Alcatel Carrier Internetworking Solutions 8008 Network Card User Manual

Part No. 060117-10, Rev. B
January 2002
OmniStack® 8008
Users Guide
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web page at www.ind.alcatel.com, call us at 1-800-995-2696, or email us at
support@ind.alcatel.com.
This Manual documents OmniStack® 8008 hardware and software.
The functionality described in this Manual is subject to change without notice.
Copyright© 2002 by Alcatel Internetworking, Inc. All rights reserved. This document may not be
reproduced in whole or in part without the express written permission of Alcatel Internetworking, Inc.
Alcatel® and the Alcatel logo are registered trademarks of Compagnie Financiére Alcatel, Paris,
France. OmniSwitch® and OmniStack® are registered trademarks of Alcatel Internetworking, Inc.
Omni Switch/Router™, SwitchExpertSM, the Xylan logo are trademarks of Alcatel Internetworking,
Inc. All other brand and product names are trademarks of their respective companies.
26801 West Agoura Road
Calabasas, CA 91301
(818) 880-3500 FAX (818) 880-3505
info@ind.alcatel.com
US Customer Support-(800) 995-2696
International Customer Support-(818) 878-4507
Internet-http://www.ind.alcatel.com
Warning
This equipment has been tested and found to comply with the limits for Class B digital
device pursuant to Part 15 of the FCC Rules. These limits are designed to provide
reasonable protection against harmful interference when the equipment is operated in a
commercial environment. This equipment generates, uses, and can radiate radio frequency energy and, if not installed and used in accordance with the instructions in this
guide, may cause interference to radio communications. Operation of this equipment in
a residential area is likely to cause interference, in which case the user will be required
to correct the interference at his own expense.
The user is cautioned that changes and modifications made to the equipment without
approval of the manufacturer could void the user’s authority to operate this equipment.
It is suggested that the user use only shielded and grounded cables to ensure compliance
with FCC Rules.
This digital apparatus does not exceed the Class B limits for radio noise emissions from
digital apparatus set out in the radio interference regulations of the Canadian department of communications.
Le present appareil numerique níemet pas de bruits radioelectriques depassant les limites applicables aux appareils numeriques de la Class B prescrites dans le reglement sur
le brouillage radioelectrique edicte par le ministere des communications du Canada.
Contents
Chapter 1: Switch Management
Configuration Options
Required Connections
Console Port (Out-of-Band) Connections
In-Band Connections
Chapter 2: Console Interface
Log-in Screen
Main Menu
System and Switch Information
Displaying System Information
Displaying Switch Version
Management Setup Menu
Changing the Network Configuration
IP Configuration
IP Connectivity Test (Ping)
HTTP Configuration
Configuring the Serial Port
Assigning SNMP Parameters
Configuring Community Names
Configuring IP Trap Managers
Console Login Configuration
Downloading System Software
Using TFTP Protocol to Download Over the Network
Saving the System Configuration
Managing the Switch
Configuring the Banner Message
Configuring the Switch
Configuring Port Parameters
Viewing the Current Port Configuration
Using the Spanning Tree Algorithm
Configuring Bridge STA
Configuring STA for Ports
Viewing the Current Spanning Tree Information
Displaying the Spanning Tree Bridge State
Displaying the Spanning Tree Port State
Using a Mirror Port for Analysis
Configuring Port Trunks
IGMP Multicast Filtering
Configuring IGMP
1-1
1-1
1-1
1-1
1-2
2-1
2-1
2-2
2-5
2-6
2-7
2-8
2-9
2-10
2-11
2-12
2-13
2-14
2-15
2-16
2-17
2-18
2-18
2-19
2-20
2-21
2-22
2-24
2-25
2-26
2-27
2-28
2-30
2-31
2-32
2-33
2-34
2-36
2-37
i
Contents
Configuring Broadcast Storm Control
Port Security Configuration
Configuring Bridge MIB Extensions
Configuring Traffic Classes
Port Priority Configuration
802.1P Port Traffic Class Information
Configuring Virtual LANs
802.1Q VLAN Base Information
802.1Q VLAN Current Table Information
802.1Q VLAN Static Table Configuration
802.1Q VLAN Port Configuration
Monitoring the Switch
Displaying Port Statistics
Displaying RMON Statistics
Displaying the Unicast Address Table
Displaying the IP Multicast Registration Table
Configuring Static Unicast Addresses
Resetting the System
Logging Off the System
Chapter 3: Web Interface
Web-Based Configuration and Monitoring
Navigating the Web Browser Interface
Home Page
Configuration Options
Panel Display
Port State Display
Configuring the Serial Port
Main Menu
System Information
Switch Information
Main Board
IP Configuration
SNMP Configuration
SNMP Community
Trap Managers
Security Configuration
Change Password
Firmware Upgrade Options
Web Upload Management
TFTP Download Management
Configuration Save and Restore
Configuration Upload Management
Configuration Download Management
Address Table Configuration
ii
2-38
2-39
2-40
2-41
2-42
2-43
2-44
2-44
2-45
2-46
2-48
2-49
2-50
2-51
2-53
2-54
2-55
2-56
2-56
3-1
3-1
3-2
3-2
3-3
3-4
3-4
3-5
3-6
3-7
3-8
3-8
3-9
3-10
3-10
3-11
3-11
3-11
3-12
3-12
3-13
3-14
3-14
3-14
3-15
Contents
STA (Spanning Tree Algorithm)
Spanning Tree Information
Spanning Tree
Ports
Spanning Tree Configuration
Switch
When the Switch Becomes Root
STA Port Configuration
Configuring Bridge MIB Extensions
Bridge Capability
Bridge Settings
Priority
Port Priority Configuration
Port Traffic Class Information
Configuring Virtual LANs
VLAN Basic Information
VLAN Current Table
VLAN Static List
VLAN Static Table
VLAN Static Membership by Port
VLAN Port Configuration
IGMP Multicast Filtering
Configuring IGMP
IP Multicast Registration Table
Port Menus
Port Information
Port Configuration
Port Broadcast Storm Protect Configuration
Port Security Configuration
Using a Port Mirror for Analysis
Port Trunk Configuration
Port Statistics
Etherlike Statistics
RMON Statistics
3-16
3-16
3-16
3-17
3-18
3-18
3-19
3-20
3-21
3-21
3-22
3-23
3-23
3-24
3-25
3-25
3-26
3-27
3-27
3-29
3-30
3-31
3-31
3-32
3-33
3-33
3-34
3-35
3-36
3-37
3-37
3-39
3-39
3-40
Chapter 4: Advanced Topics
Layer 2 Switching
Spanning Tree Algorithm
Virtual LANs
Assigning Ports to VLANs
Port Overlapping
Automatic VLAN Registration (GVRP)
Forwarding Traffic with Unknown VLAN Tags
Forwarding Tagged/Untagged Frames
Connecting VLAN Groups
4-1
4-1
4-1
4-2
4-3
4-3
4-3
4-4
4-4
4-4
iii
Contents
Multicast Filtering
IGMP Snooping
IGMP Protocol
Class-of-Service (CoS) Support
Port Trunks
SNMP Management Software
Remote Monitoring
4-5
4-5
4-5
4-6
4-6
4-6
4-7
Appendix A: Troubleshooting
Troubleshooting Chart
Upgrading Firmware via the Serial Port
A-1
A-1
A-2
Appendix B: Pin Assignments
Console Port Pin Assignments
DB-9 Port Pin Assignments
Console Port to 9-Pin COM Port on PC
Console Port to 25-Pin DTE Port on PC
B-1
B-1
B-1
B-1
B-2
Glossary
Index
iv
Chapter 1: Switch Management
Configuration Options
For advanced management capability, the onboard management agent provides a
menu-driven system configuration program. This program can be accessed by a
direct connection to the serial port on the rear panel (out-of-band), or by a Telnet
connection over the network (in-band).
The management agent is based on SNMP (Simple Network Management
Protocol). This SNMP agent permits the switch to be managed from any PC in the
network using in-band management software.
The management agent also includes an embedded HTTP Web agent. This Web
agent can be accessed using a standard Web browser from any computer attached
to the network.
The system configuration program and the SNMP agent support management
functions such as:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Enable/disable any port
Set the communication mode for any port
Configure SNMP parameters
Add ports to network VLANs
Display system information or statistics
Configure the switch to join a Spanning Tree
Download system firmware
Required Connections
Console Port (Out-of-Band) Connections
Attach a VT100 compatible terminal or a PC running a terminal emulation program
to the serial port on the switch’s rear panel. Use the null-modem cable provided with
this package, or use a null-modem connection that complies with the wiring
assignments shown in Appendix B of this guide.
When attaching to a PC, set terminal emulation type to VT100, specify the port used
by your PC (i.e., COM 1~4), and then set communications to 8 data bits, 1 stop bit,
no parity, and 9600 bps (for initial configuration). Also be sure to set flow control to
“none.” (Refer to “Configuring the Serial Port” on page 2-13 for a complete
description of configuration options.)
Note:
If the default settings for the management agent’s serial port have been
modified and you are having difficulty making a console connection, you can
display or modify the current settings using a Web browser as described under
“Configuring the Serial Port” on page 3-5.
1-1
Switch Management
In-Band Connections
Prior to accessing the switch’s onboard agent via a network connection, you must
first configure it with a valid IP address, subnet mask, and default gateway using an
out-of-band connection or the BOOTP protocol.
Note:
By default BOOTP is disabled and the IP address is set to 192.168.10.1. See
“IP Configuration” on page 2-10.
After configuring the switch’s IP parameters, you can access the onboard
configuration program from anywhere within the attached network. The onboard
configuration program can be accessed using Telnet from any computer attached to
the network. The switch can also be managed by any computer using a Web
browser (Internet Explorer 4.0 or above, or Netscape Navigator 4.0 or above), or
from a network computer using network management software.
Notes: 1. This switch supports four concurrent Telnet sessions.
2. The onboard program only provides access to basic configuration functions.
To access the full range of SNMP management functions, you must use
SNMP-based network management software.
1-2
Chapter 2: Console Interface
Log-in Screen
Once a direct connection to the serial port or a Telnet connection is established, the
log-in screen for the onboard configuration program appears as shown below.
Alcatel OmniStack 8008
Alcatel Internetworking
26801 West Agoura Road
Calabasas, CA, 91301
(818) 880-3500
Alcatel OmniStack
Copyright (c), 2000 Alcatel and its licensors.
All rights reserved.
OmniStack is a trademark of Alcatel registered in
the United States Patent and Trademark Office.
Username :
Password :
Note: A banner message may be configured to appear before the Login screen. The
banner message is a login security alert. (See “Configuring the Banner Message”
on page 2-21.)
If this is your first time to log into the configuration program, then the default user
names are “admin” and “guest,” with the password “switch.” The Administrator has
Read/Write access to all configuration parameters and statistics, while the Guest
has Read Only access to the management program.
You should define a new administrator password, record it and put it in a safe place.
Select Console Login Configuration from the Management Setup Menu and enter a
new password for the administrator. Note that passwords can consist of up to 11
alphanumeric characters and are not case sensitive.
Note: You are allowed three attempts to enter the correct password; on the third failed
attempt the current connection is terminated.
2-1
Console Interface
Main Menu
The Main Menu is the first screen seen after successfully logging into the system.
Alcatel OmniStack 8008
< Main Menu >
About this product
Management Setup Menu
Switch Configuration Menu
Network Monitor Menu
Reset System Menu
Quit Current Session
Display or change Management information.
Use <TAB> or arrow keys to move. <Enter> to select.
Selection
Description
About this product
System Information
Provides basic system description, including contact information.
Switch Information
Shows hardware/firmware version numbers and power status of the
switch.
Management Setup Menu
2-2
Network Configuration
Includes IP setup, Ping facility, HTTP (Web server) setup, Telnet
configuration, and MAC address.
Serial Port Configuration
Sets communication parameters for the serial port, including
management mode, baud rate, console time-out, and screen data
refresh interval.
SNMP Configuration
Activates traps; and configures communities and trap managers.
Console Login
Configuration
Sets user names and passwords for system access, as well as the
invalid password threshold and lockout time.
TFTP Download New
Software
Downloads new version of firmware to update your system (in-band).
Configuration Save and
Restore
Saves the switch configuratin to a file on the TFTP server. This file can
be later downloaded to restore the configuration.
Management
Configuration
Allows management access of the switch from all VLANs or only from a
specified VLAN.
Main Menu
Selection
Banner Message
Configuration
Description
Configures a login security alert message.
Switch Configuration Menu
Port Configuration
Enables any port, enables/disables flow control, and sets
communication mode to auto-negotiation, full duplex or half duplex.
