User`s guide | Agilent Technologies E4406A Satellite Radio User Manual

User’s Guide
Agilent Technologies
E4406A VSA Series
Transmitter Tester
Manufacturing Part Number: E4406-90177
Supersedes E4406-90145
Printed in USA
September 2001
© Copyright 1999 - 2001 Agilent Technologies, Inc.
The information contained in this document is subject to change
without notice.
Agilent Technologies makes no warranty of any kind with regard to this
material, including but not limited to, the implied warranties of
merchantability and fitness for a particular purpose. Agilent
Technologies shall not be liable for errors contained herein or for
incidental or consequential damages in connection with the furnishing,
performance, or use of this material.
Safety Information
The following safety notes are used throughout this manual.
Familiarize yourself with these notes before operating this instrument.
WARNING
Warning denotes a hazard. It calls attention to a procedure
which, if not correctly performed or adhered to, could result in
injury or loss of life. Do not proceed beyond a warning note
until the indicated conditions are fully understood and met.
CAUTION
Caution denotes a hazard. It calls attention to a procedure that, if not
correctly performed or adhered to, could result in damage to or
destruction of the instrument. Do not proceed beyond a caution sign
until the indicated conditions are fully understood and met.
WARNING
This is a Safety Class 1 Product (provided with a protective
earth ground incorporated in the power cord). The mains plug
shall be inserted only in a socket outlet provided with a
protected earth contact. Any interruption of the protective
conductor inside or outside of the product is likely to make the
product dangerous. Intentional interruption is prohibited.
WARNING
No operator serviceable parts inside. Refer servicing to
qualified personnel. To prevent electrical shock do not remove
covers.
CAUTION
Always use the three-prong AC power cord supplied with this product.
Failure to ensure adequate grounding may cause product damage.
2
Warranty
This Agilent Technologies instrument product is warranted against
defects in material and workmanship for a period of three years from
date of shipment. During the warranty period, Agilent Technologies
Company will, at its option, either repair or replace products that prove
to be defective.
For warranty service or repair, this product must be returned to a
service facility designated by Agilent Technologies. Buyer shall prepay
shipping charges to Agilent Technologies and Agilent Technologies shall
pay shipping charges to return the product to Buyer. However, Buyer
shall pay all shipping charges, duties, and taxes for products returned
to Agilent Technologies from another country.
Agilent Technologies warrants that its software and firmware
designated by Agilent Technologies for use with an instrument will
execute its programming instructions when properly installed on that
instrument. Agilent Technologies does not warrant that the operation of
the instrument, or software, or firmware will be uninterrupted or
error-free.
LIMITATION OF WARRANTY
The foregoing warranty shall not apply to defects resulting from
improper or inadequate maintenance by Buyer, Buyer-supplied
software or interfacing, unauthorized modification or misuse, operation
outside of the environmental specifications for the product, or improper
site preparation or maintenance.
NO OTHER WARRANTY IS EXPRESSED OR IMPLIED. AGILENT
TECHNOLOGIES SPECIFICALLY DISCLAIMS THE IMPLIED
WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A
PARTICULAR PURPOSE.
EXCLUSIVE REMEDIES
THE REMEDIES PROVIDED HEREIN ARE BUYER’S SOLE AND
EXCLUSIVE REMEDIES. AGILENT TECHNOLOGIES SHALL NOT
BE LIABLE FOR ANY DIRECT, INDIRECT, SPECIAL, INCIDENTAL,
OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES, WHETHER BASED ON
CONTRACT, TORT, OR ANY OTHER LEGAL THEORY.
3
4
Contents
1. Getting Started
What Documentation Comes with the E4406A VSA Series Transmitter Tester . . . . . . . . . .
URL for the Latest VSA Transmitter Tester Update . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Understanding Digital Communications Measurements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Updating the Firmware . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Making a Measurement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Front Panel Keys Context Dependency. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Front Panel Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Rear Panel Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Display Annotation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Installing Optional Measurement Personalities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Available Personality Options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Loading the Optional Personality . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Viewing a License Key . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Installing a License Key . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Using the Uninstall Key . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Cables for Connecting to the Serial Port
(RS-232) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Safety Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Instrument Installation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Instrument Operation and Maintenance. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
41
47
47
48
2. Using System Features
Using System Keys . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Install and Uninstall. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Key Locations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Using Print and Print Setup Functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Printing a Displayed Screen . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Printing a Screen Image to a File on A: or C: Drives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Using File and Save Keys . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Loading a State . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Saving a State . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Using the Alpha Editor Keys . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Using Input/Output Configuration Keys . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Configuring I/O . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
File System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Reference . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Using System Configuration and Alignment Keys . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Restore System Defaults. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Show Errors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Show System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
System (Local) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Alignment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
52
52
53
63
63
65
67
67
67
68
69
69
71
71
73
73
73
74
76
77
15
17
17
18
19
20
24
30
33
36
36
37
38
39
39
5
Contents
3.Setting the Mode
Selecting a Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .82
Mode Setup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .83
Input Keys . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .83
Trigger Keys . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .85
Selecting the Frequency/Channel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .86
4. Making Measurements
Basic Measurements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .88
Preparing for Measurements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .89
Initial Setup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .89
Using Measure Keys . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .89
Measurement Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .90
Measurement Setup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .90
Changing the View . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .93
Using Markers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .95
Making the Spectrum (Frequency Domain) Measurement. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .97
Purpose . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .97
Measurement Method . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .97
Making the Measurement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .97
Results . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .98
Changing the Measurement Setup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .99
Changing the View . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .103
Changing the Display. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .105
Using the Markers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .108
Troubleshooting Hints . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .109
Making the Waveform (Time Domain) Measurement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .110
Purpose . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .110
Measurement Method . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .110
Making the Measurement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .110
Results . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .111
Changing the Measurement Setup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .113
Changing the View . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .116
Changing the Display. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .118
Using the Markers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .120
Troubleshooting Hints . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .121
Making the Adjacent Channel Power (ACP) Measurement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .122
Purpose . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .122
Measurement Method . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .122
Making the Measurement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .123
Results . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .123
Changing the Measurement Setup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .124
Changing the View . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .128
Troubleshooting Hints . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .130
Making the Channel Power Measurement. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .131
Purpose . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .131
Measurement Method . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .131
Making the Measurement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .132
Results . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .132
6
Contents
Changing the Measurement Setup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Changing the Display . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Using the Marker . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Troubleshooting Hints . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Making the Power Stat CCDF Measurement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Purpose . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Measurement Method . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Making the Measurement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Results . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Changing the Measurement Setup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Changing the View . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Changing the Display . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Using the Markers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Troubleshooting Hints . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Service Measurements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Timebase Frequency . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Purpose . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Measurement Method . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Test Setup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Results . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
50 MHz Amplitude . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Purpose . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Measurement Method . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Test Setup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Results . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Sensors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Purpose . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Measurement Method . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Test Setup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Results . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Front Panel Test . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Purpose . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Test Setup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Results . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Troubleshooting Hints . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Service Power vs. Time Measurement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Purpose . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Using Baseband I/Q Inputs (Option B7C) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
What are Baseband I/Q Inputs? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
What are Baseband I/Q Signals? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Why Make Measurements at Baseband?. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Making Measurements with Baseband I/Q Inputs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Baseband I/Q Measurement Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Selecting Input Probes for Baseband Measurements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Selecting Baseband I/Q Inputs. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Selecting Baseband I/Q Input Connectors. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Setting Up Baseband I/Q Inputs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Baseband I/Q Measurement Views . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Baseband I/Q Measurement Result Examples . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
133
135
135
135
136
136
136
137
137
138
139
139
140
140
141
142
142
142
142
143
144
144
144
144
145
146
146
146
146
146
148
148
148
149
149
150
150
151
152
153
153
154
155
156
159
159
161
165
168
7
Contents
Baseband I/Q Key Access Locations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .172
BbIQ Programming Commands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .174
5. If You Have a Problem
Problem Symptoms and Solutions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .180
Key or Feature Does Not Appear in Menu . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .180
Frequency Unlock or External Reference Missing - Error Messages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .181
LAN External Loopback Test Failed - Error Message . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .181
Instrument Fails Alignment - Error Message . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .181
Measurement Keys Do Not Appear after Pressing the Mode Key . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .182
Instrument Power-On Problem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .182
LAN Communication Problem. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .182
Instrument Keyboard is Locked . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .182
Agilent Technologies Test and Measurement Support, Services, and Assistance . . . . . . . . .183
Returning Your Instrument to Agilent Technologies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .184
6. Options and Accessories
Options and Measurement Personalities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .186
Option BAH: GSM Measurement Personality . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .186
Option BAC: cdmaOne Measurement Personality . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .186
Option BAE: NADC/PDC Measurement Personalities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .186
Option HN1: iDEN Measurement Personality . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .187
Option BAF: W-CDMA Measurement Personality . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .187
Option B78: cdma2000 Measurement Personality . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .187
Option B7C: Baseband IQ Measurement Personality . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .188
Option 202: EDGE (with GSM) Measurement Personality . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .188
Option 300: 321.4 MHz IF Output . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .189
Option 252: Retrofit EDGE to Existing GSM Measurement Personality . . . . . . . . . . . . . .189
Option 0B1: Additional Copy of Manuals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .189
Option 0BV: Component-level Service Documentation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .190
Option 0BW: Assembly-level Service Documentation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .190
Option 1CM: Rack Mount Kit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .190
Option 1CN: Handles Kit. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .190
Option 1CP: Rack Mount with Handles Kit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .190
Option 1CR: Rack Slide Kit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .190
VSA Transmitter Tester Measurement Personalities Retrofit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .190
Accessories . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .191
AC Probe . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .191
Broadband Preamplifiers and Power Amplifiers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .191
GPIB Cable . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .191
Parallel Interface Cable . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .191
Printer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .191
RS-232 Cables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .192
N2714A Calibration and Adjustment Software . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .192
8
List of Keys
Linear Envelope ..................................................................................................................................166
10 MHz Out ............................................................................................................................................72
50 MHz Amplitude...............................................................................................................................144
50 MHz Ref.............................................................................................................................................83
Advanced ................................................................................................................................................90
Align 50 MHz Reference ........................................................................................................................78
Align ADC ..............................................................................................................................................78
Align All Now .........................................................................................................................................77
Align Current IF Flatness .....................................................................................................................78
Align Current SysGain ..........................................................................................................................78
Align IF ..................................................................................................................................................78
Align RF .................................................................................................................................................78
Align Subsystem ....................................................................................................................................78
Alignments .............................................................................................................................................77
Alpha Editor...........................................................................................................................................68
Auto Align ..............................................................................................................................................77
Auto Trig ................................................................................................................................................85
Average ...................................................................................................................................................90
Avg Bursts ..............................................................................................................................................91
Avg Mode ................................................................................................................................................91
Avg Number ...........................................................................................................................................91
Avg Type.................................................................................................................................................91
Band Power ............................................................................................................................................96
Baseband Align Signal (ON OFF).......................................................................................................160
Basic .......................................................................................................................................................82
cdmaOne.................................................................................................................................................82
Clear Error Queue(s) .............................................................................................................................74
Color Print..............................................................................................................................................63
Color Printer ..........................................................................................................................................63
Config I/O ...............................................................................................................................................69
Corrections .............................................................................................................................................79
Current ...................................................................................................................................................93
Custom. ..................................................................................................................................................63
Define Custom........................................................................................................................................63
Delay.......................................................................................................................................................85
Delta .......................................................................................................................................................96
Eject Page ...............................................................................................................................................63
Emulated GPIB Address .......................................................................................................................71
Emulated GPIB Logical Unit ................................................................................................................70
Emulated GPIB Name...........................................................................................................................70
ESC .........................................................................................................................................................77
Ethernet Addr ........................................................................................................................................71
Ext Front ................................................................................................................................................86
Ext Rear .................................................................................................................................................86
File Location...........................................................................................................................................65
Frame Timer ..........................................................................................................................................86
Frame .....................................................................................................................................................92
Free Run.................................................................................................................................................92
Freq Ref ..................................................................................................................................................71
9
List of Keys
Front Panel Test...................................................................................................................................148
GPIB Address .........................................................................................................................................69
GSM ........................................................................................................................................................82
HCOPy Dest ...........................................................................................................................................65
Host Name..............................................................................................................................................70
I Offset ..................................................................................................................................................161
I Only ....................................................................................................................................................159
I/Q Input Z............................................................................................................................................162
I/Q INPUT ............................................................................................................................................103
I/Q Range..............................................................................................................................................161
I/Q Setup...............................................................................................................................................161
I/Q Z Ref for Input Z = 1M Ω............................................................................................................................ 162
IF Align...................................................................................................................................................83
Image ......................................................................................................................................................65
Input Atten .............................................................................................................................................84
Input Port ...............................................................................................................................................83
install ......................................................................................................................................................36
Instrument Logical Unit........................................................................................................................70
Instrument Name...................................................................................................................................70
Invert ......................................................................................................................................................65
IP Address ..............................................................................................................................................70
Landscape...............................................................................................................................................63
Language, ...............................................................................................................................................63
Level........................................................................................................................................................85
License Key ............................................................................................................................................38
Line .........................................................................................................................................................92
Load State ..............................................................................................................................................67
Log-Pwr Avg ...........................................................................................................................................91
Marker All Off ........................................................................................................................................96
Max Total Pwr ........................................................................................................................................84
Maximum Connections ..........................................................................................................................70
Maximum................................................................................................................................................91
Minimum ................................................................................................................................................91
Noise .......................................................................................................................................................96
Normal ....................................................................................................................................................95
Offset.......................................................................................................................................................86
Orientation .............................................................................................................................................63
PCL3 .......................................................................................................................................................63
PCL5 .......................................................................................................................................................63
Peak Level ..............................................................................................................................................85
Period ......................................................................................................................................................86
Portrait ...................................................................................................................................................63
Pos ...........................................................................................................................................................85
Printer ....................................................................................................................................................65
Pwr Avg ..................................................................................................................................................91
Q Offset.................................................................................................................................................162
Q Only...................................................................................................................................................159
Ref Position.............................................................................................................................................94
Ref Value.................................................................................................................................................93
10
List of Keys
Reference ................................................................................................................................................71
Reprint....................................................................................................................................................63
Res BW ...................................................................................................................................................90
Reset Offset Display ..............................................................................................................................86
Restore Align Defaults...........................................................................................................................79
Restore Meas Defaults...........................................................................................................................90
Resume ...................................................................................................................................................90
RF Burst (Wideband).............................................................................................................................85
RF ...........................................................................................................................................................83
Save State...............................................................................................................................................67
Scale/Coupling .......................................................................................................................................94
Scale/Div.................................................................................................................................................93
SCPI LAN...............................................................................................................................................70
Select ......................................................................................................................................................96
Sensors .................................................................................................................................................146
Server .....................................................................................................................................................70
Service ....................................................................................................................................................82
Shape ......................................................................................................................................................96
Show Errors ...........................................................................................................................................73
SICL Server............................................................................................................................................70
Signal Amptd .........................................................................................................................................84
Signal Type ............................................................................................................................................84
Slope .......................................................................................................................................................85
Socket Port .............................................................................................................................................70
Span........................................................................................................................................................93
Sweep Time ............................................................................................................................................93
Sync Source ............................................................................................................................................86
Telnet Port..............................................................................................................................................70
Time Corr ...............................................................................................................................................79
Timebase Frequency ............................................................................................................................142
Trace .......................................................................................................................................................95
Trig Holdoff ............................................................................................................................................85
Trigger ....................................................................................................................................................85
Verbose ...................................................................................................................................................74
Video (IF Envlp) .....................................................................................................................................85
Visible Align ...........................................................................................................................................79
Voltage Avg.............................................................................................................................................91
11
List of Keys
12
1
Getting Started
This chapter introduces you to basic features of the instrument,
including front panel keys, rear panel connections, and display
annotation. You will also find out how to make a basic measurement
and install applications.
13
Getting Started
Topics include:
“What Documentation Comes with the E4406A VSA Series
Transmitter Tester” on page 15.
“Making a Measurement” on page 19.
“Front Panel Keys Context Dependency” on page 20.
“Front Panel Description” on page 24.
“Rear Panel Description” on page 30.
“Display Annotation” on page 33.
“Installing Optional Measurement Personalities” on page 36.
“Safety Considerations” on page 47.
“Cables for Connecting to the Serial Port (RS-232)” on page 41.
14
Chapter 1
Getting Started
What Documentation Comes with the E4406A VSA Series Transmitter Tester
What Documentation Comes with the E4406A
VSA Series Transmitter Tester
With your purchase of the instrument you receive the following
materials:
Table 1-1
Standard Documentation
Part Description
Notes
User’s Guide
Does not include operational
information on the optional
measurement personalities.
Specifications
Includes specifications for the
transmitter tester and all optional
measurement personalities. (Special
options will be documented elsewhere.)
Programmer’s Guide
Does not include commands for the
optional measurement personalities
Documentation CD-ROM
Includes programming examples. Does
not include service documentation or
software
An E4406A standard instrument contains the Basic and Service modes,
which are described in the User’s Guide.
If you have purchased an optional measurement personality, your
instrument comes loaded with the personality you have selected plus
the Basic and Service modes. You also receive the related guide,
containing measurement and programming information, for the
personality you have ordered.
Chapter 1
15
Getting Started
What Documentation Comes with the E4406A VSA Series Transmitter Tester
Table 1-2
Personality Documentation
Measurement Option
Part Description
Option BAC
cdmaOne Guide
Option BAH
GSM Guide
Option 202
EDGE (w/GSM) Guide
Option BAE
NADC, PDC Guide
Option BAF
W-CDMA Guide
Option B78
cdma2000 Guide
Service documentation is also available from Agilent Technologies.
NOTE
If the shipping container is damaged, or any part is missing, notify
Agilent Technologies (see page 184 for locations). When transporting
the instrument use the original or comparable packaging.
16
Chapter 1
Getting Started
What Documentation Comes with the E4406A VSA Series Transmitter Tester
URL for the Latest VSA Transmitter Tester Update
For the latest information about this instrument, including firmware
upgrades, application information, and product information, please
visit the following URL: www.agilent.com/find/vsa/.
Understanding Digital Communications
Measurements
Additional measurement application information is available through
your local Agilent Technologies sales and service office. See the “If You
Have a Problem” chapter for office location information. Some available
application notes are listed below.
Description
Agilent Part
Number
Digital Modulation in Communications Systems An Introduction, Application Note 1298
5965-7160E
Understanding CDMA Measurements for Base
Stations and Their Components, Application Note
1311
5968-0953E
Understanding GSM Transmitter Measurements,
5968-2320E
Application Note 1312
HPSK Spreading for 3G
5968-8438E
Agilent E4406A VSA Series Transmitter Tester
5968-7617E
Self-Guided Tour
Designing and Testing 3GPP W-CDMA Base Stations,
5980-1239E
Application Note 1355
Designing and Testing 3GPP W-CDMA User Equip-
5980-1238E
ment, Application Note 1356
Designing and Testing IS-2000 Base Stations,
Application Note 1357
5980-1303E
Designing and Testing IS-2000 Mobile Stations,
Application Note 1358
5980-1237E
Understanding PDC and NADC Transmitter
Measurements for Base Transceiver Stations and
Mobile Stations, Application Note 1324
5968-5537E
Chapter 1
17
Getting Started
What Documentation Comes with the E4406A VSA Series Transmitter Tester
Updating the Firmware
Updated versions of the E4406A VSA Transmitter Tester firmware will
be available from several sources. Information on the latest firmware
revision can be accessed through the following URL.
URL to Contact to Obtain Firmware Update Information
www.agilent.com/find/vsa/
18
Chapter 1
Getting Started
Making a Measurement
Making a Measurement
This instrument enables you to make a wide variety of measurements
on digital communications equipment using the Basic Mode
measurement capabilities. It also has optional measurement
personalites that make measurements based on industry standards.
To set up the instrument to make measurements, you need to:
1. Select a mode or personality which corresponds to a digital
communications format, like cdma2000, W-CDMA, or EDGE. Use
the Basic mode to make measurements of signals with non-standard
formats. After selection of the mode, adjustments to the mode
settings may be made as required.
2. Select a specific measurement to be performed, like ACP, Channel
Power, or EVM, etc. After selection of a measurement, adjustments
to the measurement settings may be made as required.
Depending on Measurement Control settings, the instrument will
begin making the selected measurements. The resulting data will be
shown on the display or available for export.
3. Select a front panel View to display the data from the current
measurement. Depending on the mode and measurement selected,
various graphical and tabular presentations are available.
If you have a problem, and get an error message, see the E4406A VSA
Transmitter Tester Instrument Messages and Functional Tests Guide.
The main keys used in the three steps are shown in the table below.
Step
Primary Key
Setup Keys
Related Keys
1. Select & setup a
mode
MODE
Mode Setup, Input,
FREQUENCY/
Channel
System
2. Select & setup a
measurement
MEASURE
Meas Setup
Meas Control, Restart
3. Select & setup a
view
View/Trace
SPAN X Scale,
AMPLITUDE Y Scale,
Display, Zoom ,
Next Window
File, Save, Print, Print
Setup, Marker, Search
A setting may be reset at any time, and will be in effect on the next
measurement cycle or View.
Chapter 1
19
Getting Started
Front Panel Keys Context Dependency
Front Panel Keys Context Dependency
Many of the instrument features are context dependent. The functions
that are available will change based on your selections of mode, mode
setup, measurement, and measurement setup. The following figures
represent the dependency relationships of the front panel keys.
Figure 1-1
System and Navigation Keys are not Context Dependent
System
Navigation
Window
Next
Window
20
Zoom
System
Preset
File
Print
Setup
Save
Print
Tab
Return
Esc
Chapter 1
Getting Started
Front Panel Keys Context Dependency
Figure 1-2
These Features are Dependent on the Selected Mode and the
Mode Setup
MODE
Service
GSM
cdmaOne
Mode
Setup
MEASURE
Radio
Standard: TIA-95B PCS
Device: MS, BS
Input
Waveform (Time Domain)
Spectrum (Freq Domain)
Spurious Close
Channel Power
Trigger
Demod
Averaging
Meas
Setup
View/
Trace
RF Chan
Trigger Source
Frame
Advanced
M
e
n
u
s
Statistics View
Spectrum View
I/Q View
Limits
SPAN
X Scale
Display
Meas
Control
Restart
AMPLITUDE
FREQUENCY
Y Scale
Channel
Input
Marker
Marker
Chapter 1
Search
21
Getting Started
Front Panel Keys Context Dependency
Figure 1-3
These Features are Dependent on the Selected Measurement
and the Measurement Setup
*
MEASURE
Waveform (Time Domain)
Spectrum (Freq Domain)
Spurious Close
Channel Power
Meas
Setup
View/
Trace
*
Averaging
Trigger Source
Advanced
M
e
n
u
s
Statistics View
Spectrum View
I/Q View
Limits
SPAN
X Scale
Display
Meas
Control
Restart
AMPLITUDE
Y Scale
Marker
Marker
Search
* Some Measureand Meas Setupparameters are context dependent upon the
Radio variant and Device selected in the Mode Setup.
22
Chapter 1
Chapter 1
Navigation
Next
Window
Zoom
Window
Marker
Tab
Search
Marker
Meas
Control
Limits
Return
Esc
Channel
Restart
Advanced
Input
Frame
RF Chan
Demod
Trigger
FREQUENCY
M
e
n
u
s
Trigger Source
Input
Standard: TIA-95B PCS
Device: MS, BS
Radio
Y Scale
Display
Meas
Setup
Mode
Setup
AMPLITUDE
X Scale
SPAN
Statistics View
Spectrum View
I/Q View
View/
Trace
Averaging
MEASURE
Save
File
System
Print
Print
Setup
Preset
System
Figure 1-4
Waveform (Time Domain)
Spectrum (Freq Domain)
Spurious Close
Channel Power
Service
GSM
cdmaOne
MODE
Getting Started
Front Panel Keys Context Dependency
Front Panel Keys Context Dependent Relationships
23
Getting Started
Front Panel Description
Front Panel Description
Key menus may vary depending on the currently selected mode or
measurement. Softkeys which are not available for use are greyed-out.
Keys may be greyed-out as a result of:
the current setting of other inter-related functions,
not having a required password or license key, or
not having some piece of optional hardware that is required.
Paths to access any feature will be found in the key access table on
page 53. Display annotation is explained on page 33. Operation of the
3.5 inch floppy-drive is covered in the section on printing on page 63.
1. ESC key
Use the escape key to exit any function without
modifying current parameters. Pressing the ESC key
will:
• Clear any numeric entry that you have begun to
enter but decided you want to cancel.
• Remove any entries that are visible in the active
function area of the display (see the section on
annotation on page 33 for a description of the active
function area and other display features).
• Cancels an alignment if one is in progress.
2. Control keys
Sets parameters that are used by the measurement in
the current measurement mode.
24
Chapter 1
Getting Started
Front Panel Description
• FREQUENCY/Channel accesses softkeys that control
the center frequency or channel number. These
parameters apply to all measurements in the
current mode.
• SPAN/X Scale accesses softkeys that control the
horizontal scale in units of frequency, time, symbols
or bits. The parameters in this menu apply only to
the active window in the current measurement. See
page 93 for more detail.
• AMPLITUDE/Y Scale accesses softkeys that control
vertical scale functions in units of dBm, dB, volts,
degrees, or radians. The parameters in this menu
apply only to the active window in the current
measurement. See page 93 for more detail.
3. Input key
The Input key accesses softkeys that control the input of
the transmitter tester. These affect all measurements
within the current mode. Note that the internal
50 MHz reference signal and the IF align signal are
used as internal inputs that do not require external
connections. See page 73 for more detail.
4. View keys
View keys modify the format of the trace and numeric
data on the display. See page 93 for more detail.
• View/Trace accesses softkeys that control the way
results are viewed.
• Display accesses softkeys that change the display.
Functions such as limit mask on/off and dots on/off
are available for some measurements.
5. Measure keys are used to select and set up a specific measurement
within the selected application. See page 89 for more
detail.
• MEASURE accesses softkeys that select and initiate
the various measurements that are specific to the
current mode.
• Meas Setup accesses the setup parameters that are
specific to the current measurement.
• Restart causes the measurement that is currently in
process to stop, then start again at the beginning
according to the current measurement setup
parameters.
• Meas Control accesses softkeys that affect the
measurement after it has been setup, for example
selecting a single or continuous measurement.
Chapter 1
25
Getting Started
Front Panel Description
6. Mode keys select the measurement mode and mode parameters
See page 83 for more detail.
• MODE accesses softkeys to select the instrument
mode. Each mode is independent of all other modes.
• Mode Setup accesses softkeys that affect parameters
that are specific to the current mode and affect all
measurements within that mode.
7. System keys access system features, that are used with all
instrument modes. See page 52 for further explanation
of system features.
• System accesses features that control instrument
configuration at the system level, like I/O
configuration and alignment, which affect all
instrument modes. Pressing System also returns the
instrument to local control, if it has been in remote
mode.
• Preset resets all parameters of the current mode back
to the factory defaults.
• Print immediately prints what is on the screen to the
printer, or saves a file to a floppy disc, according to
the parameters that are currently set in the Print
Setup menu. See page 63 for more detail.
• Print Setup configures the transmitter tester for
printing to a printer, or saving an image file to the
floppy disc drive, and also allows you to select the
printer type.
• File accesses softkeys that control the file system of
the transmitter tester for saving and loading
instrument states. See page 67 for more detail.
• Save saves the current instrument state in the File
menu. See page 67 for more detail.
8. Marker keys are used to obtain specific information about parts of
the displayed measurement (for example, to identify
the exact frequency of an offset). See page 95 for more
detail.
• Marker accesses softkeys that allow manual
positioning of markers.
• Search automatically performs a peak search, and
accesses softkeys that automatically position
markers at preset locations on the trace (for
example, to determine the difference between the
amplitude of one peak and another).
26
Chapter 1
Getting Started
Front Panel Description
9. Probe Power The probe power input supplies power for external
probes; the three connectors are a ground, and a +15 V,
and a −12.6 V connector. The probe power supplies
power to high frequency probes and accessories, such as
preamplifiers, that are used as accessories to the
transmitter tester. The probe power provides a
maximum of 150 mA.
10. RF Input The 50 Ω RF input allows for input of an external RF
signal. The connector is a type N female, and is rated
for a maximum input of +35 dBm for measuring a CW
signal, and a maximum of 26 volts for a DC signal.
11. Data Entry keys are used to enter numeric values. Entries made
using data entry keys will be visible in the active
function area (see the section on annotation on page 33
to locate the active function area).
• The Enter key is used to terminate numeric data
where no units of measurement are being entered, or
where you want to terminate with the default unit of
measurement. For operations involving selection of a
unit of measurement (for example, dB, dBm,
Hz, s, degrees, radians), the Units softkey menu
(explained below) is used to terminate numeric
entries.
• Units softkeys are used to enter units of
measurement. If the value you are entering is in
units of measurement, the units softkey menu will
automatically appear once you enter a digit. After
entering the desired numeric value, you terminate
the entry by pressing the appropriate units of
measurement softkey.
• Numeric keys enter numeric values as indicated on
the keys. In addition, decimal and positive and
negative sign keys are available for your use.
• The Step keys (these are the up and down arrow
keys) change numeric values in increments of the
current step size.
• The Backspace key moves the cursor backwards one
space and erases the character in that space. You
can use the Backspace key to backspace characters in
the active function area.
• The RPG Knob changes numeric values in
increments of the current knob resolution.
Chapter 1
27
Getting Started
Front Panel Description
12. Floppy Disk Drive. The floppy disk drive accepts 1.44 megabyte
disks. For an explanation of the operation of the floppy
disc drive see the Using Print Keys section on page 63.
13. Softkeys
Softkeys either activate a feature or access a further
softkey menu. An arrow on the right side of a softkey
label indicates that the key accesses a further menu.
The softkey which is currently active is highlighted.
