Agilent Technologies 4396B Network Card User Manual

Agilent 4396B Network/Spectrum/Impedance
Analyzer
User's Guide
SERIAL NUMBERS
This manual applies directly to instruments which have the serial
number prex JP1KE.
Agilent Part No. 04396-90051
Printed in Japan May 2003
Fifth Edition
c Copyright 1997, 2000, 2002, 2003 Agilent Technologies Japan, Ltd.
Manual Printing History
The manual printing date and part number indicate its current
edition. The printing date changes when a new edition is printed.
(Minor corrections and updates that are incorporated at reprint do not
cause the date to change.) The manual part number changes when
extensive technical changes are incorporated.
March 1997 : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : First Edition (part number: 04396-90021)
July 1997 : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Second Edition (part number: 04396-90031)
March 2000 : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Third Edition (part number: 04396-90031)
November 2002 : : : : : : : : : Fourth Edition (part number: 04396-90041)
May 2003 : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Fifth Edition (part number: 04396-90051)
iii
Certication
Agilent Technologies certies that this product met its published
specications at the time of shipment from the factory. Agilent
Technologies further certies that its calibration measurements are
traceable to the United States National Institute of Standards and
Technology, to the extent allowed by the Institution's calibration
facility, or to the calibration facilities of other International Standards
Organization members.
Warranty
This Agilent Technologies instrument product is warranted against
defects in material and workmanship for a period of one year from
the date of shipment, except that in the case of certain components
listed in General Information of this manual, the warranty shall
be for the specied period. During the warranty period, Agilent
Technologies will, at its option, either repair or replace products that
prove to be defective.
For warranty service or repair, this product must be returned to a
service facility designated by Agilent Technologies. Buyer shall prepay
shipping charges to Agilent Technologies and Agilent Technologies
shall pay shipping charges to return the product to Buyer. However,
Buyer shall pay all shipping charges, duties, and taxes for products
returned to Agilent Technologies from another country.
Agilent Technologies warrants that its software and rmware
designated by Agilent Technologies for use with an instrument will
execute its programming instruction when property installed on that
instrument. Agilent Technologies does not warrant that the operation
of the instrument, or software, or rmware will be uninterrupted or
error free.
Limitation Of Warranty
The foregoing warranty shall not apply to defects resulting from
improper or inadequate maintenance by Buyer, Buyer-supplied
software or interfacing, unauthorized modication or misuse,
operation outside the environmental specications for the product, or
improper site preparation or maintenance.
No other warranty is expressed or implied. Agilent Technologies
specically disclaims the implied warranties of merchantability and
tness for a particular purpose.
iv
Exclusive Remedies
Assistance
The remedies provided herein are buyer's sole and exclusive
remedies. Agilent Technologies shall not be liable for any direct,
indirect, special, incidental, or consequential damages, whether based
on contract, tort, or any other legal theory.
Product maintenance agreements and other customer assistance
agreements are available for Agilent Technologies products.
For any assistance, contact your nearest Agilent Technologies Sales
and Service Oce. Addresses are provided at the back of this manual.
v
Safety Summary
The following general safety precautions must be observed during all
phases of operation, service, and repair of this instrument. Failure to
comply with these precautions or with specic WARNINGS elsewhere
in this manual may impair the protection provided by the equipment.
In addition it violates safety standards of design, manufacture, and
intended use of the instrument.
The Agilent Technologies assumes no liability for the customer's
failure to comply with these requirements.
Note
4396B comply with INSTALLATION CATEGORY II and POLLUTION
DEGREE 2 in IEC1010-1. 4396B are INDOOR USE product.
Note
LEDs in this product are Class 1 in accordance with IEC825-1.
CLASS 1 LED PRODUCT
Ground The Instrument
To avoid electric shock hazard, the instrument chassis and cabinet
must be connected to a safety earth ground by the supplied power
cable with earth blade.
DO NOT Operate In An Explosive Atmosphere
Do not operate the instrument in the presence of ammable gasses or
fumes. Operation of any electrical instrument in such an environment
constitutes a denite safety hazard.
Keep Away From Live Circuits
Operating personnel must not remove instrument covers. Component
replacement and internal adjustments must be made by qualied
maintenance personnel. Do not replace components with the power
cable connected. Under certain conditions, dangerous voltages may
exist even with the power cable removed. To avoid injuries, always
disconnect power and discharge circuits before touching them.
DO NOT Service Or Adjust Alone
Do not attempt internal service or adjustment unless another person,
capable of rendering rst aid and resuscitation, is present.
DO NOT Substitute Parts Or Modify Instrument
Because of the danger of introducing additional hazards, do not
install substitute parts or perform unauthorized modications to the
instrument. Return the instrument to a Agilent Technologies Sales and
Service Oce for service and repair to ensure that safety features are
maintained.
vi
Dangerous Procedure Warnings
Warnings , such as the example below, precede potentially dangerous
procedures throughout this manual. Instructions contained in the
warnings must be followed.
Warning
Dangerous voltages, capable of causing death, are present in this
instrument. Use extreme caution when handling, testing, and
adjusting this instrument.
vii
Safety Symbols
General denitions of safety symbols used on equipment or in manuals
are listed below.
Instruction manual symbol: the product is marked
with this symbol when it is necessary for the user to
refer to the instruction manual.
Alternating current.
Direct current.
On (Supply).
O (Supply).
In position of push-button switch.
Out position of push-button switch.
Frame (or chassis) terminal. A connection to the
frame (chassis) of the equipment which normally
include all exposed metal structures.
This Warning sign denotes a hazard. It calls
attention to a procedure, practice, condition or the
like, which, if not correctly performed or adhered to,
could result in injury or death to personnel.
This Caution sign denotes a hazard. It calls attention
to a procedure, practice, condition or the like, which,
if not correctly performed or adhered to, could result
in damage to or destruction of part or all of the
product.
This Note sign denotes important information. It
calls attention to a procedure, practice, condition or
the like, which is essential to highlight.
Axed to product containing static sensitive devices
use anti-static handling procedures to prevent
electrostatic discharge damage to component.
viii
Typeface Conventions
Bold
Italics
Computer
4HARDKEYS5
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
SOFTKEYS
Boldface type is used when a term is dened.
For example: icons are symbols.
Italic type is used for emphasis and for titles
of manuals and other publications.
Italic type is also used for keyboard entries
when a name or a variable must be typed in
place of the words in italics. For example:
copy lename means to type the word copy,
to type a space, and then to type the name of
a le such as file1.
Computer font is used for on-screen prompts
and messages.
Labeled keys on the instrument front panel
are enclosed in 4 5.
Softkeys located to the right of the CRT are
enclosed in .
NNNNN
ix
How To Use This Manual
This is a user's guide for the 4396B Network/Spectrum Analyzer. This
manual contains two quick start tours, measurement examples, an
installation and setup guide and a table that tells you where to nd
more information.
Installation and Setup Guide
Chapters 1 provides installation information that includes an
initial inspection, power line setting, test-set setup, and keyboard
connection. If you do not prepare the analyzer yet, read this section
rst.
Quick Start Tour
Chapters 2 and 3 provide step-by-step instructions for you if you are
operating the analyzer for the rst time. By performing these tours,
you will become familiar with the basic operations of the analyzer.
Chapter 2 is for the spectrum analyzer mode, and chapter 3 is for the
network analyzer mode.
Measurement Examples
Chapters 4 and 5 provide how to use the analyzer for typical network
and spectrum measurement. Chapter 4 contains measurement
examples of spectrum measurement applications, and chapter 5
contains examples of network measurement applications.
For More Information
x
Appendix A provides a table that helps you nd the information you
need in the documentation set.
Documentation Map
The following manuals are available for the analyzer.
User's Guide (Agilent Part Number 04396-900x1 1 )
The User's Guide walks you through system setup and initial power-on, shows how to
make basic measurements, explains commonly used features, and typical application
measurement examples. After you receive your analyzer, begin with this manual.
Task Reference (Agilent Part Number 04396-900x0 1)
Task Reference helps you to learn how to use the analyzer. This manual provides simple
step-by-step instructions without concepts.
Function Reference (Agilent Part Number 04396-900x2 1 )
The Function Reference describes all function accessed from the front panel keys and
softkeys. It also provides information on options and accessories available, specications,
system performance, and some topics about the analyzer's features.
Programming Guide (Agilent Part Number 04396-900x3 1 )
The Programming Guide shows how to write and use BASIC program to control the
analyzer and describes how Instrument BASIC works with the analyzer..
GPIB Command Reference (Agilent Part Number 04396-900x4 1 )
The GPIB Command Reference provides a summary of all available GPIB commands. It
also provides information on the status reporting structure and the trigger system (these
features conform to the SCPI standard).
Option 010 Operating Handbook (Agilent Part Number 04396-900x6 1 )
The option 010 Operation Handbook describes the unique impedance measurement
functions of the 4396B with option 010.
Instrument BASIC Manual Set (Agilent Part Number 04155-90151(E2083-90000))
The Instrument BASIC User's Handbook introduces you to the Instrument BASIC
programming language, provide some helpful hints on getting the most use from it, and
provide a general programming reference. It is divided into three books, Instrument
BASIC Programming Techniques, Instrument BASIC Interface Techniques, and
Instrument BASIC Language Reference.
Performance Test Manual (Agilent Part Number 04396-901x0 1 )
The Performance Test Manual explains how to verify conformance to published
specications.
Service Manual (Agilent Part Number 04396-901x1 1 )
The Service Manual explains how to adjust, troubleshoot, and repair the instrument.
This manual is option 0BW only.
1 The number indicated by \x" in the part number of each manual, is allocated for numbers increased by one each
time a revision is made. The latest edition comes with the product.
xi
Contents
1. Installation and Setup Guide
Incoming Inspection
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Replacing Fuse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Fuse Selection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Power Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Power Cable . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Operation Environment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Providing clearance to dissipate heat at installation site
Instruction for Cleaning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Rack/Handle Installation . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Option 1CN Handle Kit . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Installing the Handle . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Option 1CM Rack Mount Kit . . . . . . . . . . . .
Mounting the Rack . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Option 1CP Rack Mount & Handle Kit . . . . . . .
Mounting the Handle and Rack . . . . . . . . .
1-1
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1-3
1-3
1-4
1-4
1-6
1-6
1-6
1-7
1-7
1-7
1-8
1-8
1-8
1-8
Front View . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1-9
Rear View . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Connecting a Test Set for Network Analyzer Mode . .
Connecting an Active Probe . . . . . . . . . . . . .
For Spectrum Analyzer Mode . . . . . . . . . . .
For Network Analyzer Mode . . . . . . . . . . .
Connecting a Keyboard . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Setting Up a 75 Measurement For Spectrum Analyzer
Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2. Spectrum Analyzer Tour
Before You Leave On The Tour . . . . . . . . . . .
Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Required Equipment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Step 1: Preparing for a Measurement . . . . . . . .
Turning ON the analyzer . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Connecting the Test Signal Source . . . . . . . . .
Step 2: Setting Up the Analyzer . . . . . . . . . . .
Setting the Active Channel . . . . . . . . . . . .
Setting the Analyzer Type . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Selecting the Input . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Setting the Frequency Range . . . . . . . . . . .
Step 3: Making a Measurement . . . . . . . . . . .
Reading the Peak Level Using the Marker . . . . .
Setting the Resolution Bandwidth to See Low Level
Signals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
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1-11
1-12
1-14
1-14
1-15
1-17
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1-18
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2-1
2-1
2-2
2-3
2-3
2-3
2-4
2-4
2-5
2-6
2-6
2-8
2-8
.
2-9
Contents-1
Searching for Harmonics Using the Search Function
Step 4: Saving and Recalling Analyzer Settings . . . .
Preparing the Disk . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Saving Analyzer Settings . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Entering the File Name . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Recalling the Analyzer Settings . . . . . . . . . .
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2-11
2-12
2-12
2-13
2-13
2-15
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3-1
3-1
3-2
3-3
3-3
3-3
3-5
3-5
3-6
3-7
3-8
3-9
3-10
3-12
3-12
3-14
3-14
3-14
Basic Setup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Harmonic Distortion Measurement . . . . . . . . . . .
Test Signal and Test Device . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Measurement Setup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Connection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Analyzer Settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Multiple Peak Search and Marker List For Harmonic
Distortion Measurement . . . . . . . . . . . . .
C/N Measurement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Test Signal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Measurement Setup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Connection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Analyzer Settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Fixed 1Marker and Noise Format for C/N Measurement
Tracking a Drifting Signal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Test Signal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Measurement Setup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Connection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Analyzer Settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Tracking an Unstable Signal . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Network Measurement with Spectrum Monitor . . . . .
Measurement Setup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Connection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Analyzer Settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Performing Calibration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Network Measurement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4-1
4-2
4-2
4-2
4-2
4-3
3. Network Analyzer Tour
Before You Leave On The Tour . . . . . . .
Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Required Equipment . . . . . . . . . . .
Step 1: Preparing for the Measurement . . .
Turning ON the Analyzer . . . . . . . . .
Connecting the DUT . . . . . . . . . . .
Step 2: Setting up the Analyzer . . . . . . .
Setting the Active Channel . . . . . . . .
Setting the Analyzer Type . . . . . . . . .
Selecting the Input . . . . . . . . . . . .
Setting the Frequency Range . . . . . . .
Performing the Automatic Scaling . . . . .
Step 3: Making a Calibration . . . . . . . .
Step 4: Reading a Measurement Result . . . .
Reading a Measured Value by Using Marker
Step 5: Printing Out the Measurement Result
Conguring and Connecting a Printer . . .
Making a Hardcopy of the LCD Display . .
4. Spectrum Measurement Examples
Contents-2
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4-3
4-4
4-4
4-4
4-4
4-4
4-4
4-5
4-5
4-5
4-5
4-5
4-6
4-7
4-7
4-7
4-8
4-8
4-8
Monitoring the Leakage Signal at the B Input Using the
Spectrum Monitor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
AM Signal Measurement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Test Signal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Measurement Setup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Connection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Analyzer Settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Carrier Amplitude and Frequency Measurement Using
the Marker . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Modulating Frequency and Modulation Index
Measurement Using 1Marker . . . . . . . . . . .