Port State
Displays operational status, including link state, flow control method,
and duplex mode.
Spanning Tree
Configuration
Enables Spanning Tree Algorithm; also sets parameters for hello time,
maximum message age, switch priority, and forward delay; as well as
port priority and path cost.
Spanning Tree Information
Displays full listing of parameters for the Spanning Tree Algorithm.
Mirror Port Configuration
Sets the source and target ports for mirroring.
Port Trunking
Configuration
Specifies ports to group into aggregate trunks.
IGMP Configuration
Configures IGMP multicast filtering.
BStorm Control
Configuration
Allows you to enable/disable broadcast storm control on a per-port basis
and set the packet-per-second threshold.
Port Security Configuration
Allows you to enable and configure port security for the switch.
Extended Bridge
Configuration
Displays/configures extended bridge capabilities provided by this
switch, including support for traffic classes, GMRP* multicast filtering,
and VLAN extensions.
802.1P Configuration
Configures default port priorities and queue assignments.
802.1Q VLAN
Base Information
Displays basic VLAN information, such as VLAN version number and
maximum VLANs supported.
802.1Q VLAN Current
Table Information
Displays VLAN groups and port members.
802.1Q VLAN Static Table
Configuration
Configures VLAN groups via static assignments, including setting port
members, or restricting ports from being dynamically added to a port by
the GVRP protocol.
802.1Q VLAN
Port Configuration
Displays/configures port-specific VLAN settings, including PVID,
ingress filtering, and GVRP*.
Network Monitor Menu
Port Statistics
Displays statistics on network traffic passing through the selected port.
RMON Statistics
Displays detailed statistical information for the selected port such as
packet type and frame size counters.
Unicast Address Table
Provides full address listing, as well as search and clear functions.
2-3
Console Interface
Selection
Description
IP Multicast Registration
Table
Displays all the multicast groups active on this switch, including
multicast IP addresses and corresponding VLAN IDs.
Static Unicast Address
Table Configuration
Used to manually configure host MAC addresses in the unicast table.
Reset system menu
Restarts system with options to use POST, or to retain factory defaults,
IP settings, or user authentication settings.
Quit current session
Exits the configuration program.
* Not implemented in the current firmware release.
2-4
System and Switch Information
System and Switch Information
Use the “About this product” menu to display a basic description of the switch,
including contact information, and hardware/firmware versions.
Alcatel OmniStack 8008
< About this product >
System Information
Switch Information
<OK>
Use <TAB> or arrow keys to move. <Enter> to select.
Selection
Description
System Information
Provides basic system description, including contact information.
Switch Information
Shows hardware/firmware version numbers and power status of the switch.
2-5
Console Interface
Displaying System Information
Use the System Information screen to display descriptive information about the
switch, or for quick system identification as shown in the following figure and table.
Alcatel OmniStack 8008
< System Information >
System Description : Alcatel OmniStack 8008
System Object ID
: 1.3.6.1.4.1.800.3.1.1.13
System Up Time
: 8302069 (0 day 23 hr 3 min 40 sec)
Network Host Name
: OmniStack 8008
System Contact
:
System Location
:
<APPLY>
<OK>
<CANCEL>
Use <TAB> or arrow keys to move, other keys to make changes.
Parameter
Description
System Description
System hardware description.
System Object ID
MIB II object identifier for switch’s network management subsystem.
System Up Time
Length of time the current management agent has been running. (Note that
the first value is 1/100 seconds.)
Network Host Name*
Name assigned to the switch system.
System Contact*
Contact person for the system.
System Location*
Specifies the area or location where the system resides.
* Maximum string length is 255, but the screen only displays 45 characters. You can use the arrow keys to
browse the whole string.
2-6
System and Switch Information
Displaying Switch Version
Use the Switch Information screen to display hardware/firmware version numbers
for the switch, as well as the power status of the system.
Alcatel OmniStack 8008
< Switch Information >
Main Board
Label
P/N :
S/N :
Hardware Version
Firmware Version
POST ROM Version
Serial Number
Port Number
Internal Power Status
Redundant Power Status
Revision :
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
V3.0 (860 CPU)
V2.5
V1.02
00-00-11-11-43-21
8
Active
Inactive
<OK>
Use <TAB> or arrow keys to move. <Enter> to select.
Parameter
Description
Main Board
P/N
Part number of the main board.
S/N
Serial number of the main board.
Revision
Revision number of the main board.
Hardware Version
Hardware version of the main board.
Firmware Version
System firmware version in Flash ROM.
POST ROM Version
Power-On Self-Test version number.
Serial Number
MAC address associated with the main board.
Port Number
Number of ports on the switch.
Internal Power Status
Power status for the switch.
Redundant Power Status
Redundant power status for the switch.
2-7
Console Interface
Management Setup Menu
After initially logging onto the system, adjust the communication parameters for your
console to ensure a reliable connection (Serial Port Configuration). Specify the IP
addresses for the switch (Network Configuration / IP Configuration), and then set the
Administrator and User passwords (Console Login Configuration). Remember to
record them in a safe place. Also set the community string which controls SNMP
access to the switch via in-band management software (SNMP Configuration). The
items provided by the Management Setup Menu are described in the following
sections.
Alcatel OmniStack 8008
< Management Setup Menu >
Network Configuration
Serial Port Configuration
SNMP Configuration
Console Login Configuration
TFTP Download New Software
Configuration Save & Restore
Management Configuration
Banner Message Configuration
<OK>
Use <TAB> or arrow keys to move. <Enter> to select.
Selection
Description
Network Configuration
Includes IP setup, Ping facility, HTTP (Web server) setup, Telnet
configuration, and MAC address.
Serial Port Configuration
Sets communication parameters for the serial port, including management
mode, baud rate, console time-out, and screen data refresh interval.
SNMP Configuration
Activates traps; and configures communities and trap managers.
Console Login
Configuration
Sets user names and passwords for system access, as well as the invalid
password threshold and lockout time.
TFTP Download New
Software
Downloads new version of firmware to update your system (in-band).
Configuration Save &
Restore
Saves the switch configuration to a file on a TFTP server. This file can be later
downloaded to restore the configuration.
Management
Configuration
Allows management access of the switch from all VLANs or only from a
specified VLAN.
Banner Message
Configuration
Configures a banner message. The banner message is a login security alert
message.
2-8
Management Setup Menu
Changing the Network Configuration
Use the Network Configuration menu to set the bootup option, configure the switch’s
Internet Protocol (IP) parameters, enable the on-board Web server, or to set the
number of concurrent Telnet sessions allowed. The screen shown below is
described in the following table.
Alcatel OmniStack 8008
< Network Configuration >
IP Configuration
IP Connectivity Test(Ping)
HTTP Configuration
MAX Number of allowed Telnet sessions (1-4) : 4
Physical Address : 00-00-11-11-43-21
<APPLY>
<OK>
<CANCEL>
Use <TAB> or arrow keys to move. <Enter> to select.
Parameter
Description
IP Configuration
Screen used to set the bootup option, or configure the switch’s IP parameters.
IP Connectivity Test
Screen used to test IP connectivity to a (Ping) specified device.
HTTP Configuration
Screen used to enable the Web server.
MAX Number of Allowed
Telnet Sessions
The maximum number of Telnet sessions allowed to simultaneously access
the switch.
Physical Address
MAC address of the switch.
2-9
Console Interface
IP Configuration
Use the IP Configuration screen to set the bootup option, or configure the switch’s IP
parameters. The screen shown below is described in the following table.
Alcatel OmniStack 8008
< IP Configuration >
Interface Type : Ethernet
IP Address
: 192.168.10.1
Netmask
: 255.255.255.0
Default Gateway :
IP State
: USER-CONFIG
<APPLY>
<OK>
<CANCEL>
Use <TAB> or arrow keys to move, other keys to make changes.
Parameter
Default
Description
Interface Type
Ethernet
Indicates IP over Ethernet.
IP Address
192.168.10.1
IP address of the switch you are managing when accessing it over
the network. The switch supports SNMP over UDP/IP transport
protocol. In this environment, all systems on the Internet, such as
network interconnection devices and any PC accessing the switch
must have an IP address.
Valid IP addresses consist of four decimal numbers, of 0 to 255,
separated by periods. Anything outside of this format will not be
accepted by the configuration program.
Subnet Mask
255.255.255.0
Subnet mask of the switch. This mask identifies the host address
bits used for routing to specific subnets.
Default
Gateway
IP State
2-10
The gateway that the switch’s agent uses to pass data to the
management station. Note that the gateway must be defined if the
management station is located in a different IP segment.
USER-CONFIG
Specifies whether IP functionality is enabled via manual
configuration, or set by Boot Protocol (BootP). Options include:
USER-CONFIG -IP functionality is enabled based on the default or
user specified IP configuration.
BOOTP-GET-IP - IP is enabled but will not function until a BootP
reply has been received. BootP requests will be broadcast 10
times, once every second, in an effort to learn its IP address. If no
response is received, the switch will use the default IP setting in
NVRAM. (BootP values can include the IP address, default
gateway, and subnet mask.)
Management Setup Menu
IP Connectivity Test (Ping)
Use the IP Connectivity Test to see if another site on the Internet can be reached.
The screen shown below is described in the following table.
Alcatel OmniStack 8008
< IP Connectivity Test(Ping) >
IP Address :
Test Times : 1
Interval : 3
Success
Failure
: 0
: 0
[Start]
<OK>
Use <TAB> or arrow keys to move, other keys to make changes.
Parameter
Description
IP Address
IP address of the site you want to ping.
Test Times
The number of ICMP echo requests to send to the specified site.
Range: 1~9999
Interval
The interval (in seconds) between pinging the specified site.
Range: 1~10 seconds
Success/Failure
The number of times the specified site has responded or not to pinging.
2-11
Console Interface
HTTP Configuration
Use the HTTP Configuration screen to enable/disable the on-board Web server, and
to specify the TCP port that will provide HTTP service. The screen shown below is
described in the following table.
Alcatel OmniStack 8008
< HTTP Configuration >
HTTP Server
: ENABLED
HTTP Port Number
: 80
<APPLY>
<OK>
<CANCEL>
Use <TAB> or arrow keys to move, <Space> to scroll options.
Parameter
Description
HTTP Server
Enables/disables access to the on-board Web server.
HTTP Port Number
Specifies the TCP port that will provide HTTP service.
Range : 0~65535
Default : Port 80
(Telnet Port 23 is prohibited.)
2-12
Management Setup Menu
Configuring the Serial Port
You can access the on-board configuration program by attaching a VT100
compatible device to the switch’s serial port. (For more information on connecting to
this port, see “Required Connections” on page 1-1.) The communication parameters
for this port can be accessed from the Serial Port Configuration screen shown below
and described in the following table.
Alcatel OmniStack 8008
< Serial Port Configuration >
Management Mode
: CONSOLE MODE
Baud rate
Data bits
Stop bits
Parity
Time-Out (in minutes)
:
:
:
:
:
9600
8
1
NONE
10
<APPLY>
<OK>
<CANCEL>
Use <TAB> or arrow keys to move, <Space> to scroll options.
Parameter
Default
Description
Management Mode
Console Mode
Indicates that the console port settings are for direct
console connection.
Baud Rate
9600
The rate at which data is sent between devices.
Options : 2400, 4800, 9600, 19200 bps, and Auto
detection
Data bits
8 bits
Sets the data bits of the RS-232 port.
Options : 7, 8
Stop bits
1 bit
Sets the stop bits of the RS-232 port.
Options : 1, 2
Parity
none
Sets the parity of the RS-232 port.
Options : none/odd/even
Time-Out
10 minutes
If no input is received from the attached device after this
interval, the current session is automatically closed.
Range : 0 - 100 minutes; 0: disabled
2-13
Console Interface
Assigning SNMP Parameters
Use the SNMP Configuration screen to display and modify parameters for the
Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP). The switch includes an SNMP
agent which monitors the status of its hardware, as well as the traffic passing
through its ports. A computer attached to the network, called a Network
Management Station (NMS), can be used to access this information. Access rights
to the switch are controlled by community strings. To communicate with the switch,
the NMS must first submit a valid community string for authentication. The options
for configuring community strings and related trap functions are described in the
following sections.
Alcatel OmniStack 8008
< SNMP Configuration >
Send Authentication Fail Traps : ENABLED
SNMP Security
IP Trap Managers
<APPLY>
<OK>
<CANCEL>
Use <TAB> or arrow keys to move, <Space> to scroll options.
Parameter
Description
Send Authentication Fail
Traps
Issue a trap message to specified IP trap managers whenever authentication
of an SNMP request fails. (The default is enabled.)
SNMP Security
Assigns SNMP access based on specified strings.