Keys unavailable for use are greyed-out. If a softkey
menu has multiple pages, further pages will be
accessed by pressing the More key which is the bottom
key on any multi-page menu.
14. Return key The Return key exits the current menu and returns
you to the previous menu. If you are on page one of a
multi-page menu (a menu with a “More” key) the Return
key will exit the multi-page menu. When you activate a
different measurement, the return list is cleared. The
Return key will not return you to the previously
activated mode, nor will it alter any values you have
entered on previous menus.
15. Navigation keys are used to move around in the display, and to
return to the previous menu.
• The Tab Left feature is not implemented. This feature
will be implemented with a future firmware update.
• The Tab Right feature is not implemented. This
feature will be implemented with a future firmware
update.
• The Home feature is not implemented. This feature
will be implemented with a future firmware update.
16. Window keys are used to move to a different window in the
display or to zoom the windows being displayed.
• The Next Window key switches between windows.
When a single window is being viewed it switches to
display the next window which is contained in the
current multi-window display which, however, is not
initially visible on the display. When viewing
multiple windows, it activates the next window on
the display. The active window is indicated by a
green border.
• The Zoom key allows you to switch between a
multiple-window screen and a full-size display of the
window that is active.
17. Help key
28
The Help feature is not implemented. This feature will
Chapter 1
Getting Started
Front Panel Description
be implemented with a future firmware update.
18. On/Off
switch turns on the transmitter tester. A green LED
will light below the Power switch when the instrument
has been turned on. When in standby mode a yellow
LED is visible above the On/Off switch.
19. Inputs
enable you to input one or more of the two following
external signals.
•
I input and Q inputs. There are two I and two Q inputs
(I and I−not; Q and Q−not). These connectors are
present if the BbIQ measurement personality
(Option B7C) is installed in your instrument.
• External Trigger input. The external trigger allows
external triggering of measurements. The external
trigger accepts an external trigger signal between
−5 and +5 V, and has a nominal impedance of
> 10 kΩ. For more information on triggering, see
page 85.
Chapter 1
29
Getting Started
Rear Panel Description
Rear Panel Description
The diagram below illustrates all rear panel connections. For further
explanation of labels found on the rear panel see the section on safety
considerations on page 49.
1. TRIGGER 2 OUT provides a transmitter tester trigger output. This is
used to synchronize other test equipment with the
transmitter tester.
2. TRIGGER 1 OUT provides a transmitter tester trigger output. This is
used to synchronize other test equipment with the
transmitter tester.
3. EXT REF IN
allows the input of a 1 to 30 MHz external frequency
reference signal. The external reference frequency must
be entered by the user.
4. 10 MHz OUT provides an output of the transmitter tester’s internal
10 MHz frequency reference signal. This is used to lock
the frequency reference of other test equipment with
the transmitter tester. This is a switched output.
30
Chapter 1
Getting Started
Rear Panel Description
5. TRIGGER IN The external trigger allows external triggering of
measurements. The external trigger accepts an
external trigger signal between −5 and +5 V, and has a
nominal impedance of 10k Ω. For more information on
triggering, see page 85.
6. SCSI
Currently the SCSI connection can only be used to
connect an external SCSI drive for firmware upgrades.
SCSI functionality will be fully implemented with a
future firmware update.
7. Line Power Input AC power line connection. The line voltage operates
at nominally 115 V (47 to 440 Hz) or at nominally 230 V
(47 H to 66 Hz). The input power ranges for the power
supply are 90 to 132 V or 195 to 250 Vrms. The power
supply automatically senses the input power and
switches between these two ranges. There is no
customer replaceable power fuse. When on, the
instrument consumes less than 350 W; when in standby
less than 20 W.
8. KYBD
This feature is not implemented. This feature will be
implemented with a future firmware update. The KYBD
enables connection of an external PS-2 keyboard using
a 6-pin mini-DIN connector. If no keyboard is available
you can use the numeric keyboard and the Alpha Editor
menu key feature to make the entries. The keyboard
must be plugged into the instrument prior to powering
the instrument on or the keyboard will not work.
9. GPIB
The GPIB allows the connection of a General Purpose
Interface Bus (GPIB) cable, which enables remote
instrument operation.
10. LAN-TP
The LAN-TP connector can be used:
- as a SICL server emulating IEEE 488.2 protocol
over LAN.
- for a telnet programming port that can be sent
SCPI commands.
- for a TCP/IP socket programming port that can be
sent SCPI commands.
- for anonymous FTP operations to retrieve a screen
“gif” or screen “xwd” file from the ftp/pub.
NOTE
For more information on remote programming with your transmitter
tester, refer to the programmer’s guide.
Chapter 1
31
Getting Started
Rear Panel Description
11. PARALLEL
The PARALLEL connection supports remote printing.
12. MONITOR
The MONITOR allows connection of an external VGA
monitor, using a 15− pin mini D−SUB connector.
13. RS-232
The serial port RS-232 is not implemented. This feature
will be implemented with a future firmware update.
32
Chapter 1
Getting Started
Display Annotation
Display Annotation
The annotation features explained below refers to the display that is
visible when your transmitter tester is in basic measurement mode;
this is the default state of the transmitter tester when it is turned on.
For explanations relating to unique measurement options such as GSM
or cdmaOne see the documentation that accompanies each mode.
1.
Center Frequency annotation.
2.
Trigger Source Indicator.
3.
Vertical Scale dB/Division Indicator.
4.
Reference Level Indicator (in dBm).
5.
Active Function Area. The active function area displays
numeric entries. If you press a measurement key that
activates a function, its value will appear in the active
function area.
Chapter 1
33
Getting Started
Display Annotation
6.
Measurement Bar. Displays information about
measurements including some mode setup parameters.
7.
Current Measurement Annotation.
8.
The Annunciators bar displays annunciators that
indicate that hardware errors, other errors, or specific
instrument states, are detected in the instrument, as
explained below. Error indicators are shown in red text.
Where applicable, some states will appear in green,
indicating that the feature is active and performing
correctly. Informational annunciators are shown in
white text. To view error messages fully you will use
keys in the Show Errors menu (see page 52). The current
error message with the highest priority will also appear
in the Status/Info Bar that appears at the bottom of the
display. The following annunciators are available:
Unlock - This annunciator indicates that one or
more of the internal phase-locked loops are unable to
maintain a phase-locked state.
Corr Off (corrections off) - This annunciator
appears when the Corrections softkey is set to off.
Err (error) - This annunciator appears when an
error message is placed in the history error queue. It
will persist until you use the Clear Error Queue(s) key
to clear the history error queue.
Ext Ref (external reference) - The green Ext Ref
annunciator indicates that the external reference
has been selected and the instrument is locked to it.
The red Ext Ref annunciator indicates that the
external reference has been selected, but the
instrument is not locked to that reference. Note that
the external reference on this instrument can be set
at any frequency between 1 and 30 MHz; if the
entered value does not correspond to the external
reference that is in use, a red Ext Ref annunciator
will appear.
NOTE
Be aware that the value entered for the external reference frequency
will persist, even after the instrument has been powered off. The user
must manually enter a new value for the external reference if a
different value is required, even if it corresponds with the default value.
An Ext Ref annunciator will appear only if the external reference has
been activated by the user.
34
Chapter 1
Getting Started
Display Annotation
ESec (even second clock) - The green ESec
annunciator indicates that the external even second
clock has been selected as the sync type and a sync
signal is present at the even second input (rear
panel Trigger In), and the measurement is using it
as the demodulation sync type. The red ESec
annunciator indicates that an external even second
clock has been selected as the sync type but a sync
signal is not present at the even second input (rear
panel Trigger In). In this case, the error message
Even Second Clock Missing will appear in the
Status/Info bar at the bottom of the display. The
even second clock detection is updated every 2
seconds.
Klock (keyboard lock) - The keyboard can be locked
remotely using SYSTem:KLOck. The Klock
annunciator will appear in white text when the
keyboard has been locked.
9.
System Bar.
10.
Time and Date.
11.
Personality Mode Indicator.
12.
Graph (Window) Title.
13.
Averaging Indicator.
14.
Remote Status Indicator. The remote status indicator
contains four letters: “R”,“ L”, “T”, and “S”. The current
status is indicated by the letters that are highlighted.
“R” indicates that the instrument is in remote mode.
“L” indicates a listen state. “T” indicates a talk state.
“S” indicates a service request.
15.
Pass/Fail Status Indicator.
16.
Menu Title.
17.
Softkeys. A softkey that is currently active is
highlighted. Greyed-out softkeys are unavailable and
may require a password for use.
18.
Span annotation.
19.
Status/Info Bar. The current error message which has
the highest priority will appear in the Status/Info Bar.
A programmer can also send a message to the
Status/Info bar using a SCPI command.
Chapter 1
35
Getting Started
Installing Optional Measurement Personalities
Installing Optional Measurement
Personalities
When you install a measurement personality, follow this process.
1. Install the measurement personality firmware into the instrument.
(See the supplied installation instructions.)
2. Enter a license key number that enables the measurement
personality. (Refer to the “License Key Numbers” section below.)
Adding additional measurement personalities requires purchasing a
retrofit kit for the desired option. The retrofit kit contains the
measurement personality firmware. A license key certificate is also
included in the kit. It documents the license key number that is for your
specific option and instrument serial number. Installation instructions
are included with the retrofit kit.
Available Personality Options
The option designation consists of three characters, as shown in the
Option column of the table below.
Available Personality Optionsa
Option
GSM measurement personality
BAH
EDGE (with GSM) measurement personalityb
202
cdmaOne measurement personality
BAC
NADC, PDC measurement personalities
BAE
iDEN measurement personality
HN1
W-CDMA measurement personality
BAF
cdma2000 measurement personality
B78
a. Available as of the print date of this guide.
b. For instruments that already have Option BAH licensed, order
E4406AU Option 252 to add EDGE (with GSM).
36
Chapter 1
Getting Started
Installing Optional Measurement Personalities
Loading the Optional Personality
The installation instructions require you to know three pieces of
information about your instrument: the amount of memory available,
the Host ID, and the instrument serial number.
Required Information:
Key Path:
Instrument
Memory:
System, File System
(This key is grayed out. The total amount of
memory in your instrument will be the sum
of the Used memory and the Free memory)
__________________
Host ID:
__________________
System, Show System, Host ID
Instrument
Serial Number:
__________________
System, Show System, Serial Number
(It is shown on the display.)
You must load the desired option into your instrument memory. This
usually requires updating the instrument firmware so that it is
compatible with the new option. Loading can be done from a CD-ROM
or a www location.
You cannot fit all of the available measurement personalities in the
instrument memory at the same time. The approximate memory
requirements for the options are listed below. These numbers are worst
case examples. Many options share share components. The total
memory usage of multiple options may not be exactly equal to the
combined total.
Available Personality Options
File Size (VSA - A.05.20)
GSM measurement personality
2.3 MB
EDGE (with GSM) measurement personality
3.2 MB
cdmaOne measurement personality
1.9 MB
NADC measurement personalities
1.2 MB
PDC measurement personalities
1.3 MB
iDEN measurement personality
1.7 MB
W-CDMA measurement personality
4.1 MBa
cdma2000 measurement personality
3.7 MBa
**Shared measurement library
1.5 MB
a. This application uses the shared library, so you have to add its
memory requirements to this value.
Chapter 1
37
Getting Started
Installing Optional Measurement Personalities
The Exit Main Firmware key is used during the firmware installation
process. This key is only for use when you want to update firmware
using a LAN connection. The Exit Main Firmware key halts the operation
of the instrument firmware so you can install an updated version of
firmware using a LAN connection. Instructions for loading future
firmware updates are available at the following URL:
www.agilent.com/find/vsa/
Viewing a License Key
Measurement personalities purchased with your instrument have been
installed and enabled at the factory. You will receive a unique License
Key number with every measurement personality purchased. The
license key number is a hexadecimal number that is for your specific
measurement personality, instrument serial number and host ID. It
enables you to install, or reactivate that particular personality.
Follow these steps to display the unique license key for a measurement
personality that is already installed in your instrument:
1. Press System, Install, Choose Option. The Choose Option key accesses the
alpha editor. Use the alpha editor to enter letters (upper-case) and
the front-panel numeric keys to enter digits for a personality option
that is already installed in the instrument.
2. Press the Done key on the alpha editor menu. The unique license key
number for your instrument will now appear on the License Key
softkey.
You will want to keep a copy of your license key number in a secure
location. Please enter your license key numbers below for future
reference. If you should lose your license key number, call your nearest
Agilent Technologies service or sales office for assistance.
License Key Numbers for Instrument with Serial # ________
For Option______________ the license key number is _____________________
For Option______________ the license key number is _____________________
For Option______________ the license key number is _____________________
For Option______________ the license key number is _____________________
For Option______________ the license key number is _____________________
For Option______________ the license key number is _____________________
If you purchase an option later, you will receive a certificate that
indicates the unique license key that you will need for you to install
that option on your particular serial number instrument.
38
Chapter 1
Getting Started
Installing Optional Measurement Personalities
NOTE
You will need to enter a license key number only if you purchase an
additional measurement personality at a later date, or if you want to
reactivate a measurement personality that has been deactivated.
Installing a License Key
NOTE
Also follow this procedure to reinstall a license key number that has
been deleted during an uninstall process, or lost due to a memory
failure.
To install a license key number for the selected option, use the following
procedure:
1. Press System, Install, Choose Option . The Choose Option key accesses
the alpha editor menu. Use the alpha editor to enter letters
(upper-case) and the front-panel numeric keys to enter numbers for
the option designation. Then press the Done key. As you enter the
option, you will see your entry in the active function area of the
display.
NOTE
You must already have entered the license key for the GSM option BAH
before you can enter the license key for the EDGE retrofit option 252.
2. Press License Key. Enter the letters/digits of your license key. You will
see your entry in the active function area of the display. When you
have completed entering the license key number, press the Done key.
3. Press the Install Now key.
The message “ New option keys become active after reboot.”
will appear. If you want to proceed with the installation, press the
Yes key and cycle the instrument power off and then on. Press the No
key if you wish to cancel the installation process.
Using the Uninstall Key
The following procedure removes the license key number for the
selected option. This will make the option unavailable for use, and the
message “Application Not Licensed” will appear in the Status/Info
bar at the bottom of the display. Please write down the 12-digit license
key number for the option before proceeding. If that measurement
personality is to be used at a later date you will need the license key
number to reactivate the personality firmware.
Chapter 1
39
Getting Started
Installing Optional Measurement Personalities
NOTE
Using the Uninstall key does not remove the personality from the
instrument memory, and does not free memory to be available to install
another option. If you need to free memory to install another option,
refer to the instructions for loading firmware updates located at the
URL: www.agilent.com/find/vsa/.
1. Press System, More(1 of 3), More(2 of 3), Uninstall, Choose Option.
Pressing the Choose Option key will activate the alpha editor menu.
Use the alpha editor to enter the letters (upper-case) and the
front-panel numeric keyboard to enter the digits (if required) for the
option, then press the Done key. As you enter the option, you will see
your entry in the active function area of the display.
2. Press the Uninstall Now key after you have entered the personality
option. Press the Yes key if you want to continue the uninstall
process. Press the No key to cancel the uninstall process.
3. Cycle the instrument power off and then on to complete the uninstall
process.
40
Chapter 1
Getting Started
Cables for Connecting to the Serial Port (RS-232)
Cables for Connecting to the Serial Port
(RS-232)
There are a variety of cables and adapters available for connecting to
PCs, and printers. Several of these are documented in the following
wiring diagrams. You need to find out what connections your equipment
uses to identify the cables and/or adapters that you will need.
HP 34398A
RS-232
Cable Kit
HP 34399A
RS-232
Adapter Kit
This kit comes with an RS-232, 9-pin female to 9-pin
female null modem/printer cable and one adapter 9-pin
male to 25-pin female (HP part number 5181-6641).
The adapter is also included in HP 34399A RS-232
Adapter Kit.
This kit includes four adapters to go from DB9 female
cable (HP 34398A) to PC/printer DB25 male or female,
or to modem DB9 female or DB25 female.
Figure 1-5
HP 24542U Cable
Figure 1-6
HP F1047-80002 Cable
Chapter 1
41
Getting Started
Cables for Connecting to the Serial Port (RS-232)
Figure 1-7
HP 24542G/H Cable
Figure 1-8
HP 92219J Cable
Figure 1-9
HP 13242G Cable
42
Chapter 1
Getting Started
Cables for Connecting to the Serial Port (RS-232)
Figure 1-10
HP 24542M Modem Cable
Figure 1-11
HP C2913A/C2914A Cable
Figure 1-12
Mouse Adapter (typical)
Chapter 1
43
Getting Started
Cables for Connecting to the Serial Port (RS-232)
Figure 1-13
HP 24542U Cable with 5181-6641 Adapter
Figure 1-14
HP 24542U Cable with 5181-6640 Adapter
Figure 1-15
HP 24542U Cable with 5181-6642 Adapter
44
Chapter 1
Getting Started
Cables for Connecting to the Serial Port (RS-232)
Figure 1-16
HP 24542U Cable with 5181-6639 Adapter
Figure 1-17
HP F1047-80002 Cable with 5181-6641 Adapter
Figure 1-18
HP F1047-80002 Cable with 5181-6640 Adapter
Chapter 1
45
Getting Started
Cables for Connecting to the Serial Port (RS-232)
Figure 1-19
HP F1047-80002 Cable with 5181-6642 Adapter
Figure 1-20
HP F1047-80002 Cable with 5181-6639 Adapter
46
Chapter 1
Getting Started
Safety Considerations
Safety Considerations
This section covers safety considerations relating to the installation and
use of the instrument.
Instrument Installation
Install the instrument so that the detachable power cord is readily
identifiable and is easily reached by the operator. The detachable power
cord is used to completely disconnect the instrument. The front panel
switch is only a standby switch which maintains standby power to some
parts of the instrument. It does not disconnect the instrument from the
power source. Alternatively, an externally installed switch or circuit
breaker (which is readily identifiable and is easily reached by the
operator) may be used as a disconnecting device.
The input power ranges for the power supply are 90 to 132 V, or 195 to
250 Vrms. The power supply automatically senses the input power and
switches between these two ranges. There is no customer replaceable
power fuse.
WARNING
The power cord is connected to internal capacitors that may
remain live for 5 seconds after the plug is disconnected from its
power supply.
WARNING
If this product is to be energized via an external
autotransformer for voltage reduction, make sure that its
common terminal is connected to a neutral (earthed pole) of the
power supply.
CAUTION
This instrument has autoranging line voltage input, be sure the supply
voltage is within the specified range.
CAUTION
VENTILATION REQUIREMENTS: When installing the product in a
cabinet, the convection into and out of the product must not be
restricted. The ambient temperature (outside the cabinet) must be less
than the maximum operating temperature of the product by 4° C for
every 100 watts dissipated in the cabinet. If the total power dissipated
in the cabinet is greater than 800 watts, then forced convection must be
used.
Chapter 1
47
Getting Started
Safety Considerations
Instrument Operation and Maintenance
The following warnings explain conditions which affect the safe
operation of the instrument.
WARNING
If this instrument is not used as specified, the protection
provided by the equipment could be impaired. This product
must be used in a normal condition (in which all means for
protection are in tact) only.
WARNING
To prevent electrical shock, disconnect the E4406A from mains
before cleaning. Use a dry cloth or one slightly dampened with
water to clean the external case parts. Do not attempt to clean
internally.
Explanation of Safety Symbols that are on the Instrument
The following list describes all safety symbols that are on the front and
rear panels of the transmitter tester.
The instruction documentation symbol. The product is marked with this
symbol when it is necessary for the user to refer to the instructions in the
documentation.
This symbol is used to mark the ON position of the power line switch.
This symbol is used to mark the OFF position of the power line switch.
This symbol is used to mark the STANDBY position of the power line switch.
This symbol indicates that the input power required is AC.
This symbol is used to mark the STANDBY/OFF position of the power line
switch.
This symbol is used to mark the On position of the power line switch.
48
Chapter 1
Getting Started
Safety Considerations
Safety Considerations for Service Personnel
NOTE
No one other than qualified service personnel are allowed to remove
the cover of the instrument. The following warnings apply to service
personnel. These warnings are found on the rear panel of the
instrument.
To Remove Outer Cover, Remove Strap Handle, 4 Bottom
Feet, and 4 Rear Feet.
To Remove CPU Assembly Unplug All Boards Connected to
CPU. When Removing CPU Keep Perpendicular with Rear
Panel
Chapter 1
49
Getting Started
Safety Considerations
50
Chapter 1
2
Using System Features
System keys access features that are used with all modes, including
alignment, configuring I/O, and file management.
51
Using System Features
Using System Keys
Using System Keys
System features are accessed through the System front panel key. These
are features that are not dependent on the currently selected
application mode or the particular measurement being made. They
apply to all modes and measurements.
The System key also performs the LOCAL function. If the instrument
was previously being controlled remotely by a computer, pressing the
System key will reactivate the front panel keys.
Print feature keys are accessed through the front panel Print Setup and
Print keys, which are explained on page 63.
File feature keys are accessed through the File and Save menu keys,
which are explained on page 67.
Each description of a system feature begins with a table that shows the
key path for all keys related to that feature.
NOTE
Most of the system features are not affected by pressing the Preset key
or by cycling the instrument power. These features will retain the last
value set by the user. Press System, More, Restore Sys Defaults, Yes to
reset the System parameters back to the factory defaults.
Install and Uninstall
The Install and Uninstall keys, which enable you to install and remove
measurement personalities, are described separately on page 36 of the
Getting Started chapter.
52
Chapter 2
Using System Features
Key Locations
Key Locations
All system, service, and basic features can be located by using the key
access table below. The key access path describes the key sequence you
enter to access the particular key.
Some features can only be used when specific measurements are active.
If a feature is not currently valid the key label for that feature will
appear as lighter colored text, will be greyed-out, or will not be
displayed at all.
Table 2-1
Key Access Locations
Key
Key Access Path
10 MHz Out
System/Reference/
50 MHz Amptd
MODE/Service/
50 MHz Ref
Input/Input Port/
ADC Dither
Meas Setup/More(1 of 2)/Advanced/ More(1 of 2)/
ADC Range
Meas Setup/More(1 of 2) / Advanced /
Note: This feature is used when measure is set to either
spectrum or waveform.
Adjust Now
System/Alignments/Align Subsystem/Align 50 MHz Reference/
Note: Requires Password
Advanced
Meas Setup/More(1 of 2)
Align 50 MHz
Reference
System/Alignments/Align Subsystem/
Note: Requires Password
Align ADC
System/Alignments/Align Subsystem/
Align All Now
System/Alignments/
Align IF
System/Alignments/Align Subsystem/
Align RF
System/Alignments/Align Subsystem/
Alignments
System/
Align Subsystems
System/Alignments/
All
View/Trace/Trace Display/
Alpha Editor
The Alpha Editor is accessed by following the Menu Access
Paths that accompany the following key entries: Choose Option,
License Key, and Host Name.
AMPLITUDE/
Y Scale
Front Panel
Auto
Meas Setup/More(1 of 2)/Advanced/ More (1 of 2)/Data Packing/
Chapter 2
53
Using System Features
Key Locations
Table 2-1
Key Access Locations
Key
Key Access Path
Auto
Meas Setup/More(1 of 2)/ Advanced /ADC Range /
Note: This feature is used when measurement is set to either
spectrum or waveform.
Auto Align
System/Alignments/
AutoPeak
Meas Setup/More(1 of 2)/ Advanced /ADC Range /
Note: This feature is used when measurement is set to either
spectrum or waveform.
AutoPeakLock
Meas Setup/More(1 of 2)/ Advanced /ADC Range /
Note: This feature is used when measurement is set to either
spectrum or waveform.
Auto Trig
Mode Setup/ Trigger/
Note: This feature is used when measurement is set to either
spectrum or waveform.
Average
View/Traces/ Display Traces/
Average
Meas Setup/
Note: This feature is used when measurement is set to either
spectrum or waveform.
Avg Mode
Meas Setup/ Average/
Note: This feature is used when measurement is set to either
spectrum or waveform.
Avg Number
Meas Setup/Average/
Note: This feature is used when measurement is set to either
spectrum or waveform.
Avg Trace
Marker/More(1 of 2)/ Marker Trace/
Avg Type
Meas Setup/ Average/
Note: This feature is used when measurement is set to either
spectrum or waveform.
Band Power
Marker/ Function/
Basic
MODE/
Blackman
Meas Setup/More(1 of 2)/ Advanced/ FFT Window/
Blackman- Harris
Meas Setup/More(1 of 2) /Advanced / FFT Window/ More(1 of 2)/
BMP
Print Setup/Print To: File/File Type
cdmaOne
MODE/
Center Freq
FREQUENCY/Channel/
Choose Option
System/More(1 of 3)/More(2 of 3) /Install/
Choose Option
System/More(1 of 3)/More(2 of 3) /Uninstall/
54
Chapter 2
Using System Features
Key Locations
Table 2-1
Key Access Locations
Key
Key Access Path
Clear Error Queue(s)
System/Show Errors/
Color Print
Print Setup/Print To: Printer/Printer Type: Custom/Define
Custom/Color Printer: Yes
Color Printer
Print Setup/Print To: Printer/Printer Type: Custom/Define
Custom
Comb
Input/IF Align Signal/Signal Type/
Config I/O
System/
Corrections
System/Alignments/
Counts
MODE/Basic, Meas Setup
Current
View/Trace/ Trace Display/
Current Trace
Marker/ More(1 of 2)/Marker Trace/
Custom
Print Setup/Print To: Printer/Printer Type
CW
Input/IF Align Signal/Signal Type/
Data Packing
Meas Setup/More(1 of 2)/
Decimation
Meas Setup/More(1 of 2)/ Advanced/More (1 of 2)/
Define Custom
Print Setup/Print To: Printer
Delay
Mode Setup/Trigger/Ext Front/
Delay
Mode Setup/Trigger/Ext Rear/
Delay
Mode Setup/Trigger/RF Burst/
Delay
Mode Setup/Trigger/Video/
Delta
Marker/
Diagnostics
System/More (1 of 3)/
Note: Requires Password
Display
Front Panel
Emulated GPIB Name
System/Config I/O/ SICL Server
Emulated GPIB
Logical Unit
System/Config I/O/ SICL Server
Emulated GPIB
Address
System/Config I/O/ SICL Server
Enter
Front Panel
ESC
Front Panel
Chapter 2
55
Using System Features
Key Locations
Table 2-1
Key Access Locations
Key
Key Access Path
Exit Main Firmware
System/ More (1 of 3)/More (2 of 3)/ Install/
Ext Front
Mode Setup/ Trigger/
Ext Rear
Mode Setup/ Trigger/
Fast ACP
Mode/ACP/Meas Setup/More(1 of 2)/
FFT Length
Meas Setup/More(1 of 2)/ Advanced/FFT Size/
Note: This feature is used when measurement is set to spectrum.
FFT Size
Meas Setup/ More(1 of 2)/ Advanced/
Note: This feature is used when measurement is set to spectrum.
FFT Window
Meas Setup/ More(1 of 2)/ Advanced/
Note: This feature is used when measurement is set to spectrum.
File
Front Panel
File System
System/More(1 of 3)/ More(2 of 3)/
File Location
Print Setup/Print to File
File Type
Print Setup/Print to File
Flat Top
Meas Setup/More(1 of 2)/ Advanced/ FFT Window/
Frame
MODE/Basic, Meas Setup/Trig Source
Free Run
Meas Setup//Trig Source/
FREQUENCY/
Channel
Front Panel
Freq Ref
System/ Reference/
Front Panel Test
MODE/Service/More(1 of 2)/
Function
Marker/ More(1 of 2)/
Gaussian
Meas Setup/More(1 of 2) /Advanced / FFT Window/
GIF
Print Setup/Print To: File/File Type
GPIB Address
System/Config I/O/
GSM
MODE/
Hamming
Meas Setup/More(1 of 2) /Advanced / FFT Window/
Hanning
Meas Setup/More(1 of 2) Advanced / FFT Window/
Help
Front Panel
Host Name
System/Config I/O/
IF Align
Input/ Input Port/
56
Chapter 2
Using System Features
Key Locations
Table 2-1
Key Access Locations
Key
Key Access Path
IF Align Signal
Input/
Image
Print Setup/Print to File
Instrument Name
System/Config I/O/ SICL Server
Instrument Logical
Unit
System/Config I/O/ SICL Server
Input
Front Panel
Input Atten
Input/
Input Port
Input/
Install
System/More(1 of 3)/ More(2 of 3)/
Install Now
System/ More (1 of 3)/ More (2 of 3)/ Install/
IP Address
System/Config I/O/
I/Q Input Z
Input/
I/Q Waveform
Marker/Trace/
Note: This feature is used when measurement is set to either
spectrum or waveform.
K-B 70 dB
Meas Setup/More(1 of 2)/ Advanced / FFT Window/More(1 of 2)/
K-B 90 dB
Meas Setup/More(1 of 2)/ Advanced / FFT Window/More(1 of 2)/
K-B 110 dB
Meas Setup/More(1 of 2)/ Advanced / FFT Window/More(1 of 2)/
Landscape
Print Setup/Print To: Printer/Printer Type: Custom/Orientation
Language
Print Setup/Print To: Printer/Printer Type: Custom/Define
Custom
Length Ctrl
Meas Setup/More(1 of 2)/ Advanced/FFT Size/
Note: This feature is used when measurement is set to spectrum.
Level
Mode Setup/Trigger/Ext Front/
Level
Mode Setup/Trigger/Ext Rear/
License Key
System/ More (1 of 3)/ More (2 of 3)/ Install/
Line
Meas Setup/ Trig Source/
Load State
File/
Local (System)
Note: Press the front panel System key to change from remote to
local control of the instrument
Log-Pwr Avg
Meas Setup/Average/Avg Type/
Chapter 2
57
Using System Features
Key Locations
Table 2-1
Key Access Locations
Key
Key Access Path
Long
Meas Setup/More(1 of 2)/
Advanced/ More (1 of 2)/
Data Packing/
Manual
Meas Setup/More(1 of 2)/ Advanced /ADC Range/
Note: This feature is used when measurement is set to either
spectrum or waveform.