FM Signal Measurement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Test Signal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Measurement Setup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Connection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Analyzer Settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Frequency Deviation of Wide Band FM Signal . . . .
Frequency Deviation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Carrier Level and Modulating Frequency . . . . . .
Narrow Band FM Signal Measurement . . . . . . . .
Burst Signal Measurement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Test Signal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Measurement Setup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Connection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Analyzer Settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Gated Sweep for Burst Signal Measurement . . . . .
Zero Span for Time Domain Measurement . . . . . .
5. Network Measurement Examples
Basic Setup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Example DUT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Measuring Transmission Characteristics of a Filter
Measurement Setup . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Connection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Analyzer Settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Performing Calibration . . . . . . . . . . .
Measurement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Read Out Insertion Loss Using the Marker . . .
3 dB Bandwidth . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Ripple or Flatness . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Measuring Phase Response . . . . . . . . . .
Using the Expanded Phase Mode . . . . . . .
Measuring Electrical Length . . . . . . . . . . .
Measurement Setup . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Measurement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Electrical Length Adjustment . . . . . . . . .
Measuring Phase Distortion . . . . . . . . . . .
Measurement Setup . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Deviation from Linear Phase . . . . . . . . .
Group Delay Measurement . . . . . . . . . .
Smoothing Group Delay Trace . . . . . . . .
Where to Find More Information . . . . . . .
Reection Measurement . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Measurement Setup . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Connection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
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4-9
4-10
4-10
4-10
4-10
4-10
4-10
4-11
4-12
4-12
4-12
4-12
4-12
4-12
4-12
4-13
4-14
4-16
4-16
4-16
4-16
4-16
4-17
4-17
5-1
5-1
5-2
5-2
5-2
5-2
5-2
5-3
5-3
5-4
5-5
5-6
5-7
5-8
5-8
5-8
5-8
5-10
5-10
5-10
5-10
5-11
5-11
5-12
5-13
5-13
Contents-3
Analyzer Settings . . . . . . . . . . .
Performing Calibration . . . . . . . .
Measurement . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Return Loss and Reection Coecient . .
Standing Wave Ratio . . . . . . . . . .
S-Parameters Measurement . . . . . . .
Data Readout Using the Marker . . . .
Impedance Measurement . . . . . . . .
Admittance Measurement . . . . . . . .
List Sweep . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Sweep Time Reduction . . . . . . . . .
Analyzer Settings . . . . . . . . . . .
Creating a Sweep List . . . . . . . . .
Performing List Sweep . . . . . . . .
Dynamic Range Enhancement . . . . . .
Filter Testing Using Limit Lines . . . . . .
Example of Limit Lines For Filter Testing
Analyzer Settings . . . . . . . . . . .
Creating Limit Lines . . . . . . . . .
Performing Limit Test . . . . . . . . .
Separated Limit Lines . . . . . . . . . .
Gain Compression Measurement . . . . . .
Measurement Setup . . . . . . . . . . .
Connection . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Analyzer Settings . . . . . . . . . . .
Performance Calibration . . . . . . .
Measurement . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Absolute Output Level Measurement . . .
A. For More Information
Index
Contents-4
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5-13
5-13
5-14
5-14
5-15
5-16
5-16
5-17
5-18
5-19
5-19
5-19
5-20
5-20
5-21
5-22
5-22
5-22
5-22
5-23
5-24
5-25
5-25
5-25
5-25
5-26
5-26
5-27
Figures
1-1.
1-2.
1-3.
1-4.
1-5.
1-6.
1-7.
1-8.
1-9.
2-1.
3-1.
3-2.
3-3.
4-1.
4-2.
4-3.
4-4.
4-5.
4-6.
4-7.
4-8.
4-9.
4-10.
4-11.
4-12.
4-13.
4-14.
4-15.
4-16.
4-17.
4-18.
4-19.
4-20.
4-21.
4-22.
5-1.
5-2.
5-3.
5-4.
5-5.
5-6.
Power Cable Supplied . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Rack Mount Kits Installation . . . . . . . . . . . .
Connecting a Transmission/Reection Test Set . . . .
Connecting an S-parameter Test Set . . . . . . . . .
Spectrum Analyzer Mode (One Active Probe) . . . . .
Network Analyzer Mode (One Active Probe) . . . . .
Network Analyzer Mode (Two Active Probes) . . . .
Using a Transmission/Reection Test Set . . . . . . .
Connecting a Keyboard . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Required Equipment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Required Equipment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Transmission/Reection Test Set Setup . . . . . . . .
S-Parameter Test Set Setup . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Basic Connection for Spectrum Measurement . . . . .
Harmonics Measurement Setup . . . . . . . . . . .
Using Multiple Peak Search and Marker List to Measure
Harmonic Distortion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Using Markers and Noise Format to Measure C/N Ratio
Display When Starting Signal Track . . . . . . . . .
Display After Signal Has Drifted . . . . . . . . . . .
Inuence on Network Measurement by Leakage from
an Adjacent Circuit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Network Measurement With Spectrum Monitor Setup .
Transmission Measurement Result (Inuenced by
Leakage) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Spectrum Monitoring Result at the B Input . . . . . .
Dual Display of Network and Spectrum Measurement .
Carrier Amplitude and Frequency of AM Signal . . .
Modulating Frequency of AM Signal . . . . . . . . .
Wide Band FM Signal Measurement . . . . . . . . .
Zooming Carrier Signal of FM Signal . . . . . . . . .
Narrow Band FM Signal Measurement . . . . . . . .
Maximum and Minimum Envelopes of Narrow Band FM
Signal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Superimposing Spectrum and Envelopes . . . . . . .
Burst Signal Measurement Setup . . . . . . . . . . .
Burst Signal Measurement Result Using Normal Sweep
Burst Signal Measurement Using Gated Sweep . . . .
Burst Signal Spectrum and Test Signal Envelope . . .
Transmission Measurement Setup . . . . . . . . . .
Response of a Dielectric Filter . . . . . . . . . . . .
Using the Marker to Determine 3 dB Bandwidth . . .
Using Peak Search to Determine Ripple . . . . . . .
Amplitude and Phase Response of a Dielectric Filter .
Expanded Phase Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1-5
1-7
1-12
1-13
1-14
1-15
1-16
1-17
1-18
2-2
3-2
3-3
3-4
4-1
4-2
4-3
4-4
4-6
4-6
4-7
4-7
4-8
4-9
4-9
4-11
4-11
4-13
4-14
4-14
4-15
4-15
4-16
4-17
4-17
4-18
5-2
5-3
5-4
5-5
5-6
5-7
Contents-5
5-7. Phase Response of a Dielectric Filter Over a 50 MHz
Span . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5-8. Electrical Length Adjustment . . . . . . . . . . .
5-9. Deviation From Linear Phase . . . . . . . . . . .
5-10. Group Delay . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5-11. Reection Measurement . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5-12. Reection Measurement Setup . . . . . . . . . . .
5-13. Return Loss . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5-14. SWR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5-15. S11 on Polar Chart . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5-16. Impedance Measurement . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5-17. Admittance Measurement . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5-18. Sweep List Edit Display . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5-19. Dynamic Range Enhancement . . . . . . . . . . .
5-20. Editing the Limit Lines . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5-21. Separated Limit Lines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5-22. Gain Compression Measurement Setup . . . . . . .
5-23. Gain Compression . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5-24. Input vs. Output Power Level at the 01 dB Gain
Compression Point . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Contents-6
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
5-8
5-9
5-10
5-11
5-12
5-13
5-14
5-15
5-16
5-17
5-18
5-20
5-21
5-23
5-24
5-25
5-26
.
5-27
Tables
1-1. Contents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1-2. Fuse Selection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1-3. Rack Mount Kits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1-2
1-3
1-7
Contents-7
1
Installation and Setup Guide
This chapter provides installation and setup instructions. It contains
the following information:
Incoming Inspection
Replacing Fuse
Power Requirements
Operation Environment
Ventilation Requirements
Instruction for Cleaning
Rack/Handle Installation
Connecting a Test Set for Network Analyzer Mode
Connecting an Active Probe
Connecting a Keyboard
Setting Up a 75 Measurement For Spectrum Analyzer Mode
Incoming Inspection
Warning
To avoid hazardous electrical shock, do not turn on the 4396B
when there are signs of shipping damage to any portion of the
outer enclosure (for example, covers, panel, or display)
Inspect the shipping container for damage. If the shipping container
or cushioning material is damaged, it should be kept until the contents
of the shipment have been checked for completeness and the 4396B
has been checked mechanically and electrically. The contents of
the shipment should be as listed in Table 1-1. If the contents are
incomplete, if there is mechanical damage or defect, or if the analyzer
does not pass the power-on selftests, notify the nearest Agilent
Technologies oce. If the shipping container is damaged, or the
cushioning material shows signs of unusual stress, notify the carrier as
well as the Agilent Technologies oce. Keep the shipping materials
for the carrier's inspection.
Installation and Setup Guide
1-1
Table 1-1. Contents
Description
Agilent Part Number
Network/Spectrum/Impedance Analyzer
4396B
N to BNC adapter (50 )
1250-0780
BNC cable
8120-1839
Sample Program Disk (2 disks)
Power Cable1
04396-18010
CD-ROM (for manuals)23
04396-905xx
-
Option 810 only
mini-DIN Keyboard
C3757-60401
Option ABA only
Documents
Task Reference
User's Guide
Function Reference
Programming Guide
04396-900x0 3
04396-900x1 3
04396-900x2 3
04396-900x3 3
Performance Test Manual
04396-900x4 3
04396-901x0 3
Instrument BASIC User's HandBook
04155-90151
GPIB Command Reference
Option 010 Operation Handbook
04396-900x63
Option 0BW only
Service Manual
04396-901x1 3
Option 1D5 only
BNC Adapter
1250-1859
Option 1D7 only
50
/75
Minimum Loss Pad
11852B option 004
50
BNC-75
N Adapter
1250-2438
Option 1CN Handle Kit
Handle Kit
5062-3991
Option 1CM Handle Kit
Rack Mount Kit
5062-3979
Option 1CP Rack Mount & Handle Kit
Rack Mount & Handle Kit
5062-3985
1 The power cable depends on where the instrument is used,see Figure 1-1.
2 CD-ROM contains the contents of the Task Reference, User's Guide, Function
Reference, Programming Guide, GPIB Command Reference, Performance Test
Manual, Instrument Basic user's Handbook and Option 010 Operation Handbook.
3 The number indicated by \x" in the part number of each manual, is allocated for
numbers increased by one each time a revision is made. The latest edition comes
with the product.
1-2
Installation and Setup Guide
Replacing Fuse
Fuse Selection
Select proper fuse according to the Table 1-2.
Table 1-2. Fuse Selection
Fuse Rating/Type Fuse Part Number
5A 250Vac
UL/CSA type
Time Delay
2110-0030
For ordering the fuse,contact your nearest Agilent Technologies Sales
and Service Oce.
Lever a small minus screwdriver to
dismount the fuse holder above the AC
line receptacle on the rear panel.
To check or replace the fuse, pull the fuse
holder and remove the fuse. To reinstall
the fuse, insert a fuse with the proper
rating into the fuse holder.
Installation and Setup Guide
1-3
Power Requirements
The 4396B requires the following power source:
Voltage : 90 to 132 Vac, 198 to 264 Vac
Frequency : 47 to 63 Hz
Power : 300 VA maximum
Power Cable
Warning
1-4
Installation and Setup Guide
In accordance with international safety standards, this instrument
is equipped with a three-wire power cable. When connected to an
appropriate ac power outlet, this cable grounds the instrument
frame.
The type of power cable shipped with each instrument depends on
the country of destination. Refer to Figure 1-1 for the part numbers
of the power cables available.
For protection from electrical shock, the power cable ground
must not be defeated.
The power plug must be plugged into an outlet that provides a
protective earth ground connection.
Figure 1-1. Power Cable Supplied
Installation and Setup Guide
1-5
Operation Environment
The 4396B must be operated under within the following environment
conditions, and sucient space must be kept behind the 4396B to
avoid obstructing the air ow of the cooling fans.
Temperature: 0 C to 40 C
Humidity:
less than 95% RH at 40 C
Note
The 4396B must be protected from temperature extremes which could
cause condensation within the instrument.
Providing clearance to dissipate heat at installation site
To ensure the specications and measurement accuracy of the
product, you must keep ambient temperature around the product
within the specied range by providing appropriate cooling clearance
around the product or, for the rackmount type, by forcefully
air-cooling inside the rack housing. For information on ambient
temperature to satisfy the specications and measurement accuracy of
the product, refer to \Specications" in Chapter 10 of the Function
Reference.
When the ambient temperature around the product is kept within the
temperature range of the operating environment specication (refer
to \Operation Conditions" in Chapter 10 of the function reference),
the product conforms to the requirements of the safety standard.
Furthermore, under that temperature environment, it has been
conrmed that the product still conforms to the requirements of the
safety standard when it is enclosed with cooling clearance as follows:
Conditions
Rear
180 mm
Side
60 mm
Instruction for Cleaning
To prevent electrical shock, disconnect the 4396B power cable from
the receptacle before cleaning. Wipe with a dry cloth or a soft cloth
that is soaked with water and wrung tightly without undeue pressure
to clean the casing. Do not attempt to clean the 4396B internally.
1-6
Installation and Setup Guide
Rack/Handle Installation
The analyzer can be rack mounted and used as a component in a
measurement system. Figure 1-2 shows how to rack mount the
analyzer.
Option
1CN
1CM
1CP
Table 1-3. Rack Mount Kits
Description
Handle Kit
Rack Mount Kit
Rack Mount & Handle Kit
Agilent Part
Number
5062-3991
5062-3979
5062-3985
Figure 1-2. Rack Mount Kits Installation
Option 1CN Handle Kit
Option 1CN is a handle kit containing a pair of handles and the
necessary hardware to attach them to the instrument.
Installing the Handle
1. Remove the adhesive-backed trim strips 1 from the left and right
front sides of the analyzer.
2. Attach the front handles 3 to the sides using the screws provided.
3. Attach the trim strips 4 to the handles.
Installation and Setup Guide
1-7
Option 1CM Rack Mount Kit
Option 1CM is a rack mount kit containing a pair of anges and the
necessary hardware to mount them to the instrument in an equipment
rack with 482.6 mm (19 inches) horizontal spacing.