IP Trap Managers
Specifies management stations that will receive authentication failure
messages or other trap messages from the switch.
2-14
Management Setup Menu
Configuring Community Names
The following figure and table describe how to configure the community strings
authorized for management access. Up to 5 community names may be entered.
Alcatel OmniStack 8008
< SNMP Security >
Community Name
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
public
private
Access
READ ONLY
READ/WRITE
Status
ENABLED
ENABLED
<APPLY>
<OK>
<CANCEL>
Use <TAB> or arrow keys to move, other keys to make changes.
Parameter
Description
Community Name
A community entry authorized for management access.
Maximum string length : 19 characters
Access
Management access is restricted to Read Only or Read/Write.
Status
Sets administrative status of entry to enabled or disabled.
Note: The default community strings are “public” with Read Only access, and “private”
with Read/Write access.
2-15
Console Interface
Configuring IP Trap Managers
The following figure and table describe how to specify management stations that will
receive authentication failure messages or other trap messages from the switch. Up
to 5 trap managers may be entered.
Alcatel OmniStack 8008
< IP Trap Managers >
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
IP Address
Community Name
10.1.0.23
public
Status
DISABLED
<APPLY>
<OK>
<CANCEL>
Use <TAB> or arrow keys to move, <Space> to scroll options.
Parameter
Description
IP Address
IP address of the trap manager.
Community Name
A community specified for trap management access.
Status
Sets administrative status of selected entry to enabled or disabled.
2-16
Management Setup Menu
Console Login Configuration
Use the Management Setup: Console Login Configuration to restrict management
access based on specified user names and passwords, or to set the invalid
password threshold and timeout. There are only two user types defined, ADMIN
(Administrator) and GUEST, but you can set up to five different user names and
passwords. Only Administrators have write access for parameters governing the
switch. You should therefore assign a user name and password to the default
Administrator as soon as possible, and store it in a safe place. (If for some reason
your password is lost, or you cannot gain access to the system configuration
program, contact Alcatel Technical Support for assistance.) The parameters shown
on this screen are indicated in the following figure and table.
Alcatel OmniStack 8008
< Console Login Configuration >
Password Threshold
: 3
Lock-out Time (in minutes) : 0
User Type
User Name
Password Confirm password
---------------------------------------------------------1. ADMIN
admin
******
******
2. GUEST
guest
3.
4.
5
<APPLY>
<OK>
<CANCEL>
Use <TAB> or arrow keys to move, other keys to make changes.
Parameter
Default
Description
Password
Threshold
3
Sets the password intrusion threshold which limits the number
of failed logon attempts. Range : 0~65535
Lock-out
Time
0
Time (in minutes) the management console will be disabled,
Range : 0~65535
Admin*
name: admin
password: switch
Administrator has access privilege of Read/Write for all
screens.
Guest*
name: user
password: switch
Guest has access privilege of Read Only for all screens.
* Passwords can consist of up to 11 alphanumeric characters and are not case sensitive.
2-17
Console Interface
Downloading System Software
Using TFTP Protocol to Download Over the Network
Use the TFTP Download menu to load software updates into the switch. The
download file should be an OmniStack 8008 file from Alcatel; otherwise the switch
will not accept it. The success of the download operation depends on the
accessibility of the TFTP server and the quality of the network connection. After
downloading the new software, the switch will automatically restart itself.
Parameters shown on this screen are indicated in the following figure and table.
Alcatel OmniStack 8008
< TFTP Download New Software >
Download Server IP :
Agent Software Upgrade
Download Filename
Download Mode
: ENABLED
:
: PERMANENT
[Process TFTP Download]
Download status : Complete
<APPLY>
<OK>
<CANCEL>
Use <TAB> or arrow keys to move, other keys to make changes.
Parameter
Description
Download Server IP
IP address of a TFTP server.
Agent Software
Upgrade
Indicates that the switch is enabled for software upgrades.
Download Filename
The binary file to download to the switch.
Download Mode
Downloads to permanent flash ROM.
[Process TFTP
Download]
Issues a request to the TFTP server to download the specified file.
Download Status
Indicates if a download is “Complete” or “In Progress.”
2-18
Management Setup Menu
Saving the System Configuration
Use the Configuration Save & Restore menu to save the switch configuration
settings to a file on a TFTP server. The file can be later downloaded to the switch to
restore the switch’s settings. The success of the operation depends on the
accessibility of the TFTP server and the quality of the network connection.
Parameters shown on this screen are indicated in the following figure and table.
Alcatel OmniStack 8008
< Configuration Upload >
Upload Server IP
Upload Filename
:
:
[Process TFTP Upload]
Upload status
: Complete
< Configuration Download >
Download Server IP
Download Filename
:
:
[Process TFTP Download]
Download status : Complete
<Apply>
<OK>
<Cancel>
Use <TAB> or arrow keys to move, other keys to make changes.
Parameter
Description
Configuration Upload
Upload Server IP
IP address of a TFTP server.
Upload Filename
The name of the file to contain the switch configuration settings.
[Process TFTP Upload]
Issues a request to upload the configuration settings to the specified file
on the TFTP server.
Upload Status
Indicates if an upload is “Complete” or “In Progress.”
Configuration Download
Download Server IP
IP address of a TFTP server.
Download Filename
The name of the file that contains the switch configuration settings you
wish to restore.
[Process TFTP Download]
Issues a request to the TFTP server to download the specified file.
Download Status
Indicates if a download is “Complete” or “In Progress.”
2-19
Console Interface
Managing the Switch
Use the Management Configuration screen to configure the management access of
the switch.
Alcatel OmniStack 8008
< Management Configuration >
Management VLAN
: ONE
VLAN
: 1
<Apply>
<Ok>
<Cancel>
Use <TAB> or arrow keys to move, <Space> to scroll options.
Parameter
Description
Management VLAN
Allows management access of the switch from all VLANs or only from a
specified VLAN. If this field is set to “ONE” then the single VLAN with
management acces must be set in the “VLAN” field.
VLAN
The ID of the only VLAN with management access to the switch when
the “Management VLAN” field is set to “ONE.”
2-20
Management Setup Menu
Configuring the Banner Message
The Banner Message is a login security alert message. It will be presented to a user
attempting to log into the switch via console or Telnet, before prompting for a user
name and password. Use the Banner Message Configuration screen to write and set
the Banner Message.
You can type, or paste, the banner message into the screen one row at a time, using
the arrow keys to move from one row to the next. For example, to paste text using
Windows HyperTerminal, select “Paste to Host” from the Edit menu in the menu bar.
Note that the maximum line length in the screen is 80 characters. The first page of a
sample Banner Message is shown below.
Alcatel OmniStack 8008
< Banner Message Configuration >
SECURITY ALERT
This is an Organization Z computer system. This computer system,
including all related equipment, networks, and network devices
(specifically including Internet access and access to restricted sites)
is provided only for authorized use. Organization Z computer systems may
be monitored for all lawful purposes, including to ensure that their use
is authorized for management of the system, to facilitate protection
against unauthorized access, and to verify security procedures,
survivability, and operational security. Monitoring includes active
attacks by authorized Organization Z entities to test or verify the
security of this system. During monitoring, information may be examined,
recorded, copied and used for authorized purposes. All information,
including personal information, placed or sent over this system may be
monitored.
Use of this Organization Z computer system, authorized or unauthorized,
constitutes consent to monitoring of this system. Unauthorized use may
subject you to criminal prosecution.
Page : 1
Total 4 Pages
<Apply>
<Ok>
<Cancel>
<Prev Page>
<Next Page>
Use <TAB> or arrow keys to move, <Space> to scroll options.
Note: After entering text, use <Apply> to confirm the text that you have entered or <OK>
to confirm the text and return to the Management Setup menu. Use <Cancel> to
cancel the text that you have just entered and return to the Management Setup
menu. Use <Prev Page> and <Next Page> to scroll through the banner message.
2-21
Console Interface
Configuring the Switch
The Switch Configuration Menu is used to control a broad range of functions,
including port configuration, Spanning Tree support for redundant switches, port
mirroring, multicast filtering, and Virtual LANs. Each of the setup screens provided
by these configuration menus is described in the following sections.
Alcatel OmniStack 8008
< Switch Configuration Menu >
Port Configuration
Port State
Spanning Tree Configuration
Spanning Tree Information
Mirror Port Configuration
Port Trunking Configuration
IGMP Configuration
BStorm Control Configuration
Port Security Configuration
Extended Bridge Configuration
802.1P Configuration
802.1Q VLAN Base Information
802.1Q VLAN Current Table Information
802.1Q VLAN Static Table Configuration
802.1Q VLAN Port Configuration
Port GARP Configuration
Port GMRP Configuration
<OK>
Use <TAB> or arrow keys to move. <Enter> to select.
Selection
Description
Port Configuration
Sets communication parameters for ports.
Port State
Displays current port settings and port status.
Spanning Tree
Configuration
Configures the switch and its ports to participate in a local Spanning Tree.
Spanning Tree
Information
Displays the current Spanning Tree configuration for the switch and its ports.
Mirror Port
Configuration
Sets the source and target ports for mirroring.
Port Trunking
Configuration
Specifies ports to group into aggregate trunks.
IGMP Configuration
Configures IGMP multicast filtering.
BStorm Control
Configuration
Allows you to enable/disable broadcast storm control on a per-port basis and
set the packet-per-second threshold.
Port Security
Configuration
Allows you to enable and configure port security for the switch.
2-22
Configuring the Switch
Selection
Description
Extended Bridge
Configuration
Displays/configures extended bridge capabilities provided by this switch,
including support for traffic classes, and VLAN extensions.
802.1P Configuration
Configures default port priorities and queue assignments.
802.1Q VLAN
Base Information
Displays basic VLAN information, such as VLAN version number and
maximum VLANs supported.
802.1Q VLAN Current
Table Information
Displays VLAN groups and port members.
802.1Q VLAN Static
Table Configuration
Configures VLAN groups via static assignments, including setting port
members, or restricting ports from being dynamically added to a port by the
GVRP protocol.
802.1Q VLAN Port
Configuration
Displays/configures port-specific VLAN settings, including PVID, ingress
filtering, and GVRP.
Port GARP
Configuration*
Configures generic attribute settings used in the Spanning Tree Algorithm,
VLAN registration, and multicast filtering.
Port GMRP
Configuration*
Configures GMRP multicast filtering.
* Not implemented in the current firmware release.
2-23
Console Interface
Configuring Port Parameters
Use the Port Configuration menus to set or display communication parameters for
any port on the switch.
Alcatel OmniStack 8008
< Port Configuration >
Flow Control mode of all ports : [Enable]
[Disable]
Port
Type
Admin
Flow Control
Speed and Duplex
------------------------------------------------------------------1
1000SX
ENABLED
DISABLED
AUTO
2
1000SX
ENABLED
DISABLED
1000_FULL
3
1000SX
ENABLED
DISABLED
AUTO
4
1000SX
ENABLED
DISABLED
AUTO
5
1000SX
ENABLED
DISABLED
AUTO
6
1000SX
ENABLED
DISABLED
AUTO
7
1000SX
ENABLED
DISABLED
AUTO
8
1000SX
ENABLED
DISABLED
AUTO
<APPLY>
<OK>
<CANCEL>
Use <TAB> or arrow keys to move. <Enter> to select
Parameter
Default
Description
Flow Control mode of all
ports
DISABLED
Allows you to enable or disable flow control for all ports
on the switch.
Type
Shows port type as 1000SX (1000BASE-SX)
Admin
ENABLED
Allows you to disable a port due to abnormal behavior
(e.g., excessive collisions), and then re-enable it after
the problem has been resolved. You may also disable a
port for security reasons.
Flow Control
DISABLED
Used to enable or disable flow control. Flow control can
eliminate frame loss by “blocking” traffic from end
stations or segments connected directly to the switch
when its buffers fill. Back pressure is used for half
duplex and IEEE 802.3x for full duplex.
Speed and Duplex
AUTO
Used to set the current port speed, duplex mode, and
auto-negotiation.
Note: If you experience problems establishing a port link using auto-negotiation, try
forcing the setting of the port to 1000_FULL or 1000_HALF.
2-24
Configuring the Switch
Viewing the Current Port Configuration
The Port State screen displays the port type, status, link state, and flow control in
use, as well as the communication speed and duplex mode. To change any of the
port settings, use the Port Configuration menu.
