User manual | Agilent Technologies 82350B Network Card User Manual

XZ001
AGILENT ACQIRIS
USER MANUAL
FAMILY OF
8-BIT DIGITIZERS
For Use with DP and DC Series Digitizers
Models covered:
DP105 / DP106 / DP110
DP111 / DP210 / DP211 / DP212
DP214 / DP235 / DP240
DP1400
DC110 / DC135 / DC140
DC211 / DC211A / DC240 / DC241 / DC241A
DC265 / DC270 / DC271 / DC271A / DC271AR
User Manual: Family of 8-bit Digitizers
ZM020010I Rev.A
June 2007
The information in this document is subject to change without notice and may not be construed in any way as a
commitment by Agilent Technologies Inc. While Agilent Technologies makes every effort to ensure the accuracy
and contents of the document it assumes no responsibility for any errors that may appear.
All software described in the document is furnished under license. The software may only be used and copied in
accordance with the terms of license. Instrumentation firmware is thoroughly tested and thought to be functional but
it is supplied “as is” with no warranty for specified performance. No responsibility is assumed for the use or the
reliability of software, firmware or any equipment that is not supplied by Agilent Technologies Inc. or its affiliated
companies.
Any versions of this manual which are supplied with a purchased product will be replaced at your request with the
latest revision in electronic format. At Agilent Technologies we appreciate and encourage customer input. If you
have a suggestion related to the content of this manual or the presentation of information, please contact your local
Acqiris representative or Acqiris Technical Support (support@acqiris.com) or come visit our web site at
http://www.acqiris.com.
Trademarks: product and company names listed are trademarks or trade names of their respective companies
Acqiris Headquarters:
Acqiris USA:
Acqiris Asia-Pacific:
Agilent Technologies SA
12, chemin des Aulx
CH-1228 Plan-les-Ouates
Geneva
Switzerland
Agilent Technologies Inc.
P.O. Box 2203
Monroe, NY 10949
USA
Agilent Technologies
Australia Pty Ltd
347 Burwood Highway,
Forest Hill VIC 3131
Australia
Tel: +41 22 884 32 90
Tel: 845 782 6544
Tel: +61 3 9210 2890
Fax: +41 22 884 32 99
Fax: 845 782 4745
Fax: +61 3 9210 5929
© Copyright Agilent Technologies Inc. June 2007
User Manual: Family of 8-bit Digitizers
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CONTENTS
1. OUT OF THE BOX........................................................................................................................... 5
1.1. Message to the User ..................................................................................................................... 5
1.2. Using this Manual ........................................................................................................................ 5
1.3. Conventions Used in This Manual ............................................................................................... 5
1.4. Disclaimer and Safety .................................................................................................................. 6
1.5. Warning Regarding Medical Use ................................................................................................. 6
1.6. Packaging and Handling............................................................................................................... 6
1.7. Warranty....................................................................................................................................... 7
1.8. Warranty and Repair Return Procedure, Assistance and Support ................................................ 7
1.9. System Requirements ................................................................................................................... 7
1.10. Transport & Shipping................................................................................................................... 8
1.11. Maintenance ................................................................................................................................. 8
1.12. Cleaning ....................................................................................................................................... 9
1.13. Disposal and Recycling ................................................................................................................ 9
2. INSTALLATION ............................................................................................................................ 10
2.1. IC414 Installation....................................................................................................................... 10
2.1.1.
IC414 Hardware installation hints.................................................................................. 10
2.1.2.
IC414 Windows software installation ............................................................................ 10
2.2. Installing the Software under Windows ..................................................................................... 11
2.2.1.
Warnings ........................................................................................................................ 11
2.2.2.
Multiple Versions........................................................................................................... 11
2.2.3.
Installation...................................................................................................................... 11
2.3. Installing the Software for Linux ............................................................................................... 21
2.3.1.
Kernel Mode Driver Compilation .................................................................................. 22
2.3.2.
Special cases................................................................................................................... 23
2.3.3.
Environment variables for the Firmware........................................................................ 23
2.4. Installing the Hardware .............................................................................................................. 23
2.5. After Restarting .......................................................................................................................... 24
2.5.1.
Windows 2000 ............................................................................................................... 24
2.5.2.
Windows XP .................................................................................................................. 24
2.6. LabVIEW RT ............................................................................................................................. 26
2.7. Installing the IVI-COM/C Driver............................................................................................... 27
2.8. Distribution for Windows 2000/XP and Linux .......................................................................... 27
3. PRODUCT DESCRIPTION........................................................................................................... 28
3.1. Overview .................................................................................................................................... 28
3.2. Channel Input ............................................................................................................................. 29
3.2.1.
Coupling......................................................................................................................... 29
3.2.2.
Impedance ...................................................................................................................... 29
3.2.3.
Input Protection.............................................................................................................. 29
3.2.4.
Mezzanine Front-end...................................................................................................... 29
3.2.5.
Bandwidth and Rise Time .............................................................................................. 29
3.2.6.
Input Voltage and Offset ................................................................................................ 31
3.2.7.
Vertical Resolution......................................................................................................... 31
3.2.8.
DC Accuracy and Linearity............................................................................................ 31
3.2.9.
Using Probes .................................................................................................................. 32
3.3. Data Acquisition......................................................................................................................... 32
3.3.1.
Sampling Rate ................................................................................................................ 33
3.3.2.
Acquisition Memory ...................................................................................................... 33
3.3.3.
Single and Sequence Acquisition Modes ....................................................................... 33
3.3.4.
DP1400 Simultaneous Multibuffer Acquisition and Readout (SMAR) ......................... 34
3.3.5.
Timing............................................................................................................................ 34
3.3.6.
Timebase Range ............................................................................................................. 34
3.3.7.
Combining channels....................................................................................................... 34
3.4. Trigger........................................................................................................................................ 34
3.4.1.
Trigger Source................................................................................................................ 34
3.4.2.
Trigger Coupling............................................................................................................ 35
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3.4.3.
Trigger Level.................................................................................................................. 35
3.4.4.
Edge Trigger Slope......................................................................................................... 35
3.4.5.
Window Trigger ............................................................................................................. 35
3.4.6.
HF Trigger...................................................................................................................... 35
3.4.7.
Spike Stretcher ............................................................................................................... 35
3.4.8.
DP1400 Multi-source Trigger ........................................................................................ 35
3.4.9.
Pre- and Post-Trigger Delay........................................................................................... 36
3.4.10.
Trigger Status ................................................................................................................. 36
3.5. External Clock and Reference .................................................................................................... 36
3.6. Internal Calibration .................................................................................................................... 37
3.7. ASBus ........................................................................................................................................ 37
3.8. Special Front Panel Input and Output(DP1400 & DC271-FAMILY)........................................ 37
3.9. External Trigger Output (DP1400 & DC271-FAMILY)............................................................ 38
3.10. Frequency Counter mode ........................................................................................................... 38
3.11. Electrical, Environmental and Physical Specifications .............................................................. 39
3.11.1.
Electrical ........................................................................................................................ 39
3.11.2.
Environmental and Physical........................................................................................... 40
4. RUNNING THE ACQIRISLIVE APPLICATION ...................................................................... 41
4.1. Getting Started with AcqirisLive................................................................................................ 41
4.2. Control Panel and Functions ...................................................................................................... 42
4.2.1.
Control Panel Mode ....................................................................................................... 42
4.2.2.
Displaying Multiple Traces ............................................................................................ 43
4.2.3.
Numeric Editor............................................................................................................... 44
4.2.4.
Keyboard shortcuts......................................................................................................... 44
4.2.5.
Input Voltage Scale, Offset and Coupling...................................................................... 44
4.2.6.
Trigger............................................................................................................................ 45
4.2.7.
Acquisition Mode........................................................................................................... 45
4.2.8.
Timebase and Memory................................................................................................... 46
4.2.9.
Using digitizers of different models simultaneously...................................................... 46
4.2.10.
Segmented Memory ....................................................................................................... 47
4.2.11.
Display Features, Zoom and Persistence........................................................................ 47
4.3. Top Line Menu of AcqirisLive................................................................................................... 48
4.4. Setup........................................................................................................................................... 48
4.5. Store, Autostore and Conversion of Waveforms........................................................................ 48
4.6. Calibrate ..................................................................................................................................... 50
4.7. Combine channels ...................................................................................................................... 50
4.8. External 10 MHz Reference and External Clock ....................................................................... 50
4.9. Additional Waveform Information............................................................................................. 50
4.10. Display Features......................................................................................................................... 51
4.11. Command Line Switches............................................................................................................ 51
5. RUNNING THE GEOMAPPER APPLICATION ....................................................................... 54
5.1. Who needs a Geographical Map of Modules ............................................................................. 54
5.2. When should the GeoMapper Application be used .................................................................... 54
5.3. How to run GeoMapper.............................................................................................................. 54
6. APPENDIX A: ASBUS FOR COMPACTPCI/PXI DIGITIZERS ............................................. 57
7. APPENDIX B: ASBUS2 FOR PCI DIGITIZERS......................................................................... 58
8. APPENDIX C: XA001 BATTERY BACKUP FOR COMPACTPCI DIGITIZERS ................ 59
9. APPENDIX D: XA100 BNC INPUT OVERVOLTAGE PROTECTION.................................. 60
10. APPENDIX E: XP100 FAN UNIT FOR DP214/DP235/DP240 UNITS...................................... 61
11. APPENDIX F: XP101 FAN UNIT FOR DP DIGITIZERS (OBSOLETE)................................ 62
12. APPENDIX G: XP103 FAN UNIT FOR THE DP FAMILY OF MODULES ........................... 63
13. APPENDIX H: XP104 FAN UNIT FOR DP1400 ......................................................................... 64
14. APPENDIX I: XP105 FAN UNIT FOR DP1400........................................................................... 66
User Manual: Family of 8-bit Digitizers
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1.
Out of the Box
1.1.
Message to the User
Congratulations on having purchased an Agilent Technologies Acqiris data conversion product. Acqiris Digitizers
are high-speed data acquisition modules designed for capturing high frequency electronic signals. To get the most out
of the products we recommend that you read this manual carefully. We trust the product you have purchased will
meet with your expectations and provide you with a high quality solution to your data conversion applications.
1.2.
Using this Manual
This guide assumes you are familiar with the operation of a personal computer (PC) running a Windows 2000/XP or
other supported operating system. It also assumes you have a basic understanding of the principles of data acquisition
using either a waveform digitizer or a digital oscilloscope.
The manual is divided into 5 separate sections. To understand the elements of operation for the module it is essential
that you read them all.
Chapter 1
OUT OF THE BOX, describes what to do when you first receive your new Acqiris product.
Special attention should be paid to sections on safety, packaging and product handling. Before
installing your product please ensure that your system configuration matches or exceeds the
requirements specified.
Chapter 2
INSTALLATION, covers all elements of installation and performance verification. Before
attempting to use your Acqiris product for actual measurements we strongly recommend that you
read all sections of this chapter.
Chapter 3
PRODUCT DESCRIPTION, provides a full description of all the functional elements of the
digitizer.
Chapter 4
RUNNING THE ACQIRISLIVE APPLICATION, describes the operation of AcqirisLive 3.1, an
application that enables basic operation of Acqiris digitizers in a Windows 2000/XP environment.
Note: AcqirisMAQS is an alternate software application offering many interesting possibilities for
the control of acquisition systems in a single or multi-machine environment. Ask your salesman or
Acqiris for more information.
Chapter 5
RUNNING THE GEOMAPPER APPLICATION, describes the purpose and operation of the
GeoMapper application which is needed for some ASBus Multi-instrument systems.
For information necessary for writing you own software to control Acqiris products you should refer to the
Programmer’s Guide and the Programmer’s Reference Manual.
1.3.
Conventions Used in This Manual
The following conventions are used in this manual:
This icon to the left of text warns that an important point must be observed.
WARNING
Denotes a warning, which advises you of precautions to take to avoid being electrically shocked.
CAUTION
Denotes a caution, which advises you of precautions to take to avoid electrical, mechanical, or
operational damages.
NOTE
Denotes a note, which alerts you to important information.
Italic
text denotes a warning, caution, or note.
Bold Italic
text is used to emphasize an important point in the text or a note
mono
text is used for sections of code, programming examples and operating system commands.
B,KB,MB,GB
is for Byte, KiloByte = 1024 bytes, MegaByte = 1024*1024 bytes, GigaByte = 1024*1024*1024
bytes
Certain features are common to several different modules. For increased readability we have defined the following
families:
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DC271-FAMILY
1.4.
DC135/DC140/DC211/DC211A/DC241/DC241A/
DC271/DC271A/ DC271AR/DP214/DP235/DP240
Disclaimer and Safety
The DP Series PCI Digitizer cards have been designed to operate in a standard PCI slot found inside most personal
computers. The model DC Series CompactPCI/PXI Digitizers have been designed to operate inside a
CompactPCI/PXI crate. The crate provides the modules with all needed power. Agilent Technologies does not
recommend operation of the DC Series modules outside of a CompactPCI/PXI crate.
Do not exceed the maximum input voltage rating! The maximum input voltage for 50 Ω input
impedance is ±5 V. The maximum input for 1 MΩ input impedance is ±100 V (dc + ac) except
for the DC2x1A/AR models where it is ±300 V (dc + ac) .
CAUTION:
1.5.
Warning Regarding Medical Use
The Digitizer cards are not designed with components and testing procedures that would ensure a level of reliability
suitable for use in treatment and diagnosis of humans. Applications of these cards involving medical or clinical
treatment can create a potential for accidental injury caused by product failure, or by errors on the part of the user.
These cards are not intended to be a substitute for any form of established process or equipment used to monitor or
safeguard human health and safety in medical treatment.
WARNING:
The modules discussed in this manual have not been designed for making direct measurements
on the human body. Users who connect an Acqiris module to a human body do so at their own
risk.
1.6.
Packaging and Handling
Your Digitizer is shipped with the following components:
•
A small 3.5” compact disc in an Acqiris paper CD envelope that includes
o
10 product user manuals in electronic form (Signal Analyzers, Streamer Analyzers, Family of 8-bit
Digitizers, Family of 10-bit Digitizers, Family of 12-bit Digitizers, Family of Averagers, Family of
Analyzers, Family of Time Counters, CC10X Family of CompactPCI Crates and CC121
CompactPCI Crate),
o
1 Programmer’s Guide and 1 Programmer’s Reference Manual,
o
device drivers with sample software for different operating systems, environments and languages,
o
the AcqirisAnalyzers application, a demonstration program for the AC/SC Analyzer products,
o
the AcqirisLive application, a demonstration program for our digitizer and averager products,
o
the DemoSSR application, a demonstration program for the Acqiris AP235/AP240 Analyzers,
o
the DemoAPX01 application, a demonstration program for the Acqiris AP101/AP201 Analyzers,
o
the DemoTC application, a demonstration program for the Acqiris TC840/TC890 Time Counters,
o
product data sheets,
o
full installation procedures for use with Microsoft Windows, National Instruments LabVIEW RT,
Wind River VxWorks, IVI-COM/C, and Linux software.
