Agilent Technologies 6800 Yard Vacuum User Manual

Agilent 6800 Series
AC Power Source/Analyzer
Product Note
Using the Agilent Technologies 6800 Series
AC Power Source/Analyzers for Generation
and Measurement
Applications:
• Simulating AC Line Sub-Cycle Dropouts
• Generating MIL-STD-704D Waveforms
• Performing IEC 555-2 Measurements
• Performing Inrush Current Measurements
• Generating User-Defined Waveforms
• Operating the Agilent 6812A and 6813A
at Low Frequencies
Introduction
This note provides information on how you can
use the features of the Agilent Technologies 6800
series ac power source/analyzers to address a
variety of applications. Although your exact application may not be listed here, the capabilities
described can be generalized and applied to your
specific needs. The programming examples are
given in QBASIC.
These are the capabilities that are discussed and
a description of how they can be applied:
Table of Contents
3
4
6
8
11
14
18
21
24
28
2
Introduction to the Agilent 6800 AC Power Source/Analyzer
Agilent 6800 Series Output Transients
Agilent 6800 Series Triggering
Agilent 6800 Series Measurements
Application 1: Simulating AC Line Sub-Cycle Dropouts
Application 2: Generating MIL-STD-704D Waveforms
Application 3: Performing IEC 555-2 Measurements
Application 4: Performing Inrush Current Measurements
Application 5: Generating User-Defined Waveforms
Application 6: Operating the Agilent 6812A and 6813A
at Low Frequencies
Introduction to the Agilent 6800 AC Power Source/Analyzer
The 6800 series ac power source/analyzers are
members of the Agilent Technologies “One-Box”
Solution power products family. These products
offer an integrated solution for ac power testing
applications.
The 6800 series combines the functionality of the
following instruments in one box:
•
•
•
•
•
power amplifier
arbitrary waveform generator
power analyzer
harmonic analyzer
waveform digitizer
The power amplifier and arbitrary waveform
generator capabilities produce waveforms with
programmable amplitude, frequency, and waveshape. Each model has pre-programmed sine,
square, and clipped sine waveshapes. For added
flexibility, twelve user-defined waveforms can
be created and stored in non-volatile memory.
Waveforms can be programmed using the 6800
series transient generation system to simulate
sophisticated and repeatable ac line disturbances
or output sequences.
The power analyzer and harmonic analyzer capabilities provide high precision measurements
including:
•
•
•
•
rms, dc, ac+dc voltage and current
peak voltage and current
real, apparent, and reactive power
harmonic analysis of voltage and current waveforms providing amplitude and phase up to the
50th harmonic
• total harmonic distortion
• triggered acquisition of digitized voltage and
current
The 6800 series can be used in bench or ATE applications. The fully featured front panel and built-in
GPIB and RS-232 interfaces allow you to program
waveforms, measure parameters, and monitor the
status of the ac power source/analyzer.
Each model features a SCPI (Standard Commands
for Programmable Instruments) command set. This
industry standard command set simplifies test system development by offering command set commonality between all types of instrumentation. Instruments performing the same function use the same
self-documenting SCPI instructions. For example,
the same commands are used to program a waveshape on the 6800 series ac power source/analyzers
as on a function generator. Because you spend less
time learning device commands, you can get your
application up and running faster.
The following sections of this product note explain
how to optimize your usage of the features of the
6800 series products. At the end of this product
note there are practical examples that show how
these features can be applied.
3
Agilent 6800 Series Output Transients
A programmable output value of the ac power
source/analyzer can operate in one of four modes:
FIXED, Step, Pulse, or List. The default setting is
FIXED mode, where the output will stay “fixed” at
the programmed value until another command is
sent to change it. The remaining three operating
modes constitute the Transient Subsystem. Output
transients are used to:
• synchronize output changes with a particular
phase of the voltage waveform
• synchronize output changes with trigger signals
• simulate ac line disturbances with precise duration and phase control
• create sequences of output changes
Output transients are triggered actions and will
cause the output of the ac power source/analyzer
to react in a manner defined by the selected mode.
What Programmable Functions can be
Controlled by the Transient Subsystem?
The 6800 series provides control of many output
parameters. Most of these can be programmed as
an output transient. The following output parameters are subject to transient control:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
ac output voltage
dc output voltage (Agilent 6812A and 6813A only)
frequency
phase (Agilent 6834A only)
waveform shape
ac voltage slew rate
dc voltage slew rate (6812A and 6813A only)
frequency slew rate
peak current limit (6812A and 6813A only)
rms current limit
dwell time (List mode only)
Upon receipt of a trigger, an output parameter set
to Step, Pulse, or List mode will transition from an
immediate level (its initial output setting) to one or
more levels (successive output settings). The number of successive output settings is, in part, what
differentiates one transient mode from another.
