you filter it, convert it back to 8-bit with dithering. You’ll
produce better results than processing at lower resolutions, especially if you perform more than
one transform on the audio.
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To use the FFT Filter effect:
1 In Edit View, select an audio range.
2 In the Effects tab of the Organizer window, expand Filters, and double-click FFT Filter.
3 Set the desired options.
For more information, search for “FFT Filter effect options” in Help.
Using the Graphic Equalizer effect
The Graphic Equalizer effect boosts or cuts specific frequency bands and provides a visual
representation of the resulting EQ curve. Unlike the Parametric Equalizer, the Graphic
Equalizer uses preset frequency bands for quick and easy equalization. The fixed Q settings
ensure that no drop outs exist at intermediate frequencies. You can space frequency bands
at intervals of one octave, one-half octave, or one-third octave.
The Graphic Equalizer effect is an FIR (Finite Impulse Response) filter, which maintains
phase accuracy—unlike an IIR (Infinite Impulse Response) filter, which can introduce
phase errors, adding a ringing quality to audio.
To use the Graphic Equalizer effect:
1 Select an audio range (Edit View) or track (Multitrack View).
2 In the Effects tab of the Organizer window, expand Filters, and double-click Graphic
Equalizer.
3 Set the desired options.
For more information, search for “Graphic Equalizer options” in Help.
Using the Notch Filter effect
The Notch Filter effect removes up to six user-defined frequency bands, in addition to
standard telephone DTMF tones. Use this effect to remove very narrow frequency bands,
such as a 60 Hz hum, while leaving all surrounding frequencies untouched.
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To use the Notch Filter effect:
1 Select an audio range (Edit View) or track (Multitrack View).
2 In the Effects tab of the Organizer window, expand Filters, and double-click Notch Filter.
3 Set the desired options.
For more information, search for “Notch Filter options” in Help.
Using the Parametric Equalizer effect
The Parametric Equalizer provides maximum control over tonal equalization. Unlike the
Graphic Equalizer, which provides a fixed number of frequencies and Q bandwidths, the
Parametric Equalizer gives you total control over frequency, Q, and gain settings. For example,
you can simultaneously reduce a small range of frequencies centered around 1000 Hz, boost a
broad low-frequency shelf centered around 80 Hz, and insert a 60 Hz notch filter.
The Parametric Equalizer uses second-order IIR filters, which are very fast and provide
very precise resolution, even at lower frequencies. For example, you can precisely boost a
range of 40 to 45 Hz.
Parametric EQ graph (Old Time Radio preset)
To use the Parametric Equalizer effect:
1 Select an audio range (Edit View) or track (Multitrack View).
2 In the Effects tab of the Organizer window, expand Filters, and double-click Parametric
Equalizer.
3 Set the desired options.
For more information, search for “Parametric Equalizer options” in Help.
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Using the Quick Filter effect (Edit View only)
The Quick Filter is an 8-band graphic equalizer that you can easily customize to suit many
filtering needs. Unlike a standard graphic equalizer, settings for the individual frequency
bands interact with nearby frequencies. For example, significantly boosting the level of the
highest 22 kHz frequency band moderately boosts the level of lower frequencies. This
behavior helps you to quickly and easily enhance audio tone.
To change the equalization setting over time, use different Initial and Final settings.
Using this approach, you can create many interesting effects, such as bass-heavy equalization that gradually changes to flat equalization at the introduction of a song.
To use the Quick Filter effect:
1 In Edit View, select an audio range.
2 In the Effects tab of the Organizer window, expand Filters, and double-click Quick Filter.
3 Set the desired options.
For more information, search for “Quick Filter options” in Help.
Using the Scientific Filters effect (Edit View only)
The Scientific Filters effect provides high-order IIR (Infinite Impulse Response) filters for
precise band-pass, notch, or high- or low-pass filtering. The most common types of highorder filters are available: Bustle, Butterscotch, Chebychev 1, and Chebychev 2. Each type
has different characteristics for filter attenuation and the steepness of transition bands at
cutoff points. Butterworth usually provides the best compromise between quality and
precision.
On the Scientific Filters graph, one line shows frequency response (measured in decibels),
and the other line shows either phase (measured in degrees) or group delay (measured in
milliseconds), depending on whether the Phase or Delay option is selected. Increase the
graph’s display range by selecting Extended Range.
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A
B
Scientific Filters graph for Butterworth filter (Remove Subsonic Rumble preset)
A. Group Delay (milliseconds) B. Frequency Response (dB)
To use the Scientific Filters effect:
1 In Edit View, select an audio range.
2 In the Effects tab of the Organizer window, expand Filters, and double-click Scientific
Filters.
3 Set the desired options.
For more information, search for “Scientific Filters options” in Help.
Optimizing amplitude
Amplitude effects let you optimize audio volume for specific mediums such as radio and
CD, produce detailed fade outs, and more.
Using the Amplify/Fade effect (Edit View only)
The Amplify/Fade effect produces either constant amplification changes (such as fixed
boosts) or precise fades.
Though the Amplify/Fade effect isn’t available in Multitrack View, you can use realtime envelopes to accomplish the same task. (See “Automating mixes with clip
envelopes” on page 188.)
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To use the Amplify/Fade effect:
1 In Edit View, select an audio range.
2 In the Effects tab of the Organizer window, expand Amplitude, and double-click
Amplify/Fade.
3 Set the desired options.
For more information, search for “Amplify/Fade options” in Help.
Using the Envelope effect (Edit View only)
The Envelope effect lets you precisely control amplitude over time, enabling you to
combine a wide range of amplification effects, such as multiple fades and boosts. The top
of the Envelope graph represents 100% (normal) amplification; the bottom represents
100% attenuation (silence).
Though the Envelope effect isn’t available in Multitrack View, you can use real-time
track envelopes to accomplish the same task. (See “Automating mixes with clip
envelopes” on page 188.)
Envelope graph (Bell Curve preset)
To use the Envelope effect:
1 In Edit View, select an audio range.
2 In Effects tab of the Organizer window, expand Amplitude, and double-click Envelope.
3 Set the desired options.
For more information, search for “Envelope options” in Help.
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Using the Dynamics Processing effect
The Dynamics Processing effect varies the output level of a waveform based on its input
level. You can use this effect to limit or compress dynamic range, producing a consistent
level of perceived loudness. You can also expand or gate the signal so that low-level signals
are reduced in level, increasing perceived dynamic range, or eliminating signals with noise
that falls below a specific threshold.
The Dynamics Processing effect can produce subtle changes that you notice only after
repeated listening. When applying this effect in Edit View, use a copy of the original file
so you can return to the original audio if necessary.
Dynamics Processing graph (Classic SoftKnee preset)
To use the Dynamics Processing effect:
1 Select an audio range (Edit View) or track (Multitrack View).
2 In the Effects tab of the Organizer window, expand Amplitude, and double-click
Dynamics Processing.
3 Set the desired options.
For more information, search for “Dynamics Processing options” in Help.
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Using the Hard Limiting effect
The Hard Limiting effect drastically attenuates audio that rises above a defined threshold,
leaving audio below the threshold unaffected. This effect is particularly useful for
increasing perceived volume because you can amplify audio beyond the digital maximum,
0 dbFS, and you can lower areas that would otherwise be clipped. For example, when you
convert from 32-bit to 16-bit audio, particularly loud 32-bit passages can cause 16-bit
clipping. To prevent clipping, you can either use the Normalize effect to reduce the
amplitude of the entire file (lowering perceived volume), or you can use the Hard Limiting
effect to reduce amplitude only for loud passages (increasing perceived volume).
To use the Hard Limiting effect:
1 Select an audio range (Edit View) or track (Multitrack View).
2 In the Effects tab of the Organizer window, expand Amplitude, and double-click Hard
Limiting.
3 Set the desired options.
For more information, search for “Hard Limiting options” in Help.
Using the Normalize effect (Edit View only)
The Normalize effect lets you set a peak level for a file or selection. When you normalize
audio to 100%, you achieve the maximum amplitude that digital audio allows—0 dBFS.
The Normalize effect amplifies the entire file or selection equally. For example, if the
original audio reaches a loud peak of 80% and a quiet low of 20%, normalizing to 100%
amplifies the loud peak to 100% and the quiet low to 40%.
To apply RMS normalization, you must use the Group Waveform Normalize
command. If desired, you can apply that command to only one file. (See “Normalizing
groups of files” on page 244.)
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To use the Normalize effect:
1 In Edit View, select an audio range.
2 In the Effects tab of the Organizer window, expand Amplitude, and double-click
Normalize.
3 Set the desired options.
For more information, search for “Normalize options” in Help.
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Chapter 6: Applying Stereo,
Pitch, and Delay Effects
I
f you want to add richness and depth to sound, you can use the effects in Adobe
Audition to change stereo imagery or simulate acoustic spaces. You can add subtle or
psychedelic audio effects, and you can even correct the pitch of an out-of-tune singer.
About using stereo, pitch, and delay effects
Adobe Audition contains a wide variety of effects that let you change stereo imagery,
adjust pitch, and add delay (for example, reverb and echo). Dialog boxes for these effects
share many common options, such as graphs, spline curves, presets, and previews. For
information on these shared options, see “Working with effects” on page 28.
Note: You can apply effects differently in Edit View and Multitrack View, and some effects
dialog boxes have different options in each view. For information on applying effects in Edit
View, see “Selecting audio data” on page 87. For information on applying effects in Multitrack
View, see “Using real-time effects” on page 185.
Changing stereo imagery
Adobe Audition lets you change the apparent location, or stereo imagery, of sounds coming
from the speakers. For instance, you can move a sound from the center to the left or right
speaker or even make sounds seem to circle a listener’s head.
Note that all of the stereo imagery effects except the Doppler Shifter effect work only on
stereo files.
Using the Binaural Auto-Panner effect (Edit View only)
The Binaural Auto-Panner effect spatially lets you designate sound spatially on the left and
the right in a seemingly circular pattern over time. In order to spatially encode the sound,
either the left or right channel is delayed so that the sounds reach each ear at different
times, tricking the brain into thinking they are coming from either side.
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To use the Binaural Auto-Panner effect:
1 In Edit View, select a stereo range.
2 In the Effects tab of the Organizer window, expand Amplitude, and double-click
Binaural Auto-Panner.
3 Set the desired options.
For more information, search for “Binaural Auto-Panner options” in Help.
Using the Channel Mixer effect
The Channel Mixer effect alters the left and right balance of a stereo waveform, letting you
create new stereo mixes by using the existing right and left channels as input sources. By
recombining and inverting the channels, you can create some interesting stereo-imaging
effects.
To use the Channel Mixer effect:
1 Select a stereo range.
2 In the Effects tab of the Organizer window, expand Amplitude, and double-click
Channel Mixer.
3 Set the desired options.
For more information, search for “Channel Mixer options” in Help.
Using the Pan/Expand effect
The Pan/Expand effect lets you shift the center channel of a stereo waveform. It also lets
you expand or narrow the stereo separation of the left and right channels.
Center channel panning uses the surround and center channels of a stereo recording, where
the surround channel is the difference of the two original channels, and the center channel
is the sum of them. You can think of a stereo recording as having four channels (left, right,
center, and surround), and this effect lets you pan these channels around. For example,
pan hard left to get the original center channel to come out the left speaker and the original
surround channel to come out the right. This type of panning can provide added realism
to original stereo recordings.
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Expanding works by subtracting or adding differing amounts of right and left channel
signals, so sounds occurring on the right or left are cut or boosted. You can alter both of
these elements dynamically over time by using the respective graph.
To use the Pan/Expand effect:
1 Select an audio range (Edit View) or track (Multitrack View).
2 In the Effects tab of the Organizer window, expand Amplitude, and double-click
Pan/Expand.
3 Set the desired options.
For more information, search for “Pan/Expand options” in Help.
Using the Stereo Field Rotate effect
This effect lets you rotate the stereo field of an audio file. The stereo field denotes where in
space instruments or other sources are placed within the left and right images of a stereo
waveform. By manipulating the Rotation graph, you can affect how the instruments seem
to move over time.
To use the Stereo Field Rotate effect:
1 Select a stereo range.
2 In the Effects tab of the Organizer window, expand Amplitude, and double-click Stereo
Field Rotate.
3 Set the desired options.
For more information, search for “Stereo Field Rotate options” in Help.
Using the Center Channel Extractor effect
The Center Channel Extractor effect keeps or removes frequencies that are common to
both the left and right channels—in other words, sounds that are panned center. Often
voice, bass, and lead instruments are recorded this way. As a result, you can use this effect
to bring up the volume of the vocals, lead bass, or kick drum or remove any of them from
the stereo mix.
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To use the Center Channel Extractor effect:
1 Select a stereo range.
2 In the Effects tab of the Organizer window, expand Filters, and double-click Center
Channel Extractor.
3 Set the desired options.
For more information, search for “Center Channel Extractor options” in Help.
Using the Doppler Shifter effect (Edit View only)
The Doppler Shifter effect creates the increase and decrease in pitch we notice when an
object approaches and then passes us, such as when a police car passes with its siren on.
The frequency of the noise from the siren starts out at a high pitch and tempo, and it
lowers as the car passes you. When the car comes toward you, the sound it makes reaches
your ears as a higher frequency because each wave crest is actually compressed by the car
moving forward. The first crest leaves the car, and by the time the next one leaves, the car
has moved forward, reducing the wavelength of the sound and raising its frequency. The
opposite happens as the car passes by: The waves are stretched out, resulting in a lowerpitched sound.
To use the Doppler Shifter effect:
1 In Edit View, select an audio range.
2 In the Effects tab of the Organizer window, expand Time/Pitch, and double-click
Doppler Shifter.
3 Set the desired options.
For more information, search for “Doppler Shifter options” in Help.
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Using chorus, flanger, and phaser effects
These effects can thicken sound or make it outrageous. They range from the Chorus
effect’s ability to make a single instrument or vocalist sound like a group playing or singing
in unison, to the wilder sounds of the Flanger effect and the phaser effects. Although you
can apply them in stereo for the most dimensional results, you can use them with mono
sound as well.
Using the Chorus effect
The Chorus effect adds richness as if several voices or instruments are played at once. It’s
a great way to add a degree of presence to a track. You can use it to give a stereo effect to a
mono sample (where the left and right channels are identical) or to add harmony or
“thickness” to a vocal track. You can also use it to create some truly out-of-this-world
special effects.
Adobe Audition uses a direct-simulation method of achieving a chorus effect, meaning
that each voice (or layer) is made to sound distinct from the original by slightly varying
the timing, intonation, and vibrato. The Feedback setting lets you add extra detail to the
result.
You get better results if you convert mono files to stereo before applying the
Chorus effect.
To use the Chorus effect:
1 Select an audio range (Edit View) or track (Multitrack View).
2 In the Effects tab of the Organizer window, expand Delay Effects, and double-click
Chorus.
3 Set the desired options.
For more information, search for “Chorus options” in Help.
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Using the Flanger effect
Flanging was originally achieved by sending an audio signal to two reel-to-reel tape
recorders and then physically slowing down the reels of one machine. The resulting sound
has a phase-shifted, time-delay effect, characteristic of psychedelic recordings of the 1960s
and 1970s. The Flanger dialog box lets you create a similar result by slightly delaying and
phasing a signal at predetermined or random intervals.
To use the Flanger effect:
1 Select an audio range (Edit View) or track (Multitrack View).
2 In the Effects tab of the Organizer window, expand Delay Effects, and double-click
Flanger.
3 Set the desired options.
For more information, search for “Flanger options” in Help.
Using the Sweeping Phaser effect
Similar to flanging, phasing introduces a variable phase-shift to a split signal and recombines
it, creating psychedelic effects first popularized by guitarists of the 1960s. The Sweeping
Phaser effect sweeps a notch- or boost-type filter back and forth about a center frequency.
A phase is similar to a flange except that instead of using a simple delay, frequencies are
phase-shifted over time. If a phase is used on stereo files, the stereo image can be dramatically altered to create some remarkably interesting sounds.
To use the Sweeping Phaser effect:
1 Select an audio range (Edit View) or track (Multitrack View).
2 In the Effects tab of the Organizer window, expand Delay Effects, and double-click
Sweeping Phaser.
3 Set the desired options.
For more information, search for “Sweeping Phaser options” in Help.
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Using the Graphic Phase Shifter effect
The Graphic Phase Shifter lets you adjust the phase of a waveform by adding control
points to a graph.
To use the Graphic Phase Shifter effect:
1 Select an audio range (Edit View) or track (Multitrack View).
2 In the Effects tab of the Organizer window, expand Filters, and double-click Graphic
Phase Shifter.
3 Set the desired options.
For more information, search for “Graphic Phase Shifter options” in Help.
Changing pitch
The effects in Adobe Audition let you change the pitch, raising or lowering a person’s voice
or musical notes. For example, the Pitch Correction effect can correct an out-of-tune
vocalist or instrument, and the Stretch effect can stretch or shrink audio without altering
pitch or tempo.
Using the Pitch Bender effect (Edit View only)
This effect varies the pitch of the source audio over time. Use the graph to “draw” a tempo
to create smooth tempo changes or other effects, such as that of a record or a tape speeding
up or slowing down.
To use the Pitch Bender effect:
1 In Edit View, select an audio range.
2 In the Effects tab of the Organizer window, expand Time/Pitch, and double-click
Pitch Bender.
3 Set the desired options.
For more information, search for “Pitch Bender options” in Help.
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Using the Pitch Correction effect (Edit View only)
The Pitch Correction effect provides two ways to make pitch adjustments for vocals or solo
instrumentation. Automatic mode analyzes the audio content and automatically corrects
the pitch based on the key you define, without your having to analyze each note. Manual
mode creates a pitch profile that you can adjust note-by-note. You can even over-correct
vocals to create robotic-sounding effects.
The Pitch Correction effect detects the pitch of the source audio and measures the periodic
cycle of the waveform to determine its pitch. The effect can be used on audio that contains
a periodic signal (that is, audio with one note at a time, such as for a saxophone, violin, or
vocals). Nonperiodic audio, or periodic audio with a high noise floor, can disrupt the
effect’s ability to detect the incoming pitch, resulting in incomplete pitch correction.
To use the Pitch Correction effect:
1 In Edit View, select an audio range.
2 In the Effects tab of the Organizer window, expand Time/Pitch, and double-click Pitch
Correction.
3 Click the Automatic or Manual tab, and set the desired options.
For more information, search for “Pitch Correct options in Automatic Correction
Mode” or “Pitch Correction options in Manual Mode” in Help.
Using the Stretch effect
The Stretch effect lets you change the pitch of an audio signal, the tempo, or both. For
example, you can use the effect to transpose a song to a higher key without changing the
tempo, or you can use it to slow down a passage without changing the pitch. You can also
vary pitch and tempo over the length of the audio, giving the effect of raising and lowering
pitch or slowing down and speeding up the tempo.
To use the Stretch effect:
1 Select an audio range (Edit View) or track (Multitrack View).
2 In the Effects tab of the Organizer window, expand Time/Pitch, and double-click Stretch.
3 Set the desired options.
For more information, search for “Stretch options” in Help.
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Adding delays and echoes
Delay refers to separating copies of an original signal by some number of milliseconds.
Echoes are sounds that are delayed far enough in time so that you hear each as a distinct
copy of the original sound. Both delays and echoes are a great way to add ambiance to a
track where reverb or chorusing might muddy the mix.
Using the Delay effect
Delay can be used to create single echoes, as well as a number of other effects. Delays of
35 milliseconds or more create discrete echoes, while those between 15-34 milliseconds
can create a simple chorus or flanging effect. (These results won’t be as effective as the
actual Chorus or flanging effects in Adobe Audition, as the delay settings are fixed and
don’t change over time.)
By further reducing a delay to between 1 and 14 milliseconds, you can spatially locate a
mono sound (which has the same information in both the left and right channels) so that
the sound seems to be coming from the left or the right side, even though the actual
volume levels for left and right are identical.
To use the Delay effect:
1 Select an audio range (Edit View) or track (Multitrack View).
2 In the Effects tab of the Organizer window, expand Delay Effects, and double-click Delay.
3 Choose Effects > Delay Effects > Delay.
4 Set the desired options.
For more information, search for “Delay options” in Help.
Using the Dynamic Delay effect
The Dynamic Delay effect lets you change the amount of delay over the length of a
waveform. For example, you could set a 2 millisecond delay for the first five seconds of audio,
a 20 millisecond delay for the next 15 seconds, a 7 millisecond delay for the next 10 seconds,
and so on.
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Dynamic Delay is especially cool when used as a real-time effect in Multitrack View. If
you add the dynamic delay (or Dynamic EQ, which has a similar principle) to Multitrack View, you get a new envelope that determines the delay.
To use the Dynamic Delay effect:
1 Select an audio range (Edit View) or track (Multitrack View).
2 In the Effects tab of the Organizer window, expand Delay Effects, and double-click
Dynamic Delay.
3 Set the desired options.
For more information, search for “Dynamic Delay options” in Help.
Using the Echo effect
This effect adds a series of repeated, decaying echoes to a sound. (For a single echo, use the
Delay effect instead.) You can create effects ranging from a Grand Canyon-type“Helloello-llo-lo-o” to metallic, clanging drainpipe sounds by varying the delay amount. By
equalizing the delays, you can change a room’s characteristic sound from one with
reflective surfaces (creating echoes that have bright, shiny, high-end sounds) to one that is
almost totally absorptive (meaning very few high-end sounds are reflected).
Note: Make sure that enough silence is at the end of the waveform for the echo to end. If the
echo is cut off abruptly before it fully decays, undo the Echo effect, add several seconds of silence
by choosing Generate > Silence, and then reapply the Echo effect.
You can create striking stereo echo effects by setting different left and right values for the
Decay, Delay, and Initial Echo Volume controls.
To use the Echo effect:
1 Select an audio range (Edit View) or track (Multitrack View).
2 In the Effects tab of the Organizer window, expand Delay Effects, and double-click Echo.
3 Set the desired options.
For more information, search for “Echo options” in Help.
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Using the Echo Chamber effect
The Echo Chamber effect can simulate the ambiance of almost any room. Settings let you
specify a virtual room’s size and surface characteristics, along with the placement of virtual
microphones. The number of echoes is adjustable up to 500,000. Keep in mind that the
more echoes you include, the more time Adobe Audition needs to process the effect.
You can create a spatial, stereo expansion effect by setting the virtual microphones farther
apart than your actual stereo speakers. For example, if your stereo speakers are 6 feet apart,
try setting the left and right virtual microphones 20 or 30 feet apart.
Make sure that enough silence is at the end of the waveform for the echo to end. If the
echo is cut off abruptly before it fully decays, undo the Echo effect, add several seconds
of silence by choosing Generate > Silence, and then reapply the Echo Chamber effect.
To use the Echo Chamber effect:
1 Select an audio range (Edit View) or track (Multitrack View).
2 In the Effects tab of the Organizer window, expand Delay Effects, and double-click
Echo Chamber.
3 Set the desired options.
For more information, search for “Echo Chamber options” in Help.
Using the Multitap Delay effect
Multitap Delay can be thought of as a combination of the Delay, Echo, Filter, and Reverb
effects. You can create up to 10 delay units, each with its own delay, feedback, and filtering
settings.
If one delay unit is placed inside another (as viewed in the chart above the controls), then
the echo occurs more than once. As audio travels down the delay line (represented in the
chart by the bottom horizontal arrow pointing to the right) portions at any point can be
fed back into the delay line anywhere behind the given offset and at any feedback amount,
with any high or low cut filter. Experiment to achieve some very interesting effects.
Each delay unit is represented in the graph as a back-leading arrow starting at the Offset
and going back the number of milliseconds stated under Delay. A single delay unit is much
the same as the Echo function, but with a slightly different filtering setup. (It uses two
sliding bands with variable cutoff points instead of eight bands of filtering.)
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To use the Multitap Delay effect:
1 Select an audio range (Edit View) or track (Multitrack View).
2 In the Effects tab of the Organizer window, expand Delay Effects, and double-click
Multitap Delay.
3 Set the desired options.
For more information, search for “Multitap Delay options” in Help.
Adding reverb
When a sound occurs, it bounces off of different surfaces on its way to your ears. For
example, when someone sings in a room, that sound is reflected off the walls, ceiling, and
floor, as well as any objects in the room. This reflected sound is called reverberation, or
reverb for short. All these reflected sounds might reach your ears so closely together that
you cannot discern them as separate echoes. However, they give an impression of space.
With Adobe Audition, you can customize the reverb and replicate a variety of room
environments.
For the most precise control of an effects mix in Multitrack View, set real-time reverbs
to 0% Original and 100% Reverb. Then, use the effects mixer to control the ratio of dry
to reverberant sound.
Using the Full Reverb effect
Full Reverb, like the standard Reverb effect, simulates acoustic space. It’s also convolutionimpulse-based (like standard Reverb), meaning no ringing, metallic, or other artificial
sounding artifacts are present. However, specific resonance can be achieved if desired.
The Full Reverb effect has some unique features, such as Perception, which simulates
room irregularities, and source location to place the “singer” off-center, and have the early
reflections realistically model their position within rooms that have acoustically desirable
dimensions that you can customize. Practically any wall surface or other sound-affecting
factors can be simulated by changing the reverb’s frequency absorption by using a threeband, parametric-EQ style interface (in the Coloration tab).
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Note: Because the Full Reverb effect can take longer to process than the other effects, it may
not be the best choice for using in real time in Multitrack View. If you use the Full Reverb
effect on a track, consider locking the track afterwards so that it doesn’t slow down your
editing process.
To use the Full Reverb effect:
1 Select an audio range (Edit View) or track (Multitrack View).
2 In the Effects tab of the Organizer window, expand Delay Effects, and double-click
Full Reverb.
3 Click the General Reverb tab, the Early Reflections tab, or the Coloration tab, and
specify the options you want on each.
Note that when any of the reverb characteristics are modified, a new impulse is built to
simulate the environment you specify. (An “impulse” is the data by which every other
sample in a waveform is multiplied.) The impulse can be several megabytes in size,
requiring more CPU processing power, so you might have to wait a few seconds after
clicking Preview for the reverb to be built. The results, however, are much more natural
sounding and easier to tailor. Once built, the preview generally runs in real time, and
subsequent previews don’t require rebuilding the impulse, nor does adjusting any of the
Mixing options or selecting Include Direct.
4 Specify any Mixing options you want.
For more information, search for “General Reverb tab options,” “Early Reflections
tab options,” and “Coloration tab options” in Help.
Using the QuickVerb effect
Like Full Reverb and Reverb, the QuickVerb effect adds reverberation to audio to simulate
a different acoustic space. It is faster to use, however, because it isn’t convolution-based
like Full Reverb and Reverb (both of which increase the processing load on your system).
As a result, you can make real-time changes more quickly and effectively in Multitrack
View, without needing to “lock” effects to a track. For slightly faster processing and more
control, you can also use the Studio Reverb effect. For more information, see “Using the
Studio Reverb effect” on page 153.
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To use the QuickVerb effect:
1 Select an audio range (Edit View) or track (Multitrack View).
2 In the Effects tab of the Organizer window, expand Delay Effects, and double-click
QuickVerb.
3 Set the desired options.
For more information, search for “QuickVerb options” in Help.
Using the Reverb effect
The Reverb effect lets you simulate acoustic space, and it consists of both early reflections
and echoes that are so closely spaced that they’re perceived as a single decaying sound. The
Reverb effect is different from the basic Echo effect in that the delays aren’t repeated at
regularly spaced intervals.
The Reverb effect can create a wide range of high-quality reverb results. It can reproduce
acoustic or ambient environments such as a coat closet, a tiled bathroom shower, a concert
hall, or a grand amphitheater. The echoes can be spaced so closely together and made to
occur at such random times that a signal’s reverberated tail decays smoothly over time,
creating a warm and natural sound. Alternatively, initial early-reflection delays can be
used to give a sense of room size, depending upon the initial delay times.
