Agilent Technologies 11970-90031 Music Mixer User Manual

User’s Guide
11970 SERIES
HARMONIC MIXERS
(K, A, Q, U, V, and W Models)
Manufacturing Part Number: 11970-90031
Supersedes 11970-90030
Printed in USA
October 2003
© Copyright 1992, 1999, 2001−2003 Agilent Technologies, Inc.
Notice
The information contained in this document is subject to change without notice.
Agilent Technologies makes no warranty of any kind with regard to this material,
including but not limited to, the implied warranties of merchantability and fitness for a
particular purpose. Agilent Technologies shall not be liable for errors contained herein or
for incidental or consequential damages in connection with the furnishing, performance, or
use of this material.
Certification
Agilent Technologies certifies that this product met its published specifications at the time
of shipment from the factory. Agilent Technologies further certifies that its calibration
measurements are traceable to the United States National Institute of Standards and
Technology, to the extent allowed by the Institute’s calibration facility, and to the
calibration facilities of other International Standards Organization members.
Warranty
This Agilent Technologies instrument product is warranted against defects in material and
workmanship for a period of one year from date of shipment. During the warranty period,
Agilent Technologies will, at its option, either repair or replace products which prove to be
defective.
For warranty service or repair, this product must be returned to a service facility
designated by Agilent Technologies. Buyer shall prepay shipping charges to Agilent
Technologies and Agilent Technologies shall pay shipping charges to return the product to
Buyer. However, Buyer shall pay all shipping charges, duties, and taxes for products
returned to Agilent Technologies from another country.
Agilent Technologies warrants that its software and firmware designated by Agilent
Technologies for use with an instrument will execute its programming instructions when
properly installed on that instrument. Agilent Technologies does not warrant that the
operation of the instrument, or software, or firmware will be uninterrupted or error-free.
2
LIMITATION OF WARRANTY
The foregoing warranty shall not apply to defects resulting from improper or inadequate
maintenance by Buyer, Buyer-supplied software or interfacing, unauthorized modification
or misuse, operation outside of the environmental specifications for the product, or
improper site preparation or maintenance.
NO OTHER WARRANTY IS EXPRESSED OR IMPLIED. AGILENT TECHNOLOGIES
SPECIFICALLY DISCLAIMS THE IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY
AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.
EXCLUSIVE REMEDIES
THE REMEDIES PROVIDED HEREIN ARE BUYER’S SOLE AND EXCLUSIVE
REMEDIES. AGILENT TECHNOLOGIES SHALL NOT BE LIABLE FOR ANY DIRECT,
INDIRECT, SPECIAL, INCIDENTAL, OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES, WHETHER
BASED ON CONTRACT, TORT, OR ANY OTHER LEGAL THEORY.
Assistance
Product maintenance agreements and other customer assistance agreements are available
for Agilent Technologies products.
For any assistance, contact your nearest Agilent Technologies Sales and Service Office
listed on page 77.
This guide uses the following conventions:
Instrument Key This represents a key physically located on the instrument, or a key with a
label that is determined by the instrument firmware.
Screen Text This indicates text displayed on the spectrum analyzer screen.
3
4
Contents
General Information
Introduction. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
Mixers Covered by Manual . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
11970 Series Harmonic Mixers. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
Options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
Spectrum Analyzer Retrofit Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
Specifications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
Equipment Supplied . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
Environmental Limitations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
2. Operation
Introduction. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
Operating Precautions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
Getting Started . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
Mixer Connections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
Using a Conversion-Loss Data Disk with the ESA or PSA Series Analyzers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
Loading Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
Viewing Data. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
Using the Mixers with the E4407B Spectrum Analyzer (Option AYZ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
Set up the equipment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
Using the Mixers with the E4440A, E4446A, or E4448A
PSA Series Spectrum Analyzer (Option AYZ). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
Set up the equipment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
Using the Mixers with the 856X Series Spectrum Analyzers. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
Set up the equipment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
Select the Frequency Band . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
Save the average conversion-loss value . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
Signal Identification . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
Identify signals with the frequency-shift method . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34
Identify signals in wide frequency spans . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36
Using the Mixers with MMS Analyzers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38
Preliminary Operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38
Operation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
Conversion Loss Versus Frequency Correction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43
Using the Mixers with the 8566B Spectrum Analyzer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45
Set up the equipment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45
Amplitude Calibration. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46
Signal Identification . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47
3. Performance Tests
Introduction. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50
Test Record . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50
Performance Test Procedures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51
Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51
Conversion Loss and Frequency Response. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57
Specifications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57
Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58
AVERAGE NOISE LEVEL TEST . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68
5
Table of Contents
1.
Table of Contents
Contents
Specification . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68
Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68
4. Service
Maintenance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Repairs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Replaceable Parts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Circuit Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6
74
74
74
74
General Information
1
General Information
7
General Information
Introduction
Introduction
The Agilent Models 11970K, 11970A, 11970Q, 11970U, 11970V and 11970W are
general-purpose harmonic mixers with very flat frequency response characteristics and
low conversion loss. Collectively, they cover the frequency range of 18 to 110 GHz. The
11970K covers the 18 - 26. 5 GHz range; the 11970A, the 26.5 - 40 GHz range; the 11970Q,
the 33 - 50 GHz range; the 11970U, the 40 - 60 GHz range; the 11970V, the 50 - 75 GHz
range; and the 11970W, the 75 - 110 GHz range.
General Information
The overall local oscillator (LO) frequency range of the 11970 Series Mixers is 3.0 to 6.1
GHz. Each of the mixers employs a different LO harmonic, and as a result has a different
optimum LO range within the overall LO range of the series.
The 11970 Series Mixers use the Agilent 11975A Amplifier to raise the LO power to their
required LO input level of 14 to 18 dBm. By taking advantage of the power leveling
capability of the 11975A, the mixers are able to achieve maximum measurement accuracy
(at optimum LO input level of 14.5 to 16 dBm).
A label on the end of each mixer shows a Conversion Loss Calibration table printed
especially for that particular mixer. An 8-1/ 2 by 11-inch calibration table shipped with the
mixer provides a larger, easier to read, version of the same table shown on the label, plus a
graph which shows the conversion loss and reference level offset across the mixer’s
frequency range. This calibration table must be employed for absolute amplitude
measurements. Also supplied with each mixer are five screws (four required) for attaching
the mixer RF input flange to the waveguide.
Mixers Covered by Manual
Serial Numbers
Attached to your mixer, is a label which shows both the mixer model number and its serial
number (two parts). The first four digits and the letter of the serial number are the serial
number prefix; the last five digits are the suffix. The contents of this manual apply to
mixers with the serial number prefixes listed under “Serial Number Prefixes” on the title
page of this manual.
8
Chapter 1
General Information
Introduction
11970 Series Harmonic Mixers
Figure 1-1.
General Information
Options
Option 009, shown in Figure 1-2. is a Mixer Connection Kit. It includes three low-loss SMA
cables (Part Number 5061-5458), one hex-head balldriver (Part Number 8710-1539) for
tightening the waveguide connector screws, and one 5/16-inch open-end wrench (Part
Number 8710-0510) for use on the SMA connectors.
Spectrum Analyzer Retrofit Requirements
• The 11970 Series Mixers are fully compatible with all 8566B Spectrum Analyzers.
• 856x Series portable spectrum analyzers with options 002 (tracking generator) and 327
(no IF IN on front panel) do not have external mixing capability.
• 856x Series Portable Spectrum Analyzers require option 008, or FW date code ≤ 920528,
for signal identification functionality.
• Agilent E4407B spectrum analyzers require option AYZ (LO Out and IF IN
connections).
• MMS analyzers using 11970 series mixers must have a front end model 70907A,
70907B, 70909A, or 70910A, as well as a 70900A/B with firmware new enough for those
modules:
Model
FW Date Code:
(or newer)
70907A
-
860203
70907B
-
900314
70909A
-
910802
70910A
-
910802
Chapter 1
9
General Information
Introduction
• PSA Series E4440A, E4446A, and E4448A spectrum analyzers require Option AYZ (LO
OUT and IF IN connectors). The E4443A and E4445A do not support external mixing.
General Information
Figure 1-2. Mixer Connection Kit, Option 009
10
Chapter 1
General Information
Specifications
Specifications
Specifications for the 11970 Series Mixers are listed in Table 1-1. These are the performance
standards against which the mixers are tested (performance tests are provided in Chapter
3 ,“Performance Tests,”). Typical or nominal operating values are listed in Table 1-2.
NOTE
Supplemental characteristics are included only as additional information;
they are not specifications.
Equipment Supplied
Five hex-head screws are supplied with each mixer. Four are required to make the mixer-to-waveguide
connection, one is a spare. Use ONLY the screws supplied to attach the mixer to the waveguide. Because
of slight differences in the way the mixers couple with the waveguide, the square-flange mixers (11970K
and 11970A) and the round-flange mixer (1970Q, 11970U, 11970V and 11970W) require different
screws.
If your mixer has a square waveguide flange, use four hex-head screws with Part Number
3030-0221. If it has a round waveguide flange, use four hex-head captive screws with Part
Number 1390-0671. The special balldriver hex screwdriver available in the Option 009
Mixer Connector Kit simplifies installation of the waveguide connector screws.
NOTE
See Chapter 4 ,“Service,” for a list of replacement parts.
Environmental Limitations
The 11970 Series Mixers meet or exceed the environmental requirements of MIL-T-28800C, Type III,
Class 3, Style C. Specific environmental qualifications for the mixers are as follows:
Temperature, Non-operating: -40oC to 75oC
Temperature, Operating: 0oC to 55oC
Relative Humidity: 95 ±5% (up to 30oC)
Altitude, Non-operating: Less than 12,195 meters (40,000 ft.)
Altitude, Operating: Less than 3,048 meters (10,000 ft.)
Maximum Vibration Levels: 2 G’s at 5 to 2000 Hz
Maximum Shock: 30 G’s
Chapter 1
11
General Information
Waveguide Connector Screws
General Information
Specifications
Table 1-1 11970 Series Specifications
NOTE
Unless otherwise stated, all specifications apply for an IF of 321.4 MHz and for RF input amplitudes of
less than -20 dBm.