4
What is a STEP Transient?
A Step transient generates a single triggered output change (from an immediate output level to
ONE successive output level) of one or more of the
output parameters subject to transient control.
Only output parameters programmed to Step mode
will be part of the triggered action. The output
will remain at the final output level once the Step
transient is complete.
What is a PULSE Transient?
A Pulse transient generates a triggered output
change that returns to its immediate output level
after a programmed time period. A Pulse transient
can also be programmed to repeat the output
change more than once or continuously.
What is a LIST Transient?
A List transient generates a sequence of output
changes. Each output change of the sequence is
called a List point. All parameters subject to transient control can be programmed at each List point.
A List can contain up to one hundred points. The
list of points can be programmed to execute once
or to repeat from one to an infinite number of times.
Agilent’s 6800 series List points can be paced by
external triggers. When paced by triggers, the output will remain at a particular List point until a
trigger is received. Only then will it proceed to the
next programmed point.
List points can also be paced by individual programmable dwell time parameters associated with
every point. Only when the dwell time for a particular List point expires will it proceed to the next
List point.
Once the List is completed, the output returns to
the immediate levels.
Model of the Transient System
5
Agilent 6800 Series Triggering
In ATE applications, triggers are often a convenient way of synchronizing test system events and
increasing test throughput. These benefits also
apply to the triggering subsystems in the 6800
series products since these products combine the
capabilities of many test instruments. Each model
is equipped with the ability to send and receive
triggers, and to perform or initiate a multitude of
synchronized functions upon receiving a trigger.
Triggers can be used to change the output, synchronize a change to a phase of a waveform cycle,
and synchronize a measurement to an output
change. The effectiveness of the triggering capability
can be shown when measuring worst case inrush
current of a switching power supply. Using the
6800 series triggering subsystem, the output can
be triggered to turn on at a phase near the peak
of the ac cycle for simulating a worst case ac line
condition. Simultaneously, the ac source can be
triggered to take current measurements to characterize the behavior of the power supply under test.
In addition, triggering can be extended to external
test equipment via the Trigger Out connection.
The 6800 series has two main triggering subsystems,
one for generating transients and one for making
measurements. These two subsystems have common
trigger sources that can synchronize transient and
measurement events.
What Actions Can be Triggered?
The following actions of the 6800 series can be
triggered:
•
•
•
•
•
a change in output setting
the start of a Step, Pulse, or List transient
the pace of a List sequence
the acquisition of digitized voltage and current
the synchronization of an output change to
a phase of the cycle
A programmable time delay can be specified for
triggers that generate output changes. This allows
the insertion of a specified time delay between
the receipt of the trigger and the action of the
ac power source/analyzer output.
6
What Can Serve as the Source of the Trigger?
The 6800 series can receive triggers from the
following sources:
The GPIB. The computer can send trigger commands
to the ac power source/analyzer. There is a short
command processing time associated with this
source.
External Trigger In. This is the 6800 series TRIGGER
IN connector. It accepts TTL levels, with the falling
edge detected as the trigger.
TTL Trigger. The TTL trigger is an internal trigger
that causes the acquisition of digitized voltage and
current data.
This internal trigger can be generated when an
output transient begins or ends, or as the result
of List step execution.
How Can Triggers be Generated?
The 6800 series can generate a trigger on the
TRIGGER OUT connector as a result of the following actions:
• the beginning of a Step, Pulse, or List output
transient
• the completion of a Step or Pulse output
transient
• the completion of a List sequence
• the beginning of a List step
The TRIGGER OUT signal is a nominal
10-microsecond low-true pulse.
How Can the Agilent 6800 Series be Enabled
to Respond to a Trigger?
The default state of the ac power source/analyzer
is the idle state where trigger detection is disabled.
To respond to a trigger, it must be placed in the
“initiated state.” This can be done via the front
panel or over the bus. Once initiated, the ac power
source/analyzer can detect a trigger from the
selected source.
When the trigger is detected, the ac power source/
analyzer will perform the trigger action after waiting any programmed trigger delay time. Upon completion of the trigger action, the ac power source/
analyzer will return to the idle state.