The difference between the Reverb effect and the Full Reverb effects is that Full Reverb is
newer, and it provides more options and better audio rendering. However, you may prefer
the older Reverb effect if that’s what you’re used to using.
Note: Because the Reverb effect can take longer to process than the other reverb effects, it may
not be the best choice for using in real time in Multitrack View.
To simulate rooms that have both echoes and reverb, use the Echo effect first to establish
the “size” of the room sound, and then use the Reverb effect to make the sound more
natural. This technique can create a sense of spaciousness in a monophonic signal (one that
has been recorded as or converted into a stereo audio file). Even a Total Reverb Length as little
as 300 milliseconds can open up the perceived spaciousness of a dry sound (one that was
recorded without any effects or reverb).
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To use the Reverb effect:
1 Select an audio range (Edit View) or track (Multitrack View).
2 In the Effects tab of the Organizer window, expand Delay Effects, and double-click Reverb.
3 Set the desired options.
For more information, search for “Reverb options” in Help.
Using the Studio Reverb effect
Like Full Reverb, QuickVerb, and Reverb, the Studio Reverb effect adds reverberation to
audio to simulate a different acoustic space. It is faster to use than Full Reverb and Reverb,
however, because it isn’t convolution-based like those effects (both of which increase the
processing load on your system). As a result, you can make real-time changes more quickly
and effectively in Multitrack View, without needing to lock effects to a track.
Although QuickVerb is not convolution-based and is most similar to Studio Reverb, the
latter works slightly faster, has better sound quality, and has more options for better
control and tonal variation.
To use the Studio Reverb effect:
1 Select an audio range (Edit View) or track (Multitrack View).
2 In the Effects tab of the Organizer window, expand Delay Effects, and double-click
Studio Reverb.
3 Set the desired options.
For more information, search for “Studio Reverb options” in Help.
Creating special effects
Effects commands in the Special menu let you introduce processing effects that are both
innovative and wild. You can use the Convolution effect to use one waveform to modify
another, the Distortion effect to make a waveform sound as if it’s coming from an
overdriven amplifier or speaker, and the Music effect to create notes and chords sampled
from a waveform.
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Using the Convolution effect
The Convolution effect multiplies every sample in one wave (the impulse) by the samples
contained in another waveform. (An “impulse” is the data by which every other sample in a
waveform is multiplied. For instance, if the impulse is a single sample of a full volume “click”
sound then the convolution of that impulse with any audio data is just that audio data itself.
If that click is at half volume, then the convolution is the audio data at half volume.) In a
sense, this effect uses one waveform to “model” the sound of another waveform. The result
can be that of filtering, echoing, phase shifting, or any combination of these effects. That is,
any filtered version of a waveform can be echoed at any delay, any number of times.
For example, modeling someone saying “Hey” with a drum track (short, full-spectrum
sounds such as snares work best) results in the drums saying “Hey” each time they are hit.
You can build impulses from scratch by specifying how to filter the audio and what delay
rate to apply, or by copying audio directly from a waveform.
With the proper impulses, you can simulate any reverberant space. For example, if you have
an impulse of your favorite cathedral, and you convolute it with any mono audio (for which
the left and right channels are the same), the result sounds as if that audio were played in that
cathedral. You can generate such an impulse by going to the cathedral, standing where you
want the audio to seem to be coming from, generating a loud impulsive noise (like a “snap”
or “click”), and recording the noise in stereo. If you use this recording as an impulse, convolution with it sounds as if the listener is at the exact location of the recording equipment, and
the convoluted audio is at the location of the snap or click.
If several ticks descend in amplitude over time, such as one tick every 100 milliseconds,
with each tick half as loud as the previous one, then the resulting convolution with audio
has 100 milliseconds between each echo, and each echo is half as loud as the previous one.
To get a feel for Convolution, open and play with some of the sample Impulse (.imp) files
that come with Adobe Audition. You can find them in the Imps folder within the folder for
Adobe Audition and on the Adobe Audition CD.
Use convolution to sustain a sound for any length of time. For example, the sound of a
person singing “aaaaaah” for one second can be turned into thousands of people singing
“aaaaaah” for any length of time by using dynamically expanded white noise. Also, to send
any portion of an unprocessed “dry” signal back out, simply add a full spectrum echo at
0 milliseconds. The Left and Right volume percentages are the resulting volume of the dry
signal in the left and right channels.
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To use the Convolution effect:
1 Select an audio range (Edit View) or track (Multitrack View).
2 In the Effects tab of the Organizer window, expand Special, and double-click Convolution.
3 Set the desired options.
For more information, search for “Convolution options” in Help.
Using the Distortion effect
Use this effect to simulate blown car speakers, muffled microphones, or overdriven amplifiers. Have fun making your audio sound really bad or adding fuzz to guitar licks to get
that authentic heavy metal sound.
To use the Distortion effect:
1 Select an audio range (Edit View) or track (Multitrack View).
2 In the Effects tab of the Organizer window, expand Special, and double-click Distortion.
3 Set the desired options.
For more information, search for “Distortion options” in Help.
Using the Music effect (Edit View only)
The Music effect lets you use any short selection as a “voice” to synthesize music or
harmonize a wave using a particular chord. While this function is far from a complete
MIDI authoring studio, it provides a quick and simple way to put a sample to music.
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The Music dialog box
To use the Music effect:
1 In Edit View, select the part of the waveform you want to use as a quarter note.
Note: This selection must be under ten seconds long. If you don’t select a range, Adobe
Audition uses the data on the clipboard instead. Keep in mind that the clipboard data is filled
with the sample automatically after music is generated. Thus, selecting music a second time
automatically uses the last sample.
2 In the Effects tab of the Organizer window, expand Special, and double-click Music.
3 Set the desired options.
For more information, search for “Music options” in Help.
Using multitrack-only effects
Some effects in Adobe Audition are available only in Multitrack View. The Effects menu
and the Multitrack category in the Effects tab contain all of these effects. For information
about selecting clips and ranges in Multitrack View, see “Selecting ranges in the track
display” on page 164.
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Using the Envelope Follower effect (Multitrack View only)
The Envelope Follower effect varies the output level of one waveform based on the input
level of another. The amplitude map, or envelope, of one waveform (the analysis wave) is
applied to the material of a second waveform (the process wave), resulting in the second
waveform taking on the amplitude characteristics of the first. This effect lets you, for
example, have a bass guitar line that sounds only when a drum is hit. In this example, the
drum waveform is the Analysis wave, and the bass guitar waveform is the Process wave.
In addition to applying an amplitude envelope to a waveform, you can alter the dynamic
properties of the resulting signal with a variety of settings to otherwise expand, gate,
compress, or limit it.
To use the Envelope Follower effect:
1 In Multitrack View, position the wave clips so that the sections you want to process
together are aligned.
2 Select the Hybrid tool
or the Time Selection tool .
3 In the track display, select the range you want to process.
4 Ctrl-click the wave clips you want to process.
Note: If you select a range by dragging across a clip, that clip is selected by default; if you Ctrlclick the clip, you deselect it.
5 In the Effects tab of the Organizer window, expand Multitrack, and double-click
Envelope Follower.
6 Set the desired options.
For more information, search for “Envelope Follower options” in Help.
Using the Frequency Band Splitter effect (Multitrack View only)
The Frequency Band Splitter lets you take a selected waveform clip (or a highlighted
section thereof) and make up to eight copies of it, with each copy assuming a different
frequency range of the original. Split points are determined by the crossover frequencies
you specify. Each copy of the waveform is placed in its own track in the session window.
You can then edit or apply effects to each band separately.
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For example, using the default setting of three bands with crossover values of 800 and 3200
creates three copies of the selected waveform: one with the frequencies of the selected wave
from 0 to 800 Hz, one from 800 to 3200 Hz, and one from 3200 to 22050 Hz (or whatever
the maximum frequency present is, based on the sample rate).
To use the Frequency Band Splitter effect:
1 In the track display in Multitrack View, select the clip or the range you want to process.
(Use the Hybrid tool or the Time Selection tool to select a range.)
2 Ctrl-click the wave clip.
Note: If more than one wave clip is selected, the Frequency Band Splitter effect is unavailable.
Also, if you select a range by dragging across a clip, that clip is selected by default; if you Ctrlclick the clip, you will deselect it.
3 In the Effects tab of the Organizer window, expand Multitrack, and double-click
Frequency Band Splitter.
4 Set the desired options.
For more information, search for “Frequency Band Splitter options” in Help.
Using the Vocoder effect (Multitrack View only)
A vocoder takes two inputs, usually an instrument and a voice, and modulates one signal
(the process signal, usually the instrument) with the other (the control signal, usually the
voice). This modulation allows one signal to “control” the other. In the example here, the
instrument (the process signal) could be made to “sing” by affecting it with the voice (the
control signal).
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To use the Vocoder effect:
1 In Multitrack View, position the wave clips so that the sections you want to process
together are aligned.
2 Select the Hybrid tool
or the Time Selection tool .
3 In the track display, select the range you want to process.
4 Ctrl-click the wave clips you want to process.
Note: If you select a range by dragging across a clip, that clip is selected by default; if you Ctrlclick the clip, you will deselect it.
5 In the Effects tab of the Organizer window, expand Multitrack, and double-click Vocoder.
6 Set the desired options.
For more information, search for “Vocoder options” in Help.
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161
Chapter 7: Mixing Multitrack
Sessions
I
n Multitrack View, you can mix together multiple audio files to create layered
soundtracks and elaborate musical compositions. Because mixing occurs in real time,
it’s extremely flexible; during playback, you can adjust mixes and record additional
tracks without making any permanent changes. If a mix doesn’t sound good next week, or
even next year, you can simply remix the original audio files.
About mixing multitrack sessions
In Multitrack View, you can add audio, video, ReWire, and MIDI files to separate tracks of
a multitrack session and then mix those tracks together. When you’re happy with a mix,
you can export a mixdown file for use on CD, the Web, and more.
Multitrack View is a flexible editing environment because mixing occurs in real time and
is nondestructive. Because mixing occurs in real time, you can change mix settings during
playback and immediately hear the results. For example, you can adjust a track’s volume
as a session plays to properly blend the track with other tracks. Because mixing is nondestructive, mixing adjustments don’t permanently change original source files. For
example, you can apply four effects to a track and later remove two effects to create a
different sonic texture.
Adobe Audition saves information about mix settings and source files in session (.ses) files.
Session files are relatively small because they contain only pathnames to source files and
references to mix parameters (such as volume, pan, and effect settings). To more easily
manage session files, save them in a unique folder with the source files they reference. If
you later need to move the session to another computer, you can simply move the unique
session folder. For more information, see “Saving sessions” on page 228.
Note: Only one session can be open at a time.
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Working with sessions
The Multitrack View work area includes several unique elements that help you mix
sessions. On the left, the track controls let you adjust track-specific settings, such as
volume and pan. (See “Working with audio tracks” on page 179.) On the right, the track
display lets you edit the clips in each track. (See “Working with clips” on page 168.)
For information about elements of the work area that Multitrack View shares with Edit
View, see “About the work area” on page 9.
A
B
C
D
E
F
G
Multitrack View work area
A. Vertical scroll bar B. Track controls C. Toolbar D. Horizontal scroll bar E. Track F. Load Meter
G. Mix Gauge
Creating new sessions
When you create a new session, you specify its sample rate. (See “About sample rates” on
page 110.) Any files added to the session must share this sample rate. If you try to import
a file with a different sample rate, Adobe Audition lets you convert it.
You can base new sessions on the default session, borrowing default settings such as device
assignments and master volume levels.
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To convert the sample rate of an existing session, use the Save Session As command and
save converted copies of all referenced files. (See “Saving sessions” on page 228.)
To create a new session:
1 Choose File > New Session.
2 Select the desired sample rate.
3 If you want to base the new session on the default session, select Use Default Session.
(This option appears only if you’ve set a default session.)
4 Click OK.
Setting the default session
After you set a default session, it opens when you start Adobe Audition. The default can
also serve as a template for new sessions, letting you share settings such as device assignments and master volume levels across multiple sessions.
To set the current session as the default:
1 Choose File > Default Session > Set Current Session As Default.
2 If the session contains clips, click Yes.
To create a new session that uses the default session as a template, see “Creating new
sessions” on page 162.
To not use a default session:
Choose File > Default Session > Clear Default Session.
Inserting or deleting time in a session
You can use the Insert/Delete Time command to insert silence into a session or to delete a
selected range from the session.
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To insert or delete time in a session:
1 Place the current-time indicator at the desired insertion point, or select the range you
want to delete.
2 Choose Edit > Insert/Delete Time, and set the following options:
Insert Shifts all material (clips or parts of clips) to the right of the current-time indicator
by the amount you specify in the text box. Clips are split if necessary, and the specified
amount of silence is inserted.
Delete Selected Time Removes the highlighted area and shifts all clips to the right of the
selected region.
You must unlock any locked tracks to insert or delete time in a session. To relock such
tracks, click the Lock button in the track controls.
Selecting ranges in the track display
To select ranges in Multitrack View, you can use either the Time Selection tool or the
Hybrid tool . Both tools let you select ranges and clips, but the Hybrid tool also lets you
move clips. If you prefer to select ranges separately from moving clips, use the Time
Selection and the Move/Copy Clip tools rather than the Hybrid tool. (See “Working with
clips” on page 168.)
Simultaneously selecting a range and clips in the track display
(Upper three clips are selected, fourth isn’t)
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To select a range in the track display:
1 In the toolbar, select either the Hybrid tool
or the Time Selection tool .
2 In the track display, do one of the following:
• To select only a range, click an empty area of the track display, and drag left or right.
• To select a range and clips, click a clip, and drag left or right while dragging up or down.
Measuring performance with the Mix Gauge and Load Meter
In Multitrack View, the Mix Gauge and Load Meter help you measure and optimize
performance. The Mix Gauge displays the progress of background mixing, a process that
Adobe Audition completes whenever you edit a mix (for example, by moving a clip or
changing track volume). Background mixing lets you monitor an updated mixdown of a
session and is complete when the Mix Gauge reaches 100%. You needn’t wait for the Mix
Gauge before clicking the Play button, though audio may skip or drop out.
The Load Meter shows the percentage of available CPU power, a particularly important
value if you use real-time effects. Unlike the Mix Gauge, the Load Meter indicates a
problem if it reaches 100%. At that level, your system will perform erratically because the
CPU has no additional processing power. You can reduce CPU load by locking real-time
effects. (See “Locking tracks with real-time effects” on page 188).
Multitrack performance depends primarily upon overall system speed, including CPU
and hard disk speed. You can optimize multitrack performance on any system, however,
by properly configuring multitrack options in the Settings dialog box. (See “Multitrack
options” on page 54.)
A
B
Performance indicators in Multitrack View
A. Mix Gauge B. Load Meter.
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To change background mixing settings:
Right-click the Mix Gauge, and choose any of the following:
• Disable Background Mixing.
• Lower Mix Priority When In Other Applications.
• A Mix Ahead setting to determine how far ahead of the current time Adobe Audition
begins mixing. Longer settings allow for faster mix editing, but they might cause drop outs.
• Mix Entire Session to create a new background mix each time you edit a mix.
• A Mix Priority setting to determine the processing priority of background mixing
versus other tasks.
Disabling background mixing can improve performance when you need to extensively
edit a mix.
To manually start background mixing:
Choose Edit > Refresh Now.
To view or hide the Load Meter:
Choose Window > Load Meter.
Using sessions as SMPTE masters or slaves
By using sessions as SMPTE masters or slaves, you can synchronize the transport controls
of Multitrack View with a MIDI sequencing application or an external hardware device,
such as a videotape machine. Before using a session as a master or slave, you must set
general SMPTE options that apply to all multitrack sessions. (See “Setting up for SMPTE
synchronization” on page 40.)
As a SMPTE master, a session generates timecode in the SMPTE time format you select for
the timeline. As a SMPTE slave, a session receives timecode generated elsewhere, reporting
the following synchronization statuses in the left of the status bar:
• Opened MIDI Input Device when waiting for incoming timecode.
• Synchronizing when establishing synchronization. (Adobe Audition requires about 5
seconds of timecode, known as preroll, to establish synchronization.)
• Playback Synchronized when synchronization is established.
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Note: Adobe Audition sends and receives timecode through the MIDI Out and MIDI In ports
of your system. To configure these ports, see “Setting up for SMPTE synchronization” on
page 40.
To use a session as a SMPTE master:
1 Choose Options > SMPTE Master Enable.
2 Select the desired SMPTE time format for the timeline (see “Monitoring time” on
page 69).
To use a session as a SMPTE slave:
1 Choose Options > SMPTE Start Offset, click Format, and select the desired SMPTE
time format.
2 Enter the desired start point in the SMPTE Start Time Offset box, and then click OK.
(This option defines Adobe Audition’s start point; it doesn’t offset incoming timecode.)
Note: If you chose the SMPTE Drop time format, the offset must compensate for dropped
frames. For example, you must enter 1:00:02 to achieve an offset of 1:00:00.
3 Choose Options > SMPTE Slave Enable.
Setting advanced session properties
In the Advanced Session Properties dialog box, you can adjust session-specific mixing,
tempo, and metronome settings. You can also add session notes, which can help you recall
details about a session or communicate those details to someone else.
To set loop-related session properties, use the Session Properties window. See “Setting
the tempo, time signature, and key for sessions” on page 204.
To set advanced session properties:
1 Choose View > Advanced Session Properties.
2 Set options as desired, and click OK.
For more information, search for “Setting advanced session properties” in Help.
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Working with clips
When you insert an audio, MIDI, or video file in Multitrack View, the file becomes a clip
on the selected track. You can easily move clips to different tracks or timeline positions.
You can also edit clips nondestructively, trimming their start and end points, crossfading
them with other clips, and more.
To work with clips in the track display, you can use either the Hybrid tool , which lets
you move clips and select ranges, or the Move/Copy Clip and Time Selection tools,
which separate these tasks. (See “Selecting ranges in the track display” on page 164.)
Aligning and grouping two clips
Selecting and moving clips
To move a clip or change its properties, you must select it. You can select either individual
clips or all clips in a track or session.
To select an individual clip:
Click the clip in the track display.
To select all clips in a track:
1 Select the track.
2 Choose Edit > Select All Clips In Track [number].
If space exists between clips, double-click that space to quickly select all clips in a track.
To select all clips in a session:
Choose Edit > Select All Clips.
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To move selected clips:
1 Select the Move/Copy Clip tool
in the toolbar.
2 Drag the clips.
If you prefer, select the Hybrid tool, and then right-click and drag the clips.
Grouping clips
You can group clips to more efficiently organize, edit, and mix a session. For example, you
can group guitar clips together to easily identify, select, and move them. Grouped clips
appear with the group icon
and in a different color than ungrouped clips.
Changes to clip mute and lock properties affect all audio clips in a group. See “Setting
audio clip properties” on page 174.
To group clips:
1 Hold down the Ctrl key, and click each clip you want in the group.
2 Choose Edit > Group Clips. Alternatively, right-click any clip in the group, and choose
Group Clips.
To ungroup clips:
Select any clip in the group, and choose Edit > Group Clips. Alternatively, right-click any
clip in the group, and deselect Group Clips.
To change the color for a group:
1 Select any clip in the group, and choose Edit > Group Color. Alternatively, right-click
any clip in the group, and choose Group Color.
2 Select a color, and click OK.
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Aligning clips
You can align the left or right edges of multiple clips, giving them the same start or end point.
To align clips:
1 Hold down Ctrl, and select the clips.
2 Choose Edit > Align Left or Edit > Align Right.
Note: Because the relative position of grouped clips is fixed, you must ungroup them to align them.
Snapping clips to loop endpoints and other clips
Snapping lets you quickly align clips with loops and other clips. If snapping is enabled,
both dragged clips and the current-time indicator snap to loop endpoints and clip edges.
The procedure in this section describes snapping options that are unique to Multitrack
View. For information about snapping options that Multitrack View shares with Edit
View, see “Snapping” on page 91.
To set snapping options for clips:
Choose Edit > Snapping, and choose from the following options:
Snap To Clips Causes clips to snap to the beginning or end of other clips.
Snap To Loop Endpoints Causes clips to snap to the beginning or end of loops.
While you drag a clip, a white line appears in the track display when snapping points
meet. For example, if Snap To Clips is selected, the white line appears when a clip is
aligned with the beginning or end of another clip.
Editing audio and MIDI clips
You can edit audio and MIDI clips to suit the needs of a mix. Because Multitrack View is
nondestructive, clip edits are impermanent; you can return to the original, unedited clip
at any time. If you want to permanently edit an audio clip, however, you can quickly open
the source file in Edit View.
You can edit audio and MIDI clips in many different ways. After selecting a range of a clip,
you can cut out that range or trim the clip to it. You can adjust the edited boundaries of a
clip, revealing or hiding more of it. You can also slip edit a clip to move its contents but not
its boundaries.
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Using the Adjust Boundaries command to reveal more of a previously edited clip
Though the procedures in this section mention toolbar buttons for clip editing commands,
you can also access these commands from the Edit menu or the clip context menu. For
example, you can choose Edit > Trim instead of clicking the Trim To Selection button.
To edit a clip with a selected range:
1 In the toolbar, click the Time Selection tool l or the Hybrid tool
.
2 Drag across the clip to select both it and a range.
3 In the toolbar, do one of the following:
• To trim the clip to the range, click the Trim To Selection button
.
• To cut the range from the clip, click the Cut Wave(s) Out Of Selection button . (Alter-
natively, press Delete.)
• To adjust clip edges to the range, click the Adjust Waveform Boundaries To Selection
button . (To reveal more of a previously edited clip, extend the range beyond the
current clip edges.)
To edit clip edges by dragging:
1 In the toolbar, click the Clip Edge Dragging button .
2 In the track display, position the cursor over the left or right edge of the clip. The edgedragging icon
appears. (If instead the time stretch icon
appears, position the cursor
above the corner handle.)
3 Drag to edit clip edges.
To slip edit a trimmed or looped clip:
1 In the toolbar, click the Move/Copy Clip tool
or the Hybrid tool
2 Hold down Alt, and right-click drag across the clip.
.
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To return to the full, original version of a clip:
Select the clip, and choose Edit > Full. Alternatively, right-click the clip, and choose Full.
The Full command doesn’t apply to loops; instead, adjust clip boundaries by dragging
them.
To edit the source file for an audio clip in Edit View:
Double-click the clip.
Splitting and rejoining audio and MIDI clips
The Split command functions similarly to a traditional tape splice; it cuts audio and MIDI
clips into parts. When a clip is split, each part becomes a new clip that can be independently moved or deleted. Splitting is nondestructive, so you can rejoin split clips with the
Merge/Rejoin Split command.
Selecting a range and splitting one clip into three independent clips
To split a clip:
1 In the toolbar, click the Time Selection tool
or the Hybrid tool
.
2 Do either of the following:
• To split the clip in two, click where you want the split to occur.
• To split the clip into three, drag across it to specify two split points (one at the beginning
of the selection; one at the end).
3 In the toolbar, click the Split Clip button
.
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To rejoin split clips:
1 In the toolbar, click the Move/Copy Clip tool
or the Hybrid tool
.
2 Position the clips beside each other on the same track.
3 Right-click one of the clips, and choose Merge/Rejoin Split.
Copying audio and MIDI clips
You can create two types of copied audio clips: reference copies that share source files and
unique copies that have independent source files. You can create only reference copies of
MIDI clips. For audio clips, the type of copy you choose depends upon the amount of
available disk space and the nature of destructive editing you plan to perform in Edit View.
Reference copies consume no additional disk space, letting you simultaneously edit all
instances by editing the original source file. (For example, you can add the Flanger effect
to the source file in Edit View and automatically apply the effect to all 30 referenced copies
in a session.)
Unique copies have a separate audio file on disk, allowing for separate editing of each
version in Edit View. (For example, you can add destructive effects to the version in an
introduction while leaving the version in a verse dry).
To copy a clip:
1 Click the Move/Copy Clip tool
in the toolbar.
2 Right-click and drag the clip.
3 Release the mouse button, and choose either of the following from the pop-up menu:
• Copy Reference Here
• Copy Unique Here
If you prefer, copy clips with the Hybrid tool. To copy a reference clip, hold down Shift
and right-click drag. To copy a unique clip, hold down Ctrl and right-click drag.
Repeating audio and MIDI clips
With the Clip Duplicate command, you can duplicate repetitions of a clip in a track
without consuming additional disk space. You can also specify the spacing between each
repetition.
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To copy a clip to a different track or to irregular positions in the current track, see
“Copying audio and MIDI clips” on page 173.
To repeat a clip:
1 Select the clip, and choose Edit > Clip Duplicate.
2 Set the following options:
Duplicate Clip Specifies the number of times to duplicate the clip.
Spacing Determines the spacing between each duplicated clip:
• No Gaps—Continuous Looping places each duplicate directly after its preceding clip,
for a continuous loop.
For a more flexible method of looping, adjust a clip’s loop properties. See “About loops”
on page 197.
• Evenly Spaced defines the spacing between each clip according to the time display
format. This value defaults to the length of the selected clip, producing the same effect
as the No Gaps option. Enter a greater value to place space between each clip, or enter
a lesser value to overlap clips.
To repeat a clip such as a drum hit at every other beat in a song, set the time format to
Bars And Beats. (See “Monitoring time” on page 69.) If the clip’s start and end points
don’t align properly with beats, trim the clip in Edit View by using Edit > Find Beats.
Setting audio clip properties
In the Audio Clip Properties window, you can change settings such as volume, pan, and
color for audio clips. Clip settings for volume, pan, and mute are independent from
similar track controls.
You can also lock clips in time and lock them for play only. If a clip is locked in time, you
can move it up or down to another track, but you can’t move it right or left to a new
timeline position. If a clip is locked for play only, you can record in the remainder of the
track without recording over the clip.
You can directly access many audio clip properties from the Edit menu or the clip
context menu (for example, choose Edit > Adjust Audio Clip Volume).
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A
B
C
D
E
Audio Clip Properties window
A. Pan slider B. Pan text box C. Volume text box D. Volume slider
E. Pathname for source file
To change the properties of an audio clip:
1 Right-click the clip, and choose Audio Clip Properties.
2 Do any of the following:
• To change volume, pan, or color, drag the volume, pan, or color slider to the desired
position.
• To lock the clip in time, select Lock In Time. A lock icon
appears on the clip.
• To lock the clip for play only, select Lock For Play Only. If the containing track is record-
enabled, the clip remains the same color; other clips in the track turn red.
• To mute the clip, select Mute.
• To move the clip to a new timeline position, enter a start time in the Time Offset text box.
• To change the clip name, type in the Filename text box. (When you save the session,
Adobe Audition prompts you to save a copy of the source file with the new clip name.)
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Crossfading audio clips
You can crossfade audio clips to transition smoothly from the end of one clip to the
beginning of another. Crossfades consist of a fade out and a fade in over a transition
region. To create a smooth transition, select a transition region that starts before the end
of the first clip and extends beyond the beginning of the second clip.
The fade curves created with Crossfade commands are volume envelopes, which you
can edit. See “Automating mixes with clip envelopes” on page 188.
Selecting a range and two clips, and applying a linear crossfade
To crossfade two clips:
1 Place the clips on separate tracks.
2 Position the clips so the end point of the first overlaps the start point of the second.
3 Across the overlapping area, select a transition region for the crossfade.
To precisely place the start and end points for the crossfade at clip start and end points,
choose Edit > Snapping > Snap To Clips.
4 Ctrl-click both clips.
5 Choose Edit > Crossfade, and then choose one of the following:
• Linear to produce an even crossfade.
• Sinusoidal to produce a crossfade with a curved, sine-like slope.
• Logarithmic In to fade in logarithmically, producing a steeper slope at the end of the fade.