General Information
GENERAL
LO Amplitude Range: 14 to 18 dBm1
Bias Requirements: None
Calibration Accuracy:
Maximum CW RF Input Level:
11970K/A/Q/U:
± 2.0 dB with LO amplitude range of 14.5 to 16 dBm
20 dBm (l00mW)
11970V/W:
± 2.2 dB with LO amplitude range of 14.5 to 16 dBm
Maximum Peak Pulse Power:
24 dBm with < 1µsec pulse (avg. power: + 20 dBm)
11970K/A/Q/U:
± 3.0 dB with LO amplitude range of 16 to 18 dBm
Environmental:
Meets MIL-T-28800C, Type III, Class 3, Style C
11970V/W: ± 3.2 dB with LO amplitude range of 16 to
18 dBm
IF/LO Connectors:
SMA female
12
Chapter 1
General Information
Specifications
Table 1-1 11970 Series Specifications
NOTE
Unless otherwise stated, all specifications apply for an IF of 321.4 MHz and for RF input amplitudes of
less than -20 dBm.
MODEL 11970K
MODEL 11970A
RF Frequency Range:
26.5 - 40 GHz
LO Harmonic Number: 6
LO Harmonic Number: 8
LO Input Frequency Range:
2.95 - 4.36 GHz
LO Input Frequency Range:
3.27 - 4.96 GHz
Maximum Conversion Loss: 24 dB
Maximum Conversion Loss: 26 dB
8566B Noise Level at 1 kHz Bandwidth, and
14.5 to 16 dBm
8566B Noise Level at 1 kHz Bandwidth, and
14.5 to 16 dBm
LO Input Power: -102 dBm
LO Input Power: -105 dBm
Frequency Response at 14.5 to 16 dBm
LO Input Power: ±1.9 dB
Frequency Response at 14.5 to 16 dBm
LO Input Power: ±1.9 dB
Frequency Response at 14 to 18 dBm
LO Input Power: ±2.8 dB
Frequency Response at 14 to 18 dBm
LO Input Power: ±2.8 dB
MODEL 11970Q
MODEL 11970U
RF Frequency Range:
33 - 50 GHz
RF Frequency Range:
40 - 60 GHz
LO Harmonic Number: 10
LO Harmonic Number: 10
LO Input Frequency Range:
3.27 - 4.97 GHz
LO Input Frequency Range:
3.97 - 5.97 GHz
Maximum Conversion Loss: 28 dB
Maximum Conversion Loss: 28 dB
8566B Noise Level at 1 kHz Bandwidth, and
14.5 to 16 dBm
LO Input Power: -101 dBm
8566B Noise Level at 1 kHz Bandwidth, and
14.5 to 16 dBm
LO Input Power: -101 dBm
Frequency Response at 14.5 to 16 dBm
LO Input Power: ±1.9 dB
Frequency Response at 14.5 to 16 dBm
LO Input Power: ±1.9 dB
Frequency Response at 14 to 18 dBm
LO Input Power: ±2.8 dB
Frequency Response at 14 to 18 dBm
LO Input Power: ±2.8 dB
Chapter 1
General Information
RF Frequency Range:
18 - 26.5 GHz
13
General Information
Specifications
Table 1-1 11970 Series Specifications
NOTE
Unless otherwise stated, all specifications apply for an IF of 321.4 MHz and for RF input amplitudes of
less than -20 dBm.
General Information
MODEL 11970V
MODEL 11970W
RF Frequency Range:
50 - 75 GHz
RF Frequency Range:
75 - 110 GHz
LO Harmonic Number: 14
LO Harmonic Number: 18
LO Input Frequency Range:
3.55 - 5.33 GHz
LO Input Frequency Range:
4.15 - 6.09 GHz
Maximum Conversion Loss: 40 dB
Maximum Conversion Loss: 46 dB
8566B Noise Level at 1 kHz Bandwidth, and
14.5 to 16 dBm
LO Input Power: -92 dBm
8566B Noise Level at 1 kHz Bandwidth, and LO Input
Power: - 85 dBm
Frequency Response at 14.5 to 16 dBm
LO Input Power: ±2.1 dB
Frequency Response at 14.5 to 16 dBm
LO Input Power: ±3.0 dB2
Frequency Response at 14 to 18 dBm
LO Input Power: ±2.8 dB
Frequency Response at 14 to 18 dBm
LO Input Power: ±4.0 dB
1. The 11975A Amplifier, or a similar amplifier, can be used to provide sufficient LO power (14 to
2.
18 dBm) to the mixers. Leveled power capability of 16 dBm, as is available with the 11975A, is necessary to achieve the maximum amplitude accuracy with the mixers. Assuming the 1 meter cables
supplied with the instrument are used, only the 8566B LO output requires amplification. However,
if longer or lower quality cables are used LO amplification may be necessary.
Typically ± 2.5 dB with LO supplied by 8566B Spectrum Analyzer, 11975A Amplifier set to
16 dBm, and P/N 5061-5458 SMA cables.
14
Chapter 1
General Information
Specifications
Table 1-2 11970 Supplemental Characteristics
NOTE
Supplemental characteristics are included only as additional information; they are not specifications.
Odd Order Mixing Product Suppression:
11970K/A/Q/U: >20 dB
11970V/W: >15 dB
Spectrum Analyzer Absolute Amplitude
Accuracy (using calibration data with a 14.5 to
16 dBm LO):
11970K, 18 - 26.5 GHz: ±3.2 dB
11970A, 26.5 - 40 GHz: ±3.2 dB
11970Q, 33 - 50 GHz: ±3.2 dB
11970U, 40 - 60 GHz: ±3.2 dB
11970V, 50 - 75 GHz: ±3.4 dB
11970W: 75 - 110 GHz: ±3.4 dB
Gain Compression Level (<1 dB):
11970K: -3 dBm
11970A: -5 dBm
11970Q: -7 dBm
11970U: -7 dBm
11970V: -3 dBm
11970W: -1 dBm
RF Input SWR:
11970K/A/Q/U: <2.2:1
11970V/W: <2.6:1
5061-5458 Cable Insertion Loss:
.8 dB at 2 GHz
1.1 dB at 6 GHz
General Information
3 dB IF Bandwidth: DC to 1.3 GHz
PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS
Model
11970K
11970A
11970Q
11970U
11970V
11970W
Flange1
Weight
X
Y
Z
90 mm
3.5 in
UG-595/U
WR-42
0.17 kg
0.36 lb
36 mm
1.4 in
51 mm
2.0 in
UG-599/U
0.14 kg
WR-28
0.32 lb
36 mm
1.4 in
51 mm
2.0 in
71 mm
2.8 in
UG-383/U
WR-22
0.14 kg
0.32 lb
36 mm
76 mm
1.4 in
51 mm
2.0 in
UG-383/U-M
WR-19
0.14 kg
36 mm
51 mm
0.32 lb
1.4 in
2.0 in
76 mm
3.0 in
UG-385/U
0.14 kg
36 mm
51 mm
76 mm
WR-15
0.32 lb
1.4 in
2.0 in
3.0 in
UG-387/U-M
WR-10
0.14 kg
0.32 lb
36 mm
51 mm
2.0 in
76 mm
3.0 in
1.4 in
3.0 in
1. Waveguide attachment screws enter blind holes in the flanges of the mixers.
Chapter 1
15
General Information
General Information
Specifications
16
Chapter 1
Operation
2 Operation
17
Operation
Introduction
Introduction
This section provides information on how to make effective use of the 11970 mixers.
Operating Precautions
Refer to the sections below for specific parameters to follow prior to mixer operation.
WARNING
Do not exceed the maximum ratings listed below or permanent
damage to the mixer will result.
RF Input Power
Use the following parameters:
CW: No greater than 20 dBm
Pulse: No greater than 24 dBm at < 1 mSec
Average: No greater than 20 dBm
LO Input Power
Make sure the LO input power is no greater than 20 dBm.
Operation
Electrostatic Discharge
When installing the mixer, you must always connect the SMA cables to the spectrum
analyzer and LO amplifier BEFORE connecting them to the mixer. This will minimize the
danger of an electrostatic discharge damaging the mixer diodes.
11975A ALC Switch
BEFORE using the 11975A Amplifier to increase the LO input power, set the amplifier
ALC switch to the ON position. When this switch is in the OFF position the LO power can
be greater than 20 dBm. This level of LO power can destroy the mixer diodes. The ALC
switch is on the amplifier rear panel.
Waveguide Protective Foam
Do not remove, displace, or damage the white, nonconductive foam installed in the open
end of the waveguide. Since the mixer is amplitude calibrated with this foam in place,
tampering with it affects the calibration.
18
Chapter 2
Operation
Getting Started
Getting Started
The 11970 series of millimeter wave mixers have no bias or back-short adjustments. 11970
Mixers require an LO power of 14 to 18 dBm at the LO input. If the spectrum analyzer
used with the 11970 does not have sufficient LO power, an 11975A Amplifier or an
equivalent is required to increase this power.
CAUTION
Before connecting the 11975A Amplifier, set its rear panel ALC switch to ON.
Failure to do this can damage the mixer.
Mixer Connections
With the three SMA cables (Part Number 5061-5458, each) provided in the Option 009
Mixer Connection Kit, connect the 11970 Mixer, the spectrum analyzer, and the 11975A
Amplifier. An example connection for an 8566B Spectrum Analyzer is shown in Figure 2-1.
NOTE
The example below shows an 8566B analyzer, other spectrum analyzers do
not require the amplifier and third SMA cable.
Figure 2-1. 11970 Mixer Connections
Operation
Leave the waveguide flange cap on whenever the mixer is not connected to a device under
test. This protects the flange mating surface from scratches, which can degrade the mixer’s
performance. Use an appropriate waveguide attenuator if the output power of the unit
under test exceeds the RF Input Power indicated in the specifications.
Chapter 2
19
Operation
Getting Started
If you are using an 11970Q, 11970U, 11970V or 11970W Mixer, and the shoulder of its waveguide
flange is not properly aligned with the flange of the device under test, amplitude measurement errors can
result. To ensure proper alignment, tighten each of the four flange screws in turn by small amounts,
moving clockwise around the flange.
11970K and 11970A Mixers require flange screws that are different from
those used with the 11970Q, 11970U, 11970V and 11970W; 11970K and
11970A use Part Number 3030-0221 (#4-40 hex head screw). 11970Q,
11970U, 11970V and 11970W use Part Number 1390-0671 (#4-40 hex head
captive screw).
Operation
NOTE
20
Chapter 2
Operation
Using a Conversion-Loss Data Disk with the ESA or PSA Series Analyzers
Using a Conversion-Loss Data Disk with the ESA or PSA
Series Analyzers
The conversion-loss data for your mixer can be quickly loaded in the memory of an ESA or
PSA series analyzer from a floppy disk. The following process works with the floppy disk
provided by the factory with your new mixer, or with one that you have stored the
correction data. This process eliminates the time consuming and sometimes error-prone
process of manually entering the data from a table.