Output Transient Trigger Model
Measurement Trigger Model
7
Agilent 6800 Series Measurements
The built-in power analyzer capability offers many
voltage, current, and power measurements to the
user. While on, the ac power source/analyzers are
continuously sampling instantaneous output voltage and current for several output cycles and writing the data to buffers. Each buffer, one for voltage
and one for current, holds 4096 data points. The
voltage and current data is used to calculate the
requested measurement parameter. There are two
basic methods to obtain a measurement: using the
MEASure command or the FETCh command. These
commands can return a single measured parameter,
an array of voltage and current harmonic data, or
an array of the 4096 voltage or current data values.
What is a MEASure Command?
When this command is sent to the 6800 series
ac power source/analyzer, the unit begins acquiring new voltage and current data into its data
buffers. Upon completing the acquisition of 4096
data points for voltage and current, the unit then
Pre-event and Post-event Acquisition Triggering
8
performs the required calculation to return the
requested measurement parameter. When a new
acquisition of instantaneous output voltage and
current data is desired, this command should be
used to return the requested measurement.
What is a FETCh Command?
This command allows the user to retrieve measured parameters from previously acquired voltage
and current data. For example, the FETCh command can be used after a MEASure command to
return calculated parameters from the same 4096
data points that were acquired by the MEASure
command. In addition, the FETCh command can
be used to retrieve measurement information after
triggering an acquisition of digitized voltage and
current data. This method provides the flexibility
to synchronize the data acquisition with a triggered
event, and then return many calculations from
the existing voltage and current data buffers.
How Can the Acquisition of Voltage and Current
Data be Controlled?
Two characteristics of the voltage and current
acquisition can be controlled: the sample rate,
and the beginning of acquisition relative to the
trigger. The ac power source/analyzer has a sample
rate of approximately 40 kHz (a sample every 25
microseconds) as the default setting. This means
it takes approximately 100 milliseconds for the
data buffers to fill with voltage and current data
points. The sample period can be programmed
from a minimum of 25 microseconds to a maximum of 250 microseconds (at 25-microsecond
increments).
The acquisition of voltage and current data can
also be initiated relative to the acquisition trigger,
thereby enabling the capture of pre-event and
post-event data. To capture pre-event or post-event
voltage and current data, the offset of data points
relative to the trigger is programmed. The range
of offset that can be programmed is from -4096 to
2xl09 points. If the offset is negative, the values at
the beginning of the data buffer represent samples
taken prior to the trigger. If the offset value is zero
(the default setting), all data is acquired directly
after the trigger. If the offset value is positive, the
acquisition of valid buffer data will be delayed
from the receipt of the trigger.
MEASure and FETCh Command Execution Diagram
9
Applications
The following section contains six application
examples. For each application, there is:
• The details of the implementation of the solution
• A sample program in QBASIC using the National
GPIB interface card
• A description of variations on the application
(if applicable)
• An overview of the application
• A description of the Agilent 6800 series features
used to implement the application
• The advantages and benefits of the 6800 series
solution
The following table lists the 6800 series features
used in each of the applications.
Application
1
2
3
Transient Generation
Step mode
Pulse mode
Synchronization with output phase
6
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
User-defined waveform generation
Voltage slew control
5
•
List mode
Transient generation with a trigger delay
4
•
Frequency slew control
Measurement and Analysis
Synchronization with transients
Harmonic analysis
Measurement window control
•
•
•
High resolution current range
measurements
Digitized data acquisition
Event-referenced data acquisition
Data acquisition sample rate control
10
•
•
•
Application 1:
Simulating AC Line Sub-Cycle Dropouts
Overview of application
Implementation details
The ability of a switching power supply to maintain its output voltage setting in the presence of
typical ac line disturbances is critical to its enduse. If the end-use of the power supply is installation into a computer, for example, sensitivity to
ac line variations can result in unexpected loss of
critical data and system downtime. To simulate
these common ac line voltage variations, an amplitude controlled ac voltage can be applied to the
ac input of the power supply.
How the 6800 series implements the dropout
The computer sends a trigger to the ac power
source/analyzer with a programmable delay of
5 seconds to ensure that the ac input to the power
supply under test is in a steadystate condition.
The ac source outputs a low distortion 120 Vrms
sinewave during the trigger delay and allows the
power supply to stabilize into steadystate operation. After 5 seconds, the ac power source/analyzer
responds to the trigger and drops the output voltage to 0 Vrms starting at 80° of one output voltage
cycle and lasting for 0.001389 seconds.