Alcatel OmniStack 8008
< Port State >
Port
Type
Operational Link
FlowControl Speed and
InUse
Duplex InUse
------------------------------------------------------------1. 1000SX
YES
UP
NONE
1000-FULL
2. 1000SX
YES
UP
NONE
1000-FULL
3. 1000SX
YES
UP
NONE
1000-FULL
4. 1000SX
YES
UP
NONE
1000-FULL
5. 1000SX
YES
UP
NONE
1000-FULL
6. 1000SX
YES
UP
NONE
1000-FULL
7. 1000SX
YES
UP
NONE
1000-FULL
8. 1000SX
YES
UP
NONE
1000-FULL
<OK>
Use <TAB> or arrow keys to move. <Enter> to select.
Parameter
Description
Type
Shows port type as 1000SX (1000BASE-SX).
Operational
Shows if the port is functioning or not.
Link
Indicates if the port has a valid connection to an external device.
FlowControl InUse
Shows the flow control type in use. Flow control can eliminate frame loss by
“blocking” traffic from end stations connected directly to the switch. Back
pressure is used for half duplex and IEEE 802.3x for full duplex.
Speed and Duplex
InUse
Displays the current port speed and duplex mode used.
2-25
Console Interface
Using the Spanning Tree Algorithm
The Spanning Tree Algorithm can be used to detect and disable network loops, and
to provide backup links between switches, bridges or routers. This allows the switch
to interact with other bridging devices (that is, an STA-compliant switch, bridge or
router) in your network to ensure that only one route exists between any two stations
on the network. For a more detailed description of how to use this algorithm, refer to
“Spanning Tree Algorithm” on page 4-1.
Alcatel OmniStack 8008
< Spanning Tree Configuration Menu >
Spanning Tree Bridge Configuration
Spanning Tree Port Configuration
<OK>
Use <TAB> or arrow keys to move. <Enter> to select.
2-26
Configuring the Switch
Configuring Bridge STA
The following figure and table describe Bridge STA configuration.
Alcatel OmniStack 8008
< Spanning Tree Bridge Configuration >
Spanning Tree Protocol
: On
Bridge Priority
: 32768
Hello Time (in seconds)
: 2
Max Age (in seconds)
: 20
Forward Delay (in seconds) : 15
<APPLY>
<OK>
<CANCEL>
Use <TAB> or arrow keys to move, <Space> to scroll options.
Parameter
Default
Description
Spanning Tree Protocol
On
Enable this parameter to participate in an STA-compliant
network.
Priority
32,768
Device priority is used in selecting the root device, root
port, and designated port. The device with the highest
priority becomes the STA root device. However, if all
devices have the same priority, the device with the
lowest MAC address will then become the root device.
Enter a value from 0 - 65535.
Remember that the lower the numeric value, the higher
the priority.
Hello Time
2
Time interval (in seconds) at which the root device
transmits a configuration message.
The minimum value is1.
The maximum value is
the lower of 10 or [(Max. Message Age / 2) -1].
2-27
Console Interface
Parameter
Default
Description
Max (Message) Age
20
The maximum time (in seconds) a device can wait
without receiving a configuration message before
attempting to reconfigure. All device ports (except for
designated ports) should receive configuration
messages at regular intervals. Any port that ages out
STA information (provided in the last configuration
message) becomes the designated port for the attached
LAN. If it is a root port, a new root port is selected from
among the device ports attached to the network.
The minimum value is
the higher of 6 or [2 x (Hello Time + 1)].
The maximum value is
the lower of 40 or [2 x (Forward Delay - 1)].
Forward Delay
15
The maximum time (in seconds) the root device will wait
before changing states (i.e., listening to learning to
forwarding). This delay is required because every device
must receive information about topology changes before
it starts to forward frames. In addition, each port needs
time to listen for conflicting information that would make
it return to a blocking state; otherwise, temporary data
loops might result.
The maximum value is 30.
The minimum value is
the higher of 4 or [(Max. Message Age / 2) + 1].
Configuring STA for Ports
The following figure and table describe STA configuration for ports.
Alcatel OmniStack 8008
< Spanning Tree Port Configuration >
Fast forwarding mode of all ports : [Enable]
[Disable]
Port
Type
Priority
Cost
FastForwarding
------------------------------------------------------1
1000SX
128
4
ENABLED
2
1000SX
128
4
ENABLED
3
1000SX
128
4
ENABLED
4
1000SX
128
4
ENABLED
5
1000SX
128
4
ENABLED
6
1000SX
128
4
ENABLED
7
1000SX
128
4
ENABLED
8
1000SX
128
4
ENABLED
<APPLY>
<OK>
<CANCEL>
Use <TAB> or arrow keys to move. <Enter> to select
2-28
Configuring the Switch
Parameter
Default
Description
Fast forwarding mode of
all ports
ENABLED
Allows you to enable or disable fast forwarding for all
ports on the switch.
Type
Priority
(Path) Cost
FastForwarding
Shows the port type as 1000SX (1000Base-SX).
128
Defines the priority for the use of a port in the STA
algorithm. If the path cost for all ports on a switch are the
same, the port with the highest priority (i.e., lowest
value) will be configured as an active link in the spanning
tree. When more than one port is assigned the highest
priority, the port with lowest numeric identifier will be
enabled.
The range is 0 - 255.
100/19/4
This parameter is used by the STA algorithm to
determine the best path between devices. Therefore,
lower values should be assigned to ports attached to
faster media, and higher values assigned to ports with
slower media.
(Path cost takes precedence over port priority.)
The default and recommended range is:
Ethernet: 100 (50~600)
Fast Ethernet: 19 (10~60)
Gigabit Ethernet: 4 (3~10)
The full range is 0 - 65535.
ENABLED
This parameter is used to enable/disable the Fast
Spanning Tree mode for the port. In this mode, ports
skip the Blocked, Listening and Learning states and
proceed straight to Forwarding.
FastForwarding enables end-node workstations and
servers to overcome time-out problems when the
Spanning Tree Algorithm is implemented in a network.
Therefore, FastForwarding should only be enabled for
ports that are connected to an end-node device.
2-29
Console Interface
Viewing the Current Spanning Tree Information
The Spanning Tree Information screen displays a summary of the STA information
for the overall bridge or for a specific port. To make any changes to the parameters
for the Spanning Tree, use the Spanning Tree Configuration menu.
Alcatel OmniStack 8008
< Spanning Tree Information Menu >
Spanning Tree Bridge State
Spanning Tree Port State
<OK>
Use <TAB> or arrow keys to move. <Enter> to select.
2-30
Configuring the Switch
Displaying the Spanning Tree Bridge State
The parameters shown in the following figure and table describe the current Bridge
STA Information.
Alcatel OmniStack 8008
< Spanning Tree Bridge State >
Bridge Priority
: 32768
Hello Time (in seconds)
: 2
Max Age (in seconds)
: 20
Forward Delay (in seconds) : 5
Hold Time (in seconds)
: 1
Designated Root
: 128.0000E800E800
Root Cost
: 4
Root Port
: 8
Configuration Changes
: 152
Topology Up Time
: 112844 (0 day 0 hr 18 min 48 sec)
<OK>
<Enter> to select.
Parameter
Description
Priority
Device priority is used in selecting the root device, root port, and designated
port. The device with the highest priority becomes the STA root device.
However, if all devices have the same priority, the device with the lowest MAC
address will then become the root device.
Hello Time
The time interval (in seconds) at which the root device transmits a
configuration message.
Max Age
The maximum time (in seconds) a device can wait without receiving a
configuration message before attempting to reconfigure.
Forward Delay
The maximum time (in seconds) the root device will wait before changing
states (i.e., listening to learning to forwarding).
Hold Time
The minimum interval between the transmission of consecutive Configuration
BPDUs.
Designated Root
The priority and MAC address of the device in the spanning tree that this
switch has accepted as the root device.
Root Cost
The path cost from the root port on this switch to the root device.
Root Port
The number of the port on this switch that is closest to the root. This switch
communicates with the root device through this port. If there is no root port,
then this switch has been accepted as the root device of the spanning tree
network.
Configuration Changes
The number of times the spanning tree has been reconfigured.
Topology Up Time
The time since the spanning tree was last reconfigured.
2-31
Console Interface
Displaying the Spanning Tree Port State
The parameters shown in the following figure and table are for port STA Information.
Alcatel OmniStack 8008
< Spanning Tree Port State >
Port
Type
Status
Designated
Designated
Designated
Cost
Bridge
Port
---------------------------------------------------------------------1
1000SX
NO LINK
4
32768.0010B54C1EB6
128.1
2
1000SX
NO LINK
4
32768.0010B54C1EB6
128.2
3
1000SX
NO LINK
4
32768.0010B54C1EB6
128.3
4
1000SX
NO LINK
4
32768.0010B54C1EB6
128.4
5
1000SX
NO LINK
4
32768.0010B54C1EB6
128.5
6
1000SX
NO LINK
4
32768.0010B54C1EB6
128.6
7
1000SX
NO LINK
4
32768.0010B54C1EB6
128.7
8
1000SX
NO LINK
4
32768.0010B54C1EB6
128.8
<Ok>
Use <TAB> or arrow keys to move. <Enter> to select.
Parameter
Description
Type
Shows port type as 1000SX (1000BASE-SX).
Status
Displays the current state of this port within the spanning tree:
Disabled
No Link
Blocking
Port has been disabled by the user or has failed diagnostics.
There is no valid link on the port.
Port receives STA configuration messages, but does not forward
packets.
Listening Port will leave blocking state due to topology change, starts
transmitting configuration messages, but does not yet forward packets.
Learning
Has transmitted configuration messages for an interval set by the
Forward Delay parameter without receiving contradictory information.
Port address table is cleared, and the port begins learning addresses.
Forwarding The port forwards packets, and continues learning addresses.
The rules defining port status are:
•
•
•
A port on a network segment with no other STA-compliant bridging device is
always forwarding.
If two ports of a switch are connected to the same segment and there is no other
STA device attached to this segment, the port with the smaller ID forwards
packets and the other is blocked.
All ports are blocked when the switch is booted, then some of them change state
to listening, to learning, and then to forwarding.
Designated Cost
The cost for a packet to travel from this port to the root in the current spanning tree
configuration. The slower the media, the higher the cost.
Designated
Bridge (ID)
The priority and MAC address of the device through which this port must
communicate to reach the root of the spanning tree.
Designated Port
(ID)
The priority and number of the port on the designated bridging device through which
this switch must communicate with the root of the spanning tree.
2-32
Configuring the Switch
Using a Mirror Port for Analysis
You can mirror traffic from any source port to a target port for real-time analysis. You
can then attach a network sniffer or RMON probe to the target port and study the
traffic crossing the source port in a completely unobtrusive manner. When mirroring
port traffic, note that the target port must be configured in the same VLAN as the
source port (see “Configuring Virtual LANs” on page 2-44).
You can use the Mirror Port Configuration screen to designate a single port pair for
mirroring as shown below:
Alcatel OmniStack 8008
< Mirror Port Configuration >
Mirror Source Port : Port 1
Mirror Target Port : Port 2
Status
: DISABLED
<APPLY>
<OK>
<CANCEL>
Use <TAB> or arrow keys to move, other keys to make changes.
Parameter
Description
Mirror Source Port
The port whose traffic will be monitored.
Mirror Target Port
The port that will duplicate or “mirror” all the traffic happening on the
monitored port.
Status
Enables or disables the mirror function.
2-33
Console Interface
Configuring Port Trunks
Port trunks can be used to increase the bandwidth of a network connection or to
ensure fault recovery. You can configure up to four trunk connections (combining
2~4 ports into a fat pipe) between any two OmniStack 8008 switches. However,
before making any physical connections between devices, use the Trunk
Configuration menu to specify the trunk on the devices at both ends. When using a
port trunk, note that:
• Ports can only be assigned to one trunk.
• The ports at both ends of a connection must be configured as trunk ports.
• The ports at both ends of a trunk must be configured in an identical manner,
including duplex mode, and VLAN assignments.
• None of the ports in a trunk can be configured as a mirror source port or mirror
target port.
• All the ports in a trunk have to be treated as a whole when moved from/to, added
or deleted from a VLAN.
• The Spanning Tree Algorithm will treat all the ports in a trunk as a whole.
• Enable the trunk prior to connecting any cable between the switches to avoid
creating a loop.
• Disconnect all trunk port cables or disable the trunk ports before removing a port
trunk to avoid creating a loop.
2-34
Configuring the Switch
You can use the Port Trunking Configuration screen to set up port trunks as shown
below. Remember that you must “Enable” a new configuration before it will take effect.
Alcatel OmniStack 8008
< Port Trunking Configuration >
Trunk ID
Status
Member List
1
2
3
4
--------- -------- ----------- ----------- ----------- ------------------Port : -Port : -Port : -Port : --
--
--------
Port : --
Port : --
Port : --
Port : --
--
--------
Port : --
Port : --
Port : --
Port : --
Trunk ID : 1
[Show]
[Enable]
Trunk ID : 1
[More]
[Disable]
[Add]
Member Port : 1
[Delete]
<OK>
Use <TAB> or arrow keys to move, other keys to make changes.