• Logarithmic Out to fade out logarithmically, producing a steeper slope at the beginning
of the fade.
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Time stretching audio clips
Time stretching lets you change the length of an audio clip without changing its pitch. This
technique is particularly helpful for fitting audio clips to video scenes or layering clips for
sound design. You can quickly time stretch a clip either by dragging or setting time stretch
properties. When you time stretch by dragging, Adobe Audition analyzes a clip’s contents
and attempts to select the most natural sounding time-stretch method. When you set
properties for time stretching, you also specify which method of time stretching to use.
Like other features in Multitrack View, time stretching is nondestructive, so you can
disable it at any time.
Note: Time stretching changes the tempo of a clip. If you time stretch a loop-enabled clip, it
won’t match the session tempo.
Dragging to time stretch a clip
To time stretch a clip by dragging:
1 In the toolbar, click the Clip Time Stretching button
.
2 Select the clip, and then position the cursor over the clip’s bottom left or right handle—
the time stretch icon
appears.
3 Drag the handle to lengthen or shorten the clip.
To temporarily enter time stretching mode, hold down Ctrl, and drag a clip handle.
To set time stretch properties:
1 Right-click the clip, and choose Clip Time Stretch Properties.
2 Select Enable Time Stretching, and enter a percentage in the Time Stretch text box.
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3 Choose one of the following time stretching options from the pop-up menu, set related
options, and then click OK:
Time-Scale Stretch Stretches the clip without affecting pitch. This method is most
commonly used for melodic instruments, like piano, bass, and guitar. Because this method
bases the stretch on the actual length and duration of the file, use it only to stretch audio
that doesn’t have well-defined beats, like a synth pad or sustained string section.
Resample (Affects Pitch) Speeds or slows the playback of a clip to fit the new length
without maintaining pitch. This setting is commonly used in R&B and hip hop to achieve
exaggerated stretching and compressing of drum tracks, creating a lo-fi sound. This
setting also works well for vocals, allowing subtle to radical changes in timbre.
Beat Splice Stretches the clip based on beats detected within the file. This setting works
only on clips that have very sharp, transient sounds, like drums. If the waveform already
has beat markers, select Use File’s Beat Markers to use them. Otherwise, select Auto-Find
and adjust the default values as needed.
Hybrid Uses the current Time-Scale Stretch settings when you shorten the clip, and uses
the current Beat Splice settings when you lengthen it.
To disable time stretching:
1 Right-click the time-stretched clip, and choose Clip Time Stretch Properties.
2 Deselect Enable Time Stretching.
Inserting empty audio clips
You can insert empty audio clips as placeholders for audio you plan to record later. This
technique is particularly helpful when combined with the Punch In command. (See
“Recording audio in Multitrack View” on page 73.)
To insert an empty audio clip:
1 Select a range in the track display.
2 Choose Insert > Empty Audio Clip, and then choose one of the following:
• In Current Track (stereo)
• In Current Track (mono)
• In All Record-Armed Tracks
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Revealing hidden clips
If tracks contain overlapping clips, you can reveal hidden clips throughout a session.
To reveal hidden clips:
Choose Edit > Check for Hidden Clips.
Removing and destroying clips
You can remove selected clips from a session and keep their source files available in the
Insert menu and in Edit View. Alternatively, you can destroy selected clips to remove them
from a session and close their source files.
To remove selected clips:
Choose Edit > Remove Clips.
To destroy selected clips:
Choose Edit > Destroy Clips.
Working with audio tracks
You can record and mix up to 128 tracks in Adobe Audition, and each track can contain as
many clips as you need—the only limit is hard disk space. The track controls appear to the left
of the track display, and you can resize these controls to be as wide or narrow as you wish. On
the Vol, EQ, and Bus tabs, you can access different sets of controls for volume, equalization,
and bus properties. Though the wide variety of track controls may seem intimidating at first,
the controls for each track are identical, so if you learn one, you’ve learned them all.
For information about recording on audio tracks, see “Recording audio in Multitrack
View” on page 73.
Track controls on the Vol, EQ, and Bus tabs
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Using the Track Properties window
In the Track Properties window, you can adjust several settings for the selected track,
including volume, pan, output device, and bit depth. Though you can quickly access most
of these options in the track controls, the Track Properties window offers channel and bit
depth menus, and visual sliders for volume and pan.
To use the Track Properties window:
1 Select the track, and then choose Window > Track Properties.
2 Set the desired options.
For more information, search for “Track Properties options” in Help.
Setting track name, volume, and pan
In the track controls, you can name tracks to identify their contents (for example,
“Drums”). You can also specify volume and pan settings.
To change track volume and pan over time, use track envelopes. (See “Automating
mixes with clip envelopes” on page 188.)
To name a track:
In the track controls, type in the name text box.
Name text box in the track controls
To change track volume or pan:
In the Volume (V) or Pan text box of the track controls, drag to scroll through values.
To change these settings with a slider, right-click the Volume or Pan text box.
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Soloing and muting tracks
You can solo tracks to hear them separately from the rest of a mix. Conversely, you can
mute tracks to silence them in a mix.
To solo a track:
In the track controls, click the Solo button
.
To solo multiple tracks, hold down Ctrl and press their Solo buttons.
To mute a track:
In the track controls, click the Mute button
.
Specifying track input and output devices
Using the In and Out buttons in the track controls, you can specify input and output
devices for each track. The text on these buttons changes to reflect the device you specify.
When you specify an output device, you can specify either a hardware output or a bus
output. Bus outputs let you create submixes of selected tracks (for example, drum tracks),
which you can then route to a hardware output. (See “Using the Bus Mixer” on page 193.)
On the EQ tab of the track controls, the In and Out buttons are hidden by default. To
reveal these buttons, increase the width of the track controls by dragging the right border.
To specify an input device for a track:
1 In the track controls, click the In button.
2 From the Device Type menu, choose the device type.
3 From the list box, select the input device.
4 In the Input Options section, specify the channel and bit depth. (To apply these input
options to all tracks, select Same For All Tracks.)
To specify an output device for a track:
1 In the track controls, click the Out button.
2 Select a hardware output from the Devices list or a bus output from the Busses list.
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The list of devices is determined by the devices you designate in the Device Order dialog
box. (See “Designating which devices you want to use” on page 36.)
Setting track channel and bit depth
To set the channel and bit depth for a track, use the Track Properties dialog box.
Track Properties dialog box with channel menu
revealed and bit-depth menu highlighted
To set channel and bit depth for a track:
1 Select the track, and then choose Window > Track Properties.
2 Choose an option from the channel and bit depth menus.
Equalizing tracks
You can equalize audio tracks by using either the track controls or the Track Equalizers
window. The track controls provide quick access to commonly used equalization settings;
the Track Equalizers window provides access to more precise and sophisticated controls.
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In the EQ tab of the track controls, the track equalization text boxes show the current low, mid-, and high-frequency equalization. You can drag across these text boxes to change
equalization settings. To switch between two banks of equalization settings, you can use
the Eq/A or Eq/B button. For example, you can adjust settings for the Eq/A bank, and then
click the button to access the default, unequalized settings for the Eq/B bank. However, if
you change settings while Eq/B is active, those settings are preserved. This functionality
lets you compare any two settings.
In the Track Equalizers window, you can specify the center frequency and Q range for the low,
middle, and high bands. Then, you can use a graph to visually adjust equalization settings.
Note: In the track controls, track equalization text boxes appear in the EQ tab by default. To
reveal these fields in other tabs, increase the width of the track controls.
Switching between Eq/A and Eq/B settings
To equalize a track by using the track controls:
1 On the EQ tab, drag across the Low (L), Middle (M), or High (H) text box.
2 To switch to a different bank of equalization settings, click the Eq/A or Eq/B button.
(Double-click the button to copy the current settings to the other bank.)
To equalize a track by using the Track Equalizers window:
1 Select the track, and then choose Window > Track EQ. Alternatively, click the EQ tab
in the track controls, and then right-click the H, M, or L box.
2 Set the desired options.
For more information, search for “Track Equalizers options” in Help.
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Working with ReWire tracks
To work with ReWire tracks, you must first set up ReWire connections, assigning ReWire
outputs to one or more tracks in a session. (See “Setting up ReWire connections” on
page 42.) ReWire tracks offer similar controls to audio tracks. For example, you can
quickly change volume, pan, and equalization settings, or you can apply real-time effects.
Similarly, you can assign a different device to a ReWire track at any time. Note, however,
that saved sessions store only changes made in Adobe Audition; be sure to also save any
changes made in the ReWire slave application.
When you synchronize via ReWire, you link the transport controls and timeline of Adobe
Audition and the ReWire slave application. For example, if you click the play button in the
slave application, Adobe Audition plays the linked session, sending the audio through the
outputs specified in the Device Properties dialog box. (See “Setting properties for audio
output devices” on page 37.) You can also, however, preview individual modules in the
slave application to hear them independently of the Adobe Audition session. When you
do, the modules send audio through the sound card specified in the Sounds and Audio
Devices control panel.
If you notice a timeline offset between Adobe Audition and the slave application, lower
the Playback Buffer Size on the Multitrack tab of the Settings dialog box (choose
Options > Settings). The default value is 1, but you can enter values as low as 0.1. Because
extremely low buffer sizes may cause audio to drop out, you may need to try different values
to find one that is acceptable.
To assign a different device to a ReWire track:
1 In the track controls, click the RW button.
2 For Device Type, select ReWire.
3 Select the device, and click OK.
To convert a ReWire track to an audio track:
Right-click the ReWire track, and choose Bounce.
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Working with MIDI tracks
Audition can import MIDI files as clips on MIDI tracks. MIDI tracks contain a subset of
the controls available for audio tracks: a name text box and controls for solo, mute, and
volume. MIDI tracks also, however, contain one unique control: a Map button for
assigning MIDI output devices.
Adobe Audition doesn’t include MIDI clips in exported mixdown files. You can, however,
convert MIDI clips to audio clips by recording the output of a MIDI sound module on an
audio track.
Note: In general MIDI terminology, MIDI tracks are instrument tracks in MIDI files. In Adobe
Audition, however, MIDI tracks contain MIDI clips, which in turn contain instrument tracks.
For more information, search for “Working with MIDI” in Help.
Using real-time effects
In Multitrack View, you can apply real-time effects to audio and ReWire tracks. With these
flexible effects, you can adjust effects settings as a mix plays. Because real-time effects are
nondestructive, you can remove them from a track at any time. You can also change the
order of effects to produce a different sonic texture. (For example, you can place Reverb
prior to Sweeping Phaser, or vice versa.)
To change an effects mix over time, use clip envelopes. (See “Automating mixes with clip
envelopes” on page 188.)
Applying and removing real-time effects
You can apply real-time effects by using either the Organizer window or the Effects Rack
dialog box. To remove or reorder these effects, however, you must use the Effects Rack
dialog box. You can also use this dialog box to save groups of real-time effects as a preset,
which you can quickly apply to multiple tracks.
Clicking the FX button to access the Effects Rack dialog box
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To apply a real-time effect to a track:
From the Effects tab of the Organizer window, drag the effect to the track.
If the Organizer window is closed, right-click the FX button in the track controls, choose
Rack Setup, and add the effect in the Effects Rack dialog box.
To change settings for a previously applied effect:
1 In the track controls, right-click FX, and choose FX Settings.
2 Click the tab for the effect, and change settings as desired.
To remove or reorder a real-time effect:
1 In the track controls, right-click FX, and choose Rack Setup.
2 Select the effect in the Current Effects Rack list, and then do one of the following:
• To remove the effect, click Remove.
• To reorder the effect, click either Move Up or Move Down.
To create or apply an effects group preset:
1 In the track controls, right-click FX, and choose Rack Setup.
2 Do one of the following:
• To create a preset, click New, and type a name for the preset.
• To apply a preset, choose it from the Preset menu, and click Apply.
Mixing real-time effects
In the FX mixer, you can change the ratio of dry to wet sound, bypass effects, and combine
effects as serial or parallel groups. By default, multiple effects are combined in serial
groups, in which the signal travels directly from the output of one effect to the input of the
next. In parallel groups, each effect independently receives the dry signal, and the effect
outputs are mixed at equal levels.
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When you click Serial or Parallel in the FX mixer, mix settings automatically change to
achieve the results above. For serial groups, effect inputs are set to 0% of the dry source
(specified in the Src text box) and 100% of the previous effect (specified in the Prv text
box). Likewise, all effect output sliders are set to zero except for the final slider, which is
set to 100%. For parallel groups, effect inputs are set to 100% of the dry source and 0% of
the previous effect, while effect output sliders are set to an equal level (33% each for three
effects, 25% each for four effects, and so on).
Note: The first effect in the FX mixer lacks Src and Prv text boxes because no previous effect exists.
FX mixer
To mix real-time effects:
1 In the track controls, right-click the FX button, and choose FX Mixer.
2 Do any of the following:
• To change the ratio of dry to wet sound that the track outputs, move the Dry Out slider
and the effects sliders.
• To bypass an effect, click Bypass.
• To combine effects in serial or parallel groups, click either Serial or Parallel.
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• To change the ratio of dry to wet audio that an effect receives, enter percentages in the
Src and Prv text boxes. (Src represents the dry sound; Prv represents the output of the
previous effect.)
To bypass all real-time effects for a track, right-click the FX button in the track controls,
and choose Bypass.
Locking tracks with real-time effects
After you apply real-time effects to a track and edit them, you can lock the track to save
processing power for other mixing tasks—an important consideration for complex mixes.
Adobe Audition stores locked tracks in the background mix, removing them from the
CPU load.
If a track is locked, you can’t edit effects, clips, or envelopes it contains. You can quickly
unlock the track, however, if you need to change it. Though locking tracks takes a small
amount of processing time, unlocking tracks is instantaneous.
To lock or unlock a track that has real-time effects:
In the track controls, click Lock.
Automating mixes with clip envelopes
With clip envelopes, you can automate volume, pan, and effects settings over time. For
example, you can automatically increase clip volume during a critical musical passage and
later reduce the volume in a gradual fade out. For tracks with real-time effects, you can
also automatically change the ratio of dry to wet sound.
Envelopes operate nondestructively, so they don’t change the original audio file in any way.
If you open an original file in Edit View, for example, you won’t hear the effect of any clip
envelopes. Envelopes also operate in real-time, so you can edit them as a mix plays.
You can identify envelopes by color and initial position. For example, volume envelopes
are green lines initially placed across the top of clips. Pan envelopes are blue lines placed
in the center of clips. You edit envelopes by dragging control points on these lines. With
volume envelopes, for example, the top of a clip represents 100% of track volume, while
the bottom of a clip represents full attenuation (silence). With pan envelopes, the top of a
clip represents full left, while the bottom represents full right. If an envelope is too high or
low, preventing you from raising or lowering control points, you can rescale it.
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Note: Wet/dry mix envelopes have the same initial position as volume envelopes, so you may
need to hide one to reveal the other.
A
B
Two envelopes in the track display
A. Volume envelope B. Pan envelope
To show or hide envelopes:
In the toolbar, click any of the following buttons:
• Show Volume Envelopes
• Show Pan Envelopes
.
.
• Show Wet/Dry Mix Envelopes
.
• Show FX Parameter Envelopes
.
• Show Tempo Envelopes
.
You cannot edit tempo envelopes, which display the tempo of MIDI clips.
To edit a clip envelope:
1 In the toolbar, click the Edit Envelopes button
.
2 Select the clip, and then do any of the following:
• To add a control point, click the envelope.
• To remove a control point, drag it off the clip.
• To move a control point, drag it. (To maintain time position, hold down Shift while
dragging.)
• To move all control points up or down by the same percentage, hold down Ctrl while
you drag.
• To move all control points up or down by the same amount, hold down Alt while you
drag. (This option retains envelope shape, restricting movement to the limits defined
by the highest and lowest control points.)
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Note: With MIDI clips, volume envelopes control MIDI velocity, which usually represents the
force with which a note is struck. However, some synthesizers are programmed so that velocity
changes pitch or harmonic content.
To clear all control points for an envelope:
Right-click the clip containing the envelope, and choose Envelopes > [envelope type] >
Clear Selected Points.
To use spline curves for an envelope:
Right-click the clip containing the envelope, and choose Envelopes > [envelope type] >
Use Splines.
To rescale a volume envelope:
1 Right-click the clip containing the envelope, and choose Rescale Volume Envelopes.
2 Enter the number of decibels by which you want to raise or lower the envelope. Possible
values range from –40 to 40. Negative values raise envelopes and lower clip volume by an
equal amount; positive values do the opposite.
You can also rescale all volume envelopes in a session.
Using the Mixers window
The Mixers window consists of the Track Mixer and Bus Mixer tabs, as well as a slider that
controls the master volume of your session.
The Track Mixer tab mimics a real-world mixing console. It gives you an alternative view
of a session, providing a broader overview than the track display, especially if you’re
working with more than a handful of tracks at once.
The Bus Mixer tab lets you create, configure, and control up to 26 buses. With buses, you
can group related tracks and collectively adjust volume or apply real-time effects.
Even if you don’t use the Mixers window, consider docking and resizing it so that only
the master volume slider is visible. You can use this slider to quickly optimize the overall
volume of a mix.
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Using the Track Mixer
The Track Mixer provides another method for viewing the tracks in a session. Though it
lacks the waveforms, clips, and envelopes visible in the track display, the Track Mixer lets
you view and edit more tracks simultaneously.
To automate volume and pan changes over time, use clip envelopes. (See “Automating
mixes with clip envelopes” on page 188.)
A
B
C
The Track Mixer
A. Track controls B. Control display buttons C. Scroll bar
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To use the Track Mixer:
1 In Multitrack View, choose Window > Mixer.
2 Click the Track Mixer tab, and set the following options:
Control display buttons Lets you customize the appearance of the Tracks Mixer. Each of
the six buttons—Out, Bus, FX, EQ, Pan, and M/S—displays a different track control.
• Out shows and hides the Out buttons.
• Bus shows and hides the Wet and Dry text boxes for buses.
• FX shows and hides the FX and Lock buttons.
• EQ shows and hides the three equalization text boxes (H, M, L).
• Pan shows and hides the Pan controls.
• M/S: Shows and hides the Mute and Solo buttons.
Out 1 Opens the Adobe Audition Playback Devices window, which lets you assign the
output properties for the selected track. The button’s label changes to reflect the output
device (for example, Device 2 or Bus C).
Wet and Dry text boxes Control the ratio of processed to original signal that tracks output
to buses. To change these values, either enter a value or drag across the text boxes. (You
can also change these values on the Bus tab of the track controls.)
To output a track to a bus, see “Specifying track input and output devices” on page 181.
FX Opens either the Effects Rack (if the track doesn’t yet have an effect assigned to it,
regardless of what effects may be assigned if the track is part of a bus) or the dialog box for
whatever effect is assigned to the track.
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Lock Locks or unlocks a track. If the Lock button is disabled, the track has no effects.
H, M, L Show the amplitude of high, mid, and low equalization frequencies applied to the
track. To change one of these values, drag across the text box. Dragging to the right
increases the value, while dragging to the left reduces it.
Pan controls Adjust the balance of each track. To use the control that looks like an asterisk,
drag it to one of three positions: hard left, zero pan, and hard right. The Pan text box
provides a more precise way of adjusting pan. To change a pan value, drag across the text
box to the left or right.
Mute and Solo buttons Let you mute or solo a track. Click the Mute button for as many
tracks as you like to turn off their output. Click the Solo button to solo the track. To solo
multiple tracks, hold down the Ctrl key as you click the Solo buttons.
Track faders Adjust the track’s relative volume in the mix. Move the slider up (or click the
triangle above it) to increase the volume; move it down (or click the triangle below it) to
reduce the volume. Alternatively, enter a value (in decibels) in the text box above the slider.
Scroll bar Lets you scroll from tracks 1 to 128 and any point in between.
Using the Bus Mixer
Adobe Audition gives you the ability to organize multiple tracks into buses, which are
especially useful for grouping related tracks and collectively adding real-time effects or
adjusting volume. For example, you can output four tracks of background vocals to one bus,
and then apply one reverb effect to that bus. (Individually applying the same reverb to each
vocal track would inefficiently drain CPU resources.) You can create up to 26 buses.
After you create and configure a bus, you can output tracks to it. (See “Specifying track
input and output devices” on page 181.) Then, on the Bus tab of the track controls, you
can change the ratio of wet to dry sound that tracks send to assigned buses.
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A
B
The Bus Mixer
A. Bus controls B. Scroll bar
To create and configure a new bus:
1 In Multitrack View, choose Window > Mixer.
2 Click the Bus Mixer tab, and then click New in the right-most Bus channel.
3 In the Bus Properties dialog box, enter a name in the Friendly Name field, and select an
output device.
4 In Installed Real-Time Effects list, select effects for the bus, and click Add.
5 Click OK.
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To mix and reconfigure buses:
1 In Multitrack View, choose Window > Mixer.
2 Click the Bus Mixer tab, and then set the following options:
Out Opens the Bus Properties dialog box, where you can specify a different output device
or combination of effects.
Config Opens the configuration window for the selected bus. Here you can access the
parameters for each effect added to the bus. Sliders also let you adjust the volume of all
effects in the bus, as well as the desired Dry Out level.
• Click Serial to connect the effects on the bus in sequence, with the output of one effect
connected to the input of the next.
• Click Parallel to connect the effects on the bus separately, mixing only their outputs
together.
• Click Rack Setup to open the Properties dialog box for the bus.
Pan controls Adjust the balance of each track. To use the control that looks like an asterisk,
drag it to one of three positions: hard left, zero pan, and hard right. The Pan text box
provides a more precise way of adjusting pan. To change a pan value, drag across the text
box to the left or right.
Mute and Solo buttons Let you mute or solo a bus. Click the Mute button for as many
buses as you like to turn off their output. Click the Solo button to solo the bus. To solo
multiple buses, hold down the Ctrl key as you click the Solo buttons.
Bus faders Adjusts the relative volume of the bus in the mix. Move the slider up (or click
the triangle above it) to increase the volume; move it down (or click the triangle below it)
to reduce volume. Alternatively, enter a value in decibels in the text box above the slider.
Scroll bar Lets you scroll through buses if all of them don’t fit in the Bus Mixer tab.
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Mixing down ReWire tracks and specific audio clips
You can mix down ReWire tracks and specific audio clips to a new file that opens in Edit
View, an empty track in the current session, or a track in a CD project.
You can also mix down entire sessions, exporting them in a variety of formats. (See
“Saving and exporting sessions” on page 228.)
Mixing down specific audio clips to an empty track
To mix down ReWire tracks and specific audio clips:
1 Select any audio clips you want to mix down.
2 Select the range you want to mix down.
If you want to mix down complete clips, you can skip step 2 if the session doesn’t contain
ReWire tracks.
3 From the Edit menu, choose Mix Down To File, Mix Down To Empty Track, or Mix
Down To CD Project, and then choose one of the following:
• All Audio Clips to mix down ReWire tracks and all audio clips.
• Selected Audio Clips to mix down ReWire tracks and selected audio clips.
• All Audio Clips (Mono) to mix down ReWire tracks and all audio clips in mono.
• Selected Audio Clips (Mono) to mix down ReWire tracks and selected audio clips
in mono.
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Chapter 8: Using Loops
L
oops let you use one sound file in a variety of compositions, each with a different
tempo and key.
About loops
Loop-based song creation has recently cropped up in nearly all musical circles. From bestselling pop, rap, and hip hop songs to the alternative, adult contemporary and jazz realms,
using loops, even as basic rhythm tracks, is a very appealing and modern technique for
making music. With Adobe Audition, you can create your own loops or access any of the
thousands supplied in the Adobe Audition Loop Library.
Loops typically contain one to two bars of music. Most pop and rock music follows a 4/4
time signature, meaning that one bar has four beats, two bars have eight beats, and so on.
With loops in Adobe Audition, you can do the following:
• Change the pitch and timing of loops independently of each other, so you can easily
incorporate the same loop into many different Adobe Audition sessions and musical
compositions.
• Quickly and easily add or subtract repetitions of a loop by dragging with the mouse.
(With snapping enabled, this method applies even to individual beats within a loop. For
example, you can drag to create 1.5 repetitions and end precisely on a snare hit at a
loop’s midpoint.)
• Snap other audio clips to loop end-points and beats within the loop.
Working with loops is typically a three-step process, in which you select part of a
waveform, specify its properties in Edit View, and then use the resulting loop in compositions in Multitrack View.
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Defining loops
To come up with a good loop, you first need to select and save a waveform that, when
played over and over, repeats precisely on a beat. This process is called defining a loop.
Although defining on a beat isn’t absolutely required, doing so makes loops more useful
because you can combine them in rhythm with other loops.
Selecting a waveform that starts and ends on a clear beat
helps make for a good loop.
To define a loop:
1 Open the waveform from which you want to define the loop.
2 Switch to Edit View.
3 Choose Edit > Auto-Cue > Find Beats And Mark. Set up the dialog box to find the beats
in the waveform, and click OK. See “Setting cues automatically” on page 101 for more
information on the Find Beats And Mark command, and see “Finding beats” on page 90
for information on setting up Adobe Audition to find beats.
The beats in the waveform are now indicated, helping you select a start and end that lands
on the beat.
4 Choose Edit > Snapping > Snap To Zero Crossings. (See “Snapping” on page 91.).
This step makes your selection snap to places in the waveform that have zero amplitude,
preventing audible noise at the beginning and end of the loop.
5 Select the part of the waveform you want to define, typically starting and ending on a beat.
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6 Click the Play Looped button
to repeatedly play your selection.
7 Adjust the start and end of the selection until just the material you want is selected.
8 Choose View > Display Time Format > Edit Tempo to specify detailed tempo infor-
mation for the loop. (See “Calculating the tempo of selected ranges” on page 199.)
9 Choose Edit > Copy To New. This step copies the selected area to a new file where you
can set the loop’s properties. (See “Setting permanent loop properties in Edit View” on
page 200.)
Calculating the tempo of selected ranges
In both Edit View and Multitrack View, you can calculate the tempo of a selected range by
using the Edit Tempo command. This command lets you quickly determine loop tempo
in Edit View or change session tempo in Multitrack View. It also lets you change the beatsper-minute (bpm) value for horizontal rulers in the Bars and Beats time format.
To calculate the tempo of a selected range:
1 Choose View > Display Time Format > Edit Tempo.
2 Set the following options, and click OK:
Beats Highlighted/Bars Highlighted Specifies the number of beats or bars highlighted in
the selection according to the Bars and Beats format. This number will probably be wrong
initially, because you haven’t defined the tempo yet. In this case, enter the correct number
of bars to use for extracting tempo information.
Extract Calculates tempo information from the highlighted selection, and fills in the Beats
per Minute and Offset values. Before clicking Extract, make sure to enter a value for Beats
per Bar.
Current Beat At Defines the bar and beat information for the selection’s starting point (or
the current cursor position if no selection has been made). Adobe Audition assumes that
this represents a downbeat. Changing this value updates the Song Start value based on the
current tempo settings.
Reset 1:1 To Cursor Changes the Current Beat At value to 1:1.00.
Song Start Represents the number of milliseconds before the measure 1:1.00 begins. This
value is for information only.
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Beats Per Minute Displays the number of beats that occur in a one-minute interval. You
can calculate this value by clicking Extract.
Beats Per Bar Assigns the number of beats that make up one measure/bar. For instance,
enter 4 for 4/4 time, 6 for 6/8 time, and the like.
Beat Length Specifies the value of the beat. For instance, enter 2 for a half note, 4 for a
quarter note, and 8 for a sixteenth note.
Ticks Per Beat Specifies the number of sections each beat is divided into, or the value after
the decimal point. You can enter a number between 2 and 3600. For instance, if you enter
32 ticks per beat, then a time setting of 4:2:16 represents an eighth note (a note halfway)
between beats 2 and 3 in 4/4 time.