Mounting the Rack
1. Remove the adhesive-backed trim strips 1 from the left and right
front sides of the analyzer.
2. Attach the rack mount ange 2 to the left and right front sides of
the analyzer using the screws provided.
3. Remove all four feet (lift bar on the inner side of the foot, and
slide the foot toward the bar).
Option 1CP Rack Mount & Handle Kit
Option 1CP is a rack mount kit containing a pair of anges and the
necessary hardware to mount them to an instrument which has
handles attached, in an equipment rack with 482.6 mm (19 inches)
spacing.
Mounting the Handle and Rack
1. Remove the adhesive-backed trim strips 1 from the left and right
front sides of the analyzer.
2. Attach the front handle 3 and the rack mount ange 5 together
on the left and right front sides of the analyzer using the screws
provided.
3. Remove all four feet (lift bar on the inner side of the foot, and
slide the foot toward the bar).
1-8
Installation and Setup Guide
Front View
1. LCD displays measured results, softkey menus, current settings,
system messages, error messages, and Instrument BASIC programs.
2. 4LINE5 switch turns the analyzer ON and OFF.
3. 3.5 inch disk drive is used to store measurement results,
instrument settings, display images, and Instrument BASIC
programs.
4. CAL OUT (spectrum analyzer calibration output port)
supplies a reference signal (20 MHz, -20 dbm) for reference level
calibration.
5.
S input (spectrum analyzer input) receives a signal for a
spectrum measurement.
INSTALLATION CATEGORY I
6. RF OUT (RF signal output port) supplies a source signal for
network measurements.
Installation and Setup Guide
1-9
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
1-10
Installation and Setup Guide
R, A, and B inputs (RF signal inputs) mainly accept signals
for network measurements, but can also be used as spectrum
measurement inputs.
INSTALLATION CATEGORY I
MARKER block contains keys related to the marker functions.
INSTRUMENT STATE block contains keys related to setting
analyzer functions.
ENTRY block contains numerical keys, rotary knob,
increment/decrement keys, edit keys, and unit-terminator keys.
Rotary knob changes displayed value by turning the knob.
SWEEP block contains keys related to the sweep functions.
MEASUREMENT block controls the measurement and display
functions.
ACTIVE CHANNEL block selects the active channel as 1 or 2.
Softkeys used with hierarchical menus that are displayed by
pressing hardkeys. Pressing a softkey activates the displayed
function or accesses a lower level menu.
Rear View
16.
TEST SET-I/O INTERCONNECT connects the S-parameter
test set to the analyzer.
Caution
If you connect a printer with the TEST SET-I/O INTERCONNECT,it
may cause damage to the printer. Do not connect a printer to this
connector.
17. Parallel interface connects the printer to the analyzer.
18. GPIB interface controls an GPIB instrument or can be controlled
by an external controller.
19. Power cable receptacle connects the power cable. Fuse is held
in the cover of the receptacle.
Installation and Setup Guide
1-11
Connecting a Test Set for Network Analyzer Mode
To use the network analyzer mode of the analyzer, a test set is
required to measure the transmission and reection characteristics of
the device under test (DUT).
You can use either the 87512A/B transmission/reection (T/R) test
set or the 85046A/B S-parameter test set. The 87512A/B T/R test set
measures reection and transmission in the forward direction only.
The 85046A/B S-parameter test set measures both the forward and
reverse directions without reconnection.
For more information about the test sets, see chapter 9 of the
Function Reference manual.
Connecting a Transmission/Reection Test Set
Figure 1-3. Connecting a Transmission/Reection Test Set
1. Place the transmission/reection (T/R) test set in front of the
analyzer.
2. Connect the R and A ports of the analyzer and the T/R test set to
each other.
3. Connect the RF OUT port of the analyzer and the RF IN port of the
T/R test set with a semi-rigid cable.
1-12
Installation and Setup Guide
Note
NNNNNNNNNNNNNN NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
When you use the 87512B, press 4Cal5 MORE SET Z0 . Then press 475 455
4215 to set the characteristic impedance (Z0 ) to 75 .
Connecting an S-parameter Test Set
Figure 1-4. Connecting an S-parameter Test Set
1. Place the analyzer on the S-parameter test set.
2. Connect the TEST SET-I/O INTERCONNECT interface on the
rear panel of the analyzer and the NETWORK ANALYZER-I/O
INTERCONNECT interface of the test set using the cable furnished
with the test set.
3. Connect the RF OUT, R, A, and B inputs of the analyzer to the
S-parameter test set to each other.
Note
NNNNNNNNNNNNNN NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
When you use the 85064B, press 4Cal5 MORE SET Z0 . Then press 475 455
4215 to set the characteristic impedance (Z0 ) to 75 .
Installation and Setup Guide
1-13
Connecting an Active Probe
The active probe allows you to analyze an in-circuit signal or device
that has no port for connecting to the test set. The active probe can
be used for both spectrum and network measurements.
The analyzer can use the following active probes:
85024A High Frequency Probe (300 kHz to 3 GHz)
41800A Active Probe (5 Hz to 500 MHz)
41802A 1 M
Input Adapter (5 Hz to 100 MHz)
51701A Active Probe (DC to 2.5 GHz)
11945A Close-eld Probe Set
1141A Dierential Probe
For more information about these active probes, see chapter 9 of the
Function Reference manual.
For Spectrum Analyzer Mode
Figure 1-5. Spectrum Analyzer Mode (One Active Probe)
1. Connect the output connector of the active probe to the S port of
the analyzer.
2. Plug the probe power plug into the PROBE POWER connector.
1-14
Installation and Setup Guide
For Network Analyzer Mode
Using One Active Probe
Figure 1-6. Network Analyzer Mode (One Active Probe)
1.
2.
3.
4.
Connect the power splitter to the RF OUT port.
Connect one output from the power splitter to the R input.
Connect the other output of the power splitter to the DUT.
Connect the active probe to the B input and plug the probe plug
into the PROBE POWER connector.
5. If necessary, terminate the DUT with a load.
Note
The following power splitters are available for the analyzer:
11850C,D Three-way Power Splitter
11667A Power Splitter
For more information about these power splitters, see chapter 9 of the
Funtion Reference manual.
Installation and Setup Guide
1-15
Using Two Active Probes
Figure 1-7. Network Analyzer Mode (Two Active Probes)
1.
2.
3.
4.
1-16
Installation and Setup Guide
Connect one active probe to the R input.
Connect the other active probe to the B input.
Connect the RF OUT port to the DUT.
If necessary, terminate the DUT with a load.
Using a Transmission/Reection Test Set
Figure 1-8. Using a Transmission/Reection Test Set
1. Connect the 87512A/B T/R test set.
2. Connect the active probe to the B input.
3. If necessary, terminate the DUT with a load.
Connecting a Keyboard
An mini-DIN keyboard can be connected to the mini-DIN connector
on the rear panel of the analyzer. The mini-DIN keyboard provides an
easier way to enter characters for the le names, display titles, and
Instrument BASIC programs. It can also access the analyzer softkey
functions by using keyboard function keys. For more information on
the mini-DIN keyboard, see Using HP Instrument BASIC with the
4396B.
Installation and Setup Guide
1-17
Figure 1-9. Connecting a Keyboard
Setting Up a 75 Measurement For Spectrum Analyzer Mode
Note
This operation requires the option 1D7 50
to 75
Input Impedance
Conversion. For detail information about option 1D7, see chapter 9 of
the Function Reference manual.
1. Attach the 11852B Option C04 50 N(m)/75 N(f) minimum loss
pad to the S input. This minimum loss pad is furnished with the
option 1D7.
2. Press 4Cal5.
3. Press INPUT Z .
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
4. Press 4*5 to set the impedance of the source (75 ). Then press
4Entry O5.
Note
1-18
Installation and Setup Guide
Perform this procedure each time the analyzer is preset because the
analyzer does not retain this setting in memory.
2
Spectrum Analyzer Tour
In this chapter, you explore the spectrum analyzer mode of operation.
Before starting this tour, verify the analyzer is correctly installed
(see chapter 1, \Installation and Setup Guide," if you need additional
information).
Before You Leave On The Tour
On this tour, you will learn how to make a basic spectrum analyzer
measurement by measuring the CAL OUT signal of the analyzer.
Overview
The following is a short summary of the tour:
1. Preparing for a measurement
Turning ON the analyzer
Connecting the test signal source
2. Setting up the analyzer
Setting the active channel
Selecting the analyzer type
Selecting the input
Setting the frequency range
3. Making a Measurement
Reading the peak level using the marker
Setting the resolution bandwidth to see low level signals
Searching for harmonics using the search function
4. Saving and recalling the analyzer settings
Preparing the disk
Saving analyzer settings
Entering the le name
Recalling the analyzer settings
After you nish this tour, you will understand how to make a basic
measurement in the spectrum analyzer mode of operation. If you
want to learn how to perform more complex tasks, see the Task
Reference manual.
Spectrum Analyzer Tour
2-1
Required Equipment
To perform all the steps in this tour, you must have the following
equipment:
4396B Network/Spectrum Analyzer
N to BNC Adapter (50 )*
BNC cable*
3.5 inch 2HD (or 2DD) Blank Disk
* Furnished with the analyzer.
Figure 2-1. Required Equipment
2-2
Spectrum Analyzer Tour
Step 1: Preparing for a Measurement
Turning ON the analyzer
Verify the power source setting is correct before you turning ON the
analyzer. If necessary, see chapter 1, \Installation and Setup Guide."
Press the LINE switch
The power on self-test takes about 10 seconds. If the analyzer is
operating correctly, the following information is displayed on the LCD:
Connecting the Test Signal Source
In this tour, you use the front-panel CAL OUT signal as the test signal
(20 MHz at -20 dBm).
Connect the CAL OUT output to the S input using the N-to-BNC adapter and the BNC cable.
Spectrum Analyzer Tour
2-3
Step 2: Setting Up the Analyzer
In this step, you will set the following parameters:
Active channel
Channel 2
Analyzer type
Spectrum analyzer mode
Input
S input
Frequency Range 0 Hz to 80 MHz
Setting the Active Channel
The analyzer has two measurement channels. This allows you to have
two dierent measurement setups. Other selections you make on the
front panel aect only the active channel. To set the active channel
to channel 2:
In the ACTIVE CHANNEL block, press
4Chan 25.
Note
2-4
Spectrum Analyzer Tour
Verify the Chan 2 active channel indicator
lights.
All selected settings are stored separately for each channel. You
must select an active channel (1 or 2) before you can change the
measurement setup for that channel.
Setting the Analyzer Type
To use the spectrum analyzer mode, you must set the analyzer type to
the spectrum analyzer mode after selecting an active channel.
In the MEASUREMENT block, press 4Meas5.
FFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFF
Press ANALYZER TYPE .
FFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFF
Press SPECTRUM ANALYZER .
Note
Changing the analyzer type presets the analyzer for the active
channel. If you want to keep the current measurement settings when
changing the analyzer type, rst set the other channel to active.
Spectrum Analyzer Tour
2-5
Selecting the Input
The analyzer has four inputs; S, R, A, and B. In most spectrum
measurements, the S input is used. The R, A, and B inputs can also
be used for a spectrum measurement, but the dynamic range of these
inputs is 20 dB worse than the S input and the attenuator is not
variable. Therefore, to get the most accurate results, you should use
the S input for spectrum measurements.
In the spectrum analyzer mode, the S input is selected by default. In
the following steps, you verify the S input is selected.
In the MEASUREMENT block, press 4Meas5.
FFFF
FFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFF
Verify the S in SPECTRUM: S is underlined.
(This shows that the S input is selected for a
spectrum analyzer measurement.)
Setting the Frequency Range
The CAL OUT signal (20 MHz at 020 dBm) is connected as test signal
source. To see this signal on display, you must set the appropriate
frequency range (in this case, 0 to 80 MHz):
In the SWEEP block, press 4Start5.
2-6
Spectrum Analyzer Tour
Press 405.
Press 4215.
Press 4Stop5.
Press 485 405.
Press 4M/5.
Verify the 20 MHz signal is displayed as shown below:
Spectrum Analyzer Tour
2-7
Step 3: Making a Measurement
Reading the Peak Level Using the Marker
Let's try to read peak signal level by using the marker:
Press 4Search5.
FFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFF
Press SEARCH:PEAK .
Read the marker value shown at the upper
right of grid.
2-8
Spectrum Analyzer Tour
Marker appears on trace.
Marker moves to the top of the CAL OUT
signal.
Setting the Resolution Bandwidth to See Low Level Signals
To see lower level signals that are approximately the same level as the
noise oor level, use a narrow resolution bandwidth (rbw) setting.
Before you set the RBW, set the maximum peak level as the reference
level. This increases the visibility of the lower level signal. This
technique is useful when you are measuring two signals and one is
very close to the noise level.
Press 4Scale Ref5.
Press MKR!REFERENCE .
FFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFF
The trace moves upward to place the tip of the maximum peak at the
top line of the grid.
Spectrum Analyzer Tour
2-9
Press 4Bw/Avg5.
Press 4+5 to narrow RBW setting to 3 kHz.
Now, with the noise oor level lowered by narrowing the resolution
bandwidth, the second and third harmonics can be seen as shown
below:
2-10
Spectrum Analyzer Tour
Searching for Harmonics Using the Search Function
You can easily readout a harmonics' frequency and level by using the
peak search function:
Press 4Search5.
FFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFF
Press NEXT PEAK .
FFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFF
Press SEARCH:PEAK .
The marker moves to the third harmonic.
To move
the marker to the second harmonic,
FFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFF
press NEXT PEAK again.
Spectrum Analyzer Tour
2-11
Step 4: Saving and Recalling Analyzer Settings
You can store the settings or measurement data on a 3.5 inch disk
using the analyzer's disk drive. In this tour, you save and recall the
settings that you selected previously in this tour.
Preparing the Disk
To use a disk, you must rst initialize it by performing the following
steps:
Verify the disk is not write protected.
Insert the disk into the disk drive
Press 4Save5.
Press FILE UTILITIES .
FFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFF
FFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFF
FFFFFFFFFFFFFF
Toggle FORMAT [DOS] to [LIF] and
FFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFF
FFFFFFFFFFFFFFFF
STOR DEV [MEMORY] to [DISK] .