•
A declaration of conformity
•
Optional documentation such as a model-dependent document giving Specifications & Characteristics, a
Calibration Certificate, or a Performance Verification
After carefully unpacking all items, inspect each to ensure there are no signs of visible damage. Also check that all
the components received match those listed on the enclosed packing list. Agilent Technologies cannot accept
responsibility for missing items unless we are notified promptly of any discrepancies. If any items are found to be
missing or are received in a damaged condition please contact the Agilent service center or your local supplier
immediately. Retain the box and packing materials for possible inspection and/or reshipment.
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1.7.
Warranty
All Agilent Technologies Acqiris Digitizer products are warranted to operate within specification, assuming normal
operation, for a period of three years from the date of shipment. It is recommended that yearly calibration be made in
order to verify product performance. All repairs, replacement and spare parts are warranted for a period of 3 months.
A 5-year repair warranty is available as an option.
Agilent Technologies endeavors to provide leading edge technology that includes the latest concepts in hardware and
software design. As such software and firmware used with the products is under continual refinement and
improvement. All software and instrument firmware is supplied “as is” with no warranty of any kind. Software and
firmware is thoroughly tested and thought to be functional at the time of shipment. At Agilent Technologies’
discretion software and firmware may be revised if a significant operational malfunction is detected.
Products supplied but not manufactured by Agilent Technologies are covered solely by the warranty of the original
equipment manufacturer.
In exercising this warranty, Agilent Technologies will repair or replace any product returned to the Agilent service
center, within the warranty period. The warranty covers all defects that are a result of workmanship or materials. This
excludes defects that are caused by accident, misuse, neglect, or abnormal operation.
The purchaser is responsible for returning the goods to the nearest Agilent service center. This includes
transportation costs and insurance. Agilent Technologies will return all warranty repairs with transportation prepaid.
1.8.
Warranty and Repair Return Procedure, Assistance and Support
Agilent Technologies Inc. acquired Acqiris SA and its product lines in December 2006. Before returning any Agilent
Technologies Acqiris product for repair please contact your nearest Agilent Technologies Service Center.
You can find information about technical and professional services, product support, and equipment repair and
service on the Web, see http://www.agilent.com/find/service (or http://www.agilent.com/ and after selecting your
country click on Contact Us). The service center will ask for your name, company, phone number and address, the
model and serial numbers of the unit to be repaired, and a brief description of the problem.
Before issuing a Service Order they will ask you to communicate with us by phone or eMail so that we can learn as
much as needed about the problems observed. If a unit returned under guarantee is found to be working normally and
this procedure was not followed we reserve the right to charge you for the work done.
For your nearest customer support center contact Acqiris at 1-877-ACQIRIS in the USA, +41 22 884 32 90 in
Europe or +61 3 9210 2890 in the Asia-Pacific region. Alternatively, please contact Acqiris Technical Support
(support@acqiris.com) or come visit our web site at http://www.acqiris.com. The Agilent Technologies Support
Centers can also help redirect you for any questions concerning the installation and operation of your equipment.
1.9.
System Requirements
In order to obtain reasonable performance from your digitizer, Acqiris products need the following minimum PC
System Requirements:
Processor: 150 MHz Pentium (higher recommended)
Memory: 64 MB RAM. The previous number is a very rough estimate. Assuming that you are using AcqirisLive or
an application of your own that operates on the acquired data it seems reasonable to ask for 10 times the
total acquisition memory that you will be using at the same time in the application. Performance is likely
to be degraded if less memory is available.
Display resolution: At least 800 x 600 pixels and 256 colors for use of AcqirisLive or AcqirisDemo
Operating System: Microsoft Windows 2000/XP including 2003 Server, Wind River VxWorks 5.5.1, and Linux.
The following Linux versions have compiled loadable kernel modules:
ƒ
RedHat Enterprise Linux Version 3 - Kernel Version 2.4.21-4.EL
ƒ
RedHat Enterprise Linux Version 3 - Kernel Version 2.4.21-4.ELsmp,
ƒ
Suse Linux 9.2 - Kernel version 2.6.8-24-smp,
ƒ
Debian Sarge 3.1 2.6.8-3-686,
ƒ
Debian 4.0 etch Kernel version 2.6.18-4-686,
ƒ
Scientific Linux 4.4 Kernel version 2.6.9-11.EL).
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Linux kernel driver source code is available for compilation. Support for Windows 95/98/NT4 is included
“as is” since these operating systems are no longer supported by Microsoft.
Hard Drive Space: 20 MB Minimum
CD Drive (or any method to copy Acqiris Software installation files from CD to the hard drive such as LAN, floppy
drive, etc.)
LabVIEW: The Acqiris LabVIEW driver is available for National Instruments LabVIEW versions 7.1or 8.0
LabVIEW RT: The Acqiris LabVIEW RT driver is available for National Instruments LabVIEW RT version 7.1 or
higher. The VISA driver must be version 3.0 or higher.
MATLAB: The Acqiris MEX interface can be used with MathWorks MATLAB 6.5 or a newer vesion.
Visual BASIC: The interface files and examples are available for Microsoft Visual Basic versions 5 or 6 and the
interface files only for .NET.
Tornado: The example files are useable with Wind River Tornado 2.2.1
1.10.
Transport & Shipping
CAUTION: Cards can be safely transported in their original shipping packages. DC cards can be transported
when properly mounted in a CompactPCI crate. The transport of DP cards mounted in a PC is a more delicate
issue. Because of their mass the cards can vibrate loose unless they are properly secured and braced. DP cards
held only in the front and on the bottom should not be shipped in their PC. However, properly mounted DP cards
with XP103 or XP105 fans can be sufficiently well held; the Adjustable retainer must be used so as to hold the
card in place.
To package the instrument for shipping:
Step
Notes
1. Place the instrument in its original packaging
materials.
• If the original packaging materials are not available,
use a professional packaging service. Contact your
Agilent Service Center for more information.
2. Surround the instrument with at least 3 to 4 inches (8
to 10 cm) of its original packing material or bubble-pack
to prevent the instrument from moving in its shipping
container.
3. After wrapping it with packing material, place the
instrument in its original shipping container or a strong
shipping container that is made of double-walled
corrugated cardboard with 159 kg (350 lb) bursting
strength.
• The shipping container must be large and strong
enough to accommodate your instrument and allow at
least 3 to 4 inches (8 to 10 cm) on all sides for packing
material.
4. Seal the shipping container securely with strong nylon
adhesive tape.
5. Mark the shipping container “FRAGILE, HANDLE
WITH CARE” to help ensure careful handling.
6. Use the address obtained from your Agilent
Technologies Service Center.
7. Retain copies of all shipping papers.
CAUTION: Damage can result if the original packaging materials are not used. Packaging materials should be
anti-static and cushion the instrument on all sides. NEVER USE STYRENE PELLETS IN ANY SHAPE AS
PACKAGING MATERIALS. They do not adequately cushion the instrument or prevent it from moving in the
shipping container. Styrene pellets can also cause equipment damage by generating static electricity or by lodging
in fan motors.
1.11.
Maintenance
The cards do not require any maintenance. There are no user serviceable parts inside. A periodic calibration can be
obtained on request.
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1.12.
Cleaning
Cleaning procedures consist only of exterior cleaning.
Clean the exterior surfaces of the module with a dry lint-free cloth or a soft-bristle brush. If any dirt remains, wipe
with a cloth moistened in a mild soap solution. Remove any soap residue by wiping with a cloth moistened with clear
water. Do not use abrasive compounds on any parts.
1.13.
Disposal and Recycling
Electronic equipment should be properly disposed of. Acqiris Digitizers and their accessories must not be thrown out
as normal waste. Separate collection is appropriate and may be required by law.
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2.
Installation
This chapter describes how to install the Acqiris hardware and software for Windows 2000/XP, National Instruments
LabVIEW RT, Linux, or Wind River VxWorks.
NOTE: For a first time installation we strongly recommend installing the software before inserting the
hardware into the PC.
2.1.
IC414 Installation
NOTE: If you are going to install an IC414 interface for the first time and are running Windows 2000/XP you should
follow the procedure below before installing the Acqiris hardware.
2.1.1. IC414 Hardware installation hints
The PCI-8570/PXI-8570 User's Manual (Rev. 1.00) section 2.5 gives Hardware Installation instructions.
CAUTION: Turn off the power of the PC; the PC may have to be unplugged to ensure that the PCI bus has no
power available.
CAUTION: Touch the antistatic package to a grounded object before removing the card from the package.
Electrostatic discharge can damage the card.
The standard cable pair provided each have a red connector on one end and a black connector on the other. Therefore
the correct connection can be made by plugging the Red connector into the L0Rx socket and the Black connector into
the L0Tx socket on the PXI module and the other Red connector into the PCI module socket furthest from the PCI
card internal base connector and the Black connector into the next socket.
If you intend to use 64-bit 66 MHz transfer to maximize data transfer speed you should cable a “bundled link” using
two standard cable pairs and both the L0 and L1 pairs of connectors. You should also make sure that you configure
the PXI-8570 M66EN Jumper correctly.
2.1.2. IC414 Windows software installation
Linux users do not need to read any further since there is no special software installation.
Windows users should have the hardware installed as noted above. This software installation should be done before
any Acqiris modules are placed in the CompactPCI crates. This may mean that you have to remove the module from
the crate as delivered.
The crate should be turned on first followed by the PC. If the cabling and start-up sequence is done correctly there
will be no LED illuminated on the PCI unit connected pair and the LED's of the PXI connected pair will be lit.
For Windows XP installation, Select the Control Panel under Settings in the Start menu. Then, if you are using the
Category View select Printers and Other Hardware. After this, for both Category and Classic views, go to
System and then display the Hardware tab to get access to the Driver Signing menu. Since neither the AdLink nor
the Acqiris driver has been submitted for Windows Logo testing you must select either the Ignore or Warn action.
The resulting menu looks as shown:
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The PCI-8570/PXI-8570 User's Manual (Rev. 1.00) section 2.4 contains the software installation instructions. These
should be executed before allowing the hardware installation process to look for the driver. If you have an AdLink
CD Version 2004A4 or later you can use it; if not you should download the latest driver from the WEB site
(http://www.adlinktech.com/). You can then continue with the Hardware Installation. A reboot will then be
necessary. At this point the Stargen Fabric PCI Adapter and the Stargen Aruba Fabric-to-PCI Bridge should appear
correctly installed under System Devices in the Device Manager.
NOTE: If you have an AdLink CD Version 2005A3 or later you can find 8570install.exe in the folder X:\Driver
Installation\PXI Platform\PXI Extension\PCI_PXI-8570\Wnt2kxp and the starfab1.inf file in the folder X:\Driver
Installation\PXI Platform\PXI Extension\PCI_PXI-8570\Win98.
2.2.
Installing the Software under Windows
2.2.1. Warnings
If Setup detects a previous installation of Acqiris software on your system, a warning screen will be displayed. It is
recommended to exit Setup and uninstall older versions.
The installer from software releases prior to Acqiris Software 2.0 installed the Digitizer Driver DLL files into the
System directory. These will be removed by Setup. If you wish to keep the old installation on your system, you
should exit Setup, and move all Acqiris driver files (acqiris*, acqrs* and acqir*) to some archive directory.
The DLL files will be installed into the bin subdirectory of the Acqiris software root, and the corresponding path will
be added to the PATH environment variable.
2.2.2. Multiple Versions
With the software installation from Acqiris Software 2.0 (or above), it is possible to keep multiple versions on the
same system, but you must specify a different root directory (i.e. Install Folder). If you keep the same directory,
Setup will overwrite your previous installation.
To go back to a previous version, you must change the PATH environment variable and reinstall the Kernel driver.
Under Windows 2000/XP:
1.
Copy the SYS file from <old_AcqirisSoftware_root>\bin\kernel to the
Windows\System32\drivers directory.
2.
Change the AcqirisDxRoot, AcqirisDxDir and PATH environment variables to the old root.
3.
Reboot the computer.
2.2.3. Installation
Before installing the Acqiris hardware, you should complete the following steps to install the software for Windows
2000/XP.
NOTE: You will need administrator privileges to complete the software installation under Windows
2000/XP.
1.
Insert the Acqiris Software CD into the CD-ROM drive of your computer. If the Autorun program does not start
automatically (Autoplay disabled), you can start it manually, or navigate to the AcqirisSoftware\Windows folder
in order to display the files included.
2.
Choose Install AcqirisSoftware for Windows 2000/XP (or run Setup.exe from
AcqirisSoftware\Windows folder). After several seconds for initialization the following screen will appear.
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the
3.
To proceed with the installation click “Next”. The following screen will be shown.
4.
Please enter your user information and click “Next” to continue. If the program finds that there is still Acqiris
software installed on your machine a warning panel (not shown) will appear. Otherwise, the next screen shows:
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5.
Pick the desired combination of module families and click "Next" to continue.
6.
The screen above will normally allow the documentation to be installed. Remove the check from the box if you
do not want online access to the manuals.
7.
The next screen allows you to enable LabVIEW RT and/or Wind River VxWorks support. By default there will
be none but if desired you can install any of them together with Windows support or without Windows support.
Click “Next” to continue.
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8.
The screen below asks for the desired installation type. After having made your choice Click “Next” to continue.
9.
If you chose the Custom installation, the following screen will let you select each package individually. Note
that the space indicated for LabVIEW, Firmware and UserManual packages is incorrect. The correct values are
4.1 MB, 21 MB, and 27 MB respectively.
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10. If MATLAB is installed on your machine, you will be asked to point the installer to the MATLAB root
directory. You should do this if you want the installer to modify the standard startup.m file to incorporate the
Acqiris adaptor.
11. Now that the elements of the installation have all been decided you will be prompted for the installation folder.
This will be the root directory of the Acqiris software installation. If User Manuals (27 MB) and Firmware (21
MB) are loaded more space than indicated here will be required on the drive. For the case of a Tornado 2.2
installation the folder name should not contain any spaces.
12. Furthermore, you should give a name to the shortcut folder. This is the menu entry under Start → Programs
where you will find the shortcuts for AcqirisLive, manual(s), etc.
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13. If you have enabled the installation of 12-bit Digitizers, Averagers, or Analyzers, the next screen lets you change
the name of the directory where the FPGA firmware will be installed.
14. AcqirisLive needs the LabWindows/CVI 7.0 Run-Time Engine to run. If Setup has detected that a
LabWindows/CVI Run-Time Engine is already installed on your system, it will ask you if you would like to
install it locally for AcqirisLive anyway. If you are not sure about the version of the CVI Run-Time Engine on
your system, it is recommended to install it locally. Click “Next” to continue.
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15. Depending on the install type, you may be asked which LabVIEW version format you want for the LabVIEW
files. Select the appropriate format and click “Next” to continue.
16. A summary will be shown to allow you to check what you have asked for
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17. You are now ready to install. You may still go back to any previous screen to modify your selection. Click
“Install” when ready.