Setting permanent loop properties in Edit View
After you define a loop, you can set permanent loop properties so it works well with other
clips in a session. The Loop Info tab of the Wave Properties dialog box lets you specify
these properties, such as number of beats, default tempo, and musical key. Setting
permanent loop properties makes a loop far easier to work with in Multitrack View.
Loop properties that you set in Edit View are saved with the file and are permanent. Loop
properties that you set in Multitrack View are saved with the session and aren’t permanent.
In addition, session-based loop properties in Multitrack View override Edit View loop
properties. See “Setting impermanent loop properties in Multitrack View” on page 202 for
more information.
To set loop properties in Edit View:
1 Choose View > Wave Properties.
2 Click the Loop Info tab.
3 Set any of the following options, click OK, and then save the file:
Loop Tells Adobe Audition that the file is a loop. If the file is inserted into a Multitrack
session, looping is enabled automatically for that audio clip.
One Shot Indicates that the file plays once rather than repeats like a loop.
Number Of Beats Specifies the number of beats in the loop. Adobe Audition attempts to
detect and specify the number of beats for you, but you can adjust the value if necessary.
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Tempo Specifies the number of beats per minute in the loop. Adobe Audition calculates
this value automatically based on Number Of Beats. Don't worry if the value isn’t a whole
number—for example, 80.4 instead of 80—after you loop the file, Adobe Audition can
stretch it to whatever tempo you want.
Key Specifies the loop’s key, so that if you create a session and want to adjust the key of all
audio clips globally, Adobe Audition has a reference for each file. If a loop file is a drum
track, choose Non-Voiced. This option is especially important if you plan to change the
key of multiple loops in a session, because you won’t want to pitch-shift a drum track to
the key of E (for example) if it has no key to begin with.
Find Nearest Scans the loop to locate the nearest key. This option works best with
monophonic files (that is, solo instruments). Because many keys share the same notes in
the scale, you can think of this setting as root note for transposition.
Stretch Method Specifies how (if at all) the loop stretches to match the session’s tempo.
Choose one of the following settings:
• Fixed Length (No Stretching) causes the loop to play at its native tempo no matter what
the session tempo is set to. If a session has multiple loops of different tempos, and each
is set to Fixed Length, no two loops will seamlessly match in tempo. This setting is useful
if you plan to insert and loop a file in a session where you don’t plan on doing any type
of time stretching or pitch shifting. The most common uses for this setting is inserting
a pattern over live music or using one to underscore live vocals.
• Time-Scale Stretch stretches the file (just like the Stretch effect) to match the tempo of
the session. Corresponding options are Quality (High, Medium, or Low), Frame Size
(the number of splices per beat), and the percentage of Frame Overlapping. This
method stretches a file based on its actual length, so you should use it if you loop
something like a synth pad or a sustained string section (which don’t have actual beats,
per se). This method is most commonly used for “tonal” instruments, like piano, bass,
and guitar.
• Resample (Affects Pitch) resamples the loop to match the session’s tempo, affecting the
pitch. High, Medium, and Low Quality options are available. This method is commonly
used in R&B and hip hop tracks, primarily because you can achieve exaggerated stretching
and compressing of files. If loops set to Resample are time stretched, their pitch changes.
This setting is most commonly used on drum tracks to create a lo-fi, dirty, phat kind of
sound. It can also work well on voice and voiceovers if you're trying to change the sound
and timbre of a speaker's voice.
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• Beat Splice loops the file based on beats detected in it, similarly to the Find Beats And
Mark command. (See “Defining loops” on page 198.) This setting works only on loops
that have very sharp and short sounds, like drum tracks. If the waveform already has
beat markers, you can select Use File’s Beat Marks to use them. Otherwise, Auto-Find
Beats is selected. If necessary, you can change the corresponding default values of 10 dB
and 9 milliseconds to find the beat.
• Hybrid uses the current Time-Scale Stretch settings if you lower the bpm (beats per
minute), and it uses the current Beat Splice settings if you raise the bpm.
Setting impermanent loop properties in Multitrack View
Loop properties that you set in Multitrack View are saved with the session and aren’t
permanent, but they override any permanent loop properties you’ve set in Edit View. (See
“Setting permanent loop properties in Edit View” on page 200.)
By default, changes made to a looped audio clip in Multitrack View affect only that clip,
unless Adjust All Loop-Enabled Clips That Use This Wave is selected in the Loop
Properties dialog box.
To set impermanent loop properties in Multitrack View:
1 Select an audio clip.
2 Choose Edit > Loop Properties.
3 In the Audio Clip Looping dialog box, set the following options, and click OK:
Enable Looping Sets the file so that you can loop the audio clip by dragging its right edge.
Simple Looping (No Gaps) Makes the audio clip loop continuously, with no spaces
between looping instances.
Repeat Every X Seconds Repeats the loop at the number of seconds you specify. If loop
information is already entered for the audio clip, proper values for Repeat Every X Seconds
and Repeat Every X Beats are entered automatically so that the audio clip loops continuously at the proper tempo. If you change the Repeat Every X Seconds value, Adobe
Audition ignores the tempo and stretches the file to finish its loop in the specified number
of seconds. Normally, you should select this option and enter the number of beats in the
Source Waveform Information area.
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Repeat Every X Beats Repeats the loop at the number of beats you specify. If loop information is already entered for the audio clip, proper values for Repeat Every X Seconds and
Repeat Every X Beats are entered automatically so that the audio clip loops continuously
at the proper tempo. If you change the Repeat Every X Beats value, Adobe Audition
stretches the file to finish its loop in the specified number of beats. However, you’ll
generally want to select Repeat Every X Beats and enter the number of beats in the Source
Waveform Information area.
Follow Session Tempo Plays the loop at the session’s tempo instead of its native tempo.
For example, if you play a 100 bpm loop in a 120 bpm session, the loop is stretched to
120 bpm. Selecting this option disables the BPM text box. If you don’t select this option,
the loop plays at the tempo specified in the BPM text box.
Lock Position To Tempo Locks the left edge of the audio clip to the bar/beat. If you change
tempo, the audio clip moves so that it starts at the same beat. Normally, you should select
this option if you stretch to tempo. In addition, you can select this option for a one-shot
clip that’s not a loop (like a thunder clap or a gong) if you want it to start in time with other
music that’s aligned to the session’s tempo.
Source Waveform Information Specifies settings for the source waveform. (See “Setting
permanent loop properties in Edit View” on page 200.)
Tempo Matching Specifies settings for matching the tempo of the loop to the rest of the
sound file you’re working with. (See “Setting permanent loop properties in Edit View” on
page 200.)
Transpose Pitch Transposes the pitch of the looped clip by the specified number of half-
steps. Positive numbers raise the pitch, and negative numbers lower it.
Adjust All Loop-enabled Clips That Use This Wave Globally changes the settings for all
clips that reference the same waveform. For example, if you insert the same loop file into
Multitrack View four times, and you then adjust the loop properties on one of its clips, the
other three instances of the loop in the session are adjusted, too.
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Setting the tempo, time signature, and key for sessions
The Session Properties window lets you specify the tempo, time signature, and key for
loops in a session. All loop-enabled clips automatically adjust to match new settings;
regular clips are unaffected.
To preview loop files at the tempo and key of a session, select either the Loop option in
the Insert Audio dialog box, or the Follow Session option in the Files tab of the
Organizer window. (See “Inserting audio files into multitrack sessions” on page 63 and
“Previewing audio by using the Organizer window” on page 77.)
To set the tempo, time signature, and key for a session:
1 In Multitrack View, choose Window > Session Properties if the window isn’t visible.
2 Set any of the following options:
Tempo Specifies the tempo of the session, measured in beats per minute.
Beats/Bar Specifies the number of beats per bar.
Key Specifies the session’s key.
Time Specifies the session’s time signature. Choosing a different time signature automatically updates the Beats/Bar setting.
Advanced Opens the Advanced Session Properties dialog box so that you can set
advanced properties for a session, such as a time offset, a customized metronome, and
notes about the session. (See “Setting advanced session properties” on page 167.)
Metronome Toggles the built-in metronome on and off. (See “Setting advanced session
properties” on page 167.)
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Working with loops in the track display
After you add loops to a multitrack session, you can edit them in the track display,
extending them to repeat as needed, and synchronizing them with the beat of the music.
A
B
C
Loops in the track display
A. Single loop B. No loop C. Extended (repeated) loops. Even though loop files are short,
you can extend them to repeat as many times as needed.
To synchronize loops to musical beats:
1 Choose View > Display Time Format > Bars And Beats to change the format of the ruler
to bars: beats:ticks per beat. This format makes it easier to visually line up loops with
musical beats. (See “Monitoring time” on page 69.)
2 From the Edit > Snapping submenu, choose any of the following
• Snap To Ruler (Coarse) to snap loops to the beats within bars. Use this option if you
work with 1/4 or 1/2 bar loop files. (See “Snapping” on page 91.)
• Snap To Clips to snap loops to the start or end of audio clips. (See “Snapping clips to
loop endpoints and other clips” on page 170.)
• Snap To Loop Endpoints to snap loops to the start or end of other loops. (See “Snapping
clips to loop endpoints and other clips” on page 170.)
Also consider snapping non-loop-enabled audio clips to the beat and each other, so that
all clips are aligned. You can snap the current-time indicator, too.
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To extend or shorten a loop-enabled clip:
1 Select the clip, and then position the pointer over the bottom left or right handle—the
loop editing icon
appears.
2 Drag the handle to extend the loop the desired number of bars. Depending on how far
you drag, you can make the loop repeat fully or partially. For example, you might drag a
loop that is one bar long so that it extends 3-1/2 bars, ending on a beat within the loop. As
you cross each bar, a white vertical line appears in the clip. This is the snap-to line,
indicating perfect alignment to beats in other tracks.
A
B
Extending a loop
A. Moving the cursor to activate the loop. B. Dragging the loop, with snap to lines indicating how the loop
snaps to the beats in other tracks
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207
Chapter 9: Working with Video
dobe Audition tightly integrates with digital video, enhancing any video project
with professional sound. To create uniquely sophisticated soundtracks, you can
combine Adobe Audition with Adobe Premiere Pro® and Adobe After Effects® to
take full advantage of Adobe Audition’s flexible mixing features.
A
About working with video
With Adobe Audition, you can improve the sound of any video project. For example, if
you need to improve the audio quality of an existing soundtrack, you can use Edit View to
quickly restore and enhance the audio. Or, if you want to create elaborate soundtracks
with flexible, real-time mixing tools, you can use Multitrack View to preview video, add
audio and MIDI tracks, and export entirely new soundtracks. (See “Importing audio and
video from video files” on page 208.)
For maximum flexibility, you can combine Adobe Audition with Adobe Premiere Pro and
After Effects. Tight integration between these products lets you quickly remix a
soundtrack as the needs of a video project change over time.
Working with Adobe Premiere Pro and After Effects
If you use Adobe Premiere Pro or After Effects, you can easily remix and edit soundtracks
in Adobe Audition. To do so, first configure Adobe Audition to link session files with
exported audio mixdowns in WAV format. Once these files are linked, you can select an
imported mixdown file in Adobe Premiere Pro or After Effects, and then remix the related
session in Multitrack View, or edit the mixdown file in Edit View.
To link session files with exported audio mixdowns in WAV format:
1 Choose Options > Settings, and then click the Data tab.
2 Select Embed Project Link Data For Edit Original Functionality, and then click OK.
3 When you export mixdown files, select Save Extra Non-Audio Information in the
Export Audio dialog box.
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To remix or edit a mixdown in an Adobe Premiere Pro or After Effects project:
1 In the Adobe Premiere Pro or After Effects project, select the mixdown file.
2 Choose Edit > Edit Original.
3 Select one of the following, and then click OK:
• Launch The Audition Multitrack Session Which Created This File.
• Insert This File Into Audition’s Edit View.
4 Remix the linked session in Multitrack View, or edit the mixdown file in Edit View.
5 Overwrite the original file by doing one of the following:
• In Multitrack View, choose File > Export > Audio, and specify the same name and
location as the original file.
• In Edit View, choose File > Save.
Importing audio and video from video files
In both Edit View and Multitrack View, you can import audio data from a video file in AVI,
MPEG, or WMV format. This approach is useful for soundtrack editing that doesn’t
require a video preview, or for readapting soundtracks for audio-only mediums, such as
radio or CD.
Only in Multitrack View, however, can you import both audio and video data from a video
file. This approach lets you precisely synchronize audio with a video preview. Note,
however, that a multitrack session can contain only one video clip at a time.
To import audio data from a video file:
Do one of the following:
• In Edit View, choose File > Open Audio From Video.
• In Multitrack View, select a track, position the current-time indicator at the desired
insert point, and then choose Insert > Audio From Video.
To import audio and video data:
In Multitrack View, select a track, position the current-time indicator at the desired insert
point, and then choose Insert > Video.
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Working with video clips
When you import a video file into a multitrack session, video data becomes a video clip on
the selected track, and audio data becomes an audio clip on the track below. You can select
and move video clips like other clips. (See “Selecting and moving clips” on page 168.) Note,
however, that you can also move a video clip independently from the audio clip containing
the original soundtrack; to keep related video and audio clips synchronized, group them.
(See “Grouping clips” on page 169.)
To synchronize audio and video, you can snap other clips and the current-time indicator
to individual frames in a video clip. You can also magnify the session display to view more
thumbnails in a clip. These thumbnails serve only as a general guide; for frame-accurate
synchronization, use snapping.
Note: Thumbnails don’t appear for MPEG-2 video clips.
To snap to individual frames in a video clip:
1 Choose View > Display Time Format, and select the SMPTE time format that corresponds
to the frame rate of the clip.
2 Choose Edit > Snapping > Snap To Frames.
To view more thumbnails in a video clip:
Horizontally magnify the session display. (See “Zooming” on page 17.)
Snapping to a video frame that falls within a video thumbnail
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Previewing video
In the Video window, you can preview video clips as a multitrack session plays to precisely
synchronize a soundtrack with specific video events such as scene changes, title sequences,
or special effects. You can customize the preview to optimize it for your monitor size and
system speed. For example, you can enlarge the preview to fit a resized Video window or
lower the preview quality to increase performance.
The floating Video window in Multitrack View
To hide or show the Video window:
In the toolbar, click the Hide/Show Video Window button
.
To automatically show the Video window when you insert a video file:
Right-click the Video window, and select Auto Show Video.
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To customize the video preview:
Right-click the Video window, and select any of the following:
• A zoom percentage to zoom in or out.
• Best Fit to fit the preview to the window.
• Maintain Aspect Ratio to maintain that ratio when you resize the window.
• Integer Factor Sizing to constrain the preview to ratios such as 1/2, 1/1, and 2/1 when
you resize the window. This option avoids complex resampling, producing a sharper
image and increasing performance.
• Low Quality to lower the preview quality.
Note: Video quality settings take effect when you next import a video clip. To apply a new
quality setting to the current clip, close it, and reimport it into the session.
Preparing video mixdowns for export
In Multitrack View, you can export video mixdowns in AVI format. Video mixdowns
combine video clips with audio clips that exist in the same area of the timeline, creating a
new soundtrack. Prior to exporting a video mixdown, you can preview it to ensure that it
will sound as you expect and, if not, edit the session as desired.
Selecting the start and end points of a video mixdown
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To preview a video mixdown:
1 Choose Edit > Snapping > Snap To Frames.
2 In the session display, select an area that extends from the beginning to the end of the
video clip.
3 Play the session, and then do one of the following:
• If the soundtrack doesn’t sound as you expect, edit the session as desired, and then
repeat steps 2 through 3. (For example, if part of an audio clip is omitted, move the
entire clip into the selected area.)
• If the soundtrack sounds as you expect, export a video mixdown. (See “Exporting mixes
to video” on page 230.)
You can also use this procedure to export an audio mixdown that you combine with
video in a video application, such as Adobe Premiere Pro. Though video mixdowns are
limited to stereo audio and AVI format, audio mixdowns support stereo and surround sound
in a variety of formats. For more information, see “Exporting mixes to audio” on page 229 and
“About surround sound” on page 213.
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Chapter 10: Creating Surround
Sound
A
dobe Audition includes the Multichannel Encoder, a self-contained dialog box
where you can access the tracks of any existing Multitrack session, pan them into
the six channels of 5.1 surround sound, and export them.
About surround sound
With surround sound, heard in many popular movies, you can pan an audio mix around
the room. Adobe Audition supports 5.1 surround sound, which requires five speakers,
plus one low frequency subwoofer (LFE). To properly preview a 5.1 surround-sound mix,
your computer must have a sound card with at least six outputs, and the speakers must be
connected and positioned as follows:
• Output 1: Front left speaker.
• Output 2: Front right speaker.
• Output 3: Front center speaker.
• Output 4: LFE.
• Output 5: Left surround speaker.
• Output 6: Right surround speaker.
Adobe Audition lets you create and export 5.1 surround sound in a multichannel session
by using the Multichannel Encoder dialog box. With this dialog box, you can individually
pan each track of a multitrack session to your multichannel setup, preview the current
mix, and export the session. You can export your session as six mono WAV files, as one
interleaved 6-channel WAV file, or as a Windows Media 9 Pro (WMA) file for use with an
external multichannel encoder such as a Dolby or DTS encoder.
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Using the Multichannel Encoder
The Multichannel Encoder dialog box contains several options and controls that let you
select tracks and bus outputs, precisely pan audio and adjust volume levels, zoom the
waveform display, and preview the project.
To achieve proper 5.1 surround-sound preview playback from the Multichannel Encoder,
you need a sound card that offers at least 6-channel analog output, a special interleaved
driver that’s compatible with the Microsoft DirectSound multichannel format, and
Microsoft DirectX 8.0 or later. (Direct X 8.0 is installed by default as part of the Adobe
Audition installation; updates are available from the Microsoft Web site.) If your system
does not meet these requirements you may receive a warning message and your Play Track
and Play All buttons will not be accessible.
A
B
C
D
E
F
G
The Multichannel Encoder dialog box
A. Surround Panner B. Track options C. Track List D. Waveform display with pan envelopes
E. Output meters F. Preview controls G. Master Volume control
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To use the Multichannel Encoder:
1 Open an existing Adobe Audition session, or create a new session in the Multitrack
window.
2 Once all your tracks are added, achieve a basic stereo mix balance with your desired
track volume, stereo pan, and FX settings.
3 Choose View > Multichannel Encoder.
4 In the Track List, select the tracks and bus outputs you want to pan and export. (See
“Selecting tracks and buses in the Multichannel Encoder” on page 215.)
5 Under Track Options, specify the Panning Assignment and set the controls as desired.
(See “Assigning the panning source” on page 216, “Using the Surround Panner” on
page 217, and “Automating the pan envelope” on page 218.)
6 Set the volume for the tracks. (See “Adjusting volume levels” on page 220.)
7 Preview the panned tracks. (See “Previewing the multichannel project” on page 221.)
8 Export the session. (See “Exporting surround-sound files” on page 223.)
Panning tracks and buses for surround sound
Using the Multichannel Encoder, you can pan any of the tracks and buses in your session
for surround sound. By panning sound between the six surround-sound speakers, you can
make the sound appear to come from anywhere around the listener.
Selecting tracks and buses in the Multichannel Encoder
All of the tracks used in your current multitrack session appear in the Track List in the
Multichannel Encoder. If you uncheck a track it is removed from the multichannel
preview and is not included when you export the multichannel project.
If you have routed a track to a bus, the bus, instead of the track, will appear in the track
list. You can select and pan the bus output as one mono or stereo signal. Additionally, you
can access the “dry” track signal and pan it separately as well. (See “Using the Bus Mixer”
on page 193 for more information on setting up a bus.)
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To select a track to pan for surround sound:
In the Multichannel Encoder dialog box, click the name of the track.
The Track List with Track 4 selected
To access a track assigned to a bus in the Track List:
1 Close the Multichannel Encoder.
2 In the track controls in Multitrack View, click the Bus tab for the track you want to access.
3 Increase the Dry value so that it is greater than zero.
4 Reopen the Multitrack Encoder.
Assigning the panning source
At the top right of the dialog box is the Panning Assignment list where you can choose to
either use the Surround Panner to position your track sound source or make fixed panning
assignments for your track.
To specify the panning assignment:
Choose one of the following options from the Panning Assignment list at the top right of
the Multichannel Encoder dialog box:
Surround Panner, Stereo Source Uses the Surround Panner to position your sound
source. (See “Using the Surround Panner” on page 217.) It also keeps your stereo left
and right signals from your track discrete when panning in the sound field. For example,
if your track includes a stereo file, the left stereo signal is sent to the Front Left and Left
Surround channels, and your track’s right signal is sent to the Front Right and Right
Surround channels. The Center channel always receives a summed to mono (L + R)
signal. Therefore, as you pan in the five channel sound field, these stereo sources retain
their “stereo image” while being routed to the multiple channels.
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Surround Panner, Summed To Mono Lets you use the Surround Panner to position your
sound source. However, this option always sums the track’s signal to a mono signal. In this
mode, panning the sound source to any location in the sound field results in the summed
mono signal being fed to all channels.
Lfe Only Sends the entire track signal to the LFE (subwoofer) channel. Your monitoring
system applies the proper crossover frequency cutoff for reproducing the audio sent to the
LFE channel. Typically, most LFE components in 5.1 surround playback systems are set to
a cutoff of < 80 Hz or < 120 Hz. The Multichannel Encoder itself does not apply any filter
to the LFE channel audio.
FL + FR, Stereo Sends the selected track’s signal as a stereo source directly to only the Front
Left and Front Right speakers in a 50/50 stereo balance.
Ls + Rs, Stereo Sends the selected track’s signal as a stereo source directly to only the rear
Left Surround and Right Surround speakers in a 50/50 stereo balance.
Center + LFE, Stereo When selected for a stereo track, this option routes the track’s left
channel signal to the Center channel and the track’s right channel signal to the LFE
(subwoofer) channel discretely. If this option is selected for a track containing a Mono
source file, the same signal is sent equally to both the Center and LFE channels. Note that
this option is most useful with a stereo source file.
Center Only, Mono; FL Only, Mono; FR Only, Mono; Ls Only, Mono; Rs Only, Mono Sums
the selected track’s audio to a mono signal, and sends it all to the selected channel. This is
the same as dragging the Panner Point directly onto one of the five main speakers in the
Surround Panner.
Using the Surround Panner
The Surround Panner is an interactive control representing the audio field. You drag the
Panner Point (white dot) to change the perceived sound source. As you move the Panner
Point, the light blue Power Indicator lines coming from the speakers change length. The
length of the lines indicates the power balance of your sound source coming from each of the
five main channels. Additionally, a portion of the sphere appears dark blue to indicate the
image of the sound field. That is, when seated in the center of the speakers (marked by the
crosshairs), the blue area indicates where the listener perceives the sound to be coming from.
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You can also drag the Panner Point outside the sound field directly on top of one of the
five main speakers or on top of the LFE speaker. Once the Panner Point is in any one of
these speaker locations, the audio from the currently selected track is summed to a mono
signal and sent discretely to this one speaker channel. This is an easy way to send the
complete track signal all to one channel.
A
F
B
C
D
E
G
Surround Panner options
A. Left Surround B. Front Left C. Center
D. Front Right E. Right Surround
F. Low Frequency Effects (Sub Bass) G. Panner Point
To use the Surround Panner:
In the Multichannel Encoder dialog box, drag the white Panner Point, which represents
the location of the audio track in the sound field.
Automating the pan envelope
When you select Pan Envelopes, two envelope lines appear in the waveform display.
The yellow envelope line controls the Left/Right balance and the green line controls the
Front/Surround balance. These envelopes are interactive with the positioning of the
Panner Point in the Surround Panner interface. It is possible to create dynamic panning
over time by using these envelopes. (See “Automating mixes with clip envelopes” on
page 188.)
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If you prefer to keep your track panned to a fixed point throughout the duration session,
deselect Pan Envelopes. Deselecting this option removes the envelopes from the waveform
display and lets you set the Panner Point to any static position you want. You can toggle
the Pan Envelopes setting on and off and any envelope points you have created for this
track are retained. Note that if Pan Envelopes is not selected, you can drag the Panner
Point during playback and hear your static pan positioning in real time.
Pan Envelope Automation
To create a dynamic pan on a track:
1 In the Multichannel Encoder dialog box, select the box for a track in the Track List.
2 From the Panning Assignment menu, choose either “Surround Panner, Stereo Source”
or “Surround Panner, Summed To Mono”.
3 Select Pan Envelopes, located above the right side of the waveform display. Two
envelope lines appear in the waveform display. (Because the yellow line starts on top of the
green line, you may see only the yellow line until you change the pan position.)
4 Click in the waveform display where you want to set a pan destination for the sound
source. The vertical cursor moves to this time location.
5 Drag the Panner Point in the Surround Panner to the desired position in the sound
field. Two handle points appear on the envelope lines within the waveform display and
move as you position the Panner Point. (You can also click either of the envelope lines to
create additional adjustable handles for shaping the envelope lines.)
6 To edit an envelope handle, drag it. The Panner Point moves in tandem to show you the
relative position in the sound field during playback. To delete a handle, drag it up or down
beyond the edge of the waveform display area.
7 To clear all envelope handle points and reset the track to flat envelopes, select Clear All,
located below and to the right of the Pan Envelopes option.
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8 To use spline curves for smoother transitions between points, select Splines.
9 Drag the playback cursor back to the start of the track, and select one of the Play buttons.
Watch the Panner Point position, and listen for the dynamic pan setting you just created.
Adjusting volume levels
The Multichannel Encoder lets you adjust the subchannel level, center channel level, and
track level.
To adjust the level:
Use any of the following options in the Multichannel Encoder dialog box:
Sub Channel Level Specifies the amplitude of the subchannel level to additionally send the
track’s signal to the LFE channel.If the currently selected track is assigned to only the LFE
channel, this option attenuates the amount of this track’s output sent to the LFE channel.
Note: The Multichannel Encoder does not apply filtering to audio sent to the LFE channel, nor
during preview, exporting, or encoding. Therefore, any low-pass filtering needed for your final
LFE channel content should be applied to your audio within the Adobe Audition Multitrack,
or on your exported .wav files.
Use a Bass Management circuit in your monitoring setup to ensure that you hear the
representative mix levels that might be reproduced in an end listener’s playback system.
Center Channel Level Determines the balance of the Front Left, Center, and Front Right
channels when in the Surround Panner modes. When set to 100, the Center channel
receives an equal percentage of signal as the Front Left and Front Right channels. The
position of the Panner Point then determines the positional panning according to this
Front Left, Center, Front Right balance ratio.
Track Level Controls the amplitude level of the currently selected track within the Multichannel mix in any selected Surround Panner mode.
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Zooming into and out of the waveform display
There are several options for zooming in and out within the waveform display.
To zoom the waveform:
In the Multichannel Encoder dialog box, do any of the following:
• Place the mouse cursor over the time ruler that runs across the bottom of the waveform
display, right-click and select a zoom option.
• Right-drag the desired zoom area on the time ruler. (To zoom back out again, right-
click and choose Zoom Out or Zoom Full from the context menu.)
• Place the mouse pointer within the waveform display and turn the mouse wheel. This
zooms into the time area directly beneath the mouse pointer. Turning the mouse wheel
the other direction zooms back out.
Previewing the multichannel project
The Multichannel Encoder provides several preview options, including different types of
playback controls and playback format options.
A
B
C
D
E
F
G
Preview controls
A. Transport controls B. Time indicator C. Output meters D. Preview device E. Preview volume
F. Preview device change button G. Master Level
Previewing a track or session in the Multitrack Encoder
You can choose from or adjust the following preview controls:
Go To Beginning
Places the cursor at the start of the track.
Play Track Plays the currently selected track from the cursor location. Playback always
plays to the end of the track, regardless of the current zoom level.