2-12
Spectrum Analyzer Tour
FFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFF
Press INTIALIZE DISK .
FFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFF
Press INITIALIZE DISK: YES .
Note
The message, \INITIALIZE DISK In Progress,"
is displayed. After the disk is initialized, this
message is turned o.
The analyzer can use either a LIF (Logical Interchange Format) or a
DOS (Disk Operating System) format disk.
Saving Analyzer Settings
In the following example, use \SATOUR" as the le name of the
analyzer settings you want to save.
Press 4Save5.
FFFFFFFFFFFFFF
Press STATE .
The analyzer requests the le name you want to use for the saved
settings.
Entering the File Name
Note
If a keyboard is connected, you can use it for le name entry. If not,
use the front-panel controls as described in the following steps.
Spectrum Analyzer Tour
2-13
Note
2-14
Spectrum Analyzer Tour
The le name for a LIF format can be up to 10 characters long.
However, with the analyzer, the last 2 characters are reserved for a
sux. Therefore, you can enter a le name of up to 8 characters.
Either upper or lower case is recognized in the LIF format.
A le name for a DOS format consists of a le name and an extension.
The le name can be up to 8 characters long and the extension
contains up to 3 characters. A period separates the extension from
the le name. The extension part reserved by the analyzer. Therefore,
you can enter a le name of up to 8 characters. The le name is not
case sensitive in the DOS format.
FFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFF
Turn the rotary knob to move the arrow
below the rst character, S.
Press SELECT LETTER .
Keep entering characters until SATOUR is
entered.
If
you enter a wrong character, press
FFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFF
BACK SPACE to erase the character.
FFFFFFFFFFFF
To complete the le name entry, press DONE . Verify the disk access indicator lights (this
shows that the analyzer is saving the settings
to the disk).
Recalling the Analyzer Settings
You can recall the le containing the saved analyzer settings anytime
you want. This is true, even if you change the current analyzer
settings. In this example, you will preset the analyzer and then recall
the settings in the SATOUR le.
Presetting
Press 4Preset5.
The analyzer is set to the preset conditions. However, the analyzer
settings from the previous examples are stored in the SATOUR le on
the disk.
Spectrum Analyzer Tour
2-15
Recalling the SATOUR le.
Press 4Recall5.
The disk access lamp lights.
The stored le
is listed in the softkey label
FFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFF
area. Press SATOUR_S to recall the analyzer
settings that you saved.
Note
Sux, \_S," means the analyzer settings are saved. If you save the
analyzer settings in a DOS format, an extension, \.sta," is appended
to the le name.
After the disk access lamp goes out, all analyzer settings that you set
are recalled. You can verify them on the display. If you want to know
what settings are saved, see chapter 8 of the Function Reference
manual.
2-16
Spectrum Analyzer Tour
3
Network Analyzer Tour
In this chapter, you explore the network analyzer mode of operation.
Before starting this tour, verify the analyzer is correctly installed
(see chapter 1, \Installation and Setup Guide," if you need additional
information).
Before You Leave On The Tour
On this tour, you will learn how to make a basic network analyzer
measurement by measuring the transmission characteristics of a
bandpass lter.
Overview
The following is a short summary of the tour:
1. Preparing for a measurement
Turning ON the analyzer
Connecting the DUT
2. Setting up the analyzer
Setting the active channel
Selecting the analyzer type
Setting the input port
Setting the frequency range
Performing the automatic scaling
3. Making a calibration
4. Reading a measurement result
Reading a measured value by using marker
5. Printing out the measurement result
Conguring and connecting a printer
Making a hardcopy of the display
After you nish this tour, you will understand how to make a basic
measurement in the network analyzer of operation. If you want to
learn how to perform more complex tasks, see the Task Reference
manual.
Network Analyzer Tour
3-1
Required Equipment
To perform all the steps in this tour, you must have the following
equipment:
4396B Network/Spectrum Analyzer
Measurement Device:
This tour assumes the device under test (DUT) is a 70 MHz
bandpass lter
THRU (BNC female-to-female connector)
Two BNC cables
Test Set (use either of the following)
Transmission/Reection (T/R) Test Set
Two N-to-BNC adapters
S-Parameter Test Set
Two APC7-to-N adapters
Two N-to-BNC adapters
HP DeskJet Printer *
Parallel Interface Cable *
* If you do not have an DeskJet printer and cable, skip step 5,
\Printing Out the Measurement Results".
Figure 3-1. Required Equipment
3-2
Network Analyzer Tour
Step 1: Preparing for the Measurement
You must set up the test set before you turn ON the analyzer. The
setup procedure for the test set is described in \Connecting a Test Set
for Network Analyzer Mode" in Chapter 1.
Turning ON the Analyzer
Press the LINE switch.
The power on self-test takes about 10 seconds.
Connecting the DUT
Connect the DUT as shown in Figure 3-2 or Figure 3-3.
Figure 3-2. Transmission/Reection Test Set Setup
Network Analyzer Tour
3-3
Figure 3-3. S-Parameter Test Set Setup
3-4
Network Analyzer Tour
Step 2: Setting up the Analyzer
Before you start the measurement, you must set up the analyzer to
t your measurement requirements. For example, you must set the
frequency range of the measurement. In this step, you will set the
following parameters:
Active channel
Channel 1
Analyzer type
Network analyzer mode
Inputs
B/R or S21 (depending on the test set)
Format
Log magnitude (default)
Frequency Range Center 70 MHz, Span 500 kHz
Setting the Active Channel
Because the analyzer has two measurement channels you can have
two dierent measurement setups at the same time. To change the
active channel to channel 1:
In the ACTIVE CHANNEL block, press
4Chan 15.
Verify the Chan 1 active channel indicator
lights.
Network Analyzer Tour
3-5
Setting the Analyzer Type
To use the analyzer in the network analyzer mode, you must set the
analyzer type to the network analyzer mode after selecting the active
channel.
In the MEASUREMENT block, press 4Meas5.
FFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFF
Press NETWORK ANALYZER .
3-6
Network Analyzer Tour
FFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFF
Press ANALYZER TYPE .
Selecting the Input
The analyzer uses three inputs for network measurements (R, A,
and B). Usually, the R input accepts the RF OUT signal directly, the
A input receives the reection signal from the DUT, and the B input
receives the transmission signal through the DUT.
This example assumes you are using the T/R test set. Therefore,
because you are going to measure the transmission characteristics of
the DUT, select B/R to measure the ratio of B and R inputs.
When you use the S-parameter test set, you can measure the forward
and reverse characteristics of a 2-port device without reconnecting
the inputs. In that case, select S21 for a transmission measurement in
the forward direction.
In the MEASUREMENT block, press 4Meas5.
FFFFFFFFF
Press B/R .
FFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFF
Press Trans:FWD S21 [B/R] to select B/R
for the forward direction.
Network Analyzer Tour
3-7
Setting the Frequency Range
To display the transmission characteristics of the 70 MHz bandpass
lter, you should specify the frequency range for the measurement.
In this example, set the analyzer to a 70 MHz center frequency with a
500 kHz span.
3-8
Network Analyzer Tour
In the SWEEP block, press 4Center5.
Press 475 405.
Press 4M/5.
In the SWEEP block, press 4Span5.
Press 455 405 405.
Press 4k/m5.
Performing the Automatic Scaling
Often, the trace obtained after specifying the frequency range is
too large or too small vertically for the grid. However, by using the
automatic scaling function, you can obtain the optimum vertical
setting automatically.
In the MEASUREMENT block, Press
4Scale Ref5.
FFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFF
Press AUTO SCALE .
The transmission characteristics trace of the lter is displayed as
shown below:
All the settings are displayed on the LCD.
1. Active channel is set to channel 1.
2. Inputs are set to B/R.
3. Format is set to log magnitude mode.
4. Center frequency is set to 70 MHz.
5. Frequency span is set to 500 kHz.
Network Analyzer Tour
3-9
Step 3: Making a Calibration
To ensure accurate measurement results, calibrate the analyzer before
making a measurement. Calibration reduces error factor due to
uncertainty. In this example, you perform the response calibration to
cancel a frequency response error. A THRU (BNC female-to-female
connector) is necessary to perform a response calibration for the
transmission measurement.
Performing a Response Calibration (for the Transmission
Measurement)
Press 4Cal5.
FFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFF
Press RESPONSE .
FFFFFFFFFFFF
Press THRU .
3-10
Network Analyzer Tour
FFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFF
Press CALIBRATE MENU .
Disconnect the DUT then, connect the THRU.
WAIT - MEASURING CAL STANDARD is
displayed.
FFFFFFFFFFFF
The THRU softkey label is underlined when
the measurement is completed.
FFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFF
Press DONE: RESPONSE .
Disconnect the THRU and reconnect the DUT.
\Cor" is displayed on the left side of the display to show that the
frequency response error is corrected.
The measured value is now corrected for the frequency response
error.
Note
If the trace is changed, it requires an adjustment of the scale. Perform
the automatic scaling again by pressing 4Scale Ref5 AUTO SCALE .
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
Network Analyzer Tour
3-11
Step 4: Reading a Measurement Result
You may want to readout the measured values on the displayed trace.
You can use the marker function for this purpose. The marker shows
the frequency and response value at the marker point.
Reading a Measured Value by Using Marker
In the MARKER block, press 4Marker5.
Verify a marker appears on the trace.
Turn the knob to the right to move the
marker toward the right.
Read the values at the right top of the display.
The marker has a search function that makes it easier and faster to
evaluate the trace results. For example, to search for the maximum
value and its frequency on the trace:
3-12
Network Analyzer Tour
FFFFFFFFF
In the MARKER block, press 4Search5.
Press MAX .
The marker immediately moves to the
maximum point on the displayed trace.
Read the frequency and response values
displayed at the upper right of the display.
Network Analyzer Tour
3-13
Step 5: Printing Out the Measurement Result
You may want a hardcopy of the measured results for a permanent
record of the measurement. The analyzer can print out the data as
a snapshot of the display or as a list of values without using any
external controller.
Conguring and Connecting a Printer
Locate the parallel interface connector on the back of the analyzer.
Note
For more information about printer, see the chapter 9 of the Function
Reference manual.
Making a Hardcopy of the LCD Display
Press 4Copy5.
3-14
Network Analyzer Tour
FFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFF
Press PRINT [STANDARD] to execute the
printing.
4
Spectrum Measurement Examples
This chapter contains the following spectrum measurement examples:
Harmonic distortion measurement
Carrier/noise ratio (c/n) measurement
Tracking a drifting signal
Network measurement with spectrum monitor
Amplitude modulation (am) signal measurement
Frequency modulation (fm) signal measurement
Burst signal measurement
Basic Setup
To measure the spectrum of a test signal, use the S input as shown in
Figure 4-1.
Figure 4-1. Basic Connection for Spectrum Measurement
The spectrum of input signals can also be monitored at the A, B, and
R inputs. The use of the spectrum monitor function is described later
in this chapter.
Spectrum Measurement Examples
4-1
Harmonic Distortion Measurement
The analyzer can simultaneously display the dierence values
between the fundamental and harmonics up to the seventh harmonic.
The test signal used in this example is the output of an amplier with
a 20 MHz sine wave input signal.
Test Signal and Test Device
The following test signal and device are used in this example.
Input Test Signal
Frequency: 100 MHz
Test Device
Amplier
Measurement Setup
Connection
Set up the analyzer as shown in Figure 4-2.
Figure 4-2. Harmonics Measurement Setup
4-2
Spectrum Measurement Examples
Analyzer Settings
Press 4Preset5. Then set the analyzer's controls as follows:
Desired Settings
Key Strokes
Active Channel Select channel 1
Block
4Chan 15
Measurement
Block
Select Spectrum Analyzer
Press 4Meas5 ANALYZER TYPE SPECTRUM ANALYZER
Select S input
4Meas5 SPECTRUM:S
Sweep Block
Start frequency 50 MHz
Press 4Start5 50 4M/5
Stop frequency 1.8 GHz
Press 4Stop5 1.8 4G/n5
(default)
FFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFF FFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFF
FFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFF
(default)
Multiple Peak Search and Marker List For Harmonic Distortion Measurement
Harmonic components can be read (to 5 digits resolution) by moving
the marker to each harmonic. The marker and seven sub-markers
can be moved to peaks automatically. Amplitude and frequency of
all markers on the trace are read at the same time. The following
procedure displays the value of the fundamental and the harmonics:
1. Press 4Marker5 1MODE MENU TRACKING 1MKR to turn the tracking
1marker on. The tracking 1marker always tracks the marker.
2. Press 4Search5 SEARCH TRK on OFF to ON off to turn the search
tracking on.
3. Press 4Search5 MULTIPLE PEAKS SEARCH:PEAKS ALL to move the
marker to the fundamental and turn on and move the sub-markers
to individual harmonics.
4. Press 4Utility5 MKR LIST on OFF to ON off to turn marker list on.
The 1marker and all sub-marker values are displayed as shown in
Figure 4-3.
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
Figure 4-3.
Using Multiple Peak Search and Marker List to Measure Harmonic
Distortion
5. Press 4Marker5 PRESET MKRS , when you are nished with this
measurement.
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
Spectrum Measurement Examples
4-3
C/N Measurement
Test Signal
Measurement Setup
C/N is the ratio of the carrier to the noise. The analyzer can measure
noise level directly and read out the C/N using the marker functions.
Do the \Harmonic Distortion Measurement" before doing this
measurement.
This example uses the same test signal used in the \Harmonic
Distortion Measurement" example.
Connection
This example assumes that the connections and instrument settings
made in the \Harmonic Distortion Measurement" example are still in
eect.
Analyzer Settings
Change the following settings for this measurement:
Press 4Center5 100 4M/5 and 4Span5 100 4k/m5 to zoom to the
fundamental on the display.
Fixed 1Marker and Noise Format for C/N Measurement
1. Press 4Search5 MAX to search for the carrier.
NNNNNNNNNNN
2. Press 4Scale Ref5 MKR!REFERENCE .
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
3. Press 4Marker5 1MODE MENU 1MKR 10 4k/m5 to put 1marker on the
carrier and to move the marker to the 10 kHz oset point.