Marker
Front Panel
Maximum
Connections
System/Config I/O/ SICL Server
Mrkr All Off
Marker/More(1 of 2)/
Maximum
Meas Setup/ Average/ Avg Type/
Max Total Pwr
Input/
Measure
Front Panel
Meas BW
MODE/Basic, Meas Setup
Meas Control
Front Panel
Meas Interval
MODE/Basic, Meas Setup
Meas Setup
Front Panel
Medium
Meas Setup/More(1 of 2)/Advanced/ More (1 of 2)/Data Packing/
Minimum
Meas Setup/Average/ Avg Type/
Min Pnts/ RBW
Meas Setup/More(1 of 2)/ Advanced/FFT Size/
Note: This feature is used when measurement is set to spectrum.
MODE
Front Panel
Mode Setup
Front Panel
Next Window
Front Panel
Noise
Marker/ Function/
Normal
Marker/
Off
Marker/
Orientation
Print Setup/Print To: Printer
Pause
Meas Control
PCL3
Print Setup/Print To: File/File Type
PCL5
Print Setup/Print To: File/File Type
Peak Level
Mode Setup/ Trigger/ RF Burst/
58
Chapter 2
Using System Features
Key Locations
Table 2-1
Key Access Locations
Key
Key Access Path
Power Stat CCDF
MODE/Basic, Meas Setup
Portrait
Print Setup/Print To: Printer/Printer Type: Custom/Orientation
Pre-ADC BPF
Meas Setup/ More(1 of 2)/ Advanced/
Note: This feature is used when measurement is set to either
spectrum or waveform.
Pre-FFT BW
Meas Setup/ More(1 of 2)/ Advanced/
Note: This feature is used when measurement is set to spectrum.
Pre-FFT Fltr
Meas Setup/ More(1 of 2)/ Advanced/
Note: This feature is used when measurement is set to spectrum.
Print
Front Panel
Printer
Print Setup/
Printer Type
Print Setup/Print To: Printer
Print Setup
Front Panel
Prints/Page
Print Setup/ Print To: Printer
Print To
Print Setup/
Pulse
Input/IF Align Signal/Signal Type/
Pwr Avg (RMS)
Meas Setup/Average/Avg Type/
Pwr vs Time
MODE/Service/
RBW Filter
Meas Setup/ More(1 of 2)/ Advanced
Note: This feature is used when measurement is set to spectrum.
Reference
System/
Ref Position
AMPLITUDE/Y Scale/ for spectrum or waveform - or SPAN/XScale/ for waveform.
Ref Values
AMPLITUDE/Y Scale/ for spectrum or waveform - or SPAN/XScale/ for waveform.
Res BW
Meas Setup/
Note: This feature is used when measurement is set to either
spectrum or waveform.
Restart
Front Panel
Restore Align Defaults
System/Alignments/
Restore Meas
Defaults
Meas Setup/ More(1 of 2)
Restore Sys
Defaults
System/ More(1 of 3)/ More (2 of 3) /
Chapter 2
59
Using System Features
Key Locations
Table 2-1
Key Access Locations
Key
Key Access Path
Return
Front Panel
RF
Input/Input Port/
Align RF
System/Alignments/Align Subsystem/
RF Burst
Mode Setup/ Trigger/
RF Envelope
View/Trace/
Note: This feature is used when measurement is set to
waveform.
RF Envelope
Marker/Trace/
Note: This feature is used when measurement is set to
waveform.
RF Inp Level
System/Alignments/Align Subsystem/ Align 50 MHz Reference/
Save
Front Panel
Save State
File/ or Save/
Scale Coupling
AMPLITUDE/Y Scale/ for spectrum or waveform - or SPAN/XScale/ for waveform.
Scale/Div
AMPLITUDE/Y Scale/ for spectrum or waveform - or SPAN/XScale/ for waveform.
SCPI LAN
System/Config I/O/
Search
Front Panel
Select
Marker/
Sensors
MODE/Service/
Server
System/Config I/O/ SICL Server
Service
MODE/
Service Password
System/More(1 of 3)/Show System/
Shape
Marker/More (1 of 2)/
Short
Meas Setup/More(1 of 2)/ Advanced/More (1 of 2)/Data Packing/
Show Errors
System/
Show System
System/More(1 of 3)/
SICL Server
System/Config I/O/
Signal Amptd
Input/IF Align Signal/
Signal Rate
Input/IF Align Signal/
Signal Type
Input/IF Align Signal/
60
Chapter 2
Using System Features
Key Locations
Table 2-1
Key Access Locations
Key
Key Access Path
Slope
Mode Setup/Trigger/Ext Front
Slope
Mode Setup/Trigger/Ext Rear/
Slope
Mode Setup/Trigger/RF Burst/
Slope
Mode Setup/Trigger/Video/
Socket Port
System/Config I/O/ SCPI Lan
Span
Meas Setup/
SPAN/
X Scale
Front Panel
Spectrum
View/Trace/
Note: This feature is used when measurement is set to spectrum.
Spectrum
Marker/Trace/
Note: This feature is used when measurement is set to spectrum.
Spectrum Avg
Marker/Trace/
Note: This feature is used when measurement is set to spectrum.
Spectrum
(Freq Domain)
MODE/Service/
Spectrum
(Freq Domain)
MODE/Basic/
Store Abs Ampl to
EEROM
System/Alignments/Align Subsystem/ Align 50 MHz Reference/
Subnet Mask
System/Config I/O
Sweep Time
Meas Setup/ Can be accessed when measure is set to waveform.
System
Front Panel
Telnet Port
System/Config I/O/ SCPI Lan
Timebase Freq
MODE/Service/
Trace
Marker/
Trace Display
View/Trace/
Trigger
Mode Setup/
Note: This feature is used when measurement is set to either
spectrum or waveform.
Trig Holdoff
Mode Setup/ Trigger/
Note: This feature is used when measurement is set to either
spectrum or waveform.
Chapter 2
61
Using System Features
Key Locations
Table 2-1
Key Access Locations
Key
Key Access Path
Trig Source
Meas Setup/
Note: This feature is used when measurement is set to either
spectrum or waveform.
Uniform
Meas Setup/More(1 of 2)/Advanced / FFT Window/
Uninstall
System/ More (1 of 3)/ More (2 of 3)/
Uninstall Now
System/ More (1 of 3)/ More (2 of 3)/ Uninstall/
Verbose
System/Show Errors/
Video
Mode Setup/ Trigger/
View/Trace
Front Panel
Visible Align
System/Alignments/
Voltage Avg
Meas Setup/Average/ Avg Type/
Waveform
(Time Domain)
MODE/Basic/
Waveform
(Time Domain)
MODE/Service/
WindowLength
Meas Setup/More(1 of 2)/ Advanced/FFT Size/
Note: This feature is used when measurement is set to spectrum.
WMF
Print Setup/Print To: File/File Type
Zoom
Front Panel
62
Chapter 2
Using System Features
Using Print and Print Setup Functions
Using Print and Print Setup Functions
Keys in the Print Setup menus enable you to print displayed screen
images to a variety of printers, as a file in a variety of formats to the C:
drive flash memory, or to the built-in floppy disk drive. The Print key is
used to execute choices made in the Print Setup menus.
Printing a Displayed Screen
1. Connect a compatible printer via the parallel port on the rear panel.
2. Press Print Setup, then toggle the Print To key to select Printer.
3. Press Printer Type, then select Custom.
4. Press Define Custom, then select a Language, either PCL3 or PCL5.
(In general, modern laser printers use PCL5 while inkjet printers
use PCL3.)
5. Select Color Printer Yes / No depending on the capability of the
printer.
6. If your printer uses PCL5 you can select Orientation, then
Portrait or Landscape as appropriate. The orientation feature is
unavailable with PCL3 printers, which always default to portrait
orientation.
7. Toggle Color Print - On/Off to enable or disable color printing once
the Color Printer key (see above) is set to Yes.
8. Toggle Prints /Page (1 or 2) to select to print either one image (in
portrait orientation) covering half a page, or two images (in portrait
orientation), each covering half the page.
9. Press the Print key. A copy of the current display screen will be sent
to the printer according to the parameters set above.
10. If you want to reprint the most recently printed page, press
Reprint.
11.If you want to eject a page from a compatible printer, toggle
More (1 of 2), then Eject Page.
12. If a printer failure occurs (for example, if the printer hangs up),
press Reset Printer. It may also be necessary to cycle printer power.
Chapter 2
63
Using System Features
Using Print and Print Setup Functions
The following table illustrates the Print Setup menu. Level 1 shows key
choices available when the front panel key is pressed. Level 2 shows key
choices available when Print To is set to Printer and Level 1 keys are
pressed.
Front Panel Key
Level 1
Print Setup
Print To with Printer
selected
Printer Type
Level 2
None
Custom
Define Custom
Language PCL3/PCL5
Color Printer Yes/No
Orientation (Only active
Portrait
for PCL5 language;
printers with PCL3
language default to
portrait orientation)
Landscape
Color Print (Only active
when Color Print is set to
Yes- see above.)
On/Off
Prints/Page 1 / 2
More (1 of 2)
Reprint (Only active
after initial printing.)
Eject Page
Reset Printer
More (2 of 2)
64
Chapter 2
Using System Features
Using Print and Print Setup Functions
Printing a Screen Image to a File on A: or C: Drives
1. Press Print Setup, Print To. Toggle the Print To key to select File.
2. Press the File Type key, then select between gif, bmp, and wmf
formats.
3. To print a file to the floppy drive, toggle the File Location key to A: and
insert a 3.5” HD floppy disc, formatted for MS-DOS, into the front
panel disk drive.
To print a file to the internal flash memory, toggle the File Location
key to C:.
4. Select the Image format to be stored on the disk. Use Normal to store
an image that is identical to the currently displayed image, with a
black background. Use Invert, which provides a a light background
with a dark trace, to minimize ink and toner consumption.
5. Press HCOPy Dest, then select Printer. This enables you to generate
up to six files containing screen images.
Note: if HCOPy Dest is set to FPanel only one file can be saved to
memory or a floppy disk. Any subsequent screen files will overwrite
the file currently saved in the A: or C: drives. For these reasons,
Printer is usually the preferred selection.
6. Press the front panel PRINT key. If you have set HCOPy to Printer, six
filenames will appear in the softkeys: screen1.xxx, screen2.xxx,
screen3.xxx, screen4.xxx, screen5.xxx, and screen6.xxx (the xxx
extension will be gif, bmp, or wmf, depending on the file type selected
in File Type). The destination drive name will also be displayed.
Press the appropriate screen#.xxx key. Files written to the A: drive
will be located at A:screen#.xxx. Files written to the C: drive may
be accessed by the following path: /users/ftp/pub/screen#.xxx.
Six files may be stored at the same time to either location. Any
subsequent files stored to the same filename will overwrite the
existing file
7. The disk may be removed from the A: drive once the LED on the
disk drive is off. Any files you have saved are now available to be
printed through use of an external computer and printer, or to be
imported into an electronic document.
Files located on the C: drive may be retrieved over the LAN by ftp
with the use of an external computer.
Chapter 2
65
Using System Features
Using Print and Print Setup Functions
The following table illustrates the keys used and key choices available
to print a screen image to either the A: internal floppy disk drive or the
internal C: drive flash memory. Level 1 shows key choices available
when the front panel key is pressed. Level 2 shows key choices available
when Print To is set to File and Level 1 keys are pressed.
Front Panel Key
Level 1
Print Setup
Print To with File
selected
File Type
Level 2
GIF
BMP
WMF
File Location A:/C:
Image Invert/Normal
HCOPy Dest
FPanel/Printer
= Print to Key
Printer
Print
(the six screen files
shown below are
available only when
HCOPy Dest is set to
Printer.)
screen1.xxx (xxx
depends on File Type)
screen2.xxx
screen3.xxx
screen4.xxx
screen5.xxx
screen6.xxx
66
Chapter 2
Using System Features
Using File and Save Keys
Using File and Save Keys
The File and Save keys enable you to save instrument states to memory
and to load instrument states into the instrument from memory. For
instructions on how to save a screen image to a floppy disc, see Saving a
Screen Image to a Floppy Disc on page 63.
Front Panel Key
Level 1
Level 2
Level 3
File
Load State
numeric entry
Enter
Save State
numeric entry
Enter
numeric entry
Enter
Save
Loading a State
1. Press File, Load State. A label in the active function area will read
Load State.
2. Use the numeric keypad to enter the number of the register from
which you desire to retrieve a state (you can retrieve states from
registers 0 to 19), then press the Enter key.
Saving a State
1. Press File, Save State or press the front panel Save key. An active
function labeled Save State will appear.
2. Use the numeric keypad to enter the desired state number (you can
enter values from 0 to 19), then press the Enter key.
Chapter 2
67
Using System Features
Using File and Save Keys
Using the Alpha Editor Keys
The alpha editor enables you to enter text. All text entries are displayed
in the active function area.
Level 1
Level 2
Level 3
Example
ABCDEFG
abcdefg
():;,’
V
HIJKLMN
hijklmn
_!? ~
W
OPQRSTU
opqrstu
+ - * / <> =
X
VWXYZ
vwxyz
|/\{} []
Y
Done
Done
@ # $% ^ &
Z
Space
Space
Space
More (1 of 3)
More (2 of 3)
More (3 of 3)
1. Pressing a key that requires you to enter a string gives you access to
the alpha editor. Choose Option, License Key, and Host Name are some
of those keys. When one of these keys is pressed, you will see the
menu which is shown in level 1 of the table above.
2. To enter an upper case letter, press the key which contains the letter
you wish to select. In the example table above, pressing VWXYZ lets
you select the key labelled upper case Y. The Y will then appear in
the active function area. Press More (1 of 3) to access the lower case
letters and More (2 of 3) to access mathematical symbols and
punctuation marks.
3. To enter a digit, 0 through 9, use the numeric keypad.
4. To enter a space, press the Space key, which is available on both the
letters and the symbols Alpha Editor menus.
5. Press the Return front panel key to return to the previous menu
without entering characters.
6. If you need to correct a character you have entered, you can use the
backspace key to move the cursor in the active function area to the
character you need to correct.
7. Once you have completed entering all characters, press the Done key.
8. Pressing the ESC key at any time prior to pressing the Done key will
clear the new entry and leave the previous entry unchanged.
68
Chapter 2
Using System Features
Using Input/Output Configuration Keys
Using Input/Output Configuration Keys
There are several keys available to help configure the instrument front
panel and rear panel inputs/outputs. These include the various buses,
external reference, and other types of I/O.
Configuring I/O
Press System, Config I/O to access keys and menus that enable you to
identify and change the current GPIB address, to identify and change
various LAN settings.
Front Panel Key
Level 1
Level 2
System
Config I/O
GPIB Address
Level 3/Entry
IP Address
Host Name
Alpha Editor
Subnet Mask
SCPI LAN
Telnet Port
Socket Port
SICL Server
Server
Maximum
Connections
Instrument Name
Instrument Logical
Unit
Emulated
GPIB Name
Emulated GPIB
Logical Unit
Emulated
GPIB Address
Ethernet Addr
• GPIB Address - Shows the current GPIB address (18 is the default
setting) and allows you to change this value. The new value is
displayed in the active function area. The GPIB port is always
active.
Chapter 2
69
Using System Features
Using Input/Output Configuration Keys
• IP Address - Changes the IP (internet protocol) address, domain
name and node (host) name for the instrument. The IP address of
the instrument can be changed by entering a numeric address
composed of numbers and decimal points.
• Host Name - Displays the host name of the instrument. Pressing
the key activates the alpha editor, which enables you to change the
host name. However, this will not change your LAN system
representation of the host name. You must work through your local
system administrator to change the host name. Changing it in the
instrument only changes the displayed information, it will not
enable LAN access with the new name.
• Subnet Mask - Changes the subnet mask of the instrument. The
subnet mask is a 32-bit address mask used in IP networks to
indicate the bits of an IP address that are used for the subnet
address. The default address is 255.255.0.0 for a class B network.
• SCPI LAN - Accesses the following keys:
Telnet Port - Turns on or off telnet programming over the LAN.
This key only affects new connections, not existing connections.
Enter the port number that you will use for your telnet
connection to the transmitter tester. The default port number is
5023.
Socket Port - Turns on or off socket programming over the LAN.
This key only affects new connections, not existing connections.
Enter the port number that you will use for your socket
connection to the transmitter tester. The default port number is
5025.
• SICL Server - Accesses the following keys. These keys are provided
for information only. The “value” of the settings cannot be changed.
Server - Indicates the on/off condition of the SICL IEEE 488.2
protocol LAN server.
Maximum Connections - Shows you the maximum number of
connections that can be accessed simultaneously. The default is 5.
Instrument Name - Shows you the name (same as the remote
SICL address) of your transmitter tester. The default is inst0.
Instrument Logical Unit - Shows you the unique integer
assigned to your transmitter tester when using SICL LAN. The
default is 8.
Emulated GPIB Name - Shows you the name (same as the
remote SICL address) of the device used when communicating
with your transmitter tester. The default is gpib7.
Emulated GPIB Logical Unit - Shows you the unique integer
assigned to your device when it is being controlled using SICL
LAN. The default is 8.
70
Chapter 2
Using System Features
Using Input/Output Configuration Keys
Emulated GPIB Address - Shows you the emulated GPIB
address assigned to your transmitter tester when it is a SICL
server. This address is set using the GPIB Address key.
Ethernet Addr - Shows the Ethernet address. This is an
information only feature that can not be modified by the user.
NOTE
For more information about these and other remote programming
features, refer to the programmer’s guide for your transmitter tester.
File System
Press System, More (1 of 3), More (2 of 3) to access the File System key. The
label of the File System key shows the current amount of Used memory
and Free memory in units of megabyte (MB).
Reference
Press the Reference menu key to activate a menu which allows you to
select an external reference, or to deactivate a 10 MHz out signal on the
rear panel.
Front Panel
Key
Level 1
Level 2
Toggle
Entry
System
Reference
Freq Ref
Int/Ext
When toggled
to Ext, enter
any value
between 1
and 30 MHz
10 MHz Out
Off/On
• Freq Ref - Allows you to select an external or an internal (the
default) reference. When toggled to Ext (external) you will set the
external reference frequency by entering a value between 1 and 30
MHz. When the instrument is locked to an external reference a
green Ext Ref indicator will appear in the annunciator bar.
NOTE
External reference values are persistent. This means that the external
reference frequency you select will remain active until it is changed,
even if the instrument is turned off and on, or preset. If the frequency
you have input to the rear panel external frequency connector is not the
same as the external frequency value you have manually set, a red Ext
Ref error indicator and a red Unlock error indicator will appear in the
annunciator bar.
Chapter 2
71
Using System Features
Using Input/Output Configuration Keys
• 10 MHz Out - Activates, or deactivates, the 10 MHz out signal on
the rear panel of the instrument. The 10 MHz out can be used to lock
other test equipment to the same frequency reference that is used by
the transmitter tester. Once activated, the 10 MHz out feature is
persistent, so if it is set to On it will remain on, even if the
instrument has been preset, or powered off and then on.
72
Chapter 2
Using System Features
Using System Configuration and Alignment Keys
Using System Configuration and Alignment
Keys
There are number of different keys that can help you with
understanding the current instrument configuration and for hardware
alignment.
NOTE
Some features are intended for use only by service personnel and
cannot be accessed without a service password. If after pressing a key a
message appears requesting entry of a password, you should
understand this to indicate that this feature is meant for service use
only. The password is not available unless the user has purchased the
service guide.
Restore System Defaults
Press System, More (1 of 3), More (2 of 3) to access the Restore Sys Defaults
key. There are some instrument functions that stay set to the last value
that you selected even if you press the instrument preset key or turn
the power off and on. The Restore Sys Defaults key allows you to preset
those functions back to the original factory settings.
NOTE
Pressing this key will preset functions like the GPIB/IP address,
external reference/trigger settings and auto-alignment selection. You
will have to reset these items to return to the your previous setup.
Show Errors
Press System, Show Errors to activate a menu with features that
enable you to move around in the error history queue, and to clear the
error queue.
Front Panel Key
Level 1
Level 2
System
Show Errors
Top Page
Last Page
Next Page
Prev Page
Clear Error Queue(s)
Verbose
Chapter 2
73
Using System Features
Using System Configuration and Alignment Keys
• Clear Error Queue(s) - The error history queue retains and
displays all errors once they have been detected, even if they are no
longer detected after a period of time has elapsed. After reviewing
the error queue you will likely want to clear it before making another
measurement. Note that if an error condition exists continuously, the
error will not appear in the queue after the error history queue has
been cleared.
• Verbose - When an error is made in using the instruments
programming commands, the verbose feature displays the command
in which an error has been detected. An error indicator will appear
in the diaplayed command line immediately following the entry that
caused the error. This feature can help you troubleshoot
programming problems.
You can exit the error history queue display to return to a measurement
display by pressing the ESC or the Return key.
Show System
Press System, More (1 of 3), Show System to access the two-page show
system display. The first page shows firmware and option information
(see Figure 2-1). Press More (2 of 3) to access the second page, which
shows option and hardware status information (see Figure 2-2).
Under the Show System menu is a key that enables you to enter a
password, and four information-only keys, in a lighter font, that show
the serial number, model designation, firmware revision, and host ID
for your instrument.
NOTE
Diagnostics features require a service password. The password is only
available if the service guide has been purchased. All service diagnostic
features are described in the service guide.
Front Panel Key
Level 1
Level 2
System
Show System
Service Password
Model
Serial Number
Firmware Rev
Host ID
Next Page
Prev Page
Diagnostics
74
Chapter 2
Using System Features
Using System Configuration and Alignment Keys
The display lists all the measurement options/modes available at the
time the firmware was installed or upgraded. It shows whether or not
the code for each option is currently installed in memory. It may not be
possible to fit all the options into your available memory. Hardware
information includes the name of boards along with part, serial number,
and revision information.
The display also indicates whether you have the license key installed
that gives you access to a particular option/mode. It is possible to have
the license key installed but not have the program code, or to have the
program code with no license key. Either situation will prevent the
option from running.
Show System Displays
Figure 2-1
Firmware and Option Information (first page)
Chapter 2
75
Using System Features
Using System Configuration and Alignment Keys
Figure 2-2
Option and Hardware Information (second page)
System (Local)
Pressing the System front panel key will return the instrument to local
control if the instrument was in remote mode being controlled by an
external computer.
76
Chapter 2
Using System Features
Using System Configuration and Alignment Keys
Alignment
Press System, Alignments to access menus which enable you to align
the instrument. Press the ESC key to stop any alignment. The table
below diagrams the paths through which you will access alignment
feature keys. The feature in the cell that is greyed-out requires a
password.
Front
Panel Key
System
Level 1
Alignments
Level 2
Auto Align
Level 3
On/Alert/Off
Align All Now
Align Subsystems
Align RF
Align IF
Align ADC
Align 50 MHz
Reference
Align Current IF
Flatness
Align Current
Sysgain
Corrections
On/Off
Time Corr
Auto/On/Off
Restore AlignDefaults
Visible Align
Off/Low/High
Auto Align - Defaults to the alert state. When set to Alert, the auto
align feature causes a message to appear 24 hours after the last
alignment to alert tell you that the instrument needs to be aligned.
This message will also appear if there is a change of ambient
temperature greater than ± 3° C. Use the Align All Now key.
When set to the On state an alignment (which slows down
measurements) automatically occurs every 5 minutes or when a
change in ambient temperature of greater than ± 3° C has occurred.
• Align All Now - Immediately activates an alignment on all of the
instrument’s standard RF, IF, and ADC alignments. All other
operations are stopped and the alignments progress will be visible on
the display.
Chapter 2
77
Using System Features
Using System Configuration and Alignment Keys
Align Subsystem - Allows you to activate one or a group of the
standard internal instrument alignments. Perform alignments on
circuitry relating to the following internal alignments. Press the ESC
key to cause any alignment to stop.
Align RF - Activates an alignment on the RF circuitry.
Align IF - Activates an alignment on the IF circuitry. The main
gain of the Analog IF is used to compensate for prefilter BW gain
variations so the gain of the entire IF path before the A/D
remains constant.
Align ADC - Activates an alignment on the ADC circuitry.
Align 50 MHz Reference - Enables a service technician to
adjust the amplitude of the internal 50 MHz reference signal for
absolute amplitude accuracy. The test equipment and the
adjustment procedure required are described in the E4406A
service guide.
NOTE
The Align 50 MHz reference feature can only be activated if you have a
service password. The password is not available unless the user has
purchased the service guide.
Align Current IF Flatness - Activates an immediate
measurement of the current IF flatness, for FFT spectral
amplitude compensation. Normally this alignment occurs in the
background when the instrument bandwidth is changed. Given
the current BW and Gain DAC settings for a measurement,
alignment is done using the comb calibration signal. The relative
amplitude of combs within the BW are compared to expected
amplitudes to generate the effective shape of the current IF path.
If Time Corrections are active, this alignment generates complex
IF responses (magnitude and phase) rather than just the original
scalar (magnitude) response. The complex alignment requires
reasonable delay estimation, and improved trigger compensation
so the phase response of several averaged measurements can be
unwrapped properly.
Align Current SysGain - Activates a fine-tuning adjustment of
the system gain. This is done by measuring the response of the
current system state configuration to the 50 MHz amplitude
reference signal. All subsequent measurements are then
compensated appropriately for absolute amplitude accuracy.
Normally this occurs in the background when the instrument
bandwidth is changed.
78
Chapter 2
Using System Features
Using System Configuration and Alignment Keys
• Corrections - When set to On (the default state), the alignment
firmware applies many numerical corrections to improve amplitude
accuracy of the measurement. This includes an absolute amplitude
adjustment at center frequency, and IF flatness correction for FFT
spans (spectral measurements). When corrections are Off, the
background alignments which determine corrections are disabled.
Corrections is a background feature which runs automatically, while
the instrument is on.
• Time Corr - Time corrections are the application of a complex filter
directly onto the time capture data. It compensates for the complex
(magnitude and phase) response of the analog and digital IF
hardware. Time corrections are less efficient (take more CPU cycles)
than frequency corrections when only scalar (magnitude) FFT
flatness is required, but for demod or other time-based (not FFT)
measurements, only time corrections can improve the flatness of
imperfect IF hardware. If the time correction functionality is set to
Auto (the default), the individual measurements activate the
corrections when they are needed.
• Restore Align Defaults - Restores the instrument’s align defaults.
This feature will only be needed if the instrument calibration locks
up, which may occur as a result of hardware problems. Once the
defaults are restored a message will appear informing you that
alignment is needed.
• Visible Align - When toggled to Off, the alignment traces which are
visible in the display during an alignment will be turned off, and the
alignment process will take less time. When set to High, every
alignment trace is shown, resulting in the alignment taking more
time than when Visible Align is set to Low (the default state), where
one out of ten traces is shown. Note that text showing alignment
results is displayed on screen when any alignment is activated, even
when the visible alignment is set to Off.
Chapter 2
79
Using System Features
Using System Configuration and Alignment Keys
80
Chapter 2
3
Setting the Mode
A set of mode parameters such as input and trigger settings applies to
each mode. These settings affect all measurements and measurement
setup parameters in the current mode.
81
Setting the Mode
Selecting a Mode
Selecting a Mode
The Mode menu key is used to select the measurement personality you
have purchased with your instrument, or to select the basic or service
modes, which are native to the instrument. Upon turn-on the
instrument will default to the basic mode.
• Mode - Accesses the measurement personality mode. Press the key
that corresponds to the mode you want to select, such as GSM or
cdmaOne. For a full explanation of the personality mode you have
purchased, see the documentation which comes with that option.
• Basic - This mode is useful for making measurements that are not
preset to industry standards. They can be used for troubleshooting
your devices. Press Mode, Basic to switch to the basic mode, and bring
up the measurements menu. For more information on these
measurements go to “Basic Measurements” on page 88.
• Service These features will help you check the functionality of your
instrument. Press Mode, Service, to switch to the service mode, and
bring up the service measurements menu. Features accessed
through this menu include tests which check the timebase frequency,
the sensors on the RF board, and the functionality of the front panel
keys. For more information on these features go to “Service
Measurements” on page 141.
The basic waveform and spectrum measurements are available as
well as a power vs time measurement which is used only for
self-diagnostic purposes. The measurement setup parameters that
you select while in Service mode are only used for service mode. The
Basic mode settings are independent. Descriptions of the spectrum
and waveform measurements begin on page 97.
Note that spectrum and waveform measurements are available in each
personality mode, as well as in the basic and service modes. Each with
their own independent mode settings.
Press Preset to set the instrument to a known factory default state. This
sets all parameters to their factory default values for the selected mode.
Preset does not switch the modes.
NOTE
Some features are intended for use only by service personnel and
cannot be accessed without a password. If after pressing a key, a
message appears requesting entry of a password, this means that the
feature is meant for service use only. The password is only available
through the service guide.
82
Chapter 3
Setting the Mode
Mode Setup
Mode Setup
When you select a mode the instrument automatically presets settings
to defaults for that mode. These defaults apply to all measurements in
the mode.
Mode settings are persistent. When you switch from one mode to
another mode, the settings you have chosen for the modes will remain
active until you change them. This allows you to switch back and forth
between modes without having to reset settings each time. Presetting
the instrument will return all current mode settings to their default
values. Powering the instrument off and on will reset all mode settings
to their default values.
NOTE
Before making measurements, it is important to set the parameters
under the mode setup key for the device to be tested. These parameters
are not saved when you preset or power the instrument off and on, so
you may want to save them in an instrument state for later use.
The Mode Setup key accesses: (1) the Input key menu of features
including selecting inputs, changing input attenuation, and modifying
IF align settings, and (2) the Trigger key menu which lets you to choose
trigger setup states for the instrument.