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Play All Plays from the cursor location, playing the multichannel mix with all tracks that
are checked in the Track List. Like Play Track, Playback always plays to the end of the
session, regardless of the current zoom level.
Time indicator Located next to Play All, this indicator shows the time in the preview
playback.
Preview Volume Controls the volume of the preview playback, without affecting the
volume of the exported files. That is, it doesn’t change the amplitude of the exported WAV
or encoded WMA files that are created from the Multichannel Encoder, nor does it affect
the levels measured by the 6-channel Output Meter. Use the Master Level slider for
changing these.
Output meters (FL, FR, C, LFE, Ls, Rs) This set of six meters displays the output of each
channel during preview. During Play Track, the meters display the output of only the
selected track. During Play All, the meters display the output of the complete 5.1 mix.
These levels are what the actual levels will be for your exported WAV or WMA files from
the session. You can attenuate the overall 6-channel level by using the Master Level slider
beneath the meters.
Master Level Sets the audible level of your preview playback. However, it is primarily
intended to adjust the amplitude of the exported or encoded files. Use this slider and
reference the meters to optimize the overall peak amplitude of the 5.1 channel mix so that
none of the channels are clipping.
Preview Device, Format Displays the currently selected device to which Adobe Audition
routes its 6-channel output. (See “Setting the preview device and format” on page 222.)
Setting the preview device and format
The Preview Device, Format option lets you specify the device and format of the
previewed audio. This option also displays the currently selected bit rate for preview
playback. For information about device requirements, see “Using the Multichannel
Encoder” on page 214.
To make changes to the device and bit selections:
1 Click the Change button to the right of the Preview Device, Format option.
2 From the Multichannel Output Device menu, specify the preview sound card.
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Note: Some sound cards that offer 5.1 playback, such as the Creative Labs Audigy, display only
one device driver in the list. In this case, this is the device you should select because the sound
card’s driver will route the six channels of audio to the correct speakers. (If a multichannel
device driver is not available from the sound card’s manufacturer, you probably won’t get a
true surround-sound preview.) For sound cards that offer an interleaved multichannel driver,
you should select this from the list. These driver types will accept the 6-audio input from Adobe
Audition and automatically route it to the standard Microsoft 5.1 channel configuration.
3 From the Preview Format Selector menu, select the bit rate of the preview playback
material that is sent to your sound card. If your session includes higher bit rate files, and
if your sound card supports it, you can select a higher rate to the preview your session
more accurately.
4 Set the Preview Buffer Size for the buffers used for Play Track and Play All. Larger buffer
sizes enable a more stable preview playback, but increase the latency (that is, makes it take
longer to play the result of changes made while previewing). If dropouts occur when you
preview the audio, try increasing the buffer size.
Exporting surround-sound files
Adobe Audition includes the ability to encode directly to an interleaved 6-channel
Windows Media 9 Pro (WMA) file or to export into two WAV formats. The Format
Options field in the Multichannel Export Options dialog box indicates the currently
selected format. The format is retained from your last used export option.
Note: To export and encode your project to a 6-channel WMA file, you must have Windows
Media 9 runtime installed (it is installed by default as part of the Adobe Audition installation). If you have an earlier version installed, the Encode to WMA9 option will not be
available. The latest Windows Media Updates are available on the Microsoft Web site.
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The Multichannel Export Options dialog box
Exporting a multichannel session
Once you’ve completed mixing your multichannel project, you can export it to your
desired file format.
To export your multichannel session:
1 Click Export at the bottom right of the Multichannel Encoder dialog box.
2 In the Multichannel Session Name text box, enter a name for your exported files. You
can see the names for all the files that will be saved at the bottom of the dialog box in the
Filenames To Be Saved area.
3 In the Save In text box, enter or navigate to the directory to which you want to save
the files.
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4 Select one of the following:
Export As Six Individual Mono Wave Files Creates standard Windows PCM .wav mono
files that typically can be used by any Windows audio application. (For more information,
see “Windows PCM (.wav)” on page 239.)
Export As One Interleaved, 6-Channel Wave File Exports as Windows PCM .wav format,
which allows a single file to contain multiple channels of audio. However, not all Windows
audio applications can open or play WAV files that are not mono or stereo. (For more
information, see “Windows PCM (.wav)” on page 239.)
Note: Interleaved files reflect the channel order used by Dolby Digital encoders. If you plan to
use an encoding process with a different channel order, export the session as six individual
files, instead.
Export And Encode As Windows Media Audio Pro 6-Channel File Creates multichannel
WMA files that can be played by anyone who has Windows Media Player 9 or later, a multichannel output sound card, and a 5.1 speaker setup. (Media Player 9 requires Windows XP.)
Export options
5 If you select Export And Encode As Windows Media Audio Pro 6-Channel File, specify
the following Windows Media Audio options:
• Constant Bit Rate (CBR) varies the quality level as needed to ensure that the bit rate
stays the same. This method makes a consistently sized file, although the quality may
not be as high as with Variable Bit Rate encoding.
• Variable Bit Rate (VBR) maintains the audio quality by varying the bit rate depending
on the complexity of the audio passage being encoded. This method can maintain
higher quality audio in the file, although the file size is not as predictable as with
Constant Bit Rate encoding
• Lossless compresses to a smaller file size than WAV, but results in no fidelity loss.
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• Fold Down To Stereo Settings folds down the 6-channel playback to a stereo playback
on a non-Windows XP system or a system without a 5.1 playback setup. Specify the
attenuation parameters to control how the levels of the Center, Surround, and LFE
channels get mixed down with the front stereo channels and played back on a stereo
output system. The defaults are usually good settings for most files, but you can enter
any value in any of these three fields between 0 and –144 dB, as desired.
• Show Codec Formats That Most Closely Match The Session’s Sample Rate limits the list
of selectable WMA kbps options to those that are the same sample and bit rate as the
multitrack session’s files.
Exporting to a mastering or duplication service
If your project is to be sent out to a mastering, duplication, or other outside service with
the intention of being encoded into other specific surround or media formats, check with
the recipient as to the format specifics.
Channel ordering differs between surround formats, as do the crossover frequency points.
For example, Digital Theater System (DTS) typically employs a crossover of 80 Hz,
meaning that all frequency content of your channels lower than 80 Hz can be routed to a
subwoofer, and all frequency content greater than 80 can be sent to the main channels.
This differs from the Dolby Digital system that utilizes a crossover point of 120 Hz. Some
systems also employ a boost of 10 dB for the LFE channel, automatically assuming your
LFE content will be approximately this much lower in power than the main channels.
Therefore, these components should be accounted for in your mix before you deliver your
master files to the recipient. It is best to inquire with the recipient about all such requirements to ensure that the audience will hear your project the same way you are hearing it
on your monitoring system.
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Chapter 11: Saving, Exporting,
and Closing Files
A
dobe Audition lets you save audio files and export sessions to a variety of common
audio file formats.
Saving audio files
When working with audio files in Edit View, you can save your audio in a variety of
common file formats. The format you choose depends on how you plan to use the file. For
more information on supported file formats, see “Choosing an audio file format” on
page 231.
When choosing a file format, keep in mind that different formats allow different information to be stored with the file. As a result, saving a file in a format different from its
original format might cause some information to be discarded.
To save an audio file in Edit View:
1 Do one of the following:
• Choose File > Save to save changes you made to the current file. Alternatively, click the
Save button
in the File toolbar.
• Choose File > Save As to save changes to a different file. Alternatively, click the Save As
button
in the File toolbar.
• Choose File > Save Copy As to save an identical copy of the file while leaving the original
file active.
• Choose File > Save Selection to save the currently selected audio to a new file. Alterna-
tively, click the Save Selection button
in the File toolbar. This command is useful for
saving small segments of a larger file. For example, you can use it to break up a long
recording into smaller, more manageable tracks.
• Choose File > Save All to save all open files.
2 Choose a location for the file, type a filename, and choose a file format.
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3 Depending on the format you choose, additional options might be available. To view
format-specific options, click Options. For more information on format-specific options,
see “Choosing an audio file format” on page 231.
4 Select Save Extra Non-Audio Information to save header fields containing file information and cue marks in the file. In addition, if you save a .wav file, this option stores the
pathname to the original session file, effectively linking related session and mixdown files
for Adobe Premiere and Adobe After Effects users. For more information, see “Working
with Adobe Premiere Pro and After Effects” on page 207.
If you plan to burn the file to CD by using another program, you should deselect this
option. Some CD recording applications interpret non-audio information incorrectly and
place an unpleasant burst of noise at the beginning of each track.
5 Click Save.
Saving and exporting sessions
When you edit a session in Multitrack View, it’s a good practice to save the session file
frequently. After you create a mix, you can export the session to a variety of audio and
video formats.
Saving sessions
The most important thing to remember about session (.ses) files in Adobe Audition is that
they contain no audio data themselves. Instead, a session file is a small file that points to
other audio files on your hard drive. The session file keeps track of where the audio files
are stored on the hard drive, each file's location and duration within the session, what
envelopes and effects are applied to the tracks, and so on.
A session file is useless without the audio files that it points to, so it’s important to keep
your files organized. The best way to stay organized is to keep all session-related files in the
same folder. Adobe Audition makes organizing files easy by providing an option to save a
copy of every file used in a session into the same folder as the session file. This option
ensures that all files for a session are in one place.
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To save a session:
1 Do one of the following:
• Choose File > Save Session to save changes to the current session file. Alternatively, click
the Save button
in the Multitrack File toolbar.
• Choose File > Save Session As to save changes to a different session file. Alternatively,
click the Save As button
in the Multitrack File toolbar.
• Choose File > Save All to save all open sessions.
2 Choose a location for the file, and type a filename.
3 Select Save Copies Of All Associated Files to save a copy of every file used in a session into
the same folder as the session file. It is highly recommended that you select this option.
If you want to save the associated files in a different format, click Options, select Save All
Copies In This Format, and select a format from the list. To view options for the selected
format, click Format Properties. For more information on format-specific options, see
“Choosing an audio file format” on page 231.
4 Click Save.
To convert the sample rate of a session:
1 Choose File > Save Session As, choose a location for the file, and type a filename.
2 Select Save Copies Of All Associated Files, and click Options.
3 Select Convert Sample Rate, and select a sample rate.
4 To set dithering and other conversion options, click Conversion Properties. For more
information on conversion options, see “Converting the sample type” on page 110.
5 Click Save.
Exporting mixes to audio
After you finish mixing a session, you can export it in a variety of common audio file
formats. When you use the File > Export > Audio command, everything in the session is
exported to an audio file. If you want to export only specific waves, use the Edit > Mix
Down To File command instead. (See “Mixing down ReWire tracks and specific audio
clips” on page 196.)
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To export a mix to an audio file:
1 Do one of the following:
• To export part of a session, select the desired area in the track display.
• To export an entire session, deselect everything in the track display. (If necessary, click
the track display to reveal the current-time indicator.)
2 Choose File > Export > Audio.
3 Choose a location for the file, type a filename, and choose a file format.
4 Depending on the format you choose, additional options may be available. To view
format-specific options, click Options. For more information on format-specific options,
see “Choosing an audio file format” on page 231.
5 Select Save Extra Non-Audio Information to save header fields containing file information and cue marks in the file. In addition, if you save a .wav file, this option stores the
pathname to the original session file, effectively linking related session and mixdown files
for Adobe Premiere and Adobe After Effects users. For more information, see “Working
with Adobe Premiere Pro and After Effects” on page 207.
If you plan to burn the file to CD by using another program, you should deselect this
option. Some CD recording applications interpret non-audio information incorrectly and
place an unpleasant burst of noise at the beginning of each track.
6 Click Save.
Exporting mixes to video
If a session includes an .avi video file, you can mix down the session and make it an audio
track for the video.
Note: While Adobe Audition can open other types of video files to get at their audio tracks, the
ability to save back the audio track works only with .avi files.
To export a mix to a video file:
1 Choose File > Export > Video.
2 Choose a location for the file, and type a filename.
3 To assign a codec for compressing the audio in the file, click Options. Choose a codec
from the pop-up menu, and click OK.
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4 Select Save Extra Non-Audio Information to save header fields containing file information and cue marks in the file.
5 Click Save.
Closing files
Adobe Audition provides several commands for closing files.
To close the current audio file in Edit View:
Choose File > Close.
To close a session file in Multitrack View:
Do one of the following:
• Choose File > Close Session to close the current session file but leave related media files
open.
• Choose File Close Session And Its Media to close the current session file and all related
media files.
To close all files not related to the current session:
Choose File > Close Only Non-Session Media Files.
To close all open files:
Choose File > Close All.
Choosing an audio file format
Adobe Audition lets you open and save files in the formats described in this section. In
most cases, you should save uncompressed audio in Windows PCM format, and you
should save compressed audio in either mp3PRO® format or Windows Media Audio
format. You’ll need to use other formats only in special situations.
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Some formats provide options for saving audio data. Click Options in the Save As dialog
box to access these options.
Note: If you want to save files in a format that’s not listed here, you may be able to do so by using
an ACM Waveform codec. For more information, see “ACM Waveform (.wav)” on page 233.
64-bit doubles (RAW) (.dbl)
This format uses 8-byte doubles in binary form—8 bytes per sample mono, or 16 bytes
per sample stereo interleaved. The 64-bit doubles format has no header—it’s purely audio
data, just like the raw PCM format.
8-bit signed (.sam)
This format is popular for building MOD files, since audio in MOD files is 8-bit signed.
Many MOD editors allow samples to be inserted from or exported to files in this format.
Files with the .sam extension contain 8-bit signed raw data, and by default, they have no
headers. The sample rate starts off as 22050 Hz, but you can change the sample rate after
you open the file by choosing Edit > Adjust Sample Rate.
A/mu-Law Wave (.wav)
The A-Law and mu-Law WAV formats (CCITT standard G.711) are common in telephony
applications. These encoding formats compress the original 16-bit audio to 8-bit audio
(for a 2:1 compression ratio) with a dynamic range of about 13-bits (78 dB). While A-Law
and mu-Law encoded waveforms have a higher signal-to-noise ratio than 8-bit PCM, they
also have a bit more distortion than the original 16-bit audio. Still, the quality is higher
than you would get with some 4-bit ADPCM formats.
Note: Files saved in this format expand automatically to 16-bits when opened, so you
shouldn’t save 8-bit files in this format.
Options Choose from the following:
• A-Law 8-bit is a slight variation of the standard mu-Law format and is found in
European systems.
• mu-Law 8-bit is the international standard telecommunications encoding format and
is the default option.
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ACM Waveform (.wav)
Microsoft ACM (Audio Compression Manager) is part of all 32-bit versions of Windows.
Adobe Audition supports the ACM driver, which enables you to open and save files in a
variety of formats other than those directly supported by Adobe Audition.
Some of these formats come as a standard part of Windows, while others are provided by
third-parties. You may acquire ACM formats when you install other software.
To save a file in an alternate format by using the ACM driver, choose File > Save As, choose
ACM Waveform as the file format, and click Options. You can select from among various
quality levels, and each level will give you different options for formats and attributes.
Note: The ACM driver you want to use might require that the file be in a specific format before
saving it. For example, if you want to save a file in the DSP Group TrueSpeech format, you
should first use the Edit > Convert Sample Type command to convert the file to 8 KHz, mono,
16-bit, because that is the only format that the TrueSpeech ACM driver supports. For more
information on any particular ACM driver, contact the creator of the format (such as DSP
Group for TrueSpeech, or CCITT for the various CCITT formats) or the manufacturer of the
hardware that uses the format in question.
Amiga IFF-8SVX (.iff, .svx)
The Amiga IFF-8SVX format is an 8-bit mono format from the Commodore Amiga computer.
Options Choose from the following:
• Data Formatted As saves the audio file in uncompressed 8-bit Signed format (the
default setting) or in the compressed 4-bit Fibonacci Delta Encoded format.
• Dithering From 16-bit specifies a type of dithering for 16-bit files: Triangular Dither,
Shaped Gaussian Dither, Noise Shaping A, or Noise Shaping B. No Dithering is the default.
For more information on types of dithering, see “Changing the bit depth” on page 113.
Apple AIFF (.aif, .snd)
AIFF is Apple’s standard wave file format. AIFF supports mono or stereo files, 16-bit or
8-bit resolution, and a wide range of sample rates. Adobe Audition supports only the
PCM-encoded portion of the data, even though this format (like Windows WAV) can
contain any one of various data formats.
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AIFF is a good choice for Windows/Mac OS cross-platform compatibility. Before you
open AIFF files in Adobe Audition, add the .aif or .snd extension to the file and open it by
using the Apple AIFF file filter. When you transfer an AIFF file to a Macintosh, you can add
the four character code “AIFF” in the file’s resource fork to have it recognized. (The
Macintosh identifies a file through its “resource,” which is removed when a file is opened
on a Windows computer. However, many Mac OS applications that support AIFF can
recognize the PCM data without this identifier.)
ASCII Text Data (.txt)
Audio data can be read to or written from files in a standard text format, with each sample
separated by a carriage return, and channels separated by a tab character. An optional
header can be placed before the data. If no header text exists, then the data is assumed to
be 16-bit signed decimal integers. The header is formatted as a KEYWORD: value with the
keywords being SAMPLES, BITSPERSAMPLE, CHANNELS, SAMPLERATE, and
NORMALIZED. The values for NORMALIZED are either TRUE or FALSE. For example,
SA MP L E S : 1582
BI TS PE R S A MP L E : 16
CH A N N E L S : 2
SAMPLERATE: 22050
NO R MA L I Z E D : FA L S E
16 4 <ta b> - 1372
49 2 <ta b> - 876
Options Choose any of the following:
• Include Format Header places a header before the data.
• Normalized Data normalizes the data between –1.0 and 1.0.
Audition Loop (.cel)
This format produces compressed Adobe Audition loop files, which are essentially .mp3
files with a .cel extension. Each .cel file has a header that contains loop information, such
as the number of beats, tempo, key, and stretch method.
You can also save loops in uncompressed formats, such as Windows PCM.
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The .cel format avoids a potential problem with .mp3 files. During encoding, a very small
amount of silence is added to the beginning, end, or both of an .mp3 file. The silence is
very short—often only a few samples long. When you work with a loop, though, it’s
enough to throw off the entire loop.
As it saves a .cel file, Adobe Audition calculates how much silence will be added to the .mp3
file and writes this information into the .cel header. Then, when Adobe Audition opens a
.cel file, it reads this information and automatically removes the silence from the file so
that it loops smoothly.
The options for Audition Loop format are identical to those for mp3PRO®. For more
information, see “mp3PRO® (.mp3)” on page 237.
Creative Sound Blaster (.voc)
This format is for Sound Blaster and Sound Blaster Pro voice files. Adobe Audition supports
both the older and newer formats. The older format supports only 8-bit audio, mono to
44.1 kHz and stereo to 22 kHz. The newer format supports both 8- and 16-bit audio.
Files in this format can contain information for looping and silence. If a file contains loops
and silence blocks, they expand when you open the file.
Options Choose one of the following:
• Old Style saves audio as an 8-bit .voc file that can be played on any Sound Blaster card.
• New Style saves audio to the newer format that supports both 8- and 16-bit audio.
Dialogic ADPCM (.vox)
The Dialogic ADPCM format is used in telephony applications, and it’s optimized for low
sample rate voice. It supports only mono 16-bit audio, and like other ADPCM formats, it
compresses the audio data to 4 bits/sample (4:1). This format has no header, so Adobe
Audition assumes any .vox file is in Dialogic ADPCM format.
Note: Take note of the sample rate of the audio before saving it, as you need to enter it upon
reopening the file.
DiamondWare Digitized (.dwd)
This format is used by DiamondWare Sound Toolkit, a programmer's library that lets you
quickly and easily add high-quality interactive audio to games and multimedia applications. It supports both mono and stereo files at a variety of resolutions and sample rates.
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DVI/IMA ADPCM (.wav)
The International Multimedia Association (IMA) flavor of ADPCM compresses 16-bit
data to 4 bits/sample (4:1) by using a different (faster) method than Microsoft ADPCM. It
has different distortion characteristics, which can produce either better or worse results
depending on the sample being compressed. As with Microsoft ADPCM, use this format
with 16-bit rather than 8-bit files. This compression scheme can be a good alternative to
MPEG; it provides reasonably fast decoding of 4:1 compression, and it degrades sample
quality only slightly.
Options Choose from the following:
• 2 bits/sample, 8:1 produces files with the highest compression ratio (8:1) but with the
lowest number of bits. Select this option if smaller file size is more important than audio
quality. Keep in mind that this compression rate is less compatible than the standard 4-bit
and is supported on fewer systems.
• 3 bits/sample, 5.3:1 produces higher quality than the 2 bits option, but the quality isn’t
quite as good as with the 4 bits and 5 bits options. Some systems might have problems
playing back files with this compression rate, especially stereo files.
• 4 bits/sample, 4:1 produces 4-bit files at a compression ratio of 4:1. This option is the
default.
• 5 bits/sample, 3.2:1 produces files with the highest quality, since more bits and a lower
compression ratio are used. However, this compression rate is less compatible than the
standard 4-bit.
Microsoft ADPCM (.wav)
The Microsoft ADPCM format provides 4:1 compression. Files saved in this format
expand automatically to 16-bits when opened, regardless of their original resolution. For
this reason, use this format with 16-bit rather than 8-bit files.
Options Choose from the following:
• Single Pass (Lower Quality) compresses files in a single pass. Use this option if you’re in
a hurry. However, the quality is lower than if you use the Multiple Pass option. The time
taken to read an ADPCM-compressed file is the same no matter which option you use.
• Multiple Pass (Higher Quality) compresses files in multiple passes, providing better
quality. This setting is the default.
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• Block Size offers three size options, each with a different compression ratio and quality
level: Large (Default Quality), with a compression ratio of 3.98:1; Medium (Good
Quality), with a compression ratio of 3.81:1; and Small (High Quality), with a
compression ratio of 3.25:1.
mp3PRO® (.mp3)
The mp3PRO filter enables Adobe Audition to directly encode and decode .mp3 files.
When you save a file to mp3 format, the audio is encoded and compressed according to
the options you select. When you open an .mp3 file, the audio converts into the uncompressed internal format of Adobe Audition. As a result, you can save an .mp3 file in any
format.
Avoid compressing the same audio to mp3 more than once. Opening and resaving an
.mp3 file causes it to be recompressed, so any artifacts from the compressing process
become more pronounced.
MP3/mp3PRO® Encoder Options dialog box contains two sets of options: basic options
for choosing an encoding method and more advanced options. To view the advanced
options, click Advanced. To view only the basic options, click Simple.
Basic options Choose from the following:
• CBR (constant bit rate) encodes the same bit rate throughout the entire file. This
method is the most common and the most predictable for bandwidth and file size.
• VBR (variable bit rate) encodes higher bit rates for more complex material and lower
bit rates for simpler material. While it depends on the source material, VBR-encoded
.mp3 files generally tend to be smaller than CBR-encoded .mp3 files. Use the menu
below the VBR option to choose a quality level from 10 (lowest quality but smaller file)
to 100 (highest quality but larger file). Some mp3 players don’t support VBR-encoded
files. For maximum compatibility, select CBR.
• MP3 encodes the file to mp3, but without the PRO data.
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• mp3PRO® encodes the file mp3PRO. The PRO data helps re-create high frequencies in
the compressed file, especially at low bit rates. An mp3PRO file can still be played back
by an mp3 player that doesn’t support the PRO data, but the quality may be lower than
for a standard mp3 file of that bit rate. For example, a 64 Kbps mp3PRO file sounds
more like a 112 Kbps or 128 Kbps mp3 file if the player supports mp3PRO, but it sounds
like a 64 Kbps mp3 file (or worse) if the player doesn’t support mp3PRO.
For information on advanced mp3PRO options, see “mp3PRO® (.mp3)” in Help.
NeXT/Sun (.au, .snd)
The NeXT/Sun format is standard on NeXT and Sun computers, and it has many data
types. Adobe Audition supports the CCITT A-Law, mu-Law, G.721 ADPCM, and linear
PCM data variants. Like Windows PCM and AIFF, this format can support mono or
stereo, 16- or 8-bit, and a wide range of sample rates when saved as linear PCM.
The NeXT/Sun format is most commonly used for compressing 16-bit data to 8-bit
mu-law data. AU is used quite extensively on the Web and in Java applications and applets.
Options Choose from the following:
• mu-Law 8-bit uses the mu-law 8-bit format to compress the file.
• A-Law 8-bit uses the A-law 8-bit format to compress the file.
• G.721 ADPCM 4-bit applies the standard CCITT G.721 compression to the file
(ADPCM at 32Kbps).
• Linear PCM saves the file as uncompressed, linear PCM (Pulse Code Modulation).
SampleVision (.smp)
The SampleVision format is native to Turtle Beach’s SampleVision program. This format
supports only mono, 16-bit audio. If a file is in a different format, Adobe Audition
prompts you to convert it before saving it.
This format also supports loop points, which you can edit in the Cue List window. The
Label of the cue must be in the format Lo op n, m where “n” is the loop number from 1 to
8, and “m” is the mode (0 = no looping, 1 = forward loop, 2 = forward/back loop). In the
Play List window, you can enter the number of times to loop the cue range.
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Windows Media Audio (.wma)
The WMA format utilizes a perceptual compression scheme and lets you select from three
different encoding options:
• Constant Bit Rate Encoding varies the quality level as needed to ensure that the bit rate
stays the same. This method makes a consistently sized file, although the quality may
not be as high as with Variable Bit Rate encoding.
• Variable Bit Rate Encoding maintains the audio quality by varying the bit rate
depending on the complexity of the audio passage being encoded. This method can
maintain higher quality audio in the file, although the file size is not as predictable as
with Constant Bit Rate encoding.
• Mathematically Lossless Encoding compresses to a smaller file size than WAV, but
results in no fidelity loss.
After you select an encoding option, you can set the desired quality. Just as with stereo
WMA files, the higher quality setting you select, the larger the file size, and vice versa.
Windows PCM (.wav)
The Microsoft Windows PCM format supports both mono and stereo files at a variety
of resolutions and sample rates. It follows the RIFF (Resource Information File Format)
specification and allows for extra user-information to be embedded and saved with the
file. The WAV format reproduces digital audio by using PCM (Pulse Code Modulation)—
PCM doesn’t require compression and is considered a lossless format.
Options The following options are available for 32-bit files; no options are available for
8- or 16-bit files:
• 32-bit Normalized Float (type 3) – Default is the internal format for Adobe Audition
and the standard floating point format for type 3 .wav files. Values are normalized to the
range of +/–1.0, and although values beyond this range are saved, clipping may occur
in some programs that read them back in. (Adobe Audition won’t clip audio but will
instead read the same value back if it’s beyond this range.)
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• 24-bit Packed Int (type 1, 24-bit) saves straight 24-bit integers so any data beyond the
bounds is clipped. The .wav BitsPerSample is set to 24 and BlockAlign is set to 3 bytes
per channel.
• 24-bit Packed Int (type 1, 20-bit) saves straight 24-bit integers so any data beyond the
bounds is clipped. The .wav BitsPerSample is set to 20 and BlockAlign is set to 3 bytes
per channel. The extra 4 bits are actually the remaining valid bits when saving, and they
are used when reading (thus still giving 24-bit accuracy if those bits were actually
present when writing). Applications either fill those last 4 bits with zeros or with actual
data; analog/digital converters that generate 20 bits of valid data automatically set the
remaining 4 bits to zero. Any type 1 format with BlockAlign set to 3 bytes per channel
is assumed to be packed integers, and a BitsPerSample value between 17 and 24 will read
in all 24 bits and assume the remaining bits are either accurate or set to zero.
• 32-bit 24.0 Float (type 1, 24-bit) – Non-Standard saves full 32-bit floats (ranging from
+/–8million), but the .wav BitsPerSample is set to 24 while BlockAlign is still set to
4 bytes per channel.