4. Press 4Bw/Avg5 VIDEO BW 10 4215.
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN NNNNNNNNNNNNNN
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
5. Press 4Utility5 NOISE FORM on OFF to ON off . The analyzer
displays the C/N ratio with the unit of \dB/Hz" at the upper right
of the display as shown in Figure 4-4.
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
Figure 4-4.
Using Markers and Noise Format to Measure C/N Ratio
4-4
Spectrum Measurement Examples
6. Press 4Marker5 PRESET MKRS when you are nished with this
measurement.
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
Tracking a Drifting Signal
When measuring a drifting signal, the analyzer can lose the signal.
However, the analyzer can track a drifting signal by changing the
sweep parameter values sweep by sweep.
Test Signal
Measurement Setup
The following test signal is used in this example.
Frequency: 900 MHz (not stable)
Connection
Connect the test signal to the S input.
Analyzer Settings
1. Press 4Preset5. Then set the analyzer's controls as follows:
Desired Settings
Key Strokes
Active Channel Select channel 1
Block
4Chan 15
Measurement
Block
Select Spectrum Analyzer
Press 4Meas5 ANALYZER TYPE SPECTRUM ANALYZER
Select S input
4Meas5 SPECTRUM:S
Sweep Block
Center frequency 900 MHz
Press 4Center5 900 4M/5
Span frequency 20 kHz
Press 4Span5 20 4k/m5
(default)
FFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFF FFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFF
FFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFF
(default)
2. Set channel 2 the same as channel 1 as follows:
Desired Settings
Key Strokes
Active Channel Select channel 2
Block
4Chan 25
Measurement
Block
Select Spectrum Analyzer
Press 4Meas5 ANALYZER TYPE SPECTRUM ANALYZER
Select S input
4Meas5 SPECTRUM:S
Sweep Block
Center frequency 900 MHz
Press 4Center5 900 4M/5
Span frequency 20 kHz
Press 4Span5 20 4k/m5
FFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFF FFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFF
FFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFF
(default)
Spectrum Measurement Examples
4-5
Tracking an Unstable Signal
In this example, the signal is drifting.
1. Press 4Display5 DUAL CHAN on OFF to ON off .
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
2. Press 4Chan 15.
3. Press 4Marker5 to turn the marker on.
4. Use the knob to bring the marker close to the signal you want to
track.
5. Press 4Search5 SIGNAL TRK on OFF to turn the signal track on. As
the signal drifts, the center frequency automatically changes to
bring the signal and the marker to the center of the display.
Figure 4-5 shows a display when signal track is ON at channel 1.
Figure 4-6 shows a display after the analyzer sweeps a few times.
At channel 1, the center frequency has been changed to maintain
the drifting signal at the center of the display. Channel 2 shows
that signal frequency has drifted to a higher frequency.
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
Figure 4-5. Display When Starting Signal Track
Figure 4-6. Display After Signal Has Drifted
4-6
Spectrum Measurement Examples
Network Measurement with Spectrum Monitor
During a network measurement, crosstalk or leakage (such as noise)
from an adjacent circuit can change the measurement results. To
detect the eect of these spurious inputs, the analyzer can monitor
the spectrum of the input signal at the R, A, and B inputs.
Figure 4-7.
Inuence on Network Measurement by Leakage from an Adjacent
Circuit
Measurement Setup
In this example, the network measurement circuit has leakage from
an adjacent signal source. The frequency of the signal source is
240 MHz and the DUT is a 250 MHz bandpass lter.
Connection
Figure 4-8. Network Measurement With Spectrum Monitor Setup
Spectrum Measurement Examples
4-7
Analyzer Settings
Press 4Preset5. Then set the analyzer's controls as follows:
Desired Settings
Key Strokes
Active Channel Select channel 1
Block
4Chan 15
Measurement
Block
Select Spectrum Analyzer
Press 4Meas5 ANALYZER TYPE NETWORK ANALYZER
Select S21 (or B/R) measurement
4Meas5 Trans:FWD S21 [B/R]
Select LOG MAG format
4Format5 LOG MAG
Center frequency 250 MHz
Press 4Center5 250 4M/5
Span frequency 200 MHz
Press 4Span5 200 4M/5
Sweep Block
(default)
FFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFF FFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFF
FFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFF
FFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFF
(default)
Performing Calibration
Perform a frequency response calibration for this measurement as
follows:
1. Press 4Cal5 CALIBRATE MENU RESPONSE .
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
2. Connect a THRU calibration standard between the measurement
cables in place of the DUT.
3. Press THRU to perform a frequency response calibration data
measurement.
4. Press DONE:RESPONSE . ( CORRECTION on OFF is automatically set
to CORRECTION ON off .)
NNNNNNNNNNNNNN
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
Network Measurement
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
1. Press 4Scale Ref5 AUTO SCALE to t scale to the trace.
2. Press 4Search5 PEAK to put the marker on an unknown peak of the
trace. The transmission measurement result is displayed as shown
in Figure 4-9.
NNNNNNNNNNNNNN
Figure 4-9.
Transmission Measurement Result (Inuenced by Leakage)
4-8
Spectrum Measurement Examples
The measurement result shows an unknown peak at 240 MHz.
Monitoring the Leakage Signal at the B Input Using the Spectrum Monitor
During the spectrum measurement sweep, the network measurement
is turned o. To monitor the input signal at the B input:
1. Press 4Chan 25.
2. Press 4Meas5 ANALYZER TYPE SPECTRUM ANALYZER B .
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN NNNNN
3. Press 4Center5 250 4M/5.
4. Press 4Span5 200 4M/5.
Figure 4-10. Spectrum Monitoring Result at the B Input
The spectrum measurement result shows the leakage signal at 240
MHz.
5. Press 4Display5 DUAL CHAN on OFF to ON off to perform and
display both the network and the spectrum measurements at the
same time.
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
Figure 4-11. Dual Display of Network and Spectrum Measurement
Spectrum Measurement Examples
4-9
AM Signal Measurement
In this example, the following parameters for AM signal measurement
are derived:
Carrier amplitude (Ec ) and frequency (fc )
Modulating frequency (fm ) and modulation index (m)
Test Signal
The following test signal is used in this example:
AM Signal
Frequency (fc ): 100 MHz
Modulating signal frequency (fm ): 10 kHz
Modulation index (m): 15%
Measurement Setup
Connection
Connect the test signal source to the S input.
Analyzer Settings
Press 4Preset5. Then set the analyzer's controls as follows:
Desired Settings
Key Strokes
Active Channel Select channel 1
Block
4Chan 15
Measurement
Block
Select Spectrum Analyzer
Press 4Meas5 ANALYZER TYPE SPECTRUM ANALYZER
Select S input
4Meas5 SPECTRUM:S
Sweep Block
Center frequency 100 MHz
Press 4Center5 100 4M/5
Span frequency 200 kHz
Press 4Span5 200 4k/m5
(default)
FFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFF FFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFF
FFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFF
(default)
Carrier Amplitude and Frequency Measurement Using the Marker
Press 4Scale Ref5 and enter the reference value if the trace needs to be
rescaled.
1. Press 4Search5 to turn the marker on.
2. Press MAX to search for the carrier signal. The carrier amplitude
and frequency are displayed in the upper right corner as shown in
Figure 4-12.
NNNNNNNNNNN
4-10
Spectrum Measurement Examples
Figure 4-12. Carrier Amplitude and Frequency of AM Signal
The marker shows that the carrier amplitude (Ec ) is 019.949 dBm and
frequency (fc ) is 100 MHz.
Modulating Frequency and Modulation Index Measurement Using 1Marker
3. Press 4Marker5 1MODE MENU 1MKR .
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN NNNNNNNNNNNNNN
4. Press 4Search5 SEARCH:PEAK NEXT PEAK to search for a sideband.
The oset value from the carrier is displayed as the marker
sweep parameter value shown in Figure 4-13. This value is the
modulation frequency.
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
Figure 4-13. Modulating Frequency of AM Signal
The 1marker shows that the sideband amplitude value relative to the
carrier is 019.76 dB. The modulation index (m) can be derived from
the following equation:
1Mkr+6
m = 10 20
= 20:51%
where 1Mkr is the 1marker sweep parameter value shown in
Figure 4-13.
Spectrum Measurement Examples
4-11
FM Signal Measurement
This example describes how to derive the frequency deviation (1fpeak )
value.
Test Signal
The following test signals are used in this example:
Wide band FM Signal
Carrier frequency: 100 MHz.
Modulating frequency: 1 kHz.
Frequency deviation: 1 MHz.
Narrow band FM Signal
Carrier frequency: 100 MHz.
Modulating frequency: 1 kHz.
Frequency deviation: 5 kHz.
Measurement Setup
Connection
Connect the test signal to the S input.
Analyzer Settings
Press 4Preset5. Then set the analyzer's controls as follows:
Desired Settings
Key Strokes
Active Channel Select channel 1
Block
4Chan 15
Measurement
Block
Select Spectrum Analyzer
Press 4Meas5 ANALYZER TYPE SPECTRUM ANALYZER
Select S input
4Meas5 SPECTRUM:S
RBW 1 kHz
4Rw/Avg5
Center frequency 100 MHz
Press 4Center5 100 4M/5
Span frequency 5 MHz
Press 4Span5 5 4M/5
Sweep Block
(default)
FFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFF FFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFF
FFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFF
(default)
1 4k/m5
Frequency Deviation of Wide Band FM Signal
Press 4Scale Ref5 and enter reference value if the trace needs to be
rescaled.
Frequency Deviation
1. Press 4Search5 SEARCH:PEAK .
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
2. Press 4Marker5 1MODE MENU 1MKR .
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN NNNNNNNNNNNNNN
3. Press 4Search5 SEARCH:PEAK NEXT PEAK .
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
4-12
Spectrum Measurement Examples
Figure 4-14. Wide Band FM Signal Measurement
The frequency deviation (1fpeak ) can be derived from the following
equation:
j1Mkrj
1fpeak =
2
where 1Mkr is the marker sweep parameter value shown in
Figure 4-14. In this example, the frequency deviation is about 981
kHz.
Press 4Marker5 PRESET MKRS when you are nished with this
measurement.
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
Carrier Level and Modulating Frequency
The carrier level and modulating frequency can be derived using a
method similar to the AM signal measurement. In this example, the
zooming function is used to measure the carrier and the adjacent
signal.
4. Press 4Display5 DUAL CHAN on OFF to ON off .
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
5. Press 4Marker5 to put the maker on the carrier frequency.
6. Press 4Marker!5 MORE ZOOMING APERTURE 0.2 4215 .
NNNNNNNNNNNNNN NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
7. Press CROSS CHAN on OFF to ON off .
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
8. Press RETURN MKR ZOOM to zoom up to the carrier signal.
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
9. Press 4Chan 25.
10. Press 4Scale Ref5 and enter reference vale if the trace needs to be
rescaled.
11. Press 4Marker5 100 4M/5 to move the marker to the career
frequency. The carrier amplitude can be read as the marker
value.
12. Press 4Marker5 1MODE MENU 1MKR to put the 1maker on the carrier.
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN NNNNNNNNNNNNNN
13. Press 4Search5 SEARCH:PEAK LEFT PEAK (or RIGHT PEAK ) to move
the marker to the sideband.
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
Spectrum Measurement Examples
4-13
Figure 4-15. Zooming Carrier Signal of FM Signal
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
Press 4Display5 DUAL CHAN ON off to on OFF and then 4Chan 15 when
you are nished with this measurement.
Narrow Band FM Signal Measurement
1. Change the test signal source to the narrow band FM signal.
2. Press 4Chan 15 4Span5 100 4k/m5 4Bw/Avg5 10 4k/m5. The spectrum of
the narrow band FM signal is displayed.
3. Press 4Scale Ref5 010 4215.
Figure 4-16. Narrow Band FM Signal Measurement
4. Press 4Chan 25 4Span5 100 4k/m5 4Bw/Avg5 10 4k/m5 4Scale Ref5 010 4215 as
same as channel 1.
5. Press 4Display5 DATA HOLD [OFF] MAX and then wait for a few
sweeps until the trace is stable. The maximum envelope is
displayed.
6. Press 4Display5 DATA!MEMORY DATA and MEMORY to store and
display the maximum envelope.
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN NNNNNNNNNNN
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
4-14
Spectrum Measurement Examples
7. Press DATA HOLD [MAX] MIN and then wait for a few sweeps
until the trace is stable. The minimum envelope is displayed.
8. Press 4Marker5 MKR ON [DATA] to [MEMORY] . Then turn the
knob to move the marker to the desired position to measure the
frequency deviation.
9. Press 1MODE MENU FIXED 1MKR .
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN NNNNNNNNNNN
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
10. Press RETURN MKR ON [MEMORY] to [DATA] . Then turn the knob
to move the marker to the position that is the same value as the
xed 1marker value.
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
Figure 4-17.
Maximum and Minimum Envelopes of Narrow Band FM Signal
The frequency deviation (1fpeak ) can be derived from the same
equation that is used for the wide band FM signal. In this
example, 1fpeak can be derived to be 5 kHz.
11. Press 4Display5 DUAL CHAN on OFF to ON off . Both the spectrum
and its envelope are displayed on the split display.
12. Press MORE SPLIT DISP ON off to on OFF . The analyzer
superimposes the spectrum on the envelopes as shown in
Figure 4-18.
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
NNNNNNNNNNNNNN NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
Figure 4-18. Superimposing Spectrum and Envelopes
Spectrum Measurement Examples
4-15
Burst Signal Measurement
This measurement requires that option 1D6 be installed in the
analyzer. A summary of how to determine gate delay and gate length
settings for dierent signals is contained at the end of this example.
Test Signal
The following test signal is used in this example:
Pulse period (pri) = 100 s (pulse repetition frequency prf is 10
kHz )
Duty ratio is 80% ( pulse width is 80 s)
RF frequency is 960 MHz
Measurement Setup
Connection
Setup the analyzer as shown in Figure 4-19.
Figure 4-19. Burst Signal Measurement Setup
Analyzer Settings
Press 4Preset5. Then set the analyzer's controls as follows:
Desired Settings
Active Channel Select channel 1
Block
4Chan 15
Measurement
Block
Select Spectrum Analyzer
Press 4Meas5 ANALYZER TYPE SPECTRUM ANALYZER
Select S input
4Meas5 SPECTRUM:S
Set RBW to 100 kHz
Press 4Bw/Avg5 100 4k/m5
Center frequency 960 MHz
Press 4Center5 960 4M/5
Span frequency 10 MHz
Press 4Span5 10 4M/5
Sweep Block
4-16
Key Strokes
Spectrum Measurement Examples
(default)
FFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFF FFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFF
FFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFF
(default)
Gated Sweep for Burst Signal Measurement
Figure 4-20.