For this example, the power supply requires a
single phase ac source set to a nominal line voltage
of 120 Vrms and frequency of 60 Hz. To test the
power supply under worst case conditions, a voltage dropout to 0 Vrms should occur between 80°
and 110° (i.e. a duration of 0.001389 seconds) on
the voltage waveform. This is a steadystate test,
which means that the dropout occurs after the
ac input of the power supply under test has settled
from all non-repetitive inrush conditions that
typically occur at power-up.
Agilent 6800 series features used
• RMS voltage in Pulse mode
• Trigger synchronization to the output voltage
phase
• Trigger delay
Advantages/benefits of the Agilent 6800 series
solution
• By using the trigger phase synchronization
capability, the timing of the dropout is accurate
and repeatable.
Agilent 6800 series setup
• Connect the ac source output to the ac input
of the power supply under test.
• Set the output waveform to sine.
• Set the rms voltage to Pulse mode.
• Set the initial (immediate) voltage to 120 Vrms.
• Set the triggered voltage level to 0 Vrms.
• Set the frequency to 60 Hz.
• Set the Pulse count to 1.
• Set the Pulse width to 0.001389 seconds
(the width of 30° of phase dropout for a 60 Hz
sinewave).
• Set the transient trigger source to BUS.
• Set the transient trigger source synchronization
to PHASE.
• Set the phase synchronization to 80°.
• Set the trigger delay to 5 seconds.
• Initiate the transient trigger system.
• Enable the output of the ac power source/
analyzer.
• Send a bus trigger.
• By using the transient capability, the computer
is not devoted to sequencing the output.
• By using the trigger delay, it is assured that the
power supply is in steadystate operation.
• One command initiates the test.
11
Upon the receipt of the trigger, the ac source
continues to output a 120 Vrms, 60 Hz sinewave
for 5 seconds. After the 5-second trigger delay,
the rms voltage drops to 0 Vrms at 80° of the
cycle and then rises back to 120 Vrms (0.001389
seconds later) at 110° of the cycle.
Variations on this implementation
1. The Pulse width can be increased to simulate
full cycle dropouts.
2. The Pulse count can be set to a value >1 and
the Pulse period can be programmed to 0.01667
seconds (the period of a 60 Hz sinewave) to
create multiple dropouts.
Timing Diagram of Application 1
12
3. The triggered level of the rms voltage can be set
higher than the initial setting of 120 Vrms to
simulate a voltage surge.
4. The rms voltage slew rate can be programmed
in Pulse mode to simulate a gradual brown out
(sag) condition versus an abrupt dropout. The
Pulse width can be increased to simulate a sag
over multiple ac line cycles.
13
Application 2:
Generating MIL-STD-704D Waveforms
Overview of application
Agilent 6800 series features used
U.S. Military Standard 704D (September 30, 1980)
establishes the requirements of electrical power
transfer between the aircraft or ground support
electrical system, and the electronic equipment
utilizing this power on board the aircraft. When
testing to this standard, electrical aircraft equipment must be subjected to voltage and frequency
transients that can occur under normal operation,
emergency power operation, and during power
source transfers.
•
•
•
•
The “pass” criteria for aircraft equipment is dependent upon the specification of the equipment under
test. In general, the intent of the test is that:
• the equipment is permitted a degradation or
loss of function unless required otherwise by
its specifications
• the equipment is not permitted to produce a
damaging or unsafe condition
• the equipment must automatically recover full
specified performance when normal ac power
characteristics are restored
For this example, the equipment under test has
a single phase ac input with 115 Vrms and 400 Hz
requirements. The device is tested under ac voltage
transients initially, and then under frequency transient conditions. These transients are as follows:
At 400 Hz:
Voltage Test 1: 180 Vpk (127 Vrms) for 10 ms, and
then slew to 124 Vpk (88 Vrms) at 800 Vpk
(566 Vrms) per second.
Voltage Test 2: 80 Vpk (57 Vrms) for 10 ms, and
then slew to 108 Vpk (76 Vrms) at 400 Vpk
(283 Vrms) per second.
At 115 Vrms:
Frequency Test 1: 425 Hz for 1 s, 420 Hz for 4 s,
410 Hz for 5 s, and 407 Hz for 4 s.
Frequency Test 2: 375 Hz for 1 s, 380 Hz for 4 s,
390 Hz for 5 s, and 393 Hz for 4 s.
In this example, the voltage and frequency transients will be executed as an integrated test
sequence.
14
RMS voltage and frequency control in List mode
RMS voltage slew control
List dwell time control
Triggering system to execute the List
Advantages/benefits of the Agilent 6800 series
solution
• The List capability allows the ac power
source/analyzer outputs to sequence through
each RMS voltage and frequency setting with
accurate timing according to the standard and
without controller intervention.