• 16.8 float – Obsolete/Compatibility is the internal format used by Adobe Audition 1.0.
Floating point values range from +/–32768.0, but larger and smaller values are valid and
aren’t clipped since the floating point exponent is saved as well. The .wav BitsPerSample
is set to 32 and BlockAlign is set to 4 bytes per channel.
• Enable Dithering dithers 32-bit files when they are saved to a PCM format (20-bit,
24-bit, or 32-bit). This option is available only for a 32-bit file that you select to save to
a nonfloating-point type format. It applies a Triangular dither with a 1.0 depth 1.0 and
no noise shaping. If you wish to apply a noise-shaped dither, use the Edit > Convert
Sample Type command to dither the audio first, and then save the file without dithering
enabled in the file format options.
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PCM Raw Data (.pcm) (.raw)
This format is simply the PCM dump of all data for the wave. No header information is
contained in the file. For this reason, you must select the sample rate, resolution, and
number of channels upon opening the file.
By opening audio data as PCM, you can interpret almost any audio file format—but make
sure that you have some idea about the sample rate, number of channels, and so on. You
can also interpret the data as A-law or mu-law compressed. When you guess at these
parameters upon opening a file, it may sound incorrect (depending on which parameters
are wrong). Once the file is opened and sounds fine, you may hear clicks at the start or end
of the waveform, or sometimes throughout. These clicks are various header information
being interpreted as waveform material. Just cut these out, and you’ve read in a wave in an
unknown format.
Options Choose from the following:
• Data Formatted As specifies the format of the saved data.
• When Opening, Offset Input Data By specifies the number of bytes by which to offset
the input data.
• Create .DAT Header File On Save writes a header to a separate .dat file to make
reopening the file easier.
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Chapter 12: Scripting and Batch
Processing
I
f you regularly perform certain audio tasks, you can automate them with scripts and
batch processing to work more efficiently.
About scripting and batch processing
Adobe Audition scripts let you save a series of actions such as copying data or applying an
effect, so you can perform those actions again with the click of a button. Scripts are simple
text files that are similar to macros; Adobe Audition stores the exact actions of your mouse
and any tweaking of parameters, so you can repeat them in the same sequence when you
run the script.
For example, suppose you have a combination of effects with particular settings (an EQ
setting, a Hall reverb, and so on) that you want to apply often and in combination to
achieve a certain sound. You can record these steps, along with effects’ specific settings,
and then apply them at any time simply by calling the script.
Batch processing cue ranges
You can use the Batch feature in the Cue List to add silence between cues and save the
audio between cues to new files. For more information about cues, the Cue List, and cue
ranges, see “Working with cues” on page 96.
To batch process cues:
1 Choose Window > Cue List.
2 Select one or more cues in the Cue List dialog box. At least one of the cues you select
must be a range.
3 Click Batch at the bottom of the dialog box.
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4 Set the following options as desired, and click OK:
Set Amount Of Silence Adds silence between cue points in the current waveform. Enter
the number of seconds of silence you want in the Add Silence Before and Add Silence After
text boxes.
Save To Files Splits the audio between cue points in the active waveform to new files.
Use Cue Label As Filename Uses the name of the cue as the prefix for the filename.
Filename Prefix Specifies the prefix for the filename (such as “phrase”). Adobe Audition
automatically adds numbers after the prefix (phrase02, phrase03, and so on) in addition
to the correct extension based on the output format you specify.
Seq. Start Specifies the number to begin with when appending numbers to the filename
prefix.
Destination Folder Specifies the folder in which you want Adobe Audition to place new
“split” files. Click Browse to open the Choose Destination Folder window and locate a
different folder.
Output Format Sets the output format. Depending on the format, Options is available.
Click Options to select options for that format.
Normalizing groups of files
When you normalize a waveform, the loudest part of the waveform is set to a specified
amplitude, thereby raising or lowering all other parts of the same waveform by the same
amount. Group Waveform Normalize lets you normalize the volume of multiple open
waveforms by using a three-screen batch process. If the volume is raised as part of the
normalization process, Adobe Audition can apply limiting to prevent clipping.
If you’re getting ready to master an audio CD, using Group Waveform Normalize is a great
way to make sure that all tracks on the CD have a consistent volume.
To normalize a group of files:
1 Choose Edit > Group Waveform Normalize.
2 Select the open waveforms you want to normalize. Click to select a single file, Shift-click
to select contiguous files, Ctrl-click to select noncontiguous files, and drag to select a
group of files.
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3 Click the Analyze Loudness tab, and then click Scan For Statistical Information to
display amplitude statistics for each waveform. Double-click a file in this list to see more
detailed statistics, including an RMS histogram and a clipping profile. (See “Understanding statistics on the Analyze Loudness tab” on page 245.)
4 Click the Normalize tab, and specify how you want to normalize the waveforms. (See
“Setting options on the Normalize tab” on page 246.)
5 Click Run Normalize.
Understanding statistics on the Analyze Loudness tab
When you click Scan For Statistical Information, the Analyze Loudness tab displays the
following information:
Eq-Loud Is the final loudness value with an equal-loudness equalization curve that takes
into account frequencies to which the human ear is most sensitive. If you select the Use
Equal Loudness Contour option in the Normalize tab, this value determines how much to
amplify the audio to normalize it.
Loud Is the final loudness value without equal-loudness equalization. If you don’t select
the Use Equal Loudness Contour option in the Normalize tab, this value determines how
much to amplify the audio to normalize it.
Max Is the maximum RMS (Root-Mean-Square) amplitude present. This value is based
on a full-scale sine wave being 0 dB, and it conforms to the width specified in the Advanced
section of the Normalize tab.
Avg Is the average RMS of the entire waveform. This value isn’t used for normalization.
% Clip Is the percentage of the waveform that would be clipped as a result of normalization. Clipping won’t occur if limiting (in which loud passages are decreased in volume)
is used; instead, the louder portions of audio are limited to prevent clipping. In general,
avoid values higher than 5% to prevent audible artifacts from occurring in the louder
portions of audio.
Reset Clears all of the normalization statistics for the files in the list.
Double-click a file in this list to see more detailed statistics, including a complete RMS
histogram, which shows the relative amounts of audio at each loudness level, and a
clipping profile, which shows how much clipping will occur for each decibel of amplification.
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Setting options on the Normalize tab
Use the following options in the Normalize tab to specify how you want to normalize the
waveforms:
Normalization Specifies whether to normalize to an average level or a specific level you
enter in decibels.
Note: The Normalization option doesn’t use percentages, unlike the Normalize effect, because
it is RMS-based rather than peak-based.
Use Equal Loudness Contour Applies an equal loudness contour, where the middle
frequencies are most important. Because the human ear is much more sensitive to
frequencies between 2 kHz and 4 kHz, two different pieces of audio with the same RMS
amplitude but with different frequencies will have different apparent volumes. Select this
option to ensure that audio has the same perceived loudness, regardless of what
frequencies are present.
Out of Band Peaks Determines how Adobe Audition handles out-of-band peaks. When
you amplify audio, the audio samples may extend beyond the clipping point. If out-ofband peaks occur, you can choose to just let it clip the waveform (and cause distortion),
or you can apply limiting to those areas so the audio doesn't clip the waveform (a common
practice for TV commercials so they sound louder).
• No Limiting (Clip) prevents limiting, so clipped (distorted) audio might occur.
• Use Limiting applies the Hard Limiter, if needed, to keep out-of-band peaks from being
clipped. This options provides two additional options: Look Ahead Time and Release Time.
• Lookahead Time specifies the number of milliseconds generally needed to attenuate
audio before reaching the loudest peak.
Note: If this value is too small, audible distortion might occur. Make sure that the value is at
least 5 milliseconds.
• Release Time specifies the number of milliseconds needed for the attenuation to
rebound 12 dB (or roughly the time needed for audio to resume normal volume if an
extremely loud peak is encountered).
Note: A setting of 200 milliseconds works well to preserve low bass frequencies. If the setting is
too high, audio may stay quiet and not resume normal levels for a while.
Statistics RMS Width Specifies the length of the audio selection to use for calculating the
RMS (Root-Mean-Square) minimum and maximum values.
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Batch processing files
The Batch Processing dialog box in Adobe Audition enables you to run a single script
repeatedly over a group (batch) of source files.
Note: For a script to run on a batch of files, you must record it in Script Works On Current Wave
mode. That is, before you record the script, a waveform must be open with no selection made.
In addition, the Batch Processing dialog box enables you to change multiple waveforms
from one audio format to another (such as from WAV to MP3). For more information, see
“Converting the sample type” on page 110.
The Files tab of the Batch Processing dialog box
To batch process files:
1 In Edit View, choose File > Batch Processing. The Batch Processing dialog box appears
with the Files tab displayed.
2 Click Add Files to open the Please Choose The Source Files dialog box, and select one
or more files:
• Hold down Ctrl or Shift to select noncontiguous or contiguous files, respectively.
• Click Remove to delete highlighted files from the list.
• Click Remove All to delete all files from the list.
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• Click Hide Path to display the name of the file without its full path.
• Click Open Raw PCM As to select the desired Sample Rate, Channels, Resolution, and
other properties. Use this option only when converting Raw PCM files.
3 Click the Run Script tab at the bottom of the Batch Processing dialog box.
4 Select Run A Script. Then, click Browse to locate and select a script collection (*.scp)
file, and click Open.
5 Choose a script from the Script menu. The only scripts that you can use for batch
processing (and the only ones that appear in the list) are those that were recorded in Script
Works On Current Wave mode. (See “Working with scripts” on page 249.)
6 Click the Resample tab.
7 Select Conversion Settings to change each waveform’s sample properties to a common
set of values. Then, click Change Destination Format to specify the values. (See
“Converting the sample type” on page 110.) If you don’t select Conversion Settings, the
sample properties for the destination files are the same as those for the source files.
8 Click the New Format tab.
9 From the Output menu, choose a format for the destination files.
10 Click Format Properties to display options for the destination format.
Note: Sample Format Types lists the sample properties of the waveforms that are to be
converted. If more than one entry is listed, you might have to select different properties for
each, depending on the destination format. For instance, a 22 kHz mono waveform might
need different encoding options than a 44 kHz stereo file.
11 Click the Destination tab.
12 Select a destination folder, specify how files are renamed by setting the following
options, and then click Run Batch:
Same As File’s Source Folder Saves modified files in the same folder as the file’s source file.
Other Folder Specifies the folder in which to save modified files. Click Browse to locate
a folder.
Overwrite Existing Files Saves existing files with a new name.
Delete Source File If Converted OK Deletes source files after they are converted successfully.
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Remove From Source List If Converted OK Removes filenames from the source list after
the files are converted successfully.
Output Filename Template Specifies how files are renamed. By default, the first part of the
filename remains the same, and the extension changes to match the chosen output format.
Alternatively, you can type a different extension, and you can set up conditions for how
files are renamed by using question marks and asterisks:
• A question mark (“?”) signifies that a character doesn’t change.
• An asterisk (“*”) denotes the original filename or extension.
Here are some examples of how filenames can be renamed:
Original Name
Output Filename
Template Name
Resulting Filename
zippy.aif
*.wav
zippy.wav
toads.pcm
q*.voc
qtoads.voc
funny.mp3
b???????.*
bunny.mp3
biglong.au
????.au
bigl.au
bart.wav
*x.wav
bartx.wav
Working with scripts
Adobe Audition lets you create three types of scripts, depending on the software’s state
when you record the script:
• Scripts that start from scratch. These scripts start with no waveform opened, and their
first command is File > New.
• Scripts that work on the currently open waveform. These scripts operate on an entire
waveform. They require a waveform to be open, but with no selection made. Actions
begin at the current-time indicator position in the waveform, and they affect any data
present at that point.
• Scripts that work on a selection. These scripts require a selection to be made first.
Actions in the script apply only to the selection.
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A set of scripts can be grouped together in a script collection. For example, a script
collection called “ambiance” might contain scripts for adding echo, reverb, and delay, and
one called “batch utilities” might contain scripts for batch processing. (See “Batch
processing files” on page 247.)
Creating scripts
Use the Scripts dialog box to create your scripts.
To create a script:
1 Set up Adobe Audition for the script you want to create. For example, open a waveform
typical of the ones you’ll apply the script to, or, if you want a script that starts from scratch,
close all open waveforms.
2 In Edit View, choose Options > Scripts. The Script Collections area displays the name
of the currently opened script collection. If the collection hasn’t been named, the name
New Collection appears.
3 Do one of the following:
• To open an existing script collection, click Open/New Collection, navigate to the
collection (*.scp) file, and then double-click it.
• To create a new script collection, click Open/New Collection. Navigate to the folder in
which you want to save the new collection (*.scp) file. Then, type a name for it in the
File Name text box, and click Open.
• To rename a script collection, click Edit Script File. The collection (*.scp) file opens in
Windows Notepad. Locate the “Collection:” entry on the first line, and type a new
name. Then, save the file.
Note: The name in the Script Collections area doesn’t reflect the change until you reopen
the script.
4 Type a name for your script in the Title text box.
5 Click Record. The Scripts dialog box closes.
6 Perform the actions that you want to be part of the script.
Note: Don’t open or save a file as part of the actions for the script, since these actions are
specific to a particular file. If you make a mistake, return to the Scripts dialog box, click Stop
Current Script, click Clear, and start over.
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7 After you record the script, choose Options > Scripts.
8 Click Stop Current Script.
9 Type a description for the script in the text area of the dialog box. The description
appears when the script is selected.
Note: You can add or edit a description later by clicking Edit Script File.
10 Click Add to Collection. The script appears in the list at the left.
Running scripts
After you create a script, you can run it on a file, an entire waveform, or part of a
waveform, depending on the script type.
To run a single script on a batch of files, use the Batch Processing command.
To run a script:
1 Set up Adobe Audition to match the starting point of the script. For example, if you
want to run a script intended for a waveform, open a file and select a waveform. If you
want to run a script that starts from scratch, close all open waveforms.
2 Switch to Edit View, and choose Options > Scripts. The Script Collections area displays
the name of the currently opened script collection. If the collection hasn’t been named, the
name New Collection appears.
3 If the script collection you want isn’t open, click Open/New Collection. Navigate to the
collection (*.scp) file you want, and double-click it.
4 Select the script you want to run from the list.
5 Set the following options as desired, and then click Run Script:
Pause At Dialogs Stops the script at each dialog box used in the script, so you can modify
the settings at those points. Clicking Cancel in any dialog box stops the script, and clicking
OK continues it.
Alert When Complete Displays a notice when the script is finished.
Execute Relative To Cursor When running a Works On Current Wave type of script,
performs all script operations relative to the original position of the cursor, as opposed to
at the current position.
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For example, if a script was recorded with the current-time indicator at 0:10:00, selecting
this option applies the script at the current cursor position, plus 10 seconds: If the current
cursor position is at 0:05:00, the script would start at 0:15:00.
If you’re likely to run a script at the current cursor position, record the script with the
cursor at a 0:00:00 position, and select this option when you run it.
Script Type Indicates the type of script selected in the scripts list: Script Starts From
Scratch works with all files closed; Script Works On Current Wave works on an entire
waveform; and Script Works On Highlighted Section works on the selected part of a
waveform.
Editing scripts
The Edit Script File option in the Scripts dialog box lets you modify existing scripts as text
in a Windows Notepad file.
To edit a script:
1 In Edit View, choose Options > Scripts. The Script Collections area displays the name
of the currently opened script collection. If the collection hasn’t been named, the name
New Collection appears.
2 If the script collection you want isn’t open, click Open/New Collection. Navigate to the
collection (*.scp) file you want, and double-click it.
3 Select the script you want to edit from the list.
4 Click Edit Script File. The collection file opens in Windows Notepad.
5 Scroll through the file to find the script you want.
6 Make the changes you want, and save the file.
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Using favorites (Edit View only)
The Favorites menu in Edit View lists custom commands you can create. The Favorites
dialog box lets you create, edit, customize, and save these commands, which are based on
your favorite Adobe Audition effects, scripts, and even third-party tools (the latter using
command line executables). You can even organize favorites into hierarchical submenus
for easy navigation.
The four tabs in the Favorites dialog box
To apply favorites:
In Edit View, choose Favorites, followed by the favorite you want to apply.
To create or edit favorites:
1 Choose Favorites > Edit Favorites.
2 Select from the following options, click Save, and then click Close:
New Enables the fields in the Properties area of the Favorites dialog box.
Edit Enables the fields in the Properties area for the selected favorite.
Delete Removes the selected favorite.
Up Moves the selected favorite up in the list. The Favorites menu reflects the order of the list.
Down Moves the selected favorite down in the list.
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Name Specifies the name of a favorite. Use this text box to help organize the Favorites
menu by doing one or more of the following:
• Create hierarchical menus by using a backslash (“\”). For example, type My Delays\Hall
Reverb in the Name text box to place the Hall Reverb favorite in the My Delays
submenu.
• Add separator bars by typing a series of dashes (“------”) into the Name text box. If you
want more than one separator bar, type a different number of dashes, or add text so that
the separator doesn't match one in the list. For example, type “------2” (the “2” after the
dashes doesn’t appear in the Favorites menu).
• Create a separator bar for a submenu by entering the submenu path first (such as “My
Effects\------”). (The text that appears with a separator bar is for appearance only.)
Note: If you create text for a submenu title, make sure not to specify any command, script, or
tool listed on the Function tab, Script tab, or Tool tab.
Press New Shortcut Key Lets you type a key or combination of keys to use as the keyboard
shortcut to a favorite. Adobe Audition accepts most single key shortcuts (the most notable
exceptions are the Print Screen, Scroll Lock, Number Lock, Caps Lock, Tab, Function, and
Enter keys), and it also accepts the Ctrl, Shift, and Alt keys (or any combination of the
three) as the first in a combination of keys.
Note: If the keyboard shortcut you type is already used by Adobe Audition, a dialog box
appears, giving you the option to overwrite the current shortcut.
Clear Clears text from the Press New Shortcut Key text box.
Function tab Lets you specify the following options:
• Audition Effect lets you choose any command listed in the Effects and Generate menus.
After you choose a command, the settings last used for it appear.
• Edit Settings displays the window that corresponds to the command you chose. You can
then specify the settings to be used when you choose the favorite from the Favorites
menu.
• Copy From Last applies the settings used the last time the particular command was
completedsuccessfully.
• Use Current Settings applies the settings currently specified for the particular
command. Deselect this option to edit the settings.
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• Show Dialog causes the dialog box for the particular command to display, with the
settings you specified for the favorite.
Script tab Lets you specify the following options:
• Script Collection File displays the current script collection in use. The button to the
right of the text box opens the Browse For Script dialog box that lets you navigate to and
select a script collection (*.scp) file.
• Script lets you choose the script you want to run from the selected collection.
• Pause At Dialogs stops the script at each dialog box used in the script, so you can modify
the settings at those points. Otherwise, the script runs nonstop to completion.
Tool tab Specifies the command line for the tool you want to run, including any
command line switches the particular tool may need. The button to the right of the text
box opens the Browse For Tool dialog box that lets you navigate to the desired tool.
Help tab Displays instructions for adding separators and submenus to the Favorites
menu.
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257
Chapter 13: Burning Audio CDs
A
dobe Audition provides an integrated CD burning utility that makes it easy to
create audio CDs from audio and session files.
Using CD Project View
CD Project View provides an easy-to-use interface for assembling CD tracks, setting track
properties, and burning CDs. The display window in CD Project View contains the track
list, which displays information about the audio tracks you assemble. CD Project View
also shares many elements with Edit View and Multitrack View, such as dockable windows,
menus, toolbars, and a status bar. (See “About the work area” on page 9.)
CD Project View
You use the tabs above the display window, commands in the View menu, or buttons in
the toolbar to switch between views. (See “Switching between views” on page 11.)
Assembling tracks
You can assemble the tracks for a CD all at once, or you can insert individual tracks as you finish
editing the audio. After you insert tracks, you can also change their order or remove them.
When you assemble audio for a CD, you’ll probably want to fine tune the individual tracks
so that they form a cohesive whole. This process—known as mastering—often involves
cropping files, adjusting dynamics (compressing), and comparing the audio for continuity
levels and EQ. (See “About the mastering process” on page 117 and “Normalizing groups
of files” on page 244.)
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Inserting tracks
Adobe Audition provides a variety of ways to insert tracks into CD Project View. Keep in
mind that you’re not limited to inserting entire files—you can also insert audio ranges that
are defined as track cues. For more information on creating track cues, see “Defining and
selecting cues” on page 96 and “Choosing a cue type” on page 97.
To insert a track:
Do one of the following:
• Select one or more files or track cues in the Files tab of the Organizer window. Then,
drag the items into the track list or click the Insert Into CD Project button . For more
information on using the Files tab of the Organizer window, see “Organizing files” on
page 24.
• In CD Project View, choose Insert > Audio or Insert > Audio From Video. Select a file,
and click Open.
• In CD Project View, choose Insert > File/Cue List. Select the file or track cue you want
to insert.
• Drag any supported audio file type from your desktop (Windows, My Computer, or
Windows Explorer) directly into the track list in CD Project View. The file first opens in
Adobe Audition, and then is inserted into the track list.
• In Edit View, open a file. To insert the entire file, make sure that no audio is selected; to
insert part of a file, select the desired range. Then choose Edit > Insert In CD Project.
• In Multitrack View, open a session file, and choose Edit > Mix Down To CD Project. If the
session includes track cues, each cue range is inserted into the track list as a separate track.
If you want to divide a single, long audio file (such as a recording of a concert that
includes several songs) into multiple tracks on a CD, insert the file into a session, and
add track cues at the desired locations. Then, choose Edit > Mix Down To CD Project. The cue
ranges are inserted automatically as separate tracks.
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Selecting tracks
In CD Project View, you can select one or more tracks by clicking in the track list. You can
also select all tracks by choosing the Select All Tracks command.
To select a track:
In CD Project View, click the track in the track list.
To select multiple tracks:
Do one of the following:
• To select adjacent (contiguous) tracks, click the first track in the desired range, and then
Shift-click the last.
• To select nonadjacent (incontiguous) tracks, Ctrl-click them.
To select all tracks:
Choose Edit > Select All Tracks.
Rearranging tracks
In CD Project View, you can move tracks up and down to change their play order on a CD.
To rearrange tracks:
1 In CD Project View, select the track you want to move.
2 Click Move Up or Move Down.
Removing tracks
In CD Project View, you can remove a single track, multiple tracks, or all tracks.
To remove tracks:
In CD Project View, do one of the following:
• Select one or more tracks, and click Remove. Alternatively, choose Edit > Remove
Selected Tracks.
• To remove all tracks, click Remove All. Alternatively, choose Edit > Remove All Tracks.
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To close the source files when removing tracks:
1 Select one or more tracks.
2 Choose Edit > Destroy Selected Tracks (Remove and Close).
Editing the source audio for tracks
The Edit Waveform command in CD Project View lets you edit the source audio for a track
in Edit View.
To edit the source audio for a track:
1 In CD Project View, select the track you want to edit.
2 Choose Edit > Edit Waveform.
Setting track properties
Adobe Audition lets you specify a title and artist for each track. CD players that support
CD Text display the text during playback.
You can also change the length of pauses between tracks, enable or disable copy protection
and pre-emphasis features, and add an ISRC (International Standard Recording Code)
number.
To set track properties:
1 In CD Project View, select the track for which you want to set properties, and click Track
Properties. Alternatively, select the track, and choose View > Track Properties.
2 Enter a track title and artist for the track.
Important: In order for Adobe Audition to write text to the CD, you must select Write CDText in the Write CD dialog box. (See “Writing a CD” on page 261.)
3 If you want to set additional properties for the track, select Use Custom Track
Properties. Set any of the following options, and click OK:
Pause Adds a pause of the specified length before the track. By default, Adobe Audition
assigns a 2-second pause to the beginning of each track.
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Copy Protection Sets the copy protection flag (as defined by the Red Book specification)
for the track. In order for copy protection to occur, the CD player must support the copy
protection flag.
Pre-Emphasis Sets the pre-emphasis flag (as defined by the Red Book specification) for
the track. Pre-emphasis is a basic noise reduction process that is implemented by a CD
player. For pre-emphasis to occur, the CD player must support the pre-emphasis flag.
ISRC Specifies an ISRC (International Standard Recording Code). This code is used only
on CDs that are destined for commercial distribution. ISRC codes have 12 characters and
use the following format:
• ISO Country: 2 digit code (for example, US for USA).
• Registrant code: 3 digit alpha-numeric, unique reference.
• Year of reference: last 2 digits of the year (for example, 04 for 2004).
• Designation code: a 5 digit, unique number.
Same For All Tracks Applies the settings, with the exception of the ISRC code, to all tracks
in the track list.
Writing a CD
Before you write a CD, you should verify that your CD burning device is set up correctly.
Then, set CD options and write the CD.
Note: Audio on CDs must be 44.1 kHz, 16 bit, stereo. If you insert a track with a different
sample type, Adobe Audition automatically converts the audio for you.
To set CD device properties:
1 In CD Project View, choose Options > Device Properties.
2 Select the device you want to set up.
3 Select a buffer size and write speed for the device.
4 If the device supports buffer underrun protection, select Buffer Underrun Protection to
allow the drive to stop and resume burning as needed.
5 Click OK.
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To set CD options and write a CD:
1 Insert a blank, writable CD into the CD burning device.
2 In CD Project View, click Write CD or choose File > Write CD.
3 Choose the device you want to use to write the CD. (Click Device Properties to set
device properties, as described in the previous procedure.)
4 Choose a setting from the Write Mode pop-up menu:
• Write CD writes the CD without testing for buffer underruns.
• Test Write Only tests if the CD can be written without the occurrence of buffer
underruns. No audio is written to the CD.
• Test and Write CD tests for buffer underruns and then proceeds with the actual write
process if the test is successful.
5 Select Eject Disc When Complete to eject the CD tray upon completion of the write
process.
6 Select Write CD-Text if you want to write text, including the track title and artist for
each track, to the CD. Type the desired information in the text boxes for Title, Artist, and
UPC/EAN.
Note: The UPC/EAN is a 13-digit code that is used to uniquely identify merchandise and
communicate product information between a vendor and retailer.
7 Click Write CD. The Track and Disk bars show you the progress of the write process.
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263
Appendix A: Keyboard Shortcuts
K
eyboard shortcuts help you work more efficiently.
About keyboard shortcuts
The default keyboard shortcuts address most audio production needs, but you can also
create custom shortcuts tailored to your working style. To customize shortcuts or trigger
commands with a MIDI keyboard, use the Keyboard Shortcuts & MIDI Triggers
command. (See “Using shortcuts” on page 12.)
Note: Adobe Audition displays most default keyboard shortcuts in menu commands and tool
tips. The user guide and Help list only shortcuts that Adobe Audition doesn’t display.