Input Keys
By pressing the Input key you access menus that select an input port,
adjust input attenuation, and adjust the IF align signal.
Activate an Input Port and Adjust Input Power
• Input Port key. The Input Port menu key accesses a menu which
allows you to select one of the following input keys: RF, 50 MHz Ref,
and IF Align. These keys are explained below.
RF key. Use the RF key to reactivate the RF input after a
different input has been activated. This is a 50 Ω connector.
50 MHz Ref key. Selects the internal 50 MHz CW reference
signal. The displayed signal amplitude will be −25 dBm.
IF Align key. The IF align signal is an internal calibration signal
used during the auto align process.
Chapter 3
83
Setting the Mode
Mode Setup
Adjust Input Attenuation and Input Power.
• Max Total Pwr key. The Max Total Pwr key can be activated only
when Input Port is set to RF. Max Total Pwr allows you to enter
maximum power levels (−15 dBm is the default value) for the RF
input. The maximum total power setting is coupled to the input
attenuation setting.
• I/Q Input Z key. The I/Q Input Z key can be activated only when Input Port
is set to I/Q. The I/Q Input Z key enables you to choose an input
impedance of either 50 Ω or 600 Ω. An input impedance of 600 Ω may
be needed for certain telecommunications applications.
• Input Atten key. The Input Atten feature can be activated only when
Port is set to RF. The Input Atten feature allows you to enter the
attenuation value. The input attenuation can be set at values from
0 to 40 dB in increments of 1 dB. The input attenuation setting is
coupled to the maximum total power setting.
NOTE
The Max Total Pwr and Input Atten settings are coupled together. When you
switch to a different measurement, the Max Total Pwr is kept constant,
but the Input Atten may change if the two measurements have different
mixer margins. Thus, you can directly set the transmitter tester input
attenuation, or you can set it indirectly by specifying the maximum
expected power at the UUT (Max Total Pwr setting).
Adjust the IF Align Signal.
NOTE
The IF align signal adjustments are advanced features. IF align rate,
amplitude and type should not be modified unless you are familiar with
IF align functionality.
• Signal Rate. The signal is modulated by a digital sequence that can be
set to 1 of 13 positions (rate 0 through 12) to cause the comb spacing
(or pulse timing) of the alignment signal to widen or narrow. At the
position of 1 the signal rate is set at its maximum value of 234.375
kHz. This frequency rate value will appear in the softkey label. Each
time the position integer is incremented, the signal rate is halved.
For example, at a position of 2 the signal rate is 117.188 kHz.
• Signal Amptd key. To modify the signal amplitude you will enter a
DAC value between 0 - 4095. The amplitude range is 0 to 50 dB.
Incrementing the DAC value increases the amplitude of the signal in
a linear fashion, and will be visible on screen. The default DAC value
is 500.
• Signal Type key. This menu allows you to select a CW (a tone that
appears in the center of the IF), comb, or pulse type signal as the IF
align signal.
84
Chapter 3
Setting the Mode
Mode Setup
Trigger Keys
The Trigger key accesses the mode setup menu for the following trigger
sources. See See “Trigger Source” on page 92. for a description of trigger
sources including:
• RF Burst (Wideband)
• Video (IF Envlp)
• Ext Front
• Ext Rear
Pressing one of the trigger source keys will access the mode setup
menu. This menu is used to set the Delay, Level, and Slope for each
trigger source. Note that the actual trigger source is selected separately
for each measurement (under the Meas Setup key).
• Delay key. This key is used to set the delay time for trigger sources.
For trigger delay use positive values. For pre-trigger delay use
negative values. The range of the trigger delay is −500 ms to
+500 ms.
• Level key. For the RF Burst (Wideband) selection the level is relative to
the peak level of the RF signal (for the RF Burst trigger you will enter
a peak level value with a key labelled Peak Level, rather than
Level). For the Video selection the level is the value, in dBm at the RF
input, that will cause the trigger. For the Ext Front and Ext Rear
selections, the level range is −5 to +5 volts.
• Slope key. This key allows you to trigger off of the positive-going
edge (Pos) or the negative-going edge (Neg) of the trigger source
signal.
Other keys accessed under the Trigger key:
• Trig Holdoff key. Sets the period of time before the next trigger can
occur.
• Auto Trig key. Acts as a trigger timeout. If no trigger occurs by the
specified time, a trigger is automatically generated. When set to On
the instrument will take data when it receives a signal from the
current trigger source; if no signal is received in the expected time
period, the time period will default to the Free Run trigger default
time period. When set to Off (the default setting) data will only be
taken if a trigger has been set, and the Free Run trigger will not be
automatically activated.
Chapter 3
85
Setting the Mode
Mode Setup
• Frame Timer key. The frame timer feature uses the internal frame
clock to generate a trigger signal.
— Period key. Sets the period of the frame clock. Values between
33 ns and 559 ms can be entered.
— Offset key. Allows entry of offset values between 33 ns and 10 s.
— Reset Offset Display key. Resets the display of the Offset key to
0 s.
— Sync Source menu key. See keys listed below.
• Sync Source key menu.
— Off key. Deactivates any sync source trigger that has been
selected and returns you to the frame timer menu.
— Ext Front key. Synchronizes the measurement to an external
sync source, such as a frame clock signal.
— Ext Rear key. Synchronizes the measurement to an external
sync source, such as a frame clock signal.
Selecting the Frequency/Channel
Use the FREQUENCY/Channel front panel key to set the center frequency
or select the channel for the measurement you want to make.
86
Chapter 3
4
Making Measurements
This chapter describes measurements that are available in the Basic
and Service modes. Basic mode measurements are common to many
modulation formats. Service mode measurements are used to check the
functionality of the instrument.
87
Making Measurements
Basic Measurements
Basic Measurements
Basic measurements are useful for making measurements that are not
specified in measurement standards, and will be useful if you need to
troubleshoot a measurement operation. In addition, having spectrum
and waveform measurements available independently of personality
modes provides extra flexibility.
To access the Basic mode press the Mode key and select the Basic
softkey. The following measurements are then available by pressing the
Measure key:
“Making the Spectrum (Frequency Domain) Measurement” on
page 97.
“Making the Waveform (Time Domain) Measurement” on page 110.
“Making the Adjacent Channel Power (ACP) Measurement” on
page 122.
“Making the Channel Power Measurement” on page 131.
“Making the Power Stat CCDF Measurement” on page 136.
When you press the key to select the measurement it will become the
active measurement, using settings and a display unique to that
measurement. Data acquisitions will automatically begin provided
trigger requirements, if any, are met.
88
Chapter 4
Making Measurements
Preparing for Measurements
Preparing for Measurements
If you want to set the Basic mode to a known, factory default state,
press Preset. This will preset the mode setup and all of the
measurements to the factory default parameters.
Pressing the Preset key does not switch instrument modes.
NOTE
To preset only the settings that are specific to a specific measurement,
select the measurement and press Meas Setup, More, Restore Meas
Defaults. This will set the measure setup parameters to the factory
defaults for the currently selected measurement only.
Initial Setup
Before making a measurement, make sure the mode setup and
frequency/channel parameters are set to the desired settings. Refer to
the sections “Mode Setup” and “Selecting the Frequency/Channel” in
the previous chapter.
How to Make a Measurement
The following table summarizes the steps you will follow in making a
measurement:
Step
Primary Key
Setup Keys
Related Keys
1. Select &
setup a mode
Mode
Mode Setup, Input, Frequency
Channel
System
2. Select &
setup a measurement
Measure
Meas Setup
Meas Control,
Restart
3. Select &
setup view
View/Trace
Span X Scale,
Amplitude Y Scale, Display,
Next Window, Zoom
File, Save,
Print, Print Setup,
Marker, Search
Using Measure Keys
The MEASURE front panel key allows you to activate one measurement
from those available in the current mode. The measurements that are
available will vary depending on which mode you have selected. It may
be a measurement personality mode, the basic mode, or the service
mode.
Chapter 4
89
Making Measurements
Preparing for Measurements
Measurement Control
Following your selection of the instrument mode and mode setup you
will use keys in the Meas Control keys to control processes that affect the
running of the current measurement.
• Measure - Toggles between Single and Cont (for continuous)
measurement states. When set to Single the measurement will
continue until it has reached the specified number of averages set by
the average counter. When set to Cont the measurement will run
continuously, and perform averaging according to the current
average type (repeat or exponential). The default is continuous. See
page 90 for an explanation of averaging.
• Pause - Pauses the current measurement. Once toggled, the label of
the Pause key changes to read Resume. Measurement settings can be
change while it is paused. The Resume key continues the active
measurement from the point at which it was paused.
• Restart re-initiates the current measurement from the beginning
(including averaging), without changing the current measurement
settings. If the measurement is paused, then restart is the same as
resuming from the beginning of the measurement instead of from
the point at which it was paused.
Measurement Setup
The Meas Setup key accesses features that enable you to adjust
parameters of the current measurement, such as resolution bandwidth.
You will also use the Meas Setup menu to access Average, Trig Source, and
Advanced measure setup feature menus.
The following features can be used with many measurements:
• Res BW - Changes the resolution bandwidth of a given
measurement. Selection of a narrower bandwidth will result in a
longer data acquisition time.
• Restore Meas Defaults - Presets only the settings that are specific
to the selected measurement. This will set the measure setup
parameters to the factory defaults, only for the currently selected
measurement.
Averaging
Features in the Average menu allow you to modify the number,
average mode, and type of averaging you use for the currently selected
measurement. The features available for averaging will vary slightly
depending on the measurement that is currently active. On the display
averaged trace results are shown in blue, while the instantaneous
signal is shown in yellow.
90
Chapter 4
Making Measurements
Preparing for Measurements
• Avg Number - Modifies the number of times the current
measurement will be repeated with the results from the repeated
measurements averaged. Increased averages usually give more
accurate results. There will be an increase in the time taken to make
a measurement if the number of averages is increased.
• Avg Mode - Selects between an Exp (exponential) or a Repeat mode
of averaging. This selection only affects the averaging after the
number of N averages is reached (set using Avg Number). Normal
(linear) averaging is always used until the specified number of N
averages is reached. When Measure is set to Single, data acquisitions
are stopped when the number of averages is reached. Therefore Avg
Mode has no effect on single measurements.
Exponential averaging: When Measure is set at Cont (continuous)
data acquisitions will continue indefinitely. After N averages,
exponential averaging is used with a weighting factor of N (the
displayed average count stops at N). Exponential averaging
weights new data more than old data, which facilitates tracking
of slow-changing signals. The value of N is set through use of the
Average key or the Avg Bursts key.
Repeat averaging: When Measure is set at Cont, data acquisitions
will continue indefinitely. After N averages is reached, all
previous result data is cleared and the average count is set back
to 1. This is equivalent to pressing Measure, Single and then
pressing the Restart key each time the single measurement
finishes.
• Avg Type - Allows you to select type of averaging. Only the types of
averaging that are appropriate for the current measurement are
available in that measurement. The following average types are
available:
Pwr Avg - Averages the power, which is equivalent to the rms of
the voltage. This is the default type of averaging.
Log-Pwr Avg - The log of the power is averaged. This is also
known as video averaging.
Voltage Avg - The voltage is averaged.
Maximum - The maximum values are retained.
Minimum - The minimum values are retained.
Chapter 4
91
Making Measurements
Preparing for Measurements
Trigger Source
Changing the Trig Source alters the trigger source for the current
measurement only. Not all of the selections are available for all
measurements. Note that the RF Burst, Video, Ext Front, and Ext Rear
menu keys found in the Trigger menu enable you to change settings to
modify the delay, level, and slope for each of these trigger sources (as
described on page 85. Choose one of the following trigger sources:
• Free Run - Triggers at the time the data is requested, completely
asynchronous to the RF or IF signals.
• Video - Is an internal IF envelope trigger. It triggers on an absolute
threshold level of the signal passed by the IF.
• RF Burst - Is an internal wideband RF burst trigger that has an
automatic level control for burst signals.
• Ext Front - Activates the front panel Ext Trigger Input. The external
trigger must be a signal between −5 and +5 volts.
• Ext Rear - Activates the rear panel Trigger In. The external trigger
must be a signal between −5 and +5 volts.
• Frame - Uses the internal frame clock to generate a trigger signal.
The clock parameters are controlled under the Mode Setup key or the
measurement firmware, not both. See the specific measurement for
details.
• Line - Activates an internal line trigger. Sweep triggers occur at
intervals synchronized to the line frequency.
Rear panel TRIGGER 1 OUT and TRIGGER 2 OUT connectors are coupled
to the selected trigger source. These trigger outputs are always on the
rising edge with a pulse width of at least 1 µs.
92
Chapter 4
Making Measurements
Preparing for Measurements
Changing the View
The following keys enable you to select the desired view of the
measurement and to change scale parameters for the graphic window.
View/Trace - Selects a predefined view of the current measurement and
highlights the selected window. Once a window is selected, the X and Y
scale keys can be used to modify scale parameters. The types of
windows, and X and Y scale parameters that are available will vary,
depending on the measurement you have activated.
• Typical Measurement Windows
Spectrum window - Select this window if you want to view a
signal in parameters of frequency and power. Changes to
frequency span or power will sometimes affect data acquisition.
For more details see the section on spectrum measurements.
Signal Envelope window - Select this window to view a signal
in parameters of time and power. For more detail see the section
on waveform measurements. Both RF and BbIQ signals can be
viewed in this window.
I/Q Waveform window - Select this window to view the I and Q
signal characteristics of the current measurement in parameters
of voltage and time. This window is in both the spectrum and
waveform measurements.
Press View/Trace, Spectrum, to view a spectrum measurement window,
or View/Trace, Waveform to view a waveform measurement window.
• Trace Display
All - Displays both the current and the average trace.
Average - Displays only the average trace. The average trace is
shown in blue.
Current - Displays only the trace for the latest data acquisition.
The current trace is shown in yellow.
• Span / X Scale Keys
Span key. This key allows you to modify the frequency span.
Changes in span may affect data acquisition.
Scale/Div key. This key allows you to modify the X scale
parameter in units of time.
Sweep Time key. This key allows you to modify sweep time.
Changes in sweep time will affect data acquisition.
Ref Value key. This key allows you to set the value of the
reference level for X scale display in units of time.
Ref Position key. This key allows you to place the current
Chapter 4
93
Making Measurements
Preparing for Measurements
reference level on the left, the center, or the right of the display.
This is used for X scale display either in units of frequency or
time.
Scale/Coupling key. This key couples the scale/division to the
sweep time for measurements made in the time domain.
• Amplitude / Y Scale Keys
Scale/Div key. This key enables you to set the dB/Division (for the
Spectrum and the RF Envelope windows) or V/Division (for the
I/Q window).
Ref Value key. This key allows you to set the value of the reference,
in units of dB (for the RF Envelope window), or in units of mV (for
the I/Q window).
Ref Position key. This key allows you to move the current reference
level to the top, center, or bottom of the display.
94
Chapter 4
Making Measurements
Preparing for Measurements
Using Markers
Markers enable you to make measurements on screen. Keys in the
Marker menu control the number and types of markers you can access.
Trace keys allow you to select the trace on which you will activate a
marker. The Search key enables you to perform an immediate peak
search and activate a marker at the peak signal.
Paths to access any of the features listed below will be found next to the
specific key listed in the key access table which begins on page 53.
Trace
The Trace keys allow you to select the trace that will be used for the
other marker keys. You can then use marker features to obtain the
results you desire. To access Trace keys press Marker, Trace.
NOTE
The selections in the Trace menu include traces on all windows for the
current measurement, including windows that are not currently
displayed.
When making waveform measurements you can activate the following
trace keys: RF Envelope and I/Q Waveform keys.
When making spectrum measurements you can activate: Spectrum,
Spectrum Avg, and I/Q Waveform keys. The spectrum average trace feature
places a marker on the average trace in the spectrum window.
Markers
Up to four markers can appear on the display simultaneously but only
one marker can be activated and moved at a time. This marker is called
the “active” marker. Press Marker to access the keys below, except for the
Shape and Marker All Off keys, which require you to press Marker, More (1 of
2).
• Normal - Activates a single marker on the selected trace (as set by
the trace key) in units either of frequency or time, depending on the
measurement mode that is currently active. However, if a marker
has previously been activated, that marker will persist as the default
marker until it is changed. You can change the position of the
marker through use of the front panel step keys and RPG knob.
Annotation in the active function area and the upper right hand
corner of the display indicate the value of the active marker in units
of the window which contains that marker. Pressing Normal also
deactivates any marker delta functions which have been activated
previously.
Chapter 4
95
Making Measurements
Preparing for Measurements
• Select - Enables you to select one, or more, of the four available
markers. Once selected, a marker can be activated, or deactivated,
by using the Normal, Delta, or Function keys. If a marker has previously
been turned on and assigned to a specific trace it will become active
on that trace when the Select key is pressed.
• Delta - Places two markers on the selected trace or, if a marker is
already active, places a second marker at the position of the active
marker. You can activate up to two sets of delta markers. Annotation
in the active function area and in the upper-right corner of the
display show differences between the two markers in the units of the
window which contains that marker.
• Off - Turns off the selected marker (as set by the Select key).
• Marker All Off - Turns off all markers.
• Shape - Allows you to select markers in the shapes of diamonds,
crosses, squares, and lines. The line markers run vertically, from the
bottom to the top of the display, while the diamond, square, and cross
shapes simply allow you to distinguish different points on the trace
by using different shapes. You may use up to four different shaped
markers at a given time, although only one may be active.
Marker Functions
The marker Function menu key enables you to use two marker functions:
Band Power and Noise. These functions do not apply to all
measurements; if you attempt to press a function key for a function that
is not applicable to that measurement a message will appear telling you
that the function is not supported under the current measurement.
These functions are described below. Press Marker, Function to access the
following keys.
• Band Power - Allows you to place two markers to either side of a
band so you can measure the power within that band. You can use
the RPG knob to move the band markers; the numerical power
reading will be visible in the upper right corner of the display. This
feature is particularly useful for measuring channel power.
• Noise - Normalizes the equivalent amplitude of the measured noise
to a 1 Hz bandwidth, which is centered around the displayed marker.
This is done by sampling and displaying the average of 32 data
points.
Search Marker
The front panel Search key performs a peak search when pressed. A
marker will automatically be activated at the highest peak.
96
Chapter 4
Making Measurements
Making the Spectrum (Frequency Domain) Measurement
Making the Spectrum (Frequency Domain)
Measurement
Purpose
The spectrum measurement provides spectrum analysis capability for
the instrument. The control of the measurement was designed to be
familiar to those who are accustomed to using swept spectrum
analyzers.
This measurement is FFT (Fast Fourier Transform) based. The
FFT-specific parameters are located in the Advanced menu. Also
available under basic mode spectrum measurements is an
I/Q window, which shows the I and Q signal waveforms in parameters of
voltage versus time. The advantage of having an I/Q view available
while in the spectrum measurement is that it allows you to view
complex components of the same signal without changing settings or
measurements.
Measurement Method
The measurement uses digital signal processing to sample the input
signal and convert it to the frequency domain. With the instrument
tuned to a fixed center frequency, samples are digitized at a high rate,
converted to I and Q components with DSP hardware, and then
converted to the frequency domain with FFT software.
This measurement is available for both the RF input and baseband I/Q
inputs. For details on Baseband I/Q operation see “Using Baseband I/Q
Inputs (Option B7C)” on page 151.
Making the Measurement
NOTE
The factory default parameters provide a good starting point.You will
likely want to change some of the settings. Press Meas Setup, More (1 of
2), Restore Meas Defaults at any time to return all parameters for the
current measurement to their default settings.
Press Measure, Spectrum (Freq Domain) to immediately make a spectrum
measurement.
To change any of the measurement parameters from the factory default
values, refer to the “Changing the Measurement Setup” section for this
measurement.
Chapter 4
97
Making Measurements
Making the Spectrum (Frequency Domain) Measurement
When using the baseband I/Q inputs, set Input Port to I/Q, I only, or Q only,
configure the I/Q Setup parameters, and supply the baseband I/Q signals
to the front-panel I/Q inputs. The available trigger sources for this
measurement includes I/Q Level.
Results
A display with both a Spectrum window and an I/Q Waveform window
will appear when you activate a spectrum measurement. Use the Next
Window key to select a window, and the Zoom key to enlarge a window.
Figure 4-1
Spectrum Measurement - Spectrum and I/Q Waveform View
98
Chapter 4
Making Measurements
Making the Spectrum (Frequency Domain) Measurement
Changing the Measurement Setup
The following table shows the factory default settings for spectrum
(frequency domain) measurements.
Table 4-1
Spectrum (Frequency Domain) Measurement Defaults
Measurement Parameter
Factory Default Condition
View/Trace
Spectrum
Trace Display
All
Res BW
20.0000 kHz; Auto
Averaging:
Avg Number
Avg Mode
Avg Type
25; On
Exp
Log-Pwr Avg (Video)
Trig Source
Free Run (Immediate)
Spectrum View:
SPAN
AMPLITUDE Y Scale - Scale/Div
1.00000 MHz
10.00 dB
Spectrum Linear View:
SPAN
AMPLITUDE Y Scale - Scale/Div
1.00000 MHz
100.0 mV
I and Q Waveform View:
Capture Time
AMPLITUDE Y Scale - Scale/Div
188.00 µs
100.0 mV
I/Q Polar View:
I/Q Scale/Div
I or Q Origin
100.0 mV
0.00 V
Advanced
Pre-ADC BPF
On
Pre-FFT Filter
Flat
Pre-FFT BW
1.55000 MHz; Auto
FFT Window
Flat Top (High AmptdAcc)
FFT Size:
Length Control
Min Points/RBW
Window Length
FFT Length
Auto
3.100000
706
1024
ADC Range
Auto Peak
Data Packing
Auto
ADC Dither
Auto
Chapter 4
99
Making Measurements
Making the Spectrum (Frequency Domain) Measurement
Table 4-1
NOTE
Spectrum (Frequency Domain) Measurement Defaults
Measurement Parameter
Factory Default Condition
Decimation
0; Auto
IF Flatness
On
Parameters under the Advanced key seldom need to be changed. Any
changes from the default advanced values may result in invalid
measurement data.
Make sure the Spectrum (Freq Domain) measurement is selected under
the Measure menu. Press the Meas Setup key to access a menu which
allows you to modify the averaging and trigger source for this
measurement (as described in the “Measurement Setup” section). In
addition, the following parameters can be modified:
• Span - Allows you to modify the frequency span. The range is
10.000 Hz to 10.000 MHz with 1 Hz resolution, depending on the Res
BW setting. Changing the span causes the resolution bandwidth to
change automatically, and will affect data acquisition time.
• Res BW - Allows you to set the resolution bandwidth for the FFT, and
to toggle its mode between Auto and Man (manual). If set to Auto, the
resolution bandwidth is set to Span/50 (2% of the span). If set to Man,
you can enter a value ranging from 100.0 mHz to 3.00000 MHz. A
narrower bandwidth will result in a longer data acquisition time.
• Advanced - Allows you to access the menu to change the following
parameters. The FFT advanced features should be used only if you
are familiar with their operation. Changes from the default values
may result in invalid data.
— Pre-ADC BPF - Allows you to toggle the pre-ADC bandpass filter
function between On and Off. The pre-ADC bandpass filter is
useful for rejecting nearby signals, so that sensitivity within the
span range can be improved by increasing the ADC range gain.
— Pre-FFT Fltr - Allows you to toggle the pre-FFT filter between Flat
(flat top) and Gaussian. The pre-FFT filter defaults to a flat top
filter which has better amplitude accuracy. The Gaussian filter
has better pulse response.
— Pre-FFT BW - Allows you to toggle the pre-FFT bandwidth function
between Auto and Man (manual). The pre-FFT bandwidth filter
can be set between 1 Hz and 10 MHz. If set to Auto, this pre-FFT
bandwidth is nominally 50% wider than the span. This
bandwidth determines the ADC sampling rate.
— FFT Window - Allows you to access the following selection menu.
Unless you are familiar with FFT windows, use the flat top filter.
100
Chapter 4
Making Measurements
Making the Spectrum (Frequency Domain) Measurement
❏ Flat Top - Selects this filter for best amplitude accuracy by
reducing scalloping error.
❏ Uniform - Select this filter to have no window active by using
the uniform setting.
❏ Hanning - Press this key to activate the Hanning filter.
❏ Hamming - Press this key to activate the Hamming filter.
❏ Gaussian - Press this key to activate the Gaussian filter with
the roll-off factor (alpha) of 3.5.
❏ Blackman - Press this key to activate the Hamming filter.
❏ Blackman Harris - Press this key to activate the Hamming filter.
❏ K-B 70dB/90dB/110dB (Kaiser-Bessel) - Select one of the
Kaiser-Bessel filters with sidelobes at −70, −90, or −110 dBc.
— FFT Size - Allows you to access the menu to change the following
parameters:
❏ Length Ctrl - Allows you to toggle the FFT and window length
setting function between Auto and Man (manual).
❏ Min Pts in RBW - Allows you to set the minimum number of data
points that will be used inside the resolution bandwidth. The
range is 0.10 to 100.00 points with 0.01 resolution. This key is
grayed out if Length Ctrl is set to Man.
❏ Window Length - Allows you to enter the FFT window length in
the number of capture samples, ranging from 8 to 1048576.
This length represents the actual quantity of I/Q samples that
are captured for processing by the FFT (“Capture Time” is the
associated parameter shown on the screen). This key is grayed
out if Length Control is set to Auto.
❏ FFT Length - Allows you to enter the FFT length in the number
of captured samples, ranging from 8 to 1048576. The FFT
length setting is automatically limited so that it is equal to or
greater than the FFT window length setting. Any amount
greater than the window length is implemented by
zero-padding. This key is grayed out if Length Control is set to
Auto.
— ADC Range - Allows you to access the menu to define one of the
following ADC ranging functions:
❏ Auto - Select this to set the ADC range automatically. For most
FFT spectrum measurements, the auto feature should not be
selected. An exception is when measuring a signal which is
“bursty”, in which case auto can maximize the time domain
dynamic range, if FFT results are less important to you than
time domain results.
Chapter 4
101
Making Measurements
Making the Spectrum (Frequency Domain) Measurement
❏ Auto Peak - Select this to set the ADC range automatically to
the peak signal level. Auto peak is a compromise that works
well for both CW and burst signals.
❏ AutoPeakLock - Select this to hold the ADC range automatically
at the peak signal level. Auto peak lock is more stable than
auto peak for CW signals, but should not be used for “bursty”
signals.
❏ Manual - Allows you to access the selection menu: −6 dB, 0 dB, +6
dB, +12 dB, +18 dB, +24 dB, to set the ADC range level. Also note
that manual ranging is best for CW signals.
— Data Packing - Allows you to select Auto (the default) or the Short (16
bit), Medium (24 bit) and Long (32 bit) methods of data packing. The
short, medium, and long methods are not compatible with all
settings and should not be used unless you are familiar with data
packing methods. Auto is the preferred choice.
❏ Auto - The data packing value most appropriate for current
instrument settings is selected automatically.
❏ Short (16 bit) - Select this to pack data every 16 bits.
❏ Medium (24 bit) - Select this to pack data every 24 bits.
❏ Long (32 bit) - Select this to pack data every 32 bits.
— ADC Dither - Allows you to toggle the ADC dither function between
Auto, On, and Off. When set to Auto (the default), the ADC dither
function will be activated when a narrow bandwidth is being
measured, and deactivated when a wide bandwidth is being
measured. “ADC dither” refers to the introduction of noise to the
digitized steps of the analog-to-digital converter; the result is an
improvement in amplitude accuracy. Use of the ADC dither,
however, reduces dynamic range by approximately 3 dB.
— Decimation - Allows you to toggle the decimation function between
Auto and Man, and to set the decimation value. Auto is the
preferred setting, and the only setting that guarantees alias-free
FFT spectrum measurements. If you are familiar with the
decimation feature, you can change the decimation value by
setting to Man, but be aware that aliasing can result in higher
values. Decimation numbers 1 to 4 describe the factor by which
the number of points are reduced. The default setting is 1, which
results in no data point reduction.
— IF Flatness - Allows you to toggle the IF flatness function between
On and Off. If set to On (the default), the IF flatness feature causes
background amplitude corrections to be performed on the FFT
spectrum. The Off setting is used for adjustment and
troubleshooting of the test instrument.
102
Chapter 4
Making Measurements
Making the Spectrum (Frequency Domain) Measurement
Changing the View
The View/Trace key allows you to select the desired view of the
measurement from the following. You can use the Next Window key to
move between the multiple windows (if any) and make it full size by
Zoom.
• Spectrum - Provides a combination view of the spectrum graph in
parameters of power versus frequency with the semi-log graticules,
and the I/Q waveform graph in the parameters of voltage and time.
Changes to frequency span or power will sometimes affect data
acquisition.
• Spectrum Linear - Provides a view of the linear spectrum graph in
parameters of voltage and versus frequency with the linear
graticules. Changes to frequency span or voltage will sometimes
affect data acquisition.
Figure 4-2
NOTE
Spectrum Measurement - Linear Spectrum View
For the widest spans, the I/Q window becomes just “ADC time domain
samples”, because the I/Q down-conversion is no longer in effect. This is
not the case if the Input Port is set to either I/Q, I only, or Q only and you
have connected baseband I/Q signals to the I/Q INPUT connectors.
Chapter 4
103
Making Measurements
Making the Spectrum (Frequency Domain) Measurement
• I and Q Waveform - Provides the individual views of the I and Q signal
waveform windows in the parameters of voltage versus time.
Figure 4-3
Spectrum Measurement - I and Q Waveform View
• I/Q Polar - Provides a view of the I/Q signal polar vector graph.
Figure 4-4
Spectrum Measurement - I/Q Polar View
104
Chapter 4
Making Measurements
Making the Spectrum (Frequency Domain) Measurement
Changing the Display
The Span key under the Meas Setup menu controls the horizontal span of
the Spectrum Linear window. If the SPAN X Scale key is pressed, this Span
key is activated, while the AMPLITUDE Y Scale key allows you to access
the menus to modify the vertical parameters depending on the selected
windows.
