Specifications | Agilent Technologies 8720ET Network Card User Manual

Installation and Quick Start Guide
Agilent Technologies
8719ET/ES
8720ET/ES
8722ET/ES
Network Analyzers
Part Number: 08720-90391
Printed in USA
Print Date: February 2001
Supersedes: May 2000
Notice
The information contained in this document is subject to change without notice.
Agilent Technologies makes no warranty of any kind with regard to this material,
including but not limited to, the implied warranties of merchantability and fitness for a
particular purpose. Agilent Technologies shall not be liable for errors contained herein or
for incidental or consequential damages in connection with the furnishing, performance, or
use of this material.
© Copyright 1999-2001 Agilent Technologies, Inc
ii
Certification
Agilent Technologies Company certifies that this product met its published specifications
at the time of shipment from the factory. Agilent Technologies further certifies that its
calibration measurements are traceable to the United States National Institute of
Standards and Technology, to the extent allowed by the Institute's calibration facility, and
to the calibration facilities of other International Standards Organization members.
Regulatory and Warranty Information
The regulatory and warranty information is in the User's Guide.
Assistance
Product maintenance agreements and other customer assistance agreements are available
for Agilent Technologies products. For any assistance, contact your nearest Agilent
Technologies sales or service office. See Table 2-1 on page 2-26 for the nearest office.
Safety Notes
The following safety notes are used throughout this manual. Familiarize yourself with
each of the notes and its meaning before operating this instrument.
WARNING
Warning denotes a hazard. It calls attention to a procedure which, if
not correctly performed or adhered to, could result in injury or loss
of life. Do not proceed beyond a warning note until the indicated
conditions are fully understood and met.
CAUTION
Caution denotes a hazard. It calls attention to a procedure that, if not
correctly performed or adhered to, would result in damage to or destruction of
the instrument. Do not proceed beyond a caution sign until the indicated
conditions are fully understood and met.
iii
General Safety Considerations
WARNING
For continued protection against fire hazard replace line fuse only
with same type and rating (115V operation: T 5A 125V UL/ 230V
operation: T 4A H 250V IEC). The use of other fuses or material is
prohibited.
WARNING
This is a Safety Class I product (provided with a protective earthing
ground incorporated in the power cord). The mains plug shall only
be inserted in a socket outlet provided with a protective earth
contact. Any interruption of the protective conductor, inside or
outside the instrument, is likely to make the instrument dangerous.
Intentional interruption is prohibited.
CAUTION
Ventilation Requirements: When installing the instrument in a cabinet,
the convection into and out of the instrument must not be restricted. The
ambient temperature (outside the cabinet) must be less than the maximum
operating temperature of the instrument by 4 °C for every 100 watts
dissipated in the cabinet. If the total power dissipated in the cabinet is
greater than 800 watts, then forced convection must be used.
How to Use This Guide
This guide uses the following conventions:
Front-Panel Key
This represents a key physically located on the
instrument.
SOFTKEY
This represents a “softkey,” a key whose label is
determined by the instrument’s firmware.
Screen Text
This represents text displayed on the instrument’s screen.
iv
Documentation Map
The Installation and Quick Start Guide provides procedures for
installing, configuring, and verifying the operation of the analyzer. It
also will help you familiarize yourself with the basic operation of the
analyzer.
The User’s Guide shows how to make measurements, explains
commonly-used features, and tells you how to get the most
performance from your analyzer.
The Reference Guide provides reference information, such as
specifications, menu maps, and key definitions.
The Programmer’s Guide provides general GPIB programming
information, a command reference, and example programs. The
Programmer’s Guide contains a CD-ROM with example programs.
The CD-ROM provides the Installation and Quick Start Guide, the
User’s Guide, the Reference Guide, and the Programmer’s Guide in
PDF format for viewing or printing from a PC.
The Service Guide provides information on calibrating,
troubleshooting, and servicing your analyzer. The Service Guide is not
part of a standard shipment and is available only as Option 0BW, or
by ordering part number 08720-90397. A CD-ROM with the Service
Guide in PDF format is included for viewing or printing from a PC.
v
Contents
1. Installing Your Analyzer
Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1-2
STEP 1. Verify the Shipment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1-3
STEP 2. Familiarize Yourself with the Analyzer Front and Rear Panels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1-5
Analyzer Front Panel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1-5
Analyzer Rear Panel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1-6
STEP 3. Meet Electrical and Environmental Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1-7
STEP 4. Configure the Analyzer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1-9
To Configure the Standard Analyzer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1-10
To Configure an Analyzer with a High Stability Frequency Reference (Option 1D5) . . .1-10
To Configure the Analyzer with Printers or Plotters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1-11
To Configure the Analyzer for Bench Top or Rack Mount Use . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1-16
STEP 5. Verify the Analyzer Operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1-20
To View the Installed Options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1-21
To Initiate the Analyzer Self-Test . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1-22
To Run the Operator's Check . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1-23
To Test the Transmission Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1-24
To Test the Reflection Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1-25
STEP 6. Back Up the EEPROM Disk . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1-26
Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1-26
Equipment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1-26
EEPROM Backup Disk Procedure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1-26
2. Quick Start: Learning How to Make Measurements
Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2-2
Analyzer Front Panel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2-3
Measurement Procedure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2-5
Step 1. Choose measurement parameters with your test device connected . . . . . . . . . . . .2-5
Step 2. Make a measurement calibration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2-5
Step 3. Measure the device . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2-5
Step 4. Output measurement results . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2-5
Learning to Make Transmission Measurements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2-6
Step 1. Choose the measurement parameters with your test device connected . . . . . . . . .2-6
Step 2. Perform a measurement calibration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2-7
Step 3. Measure the device . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2-8
Step 4. Output measurement results . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2-9
Measuring Other Transmission Characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2-10
Learning to Make Reflection Measurements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2-13
Step 1. Choose measurement parameters with your test device connected . . . . . . . . . . .2-14
Step 2. Make a measurement calibration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2-15
Step 3. Measure the device . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2-16
Step 4. Output measurement results . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2-17
Measuring Other Reflection Characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2-18
If You Encounter a Problem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2-23
Power-Up Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2-23
Data Entry Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2-24
No RF Output . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2-24
Contents-vii
1 Installing Your Analyzer
1-1
Installing Your Analyzer
Introduction
Introduction
This chapter shows you how to install your analyzer and confirm the correct operation, by
following the steps below:
• STEP 1. Verify the Shipment on page 1-3
• STEP 2. Familiarize Yourself with the Analyzer Front and Rear Panels on page 1-5
• STEP 3. Meet Electrical and Environmental Requirements on page 1-7
• STEP 4. Configure the Analyzer on page 1-9
• STEP 5. Verify the Analyzer Operation on page 1-20
• STEP 6. Back Up the EEPROM Disk on page 1-26
1-2
Chapter 1
Installing Your Analyzer
STEP 1. Verify the Shipment
STEP 1. Verify the Shipment
1. Unpack the contents of all the shipping containers.
WARNING
The analyzer weighs approximately 54 pounds (25 kilograms). Use correct
lifting techniques.
2. Carefully inspect the analyzer to ensure that it was not damaged during shipment.
NOTE
Chapter 1
If your analyzer was damaged during shipment, contact your nearest Agilent
Technologies office or sales representative. A list of Agilent Technologies sales and
service offices is provided in Table 2-1 on page 2-26.