• By using the programmable RMS voltage slew
control, the RMS voltage level excursions can
be faithfully reproduced as per the standard.
• The List settings for MIL-STD-704D are stored
in non-volatile memory, so the test need only
be set up once and then executed as needed.
Implementation details
How the 6800 series implements MIL-STD-704D RMS
voltage and frequency transients
The computer sets up List sequence, then ac power
source/analyzer is sent a bus trigger. Upon receipt
of the trigger, the ac power source/analyzer’s output is set according to the voltage, voltage slew,
and frequency values of the first List point. The
output will remain at the first List point setting
until the dwell time for that List point expires. The
unit will then sequence through each successive
List point paced by the respective dwell times until
the List is completed. Upon completion of the List,
the output will return to the immediate settings.
Agilent 6800 series setup
• Connect the ac source output to the ac input
of the equipment under test.
• Set the rms voltage to 115 Vrms.
• Set the frequency to 400 Hz.
• Set the rms voltage to List mode.
• Set the rms voltage slew to List mode.
• Set the frequency to List mode.
• Set the List to sequence automatically.
Agilent 6800 series setup (continued)
• Set the List points as follows:
List
Point
Vrms
frequency
Vrms
Slew
Dwell
Time
1
115 V
400 Hz
INF
*60 s
2
127 V
400 Hz
INF
0.01 s
3
88 V
400 Hz
566 V/s
0.07 s
4
115 V
400 Hz
INF
*60 s
5
57 V
400 Hz
INF
0.01 s
6
76 V
400 Hz
283 V/s
0.07 s
7
115 V
400 Hz
INF
*60 s
8
115 V
425 Hz
INF
1s
9
115 V
420 Hz
INF
4s
10
115 V
410 Hz
INF
5s
11
115 V
407 Hz
INF
4s
12
115 V
400 Hz
INF
*60 s
13
115 V
375 Hz
INF
1s
14
115 V
380 Hz
INF
4s
15
115 V
390 Hz
INF
5s
16
115 V
393 Hz
INF
4s
17
115 V
400 Hz
INF
*60 s
• Set the transient trigger source to BUS.
• Initiate the transient trigger.
• Enable the output of the ac power source/
analyzer.
• Send a bus trigger.
Upon receipt of the trigger, the List sequence will
begin and the ac power source/analyzer output will
go to the setting represented in the first List step.
Each List step will be executed at the expiration
of the programmed dwell time of the previous step.
After the last List step is executed, the output of
the ac source will change to the immediate output
settings (Fixed mode settings).
* List points 1, 4, 7, 12, and 17 represent periods of time when the ac input to
the equipment under test is set to the nominal levels prior to the onset of the
next transient. The length of time the output of the ac power source/analyzer
is set to the nominal level can be determined by user-convenience (60 seconds
for this example).
15
List Timing Diagram for Application 2
16
17
Application 3:
Performing IEC 555-2 Measurements
Overview of application
Agilent 6800 series features used
IEC 555-2 (1982) is a regulatory standard that
pertains to ac line disturbances, namely current
harmonics. These current harmonics are caused by
connecting household appliances and similar electrical equipment to a 230 V, 50 Hz ac mains. This
standard establishes limits on the amount of harmonic energy electrical equipment can inject on the
ac line to ensure that other devices connected to
the ac power distribution system are not adversely
affected. The generated current harmonics can vary
or fluctuate with time (due to electronic products
that cycle the ac line), or can have steadystate
(quasi-stationary) characteristics.
• RMS Voltage and frequency control
• Measurement window control
• Harmonic current measurement
When testing electronic equipment with a single
phase ac input for compliance to the quasi-stationary
part of this standard, it is necessary to have an ac
source with low distortion and low output impedance to avoid introducing unacceptable measurement errors. The measurement instrument must
use the required Rectangular (or Hanning) measurement window and must have the capability to
return measured current amplitude data up to
the 40th harmonic of the fundamental.
18
Advantages/benefits of the Agilent 6800 series
• The 6800 series provides a “One-Box” Solution,
so a separate power analyzer is not required for
quasi-stationary harmonic measurements.
• The 6800 series provides an IEC 555 compliant
Rectangular measurement window built into the
standard unit.
• The low distortion, low output impedance and
16-bit measurement accuracy of the 6800 series
provide full compliance to the measurement
requirements.
