Agilent Technologies 85671A Printer Accessories User Manual

User’s Guide
Agilent Technologies 85671A Phase Noise Utility
Manufacturing Part Number: 85671-90010
Printed in USA
November 2000
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L
Instruction Manual
The instruction manual symbol. The product is marked with this
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General Safety Considerations
vi
Warning
Before the spectrum analyzer is switched on
Caution
Before the spectrum analyzer is switched on,
, make sure it has been
properly grounded through the protective conductor of the ac
power cable to a socket outlet provided with protective earth
contact.
Any interruption of the protective (grounding) conductor, inside
or outside the instrument, or disconnection of the protective
earth terminal can result in personal injury.
make sure its primary
power circuitry has been adapted to the voltage of the ac power
source.
Failure to set the ac power input to the correct voltage could cause
damage to the instrument when the ac power cable is plugged in.
How to Use This Guide
Key Conventions.
The following key conventions are used in this guide:
4Front-panel key5
Text shown like this represents a key physically
located on the spectrum analyzer.
Text shown like this represents a softkey. (The
Softkey
softkeys are located next to the softkey labels, and
the softkey labels are the annotation on the right side
of the spectrum analyzer display.)
Screen Text Text printed in this typeface indicates text displayed
on the instrument's screen.
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
vii
Contents
1. Installing and Starting
Copying the Phase Noise Utility . . . . . . . . . .
Labeling a Softkey to Access the Phase Noise Utility
Starting the Phase Noise Utility . . . . . . . . . .
Using the Phase Noise Utility . . . . . . . . . . .
Making A Log Plot Measurement . . . . . . . . .
Removing the Phase Noise Utility . . . . . . . . .
2. Using the Phase Noise Utility
Other Documentation . . . . . . . . . . .
Specications and Characteristics . . . . .
Functionality . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
The Main Menu . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Log Plot Measurements . . . . . . . . .
Spot Frequency Measurements . . . . .
RMS Phase Noise Measurement . . . . .
Smoothing, Averaging, or Filtering . . . .
Signal Tracking . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Plotting and Printing . . . . . . . . . .
Saving and Recalling Traces . . . . . . .
Measurement Considerations . . . . . . .
Osets 1 MHz . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Slowly Drifting Signals . . . . . . . . .
System Noise Floor . . . . . . . . . . .
Use of the Bottom Division of the Display
Frequency Oset Limitations . . . . . .
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1-2
1-3
1-4
1-5
1-6
1-8
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2-1
2-2
2-5
2-5
2-6
2-6
2-6
2-6
2-7
2-7
2-8
2-9
2-9
2-9
2-9
2-9
2-10
3. Softkey Menus and Descriptions
4. If You Have A Problem
Index
Contents-1
Figures
1-1.
1-2.
1-3.
2-1.
Equipment Used With Phase Noise Utility . . .
Conguration Screen . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Log Plot Measurement . . . . . . . . . . . .
8560 E-Series and EC-Series System Noise Floor
Characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2-2. Main Menu . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4-1. Log Plot of Drifty or Noisy Signal . . . . . . .
. . .
. . .
. . .
1-1
1-6
1-7
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. . .
. . .
2-4
2-5
4-2
2-1. Oset Frequency Range Requirements . . . . . . . .
2-10
Tables
Contents-2
1
Installing and Starting
The 85671A Phase Noise Measurement Utility is a down-loadable
program (DLP) that is used with the 8560 E-Series and EC-Series
spectrum analyzers. You need the following equipment to use the
utility:
Phase Noise
Mass Memory Module
Measurement Utility
85671A
Spectrum Analyzer
85620A
8560A/E/EC (rmware 890720 and later)
(rmware revision C,
8561A
910116 and later)
8561B/E/EC (rmware 890720 and later)
8562A/B (rmware 870728 and later)
8563A/E/EC
Figure 1-1. Equipment Used With Phase Noise Utility
When you rst receive the phase noise utility on its memory cards you
need to install it in the mass memory module. Once it is in the mass
memory module it can be used by the spectrum analyzer.
The spectrum analyzer has direct access to the mass memory module
using the 4MODULE5 key. To access the phase noise utility from the
front panel of the spectrum analyzer, you will need to label one of the
blank softkeys on the user menu. The following procedures describe
how to copy the le, label the softkeys, and access the utility.
Installing and Starting
1-1
Copying the Phase Noise Utility
The phase noise utility comes on two memory cards. The le is called
PH_NOIS1 and PH_NOIS2. Copy the utility from both memory cards to
the mass memory module.
1. With the spectrum analyzer turned o, attach the mass memory
module to the spectrum analyzer.
2. Insert one of the 86571A memory cards into the module. Make
sure the arrow on the card is facing the matching arrow on the
rim of the module's card slot.
3. Turn on the spectrum analyzer. After it completes its power-on
sequence, press the 4MODULE5 key on the front panel.
4. Press the UTILITY softkey. After a short wait, the screen will list
the current contents of the mass memory module. If there are
les starting with PH_ do the next step, otherwise skip the next
step.
5. The presence of les starting with PH_ indicates that an earlier
version or a demo version of the utility is already loaded. To
save time, we recommend that you delete those programs before
continuing. Do one of the following steps.
a. If you do not nd the program PH_REMOVE, press 4MODULE5,
USER KEYS , PHASE NOISE , and EXIT ALL . Repeat this
process until the demo removes itself, then press 4MODULE5
UTILITY .
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
b. If you nd the program PH_REMOVE, press 4MODULE5, KEYDEF ,
and CHOOSE DLP . Move the cursor to highlight PH_REMOVE and
press EXECUTE NOW , then press 4MODULE5 UTILITY .
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
6. Press the CATALOG MEM CARD key so that CARD is underlined.
This will show the contents of the memory card. It should show
the le PH_NOIS1 or PH_NOIS2.
7. Move the knob so that PH_NOIS1 (or PH_NOIS2) is highlighted and
press the COPY TO MEMORY softkey. This will copy the utility
from the memory card to the mass memory module.
8. Remove the rst memory card and insert the other memory card.
9. Press the CATALOG MEM CARD key so that CARD is underlined.
This will show the contents of the second memory card. Repeat
the above process to copy the contents to the mass memory
module.
10. To verify that the measurement utility is in the mass memory
module, press the CATALOG MEM CARD so that MEM is underlined.
This will show the contents of the mass memory module. There
should be more than two pages of phase noise programs displayed
beginning with PH_. The second page of programs can be viewed
using the NEXT PAGE softkey.
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
1-2
Installing and Starting
Labeling a Softkey to Access the Phase Noise Utility
Label a spectrum analyzer softkey to access the utility which is stored
in the mass memory module. The utility includes the PH_SETUP
program which can be run at any time to assign softkeys and to
return the program variables to the default values.