Loading Data
1. Insert the conversion-loss data disk (from the factory or your own) into the floppy drive
of the analyzer.
2. Press File, then Load.
3. Press Type, More, then select Corrections.
4. Press Directory Select, highlight drive -A-, then press Directory Select again.
5. Use the down arrow to select the file. The factory supplied disk has a file with the OTH
extension which places the data in the corrections set “other” location.
6. Press Load Now to load the conversion loss values into the correction table of the
analyzer.
Viewing Data
1. Press Amplitude, More, Corrections, Other (ON) and Edit to view the correction values.
Operation
2. Use the front-panel knob or up/down arrows to scroll through the list of correction
values.
Chapter 2
21
Operation
Using the Mixers with the E4407B Spectrum Analyzer (Option AYZ)
Using the Mixers with the E4407B Spectrum Analyzer
(Option AYZ)
The Agilent Technologies E4407B spectrum analyzer contains an extensive menu of
functions that help with millimeter measurements. The following examples explain how to
connect external mixers to the spectrum analyzer, how to choose the band of interest, how
to store and activate conversion-loss factors, and how to use the signal-identification
functions.
Set up the equipment
1. Connect the signal source and harmonic mixer to the analyzer, as shown in Figure 2-2.
Operation
Figure 2-2 Harmonic Mixer Setup
NOTE
Agilent 5061-5458 SMA type cables should be used to connect the mixer IF
and LO ports to the analyzer. Do not over-tighten the cables. The maximum
torque should not exceed 112 N-cm (10 in-lb.)
22
Chapter 2
Operation
Using the Mixers with the E4407B Spectrum Analyzer (Option AYZ)
2. On the analyzer, press Preset, Factory Preset, if present.
3. Select external mixing by pressing Input/Output, Input Mixer, Input Mixer (Ext).
4. The analyzer frequency band will be set to 26.5 - 40 GHz (A). To choose a different band,
press Ext Mix Band , then press the desired band frequency range/letter key. For this
example, we will use band A, which ranges from 36.5 GHz to 40 GHz.
Amplitude Calibration
The conversion loss versus frequency data can be entered on your analyzer from one of
three sources.
• From a Conversion Loss Data Disk, supplied with your mixer. See “Using a
Conversion-Loss Data Disk with the ESA or PSA Series Analyzers” on page 21 .
• Data from the calibration sheet supplied with your mixer.
• From conversion-loss data located on the mixer body label.
Manually Entering Conversion-Loss Data
1.The analyzer frequency band will be set to 26.5 – 40 GHz (A). To choose a different band,
press Ext Mix Band and then press the desired band frequency range/letter key. For this
example, we will use band A, which ranges from 26.5 GHz to 40 GHz.
NOTE
To correct for the conversion-loss of the harmonic mixer in use, the analyzer
amplitude correction feature is used.
3. Press Edit to enter the appropriate conversion loss data for the mixer in use. These
values are listed on the mixer, or a calibration sheet that is supplied with the mixer.
NOTE
More correction points entered across the band in use will improve frequency
response accuracy. Up to 200 points may be defined for each set.
4. Once the desired correction points are entered, press Return, Correction (On) to activate
correction set Other. This will also turn corrections on resulting in a calibrated display.
It is recommended that the correction set entered be saved on the internal memory or
the floppy drive for future reference. See the ESA User’s and Programmer’s Reference
guide for information on saving correction values.
Chapter 2
23
Operation
2. Press AMPLITUDE Y Scale, More , Corrections. Select a correction set for use with
external mixing. The recommended set to use is Other although any available set could
be used.
Operation
Using the Mixers with the E4407B Spectrum Analyzer (Option AYZ)
Signal Identification
The IF output of a harmonic mixer will contain a signal at the intermediate frequency of the
analyzer whenever the harmonic frequency of the LO and the frequency of the RF differ by the
intermediate frequency.
As a result, within a single harmonic band, a single input signal can produce multiple responses on
the analyzer display, only one of which is valid (see Figure 2-3.). These responses come in pairs,
where members of the valid response pair are separated by 642.8 MHz and either the right-most
(for negative harmonics) or left-most (for positive harmonics) member of the pair is the correct
response.
Operation
Figure 2-3.
Identification of valid responses is achieved by simply turning on the signal-identification feature.
(instrument preset selects the Image Suppress signal identification mode.) Press Input/Output, Input
Mixer, Signal Ident (On) and note that now only the valid response (35 GHz) remains.
Press Peak Search to place a marker on the remaining response. The signal-identification routine
can introduce slight amplitude errors which is indicated by the message Signal Ident On,
Amptd Uncal. Refer to Figure 2-4..
After identifying a signal of interest, press Signal Ident (Off) before making final amplitude
measurements. Note that Image Suppress should only be used to identify the fundamental signal
and not for accurate amplitude measurements.
24
Chapter 2
Operation
Using the Mixers with the E4407B Spectrum Analyzer (Option AYZ)
Figure 2-4.
Operation
Chapter 2
25
Operation
Using the Mixers with the E4440A, E4446A, or E4448A PSA Series Spectrum Analyzer (Option
AYZ)
Using the Mixers with the E4440A, E4446A, or E4448A
PSA Series Spectrum Analyzer (Option AYZ)
Be sure to refer to “Spectrum Analyzer Retrofit Requirements” on page 9 for instrument
requirements for the PSA Series spectrum analyzers. The Agilent Technologies PSA Series
spectrum analyzers contain an extensive menu of functions that help with millimeter
measurements. The following examples explain how to connect external mixers to the
spectrum analyzer, how to choose the band of interest, how to store and activate
conversion-loss factors, and how to use the signal-identification functions.
Set up the equipment
1. Connect the signal source and harmonic mixer to the analyzer, as shown in Figure 2-2.
Figure 2-5 Harmonic Mixer Setup
Spectrum Analyzer
IF INPUT
Operation
1st LO OUTPUT
SMA Cable
SMA Cable
IF
LO
RF Input
SIGNAL
SOURCE
Agilent 11970 SERIES
HARMONIC MIXER
unpremix5
NOTE
Agilent 5061-5458 SMA type cables should be used to connect the mixer IF
and LO ports to the analyzer. Do not over-tighten the cables. The maximum
torque should not exceed 112 N-cm (10 in-lb.)
26
Chapter 2
Operation
Using the Mixers with the E4440A, E4446A, or E4448A PSA Series Spectrum Analyzer (Option
AYZ)
2. On the analyzer, press Preset, Factory Preset, if present.
3. Select external mixing by pressing Input/Output, Input Mixer, Input Mixer (Ext).
4. The analyzer frequency band will be set to 26.5 - 40 GHz (A). To choose a different band,
press Ext Mix Band , then press the desired band frequency range/letter key. For this
example, we will use band A, which ranges from 36.5 GHz to 40 GHz.
Amplitude Calibration
The conversion loss versus frequency data can be entered on your analyzer from one of
three sources.
• From a Conversion Loss Data Disk, supplied with your mixer. See “Using a
Conversion-Loss Data Disk with the ESA or PSA Series Analyzers” on page 21 .
• Data from the calibration sheet supplied with your mixer.
• From conversion-loss data located on the mixer body label.
Manually Entering Conversion-Loss Data
1.The analyzer frequency band will be set to 26.5 – 40 GHz (A). To choose a different band,
press Ext Mix Band and then press the desired band frequency range/letter key. For this
example, we will use band A, which ranges from 26.5 GHz to 40 GHz.
NOTE
To correct for the conversion-loss of the harmonic mixer in use, the analyzer
amplitude correction feature is used.
3. Press Edit to enter the appropriate conversion loss data for the mixer in use. These
values are listed on the mixer, or a calibration sheet that is supplied with the mixer.
NOTE
More correction points entered across the band in use will improve frequency
response accuracy. Up to 200 points may be defined for each set.
4. Once the desired correction points are entered, press Return, Correction (On) to activate
correction set Other. This will also turn corrections on resulting in a calibrated display.
It is recommended that the correction set entered be saved on the internal memory or
the floppy drive for future reference. See the ESA User’s and Programmer’s Reference
guide for information on saving correction values.
Chapter 2
27
Operation
2. Press AMPLITUDE Y Scale, More , Corrections. Select a correction set for use with
external mixing. The recommended set to use is Other although any available set could
be used.
Operation
Using the Mixers with the E4440A, E4446A, or E4448A PSA Series Spectrum Analyzer (Option
AYZ)
Signal Identification
The IF output of a harmonic mixer will contain a signal at the intermediate frequency of the
analyzer whenever the harmonic frequency of the LO and the frequency of the RF differ by the
intermediate frequency.
As a result, within a single harmonic band, a single input signal can produce multiple responses on
the analyzer display, only one of which is valid (see Figure 2-6.). These responses come in pairs,
where members of the valid response pair are separated by 642.8 MHz and either the right-most
(for negative harmonics) or left-most (for positive harmonics) member of the pair is the correct
response.
Operation
Figure 2-6.
Identification of valid responses is achieved by simply turning on the signal-identification feature.
(instrument preset selects the Image Suppress signal identification mode.) Press Input/Output, Input
Mixer, Signal Ident (On) and note that now only the valid response (35 GHz) remains.
Press Peak Search to place a marker on the remaining response. Refer to Figure 2-7.
After identifying a signal of interest, press Signal Ident (Off) before making final amplitude
measurements. Note that Image Suppress should only be used to identify the fundamental signal
and not for accurate amplitude measurements.
28
Chapter 2
Operation
Using the Mixers with the E4440A, E4446A, or E4448A PSA Series Spectrum Analyzer (Option
AYZ)
Figure 2-7.
Operation
Chapter 2
29
Operation
Using the Mixers with the 856X Series Spectrum Analyzers
Using the Mixers with the 856X Series Spectrum Analyzers
External millimeter mixers can be used to extend the frequency coverage of the 8560
E-Series and EC-Series spectrum analyzers. (The 8560E/EC Option 002 and Option 327 do
not have external mixing capability.)
The 8560 E-Series and EC-Series spectrum analyzers contain an extensive menu of
functions that help with millimeter measurements. This example explains how to connect
external mixers to the spectrum analyzer, how to choose the band of interest, how to store
conversion-loss factors, and how to use the optional automatic signal-identification
functions.
Set up the equipment
1. Figure 2-8 illustrates how to connect an external harmonic mixer to the spectrum
analyzer.
Operation
Figure 2-8 External Mixer Setup
NOTE
Good-quality shielded SMA-type cables should be used to connect the mixer to
the spectrum analyzer to ensure that no signal attenuation occurs. Agilent
5061-5458 SMA-type cables may be used. Do not over-tighten the cables; the
maximum torque should not exceed 112 N-cm (10 in-lb.).