1-3
Installing Your Analyzer
STEP 1. Verify the Shipment
3. Verify that all the accessories have been included with the analyzer.
Item Number
Part Number
1
08720-90391
Installation and Quick Start Guide
2
08720-90392
User's Guide
3
08720-90393
Reference Guide
4
08753-90475
Programmer’s Guide
5
08720-90418
CD-ROM
6
unique to instrument
7
unique to country
8
5062-3978
Rack Flange Kit (Option 1CM only)
8
5062-4072
Rack Flange Kit with Handles (Option 1CP only)
8
5062-3990
Front Handle Kit (standard)
1-4
Description
EEPROM Backup Disk
AC power cable
Chapter 1
Installing Your Analyzer
STEP 2. Familiarize Yourself with the Analyzer Front and Rear Panels
STEP 2. Familiarize Yourself with the Analyzer Front and
Rear Panels
Analyzer Front Panel
CAUTION
Do not mistake the line switch for the disk eject button. See the figure below. If the
line switch is mistakenly pushed, the instrument will be turned off, losing all settings
and data that have not been saved.
1 LINE (power on/off) switch
8 RESPONSE function block
2 Display
9 ACTIVE CHANNEL keys
3 Disk drive
10 ENTRY block
4 Disk eject button
11 INSTRUMENT STATE function block
5 Softkeys
12
6
13 ES models only: R CHANNEL connectors
Return key
7 STIMULUS function block
Chapter 1
Preset key
14 ES models only:
PORT 1
and
PORT 2
ET models only:
REFLECTION
and
TRANSMISSION
1-5
Installing Your Analyzer
STEP 2. Familiarize Yourself with the Analyzer Front and Rear Panels
Analyzer Rear Panel
1 10 MHZ REFERENCE ADJUSTa
11 RF IN/OUTb
2 10 MHZ PRECISION REFERENCE
OUTPUTa
12 Serial number plate
3 Fan
14 TEST SET I/O INTERCONNECT
4 Line voltage selector switch
15 MEASURE RESTART
5 Power cord receptacle, with fuse
16 LIMIT TEST
6 KEYBOARD input (mini-DIN)
17 TEST SEQUENCE
7 RS-232 interface
18 EXTERNAL TRIGGER connector
8 PARALLEL interface
19 EXTERNAL AM connector
9 GPIB connector
20 AUXILIARY INPUT connector
10 EXTERNAL MONITOR: VGA
21 EXTERNAL REFERENCE INPUT
connector
13 BIAS INPUTS and FUSES
a. Option 1D5 only.
b. Option 085 only.
1-6
Chapter 1
Installing Your Analyzer
STEP 3. Meet Electrical and Environmental Requirements
STEP 3. Meet Electrical and Environmental Requirements
1. Set the line-voltage selector to the
position that corresponds to the AC power
source.
2. Ensure the available AC power source
meets the following requirements:
• 90–132 VAC
• 47–66 Hz / 400 Hz (single phase)
-or• 198–265 VAC
• 47–66 Hz (single phase)
The analyzer power consumption is 350 VA
maximum.
3. Ensure the operating environment meets
the following requirements:
4. Verify that the power cable is not
damaged, and that the power-source
outlet provides a protective earth contact.
• 0 to 55 °C
• < 95% relative humidity at 40 °C
(non-condensing)
• < 15,000 feet (≈ 4,500 meters) altitude
Some analyzer performance parameters are
specified for 25 °C ±5 °C. Refer to the
Reference Guide for information on the
environmental compatibility of warranted
performance.
WARNING
Any interruption of the
protective (grounding)
conductor or
disconnection of the
protective earth terminal,
can result in personal
injury, or may damage the
analyzer.
Chapter 1
1-7
Installing Your Analyzer
STEP 3. Meet Electrical and Environmental Requirements
5. Ensure there are at least six inches of clearance between the sides and back of either the
stand-alone analyzer or the system cabinet.
CAUTION
The environmental temperature must be 4 °C less than the maximum
operating temperature of the analyzer for every 100 watts dissipated in the
cabinet. If the total power dissipated in the cabinet is >800 watts, then you
must provide forced convection.
6. Set up a static-safe workstation. Electrostatic discharge (ESD) can damage or destroy
electronic components.
• static-control table mat and earth
ground wire: part number 9300-0797
• wrist-strap cord: part number 9300-0980
• wrist-strap: part number 9300-1367
• heel-straps: part number 9300-1308
• floor mat: not available through Agilent
Technologies
1-8
Chapter 1
Installing Your Analyzer
STEP 4. Configure the Analyzer
STEP 4. Configure the Analyzer
This step shows you how to set up your particular analyzer configuration.
• standard configuration
• Option 1D5 configuration − high stability frequency reference
• printer or plotter configuration
• rack-mount configuration
Chapter 1
1-9
Installing Your Analyzer
STEP 4. Configure the Analyzer
To Configure the Standard Analyzer
Connect test port cables and optional adapters if you are using other connector types.
To Configure an Analyzer with a High Stability Frequency
Reference (Option 1D5)
Connect the jumper cable on the analyzer rear panel as shown.
1-10
Chapter 1
Installing Your Analyzer
STEP 4. Configure the Analyzer
To Configure the Analyzer with Printers or Plotters
1. Connect your printer or plotter to the corresponding interface.
2. If you are using the parallel interface, press Local and toggle PARALLEL until your
choice of COPY or GPIO appears.
If you choose:
Chapter 1
COPY
the parallel port is dedicated for
normal copy device use (printers
or plotters).
GPIO
the parallel port is dedicated for
general purpose I/O. The
analyzer controls the data input
or output through the sequencing
capability of the analyzer.
1-11
Installing Your Analyzer
STEP 4. Configure the Analyzer
3. Press SET ADDRESSES and then choose either PRINTER PORT or
PLOTTER PORT , depending on your printer/plotter device. Or, if you are plotting
your files to disk, press SET ADDRESSES PLOTTER PORT DISK .
4. Press the key that corresponds to your printer or plotter interface: GPIB ,
PARALLEL (parallel port), or SERIAL (serial port).
NOTE
The plotter menu is shown as an example. It will only appear if you select
PLOTTER PORT . Similar interface choices will appear if you select
PRINTER PORT .
• If you select GPIB , the GPIB address
selection is active. Enter the GPIB
address of your printer or plotter,
followed by x1 .
• If you have already selected the
PARALLEL [COPY] choice for the
parallel-port configuration, you must
also select PARALLEL in this menu in
order to generate a hardcopy.
1-12
Chapter 1
Installing Your Analyzer
STEP 4. Configure the Analyzer
5. If you will be using the serial port, adjust the analyzer's baud rate until it is equal to the
baud rate set on the peripheral by pressing PLOTTER BAUD RATE or
PRINTER BAUD RATE and the
and
front panel keys.
NOTE
The plotter menu is shown as an example. It will only appear if you select
PLOTTER PORT .
You can set the analyzer to the following
baud rates:
• 1200
• 2400
• 4800
• 9600
• 19200
6. Also, if you will be using the serial port, you must toggle the transmission control
XMIT CNTRL (handshaking protocol) until your choice of Xon/Xoff or DTR/DSR
appears (equal to the transmission control set on the peripheral). The printer menu is
shown as an example. It will only appear if you select PRINTER PORT .
NOTE
Chapter 1
Transmission control for plotters is set programmatically.
•
Xon/Xoff sets transmission
on/transmission off (software
handshake).
•
DTR/DSR sets data terminal
ready/data set ready (hardware
handshake).
1-13
Installing Your Analyzer
STEP 4. Configure the Analyzer
7. If you will be creating a plot of the data, toggle PLTR TYPE until your choice of
PLOTTER or HPGL PRT appears.
• Choose PLOTTER for a pen plotter.