Changing the Linear Spectrum Display
If the Linear Spectrum window is active in the Spectrum Linear view, the
SPAN X Scale and AMPLITUDE Y Scale keys access the menus to modify
the following parameters:
• With the SPAN X Scale key:
— Span - Allows you to modify the frequency span. The range is
10.000 Hz to 10.000 MHz with 1 Hz resolution, depending on the
Res BW setting. Changing the span causes the resolution
bandwidth to change automatically, and will affect data
acquisition time.
• With the AMPLITUDE Y Scale key:
— Scale/Div - Allows you to set the vertical scale by changing an
amplitude value per division. The range is 1.00 nV to 20.00 V per
division. The default setting is 100.0 mV. However, since the Scale
Coupling default is On, this value is automatically determined by
the measurement results. To manually set this value Scale
Coupling must be Off.
— Ref Value - Allows you to set the reference value ranging from
−250.00 to 250.00 V. The default setting is 0.00 V. However, since
the Scale Coupling default is On, this value is automatically
determined by the measurement results. To manually set this
value Scale Coupling must be Off.
— Ref Position - Allows you to set the reference position to either Top,
Ctr (center) or Bot (bottom). The default setting is Ctr.
— Scale Coupling - Allows you to toggle the scale coupling function
between On and Off. The default setting is On. Upon pressing the
Restart front-panel key or Restart softkey under the Meas Control
menu, this function automatically determines the scale per
division and reference values based on the measurement results.
To manually set either Scale/Div or Ref Value values, Scale Coupling
must be Off.
Chapter 4
105
Making Measurements
Making the Spectrum (Frequency Domain) Measurement
Changing the I or Q Waveform Window
If the I or Q Waveform window is active in the I and Q Waveform view, the
SPAN X Scale and AMPLITUDE Y Scale keys access the menu to modify the
following parameters:
• With the SPAN X Scale key:
— Scale/Div - Allows you to set the horizontal scale by changing a
time value per division. The range is 1.00 ns to 1.00 s per division.
The default setting is 18.8 ms per division. However, since the
Scale Coupling default is On, this value is automatically
determined by the measurement results. To manually set this
value Scale Coupling must be Off.
— Ref Value - Allows you to set the reference value ranging from
−1.00 to 10.0 s. The default setting is 0.00 s. However, since the
Scale Coupling default is On, this value is automatically
determined by the measurement results. To manually set this
value Scale Coupling must be Off.
— Ref Position - Allows you to set the reference position to either Left,
Ctr (center) or Right. The default setting is Left.
— Scale Coupling - Allows you to toggle the scale coupling function
between On and Off. The default setting is On. Upon pressing the
Restart front-panel key or Restart softkey under the Meas Control
menu, this function automatically determines the scale per
division and reference values based on the measurement
results.To manually set either Scale/Div or Ref Value values, Scale
Coupling must be Off.
• With the AMPLITUDE Y Scale key:
— Scale/Div - Allows you to set the vertical scale by changing the
amplitude value per division. The range is 1.00 nV to 20.00 V per
division. The default setting is 100.0 mV. However, since the Scale
Coupling default is On, this value is automatically determined by
the measurement results. To manually set this value Scale
Coupling must be Off.
— Ref Value - Allows you to set the reference value ranging from
−250.00 to 250.00 V. The default setting is 0.00 V. However, since
the Scale Coupling default is On, this value is automatically
determined by the measurement results. To manually set this
value Scale Coupling must be Off.
— Ref Position - Allows you to set the reference position to either Top,
Ctr (center) or Bot (bottom). The default setting is Ctr.
106
Chapter 4
Making Measurements
Making the Spectrum (Frequency Domain) Measurement
— Scale Coupling - Allows you to toggle the scale coupling function
between On and Off. The default setting is On. The Restart
front-panel key or Restart softkey under the Meas Control menu,
this function automatically determines the scale per division and
reference values by the measurement results.To manually set
either Scale/Div or Ref Value values, Scale Coupling must be Off.
Changing the I/Q Polar Window
If the I/Q Polar window is active in the I/Q Polar view, the SPAN X Scale
key or the AMPLITUDE Y Scale key access a menu to modify the following
parameters:
• I/Q Scale/Div - Allows you to set the vertical and horizontal scales by
changing the value per division. The range is 1.00 nV to 20.00 V per
division. The default setting is 100.0 mV.
• I Origin or Q Origin - Allows you to set the reference value ranging from
−250.00 to 250.00 V. The default setting is 0.00 V.
Selecting Displayed Traces Within Windows
The View/Trace key allows you to access the Trace Display key to reveal
the trace selection menu. The currently selected trace type is shown on
the Trace Display key.
• All - Allows you to view both the current trace and the average trace.
• Average - Allows you to view only the average trace (in blue color).
• Current - Allows you to view only the trace (in yellow color) for the
latest data acquisition.
Chapter 4
107
Making Measurements
Making the Spectrum (Frequency Domain) Measurement
Using the Markers
The Marker front-panel key accesses the menu to configure the markers.
If you want to use the marker function in the I waveform window, press
View/Trace, I and Q Waveform, Marker, Trace, I Waveform.
• Select 1 2 3 4 - Allows you to activate up to four markers with the
corresponding numbers, respectively. The selected number is
underlined and its function is defined by pressing the Function key.
The default is 1.
• Normal - Allows you to activate the selected marker to read the
frequency and amplitude of the marker position on the spectrum
trace. Marker position is controlled by the RPG knob.
• Delta - Allows you to read the differences in frequencies and
amplitudes between the selected marker and the next.
• Function Off - Allows you to define the selected marker function to be
Band Power, Noise, or Off. The default is Off. If set to Band Power, you
need to select Delta.
• Trace Spectrum - Allows you to place the selected marker on the
Spectrum, Spectrum Avg, Spectrum Linear, Spectrum Avg Linear, I/Q
Waveform, I Waveform, or Q Waveform trace. The default is Spectrum.
• Off - Allows you to turn off the selected marker.
• Shape Diamond - Allows you to access the menu to define the selected
marker shape to be Diamond, Line, Square, or Cross. The default shape
is Diamond.
• Marker All Off - Allows you to turn off all of the markers.
The front panel Search key performs a peak search when pressed. A
marker will automatically be activated at the highest peak.
Measuring Band Power
A band power measurement using the markers calculates the average
power between two adjustable markers. To make a band power
measurement:
1. Press the Marker key.
2. Press Trace, Spectrum to activate a marker on the instantaneous
spectrum signal.
3. Press the Spectrum Avg key to activate a marker on the average
spectrum trace.
4. Press Function, Band Power.
5. Two marker lines are activated at the extreme left side of the
horizontal scale. Press Normal and move marker 1 to the desired
place by rotating the RPG knob.
108
Chapter 4
Making Measurements
Making the Spectrum (Frequency Domain) Measurement
6. Press Delta to bring marker 2 to the same place as marker 1.
7. Move marker 1 to the other desired position by rotating the RPG
knob. Band power measures the average power between the two
markers.
8. When the band power markers are active, the results are shown in
the results window as Mean Pwr (Between Mks). When the band
power function is off the results window reads Mean Pwr (Entire
Trace).
Troubleshooting Hints
Changes made by the user to advanced spectrum settings, particularly
to ADC range settings, can inadvertently result in spectrum
measurements that are invalid and cause error messages to appear.
Care needs to be taken when using advanced features.
Chapter 4
109
Making Measurements
Making the Waveform (Time Domain) Measurement
Making the Waveform (Time Domain)
Measurement
Purpose
The waveform measurement is a generic measurement for viewing the
input signal waveforms in the time domain. This measurement is how
the instrument performs the zero span functionality found in
traditional spectrum analyzers. Also available under basic mode
waveform measurements is an I/Q window, which shows the I and Q
signal waveforms in parameters of voltage versus time. The advantage
of having an I/Q view available while in the waveform measurement is
that it allows you to view complex components of the same signal
without changing settings or measurements.
The waveform measurement can be used to perform general purpose
power measurements to a high degree of accuracy.
Measurement Method
The instrument makes repeated power measurements at a set
frequency, similar to the way a swept-tuned spectrum analyzer makes
zero span measurements. The input analog signal is converted to a
digital signal, which then is processed into a representation of a
waveform measurement. The measurement relies on a high rates of
sampling to create an accurate representation of a time domain signal.
This measurement is available for use with both the RF input and
baseband I/Q inputs. For details on Baseband I/Q operation see the
section on “Using Baseband I/Q Inputs (Option B7C)” on page 151.”
Making the Measurement
NOTE
The factory default parameters provide a good starting point.You may
want to change some of the settings. Press Meas Setup, More (1 of 2),
Restore Meas Defaults at any time to return all parameters for the
current measurement to their default settings.
Press MEASURE, Waveform (Time Domain) to immediately make a
waveform (time domain) measurement.
To change any of the measurement parameters from the factory default
values, refer to the “Changing the Measurement Setup” section for this
measurement.
110
Chapter 4
Making Measurements
Making the Waveform (Time Domain) Measurement
Results
The next figure shows an example of a Signal Envelope result for the
waveform (time domain) measurements in the graph window. The
measured values for the mean power and peak-to-mean power are
shown in the text window.
Figure 4-5
Waveform Measurement - Signal Envelope View
*Meas Setup:
View/Trace = Signal Envelope,
Others = Factory default settings
*Input signal: cdma2000 Rev 8, SR1, 9 Channel
Chapter 4
111
Making Measurements
Making the Waveform (Time Domain) Measurement
Figure 4-6
Waveform Measurement - I/Q Waveform View
112
Chapter 4
Making Measurements
Making the Waveform (Time Domain) Measurement
Changing the Measurement Setup
This table shows the factory default settings for waveform (time
domain) measurements.
Table 4-2
Waveform (Time Domain) Measurement Defaults
Measurement Parameter
Factory Default Condition
View/Trace
RF Envelope
Sweep Time
2.000 ms
Res BW
100.000 kHz
Averaging:
Avg Number
Avg Mode
Avg Type
10; Off
Exp
Pwr Avg (RMS)
Trig Source
Free Run (Immediate)
Signal Envelope View:
SPAN X Scale - Scale/Div
AMPLITUDE Y Scale - Scale/Div
200.0 µs
10.00 dB
I/Q Waveform View:
SPAN X Scale -Scale/Div
AMPLITUDE Y Scale - Scale/Div
200.0 µs
100.0 mV
I/Q Polar View:
I/Q Scale/Div
I or Q Origin
100.0 mV
0.00 V
Advanced
NOTE
Pre-ADC BPF
Off
RBW Filter
Gaussian
ADC Range
Auto
Data Packing
Auto
ADC Dither
Off
Decimation
Off
Parameters that are under the Advanced key seldom need to be changed.
Any changes from the default values may result in invalid
measurement data.
Make sure the Waveform (Time Domain) measurement is selected under
the MEASURE menu. Press the Meas Setup key to access a menu which
allows you to modify the averaging, and trigger source for this
measurement (as described in the “Measurement Setup” section).
Chapter 4
113
Making Measurements
Making the Waveform (Time Domain) Measurement
In addition, the following parameters can be modified:
• Sweep Time - Allows you to specify the measurement acquisition time
which is used as the length of the time capture record. The range is
1.0 µs and 100.0 s, depending upon the resolution bandwidth setting
and the available internal memory size for acquisition points.
• Res BW - Allows you to set the measurement bandwidth. The range is
10 Hz to 7.5 MHz. A larger bandwidth results in a larger number of
acquisition points and reduces the maximum value allowed for the
sweep time.
• Advanced - Allows you to access the menu to change the following
parameters. Changes from the default values may result in invalid
data.
— Pre-ADC BPF - Allows you to toggle the pre-ADC bandpass filter
function between On or Off. The default setting is Off. The
pre-ADC bandpass filter is useful for rejecting nearby signals, so
that sensitivity within the span range can be improved by
increasing the ADC range gain.
— RBW Filter - Allows you toggle the resolution bandwidth filter
selection between Flat and Gaussian. If set to Gaussian, the filter
provides more even time-domain response, particularly for
“bursts”. If set to Flat, the filter provides a flatter bandwidth but is
less accurate for “pulse responses”. A flat top filter also requires
less memory and allows longer data acquisition times. For most
waveform applications, the Gaussian filter is recommended.
— ADC Range - Allows you to access the menu to select one of the
ADC ranging functions:
❏ Auto - Select this to cause the instrument to automatically
adjust the signal range for optimal measurement results.
❏ AutoPeak - Select this to cause the instrument to continuously
seek the highest peak signal.
❏ AutoPeakLock - Select this to cause the instrument to adjust the
range for the highest peak signal it identifies, and retains the
range settings determined by that peak signal, even when the
peak signal is no longer present.
❏ Manual - Allows you to access the selection menu: −6 dB, 0 dB, +6
dB, +12 dB, +18 dB, +24 dB, to set the ADC range level. Also note
that manual ranging is best for CW signals.
— Data Packing - Allows you to select Auto (the default) or the Short (16
bit), Medium (24 bit) and Long (32 bit) methods of data packing. The
short, medium, and long methods are not compatible with all
settings and should not be used unless you are familiar with data
packing methods. Auto is the preferred choice.
114
Chapter 4
Making Measurements
Making the Waveform (Time Domain) Measurement
❏ Auto - The data packing value most appropriate for current
instrument settings is selected automatically.
❏ Short (16 bit) - Select this to pack data every 16 bits.
❏ Medium (24 bit) - Select this to pack data every 24 bits.
❏ Long (32 bit) - Select this to pack data every 32 bits.
— ADC Dither - Allows you to toggle the ADC dither function between
On and Off. The default setting is Off. If set to On, the ADC dither
refers to the introduction of noise to the digitized steps of the
analog-to-digital converter, and results in better amplitude
linearity and resolution in low level signals. However, it also
results in reduced dynamic range by approximately 3 dB.
— Decimation - Allows you to toggle the decimation function between
On and Off, and to set the decimation value. Decimation allows
longer acquisition times for a given bandwidth by eliminating
data points. Long time captures can be limited by the instrument
data acquisition memory. Decimation numbers 1 to 4 describe the
factor by which the number of points are reduced. The default
setting is 1, which results in no data point reduction.
Chapter 4
115
Making Measurements
Making the Waveform (Time Domain) Measurement
Changing the View
The View/Trace key allows you to access the selection menu for the
desired measurement view. You can use the Next Window key to move
between the multiple windows (if any) and make it full size by Zoom.
• Signal Envelope - Provides a combination view of the waveform graph
in parameters of power versus time with the semi-log graticules, and
the measurement results for Mean Pwr (Entire Trace),
Pk-to-Mean, Current Data for Max Pt and Min Pt are shown in the
text window. Changes to sweep time or resolution bandwidth will
sometimes affect data acquisition.
Figure 4-7
Waveform Measurement - Signal Envelope View
*Meas Setup:
View/Trace = Signal Envelope,
Others = Factory default settings
*Input signal in this example: cdma2000 Rev 8, SR1, 9 Channel
116
Chapter 4
Making Measurements
Making the Waveform (Time Domain) Measurement
• I/Q Waveform - Provides a view of the I/Q waveform graph in
parameters of voltage versus time in the linear graticules. Changes
to sweep time or resolution bandwidth will sometimes affect data
acquisition.
Figure 4-8
Waveform Measurement - I/Q Waveform View
*Meas Setup:
View/Trace = I/Q Waveform View
Others = Factory default settings
*Input signal in this example: cdma2000 Rev 8, SR1, 9 Channel
NOTE
For the widest spans the I/Q Waveform window becomes just “ADC time
domain samples”, because the I/Q down-conversion is no longer in
effect.
Chapter 4
117
Making Measurements
Making the Waveform (Time Domain) Measurement
• I/Q Polar - Provides a view of the I/Q signal polar vector graph.
Figure 4-9
Waveform Measurement - I/Q Polar View
*Meas Setup:
View/Trace = I/Q Polar View,
Others = Factory default settings
*Input signal in this example: cdma2000 Rev 8, SR1, 9 Channel
Changing the Display
The Sweep Time key under the Meas Setup menu controls the horizontal
time span for this measurement, while the SPAN X Scale key allows you
to access the menu to modify the horizontal parameters common to the
rectangular windows for this measurement:
• Scale/Div - Allows you to set the horizontal scale by changing a time
value per division. The range is 1.0 ns to 1.000 s per division with
0.01 ns resolution. The default setting is 200.0 µs per division.
However, since Scale Coupling is defaulted to On, this value is
automatically determined by the measurement result.
• Ref Value - Allows you to set the reference value ranging from −1.0 to
10.0 s. The default setting is 0.00 s. However, since Scale Coupling is
defaulted to On, this value is automatically determined by the
measurement results.
• Ref Position - Allows you to set the reference position to either Left, Ctr
(center) or Right. The default setting is Left.
118
Chapter 4
Making Measurements
Making the Waveform (Time Domain) Measurement
• Scale Coupling - Allows you to toggle the scale coupling function
between On and Off. The default setting is On. Upon pressing the
Restart front-panel key or Restart softkey under the Meas Control menu,
this function automatically determines the scale per division and
reference values based on the measurement results.
If the Signal Envelope window is active in the Signal Envelope view, the
AMPLITUDE Y Scale key accesses the menu to modify the following
parameters:
• Scale/Div - Allows you to set the vertical scale by changing an
amplitude value per division. The range is 0.10 to 20.00 dB per
division with 0.01 dB resolution. The default setting is 10.00 dB per
division. However, since Scale Coupling is defaulted to On, this value
is automatically determined by the measurement result.
• Ref Value - Allows you to set the reference value ranging from
−250.00 to 250.00 dBm. The default setting is 0.00 dBm. However,
since Scale Coupling is defaulted to On, this value is automatically
determined by the measurement results.
• Ref Position - Allows you to set the reference position to either Top, Ctr
(center) or Bot (bottom). The default setting is Top.
• Scale Coupling - Allows you to toggle the scale coupling function
between On and Off. The default setting is On. Upon pressing the
Restart front-panel key or Restart softkey under the Meas Control menu,
this function automatically determines the scale per division and
reference values based on the measurement results.
If the I/Q Waveform window is active in the I/Q Waveform view, the
AMPLITUDE Y Scale key accesses the menu to modify the following
parameters:
• Scale/Div - Allows you to set the vertical scale by changing an
amplitude value per division. The range is 1.00 nV to 20.00 V per
division. The default setting is 100.0 mV. However, since Scale
Coupling is defaulted to On, this value is automatically determined by
the measurement result.
• Ref Value - Allows you to set the reference value ranging from
−250.00 to 250.00 V. The default setting is 0.00 V. However, since
Scale Coupling is defaulted to On, this value is automatically
determined by the measurement results.
• Ref Position - Allows you to set the reference position to either Top, Ctr
(center) or Bot (bottom). The default setting is Ctr.
• Scale Coupling - Allows you to toggle the scale coupling function
between On and Off. The default setting is On. Upon pressing the
Restart front-panel key or Restart softkey under the Meas Control menu,
this function automatically determines the scale per division and
reference values based on the measurement results.
Chapter 4
119
Making Measurements
Making the Waveform (Time Domain) Measurement
If the I/Q Polar window is active in the I/Q Polar view, the SPAN X Scale
or AMPLITUDE Y Scale key accesses the menu to modify the following
parameters:
• I/Q Scale/Div - Allows you to set the vertical and horizontal scales by
changing a value per division. The range is 1.00 nV to 20.00 V per
division. The default setting is 100.0 mV.
• I or Q Origin - Allows you to set the reference value ranging from
−250.00 to 250.00 V. The default setting is 0.00 V.
The Display key is not available for this measurement.
Using the Markers
The Marker front-panel key accesses the menu to configure the markers.
• Select 1 2 3 4 - Allows you to activate up to four markers with the
corresponding numbers, respectively. The selected number is
underlined and its function is defined by pressing the Function key.
The default is 1.
• Normal - Allows you to activate the selected marker to read the time
position and amplitude of the marker on the RF envelope trace.
Marker position is controlled by the RPG knob.
• Delta - Allows you to read the differences in time positions and
amplitudes between the selected marker and the next.
• Function Off - Allows you to define the selected marker function to be
Band Power, Noise, or Off. The default is Off. If set to Band Power, you
need to select Delta.
• Trace Signal Envelope - Allows you to place the selected marker on
Signal Envelope, I/Q Waveform.
• Off - Allows you to turn off the selected marker.
• Shape Diamond - Allows you to access the menu to define the selected
marker shape to be Diamond, Line, Square, or Cross. The default shape
is Diamond.
• Marker All Off - Allows you to turn off all of the markers.
The front panel Search key performs a peak search when pressed. A
marker will automatically be activated at the highest peak.
120
Chapter 4
Making Measurements
Making the Waveform (Time Domain) Measurement
NOTE
In the Waveform measurement, the Mean Pwr (Entire Trace) value
plus the Pk-to-Mean value will sum to equal the current Max Pt. value
as shown in the data window below the RF Envelope display. If you do a
marker peak search (Search) with averaging turned off, the marker will
find the same maximum point. However, if you turn averaging on, the
Pk-to-Mean value will use the highest peak found for any acquisition
during averaging, while the marker peak will look for the peak of the
display, which is the result of n-averages. This will usually result in
differing values for the maximum point.
Troubleshooting Hints
Changes made to advanced waveform settings can inadvertently result
in measurements that are invalid and cause error messages to appear.
Care needs to be taken when using advanced features, as some settings
may incorrectly appear to provide a valid result. Press Meas Setup, More,
Restore Meas Defaults to return measurement settings to a known state,
then vary settings only as necessary.
Chapter 4
121
Making Measurements
Making the Adjacent Channel Power (ACP) Measurement
Making the Adjacent Channel Power (ACP)
Measurement
Purpose
Adjacent Channel Power(ACP) is the power contained in a specified
frequency channel bandwidth relative to the total carrier power. It may
also be expressed as a ratio of power spectral densities between the
carrier and the specified offset frequency band.
As a composite measurement of out-of-channel emissions, ACP
combines both in-band and out-of-band specifications to provide useful
figures-of-merit for spectral regrowth and emissions produced by
components and circuit blocks without the rigor of performing a full
spectrum emissions mask measurement.
To maintain a quality call by avoiding channel interference, it is
important to measure and reduce any adjacent channel leakage power
transmitted from a mobile phone. The characteristics of adjacent
channel leakage power are mainly determined by the transmitter
design, particularly the low-pass filter.
Measurement Method
This ACP measurement analyzes the total power levels within the
defined carrier bandwidth and at given frequency offsets on both sides
of the carrier frequency.This measurement requires the user to specify
measurement bandwidths of the carrier channel and each of the offset
frequency pairs up to 5. Each pair may be defined with unique
measurement bandwidths.
It uses an integration bandwidth (IBW) method that performs a time
domain data acquisition and applies FFT to get a frequency domain
trace. In this process, the channel integration bandwidth is analyzed
using the automatically defined resolution bandwidth (RBW), which is
much narrower than the channel bandwidth. The measurement
computes an average power of the channel over a specified number of
data acquisitions, automatically compensating for resolution bandwidth
and noise bandwidth.
If Total Pwr Ref is selected as the measurement type, the results are
displayed as relative power in dBc and as absolute power in dBm. If
PSD Ref (Power Spectral Density Reference) is selected, the results are
displayed as relative power in dB, and as absolute power in dBm/Hz.
122
Chapter 4
Making Measurements
Making the Adjacent Channel Power (ACP) Measurement
Recommended Offset Frequencies and Reference Bandwidths
While the user sets the specific offsets and reference bandwidths, the
radio specifications recommend some common setups as shown in the
following table.
Table 4-3
Band
IS-95-A
ACP Setup Recommendation
Test Unit
Mobile
Base
J-STD-008
Mobile/Base
Offset
Frequency
Reference
(Integration)
Bandwidth
±900 kHz
30 kHz
±1.98 MHz
30 kHz
±750 kHz
30 kHz
±1.98 MHz
30 kHz
±885 kHz
30 kHz
±1.25625 MHz
12.5 kHz
±2.75 MHz
1 MHz
Result
Reference
Total Power
in 1.23 MHz
PSD Ref
Total Power
in 1.23 MHz
Making the Measurement
The factory default settings provide a good starting point. For special
requirements, you many want to change some of the settings. Press
Meas Setup, More, Restore Meas Defaults at any time to return all
parameters for the current measurement to their default settings.
Select the desired center frequency as described in the “Changing the
Frequency Channel” section.
Press MEASURE, ACP to immediately make an adjacent channel power
ratio measurement.
To change any of the measurement parameters from the factory default
values, refer to the “Changing the Measurement Setup” section of this
measurement.
Results
The following figure shows an example result of ACP (Total Pwr Ref)
measurements in the bar graph window. The absolute and relative
power levels on both sides of the carrier frequency are displayed in the
graphic window and text window.
Chapter 4
123
Making Measurements
Making the Adjacent Channel Power (ACP) Measurement
Figure 4-10
ACP Measurement - Bar Graph View
Changing the Measurement Setup
The next table shows the factory default settings for adjacent channel
power ratio measurements.
Table 4-4
Adjacent Channel Power Measurement Defaults
Measurement Parameter
Factory Default Condition
View/Trace
Bar Graph (Total Pwr Ref)
Spectrum Trace
On
Averaging; Averaging Number
On; 10
Avg Mode
Repeat
Ref Channel:
Chan Integ BW
Avg Type
1.23000 MHz
Pwr Avg (RMS)
Offset/Limits:
Offset
Offset Freq
Offset Side
Ref BW
Avg Type
124
A
750.000 kHz; On (offset A)
Both
30.000 kHz
Pwr Avg (RMS)
Chapter 4
Making Measurements
Making the Adjacent Channel Power (ACP) Measurement
Table 4-4
Adjacent Channel Power Measurement Defaults
Measurement Parameter
Factory Default Condition
Limit Setup:
Abs Limit
Fail
Rel Lim (Car)
Rel Lim (PSD)
0.00 dBm
Relative
−45.00 dBc (offset A)
−28.87 dB (offset A)
Meas Type
Total Pwr Ref
Trig Source
Free Run (Immediate)
Fast ACP
Off
Limit Test
On
Ref Chan Adv:
Sweep Time
Data Points
Res BW
Num FFT Seg
546.1 µs; Auto
2048; Auto
1.620 kHz (grayed out)
1; Auto
Offset Adv:
Sweep Time
11.20 ms; Auto
Data Points
1024; Auto
Res BW
79.0 Hz (grayed out)
Num FFT Seg
1; Auto
Relative Atten
0.00 dB
Make sure the ACP measurement is selected under the MEASURE menu.
The Meas Setup key accesses the menu which allows you to modify the
average number and average mode for this measurement. In addition,
the following parameters for adjacent channel power measurements
can be modified:
• Ref Channel - Allows you to access the following parameters for the
reference channel settings:
Chan Integ BW - Allows you to specify the channel integration
bandwidth in which the carrier power is measured. The range is
1.000 kHz to 20.0000 MHz with the best resolution of 1 Hz.
Avg Type - Choose the averaging type between Pwr Avg (RMS) and
Maximum.
Ref Chan Adv - Allows you to access the menu to change the
following advanced parameters for the reference channel:
Sweep Time - Allows you to select Man or Auto (default) mode.
Chapter 4
125
Making Measurements
Making the Adjacent Channel Power (ACP) Measurement
Data Points - The automatic mode chooses the optimum number
of points for the fastest measurement time with acceptable
repeatability. The minimum number of points that could be
used is determined by the sweep time and the sampling rate.
You can increase the length of the measured time record
(capture more of the burst) by increasing the number of points,
but the measurement will take longer.
Res BW - This key is always grayed out. However, it allows you
to see the resolution bandwidth that is derived from the
combination of sweep time, data points, and FFT segments.
Num FFT Seg - Allows you to select the number of FFT
segments used in making the measurement of the reference
channel (carrier). In automatic mode the measurement
optimizes the number of FFT segments required for the
shortest measurement time. The minimum number of
segments required to make a measurement is set by your
desired measurement bandwidth. Selecting more than the
minimum number of segments will give you more dynamic
range for making the measurement, but the measurement will
take longer to execute.
• Offset/Limits - Allows you to access the menu to change the following
parameters for offset frequency settings and pass/fail tests:
Offset - Allows you to select one of five offsets (A through E). Only
one selection at a time (A, B, C, D, or E) is shown on this key label.
The remaining softkeys on the Offset/Limits menu then apply to the
selected offset.
Offset Freq- Allows you to enter an offset frequency value and
toggle the offset frequency function between On and Off. The
range is 0.0 Hz to 45.000 MHz. While this key is activated, enter
an offset value from the numeric keypad by terminating with one
of the frequency unit keys shown. Offsets A and B are defaulted
as follows, while others are defaulted to 0.0 Hz:
Offset A 750.000 kHz
Offset B 1.98000 MHz
One offset frequency value corresponding to the Offset key
selection is shown on this key label.
Offset Side - Choose Neg (negative) or Pos (positive) to have
single-sided offsets relative to the carrier, or Both (the default) to
have offset frequency pairs.
Ref BW - Allows you to enter a reference bandwidth ranging from
300 Hz to 20.0000 MHz with the best resolution of 1 Hz. When
this parameter is changed, the integration bandwidth Integ BW
in the summary data window changes to that value.
126
Chapter 4
Making Measurements
Making the Adjacent Channel Power (ACP) Measurement
Avg Type - Choose the type of averaging between Pwr Avg (RMS) or
Maximum.
Limit Setup - Allows you to access the menu to setup the limit
values and conditions.
Abs Limit - Allows you to enter an absolute limit value ranging
from −200.00 to +50.00 dBm with 0.01 dB resolution.
Fail - Allows you to access the following menu to select one of
the logic keys for fail conditions between the measurement
results and the test limits:
AND - Fail is shown if one of the relative ACP measurement
results is larger than Rel Lim (Car) or Rel Lim (PSD) AND one
of the absolute ACP measurement results is larger than Abs
Limit.