30
Chapter 2
Operation
Using the Mixers with the 856X Series Spectrum Analyzers
Select the Frequency Band
2. Specify unpreselected external mixing by pressing CONFIG, then EXT MXR PRE UNPR
until UNPR is selected.
3. To select a frequency above 18 GHz:
a. Press AUX CTRL, EXTERNAL MIXER to set the analyzer to external mixer mode.
b. Enter the desired frequency directly using the center-frequency function.
c. Notice in Table 2-1 that some frequencies overlap and fall into two bands. To be sure
that the desired band is selected, refer to Table 2-1 and select the desired frequency
band, then use the full band function to enter this band.
d. In the external mixer menu, press FULL BAND, then press the step up ⇑ key until the
letter preceding BAND in the active function area corresponds to the desired
frequency band.
Table 2-1 External Mixer Frequency Ranges
Frequency
Band
Frequency
Range (GHz)
Mixing
Harmonic
Conversion
Loss
18.0 to 26.5
6−
30 dB
A
26.5 to 40.0
8−
30 dB
Q
33.0 to 50.0
10−
30 dB
U
40.0 to 60.0
10−
30 dB
V
50.0 to 75.0
14−
30 dB
E
60.0 to 90.0
16−
30 dB
W
75.0 to 110.0
18−
30 dB
F
90.0 to 140.0
24−
30 dB
D
110.0 to 170.0
30−
30 dB
G
140.0 to 220.0
36−
30 dB
Y
170.0 to 260.0
44−
30 dB
J
220.0 to 325.0
54−
30 dB
Chapter 2
Operation
K
31
Operation
Using the Mixers with the 856X Series Spectrum Analyzers
In this example, we’ll look at U-band, which ranges from 40 GHz to 60 GHz, as shown in
Figure 2-9. The LOCK HARMONIC function “locks” the spectrum analyzer in that band,
ensuring that the spectrum analyzer sweeps only the chosen band. LOCK ON OFF is
automatically set to ON when FULL BAND is pressed.
Figure 2-9 Select the band of interest.
Operation
Save the average conversion-loss value
4. Default conversion-loss values that are stored in the analyzer for each frequency band
are listed in Table 2-1. These values approximate the values for the Agilent 11970 series
mixers. Other conversion-loss values may be entered into the spectrum analyzer in two
ways. The first method lets you to save the average conversion-loss value for the entire
band using AVERAGE CNV LOSS. To activate this function:
a. Press AUX CTRL, EXTERNAL MIXER, AMPTD CORRECT, AVERAGE CNV LOSS.
b. Enter the appropriate average conversion-loss value. On Agilent 11970 Series
harmonic mixers, these values are printed on the mixer. The U-band mixer used for
this example had an average conversion loss of 23.5 dB, as shown in Figure 2-10.
32
Chapter 2
Operation
Using the Mixers with the 856X Series Spectrum Analyzers
Figure 2-10 Store and correct for conversion loss.
The second method for storing conversion-loss information lets you save individual
conversion-loss data points at specific intervals across the harmonic band, using CNV
LOSS VS FREQ.
To view or enter a conversion-loss data point:
b. Enter the conversion-loss data at the frequency shown.
c. Use the step up ⇑ key to step through the band, entering the conversion loss at each
step.
Signal Identification
5. The IF output of a harmonic mixer contains many mixer products (frequencies of LO ±
source, 2LO ± source, 3LO ± source…nLO ± source). As a result, within a single
harmonic band, a single input signal can produce many responses, only one of which is
valid.
These responses come in pairs, where the members of the valid pair are spaced 621.4
MHz apart (see Figure 2-11) and the right-most member for the pair is the correct
response (for this analyzer, the left member of a pair is not valid).
Chapter 2
33
Operation
a. Press CNV LOSS VS FREQ.
Operation
Using the Mixers with the 856X Series Spectrum Analyzers
Figure 2-11 Signal Responses Produced by a 50 GHz Signal in U Band
Operation
Identify signals with the frequency-shift method
6. Signal-identification routines that identify the signal and images are available on
instruments with firmware revisions ≤920528, or with Option 008. The frequency-shift
method of identifying valid signals uses the spectrum-analyzer function SIG ID ON OFF.
When using this function, smaller spans will yield more accurate measurements.
a. Span down to 50 MHz.
b. Press AUX CTRL, EXTERNAL MIXER, SIGNAL IDENT.
c. Press SIG ID ON OFF until ON is selected.
Any signal not produced by the currently selected harmonic will be shifted horizontally
on alternate sweeps (see Figure 2-12). Therefore, when viewing the display, on alternate
sweeps the signal will appear, then not appear, at the frequency of interest. The correct
signal produced by the selected harmonic will be shifted in a vertical direction only, as
shown in Figure 2-13.
34
Chapter 2
Operation
Using the Mixers with the 856X Series Spectrum Analyzers
Figure 2-12 Response for Invalid Signals
Figure 2-13 Response for Valid Signals
Operation
Chapter 2
35
Operation
Using the Mixers with the 856X Series Spectrum Analyzers
Identify signals in wide frequency spans
7. SIG ID AT MKR identifies signals in wide frequency spans, using harmonic search. SIG ID
AT MKR automatically determines the proper frequency of a signal and displays its
value on the spectrum analyzer.
• Activating SIG ID AT MKR on an image of the signal will yield a reading in the active
block, as shown in Figure 2-14. The true signal frequency is given with an identifier
that the marker resides on an image. If the marker is placed on a true signal, and
SIG ID AT MKR is activated, the signal frequency will appear without the IMAGE
notation, as shown in Figure 2-15.
8. To activate SIG ID AT MKR:
a. Place a marker on a signal.
b. Press AUX CTRL, EXTERNAL MIXER, SIGNAL IDENT, SIG ID AT MKR.
9. To exit the external mixer mode, press AUX CTRL, then INTERNAL MIXER.
Operation
Figure 2-14 SIG ID AT MKR Performed on an Image Signal
36
Chapter 2
Operation
Using the Mixers with the 856X Series Spectrum Analyzers
Figure 2-15 SIG ID AT MKR Performed on a True Signal
Operation
Chapter 2
37
Operation
Using the Mixers with MMS Analyzers
Using the Mixers with MMS Analyzers
Preliminary Operation
NOTE
This section provides information for the Agilent 70907A (or B), however the
operation of the Agilent 70909A and Agilent 70910A is similar. Minor
differences may be noted, but the necessary deviations from these exact
instructions will be obvious.
Equipment Connection
Connect the equipment as shown in Figure 2-16 Use the following checklist to verify the
connections:
• Agilent 11970 LO IN to Agilent 70907B LO OUTPUT (SMA cable, 5061-5458)
• Agilent 11970 IF OUT to Agilent 70907B IF INPUT (SMA cable, 5061-5458)
Operation
Figure 2-16 Agilent 11970 Connections to the Agilent 71000 Series Spectrum Analyzer
38
Chapter 2
Operation
Using the Mixers with MMS Analyzers
Operation
Band Selection
Use the following key sequence to enter the external mixing mode and to select the desired
band of operation:
MENU
Select Input - choose external mixer input, for example: “IN 2 EM 70910A”
State
ext mixer
fulband KAQUVE
Press the softkey for the desired band.
NOTE
The above band selection key sequence must be used to enter the external
mixing band of operation. Do not enter in the center frequency of the band
directly.
Amplitude Calibration for a Single Frequency
Enter the conversion loss at the desired frequency from either the calibration label on the
end of the Agilent 11970 or the supplied calibration sheet by using the following key
sequence:
State
Operation
ext mixer
CONV LOSS
Enter the conversion loss value of the desired frequency, then terminate the entry with dB.
NOTE
The above procedure is a single-point conversion-loss correction. For an
alternative procedure, available by remote programming only, refer to
“Conversion Loss Versus Frequency Correction” on page 43.
Chapter 2
39
Operation
Using the Mixers with MMS Analyzers
General Descriptions of Agilent 71000 Series Spectrum Analyzer
External-Mixing Functions
Allows access to the following softkey functions that control the
measurement range when an external mixer extends the
spectrum analyzer frequency range. The ext mixer softkey can be
found under the State key.
ext mixer
fulband KAQUVE
fulband WFDGYJ
CONV LOSS
SIGNAL IDENT
fulband KAQUVE
and
Specify the frequency range for measurements made with
external mixers. Twelve frequency bands are available. Table 2-2
lists the start and stop frequencies of each band and also shows
which local-oscillator harmonic (N) is used for the mixing process.
Once a band is selected, the frequency range is locked and the
spectrum analyzer tunes with the local-oscillator harmonic for
that band only.
fulband WFDGYJ
Operation
Table 2-2 External Mixing Bands and Associated Mixing Harmonics
Band
Harmonic Number (N)
Frequency Range (GHz)
K
6−
18.0 to 26.5
A
8+
26.5 to 40.0
Q
10+
33.0 to 50.0
U
10+
40.0 to 60.0
V
14+
50.0 to 75.0
E
16+
60.0 to 90.0
W
18+
75.0 to 110.0
F
24+
90.0 to 140.0
D
30+
110.0 to 170.0
G
36+
140.0 to 220.0
Y
42+
170.0 to 260.0
J
50+
220.0 to 330.0
40
Chapter 2
Operation
Using the Mixers with MMS Analyzers
CONV LOSS
(conversion loss)
Offsets the reference level to compensate for amplitude losses at
the active input port. If necessary, use select input to activate the
desired input port before specifying its conversion-loss offset.
To clear the offset, enter a conversion loss of zero.
After the instrument preset, a default value of 30 dB is activated
automatically for the input port of the external-mixer-interface
module.
Preset Input
Sets which active input port will be selected when the INSTR
PRESET is pressed. The preset input softkey can be accessed by
pressing State, then MORE.
INSTR PRESET
Resets to the preset input and to the lowest full frequency range
available. (For an external mixer, this is band A.) This is a front
panel key.
SIGNAL IDENT
(signal identify)
Press Frequency, More, sig id options.
Executes a routine to identify real, in-band signals using either
the image (default) or shift methods.
Several options are available under sig id options:
Places the marker on the identified real signal and
centers the signal on the display.
- SIG ID MAN OFF
Selects manual or automatic (default) mode.
- IMAGE/SHIFT
Selects the routine to use for identification.
- SIG ID AMPTD ∆
Specifies the amplitude difference between the
marked signal and signals tested as images or
harmonics (default is 10 dB; applies only to IMAGE
mode.)