• Choose HPGL PRT for a PCL5
compatible printer.a
8. If you will be using a printer, toggle PRNTR TYPE until your printer choicea appears.
• Choose your printer type from these
Hewlett-Packard printers:
❏
❏
THINKJET
DESKJET
(except for HP DeskJet 540 and
Deskjet 850C)
❏
LASERJET
❏
PAINTJET
❏
DJ 540 (for use with
HP DeskJet 540 and
Deskjet 850C—converts 100 dpi
raster information to 300 dpi raster
format)
• Choose EPSON-P2 for
Epson-compatible printers (ESC/P2
printer control language).
a. For a current printer compatibility guide, consult the web page at
http://www.agilent.com/find/pcg.
1-14
Chapter 1
Installing Your Analyzer
STEP 4. Configure the Analyzer
9. Press System SET CLOCK to begin
setting and activating the time stamp
feature so the analyzer places the time
and date on your hardcopies and disk
directories.
10. Press each of the following softkeys to
set the date and time, followed by x1 .
11. Press ROUND SECONDS when the time is exactly as you have set it.
Chapter 1
1-15
Installing Your Analyzer
STEP 4. Configure the Analyzer
To Configure the Analyzer for Bench Top or Rack Mount Use
There are three kits available for the analyzer:
• instrument front handles kit (standard: part number 5062-3990)
• cabinet flange kit without front handles (Option 1CM: part number 5062-3978)
• cabinet flange kit with front handles (Option 1CP: part number 5062-4072)
1-16
Chapter 1
Installing Your Analyzer
STEP 4. Configure the Analyzer
To Attach Front Handles to the Analyzer (Standard)
1. Ensure that the front handle kit is complete.
2. Remove the side trim strips.
• (2) front handles
• (6) screws
• (2) trim strips
NOTE
If any items are damaged or
missing from the kit, contact the
nearest Agilent Technologies
sales or service office to order a
replacement kit. Items within
the kit (handles, flanges, screws,
etc.) are not individually
available.
3. Attach the handles to the sides of the front
panel, using three screws for each handle.
4. Place the new trim strip over the screws on
the handles.
WARNING
Chapter 1
If an instrument handle is
damaged, you should replace
it immediately. Damaged
handles can break while you
are moving or lifting the
instrument and cause
personal injury or damage to
the instrument.
1-17
Installing Your Analyzer
STEP 4. Configure the Analyzer
To Attach Cabinet Flanges without Front Handles to the Analyzer
(Option 1CM)
1. Ensure that the cabinet flange kit is
complete.
2. Remove side trim strips.
• (2) cabinet mount flanges
• (6) screws
3. Attach the cabinet flanges to the sides of
the front panel using three screws for
each flange.
1-18
4. Remove the feet and the tilt stands before
cabinet mounting the instrument.
Chapter 1
Installing Your Analyzer
STEP 4. Configure the Analyzer
To Attach Cabinet Flanges with Front Handles to the Analyzer
(Option 1CP)
1. Ensure that the cabinet flange kit with
handles is complete.
2. Remove the side trim strips.
• (2) cabinet mount flanges
• (2) front handles
• (6) screws
3. Attach the cabinet mount flanges and the
handles to the sides of the front panel,
using three screws per side. (Attach the
flanges to the outside of the handles.)
WARNING
Chapter 1
4. Remove the feet and the tilt stands before
cabinet mounting the instrument.
If an instrument handle is
damaged, you should
replace it immediately.
Damaged handles can break
while you are moving or
lifting the instrument and
cause personal injury or
damage to the instrument.
1-19
Installing Your Analyzer
STEP 5. Verify the Analyzer Operation
STEP 5. Verify the Analyzer Operation
The following procedures show you how to check your analyzer for correct operation:
• viewing installed options
• initiating self-test
• running operator's check
• testing transmission mode
• testing reflection mode
NOTE
If the analyzer should fail any of the following tests, call the nearest Agilent
Technologies sales or service office to determine the type of warranty you
have. If repair is necessary, send the analyzer (and the EEPROM backup
disk) to the nearest Agilent Technologies service center with a description of
any failed test and any error message. Ship the analyzer using the original
packaging materials. Returning the analyzer in anything other than the
original packaging may result in non-warranted damage. A table listing of
Agilent Technologies sales and service offices is provided in Table 2-1 on
page 2-26.
NOTE
The illustrations depicting the analyzer display were made using an ES
model. Other analyzer displays may appear different, depending on model
and options.
1-20
Chapter 1
Installing Your Analyzer
STEP 5. Verify the Analyzer Operation
To View the Installed Options
1. Cycle the AC power using the LINE switch, or press System
FIRMWARE REVISION .
SERVICE MENU
2. Locate the serial number and configuration options. Compare them to the shipment
documents.
Chapter 1
1-21
Installing Your Analyzer
STEP 5. Verify the Analyzer Operation
To Initiate the Analyzer Self-Test
1. Cycle the AC power using the LINE switch.
2. Watch for the following indications that the analyzer is operating correctly:
1-22
Chapter 1
Installing Your Analyzer
STEP 5. Verify the Analyzer Operation
To Run the Operator's Check
1. Connect the equipment as shown.
2. Press Preset
System
SERVICE MENU TESTS
EXTERNAL TESTS EXECUTE TEST .
Follow the prompts shown on the analyzer
display and then press CONTINUE .
3. ET models only: Press
EXECUTE TEST . Follow the prompts
shown on the analyzer display and then
press CONTINUE .
3. ES models only: Press
EXECUTE TEST . Follow the prompts
shown on the analyzer display and then
press CONTINUE .
Chapter 1
1-23
Installing Your Analyzer
STEP 5. Verify the Analyzer Operation
To Test the Transmission Mode
1. Connect the equipment as shown and press
Preset .
NOTE
The test port return cable
should have low-loss
characteristics to avoid a
degradation in frequency
response at higher frequencies.
3. Look at the measurement trace displayed
on the analyzer. It should be similar to the
trace below.
1-24
2. To check the forward transmission mode for
channel 2, press Chan 2
Meas
Trans: FWD S21(B/R) or
TRANSMISSN .
4. ES models only: To check the reverse
transmission mode for channel 2, press
Meas Trans: REV S12 (A/R) .
The measurement trace should be similar
to the trace below.
Chapter 1
Installing Your Analyzer
STEP 5. Verify the Analyzer Operation
To Test the Reflection Mode
1. Connect the equipment as shown and
press Preset .
2. Look at the measurement trace displayed
on the analyzer. It should be similar to
the trace below.
3. ES models only: To check the reverse
reflection mode for channel 1, press
Meas Refl: REV S22 (B/R) .
The measurement trace should be similar
to the trace shown below.
4. If you are ready to start making
measurements, continue with Chapter 2 ,
“Quick Start: Learning How to Make
Measurements.”
Chapter 1
1-25
Installing Your Analyzer
STEP 6. Back Up the EEPROM Disk
STEP 6. Back Up the EEPROM Disk
Description
Correction constants are stored in EEPROM on the A7 controller assembly. The advantage
of having an EEPROM backup disk is the ability to store all the correction-constant data to
a new or repaired A7 assembly without having to rerun the correction-constant
procedures. The analyzer is shipped from the factory with an EEPROM backup disk which
is unique to each instrument. It is prudent to make a copy of the EEPROM backup disk so
that it can be used in case of failure or damage to the original backup disk.
Equipment
3.5-inch disk.............................................................................................92192A (box of 10)
CAUTION
Do not mistake the line switch for the disk eject button. If the line switch is
mistakenly pushed, the instrument will be turned off, losing all settings and
data that have not been saved.