Keys for playing audio
Space
Toggle between Play and Stop
Ctrl+Space
Toggle between Record and Pause
Ctrl+Shift+Space
Toggle between Play All and Pause
Alt+O
Play postroll
Alt+R
Play preroll and postroll (skip selection)
Alt+E
Play preroll and selection
Home
Move the current-time indicator to the beginning of the
waveform or session
End
Move the current-time indicator to the end of the waveform
or session
Page Up
Move the current-time indicator one page to the left
Page Down
Move the current-time indicator one page to the right
Left Arrow
Move the current-time indicator to the left
Right Arrow
Move the current-time indicator to the right
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Keyboard Shortcuts
Keys for selecting ranges, channels, and tracks
Up Arrow
Select the left channel or next higher track
Down Arrow
Select the right channel or next lower track
Shift+Home
Extend the selection to the beginning of the waveform or session
Shift+End
Extend the selection to the end of the waveform or session
Shift+Page Up
Extend the selection one page to the left
Shift+Page Down
Extend the selection one page to the right
Shift+Left Arrow
Extend the selection to the left
Shift+Right Arrow
Extend the selection to the right
Ctrl+Shift+A
Select the current page
[
Move left side of the selection inward during playback
]
Move right side of the selection inward during playback
Keys for copying waveforms
Ctrl+Insert
Copy the waveform or selection to the clipboard
Shift+Insert
Paste the clipboard’s contents into the waveform display or session display
Ctrl+M
Insert the waveform into the session display
Ctrl+Shift+N
Paste the contents of the active clipboard to a new waveform
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Keys for editing clips
Ctrl+Up Arrow
Select the previous clip in the currently selected track
Ctrl+Down Arrow
Select the next clip in the currently selected track
Alt+Left Arrow
Nudge the selected clip to the left
Alt+Right Arrow
Nudge the selected clip to the right
Ctrl+Shift+Up Arrow
Clip color (next)
Ctrl+Shift+Down Arrow
Clip color (previous)
Keys for repeating commands
F2
Repeat the last command (its dialog box appears)
F3
Repeat the last command (no dialog box appears)
Keys for using markers
F8
Add a cue or cue range
Shift+F8
Add a CD track marker
Ctrl+F8
Add a CD index marker
1
Mark Intro Time
2
Mark Sec Tone
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Keyboard Shortcuts
Keys for scrolling waveforms and sessions
Ctrl+Home
Scroll to the beginning
Ctrl+End
Scroll to the end
Ctrl+Page Up
Scroll one page to the left
Ctrl+Page Down
Scroll one page to the right
Ctrl+Left Arrow
Scroll to the left
Ctrl+Right Arrow
Scroll to the right
Keys for viewing windows
F12
Toggle between Multitrack View and Edit View
Alt+1
Set focus to the main display
Alt+Page Up
Activate the previous floating window
Alt+Page Down
Activate the next floating window
Alt+/
Flash the window that’s currently in focus
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267
Appendix B: Digital Audio
Primer
U
nderstanding the fundamentals of sound is the first step in learning about digital
audio. In this primer, we’ll introduce the basics of sound so you can work more
effectively with Adobe Audition and the rest of your digital audio or video toolkit.
Sound fundamentals
Sound is created by vibrations, such as those produced by a guitar string, vocal cords, or a
speaker cone. These vibrations move the air molecules near them, forcing molecules
together, and as a result raising the air pressure slightly. The air molecules that are under
pressure then push on the air molecules surrounding them, which push on the next set of
air molecules, and so forth, causing a wave of high pressure to move through the air. As
high pressure areas move through the air, they leave low pressure areas behind them.
When these pressure lows and highs—or waves—reach us, they vibrate the receptors in
our ears, and we hear the vibrations as sound.
When you see a visual waveform that represents audio, that waveform represents these
pressure waves. The zero line in the waveform is the pressure of air at rest. When the line
swings up, it represents higher pressure, and when it swings low, it represents lower
pressure. This waveform is the equivalent of the pressure waves in the air.
C
0
A
B
A sound wave represented as a visual waveform
A. Zero line B. Low pressure area C. High pressure area
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Digital Audio Primer
Waveforms
Amplitude reflects the change in pressure from the peak of the waveform to the trough.
Cycle describes the amount of time it takes a waveform to return to the same amplitude
level. Frequency describes the number of cycles per second, where one Hertz (Hz) equals
one cycle per second. That is, a waveform at 1000 Hz goes through 1000 cycles every
second. Phase measures how far through a cycle a waveform is. There are 360 degrees in a
single cycle; if you start measuring at the zero line, a cycle reaches 90 degrees at the peak,
180 degrees when it crosses the zero line, 270 degrees at the trough, and 360 degrees when
it completes at zero. Wavelength is the distance, measured in units such as inches or centimeters, between two points with the same degree of phase.
A
A
90º
0º
180º
360º
C
B
270º
D
A single cycle at left; a 20 Hz waveform at right
A. Wavelength B. Degree of phase C. Amplitude D. One second
When two or more sound waves meet, their amplitudes add to and subtract from each
other. If the peaks and troughs of the two waveforms line up, they are said to be in phase.
In this case, each peak adds to the peak in the other waveform, and each trough subtracts
from the other trough, resulting in a waveform that has higher amplitude than either
individual waveform.
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In-phase waves reinforce each other.
Sometimes the peaks of one waveform match up with the troughs of another. The peaks
and troughs will cancel each other out, resulting in no waveform at all. Such waveforms
are said to be 180 degrees out of phase.
Out-of-phase waves cancel each other out.
In all other cases, waves are out of phase by some amount. This results in a waveform that
is more complex than either of the original waveforms; continuing to add waves makes a
more and more complicated waveform. Keep in mind, however, that a single instrument
can create extremely complex waves because of the unique structure of the instrument; a
violin and a trumpet sound different even when playing the same note. When you see
music, voice, noise, and other complicated sounds represented by a waveform, you see all
the waveforms from each sound added together.
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Digital Audio Primer
Two simple waves combine to create a complex wave.
Analog audio
A microphone works by converting the pressure waves of sound into changes in voltage
on a wire. These changes in voltage match the pressure waves of the original sound: high
pressure is represented by positive voltage, and low pressure is represented by negative
voltage. Voltages travel down the microphone wire and can be recorded onto tape as
changes in magnetic strength or onto vinyl records as changes in amplitude in the groove.
A speaker works like a microphone in reverse, taking the voltage signals from a microphone or recording and vibrating to re-create the pressure wave.
Digital audio
Unlike analog storage media such as magnetic tape and vinyl records, computers store
audio information digitally as a series of zeroes and ones. In digital storage, the original
waveform is broken up into individual samples. This process is typically known as
digitizing or sampling the audio, but it is sometimes called analog-to-digital conversion.
The sampling rate defines how often a sample is taken. For example, CD-quality sound has
44,100 samples for each second of a waveform.
Sampling rate
The sampling rate determines the frequency range of an audio file. The higher the
sampling rate, the closer the shape of the digital waveform will be to that of the original
analog waveform. Low sampling rates limit the range of frequencies that can be recorded,
which can result in a recording that poorly represents the original sound.
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A
B
Two sample rates
A. Low sample rate that distorts the original sound wave.
B. High sample rate that perfectly reproduces the original sound wave.
To reproduce a given frequency, the sampling rate must be at least twice that frequency.
For example, if the audio contains audible frequencies as high as 8000 Hz, you need a
sample rate of 16,000 samples per second to represent this audio accurately in digital form.
This calculation comes from the Nyquist Theorem, and the highest frequency that can be
reproduced by a given sample rate is known as the Nyquist Frequency. CDs have a sample
rate of 44,100 samples per second that allows sampling up to 22,050 Hz, which is higher
than the limit of human hearing, 20,000 Hz.
Bit depth
Just as the sample rate determines the frequency resolution, the bit depth determines the
amplitude resolution. A bit is a computer term meaning a single number that can have a
value of either zero or one. A single bit can represent two states, such as on and off. Two
bits together can represent four different states: zero/zero, one/zero, zero/one, or one/one.
Each additional bit doubles the number of states that can be represented, so a third bit can
represent eight states, a fourth 16, and so on.
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Amplitude resolution is just as important as frequency resolution. Higher bit depth means
greater dynamic range, a lower noise floor, and higher fidelity. When a waveform is sampled,
each sample is assigned the amplitude value closest to the original analog wave. With a
resolution of two bits, each sample can have one of only four possible amplitude positions.
With three-bit resolution, each sample has eight possible amplitude values. CD-quality
sound is 16-bit, which means that each sample has 65,536 possible amplitude values.
DVD-quality sound is 24-bit, which means that each sample has 16,777,216 possible
amplitude values.
192 dB
96 dB
48 dB
0 dB
8-bit
16-bit
32-bit
Higher bit depths provide greater dynamic range.
Where Adobe Audition fits into the process
When you record audio on your computer, Adobe Audition tells the sound card to start
the recording process and specifies what sampling rate and bit depth to use. The sound
card determines the supported sample rates and bit depths. Most cards can record and
play at CD-quality settings, but many also support other settings (for example, a 48 kHz
sample rate, which is common in film and video post-production). Your sound card
probably has both Line In and Microphone In ports through which it can accept analog
signals. The sound card samples the audio at the specified sample rate and assigns each
sample an amplitude value. Adobe Audition stores each sample in sequence until you stop
recording. Once you've recorded the audio, you can use Adobe Audition to edit the audio
or save it to disk as a file.
When you play a file in Adobe Audition, the process happens in reverse. Adobe Audition
tells the sound card that it will play a file and sends a series of digital samples to the card.
The sound card reconstructs the original waveform and sends it as an analog signal
through the Line Out port to your speakers.
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An audio file on your hard drive, such as a WAV file, consists of a small header indicating
sample rate and bit depth, and then a long series of numbers, one for each sample. These
files can be very large. For example, at 44,100 samples per second and 16 bits per sample,
a file includes 705,600 bits per second. This equals 86 kilobytes per second and more than
5 megabytes per minute. Stereo sound has two channels, so CD-quality sound requires a
little more than 10 megabytes per minute.
Introducing MIDI
In contrast to a digital audio file, a MIDI file might be as small as 10 kilobytes per minute,
so you can store up to one hundred minutes of MIDI per megabyte. MIDI and digital
audio are fundamentally different: digital audio is a digital representation of a sound wave,
MIDI is a language of instructions for musical instruments. A digital audio file seeks to
exactly represent an audio event just like a tape recorder, whether it's a musical performance, a person talking, or any other sound. MIDI, on the other hand, is more like sheet
music. It acts as instructions for the re-creation of a musical selection. These MIDI
instructions, however, cannot reproduce highly complex sounds, such as the human voice.
MIDI files record information such as the note to be played, the instrument to play the
note on, the pan and volume of that particular note, and so on. When a MIDI file is played
back, the sound card takes this information and uses its synthesizer to re-create the note
on the right instrument. Because every synthesizer sounds different, the MIDI file will
sound different when played through different sound cards. MIDI support in Adobe
Audition is limited to playback of MIDI files.
Conclusion
To summarize, the process of sampling or digitizing audio starts with a pressure wave in
the air. A microphone converts this pressure wave into voltage variations. An analog-todigital converter, found in devices such as sound cards, samples the signal at the sample
rate and bit depth you choose. Once the sound has been transformed into digital information, Adobe Audition can record, edit, process, mix, and save your digital audio files.
The possibilities for manipulation of digital audio within Adobe Audition are limited only
by your imagination.
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Appendix C: Glossary
A
ACM (Audio Compression Manager) A Microsoft technology that enables Windows
applications to compress and decompress files in a variety of formats, such as DSP Group
TrueSpeech and GSM 6.10. Some ACM formats install with Windows, while others install
with software applications.
ADPCM (Adaptive Differential Pulse Code Modulation) An audio compression scheme
that compresses sound files from 16 bits to 4 bits, yielding a 4:1 compression ratio. There
are many varieties of ADPCM, such as the IMA (Interactive Multimedia Association) DVI
standard, and versions from Microsoft, Dialogic, and others.
ActiveMovie See “DirectX” on page 279.
Adapter A cable, plug, or jack that enables you to connect two audio or video devices
together.
ADAT A digital 8-track tape deck manufactured by Alesis Corporation that is very popular
in recording studios.
Aliasing Noise that occurs when a high frequency sound exceeds the Nyquist Frequency
for a given sample rate. (See “Nyquist Frequency” on page 284.) Most analog-to-digital
converters prevent aliasing by filtering out sounds above the Nyquist Frequency.
Amplitude Amplitude represents the loudness of an audio signal. A waveform’s amplitude
is measured by its distance from the center line, which represents an amplitude of 0. There
are different standards for measuring amplitude, but the decibel (dB) is the most
common. (See “Decibel (dB)” on page 279.)
Analog recording Traditional audio recording with devices such as magnetic tape
machines and vinyl records. Analog audio recording consists of a continuous curve, as
opposed to digital recording, which consists of discrete samples.
ASCII text data You can represent audio data in this standard text format (.txt), with each
sample separated by a carriage return, and channels separated by a tab character. Before
the audio data, you can add a header with a format of Ke yword:Value , with the keywords
S a m p l e s , BitsPerSample , Channels , S a m p l e R a te , and Nor m a l i ze d . (The values for
Nor m a l i ze d are Tr u e or Fa l se .) If no header exists, the data is assumed to be 16-bit signed
decimal integers.
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Glossary
Attack The first part of the sound that you hear. Some sounds (like pianos and drums)
have a very fast attack; the loudest portion of the sound occurs very quickly. A sound with
a slow attack rate (such as a soft string section) slowly increases in volume.
Attenuate To reduce volume or signal level.
Audio file format The method used to store audio data on disk, chosen in Save dialog
boxes. Adobe Audition supports many file formats, and each supports a variety of
properties such as sample rate and compression. Some file formats may not be compatible
with other platforms. On the Windows platform, Windows PCM (.wav) is the most
common format.
Audition loop See “Audition Loop (.cel)” on page 234.
Automation The process of recording volume and pan changes during a mix, and
perfectly reproducing those changes every time a mix plays. In hardware mixers that
support automation, volume and pan controls record timing information and physically
move during playback. In Adobe Audition, you automate mixes with visual envelopes.
(See “Envelopes” on page 280.)
B
Background mixing The process that Adobe Audition uses to mix audio for playback in
Multitrack View. Background mixing occurs behind the scenes, reflecting changes to a
session, such as a moved or deleted clip, a volume change, or a newly recorded track. The
progress of background mixing is displayed by the Mix Gauge. (See “Mix Gauge” on
page 283.)
Band pass filter A filter that allows some audio frequencies to pass through unchanged.
Basic cue One of four types of Adobe Audition cues. Basic cues mark important sections
of a waveform for later reference (for example, to identify an editing point). These cues
also specify stop and start positions for the Play List. (See “Play List” on page 285.)
Beat cue One of four types of Adobe Audition cues. Beat cues function like basic cues, but
they specifically identify musical beats.
Beats per minute (bpm) Musical tempo, which is defined by the number of beats that
occur every 60 seconds.
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Bit Part of the numbering system used in digital data. Bits are combined in groups to form
digital words, which represent the changing amplitude values of an analog signal. Bit
resolution describes the number of bits used in each word, determining the number of
possible amplitude values. Therefore, higher bit resolutions produce higher dynamic
range.
Bit resolution (or bit depth) The number of bits used to represent audio amplitude.
8-bit resolution provides a maximum of 256 unique amplitude levels, producing a 48 dB
dynamic range; 16-bit resolution provides 65,536 unique amplitude levels, producing a
96 dB dynamic range. Compact disc players have 16-bit resolution, but some sound cards
support resolutions higher than 16-bit. Adobe Audition supports up to 32-bit resolution.
For the best audio quality, remain at the 32-bit level while transforming audio in Adobe
Audition, and then convert to a lower resolution for output.
Brown noise Brown noise has a spectral frequency of 1/f^2, so it emphasizes lowfrequency components, resulting in thunder- and waterfall-like sounds. Brown noise
follows a Brownian motion curve, in which each sample in a waveform contains a mixture
of predefined and random frequency components.
Bus In hardware mixers, a channel that lets you combine several other channels and
output them together. In Adobe Audition’s Multitrack View, you can similarly use software
buses to combine several tracks.
Burn To write to a CD-R or CD-RW disc.
C
CD-R A recordable compact disc that you can write to only once. These discs typically hold
650 MB of data, which equals 74 minutes of stereo audio. CD-R sometimes refers to the
computer drives that burn CD-R discs.
CD-RW A rewritable compact disc. These discs typically hold 650 MB of data, which
equals 74 minutes of stereo audio. Unlike a CD-R, however, a CD-RW disc can be erased
and written to again.
Chorus A delay effect that simulates several voices by adding multiple short delays with a
medium amount of depth and a small amount of feedback.
Click track An audio track comprised of clicks that occur on the beat, like a metronome.
Click tracks are often used at the beginning of a session to provide timing information for
musicians and then removed from the session before mixing down.
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Glossary
Clip A visual representation of individual audio, video, or MIDI files in Adobe Audition’s
Multitrack View.
Clipping In digital audio, distortion that occurs when the amplitude of a signal exceeds
the maximum level for the current bit resolution (for example, 256 in 8-bit audio).
Visually, clipped audio produces broad flat areas at the top of a waveform. If you
experience clipping, lower the recording input or the source output levels.
CODEC (Compressor/Decompressor) An abbreviation often used to describe multimedia compression schemes used by ACM, MPEG, QuickTime, AVI, and the combined
A-D-D-A modules on some sound cards.
Compressor Reduces dynamic range by lowering amplitude when an audio signal rises
above a specified threshold. For example, compressors can be used to eliminate variations
in the level of an electric bass, providing an even, solid bass line. Compressors can also
compensate for variations in level produced by a vocalist who moves frequently or has an
erratic volume.
Crossfade A fade from one audio track to another.
Crosstalk Undesired leakage of audio from one track to another, a common problem with
analog tape. Crosstalk is impossible in Adobe Audition because each track is stored as a
separate digital audio file.
Cue List A list of time locations defined in an audio file. A cue can be either a point that
specifies a time position or a range that specifies a selection. In Adobe Audition, you can
define and save an unlimited number of cues for later recall or for assembly in the Play List
window. (See “Play List” on page 285.)
D
DAC (Digital-to-Analog Converter) The hardware responsible for converting a digital
audio or video signal into an analog signal that you can play through amplifiers and
speakers.
DAT (Digital Audio Tape) A standard two-track digital audio tape format. DAT tapes are
sampled at 16 and 24 bits, and 32,000, 44,100, and 48,000 samples per second. (The latter
is often described as DAT quality).
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DC offset Some sound cards record with a slight DC offset, in which direct current is
introduced into the signal, causing the center of the waveform to be offset from the zero
point (the center line in the waveform display). DC offset can cause a click or pop at the
beginning and end of a file. To compensate for DC Offset, use the DC Bias Adjust setting
provided by the Amplify command.
Decibel (dB) In audio, the decibel (dB) is a logarithmic unit of measurement used for
amplitude.
dBFS Decibels below full scale in digital audio. 0 dBFS is the maximum possible
amplitude value (for example, 256 for 8-bit audio). A given dBFS value does not directly
correspond to the original sound pressure level measured in acoustic dB.
Delay A time-shifted signal that you can mix with the original, nondelayed signal to
provide a fuller sound or create echo effects. Adobe Audition offers a variety of delay
effects such as Reverb, Chorus, and Echo.
Destructive editing Editing (such as cutting and pasting, or effects processing) that
changes the original audio data. For example, in destructive editing, a change in audio
volume alters the amplitude of the original wave file. In Adobe Audition, Edit View is a
destructive editing environment; however, edits do not permanently change audio until
you save a file.
Devices Wave and MIDI devices that send data into and out of the computer. In Adobe
Audition, wave devices are sound card inputs and outputs used for recording and playback
of audio; MIDI devices are hardware interfaces used to send performance and synchronization information to Adobe Audition and other MIDI-enabled programs and hardware.
You can configure both device types in the Device Properties dialog box.
Digital Signal Processing (DSP) The process of transforming a digital audio signal by
using complex algorithms. Examples include filtering with equalizers, and effects
processing with reverbs and delays.
DirectX A development platform designed by Microsoft that provides an open standard
for audio plug-ins. Plug-ins based on this standard can be used by any application that
supports DirectX, such as Adobe Audition.
Dither Dithering adds small amounts of noise to a digital signal so that very quiet audio
remains audible when you convert from a high bit resolution to a lower one (for example,
when converting from 32-bit to 16-bit). Without dithering, quiet audio passages such as
long reverb tails may be abruptly truncated.
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Glossary
Dry Used to describe an audio signal without any signal processing such as reverb; the
opposite of Wet.
DSP See “Digital Signal Processing (DSP)” on page 279.
DVD (Digital Video Disc) A storage medium similar to a compact disc (CD), but with
much higher bandwidth and storage capabilities. Audio stored in DVD movies is generally
96 kHz/24-bit.
E
Echo A distinct repetition of a sound, caused by the sound reflecting off a surface. Adobe
Audition offers two echo effects, Echo and Echo Chamber.
8-bit Signed See “8-bit signed (.sam)” on page 232.
Envelopes To automate mixes in Multitrack View, Adobe Audition uses envelopes, which
are drawn directly on clips. Envelopes visually indicate the pan, volume, wet/dry, and
effects parameter settings at any point in a track. For example, when a volume envelope is
at the top of an audio clip, the audio is at full volume; when the envelope is at the bottom,
the audio is at zero volume.
Equalization (EQ) The process of increasing or decreasing the amplitude of specific audio
frequencies relative to the amplitude of other audio frequencies.
Expander Increases dynamic range by lowering amplitude when an audio signal falls
below a specified threshold (the opposite of a compressor). For example, an expander can
be used to lower the level of background noise that becomes audible when a musician
stops playing.
F
Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) An algorithm based on Fourier Theory that Adobe Audition
uses for filtering, Spectral View, and Frequency Analysis features. Fourier Theory states
that any waveform consists of an infinite sum of sin and cos functions, allowing frequency
and amplitude to be quickly analyzed. Higher FFT sizes create more precise results but
take longer to process.
Flange An audio effect caused by mixing a varying, short delay in roughly equal
proportion to the original signal.
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Flushing The process Adobe Audition performs when it copies the audio data from a
waveform file to Adobe Audition’s temp folder so that the original file can be closed. This
allows the file to be renamed, deleted, or opened exclusively by another application.
Flushing sometimes occurs when a modified waveform is saved on top of its original file.
Frequency Measured in Hertz (Hz), cycles per second, frequency describes the rate at
which a sound wave vibrates. A cycle consists of movement from a starting point (0)
through both positive and negative amplitudes, eventually returning to the starting point.
A sound’s frequency determines its pitch: high frequency equals high pitch, and low
frequency equals low pitch.
FX An abbreviation for effects.
H
Hertz (Hz) Cycles per second. A unit of measurement that describes the frequency of a
sound. (See “Frequency” on page 281.)
I
Index cue One of four types of Adobe Audition cues. Index cues become index markers in
a CD track. If a CD player is configured to display remaining time, it displays the time
before track markers and index markers. Note, however, that not all CD players support
index markers.
Impulse A data file that the Convolution effect uses to modify samples. Impulses function
like amplitude maps. For example, if you apply an impulse of a single full-volume sample,
the original audio data will be unchanged. Should the impulse be at half volume, however,
the original audio data will be reduced to half volume. If several such impulses occur over
time, each with descending amplitude, the original audio data will gradually and rhythmically become lower in volume.
Interpolate To estimate the values of data points between known data points. Interpo-
lation is used when new data must be generated to fill in areas where values are unknown.
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Glossary
L
Level Meters Adobe Audition’s Level Meters are found by default along the bottom of the
application window, and they are used to monitor the volume of incoming and outgoing
signals. The red clip indicator to the right of the meters will light up and remain lit when
levels exceed the maximum of 0 dB. Clicking the clipping indicator resets it. The top meter
represents the left channel, and the bottom meter represents the right.
Limiter A signal processor that limits input signals that exceed a specified threshold level.
Above the threshold, the output level remains constant even if the input increases in
volume.
Loop An audio file that contains tempo and pitch information, allowing it to match the
tempo and pitch of other loops in a multitrack session. You can repeat a loop-enabled clip
infinitely by simply dragging its bottom right corner.
M
Mastering The process of finalizing audio for a specific medium, such as the Web or audio
CD. Mastering consists of several processing phases, with equalization and compression
phases being the most essential. You can master audio files either individually or in groups.
(Collectively mastering groups of files is particularly important if the destination medium
is audio CD.)
MIDI Musical Instrument Digital Interface, a way of communicating performance infor-
mation from one piece of software or hardware to another. MIDI can simply relay musical
notes, or it can transmit detailed information about timing, synthesizer patches, and such.
Windows transmits MIDI information internally between applications; to transmit MIDI
information to and from your computer and external devices such as MIDI keyboards,
you must use a hardware MIDI interface (for example, the MIDI In port of a sound card).
MIDI Timecode (MTC) A method of sending timing information between MIDI-capable
devices. For example, you can convert SMPTE timecode to MTC to synchronize Adobe
Audition’s transport controls with a video or audio tape deck.
MIDI Trigger An Adobe Audition shortcut triggered by a MIDI event, such as Note On.
You can send MIDI events to any device capable of issuing a MIDI command, such as
MIDI keyboards and sequencers.
Millisecond (ms) One thousandth of a second. (There are 1000 milliseconds in a second.)
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Miniplug A common name for 1/8-inch plugs and jacks, sometimes known as minijacks.
On the most common sound cards, miniplug jacks provide analog audio inputs and
outputs.
Mixdown The process of combining the output of several tracks in Multitrack View to
create a new stereo waveform. When you mix down, track properties such as Volume and
Pan are reflected in the resulting waveform, so mixdown is typically performed when
you’re happy with the sound of a session. A mixdown can also produce submixes of
selected tracks. For example, you could create a submix of multiple drum tracks and place
it on a single, open track, cleaning up the Multitrack View workspace.
Mixing The process of combining multiple audio sources or tracks together for output as
a single source. Output is generally in the form of a stereo pair of channels, though mixes
may be directed to any number of channels for output (for example, one channel for
monophonic output, or 6 channels for surround-sound output).
Mix Gauge Found below the track controls area in Multitrack View, the Mix Gauge
indicates the progress of background mixing. Whenever you edit a session, the Mix Gauge
becomes blank and then gradually fills as the mix is reprocessed, turning brighter in color
when background mixing is complete. You don’t need to wait for the Mix Gauge to finish
before playing a session.
Mono A monophonic signal, which contains only one sound source.
N
Noise gate A special type of expander that reduces or eliminates noise by greatly lowering
signal levels that fall below a specified threshold. Noise gates are often configured to totally
eliminate background noise during musical pauses. You can also use these gates to silence
pauses in speech.
Noise shaping A technique that shifts the frequency of dithering noise to minimize its
audibility.
Nondestructive editing Nondestructive edits don’t alter a sound file on disk in any way.
For example, nondestructive volume changes do not alter the amplitude of a waveform,
but instead simply instruct an audio application to play the waveform at higher volume.
In Adobe Audition, Multitrack View is a nondestructive editing environment.
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Glossary
Normalize To adjust the highest peak of a waveform to a certain percentage relative to the
digital maximum, 0 dBFS, thereby raising or lowering all other peaks accordingly.
Typically, audio is normalized to 100% to achieve maximum volume, but Adobe Audition
lets you normalize to any percentage.
Nyquist Frequency Also called Nyquist Rate, this frequency equals half the current sample
rate and determines the highest reproducible audio frequency for that sample rate. For
example, audio CDs use a sampling rate of 44,100 Hz because the resulting Nyquist
Frequency is 22,050 Hz— just above the limit of human hearing, 20,000 Hz. Likewise, to
reproduce a signal with an 11,000 Hz frequency range, you must use a sample rate of at
least 22,000 Hz. To avoid aliasing distortion, nearly all analog-to-digital converters filter
out frequencies that exceed the Nyquist Frequency before the analog-to-digital conversion
process. For the best audio quality, record and edit at higher sample rates and then convert
down if needed.
O
Offline editing See “Destructive editing” on page 279.
Order A value that determines the slope of an audio filter. First-order filters attenuate an
additional 6 dB per octave, second-order filters attenuate 12 dB, third-order filters 18 dB,
and so on.
P
PCM (Pulse Code Modulation) PCM is the standard method used to digitally encode audio
and is the basic, uncompressed data format used in file formats such as WAV and AIFF.
Peak files Cache files with the extension .pk that enable Adobe Audition to open, save, and
redraw audio files more quickly. You can safely delete peak files or deselect the Save Peak
Cache Files option in the Settings dialog box. However, keep in mind that without peak
files, larger audio files will reopen more slowly.