Parameter
Description
Trunk ID
Configure up to four trunks per switch (ID of 1~4).
Port
Select from 2~4 ports per trunk.
[Show]
Displays trunk settings, where the first trunk listed is specified by “Sorted by
Trunk ID.”
[More]
Scrolls through the list of configured trunks.
[Enable] [Disable]
Enables/disables the selected trunk.
2-35
Console Interface
IGMP Multicast Filtering
Multicasting is used to support real-time applications such as video conferencing or
streaming audio. A multicast server does not have to establish a separate
connection with each client. It merely broadcasts its service to the network, and any
hosts which want to receive the multicast register with their local multicast switch/
router. Although this approach reduces the network overhead required by a
multicast server, the broadcast traffic must be carefully pruned at every multicast
switch/router it passes through to ensure that traffic is only passed on the hosts
which subscribed to this service.
This switch uses IGMP (Internet Group Management Protocol) to query for any
attached hosts who want to receive a specific multicast service. The switch looks up
the IP Multicast Group used for this service and adds any port which received a
similar request to that group. It then propagates the service request on to any
neighboring multicast switch/router to ensure that it will continue to receive the
multicast service. (For more information, see “IGMP Snooping” on page 4-5.)
2-36
Configuring the Switch
Configuring IGMP
This protocol allows a host to inform its local switch/router that it wants to receive
transmissions addressed to a specific multicast group. You can use the IGMP
Configuration screen to configure multicast filtering shown below:
Alcatel OmniStack 8008
< IGMP Configuration >
IGMP Status
: DISABLED
IGMP Query Count
: 2
IGMP Report Delay (Seconds) : 10
<APPLY>
<OK>
<CANCEL>
Use <TAB> or arrow keys to move, <Space> to scroll options.
Parameter
Description
IGMP Status
If enabled, the switch will monitor network traffic to determine which hosts
want to receive multicast traffic.
IGMP Query Count
The maximum number of queries issued for which there has been no
response before the switch takes action to solicit reports.
IGMP Report Delay
The time (in seconds) between receiving an IGMP Report for an IP multicast
address on a port before the switch sends an IGMP Query out of that port and
removes the entry from its list.
Note: The default values are indicated in the sample screen.
2-37
Console Interface
Configuring Broadcast Storm Control
Use the Broadcast Storm Control Configuration screen to enable broadcast storm
control for any port on the switch, as shown below.
Alcatel OmniStack 8008
< Broadcast Storm Control Configuration >
Broadcast control on all ports :
[Enable]
[Disable]
Port
Threshold
Broadcast Control
------------------------------------------------------1
500
ENABLED
2
500
ENABLED
3
500
ENABLED
4
500
ENABLED
5
500
ENABLED
6
500
ENABLED
7
500
ENABLED
8
500
ENABLED
<Apply>
<OK>
<Cancel>
Use <TAB> or arrow keys to move. <Enter> to select
Parameter
Description
Broadcast control on all ports Allows you to enable/disable broadcast storm control for all ports on the switch.
Threshold
The packet-per-second threshold for broadcast packets on the port.
(Default is 500 pps.)
Broadcast Control
Enables/disables broadcast control for the port. When enabled, the switch will
employ a broadcast-control mechanism if the packet-per-second threshold is
exceeded. This mechanism limits the amount of broadcasts passed by the port
to half of the received packet-per-second count. The control mechanism
remains in effect until the number of received broadcasts falls back below the
packet-per-second threshold. (Default is Enabled.)
2-38
Configuring the Switch
Port Security Configuration
Use the Port Security Configuration screen to enable and configure port security for
the switch. Port Security allows you to configure each port with a list of MAC
addresses of devices that are authorized to access the network through that port.
Alcatel OmniStack 8008
< Port Security Configuration >
MAC Address
MAC Address
--------------------------------------------------
Secure address count : 0
Port : 1
[Show]
Mode:DISABLE
[More]
[Apply]
MAC : 00-00-00-00-00-00
[Add] [Delete]
[Clear]
<OK>
Use <TAB> or arrow keys to move. <Enter> to select
Parameter
Description
MAC Address
A list of the authorized MAC addresses that can access the network
through the specified port.
Secure address count
The number of authorized MAC addresses for the specified port.
Port
Numeric identifier for switch port.
[Show]
Displays authorized MAC addresses for the specified port.
[More]
Displays more MAC addresses for the port.
Mode
Port security can be set to three states; Static, Disable, or Learning. When
set to Static, the switch will drop packets from the port if the source MAC
address does not match one of the addresses in the MAC Address list. If
set to Learning, the switch will add the source MAC address of all packets
received on the port to the authorized MAC Address list.
[Apply]
Applies a change of Mode to the port.
MAC
A specific MAC address to be added or deleted from the list.
[Add]
Adds a new MAC address to the current list.
[Delete]
Removes a MAC address from the current list.
[Clear]
Clears all the MAC addresses for the current port.
2-39
Console Interface
Configuring Bridge MIB Extensions
The Bridge MIB includes extensions for managed devices that support Traffic
Classes, Multicast Filtering and Virtual LANs. To configure these extensions, use the
Extended Bridge Configuration screen as shown below:
Alcatel OmniStack 8008
< Extended Bridge Configuration >
Bridge Capability : (Read Only)
Extended Multicast Filtering Services : NO
Traffic Classes
: YES
Static Entry Individual Port
: YES
VLAN Learning
: IVL
Configurable PVID Tagging
: YES
Local VLAN Capable
: NO
Bridge Settings :
Traffic Classes
GMRP
GVRP
: TRUE
: DISABLED
: DISABLED
<APPLY>
<OK>
<CANCEL>
Use <TAB> or arrow keys to move, <Space> to scroll options.
Parameter
Description
Bridge Capability
Extended Multicast
Filtering Services
Indicates that the switch does not support the filtering of individual multicast
addresses based on GMRP (GARP Multicast Registration Protocol). Note
that this function is not implemented for the current firmware release.
Traffic Classes
Indicates that the switch provides mapping of user priorities to multiple traffic
classes. (Refer to 802.1P Configuration.)
Static Entry Individual
Port
Indicates that the switch allows static filtering for unicast and multicast
addresses. (Refer to Network Monitor Menu / Static Unicast Address Table
Configuration and Static Multicast Address Table Configuration.)
VLAN Learning
This switch uses Independent VLAN Learning (IVL), whereby each port
maintains its own VLAN filtering database.
Configurable
PVID Tagging
Indicates that the switch allows you to override the default PVID setting (Port
VLAN ID used in frame tags) and its egress status (VLAN-Tagged or
Untagged) on each port. (Refer to 802.1Q VLAN Port Configuration.)
Local VLAN Capable
This switch does not support multiple local bridges (that is, multiple Spanning
Trees).
2-40
Configuring the Switch
Parameter
Description
Bridge Settings
Traffic Class*
Multiple traffic classes are supported by this switch as indicated under Bridge
Capabilities. However, you can disable this function by setting this parameter
to False.
GMRP*
GARP Multicast Registration Protocol (GMRP) allows network devices to
register endstations with multicast groups.
The Internet Group Management Protocol (IGMP) is currently used by this
switch to provide automatic multicast filtering.
GVRP*
GARP VLAN Registration Protocol (GVRP) defines a way for switches to
exchange VLAN information in order to register necessary VLAN members on
ports across the network. This function should be enabled to permit VLANs
groups which extend beyond the local switch.
* Not implemented in the current firmware release.
Configuring Traffic Classes
IEEE 802.1p defines up to 8 separate traffic classes. This switch supports Quality of
Service (QoS) by using two priority queues, with Weighted Fair Queuing for each
port. You can use the 802.1P Configuration menu to configure the default priority for
each port, or to display the mapping for the traffic classes as described in the
following sections.
Alcatel OmniStack 8008
< 802.1P Configuration >
802.1P Port Priority Configuration
802.1P Port Traffic Class Information
<Ok>
Use <TAB> or arrow keys to move. <Enter> to select.
2-41
Console Interface
Port Priority Configuration
The default priority for all ingress ports is zero. Therefore, any inbound frames that
do not have priority tags will be placed in the low priority output queue. Default
priority is only used to determine the output queue for the current port; no priority tag
is actually added to the frame. You can use the 802.1P Port Priority Configuration
menu to adjust default priority for any port as shown below:
Alcatel OmniStack 8008
< 802.1P Port Priority Configuration >
Port
Default Ingress
Number of Egress
User Priority
Traffic Class
----------------------------------------------1
0
2
2
0
2
3
0
2
4
0
2
5
0
2
6
0
2
7
0
2
8
0
2
<APPLY>
<OK>
<CANCEL>
Use <TAB> or arrow keys to move, other keys to make changes.
Parameter
Description
Port
Numeric identifier for switch port.
Default Ingress User
Priority
Default priority can be set to any value from 0~7, where 0~3 specifies the low
priority queue and 4~7 specifies the high priority queue.
Number of Egress
Traffic Classes
Indicates that this switch supports two priority output queues.
2-42
Configuring the Switch
802.1P Port Traffic Class Information
This switch provides two priority levels with weighted fair queuing for port egress.
This means that any frames with a default or user priority from 0~3 are sent to the
low priority queue “0” while those from 4~7 are sent to the high priority queue “1” as
shown in the following screen:
Alcatel OmniStack 8008
< 802.1P Port Traffic Class Information >
Port
User Priority
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
----------------------------------------------------1
0
0
0
0
1
1
1
1
2
0
0
0
0
1
1
1
1
3
0
0
0
0
1
1
1
1
4
0
0
0
0
1
1
1
1
5
0
0
0
0
1
1
1
1
6
0
0
0
0
1
1
1
1
7
0
0
0
0
1
1
1
1
8
0
0
0
0
1
1
1
1
<OK>
Use <TAB> or arrow keys to move. <Enter> to select.
Parameter
Description
Port
Numeric identifier for switch port.
User Priority
Shows that user priorities 0~3 specify the low priority queue and 4~7 specify
the high priority queue.
2-43
Console Interface
Configuring Virtual LANs
You can use the VLAN configuration menu to assign any port on the switch to any of
up to 256 LAN groups. In conventional networks with routers, broadcast traffic is
split up into separate domains. Switches do not inherently support broadcast
domains. This can lead to broadcast storms in large networks that handle a lot of
IPX and NetBEUI traffic. By using IEEE 802.1Q compliant VLANs and GARP VLAN
Registration Protocol, you can organize any group of network nodes into separate
broadcast domains, confining broadcast traffic to the originating group. This also
provides a more secure and cleaner network environment. For more information on
how to use VLANs, see “Virtual LANs” on page 4-2. The VLAN configuration
screens are described in the following sections.
802.1Q VLAN Base Information
The 802.1Q VLAN Base Information screen displays basic information on the VLAN
type supported by this switch.
Alcatel OmniStack 8008
< 802.1Q VLAN Base Information >
VLAN Version Number
: 1
MAX VLAN ID
: 2048
MAX Supported VLANs
: 256
Current Number of 802.1Q VLANs Configured : 1
<OK>
<Enter> to select.
Parameter
Description
VLAN Version Number
The VLAN version used by this switch as specified in the IEEE 802.1Q
standard.
MAX VLAN ID
Maximum VLAN ID recognized by this switch.
MAX Supported VLANs
Maximum number of VLANs that can be configured on this switch.
Current Number of
VLANs Configured
The number of VLANs currently configured on this switch.
Note: All ports are assigned only to VLAN 1 by default.
2-44
Configuring the Switch
802.1Q VLAN Current Table Information
This screen shows the current port members of each VLAN and whether or not the
port supports VLAN tagging. Ports assigned to a large VLAN group that crosses
several switches should use VLAN tagging. However, if you just want to create a
small port-based VLAN for one or two switches, you can assign ports to the same
untagged VLAN (page 2-48). The current configuration is shown in the following
figure.
Alcatel OmniStack 8008
< 802.1Q VLAN Current Table Information >
Deleted VLAN Entry Counts : 0
VID
Creation Time
Status
---------------------------------------------------------------1
0 (0 day 0 hr 0 min 0 sec)
Permanent
Current Egress Ports
11111111
Sorted by VID : 1
[Show]
Port 1
Current Untagged Ports
11111111
Port 8
[More]
<OK>
Use <TAB> or arrow keys to move. <Enter> to select
Parameter
Description
Deleted VLAN Entry Counts
The number of times a VLAN entry has been deleted from this table.
VID
The ID for the VLAN currently displayed.