OR - Fail is shown if one of the relative ACP measurement
results is larger than Rel Lim (Car) or Rel Lim (PSD) OR one of
the absolute ACP measurement results is larger than Abs
Limit.
Absolute - Fail is shown if one of the absolute ACP
measurement results is larger than Abs Limit.
Relative - Fail is shown if one of the relative ACP
measurement results is larger than Rel Lim (Car) or Rel
(PSD).
Rel Lim (Car)- Allows you to enter a relative limit value of the
carrier level ranging from −150.00 to +50.00 dBc with 0.01 dB
resolution. The default is −45.00 dBc for Offset A and −60.00
dBc for offset B.
Rel Lim (PSD)- Allows you to enter a relative limit value of the
power spectral density level ranging from −150.00 to +50.00
dB with 0.01 dB resolution. The default is −28.87 dB for Offset
A and −43.87 dB for offset B.
Offset Adv - Allows you to access the menu to change the following
advanced offset parameters:
Sweep Time - Allows you to select the sweep time manually
(Auto is the default).
Data Points - Allows you to select the number of data points. The
automatic mode chooses the optimum number of points for the
fastest measurement time with acceptable repeatability. The
minimum number of points that could be used is determined
by the sweep time and the sampling rate. You can increase the
length of the measured time record (capture more of the burst)
by increasing the number of points, but the measurement will
take longer (2048 is the default in Auto).
Chapter 4
127
Making Measurements
Making the Adjacent Channel Power (ACP) Measurement
Res BW - This key is always grayed out. However, it allows you
to see the resolution bandwidth that is derived from the
combination of sweep time, data points, and FFT segments.
Num FFT Seg - The automatic mode selects the optimum
number of FFT segments to measure the offset, while making
the fastest possible measurement.
Relative Atten - Allows you to set a relative amount of
attenuation for the measurements made at your offsets. The
amount of attenuation is always specified relative to the
attenuation that is required to measure the carrier channel.
Since the offset channel power is lower than the carrier
channel power, less attenuation is required to measure the
offset channel and you get wider dynamic range for the
measurement.
• Meas Type - Allows you to access the menu to select one of the
measurement reference types.
— Total Pwr Ref - Select this to set the total carrier power to the
measurement reference level and the measured data is shown in
dBc and dBm.
— PSD Ref - Select this to set the mean power spectral density of the
carrier to the measurement reference level and the measured
data is shown in dB and dBm/Hz.
• Fast ACP - Allows you to increase the speed of the measurement. A
time domain computation method is used rather than an FFT
transformation. When this faster measurement method is selected,
repeatability is slightly reduced.
• Spectrum Trace - Turns off the spectrum trace data calculations. This
is only applicable when using the Spectrum View. It speeds up the
display of the other measured data values by not calculating the
spectrum trace.
• Limit Test - Turns off the limit test function.
Changing the View
The View/Trace key accesses the menu to select either Bar Graph or
Spectrum for the measurement result, depending on the Sweep Type
setting.
• Bar Graph - In the factory default condition 5 of the total integration
power levels, centered at the carrier frequency and±750.0 kHz and
±1.98 MHz offset frequencies, are shown in the figure for the
“Results” section. The corresponding measured data is shown in the
text window. Depending on the Meas Type selection, one of the two
following displays is obtained:
128
Chapter 4
Making Measurements
Making the Adjacent Channel Power (ACP) Measurement
Bar Graph (Total Pwr Ref) - A histogram of powers referenced
to the total power
Bar Graph (PSD Ref) - A histogram of powers referenced to the
mean power spectral density of the carrier in dBm/Hz
• Spectrum - In the factory default condition, the frequency spectrum
with the FFT sweep type is displayed with the bandwidth marker
lines in the graph window. The corresponding measured data in the
text window is the total integration power levels, in dBc and dBm,
within the defined bandwidth as shown in the figure below.
Figure 4-11
ACP Measurement - Spectrum View
Depending on the Meas Type setting, one of the two following displays
is obtained:
Spectrum (Total Pwr Ref) - A spectrum display referenced to
the total power
Spectrum (PSD Ref) - A spectrum display referenced to the
mean power spectral density of the carrier in dBm/Hz
You can improve the update speed of the displayed data values by
turning off the spectrum trace in Meas Setup.
Chapter 4
129
Making Measurements
Making the Adjacent Channel Power (ACP) Measurement
Troubleshooting Hints
This adjacent channel power ratio measurement can reveal degraded or
defective parts in the transmitter section of the UUT. The following
examples are those areas to be checked further.
• Some faults in the DC power supply control of the transmitter power
amplifier, RF power controller of the pre-power amplifier stage, or
I/Q control of the baseband stage.
• Some degradation in the gain and output power level of the amplifier
due to the degraded gain control and/or increased distortion.
• Some degradation of the amplifier linearity and other performance
characteristics.
Power amplifiers are one of the final stage elements of a base or mobile
transmitter and are a critical part of meeting the important power and
spectral efficiency specifications. Since ACP measures the spectral
response of the amplifier to a complex wideband signal, it is a key
measurement linking amplifier linearity and other performance
characteristics to the stringent system specifications.
130
Chapter 4
Making Measurements
Making the Channel Power Measurement
Making the Channel Power Measurement
Purpose
The Channel Power measurement is a common test used in the wireless
industry to measure the total transmitted power of a radio within a
defined frequency channel. This procedure measures the total power
within the defined channel. This measurement is applied to design,
characterize, evaluate, and verify transmitters and their components or
devices for base stations and mobile stations.
Measurement Method
The Channel Power measurement reports the total transmitted power
within the channel bandwidth. The measurement acquires a number of
points representing the input signal in the time domain. It transforms
this information into the frequency domain using FFT and then
calculates the channel power. The effective resolution bandwidth of the
frequency domain trace is proportional to the number of points acquired
for FFT. The fastest FFT process is achieved using a number of acquired
points that is a power of 2 (for example: 64, 128, 512).
Since the measurement is optimized for speed and accuracy, you are
permitted to change only the number of acquired data points in powers
of 2, not the actual resolution bandwidth which is shown in gray.
However, if absolute sweep time is required, it can be changed to the
user’s specific value at the expense of reduced speed. At no time will
both sweep time and data points be set to manual because of conflicting
parameter settings. This flexibility is available through the Advanced
menu of the channel power measurement.
To improve repeatability, you can increase either the number of
averages or the number of data points with longer time record length.
The channel power graph is shown in the graph window, while the
absolute channel power in dBm and the mean power spectral density in
dBm/Hz are shown in the text window.
For channel power measurements using baseband I/Q inputs (available
with Option B7C) see “Using Baseband I/Q Inputs (Option B7C)” on
page 151.
Chapter 4
131
Making Measurements
Making the Channel Power Measurement
Making the Measurement
NOTE
The factory default settings provide a good starting point. You may
want to change some of the settings. Press Meas Setup, More (1 of 2),
Restore Meas Defaults at any time to return all parameters for the
current measurement to their default settings.
Select the desired center frequency as described in “Changing the
Frequency Channel.”
Press MEASURE, Channel Power to immediately make a channel power
measurement.
To change any of the measurement parameters from the factory default
values, refer to the “Changing the Measurement Setup” section.
To make channel power measurements using baseband I/Q input
signals, refer to the section on “Using Option B7C Baseband I/Q
Inputs.”
Results
The next figure is an example of a Channel Power measurement
result. The channel power graph is shown in the graph window. The
absolute channel power and its mean power spectral density are shown
in the text window.
Figure 4-12
Channel Power Measurement
132
Chapter 4
Making Measurements
Making the Channel Power Measurement
Changing the Measurement Setup
The next table shows the factory default settings for channel power
measurements.
NOTE
Parameters under the Advanced key seldom need to be changed. Any
changes from the factory default values may result in invalid
measurement data.
Table 4-5
Channel Power Measurement Defaults
Measurement Parameter
Factory Default Condition
Meas Setup:
Avg Number
20; On
Avg Mode
Repeat
Integ BWa
1.23000 MHz
Chan Power Spana
2.00000 MHz
Advanced
Sweep Time
68.0 µs; Auto
Data Points
512; Auto
Res BW (grayed out)
27.857 kHz (grayed out)
Trig Source
Free Run (Immediate)
a. The Integ BW setting proportionally changes the Chan Power
Span setting up to 10 MHz.
Make sure the Channel Power measurement is selected under the
MEASURE menu. The Meas Setup key accesses the menu which allows
you to modify the average number and average mode for this
measurement.
The following parameters can be changed according to your
measurement requirement:
• Integ BW - Allows you to specify the integration bandwidth in which
the power is measured. The range is 1.000 kHz to 10.0000 MHz with
1 Hz resolution. Since Integ BW is coupled to Chan Power Span in the
factory default condition, if you change the integration bandwidth
setting, the channel power span setting changes by a proportional
amount, 1.626 times the integration bandwidth, until a limit value is
reached.
Chapter 4
133
Making Measurements
Making the Channel Power Measurement
• Chan Power Span - Allows you to set the frequency span for the
channel power measurement. The range is 1.000 kHz to
10.0000 MHz with 1 Hz resolution. This span is used for the current
integration bandwidth setting. Since Chan Power Span is coupled to
Integ BW in the factory default condition, if you change the
integration bandwidth setting, the channel power span setting
changes by a proportional amount, 1.626 times the integration
bandwidth, until a limit value is reached. However, the channel
power span can be individually set.
• Advanced - Allows you to access the following menu to modify the
channel power measurement parameters:
— Sweep Time - Allows you to manually change the sweep time and
also to toggle the sweep time control between Auto and Man
(manual). The range is 1.0 µs to 50.00 ms with 1 µs resolution. If
set to Auto, the sweep time derived from the data point setting is
shown on this key regardless of the manual entry range.
— Data Points - Allows you to select the number of data points and
also to toggle the data point control between Auto and Man
(manual). The range is 64 to 65536 with the acceptable entry in
powers of 2 (for example: 64, 128, 512). If set to Auto, the optimum
number of points is determined for the fastest measurement time
with acceptable repeatability. The minimum number of points
that could be used is determined by the sweep time and the
sampling rate. You can increase the length of the measured time
record (capture more of the burst) by increasing the number of
points, but the measurement will take longer.
— Res BW - Shows information on the resolution bandwidth derived
from the sweep time. This key is always grayed out.
— Trig Source - Allows you to choose a trigger source from Free Run
(Immediate), Video (IF Envlp), RF Burst (Wideband), Ext Front, Ext Rear,
Frame, I/Q Input, or Line.
134
Chapter 4
Making Measurements
Making the Channel Power Measurement
Changing the Display
The AMPLITUDE Y Scale key accesses the menu to set the desired vertical
scale and associated settings:
• Scale/Div - Allows you to enter a numeric value to change the vertical
display sensitivity. The range is 0.10 to 20.00 dB with 0.01 dB
resolution. The default setting is 10.00 dB. However, since the Scale
Coupling is defaulted to On, this value is automatically determined by
the measurement result.
• Ref Value - Allows you to set the absolute power reference value
ranging from −250.00 to 250.00 dBm with 0.01 dB resolution. The
default setting is 10.00 dBm. However, since the Scale Coupling is
defaulted to On, this value is automatically determined by the
measurement result.
• Ref Position - Allows you to set the display reference position to either
Top, Ctr (center), or Bot (bottom). The default setting is Top.
• Scale Coupling - Allows you to toggle the scale coupling function
between On and Off. The default setting is On. Upon pressing the
Restart front-panel key or Restart softkey under the Meas Control menu,
this function automatically determines the scale per division and
reference values based on the measurement results.
Using the Marker
The Marker key is not available for this measurement function.
Troubleshooting Hints
If an external attenuator is used, be sure to use the Ext RF Atten key to
include the attenuation value in the displayed measurement result.
The channel power measurement, along with the adjacent channel
power ratio measurement and spectrum measurements, can reveal the
effects of degraded or defective parts in the transmitter section of the
UUT. The following are areas of concern which can contribute to
performance degradation:
• DC power supply control of the transmitter power amplifier, RF
power control of the pre-power amplifier stage, and/or I/Q control of
the baseband stage.
• Gain and output power levels of the power amplifier, caused by
degraded gain control and/or increased distortion.
• Amplifier linearity.
Chapter 4
135
Making Measurements
Making the Power Stat CCDF Measurement
Making the Power Stat CCDF Measurement
Purpose
Many of the digitally modulated signals now look noise-like in the time
and frequency domain. This means that statistical measurements of the
signals can be a useful characterization. Power Complementary
Cumulative Distribution Function (CCDF) curves characterize the
higher level power statistics of a digitally modulated signal. The curves
can be useful in determining design parameters for digital
communications systems.
The power statistics CCDF measurement can be affected by many
factors. For example, modulation filtering, modulation format,
combining the multiple signals at different frequencies, number of
active codes and correlation between symbols on different codes with
spread spectrum systems. These factors are all related to modulation
and signal parameters. Factors like signal compression and expansion
by non-linear components, group delay distortion from filtering, and
power control within the observation interval also affect the
measurement.
Measurement Method
The power measured in power statistics CCDF curves is actually
instantaneous envelope power defined by the equation:
P = (I2 + Q2) / Zo
(where I and Q are the quadrature voltage components of the waveform
and Zo is the characteristic impedance).
A CCDF curve is defined by how much time the waveform spends at or
above a given power level. The percent of time the signal spends at or
above the level defines the probability for that particular power level.
To make the power statistics CCDF measurement, the transmitter
tester uses digital signal processing (DSP) to sample the input signal in
the channel bandwidth.
The Gaussian distribution line as the band-limited gaussian noise
CCDF reference line, the user-definable reference trace, and the
currently measured trace are shown on a semi-log graph. If the
currently measured trace is above the user reference trace, it means
that the higher peak power levels against the average power are
included in the input signal.
For power statistics CCDF measurements using baseband I/Q inputs
see “Using Baseband I/Q Inputs (Option B7C)” on page 151.
136
Chapter 4
Making Measurements
Making the Power Stat CCDF Measurement
Making the Measurement
NOTE
The factory default settings provide a good starting point. For special
requirements, you may need to change some of the settings. Press Meas
Setup, More (1 of 2), Restore Meas Defaults at any time to return all
parameters for the current measurement to their default settings.
Select the desired center frequency as described in “Selecting the
Frequency/Channel” on page 86.
Press Measure, Power Stat CCDF to immediately make a power statistics
CCDF measurement.
To change any of the measurement parameters from the factory default
values, refer to “Changing the Measurement Setup” on page 138.
Results
The next figure shows an example result of Power Stat CCDF
measurements in the graph window. The average power and its
probability are shown in the text window.
Figure 4-13
Power Statistics CCDF Measurement
Chapter 4
137
Making Measurements
Making the Power Stat CCDF Measurement
Changing the Measurement Setup
The next table shows the factory default settings for power statistics
CCDF measurements.
Table 4-6
Power Statistics CCDF Measurement Defaults
Measurement Parameter
Factory Default Condition
Meas Setup:
Meas BW
5.00000 MHz
Counts
10.0000 Mpoints
Meas Interval
1.000 ms
Trig Source
Free Run (Immediate)
Display:
Ref Trace
Off
Gaussian Line
On
Make sure the Power Stat CCDF measurement is selected under the
Measure menu. Press the Meas Setup key to access the menu which
allows you to modify the trigger source for this measurement as
described in “Measurement Setup” on page 90. In addition, the
following parameters can be modified.
• Meas BW - Allows you to set the measurement bandwidth according
to the channel bandwidth. The range is 10.000 kHz to 6.70000 MHz
with 0.1 kHz resolution.
• Counts - Allows you to set the accumulated number of sampling
points for data acquisition. The range is 1.000 kpoints to
2.000 Gpoints with 1 or 10 kpoints resolution. While this key is
activated, enter a value from the numeric keypad by terminating
with one of the unit keys shown.
• Meas Interval - Allows you to specify the time interval over which the
measurement is made. The range is 100.0 µs to 10.00 ms with 1 µs
resolution.
138
Chapter 4
Making Measurements
Making the Power Stat CCDF Measurement
Changing the View
The View/Trace key is not available for this measurement.
Changing the Display
The Display key allows you to control the desired trace and line displays
of the power statistics CCDF curves. The currently measured curve is
always shown. See Figure 4-13 on page 137 for an example of a power
statistics CCDF measurement display.
• Store Ref Trace - Allows you to copy the currently measured curve as
the user-definable reference trace. The captured data will remain
until the other mode is chosen. Pressing this key refreshes the
reference trace.
• Ref Trace - Allows you to toggle the reference trace display function
between On and Off.
• Gaussian Line - Allows you to toggle the Gaussian line display
function between On and Off.
The Span X Scale key accesses the menu to set the desired horizontal
scale.
• Scale/Div - Allows you to enter a numeric value to change the
horizontal display sensitivity. The range is 0.10 to 20.00 dB with
0.01 dB resolution. The default setting is 2.00 dB.
Chapter 4
139
Making Measurements
Making the Power Stat CCDF Measurement
Using the Markers
The Marker front-panel key accesses the menu to configure the markers.
• Select - Allows you to activate up to four markers with the
corresponding numbers, respectively. The selected number is
underlined and its function is defined by pressing the Function key.
The default selection is 1.
• Normal - Allows you to activate the selected marker to read the power
level and probability of the marker position on the selected curve, for
example, which is controlled by the RPG knob.
• Delta - Allows you to read the differences in the power levels and
probabilities between the selected marker and the next.
• Function - Allows you to set the selected marker function to Band
Power, Noise, or Off. The default setting is Off. The Band Power and
Noise functions are not available for this measurement.
• Trace - Allows you to place the selected marker on the Measured,
Gaussian, or Reference curve. The default setting is Measured.
• Off - Allows you to turn off the selected marker.
• Shape - Allows you to access the menu to set the selected marker
shape to Diamond, Line, Square, or Cross. The default setting is
Diamond.
• Marker All Off - Allows you to turn off all of the markers.
Troubleshooting Hints
The power statistics CCDF measurement can contribute in setting the
signal power specifications for design criteria for systems, amplifiers,
and other components. For example, it can help determine the optimum
operating point to adjust each code timing for appropriate peak/average
power ratio throughout the wide channel bandwidth of the transmitter
for a W-CDMA system.
As this measurement is a new method, there will be some correlations
between CCDF curve degradation and digital radio system
measurement parameters such as BER, FER, code domain power, and
ACPR. Some studies will help set standards for radio design by
specifying the maximum allowed CCDF curve degradation for specific
systems.
140
Chapter 4
Making Measurements
Service Measurements
Service Measurements
Service measurements help you check the functionality of your
instrument. An exception is the power vs. time measurement which is
intended strictly for diagnostic use by Agilent Technologies service
personnel.
The spectrum and waveform measurements that can be accessed
through the service menu are explained in the section on basic
measurements; the versions of these measurements found by accessing
the Basic and the Service keys are identical.
To access the Service mode press the Mode key and select the Service
softkey. The following service measurements are available:
Spectrum on page 97.
Waveform on page 110.
Timebase Frequency on page 142.
50 MHz Amptd on page 144.
Sensors on page 146.
Front Panel Test on page 148.
Pwr vs Time on page 150
.
Chapter 4
141
Making Measurements
Timebase Frequency
Timebase Frequency
Purpose
In the absence of a frequency counter, the measurement quickly
determines the frequency difference between the instrument’s 10 MHz
reference oscillator signal and an accurate, external 10 MHz frequency
standard.
NOTE
The timebase frequency check is not as accurate as a measurement of
the 10 MHz Out signal (rear panel) using a frequency counter
referenced to a frequency standard.
Measurement Method
The internal 10 MHz reference signal is compared with a reliable
external 10 MHz signal which the user inputs into the front panel RF
connector. The transmitter tester subtracts its 10 MHz reference from
the input signal and displays the frequency difference.
Test Setup
An accurate external 10 MHz frequency signal, such as a house
standard, is connected to an attenuator, which attenuates the signal to
0 dB. The attenuated 10 MHz signal is connected to the RF input of the
transmitter tester. Pressing Mode, Service, Measure, Timebase
Frequency will result in the display of data described below.
NOTE
When setting up this test ensure that the reference is set to internal. To
check this press System, Reference. The Freq Ref softkey allows you to
toggle between Int (internal) and Ext (external). Make sure Int is
underlined.
142
Chapter 4
Making Measurements
Timebase Frequency
Results
Window One (Time Record)
Shows an I/Q display of the frequency difference between the input
signal and the internal 10 MHz signal.
Window Two (Magnitude)
Shows a polar representation of window one. This window shows how
much the phase error changes during the sampling period.
Window Three (Freq Error)
Shows a stripchart of the timebase error in MHz vs. time. Each dot on
the horizontal axis is one sampling period.
Window Four (numeric results)
Freq error: The error difference between the 10 MHz input signal and
the internal 10 MHz signal.
Magnitude: The magnitude of the external 10 MHz signal. While this
is an uncalibrated value, it gives the user an idea of the signal
amplitude.
Adjusting: A 0 will appear if the timebase adjustment is not being
performed. A 1 will appear if the adjustment is being performed.
Chapter 4
143
Making Measurements
50 MHz Amplitude
50 MHz Amplitude
Purpose
To check the amplitude of the internal 50 MHz amplitude reference
signal.
Measurement Method
The amplitude of an internal 50 MHz reference signal is compared with
the amplitude of a stable external 50 MHz signal which has been
measured with a power meter and then connected to the front panel RF
connector.
Test Setup
The 50 MHz amplitude feature enables you to measure the amplitude of
the internal 50 MHz reference signal. The amplitude of an internal 50
MHz reference signal is adjusted as close as possible to −25.00 dBm,
based on the relative measurement of the reliable external 50 MHz
signal, which is input by the user into the front panel RF connector.
Follow these steps to measure the amplitude of the 50 MHz amplitude
reference signal (a power meter and a reliable external source will be
needed to perform this test):
1. Set the external source to a frequency of 50 MHz at a power level of
−25 dBm (± 2 dBm).
2. Connect the external source to the power meter through a cable.
Adjust the power output of the source until the power meter reads
−25.00 dBm, or as close to −25.00 dBm, as possible.
3. Disconnect the power sensor and connect the source to the
transmitter tester.
4. Press Mode, Service, Measure, 50 MHz Amptd on the transmitter tester.
See next page for results.
144
Chapter 4
Making Measurements
50 MHz Amplitude
Results
Window One (RF Magnitude)
Shows the amplitude (unitless) of the external source as measured by
the transmitter tester.
Window Two (Cal Magnitude)
Shows the amplitude (unitless) of the 50 MHz input calibrator.
Window Three (Error)
Shows a stripchart of the amplitude error between the 50 MHz internal
calibrator and the external source amplitude.
Window Four (numeric results)
Cal Amplitude: The instrument’s internal ADC level when measuring
the internal 50 MHz calibrator amplitude.
RF Amplitude: The instrument’s internal ADC level when measuring
the external source amplitude
Error: The difference in ADC level between the 50 MHz internal
calibrator amplitude and the source amplitude.
Chapter 4
145
Making Measurements
Sensors
Sensors
Purpose
The temperature of the RF board will vary over time and can adversely
affect the IF signal amplitude. Sensors on the RF board monitor
changes in temperature.
Measurement Method
The sensor measurements are generated internally and do not require
any user interaction.
Test Setup
Press Mode, Service, Measure, Sensors.
Results
Window One (IF Signal Level)
Shows a stripchart of the IF signal amplitude in dBm.
Window Two (Cal Osc Level)
The Cal Oscillator window is not implemented.
Window Three (RF Temperature)
Shows a stripchart of the RF assembly temperature in Celsius.
Window Four (numeric results)
IF Signal Level: The ADC number for the detected 21.4 MHz IF
signal at the input to the AIF. Typical values with the input
attenuator set to 0 dB: 20 (no signal applied); 23(- 10 dBm); 27(- 5
dBm), and 38(0 dBm).
Cal Osc Level: Not implemented.
RF Temp: Shows current temperature in Celsius.
146
Chapter 4
Making Measurements
Sensors
Chapter 4
147
Making Measurements
Front Panel Test
Front Panel Test
Purpose
The front panel test checks the functionality of the instrument front
panel keys and the RPG knob.
Test Setup
Press Measure, More (1 of 2), Front Panel Test. Once the Front Panel Test
key is pressed you will see a display with three columns appear on the
screen. The entries on the left side of each column describe a key. On
the right side of each entry you will see a 0.
The front panel test requires you to press each of the front panel keys
(in any order, with the exception of the ESC key, which must be pressed
last), and to turn the RPG knob. The first time you press a key a 1 will
replace the 0 that originally appeared to the right of the key column.
Each additional instance of pressing a given key will result in an
increment to the number listed in the column to the right of the key
description. For example if you press the Zoom key four times, you will
see a 4 to the right of the Zoom entry.
Rotating the RPG knob will result in a rapidly incrementing, or
decrementing value appearing in the column to the right of the RPG
Knob entry. Rotate the RPG knob clockwise and counter-clockwise. You
will see negative or positive values appear, in ascending or descending
order, depending on the direction you have turned the RPG knob.
Note that the two step keys (the up and down arrow keys) are described
as the Rpg Dn and Rpg Up keys.
The ESC key must be pressed only after all other keys have been
pressed and the RPG knob has been rotated; pressing the ESC key will
cause the front panel test to be cancelled.
148
Chapter 4
Making Measurements
Front Panel Test
Results
The front panel test display shows a list of front panel keys and the
RPG knob, followed by a “times-pressed” indicator. You will see a count
of the number of times you have pressed a key next to that key on the
display, except for the knob, next to which you will see positive or
negative numbers in increments of 1.
Troubleshooting Hints
If the front panel check fails contact the Agilent Technologies
instrument support center. See page 184.
Chapter 4
149
Making Measurements
Service Power vs. Time Measurement
Service Power vs. Time Measurement
Purpose
This measurement is provided for internal Agilent Technologies
manufacturing use.
150
Chapter 4
Making Measurements
Using Baseband I/Q Inputs (Option B7C)
Using Baseband I/Q Inputs (Option B7C)
Option B7C, Baseband I/Q Inputs, provides the ability to analyze
baseband I/Q signal characteristics of mobile and base station
transmitters.
This option may be used only in conjunction with the following
personalities:
• Basic mode (available in all VSA Series Transmitter Testers)
• Option BAF W-CDMA Measurement Personality
• Option B78 cdma2000 Measurement Personality
Chapter 4
151
Making Measurements
Using Baseband I/Q Inputs (Option B7C)
What are Baseband I/Q Inputs?
Option B7C consists of a Baseband Input module, four 50 Ω BNC
connectors, and internal cabling. The four BNC connectors are grouped
into pairs at the upper left corner of the front panel. The upper two
connectors labeled “I” and “Q” are the “unbalanced” inputs.
In practice, an unbalanced or “single ended” baseband measurement of
an I or Q signal is made using a probe connected to the I or Q connector.
A simultaneous I/Q unbalanced single ended measurement may be
made using two probes connected to the I and Q input connectors.
If “balanced” signals are available, they may be used to make a more
accurate measurement. Balanced signals are signals present in two
separate conductors, are symmetrical about ground, and are opposite in
polarity, or out of phase by 180 degrees.
Measurements using balanced signals can have a higher signal to noise
ratio, improving accuracy. Noise coupled into each conductor equally in
a “common mode” to both signals may be separated from the signal. The
measure of this separation is “common-mode rejection.”
To make a balanced measurement, the lower two connectors labeled “I”
and “Q” are used in conjunction with the I and Q inputs. The terms
“I-bar” and “Q-bar” may be applied to the signals, as well as the inputs
themselves. Probes (customer provided) must be used to input balanced
baseband I/Q signals. This may be referred to as a balanced
measurement.
Balanced baseband measurements are made using the I and I
connectors for I only signal measurements, while the Q and Q
connectors are used for a Q only signal measurement. Balanced
measurements of I/Q require differential probe connections to all four
input connectors. For details of probe selection and use, refer to
“Selecting Input Probes for Baseband Measurements” on page 156.
152
Chapter 4
Making Measurements
Using Baseband I/Q Inputs (Option B7C)
What are Baseband I/Q Signals?
In transmitters, the term baseband I/Q refers to signals that are the
fundamental products of individual I/Q modulators, before the I and Q
component signals are combined, and before up conversion to IF or RF
frequencies.
In receivers, baseband I/Q analysis may be used to test the I and Q
products of I/Q demodulators, after an RF signal has been down
converted and demodulated.
Why Make Measurements at Baseband?
Baseband I/Q measurements are a valuable means of making
qualitative analyses of the following operating characteristics:
• I/Q signal layer access for performing format-specific demodulation
measurements (e.g. CDMA, GSM, W-CDMA):
• Modulation Accuracy – i.e. I/Q plane metrics
— Rho
— Error Vector Magnitude; RMS, peak, 95%
— carrier feed-through
— frequency error
— magnitude and phase errors
• Code-domain analysis (including code-specific metrics)
• CCDF of I2+Q2
• Single Sideband (SSB) metrics for assessing output quality
• Basic analysis of I and Q signals in isolation including: DC content,
RMS, P-P levels, CCDF of each channel
Comparisons of measurements made at baseband and RF frequencies
produced by the same device are especially revealing. Once signal
integrity is verified at baseband, impairments can be traced to specific
stages of up conversion, amplification, or filtering by RF analysis.
Likewise, impairments to signal quality that are apparent at RF
frequencies may be traceable to baseband using baseband analysis.
Chapter 4
153
Making Measurements
Using Baseband I/Q Inputs (Option B7C)
Making Measurements with Baseband I/Q Inputs
Baseband I/Q measurements are similar to RF measurements. To avoid
duplication, this section describes only the details unique to using the
baseband I/Q inputs. For generic measurement details, refer to the
previous “Making Measurements” sections.