Implementation details
How the 6800 series implements IEC 555 quasi-stationary
harmonic current measurements
The output of the ac power source/analyzer is
set to 230 V and 50 Hz. The measurement window
is changed from the default value (KBessel) to
the Rectangular window. To perform the harmonic
analysis, the ac power source/analyzer is sent a
command to measure an array of harmonic current
amplitudes. This array of current harmonics can
be transferred to the computer for PASS/FAIL
analysis versus the limits of the standard.
Agilent 6800 series setup
• The ac source output is connected to the ac
input of the equipment under test.
• Set the output waveform to sine.
• Set the rms voltage to Fixed mode.
• Set the frequency to Fixed mode.
• Set the voltage to 230 Vrms.
• Set the frequency to 50 Hz.
• Set the measurement window to Rectangular.
• Enable the output of the ac power source/
analyzer.
• Wait until the ac input to the equipment is in
a steadystate condition.
• Send the harmonic current array measurement
command to return 50 harmonic current
amplitudes.
Using the computer:
• Read the harmonic current array into the
computer.
• Compare the measured harmonic current amplitudes of harmonic numbers 2 through 40 to the
IEC 555-2 quasi-stationary standard limits.
19
20
Application 4:
Performing Inrush Current Measurements
Overview of application
Switch mode power supplies are commonly used
in many electronic products. These power supplies
typically have input capacitors that cause high
levels of peak inrush current to be drawn as they
charge from the rectified line at turn-on. The peak
amplitude of the inrush current varies with the
turn-on phase of the ac voltage cycle. Usually, the
highest peak inrush currents occur near the peak
(90°) of the voltage cycle. Characterization of
inrush current versus turn-on phase allows for
determination of worst case inrush current conditions, which must be determined to properly select
fuses and circuit breakers, to uncover component
stresses, and to determine if a product will produce ac line disturbances that interact with other
equipment connected to the branch circuit.
For this example, the equipment under test
requires an ac line voltage of 120 Vrms at 60 Hz.
Agilent 6800 series features used
•
•
•
•
RMS voltage and frequency control
Peak current measurement
Pre-event current data capture
Trigger synchronization to the output voltage
phase
• Measurement and waveform generation
synchronization
• High crest factor
Advantages/benefits of the Agilent 6800 series
solution
The 6800 series provides a “One-Box” Solution for
measurement and waveform generation and eliminates the worry of synchronizing separate instruments. The ability to turn-on relative to the output
voltage phase allows worst case inrush characterization, which results in a more reliable product.
Implementation details
How the 6800 series implements peak inrush current
measurements
The RMS voltage is programmed to Step mode
to generate a turn-on condition from 0 Vrms to
120 Vrms. The turn-on is synchronized to the
phase of the output voltage. The current measurement is programmed to occur at turn-on with
10 milliseconds of pre-event data to ensure that
the full inrush event is captured. To characterize
the inrush current of the unit under test, the turnon phase is initially set to 40° for the first peak
inrush current measurement and is then increased
at 10° increments up to 90° for succeeding peak
inrush current measurements. Between tests, the
input capacitors of the unit under test are allowed
to fully discharge for proper characterization.
21
Agilent 6800 series setup
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Set the initial (immediate) voltage to 0 Vrms.
Set the triggered voltage level to 120 Vrms.
Set the frequency to 60 Hz.
Set the peak current limit to maximum.
Set the transient trigger source to BUS.
Set the trigger synchronization source to Phase.
Set the initial synchronization Phase to 40°
(re-program to 50°, 60°, 70°, 80°, and 90°).
Set the acquisition trigger source to TTLTrg.
Set the data acquisition offset to -409 points.
Enable the output of the ac power source/
analyzer.
Initiate the transient trigger.
Initiate the acquisition trigger.
Send a Bus trigger.
Fetch the peak current measurement.
Timing Diagram for Application 4
22
Upon receipt of the trigger, the ac power source/
analyzer output goes to 120 Vrms when the phase
voltage waveform reaches 40°. The data buffer
acquires 409 instantaneous current data points
before the turn-on event and 3687 instantaneous
current data points beginning at the onset of the
turn-on event (for a total buffer of 4096 current
data points) to generate the peak current measurement. To continue the peak inrush current characterization, change the synchronization phase (from
40° to 50°, 60°, 70°, 80°, and 90°) and repeat the
same procedure.