1. With the mass memory module attached to the back of the
spectrum analyzer press the 4MODULE5 key.
2. To verify that the utility is in the mass memory module, press
the UTILITY . The contents of the mass memory module should
include many les beginning with PH_.
3. Press 4MODULE5 and KEYDEF to display the user-dened softkeys.
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
4. Now press the CHOOSE DLP softkey. This displays a list of the
down-loadable programs (DLPs) in the mass memory module.
5. Locate and highlight the DLP labeled PH_SETUP, using the knob,
the step keys, and the NEXT COLUMN and NEXT PAGE softkeys.
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
6. Press the EXECUTE NOW softkey to start the setup process below:
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
a. Some initialization will automatically be done.
b. You will be asked to press one of the empty softkeys along
the right edge of the display so it can be labeled to access the
utility. Press the key labeled NO KEY if you do not want to
label a softkey.
The setup routine can be used to label only the rst ve user
keys. If you have other programs in use which are using all of
those softkeys, press the NO KEY softkey. Follow the manual
procedure below to put the phase noise utility softkeys on the
second page of the user keys menu.
c. You will then be asked to press another softkey so it can be
labeled to access the spot frequency measurement.
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
7. One user softkey should now be labeled PHASE NOISE and another
labeled MEASURE SPOT FRQ . The installation is now complete.
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
8. To manually label the user keys do the following:
a. Press 4MODULE5 and KEYDEF . Then use the knob to point to the
desired key label location.
b. Press CHOOSE DLP , move the knob to highlight the PH_NOISE
program, and press SELECT .
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
c. Repeat the above process selecting the PH_SPOTF program, to
set up the spot frequency measurement.
d. The key labels will not be the same as those assigned by the
automatic setup program.
The automatic setup program should be run to initialize
variables even if it is not used to set up the softkey labels.
Installing and Starting
1-3
Starting the Phase Noise Utility
The phase noise utility can be started easily once the program is in
the mass memory module and a spectrum analyzer's user key has
been labeled to access it.
The desired carrier signal should be visible on the spectrum analyzer
before starting the utility. When the utility is started, it nds the
largest signal in the current span and assumes this will be the carrier
frequency.
1. With the mass memory module attached to the spectrum analyzer
press 4MODULE5.
2. Press USER KEYS . This will display the user-dened softkey menu.
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
The label PHASE NOISE should be on the softkey selected in the
installation.
3. Press the PHASE NOISE softkey to start the utility.
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
1-4
Installing and Starting
Using the Phase Noise Utility
The phase noise utility uses a series of softkey menus displayed along
the right edge of the spectrum analyzer display. Use the EXIT ALL
softkey to end the utility.
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
Note
DO NOT use other front-panel keys when the utility is running,
except to enter data, or you will exit the utility prematurely.
The phase noise utility main menu allows you to:
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
MEASURE LOG PLOT
Make a phase noise measurement over a range of
oset frequencies.
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
MEASURE SPOT FRQ
Continuously measure phase noise at a single oset
frequency.
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
CONFIG
Set up the measurement parameters.
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
RECALL TRACE
NNNNNNNNNNNNNN
HELP
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
EXIT ALL
Displays a trace that was saved previously. Make sure
the current phase noise measurement state is set the
same as the state of the saved trace.
Displays textual information associated with the
utility.
Exits the phase noise utility and recalls the
instrument state that was saved when the phase noise
utility was rst invoked.
Installing and Starting
1-5
Making A Log Plot Measurement
A log plot measurement of phase noise is probably the most common
use of the phase noise utility. See the following example.
1. Connect the front panel CAL OUTPUT to the INPUT 50 .
2. Make sure that the desired signal is on the display. When the
utility is started it selects the highest displayed signal to measure.
3. Press 4MODULE5, USER KEYS , and PHASE NOISE .
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
4. The conguration screen, Figure 1-2, shows the current
measurement settings. Press CONFIG to access the conguration
menu of softkeys.
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
d
a
c
b
Figure 1-2. Conguration Screen
5. Press MINIMUM OFFSET and set the minimum oset frequency to
1 kHz.
6. Press MAXIMUM OFFSET and set the maximum oset frequency to
100 kHz.
7. Press MAIN MENU and MEASURE LOG PLOT to start the phase noise
measurement. See Figure 1-3.
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
1-6
Installing and Starting
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d
a
c
b
Figure 1-3. Log Plot Measurement
8. Press SET SPOT FRQ and change the spot frequency selection to a
value between the minimum and maximum oset frequencies.
9. Press SMOOTH TRACE and 12 PTS 2% AVG . Notice that the
amount of smoothing that is currently selected is marked with
an * (asterisk). Select dierent amounts of smoothing and notice
the eects on the trace.
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NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
Installing and Starting
1-7
Removing the Phase Noise Utility
The phase noise utility can be removed from the mass memory
module using a program included on the 85671A memory card.
1. Make sure the module is attached to the spectrum analyzer.
(Always turn o the power before attaching or removing the mass
memory module.)
2. Press 4MODULE5 key. Then press KEYDEF and CHOOSE DLP .
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
3. Use the knob, the step keys, the NEXT COLUMN softkey, and
the NEXT PAGE softkey to locate and highlight the DLP labeled
PH_REMOVE.
4. Press the EXECUTE NOW softkey. All of the entries related to the
phase noise utility will be deleted from the mass memory module
and the associated memory space will become available for other
programs.
5. The user key labels will also be removed if they were created using
the utility's automatic setup program.
6. To clear user key labels that were created manually, do the
following:
a. Press 4MODULE5 and KEYDEF .
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
b. Use the step keys or the knob to highlight the user key that you
want to clear. Press CLEAR .
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
c. Highlight another key if you want to clear more user key labels,
or press CLEAR ALL to remove all of the labels.
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
1-8
Installing and Starting
2
Using the Phase Noise Utility
This chapter includes the following:
Specications and Characteristics
Functionality
The Main Menu
Log Plot Measurements
Spot Frequency Measurements
RMS Phase Noise Measurement
Smoothing, Averaging, or Filtering
Signal Tracking
Printing and Plotting
Saving and Recalling Traces
Measurement Considerations
Osets 1 MHz
Slowly Drifting Signals
System Noise Floor
Use of the Bottom Division of the Display
Other Documentation
The document listed below provides information on making phase
noise measurements. It can be obtained through your local Agilent
Technologies oce.