Creation Time
The value of sysUpTime (System Up Time) when this VLAN was created.
Status
Shows how this VLAN was added to the switch:
Dynamic GVRP: Automatically learned via GVRP.
Permanent:
Added as a static entry.
Current Egress Ports
Shows the ports which have been added to the displayed VLAN group,
where “1” indicates that a port is a member and “0” that it is not.
Current Untagged Ports
If a port has been added to the displayed VLAN (see Current Egress
Ports), its entry in this field will be “1” if the port is untagged or “0” if tagged.
[Show]
Displays the members for the VLAN indicated by the “Sorted by VID” field.
[More]
Displays any subsequent VLANs if configured.
2-45
Console Interface
802.1Q VLAN Static Table Configuration
Use this screen to create a new VLAN or modify the settings for an existing VLAN.
You can add/delete port members for a VLAN, or prevent a port from being
automatically added to a VLAN via the GVRP protocol. (Also, note that all ports can
only belong to one untagged VLAN. This is set to VLAN 1 by default, but can be
changed via the 802.1Q VLAN Port Configuration screen on page 2-48.)
Alcatel OmniStack 8008
< 802.1Q VLAN Static Table Configuration >
VID
VLAN Name
Status
-----------------------------1
Active
Egress Ports
11111111
Untagged Ports
11111111
Forbidden Egress Ports
00000000
VID : 1
[Show]
[More]
[New]
<APPLY>
<OK>
<CANCEL>
Use <TAB> or arrow keys to move, other keys to make changes.
Parameter
Description
VID
The ID for the VLAN currently displayed.
Range: 1-2048
VLAN Name
A user-specified symbolic name for this VLAN.
String length: Up to 8 alphanumeric characters
Status
Sets the current editing status for this VLAN as:
Not in Service, Destroy, or Active.
Egress Ports
Set the entry for any port in this field to “1” to add it to the displayed VLAN, or
“0” to remove it from the VLAN.
Forbidden Egress Ports
Prevents a port from being automatically added to this VLAN via GVRP.
Untagged Ports
Set the entry for any port in this field to “1” to add it to the displayed VLAN as
an untagged port.
[Show]
Displays settings for the specified VLAN.
[More]
Displays consecutively numbered VLANs.
[New]
Sets up the screen for configuring a new VLAN.
Note: No VLANs are statically configured by default.
2-46
Configuring the Switch
For example, the following screen displays settings for VLAN 2, which includes
tagged ports 1-4, and forbidden port 8.
Alcatel OmniStack 8008
< 802.1Q VLAN Static Table Configuration >
VID
VLAN Name
Status
-----------------------------2
Active
Egress Ports
11110000
Untagged Ports
00000000
Forbidden Egress Ports
00000001
VID : 2
[Show]
[More]
[New]
<APPLY>
<OK>
<CANCEL>
Use <TAB> or arrow keys to move, other keys to make changes.
2-47
Console Interface
802.1Q VLAN Port Configuration
Use this screen to configure port-specific settings for IEEE 802.1Q VLAN features.
Alcatel OmniStack 8008
< 802.1Q VLAN Port Configuration >
Port
PVID
Acceptable
Ingress
GVRP
GVRP Failed
GVRP Last
Frame Type
Filtering Status Registrations
PDU Origin
-------------------------------------------------------------------------1
1
All
FALSE
DISABLED
0
00-00-00-00-00-00
2
1
All
FALSE
DISABLED
0
00-00-00-00-00-00
3
1
All
FALSE
DISABLED
0
00-00-00-00-00-00
4
1
All
FALSE
DISABLED
0
00-00-00-00-00-00
5
1
All
FALSE
DISABLED
0
00-00-00-00-00-00
6
1
All
FALSE
DISABLED
0
00-00-00-00-00-00
7
1
All
FALSE
DISABLED
0
00-00-00-00-00-00
8
1
All
FALSE
DISABLED
0
00-00-00-00-00-00
<APPLY>
<OK>
<CANCEL>
Use <TAB> or arrow keys to move, other keys to make changes.
Parameter
Description
PVID
The VLAN ID assigned to untagged frames received on this port. Use the
PVID to assign ports to the same untagged VLAN.
Acceptable Frame
Type1
This switch accepts “All” frame types, including VLAN tagged or VLAN
untagged frames. Note that all VLAN untagged frames received on this port
are assigned to the PVID for this port.
Ingress Filtering1
If set to “True,” incoming frames for VLANs which do not include this port in
their member set will be discarded at the inbound port.
GVRP Status2
Enables or disables GVRP for this port. When disabled, any GVRP packets
received on this port will be discarded and no GVRP registrations will be
propagated from other ports.
Note that GVRP must be enabled for the switch before this setting can take
effect. (See Switch Configuration Menu / Extended Bridge Configuration.)
GVRP Failed
Registrations2
The total number of failed GVRP registrations, for any reason, on this port.
GVRP Last PDU Origin2
The Source MAC Address of the last GVRP message received on this port.
1. This control does not affect VLAN independent BPDU frames, such as GVRP or STP. However, it does
affect VLAN dependent BPDU frames, such as GMRP.
2. GVRP is not available for the current firmware release.
2-48
Monitoring the Switch
Monitoring the Switch
The Network Monitor Menu provides access to port statistics, RMON statistics, IP
multicast addresses, and the static (unicast) address table. Each of the screens
provided by these menus is described in the following sections.
Alcatel OmniStack 8008
< Network Monitor Menu >
Port Statistics
RMON Statistics
Unicast Address Table
Multicast Address Registration Table
IP Multicast Registration Table
Static Unicast Address Table Configuration
Static Multicast Address Table Configuration
<OK>
Use <TAB> or arrow keys to move. <Enter> to select.
Parameter
Description
Port Statistics
Displays statistics on network traffic passing through the selected port.
RMON Statistics
Displays detailed statistical information for the selected port such as packet
type and frame size counters.
Unicast
Address Table
Provides full listing of all unicast addresses stored in the switch, as well as
sort, search and clear functions.
Multicast Address
Registration Table*
Displays the ports that belong to each GMRP Muticast group.
IP Multicast Registration
Table
Displays the ports that belong to each IP Muticast group.
Static Unicast Address
Table Configuration
Allows you to display or configure static unicast addresses.
Static Multicast Address
Table Configuration*
Allows you to display or configure static GMRP multicast addresses.
* Not implemented in the current firmware release.
2-49
Console Interface
Displaying Port Statistics
Port Statistics display key statistics from the Ethernet-like MIB for each port. Error
statistics on the traffic passing through each port are displayed. This information can
be used to identify potential problems with the switch (such as a faulty port or
unusually heavy loading). The values displayed have been accumulated since the
last system reboot.
Select the required port. The statistics displayed are indicated in the following figure
and table.
Alcatel OmniStack 8008
< Port Statistics > Port
1
Ether Like Counter :
Alignment Errors
: 0
FCS Errors
: 0
Single Collision Frames : 0
Multiple Collision Frames: 0
SQE Test Errors
: 0
Deferred Transmissions
: 0
[Refresh Statistics]
Late Collisions
:
Excessive Collisions
:
Internal Mac Transmit Errors:
Carrier Sense Errors
:
Frame Too Longs
:
Internal Mac Receive Errors :
0
0
0
0
0
0
[Reset Counters]
<OK>
<PREV PORT>
<NEXT PORT>
Use <TAB> or arrow keys to move. <Enter> to select
Parameter
Description
Alignment Errors
The number of frames received that are not an integral number of octets in
length and do not pass the FCS check.
FCS Errors
The number of frames received that are an integral number of octets in length
but do not pass the FCS check.
Single Collision Frames*
The number of successfully transmitted frames for which transmission is
inhibited by exactly one collision.
Multiple Collision
Frames*
A count of successfully transmitted frames for which transmission is inhibited
by more that one collision.
SQE Test Errors*
A count of times that the SQE TEST ERROR message is generated by the
PLS sublayer.
Deferred
Transmissions*
A count of frames for which the first transmission attempt on a particular
interface is delayed because the medium was busy.
Late Collisions
The number of times that a collision is detected later than 512 bit-times into
the transmission of a packet.
2-50
Monitoring the Switch
Parameter
Description
Excessive Collisions*
The number of frames for which transmission failed due to excessive
collisions.
Internal Mac
Transmit Errors*
The number of frames for which transmission failed due to an internal MAC
sublayer transmit error.
Carrier Sense Errors*
The number of times that the carrier sense condition was lost or never
asserted when attempting to transmit a frame.
Frame Too Longs
The number of frames received that exceed the maximum permitted frame
size.
Internal Mac
Receive Errors
The number of frames for which reception failed due to an internal MAC
sublayer receive error.
* The reported values will always be zero because these statistics are not supported by the internal chip
set.
Displaying RMON Statistics
Use the RMON Statistics screen to display key statistics for each port from RMON
group 1. (RMON groups 2, 3 and 9 can only be accessed using SNMP management
software.) The following screen displays the overall statistics on traffic passing
through each port. RMON statistics provide access to a broad range of statistics,
including a total count of different frame types and sizes passing through each port.
Values displayed have been accumulated since the last system reboot.
Alcatel OmniStack 8008
< RMON Statistics > Port
Drop Events
Received Bytes
Received Frames
Broadcast Frames
Multicast Frames
CRC/Alignment Errors
Undersize Frames
Oversize Frames
Fragments
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
4
438387005
2470786
2180266
237352
0
172
0
0
[Refresh Statistics]
1
Jabbers
Collisions
64 Byte Frames
65-127 Byte Frames
128-255 Byte Frames
256-511 Byte Frames
512-1023 Byte Frames
1024-1518 Byte Frames
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
0
0
715132
868284
502964
379998
671
3565
[Reset Counters]
<OK>
<PREV PORT>
<NEXT PORT>
Use <TAB> or arrow keys to move. <Enter> to select
2-51
Console Interface
Parameter
Description
Drop Events
The total number of events in which packets were dropped due to lack of
resources.
Received Bytes
Total number of bytes of data received on the network. This statistic can be
used as a reasonable indication of Ethernet utilization.
Received Frames
The total number of frames (bad, broadcast and multicast) received.
Broadcast Frames
The total number of good frames received that were directed to the broadcast
address. Note that this does not include multicast packets.
Multicast Frames
The total number of good frames received that were directed to this multicast
address.
CRC/Alignment Errors
The number of frames received with CRC/alignment errors (FCS or alignment
errors).
Undersize Frames
The total number of frames received that were less than 64 octets long
(excluding framing bits, but including FCS octets) and were otherwise well
formed.
Oversize Frames
The total number of frames received that were longer than 1518 octets
(excluding framing bits, but including FCS octets) and were otherwise well
formed.
Fragments
The total number of frames received that were less than 64 octets in length
(excluding framing bits, but including FCS octets) and had either an FCS or
alignment error.
Jabbers
The total number of frames received that were longer than 1518 octets
(excluding framing bits, but including FCS octets), and had either an FCS or
alignment error.
Collisions
The best estimate of the total number of collisions on this Ethernet segment.
64 Byte Frames
The total number of frames (including bad packets) received and transmitted
that were 64 octets in length (excluding framing bits but including FCS octets).
65-127 Byte Frames
The total number of frames (including bad packets) received and transmitted
that were between 65 and 127 octets in length inclusive (excluding framing
bits but including FCS octets).
128-255 Byte Frames
The total number of packets (including bad packets) received and transmitted
that were between 128 and 255 octets in length inclusive (excluding framing
bits but including FCS octets).
1024-1518 Byte Frames
The total number of packets (including bad packets) received and transmitted
that were between 1024 and 1518 octets in length inclusive (excluding
framing bits but including FCS octets).
2-52
Monitoring the Switch
Displaying the Unicast Address Table
The Address Table contains the MAC addresses and VLAN identifier associated
with each port (that is, the source port associated with the address and VLAN),
sorted by MAC address or VLAN ID. You can search for a specific address, clear the
entire address table, or information associated with a specific address, or set the
aging time for deleting inactive entries. The information displayed in the Address
Table is indicated in the following figure and table.