18. Setup will now copy the files and make the necessary changes to your system. When done, an information
screen will be displayed. Please read this carefully.
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19. Registration of your installation will help us provide you with better support. You will also be notified of
updates and upgrades. All information submitted to us will be treated confidentially and never be disclosed
outside the company.
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20. Setup will prepare a registration e-mail in your e-mail client application upon termination of the setup procedure.
You can then decide whether or not you wish to send it. You may also add comments. Uncheck the box if you
do not want to register your installation.
21. Click “Finish”. The software installation is now complete.
22. You can now either accept the suggestion to restart the computer or you should shutdown your computer and
proceed with the hardware installation.
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2.3.
Installing the Software for Linux
The Acqiris Software is ready to install and run on Linux systems with any of the following:
ƒ
RedHat Enterprise Linux Version 3 - Kernel Version 2.4.21-4.EL
ƒ
RedHat Enterprise Linux Version 3 - Kernel Version 2.4.21-4.ELsmp,
ƒ
Suse Linux 9.2 - Kernel version 2.6.8-24-smp,
ƒ
Debian Sarge 3.1 2.6.8-3-686,
ƒ
Debian 4.0 etch Kernel version 2.6.18-4-686,
ƒ
Scientific Linux 4.4 Kernel version 2.6.9-11.EL)
The following tar files exist with the driver and library compiled with the GNU gcc version shown:
ƒ
AcqirisLinux-3.1a-gcc-3.3.tar.gz - compiled under Suse 9.2 with GNU gcc 3.3.
ƒ
AcqirisLinux-3.1a-gcc-3.4.tar.gz - compiled under SL 4.4 with GNU gcc 3.4.
ƒ
AcqirisLinux-3.1a-gcc-4.1.tar.gz - compiled under Debian etch with GNU gcc 4.1.
The Kernel Driver source code is available for recompilation for users with other Linux systems.
The appropriate tar file should be copied to a local directory (e.g. your home directory) and then unpacked by using
the following command
tar xzf AcqirisLinux-3.1a-gcc-X.x.tar.gz
The resulting directory AcqirisLinux contains an install script drv-install and a graphical Demo program
demo/AcqirisDemo.
Before installing the driver you have to put the correct version of the Kernel mode driver into acqirisPCI.o. Type
cd AcqirisLinux/lib/modules
and either
cp acqrsPCI.o[.n] acqrsPCI.o
(Linux kernel 2.4)
or
cp acqrsPCI.ko[.n] acqrsPCI.ko
(Linux kernel 2.6)
where [.n] is the running version of the Linux kernel. This can be obtained by running the command
uname -r
The following versions exist:
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acqrsPCI.o.2.4.21-4.EL
acqrsPCI.ko.2.6.8-3-686
acqrsPCI.ko.2.6.8-24-smp
acqrsPCI.ko.2.6.9-11.EL
acqrsPCI.ko.2.6.18-4-686
for Red Hat Enterprise Linux version 3
for Debian 3.1 'sarge'
for Suse 9.2
for Scientific Linux 4.4
for Debian 4.0 'etch'
To install the driver and the load script to the system, you have to get super user privileges and execute the driver
install script by typing,
cd AcqirisLinux
./drv-install add
You can check that the driver is loaded properly with lsmod or dmesg. The drv-install script has the following
additional functionality:
drv-install rem to remove the driver and load script
drv-install res
to restart the driver
If you intend to use an Averager, an Analyzer, or a 12-Bit Digitizer you must install the Firmware .bit files. You can
either copy them from the Firmware directory of the CD-ROM or download them from our WEB site. They should
be placed in the Firmware subdirectory of AcqirisLinux. In the case of the CD-ROM, this can be done by continuing
the above command sequence with the following:
cp /mnt/CDRom/Firmware/*.bit Firmware/
2.3.1. Kernel Mode Driver Compilation
For some special kernels, for example SMP, the kernel mode driver will have to be recompiled on the target system.
All files needed to compile a new kernel mode driver are in AcqirisLinux/linuxdriverpci for Kernel 2.4 or in
AcqirisLinux/linux2.6driverpci for Kernel 2.6
The makefile can be used for compilation under a standard compatible distribution. To compile the driver, the kernel
header files need to be installed. Furthermore, depending on the Linux distribution, the kernel source files may need
to be installed. The makefile will try to guess where they are located. If it fails, see instructions inside the makefile
itself to specify manually where these kernel header files are located.
To compile a new kernel under linux-2.4, issue the following commands:
ƒ
cd linuxdriverpci
ƒ
make clean to remove all *.o files in AcqirisLinux/linuxdriverpci.
ƒ
make to generate a new kernel mode driver acqrsPCI.o and also copy it to the directory
AcqirisLinux/lib/modules where the install script (drv_install) can access it.
ƒ
drv_install rem to remove the previous installed kernel mode driver.
ƒ
drv_install add to install the new driver.
To compile a new kernel under linux-2.6, issue the following commands:
ƒ
cd linux2.6driverpci
ƒ
make clean all to generate a new kernel mode driver acqrsPCI.ko from scratch.
ƒ
make install to copy the kernel module where it should reside.
Note that this version of the loadable kernel module had been tested on Linux kernel versions up to 2.6.18. However,
starting with kernel 2.6.17, a few kernel functions relating to the device classes are no longer available to proprietary
modules. Thus automatic creation of the /dev/acqrsPCI node has to be done manually in the /etc/rc.local file.
For Debian users, in order to compile the kernel module on a system, a few packages that match the current kernelimage must be installed. For instance, on a Debian 3.1 sarge system 686 the required packages are:
ƒ
kernel-image-2.6-686
ƒ
kernel-image-2.6.8-3-686
ƒ
kernel-headers-2.6-686
ƒ
kernel-headers-2.6.8-3
ƒ
kernel-headers-2.6.8-3-686
ƒ
kernel-kbuild-2.6-3
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2.3.2. Special cases
If you are running a Linux distribution that doesn’t use the standard paths for the load scripts, you can load the driver
with the command
cd AcqirisLinux
./drv-install load
Copy the driver to the module directory as follows:
cp lib/modules/acqrsPCI.o[.n] /lib/modules/{kv}/ACQIRIS/acqrsPCI.o
where [.n] is the optional designation of the desired version of the acqrsPCI driver as given above and {kv} is the
appropriate system kernel version (obtained with uname -r, i.e. 2.4.20).
Then add the following command to /etc/rc.local.
/sbin/insmod –f /lib/modules//{kv}/ACQIRIS/acqrsPCI.o
For systems using udev (the dynamic /dev/ hierarchy) it may be convenient to automatically create the /dev/acqrsPCI
node at boot. To do this, add the following command to the /etc/rc.local file:
/sbin/mknod -m 666 /dev/acqrsPCI c 124 0
2.3.3. Environment variables for the Firmware
Automatic loading of the firmware needed by 12-bit, analyzer, and averager modules relies on the environment
variable AcqirisDxDir pointing to the directory containing the file AqDrv4.ini which in turn points to the directory
containing the Firmware .bit files. Therefore, assuming that your Firmware is in /usr/local/AcqirisLinux/Firmware
and that AqDrv4.ini is in /usr/local/AcqirisLinux/demo then you must edit AqDrv4.ini so that it contains the line
fpgaPath=/usr/local/AcqirisLinux/Firmware
Then, if your shell is csh or tcsh modify the /etc/csh.login file to contain the line
setenv AcqirisDxDir /usr/local/AcqirisLinux/demo
or, if your shell is bash, ksh, zsh or sh, modify the /etc/profile file to contain the lines
AcqirisDxDir=/usr/local/AcqirisLinux/demo
export AcqirisDxDir
2.4.
1.
Installing the Hardware
Turn off the power of the PC and the crate in the case of a CompactPCI module.
CAUTION: For PCI modules the PC may have to be unplugged to ensure that the PCI bus has no power
available. However, CompactPCI crates can be left plugged in since this ensures proper
grounding.
CAUTION: Touch the antistatic package to a grounded object before removing the card from the package.
Electrostatic discharge can damage the card.
2.
Module in a PC: open the PC, identify a free PCI slot and carefully insert the DP Series card into it. Be sure
to ground yourself by touching the grounded PC frame and avoid touching any components on the DP
Series card. Make sure that the grounding of the card’s mounting bracket to the back panel rail of the
computer is done correctly. If present make sure that the fan's adjustable retainer is correctly positioned and
tightened for mechanical support. Close the PC.
Module in a CompactPCI crate: Follow the instructions of the crate manufacturer to insert the DC Series
card into a free 6U CompactPCI peripheral slot. Be sure to ground yourself by touching the grounded crate
and avoid touching any components on the DC Series card. Be sure to tighten both front panel mounting
screws to lock the module into place and insure proper grounding of the frame.
NOTE: To ensure the best possible performance, users of Acqiris CC121 Crates with ASBus systems should
respect the module placement rules to be found in the Acqiris CC121 CompactPCI Crate User Manual.
PCI Bus extension module in a PC: Consult the manufacturer's documentation for any special instructions.
Open the PC, identify a free PCI slot and carefully insert the card into it. Be sure to ground yourself by
touching the grounded PC frame and avoid touching any components on the card. Make sure that the
grounding of the card’s mounting bracket to the back panel rail of the computer is done correctly. Close the
PC. Connect the module to the CompactPCI crate controller.
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3.
Turn on the power of the crate(s), if present, and then the PC and start the operating system.
NOTE: Acqiris Digitizers are equipped with a LED. If this LED is not glowing orange or red when the power is
applied there is a severe problem. Either the module is broken or the necessary voltages for its use are not
available.
NOTE: For proper system operation when using the IC200, IC414, or other PCI extension interface to connect
a CC10X crate to a remote PC, the crate must be powered on before the PC in order for the PC BIOS to
recognize the presence of the CompactPCI crate.
4.
Devices that were installed using a previous version of Acqiris Software the instruments in these logical
positions will still appear as Unknown Devices. This can be changed to the new Acqiris type category with
the Grey Diamond icon by Uninstalling the device and then Installing again. Instructions on this procedure
can be found in the ReadMe.txt file in the manuals folder of your Acqiris Software installation.
2.5.
After Restarting
2.5.1. Windows 2000
Under Windows 2000, you must login with administrator privileges after the first boot following the hardware
installation; the Plug&Play system must have the appropriate privileges to be able to complete your hardware
installation successfully. After a successful hardware installation, you will be able to use your Acqiris Digitizer(s)
with normal privileges.
At the first boot following the hardware installation, Windows will detect the new hardware and will install the
devices automatically. The following image will appear.
NOTE: In some systems an application program (such as AcqirisLive) will not yet work correctly at this point. One
additional boot cycle may be needed if this is the first time that a hardware board is being installed.
2.5.2. Windows XP
Under Windows XP, you must login with administrator privileges after the first boot following the hardware
installation; the Plug&Play system must have the appropriate privileges to be able to complete your hardware
installation successfully. After a successful hardware installation, you will be able to use your Acqiris Digitizer(s)
with normal privileges.
If you login with administrator privileges after the first boot following the hardware installation, Windows will detect
the new hardware and start the “Found New Hardware Wizard” after a few seconds.
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To proceed with the installation click "No, not this time" and then “Next”. The following window will appear:
To proceed with the installation click “Next”. You should then see
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and then
NOTE: In some systems an application program (such as AcqirisLive) will not yet work correctly at this point. One
additional boot cycle may be needed if this is the first time that a hardware board is being installed.
2.6.
LabVIEW RT
During program development you can choose whether you use LabVIEW or LabVIEW RT compatible libraries by
switching the version present in National Instruments\LabVIEW m.n\instr.lib\. This swap can be facilitated by
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using the Install VI library for LabVIEW or LabVIEW Real-Time shortcut available in the Shortcut folder under
Start → Programs.
There is only one Acqiris Driver. It supports all Acqiris Instruments. The instructions below concern LabVIEW RT
as used in NI PXI processors.
The Aq_RT.inf and AqRT_4.ini files must be uploaded to the target. To do this,
•
start the MAX application,
•
right click on the target
•
select file transfer
•
select the Aq_RT.inf file on your host machine and upload ('To Remote') to the LabVIEW RT working
directory (/NI-RT/system) on the target
•
select the Aq_RT.ini file on your host machine and upload ('To Remote') to the LabVIEW RT working
directory (/NI-RT/system) giving it the name AqDrv4.ini
For Acqiris modules which need FPGA files you should,
•
create the folder \firmware in the /NI-RT/system directory using the file transfer application
•
select the FPGA files (from <AcqirisDxRoot>\Firmware) you want to copy to the target and upload
them into the firmware directory
Restart the target after finishing the file transfers.
Restart the MAX Explorer and you should have Acqiris digitizers detected in your PXI system.
2.7.
Installing the IVI-COM/C Driver
Please install Acqiris Software for Windows first. Then the Acqiris Software CD Autorun program gives access to
two installers:
ƒ
IVI Shared Components 1.4
ƒ
IVI-COM/C IviAqD1 driver
These must be installed in the order shown above. For more information you can then consult the Readme.txt file in
the IVI\Drivers\IviAqD1 folder or the documentation through the program shortcut present under Ivi/IviAqD1.
2.8.
Distribution for Windows 2000/XP and Linux
The manuals/ReadMe.txt file contains a list of files to be found after a complete installation of Acqiris Software on
Windows systems. Similarly the ReadMeLinux file gives the list of files corresponding to that installation.
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3.
Product Description
3.1.
Overview
DP110 Block Diagram
Signal
Input
8bit
8 bit
Input
Signal
Amplifier
50
Ohms
SH + ADC
Ext memories
DEMUX
Acq Mem
1M
Ohms
TIMEBASE
trigger
Input
Trigger
Signal
Amplifier
50
Ohms
TRIGGER
circuit
Thr
DAC
1M
Ohms
CAL
DAC
Card
Controller
Controller
PLX
PCI Interface
PCI Bus
Acqiris Digitizers are available in two popular industry standards. The DP series digitizers are PCI modules that plug
directly into a vacant PCI slot in a PC. The PCI Bus is a well-defined industry standard. The DC series products are
CompactPCI/PXI compliant and require an appropriate CompactPCI crate. The digitizers are all fully programmable
over the PCI bus and deliver oscilloscope-like performance. Data captured by the digitizers can be transferred to a
host processor, either in the PC, in the crate, or interfaced to the crate, over the PCI bus using a 32-bit bus operating
at 33 MHz, at speeds up to 100 MB/s. The DP1400 can use the PCI bus at 66 MHz thus allowing transfer rates up to
200 MB/s.
DC1XX series digitizers occupy a single slot of a 3U CompactPCI crate and they comply with the 3U Compact PCI
standard (PXI compliant). DC2XX series digitizers occupy a single slot of a 6U CompactPCI crate and they comply
with the 6U CompactPCI standard (PXI compliant).