Part Number
1000-1132
Title
RF and Microwave Phase Noise Measurement Seminar
Using the Phase Noise Utility
2-1
Specications and Characteristics
Specications shown are based on operation of the phase noise utility
with an 8560 E-Series or 8560 EC-Series spectrum analyzer.
Measurement characteristics
Measurement modes
Measure log plot
Measure spot frequency
RMS Noise
Maximum number of decades
5 (whole decades only)
Filtering
(ratio of video bandwidth
to resolution bandwidth)
None (VBW/RBW=1)
Little (VBW/RBW=0.3)
Medium (VBW/RBW=0.1)
Maximum (VBW/RBW=0.03)
Smoothing
12 points, (2%)
24 points, (4%)
48 points, (8%)
96 points, (16%)
Data Storage
5 internal trace memory registers
Log graph hardcopy output
Printers
HP 3630A PaintJet,
HP 2225A ThinkJet
Plotters
HP 7440A, HP 7470A, HP 7475A,
HP 7550B (7550A emulation mode)
Carrier frequency Range
100 Hz to 2.9 GHz
100 Hz to 6.5 GHz
9 kHz to 26.5 GHz
100 Hz to 26.5 GHz
8560A, 8560E/EC
8561A, 8561E/EC
8562A, 8562B, 8563E/EC
Agilent 8563E/EC Option 006
Oset frequency
Range
10 Hz to 100 MHz
The minimum range is limited to 10 2 the narrowest resolution bandwidth of the spectrum analyzer.
2-2
Using the Phase Noise Utility
Input signal level
Maximum
+17 dBm (ref level = 050 dBc/Hz)
Minimum
(for optimum dynamic range)
017 dBm (osets 100 kHz,
10 dB input attenuation)
Measurement Accuracy (characteristic)
Amplitude accuracy
62.5 dB (10 dB above system noise oor)
Log graph frequency accuracy
6 5%
Amplitude repeatability
see table below
Filtering
Repeatability Characteristics*
No Smoothing
12 point
Smoothing
615 dB
65 db
612 dB
64 dB
67 dB
62.5 dB
64 dB
61.5 dB
none
little
medium
maximum
*Smoothing can cause additional amplitude errors near rapid
transitions of the data, such as with discrete spurious signals and
impulsive noise. The eect is more pronounced as the number of
points smoothed increases.
RMS Phase Noise Calculation
RMS phase noise is calculated over a user specied integration range.
Data points used
All, 1/2, 1/4, 1/8
Using the Phase Noise Utility
2-3
Figure 2-1.
8560 E-Series and EC-Series System Noise Floor Characteristics
2-4
Using the Phase Noise Utility
Functionality
The Main Menu
The utility's main function is to make phase noise measurements. It
also has several other functions to make the measurements easier to
make, save, compare, and print.
When the phase noise program is started, the screen displays the
main menu of softkeys and the conguration parameters as shown
in Figure 2-2. The conguration parameters are either the default
set for the rst time the program is run, or they are the same as the
last time the program was used. The only exception to this is the
carrier frequency. It will reect the highest signal, within the marker
accuracy, that was present on the spectrum analyzer display when the
phase noise program was invoked.
d
a
c
b
Figure 2-2. Main Menu
If a displayed parameter needs to be changed, this may be done using
the CONFIG softkey.
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
If the parameters are the desired values, a phase noise measurement
may be made either at a single oset frequency MEASURE SPOT FRQ )
or over a range of oset frequencies ( MEASURE LOG PLOT ).
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The RECALL TRACE softkey will generate a log frequency graticule
and annotation but will not make a measurement. This softkey allows
you to recall a saved trace without waiting for a measurement to
complete. There is no spectrum analyzer state saved with a saved
trace, so the user must remember to reconstruct the state in order to
correctly display a saved trace.
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The HELP softkey makes information easily accessible to assist the
user.
The EXIT ALL softkey returns the instrument to normal spectrum
analyzer operation, and restores the original instrument state. This is
the only recommended way to exit the phase noise program. Using
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Using the Phase Noise Utility
2-5
other keys, such as 4PRESET5, will exit the utility but may leave it in a
state that will cause unpredictable results the next time the utility is
started.
Log Plot Measurements
The log plot measurement approximates an exponential frequency
sweep with
p a set of linear sweeps pieced together to give a display
of dBc/ Hz vs. logarithmic frequency oset. Trace B, which is the
dimmer trace, displays the point-by-point data as measured. Trace A,
the brighter trace, displays a smoothed version of trace B. The amount
of smoothing is determined by the current setting of the smoothing
parameter. The phase noise at the selected spot frequency is also
displayed numerically. The results of a log plot measurement may be
smoothed, saved, or plotted.
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The MEASURE LOG PLOT softkey, allows a measurement to be
repeated with a single key press. This is useful for seeing eects of
circuit changes where the carrier and oset frequencies of interest do
not change.
The display includes a numerical readout (in dBc) of a single oset
frequency that may be changed with SET SPOT FRQ . Changing the
spot frequency will redraw the display with the marker in the new
position and with the new value for the spot measurement.
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Spot Frequency Measurements
A continuous phase noise measurement can be made at a single oset
frequency using the spot frequency measurement function. When
making several spot frequency measurements at dierent frequencies,
set the minimum and maximum oset frequencies wide enough to
include all of the desired frequencies.
RMS Phase Noise Measurement
Phase noise measurement results can be integrated over a selected
frequency range to get the total RMS (root mean squared) noise
in a given bandwidth. The frequency limits are set with softkeys.
The number of points used for the integration may be selected.
This allows you to choose between speed and accuracy. (Using
fewer points does not usually reduce the accuracy very much.) The
EXECUTE key initiates the calculation. The results are displayed in
radians and degrees.
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Smoothing, Averaging, or Filtering
Noise reduction on the trace can be accomplished several dierent
ways. Smoothing is used with log plot measurements while trace
averaging is for spot frequency measurements. Video ltering can be
used with both types of measurements.
The smoothing process averages a number of adjacent trace points of
trace B and displays the result in trace A for a log plot measurement.
Smoothing is faster, but less accurate, especially for rapid changes
in the trace like a trace with a discrete signal such as a spurious
2-6
Using the Phase Noise Utility
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sideband. Choose SMOOTH TRACE to display a menu of softkeys that
allow dierent amounts of smoothing. Each amount of smoothing
may be tried without redrawing the entire screen. When the desired
amount is displayed, the smoothing menu exit key PREVIOUS MENU is
pressed and the screen is redrawn to reect any new spot frequency
amplitude change that is caused by the change in smoothing.
Trace averaging can be used when making spot frequency
measurements. Since noise is not correlated from sweep to sweep,
successive traces can be averaged to reduce the peak to peak
amplitude of the noise. Trace averaging gives more repeatable results.