The following measurements are available for use with the baseband
I/Q inputs:
• Channel Power
• Power Stat CCDF
• Spectrum (Frequency Domain)
• Waveform (Time Domain)
NOTE
The following measurement is not available for use with Option B7C
Baseband I/Q Inputs:
• ACP
154
Chapter 4
Making Measurements
Using Baseband I/Q Inputs (Option B7C)
Baseband I/Q Measurement Overview
To make measurements using Baseband I/Q Inputs, you must make the
following selections:
• Select a measurement that supports baseband I/Q inputs. For details
see “Making Measurements with Baseband I/Q Inputs” on page 154
for details.
• Select the appropriate circuit location and probe(s) for
measurements. For details see“Selecting Input Probes for Baseband
Measurements” on page 156.
• Select baseband I/Q input connectors. For details see “Selecting
Baseband I/Q Input Connectors” on page 159.
• Adjust I/Q Setup if desired. For details see “Setting Up Baseband I/Q
Inputs” on page 161.
• Select baseband I/Q input impedance. For details see “Selecting
Baseband I/Q Input Impedance” on page 164.
• Select a Baseband I/Q measurement results view. For details see
“Baseband I/Q Measurement Views” on page 165.
Chapter 4
155
Making Measurements
Using Baseband I/Q Inputs (Option B7C)
Selecting Input Probes for Baseband Measurements
The selection of baseband measurement probe(s) and measurement
method is primarily dependent on the location of the measurement
point in the circuit. The probe must sample voltages without imposing
an inappropriate load on the circuit.
The following four measurement methods may be used with baseband
I/Q inputs:
• 50 Ω Unbalanced - This is the measurement method of choice if single
ended or unbalanced baseband I and/or Q signals are available in
50 Ω coaxial transmission lines and are terminated in a coaxial
connectors. Adapters necessary to convert to a 50 Ω BNC male
connector must be of 50 Ω impedance. The methods are as follows:
— I only measurement using one single-ended probe connected to
the I input connector
— Q only measurement using one single-ended probe connected to
the Q input connector
— I/Q measurement using two single-ended probes connected to the
I and Q input connectors
• 600 Ω Balanced - This is the measurement method of choice if
balanced baseband signals having a 600 Ω impedance are available.
The methods are as follows:
— I only measurement using one differential probe or two
single-ended probes connected to the I and I inputs
— Q only measurement using one differential probe or two
single-ended probes connected to the Q and Q inputs
— I/Q measurement using two differential probes or four
single-ended probes connected to the I, Q, I, and Q input
connectors
156
Chapter 4
Making Measurements
Using Baseband I/Q Inputs (Option B7C)
• 1 M Ω Unbalanced - High input impedance is the measurement method
of choice if single ended or unbalanced baseband signals to be
measured lie in a trace on a circuit board and are sensitive to loading
by the probe. When making 1 M Ω measurements, the reference
input impedance may be adjusted. For details refer to “Selecting
Baseband I/Q Inputs” on page 159. 1 M Ω unbalanced measurements
may be made as follows:
— I only measurement using one single-ended probe connected to
the I input connector
— Q only measurement using one single-ended probe connected to
the Q input connector
— I/Q measurement using two single-ended probes connected to the
I and Q input connectors
• 1 M Ω Balanced - High input impedance measurements may also be
made if differential or balanced signals are available. 1 M Ω
balanced measurements may be made as follows:
— I only measurement using one differential probe or two
single-ended probes connected to the I and I inputs
— Q only measurement using one differential probe or two
single-ended probes connected to the Q and Q inputs
— I/Q measurement using two differential probes or four
single-ended probes connected to the I, Q, I, and Q input
connectors
This is the measurement method of choice if differential or balanced
baseband signals to be measured lie in a trace on a circuit board and
are sensitive to loading by the probe. When making 1 M Ω
measurements, the reference input impedance may be adjusted. For
details refer to “Selecting Baseband I/Q Inputs” on page 159.
Chapter 4
157
Making Measurements
Using Baseband I/Q Inputs (Option B7C)
The following table lists currently available Agilent probes which are
suitable for use under various measurement conditions:
Table 4-7
Probe Type
Agilent Probes - Balanced and Unbalanced
Description
Unbalanced
(Single Ended)
1144A 800 MHz Active Probeabc
54701A 2.5 GHz Active Probecd
1145A 750 MHz 2-Channel Active Probeabc
85024A High Frequency Probebe
41800A Active Probebf
10020A Resistive Divider Probebc
54006A 6 GHz Passive Divider Probeg
Balanced
(Differential)
1141A 200 MHz Active Differential Probeabc
N1025A 1 GHz Active Differential Probebh
a. Not compatible with 3-wire power interface. Needs 1142A
power supply. For two channels, you will need either two
1142A power supplies or one 1142A power supply and one
01144-61604 1-input, two-output adapter cable.
b. Two probes needed to cover both I and Q inputs.
c. Output connector is BNC.
d. Not compatible with 3-wire power interface. Requires use of
1143A power supply. 1143A can power two 54701A probes.
e. 85024A bandwidth is 300 kHz to 3 GHz. Output connector is
type-N. Power is 3-wire connector (+15v/-12.6v/gnd)
f. 41800A bandwidth is 5 Hz to 500 MHz. Output connector is
type-N. Power is 3-wire connector (+15v/-12.6v/gnd)
g. 54006A output connector is 3.5 mm
h. 3.5 mm output connector, requires +/- 15 volt supply
Refer to the current Agilent data sheet for each probe for specific
information regarding frequency of operation and power supply
requirements.
The Transmitter Tester provides one “three-wire” probe power
connector on the front panel. Typically, it can energize one probe. If you
plan on operating more than one probe, make sure you provide
sufficient external power sources as required.
158
Chapter 4
Making Measurements
Using Baseband I/Q Inputs (Option B7C)
Selecting Baseband I/Q Inputs
Baseband I/Q measurements may be made with “unbalanced” inputs
using either two connectors (I and Q), or with “balanced” inputs using
four connectors (I, Q, I, and Q). A variety of high and low input
impedances can be selected. This flexibility allows measurements to be
made at a maximum number of diagnostic locations in the transmitter
circuitry.
To use the Baseband I/Q inputs the instrument must be in BasicMode,
or another compatible mode which can utilize the Baseband I/Q input
ports. For modes that support Baseband I/Q, the inputs and
measurement defaults are activated and visible when either I only, Q
only, or I/Q is selected for Input Port in the Input menu. For modes which
cannot support Baseband I/Q, the inputs and defaults are absent.
Selecting Baseband I/Q Input Connectors
Option B7C adds a softkey menu that lets you select I/Q inputs. This
menu is located under the Input/Output front-panel key in the Input
menu. To select an input connector press Input/Output, Input Port. Select
the desired input connector(s) from the following choices displayed:
• RF - Press to select the 50 Ω "N" RF connector.
• I/Q - Select if using 2 connector “unbalanced” or 4 connector
“Balanced” I/Q cabling. Complete your selection by choosing the
appropriate input impedance and connectors in the section
“Selecting Baseband I/Q Inputs” on page 159.
• I Only - Select if using I and/or I input connectors. Complete your
selection by choosing the appropriate input impedance and
connectors in the section “Selecting Baseband I/Q Input Impedance”
on page 164.
• Q Only - Select if using Q and/or Q input connectors. Complete your
selection by choosing the appropriate input impedance and
connectors in the section “Selecting Baseband I/Q Input Impedance”
on page 164.
• 50 MHz Ref - Select to view the 50 MHz CW calibration signal (signal
level is approximately -25.0 dBm).
Chapter 4
159
Making Measurements
Using Baseband I/Q Inputs (Option B7C)
• IF Align - Select to view the IF alignment signal. This signal is
available as a diagnostic function, to check the operation of the
alignment signal in the case of alignment failure. Once selected, a
menu accessing the IF alignment signal parameters is available at
the bottom of the Input menu. Either CW, comb, or pulse signals may
be selected. Because the alignment signal is input at the IF
frequency, it is displayed on any active Spectrum (Freq Domain)
window, regardless of center frequency.
• Baseband Align Signal (ON OFF) - Select to view the baseband
alignment signal. This is available as a diagnostic function, to check
the operation of the alignment signal in the case of alignment
failure. Because the alignment signal is input at the IF frequency, it
is displayed on any Spectrum (Freq Domain) window.
The INPUT, Input Port menu is also available under the Mode Setup
front-panel key.
160
Chapter 4
Making Measurements
Using Baseband I/Q Inputs (Option B7C)
Setting Up Baseband I/Q Inputs
Option B7C adds two keys that let you adjust the I/Q inputs; the I/Q
Setup key and the I/Q Range key. Both keys are located under the
Input/Output front panel key in the Input menu.
The I/Q Range key lets you select one of four levels as an upper limit for
the signal being applied to the Baseband I/Q inputs. The level may be
selected in units of dBm, dBmv, dBuv, Volts, and Watts. The following
table shows the four-level selections available for each unit of measure:
The default is 1 Volt.
The I/Q Range power levels in Table 4-8 are based on an I/Q Input Z of 50
Ω. I/Q Range voltage levels are independent of I/Q Input Z.
Table 4-8
I/Q Range Settings by Displayed Unit of Measure
Unit of
Measure
Highest
Setting
Lowest
Setting
dBm
13.0 dBm
7.0 dBm
1.0 dBm
−5.1 dBm
dBmv
60 dBmv
54 dBmv
48 dBmv
41.9 dBmv
dBuv
120.0 dBuv
114.0 dBuv
108 dBuv
101.9 dBuv
Volts
1 Volt
500 mV
250 mV
125 mV
Watts
20.0 mW
5.0 mW
1.2 mW
310.0 uW
If I/Q Range is set below the default and the error message “Input
Overload” is displayed, this value may be adjusted to its maximum.
Beyond that point, the signal must be attenuated to preserve the
measurement accuracy. Using a lower value than the default can
provide an increased dynamic measurement range.
I/Q Setup lets you adjust the following:
• I Offset - Use I Offset to input a value in Volts to offset the measured I
value. The default value is 0.0000 Volts, the min/max values are ±
2.5600 Volts. The tuning increment depends on the I/Q Range setting
as shown in Table 4-9. This value only affects the displayed results,
and does not appear as a correcting voltage at the probe.
Chapter 4
161
Making Measurements
Using Baseband I/Q Inputs (Option B7C)
Table 4-9
I and Q Offset Increment vs. I/Q Range
I/Q Range
I and Q
Offset
Increment
1 Volt
2 mV
500 mV
1 mV
250 mV
.5 mV
125 mV
.25 mV
• Q Offset - Use Q Offset to input a value in Volts to offset the
measured Q value. The default value is 0.0000 Volts, the min/max
values are ± 2.5600 Volts. The tuning increment depends on the I/Q
Range setting as shown in Table 4-9. This value only affects the
displayed results, and does not appear as a correcting voltage at the
probe.
• I/Q Input Z - This key lets you access a menu to select an input
impedance for baseband I/Q input signals. The selection of input
impedance is coupled to a connector “balance” configuration. If I/Q
Input Z is set to 1 M Ω, the setting for I/Q Z Ref for Input Z = 1MΩ key
becomes effective. For details, refer to “Selecting Baseband I/Q Input
Impedance” on page 164.
• I/Q Z Ref for Input Z = 1M Ω - This key is used to select the
1 M Ω input reference Z value in Ohms. This key is effective only
when I/Q Input Z is set to a 1 M Ω setting. The default value is 50.0 Ω.
The value range is 0 Ω to 10 M Ω, with a tuning increment of 1.0 Ω.
For more details, refer to“Selecting Baseband I/Q Input Impedance”
on page 164.
162
Chapter 4
Making Measurements
Using Baseband I/Q Inputs (Option B7C)
Figure 4-14
Input Menu with Option B7C Baseband I/Q Inputs Installed
Figure 4-15
I/Q Setup Menu, Option B7C Baseband I/Q Inputs Installed
Chapter 4
163
Making Measurements
Using Baseband I/Q Inputs (Option B7C)
Selecting Baseband I/Q Input Impedance
The selection of input impedance is coupled to a connector “balance”
configuration. “Balance” refers to whether an input is “single-ended”
(unbalanced) or is balanced.
To select an input impedance, press Input/Output, I/Q Setup, I/Q Input Z to
display the following choices:
• 50 Ω Unbalanced - Select to use I and/or Q input connectors.
• 600 Ω Balanced - Select to use either I and I, Q and Q, or all four I, Q,
I, and Q input connectors.
• 1 M Ω Unbalanced - Select to use I and/or Q input connectors in an
unbalanced mode. When I/Q Input Z is set to a 1 M Ω selection
(balanced or unbalanced), the setting for I/Q Z Ref for Input Z = 1M Ω
key may be adjusted. Otherwise, the default value for I/Q Z Ref = 1 M
Ω is 50 Ω.
• 1 M Ω Balanced - Select to use either I and I, Q and Q, or all four I, Q,
I, and Q input connectors to make a balanced measurement. When
I/Q Input Z is set to a 1 M Ω selection (balanced or unbalanced, the
setting for I/Q Z Ref for Input Z = 1M Ω key may be adjusted. Otherwise,
the default value for I/Q Z Ref = 1 M Ω is 50 Ω
You can select I only or Q only in the Input/Output, Input Port menu with any
impedance selection.
Figure 4-16
I/Q Input Z Menu - Option B7C Baseband I/Q Inputs Installed
164
Chapter 4
Making Measurements
Using Baseband I/Q Inputs (Option B7C)
Baseband I/Q Measurement Views
Measurement result views made in Basic mode are available for
baseband signals if they relate to the nature of the signal itself. Many
measurements which relate to the characteristics baseband I and Q
signals have when mixed and upconverted to signals in the RF
spectrum can be made as well. However, measurements which relate to
the characteristics of an upconverted signal that lie beyond the
bandwidth available to the Baseband I/Q Input circuits can not be
measured (the limits are ~5 MHz BW for individual I and Q signals,
and ~10 MHz for composite I/Q signals).
Some views are appropriate for use with both RF and Baseband I/Q
signals without any modification, while other views must be altered.
Some examples of measurements with identical results views are QPSK
EVM, Code Domain, and CCDF. For Spectrum measurements, identical
views include the I and Q Waveform view and the I/Q Polar view. For
Waveform measurements, identical views include the I/Q Waveform
view, the Signal Envelope view, and the I/Q Polar view.
At RF frequencies, power measurements are conventionally displayed
on a logarithmic vertical scale in dBm units, whereas measurements of
baseband signals using Baseband I/Q inputs may be conveniently
displayed as voltage using a linear vertical scale as well as a log scale.
Spectrum Views and 0 Hz Center Frequency
Some views must be altered to account for the fundamental difference
between RF and baseband I/Q signals. For Spectrum measurements of
I/Q signals this includes using a center frequency of 0 Hz for Spectrum
views and the Spectrum Linear view. Occupied Bandwidth and Channel
Power results are also displayed using a center frequency of 0 Hz.
The center frequency of baseband I/Q Spectrum displays is 0 Hz.
Frequencies higher than 0 Hz are displayed as “positive” and those
below 0 Hz are “negative”. The “negative” portion of a multi-channel
baseband signal below 0 Hz corresponds to the portion of the signal that
would lie below the carrier center frequency when it is upconverted, if
no spectral inversion occurs. As 0 Hz is a fixed center frequency, the
FREQUENCY Channel front-panel key has no active menu for baseband
I/Q Spectrum measurements.
I only and Q only Spectrum views are conventional, displayed with 0 Hz
at the left margin of the x-axis. When upconverted or multiplied, an I
only or Q only signal could ultimately lie above or below the carrier
center frequency, but in either case it will only occupy half the
bandwidth. As 0 Hz is a fixed start frequency, the FREQUENCY Channel
front panel key has no active menu keys. Use Span to change horizontal
scale. The center frequency is displayed as half the current Span.
Chapter 4
165
Making Measurements
Using Baseband I/Q Inputs (Option B7C)
Waveform Views for Baseband I/Q Inputs
For Waveform measurements, two new displays are available
exclusively for baseband I/Q input signals; the I and Q Waveform view,
which separates the individual I and Q traces, and the I/Q Polar view.
Since the x-axis for Waveform measurements is Time, the FREQUENCY
Channel front-panel key has no active menu for baseband I/Q Waveform
measurements. Use Span to change horizontal scale. A Linear Envelope
waveform view is also available to display baseband signals that
employs linear voltage units on the vertical axis.
Waveform Signal Envelope Views of I Only or Q Only
The I and Q Waveform of an I/Q signal is very different from the
complex signal displayed in the Waveform Signal Envelope view. That
is because the Signal Envelope is a product of both the I and Q
modulation waveforms.
However, an I and Q Waveform measurement of an I-only or Q-only
signal (with I only or Q only selected as the active input port) is exactly
the same signal displayed in the Waveform Signal Envelope view. That
is because an I-only or Q-only waveform determines the I-only or Q-only
signal envelope. Thus, the Waveform Signal Envelope view can be used
to measure an I-only or Q-only waveform directly.
166
Chapter 4
Making Measurements
Using Baseband I/Q Inputs (Option B7C)
Comparing RF and Baseband I/Q Measurement Views
The following table compares the measurement views for RF inputs and
baseband I/Q inputs.
Table 4-10
RF vs. Baseband I/Q Input Measurement Views, by
Measurement
Measurement
Views Available
for Measurements Using
RF Input
Views Available
for Measurements Using
Baseband I/Q Inputs
Mods to RF View
for Baseband I/Q
Inputs
Channel Power
Channel Power
Channel Power
Center Freq = 0 Hz
ACP
FFT, Fast Bar Graph,
Spectrum
Measurement
Not Available
n/a
Power Stat
CCDF
CCDF
CCDF
none
Spectrum
(Freq Domain)
Spectrum
Spectrum Linear
I and Q Waveform
I/Q Polar
Spectrum
Spectrum Linear
I and Q Waveform
I/Q Polar
Center Freq = 0 Hz
(Spectrum Views)
Y axis = Volts, dBm
(Spectrum Linear)
Waveform
(Time Domain)
Signal Envelope
I/Q Waveform
I/Q Polar
Signal Envelope
I/Q Waveform
I/Q Polar
Linear Envelope
I and Q Waveform
Y axis = Volts, dBm
(Linear Envelope)
Results screens for the above measurements unique to Baseband I/Q
inputs are shown in the section “Baseband I/Q Measurement Result
Examples” on page 168.
Chapter 4
167
Making Measurements
Using Baseband I/Q Inputs (Option B7C)
Baseband I/Q Measurement Result Examples
The following section shows examples of new measurement result
displays using Baseband I/Q Inputs. A notation below each example
indicates the nature of the input signal.
Channel Power Measurement
There is a new view for Channel Power measurements with Baseband
I/Q Inputs: the Channel Power Spectrum view with 0 Hz center
frequency.
This measurement is not available if Input Port menu is set to I only or
Q Only, as the total I/Q channel power cannot be measured.
Figure 4-17
Basic Mode Channel Power - Baseband I/Q Inputs
168
Chapter 4
Making Measurements
Using Baseband I/Q Inputs (Option B7C)
Spectrum (Frequency Domain) Measurement
There are two new views with Baseband I/Q input Spectrum
measurements: the Spectrum view with 0 Hz center frequency, and the
Spectrum Linear view with 0 Hz center frequency and the vertical scale
in Volts.
If you have I only or Q Only selected as the Input Port, a Spectrum view
does not have 0 Hz as the center frequency. It is displayed with 0 Hz at
the left margin, similar to a conventional spectrum display, except that
the start frequency remains 0 Hz regardless of Span, and the center
frequency is displayed as half the Span.
Figure 4-18
Basic Mode Spectrum View- Baseband I/Q Inputs
Chapter 4
169
Making Measurements
Using Baseband I/Q Inputs (Option B7C)
Figure 4-19
Basic Mode Spectrum Linear View- Baseband I/Q Inputs
Figure 4-20
Basic Mode Spectrum I Only View- Baseband I/Q Inputs
170
Chapter 4
Making Measurements
Using Baseband I/Q Inputs (Option B7C)
Waveform (Time Domain) Measurement
There are two new views with Baseband I/Q input Waveform (Time
Domain) measurements: the Linear Envelope view with the vertical
scale in Volts, and the I and Q Waveform view with separate windows
for the I and Q traces.
Figure 4-21
Basic Mode Waveform Linear Envelope - Baseband I/Q Inputs
Figure 4-22
Basic Mode I and Q View Waveform View - Baseband I/Q Inputs
Chapter 4
171
Making Measurements
Using Baseband I/Q Inputs (Option B7C)
Baseband I/Q Key Access Locations
All Baseband I/Q input setup and operation features can be located by
using the key access table below. The key access path shows the key
sequence you enter to access a particular key.
Some features can only be used when specific measurements are active.
If a feature is not currently valid the key label for that feature appears
as lighter colored text or is not displayed at all.
Table 4-11
Baseband I/Q Key Access Locations
Key
Key Access Path
Align IQ
System/Alignments/Align Subsystem/
Baseband Align Signal
Input/Input Port
dBm
Input/I/Q Range/
dBmv
Input/I/Q Range/
dBuv
Input/I/Q Range/
I and Q Waveform
View/Trace/ (Spectrum Measurement)
I Offset
Input/I/Q Setup/
I Only
Mode Setup/Input/Input Port/
I Only
Input/Input Port/
I/Q
Input/Input Port/
I/Q
Mode Setup/Input/Input Port/
I/Q Input Z
Input/I/Q Setup/
I/Q Polar
View/Trace/
I/Q Range
Input/
I/Q Setup
Input/
I/Q Setup
Mode Setup/Input/Input Port/
I/Q Waveform
View/Trace/
I/Q Waveform
Marker/Trace/
I/Q Z Ref
Input/I/Q Setup/
I or Q Magnitude
Meas Setup/Trig Source/More (1 of 2)
I Waveform
View/Trace/ (Spectrum Measurement)
Linear Envelope
View/Trace/ (Waveform Measurement)
Q Offset
Input/I/Q Setup
Q Only
Input/Input Port/
172
Chapter 4
Making Measurements
Using Baseband I/Q Inputs (Option B7C)
Table 4-11
Baseband I/Q Key Access Locations
Key
Key Access Path
Q Only
Mode Setup/Input/Input Port/
Q Waveform
Marker/Trace/
Signal Envelope
View/Trace/ (Waveform Measurement)
Spectrum Linear
View/Trace/(Spectrum Measurement)
V (volts)
Input/I/Q Offset/I Offset (or Q Offset)/Keypad
Entry
Volts
Input/I/Q Range/
Watts
Input/I/Q Range/
Chapter 4
173
Making Measurements
Using Baseband I/Q Inputs (Option B7C)
BbIQ Programming Commands
This is a summary of the SCPI commands related to the operation of
Option B7C Baseband I/Q Inputs. For complete programming
information refer to the Language Reference chapter in the
Programmer’s Guide.
CALCulate Subsystem
Baseband I/Q - Spectrum I/Q Marker Query
:CALCulate:SPECtrum:MARKer:IQ [1]|2|3|4?
Reads out current I and Q marker values.
Baseband I/Q - Waveform I/Q Marker Query
:CALCulate:WAVeform:MARKer:IQ [1]|2|3|4?
Reads out current I and Q marker values.
CALibration Subsystem
Baseband I/Q - Align the Baseband IQ
:CALibration:GIQ
:CALibration:GIQ?
Performs the IQ group of alignments. The query performs the
alignment and returns a 0 if the alignment is successful.
Baseband I/Q - IQ Common Mode Response Null
:CALibration:IQ:CMR
:CALibration:IQ:CMR?
Forces a common mode response null on I/Q inputs.
Baseband I/Q - IQ Flatness Calibration
:CALibration:IQ:FLATness
:CALibration:IQ:FLATness?
Activates a flatness calibration for all I/Q ranges and impedance
settings.
174
Chapter 4
Making Measurements
Using Baseband I/Q Inputs (Option B7C)
Baseband I/Q - IQ Offset Calibration
:CALibration:IQ:OFFSet
:CALibration:IQ:OFFSet?
Activates a calibration of the I/Q input offset DAC.
DISPlay Subsystem
Spectrum - Y-Axis Scale/Div
:DISPlay:SPECtrum[n]:WINDow[m]:TRACe:Y[:SCALe]:PDIVision
<power>
:DISPlay:SPECtrum[n]:WINDow[m]:TRACe:Y[:SCALe]:PDIVision?
Sets the amplitude reference level for the y-axis.
Spectrum - Y-Axis Reference Level
:DISPlay:SPECtrum[n]:WINDow[m]:TRACe:Y[:SCALe]:RLEVel
<power>
:DISPlay:SPECtrum[n]:WINDow[m]:TRACe:Y[:SCALe]:RLEVel?
Sets the amplitude reference level for the y-axis.
Waveform - Y-Axis Scale/Div
:DISPlay:WAVeform[n]:WINDow[m]:TRACe:Y[:SCALe]:PDIVision
<power>
:DISPlay:WAVeform[n]:WINDow[m]:TRACe:Y[:SCALe]:PDIVision?
Sets the scale per division for the y-axis.
Waveform - Y-Axis Reference Level
:DISPlay:WAVeform[n]:WINDow[m]:TRACe:Y[:SCALe]:RLEVel
<power>
:DISPlay:WAVeform[n]:WINDow[m]:TRACe:Y[:SCALe]:RLEVel?
Sets the amplitude reference level for the y-axis.
Chapter 4
175
Making Measurements
Using Baseband I/Q Inputs (Option B7C)
INPut Subsystem
The INPut subsystem controls the characteristics of all the instrument
input ports.
Baseband I/Q - Select Input Impedance
:INPut:IMPedance:IQ U50|B600|U1M|B1M
:INPut:IMPedance:IQ?
Selects the characteristic input impedance when input port is set to I or
Q. This is the impedance value as well as the unbalanced (U) or
balanced (B) impedance mode.
Baseband I/Q - Select Input Impedance Reference
:INPut:IMPedance:REFerence <integer>
:INPut:IMPedance:REFerence?
Sets the value of the input impedance reference when input port is set
to I or Q.
Baseband I/Q - Activate IQ Alignment
:INPut:IQ:ALIGn OFF|ON|0|1
:INPut:IQ:ALIGn?
Activates or deactivates IQ alignment.
Baseband I/Q - I Input DC Offset
:INPut:OFFSet:I <level>
:INPut:OFFSet:I?
Sets adjustment to compensate for I voltage bias on signals when the I
input port is selected.
Baseband I/Q - Q Input DC Offset
:INPut:OFFSet:Q <level>
:INPut:OFFSet:Q?
Sets adjustment to compensate Q voltage bias on signals when the Q
input port is selected.
176
Chapter 4
Making Measurements
Using Baseband I/Q Inputs (Option B7C)
MEASure Subsystem
Spectrum (Frequency Domain) Measurement This measures the
amplitude of your input signal with respect to the frequency. It provides
spectrum analysis capability using FFT (fast Fourier transform)
measurement techniques. You must select the appropriate mode using
INSTrument:SELect, to use these commands.
:CONFigure:SPECtrum
:FETCh:SPECtrum[n]?
:READ:SPECtrum[n]?
:MEASure:SPECtrum[n]?
Waveform (Time Domain) Measurement This measures the power
in your input signal with respect to time and is equivalent to zero-span
operation in a traditional spectrum analyzer. You must select the
appropriate mode using INSTrument:SELect, to use these commands.
:CONFigure:WAVeform
:FETCh:WAVeform[n]?
:READ:WAVeform[n]?
:MEASure:WAVeform[n]?
Chapter 4
177
Making Measurements
Using Baseband I/Q Inputs (Option B7C)
SENSe Subsystem
Select the Input Signal
[:SENSe]:FEED RF|IQ|IONLy|QONLy|AREFerence|IFALign
[:SENSe]:FEED?
Selects the input signal. The default input signal is taken from the
front panel RF input port. For calibration and testing purposes the
input signal can be taken from an internal 321.4 MHz IF alignment
signal or an internal 50 MHz amplitude reference source.
If the baseband IQ option (Option B7C) is installed, I and Q input ports
are added to the front panel. The I and Q ports accept the in-phase and
quadrature components of the IQ signal, respectively. The input signal
can be taken from either or both ports.
RF selects the signal from the front panel RF INPUT port.
IQ selects the combined signals from the front panel optional I and Q
input ports. (Option B7C)
IONLy selects the signal from the front panel optional I input port.
(Option B7C)
QONLy selects the signal from the front panel optional Q input port.
(Option B7C)
AREFerence selects the internal 50 MHz amplitude reference signal.
IFALign selects the internal, 321.4 MHz, IF alignment signal.
Baseband I/Q - Select I/Q Power Range
[:SENSe]:POWer:IQ:RANGe[:UPPer] <power> [DBM]|DBMV|W
[:SENSe]:POWer:IQ:RANGe[:UPPer]?
Selects maximum total power expected from unit under test at test port
when I or Q port is selected.
Baseband I/Q - Select I/Q Voltage Range
[:SENSe]:VOLTage:IQ:RANGe[:UPPer] <level>
[:SENSe]:VOLTage:IQ:RANGe[:UPPer]?
Selects upper voltage range when I or Q port is selected. This setting
helps set the gain which is generated in the variable gain block of the
baseband IQ board to improve dynamic range.
178
Chapter 4
5
If You Have a Problem
This chapter will help you identify the causes of some problems you
may encounter, offers warranty information, and provides instructions
for returning your instrument to Agilent Technologies.
For information about error messages and functional tests, see the
Instrument Messages and Functional Tests document.
179
If You Have a Problem
Problem Symptoms and Solutions
Problem Symptoms and Solutions
The following section describes some transmitter tester problem
symptoms and possible solutions to those problems. They include:
“Key or Feature Does Not Appear in Menu” on page 180.
“Frequency Unlock or External Reference Missing - Error Messages”
on page 181.
“LAN External Loopback Test Failed - Error Message” on page 181.
“Instrument Fails Alignment - Error Message” on page 181.
“Measurement Keys Do Not Appear after Pressing the Mode Key” on
page 182.
“Instrument Power-On Problem” on page 182.
“LAN Communication Problem” on page 182.
“Instrument Keyboard is Locked” on page 182.