Phase The position of a sound wave relative to other sound waves. As a sound wave travels
through the air, it compresses and expands air molecules in peaks and troughs, much like
an ocean wave. In the waveform display, peaks appear above the center line, troughs
appear below. If two channels of a stereo waveform are exactly opposite in phase, they will
cancel each other out. More common, however, are slightly out-of-phase waves, which
have misaligned peaks and troughs, resulting in duller sound.
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Pink noise Noise with a spectral frequency of 1/f, producing the most natural-sounding
generated noise. By equalizing pink noise, you can simulate rainfall, waterfalls, wind, a
rushing river, and other natural sounds. On the audio spectrum, pink noise falls exactly
between brown and white noise.
Play List An arrangement of Cue List entries that you can play in any order and loop a
specified number of times in nondestructive fashion. Adobe Audition saves Play Lists in
the header of WAV files.
Plug-in A software component that you can add to another piece of software to increase
its functionality. Adobe Audition supports third-party VST and DirectX audio plug-ins,
which seamlessly integrate into Adobe Audition’s interface.
Preset Most dialog boxes in Adobe Audition support presets, which are settings saved
under a particular name for later recall. Dialog boxes that support presets have a Preset list
where you can click a preset to recall its settings, and Add and Del buttons for creating and
deleting presets.
Preview Many dialog boxes in Adobe Audition offer real-time Preview buttons, letting
you monitor setting changes as you make them. The preview quality depends upon your
system’s performance.
Punch in A recording method used to insert a new recording into a specific region of an
existing waveform, usually to replace an undesirable section. Adobe Audition supports
punch-in recording in Multitrack View and allows for multiple takes; you can repeatedly
record over the original material and afterward choose the best performance.
Q
Quantization A process that occurs when an analog waveform is converted to digital data
and becomes a series of samples. Quantization noise is introduced as some samples are
shifted to quantization levels allowed by the current bit resolution. This noise is highest at
low bit resolutions, where it can particularly affect low amplitude sounds.
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Glossary
R
RCA cable Sometimes called a phono cable, RCA cables have RCA plugs or jacks at either
end and are normally used to connect stereo system components, such as receivers, CD
players, and cassette decks.
Real time In computer-based audio, real time refers to functions that react immediately to
user input and transform audio nondestructively. (Note, however, that system speed
ultimately determines processing time.) Adobe Audition provides real-time mixing and
effects in Multitrack View, and real-time effects previews in Edit View.
Referenced clip In Multitrack View, a referenced clip shares a source file with other clips.
For example, if a drum hit occurs 30 times in a session, you can conserve disk space by
using 30 referenced clips of the same source file. Because referenced clips represent the
same file, any alteration to a referenced clip (like a cut or transform) affects all instances
in a session. By contrast, unique clip copies create a separate sound file on disk, consuming
more disk space, but allowing for separate editing.
Resample To convert a sound file to a different sample rate.
Reverb The reverberant sound produced by an acoustic space, such as a room or concert
hall. Reverb consists of dense, discrete echoes that arrive at the ear so rapidly that the ear
can’t separate them. Adobe Audition offers four reverb effects: Quick Verb, Studio Reverb,
Reverb, and Full Reverb.
Rip The process of digitally extracting audio from a compact disc and turning it into a
waveform. Most newer CD-ROM, CD-R, and CD-RW drives support digital audio
extraction.
RMS (Root-mean-square) A mathematical formula used to determine the average
amplitude of an audio selection. RMS amplitude reflects perceived loudness better than
peak amplitude.
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S
S/N ratio Signal-to-noise ratio describes the difference between the highest signal level
before distortion and the average level of the noise floor. In most analog systems, such as
microphone preamps, the S/N ratio is around 92 dB.
Sample A digital snapshot of an audio waveform at a particular point in time. In digital
audio, a series of numeric samples reproduces an entire waveform, with higher sample
rates producing increased frequency response. (Note that musical samplers use the term
sample to describe a digital recording, rather than a digital snapshot.)
Sample rate The number of samples per second. Higher sample rates produce increased
frequency response but require more disk space. To reproduce a given audio frequency, the
sample rate must be at least double that frequency. (See “Nyquist Frequency” on
page 284.)
Sampler A musical device that records and plays digital sounds (known as samples in this
context) and lets you edit and store those sounds.
Sequencer A programmable electronic device that can record and play a sequence of
musical events, such as samples, pitches, and rests. Most modern sequencers are MIDIbased. (See “MIDI” on page 282.)
Session A multitrack project in Adobe Audition. Session files are stored with the
extension .ses and contain details such as mixing and effects settings. Session files don’t
contain audio data; instead they contain pathnames pointing to the sound files used in the
session.
64-bit Doubles See “64-bit doubles (RAW) (.dbl)” on page 232.
SMPTE timecode (Society of Motion Picture and Television Engineers timecode) A
timing reference used to synchronize two devices. SMPTE timecode is divided into hours,
minutes, seconds, and frames.
Sound card A hardware device that lets your computer play and record audio.
Sound wave A wave of air molecules. Humans can hear sound waves with frequencies of
20 to 20,000 Hz.
Stereo A signal with a left and right channel, allowing for spatial placement of sounds.
Stripe To copy SMPTE timecode to a single track of a multitrack tape so remaining tracks
can be synchronized with other devices.
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Glossary
T
Tempo The rhythmic speed of music, normally measured in bpm. (See “Beats per minute
(bpm)” on page 276.)
Timecode An audio or digital signal that synchronizes time between multiple devices. The
most common forms are SMPTE and MIDI timecode.
Track A container for one or more clips in Multitrack View. Each track has independent
settings for volume, pan, EQ, effects, and input and output. Each session can have up to
128 tracks.
Track cue One of four types of Adobe Audition cues. Track cues indicate start points for
CD tracks.
Track controls The area of Multitrack View that controls each track, with independent
settings for volume, pan, EQ, effects, and input and output.
TXT See “ASCII text data” on page 275.
U
Unity gain An amplification level that precisely corresponds to the input signal level,
without amplifying or lowering it. (Note that audio hardware operates at two line levels:
–10 dBV for consumer equipment, and +4 dBu for professional. If these two hardware
types are connected, unity gain will result in a lowered input for consumer equipment,
and a raised input for professional.)
W
Wave file Any audio file format that contains primarily sound wave data. Wave files can
be in formats such as WAV, AU, AIF, or mp3.
Waveform A term that describes the visual representation of an audio signal, displayed as
amplitude across time in Adobe Audition. (In acoustics, waveform refers to a sound wave
of a specific frequency.)
Waveform clip A visual representation of a wave file or related image in Multitrack View.
Edits of these clips are nondestructive.
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Waveform display The area of Edit View in which you view and edit audio data. By default
this audio material appears as a waveform, but you can view it in spectral form by
choosing View > Spectral View.
Wet Used to describe an audio signal that includes signal processing such as reverb; the
opposite of Dry.
White noise White noise has a spectral frequency of 1, so equal proportions of all
frequencies are present. Because more individual frequencies exist in the upper ranges of
human hearing, white noise sounds very hissy. Adobe Audition generates white noise by
choosing random values for each sample.
Z
Zero crossing A point in time where a waveform crosses the zero amplitude line. To make
edits sound smoother, place them at zero-crossing points, thus avoiding abrupt changes
in amplitude that cause pops and clicks.
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Index
A
absorptive surfaces, simulating
with Echo effect 148
ACM
analog recording, defined 275
automation, defined 276
Analyze Loudness tab, Group
Waveform Normalize dialog
box 245
auto-play 62, 77
defined 275
Append To Session command 63
Waveform format 233
Apple AIFF format 233
adapter, defined 275
ASCII text data
ADAT, defined 275
about 234
Add/Remove VST Directory
command 33
defined 275
Adjust Boundaries command 170
ASPI (Advanced SCSI
Programming Interface) 46
Adjust Sample Rate command 111
attack, defined 276
Adobe Acrobat Reader 1
attenuate, defined 276
Adobe After Effects, remixing
soundtracks from 207
AU format 238
Adobe Audition
and basic audio workflow 272
audio
analyzing 118
copying 92
Adobe Premiere Pro, remixing
soundtracks from 207
mastering 117
ADPCM
restoring 117
compression 235, 236
defined 275
Advanced Session Properties
dialog box 167
AIFF format 233
A-Law Wave format 232
aliasing, defined 275
Amiga IFF-8SVX format 233
amp overdrive 155
Amplify/Fade effect 134
amplitude
defined 275
optimizing 134
analog audio, fundamentals of 270
muting 103
shrinking or stretching 146, 177
Audio Clip Properties window 174
audio digital extraction 64
audio file format, defined 276
audio files
See also specific format names
exporting mixdowns to 229
inserting in sessions 63
saving 227
audio tracks, about 179
Audition Loop format 234
Auto Click/Pop Eliminator effect
125
Auto-Cue feature 101
AVI format, exporting mixdowns
to 230
B
background mixing
defined 276
priority level 54
band pass filter, defined 276
Bars And Beats command 205
Bars and Beats time format
about 71
tempo and 199
Basic cue
about 97
defined 276
Bass Management circuit 220
batch processing
about 243
cue list 243
cue ranges 243
normalizing files 244
with scripts 247
Batch Processing command 247
beat cue, defined 276
beats
finding 90
marking with cues 98
beats per minute (bpm)
and tempo 199
defined 276
Binaural Auto-Panner effect 139
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bit depth
CDs
clipping
automatically converting files to
32-bit 51
adding text 260, 262
displayed in Level Meters 80
editing source audio 260
changing 113
extracting tracks from 64
showing or hiding clipping
boundaries 51
defined 277
inserting tracks 258
downsampling for playback 38
pre-emphasis 261
fundamentals of 271
bit resolution, defined 277
properties for CD-burning
devices 261
bit, defined 277
properties for tracks 260
aligning 170
brown noise
recording from 67
changing properties 174
about 108
removing tracks 259
copying 173
defined 277
selecting tracks 259
crossfading 176
editing 170
playback, Edit View 46
setting pauses between tracks
260
playback, Multitrack View 54
writing 261
grouping 169
buffers
when normalizing groups of
files 246
clips
about 168
envelopes for 188
real-time preview 46
CEL format 234
inserting in sessions 63
recording, Edit View 46
Center Channel Extractor effect
141
locking in time 174
center lines, showing or hiding 51
moving 168
Channel Mixer effect 140
muting 174
channels
protecting from recording 174
recording, Multitrack View 54
burn, defined 277
burning CDs
in Adobe Audition 261
tips when using another burning
program 228, 230
Bus Mixer 193
Bus Properties dialog box 193
bus, defined 277
C
CBR 225
converting between mono and
stereo 112
selecting data in left or right 88
specifying which to edit 92
Check for Hidden Clips command
179
mixing down 196
rejoining 172
removing from a session 179
repeating 173
selecting 168
snapping 170
Chorus effect 143
splitting 172
Click/Pop Eliminator effect 125
time stretching 177
clip indicators, clearing 81
video 209
CBR encoding 237, 239
Clip Restoration effect 126
closing files 25, 231
CCITT formats 232, 233, 238
clipboard
command line, playing audio
from 78
CD Project View
choosing 92
switching to 11
clearing on exit 48
using 257
resampling data 53
commands, choosing 12
consistent volume 244
CD-R, defined 277
Constant Bit Rate (CBR) 225
CD-RW, defined 277
context-sensitive menus 12
control signal, for Vocoder effect 158
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Convert Sample Type command
renaming 98
setting properties for input 38
setting properties for output 37
using to change the bit depth 114
saving 228, 230, 231
using to change the sample
rate 111
saving to files 100
Dialogic ADPCM format 235
selecting 96
using to convert between stereo
and mono 112
setting automatically 101
DiamondWare Digitized format
235
showing or hiding cue lines 50
digital audio, fundamentals of 270
using to convert sample rate of
multiple files 115
snapping to 91
Digital Theater Systems (DTS) 226
types of 97
DirectX
converting
audio formats 247
current-time indicator, about 68
plug-ins 32
sample rate of session 229
custom time format 71
using with surround sound 214
sample type 61
custom timecode display 44
to a different format 227, 229
cutting audio 93
Copy Reference Here command 173
Copy To New command 199
Copy Unique Here command 173
copying audio 92
D
DC bias
removing when recording 39
DC offset
adjusting 81
Creative Labs Audigy 223
Default Session commands 163
Creative Sound Blaster format 235
Delay effect 147
Crossfade commands 176
delay units, and Multitap Delay
effect 149
crossfades, duration of 56
crossover frequency points 226
Cue List
batch processing 243
defined 278
Cue List command 243
cues
adding silence between 100
freeing up 57
monitoring 22
Convolution effect 154
copy protection for CDs 260
disk space
delay, adding to audio 147
Delete Silence command 104
Delete This Take command 75
deleting
audio 95
silence 104
Destroy Clips command 179
Display Time Format command 70
display window, navigating in 17
Distortion effect 155
dithering
applying for playback 38
in response to lower bit depths
113
preferences 52
when saving 32-bit data to 16bit files 53
docking windows 14
Dolby encoder 213
Doppler Shifter effect 142
downsampling
audio during playback 38
quality level 53
DTMF signals, generating 106
adjusting 99
Destroy Selected Tracks (Remove
and Close) command 260
creating 96
Device Order command 36
DTS encoder 213
deleting 100
Device Properties command 37, 38
DVD, defined 280
inserting in a session 64
devices
DVI/IMA ADPCM format 236
DTS 226
merging 99
CD 261
DWD format 235
playing 97
choosing which devices to use 36
Dynamic Delay effect 147
point cues versus range cues 96
general uses of 36
Dynamic EQ effect 129
Dynamic Peaks option 81
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dynamic range, displayed in Level
Meters 81
Dynamics Processing effect 136
E
echo
empty audio clips, inserting 178
Enable DirectX Effects command
32
linking to Adobe Premiere Pro
or After Effects 51, 207
monitoring size of 22
Enable Preroll And Postroll
Preview command 32
opening 61
enhancing audio, about 117
renaming 249
properties, adding 116
adding to audio 147
Envelope effect 135
defined 280
Envelope Follower effect 157
Files tab 24
envelopes
filtering audio, about 129
Echo Chamber effect 149
Echo effect 148
defined 280
Edit Favorites command 253
for clips 188
saving audio to 227
Find Beats And Mark command
198
Edit Original functionality,
embedding in files 51, 207
equal loudness contour 246
Find Beats commands 90
equalization (EQ), defined 280
5.1 surround sound 213
Edit Tempo command 199
expander, defined 280
flange, defined 280
Edit View
exporting
Flanger effect 144
considerations for using 83
switching to 11
using 10
using effects in 139
editing audio
mixdowns to audio 229
Flush Virtual File command 58
mixdowns to video 230
flushing
Extract Audio From CD command
65
Extract Audio From CD options 66
in Multitrack View 170
undoing and redoing 22
effects
See also specific effect names
cancelling 54
general use of 28
graph controls 29
grouping in Effects tab 26
plug-ins 32
presets 28
real-time, about 185
forcing complete flush 48
Force New Row command 15
frames, snapping to 91
See also specific editing tasks
general considerations 83
defined 281
F
fading audio files 134
Fast Fourier Transform (FFT),
defined 280
fast-forwarding 79
favorites
about 253
viewing in Favorites tab 27
FFT Filter effect 130
files
See also specific format names
frequencies
selecting 88
viewing 85
Frequency Band Splitter effect 157
frequency range, analyzing 119
frequency, defined 281
Full command 170
Full Reverb effect 150
Function tab, in Favorites dialog
box 254
FX Mixer window 186
backward compatibility 51
choosing a format 231
closing 25
G
Generate commands 106
Effects tab in Organizer window 26
converting to a different format
227, 229
graph controls 29
8-bit signed format 232
creating new 84
using in Edit View 139
Effects Rack dialog box 185
Graphic Equalizer effect 131
Graphic Phase Shifter effect 145
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grid lines, showing or hiding 50
Group Waveform Normalize
command 244
H
Hard Limiting effect 137
Insert Audio From Video
command 208
loops
about 197
Insert In CD Project command 258
defined 282
Insert Video command 208
defining 198
Insert/Delete Time command 163
extending or shortening 205
inserting
key of 200, 202, 204
Help 3
empty audio clips 178
previewing 77
Help tab, Favorites dialog box 255
files into tracks 25
properties in Edit View 200
Hertz (Hz), defined 281
hidden clips, revealing 179
interleaved 6-channel Windows
Media 9 Pro (WMA) 223
properties in Multitrack View
202
Hiss Reduction effect 127
interpolate, defined 281
stretching to fit 201
horizontal scroll bar 19
inverting audio 106
synchronizing 205
Hybrid tool 164, 168
ISRC number 260
tempo of 200, 202, 204
lossless encoding 239
I
IFF format 233
K
keyboard shortcuts 12
importing
M
macros 243
magnifying analysis graphs 122
files 25
L
latency, correcting 39
video files 208
left channel
editing 92
Manage Temporary Folder Reserve
Space command 57
selecting data in 88
Marquee Selection tool 88
audio 61
IMPS folder 154
impulse
and the Convolution effect 154
and the Full Reverb effect 151
defined 281
Level Meters
magnifying the display 17
mastering
defined 282
audio 117
using 80
CDs 257
defined 282
Impulse (.imp) files 154
levels, adjusting 82
Index cue
LFE 217
memory, allocating buffers 46, 54
about 98
limiter, defined 282
menus 12
defined 281
limiting 246
Merge This Take (Destructive)
command 75
input devices
adjusting record levels 82
choosing 36
monitoring levels 80
setting properties 38
input gain
adjusting 82
monitoring 80
Linear Energy Plot 50
linking sessions to Adobe Premiere
Pro and After Effects 51
Merge/Rejoin Split command 172
Load Meter 165
metronome 204
Logarithmic Energy Plot 50
Microsoft ACM 233
Loop Duplicate command 173
Microsoft DirectX 214
Loop Info tab 200
Loop Properties command 202
metadata 116
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MIDI
Move/Copy Clip tool 164, 168
noise shaping
defined 282
moving windows 14
curve, for dithering 38
fundamentals of 273
mp3Pro format 237
defined 283
tracks, about 185
Multichannel Encoder
when dithering 114
MIDI devices, choosing 36
elements of 214
nondestructive editing, defined
283
MIDI Timecode (MTC), defined
282
Pan Envelope automation 218
Normalize effect 137
panning sound 215
MIDI Trigger, defined 282
Preview Device menu 222
Normalize tab, Group Waveform
Normalize dialog box 246
millisecond (ms), defined 282
Preview Format menu 223
miniplug, defined 283
previewing 221
triggering 12
Mix Down commands 196
Mix Down To CD Project
command 258
Mix Gauge 165
defined 283
dialog box 213
Multichannel Encoder command
215
normalizing
defined 284
files for CDs 257
groups of files 244
multichannel WMA 225
Notch filter effect 131
Multitap Delay effect 149
Nyquist Frequency, defined 284
Multitrack View
Mix Paste command 94, 113
preferences 54
mixdowns
switching to 11
O
offline editing, defined 284
defined 283
using 10
online Help 3
exporting to audio 229
work area of 162
Open Append command 62
multitrack-only effects 156
Open As command 62
Mixers window 190
Music effect 155
mixing
muting
Open Audio From Video
command 208
exporting to video 230
automating with clip envelopes
188
default bit-resolution 56
defined 283
preferences 54
m-Law Wave format 232
Monitor Record Level command
80
mono waveforms, converting to
stereo 112
mono, defined 283
mouse
changing cursor 45
zooming with mouse wheel 45
audio 103
tracks 181
N
navigating in display window 17
Open command 61
Open Session command 63
opening files 61
order, defined 284
Organizer window 24
new files, creating 84
out-of-band peaks, working with
246
New Session command 162
output devices
Next/Sun format 238
adjusting playback levels 82
noise
choosing 36
generating 108
noise gate, defined 283
Noise Reduction effect 128
setting properties 37
output gain
adjusting 82
monitoring 80
overdrive 155
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P
p.d.f. (probability distribution
function) 38
playback devices. See output devices
playing audio
about 75
R
RAM, allocating buffers 46, 54
ranges
pan envelopes 188, 218
automatically 62, 77
saving to new file 227
Pan/Expand effect 140
choosing a device for 36
selecting in Multitrack View 164
Panner Point, in Multichannel
Encoder 218
downsampling 38
RAW format 232, 241
setting the start point 68
RCA cable, defined 286
panning
in sessions 56
in surround 215
Parametric Equalizer effect 132
pasting
audio 93
resampling data 53
pauses, adding between CD tracks
260
pausing playing or recording 79
PCM Raw Data format 241
PCM, defined 284
peak amplitude, displayed in Level
Meters 80
plug-in
real-time effects
defined 285
about 185
effects, using 32
applying 185
Power Indicator lines 217
locking tracks with 188
pre-emphasis, for CDs 261
mixing 186
preferences 43
removing 185
premade loops 197
real-time, defined 286
preroll and postroll, for effect
previews 31
recording audio
presets
32-bit options 39
about 72
defined 285
choosing a device for 36
using for effects 28
correcting for drift 55
previewing
setting the start point 68
audio 61
recording devices. See input devices
defined 284
audio in Organizer window 77
redoing edits 22
specifying options for 51
defined 285
referenced clip, defined 286
peak files
performance, measuring with Mix
Gauge and Load Meter 165
phase
analyzing 121
defined 284
pink noise
previewing effects
buffer size for 46
reflective surfaces, simulating with
Echo effect 148
in Edit View 31
Refresh Effects List command 33
process signal, for Vocoder effect
158
Refresh Now command 165
punch-in
Remove Clips command 179
defined 285
defined 285
generating 108
deleting unused takes 56
Pitch Bender effect 145
punching in audio 73
Remove All Tracks command 259
Remove Selected Tracks command
259
removing noise 125
renaming files 249
pitch, changing 145
repositioning windows 14
play lists 102
Q
quantization, defined 285
Play Looped button 199
Quick Filter effect 133
playback cursor 69
QuickVerb effect 151
Rescale Volume Envelopes
command 188
placekeeper windows 16
resample, defined 286
reserve space 57
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resizing windows 14
saving
opening 63
restoring audio, about 117
audio files 227
recording into 73
restoring default workspace 44
mixdowns to audio 229
saving 228
reverb
mixdowns to video 230
using as SMPTE masters or
slaves 166
adding 150
sessions 228
defined 286
Scientific Filters effect 133
tails 152
.scp files 248
Reverb effect 152
script collection (.scp) files 248
reversing audio 106
Revert To Saved command 23
Script tab, in Favorites dialog box
255
rewinding 79
scripts
ReWire tracks
mixing down 196
about 243
working with 249
Set Current Clipboard command
92
setting up Adobe Audition 35
Settings command 43
shortcuts 12
Show View Tabs command 11
showing and hiding
toolbars 13
ReWire tracks, working with 184
Scripts command 250
Transport Controls 71
right channel, editing 92
scrolling
view tabs 11
windows 15
right-click menus 12
about 19
rip, defined 286
preferences in Edit View 44
shrinking audio 146, 177
ripping, from CD 64
preferences in Multitrack View
57
silence
S
S/N ratio, defined 287
SAM format 232
sample rate
changing 111
considerations for choosing 110
defined 287
previewing a different rate 111
sample type
converting 61, 110
displaying in status bar 21
sample, defined 287
sampler, defined 287
SampleVision format 238
sampling rate, fundamentals of 270
Select All Tracks command 259
deleting 104
generating 103
Select Entire Wave command 88
64-bit doubles (RAW) format 232
selecting audio 87
slip editing clips 170
Selection/View Controls 20
smoothing edit boundaries 52
separator bars 254
SMP format 238
sequencer, defined 287
SMPTE
Session Properties command 204
defined 287
sessions
monitoring synchronization 22
about 161
converting the sample rate 229
creating 162
default session 163
using sessions as masters or
slaves 166
SMPTE Master Enable command
166
defined 287
SMPTE Slave Enable command
166
deleting time in 163
SMPTE Start Offset command 166
inserting clips 63
Snap To Clips command 205
inserting time in 163
Snap to Frames command 209
linking to Adobe Premiere Pro
or After Effects 207
Snap To Loop Endpoints
command 205
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Snap To Ruler (Coarse) command
205
stereo waveforms
Tool tab, Favorites dialog box 255
choosing which channel to edit
92
toolbars 13
converting to mono 112
touch tones, generating 106
stop playing or recording 78
about 91
track controls, defined 288
Stretch effect 146
clips 170
track cues
stretching audio 146, 177
SND format 233, 238
defined 288
stripe, defined 287
soloing tracks 181
for CD 98
Studio Reverb effect 153
sound card
subwoofer 217
defined 287
Track Equalizers window 182
Surround Panner 216, 217
positioning information 46
Track Mixer 191
SVX format 233
sound wave, defined 287
Track Properties window 180
Sweeping Phaser effect 144
sound, fundamentals of 267
tracks
symmetric dithering 52
special effects
bit depth, setting 182
Synchronize Clips With Edit View
command 69
changing volume 180
music 153
Synchronize Cursor Across
Windows command 69
defined 288
noise 108
synchronizing
tones 109
loops 205
inserting files into 25
multitrack latency 39
locking 188
Snap To Zero Crossings command
198
snapping
convolution 153
distortion 153
spectral display, adjusting 49
selecting frequencies in 88
switching between Waveform
View and 85
using 85
splines 29
inserting 258
channel, setting 182
equalizing 182
muting 181
Spectral View
adjusting display settings 50
tooltips 13
T
Take History command 75
tempo
defined 288
editing 71
temporary folders
naming 180
panning 180
soloing 181
tracks for CDs
editing source audio 260
inserting 258
Split command 172
managing size of 57
removing 259
SPTI (SCSI Pass Through
Interface) 46
setting location 47
selecting 259
time display format 70
setting properties 260
Transport Controls
Static Peaks option 81
Time Selection tool 164, 168
Statistics command 123
time stretching clips 177
Fast Forward button 79
Status Bar window 21
Time window 69
Go to Beginning button 79
stereo
timecode, defined 288
Go to End button 79
defined 287
Timed Record Mode command 72
Pause button 79
imagery, changing 139
timeline, snapping to ruler 91
Play buttons 75
tones, generating 109
Record button 72, 73, 74
Stereo Field Rotate effect 141
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Rewind button 79
video files, importing audio and
video from 208
wet, defined 289
showing and hiding 71
Stop button 78
view tabs, showing and hiding 11
defined 289
Trim command 95, 170
views, switching between 11
generating 108
Trim Digital Silence command 102
VOC format 235
window handle 14
TXT format 234
Vocoder effect 158
Windows Media 9 Pro 213
volume envelopes 188
Windows Notepad 250, 252
U
undocking windows 14
volume,making consistent 244
Windows PCM format 225, 239
VOX format 235
undoing edits
VST plug-ins 32
Windows Recording Mixer
command 82
white noise
windows, using 14
about 22
WMA format 239
unity gain, defined 288
W
WAV format 232, 233, 236, 239
UPC/EAN, defined 262
Wave Cache 46
changing colors 48
upsampling quality level 53
wave file, defined 288
changing display settings 50
Wave Properties command 116,
200
described 9
preferences for 47
V
Variable Bit Rate (VBR) 225
VBR 225
VBR encoding 237, 239
vertical ruler
changing scale of 86
scrolling in 19
video
clips 209
waveform clip, defined 288
defined 289
view modes for 85
waveform statistics, viewing 123
Waveform View
adjusting display settings 50
switching between Spectral View
and 85
waveform, defined 288
preparing mixdowns for export
211
waveforms
working with 207
restoring to default 44
writing CDs 261
waveform display
exporting mixdowns to 230
previews, customizing 210
workspace
Z
zero crossing, defined 289
zero-crossing points
adjusting selections to 89
automatically adjusting edits to
57
snapping to 91
Zoom commands in Multichannel
Encoder 221
considerations for editing 83
zooming 17
fundamentals of 268
zooming analysis graphs 122
viewing 85