Video ltering can be applied to the active trace when making spot
frequency or log plot measurements. The amount of ltering can be
changed from the CONFIG menu. Additional ltering will increase the
accuracy and repeatability of the measurement, but will take longer.
The ltering softkeys change the ratio of the video bandwidth to the
resolution bandwidth.
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Signal Tracking
Note
Plotting and Printing
Signal tracking can be used for log plot measurements to measure a
slowly drifting signal. When it is enabled (ON), the measurement will
follow a very slowly drifting signal by re-acquiring the signal between
each of the ten sweeps that make up one complete log plot. When
signal tracking is on, the measurement will be somewhat slower.
When signal tracking is on, a slowly drifting signal will be tracked
during a log plot measurement. The maximum drift rate that can be
tracked will depend on instrument settings such as minimum oset
frequency and the amount of ltering.
If the drift is not completely compensated, depending on the direction
of drift, the measured phase noise will appear either higher or lower
than it actually is.
The log plot measurement results may be sent to a GPIB plotter or
GPIB printer such as a ThinkJet or PaintJet by using the HARD COPY
softkey. This brings up the menu of softkeys shown below.
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HARD COPY
PLOT ALL
PLOT TRACE A
PLOT TRACE B
PRINT B&W
PRINT COLOR
PREVIOUS MENU
The PLOT ALL soft key will plot everything on the screen except
the softkey annotation to a GPIB plotter set to address 5. The
PLOT TRACE A and PLOT TRACE B softkeys give ways to add
subsequent measurement traces to existing plots without replotting
the annotation or graticule. This is considerably faster than
plotting everything. The PRINT B&W softkey should be used with
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Using the Phase Noise Utility
2-7
monochrome printers, such as the HP ThinkJet. The printer needs to
have its GPIB address set to 1. The PRINT COLOR softkey should be
used with HP PaintJets. Their GPIB addresses should also be set to 1.
Log plot measurements include both trace A and trace B. An easy way
to display just the smoothed information from trace A is to save trace
A and recall it to trace B. This makes both traces contain the same
data so that only the smoothed trace shows for use in a hard copy
output.
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Note
Only the softkeys in the utility should be used to plot or print.
Unpredictable results will occur if any other keys are used, such as
the 4COPY5 key. It is also important that the plotter or printer be
connected and functional (that it have paper ready and be on line).
If this is not the case, the spectrum analyzer may lock up and need
to be turned o and back on to recover. When using a plotter or
printer with the phase noise utility, make a trial plot from the normal
spectrum analyzer mode to verify plotter operation whenever a
change in the plotter setup has occurred.
Saving and Recalling Traces
The results of a log plot measurement may be saved into trace
registers of the spectrum analyzer and recalled for later viewing.
The spectrum analyzer state of the measurement is not saved.
These trace registers are the same ones used by the front panel
4SAVE5, SAVE TRACE A key combination in normal spectrum analyzer
operation. Saving a trace in the phase noise utility overwrites any
previous trace in the chosen trace register.
Use of the save and recall trace functions simplies comparison of
traces from separate measurements. When a trace is recalled, the
instrument must be manually congured to match the state of the
saved trace, since the spectrum analyzer state is not saved with the
trace. A trace recalled into trace B can subsequently be smoothed and
displayed in trace A.
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2-8
Using the Phase Noise Utility
Measurement Considerations
Osets 1 MHz
For measurements at osets of 1 MHz the spectrum analyzer noise
oor is usually about 0133 dBm. To get this measurement range you
must select 0 dB input attenuation before entering the utility.
Caution
Input attenuation helps protect the spectrum analyzer input from
being damaged by too much power from the device being tested. The
use of 0 dB input attenuation should be minimized to protect the
spectrum analyzer.
Slowly Drifting Signals
A log plot measurement can be made on a slowly drifting signal
using the tracking function, but the measured value will be slightly
inaccurate. The maximum drift rate that can be tracked will depend
on instrument settings such as minimum oset frequency and the
amount of averaging. Depending on the direction of the drift, the
phase noise will appear either higher or lower than it actually is.
System Noise Floor
The system noise oor should be checked with a clean source for the
frequency osets that will be measured. The signal frequency should
be the same as the signal to be measured, since the system phase
noise is a function of the spectrum analyzer center frequency. Do
NOT use the internal calibrator to nd the noise oor because phase
noise cancellation will occur which will make the noise oor appear to
be lower than it actually is.
Use of the Bottom Division of the Display
Phase noise measurements made in the bottom division of the display
will not be as accurate as those made in the remainder of the display.
If measurements are occurring in the bottom division the reference
level, set in the utility, should be decreased (made more negative.)
Using the Phase Noise Utility
2-9
Frequency Oset Limitations
You dene the range of oset frequencies to be measured using the
MIN OFFSET FREQ and MAX OFFSET FREQ functions. There are limits
on the number of signicant digits entered when setting the minimum
and maximum oset frequencies. The entry will be rounded to the
nearest acceptable value.
The oset range must be set to multiples of a decade, between 1 and
5 decades. There are limitations on how small the oset range can be.
These limitations are determined by the carrier frequency and the
desired minimum oset frequency. See the following:
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Table 2-1. Oset Frequency Range Requirements
Spectrum
Carrier
Minimum
Required Oset Range
Analyzer
Frequency Oset Frequency
8560E/EC
all frequencies
<35 Hz
at least 2 decades
and 8561E/EC
<15 Hz
at least 3 decades
8563E/EC
6.46 GHz
<35 Hz
at least 2 decades
and 8564E/EC
"
<15 Hz
at least 3 decades
and 8565E/EC
>6.46 GHz
<110 Hz
at least 2 decades
"
<65 Hz
at least 3 decades
"
<35 Hz
at least 5 decades
2-10
Using the Phase Noise Utility
3
Softkey Menus and Descriptions
d
a
c
b
Softkey Menus and Descriptions
3-1
3-2
Softkey Menus and Descriptions
d
a
c
b
d
a
c
b
Softkey Menus and Descriptions
3-3
3-4
Softkey Menus and Descriptions
d
a
c
b
d
a
c
d
b
a
c
b
Softkey Menus and Descriptions
3-5
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12 PTS
96 PTS
2% AVG through 16% AVG
sets the amount of trace smoothing to be used on a
log plot measurement. A running average is taken
with the selected quantity of trace points from trace
B being averaged and put into trace A. The indicated
averaging is based on there being 601 points in a
trace.
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Press front-panel keys 4MODULE5, USER KEYS , and
PHASE NOISE . Then press either MEASURE LOG PLOT
and SMOOTH TRACE or CONFIG , MORE 1 OF 2 , and
SMOOTH TRACE .