Alcatel OmniStack 8008
< Unicast Address Table >
Aging Time : 300
Dynamic Counts : 146
Static Counts : 0
MAC
VID
Port Status
MAC
VID
Port Status
--------------------------------------------------------------------00-00-24-B3-28-83 1
8
D
00-00-E8-00-00-02 1
8
D
00-00-E2-12-F9-F8 1
8
D
00-00-E8-00-00-05 1
8
D
00-00-E2-16-C5-82 1
8
D
00-00-E8-00-00-96 1
8
D
00-00-E2-20-C3-D5 1
8
D
00-00-E8-00-01-01 1
8
D
00-00-E2-21-74-D0 1
8
D
00-00-E8-07-12-5E 1
8
D
00-00-E2-2A-59-9A 1
8
D
00-00-E8-11-03-51 1
8
D
00-00-E2-2E-FD-F6 1
8
D
00-00-E8-11-11-33 1
8
D
00-00-E8-00-00-00 1
8
D
00-00-E8-12-12-12 1
8
D
Sorted by : MAC + VID
VLAN ID
: 1
MAC
: 00-00-00-00-00-00
[Show]
[More]
Cleared by : MAC + VID
VLAN ID
: 1
MAC
: 00-00-00-00-00-00
[Clear]
[Clear Dynamic]
<APPLY>
<OK>
<CANCEL>
Use <TAB> or arrow keys to move, other keys to make changes.
Parameter
Description
Aging Time
Time-out period in seconds for aging out dynamically learned forwarding
information.
Range: 10 - 65534 seconds; Default: 300 seconds
Dynamic Counts
The number of dynamically learned addresses in the table.
Static Counts
The number of static addresses in the table.
MAC
The MAC address of a node.
VID
The VLAN(s) associated with this address or port.
Port
The port whose address table includes this MAC address.
Status
Indicates address status as:
D: Dynamically learned, or
P: Fixed permanently by SNMP network management software.
[Show]
Displays the address table based on specified VLAN ID, and sorted by
primary key MAC or VID.
[More]
Scrolls through the entries in the address table.
2-53
Console Interface
Parameter
Description
[Clear]
Clears the specified MAC address.
[Clear Dynamic]
Clears all dynamically learned MAC addresses in the table.
Displaying the IP Multicast Registration Table
Use the IP Multicast Registration Table to display all the multicast groups active on
this switch, including multicast IP addresses and the corresponding VLAN ID.
Alcatel OmniStack 8008
< IP Multicast Registration Table >
VID
Multicast IP
Dynamic Port Lists
Learned by
--------------------------------------------------------------------1
224.0.0.2
00000001
IGMP
1
224.0.0.9
00000001
IGMP
1
224.0.1.22
00000001
IGMP
1
224.0.1.24
00000001
IGMP
1
224.1.2.9
00000010
IGMP
Sorted by
VID
Multicast IP
[Show]
: VID + Multicast IP
: 1
: 224.0.0.2
[More]
<OK>
Use <TAB> or arrow keys to move. <Enter> to select
Parameter
Description
VID
VLAN ID assigned to this multicast group.
Multicast IP
IP address for specific multicast services.
Dynamic Port Lists
The switch ports registered for the indicated multicast service.
Learned by
Indicates if the ports were learned dynamically or via IGMP.
[Show]
Displays the address table sorted on VID and then Multicast IP.
[More]
Scrolls through the entries in the address table.
2-54
Monitoring the Switch
Configuring Static Unicast Addresses
Use the Static Unicast Address Table Configuration screen to manually configure
host MAC addresses in the unicast table. You can use this screen to associate a
MAC address with a specific VLAN ID and switch port as shown below.
Alcatel OmniStack 8008
< Static Unicast Address Table Configuration >
VID
MAC Address
Port
Status
-----------------------------------------------------------1
00-00-00-E8-43-12
1
Permanent
Sorted by : VID + MAC
VID : 1
MAC : 00-00-00-00-00-00
[Show]
VID
: 1
MAC : 00-00-00-00-00-00
Port
: 1
Status : Permanent
[More]
[Set]
<OK>
Use <TAB> or arrow keys to move. <Enter> to select
Parameter
Description
VID
The VLAN group this port is assigned to.
MAC Address
The MAC address of a host device attached to this switch.
Port
The port the host device is attached to.
Status
The status for an entry can be set to:
Permanent:
This entry is currently in use and will remain so after the next
reset of the switch.
DeleteOnReset: This entry is currently in use and will remain so until the next
reset.
Invalid:
Removes the corresponding entry.
DeleteOnTimeOut: This entry is currently in use and will remain so until it is aged
out. (Refer to Address Table Aging Time on page 2-53.)
Other:
This entry is currently in use but the conditions under which it will
remain so differ from the preceding values.
[Show]
Displays the static address table sorted on VID as the primary key and MAC address
as secondary key.
[More]
Scrolls through entries in the static address table.
[Set]
Adds the specified entry to the static address table, such as shown in the following
example:
VID
Port :
Status
:1
MAC : 00-00-00-e8-34-22
:1
: Permanent
2-55
Console Interface
Resetting the System
Select the Reset System Menu under the Main Menu to reset the switch. The reset
screen includes options as shown in the following figure and table.
Alcatel OmniStack 8008
< Reset System Menu >
Restart Option :
POST
Reload Factory Defaults
Keep IP Setting
Keep User Authentication
:
:
:
:
YES
NO
NO
NO
[Restart]
<APPLY>
<OK>
<CANCEL>
Use <TAB> or arrow keys to move, <Space> to scroll options.
Parameter
Description
POST
Runs the Power-On Self-Test
Reload Factory Defaults
Reloads the factory defaults
Keep IP Setting
Retains the settings defined in the IP Configuration menu.
Keep User
Authentication
Retains the user names and passwords defined in the Console Login
Configuration menu.
Logging Off the System
Use the Quit Current Session command under the Main Menu to exit the
configuration program and terminate communications with the switch for the current
session.
2-56
Chapter 3: Web Interface
Web-Based Configuration and Monitoring
In addition to the menu-driven system configuration program, this switch also
provides an embedded HTTP Web agent. Using a Web browser you can configure
the switch and view statistics to monitor network activity. The Web agent can be
accessed by any computer on the network using a standard Web browser (Internet
Explorer 4.0 or above, or Netscape Navigator 4.0 or above).
Prior to accessing the switch from a Web browser, be sure you have first performed
the following tasks:
1. Configure it with a valid IP address, subnet mask, and default gateway using an
out-of-band serial connection or BOOTP protocol.
2. Set a user name and password using an out-of-band serial connection. Access
to the Web agent is controlled by the same user name and password as the
onboard configuration program.
3-1
Web Interface
Navigating the Web Browser Interface
To access the Web-browser interface you must first enter a user name and
password. The administrator has Read/Write access to all configuration parameters
and statistics. The default user name for the administrator is “admin,” with the
password “switch.”
Home Page
When your Web browser connects with the switch’s Web agent, the home page is
displayed as shown below. The home page displays the Main Menu on the left side
of the screen and System Information on the right side. The Main Menu links are
used to navigate to other menus and display configuration parameters and statistical
data.
If this is your first time to access the management agent, you should define a new
Administrator password, record it and put it in a safe place. From the Main Menu,
select Security and enter a new password for the Administrator. Note that passwords
can consist of up to 11 alphanumeric characters and are not case sensitive.
Note: Based on the default configuration, a user is allowed three attempts to enter the
correct password; on the third failed attempt the current connection is terminated.
See “Console Login Configuration” on page 2-17.
3-2
Navigating the Web Browser Interface
Configuration Options
Configurable parameters have a dialog box or a drop-down list. Once a configuration
change has been made on a page, be sure to click on the “Apply” button at the
bottom of the page to confirm the new setting. The following table summarizes the
Web page configuration buttons.
Web Page Configuration Buttons
Button
Action
Apply
Sets specified values in the SNMP agent.
Revert
Cancels specified values prior to pressing the “Apply” button.
Refresh
Immediately updates values from the SNMP agent.
Notes: 1. To ensure proper screen refresh, be sure that Internet Explorer 5.0 is
configured as follows: Under the menu “Tools / Internet Options / General /
Temporary Internet Files / Settings,” the setting for item “Check for newer
versions of stored pages” should be “Every visit to the page.”
2. When using Internet Explorer 5.0, you may have to manually refresh the
screen after making configuration changes by pressing the browser’s refresh
button.
3-3
Web Interface
Panel Display
The Web agent displays an image of the switch’s ports, showing port links and
activity. Clicking on the image of a port displays statistics and configuration
information for the port. Clicking on the image of the serial port (labeled “Mgmt”)
displays the Console Configuration screen. Clicking on any other part of the front
panel displays Switch Information as described on page 3-7.
Port State Display
Click on any port to display a summary or port status as shown below, as well as
Etherlike statistics (page 3-39) and RMON statistics (page 3-40).
Parameter
Description
Type
Shows port type as 1000BASE-SX
Admin Status
Shows if the port is enabled, or has been disabled due to abnormal behavior
or for security reasons. See “Port Configuration” on page 3-34.
Link Status
Indicates if the port has a valid connection to an external device.
Speed Status
Indicates the current port speed.
Duplex Status
Indicates the port’s current duplex mode.
Flow Control Status
Shows the flow control type in use. Flow control can eliminate frame loss by
“blocking” traffic from end stations connected directly to the switch.
VLAN
The VLAN ID assigned to untagged frames received on this port. Use the
PVID (page 3-30) to assign ports to the same untagged VLAN.
3-4
Panel Display
Configuring the Serial Port
If you are having difficulties making an out-of-band console connection to the serial
port on the switch, you can display or modify the current settings for the serial port
through the Web agent. Click on the serial port icon in the switch image to display or
configure these settings, as shown below.
Parameter
Default
Baud Rate
9600
Description
The rate at which data is sent between devices.
Options : 2400, 4800, 9600, 19200 bps, and Auto detection.
Time-Out
10 minutes
If no input is received from the attached device after this interval,
the current session is automatically closed.
Range : 0 - 100 minutes; where 0 indicates disabled
Data Bits
8 bits
Sets the data bits of the RS-232 port.
Options : 7, 8
Stop Bits
1 bit
Sets the stop bits of the RS-232 port.
Options : 1, 2
Parity
None
Sets the parity of the RS-232 port.
Options : none/odd/even
Auto Refresh
Time
5 second
Sets the interval before a console session will auto refresh the
console information, such as Spanning Tree Information, Port
Configuration, Port Statistics, and RMON Statistics.
Range : 0, or 5-255 seconds; where 0 indicates disabled
3-5
Web Interface
Main Menu
Using the onboard Web agent, you can define system parameters, manage and
control the switch, and all its ports, or monitor network conditions. The interface
screen includes the main menu on the left side, the menu bar beneath the image of
the switch, and a list of commands beneath the menu bar. The following table briefly
describes the selections available from this program.
Function
Description
System
Provides basic system description, including contact information.
Switch
Shows hardware/firmware version numbers and power status of the switch.
IP
Includes boot state, IP address, and Telnet session count.
SNMP
Configures communities and trap managers; and activates traps.
Security
Sets password for system access.
Upgrade
Downloads new version of firmware to update your system.
Configure
Saves the switch configuration to a file on a TFTP server. This file can be later
downloaded to restore the configuration
Address Table
Provides full listing or unicast addresses, sorted by address or VLAN.
STA
Enables Spanning Tree Algorithm; also sets parameters for switch priority,
hello time, maximum message age, and forward delay; as well as port priority
and path cost.
Bridge Extension
Displays/configures extended bridge capabilities provided by this switch,
including support for traffic classes, GMRP* multicast filtering, and VLAN
extensions.
Priority
Configures default port priorities and queue assignments.
VLAN
Configures VLAN group members, automatic registration with GVRP*, and
other port-specific VLAN settings.
IGMP
Configures IGMP multicast filtering.
Port
Enables any port, sets communication mode to auto-negotiation, full duplex
or half duplex, and enables/disables flow control.
Mirror
Sets the source and target ports for mirroring.
Trunk
Specifies ports to group into aggregate trunks.
Statistics
Displays statistics on network traffic passing through the selected port.
* Not implemented in the current firmware release.
3-6
System Information
System Information
Use the System Information screen to display descriptive information about the
switch, or for quick system identification as shown in the following figure and table.
Parameter
Description
System Name1
Name assigned to the switch system.
IP Address2
IP address of the switch you are managing. The switch’s management
supports SNMP over UDP/IP transport protocol. In this environment, all
systems on the Internet, such as network interconnection devices and any PC
accessing the switch must have an IP address. Valid IP addresses consist of
four decimal numbers, of 0 to 255, separated by periods. Anything outside of
this format will not be accepted by the configuration program.
Object ID
MIB II object identifier for switch’s network management subsystem.
Location1
Specifies the area or location where the system resides.
Contact1
Contact person for the system.
System Up Time
Length of time the current management software has been running.
1 Maximum string length is 255, but the screen only displays 45 characters. You can use the arrow keys to
browse the whole string.
2 The default value is
192.168.10.1
3-7
Web Interface
Switch Information
Use the Switch Information screen to display hardware/firmware version numbers
for the switch, as well as the power status of the system.
Main Board
Parameter
Description
Serial Number
Serial number of the main board.
Number of Ports
Number of ports on the switch.