EEPROM Backup Disk Procedure
1. Press Preset .
2. Insert a 3.5-inch disk into the analyzer disk drive.
3. If the disk is not formatted, press Save/Recall
FILE UTILITIES
FORMAT DISK .
• To format a LIF disk, select FORMAT:LIF (The supplied EEPROM backup disk is
LIF. The analyzer does not support LIF-HFS format.)
• To format a DOS disk, select FORMAT:DOS .
Press FORMAT INT DISK and answer YES at the query.
4. Press System SERVICE MENU SERVICE MODES MORE . Toggle STORE EEPR
to ON. Then press Save/Recall SELECT DISK INTERNAL DISK RETURN
SAVE STATE to store the correction-constants data onto floppy disk.
NOTE
1-26
A default file “FILE00” is created. The file name appears in the upper
left-hand corner of the display. The file type “ISTATE(E)” describes the file as
an instrument-state with EEPROM backup.
Chapter 1
Installing Your Analyzer
STEP 6. Back Up the EEPROM Disk
5. Press FILE UTILITIES RENAME FILE ERASE TITLE . Use the front panel knob
and the SELECT LETTER softkey to rename the file “FILE00” to “N12345” where
12345 represents the last 5 digits of the instrument's serial number. (The first character
in the file name must be a letter.) When finished, press DONE .
6. Label the disk with the serial number of the instrument, the date, and the words
“EEPROM Backup Disk.”
NOTE
Whenever the analyzer is returned to Agilent Technologies for servicing
and/or calibration, the EEPROM backup disk should be returned with the
analyzer. This will significantly reduce the instrument repair time.
7. The EEPROM backup disk procedure is now complete.
Chapter 1
1-27
2 Quick Start: Learning How to Make
Measurements
2-1
Quick Start: Learning How to Make Measurements
Introduction
Introduction
The information and procedures in this chapter teach you how to make measurements and
what to do if you encounter a problem with your analyzer. The following sections are
included:
• Analyzer Front Panel on page 2-3
• Measurement Procedure on page 2-5
• Learning to Make Transmission Measurements on page 2-6
• Learning to Make Reflection Measurements on page 2-13
• If You Encounter a Problem on page 2-23
NOTE
2-2
The illustrations depicting the analyzer display were made using an ES
model. Other analyzer displays may appear different, depending on model
and options.
Chapter 2
Quick Start: Learning How to Make Measurements
Analyzer Front Panel
Analyzer Front Panel
CAUTION
Do not mistake the line switch for the disk eject button. See the figure below.
If the line switch is mistakenly pushed, the instrument will be turned off,
losing all settings and data that have not been saved.
Figure 2-1 The Analyzer Front Panel
1. LINE switch. This switch controls AC power to the analyzer. 1 is on, 0 is off.
2. Display. This shows the measurement data traces, measurement annotation, and
softkey labels.
3. Disk drive. This 3.5-inch drive allows you to store and recall instrument states and
measurement results for later analysis.
4. Disk eject button. This button ejects the disk from the disk drive.
5. Softkeys. These keys provide access to menus that are shown on the display.
6.
Return key. This key returns the previous softkey menu shown on the display.
7. STIMULUS function block. The keys in this block allow you to control the analyzer
source's frequency, power, and other stimulus functions.
8. RESPONSE function block. The keys in this block allow you to control the
measurement and display functions of the active display channel.
Chapter 2
2-3
Quick Start: Learning How to Make Measurements
Analyzer Front Panel
9. ACTIVE CHANNEL keys. The analyzer has four independent display channels.
These keys allow you to select the active channel. Then any function you enter applies
to this active channel. Notice that the light next to the current active channel’s key is
illuminated.
10. The ENTRY block. This block includes the knob, the step
keys, and the
number pad. These allow you to enter numerical data and control the markers.
You can use the numeric keypad to select digits, decimal points, and a minus sign for
numerical entries. You must also select a units terminator to complete value inputs.
11. INSTRUMENT STATE function block. These keys allow you to control
channel-independent system functions such as the following:
• copying, save/recall, and GPIB controller mode
• limit testing
• tuned receiver mode
• frequency offset mode (Option 089)
• test sequence function
• time domain transform (Option 010)
GPIB STATUS indicators are also included in this block.
12. Preset key. This key returns the instrument to either a known factory preset state, or
a user preset state that can be defined. Refer to the “Preset State and Memory
Allocation” chapter in the Reference Guide for a complete listing of the instrument
preset condition.
13. R CHANNEL connectors. (ES models only) These connectors allow you to apply an
input signal to the analyzer's R channel, for frequency offset mode.
14. ES models only: PORT 1 and PORT 2. These ports output a signal from the source
and receive input signals from a device under test. PORT 1 allows you to measure S12
and S11. PORT 2 allows you to measure S21 and S22.
ET models only: REFLECTION and TRANSMISSION. The REFLECTION port
allows you to make reflection measurements, outputting a signal from the source and
receiving input signals from a device under test. The TRANSMISSION port allows you
to make transmission measurements, receiving input signals from a device under test.
2-4
Chapter 2
Quick Start: Learning How to Make Measurements
Measurement Procedure
Measurement Procedure
This is a general measurement procedure that is used throughout the guide to illustrate
the use of the analyzer.
Step 1. Choose measurement parameters with your test device
connected
• Press the Preset key to return the analyzer to a known state.
• Connect your device under test (DUT) to the analyzer.
CAUTION
Damage may result to the DUT if it is sensitive to the analyzer's default
output power level. To avoid damaging a sensitive DUT, be sure to set the
analyzer's output power to an appropriate level before connecting the DUT to
the analyzer.
• Choose the settings that are appropriate for the intended measurement.
❏ measurement type (S11 or reflection, for example)
❏ frequencies
❏ number of points
❏ power
❏ measurement trace format
• Make adjustments to the parameters while you are viewing the device response.
Step 2. Make a measurement calibration
Press the Cal key to begin to perform a measurement calibration using a known set of
standards (a calibration kit). Error-correction establishes a magnitude and phase
reference for the test setup and reduces systematic measurement errors.
Step 3. Measure the device
• Reconnect the device under test.
• Use the markers to identify various device response values if desired.
Step 4. Output measurement results
• Store the measurement file to a disk.
• Generate a hardcopy with a printer or plotter.
Chapter 2
2-5
Quick Start: Learning How to Make Measurements
Learning to Make Transmission Measurements
Learning to Make Transmission Measurements
This example procedure shows you how to measure the transmission response of a
10.24 GHz bandpass filter. The measurement parameters listed are unique to this
particular test device.
For further measurement examples, refer to the “Making Measurements” chapter in the
User's Guide.
Step 1. Choose the measurement parameters with your test device
connected
1. Press the Preset key to return the analyzer to a known state.
2. Connect your test device to the analyzer as shown in Figure 2-2. Use adapters where
appropriate.
CAUTION
Damage may result to the device under test if it is sensitive to the analyzer's
default output power level. To avoid damaging a sensitive DUT, be sure to set
the analyzer's output power to an appropriate level before connecting the
DUT to the analyzer.
Figure 2-2
Device Connections for a Transmission Measurement
3. Choose the following measurement settings:
Meas
Trans: FWD S21 (B/R) or TRANSMISSN
Center
Span
10.24
5
Scale Ref
Avg
G/n
G/n
AUTO SCALE
AVERAGING FACTOR
32
x1 . Toggle AVERAGING on OFF until ON is
displayed.
4. Look at the device response to determine if these are the parameters that you want for
your device measurement. For example, if the trace is noisy you may want to increase
the test port output power (which increases the analyzer input power), reduce the IF
bandwidth, or add averaging. Or, to better see an area of interest, you may want to
change the test frequencies.