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CARRIER
FREQ
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allows the user to change the signal which is selected
for phase noise measurement. When the phase noise
utility is started, the highest displayed signal is
selected as the carrier signal. Pressing this softkey
brings up a swept spectrum analyzer display showing
the current span, center frequency, and reference
level settings. At the same time, the softkey menus
change to keys which enable changing the carrier
frequency, the span, or the reference level to put the
desired signal on the display. The active function area
shows that the user should enter a carrier frequency.
This must be done using the number keys and a units
terminator key.
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Pressing CARRIER FREQ or SET SPAN will display
that parameter as the active function. You then
enter a value using the number pad and terminate
the entry with a units key such as Hz or MHz.
REF LVL UP and REF LVL DOWN immediately
increment the reference level by 10 dB in the
selected direction.
When the desired signal is on screen, and is the
highest signal on screen, PREVIOUS MENU should be
pressed to return to the previous conguration.
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Press front-panel keys 4MODULE5, USER KEYS ,
PHASE NOISE , and CONFIG .
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CAUTIONS
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displays textual information outlining some situations
which can cause unpredictable results or which can
cause inaccurate measurements.
Press front-panel keys 4MODULE5, USER KEYS ,
PHASE NOISE , and HELP .
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3-6
Softkey Menus and Descriptions
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CONFIG
brings up the softkeys that allow the measurement
parameters to be changed. They are displayed on the
initial screen, the one that accompanies the main
menu keys.
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Press front-panel keys 4MODULE5, USER KEYS , and
PHASE NOISE .
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EXIT
ALL
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exits the phase noise utility and recalls the original
state that was saved in state 9 when the phase noise
program was rst invoked. This is the only way to
correctly exit the utility. Pressing other front panel
keys will generally exit the program but the original
state will not be restored.
Press front-panel keys 4MODULE5, USER KEYS , and
PHASE NOISE .
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FEATURES
displays textual information outlining some of the
functions of the phase noise program which enhance
its usefulness and may not otherwise be obvious.
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Press front-panel keys 4MODULE5, USER KEYS ,
PHASE NOISE , and HELP .
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FILTER
FILTER
LESS and MORE
change the amount of video ltering applied to the
active trace when making a spot frequency phase
noise measurement. FILTER MORE will reduce the
peak to peak amplitude of the noise, and give more
repeatable results while lengthening the sweep time.
FILTER LESS will increase the video bandwidth until
it is equal to the resolution bandwidth. There is no
speed advantage in increasing the video bandwidth
beyond the resolution bandwidth, so it is limited to
this value.
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Press front-panel keys 4MODULE5, USER KEYS ,
PHASE NOISE , and MEASURE SPOT FRQ .
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Softkey Menus and Descriptions
3-7
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FILTER
TRACE
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sets how much video ltering is to be applied when
the phase noise measurement is done. More ltering
will increase the accuracy and repeatability of the
measurement, but will take a longer time. The
dierent softkeys change the ratio of the video
bandwidth to the resolution bandwidth, changing
the amount of ltering. There are four dierent
levels of ltering available. An asterisk denotes the
current setting. Pressing one of the ltering keys
will make the change, redraw the conguration to
reect the change, and put back the second page of
the conguration menu softkeys.
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Press front-panel keys 4MODULE5, USER KEYS ,
PHASE NOISE , and CONFIG .
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GENERAL
INFO
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displays textual information about the phase noise
utility. This helps you understand what the program
measures and some of the basic limitations.
Press front-panel keys 4MODULE5, USER KEYS ,
PHASE NOISE , and HELP .
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HARD
COPY
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access the softkeys that control direct printer
or plotter outputs from the phase noise utility.
HPGL plotters and HP raster graphics printers are
supported. LaserJets, DeskJets, and other PCL
printers are not supported.
The plotter or printer must be set up correctly. It
must be turned on, have paper loaded, have the
correct address, and be connected. If the output
device is not set up properly when one of the print
or plot keys is pressed, the spectrum analyzer can
lock up. This would require the power be turned o
and then back on. When using a plotter or printer
with the phase noise utility, make a trial plot from
the normal spectrum analyzer mode to verify plotter
operation whenever a change in the plotter setup has
occurred.
Press front-panel keys 4MODULE5, USER KEYS ,
PHASE NOISE , and MEASURE LOG PLOT .
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LOWER
LIMIT
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sets the lower-frequency integration limit for the RMS
noise calculation. The value must be between the
minimum and maximum oset frequencies of the log
plot measurement.
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Press front-panel keys 4MODULE5, USER KEYS ,
PHASE NOISE , RECALL TRACE , and RMS NOISE .
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3-8
Softkey Menus and Descriptions
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MAIN
MENU
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MAX FREQ
OFFSET
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exits the current menu and brings up the phase
noise utility's main menu softkeys. It also causes the
conguration screen to be displayed or updated.
prompts the user for a new maximum oset
frequency. This value is the maximum oset
frequency displayed by a log plot measurement. All
entries are rounded up to give an integral number
of decades of oset frequency range, based on the
minimum frequency oset setting. The maximum
number of decades of frequency oset range is
limited to ve. The minimum number of decades of
frequency oset range is dependent on the the carrier
frequency and the current setting of the minimum
frequency oset.
After the maximum frequency oset is changed, the
spot frequency will also be adjusted, if necessary, to
keep it between the minimum and maximum oset
frequencies. The maximum oset frequency available
for the 8560 E-Series and EC-Series is 100 MHz.
Press front-panel keys 4MODULE5, USER KEYS ,
PHASE NOISE , and CONFIG .
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MEASURE
LOG PLOT
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initiates a phase noise measurement over the range
of oset frequencies shown on the conguration
p
screen. The results are displayed on a dBc/ Hz vs.
log frequency screen. A numeric readout is made at
the selected spot frequency. The utility measures only
the upper noise sidebands.
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Press front-panel keys 4MODULE5, USER KEYS , and
PHASE NOISE .
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MEASURE
SPOT FRQ
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puts the spectrum analyzer in the appropriate state
for continuously measuring the phase noise at a single
oset frequency. The span is set to four times the
oset frequency, with the carrier in the center of the
displayed frequency range. The spectrum analyzer
remains sweeping continuously. The resultant noise
amplitude at the spot frequency is indicated by
the spectrum analyzer's normal noise marker (the
numeric value is in the upper right hand corner
of the screen). MEASURE SPOT FRQ gives a single
frequency measurement more quickly than using
MEASURE LOG PLOT .
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Softkey Menus and Descriptions
3-9
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When the MEASURE SPOT FRQ key is pressed a new
set of softkeys becomes available to enable ltering,
averaging, and changing the spot frequency. The
utility measures only the upper noise sidebands.