- IMAGE N START
Determines the frequency range for possible image or
harmonic responses by selecting the lowest and
highest local oscillator harmonic used for mixing,
according to the tuning equation below:
Operation
- SIG ID ⇒ CF
Fs = N x FLO ± IF
Default is 1.
- IMAGE N STOP See “IMAGE N START” definition above.
Default is 40.
Chapter 2
41
Operation
Using the Mixers with MMS Analyzers
NOTE
See the table below for available frequency ranges and related harmonic numbers. Use
the IMAGE N START and IMAGE N STOP softkeys for the image identification only.
Table 2-3 Frequency Ranges and Corresponding Harmonic Numbers
Band/Range
Harmonic Number and Sign of
IF (N)
Internal Mixing - Agilent
71210C
2.9 - 6.2
6.0 - 12.7
12.5 - 19.9
19.7 - 22.0/26.5
−1
−2
+3
+4
Internal Mixing - Agilent
71200C
2.9 - 6.2
6.0 - 12.8
12.6 - 22.0
−1
−2
−4
18.0
26.5
33.0
40.0
50.0
60.0
75.0
90.0
110.0
140.0
170.0
220.0
+6
+8
+10
+10
+14
+16
+18
+24
+30
+36
+42
+50
K
A
Q
U
V
E
W
F
D
G
Y
J
- 26.5
- 40.0
- 50.0
- 60.0
- 75.0
- 90.0
- 110.0
- 140.0
- 170.0
- 220.0
- 260.0
- 330.0
Operation
External Mixing - Agilent
70907A
7090
7B
709
10A
709
09A
42
Chapter 2
Operation
Using the Mixers with MMS Analyzers
Conversion Loss Versus Frequency Correction
The Agilent 71000 Series Spectrum Analyzers with the Agilent 70907A (or B) External
Mixer Interface Module installed has the amplitude-correction function (AMPCOR)
available by remote programming.
Use AMPCOR to compensate for the Agilent 11970 Series frequency-dependent
conversion-loss variations. Up to 200 pairs of frequency-amplitude correction points can be
entered, depending on the amount of available internal memory. The frequency values
entered must be in increasing order, or an error condition results. Whenever AMPCOR is
on, the correction values are added to all measurement results.
The values of the correction points are applied across the active measurement range.
Between points, the correction value are interpolated. When the measuring at frequencies
outside of the first and last correction pairs from memory.
When AMPCOR is executed, the frequency pairs are stored in internal memory. The
remote commands DISPOSE ALL, FORMAT, ERASE, and DISPOSE AMP COR erase the
amplitude-correction pairs from memory.
NOTE
DISPOSE ALL, FORMAT, and ERASE erases much more than the
amplitude-correction pairs from memory. Do not use these commands without
referring to the programmer’s manual for the Agilent 70000 and Agilent
70900B to determine their effect on instrument programming.
Because AMPCOR adjusts IF gain and attenuation, AMPCOR should be used with care
when measuring signals near the compression level (also at a frequency that is corrected
by the AMPCOR command).
OUTPUT 718; “CNVLOSS 0DB;”
Then build the AMPCOR table with frequency conversion loss pairs. The following
example program line shows three pairs of frequency conversion loss values for a typical
Agilent 11970V.
OUTPUT 718; “AMPCOR 50GHZ, 49.6DB, 51GHZ, 49.1DB, 52GHZ,48.6DB;”
The conversion loss corrections are activated by the AMPCOR ON command; use
AMPCOR OFF to deactivate the function (be sure to manually enter a single-point
conversion-loss value if AMPCOR has been used).
Chapter 2
43
Operation
To use AMPCOR for the Agilent 11970 conversion loss correction, first set the single-point
conversion loss function to zero with the following command:
Operation
Using the Mixers with MMS Analyzers
To print out an existing AMPCOR table, use the program listed below:
10 dim A$ (1:20) [30]
20 OUTPUT 718; “CONVLOSS 0DB;”
30 OUTPUT 718; “AMPCOR 50 GHZ, 46.1DB, 52GHZ, 46.7DB, 53GHZ,47.2DB;”
40 !
50 OUTPUT 718; “AMPCOR?;”
60 ENTER 718 USING “%,k”;A$ (*)
70 !
80 FOR I=1 TO 10
90 PRINT “Point “;I,A$ (I)
100 NEXT I
110 END
Line 30:
Generates an AMPCOR table.
Line 60:
% specifies that an EOI terminates the entire statement. “K” specifies that
an
LF terminates the individual string entry.
Operation
Returned values are in the format where the frequency in Hz is listed first, followed by the
conversion loss in dB. See the following example:
Point
Point
Point
Point
Point
Point
Point
Point
Point
Point
Point
NOTE
1 50.00000000E+9,46.1
2 52.00000000E+9,46.7
3 53.00000000E+9,47.2
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
For further information, consult the Agilent 70900B
Local-Oscillator-Controlled Modules Programming Manual, part number
70900-90284.
44
Chapter 2
Operation
Using the Mixers with the 8566B Spectrum Analyzer
Using the Mixers with the 8566B Spectrum Analyzer
Set up the equipment
1. Connect the external harmonic mixer to the spectrum analyzer, as shown in Figure 2-17.
NOTE
Good-quality shielded SMA-type cables should be used to connect the mixer to
the spectrum analyzer to ensure that no signal attenuation occurs. Agilent
5061-5458 SMA-type cables may be used. Do not over-tighten the cables; the
maximum torque should not exceed 112 N-cm (10 in-lb.).
Figure 2-17 External Mixer Connection
Operation
CAUTION
Before connecting the Agilent 11975A Amplifier, set the ALC switch to ON.
Failure to do so can damage the mixer.
2. Power up the spectrum analyzer and then the amplifier.
3. Adjust the amplifier power to 16 dBm.
4. To access the spectrum analyzer’s millimeter bands, press SHIFT and then the up arrow
⇑ until the desired band is displayed on the screen, as shown in Figure 2-18. Note that
this is important because toggling through the bands, causes the band to automatically
harmonic lock as evidenced by the on-screen annotation of “Harmonic 6” changing to
Chapter 2
45
Operation
Using the Mixers with the 8566B Spectrum Analyzer
“Harmonic 6L”, where “L” stands for locked, or you could press Shift+z to manually
harmonic lock.
Figure 2-18 TYPICAL MILLIMETER SIGNAL DISPLAY
Operation
A menu of millimeter measurement functions is accessed by pressing SHIFT, 1, MHz. Even
though the spectrum analyzer is in an external mixer band, the 8566B spectrum analyzer
retains full operation capability (except for use of the RF input attenuator and preselector).
Amplitude Calibration
Procedure
Each 11970 series harmonic mixer is characterized at the factory and comes with a
calibration chart (See Figure 2-19). The horizontal axis of the chart gives the frequency
range of the mixer and the two vertical axis scales are calibrated in conversion loss and in
reference level offset.
To correct the amplitude calibration of the spectrum analyzer to account for the conversion
loss of the harmonic mixer, press SHIFT, 1, MHz, which accesses the millimeter menu. Then
press SHIFT, 5, MHz to access conversion loss entry and key in the appropriate value on the
spectrum analyzer as shown on the mixer calibration chart.
For measurements that span the entire band, choose an average value of conversion loss
from the conversion loss chart. For those spectrum analyzers with date codes earlier than
13.8.86, the conversion loss is changed using the reference level function. Press SHIFT, then
REFERENCE LEVEL, then key in the reference level offset shown on the right side of the
mixer calibration chart.
46
Chapter 2
Operation
Using the Mixers with the 8566B Spectrum Analyzer
Signal Identification
Figure 2-18 shows a typical full-band display of a single input signal. Direct interpretation
of the display is difficult because of the large number of responses produced by several
local oscillator harmonics generated in the mixer. To solve this problem the 8566B
spectrum analyzer uses two methods of signal identification.
The first is an automatic image search in which the spectrum analyzer looks for a signal
image within a preset range of harmonic numbers. This automatic signal identification
routine is initiated by pressing SHIFT, 3, MHz. Upon completion, one of three messages
appears on the CRT: SIGNAL NOT IDENTIFIED, SIGNAL IDENTIFIED OUT OF BAND (with
the frequency), or CENTER (with the identified signal frequency). The range of harmonic
numbers through which the spectrum analyzer searches can be changed by accessing
“search start HN” and “search stop HN,” which are SHIFT, 7, MHz and SHIFT, 8, MHz,
respectively.
The second method, manual signal identification, is a fast method of verifying that the
displayed signal is a true signal in the specified band. Press SHIFT, 4, MHz to activate this
function. Positive signal identification is indicated if the signal in question does not change
frequency and is reduced in amplitude by one to two divisions on alternate sweeps. A failed
signal identification is indicated by the signal disappearing or shifting in frequency.
Operation
Chapter 2
47
Operation
Using the Mixers with the 8566B Spectrum Analyzer
Operation
Figure 2-19 Sample Mixer Calibration Table
48
Chapter 2
3 Performance Tests
Performance Tests
49
Performance Tests
Introduction
Introduction
This section contains instructions for testing the performance of the 11970 Series Mixers.
Performance tests are used to check the mixers at incoming inspection and for periodic
evaluation. The tests verify the specifications listed for the mixers in Table 1-1.
Test equipment required for the performance tests is listed in Table 3-1. for the 11970K,
Table 3-2. for the 11970A, Table 3-3. for the 11970Q, Table 3-4. for the 11970U, Table 3-5. for
the 11970V and Table 3-6. for the 11970W. Test instruments other than those listed may be
used provided their performance equals or exceeds the critical specifications listed in
Tables 3-1 through 3-6.
Test Record
Performance Tests
At the end of each test is a test record, which is used for recording the performance test
data. Make copies of these test records and use them as worksheets when doing the tests.
50
Chapter 3
Performance Tests
Performance Test Procedures
Performance Test Procedures
Description
Each performance test procedure is contained in a single paragraph. The first entry in
each paragraph is the specification for the parameter being measured as described in Table
1-1 This is followed by a general description of the test and any special instructions or
problem areas. Appropriate test setup illustrations are included in this section and are
referenced in the procedures. You MUST do the tests, and the steps within each test, in the
order they are given.