2-6
Chapter 2
Quick Start: Learning How to Make Measurements
Learning to Make Transmission Measurements
Step 2. Perform a measurement calibration
1. Disconnect your test device from the analyzer.
2. Connect a “thru” between the measurement cables, as shown in Figure 2-3. Include all
the adapters that you will use in your device measurement.
If noise reduction techniques are needed for the measurement, the instrument's
settings (reduced IF BW, and /or averaging) should be selected prior to any
error-correction.
Figure 2-3 Connections for a “Thru” Calibration Standard
3. Press the following keys to make a transmission response calibration:
Cal
CALIBRATE MENU
RESPONSE
THRU
4. To save the error-correction (measurement calibration), press:
Save/Recall
SELECT DISK
5. Next, choose from the following options:
• Choose INTERNAL MEMORY if you want to save the calibration results and
instrument state to the analyzer's memory.
• Choose INTERNAL DISK if you want to save the calibration results and
instrument state to the disk that is in the analyzer's internal disk drive.
• Choose EXTERNAL DISK if you want to save the calibration results and
instrument state to the disk that is in an (optional) external disk drive that is
configured to the analyzer.
6. Press RETURN SAVE STATE to save the error-correction (measurement calibration).
NOTE
Chapter 2
Example procedures for all types of error-correction (measurement
calibrations) are located in the “Calibrating For Increased Measurement
Accuracy” chapter in the User's Guide. For information on the analyzer
operation during error-correction (measurement calibration), refer to the
“Operating Concepts” chapter in the User's Guide.
2-7
Quick Start: Learning How to Make Measurements
Learning to Make Transmission Measurements
Step 3. Measure the device
Measuring Insertion Loss
1. Reconnect your test device as in Figure 2-1 on page 2-3.
2. Reposition the measurement trace for the best view. This can be done by pressing
Scale Ref AUTO SCALE and, if necessary, adjusting the reference level, reference
position, or the scale/division.
3. Press Marker and turn the front panel knob to place the marker at a frequency of
interest. Read the device's insertion loss to 0.001 dB resolution as shown in Figure 2-4.
The analyzer shows the frequency of the marker location in the active entry area
(upper-left corner of display). The analyzer also shows the amplitude and frequency of
the marker location in the upper-right corner of the display.
Figure 2-4 Example Measurement of Insertion Loss
2-8
Chapter 2
Quick Start: Learning How to Make Measurements
Learning to Make Transmission Measurements
Step 4. Output measurement results
This example procedure shows how to output (store) measurement results to a disk.
For more information on creating a hardcopy of the measurement results, refer to
the "Printing, Plotting, and Saving Measurement Results" chapter in the User's Guide.
CAUTION
Do not mistake the line switch for the disk eject button. If the line switch is
mistakenly pushed, the instrument will be turned off, losing all settings and
data that have not been saved.
1. Insert a DOS- or LIF-formatted disk into the analyzer disk drive. The analyzer does not
support LIF-HFS (hierarchical file system).
2. Press Save/Recall SELECT DISK . Choose INTERNAL DISK to save the
measurement results to the analyzer's internal disk drive.
3. Press RETURN DEFINE DISK-SAVE .
• Toggle DATA ARRAY on OFF to ON if you want to store the error-corrected data on
disk with the instrument state.
• Toggle RAW ARRAY on OFF to ON if you want to store the raw data (ratioed and
averaged, but no error-correction) on disk with the instrument state.
• Toggle FORMAT ARY on OFF to ON if you want to store the formatted data on disk
with the instrument state.
• Toggle GRAPHICS on OFF to ON if you want to store user graphics on disk with
the instrument state.
• Toggle DATA ONLY on OFF to ON if you want to only store the measurement data
of the device under test. The analyzer will not store the instrument state and
error-correction (measurement calibration). Therefore, the saved data cannot be
retrieved into the analyzer.
NOTE
Toggling DATA ONLY on OFF to ON will override all of the other save
options. Because this type of data is only intended for computer
manipulation, the file contents of a DATA ONLY ON off save cannot be
recalled and displayed on the analyzer.
• Choose SAVE USING BINARY if you want to store data in a binary format.
• Choose SAVE USING ASCII if you want to store data in an ASCII format, to later
read on a computer.
4. Press RETURN SAVE STATE and the analyzer saves the file with a default title.
Chapter 2
2-9
Quick Start: Learning How to Make Measurements
Learning to Make Transmission Measurements
Measuring Other Transmission Characteristics
Using the analyzer marker functions, you can derive several important filter parameters
from the measurement trace that is shown on the analyzer display.
Measuring 3 dB Bandwidth.
The analyzer can calculate your test device bandwidth between two equal power levels. In
this example procedure, the analyzer calculates the −3 dB bandwidth relative to the center
frequency of the filter.
1. Press Marker and turn the front panel knob to move the marker to the center
frequency position of the filter passband. An alternative method is to press
Marker Search SEARCH: MAX which should put you very close to the center of the
passband.
You can also position the marker by entering a frequency location: for example, press
10.24
G/n .
2. Press Marker MKR ZERO to zero the delta marker magnitude and frequency (this
sets the delta marker reference). The −3 dB points will be relative to this marker.
The softkey label changes to MKR ZERO ∆ REF= ∆
reference point is the small ∆ symbol.
showing you that the delta
3. Press Marker Search to enter the marker search mode.
4. Toggle WIDTHS on OFF to ON.
The analyzer calculates the −3 dB bandwidth, the center frequency and the Q (quality
factor) of the test device and lists the results in the upper-right corner of the display.
Markers 3 and 4 indicate the location of the −3 dB points, as shown in Figure 2-5.
Figure 2-5
2-10
Example Measurement of 3 dB Bandwidth
Chapter 2
Quick Start: Learning How to Make Measurements
Learning to Make Transmission Measurements
5. Press WIDTH VALUE and enter −6
x1 .
The analyzer now calculates the bandwidth between −6 dB power levels.
6. Press Marker
MARKER all OFF when you are finished with this measurement.
Measuring Out-of-Band Rejection.
1. Press MARKER 1 . The marker appears where you placed it during the bandwidth
measurement.
2. Press MKR ZERO
Marker Search
SEARCH: MIN .
The marker automatically searches for the minimum point on the trace. The frequency
and amplitude of this point, relative to the delta symbol in the center of the filter
passband, appear in the upper-right corner of the display. This value is the difference
between the maximum power in the passband and the power in the rejection band, that
is, one of the peaks in the rejection band.
Figure 2-6
Example Measurement of Out-of-Band Rejection
NOTE
You can use the marker search mode to search the trace for the maximum
point or for any target value. The target value can be an absolute level (for
example, −3 dBm) or a level relative to the location of the small delta symbol
(for example: −3 dB from the center of the passband).
3. If your measurement needs some noise reduction, you can reduce the IF bandwidth or
add averaging.
• To reduce the IF bandwidth, press Avg
IF BW [ ]
.
• To add averaging, press Avg , then toggle AVERAGING on OFF to ON.
Chapter 2
2-11
Quick Start: Learning How to Make Measurements
Learning to Make Transmission Measurements
Measuring Passband Flatness or Ripple.
Passband flatness (or ripple) is the variation in insertion loss over a specified portion of the
passband.
Continue with the following steps to measure passband flatness or ripple.
and
1. Press Save/Recall (if necessary, scroll to the desired file using the
panel keys). Press RECALL STATE to recall the error-corrected transmission
measurement that has no markers engaged.
front
2. Press Marker and turn the front panel knob to move marker 1 to the left edge of the
passband.
3. Press ∆ MODE MENU
reference point.