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Press front-panel keys 4MODULE5, USER KEYS , and
PHASE NOISE . If a user key has been assigned, press
4MODULE5, USER KEYS .
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MIN FREQ
OFFSET
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prompts the user for a new minimum oset
frequency. This value is the minimum oset
frequency displayed by a log plot measurement. All
entries are rounded to one signicant digit, and
must be between 10 Hz and 1 MHz, inclusive. The
minimum oset frequency that can be selected
is determined by 102 the narrowest resolution
bandwidth available.
After the minimum frequency oset is changed, the
spot frequency will also be adjusted, if necessary, to
keep it between the minimum and maximum oset
frequencies.
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Press front-panel keys 4MODULE5, USER KEYS ,
PHASE NOISE , and CONFIG .
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NUMBER
POINTS
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sets the number of points to be used for the
integration in the RMS noise calculation. The
integration range selected limits the displayed
frequency range so that only a portion of the 601
display data points are available for the integration.
A choice of ALL, 1/2, 1/4, or 1/8 of those available
data points can be used for the integration. There is a
large speed advantage using fewer points, with very
little degradation in accuracy.
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Press front-panel keys 4MODULE5, USER KEYS ,
PHASE NOISE , RECALL TRACE , and RMS NOISE .
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3-10
Softkey Menus and Descriptions
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PRINT
B&W
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initiates a screen dump to an attached black and
white GPIB printer that supports HP raster graphics,
such as an HP ThinkJet. The printer's GPIB address
must be set to 1. All of the display is printed with the
exception of the softkeys.
The printer must be set up correctly. It must be
turned on, have paper loaded, have the correct
address, and be connected. If the plotter is not set up
properly when PRINT B&W is pressed, the spectrum
analyzer is likely to lock up and require the power be
turned o and then back on.
Press front-panel keys 4MODULE5, USER KEYS ,
PHASE NOISE , MEASURE LOG PLOT , and HARD COPY .
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PRINT
COLOR
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initiates a screen dump to an attached color GPIB
printer that supports HP raster graphics, such as the
HP PaintJet. The printer's GPIB address must be set
to 1. All of the display is printed with the exception
of the softkeys.
The printer must be set up correctly. It must be
turned on, have paper loaded, have the correct
address, and be connected. If the plotter is not set
up properly when PRINT COLOR is pressed, the
spectrum analyzer is likely to lock up and require the
power be turned o and then back on.
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Press front-panel keys 4MODULE5, USER KEYS ,
PHASE NOISE , MEASURE LOG PLOT , and HARD COPY .
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PLOT
ALL
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initiates a screen dump to an attached GPIB HPGL
plotter. The plotter's GPIB address must be set to 5.
All of the display is plotted with the exception of the
softkey labels.
The plotter must be set up correctly. It must be
turned on, have paper loaded, have the correct
address, and be connected. If the plotter is not set up
properly when PLOT ALL is pressed, the spectrum
analyzer is likely to lock up and require the power be
turned o and then back on.
Some plotters must be congured to respond to
HP-GL commands. For example, the 7550B must be
set to 7550A emulation mode before it can be used.
Press front-panel keys 4MODULE5, USER KEYS ,
PHASE NOISE , MEASURE LOG PLOT , and HARD COPY .
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Softkey Menus and Descriptions
3-11
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PLOT
PLOT
TRACE A and TRACE B
send a single trace to an attached GPIB plotter.
These keys are useful to plot traces from separate
measurements onto a single plot in order to compare
them. Execution of these commands are much faster
than using the PLOT ALL key.
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The plotter must be set up correctly. It must be
turned on, have paper loaded, have the correct
address, and be connected. If the plotter is not set
up properly when PLOT TRACE A is pressed, the
spectrum analyzer is likely to lock up and require the
power be turned o and then back on.
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Press front-panel keys 4MODULE5, USER KEYS ,
PHASE NOISE , MEASURE LOG PLOT , and HARD COPY .
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RECALL
RECALL
TO TR A and TO TR B
allow a trace, which has previously been saved in
a trace register, to be retrieved into the desired
displayed trace. Pressing either of these softkeys will
bring up a softkey menu which gives a choice of the
ve trace registers. Pressing one of the ve trace
softkeys will immediately move the selected saved
trace to the display.
Dierent saved traces may be recalled in succession
without redrawing the entire display. Recalling traces
to both trace A and trace B lets the user compare
saved traces. The spectrum analyzer state is not
saved with a saved trace, so you must reconstruct the
state in order to correctly display a saved trace.
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Press front-panel keys 4MODULE5, USER KEYS ,
PHASE NOISE , MEASURE LOG PLOT , and
MORE 1 OF 2 .
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RECALL
TRACE
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displays the same log frequency display as the
MEASURE LOG PLOT key does, but no measurement is
made and no trace is displayed. It also accesses a set
of softkeys to save or recall a trace. This key gives
you to have a faster way of displaying a saved trace
than by doing a complete measurement rst and then
recalling the trace. Remember that there is no state
saved with a saved trace. You must reconstruct the
state in order to correctly display a saved trace.
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NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
Press front-panel keys 4MODULE5, USER KEYS , and
PHASE NOISE .
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3-12
Softkey Menus and Descriptions
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REF
LEVEL
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p
changes the dBc/ Hz value corresponding to the top
graticule line for the log plot display. The reference
level may need to be changed depending on the phase
noise level of the source and the frequency oset
range being measured. Pressing this softkey accesses
softkeys that can be used to select reference levels of
020 dBc, 030 dBc, 040 dBc, or 050 dBc. An asterisk
denotes the current setting. Selecting one of these
values will change the reference level, redraw the
conguration to reect the change, and put back the
second page of the conguration menu softkeys.
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Press front-panel keys 4MODULE5, USER KEYS ,
PHASE NOISE , and CONFIG .
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RMS
NOISE
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allows integration of the noise displayed by trace
A. The integration can be done over a selected
frequency range to get the total RMS noise in a
given bandwidth. The results are displayed in both
radians and degrees. Pressing RMS NOISE clears
the screen, displays text which briey describes the
measurement, and brings up softkeys to change
parameters and execute. The integration limits are set
by UPPER LIMIT and LOWER LIMIT . These need to
be within the range of the oset frequencies.
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The EXECUTE softkey initiates the measurement
which can take as much as several minutes. The
number points used to sample the trace can be
selected with NUMBER POINTS . More points give
more accuracy, while less points give more speed.
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NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
Press front-panel keys 4MODULE5, USER KEYS ,
PHASE NOISE , and either RECALL TRACE or
MEASURE LOG PLOT , MORE 1 OF 2 .