Burst Signal Measurement Result Using Normal Sweep
1. Press 4Trigger5 TRIGGER:[FREE RUN] GATE [LEVEL] EDGE to select
the trigger mode to the edge mode.
2. Press GATE DELAY 30 4M/5 for setup time of the RBW.
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN NNNNNNNNNNNNNN
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
3. Press GATE LENGTH 30 4M/5. The analyzer displays only the RF
signal spectrum as shown in Figure 4-21.
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
Figure 4-21. Burst Signal Measurement Using Gated Sweep
Zero Span for Time Domain Measurement
Using zero span, the analyzer can show the envelope of the burst
signal. The repetitive sampling mode can sample a faster signal.
1. Press 4Trigger5 SWEEP:HOLD to keep the channel 1 trace.
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
2. Press 4Display5 DUAL CHAN on OFF to ON off .
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
3. Press 4Chan 25.
Spectrum Measurement Examples
4-17
4. Press 4Meas5 ANALYZER TYPE SPECTRUM ANALYZER .
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5. Press 4SPAN5 ZERO SPAN .
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6. Press TRIGGER:[GATE] EXTERNAL .
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
7. Press 4SWEEP5 SAMPLING NORM rept to norm REPT to change the
sampling mode to the repetitive sampling mode.
8. Press NUMBER of POINTS 101 4215. Then press SWEEP TIME 550
4M/5.
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
Figure 4-22. Burst Signal Spectrum and Test Signal Envelope
How to Determine Gate Delay and Gate Length
Gate Delay
Because the RBW lter requires setup time for the lter to stabilize after triggering, the
gate delay must meet the following limit:
In this example, RBW = 100 kHz,
2
Td > RBW
Td >
2
1002103
= 20
therefore, the delay time Td in this example must meet the following condition:
Td > 20
Gate Length
Because the summation of gate delay Td and the gate length Tg must be less than the
pulse length ( ), the gate length must meet the following limit:
Td + Tg < In this example, = 80,
Tg < 80 0 Td
If Td is set to 30 in this example, Tg must meet the following limit:
Tg < 50
For more information on the gated sweep and the repetitive sampling
mode, see the Function Reference manual.
4-18
Spectrum Measurement Examples
5
Network Measurement Examples
This chapter contains the following network measurement examples:
Transmission Measurement
3 dB bandwidth
Ripple or atness
Magnitude and phase characteristics
Expanded phase characteristics
Electrical length measurement
Phase distortion measurement
Deviation from linear phase
Group delay
Reection measurement
Return loss
Reection coecient
Standing wave ration (swr)
S-parameters measurement
Impedance and admittance measurement
List sweep
Sweep time reduction
Dynamic range enhancement
Filter testing using limit line
Gain compression measurement
Basic Setup
Example DUT
All the examples described in this chapter use the 85046A/B
S-parameter Test Set to connect to the device under test (dut). This
approach simplies the measurement setup.
The DUT used in the examples in this chapter is a dielectric bandpass
lter with a 836 MHz center frequency. If you use your own DUT,
modify the parameter values (measurement frequency range, signal
level, etc.) as appropriate for your DUT.
Network Measurement Examples
5-1
Measuring Transmission Characteristics of a Filter
Insertion loss and gain are ratios of the output to input signals. The
following procedure measures the insertion loss and gain of a 836 MHz
dielectric bandpass lter. This measurement can be used to obtain the
key lter parameters.
Measurement Setup
Connection
Set up the analyzer as shown in Figure 5-1.
Figure 5-1. Transmission Measurement Setup
Analyzer Settings
Press 4Preset5. Then set the analyzer's controls as follows:
Desired Settings
Key Strokes
Active Channel Select channel 1
Block
4Chan 15(default)
Measurement
block
Select Network Analyzer
Press 4Meas5 ANALYZER TYPE NETWORK ANALYZER
Select S21 (or B/R) measurement
Press 4Meas5 Trans:FWD S21 [B/R]
Select LOG MAG format
4Format5 LOG MAG (default)
IF BW 3 kHz
4Bw/Avg5
Center frequency 836 MHz
Press 4Center5 836 4M/5
Span frequency 200 MHz
Press 4Span5 200 4M/5
Sweep block
FFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFF FFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFF
FFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFF
FFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFF
3 4k/m5
Performing Calibration
Perform a frequency response calibration for this measurement as
follows:
1. Press 4Cal5 CALIBRATE MENU RESPONSE .
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5-2
Network Measurement Examples
2. Connect a THRU calibration standard between the measurement
cables in place of the DUT.
3. Press THRU to perform a frequency response calibration data
measurement.
4. Press DONE:RESPONSE . ( CORRECTION on OFF is automatically set
to CORRECTION ON off .)
NNNNNNNNNNNNNN
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
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Measurement
Replace the THRU standard with the DUT. Press 4Scale Ref5
AUTO SCALE if the trace needs to be rescaled. Note that the display
shows the complete response of the bandpass lter under test.
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
Read Out Insertion Loss Using the Marker
1. Press 4Search5 MAX to move the marker to the maximum value of
trace. The marker reads out the insertion loss and displays it at the
upper right of the display.
2. Press 4Marker5 1MARKER MENU 1MKR to turn on the 1Marker (at the
position of the marker).
3. Enter 60 4M/5 to move the marker to the point oset from the
1marker. The 1marker value shows the out-of-band rejection.
NNNNNNNNNNN
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN NNNNNNNNNNNNNN
Figure 5-2. Response of a Dielectric Filter
Network Measurement Examples
5-3
3 dB Bandwidth
The analyzer calculates the bandwidth of the DUT between two equal
power levels. In this example, it calculates the 03 dB bandwidth
relative to the lter center frequency.
1. Press 4Marker5. Then use the rotary knob to move the marker to the
center of the lter passband.
2. Press 4Search5 WIDTH [OFF] WIDTH on OFF to ON off . The
analyzer calculates the 03 dB bandwidth, center frequency, Q
(Quality Factor), insertion loss, and dierences between the center
frequency and the cuto frequencies of the DUT. It then lists the
results at the upper right hand of the display. Sub-marker 1 on the
trace shows the passband center frequency and sub-markers 2 and
3 show the location of the 03 dB cuto points.
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
Figure 5-3. Using the Marker to Determine 3 dB Bandwidth
To have the analyzer calculate the bandwidth between other power
levels, select WIDTH VALUE and enter the number (for example, enter
06 4215 for 06 dB).
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
Press 4Marker5 PRESET MKRS when you are nished with this
measurement.
5-4
Network Measurement Examples
Ripple or Flatness
Passband ripple (or atness) is the variation in insertion loss over a
specied portion of the passband.
1. Press 4Display5 DUAL CHAN on OFF to ON off to display channel 2
below channel 1.
2. Press 4Sweep5 COUPLED CH ON off to on OFF .
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
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NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
3. Press 4Search5 MAX .
NNNNNNNNNNN
4. Press 4Marker!5 CROSS CHAN on OFF to ON off .
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
5. Press MORE ZOOMING APERTURE 20 4215 RETURN MKR ZOOM .
NNNNNNNNNNNNNN NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
6. Press 4Chan 25 4Search5 MAX . Then press 4Scale Ref5 MKR!REFERENCE
SCALE/DEV 0.5 425 to magnify the trace to resolve the ripple.
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
NNNNNNNNNNN
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
7. Press 4Search5 SEARCH:PEAK . Then press 4Marker5 1MODE MENU 1MKR .
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN NNNNNNNNNNNNNN
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
8. Press 4Search5 SEARCH:PEAK PEAK DEF MENU
PEAK PLRTY POS neg to pos NEG RETURN . Then press
SEARCH:PEAK . The passband ripple is automatically given as the
peak-to-peak variation between the markers. The ripple value is
displayed at the upper right of the display.
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
Figure 5-4. Using Peak Search to Determine Ripple
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
Press 4Chan 15 4Marker5 PRESET MKRS , and 4Chan 25 4Marker5 PRESET MKRS
when you are nished with this measurement.
Network Measurement Examples
5-5
Measuring Phase Response
A two input ratio measurement can also provide information about
the phase shift of a network. The analyzer can translate this
information into a related parameter, group delay.
With the same connection, instrument settings, and calibration used
in the previous example (see \Measurement Setup" in \Measuring
Transmission Characteristics of a Filter"), make the following changes:
1. Press 4Chan 15 4Sweep5 COUPLED CH on OFF to ON off to couple
sweep parameters of channel 2 to channel 1.
2. Press 4Chan 25 4Format5 PHASE to display the phase response on
channel 2.
If the trace needs to be rescaled, press 4Scale Ref5 and AUTO SCALE .
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
Figure 5-5 shows the phase response of the bandpass lter. Notice the
linear phase shift through the passband and the rapid uctuations that
occur outside this region. The random phase of the broadband noise
oor causes the spurious out-of-band response.
This format displays phase over the range of 0180 to +180 degrees.
As phase increases beyond these values, a sharp 360 degree transition
occurs in the display as the trace \wraps" between +180 and 0180
degrees. This wrap causes the characteristic \sawtooth" display
usually seen on devices with linearly increasing (or decreasing) phase
responses.
Figure 5-5. Amplitude and Phase Response of a Dielectric Filter
5-6
Network Measurement Examples
Using the Expanded Phase Mode
The analyzer can display phase beyond 6180 degrees. Press 4Format5
MORE EXPANDED PHASE . Then press 4Scale Ref5 AUTO SCALE . The
phase is displayed with \no wrap" (see Figure 5-6).
NNNNNNNNNNNNNN NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
Figure 5-6. Expanded Phase Mode
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
Press 4Format5 PHASE when you are nished with this measurement.
Network Measurement Examples
5-7
Measuring Electrical Length
The analyzer electronically implements a function similar to the
mechanical \line stretchers" of earlier analyzers. The analyzer's
electrical length correction function simulates a variable length
lossless transmission line. This simulated line can be added or
removed from a receiver's input to compensate for interconnecting
cables or other connections. In this example, this function is used to
measure the electrical length of a test device.
Measurement Setup
With the same connection, instrument settings, and calibration used
in the previous example (see \Measurement Setup" in \Measuring
Transmission Characteristics of a Filter"), make the following changes:
1. Press 4Chan 15 4Format5 PHASE to display the phase trace on channel
1.
2. Press 4Display5 DUAL CHAN ON off to on OFF .
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
3. Press 4Span5 50 4M/5 to zoom the passband trace on the display.
Measurement
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
If the trace needs to be rescaled, press 4Scale Ref5 AUTO SCALE .
Figure 5-7.
Phase Response of a Dielectric Filter Over a 50 MHz Span
Electrical Length Adjustment
The linearly decreasing phase is due to the DUT's electrical length.
This length is measured by electronically adding length to the R input
to compensate for it.
1. Press 4Chan 25 to activate channel 2.
2. Press 4Marker5. Then move the marker to any of the points
where the sloping trace crosses the center. Place the marker
on the sloping portion of the trace, not on the vertical phase
\wrap-around."
5-8
Network Measurement Examples
3. Press 4Scale Ref5 ELEC DELAY MENU MARKER!DELAY . The analyzer
adds enough electrical length to match the group delay present
at the marker frequency (group delay is discussed in the next
measurement example).
4. Press 4Display5 DUAL CHAN on OFF to ON off to display the
results before and after the adjustment. The results are shown in
Figure 5-8.
5. To display the amount of electrical length added, press 4Scale Ref5
ELEC DELAY MENU ELECTRICAL DELAY .
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
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NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
You can also determine the electrical length by pressing 4Scale Ref5
ELEC DELAY MENU ELECTRICAL DELAY . Then turn the rotary knob
until the displayed trace is at (see Figure 5-8). It may take many
revolutions of the knob before the trace is at.
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
Figure 5-8. Electrical Length Adjustment
Network Measurement Examples
5-9
Measuring Phase Distortion
For many networks, the amount of insertion phase is not nearly
as important as the linearity of the phase shift over a range of
frequencies. The analyzer can measure this linearity and express it in
two dierent ways:
Directly (as deviation from linear phase).
As group delay (a derived value).
Measurement Setup
This example assumes the measurement settings made in \Measuring
Electrical Length" (the previous example) are still in eect.
Deviation from Linear Phase
By adding electrical length required to atten the phase response, you
have already removed the linear phase shift caused by the DUT. The
remaining response is the deviation from linear phase.
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
Press 4Display5 DUAL CHAN ON off to on OFF .
Figure 5-9. Deviation From Linear Phase
Press 4Scale Ref5 ELEC DELAY MENU ELECTRICAL DELAY 0 4215 when
you are nished with this measurement.
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
Group Delay Measurement
The phase linearity of many devices is specied in terms of group
delay or envelope delay. This is especially true of telecommunications
components and systems.
Group delay is the dierence in propagation time through a device as
a function of frequency. It is measured as a ratio of phase change
over a sample delta frequency as follows:
1
Group Delay = 0
3601F
Where:
5-10
Network Measurement Examples
1 is phase change [deg]
1F (commonly called the \aperture") is the frequency
dierence that gives 1
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
To display group delay, press 4Format5 DELAY . If the trace needs to be
rescaled, press 4Scale Ref5 and AUTO SCALE . The default aperture is
very narrow, so the group delay measurement displayed is very noisy.
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
Figure 5-10. Group Delay
Smoothing Group Delay Trace
By setting a wide aperture, rapid changes in phase are averaged
and have less aect on the measurement. However, some loss in
measurement detail occurs with wide apertures. Press 4Bw/Avg5
GROUP DELAY APERTURE . The value of the aperture is shown at
the upper left of the display. Press 4*5 to increase the aperture (the
display becomes less noisy).
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
Where to Find More Information
For more information on group delay principles, see the Task
Reference manual.
Network Measurement Examples
5-11
Reection Measurement
When making a reection measurement, the analyzer monitors the
signal going to the DUT and uses it as the reference. It compares the
reected signal from the DUT to the reference signal. The ratio of the
incident and reected signals is the reection coecient of the DUT
or, when expressed in decibels, the return loss.