Acqiris digitizers are designed to provide superior measurement precision and accuracy. Key acquisition
specifications (such as DC accuracy, integral and differential non-linearity) have been optimized to deliver maximum
measurement fidelity. Careful circuit layout, custom IC’s and special packaging techniques have all been employed
to reduce overall system noise. The use of custom IC’s also dramatically reduces the total number of discrete
components required. This has tremendous benefits on reliability and also allows the modules to use a minimal
amount of power (15 W typical for a single channel 1 GS/s card).
The block diagram above is a simplified representation of a single channel unit. For complete technical specifications
concerning your particular digitizer please refer to the product’s Specifications & Characteristics. In addition, we
maintain up-to-date versions of all product data sheets on our web site (www.acqiris.com). The data sheets are
available in pdf format and are best viewed using Adobe Acrobat software. If you have trouble accessing our web
site, or viewing the data sheets, please contact your nearest sales office.
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3.2.
Channel Input
3.2.1. Coupling
Both AC and DC coupling modes are available. The AC mode couples signals capacitively thus removing the input
signal’s DC component and filtering out any signal component below 16 Hz for the DC2x1A digitizers, 32 Hz for the
DC271-Family and 10 Hz for all other models. DC mode allows all signal components to be passed through to the
digitizer.
3.2.2. Impedance
The input channels of the DP and DC Series digitizers offer termination into 50 Ω and, sometimes 1 MΩ. The 50 Ω
coupling mode offers high quality termination with better than ± 1% precision. It is ideally suited to use with 50 Ω
transmission lines (coax), high bandwidth low impedance (typically 500 Ω) probes or active probes. The 1 MΩ
coupling mode provides a high impedance (low load) capability that is suited for use with most standard high
impedance probes. The high impedance mode also features low (typically ~10 pF, see table) capacitance that helps to
minimize loading effects that can occur when probing high frequency circuits.
3.2.3. Input Protection
The input amplifiers are fully protected against over-voltage signals. Input signals up to ±300 V for the DC271A,
DC271AR, DC241A, and DC211A and ±100 V otherwise (DC + peak AC < 10 KHz) at 1 MΩ and up to ±5 V DC at
50 Ω, can be input without damaging the front-end electronics.
The front-end also provides an overload protection that will automatically switch the coupling from 50 Ω to 1 MΩ if
the signal is greater than ±5 V DC. This is implemented for most modules (not the DC2x1A) that have the 1MΩ
impedance possibility.
3.2.4. Mezzanine Front-end
The front-end electronics are all mounted on a removable mezzanine card. In the event of accidental damage, or as
components fatigue over time (e.g. relays in high duty cycle automated testing applications), the mezzanine card
allows for fast and efficient replacement.
3.2.5. Bandwidth and Rise Time
The bandwidth specification indicates the frequency at which an input signal will be attenuated by 3 dB
(approximately 30% loss of amplitude). The bandwidth also affects the minimum rise and fall times that can be
passed through the front-end electronics. A pulse with a very sharp edge will be observed to have a minimum rise
time (τmin) determined by the front-end electronics. In general a pulse with a given 10-90% rise time (τ10-90real) will be
observed with a slower value given by:
τ10-902 = τ10-90real2 + τmin2
where
τmin (ns) ≈ 0.35 (GHz-ns) / BW (GHz)
The following table indicates the bandwidth and rise time performance of the DP and DC Series digitizers. For many
digitizers, the bandwidth can be limited with hardware bandwidth limiters as shown in the tables below. For many of
the older models the bandwidth at 50 mV FS, BW50, is not as high as that of the other sensitivities.
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Model
Agilent #
DP105
Bandwidth
into 50 Ω
Bandwidth/
Capacitance
into 1 MΩ
Minimum
Rise Time
BW Limiter
selections
Maximum
Offset
Other
particularities
150 MHz
150 MHz
2.3 ns
NA
20 V
BW50 = 90 MHz
8 pF
U1067A
DP106
250 MHz
NA
1.4 ns
NA
NA
BW50 = 200 MHz
Max FS =0.5 V
DP110
250 MHz
250 MHz
1.4 ns
NA
20 V
BW50 = 200 MHz
8 pF
U1067A
DP111
500 MHz
NA
0.7 ns
25 MHz
NA
BW50 = 200 MHz
Max FS =0.5 V
DP210
500 MHz
400 MHz
0.7 ns
NA
20 V
BW50 = 200 MHz
8 pF
U1068A
500 MHz
NA
0.7 ns
25 MHz
NA
BW50 = 200 MHz
Max FS =0.5 V
DP212
500 MHz
NA
0.7 ns
25 MHz
NA
BW50 = 200 MHz
Max FS =0.5 V
DP214
1 GHz
NA
0.35 ns
20, 200, 700 MHz
5V
DC271 FAMILY
500 MHz
NA
0.7 ns
20, 200 MHz
5V
DC271 FAMILY
1 GHz
NA
0.35 ns
20, 200, 700 MHz
5V
DC271 FAMILY
1 GHz
NA
0.35 ns
20, 200, 700 MHz
5V
250 MHz
250 MHz
1.4 ns
NA
20 V
BW50 = 200 MHz
DP211
U1068A
U1069A
DP235
U1069A
DP240
U1069A
DP1400
U1071A
DC110
8 pF
DC135
500 MHz
NA
0.7 ns
20, 200 MHz
5V
DC271 FAMILY
FC Option
1 GHz
NA
0.7 ns
20, 200, 700 MHz
5V
DC271 FAMILY
FC Option
1 GHz
NA
0.35 ns
20, 200, 700 MHz
5V
DC271 FAMILY
950 MHz
( 1 GHz
typical)
300 MHz
typical
14 pF
0.35 ns
(50Ω)
(1.2 ns
typical
1 MΩ)
20, 200, 700 MHz
(see remark below)
5 V (50Ω)
DC271 FAMILY
Max FS = 50 V
(1 MΩ)
500 MHz
400 MHz
0.7 ns
NA
20 V
BW50 = 200 MHz
0.35 ns
20, 200, 700 MHz
5V
DC271 FAMILY
U1061A
DC140
U1061A
DC211
U1064A
DC211A
U1064A
DC240
20 V (> 0.5 V
FS & 1MΩ)
200 V (> 5V
FS & 1MΩ)
11 pF
DC241
1 GHz
NA
U1064A
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Model
Agilent #
DC241A
U1064A
DC265
Bandwidth
into 50 Ω
Minimum
Rise Time
BW Limiter
selections
Maximum
Offset
Other
particularities
950 MHz
( 1 GHz
typical)
Bandwidth/
Capacitance
into 1 MΩ
300 MHz
typical
14 pF
0.35 ns
(50Ω)
(1.2 ns
typical
1 MΩ)
20, 200, 700 MHz
(see remark below)
5 V (50Ω)
DC271 FAMILY
Max FS = 50 V
(1 MΩ)
150 MHz
150 MHz
2.3 ns
NA
20 V
BW50 = 90 MHz
1.4 ns
NA
20 V
BW50 = 90 MHz
11 pF
U1063A
DC270
250 MHz
250 MHz
11 pF
U1063A
DC271
20 V (> 0.5 V
FS & 1MΩ)
200 V (> 5V
FS & 1MΩ)
1 GHz
NA
0.35 ns
20, 200, 700 MHz
5V
DC271 FAMILY
950 MHz
( 1 GHz
typical)
300 MHz
typical
14 pF
0.35 ns
(50Ω)
(1.2 ns
typical
1 MΩ)
20, 200, 700 MHz
(see remark below)
5 V (50Ω)
DC271 FAMILY
Max FS = 50 V
(1 MΩ)
The AR has only 2
channels
U1064A
DC271A
U1064A
DC271AR
20 V (> 0.5 V
FS & 1MΩ)
200 V (> 5V
FS & 1MΩ)
For 1 MΩ coupling in the DC2x1A/AR the 700 MHz Bandwidth Limiter cannot be used. Furthermore, for FS gain >
5V the 200 MHz Bandwidth Limiter is always active.
3.2.6. Input Voltage and Offset
The input channel provides a fully programmable amplifier with variable input voltage and offset. Full Scale (FS)
input voltages are selectable from 50 mV to 5 V (except as shown above) in a 1, 2, 5 sequence. Care should be taken
to select an input voltage range that will allow the signal to be recorded using as much dynamic range of the digitizer
as possible. The Variable Offset is programmable in the range of ±2 V when using an FS Input Voltage setting of
500 mV or below, increasing to ± Maximum Offset for FS settings above 500 mV. The raw 8-bit ADC data values
are in the range [-128,+127] with the first and last values reserved for underflow and overflow respectively. The
midpoint value, 0, of the range corresponds to the negative of the offset voltage. Thus the Full Scale Range (FSR)
goes from
–Offset Voltage – (FS/2)
to
–Offset Voltage
+ (FS/2)
Signals going outside of the FSR will be clipped and data values for the clipped portion of a signal should be
regarded as erroneous.
The maximum input voltage for 50 Ω input impedance is ±5 V. The maximum input for 1 MΩ input impedance is
±100 V (dc + ac) except for the DC2x1A/AR models where it is ±300 V (dc + ac).
3.2.7. Vertical Resolution
The digitizers described in this manual use an ADC system with 8 bits of vertical resolution (256 levels). The
dynamic range of the ADC covers the Full Scale Range (FSR) of the Input Voltage setting. For example, if the Input
Voltage is set to 1 V then the ADC resolution is equivalent to 3.91 mV. To obtain the best dynamic range from the
ADC care should be taken to ensure that the input signal varies over more than 50% of the Input Voltage FSR
setting.
3.2.8. DC Accuracy and Linearity
The DP and DC Series digitizers use low noise front-end electronics in order to ensure voltage measurement is made
with accuracy and precision. DC voltage accuracy, at 0 V offset, is better than ±2% (±1% typical) of the input
voltage full scale. The differential linearity is better than ±0.7 LSB ( ±0.8 LSB for DC135/DC140 digitizers and
±0.9 LSB for other DC271-FAMILY digitizers).
User Manual: Family of 8-bit Digitizers
Page 31 of 66
3.2.9. Using Probes
The 50 Ω and 1 MΩ input impedance settings make it possible to use Acqiris digitizers with a wide variety of
probes. The 50 Ω setting is most commonly used for active probes and low impedance (500 Ω) passive probes. The
1 MΩ setting is normally used for high impedance probes. While it is possible to use a variety of different
manufacturers high impedance probes we recommend the use of our model P001 Passive Probe. The model P001 is
matched to the Acqiris digitizers to ensure that effects that can reduce measurement quality, such as bandwidth loss
and capacitive loading, are minimized. The P001 features 300 MHz bandwidth, 10 MΩ input impedance and 10:1
attenuation. These specifications make it an excellent choice for most general purpose probing applications. Before
using any Passive Probe with a digitizer care should be taken to check that the probe has been correctly adjusted
(refer to the Probe’s Calibration procedure).
NOTE: Passive high impedance probes are not suitable for high fidelity measurements above 100 MHz. The nonnegligible (5-10 pF) tip capacitance loads the signal causing distortion and/or ringing when combined with the
ground lead inductance.
3.3.
Data Acquisition
The table below summarizes the characteristics discussed in the sections that follow:
Model
Max.
Sampling
Rate
Max.
CONVER
TERS PER
CHANNEL/
CHANNELS
DP105
500 MS/s
1/1
DP106
500 MS/s
DP110
Maximum
Optional
Memory/
channel
Maximum
TTI
Timebase
Segments
Resolution
Accuracy
128K
2M
4000
80 ps
50 ppm
±2V
1/1
128K
2M
4000
80 ps
50 ppm
±2V
1 GS/s
1/1
128K
8M
8000
80 ps
50 ppm
±2V
DP111
1 GS/s
1/1
128K
2M
4000
5 ps
2 ppm
±3V
DP210
2 GS/s
1/1
256K
16M
8000
5 ps
2 ppm
±3V
DP211
2 GS/s
1 / 1*
256K
16M
8000
5 ps
2 ppm
±3V
DP212
2 GS/s
1/1
256K
16M
8000
5 ps
2 ppm
±3V
DP214
2 GS/s
1/1
256K
16M
8000
5 ps
2 ppm
±2V
DP235
1 GS/s
2/2
128K
2M
4000
5 ps
2 ppm
±2V
DP240
2 GS/s
2/2
128K
8M
8000
5 ps
2 ppm
±2V
DP1400
2 GS/s
2/2
128K
NA
1000
~13ps
2 ppm
AC 0 V
DC110
1 GS/s
1 /1
128K
8M
8000
5 ps
50 ppm
±2V
DC135
1 GS/s
2 /2
128K
2M
4000
5 ps
2 ppm
±2V
DC140
2 GS/s
2/2
128K
8M
8000
5 ps
2 ppm
±2V
DC211
4 GS/s
1/1
512K
32M
8000
5 ps
2 ppm
±2V
DC211A
4 GS/s
1/1
128K
8M
8000
5 ps
2 ppm
±2V
DC240
2 GS/s
1/2
256K
16M
8000
5 ps
2 ppm
±3V
DC241
4 GS/s
2/2
256K
16M
8000
5 ps
2 ppm
±2V
DC241A
4 GS/s
2/2
128K
8M
8000
5 ps
2 ppm
±2V
DC265
500 MS/s
1/4
128K
2M
4000
5 ps
2 ppm
±2V
DC270
1 GS/s
1/4
128K
8M
8000
5 ps
2 ppm
±2V
DC271
4 GS/s
4/4
128K
8M
8000
5 ps
2 ppm
±2V
DC271A
4 GS/s
4/4
128K
8M
8000
5 ps
2 ppm
±2V
DC271AR
2 GS/s
2/2
128K
8M
8000
5 ps
2 ppm
±2V
User Manual: Family of 8-bit Digitizers
Default
Memory
points/
channel
External
Clock
Max./
Min.
Thresh.
Page 32 of 66
The * indicates a Dual Input module where there is one channel which can digitize the signal on one of the two BNC
inputs
3.3.1. Sampling Rate
All Acqiris digitizers contain an analog-to-digital conversion (ADC) system that can sample waveforms, in a real
time sampling mode, at rates from the maximum allowed rate down to 100 S/s (10 ms per point). The sampling rate
can be programmed and is selectable in a 1, 2, 2.5, 4, 5 sequence (i.e. 1 MS/s, 2 MS/s, 2.5 MS/s, 4 MS/s, 5 MS/s,
10 MS/s, … 1 GS/s, 2GS/s, 4 GS/s). The maximum sampling rate shown above sometimes exploits the possibility of
combining channels.
3.3.2. Acquisition Memory
Data from the ADC is stored in on-board acquisition memory. The amount of memory in use for acquisition can be
programmed and is selectable from 1 point to the full amount of acquisition memory available.
For technical reasons, a certain memory “overhead” is required for each waveform, reducing the available memory
by a small amount. In order to simplify programming, an interface function recommends the best sampling rate and
the maximum possible number of data points, taking into account the available memory, the requested time window,
the number of segments (in Sequence mode), as well as the required memory overhead.