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SAVE
TRACE A
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NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
saves the data in the bright trace (trace A) in a
trace register. Before the saving is done, a menu
of softkeys appears which allows 1 of the 5 trace
registers to be selected. These are the same trace
registers that are used by the normal spectrum
analyzer mode (accessible from the SAVE and
RECALL front-panel keys), so the user must make
sure that a selected register does not contain any data
which should not be written over. SAVE TRACE A
saves only the trace; it does not save any state data.
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Softkey Menus and Descriptions
3-13
Trace B may be saved by selecting NONE for
smoothing, which will make trace A identical to
trace B, and then saving trace A. The trace may
be saved in more than one register if desired. The
PREVIOUS MENU softkey must be pressed to exit this
menu.
Press front-panel keys 4MODULE5, USER KEYS ,
PHASE NOISE , MEASURE LOG PLOT , and
MORE 1 OF 2 .
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SET
SPOT FRQ
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prompts the user for a new frequency oset to be
measured. This function can be used to change the
frequency for a spot frequency measurement, or to
select a frequency where the noise amplitude will be
displayed for a log plot measurement.
The frequency entered must be between the
minimum and maximum frequencies displayed on
the conguration screen. If the conguration screen
is not being displayed when this key is pressed, the
minimum and maximum frequency limits will be
displayed below the graticule as the start and stop
frequencies.
After an entry has been made, the analyzer will be
set to measure the phase noise at the new oset
frequency, and the softkeys will reappear. If a
spot frequency measurement is being made, the
frequency will be changed and the measurement
will continue. If a log plot measurement is being
made the display is redrawn on the screen, the
spot frequency marker position is updated, and the
noise amplitude at the new frequency is displayed
numerically. Press front-panel keys 4MODULE5,
USER KEYS , PHASE NOISE , and either CONFIG ,
MEASURE LOG PLOT , or MEASURE SPOT FRQ .
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SMOOTH
TRACE
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3-14
Softkey Menus and Descriptions
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changes the amount of smoothing that is done
after the measurement is complete. The smoothing
function is much faster then ltering. However, it
may cause errors if the noise changes rapidly with
frequency, or if there are discrete signals present.
The function takes a running average of points
across the screen from trace B and puts the average
into trace A. The number of points to be averaged
is selectable by softkeys once the SMOOTH TRACE
key has been pressed. Each softkey label shows the
number of points to averaged and the associated
percent averaging, which is the number of points in
the average divided by the total number of points
in the trace (601). An asterisk denotes the current
setting.
When the amount of smoothing is set from within the
cong menu, the value is changed and updated on
the conguration screen and the second page of the
conguration menu softkeys is displayed.
When smoothing is selected from the log plot
measurement menu, the smoothing occurs
immediately after a softkey is pressed. The result is
shown on the screen with trace A. Dierent amounts
of smoothing may be quickly evaluated. When the
desired amount is achieved, the PREVIOUS MENU
key can be pressed to return to the log plot menu.
Upon return, the log plot display is redrawn to reect
any spot frequency amplitude change that may have
occurred because of a change in smoothing.
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NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
Press front-panel keys 4MODULE5, USER KEYS ,
PHASE NOISE , and CONFIG .
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TURN ON(OFF)
SIG TRK
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Note
enables and disables the signal tracking mode for log
plot measurements. When it is enabled (ON), the
measurement will follow a very slowly drifting signal
by re-acquiring the signal between each of the ten
sweeps that make up one complete log plot. With
signal track on, the measurement will be somewhat
slower.
When signal tracking is on, a slowly drifting signal will be tracked
during a log plot measurement. The maximum drift rate that can be
tracked will depend on instrument settings such as minimum oset
frequency and the amount of averaging.
Depending on the direction of drift, the phase noise will appear either
higher or lower than it actually is.
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Press front-panel keys 4MODULE5, USER KEYS ,
PHASE NOISE , and CONFIG .
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Softkey Menus and Descriptions
3-15
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TURN ON(OFF)
TRC AVG
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toggles trace averaging on and o. Trace averaging
averages successive traces to reduce the peak to peak
amplitude of the noise, since noise is not correlated
from sweep to sweep. Like video ltering, trace
averaging gives a more repeatable result.
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Press front-panel keys 4MODULE5, USER KEYS ,
PHASE NOISE , and MEASURE SPOT FRQ .
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UPPER
LIMIT
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sets the upper-frequency integration limit for the RMS
noise calculation. The value must be between the
minimum and maximum oset frequencies of the log
plot measurement.
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Press front-panel keys 4MODULE5, USER KEYS ,
PHASE NOISE , RECALL TRACE , and RMS NOISE .
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3-16
Softkey Menus and Descriptions
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4
If You Have A Problem
Signal disappears during measurement
If the output frequency of the device under test is
sensitive to changes in match, such as an unbuered
oscillator, the signal may disappear during the
measurement process. The input attenuation, and
therefore the input match, of the spectrum analyzer
is varied during the measurement process. A buer
(attenuation and/or amplication) between the device
and the spectrum analyzer may be required.
Repeated measurements have dierent results
If you make the same phase noise measurement
several times and the results keep changing, either
getting better or getting worse, it may be because the
signal is drifting and the rate of drift is changing. It
may be possible to measure a drifting signal, but the
phase noise can appear either higher or lower than it
actually is, depending on the direction of the drift.
This eect is usually more noticeable when the device
is rst turned on.
A signal with a constant drift rate will have a
repeatable, but incorrect, phase noise plot. Drift
can easily be veried by making a spot frequency
measurement which does not track drift.
Measured value or noise oor is not correct
The system noise oor is aecting the
measurement. It must be checked with a clean
source for the frequency osets being examined
(such as an 8662). Set the source frequency
the same as the signal to be tested, since the
system phase noise is a function of the spectrum
analyzer center frequency. Do NOT use the internal
calibrator to nd the noise oor because phase
noise cancellation will occur. This will make the
noise oor appear to be lower than it actually is.
Phase noise measurements made in the bottom
division of the display will not be as accurate as
the remainder of the display. If measurements are
occurring in the bottom division, the reference
level (under the CONFIG key) should be decreased
(made more negative).
The phase noise can appear to be either higher or
lower than it actually is. When signal tracking is
on, a slowly drifting signal will be tracked during
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
If You Have A Problem
4-1
a log plot measurement. The maximum drift rate
will depend on settings such as minimum oset
frequency and the amount of averaging. Depending
on the direction of drift, the phase noise will
appear either higher or lower than it actually is.