Table 3-1. Recommended Test Equipment for 11907K
Instrument
Critical Specifications
Recommended Model
Spectrum Analyzer
LO and IF ranges compatible with mixer
8566B
Synthesized Sweeper
Frequency: 18 to 26.5 GHz
Output Level: >-10 dBm
8340A
Amplifier
Output Level: >18 dBm leveled
Frequency Range: 3 to 4.5 GHz
11975A
Power Meter
Compatible with Power Sensor
436A
Power Sensor
SWR: <1.3
8485A
Directional Coupler1
Coupling: 10 dB
Directivity: >40 dB
Primary Arm SWR: <1.05
Auxiliary Arm SWR: <1.2
K752C
Isolator
Insertion Loss: <1.5 dB
Isolation: >20 dB
SWR: <1.2
P/N 0960-0081
Adapter (2 required)
3.5 mm female to WR-42
SWR: <1.1
K281C
Cables (3 required)
Connectors: SMA male
P/N 5061-5458
Cable
Connectors: SMA
Loss: <1.0 dB @ 20 GHz
P/N 8120-4396
Chapter 3
Performance Tests
1. Calibration data for the coupling ratio between the output arm and the auxiliary
arm is necessary for accurate measurements.
51
Performance Tests
Performance Test Procedures
Performance Tests
Table 3-2. Recommended Test Equipment for 11970A
Instrument
Critical Specifications
Recommended
Model
Spectrum Analyzer
LO and IF ranges compatible with mixer
8566B
Synthesized Sweeper
Frequency: 8 to 13.5 GHz
Output Level: >0 dBm
8340A
Amplifier
Output Level: >18 dBm leveled
Frequency Range: 3 to 5 GHz
11975A
Amplifier
Frequency Range: 8 to 13.5 GHz
Output Level >15 dBm
8349A
Power Meter
Compatible with Power Sensor
436A
Power Sensor
SWR: <2.0
R8486A
Power Sensor
SWR: <1.3 @ 6 GHz
8485A
Directional Coupler1
Coupling: 20 dB
Directivity: >40 dB
Primary Arm SWR: <1.05
Auxiliary Arm SWR: <1.2
R752D
Isolator
Insertion Loss: <1.5 dB
Isolation: >20 dB
SWR: <1.2
P/N 0960-0082
Frequency Tripler
Input Power: >10 dBm minimum
Conversion Loss: <15 dB
Spacekom Microwave2
TKa-1
Adapter
SMA female to SMA female
P/N 1250-1158
Adapter
SMA female to Type N female
P/N 1250-1404
Adapter (2 required)
Type N male to SMA female
P/N 1250-1250
Cables (3 required)
Connectors: SMA male
P/N 5061-5458
Cable
Connectors: SMA male
Loss: <1.0 dB @ 20 GHz
P/N 8120-4396
Cable
Connectors: BNC male
11086A
1. Calibration data for the coupling ration between the output arm and the auxiliary arm is necessary for accurate measurements.
2. Honeywell, Inc. Spacekom Microwave Center, Santa Barbara, CA
52
Chapter 3
Performance Tests
Performance Test Procedures
Table 3-3. Recommended Test Equipment for 11970Q
Instrument
Critical Specifications
Recommended Model
Spectrum Analyzer
LO and IF ranges compatible with mixer
8566B
Synthesized Sweeper
Frequency: 11.0 to 16.7 GHz
Output Level: >0 dBm
8340A
Amplifier
Output Level: >18 dBm leveled
Frequency Range: 4 to 6 GHz
11975A
Amplifier
Frequency Range: 11.0 to 16.7 GHz
Output Level >15 dBm
8349A
Power Meter
Compatible with Power Sensor
436A
Power Sensor
SWR: <2.0
Q8486A
Power Sensor
SWR: <1.3 @ 6 GHz
8485A
Directional Coupler1
Coupling: 20 dB
Directivity: >30 dB
Auxiliary Arm SWR: <1.2
Q752D
Isolator
Insertion Loss: <2 dB
Isolation: >20 dB
SWR: <1.5
Q365A
Frequency Tripler
Conversion Loss: <20 dB
Spacekom Microwave2
TKa-1
Adapter
SMA female to Type N female
P/N 1250-1404
Adapter
SMA female to SMA female
P/N 1250-1158
Adapter (2 required)
Type N male to SMA female
P/N 1250-1250
Cables (4 required)
Connectors: SMA male
P/N 5061-5458
Cable
Connectors: SMA male
Loss: <1.0 dB @ 20 GHz
P/N 8120-4396
Cable
Connectors: BNC male
11086A
1. Calibration data for the coupling ration between the output arm and the auxiliary arm is necessary for accurate measurements.
2. Honeywell, Inc. Spacekom Microwave Center, Santa Barbara, CA
Performance Tests
Chapter 3
53
Performance Tests
Performance Test Procedures
Performance Tests
Table 3-4. Recommended Test Equipment for 11970U
Instrument
Critical Specifications
Recommended Model
Spectrum Analyzer
LO and IF ranges compatible with mixer
8566B
Synthesized Sweeper
Frequency: 13.3 to 20 GHz
Output Level: > 9 dBm
8340A
Amplifier
Output Level: > 18 dBm leveled
Frequency Range: 4 to 6 GHz
11975A
Amplifier
Frequency Range: 13.3 to 20 GHz
Output Level >15 dBm
8349A
Power Meter
Compatible with Power Sensor
432A
Thermistor Mount
SWR: <2.0
Hughes1 45773H-1100
Thermistor Mount
SWR: <1.3 @ 6 GHz
478A
Directional Coupler2
Coupling: 20 dB
Directivity: >30 dB
Auxiliary Arm SWR: <1.2
U752D
Isolator
Insertion Loss: <2 dB
Isolation: >20 dB
SWR: <1.5
U365A
Frequency Tripler
Conversion Loss: <20 dB
Spacekom Microwave3
TKa-1
Adapter
SMA female to Type N female
P/N 1250-1404
Adapter
SMA female to SMA female
P/N 1250-1158
Adapter (2 required)
Type N male to SMA female
P/N 1250-1250
Cables (4 required)
Connectors: SMA male
P/N 5061-5458
Cable
Connectors: SMA male
Loss: <1.0 dB @ 20 GHz
P/N 8120-4396
Cable
Connectors: BNC male
11086A
1. Hughes Aircraft Co. Electron Dynamics Division, Torrance, CA
2. Calibration data for the coupling ration between the output arm and the auxiliary arm is necessary for accurate measurements.
3. Honeywell, Inc. Spacekom Microwave Center, Santa Barbara, CA
54
Chapter 3
Performance Tests
Performance Test Procedures
Table 3-5. Recommended Test Equipment for 11970V
Instrument
Critical Specifications
Recommended Model
Spectrum Analyzer
LO and IF ranges compatible with mixer
8566B
Swept Source
Compatible with V-Band Plug-In
8350B
V-Band Source Plug-In
Frequency Range: 50 to 75 GHz
Output Level: >0 dBm
Hughes1 47724H-1510
Amplifier
Output Level >18 dBm leveled
Frequency Range: 4 to 6 GHz
11975A
Power Meter
Compatible with Power Sensor
432A
Thermistor Mount
SWR: <2.0
Hughes 45774H-1100
Thermistor Mount
SWR: <1.3 @ 6 GHz
478A
Directional Coupler2
Coupling: 20 dB
Directivity: >20 dB
Auxiliary Arm SWR: <1.5
Hughes 45324H-1220
Variable Attentuator
Range: 0 to 15 dB
TRG3 510V/385
Adapter
SMA female to Type N female
P/N 1250-1404
Adapter
SMA female to SMA female
P/N 1250-1158
Adapter (2 required)
Type N male to SMA female
P/N 1250-1250
Cables (4 required)
Connectors: SMA male
P/N 5061-5458
Cable
Connectors: SMA male
Loss: <1.0 dB @ 20 GHz
P/N 8120-4396
Cable
Connectors: BNC male
11086A
1. Hughes Aircraft Co. Electron Dynamics Division, Torrance, CA
2. Calibration data for the coupling ration between the output arm and the auxiliary
arm is necessary for accurate measurements.
3. Alpha Industries Inc. TRG Division, Woburn, MA
Performance Tests
Chapter 3
55
Performance Tests
Performance Test Procedures
Table 3-6. Recommended Test Equipment for 11970W
Instrument
Critical Specifications
Recommended
Model
Spectrum Analyzer
LO and IF ranges compatible with mixer
8566B
Swept Source
Compatible with W-Band Plug-In
8350B
W-Band Source Plug-In
Frequency Range: 75 to 110 GHz
Output Level: >0 dBm
Hughes1 47726H-1510
Amplifier
Output Level >18 dBm leveled
Frequency Range: 4 to 6 GHz
11975A
Power Meter
Compatible with Power Sensor
432A
Thermistor Mount
SWR: <2.0
Hughes 45776H-1100
Thermistor Mount
SWR: <1.3 @ 6 GHz
478A
Directional Coupler2
Coupling: 20 dB
Directivity: >20 dB
Auxiliary Arm SWR: <1.5
Hughes 45326H-1220
Variable Attentuator
Range: 0 to 15 dB
TRG3 W510
Adapter
SMA female to Type N female
P/N 1250-1404
Adapter
SMA female to SMA female
P/N 1250-1158
Adapter (2 required)
Type N male to SMA female
P/N 1250-1250
Cables (4 required)
Connectors: SMA male
P/N 5061-5458
Cable
Connectors: SMA male
Loss: <1.0 dB @ 20 GHz
P/N 8120-4396
Cable
Connectors: BNC male
11086A
Performance Tests
1. Hughes Aircraft Co. Electron Dynamics Division, Torrance, CA
2. Calibration data for the coupling ration between the output arm and the auxiliary arm is necessary for accurate measurements.
3. Alpha Industries Inc. TRG Division, Woburn, MA
56
Chapter 3
Performance Tests
Conversion Loss and Frequency Response
Conversion Loss and Frequency Response
Specifications
Conversion Loss:
For a CW RF input power of less than -20 dBm
11970K: 24 dB maximum
11970A: 26 dB maximum
11970Q: 28 dB maximum
11970U: 28 dB maximum
11970V: 40 dB maximum
11970W: 47 dB maximum
Frequency Response:
For an LO amplitude between 14.5 and 16.0 dBm
11970K: ±1.9 dB
11970A: ±1.9 dB
11970Q: ±1.9 dB
11970U: ±1.9 dB
11970V: ±2.1 dB
11970W: ±3.0 dB
For an LO amplitude between 14.0 and 18.0 dBm
11970K: ±2.8 dB
11970A: ±2.8 dB
11970Q: ±2.8 dB
1197OU: ±2.8 dB
Performance Tests
11970V: ±2.8 dB
11970W: ±4.0 dB
Chapter 3
57
Performance Tests
Conversion Loss and Frequency Response
Description
The frequency response and conversion loss are checked at four LO power levels. A known
input power is applied to the input of the mixer. The IF output power is measured on the
8566B Spectrum Analyzer. From these measurements, the conversion loss and frequency
response are calculated.