To ensure maximum sampling rate and high timing resolution, we strongly recommend the use of long acquisition
memories whenever possible. For example, the model DC110 or DP110 with 2 Mpoints of memory can record a
signal over a 2 ms period with a sampling rate of 1 GS/s (1 ns per point). The fast sampling rate ensures that all high
frequency signal components, up to the full 250 MHz bandwidth of the digitizer, are accurately recorded. If the
memory were reduced to just 20 Kpoints then the sampling rate would need to be reduced to just 10 MS/s
(20,000/2 ms) to record the same 2 ms period. All frequencies above 5 MHz would then be incorrectly digitized and
important signal characteristics may be distorted or even completely missed.
3.3.3. Single and Sequence Acquisition Modes
Digitizers acquire waveforms in association with triggers. Each waveform is made of a series of measured voltage
values (sample points) that are made by the ADC at a uniform clock rate. To maximize sampling rates and utilize
memory as efficiently as possible, the digitizers include both Single and Sequential storage modes. For both of these
modes the data of all of the active channels is acquired synchronously; all of the ADC’s are acquiring data at the
same time, to within a small fraction of the maximum sampling rate.
The Single Acquisition mode is the normal operation of most digitizer products. In this mode an acquisition consists
of a waveform recorded with a single trigger. The user selects the sampling rate and acquisition memory size and sets
the number of segments to 1 (default value).
The Sequence Acquisition mode allows the capture and storage of consecutive “single” waveforms. Sequence
Acquisition mode is useful as it can optimize the digitizer’s sampling rate and memory requirements for applications
where only portions of the signal being analyzed are important. The mode is extremely useful in almost all impulseresponse type applications (RADAR, SONAR, LIDAR, Time-of-Flight, Ultrasonics, Medical and Biomedical
Research, etc.).
In Sequence Acquisition mode the acquisition memory is divided into a pre-selected number of segments.
Waveforms are stored in successive memory segments as they arrive. Each waveform requires its own individual
trigger. The memory can be divided into any number of segments between 2 and 200 (up to 8000 segments with
options M32M, M16M, M8M and M4M, 4000 segments with option M2M, 2000 with option M1M). In Sequence
Acquisition mode the user needs to specify the sampling rate, the total acquisition memory, and the number of
segments. Note that the Single Acquisition mode is just a special case of the Sequence Acquisition mode with the
number of segments set to 1.
Sequence acquisition enables successive events, which can occur within a very short time, to be captured and stored
without loss. A crucial feature of Sequence Acquisition mode is that it has a very fast trigger rearm time. A fast
trigger rearm helps produce very low “dead time” (less than 800 ns for the highest available sampling rates) between
the segments of a sequence acquisition. The “dead time” is the period after the end of an event when the card cannot
digitize data for a new trigger event. To complement this mode of operation the digitizer can also measure and store
the arrival time of each trigger using the information from the on board Trigger Time Interpolator (TTI). Readout of
the individual trigger time stamps makes it possible to determine the time from one trigger to any other trigger in the
sequential acquisition. The TTI resolution sets the resolution of the trigger time stamps (see section 3.3.5 Timing and
the table above).
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3.3.4. DP1400 Simultaneous Multibuffer Acquisition and Readout (SMAR)
For this module the internal memory has a dual-port structure which can be exploited to permit simultaneous data
acquisition and read out. When the special SMAR option is present the memory can be turned into a circular buffer
of a chosen number of banks, between 2 and 1000. Data can be read out of one bank while data is acquired into any
available free banks. This mechanism, together with sequence acquisition, helps achieve a high maximum continuous
event rate in spite of interrupts due to the computer operating system. The maximum continuous event rate is the
maximum value of the trigger frequency that can be accepted without the loss of any event. It will work for both 1
and 2 converter/channel modes.
3.3.5. Timing
A crystal-controlled timebase is used to clock the ADC system of the digitizers. The timebase accuracy is guaranteed
as shown in the table at the beginning of this section. The digitizers also include a built-in Trigger Time Interpolator
(TTI) that measures the time from the trigger point to the first sample point. This information is essential for
determining the precise relation between the trigger or other event of interest and the digitized samples of the signal.
The approximate TTI resolution is also given in the table at the beginning of this section.
3.3.6. Timebase Range
The timebase range defines the time period over which data is being acquired. For example, the DC110 has a
standard acquisition memory of 128 Kpoints and maximum sampling rate of 1 GS/s. Therefore, at the maximum
sampling rate, the digitizer can record a signal over a timebase range of up to 130 μs (approx. 130,000 points *
1 ns/point). The timebase range can be adjusted by varying the amount of acquisition memory or the sampling rate of
the digitizer.
3.3.7. Combining channels
The DC135/DC140/DC241/DC241A/DC271/DC271A/DC271AR/DP235/DP240/DP1400 digitizers offer the
possibility of combining the converters (and their memories) from two or four channels to analyze a single input
channel. With this feature the maximum sampling rate and the maximum amount of acquisition memory can be
doubled or quadrupled if all of the input channels are not of immediate interest.
3.4.
Trigger
Normally the trigger settings applied to the digitizer are used to determine the time at which the device will stop
acquiring data. Some models are also capable of a ‘Start on Trigger’ mode of acquisition (see the Programmer’s
Guide for further details). The various trigger settings are outlined below.
3.4.1. Trigger Source
The trigger source can be a signal applied to either an Input Channel (internal triggering) or the External Trigger
Input. For the DC135/DC140/DC211/DC211A/DC241/DC241A/DC271/DC271A/DC271AR modules, a
standardized trigger in signal can also be routed via the PXI Bus Star Trigger line.
Most digitizers provide a separate front panel input BNC connector that can be used as an External Trigger Input.
The External Input provides a fully functional trigger circuit with selectable level and slope as for the Internal
Triggering source; however it does not include coupling choices nor HF, Window, and Spike Stretcher triggers. The
external trigger termination (1 MΩ or 50 Ω) is also selectable on many modules. In modules with this feature, the
circuit also provides an overload protection that will automatically switch the coupling from 50 Ω to 1 MΩ if the
signal is greater than ±5 V DC.
The DC271-FAMILY digitizers have a fixed 50 Ω termination impedance. They also allow the same BW limiter
selections as can be found for the channels. The DC271-Family digitizers' external trigger circuit has diode
protection against overload.
The DP1400 also gives the choice of 50 Ω or 1 MΩ termination impedance for the MCX external input and has
diode protection against overload. However, there are no BW limiters and only DC trigger coupling is available.
In all 50 Ω cases a ±5 V limit on trigger signals should be respected, although somewhat higher voltages for short
time periods will not damage the unit. For 1 MΩ input signals up to ±100 V (DC + peak AC < 10 KHz) are allowed.
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3.4.2. Trigger Coupling
Trigger coupling is used to select the coupling mode applied to the input of the trigger circuitry. Modes available
include AC LF Reject and DC. The AC LF Reject mode couples signals capacitively and removes the input signal's
DC component and signals below 50 KHz (50 Hz for DC271-FAMILY digitizers). DC mode allows all signal
components to be passed through to the trigger circuit. The DC271-FAMILY digitizers have an HF Reject mode that
removes signal components above 50 KHz.
3.4.3. Trigger Level
The trigger level specifies the voltage at which the selected trigger source will produce a valid trigger. The trigger
level is defined as a set voltage. Using the internal trigger, the level is set with respect to the midpoint voltage (Vm= –
Offset voltage) of the digitizer’s vertical scale. Internal trigger level settings (expressed in %) must be within Vm ±
0.6 FS (0.5 FS for DC271-FAMILY digitizers), where FS is the channel Full Scale. All trigger circuits have
sensitivity levels that must be exceeded in order for reliable triggering to occur.
For most digitizers, the AC coupled mode is implemented with an auto-level trigger. Only the DC271-FAMILY
digitizers allow trigger levels to be selected in connection with the AC coupling choices.
The DC271-FAMILY digitizers allow the user to choose the external trigger Full Scale from the set of values 0.5,
1.0, 2.0 or 5.0 V. The external trigger level can then be set to values in the range ± 0.5 FS. The DP1400 has a single
external Trigger Full Scale of 10 V. All other digitizers have an external trigger range of ± 3 V.
The DC271-FAMILY digitizers will trigger on signals with a peak-peak amplitude > 15% FS from DC to their
bandwidth limit.
3.4.4. Edge Trigger Slope
The trigger slope defines which one of the two possible transitions will be used to initiate the trigger when it passes
through the specified trigger level. Positive slope indicates that the signal is transitioning from a lower voltage to a
higher voltage. Negative slope indicates the signal is transitioning from a higher voltage to a lower voltage.
3.4.5. Window Trigger
The DC271-FAMILY digitizers and the 2 channels of the DP1400 implement a Window trigger. Two trigger level
thresholds are used to define the desired range. The trigger can then be chosen to occur either when the signal exits
or enters the window range. This mode can be thought of as the appropriate OR of two edge triggers of opposite
slope.
3.4.6. HF Trigger
The DC271-FAMILY digitizers and the 2 channels of the DP1400 implement an HF trigger that allows triggers to be
reliably accepted at rates above ∼ 1 GHz. In this mode, triggers occur on every fourth positive edge. The window
trigger mode is not available.
3.4.7. Spike Stretcher
The trigger circuit of the 2 channels of the DP1400 also has a Spike Stretcher mode which ensures that even very
short pulses are capable of generating triggers. This mode is useful if the time interval during which the trigger signal
satisfies the threshold condition is less than 0.5 ns and the trigger frequency is less than 10 MHz. The trigger slope is
positive in this mode.
3.4.8. DP1400 Multi-source Trigger
This digitizer permits triggers that require a pattern condition including one of the trigger channels and the external
trigger. The trigger condition defined above, on each of the inputs, defines the TRUE/FALSE state of each input.
These states can be logically combined with AND, OR, NAND, or NOR to define the overall trigger condition.
Potential triggers can then occur on the FALSE to TRUE transitions of the combined signal.
There is a small (~ns) delay between the times at which two simultaneous inputs arrive at the logical element that
defines the overall trigger condition. If necessary, this must be corrected for by cable delay on the external input; the
delay will depend on the overall configuration and therefore must be determined by the user.
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3.4.9. Pre- and Post-Trigger Delay
To increase trigger flexibility a pre- or post-trigger delay can be applied to the trigger position.
The amount of pre-trigger delay can be adjusted between 0 and 100% of the acquisition time window (i.e. sampling
interval x number of samples), whereas the post-trigger delay can be adjusted between 0 and 200 million samples.
Pre- or post-trigger delays are just different aspects of the same trigger positioning parameter:
•
The condition of 100% pre-trigger indicates that all data points are acquired prior to the trigger, i.e. the trigger
point is at the end of the acquired waveform.
•
The condition of 0% pre-trigger (which is identical to a post-trigger of 0) indicates that all data points are
acquired immediately after the trigger, i.e. the trigger point is at the beginning of the acquired waveform.
•
The condition of a non-zero post-trigger delay indicates that the data points are acquired after the trigger occurs,
at a time that corresponds to the post-trigger delay, i.e. the trigger point is before the acquired waveform.
The digitizer hardware accepts pre- and post-trigger adjustments in increments of 16 samples. By definition posttrigger settings are a positive number and pre-trigger settings are a negative number.
Thus it is only natural that the software drivers treat pre- and post-trigger delays as a single parameter in seconds that
can vary between –nbrSamples * samplingInterval (100% pre-trigger) and +maxPostTrigSamples * samplingInterval
(max post-trigger). Since the Acqiris software drivers provide very accurate trigger position information upon
waveform readout, the accepted resolution of the user-requested pre-/post-trigger delay is much better than 16
samples. For more details, refer to the Programmer’s Guide.
3.4.10. Trigger Status
The front panel includes a tri-color LED indicator to show the status of the trigger. When the LED is green it
indicates the trigger is armed and waiting for a valid trigger to occur. Red indicates that the trigger has occurred, the
acquisition is complete and the data is waiting to be readout. The user can override the default functions and program
the LED color in an application-specific manner.
3.5.
External Clock and Reference
For applications where the user wants to replace the internal clock of the digitizer and drive the ADC with an
external source, either an External Clock or an External Reference signal can be used. The Clock or Reference
signals can be entered into the digitizer either by the dedicated MMCX (DC271-FAMILY), MCX (DP1400), or BNC
(DC240) connector or via the shared External Input connector on the front panel (all other models). In addition, for
the DC135/DC140/DC211/DC211A/DC241/DC241A/ DC271/DC271A/DC271AR models the PXI Bus 10 MHz
system clock signal (PXI_CLK10) can be used as the reference.
With External Clock two operating modes are possible; Continuous for the case in which the clock signals are always
present and Start/Stop for the situation where the user needs complete control of the sampling process. The Start/Stop
mode is not available for the DP1400. When using a Continuous External Clock, the user must ensure that the input
signal has a frequency between 10 MHz and 2 GHz (DP1400 and DC271-FAMILY) or between 10 MHz and 500
MHz (all other models). For the Start/Stop mode the input signal frequency must be less than 1 GHz (DC271Family) or 500 MHz (all other models). In all cases it must have a minimum peak to peak amplitude into 50 Ω at the
front of the digitizer of at least
ƒ
0.5 V for DC135/DC140/DC211A/DC241A/DC271A/DC271AR/DP1400,
ƒ
1 V all other DC271-Family and
ƒ
2 V for other models.
The DP1400 has a fixed threshold and uses AC coupling. Otherwise, the transitions of the clock are defined with the
aid of a threshold that is user selectable in the range [-2.0 V, 2.0 V] ([-3.0 V, 3.0 V] for the DC240).. The signals
should not exceed ±5 V amplitude. For a detailed discussion on the programmed use of the external clock, refer to
the Programmer’s Guide.
For applications that require greater timing precision and long-term stability than is obtainable from the internal
clock, a 10 MHz Reference signal can be used. The External Reference is nominally at 10 MHz. However,
frequencies in the range [9.0 MHz, 10.2 MHz] will be accepted for all models other than the DP1400. If you do this
you may need to correct for the difference in your application since the digitizer and the driver have no way to know
about such deviations. The amplitude and threshold conditions, for an External Reference, are the same as for the
External Clock. If synchronization between several digitizers is required, the reference signal should be applied to all
of them.
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3.6.
Internal Calibration
The software drivers supplied include calibration functions for the timing, gain and offset settings, which can be
executed upon user request. The digitizers are never calibrated in an “automatic” way, i.e. as a side effect of another
operation. This ensures programmers have full control of all calibrations performed through software in order to
maintain proper event synchronization within automated test applications.
The model DC and DP series digitizers include a high precision voltage source and a 16-bit DAC, used to determine
the input voltage and offset calibration.
For accurate time and voltage measurements it is recommended to perform a calibration once the module has attained
a stable operating temperature (usually reached with a few minutes of digitizer operation after power on). Further
calibration should not be necessary unless temperature variations occur.