Reection measurements require the connection of a directional
device, such as a directional coupler, to separate the power reected
from the DUT. This separation is necessary so that it can be measured
independently of the incident power (see the following gure).
Figure 5-11. Reection Measurement
Multi-Port Test Devices
When the device has more than one port, connect high-quality terminations (loads) to
all unused DUT ports to terminate them into their characteristic impedance (usually
50 or 75 ). If this is not done, reections o the unused ports will cause
measurement errors.
The S-parameter test set automatically switches the termination at the unused port
for each S-parameter measurement. When using a transmission/reection test set,
terminate the unused input port of the analyzer with a high quality load.
The signal reected from the DUT is measured as a ratio with the
incident signal. It can be expressed as a reection coecient, a return
loss, or as SWR. These measurements are mathematically dened as:
5-12
Network Measurement Examples
return loss(dB) = 020 log()
reected power
reection coecient =
incident power
= (magnitude only)
= 0 (magnitude and phase)
Measurement Setup
Connection
= S11 or S22 (magnitude and phase)
1+
SWR =
10
Set up the analyzer as shown in Figure 5-12.
Figure 5-12. Reection Measurement Setup
Analyzer Settings
Press 4Preset5. Then set the analyzer's controls as follows:
Desired Setting
Key Strokes
Active Channel Select channel 1
Block
Press 4Chan 15 (default)
Measurement
Block
Select network analyzer
Press 4Meas5 ANALYZER TYPE NETWORK ANALYZER
Select S11
Press 4Meas5 Refl:FWD S11 [A/R] (default)
Select LOG MAG format
Press 4Format5 LOG MAG (default)
Center frequency 836 MHz
Press 4Center5 836 4M/5
Span frequency 100 MHz
Press 4Span5 100 4M/5
Sweep block
FFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFF FFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFF
FFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFF
FFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFF
Performing Calibration
Perform an S11 , 1-port calibration for this measurement. The
following procedure is for using 7 mm standards (see the Task
Reference manual for using other standard devices).
Network Measurement Examples
5-13
1. Press 4Cal5 CALIBRATE MENU S11 1-PORT .
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
2. Connect the OPEN standard to port 1. Then press (S11):OPEN .
(The softkey label OPEN is underlined when the measurement is
completed.)
3. Connect the SHORT standard to port 1. Then press SHORT . (The
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
NNNNNNNNNNNNNN
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
softkey label SHORT is underlined when the measurement is
completed.)
4. Connect the LOAD standard to port 1. Then press LOAD . (The
softkey label LOAD is underlined when the measurement is
completed.)
5. Press DONE:1-PORT CAL . ( CORRECTION on OFF is automatically
NNNNNNNNNNNNNN
NNNNNNNNNNNNNN
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NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
set to ON off .)
Note
The next example \S-Parameters Measurement" uses the calibration
corrections you just completed. Do not change the calibration settings
before doing the example.
Measurement
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
Connect the DUT to the test set. Press 4Scale Ref5 AUTO SCALE if the
trace needs to be rescaled.
Return Loss and Reection Coecient
The return loss characteristics are displayed in the Log Mag format in
Figure 5-13. The value inside the passband is greater than outside
the passband. A large value for return loss corresponds to a small
reected signal just as a large value for insertion loss corresponds to a
small transmitted signal.
Figure 5-13. Return Loss
To display the same data in terms of reection coecient, press
4Format5 LIN MAG . This redisplays the existing measurement in a linear
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
5-14
Network Measurement Examples
magnitude format that varies from 0=1.00 at the top of the display
(100% reection) to 0.00 at the bottom of the display (perfect match).
Standing Wave Ratio
To display the reection measurement data as standing wave ratio
(swr), press 4Format5 SWR . The analyzer reformats the display in the
unitless measure of SWR (with SWR = 1, a perfect match, at the
bottom of the display).
NNNNNNNNNNN
Figure 5-14. SWR
Network Measurement Examples
5-15
S-Parameters Measurement
S-parameters S11 and S22 are no dierent from the measurements
made in the previous section. S11 is the complex reection coecient
of the DUT's input. S22 is the complex reection coecient of the
DUT's output. In both cases, all unused ports must be properly
terminated.
To display the trace on the polar chart, press 4Format5 POLAR .
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
The results of a typical S11 measurement is shown in Figure 5-15.
Each point on the polar trace corresponds to a particular value of
both magnitude and phase.
Polar Chart Shows Magnitude and Phase
Magnitude
The center of the circle represents a reection coecient 0 of 0, that is, a
perfect match or no reected signal.
The outermost circumference of the scale represents a 0 = 1.00, or 100 %
reection.
Phase
The 3 o'clock position corresponds to zero phase angle, that is, the reected
signal is at the same phase as the incident signal.
Phase dierences of 90, 180, and 270 degrees correspond to the 12, 9, and 6
o'clock positions on the polar display, respectively.
Figure 5-15. S11 on Polar Chart
Data Readout Using the Marker
Press 4Marker5 and use the knob to position the marker at any desired
point on the trace. Then read the frequency, magnitude, and phase in
the upper right hand corner of the display. Or, enter the frequency of
interest from the data entry key pad to read the magnitude and phase
at that point.
To read the marker data in logarithmic, linear, real/imaginary,
impedance (R+jX), admittance (G+jB), or SWR/phase formats, press
4Utility5 SMTH/POLAR MENU and select the desired format.
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
5-16
Network Measurement Examples
Impedance Measurement
The amount of power reection from a device is directly related to
the impedance values of both the device and the measuring system.
In fact, each value of the reection coecient (0) uniquely denes a
device impedance. For example:
0=0 occurs when the device and test set impedance are the same.
A short circuit has a reection coecient of 0=1 6 180 (=01).
An open circuit has a reection coecient of 0=1 6 0 (=1).
Every other value for 0 also corresponds uniquely to a complex
device impedance, according to the equation
1+0
Zn =
100
Where Zn is the DUT impedance normalized to (that is, divided by)
the measuring system's characteristic impedance (usually 50 or 75
). The network analyzer has a default impedance of 50 . To set
the impedance to 75 , press 4Cal5 MORE SET Z0 . The network
analyzer uses the formula above to convert the reection coecient
measurement data to impedance data.
1. Press 4Format5 SMITH . The display shows the complex impedance of
the DUT over the frequency range selected.
2. Press 4Marker5 to turn on the marker. Then use the knob to read
the resistive and reactive components of the complex impedance
at any point along the trace. The maker displays a complex
impedance readout.
NNNNNNNNNNNNNN NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
Figure 5-16. Impedance Measurement
Network Measurement Examples
5-17
Admittance Measurement
1. Press 4Format5 MORE ADMITTANCE CHART . The display shows the
complex impedance of the DUT over the frequency range selected.
2. Use the knob to read the resistive and reactive components of
the complex impedance at any point along the trace. The maker
displays complex impedance readout.
NNNNNNNNNNNNNN NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
Figure 5-17. Admittance Measurement
5-18
Network Measurement Examples
List Sweep
The analyzer has a list sweep function that can sweep frequency
according to a predened sweep segment list. Each sweep segment is
independent. For the network analyzer mode, each segment can have
a dierent number of sweep points, power level, and IF bandwidth
value. For the spectrum analyzer mode, each segment can have a
dierent number of points and RBW.
A segment looks like a normal sweep setting. The list sweep function
can combine up to 31 segments settings into 1 sweep. The analyzer
can have two dierent sweep lists. One list for the network analyzer
and the other list for the spectrum analyzer. When both channels are
set to the same analyzer mode, both channels use the same list. This
example describes the following two applications:
Sweep time reduction for lter testing in the network analyzer
mode (including the setup procedure).
Dynamic range enhancement in the network analyzer mode.
Sweep Time Reduction
The following example creates a list sweep to measure a lter that has
a 836 MHz center frequency and a 50 MHz bandwidth. This example
uses the list sweep to reduce the sweep time by setting coarse sweep
points for the rejection band and the ne sweep points for the
passband.
Analyzer Settings
Press 4Preset5. Then set the analyzer's controls as follows:
Desired Setting
Key Strokes
Active Channel Select channel 1
Block
4Chan 15
Measurement
Block
Select Network Analyzer
Press 4Meas5 ANALYZER TYPE NETWORK ANALYZER
Select S21 (or B/R) measurement
Press 4Meas5 Trans:FWD S21 [B/R]
Select LOG MAG format
4Format5 FORMAT:LOG MAG
(default)
FFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFF FFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFF
FFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFF
FFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFF
(default)
Network Measurement Examples
5-19
Creating a Sweep List
Perform the following procedure to create a list (see the graph below):
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
1. Press 4Sweep5 SWEEP TYPE MENU EDIT LIST .
2. To edit the list, press EDIT .
3. For segment 1:
Press 4Start5 736 4M/5.
Press 4Stop5 796 4M/5.
Press NUMBER of POINTS 30 4215 SEGMENT DONE .
4. For segment 2:
Press ADD .
Press 4Stop5 876 4M/5.
Press NUMBER of POINTS 120 4215 SEGMENT DONE .
5. For segment 3:
Press ADD .
Press 4Stop5 936 4M/5.
Press NUMBER of POINTS 30 4215 SEGMENT DONE .
6. Press LIST DONE .
NNNNNNNNNNNNNN
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
NNNNNNNNNNN
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
NNNNNNNNNNN
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
The segments do not have to be entered in any particular order. The analyzer
automatically sorts them in increasing order of sweep parameter value.
Figure 5-18. Sweep List Edit Display
Performing List Sweep
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
Press 4Sweep5 SWEEP TYPE MENU LIST FREQ to perform the list sweep
measurement.
5-20
Network Measurement Examples
Dynamic Range Enhancement
Figure 5-19 shows the sweep list modied from the list of the previous
example to improve dynamic range. Segments 1 and 2 have a narrow
IF bandwidth and a higher power level for the stopband of the
lter. Segment 3 has a wide IF bandwidth and lower power level for
passband.
1. Press 4Sweep5 SWEEP TYPE MENU EDIT LIST .
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
2. To modify segment 1, press SEGMENT 1 4215 EDIT .
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
NNNNNNNNNNNNNN
3. Press POWER 15 4215 IFBW 10 4215 SEGMENT DONE .
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
NNNNNNNNNNNNNN
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
4. To modify segments 2 and 3, see Figure 5-19 for the values and
modify them in a manner similar to steps 2 and 3.
5. Press LIST DONE .
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
Figure 5-19. Dynamic Range Enhancement
The 4Save5 key can save sweep lists along with all other current instrument settings
(see the Task Reference).
Network Measurement Examples
5-21
Filter Testing Using Limit Lines
The analyzer has limit line/testing functions for go/no-go testing. The
limit lines dene upper and lower limits. The limit testing functions
compare the measured data to the limit lines and indicate the result.
The following example is a practical method for setting up limit lines
to test a bandpass lter.
Example of Limit Lines For Filter Testing
This example creates limit lines to test a 70 MHz crystal bandpass
lter.
Analyzer Settings
Press 4Preset5. Then set the analyzer's controls as follows:
Desired Setting
Key Strokes
Active Channel Select channel 1
Block
4Chan 15
Measurement
Block
Select S21 (or B/R) measurement
Press 4Meas5 Trans:FWD S21 [B/R]
Select LOG MAG format
4Format5 LOG MAG
Sweep Block
Center frequency 836 MHz
Press 4Center5 836 4M/5
Span frequency 100 MHz
Press 4Span5 100 4M/5
Number of points 401
Press 4MENU5 NUMBER of POINTS 401 4215
(default)
FFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFF
FFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFF
(default)
FFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFF
Creating Limit Lines
Perform the following procedure (see Figure 5-20):
5-22
Network Measurement Examples
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
1. Press 4System5 LIMIT MENU LIMIT LINE on OFF to ON off .
2. Press EDIT LIMIT LINE EDIT .
3. For segment 1:
Press SWP PARAM VALUE 806 4M/5.
Press UPPER LIMIT 055 4215.
Press LOWER LIMIT 0120 4215 DONE .
4. For segment 2:
Press ADD SWP PARAM 821 4M/5.
Press UPPER LIMIT 01 4215.
Press LOWER LIMIT 015 4215 DONE .
5. For segment 3:
Press ADD SWP PARAM 851 4M/5 DONE .
6. For segment 4:
Press ADD SWP PARAM 866 4M/5.
Press UPPER LIMIT 055 4215.
Press LOWER LIMIT 0120 4215 DONE .
7. Press DONE .
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN NNNNNNNNNNNNNN
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
NNNNNNNNNNNNNN
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
NNNNNNNNNNN NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
NNNNNNNNNNNNNN
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
NNNNNNNNNNN NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
NNNNNNNNNNNNNN
NNNNNNNNNNN NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
NNNNNNNNNNNNNN
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
NNNNNNNNNNNNNN
The limit line segments do not have to be entered in any particular order. The
analyzer automatically sorts them and lists them on the display in the increasing
order of sweep parameter value.
Figure 5-20. Editing the Limit Lines
Performing Limit Test
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
Press LIMIT TEST on OFF to ON off to perform limit testing using
the limit lines you just edited. When the limit lines and testing are
turned on, an out-of-limit test result is normally indicated in six ways:
With a FAIL message on the screen.
With a beep (on/o selectable).
With an asterisk in tabular listings of data (under 4Copy5).
With a bit in GPIB event status register B.
Network Measurement Examples
5-23
With a bit in the I/O port on the rear panel.
With the GPIB commands OUTPLIMF?, OUTPLIMIL?, and OUTPLIMM?.
Separated Limit Lines
Figure 5-21 shows separated limit lines and an editing table example.
This example can be used for lter testing that only requires insertion
loss limits. Dummy limit values (+5000 for upper and 05000 for
lower, for example) should be entered for the no limit areas.
Figure 5-21. Separated Limit Lines
Limits are only checked at each of the actual measured data points.
It is possible for a device to be out of specication without a
limit test failure indication if you do not select sucient sweep
parameter points within a segment.
By combining the limit test and the list sweep function, high
throughput limit line/testing can be performed for go/no-go testing.
For detailed information on the list sweep, see \List Sweep" in this
chapter.