1. Connect an SMA cable from the 1st LO OUTPUT of the spectrum analyzer to the
INPUT of the amplifier. Connect a second SMA cable to the OUTPUT of the amplifier.
2. For 11970K: Zero and calibrate the power meter. For 11970A, 11970Q, 11970U, 11970V
or 11970W: Connect the 478A Power Sensor to the power meter sensor cables, then zero
the power meter.
3. Set the 8566A/B Spectrum Analyzer controls as follows:
SHIFT, ↑, KSU
FREQUENCY SPAN, 0, Hz
SHIFT, SWEEP, CONT, KSt
CENTER, 2, 4, [.] 5, GHz
CAUTION
When you are using a 11975A Amplifier with a 11970 Series Mixer, you
MUST set the amplifier rear-panel ALC switch to ON before you connect the
amplifier into the test setup. If the ALC switch is left in the OFF position, the
amplifier output power is high enough to destroy the mixer diodes.
4. On the 11975A Amplifier, set the rear panel ALC switch to ON, then connect the power
sensor to the free end of the cable installed on the OUTPUT connector of the amplifier.
Set the power meter Cal Factor to the appropriate value for a frequency of 4 GHz.
5. Adjust the amplifier OUTPUT POWER LEVEL for a reading of 14.0 ± 0.1 dBm on the
power meter. Record the LO power in Table 3-7.
6. Set the power meter Cal Factor to 100 percent.
7. Connect the equipment, as shown in Figure 3-1.
Performance Tests
CAUTION
Make sure the 8349A Amplifier, used in the signal generator system for
11970A, Q and U tests, is set for external leveling before you turn it on.
Failure to do so may allow the amplifier output to rise about 20 dBm (high
enough to damage the frequency tripler).
8. Set the signal generator for a CW output signal at the frequencies listed below:
11970K: 18.0 GHz
11970A: 26.5 GHz
11970Q: 33.0 GHz
11970U: 40.0 GHz
58
Chapter 3
Performance Tests
Conversion Loss and Frequency Response
11970V: 50.0 GHz
11970W: 75.0 GHz
Performance Tests
Chapter 3
59
Performance Tests
Conversion Loss and Frequency Response
9. Adjust the output power of the signal generator for a reading of approximately -10 dBm
on the power meter for the 11970K, V or W and for approximately -3 dBm for the
11970A, Q or U. (Make sure that the unleveled light is not on for the 11970V and
11970W. Vary the power by adjusting the rotary vane attenuator.)
10.On the spectrum analyzer, press SHIFT and [MKR/∆ ⇑ STP SIZE].
11.Set spectrum analyzer CENTER FREQUENCY to:
11970K: 22 GHz
11970A: 33 GHz
11970Q: 41 GHz
11970U: 50 GHz
11970V: 62 GHz
11970W: 92 GHz
12.On the spectrum analyzer, press SHIFT and SWEEP, CONT.
13.Set the spectrum analyzer controls as follows:
For 11970K, A, Q or U:
SHIFT, REFERENCE LEVEL, 3, 0, -dB
SCALE ENTER dB/DIV, 2, dB
RES BW, 1, MHz
FREQUENCY SPAN, 2, 0, MHz
CF STEP SIZE, 5, 0, 0, MHz
For 11970V or W:
SHIFT, REFERENCE LEVEL, 3, 0, -dB
SCALE ENTER dB/DIV, 2, dB
RES BW, 3, MHz
FREQUENCY SPAN, 2, 0, 0, MHz
CF STEP SIZE, 1, GHz
Press REFERENCE LEVEL:
Performance Tests
11970K: 3, 6, -dBm
11970A: 3, 8, -dBm
11970Q: 4, 0, -dBm
11970U: 4, 0, -dBm
11970V: 4, 8, -dBm
11970W: 5, 6, -dBm
60
Chapter 3
Performance Tests
Conversion Loss and Frequency Response
Then press CENTER FREQUENCY:
11970K: 1, 8, GHz
11970A: 2, 6, [.] 5, GHz
11970Q: 3, 3, GHz
11970U: 4, 0, GHz
11970V: 5, 0, GHz
11970W: 7, 5, GHz
14.Press MARKER, PEAK SEARCH. If necessary, press MKR→CF and use DISPLAY LINE
ENTER to find the average of the signal’s peak variations. (When testing 11970V or
11970W mixers, it is important to re-zero the power meter for each measurement.)
15.Record the following in Table 3-7:
Marker Frequency
Marker Amplitude
Power Meter Reading
Power Sensor Cal Factor or Correction Factor (dB)
Directional Coupler Coupling Factor
For the purposes of this measurement, the directional coupler coupling factor
is defined as the ratio of the power at the output flange to the power at the
coupled flange.
NOTE
16.Calculate the conversion loss of the mixer with the following equation:
Conversion Loss = Power Meter Reading - 10 log(Cal Factor) - Spectrum Analyzer
Marker Amplitude - Coupling Factor
(or given the Power Meter Correction Factor in dB: Conversion Loss = Power Meter
Reading + Power Meter Correction Factor - Spectrum Analyzer Marker Amplitude Coupling Factor)
For example:
Power Meter Reading = -10.03 dBm
Cal Factor = 94.8%
Performance Tests
or Correction Factor = -0.232 dB
Spectrum Analyzer reading = -39.78 dBm
Coupling Factor 8.93 dB
then:
Conversion Loss (-10.03) - 10 log(.948) - (-39.78 dBm) - 8.93 dB = 21.05 dB
Chapter 3
61
Performance Tests
Conversion Loss and Frequency Response
or Conversion Loss = (-10.03 dBm) - (-0.232) - (-39.78 dBm) - 8.93 dB = 21.05 dB
Performance Tests
17.Record the conversion loss in Table 3-7.
62
Chapter 3
Performance Tests
Conversion Loss and Frequency Response
NOTE
The conversion loss indicated on the mixer calibration label includes the loss
in the IF cable. If other than the specified cable is used, then the loss in that
cable must be compensated for when making amplitude measurements.
18.Increment the frequency of the signal generator 500 MHz higher.
19.Press DATA [↑], then PEAK SEARCH and MKR→CF on the spectrum analyzer.
20.Repeat steps 15 through 18 until the appropriate frequency listed below is reached.
11970K: 26.5 GHz
11970A: 40.0 GHz
11970Q: 50.0 GHz
1197OU: 60.0 GHz
11970V: 75.0 GHz
11970W: 110.0 GHz
21.Repeat steps 1 through 19 for LO inputs to the mixer of 14.5 dBm, 16.0 dBm, and
18.0 dBm. In step 5, measure each of these levels at the end of the cable normally
connected to the mixer LO input.
22.Frequency response is the difference between the maximum and minimum conversion
losses recorded in Table 3-7. For LO power levels between 14.5 and 16.0 dBm this
difference must be less than:
3.8 dB (for 11970K, 11970A, 11970Q or 1197OU)
4.2 dB (for 11970V)
6.0 dB (for 11970W)
• For LO power levels between 14.0 and 18.0 dBm, the difference must be less than:
5.6 dB (for 11970K, 11970A, 11970Q, 11970U or 11970V)
8.0 dB (for 11970W)
23.Maximum conversion loss must not exceed the following limits:
For an LO input power between 14.0 and 18.0 dBm.
11970K: 24 dB
11970A: 26 dB
Performance Tests
11970Q: 28 dB
11970U: 28 dB
11970V: 40 dB
11970W: 46 dB
Chapter 3
63
Performance Tests
Conversion Loss and Frequency Response
Performance Tests
Figure 3-1 Performance Test Setups (1 of 2)
64
Chapter 3
Performance Tests
Conversion Loss and Frequency Response
Figure 3-2 Performance Test Setups (2 of 2)
Performance Tests
Chapter 3
65
Performance Tests
Conversion Loss and Frequency Response
Table 3-7 Conversion Loss and Frequency Response Test Record
CONVERSION LOSS AND FREQUENCY RESPONSE for an LO POWER
of_____________dBm
Model Number____________ Date_____________
Serial Number______________Tested By _________________
Marker
Amplitude
Power Meter
Readings
Power Sensor
Cal Factor
Directional Coupler
Coupling Factor
Conversion
Loss
GHz
dBm
dBm
% or dB
dB
dB
Performance Tests
Marker
Frequency
66
Chapter 3
Performance Tests
Conversion Loss and Frequency Response
Table 3-7 Conversion Loss and Frequency Response Test Record
CONVERSION LOSS AND FREQUENCY RESPONSE for an LO POWER
of_____________dBm
Marker
Frequency
Marker
Amplitude
Power Meter
Readings
Power Sensor
Cal Factor
Directional Coupler
Coupling Factor
Conversion
Loss
GHz
dBm
dBm
% or dB
dB
dB
Frequency Response = _______________dB
Performance Tests
Chapter 3
67
Performance Tests
AVERAGE NOISE LEVEL TEST
AVERAGE NOISE LEVEL TEST
Specification
11970K: -110 dBm
11970A: -108 dBm
11970Q: -104 dBm
11970U: -104 dBm
11970V: -92 dBm
11970W: -85 dBm
Description
The average displayed noise level in a 1 kHz bandwidth, using external mixing with the
8566A/B Spectrum Analyzer, is checked at several LO power levels. This is accomplished
by applying a known power to the input of the mixer. The difference between the
amplitude of the known signal and the noise floor is measured. From these measurements,
the average noise level in a 1 kHz bandwidth is calculated.
1. Connect an SMA cable from the spectrum analyzer LO OUTPUT to the INPUT of the
11975A Amplifier. Connect a second SMA cable to the amplifier OUTPUT.
2. For 11970K: Zero and calibrate the power meter. For 11970A, 11970Q, 11970U, 11970V
or 11970W: Connect the 478A Power Sensor to the power meter sensor cables, then zero
the power meter.
3. On the 8566A/B Spectrum Analyzer, set the controls as follows:
SHIFT, DATA STEP [↑] KSU
FREQUENCY SPAN, 0, Hz
SHIFT, SWEEP, CONT, KSt
CENTER FREQUENCY, 2, 4 [.] 5, GHz
Performance Tests
CAUTION
When you are using a 11975A Amplifier with a 11970 Series Mixer, you
MUST set the amplifier rear-panel ALC switch to ON before you connect the
amplifier into the test setup. If the ALC switch is left in the OFF position, the
amplifier output power is high enough to destroy the mixer diodes.