∆ REF = 1 to change the marker 1 position to the delta
4. Press MARKER 2 and turn the front panel knob to move marker 2 to the right edge of
the passband.
5. Press Marker Fctn
MARKER MODE MENU , then toggle MKR STATS on OFF to ON.
The analyzer calculates the mean, standard deviation, and peak-to-peak variation
between the ∆ reference marker and the active marker, and lists the results in the
upper-right corner of the display. The passband ripple is automatically shown as the
peak-to-peak variation between the markers.
Figure 2-7
2-12
Example Measurement of Passband Flatness or Ripple
Chapter 2
Quick Start: Learning How to Make Measurements
Learning to Make Reflection Measurements
Learning to Make Reflection Measurements
This example procedure shows you how to measure the reflection response of a 10.24 GHz
bandpass filter. The measurement parameter values listed are unique to this particular
test device.
For further measurement examples, refer to the "Making Measurements" chapter in the
User's Guide.
NOTE
Reflection measurements monitor only one port of a test device. When a test
device has more than one port, you must ensure that the unused port(s) are
terminated in their characteristic impedance (for example, 50Ω or 75Ω). If
you do not terminate unused ports, reflections from these ports will cause
measurement errors. Figure 2-8 on page 2-14 illustrates two ways to
terminate an unused device port with the proper characteristic impedance.
The signal reflected from the device under test is measured as a ratio of the reflected
energy versus the incident energy. It can be expressed as reflection coefficient, return loss,
or standing-wave-ratio (SWR). These measurements are mathematically defined as
follows:
reflection coefficient (Γ)
= reflected voltage / incident voltage
= S11 or S22 (magnitude and phase)
magnitude of reflection
coefficient (ρ)
= |Γ|
return loss (dB)
= −20 log (ρ), where ρ = |Γ|
standing-wave-ratio (SWR)
= V maximum / V minimum
= (1 + ρ) / (1 − ρ)
Chapter 2
2-13
Quick Start: Learning How to Make Measurements
Learning to Make Reflection Measurements
Step 1. Choose measurement parameters with your test device
connected
1. Press the Preset key to return the analyzer to a known state.
2. Connect your test device as shown in Figure 2-8. If using a load, make sure it has the
correct characteristic impedance.
Damage may result to the device under test if it is sensitive to the analyzer's
default output power level. To avoid damaging a sensitive DUT, be sure to set
the analyzer's output power to an appropriate level before connecting the
DUT to the analyzer.
CAUTION
Figure 2-8 Connections for Reflection Measurements
3. Choose the following measurement parameters:
Meas
Refl: FWD S11 (A/R) or REFLECTION
Center
Span
10.24
1
Scale Ref
Avg
G/n
G/n
AUTO SCALE
AVERAGING FACTOR
32
x1 . Toggle AVERAGING on OFF to ON.
4. Look at the device response to determine if these are the measurement parameters that
you want. For example, if the trace is noisy, you may want to increase the input power,
reduce the IF bandwidth, or add averaging. To better see an area of interest, change the
test frequencies.
2-14
Chapter 2
Quick Start: Learning How to Make Measurements
Learning to Make Reflection Measurements
Step 2. Make a measurement calibration
Follow these instructions to perform an S11 or reflection 1-port error correction:
1. Select a calibration kit that is appropriate to your device under test. Press Cal
CAL KIT [ ] SELECT CAL KIT . Choose the calibration kit that is appropriate to
your test device by pressing the appropriate softkey. For example, if your test device
uses type-N 50Ω connectors, press N 50Ω . If your test device uses 7-mm connectors,
press 7mm , and so on.
2. Press RETURN twice, CALIBRATE MENU S11 1-PORT or
REFLECTION 1-PORT .
3. Follow the prompts shown on the analyzer display to connect and measure an open,
short, and load on PORT 1 or the REFLECTION port.
Any choice of male/female in the calibration process should always be made for the sex
that represents the test port. For example, if the test port had a male, type-N connector,
you would connect the female, type-N calibration device. But when you follow the
prompts on the analyzer to measure a short calibration standard, you would select
SHORT (M) , or the sex that represents the test port.
NOTE
To ensure an accurate error correction, you must connect the calibration
standards to the adapters or cables that you will include in the actual device
measurement.
NOTE
If a mistake is made, standards can be measured more than once before
pressing DONE 1-PORT CAL . Only the last measurement data is used.
Figure 2-9
Connections for an S11 or Reflection 1-Port Error-Correction
4. Press DONE 1-PORT CAL after measuring the three standards.
5. Press Save/Recall .
Chapter 2
2-15
Quick Start: Learning How to Make Measurements
Learning to Make Reflection Measurements
6. Press SAVE STATE to complete the process.
Step 3. Measure the device
Measuring Return Loss.
1. Connect your device to PORT 1 or the REFLECTION port.
2. Press Scale Ref
AUTO SCALE to reposition the trace.
3. Press Marker to read the return loss from the analyzer display as shown in
Figure 2-10.
The device response indicates that the filter and the analyzer impedances are better
matched within the frequency range of the filter passband than outside the passband.
That is, the reflected signal is smaller within the filter passband than outside the
passband.
In terms of return loss, the value within the passband is larger than outside the
passband. A large value for return loss corresponds to a small reflected signal just as a
large value for insertion loss corresponds to a small transmitted signal.
Figure 2-10 Example Measurement of Return Loss
2-16
Chapter 2
Quick Start: Learning How to Make Measurements
Learning to Make Reflection Measurements
Step 4. Output measurement results
This step in the procedure shows you how to output the measurement results to a printer.
For in-depth information on creating a hardcopy of the measurement results, refer to the
"Printing, Plotting, and Saving Measurement Results" chapter in the User's Guide.
1. Connect a printer to the analyzer as described in “To Configure the Analyzer with
Printers or Plotters” on page 1-11.
2. Press Display MORE TITLE ERASE TITLE and then create a title for the
measurement, as shown in Figure 2-11:
• Use an optional keyboard to type the title, or
• Use the front panel knob and the softkey menu to select each letter of the title.
3. Press DONE when you finish creating the measurement title. The title appears on the
upper-left corner of the analyzer display.
4. Press Local SYSTEM CONTROLLER to set up the analyzer as the controller. If you
are using an GPIB printer, ensure that there is not another controller on the bus. (Note
that this step is not required when using parallel or serial printers.)
5. Press Copy
NOTE
PRINT MONOCHROME to create a black and white hardcopy.
If you encounter a problem when printing a hardcopy, refer to “To Configure
the Analyzer with Printers or Plotters” on page 1-11.
Figure 2-11 Example Measurement Title
Chapter 2
2-17
Quick Start: Learning How to Make Measurements
Learning to Make Reflection Measurements
Measuring Other Reflection Characteristics
You can derive several important filter parameters from the measurement shown on the
analyzer display. The following set of procedures is a continuation of the previous
reflection measurement procedure.
Measuring Reflection Coefficient
1. Press Save/Recall RECALL STATE to recall the calibrated reflection measurement
that you saved earlier in this procedure.
2. Press Format LIN MAG Scale Ref AUTO SCALE so the analyzer shows the same
data in terms of reflection coefficient, as shown in Figure 2-12.
The units "mU" displayed on the analyzer are "milli-units," where "units" or "U" is used
to indicate that the parameter is unitless (as opposed to dB in log magnitude format).
For example, 200 mUnits = 0.2.
Figure 2-12 Example Reflection Coefficient Measurement Trace
2-18
Chapter 2
Quick Start: Learning How to Make Measurements
Learning to Make Reflection Measurements
Measuring Standing Wave Ratio (SWR)
Press Format SWR Scale Ref AUTO SCALE so the analyzer shows the same data in
terms of standing-wave-ratio (SWR), as shown in Figure 2-13.