Limit line information is lost if you press 4Preset5 or turn o the
power. However, the 4Save5 keys can save the limit line information
along with all other current instrument settings when the limit lines
are on. See the Task Reference manual for details.
5-24
Network Measurement Examples
Gain Compression Measurement
An important measure of active circuits is how well they handle a
signal frequency with a varying input amplitude. By using the power
sweep function in the network analyzer mode, measurements such as
gain compression or automatic gain control slope can be made.
Measurement Setup
Connection
Set up the analyzer as shown in Figure 5-22.
Figure 5-22. Gain Compression Measurement Setup
Analyzer Settings
Press 4Preset5. Then set the analyzer's controls as follows:
Desired Settings
Key Strokes
Active Channel Select channel 1
Block
4Chan 15
Measurement
block
Select Network Analyzer
Press 4Meas5 ANALYZER TYPE NETWORK ANALYZER
Select S21 (or B/R) measurement
Press 4Meas5 Trans:FWD S21 [B/R]
Select LOG MAG format
4Format5 LOG MAG
IF BW 10 kHz
4Bw/Avg5
Select power sweep
Press 4Sweep5 SWEEP TYPE POWER
Start power 020 dBm
Press 4Start5 020 4215
Sweep block
Stop power 0 dBm
(default)
FFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFF FFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFF
FFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFF
FFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFF
(default)
10 4k/m5
FFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFF FFFFFFFFFFFFFF
Press 4Stop5 0 4215
Network Measurement Examples
5-25
Performance Calibration
Perform a power response calibration for this measurement as follows:
1. Press 4Cal5 CALIBRATION MENU RESPONSE .
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
2. Connect a THRU calibration standard between the measurement
cables in place of the DUT (see Figure 5-22).
3. Press THRU to perform a power response calibration data
measurement.
4. Press DONE:RESPONSE . ( CORRECTION on OFF is automatically set
to CORRECTION ON off .)
NNNNNNNNNNNNNN
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
Measurement
5. Replace the THRU standard with the DUT.
6. Press 4Scale Ref5 AUTO SCALE if the trace needs to be rescaled.
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
7. Press 4Search5 MAX to move the marker to the maximum point on
the trace.
8. Press 4Marker5 1MODE MENU 1Mkr to set the 1marker to the
maximum point.
9. Press 4Search5 TARGET 01 4215 to search for the point of the gain
compression. (See Figure 5-23.)
NNNNNNNNNNN
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN NNNNNNNNNNNNNN
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
Figure 5-23. Gain Compression
5-26
Network Measurement Examples
Absolute Output Level Measurement
The analyzer can show the characteristics input level versus output
level by using the absolute measurement capability in the network
analyzer mode.
1. Press 4Sweep5 CHAN COUP on OFF to CHAN COUP ON off to couple
the sweep parameters of both channels.
2. Press 4Marker5 MKR COUP on OFF to MKR COUP ON off to couple
the marker between both channels.
3. Press 4Chan 25 4Meas5 B to select the absolute measurement at the B
input.
4. Press 4Display5 DATA MATH [DATA] OFFSET . Then input the value
of the attenuator that is connected between the DUT and the B
input. In this example measurement, a 30 dB attenuator is used.
Therefore, enter 30 4215.
5. Press 4Scale Ref5 AUTO SCALE if the trace needs to be rescaled.
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
NNNNN
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
6. The analyzer displays the input versus output power levels. The
marker shows the input and output power levels at the 01 dB gain
compression point.
7. Press 4Display5 DUAL CHAN on OFF to ON off to display both
channel (see Figure 5-24). Note that you must subtract 3 dB from
the input value readout. This is necessary because the input signal
is attenuated by the power splitter that is between the RF OUT and
the DUT.
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
Figure 5-24.
Input vs. Output Power Level at the 01 dB Gain Compression
Point
Network Measurement Examples
5-27
A
For More Information
The User's Guide provides an overview of the analyzer and typical
applications using the analyzer. You may need or want more
information on the analyzer's features. The following table shows you
where to nd that information:
Calibration
How to perform calibration for the
network analyzer mode
How to perform level calibration for the
spectrum analyzer mode
Softkey reference
Principles of calibration
Chapter 4 in the Task Reference.
How to use disk and memory storage
Softkey reference
File system information
Chapter 6 in the Task Reference.
Chapter 8 in the Function Reference.
Appendix C in the Function Reference.
How to print
Softkey descriptions
Printer available
Chapter 6 in the Task Reference.
Chapter 8 in the Function Reference.
Chapter 9 in the Function Reference.
How to control the analyzer by GPIB
GPIB command reference
SCPI command reference
See GPIB Programming Guide
See GPIB Command Reference.
See GPIB Command Reference.
How to use HP Instrument BASIC
HP Instrument BASIC command
See Using HP Instrument BASIC.
See HP Instrument BASIC Users
Handbook.
Chapter 10 in the Function Reference.
Disk and Memory
Print
Controlling by GPIB
Instrument BASIC
Specications
Accessories
Chapter 2 in the Task Reference
Chapter 5 in the Function Reference.
Chapter 12 in the Function Reference.
How to connect
Optional accessories available
Furnished accessories
Appendix A in this guide.
Chapter 9 in the Function Reference.
Chapter 10 in the Function Reference.
Appendix D in the Function Reference.
Chapter 12 in the Function Reference.
See Messages in the Function Reference.
How to use
Descriptions
Chapter 10 in the Programming Guide.
Chapter 12 in the Function Reference.
Organization of manual set
See the \Documentation Map" in the front
matter of each manual.
Default Setting
Measurement Basic
Error Messages
I/O port
Manual Set
You can also use the Table of Contents and the Index of each manual
to nd the specic information you need.
For More Information
A-1
Index
8
85046A/B S-parameter Test Set , 5-1
A
accessory, A-1
active channel
setting , 2-4, 3-5
ADMITTANCE CHART , 5-18
admittance measurement , 5-18
AM signal measurement , 4-10
analyzer settings
recalling , 2-15
saving , 2-13
analyzer type
setting to network , 3-6
setting to spectrum , 2-5
ANALYZER TYPE , 4-3, 5-2
aperture , 5-11
automatic scaling
performing , 3-9
AUTO SCALE , 5-3, 5-6
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
B
C
bandwidth , 5-4
beep , 5-23
burst signal measurement , 4-16
, 5-2
CALIBRATE MENU , 5-2
calibration, A-1
frequency response, A-1
frequency response , 5-2
full two port, A-1
one path two port, A-1
one port reection, A-1
procedure , 5-2
standards, A-1
thru, A-1
thru , 5-2
transmission measurement , 5-2
CAL OUT signal , 2-3
CHAN COUP on OFF , 5-27
cleaning , 1-6
C/N Measurement , 4-4
command
GPIB, A-1
4Cal5
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
Index-1
Instrument BASIC, A-1
Contents, 1-1
CORRECTION ON off , 5-2
COUPLED CH on OFF , 5-6
COUPLED CH ON off , 5-5
CROSS CHAN on OFF , 4-13, 5-5
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
D
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
DATA and MEMORY , 4-14
DATA HOLD [OFF] , 4-14
DATA MATH [DATA] , 5-27
DATA!MEMORY , 4-14
DELAY , 5-11
1marker, 4-4
1MODE MENU , 4-3
deviation from linear phase , 5-10
directivity, A-1
disk, A-1
preparing , 2-12
distortion measurement , 4-3
DOS , 2-13
DUAL CHAN on OFF , 4-6
DUT
connecting , 3-3
dynamic range , 5-21
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
E
edge mode , 4-17
EDIT LIMIT LINE , 5-22
EDIT LIST , 5-20
ELEC DELAY MENU , 5-8
electrical length , 5-8
envelope , 4-14
EXPANDED PHASE , 5-7
EXTERNAL , 4-18
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
F
fail message , 5-23
le name
entering , 2-13
lename , 2-14
lter measurement , 5-2, 5-19, 5-22
FIXED 1MKR , 4-15
atness , 5-5
FM signal measurement , 4-12
frequency deviation , 4-12
frequency range
setting , 2-6, 3-8
frequency response, A-1
Fuse Selection, 1-3
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
Index-2
G
gain compression measurement , 5-25
gate delay , 4-18
GATE DELAY , 4-17
gated sweep , 4-17
gate length , 4-18
GATE LENGTH , 4-17
GATE [LEVEL] , 4-17
go/no-go testing , 5-22
GPIB, A-1
group delay , 5-10
GROUP DELAY APERTURE , 5-11
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
H
I
K
L
hardcopy of LCD
making , 3-14
harmonic distortion measurement , 4-2
harmonics
searching , 2-11
impedance measurement , 5-17
incoming inspection , 1-1
input
selecting for network mode , 3-7
selecting for spectrum mode , 2-6
insertion loss , 5-2
Instrument BASIC, A-1
keyboard , 2-13
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
LEFT PEAK , 4-13
LIF , 2-13
limit line function
check points , 5-24
insertion loss testing , 5-24
lower limit , 5-22
segment , 5-22
upper limit , 5-22
limit line function , 5-22
LIMIT LINE ON off , 5-22
LIMIT MENU , 5-22
limit test function , 5-22
LIMIT TEST ON off , 5-23
4LINE5 , 2-3
line stretchers , 5-8
LIST FREQ , 5-20
list sweep function
segment , 5-19
sweep list , 5-19
list sweep function , 5-19
low level signal , 2-9
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
Index-3
M
marker
reading value , 3-12
marker , 2-8, 4-3
marker list , 4-3
marker noise form , 4-4
MARKER!DELAY , 5-8
memory, A-1
MKR COUP on OFF , 5-27
MKR LIST on OFF , 4-3
MKR NOISE FORM on OFF , 4-4
MKR ON [DATA] , 4-15
MKR ON [MEMORY] , 4-15
MKR!REFERENCE , 4-4, 5-5
MKR ZOOM , 4-13
modulating frequency , 4-10, 4-13
modulation index , 4-10
MULTIPLE PEAKS , 4-3
multiple peak search , 4-3
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
N
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
NETWORK ANALYZER , 5-2
network measurement, 5-1
NEXT PEAK , 4-12
number of points , 5-20
NUMBER of POINTS , 4-18
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
O
P
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
OFFSET , 5-27
Part Number, 1-1
pass message , 5-23
PEAK DEF MENU , 5-5
peak level
read by marker , 2-8
PEAK PLRTY POS neg , 5-5
peak search , 5-5
phase distortion , 5-10
phase measurements , 5-6
POLAR , 5-16
polar chart , 5-16
Power Cable, 1-4
preset marker , 4-3
PRESET MKRS , 4-3
Presetting , 2-15
printer
conguring and connecting , 3-14
programming, A-1
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
Index-4
R
RBW
setting , 2-9
rbw setup time , 4-17
reection coecient , 5-12
reection measurement , 5-12
repetitive sampling mode , 4-17
RESPONSE , 5-2
response calibration
performing , 3-10
response calibration , 4-8
return loss , 5-12
RIGTH PEAK , 4-13
ripple , 5-5
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
S
sampling mode , 4-17
SAMPLING NORM rept , 4-18
4Save5 , 5-21, 5-24
SCALE/DEV , 5-5
search function
using , 2-11
SEARCH:PEAK , 4-12
SEARCH:PEAKS ALL , 4-3
SEARCH TRK on OFF , 4-3
setup time , 4-17
SET Z0 , 5-17
SIGNAL TRK on OFF , 4-6
SMITH , 5-17
source match, A-1
S-parameter test set , 3-3
specications, A-1
SPECTRUM ANALYZER , 4-3
spectrum measurement , 4-1
spectrum monitor , 4-7
storage, A-1
sub-marker , 4-3
sux , 2-16
SWEEP:HOLD , 4-17
sweep time , 5-19
SWEEP TIME , 4-18
SWEEP TYPE MENU , 5-20
swr , 5-12
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
Index-5
T
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
TARGET , 5-26
test signal source
connecting , 2-3
THRU , 5-2
time domain measurement , 4-17
tracking 1marker, 4-3
TRACKING 1MKR , 4-3
tracking drifting signal , 4-5
transmission/reection test set , 3-3
TRIGGER:[FREE RUN] , 4-17
trigger mode , 4-17
turning ON , 2-3, 3-3
NNNNNNNNNNNNNN
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
V
video bandwidth , 4-4
VIDEO BW , 4-4
W
wide band fm signal , 4-12
WIDTH on OFF , 5-4
WIDTH VALUE , 5-4
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
Z
Index-6
zero span , 4-17
ZOOMING APERTURE , 4-13
zooming function , 4-13
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
REGIONAL SALES AND SUPPORT OFFICES
For more information about Agilent Technologies test and measurement products, applications, services, and
for a current sales office listing, visit our web site: http://www.agilent.com/find/tmdir. You can also contact one
of the following centers and ask for a test and measurement sales representative.
11/29/99
United States:
Agilent Technologies
Test and Measurement Call Center
P.O.Box 4026
Englewood, CO 80155-4026
(tel) 1 800 452 4844
Canada:
Agilent Technologies Canada Inc.
5150 Spectrum Way
Mississauga, Ontario
L4W 5G1
(tel) 1 877 894 4414
Europe:
Agilent Technologies
Test & Measurement
European Marketing Organization
P.O.Box 999
1180 AZ Amstelveen
The Netherlands
(tel) (31 20) 547 9999
Japan:
Agilent Technologies Japan Ltd.
Call Center
9-1, Takakura-Cho, Hachioji-Shi,
Tokyo 192-8510, Japan
(tel) (81) 426 56 7832
(fax) (81) 426 56 7840
Latin America:
Agilent Technologies
Latin American Region Headquarters
5200 Blue Lagoon Drive, Suite #950
Miami, Florida 33126
U.S.A.
(tel) (305) 267 4245
(fax) (305) 267 4286
Australia/New Zealand:
Agilent Technologies Australia Pty Ltd
347 Burwood Highway
Forest Hill, Victoria 3131
(tel) 1-800 629 485 (Australia)
(fax) (61 3) 9272 0749
(tel) 0 800 738 378 (New Zealand)
(fax) (64 4) 802 6881
Asia Pacific:
Agilent Technologies
24/F, Cityplaza One, 1111 King’s Road,
Taikoo Shing, Hong Kong
(tel) (852)-3197-7777
(fax) (852)-2506-9284