A full internal calibration of a digitizer can be very time consuming (> 100 s/digitizer), in particular for the DC2x1A
models. Therefore, several other options are available. They are documented in the Programmer's Reference
Manual. A program can always be started with the digitizer in an uncalibrated state and data taken can be used for
many kinds of testing. However, as soon as good data respecting the specifications of the instrument is required a
calibration of at least the current acquisition state is needed. The full internal calibration has the advantage that it
generates the calibration constants needed for any possible configuration of the instrument; its disadvantage is the
time taken. If a more selective calibration is done it will allow the generation of good data in the current acquisition
state. This calibration will remain useable whenever that acquisition state is used again for as long as the temperature
of the instrument does not change significantly. A fast calibration of a channel in a configuration can be done in
around a second. Many applications can save time by only performing calibration for the configurations that will
actually be used.
3.7.
ASBus
The DC Series digitizers may be used in applications that require many data acquisition channels. In such cases it is
possible to use more than one digitizer in a standard CompactPCI/PXI crate. Each DC Series digitizer, except the
DC135 and DC140 models, includes ASBus, a proprietary high bandwidth auto-synchronous bus system that allows
multiple digitizers to work together synchronously.
The ASBus distributes both the clock and trigger signals along a plug-in front panel bus, between all the digitizers
that participate in the system. It allows any digitizer to act as the trigger source and any other digitizer to act as the
clock source (acquisition master), enabling all the digitizers to be clocked at the same time. Synchronizing the clock
signals between the devices improves the accuracy of cross-channel measurements and is essential for accurate time
correlation between signals on different channels.
The ASBus is intended to connect modules of the same type, i.e. of the same model number, although some
exceptions to this rule might be possible. If modules with the same model number, but different memory length
options, are connected only the shortest memory length can be used.
The ASBus connector is located on the front panel of each cPCI module. Bridges are used to connect adjacent
modules for synchronization, which is then activated through software by defining a master module and the trigger
source. Up to 7 modules may be synchronized with the ASBus. More detailed information and the commands
required to setup the ASBus clock and trigger distribution are included in the Programmer's Guide and Reference
manual.
2
The DP1400 uses the ASBus system with a connector on the top of each card to achieve the same functionality. It
works for up to 3 modules.
3.8.
Connector
CLK IN
I/O A
TR OUT
I/O B
Special Front Panel Input and Output(DP1400 & DC271-FAMILY)
Function
50 Ω External Reference or External Clock Input
User configurable (see below)
Signal occurs after an accepted TRIGGER.
User configurable (see below)
The DC271-Family uses MMCX connectors for these functions; the DP1400 uses the MCX type. The I/O A and I/O
B signals are 3.3 V compatible CMOS. This means that, on input, low is < 0.7 V and high must be in the range [1.7
V, 5.0 V]. An unconnected signal will be high. This definition ensures TTL compatibility. On output, the low level
User Manual: Family of 8-bit Digitizers
Page 37 of 66
will be in the range [0 V, 0.7 V] and the high level in the range [1.7 V, 3.3 V] for HiZ. The high level output will
typically give 0.8 V into 50 Ω. The I/O A or B connectors can be used for an Enable trigger input or the following
output signals: 10 MHz reference clock, Acquisition skipping to next segment, Acquisition is active, Trigger is armed.
3.9.
External Trigger Output (DP1400 & DC271-FAMILY)
When the digitizer is ready to be triggered and a valid trigger signal occurs, a trigger output is generated for external
use. It is always available on the Front Panel Trigger Out MCX or MMCX connector. The pulse ends when the data
acquisition for the trigger in question is complete.
NOTE: The External Trigger Output functionality is implemented in the hardware. No Trigger Out signal occurs for
software-generated triggers such as those of the AUTO mode of AcqirisLive or through the use of the function
AcqrsD1_forceTrigger. However, AcqrsD1_forceTriggerEx does generate the signal.
Trigger Output Block diagram:
Signal: 1.6V swing
0v centered
50 Ohm
Trigger Out
G=1
0.8
V)
The output swing is 1.6 V (±
Offset: +/-2.5 V
when unloaded and 0.8 V when
and fall
terminated on 50 Ω. The rise
times are 2.5 ns typical. The offset can be adjusted, by software control in the range [–2.5 V, +2.5 V] unloaded, or [+5V
GND
1.25 V, +1.25 V] into 50 Ω. The maximum output current
capability is ± 15 mA. As the output is retro-terminated, it is
ECL
R TTL
R Signal
possible to drive a 50 Ω line unterminated (HiZ) without loss of
220 signal
68
performance.
Trigger
For a TTL compatible signal, set the offset to 1.0 V and the Out
swing at destination will be +0.2 to +1.8 V.
With
Offset
R
220
For an ECL compatible signal, terminated on 50 Ω to –1.2 V, -1.18V
-5V
set the offset to –1.2 V and the output will be in the range [–0.8
V, –1.6 V]).
Trigger Out R
68
With
Offset
+1.18V GND
Alternatively, to reduce the current drawn from the digitizer, the terminations shown here can be used:
For the DC135/DC140/DC211/DC211A/DC241/DC241A/DC271/DC271A/DC271AR modules, a standardized
trigger out signal can also be routed to the PXI Bus Star Trigger line.
3.10.
Frequency Counter mode
The new DC140 and DC135 digitizers offer an optional Frequency Counter (FC) mode. This option allows the
measurement of the average frequency or period of a signal for frequencies up to 400 MHz over a user-selectable
aperture between 1 ms and 1000 s. The accuracy is limited by that of the timebase, < 2 ppm; the short term stability
is of ~ 0.1 ppm. The accuracy can be improved if an appropriate external reference clock is used. Frequencies in
excess of 100 MHz will be measured using the HF divide by four feature of the trigger circuit.
A digitizer with the FC option can also totalize the number of triggers during a chosen time interval or a userprovided gate signal. This can be done for trigger frequencies under 125 MHz and for total counts up to 248. The time
interval is measured using the same clock as is being used to drive the digitizer. The user gate signal has to be made
available on one of the Control I/O inputs.
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3.11.
Electrical, Environmental and Physical Specifications
3.11.1. Electrical
Model
PCI
Rev
DMA
Transfer
Rate
(MB/s)
Max. Power
Consumption (W)
WITH
Standard
MEMORY
OPTION
Current Requirements (A)
(with Memory option)
+12 V
+5 V
+3.3 V
-12 V
DP105
2.1
~100
13.5
15
0.55
1.3(1.6)
NA
NA
DP106
2.1
~100
13.5
15
0.55
1.3(1.6)
NA
NA
DP110
2.1
~100
13.5
15
0.55
1.3(1.6)
NA
NA
DP111
2.1
~100
20
20
0.75
1.4 (2.0)
NA
0.03
DP210
2.1
~100
22
25
0.9
2 (2.6)
NA
0.03
DP211
2.1
~100
17
20
0.75
1.4 (2.0)
NA
0.03
DP212
2.1
~100
17
20
0.75
1.4 (2.0)
NA
0.03
DP214
2.2
~100
22
25
0.85
1.5
1.1 (1.9)
0.03
DP235
2.2
~100
24
27
0.93
1.7
1.1 (1.9)
0.03
DP240
2.2
~100
24
27
0.93
1.7
1.1 (1.9)
0.03
DP1400
2.3
~100
14
27
0.09
1.3
1.8 ()
0.04
DC110
2.1
~100
15
17
0.7
1.1
0.4 (0.9)
NA
DC135
2.2
~20
12
13.3
0.46
0.46
1.1 (1.5)
0.04
DC140
2.2
~20
13
16
0.46
0.46
1.4 (2.2)
0.04
DC211
2.2
~100
42
50
1.7
2.7
3.0 (4.5)
0.05
DC211A
2.2
~100
42
50
1.7
2.7
3.0 (4.5)
0.05
DC240
2.1
~100
40
45
1.3
3
2 (3.5)
NA
DC241
2.2
~100
42
50
1.7
2.7
3.0 (4.5)
0.05
DC241A
2.2
~100
42
50
1.7
2.7
3.0 (4.5)
0.05
DC265
2.1
~100
40
45
1.2
2.9
1.9 (3.5)
NA
DC270
2.1
~100
40
45
1.2
2.9
1.9 (3.5)
NA
DC271
2.2
~100
42
50
1.7
2.7
3.0 (4.5)
0.05
DC271A
2.2
~100
42
50
1.7
2.7
3.0 (4.5)
0.05
DC271AR
2.2
~100
42
50
1.7
2.7
3.0 (4.5)
0.05
Almost all Acqiris Digitizers use the PCI Bus at 33 MHz. The DP1400 can also use the PCI Bus at frequencies up to
66 MHz. All modules are compatible for either V I/O = 3.3 V or 5 V.
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3.11.2. Environmental and Physical
The modules have a Declaration of Conformity according to ISO/IEC Guide 22 and EN45014 and CE Marks of
Compliance.
The American Standard MIL-PRF-28800F has been used as the source for many of the characteristics specified
below. Those indicated with a ‘*’ are compatible with Class 3 as defined in that standard.
The front panels of the CompactPCI modules are in compliance with the IEEE 1101.10 standard.
Operating Temperature
0° to 40°C – for the DP1400 and DC271-FAMILY modules
0° to 50°C – all other modules
The above values are for the ambient temperature of the room (or equivalent) where the PC or CompactPCI crate is
located. The temperature as measured on the board may well be significantly higher. On-board temperatures above
60°C should be avoided.
Relative Humidity*
5 to 95% (non-condensing)
Dimensions
All DP modules conform to the PCI standard. The DP214/DP235/DP240 and DP211/DP212/DP111 modules are 107
mm × 210 mm and require a long card slot. If used with the XP103 fan they can be adjusted to conform to the full
342 mm length. The DP1400 measures 107 mm × 170 mm without its fan. If used with the XP104 fan it can be
adjusted to conform to the full long card length of 342 mm; when the XP105 fan is used the overall length is 235
mm. All other cards require a short card slot (107 mm × 175 mm). An XP100 fan will add 45 mm to the length of
any card.
The DC110, DC140, and DC135 conform to the 3U CompactPCI standard (100 mm × 160 mm × 20 mm). All other
DC modules conform to the 6U CompactPCI standard (233 mm × 160 mm × 20 mm).
Shock*
30 G, half-sine pulse
Vibration*
5-500 Hz, random
Safety
Complies with EN61010-1
EMC Immunity
Complies with EN61326-1: Industrial Environment
EMC Emissions
Complies with EN61326-1: Class A for radiated emissions
Required Airflow
> 2 m/s in situ
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4.
Running the AcqirisLive Application
AcqirisLive is an application to control and demonstrate the capabilities of Acqiris Digitizers on a single machine.
AcqirisMAQS is more advanced application offering many interesting possibilities for the control of acquisition
systems in a single or multi-machine environment. Ask your salesman or Acqiris for more information.
4.1.
Getting Started with AcqirisLive
Once the software and hardware installation described in Section 2 of this manual is complete, you will find
AcqirisLive in the start menu of your computer. Start AcqirisLive from the menu. An initial AcqirisLive load screen
will appear followed by a panel of controls and a waveform display window.
During startup, AcqirisLive searches for all Acqiris Digitizers on the PCI bus. If no digitizers are found on the PCI
bus, AcqirisLive will display an error message indicating that no digitizers were found, and the program will
continue in simulation mode. If this is not wanted, turn off the computer, install and turn ON the hardware on the PCI
bus and, then, restart the computer.
AcqirisLive is intended to verify the functionality of the card and to serve as an easy to use and convenient program
for capturing, displaying, and archiving captured data into the format of your choice, binary or ASCII. AcqirisLive is
provided free with the purchase of any Acqiris Digitizer.
We supply drivers on the CDROM for National Instruments LabWindows/CVI, LabVIEW, Microsoft Visual C++,
and Visual Basic. We also provide some examples (GetStarted applications) as a guide or starting point for
programmers developing their own applications to interface with the DC or DP series digitizer cards.
When you start AcqirisLive a display like that shown below appears.
AcqirisLive displays two independent windows, a control window and a display window. The control window
contains functions that allow you to manipulate the acquisition parameters of the card. In order to display an acquired
waveform, connect a signal to the input, and then select the Auto acquisition mode at the bottom of the control panel.
A waveform should appear in the display.
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Other controls in the control panel allow you to select the optimal acquisition settings for your particular signal. Each
of the other control panel functions will be discussed in detail in the following Control Panel Functions section. Here
is a sample result.
DSO
4.2.
Control Panel and Functions
TR
4.2.1. Control Panel Mode
In AcqirisLive there are two control panel modes available, Oscilloscope Mode and Transient
Recorder Mode. The choice of mode is entirely determined by the preference of the user.
Both modes provide the same set of functional capabilities but display the settings slightly differently.
For example in Transient Recorder Mode, the user selects the Full Scale Range of the amplifier whereas in
Oscilloscope Mode the user selects the input voltage scale set in Volts/Div. The desired mode is selected using one
of the two buttons shown at the top of the control panel. The distinction between the control panels for the two
operating modes can be seen in the images below.
In both modes it is possible to set the memory depth and the sample speed independently within the limits of the
maximum available memory. However the two modes differ in the following way.
In Oscilloscope Mode, the user selects the time window (time per div) and the sampling rate will be adjusted to the
fastest possible within the limits of the available memory. The maximum available memory is programmable.
In Transient Recorder Mode, the user selects the capture time window, the sampling rate, or the number of samples.
When selecting the capture time window, the number of samples is adapted, keeping the current sampling rate and
number of segments, up to the maximum available memory on the card. When selecting the sampling rate, the
number of samples is adapted, keeping the current capture time window and number of segments, up to the
maximum available memory on the card. When selecting the number of samples, the capture time window is
adapted, keeping the current sampling rate and number of segments.
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Oscilloscope Mode
Transient Recorder Mode
4.2.2. Displaying Multiple Traces
If multi-channel modules, or several single channel modules, are installed on the PCI bus, multiple waveform
displays, one from each installed channel, are overlaid on the display.
The current channel is selected by clicking on the channel name within the upper portion of the control panel. The
vertical settings of the current channel and the timebase and trigger of the correspondent digitizer are then indicated.
A unique name is given to each channel installed on the PCI bus. The current channel is indicated by a dark highlight
over the name. Settings changed on the main control panel will only affect the active channel. Always verify proper
acquisition setting for each channel prior to collecting data.
There is a small rectangular indicator button to the left of each channel name in the channel list. If this indicator is
filled in, the channel waveform is active; the channel is turned on and displayed in the display window. Clicking on
this indicator once turns it transparent. This deactivates the reading of the data from the channel and clears the
waveform display. Clicking once again on the indicator turns the channel back on and the indicator is filled in. After
making such changes the channel data will not be displayed until after the next acquisition.
The image at the left shows a channel list with four active channels
in the system. All are turned on and displayed in the display
window as indicated by the black indicators at the left. The DC271
Ch1 is the currently selected channel.
The channel list image at the right shows the same system with the DC271 Ch2
selected as the current channel. The other indicators are transparent and therefore
their channels are turned off and not displayed.
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As an alternative to controlling the channels to be displayed from the control
panel you can also control them by selecting the desired channels from the
list of channel gains shown at the right hand side of the display window.