Now the analyzer shows the measurement data in the unitless measure of SWR where
SWR = 1 (perfect match) is at the bottom of the display.
Figure 2-13 Example Standing-Wave-Ratio Measurement Trace
Chapter 2
2-19
Quick Start: Learning How to Make Measurements
Learning to Make Reflection Measurements
Measuring S11 and S22 or Reflection in a Polar Format.
1. Press Format POLAR .
2. Press Scale Ref AUTO SCALE to reposition the trace, as shown in Figure 2-14.
The analyzer shows the results of an S11 or reflection measurement with each point on
the polar trace corresponding to a particular value of both magnitude and phase. The
center of the circle represents a coefficient (Γ) of 0, (that is, a perfect match or no
reflected signal). The notation 2U FS or 2 units full scale indicates that the
outermost circumference of the scale shown in Figure 2-14 represents ρ = 2.00, or 200%
reflection. The phase angle is read directly from this display. The 3 o'clock position
corresponds to zero phase angle, (that is, the reflected signal is at the same phase as the
incident signal). Phase differences of 90°, 180°, and −90° correspond to the 12 o'clock,
9 o'clock, and 6 o'clock positions on the polar display, respectively.
3. Press Marker Fctn MARKER MODE MENU POLAR MKR MENU .
4. Turn the front panel knob to position the marker at any desired point on the trace, then
read the frequency, linear magnitude and phase in the upper right-hand corner of the
display.
• Choose LIN MKR if you want the analyzer to show the linear magnitude and the
phase of the marker.
• Choose LOG MKR if you want the analyzer to show the logarithmic magnitude and
the phase of the active marker. This is useful as a fast method of obtaining a reading
of the log-magnitude value without changing to log-magnitude format.
• Choose Re/Im MKR if you want the analyzer to show the values of the marker as a
real and imaginary pair.
NOTE
You can also enter the frequency of interest, from either the numeric keypad
or the optional attached keyboard, and read the magnitude and phase at that
point.
Figure 2-14 Example S11 or Reflection Measurement Trace in Polar Format
2-20
Chapter 2
Quick Start: Learning How to Make Measurements
Learning to Make Reflection Measurements
Measuring S11 and S22 or Reflection in a Smith Chart Format.
• Measuring Impedance
The amount of power reflected from a device is directly related to the impedance of the
device and the measuring system. Each value of the reflection coefficient (Γ) uniquely
defines a device impedance; Γ = 0 only occurs when the device and analyzer impedance are
exactly the same. The reflection coefficient for a short circuit is: Γ = 1 ∠ 180°. Every other
value for Γ also corresponds uniquely to a complex device impedance, according to the
equation:
ZL = [(1 + Γ) / (1 −Γ)]×Z0
where ZL is your test device impedance and Z0 is the measuring system's characteristic
impedance (usually 50Ω or 75Ω).
1. Press Format
SMITH CHART
Scale Ref
AUTO SCALE .
2. Press Marker Fctn MARKER MODE MENU SMITH MKR MENU and turn the front
panel knob to read the resistive and reactive components of the complex impedance at
any point along the trace, as shown in Figure 2-1 on page 2-3. Here the complex
impedance is 6.4729 – j7.5569 Ω. This is the default Smith chart marker.
The marker annotation also gives the series inductance or capacitance (132.87 pF in
this example). The complex impedance is capacitive in the bottom half of the Smith
chart display and is inductive in the top half of the display.
• Choose LIN MKR if you want the analyzer to show the linear magnitude and the
phase of the reflection coefficient at the marker.
• Choose LOG MKR if you want the analyzer to show the logarithmic magnitude and
the phase of the reflection coefficient at the active marker. This is useful as a fast
method of obtaining a reading of the log magnitude value without changing to log
magnitude format.
• Choose Re/Im MKR if you want the analyzer to show the values of the reflection
coefficient at the marker as a real and imaginary pair.
• Choose R+ jX MKR (the default marker format) to show the real and imaginary
parts of the device impedance at the marker. Also shown is the equivalent series
inductance or capacitance (the series resistance and reactance, in ohms).
Chapter 2
2-21
Quick Start: Learning How to Make Measurements
Learning to Make Reflection Measurements
Figure 2-15 Example Impedance Measurement Trace
• Measuring Admittance To change the display to an inverse Smith chart graticule and
the marker information to read admittance, press G+ jB MKR .
As shown in Figure 2-16, the marker reads admittance data in the form G+jB, where G is
conductance and B is susceptance, both measured in units of Siemens (equivalent to mhos:
the inverse of ohms). Also shown is the equivalent parallel capacitance or inductance.
Figure 2-16 Example Admittance Measurement Trace
2-22
Chapter 2
Quick Start: Learning How to Make Measurements
If You Encounter a Problem
If You Encounter a Problem
If you have difficulty when installing or using the analyzer, check the following list of
commonly encountered problems and troubleshooting procedures. If the problem that you
encounter is not in the following list, refer to additional troubleshooting sections in the
Service Guide.
Power-Up Problems
If the analyzer display does not light:
• Check that the power cord is fully seated in both the main power receptacle and the
analyzer power module.
• Check that the AC line voltage selector switch is in the appropriate position
(230 V/115 V) for your available power supply.
• Check that the analyzer AC line fuse is not open.
WARNING
For continued protection against fire hazard, replace the fuse with
the same type and rating.
Refer to Figure 2-17 to remove the fuse from the power module. You can use a
continuity light or an ohmmeter to check the fuse. An ohmmeter should read very close
to zero ohms if the fuse is good. For 115V operation, use Fuse, T 5A 125V, UL listed/CSA
certified to 248 standard (part number 2110-1059). For 230V operation, use Fuse, T 4A
H 250V, built to IEC 127-2/5 standard (part number 2110-1036).
• Contact the nearest Agilent Technologies office for service, if necessary. A list of Agilent
Technologies sales and service offices is provided in Table 2-1 on page 2-26.
Figure 2-17 Line Fuse Removal and Replacement
Chapter 2
2-23
Quick Start: Learning How to Make Measurements
If You Encounter a Problem
If the display lights, but the ventilation fan does not start:
❏ Check that the fan is not obstructed. To check the fan, follow these steps:
1. Switch the LINE power to the off position.
2. Check that the fan blades are not jammed.
❏ Contact the nearest Agilent Technologies office for service, if necessary. A list of Agilent
Technologies sales and service offices is provided in Table 2-1 on page 2-26.
Data Entry Problems
If the data entry controls (keypad, knob, arrow keys) do not respond:
❏ Check that the ENTRY OFF function is not enabled.
The ENTRY OFF function is enabled after you press the Entry Off key. To return to
normal entry mode, press any function key that has a numeric parameter associated
with it, for example, Start .
❏ Check that none of the keys are stuck.
❏ Check that the selected function key accepts data.
For example, Scale Ref accepts data, but System does not.
❏ Check that the analyzer's "R" GPIB STATUS light is not illuminated.
If the analyzer's "R" GPIB STATUS light is illuminated, a test sequence may be
running, or a connected computer controller may be sending commands or instructions
to, or receiving data from, the analyzer. Press Local if you want to return to LOCAL
control.
If the parameter you are trying to enter is not accepted by the analyzer:
❏ Ensure that you are not attempting to set the parameter greater than or less than its
limit. Refer to the User's Guide for parameter limits.
No RF Output
If there is no RF signal at the front-panel port:
❏ Check that the signal at the test port is switched on.