Log Plot Measurement
d has unexpected discontinuities
c
Figure 4-1. Log Plot of Drifty or Noisy Signal
Discontinuities like those shown in Figure 4-1 can
occur if the minimum frequency oset is less than the
residual FM of the signal. The utility makes a log
plot measurement in ten successive sweeps. If the
signal has enough residual FM that the resolution
bandwidth misses the peak on some of the sweeps,
the measured power will be incorrect and the trace
will have discontinuities.
Phase noise utility terminates unexpectedly
Pressing almost any of the front panel keys will abort
the utility. After the DLP is started, no keys should
be pressed, and the knob should not be turned except
when there is an active function waiting for a user
input. Then use the number keys and the terminators
(such as kHz, or MHz). The knob can be used during a
spot frequency measurement.
The 4PRESET5 key may be used to exit the utility in the
middle of a measurement. Use of the 4PRESET5 key
will prevent the original instrument state from being
restored. This may give unpredictable results when
the utility is restarted. The original instrument state
can be restored by recalling state 9. If the power
is turned o and back on again the utility can be
restarted.
4-2
If You Have A Problem
a
b
Cannot change the conguration parameters
All of the parameters on the cong screen are set to
zero and they cannot be changed if the setup program
has not been run. Exit the utility and use the
KEYDEF softkeys to choose and execute the PH_SETUP
program. This will initialize the program parameters.
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Spectrum analyzer states were lost
The phase noise utility should not be invoked if
a state is already saved in state 9 that must not
be overwritten. This state register is used to save
the initial instrument settings so that they can be
restored when the utility is nished.
The spectrum analyzer and the utility use the same
trace registers for saving traces. The phase noise
utility allows you to use the TRACE 0 through
TRACE 4 registers. No traces should be saved in
these registers outside the utility, since they may be
overwritten (lost).
Cannot print or plot
Hard copy output can only be made from a log plot
measurement.
The spectrum analyzer keys cannot be used for
printing or plotting from the phase noise utility.
Use the softkeys in the HARD COPY menu under
the MEASURE LOG PLOT function.
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The printer or plotter must be functional before
trying to output. It is a good idea to try it
before starting the phase noise utility. If it is not
functional, the spectrum analyzer power must be
turned o and on to recover. Check the following:
the power is turned on
the printer is on line
the paper is in place
it is a GPIB printer or plotter
the GPIB cable connected
the GPIB address set to 5 for a plotter
the GPIB address set to 1 for a printer
Phase noise utility disappears from memory
A demo version of the phase noise utility is
available. After the demo has been used ten times,
it automatically removes itself from memory. If you
had the demo and would like permanent access to the
utility, order the 85671A.
If You Have A Problem
4-3
Index
1
12 PTS 2% AVG softkey, 3-6
2
24 PTS 4% AVG softkey, 3-6
4
48 PTS 8% AVG softkey, 3-6
9
96 PTS 16% AVG softkey, 3-6
A
accessing the utility, 1-4
averaging, 2-6, 3-15. See also smoothing
C
CARRIER FREQ softkey, 3-6
caution
the caution symbol, vi
CAUTIONS softkey, 3-6
center frequency, 3-6
compatibility, 1-1
cong menu, 3-2
CONFIG softkey, 3-6
copying the utility to memory, 1-2
D
description of starting, 2-5
drifting signals, 2-9, 3-15
E
equipment required, 1-1
example measurement, 1-6
EXECUTE softkey, 3-13
EXIT ALL softkey, 3-7
F
FEATURES softkey, 3-7
ltering, 2-6
FILTER LESS softkey, 3-7
FILTER MORE softkey, 3-7
FILTER TRACE softkey, 3-7
frequency
oset, 3-9, 3-10
frequency oset limitations, 2-10
Index-1
Index-2
G
GENERAL INFO softkey, 3-8
general safety considerations, vi
H
HARD COPY softkey, 3-8
help menu, 3-3
I
installing the utility, 1-2
L
labeling the softkey, 1-3
log plot measurement, 3-9
log plot measurements, 2-6
log plot menu, 3-4
LOWER LIMIT softkey, 3-8
M
main menu, 2-5, 3-1
MAIN MENU softkey, 3-8
MAX FREQ OFFSET softkey, 3-9
maximum oset frequency, 2-10
measure log plot menu, 3-4
MEASURE LOG PLOT softkey, 3-9
measurement example, 1-6
measure spot frequency menu, 3-5
MEASURE SPOT FRQ softkey, 3-9
MIN FREQ OFFSET softkey, 3-10
minimum oset frequency, 2-10
N
noise oor
checking, 2-9
NUMBER POINTS softkey, 3-10
O
oset frequency, 3-9, 3-10
oset limitations, 2-10
osets 1 MHz, 2-9
P
parameters, 3-6
phase noise measurement, 3-10
phase noise measurement information, 2-1
phase noise softkeys, 3-1
PLOT ALL softkey, 3-11
plotting, 2-7, 3-8
PLOTnTRACE A softkey, 3-11
PLOT TRACE B softkey, 3-11
PRINT B&&W softkey, 3-10
PRINT COLOR softkey, 3-11
printing, 2-7, 3-8
Q
quit the utility, 3-7
R
recalling traces, 2-8
RECALL TO TR A softkey, 3-12
RECALL TO TR B softkey, 3-12
recall trace menu, 3-5
RECALL TRACE softkey, 3-12
REF LEVEL softkey, 3-12
REF LVL DOWN softkey, 3-6
REF LVL UP softkey, 3-6
removing the utility from memory, 1-8
RMS NOISE softkey, 3-13
RMS phase noise, 2-6
running the utility, 1-4
S
safety, vi
safety symbols, vi
SAVE TRACE A softkey, 3-13
save trace menu, 3-5
saving traces, 2-8
SET SPAN softkey, 3-6
SET SPOT FRQ softkey, 3-14
signal tracking, 3-15
single frequency measurement, 3-9
single frequency measurements, 2-6
single frequency menu, 3-5
smoothing, 2-6
amount of, 3-6
SMOOTH TRACE softkey, 3-14
software product license agreement, v
spot frequency measurement, 3-9
spot frequency measurements, 2-6
spot frequency menu, 3-5
starting the utility, 1-4, 2-5
system noise oor, 2-9
T
trace averaging, 3-15. See also averaging
tracking the signal, 3-15
TURN OFF SIG TRK softkey, 3-15
TURN OFF TRC AVG softkey, 3-15
TURN ON SIG TRK softkey, 3-15
TURN ON TRC AVG softkey, 3-15
U
UPPER LIMIT softkey, 3-16
using the utility, 2-5, 2-6
V
video ltering, 3-7
W
warning
the warning symbol, vi
warranty, v
Index-3