Pressing the Finder button at the top of the control panel will identify the
module associated with the current channel. When the finder button is
depressed, the LED on the front panel lights up yellow on the digitizer
module with the current channel.
4.2.3. Numeric Editor
The numeric editor is shown in the control window at
locations where numeric values are set. The Acqiris
Numeric Editor enables easy input of numeric values,
particularly those ranging over many decades. The numeric value can be
changed in multiple ways.
A number can be typed directly into the white number display area or
alternatively, the Acqiris Numeric Editor may be used. In order to use the
Acqiris Numeric Editor, click on the green numeric editor icon at the left of
the number display. A numeric editor control will appear as shown.
The methods to change the values are:
1.
Increment or decrement any digit with the arrow buttons by
pressing the increment or decrement button. When the button is
held down, the digit will continue to increment or decrement
automatically.
2.
Click on a digit and drag the mouse up or down to increase or
decrease the value.
3.
Type a new value with the keyboard for any highlighted digit.
The value is constrained to fall
within its allowed range
whenever the user attempts to
enter a larger or smaller value.
Digits that are below the
resolution
or
granularity
cannot be modified. A
message is displayed in the numeric setting control window when the pointer
is positioned over a digit that is below the allowed granularity and cannot be changed.
4.2.4. Keyboard shortcuts
Two shortcuts have been defined to simplify applying changes of a parameter to a group of channels. When the
mouse is over the control of a channel parameter ƒ
's' can be used to set the current value to all channels of all available instruments
ƒ
'c' can be used to set the current value to all channels of the current instrument.
Other shortcuts are:
ƒ
'Ctrl-S' as a synonym for 'Save Setup'
ƒ
'Ctrl-R' as a synonym for 'Recall Setup'
ƒ
'Ctrl-C' as a synonym for Calibrate all (active) instruments'
ƒ
'Ctrl-E' functions as a toggle between 'Internal Clock' and 'External Clock' operation.
4.2.5. Input Voltage Scale, Offset and Coupling
Settings for input voltage scale, offset, coupling and impedance
are available in the portion of the control panel shown to the right.
The selected channel is shown on the upper section of the display.
Only this channel will be affected by changes in any settings on
the control panel. The input voltage scale is set by one of three
possible methods:
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1.
Clicking on the white numeric display of the voltage scale will show a pop-up list. Select the desired gain
setting with the mouse pointer.
2.
Clicking on the Decrement / Increment icons will step the voltage scale up or down to the
next level for each click of the mouse.
3.
Clicking Max / Min will toggle to the least sensitive gain setting or to the most sensitive gain setting.
The input Coupling can be set for AC or DC. The selected setting is shown as an actuated indicator with a green
backlight. AC coupling blocks DC signal components from the input. The AC coupling mode acts as a high pass
filter passing frequencies above 10 Hz. In DC coupling all frequency components are passed through the input.
The input voltage offset control applies an offset to the input amplifier in order to better digitize and display signals
offset away from 0 volts. Signals riding on a DC level can be most accurately characterized when the offset is
adjusted so that the acquisitions are made about the midpoint of the digitizer’s Full Scale Range, and when as much
of the 8-bit ADC range is used as possible. The ability to select an offset voltage enables accurate measurement when
offsets are present in the signal.
The Impedance selection allows the user to choose the appropriate internal input termination of 50 Ω or 1 MΩ.
The Adv button in this section gives access to the choice of hardware bandwidth limits for the channel.
4.2.6. Trigger
Trigger characteristics are set using the settings in the control
panel Trigger section. The trigger source setting can be either
Internal (trigger on any one of the input channels) or External
(trigger on an external input). The trigger source is indicated in
the display by the name appearing under Source.
In order to select the trigger source, click the drop-down source
menu in the trigger Source section of the control panel and choose
the desired one.
Notice that, for most digitizer models, when external trigger is selected, the controls for the trigger termination, 50 Ω
or 1 MΩ, are enabled in the Coupling section. Select the desired termination for the external trigger.
The Coupling section also contains a selection for AC or DC coupling. AC coupling on the trigger sets the trigger
circuit to an AC Low Frequency Reject mode.
Use the Level section to set the desired trigger level. The relationship between coupling, trigger source, and trigger
level was discussed in section 3.4.3 Trigger Level. The DC271-FAMILY digitizers have two adjustable trigger
levels associated with the range of the window trigger.
The trigger Delay setting positions the acquisition with respect to the trigger. Pre-trigger values are negative and are
selectable in the range of [0 to – (10 * timebase)]. The value (10 * timebase) is equivalent to the time window or
capture-time. 100% pre-trigger is achieved by setting the Delay to -capture-time. A 100% pre-trigger delay means
the trigger point is at the right edge of the display and all of the data in the acquired waveform were captured just
prior to the trigger event.
Maximum Post trigger delay settings depend on the sample interval used. Post trigger delays are adjustable up to
200 Mpoints.
When a Slope box is shown next to the delay section, selecting the trigger slope is achieved by depressing either the
positive or negative slope buttons. The DC271-FAMILY digitizers extend the functionality of the slope section to
allow the choice of the window and HF divide trigger modes when the multiple mode slope button is selected. When
the Window trigger is chosen buttons below it will allow the user to choose between trigger on entering or exiting the
window trigger level range.
The Adv button in this section gives access to the choice of External Trigger range and Bandwidth Limiter for the
DC271-FAMILY digitizers. It also allows the user to set the offset of the trigger out signal.
4.2.7. Acquisition Mode
The acquisition mode of the digitizers is selected using one of four
acquisition mode buttons in the Acquisition section of the control panel.
Available acquisition modes are Auto, Normal, Single and Stop.
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This Acquisition section of the control panel also indicates the number of waveforms acquired per second by the
digitizer. The use of each of the acquisition modes is described below. In the discussion, a valid trigger indicates a
trigger signal meeting the trigger conditions at a time when the digitizer is armed and ready to acquire data. In Single
and Normal modes the display will only be updated after each active digitizer has received a trigger.
Stop will stop the acquisition and hold the latest complete acquisition on the display.
Single mode is used in order to capture one event at the first valid trigger. It freezes the acquisition in the digitizer’s
memory, and on the display, until the user requests another acquisition. After an acquisition is taken in Single mode,
the digitizer will ignore subsequent trigger events until the Single button is pressed again or another acquisition mode
is selected. Pressing the single button re-arms the trigger and captures one acquisition at the next valid trigger.
Normal mode is used to continuously acquire waveforms into memory for valid trigger events. The display is
updated with the new acquisitions in accordance with the Display Refresh Rate setting under the Options menu on
the top line of the AcqirisLive Control window. Acquisitions will happen for each valid trigger until either single or
Stop is pressed.
If the trigger indicator at the lower left of the waveform display does not blink green, the digitizer is not receiving
valid triggers. Check the trigger settings or select Auto mode in order to obtain a display of the waveform.
Auto mode will acquire and display waveforms according to the trigger settings if a valid trigger is present within a
timeout interval. If a valid trigger is not available within this interval, the digitizer generates its own trigger in order
to digitize and display whatever signal is at the input at that time.
If valid triggers are received at a high enough rate, Auto mode behavior differs little from normal mode behavior on
the display. However if the trigger rate is too low or trigger settings are not appropriate for the characteristics of the
signal, the input signal will not be stable on the display. This occurs because the internal auto-trigger generated by
the digitizer is asynchronous to the input signal.
Auto mode is often used to aid in setup when the input signal must be quickly characterized in order to determine
proper trigger settings for Normal or Single mode acquisitions.
4.2.8. Timebase and Memory
The timebase and memory settings should be chosen together
in order to optimize the desired sample rate for the acquisition.
In oscilloscope mode the timebase settings range from
10 ns/div to 5 S/div. In Transient Recorder mode time
windows of 100 ns to 20 Ks are available when using a card
with the 2 Mpoint memory option.
In order to change the timebase click on the white area
in the timebase display window and select the desired
timebase from the list. Alternatively, the Decrement /
Increment timebase selection buttons may be used in order to change the timebase in steps with each click of the
mouse. The sample rate and sample interval resulting from the combination of memory and timebase are indicated
under the Sampling section of the control panel.
The Memory setting shows the maximum number of points to be acquired. The actual number of points acquired
could be less than the maximum number set if the acquisition time window selected fills less than the selected
amount of memory at the full sample rate. Alternatively, in oscilloscope mode, if a slower timebase is selected, in
order to ensure that the selected amount of memory will be filled before the acquisition is complete, the digitizer will
reduce its sample rate as necessary. This action differs from the same case in Transient Recorder mode where
preference is given to the selected sample interval.
In Transient Recorder mode, the digitizer will continue to allocate more memory with increasing capture times. This
is done in order to maintain the selected sample interval for as long a time window as is possible given the available
memory. When the card memory is fully utilized, the sample rate will decrease with increasing capture times.
4.2.9. Using digitizers of different models simultaneously
AcqirisLive features a single timebase (i.e. the set of acquisition parameters pertaining to the time axis of the
waveform, such as the sampling rate and the number of samples). It is therefore not possible to specify different
timebase settings for different digitizers. However, it is possible to run each digitizer at its maximum available
sampling rate performance in the following way:
•
Select the Scope mode.
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•
In the channels list, select a channel from the fastest digitizer (that will make that digitizer the current
digitizer).
•
Make sure the maximum number of samples (MAX samples in Memory panel) is large enough.
•
Select the desired time per division setting (timebase panel): the fastest sampling rate for the current
digitizer, compatible with the maximum number of samples, will be selected and applied to all digitizers
in the system. Any digitizer not capable to satisfy that sampling rate will run at its closest setting.
Finally, note that the sampling rate menu (visible in Transient Recorder mode) contains the sampling rate capability
of all digitizers currently in use. You must turn off the channels of 'slower' digitizers in order to view the highest
sampling rates of the 'faster' digitizers.
4.2.10. Segmented Memory
Segmented memory enables the sequential acquisition mode . This feature is particularly useful when capturing
impulse-response type waveforms in a variety of applications. Segmented memory is available in all acquisition
modes. However, it is generally used in either Normal or Single mode. Waveform display occurs only after all
segments are filled. Segments can be displayed sequentially on the display or they can be overlaid on top of each
other. To select an overlaid display, select the item Overlay Segments under the Options menu. Segmented data can
be archived to any storage device on the computer in a similar way to non-segmented acquisitions. If the acquisition
needs to be stopped before all segments are filled, press the Stop button.
In order to set up the sequential acquisition mode, simply select more than 1 segment on
the segment selection control under the Memory section of the control window and start the
acquisition.
4.2.11. Display Features, Zoom and Persistence
A waveform zoom feature is available under the
View menu of the display window. The screen image
below shows the normal display and the zoom
window that appears when zoom is selected.
The zoom scale and center position are modified
using the horizontal and vertical controls shown on
the zoom display window. To the right side of the
zoom window click on the “Horizontal” button, then
modify the zoom expansion factor by clicking the
“In” or “Out” buttons.
The vertical blue cursor, or box, (depending on the
zoom factor), shown on the main display window
indicates the center point and range of the zoom. The
vertical box or line can be dragged right or left with
the mouse in order to re-position the center point of
the waveform displayed in the zoom display window.
Alternatively, the right and left arrows at the bottom of the zoom display window will reposition the horizontal
center of the zoom.
In order to expand the zoom region vertically, select the “Vertical” button on the zoom display and click the “In” /
“Out” buttons. Alternatively, the up / down arrows on the scale indicator just below the vertical button can be used.
When the vertical scale is expanded, the top and bottom lines forming the blue box in the main display window show
the extent of the vertical zoom region. The vertical position of the box, and thus the data region shown on the zoom
display, may be changed by moving the box vertically with the mouse or by clicking on the up and down arrows at
the left of the zoom display window.
When expanding a waveform to the point where individual data points are seen, it may be desirable to use the
“Connect data points” option under the Options menu in AcqirisLive. When this option is selected, larger data points
are drawn on the display and a line connects each point.
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The main display window contains a drop down selector that controls the display type for both the main display and
the zoom window. There are two modes available, the Live Display, or the Persistence Display. When persistence
display is selected, all points drawn to the display windows remain on while new points are added from subsequent
acquisitions. This mode is particularly suited for examining the jitter on an edge of a periodic signal as shown in the
image below.
To clear the display in persistence display mode, press the “Clear” button that appears on the main display window.
4.3.
Top Line Menu of AcqirisLive
The top line menu contains functions offering
additional utility to the AcqirisLive application.
Provisions are included for storing instrument setups,
waveforms, converting the format of stored data files,
identifying models and versions and in the Options Menu, calibrating the digitizer, extended control of event
acquisition and controlling the display properties. These possibilities are discussed in the next few sections.
4.4.
Setup
The Setup menu allows you to store and recover instrument configurations. When you store a configuration the
parameters used to configure each of the channels of each module together with the timebase and trigger
configurations will be saved in a file. You will be asked to choose the destination directory for the file and be
allowed to give it an appropriate name. When you choose to recover a file you will be asked to give the name or
navigate to it using the browser functionality. If you are using many modules the settings in the configuration file
will be associated preferentially with the digitizer that has that serial number or then with the digitizer in the same
location.
Only the parameters of the modules are stored in the configuration file. This means that parameters of the
AcqirisLive program, such as channel activation and display mode choices are not included.
4.5.
Store, Autostore and Conversion of Waveforms
The store menu gives you two mechanisms to store waveforms.
1.
The Store Waveform option allows you to store the last acquired waveform for the current channel. To store
the last acquired waveform for each of the active channels, you must sequentially select each one to make it
the current channel and use the Store Waveform menu command. The title of the Store Waveform dialog
indicates the name of the channel that will be stored. The data is stored in ASCII format, as Raw ADC
values or Amplitudes (in Volts).
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2.
The Autostore option allows you to store
consecutively acquired waveforms from
all of the active channels into files.
Configuration of Autostore is achieved
by selecting the Autostore item under the
Store menu. Autostore brings up the
dialog box shown here. Three formats are
available for stored waveforms, Binary,
Raw ADC values, and Amplitude values
(in Volts). The destination folder can be
selected or created on any system drive
using the Browse button. Waveforms will
be stored in a new folder under the
destination folder. The new folder will be
named AcqirisRun_{date}_{time}. Each
waveform will be stored in a file with a
name {channel identifier}_{i}.{suffix},
where i goes from 1 to N and the suffix
indicates the data type. If the data is
stored in Binary form, the suffix will be
.data and an additional ASCII format
.awh file is written which contains
necessary details about each of the other files. Otherwise, the suffix will be .awd.
The number of generations of waveforms to be stored with this function is selectable from 1 to N. N is a
maximum number dependent on the number of samples taken in each waveform. There is also a user
selectable limit on the total amount of data allowed in any single Autostore acquisition series.