1. Press Power and toggle SOURCE PWR to ON.
NOTE
On ES models, it is possible to set the source power to come from PORT 2
instead of PORT 1, so you must check the power at the correct port. With
factory preset, the power comes from PORT 1.
❏ If you are applying external modulation (AM) to the analyzer, check the external
modulating signal or external gate/trigger signals for problems.
2-24
Chapter 2
Quick Start: Learning How to Make Measurements
If You Encounter a Problem
CAUTION
If the error message:
CAUTION: OVERLOAD ON INPUT X, POWER REDUCED
appears on the analyzer display, too much source power is being applied at
the input. In such a case, the input power will need to be reduced before the
source power will remain on.
❏ If phase-lock error messages appear on the analyzer display, check that the front panel
jumper is secure on the R CHANNEL connectors. If the jumper is secure and the error
messages still appear, contact your nearest Agilent Technologies office for service. A list
of Agilent Technologies sales and service offices is provided in Table 2-1 on page 2-26.
Chapter 2
2-25
Quick Start: Learning How to Make Measurements
If You Encounter a Problem
Table 2-1 Agilent Technologies Sales and Service Offices
UNITED STATES
Instrument Support Center
Agilent Technologies
(800) 403-0801
EUROPEAN FIELD OPERATIONS
Headquarters
Agilent Technologies S.A.
150, Route du Nant-d’Avril
1217 Meyrin 2/ Geneva
Switzerland
(41 22) 780.8111
France
Agilent Technologies France
1 Avenue Du Canada
Zone D’Activite De Courtaboeuf
F-91947 Les Ulis Cedex
France
(33 1) 69 82 60 60
Germany
Agilent Technologies GmbH
Agilent Technologies Strasse
61352 Bad Homburg v.d.H
Germany
(49 6172) 16-0
Great Britain
Agilent Technologies Ltd.
Eskdale Road, Winnersh
Triangle Wokingham,
Berkshire RG41 5DZ England
(44 118) 9696622
INTERCON FIELD OPERATIONS
Headquarters
Agilent Technologies
3495 Deer Creek Rd.
Palo Alto, CA 94304-1316
USA
(415) 857-5027
Japan
Agilent Technologies Japan,
Ltd.
Measurement Assistance
Center
9-1, Takakura-Cho,
Hachioji-Shi,
Tokyo 192-8510, Japan
TEL (81) -426-56-7832
FAX (81) -426-56-7840
Australia
Agilent Technologies Australia
Ltd.
31-41 Joseph Street
Blackburn, Victoria 3130
(61 3) 895-2895
Canada
Agilent Technologies (Canada)
Ltd.
17500 South Service Road
Trans-Canada Highway
Kirkland, Quebec H9J 2X8
Canada
(514) 697-4232
Singapore
Agilent Technologies Singapore
(Pte.) Ltd.
150 Beach Road
#29-00 Gateway West
Singapore 0718
(65) 291-9088
Taiwan
Agilent Technologies Taiwan
8th Floor, H-P Building
337 Fu Hsing North Road
Taipei, Taiwan
(886 2) 712-0404
China
China Agilent Technologies
38 Bei San Huan X1 Road
Shuang Yu Shu
Hai Dian District
Beijing, China
(86 1) 256-6888
2-26
Chapter 2
Index
Numerics
3 dB bandwidth
measuring, 2-10
6 dB bandwidth
measuring, 2-11
A
active channel keys
location, 2-4
admittance
measuring, 2-22
Agilent Technologies Sales and
Service Offices, 2-26
analyzer configuration, 1-9–1-19
attaching cabinet flanges with
front handles, 1-19
attaching cabinet flanges
without front handles, 1-18
attaching front handles, 1-17
for bench top use, 1-16
for rack mount use, 1-16
option 1D5, 1-10
standard, 1-10
with printers or plotters, 1-11
B
backing up EEPROM disk, 1-26
bench top configuration, 1-16
C
connectors
R channel, 2-4
D
definitions
magnitude of reflection
coefficient, 2-13
reflection coefficient, 2-13
return loss (dB), 2-13
standing-wave-ratio (SWR),
2-13
disk drive location, 2-3
disk eject button, 2-3
display location, 2-3
E
EEPROM backup disk, 1-26
electrical and environmental
requirements, 1-7
entry block location, 2-4
F
front panel, 1-5, 2-3
Index
H
high stability frequency reference
configuration, 1-10
I
impedance
measuring, 2-21
insertion loss
measuring, 2-8
installation, 1-2
instrument state function block
keys, 2-4
L
line switch, 2-3
location
active channel keys, 2-4
disk drive, 2-3
disk eject button, 2-3
display, 2-3
entry block, 2-4
instrument state function block
keys, 2-4
line switch, 2-3
PORT 1, 2-4
PORT 2, 2-4
Preset key, 2-4
R channel connectors, 2-4
REFLECTION port, 2-4
response function block keys,
2-3
Return key, 2-3
softkeys, 2-3
stimulus function block keys,
2-3
TRANSMISSION port, 2-4
M
making measurements, 2-1–2-22
measurement procedure, 2-5
choosing measurement
parameters, 2-5
measuring a device, 2-5
outputting measurement
results, 2-5
performing a measurement
calibration, 2-5
measuring insertion loss with
marker functions, 2-10
O
operation, 1-20–1-25
installed options, 1-21
operator’s check, 1-23
self-test, 1-22
testing reflection mode, 1-25
testing transmission mode, 1-24
operator’s check, 1-23
out-of-band rejection
measuring, 2-11
P
parts list
parts received, 1-4
passband flatness
measuring, 2-12
passband ripple
measuring, 2-12
plotter configuration, 1-11
polar format
measuring, 2-20
PORT 1
location, 2-4
PORT 2
location, 2-4
Preset key
location, 2-4
printer configuration, 1-11
problems, data entry, 2-24
controls do not respond, 2-24
parameters not accepted, 2-24
problems, power-up, 2-23–2-24
display does not light, 2-23
display lights but fan does not
start, 2-24
problems, RF output, 2-24
no RF signal at front panel port,
2-24
R
R channel connectors
location, 2-4
rack mount configuration, 1-16
rear panel, 1-6
reflection measurements,
2-13–2-22
admittance, 2-22
choosing measurement
parameters, 2-14
impedance, 2-21
measuring in polar format, 2-20
measuring in smith chart
format, 2-21
measuring reflection coefficient,
2-18
measuring return loss, 2-16
measuring standing wave ratio
(SWR), 2-19
measuring the device, 2-16
outputting measurement
results, 2-17
1
Index
performing a measurement
calibration, 2-15
REFLECTION port
location, 2-4
requirements
electrical and environmental,
1-7
response function block keys
location, 2-3
Return key, location, 2-3
return loss
measuring, 2-16
S
Sales and Service Offices, 2-26
shipment, verifying, 1-3
smith chart, 2-21
smith chart format
measuring, 2-21
softkeys, location, 2-3
standard analyzer configuration,
1-10
standing wave ratio (SWR)
measuring, 2-19
stimulus function block keys
location, 2-3
T
transmission measurements,
2-6–2-12
3 dB bandwidth, 2-10
6 dB bandwidth, 2-11
choosing the measurement
parameters, 2-6
insertion loss, 2-8
measuring insertion loss with
marker functions, 2-10
measuring the device, 2-8
out-of-band rejection, 2-11
outputting measurement
results, 2-9
passband flatness, 2-12
passband ripple, 2-12
performing a measurement
calibration, 2-7
TRANSMISSION port
location, 2-4
troubleshooting, 2-23–2-25
V
verifying the shipment, 1-3
2
Index
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