Key or Feature Does Not Appear in Menu
Symptom: You are unable to locate a key for a feature you want to use
in a particular measurement.
Solution 1: Many features are available only for making specific
measurements, and do not apply to other measurements. Verify that
the feature you are seeking is available for that particular
measurement by examining the key access table on page 53. Notes in
the key access path column indicate whether a feature can only be used
with a particular measurement. You can also review the section which
documents the measurement you are using, and indicates which
features apply to that measurement.
Solution 2: Some features are only available when using a specific
mode. Review the section describing the mode to verify that a feature is
available.
Solution 3: Some features of the transmitter tester are not yet
available and will be implemented with a future firmware release. For
an update on the status of firmware upgrades you can check the
following URL: www.agilent.com/find/vsa/.
180
Chapter 5
If You Have a Problem
Problem Symptoms and Solutions
Frequency Unlock or External Reference Missing Error Messages
Symptom: A frequency unlock error message, or an external reference
missing error message, appears in the annunciator bar just above the
data window.
Solution 1: The red Ext Ref message indicates that the external
reference is not locked. The external reference can be any frequency
between 1 and 30 MHz. If you have connected an external reference you
must enter it’s frequency into the instrument. The value you entered
must correspond to the external reference that is in use, or it will
generate the error. Note that the value entered for the external
reference frequency will persist, even after the instrument has been
powered off and then on.
A green Ext Ref message indicates that the instrument is using an
external reference and it is properly locked.
Solution 2: If you want to use the internal reference signal, toggle the
Freq Ref key to the Int (internal) setting.
LAN External Loopback Test Failed - Error Message
Symptom: During booting the instrument you see a message which
reads LAN external loopback test failed.
Solution: This message indicates that no LAN cable is connected to the
instrument. You can ignore this message if you don’t want to use the
LAN.
Instrument Fails Alignment - Error Message
Symptom: An error message indicates that the instrument has failed
alignment. This message appears either at power on during the
self-alignment, or when the Align All Now key is pressed.
Solution: These alignments will fail if an external 50 MHz signal, at a
power level greater than 0 dB, is connected to the RF input of the
transmitter tester. Remove the 50 MHz signal to fix this problem.
Chapter 5
181
If You Have a Problem
Problem Symptoms and Solutions
Measurement Keys Do Not Appear after Pressing the
Mode Key
Symptom: After pressing the MODE key, you have selected a particular
mode (like Basic, Service, or one of the measurement personalities), but
the menu for the mode you have selected does not appear on the
softkeys.
Solution: If you were already in the mode that you selected, you must
press the MEASURE key to display the available measurements.
Instrument Power-On Problem
Symptom: The instrument will not power-on. The instrument is
plugged in, but the green LED above the front panel power switch is not
on. The yellow standby LED may be flashing or may be extinguished.
Something appears to be causing the instrument power supply to shut
down.
Solution: An external device or internal assembly is causing the
instrument to shut down, or the power supply may be in thermal
shutdown. Inspect the instrument to ensure that it is receiving
adequate air flow. Disconnect all devices from the rear panel and
remove anything connected to the front panel probe power jack. If after
powering the instrument off, the instrument powers on, determine
which device caused the problem.
LAN Communication Problem
Symptom: You cannot communicate with the instrument over the
LAN.
Solution: Make sure the correct IP address, subnet mask, and host
name are stored in the instrument. Press System, Config I/O, then read
the IP address, subnet mask and host name which are shown on the
corresponding softkey labels. The default subnet mask of 255.255.0.0
should be sufficient for most closed network applications. If the Restore
Sys Defaults key has been used recently, the IP address, subnet mask,
and host name will have been reset to factory defaults. (The IP address
is changed to 10.10.10.10., the subnet mask is changed to
255.255.0.0., and the host name is set to VSA.)
Instrument Keyboard is Locked
Symptom: The keyboard is locked and does not respond to attempts to
activate features.
Solution: A programmer can lock the keyboard remotely using the
SCPI KLOCk command. You can confirm if this is the reason the
keyboard is locked by examining the annunciator bar; a message saying
Klock will appear if this command has been executed.
182
Chapter 5
If You Have a Problem
Agilent Technologies Test and Measurement Support, Services, and Assistance
Agilent Technologies Test and Measurement
Support, Services, and Assistance
Agilent Technologies aims to maximize the value you receive, while
minimizing your risk and problems. We strive to ensure that you get the
test and measurement capabilities you paid for and obtain the support
you need. Our extensive support resources and services can help you
choose the right Agilent products for your applications and apply them
successfully. Every instrument and system we sell has a global
warranty. Support is available for at least five years beyond the
production life of the product. Two concepts underlie Agilent’s overall
support policy: “Our Promise” and “Your Advantage.”
Our Promise
Our Promise means your Agilent test and measurement equipment will
meet its advertised performance and functionality. When you are
choosing new equipment, we will help you with product information,
including realistic performance specifications and practical
recommendations from experienced test engineers. When you use
Agilent equipment, we can verify that it works properly, help with
product operation, and provide basic measurement assistance for the
use of specified capabilities, at no extra cost upon request. Many
self-help tools are available.
Your Advantage
Your Advantage means that Agilent offers a wide range of additional
expert test and measurement services, which you can purchase
according to your unique technical business needs. Solve problems
efficiently and gain a competitive edge by contracting with us for
calibration, extra-cost upgrades, out-of-warranty repairs, and on-site
education and training, as well as design, system integration, project
management, and other professional engineering services. Experienced
Agilent engineers and technicians worldwide can help you maximize
your productivity, optimize the return on investment of your Agilent
instruments and systems, and obtain dependable measurement
accuracy for the life of those products.
By internet, phone, or fax, get assistance with all your test &
measurement needs.
Chapter 5
183
If You Have a Problem
Agilent Technologies Test and Measurement Support, Services, and Assistance
Table 5-1 Contacting Agilent
Online assistance: www.agilent.com/find/assist
United States
(tel) 1 800 452 4844
Japan
(tel) (+81) 426 56 7832
(fax) (+81) 426 56 7840
New Zealand
(tel) 0 800 738 378
(fax) (+64) 4 495 8950
Canada
(tel) 1 877 894 4414
(fax) (905) 282 6495
Latin America
(tel) (305) 269 7500
(fax) (305) 269 7599
Australia
(tel) 1 800 629 485
(fax) (+61) 3 9210 5947
Europe
(tel) (+31) 20 547 2323
(fax) (+31) 20 547 2390
Asia Call Center Numbers
Country
Phone Number
Fax Number
Singapore
1-800-375-8100
(65) 836-0252
Malaysia
1-800-828-848
1-800-801664
Philippines
(632) 8426802
1-800-16510170 (PLDT
Subscriber Only)
(632) 8426809
1-800-16510288 (PLDT
Subscriber Only)
Thailand
(088) 226-008 (outside Bangkok)
(662) 661-3999 (within Bangkok)
(66) 1-661-3714
Hong Kong
800-930-871
(852) 2506 9233
Taiwan
0800-047-866
(886) 2 25456723
People’s Republic
of China
800-810-0189 (preferred)
10800-650-0021
10800-650-0121
India
1-600-11-2929
000-800-650-1101
Returning Your Instrument to Agilent Technologies
If you are returning your transmitter tester to Agilent Technologies for
servicing, fill out and attach a blue repair tag to the instrument. Repair
tags are located at the end of this chapter.
Include as much information as possible about the problem. Record any
error messages that appeared on the display and include performance
test results or any other specific data on the performance of the
instrument.
Ship the instrument in the original factory packaging materials, if they
are available. If not, use similar packaging to properly protect the
instrument.
Return the instrument to the nearest Agilent Technologies sales and
service office. Contact the nearest office as shown in Table 5-1 on
page 184 to determine the address to which the instrument should be
sent.
184
Chapter 5
6
Options and Accessories
This chapter contains descriptions of the options and accessories that
are available for use with your instrument.
185
Options and Accessories
Options and Measurement Personalities
Options and Measurement Personalities
Option BAH: GSM Measurement Personality
Provides GSM transmitter measurements:
power vs. time
phase and frequency error
output RF spectrum
transmit band spurs
And general transmitter measurements:
transmit power
spectrum (frequency domain)
waveform (time domain)
It includes the GSM Guide, which contains measurement and
programming information.
Option BAC: cdmaOne Measurement Personality
Provides IS-95 transmitter measurements:
channel power
modulation accuracy (rho)
code domain power
ACPR
spur close
And general transmitter measurements:
spectrum (frequency domain)
waveform (time domain)
Includes cdmaOne Guide, which contains measurement and
programming information.
Option BAE: NADC/PDC Measurement Personalities
Provides NADC transmitter measurements:
ACP
error vector magnitude
Provides PDC transmitter measurements:
ACP
error vector magnitude
occupied BW
And general transmitter measurements:
spectrum (frequency domain)
186
Chapter 6
Options and Accessories
Options and Measurement Personalities
waveform (time domain)
It includes NADC/PDC Guide, which contains measurement and
programming information.
Option HN1: iDEN Measurement Personality
Provides iDEN transmitter measurements:
ACPR
bit error rate
occupied bandwidth
And general transmitter measurements:
spectrum (frequency domain)
waveform (time domain)
It includes iDEN Measurement Guide (which contains front panel
operation and programming commands).
Option BAF: W-CDMA Measurement Personality
Provides 3GPP W-CDMA transmitter measurements:
channel power
ACPR (ACLR)
intermodulation
multi carrier power
spectrum emission mask
occupied BW
code domain power
modulation accuracy (composite EVM)
QPSK EVM
power statistics CCDF
And general transmitter measurements:
spectrum (frequency domain)
waveform (time domain)
It includes W-CDMA Guide, which contains measurement and
programming information.
Option B78: cdma2000 Measurement Personality
Provides cdma2000 transmitter measurements:
channel power
ACPR
intermodulation
spectrum emission mask
occupied BW
code domain power
modulation accuracy (composite rho)
Chapter 6
187
Options and Accessories
Options and Measurement Personalities
QPSK EVM
power statistics CCDF
And general transmitter measurements:
spectrum (frequency domain)
waveform (time domain)
It includes cdma2000 Guide, which contains measurement and
programming information.
Option B7C: Baseband IQ Measurement Personality
Provides the following baseband IQ measurement capability for
W-CDMA and IS2000:
channel power
occupied BW
code domain analysis
modulation accuracy (composite rho)
QPSK EVM
power statistics CCDF
And general transmitter measurements:
spectrum (frequency domain)
waveform (time domain)
Differential inputs are included with this option. The input range is DC
to +5 v. A +/- 2.5v variable DC offset function is available for both I and
Q signals.
Option 202: EDGE (with GSM) Measurement
Personality
Provides EDGE (8PSK modulation) transmitter measurements:
EVM
power vs. time
output RF spectrum
transmit band spurs
Provides GSM (GMSK modulation) transmitter measurements:
power vs. time
phase and frequency error
output RF spectrum
transmit band spurs
And general transmitter measurements:
transmit power
spectrum (frequency domain)
waveform (time domain)
It includes the EDGE (w/GSM) Guide, which contains measurement
and programming information.
188
Chapter 6
Options and Accessories
Options and Measurement Personalities
Option 300: 321.4 MHz IF Output
Adds 321.4 MHz IF Output to the rear panel.
Option 252: Retrofit EDGE to Existing GSM
Measurement Personality
This option is only available as a retrofit kit (E4406AU Option 252) for
instruments that are already licensed to use the GSM mode Option
BAH.
Provides EDGE (8PSK modulation) transmitter measurements:
EVM
power vs. time
output RF spectrum
transmit band spurs
Provides GSM (GMSK modulation) transmitter measurements:
power vs. time
phase and frequency error
output RF spectrum
transmit band spurs
And general transmitter measurements:
transmit power
spectrum (frequency domain)
waveform (time domain)
It includes the EDGE (w/GSM) Guide, which contains measurement
and programming information.
Option 0B1: Additional Copy of Manuals
Adds an additional copy of the standard manual set, which includes the
User’s Guide, the Programming Guide, and Specifications manuals.
Current documentation is available on the VSA web page at
www.agilent.com/find/vsa.
Documentation
User’s Guide
Programmer’s Guide
Specifications
Chapter 6
189
Options and Accessories
Options and Measurement Personalities
Option 0BV: Component-level Service Documentation
Adds component level service documentation.
Documentation
Component Level Information
Option 0BW: Assembly-level Service Documentation
Adds assembly level service documentation. This option includes:
Documentation
Service Guide
Specifications
Option 1CM: Rack Mount Kit
Includes rack mount flanges and hardware. Used to rack mount
instruments without front handles. Available as P/N 5063-9215.
Option 1CN: Handles Kit
Also available as P/N 5063-9228.
Option 1CP: Rack Mount with Handles Kit
Rack mount with handle kit. Rack mounts instrument which has front
handles attached. Available as P/N 5063-9222.
Option 1CR: Rack Slide Kit
Available as P/N E4406 -60115
VSA Transmitter Tester Measurement Personalities
Retrofit
Optional measurement personalities can be retrofitted. To obtain
information on available personalities, updating firmware, and general
product information contact the following URL:
URL to contact to obtain product update information
www.agilent.com/find/vsa/
Further information on installing optional measurement personalities
can be found in “Installing Optional Measurement Personalities” on
page 36.
190
Chapter 6
Options and Accessories
Accessories
Accessories
AC Probe
The HP/Agilent 85024A high frequency probe performs in-circuit
measurements without adversely loading the circuit under test. The
probe has an input capacitance of 0.7 pF shunted by 1 MΩ of resistance
and operates over a frequency range of 300 kHz to 3 GHz. High probe
sensitivity and low distortion levels allow measurements to be made
while taking advantage of the full dynamic range of the instrument.
The HP/Agilent 41800A low frequency probe has a low input
capacitance and a frequency range of 5 Hz to 500 MHz.
Broadband Preamplifiers and Power Amplifiers
Preamplifiers and power amplifiers can be used with your instrument
to enhance measurements of very low-level signals.
• The HP/Agilent 10855A preamplifier provides a minimum of 22 dB
gain from 2 MHz to 1300 MHz. (Power is supplied by the transmitter
tester’s probe power output.)
• The HP/Agilent 8447D preamplifier provides a minimum of 25 dB
gain from 100 kHz to 1.3 GHz.
• The HP/Agilent 87405A preamplifier provides a minimum of 22 dB
gain from 10 MHz to 3 GHz. (Power is supplied by the instrument
probe power output.)
GPIB Cable
The HP/Agilent 10833 GPIB cables interconnect GPIB devices and are
available in four different lengths. GPIB cables are used to connect
printers and controllers to an instrument.
Parallel Interface Cable
The HP 92284A parallel interface cable is a 36-pin to 25-pin
male-to-male 2 meter cable used to connect supported printers to an
instrument.
Printer
The DeskJet personal printers provide black and white or color printing
for another form of permanent records of your test results. The
HP LaserJet series printers are also compatible.
Chapter 6
191
Options and Accessories
Accessories
RS-232 Cables
Model Number
Description
HP 24542G
3 meter 9-pin (f) to 25-pin (m) RS-232 cable. Can be
used with HP DeskJet printers, HP LaserJet Series
printers, and PCs with 25-pin (f) RS-232 connectors.
HP 24542U
3-meter 9-pin (f) to 9-pin (f) RS-232 cable for serial
9-pin PC connection to an instrument.
HP C2932A
9-pin (m) to 9-pin (f) cable for RS-232 connection. The
modem cable required is HP 24542M 9-pin (f) to
25-pin (m), and the PC cable is HP 24542U.
N2714A Calibration and Adjustment Software
This software automates all the tests needed to verify instrument
performance, make adjustments, and troubleshoot. The software runs
on a PC platform using Windows 95/98 or NT 4.0, and uses the
Agilent Test Management Environment to help minimize calibration
run time and operator involvement.
192
Chapter 6
Index
Numerics
50 MHz Amptd key, 144
50 MHz Ref key, 83
A
AC probe, 191
Accessories, 191
accessories
AC probe, 191
broadband preamplifiers, 191
cal and adj software, 192
GPIB cable, 191
parallel cable, 191
parallel interface cable, 191
printer, 191
printers, 191
RS-232 cable, 192
ACPR
measurement reference type,
128
view/trace selection, 128
active function area, 33
active license key, 38
how to locate, 38
ADC calibration, 174
ADC Dither key
spectrum measurement, 102
ADC Range key
spectrum measurement, 101
ADC ranging function
automatic control, 114
automatic peak control, 114
automatic peak lock, 114
manual control, 114
address settings, 69
adjustment, 77
adjustment keys, 73
adjustment software, 192
Advanced menu
spectrum, 100
waveform, 114
advanced menu
ADC dither, 115
ADC ranging function, 114
decimation, 115
number of data points, 134
pre-ADC bandpass filter, 114
resolution bandwidth, 134
resolution bandwidth filter, 114
sweep time, 134
trigger source, 134
Align 50 MHz Reference key, 78
Align ADC key, 78
Align All Now key, 77
Align Current IF Flatness key, 78
Align Current Sysgain key, 78
Align IF key, 78
Index
Align RF key, 78
Align Subsystems key, 78
alignment commands, 174
alignment keys, 73
Alignments key, 77
Alpha Editor key, 68
amplifiers, 191
amplitude Y scale
reference position, 135
reference value, 135
scale coupling, 135
scale per division, 135
annunciator bar, 35
application modes available, 74
application notes, 17
Auto Align key, 77
Auto Trig key, trigger menu, 85
averaging
transmit band spurs, 176, 178
Averaging menu
Avg Mode key, 91
Avg Number key, 91
Avg Type key, 91
B
Band Pwr key, 96
Baseband I/Q inputs
key access table, 172
key entries, 172
key path, 172
Baseband IQ measurements, 154
Basic key, 88
basic mode,selecting, 82
broadband preamplifiers, 191
bus configuration keys, 69
C
cable
GPIB, 191
parallel interface, 191
RS-232, 192
cables
RS-232, 41
cal and adj software, 192
calibration, 77
ADC, 174
calibration commands, 174
calibration keys, 73
calibration software, 192
channel
selecting the, 86
channel power, 131
advanced menu, 131, 134
amplitude Y scale
scale/div, 135
changing display, 135
channel bandwidth, 131
channel power span, 134
integration bandwidth, 133
power spectral density, 131
time record length, 131
Choose Option key, 39
code updates, 38
computers
RS-232 cables, 41
configuring I/O, 69
context dependency map
mode, 21
context dependency maps
front panel, 23
measure, 22
mode, 22
Corrections key, 79
Corrections Off error
annunciator, 34
custom printer, 64
D
data entry, 27
numeric keys, 27
Data Packing
spectrum measurement, 102,
114
DC probes
use of, 191
Decimation
spectrum measurement, 102
defaults, factory presets, 82
Delay key, trigger menu, 85
deleting an
application/personality, 36
Delta key, 96
DeskJet printers, 191
diagnostic commands, 174
Diagnostics key, 74
display
spectrum window, 175
documentation
option, 15
transmitter tester, 15
E
editing text, 68
Error annunciator, 34
errors
corrections off, 35
keys, 73
oven cold, 35
troubleshooting front panel, 180
unlock, 35
ESC key, 24
Ethernet Addr key, 69
ethernet key, 69
193
Index
Even Second error annunciator,
35
Exit Core Firmware key, 38
exponential averaging, 91
Ext Front key, 92
Ext Rear key, 92
external reference, 35
using an, 71
External Reference error
annunciator, 34
F
factory defaults, presetting, 82
FFT Length key, 101
FFT Size menu, 101
FFT Window key., 100
file features, 67
Firmware Revision key, 74
firmware updates, 38
floppy disk drive, 28
Frame Timer key, trigger menu,
85
Free Run key, 92
Freq Ref key, 71
frequency
selecting the, 86
FREQUENCY/channel key, 86
front panel key menu maps, 20
front panel keys, 24
Front Panel Test, 148
Function key, 96
G
GPIB Address key, 69
GPIB cable, 191
GPIB keys, 69
H
hardware configuration keys, 73
Help key, 29
Home key, 28
Host ID key, 74
Host Name key, 69
HP 13242G Cable, 42
HP 24542G/H Cable, 42
HP 24542M Cable, 43
HP 24542U Cable, 41, 44, 45
HP 5181-6639 Adapter, 45, 46
HP 5181-6640 Adapter, 44, 45
HP 5181-6641 Adapter, 44, 45
HP 5181-6642 Adapter, 44, 46
HP 92219J Cable, 42
HP C2913A/C2914A Cable, 43
HP F1047-80002 Cable, 41, 45, 46
HP LaserJet printers, 191
HP sales and service offices, 184
194
HP-IB cable, 191
I
I and Q waveform view
I or Q waveform window, 106
I or Q waveform window
amplitude Y scale, 106
reference position, 106
reference value, 106
scale coupling, 107
scale per division, 106
span X scale, 106
reference position, 106, 118
reference value, 106, 118
scale coupling, 106, 119
scale per division, 106, 118
I origin
I/Q polar window, 120
I Origin key, 107
I waveform window
amplitude Y scale, 119
reference position, 119
scale coupling, 119
scale per division, 119
I/O,configuring, 69
I/Q Input Z key, 84
I/Q Polar view
waveform measurement, 120
I/Q polar view
I/Q polar window, 107, 120
I/Q polar window
amplitude Y scale, 107
I/Q scale per division, 107
Q Origin, 107
I origin, 120
I/Q scale per division, 120
Q origin, 120
span X scale, 107
I Origin, 107
I/Q scale per division
I/Q polar window, 120
I/Q Scale/Div key, 107
I/Q Waveform key, 93
I/Q waveform view
I/Q waveform window, 119
I/Q waveform window, 118, 119
amplitude Y scale, 119
reference position, 119
reference value, 119
scale coupling, 119
scale per division, 119
IF Align Signal menu
Signal Amptd key, 84
Signal Rate key, 84
Signal Type key, 84
IF Flatness
advanced spectrum feature, 102
Input Atten key, 84
input attenuation, 84
input configuration, 176
Input menu
50 MHz Ref key, 83
I/Q key, 83
Port key, 83
RF key, 83
input port selection, 178
input/output keys, 69
inputs
external trigger, 29
I and Q, 29
inputs, configuration, 69
Install Now key, 39
installing measurement
personalities, 36
instrument firmware updates, 38
internal reference selection, 178
IP Address key, 69
IQ port selection, 178
K
key access path, 53
key access table, 53
key entries, 53
key menu maps, 20
keyboard
attaching external, 31
keywords for licensing, 74
L
LAN keys, 69
LAN-TP connector, 31
Length Ctrl key, 101
Length key, 101
Level key, trigger menu, 85
license keys installed, 74
Line key, 92
line power input, 31
linear enevelope window, 118, 119
linear spectrum window
amplitude Y scale, 105
reference position, 105
reference value, 105
scale coupling, 105
scale per division, 105
Span key, 105
Load State key, 67
loading an
application/personality, 36
local
placing instrument in, 76
M
making basic measurements, 88
Index
Index
Marker key, 95
Marker menu
Band Pwr key, 96
Delta key, 96
Function key, 96
Noise key, 96
Select key, 96
Shape key, 96
Max Total Pwr key, 84
Meas Control key, 90
Measure softkey, 90
measurement
channel power, 133
power stat CCDF, 137
display, 139
spectrum
display, 107
measurement bar, 34
measurement modes available, 74
measurement personalities
retrofit, 190
measurement reference type
spectral power density
reference, 128
total power reference, 128
measurements
basic, 88
how to make, 88
spectrum (frequency domain),
177
waveform (time domain), 177
menu map, 20
Min Pts in RBW key, 101
mode
availability, 74
basic, 88
selecting, 82
setup, 83
Mouse Adapter (typical), 43
N
N2714A cal and adj software, 192
Navigation keys, 28
Next Window key, 28
Noise key, 96
Normal key, 95
O
on/off switch, 29
Options
0B1 (standard manual set), 189
0BV (service guide), 190
0BW (service guide and
specifications), 190
1CM (rack mount kit), 190
1CN (handle kit), 190
Index
1CP (rack mount and handle
kit), 190
1CR (rack slide kit), 190
202 (EDGE with/GSM), 188
252 (EDGE w/GSM), 189
B78 (cdma 2000), 187, 189
BAC (cdmaOne), 186
BAE (NADC/PDC), 186
BAF (W-CDMA), 187
BAH (GSM), 186, 189
HN1 (iDEN), 187, 188
options
available, 74
outputs, configuration, 69
P
parallel connector, 32
parallel interface cable, 191
pc cables for RS-232, 41
personality,selecting, 82
phase window, 118, 119
power amplifiers, 191
power stat CCDF
combining the multiple signals,
136
correlation between symbols on
different codes, 136
digital signal processing, 136
display
Gaussian line, 139
set trace line, 139
trace line, 139
Gaussian distribution curve,
136
band limited gaussian noise
CCDF reference line, 136
instantaneous envelope power,
136
marker, 140
delta, 140
marker all off, 140
normal, 140
off, 140
select, 140
shape, 140
trace, 140
measurement bandwidth, 138
measurement interval, 138
modulation filtering, 136
modulation format, 136
number of active codes, 136
number of sampling points, 138
power complementary
cumulative distribution
function curves, 136
probability for that particular
power level, 136
Pre-ADC BPF key
spectrum measurement, 100
preamplifiers, 191
Pre-FFT BW key, 100
Pre-FFT Fltr key, 100
preset
factory default, 82
Preset key, 89
Print Location key, 63
Print Setup key, 63
Print Type key, 63
printer, 191
custom, 64
Printer key, 63
printers, 191
RS-232 cables, 41
printing, 63
probe power, 27
probes
AC and DC, 191
problems
error messages, 180
feature cannot be accessed, 180
LAN connection, 180
power-on, 180
Q
Q origin
I/Q Polar window, 120
I/Q polar window, 120
Q Origin key, 107
Q waveform window
amplitude Y scale, 119
reference position, 119
reference value, 119
scale coupling, 119
scale per division, 119
R
rear panel connection keys, 69
rear panel connections, 30
Ref Position key, 93
Ref Value key, 93
Reference key, 71
reference, selecting internal, 178
repair, returning your
instrument, 184
repeat averaging, 91
Res BW key
spectrum measurement, 100
waveform measurement, 114
Restore Align Defaults key, 79
Restore Meas Defaults key, 90
Restore Sys Defaults key, 73
Return key, 28
returning your instrument, 184
195
Index
returning your instrument to
Hewlett-Packard, 184
RF Burst key, 92
RF Envelope key, 93
RF input, 27
RF input, selection, 178
RPG knob, 27
RS-232 cable, 192
RS-232 cables, 41
RS-232 connector, 32
S
safety
installing instrument, 47
using instrument, 48
safety symbols, 48
sales and service offices, 184
save features, 67
Save State key, 67
Scale/Coupling key, 93
Scale/Div key, 93
SCSI connection, 31
Search key, 96
selecting a mode, 82
selecting a printer, 63
Sensors key, 146
Serial Number key, 74
Service key, 141
Service menu
50 MHz Amptd, 141
Front Panel Keys, 141
Power vs Time, 141
Sensors, 141
Spectrum, 141
Timebase, 141
Waveform, 141
service mode,selecting, 82
service password, 74
setting up the mode, 83
Shape key, 96
shipment
verification list, 15
Show Errors key, 73
Show System key, 74
SICL server keys, 69
signal envelope view
signal envelope window, 119
signal envelope window, 118, 119
amplitude Y scale, 119
reference position, 119
reference value, 119
scale coupling, 119
scale per division, 119
Slope key, trigger menu, 85
softkeys
greyed-out keys, 24
highlighted keys, 24
196
software, cal and adj, 192
Span key, 93
spectrum measurement, 100
SPAN/X Scale menu, 93
spectrum
all traces, 107
amplitude Y scale, 105
averaged trace, 107
changing the display, 105
changing views, 103
current trace, 107
I and Q waveform view, 106
next window selection, 103
span X scale, 105
trace display, 107
view/trace, 103
zoom a window, 103
Spectrum (Frequency Domain)
key, 97
spectrum (frequency domain)
measurement, 177
spectrum linear view
linear spectrum window, 105
spectrum measurement
making the measurement, 97
method, 97
results, 98
spectrum measurement display,
175
spectrum window, 93
status keys, 73
status/info bar, 35
Sweep Time key, 93, 114
Sync Source menu, 86
system keys, 52
T
tab keys, 28
telnet key, 69
text
how to enter, 68
Time Corr key, 79
time domain measurement, 177
Timebase Frequency key, 142
Trace Display key, 93
transmit band spurs - averaging
state, 176, 178
Trig Holdout key, trigger menu,
85
Trigger key, 85
trigger out, 30
Trigger Source menu
Ext Front key, 92
Ext Rear key, 92
Free Run key, 92
Line key, 92
RF Burst key, 92
Video key, 92
troubleshooting key, 73
U
Uninstall Now, 39
uninstalling measurement
personalities, 36
Unlock error annunciator, 34
updating firmware, 38
URL
firmware, 17
transmitter tester updates, 17
V
Video key, 92
view/trace
I/Q waveforms, 104
linear spectrum and phase
graphs, 103
spectrum graph, 103
View/Trace key, 93
view/trace selection
I/Q polar graph view, 118
log envelope graph view, 116
magnitude & phase graph view,
117
Visible Align key, 79
W
waveform
advanced menu, 114
changing displays, 118
changing views, 116
view/trace selection, 116
I/Q waveform view, 119
log envelope, 111
making the measurement, 110
method, 110
next window selection, 116
resolution bandwidth, 114
results, 111
span X scale, 118
sweep time, 114, 118
using markers, 120
zoom a window, 116
Waveform (Time Domain) key,
110
waveform (time domain)
measurement, 177
waveform measurement
display, 120
I/Q Polar view, 120
website
firmware updates, 18
transmitter tester updates, 18
window
Index
Index
I/Q waveform, 93
RF envelope, 93
spectrum, 93
Window Length key, 101
Index
Z
zero span measurement, 177
Zoom, 28
197
Download PDF

advertising