When using segmented memory with Autostore, a waveform is considered to be a complete set of acquired
segments. When storing Amplitudes, it is possible to write each segment as a separate column of data in the
waveform file. This is achieved by clicking the check box option Segments as columns in the Autostore
settings window. Formatting with segments in columns, in Amplitude format, is limited to 200 segments.
The Binary file format selection provides the fastest storage performance and generates the smallest files on
the hard drive. Binary files can be subsequently converted to either Raw ADC values or to Amplitude
values using the Data Format Conversion utility provided with AcqirisLive.
Selecting the “Write files at end option” acquires all waveforms into memory first, before converting to the
selected format and writing the data to disk. This option allows for faster data capture times. Selecting the
“Show waveforms” allows the user to see the waveforms before writing them to disk.
When all parameters are selected, click OK, and then select Normal, Auto or Single acquisition mode.
When the waveforms are recorded a progress bar will appear to show the status of the acquisition and of
writing the data to disk. The Autostore function can be aborted from the progress bar.
Raw ADC values are the raw 8-bit ADC levels in ASCII format. The channel’s gain and offset are needed in order to
obtain the signal level in Volts. The required information to convert the Raw ADC values to voltage is included in
the header information of each Raw ADC ASCII file or in the .awh file accompanying the binary files. In order to
convert the Raw ADC values into Volts the following formula should be used.
V = vGain * data – vOffset
The Amplitudes [V] selection stores the waveforms as voltage samples in ASCII format. This data has already been
adjusted for gain and offset and can be directly read out as a voltage. However, it requires roughly twice as much
space as Raw ADC value data.
For the sequential acquisition mode, the segment time stamps are also stored when waveforms are saved using the
Autostore and Save Waveform functions.
Data stored in binary format with Autostore must be
converted before it can be imported into a data processing
package or a spreadsheet (e.g. Excel). The Data Format
Conversion option is found under the Store menu. Select
Data Format Conversion in order to bring up the following
window. The acquisition must be stopped in order to access
this menu.
To convert the binary data, simply select the source folder
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where the data is located, select the output format and click OK.
All binary data files found in the source directory will be converted to the desired format. If you are writing
amplitudes with multiple segments, formatting with segments in columns is limited to 200 segments.
4.6.
Calibrate
The Calibrate item in the Options menu leads to a sub-menu where a particular type of calibration can be invoked. In
order to use this item the acquisition must be stopped; otherwise the Calibrate option is not selectable. The
possibilities are
ƒ
Calibrate instruments - to perform a self-calibration on the digitizers, calibrating the gain, offset, trigger
level and the timing. Performing a calibration compensates for any drift in these properties, typically due to
component temperature variations.
ƒ
Calibrate current combine configuration – to perform a calibration only at the current configuration in each
instrument.
ƒ
Calibrate External Clock Timing – to do a calibration of the internal TDC in the Continuous External Clock
mode.
4.7.
Combine channels
The
Combine
Channels
function
in
the
Options
menu
gives
the
DC135/DC140/DC241/DC241A/DC271/DC271A/DC271AR/DP235/DP240 user the control of how many
converters will be used for each channel. This allows the memory size and the sampling rate to be increased in
situations where not all of the input channels need to be acquired. Normally digitizer modules work with one
converter/channel. If two or more converters/channel are desired, the identities of the channels to be used have to be
chosen with the Active Channel control.
4.8.
External 10 MHz Reference and External Clock
Either one of the External 10 MHz Reference or External Clock options can be selected in the Options Menu. The
external input threshold option, available in the options menu, must also be set appropriately. The 10 MHz Reference
can be activated at the I/O B output.
The External Clock function is available in AcqirisLive only when using the control panel in Transient Recorder
mode. The input frequency should be keyed into the clock frequency selector (outlined in red) on the control panel.
Then the appropriate sampling frequency must be selected in order for the proper timebase to be displayed on the
waveform display window. The time window displayed can be manipulated by allocating more or less memory to the
acquisition.
The External 10 MHz Reference in AcqirisLive is designed to work either in Oscilloscope mode or in Transient
Recorder mode. The timebase and sample rate for waveform capture is fully selectable when using the external
reference, just as it is when using the digitizer’s own internal reference clock.
4.9.
Additional Waveform Information
The Options menu also includes possibilities to obtain additional information about the waveform. In both cases
described below the display will be updated after each acquisition.
The “Show Segment Timestamps” option shows a display like the one below:
It gives you the information needed to better understand the trigger times of the
individual segments of an acquisition. By definition the first trigger of an
acquisition occurs at t1=0.0. There are two columns for each digitizer. For the n’th
row, the first column contains the difference tn – tn-1 and the second column
contains tn. The top line contains the average value of the tn in the left column and
the standard deviation of the tn in the right one. The times are in ps.
The “Show Parameters” option activates a display of pulse parameters for each
active channel. Inactive channels will have parameter values of 0.0. The parameters
will be calculated in a model in which the distribution of measured voltages has
two distinct peaks. If this condition is not satisfied the results will be unreliable.
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4.10.
Display Features
Display features in the Options menu include items for
•
turning the waveform display off (by de-selecting “Display Waveforms”),
•
overlaying segments of a sequence,
•
connecting displayed data points,
•
modifying the display refresh rate,
•
displaying the internal temperature of the currently selected module
4.11.
Command Line Switches
When starting the AcqirisLive application, the executable's name in the command line can be followed by one or
more switches to change the running conditions.
Syntax
The syntax of the command line is the following:
path\AcqirisLive.exe options
where options are chosen from the following list
[-a][-b][-B][-c][-d][-h][-i][-l][-m][-n][-p][-s][t][-v][-x]
Available Switches
List of available switches:
-a
start in Averager mode
-b
Buffer size for large waveforms
-B
Number of banks for SMAR mode
-c
no initial calibration
-d
use DMA for data transfers (default)
-h
high priority process (default)
-i
use acquisition interrupts
-l
low priority process
-m
medium priority process
-n
no DMA for data transfers
-p
Use acquisition polling
-r
start in Transient Recorder (digitizer) mode
-s
simulation mode
-t
temperature update off
-v
show acquisition state
-x
disable automatic multi-instruments
Operation Mode
Acqiris averagers can be operated in Averager Mode or in standard Digitizer Mode.
AcqirisLive operates in either mode, but since these are mutually exclusive, only instruments that support the chosen
mode are accessible in any given mode. E.g. only averagers are accessible in Averager Mode, while both digitizers
and averagers are accessible in Digitizer Mode.
The operation mode can be switched within the application. By default, AcqirisLive starts in Digitizer Mode.
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Buffer size
Upon startup of the application, the available physical memory on the computer is checked. The total data buffer size
is then limited to the available memory minus 10% of the total memory. It is also possible to limit the total data
buffer size to a fixed value with the -bn option (where n is the limit in MB, e.g. -b200 will limit the buffer to 200
MB). The data buffer is then shared among the active channels.
When the total acquisition memory (sum over all active channels) exceeds the data buffer size limit, readout of the
data will be partial. The special operation modes such as Segments Average, Average, Digital Filter and FFT are not
supported with partial data readout.
Partial readout is controlled with the Very Long Memory panel (menu Options ->Very Long Memory...). The first
segment and the first sample to read out can be specified. Note that if the buffer is large enough for at least 1 full
segment, only full segments will be read (i.e. first sample control is ignored).
When saving data to file, you will be prompted for a maximum number of segments per file.
Banks for SMAR
Some of the 10-bit Family modules are capable of acquiring data and being read out simultaneously. The -Bn option
allows the internal memory of the digitizer to be divided into n banks. To observe the improved acquisition trigger
rate achievable in this mode it is suggested to set up the desired conditions and then turn the event display off. The
trigger out signal can be used to monitor the trigger rate; an interval width trigger can be used to check if triggers are
missing.
Calibration
Before operation, the instruments must undergo an internal calibration. As this calibration can only proceed
sequentially for each channel, the initialization time of AcqirisLive can become significant for systems with many
channels. Therefore, it can sometimes be desirable to be able to start the application quickly by skipping the
calibration (which must then be done "manually" before collecting correct data).
DMA Data Transfers
By default, data transfers on the PCI bus between the digitizer memory and the PC are done in DMA (Direct
Memory Access) mode, which allows the fastest transfer speeds (up to about 130 MB/s peak, 100 MB/s sustained
acquisition data rate). These very high data rates are not well supported by all hardware configurations (PC
motherboard), and system hangs due to endless retries on the PCI bus have been observed on some machines. Such
problems disappear when switching DMA mode off (data transfer rate is then about 2.8 MB/s).
Please note that switching DMA data transfer mode off precludes the use of acquisition interrupts. The –i switch will
therefore be ignored when –n is used.
Process Priority
When the program checks for an event from the operating system (e.g. to react to user input), it can put itself to sleep
for a specified period of time. This gives other applications more processor time, but limits the performance of
AcqirisLive in terms of maximum acquisition rate. The default is not to go to sleep, but this can be overridden to
allow better performance for other applications. Note that this sleep policy is only in effect while the acquisition is
running. When the acquisition stops, the sleep policy is always reset to the longest sleep period.
Acquisition Interrupts
When performing acquisitions, there are 2 possible ways to wait for the acquisition to complete: polling or using a
hardware interrupt.
•
-p Polling: AcqirisLive runs as a single thread process. After an acquisition is started, the instruments are
regularly polled to check when the acquisition is complete. The user interface is still alive, but the latency
for reading the data after the acquisition may vary.
•
-i Hardware interrupt: In this mode, AcqirisLive is run as a multi-thread process. After starting an
acquisition, a new thread is created to wait for the hardware interrupt indicating that the acquisition
completed. This thread is put to sleep, and wakes up upon reception of the interrupt from the instrument, or
after a 2 seconds timeout.
Please note that switching the DMA data transfer mode off precludes the use of acquisition interrupts. The –i switch
will therefore be ignored when –n is used.
Transient Recorder mode
The application will start in the Transient Recorder mode as opposed to the oscilloscope mode
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Simulation Mode
Simulation mode allows you to run AcqirisLive without having any digitizer installed in the PC.
Temperature Update
The internally measured temperature of the currently selected module is normally displayed. Using this switch turns
this feature off.
Acquisition State
This switch turns on the display of the current acquisition state (Stopped, Ready, Started, Reading, Data ready). This
is helpful when running with time-consuming settings (e.g. many segments overlaid, many channels, large records,
etc.), but will slow down the overall performance.
Multi-instruments
By default, AcqirisLive tries to detect instruments connected through ASBus, and will initialize any connected
digitizers as a multi-instrument. This behavior can be inhibited by the -x switch, in which case any ASBus connector
will be ignored.
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5.
Running the GeoMapper Application
5.1.
Who needs a Geographical Map of Modules
The GeoMapper application gives the user the possibility of telling the Acqiris driver crucial details of the physical
position of modules when this information cannot be deduced directly. It allows the driver to correctly adjust trigger
and clock delays between the different modules of an ASBus multi-Instrument and arrange the modules in an
intuitive order.
The GeoMapper application has been implemented as a Wizard with the goal of learning the physical position of
each module of a multi-bus system. The driver already knows the logical Bus and logical Slot numbers of each
Acqiris unit present. However, because of varying conventions for the compactPCI slot arrangement on a bus, this is
not sufficient to determine the physical position. Furthermore, with the aid of the map, the software can ensure that
the modules of an Auto-defined multi-Instrument will be ordered to correspond to increasing physical slot number.
NOTE: The unusual slot numbering convention of the CC121 is documented in the CC121 CompactPCI Crate User
Manual. The CC10X crates have a simpler slot numbering convention that the Acqiris driver already takes into
account. CompactPCI Crates from other manufacturers represent an unknown element.
NOTE: The GeoMapper is of use for some ASBus systems in CC121 crates and, perhaps, crates from other
manufacturers. CC121 crate configurations with both an Acqiris acquisition module in one of the last 7 slots and
with the PC running under Windows 2000 or XP will not need the GeoMapper. Users who do not need GeoMapper
do not need to read this chapter any further.
5.2.
When should the GeoMapper Application be used
The application needs to be used whenever the bus or slot configuration of the system changes in a fundamental way.
The most obvious trouble symptom is that an expected multi-Instrument was not found. Alternatively the driver can
issue error messages that the AcqirisLive application and other programs will see. Among them are
Modules are not contiguous in ASBus combination
ACQIRIS_ERROR_MODULES_NOT_CONTIGUOUS
ASBus Candidate Modules not on same bus
ACQIRIS_ERROR_MODULES_NOT_ON_SAME_BUS
'AcqGeo.map' file is invalid or corrupted
ACQIRIS_ERROR_INVALID_GEOMAP_FILE
In all of these cases the GeoMapper application should be run to ensure that the map file is up to date.
If desired the GeoMapper application will generate a default configuration in which it allows the driver to make all of
the choices. This is done by specifying "None (Disable GeoMap)" as the desired configuration in "Step1: Crate
count" of the application.
5.3.
How to run GeoMapper
After software installation you will find GeoMapper in the AcqirisApp directory of the installation directory. After
being started the program will learn about the Acqiris devices present and then show a screen like the one below:
The choice of the number of crates ranges from None up to the number of bus segments that the driver has found
containing Acqiris modules. If you choose None and save the resulting AqGeo.map file the system will behave in its
natural way without any additional user provided information. If you want to give the driver information on the
physical position of modules you should select the appropriate number of crates. If the number of crates does not
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correspond to your expectations you may have hardware problems (unpowered, broken, or badly cabled crates or
modules).
The next step is to associate each bus segment with a physical crate. The menu to do this is shown below:
Selecting a row will cause all of the LED's of modules in that Bus to be turned on RED. This should make it easy to
identify which crate the modules are in.
The third step is to specify the number of slots in each crate. This is shown below:
The 4th step consists of arranging the modules of each crate into the correct order. The menu shown below is one in
which all of this work has been done for the modules of a fully populated CC121. Selecting a position will cause a
module to have its red LED turned on. Then the Up and Down buttons will allow you to move the module in
question to the desired "Position in crate".
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The final step is to actuate the Save button so that the final configuration will be memorized and made available to
the driver.
The GeoMapper application will always work with the standard AqGeo.map file. If you need to have several such
files corresponding to different configurations it is up to you to either rename the files or transfer them to other
directories in an appropriate manner.
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6.
Appendix A: ASBus for CompactPCI/PXI Digitizers
Specification and User Instructions
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7.
Appendix B: ASBus2 for PCI Digitizers
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8.
Appendix C: XA001 Battery Backup for CompactPCI Digitizers
Specification and Assembly Instructions
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9.
Appendix D: XA100 BNC Input Overvoltage Protection
Specifications and User Instructions
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10.
Appendix E: XP100 Fan Unit for DP214/DP235/DP240 units
Specification and Assembly Instructions
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11.
Appendix F: XP101 Fan Unit for DP Digitizers (Obsolete)
Specification and Assembly Instructions
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12.
Appendix G: XP103 Fan Unit for the DP Family of Modules
Specification and Assembly Instructions
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13.
Appendix H: XP104 Fan Unit for DP1400
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14.
Appendix I: XP105 Fan Unit for DP1400
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