23
Application 5:
Generating User-Defined Waveforms
Overview of application
Agilent 6800 series features used
The creation of user-defined waveforms is useful
for simulating ac line disturbances that are unique
to the operational environment of the device being
tested, and then measuring that device’s susceptibility to the disturbance. This is the fundamental
objective of environmental test standards that pertain to the ac line. A specific example is the draft
for IEC 77A (Secretariat) 101 draft (dated 10/15/93),
which defines the test and measurement methods
for evaluating electronic and electrical equipment
immunity to voltage harmonics and inter-harmonics on the ac line. Upon subjecting the equipment
to the voltage harmonics, it must recover to its full
operative capabilities to meet the “pass” criteria
of this draft.
• Non-volatile, user-defined (arbitrary) waveform
creation/storage
• rms voltage programming
• Frequency programming
• Waveform shape transient generation
• List transient mode
For this example, a waveform with harmonic voltage content as defined by the IEC 77A (Secretariat)
101 draft (dated 10/15/93) will be created, stored,
and generated by the ac power source/analyzer.
Harmonic Voltage Levels (for 120 Vrms)
Harmonic Number
Class 1
Class 2
3
9.6 V
7.2 V
5
10.8 V
9.6 V
7
6V
8.4 V
11
2.4 V
8.4 V
13
2.4 V
7.2 V
The equipment under test used for this example
has an ac input rating of 120 Vrms, 60 Hz, and
5 Arms. The waveform generated will comply with
the Class 1 harmonic combination (as currently
proposed) shown above. This draft specifies that
the equipment under test must be subjected to
the harmonic waveform of either Class for 2 minutes, succeeded by 2 minutes of the fundamental
(120 Vrms sinewave) waveform.
24
Advantages/benefits of the Agilent 6800 series
solution
The user-defined waveform is stored in nonvolatile memory, eliminating the need for constant re-creation and making it easy to recall
the waveform as the test is needed. A List of output waveforms can be generated by combining
built-in and user-defined waveforms, simplifying
complex test sequences. The user-defined waveform can be recalled as if it was one of the standard output shapes (such as sine and square
waveforms) and can be used in all modes where
the FUNCtion:SHAPe command is valid.
Implementation details
How the 6800 series implements user-defined waveforms
The computer is used to generate an array of
1024 voltage amplitude points that represent one
cycle of the 77A (Secretariat) 101 Class 1 waveform. This data is sent to the ac source as a named
(CLASS 1) user-defined waveform and is stored in
a non-volatile memory location. The List mode of
the ac power source/analyzer is used to sequence
through the appropriate output settings at 2-minute
intervals as per the draft. The programmed parameters for each List point are shape (waveform) and
dwell time. The rms voltage and frequency output
settings remain in Fixed mode. The first List point
is the fundamental waveform (120 Vrms sinewave
at 60 Hz) and will be output upon receipt of a transient trigger for 2 minutes. The CLASS 1 waveform
will be output for 2 minutes as part of the second
List point. After this 2-minute test, the fundamental waveform will be output again as part of the
final List point.
Agilent 6800 series setup
• Connect the ac source output to the ac input of
the equipment under test.
• Use the computer to develop a 1024 point array
representing a cycle of voltage amplitude data.
• Use the TRACe:DEFine command to name the
waveform CLASS 1 and allocate non-volatile
storage space.
• Use the TRACe:DATa command to send the 1024
point array to the ac power source/analyzer.
• Set the Shape to List mode.
• Set the List points as follows:
List Point
Shape
Dwell Time
1
Sine
120 s
2
CLASS1
120 s
3
Sine
120 s
Timing Diagram for Application #5
•
•
•
•
•
Set the List to sequence automatically.
Set the transient trigger source to BUS.
Initiate the transient trigger.
Enable the output.
Send a Bus trigger.
Upon receipt of the trigger, the first List step is
executed and the output is set to a 120 Vrms, 60 Hz
sinewave. After 120 seconds, the ac power source/
analyzer automatically executes the second List
step. The output will remain at the CLASS 1 test
level for 120 seconds and then will execute the
third List step. After the entire List is executed,
the output of the ac power source/analyzer will
return to the Fixed mode levels.
25
26
27
Application 6:
Operating the Agilent 6812A and 6813A at Low Frequencies
Overview of application
Implementation details
For some applications, such as the simulation of
European railway power systems, a low frequency
(16.6 Hz) ac waveform is required. Generating low
frequency waveforms with ac sources can present
testing challenges due to output power derating
and programming inaccuracies, depending on the
regulation technique used. If the ac source has
measurement capability, control of the measurement sample period is necessary to capture sufficient cycles of the output waveform to ensure
measurement accuracy.