68
Chapter 3
Performance Tests
AVERAGE NOISE LEVEL TEST
4. On the 11975A Amplifier, set the rear panel ALC switch to ON. Then connect the power sensor to
the free end of the cable connected to the output of the amplifier. Set the power meter calibration
factor to the value shown on the power sensor calibration label for 4 GHz.
5. Adjust the amplifier OUTPUT POWER LEVEL control for a reading of 14.5 ± 0.1 dBm
on the power meter.
Performance Tests
Chapter 3
69
Performance Tests
AVERAGE NOISE LEVEL TEST
CAUTION
Make sure the 8349A Amplifier, used in the signal generator system for
11970A, Q and U tests, is set for external leveling before you turn it on.
Failure to set this amplifier for external leveling may allow the amplifier
output to rise about 20 dBm, which is high enough to damage the frequency
tripler.
6. Disconnect the power sensor and connect the equipment as shown in Figure 3-1.
7. On the 8566A/B Spectrum Analyzer, set the controls as follows:
For 11970K, A, Q or U:
SHIFT, DATA STEP [↑] KSU
FREQUENCY SPAN 3, 0, MHz
VIDEO BW, 1, 0, 0, Hz
RES BW, 1, 0, 0, kHz
For 11970V or W:
SHIFT, DATA STEP [↑] KSU
FREQUENCY SPAN, 1, 0, 0, MHz
VIDEO BW, 3, MHz
RES BW, 3, MHz
and CENTER FREQUENCY:
For 11970K: 2, 2, GHz
For 11970A: 3, 3, GHz
For 11970Q: 4, 1, GHz
For 11970U: 5, 0,GHz
For 11970V: 6, 2,[.] 5, GHz
For 11970W: 9, 2,[.] 5,GHz
Performance Tests
8. Press SHIFT and SWEEP, CONT, KSt.
9. Press CENTER FREQUENCY again and enter the appropriate center frequency as follows:
For 11970K: 1, 8, GHz
For 11970A: 2, 6, [.] 5, GHz
For 11970Q: 3, 3, GHz
For 11970U: 4, 0, GHz
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Chapter 3
Performance Tests
AVERAGE NOISE LEVEL TEST
For 11970V: 5, 0, GHz
For 11970W: 7, 5, GHz
10.Record the center frequency in Table 3-8.
11.Set the power meter CAL FACTOR to the value shown on the sensor calibration label
for the center frequency indicated on the spectrum analyzer.
12.Set the signal generator output to produce a CW signal near the center of the spectrum
analyzer display. Next, set the signal generator output power level to produce a reading
of approximately -10 dBm on the power meter. Record the power meter reading in Table
3-8. (When testing the 11970V or W, re-zero the power meter for each measurement.)
13.Subtract the coupling factor for the directional coupler from the power meter reading,
then add the power meter correction factor (dB) to the power meter reading. Record this
corrected power reading in Table 3-8.
Corrected Power Reading = Power Meter Reading - Coupling Factor + Power Meter
Correction Factor.
For example:
(-10.03 dBm) - 9.82 dB + 0.73 = -19.1 dBm
14.On the 8566A/B, press MARKER, PEAK SEARCH, then MKR→REF LVL. Record the marker
amplitude in Table 3-8.
15.Move the marker to the displayed noise floor, or turn off the CW signal, and record the
marker amplitude in Table 3-8. (Some sources may have excessive wide band noise when
the RF signal is turned off, so that the noise floor must be measured with the signal left
on.)
NOTE
Step 15 requires a signal source with a wide band phase noise characteristic
that is at least 6 dB better than the measured average noise level.
16.The Average Noise Level is calculated as follows:
Average Noise Level = Corrected Power Reading (step 13) - Marker Amplitude (step 14)
+ Marker Amplitude (step 15) - Measurement Bandwidth Correction Factor
11970K, A, Q and U Bandwidth Correction = 10log(l00kHz/ 1 kHz)
11970V and W Bandwidth Correction = 10log(3MHz/ 1 kHz)
For example:
Performance Tests
Average Noise Level = (-19.1 dBm) - (-32.3 dBm) + (-77.7 dBm) - 34.77 dB = - 99.3
dBm
17.Enter the calculated value in Table 3-8.
The Average Noise Level must be less than:
-110 dBm (for the 11970K)
-108 dBm (for the 11970A)
Chapter 3
71
Performance Tests
AVERAGE NOISE LEVEL TEST
-104 dBm (for the 11970Q)
-104 dBm (for the 11970U)
-92 dBm (for the 11970V)
-85 dBm (for the 11970W)
18.Enter the following push button commands on the 8566A/B:
MARKER, OFF
REFERENCE LEVEL, 0, dBm
19.Repeat steps 9 through 17 at the following center frequencies:
11970K: 22 and 26.5 GHz
11970A: 33 and 40 GHz
11970Q: 41 and 50 GHz
11970U: 50 and 60 GHz
11970V: 62 and 75 GHz
11970W: 92 and 110 GHz
20.Repeat steps 1 through 18 for a power level of 16.0 dBm at the 11970 Mixer LO
connector.
Table 3-8 Average Noise Test Record
AVERAGE NOISE LEVEL
Model Number______________ Date______________
Serial Number________________ Tested By______________
Center
Frequency
Power
Meter
Reading
Power
Meter
Correction
Factor
Directional
Coupler
Coupling
Factor
Corrected
Power
REading
Signal
Marker
Amplitude
Noise
Floor
Marker
Amplitude
Bandwidth
Correction
Factor
Average
Noise
Level
Units
GHz
dBm
dB
dB
dBm
dBm
dB
dB
dBm
Step
10
12
13
13
13
14
15
16
16
LO
Power
= 14.5
Performance Tests
LO
Power
= 16.0
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Chapter 3
Service
4 Service
73
Service
Service
Maintenance
Maintenance
The only maintenance required for the 11970 Series Mixers is preventive maintenance.
When you are not using your mixer, cover its waveguide input with its waveguide cap.
Also, though the 11970 Mixers can absorb more punishment than is normal for such
devices, you should avoid subjecting them to unnecessary shock or vibration.
Repairs
The 11970 Mixers are NOT field-repairable. If your mixer fails, DO NOT try to repair it
yourself, you will void the warranty. Instead, notify the nearest Agilent office.
Replaceable Parts
For a list of replaceable parts and accessories, see Table 4-2.
Circuit Description
A schematic diagram of a 11970 Series Harmonic Mixer is shown in Figure 4-1. The mixer
circuit employs two diodes arranged as an anti-parallel pair. These diodes are the
termination for the open end of the waveguide output. By employing a matched diode pair,
even harmonic mixing is enhanced while odd harmonic mixing is suppressed.
The waveguide input is exponentially tapered in both height and width. The height taper
provides impedance matching between the high impedance waveguide input and the low,
dynamic impedance of the diodes. The width taper creates a high-pass filter response
which isolates the LO harmonics from the standard-height waveguide. Without this
isolation, the LO harmonics would reflect from the standard-height waveguide back into
the mixer and destructively interfere with the desired mixing product.
LO harmonics are confined to the immediate vicinity of the diode pair by the low-pass
filter, which has as its first element a metal -insulator -semiconductor (MIS) capacitor.
This improves the out-of-band response. The diplexer separates the 3 - 6 GHz LO signal
from the 321.4 MHz IF signal.
74
Chapter 4
Service
Maintenance
Service
Figure 4-1 11970 Series Mixer Schematic Diagram
Table 4-1
Model
Chapter 4
LPF Fco
(GHz)
11970K
4.4
11970A
5.0
11970Q
5.0
11970U
6.2
11970V
5.4
11970W
6.2
75
Service
Service
Maintenance
Table 4-2 Accessories and Replaceable Parts
Part Number
Description
5061-5460:
Mixer Connector Kit (Option 009), includes the following three
items:
5061-5458
Cable, 1 meter long, SMA male connectors (3 required)
8710-0510
Wrench, 5/16-inch, open-end
8710-1539
Ball Driver, 3/32-inch
3030-0221
Socket Head Cap Screw, 4-40 thread, .375 inches long (flange
connecting screw for 11970K and 11970A)
1390-0671
Socket Head Cap Screw, captive, 4-40 thread, .290 inches long
(flange connecting screw for 11970Q, 11970U, 11970V or
11970W)
11970-40001
11970K Waveguide Cap
11970-40002
11970A Waveguide Cap
11970-40003
Waveguide Cap for 11970Q or 11970U
08486-40103
Waveguide Cap for 11970V or 11970W
76
Chapter 4
Service
Maintenance
Service
Table 4-3 Agilent Technologies Sales and Service Offices
UNITED STATES
Instrument Support Center
Agilent Technologies
(800) 403-0801
EUROPEAN FIELD OPERATIONS
Headquarters
Agilent Technologies S.A.
150, Route du Nant-d’Avril
1217 Meyrin 2/ Geneva
Switzerland
(41 22) 780.8111
France
Agilent Technologies France
1 Avenue Du Canada
Zone D’Activite De
Courtaboeuf
F-91947 Les Ulis Cedex
France
(33 1) 69 82 60 60
Germany
Agilent Technologies GmbH
Agilent Technologies Strasse
61352 Bad Homburg v.d.H
Germany
(49 6172) 16-0
Great Britain
Agilent Technologies Ltd.
Eskdale Road, Winnersh
Triangle Wokingham, Berkshire
RG41 5DZ England
(44 118) 9696622
INTERCON FIELD OPERATIONS
Headquarters
Agilent Technologies
3495 Deer Creek Rd.
Palo Alto, CA 94304-1316
USA
(415) 857-5027
Japan
Agilent Technologies Japan, Ltd.
Measurement Assistance Center
9-1, Takakura-Cho, Hachioji-Shi,
Tokyo 192-8510, Japan
TEL (81) -426-56-7832
FAX (81) -426-56-7840
Australia
Agilent Technologies Australia
Ltd.
31-41 Joseph Street
Blackburn, Victoria 3130
(61 3) 895-2895
Canada
Agilent Technologies (Canada)
Ltd.
17500 South Service Road
Trans-Canada Highway
Kirkland, Quebec H9J 2X8
Canada
(514) 697-4232
Singapore
Agilent Technologies
Singapore (Pte.) Ltd.
150 Beach Road
#29-00 Gateway West
Singapore 0718
(65) 291-9088
Taiwan
Agilent Technologies Taiwan
8th Floor, H-P Building
337 Fu Hsing North Road
Taipei, Taiwan
(886 2) 712-0404
China
China Agilent Technologies
38 Bei San Huan X1 Road
Shuang Yu Shu
Hai Dian District
Beijing, China
(86 1) 256-6888
Chapter 4
77
Service
Service
Maintenance
78
Chapter 4