How the 6812A and 6813A generate low frequency ac
waveforms and perform low frequency ac measurements
A 230 Vrms sinewave is programmed at a frequency
of 16.6 Hz. To perform measurements at this output frequency, the programmable sample period is
increased from 25 microseconds to 75 microseconds. A triggered acquisition of voltage and current
provide the data from which the power measurements are calculated. This method of acquisition is
necessary since the MEASure command will reset
the sample period back to the default value of 25
microseconds. A FETCh command is sent to return
the real power (Watts), power factor, and apparent
power measurements from the same voltage and
current data buffer.
The 6812A and 6813A can meet the above challenges at frequencies below 45 Hz. These two
models provide precise control of the waveform
generation and measurement system for optimal
operation at low frequencies. For this example,
the equipment under test will require an ac input
at 230 Vrms and 16.6 Hz. Real power, apparent
power, and power factor will be accurately measured using the high resolution current measurement range.
Agilent 6812A and 6813A features used
•
•
•
•
•
•
Programmable Vrms and frequency
Realtime regulation mode
Sinewave generation
Programmable voltage and current sample rate
Power measurement (power factor, VA, and Watts)
x10 current measurement range
Advantages/benefits of the Agilent 6812A and
6813A solutions
• Programmable regulation mode allows for accurate output voltage and current limit control.
• Programmable measurement sample rate provides high accuracy measurements for low
frequency signals.
• Use of the FETCh command provides fast
measurements from the same data buffers.
• x10 current measurement range increases
the accuracy for low current and low power
measurements.
28
Agilent 6800 series setup
• Connect the ac source output to the ac input
of the equipment under test.
• Set the regulation mode to Realtime.
• Set the rms voltage to Fixed mode.
• Set the frequency to Fixed mode.
• Set the shape to sine.
• Set the rms voltage to 230 V.
• Set the frequency to 16.6 Hz.
• Enable the output.
• Set the measurement sample period to
75 microseconds.
• Trigger the acquisition of voltage and
current data.
• Fetch the real power.
• Fetch the power factor.
• Fetch the apparent power.
29
Agilent Technologies’ Test and Measurement
Support, Services, and Assistance
Agilent Technologies aims to maximize the value you receive,
while minimizing your risk and problems. We strive to ensure
that you get the test and measurement capabilities you paid
for and obtain the support you need. Our extensive support
resources and services can help you choose the right Agilent
products for your applications and apply them successfully.
Every instrument and system we sell has a global warranty.
Support is available for at least five years beyond the production life of the product. Two concepts underlie Agilent’s
overall support policy: “Our Promise” and “Your Advantage.”
Our Promise
“Our Promise” means your Agilent test and measurement equipment will meet its advertised performance and functionality.
When you are choosing new equipment, we will help you with
product information, including realistic performance specifications and practical recommendations from experienced test
engineers. When you use Agilent equipment, we can verify that
it works properly, help with product operation, and provide
basic measurement assistance for the use of specified capabilities, at no extra cost upon request. Many self-help tools are
available.
Your Advantage
“Your Advantage” means that Agilent offers a wide range of
additional expert test and measurement services, which you
can purchase according to your unique technical and business
needs. Solve problems efficiently and gain a competitive edge
by contracting with us for calibration, extra-cost upgrades, outof-warranty repairs, and on-site education and training, as well
as design, system integration, project management, and other
professional services. Experienced Agilent engineers and technicians worldwide can help you maximize your productivity,
optimize the return on investment of your Agilent instruments
and systems, and obtain dependable measurement accuracy
for the life of those products.
By internet, phone, or fax, get assistance with all your
test and measurement needs.
Online Assistance
www.agilent.com/find/assist
Phone or Fax
United States:
(tel) 1 800 452 4844
Canada:
(tel) 1 877 894 4414
(fax) (905) 206 4120
Europe:
(tel) (31 20) 547 2323
(fax) (31 20) 547 2390
Japan:
(tel) (81) 426 56 7832
(fax) (81) 426 56 7840
Latin America:
(tel) (305) 269 7500
(fax) (305) 269 7599
Australia:
(tel) 1 800 629 485
(fax) (61 3) 9210 5947
New Zealand:
(tel) 0 800 738 378
(fax) (64 4) 495 8950
Asia Pacific:
(tel) (852) 3197 7777
(fax) (852) 2506 9284
Product specifications and descriptions in this
document subject to change without notice.
Copyright © 1995, 2000 Agilent Technologies
Printed in U.S.A. 10/00
5963-7044E