Hardware Version
Hardware version of the main board.
Firmware Version
System firmware version in ROM.
POST ROM Version
Management’s Power-On Self-Test version.
Internal Power Status
Power status for the switch.
Redundant Power
Status
Redundant power status for the switch.
3-8
IP Configuration
IP Configuration
Use the IP Configuration screen to set the bootup option, configure the Ethernet IP
address for the switch, or set the number or concurrent Telnet sessions allowed. The
screen shown below is described in the following table.
Parameter
Default
Description
IP State
USER-CONFIG
Specifies whether IP functionality is enabled via manual
configuration, or set by Boot Protocol (BootP). Options
include:
BOOTP Get IP - IP is enabled but will not function until
a BootP reply has been received. BootP requests will be
periodically broadcast by the switch in an effort to learn
its IP address. (BootP values include the IP address,
default gateway, and subnet mask.)
USER-CONFIG - IP functionality is enabled based on
the default or user specified IP Configuration. (This is
the default setting.)
IP Address
192.168.10.1
IP address of the switch you are managing. The switch
supports SNMP over UDP/IP transport protocol. In this
environment, all systems on the Internet, such as
network interconnection devices and any PC accessing
the switch are assigned an IP address. Valid IP
addresses consist of four decimal numbers, of 0 to 255,
separated by periods. Anything outside of this format will
not be accepted by the configuration program.
Subnet Mask
255.255.255.0
Subnet mask of the switch. This mask identifies the host
address bits used for routing to specific subnets.
Gateway IP Address
0.0.0.0
The gateway that the switch’s agent uses to pass data
to the management station. Note that the gateway must
be defined if the management station is located in a
different IP segment.
MAC Address
Maximum Number of
Telnet sessions
Physical address of the switch.
4
Sets the number of concurrent Telnet sessions allowed
to access the switch.
3-9
Web Interface
SNMP Configuration
Use the SNMP Configuration screen to display and modify parameters for the
Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP). The switch includes an SNMP
agent which monitors the status of its hardware, as well as the traffic passing
through its ports. A computer attached to the network, called a Network
Management Station (NMS), can be used to access this information. Access rights
to the switch are controlled by community strings. To communicate with the switch,
the NMS must first submit a valid community string for authentication. The options
for configuring community strings and related trap functions are described in the
following figures and table.
SNMP Community
The following figure and table describe how to configure the community strings
authorized for management access. Up to 5 community names may be entered.
Parameter
Description
SNMP Community
Capability
Up to 5 community strings may be used.
Add/Remove
Add/remove strings from the active list.
Community String
A community entry authorized for management access.
(The maximum string length is 19 characters).
Access Mode
Management access is restricted to Read Only or Read/Write.
3-10
Security Configuration
Trap Managers
The following figure and table describe how to specify management stations that will
receive authentication failure messages or other trap messages from the switch. Up
to 5 trap managers may be entered.
Parameter
Description
Trap Manager Capability
Up to 5 trap managers may be used.
Trap Manager IP Address
IP address of the trap manager.
Trap Manager Community
String
A community authorized to receive trap messages.
Add/Remove
Add/remove strings from the active list.
Enable Authentication Traps
Issues a trap message to specified IP trap managers whenever
authentication of an SNMP request fails.
Default: enabled
Security Configuration
Use the Security Configuration screen to restrict management access based on a
specified password. The Administrator has write access for parameters governing
the switch. You should therefore assign a password to the Administrator as soon as
possible, and store it in a safe place. (If for some reason your password is lost, or
you cannot gain access to the system’s configuration program, contact Alcatel
Technical Support for assistance.)
Change Password
This password is for the system Administrator, with access privilege of Read/Write
for all screens. Passwords can consist of up to 11 alphanumeric characters and are
not case sensitive.
(User name: admin; default password: switch)
3-11
Web Interface
Firmware Upgrade Options
You can upgrade system firmware by performing a Web upload or a TFTP
download. Note that you can also upgrade by a direct connection to the console port
(see “Upgrading Firmware via the Serial Port” on page A-2).
Web Upload Management
Use the Web Upload Management menu to load software updates into the switch.
The upload file should be an Omnistack® 8008 binary file from Alcatel; otherwise the
switch will not accept it. The success of the upload operation depends on the quality
of the network connection. After uploading the new software, the switch will
automatically restart itself. Parameters shown on this screen are indicated in the
following figure and table.
Parameter
Description
Upload Mode
Uploads to permanent flash ROM.
File Name
The Omnistack® 8008 binary file to download. Use the browse button to
locate the file on your local network.
Start Web Upload
Starts uploading the file over the network.
3-12
Firmware Upgrade Options
TFTP Download Management
Use the TFTP Download Management menu to load software updates into the
switch. The download file should be an Omnistack® 8008 binary file from Alcatel;
otherwise the switch will not accept it. The success of the download operation
depends on the accessibility of the TFTP server and the quality of the network
connection. After downloading the new software, the switch will automatically restart
itself. Parameters shown on this screen are indicated in the following figure and
table.
Parameter
Description
Server IP Address
IP address of a TFTP server.
Download Mode
Downloads to permanent flash ROM.
File Name
The Omnistack® 8008 binary file to download.
Start TFTP Download
Issues request to TFTP server to download the specified file.
3-13
Web Interface
Configuration Save and Restore
Use the Configure screen to save the switch configuration settings to a file on a
TFTP server. The file can be later downloaded to the switch to restore the switch’s
settings. The success of the operation depends on the accessibility of the TFTP
server and the quality of the network connection.
Configuration Upload Management
Use the Configuration Upload Management to save the switch configuration to a file
on a TFTP sever. Parameters shown on this screen are indicated in the figure and
table.
Parameter
Description
Server IP Address
IP address of a TFTP server.
File Name
The name of the file to contain the switch configuration settings.
Start Configuration
TFTP Upload
Issues a request to upload the configuration settings to the specified file
on the TFTP server.
Configuration Download Management
Use the Configuration Download Management to restore switch configuration
settings from a file on a TFTP sever. Parameters shown on this screen are indicated
in the following figure and table
Parameter
Description
Server IP Address
IP address of a TFTP server.
File Name
The name of the file that contains the switch configuration settings you
wish to restore.
Start Configuration
TFTP Download
Issues a request to the TFTP server to download the specified file.
3-14
Address Table Configuration
Address Table Configuration
The Address Table contains the unicast MAC addresses and VLAN identifier
associated with each port (that is, the source port associated with the address and
VLAN), sorted by MAC address or VLAN. You can also clear the entire address
table, or information associated with a specific address; or set the aging time for
deleting inactive entries. The information displayed in the Address Table is indicated
in the following figure and table.
Parameter
Description
Aging Time
Time-out period in seconds for aging out dynamically learned forwarding
information.
Range: 10 - 415 secs; default: 300 secs.
Dynamic Address
Counts
The number of dynamically learned addresses currently in the table.
Static Address Counts
The number of static addresses currently in the table.
Address Table
All entries, sorted by address or VLAN ID.
Address Table Sort Key
The system displays the MAC address of each node and port whose address
table includes this MAC address, the associated VLAN(s), and the address
status (i.e., dynamic or static).
New Static Address
Use these fields to add or remove a static entry to the address table. Indicate
the address, port and VLAN group when adding a new entry.
Add/Remove
Adds/removes selected address.
Clear Table
Removes all addresses from the address table.
3-15
Web Interface
STA (Spanning Tree Algorithm)
The Spanning Tree Algorithm can be used to detect and disable network loops, and
to provide backup links between switches, bridges or routers. This allows the switch
to interact with other bridging devices (that is, STA-compliant switch, bridge or
router) in your network to ensure that only one route exists between any two stations
on the network. For a more detailed description of how to use this algorithm, refer to
“Spanning Tree Algorithm” on page 4-1.
Spanning Tree Information
The Spanning Tree Information screen displays a summary of the STA information
for the overall bridge or for a specific port. To make any changes to the parameters
for the Spanning Tree, use the STA Configuration and STA Port Configuration
screens.
Spanning Tree
The parameters shown in the following figure and table describe the current bridge
STA Information.
Parameter
Description
Spanning Tree State
Shows if the switch is enabled to participate in an STA-compliant network.
Bridge ID
A unique identifier for this bridge, consisting of bridge priority plus MAC
address (where the address is normally taken from Port 1).
Max Age
The maximum time (in seconds) a device can wait without receiving a
configuration message before attempting to reconfigure.
Hello Time
The time interval (in seconds) at which the root device transmits a
configuration message.
Forward Delay
The maximum time (in seconds) the root device will wait before changing
states (i.e., listening to learning to forwarding).
Root Port
The number of the port on this switch that is closest to the root. This switch
communicates with the root device through this port. If there is no root port,
then this switch has been accepted as the root device of the spanning tree
network.
Designated Root
The priority and MAC address of the device in the spanning tree that this
switch has accepted as the root device.
Root Path Cost
The path cost from the root port on this switch to the root device.
Configuration Changes
The number of times the spanning tree has been reconfigured.
Last Topology Change
The time since the spanning tree was last reconfigured.
3-16
STA (Spanning Tree Algorithm)
Ports
The parameters shown in the following figure and table are for port STA Information
(Port 1~8).
Parameter
Description
Port Status
Displays the current state of this port within the spanning tree:
No Link
Disabled
Blocked
There is no valid link on the port.
Port has been disabled by the user or has failed diagnostics.
Port receives STA configuration messages, but does not
forward packets.
Listening Port will leave blocking state due to topology change, starts
transmitting configuration messages, but does not yet forward
packets.
Learning
Has transmitted configuration messages for an interval set by
the Forward Delay parameter without receiving contradictory
information. Port address table is cleared, and the port begins
learning addresses.
Forwarding The port forwards packets, and continues learning addresses.
The rules defining port status are:
•
•
•
A port on a network segment with no other STA-compliant bridging device
is always forwarding.
If two ports of a switch are connected to the same segment and there is
no other STA device attached to this segment, the port with the smaller ID
forwards packets and the other is blocked.
All ports are blocked when the switch is booted, then some of them
change state to listening, to learning, and then to forwarding.
Forward Transitions
The number of times the port has changed status to forwarding state.
Designated Cost
The cost for a packet to travel from this port to the root in the current spanning
tree configuration. The slower the media, the higher the cost.
Designated Bridge
The priority and MAC address of the device through which this port must
communicate to reach the root of the spanning tree.
Designated Port
The priority and number of the port on the designated bridging device through
which this switch must communicate with the root of the spanning tree.
3-17
Web Interface
Spanning Tree Configuration
The following figures and tables describe Bridge STA configuration.
Switch
Parameter
Default
Description
Usage
Enabled
Enable this parameter to participate in an
STA-compliant network.
Priority
32,768
Device priority is used in selecting the root device, root
port, and designated port. The device with the highest
priority becomes the STA root device. (Remember that
the lower the numeric value, the higher the priority.)
However, if all devices have the same priority, the
device with the lowest MAC address will then become
the root device.
Range: 0 - 65535
3-18
STA (Spanning Tree Algorithm)
When the Switch Becomes Root
Parameter
Default
Description
Hello Time
2
The time interval (in seconds) at which the root device
transmits a configuration message.
The minimum value is 1.
The maximum value is the lower of
10 or [(Max. Message Age / 2) -1].
Max (Message) Age
20
The maximum time (in seconds) a device can wait
without receiving a configuration message before
attempting to reconfigure. All device ports (except for
designated ports) should receive configuration
messages at regular intervals. Any port that ages out
STA information (provided in the last configuration
message) becomes the designated port for the attached
LAN. If it is a root port, a new root port is selected from
among the device ports attached to the network.
The minimum value is the higher of
6 or [2 x (Hello Time + 1)].
The maximum value is the lower of
40 or [2 x (Forward Delay - 1)].
Forward Delay
15
The maximum time (in seconds) the root device will wait
before changing states (i.e., listening to learning to
forwarding). This delay is required because every
device must receive information about topology
changes before it starts to forward frames. In addition,
each port needs time to listen for conflicting information
that would make it return to a blocking state; otherwise,
temporary data loops might result.
Maximum value is 30.
Minimum value is the higher of 4 or
[(Max. Message Age / 2) + 1].
3-19
Web Interface
STA Port Configuration
The following figure and table describe STA configuration for ports.
Parameter
Default
Description
Fast forwarding mode
ENABLED
Allows you to enable or disable fast forwarding for all
ports on the switch.
Priority
128
Defines the priority for the use of a port in the STA
algorithm. If the path cost for all ports on a switch are the
same, the port with the highest priority (i.e., lowest
value) will be configured as an active link in the
spanning tree. Where more than one port is assigned
the highest priority, the port with lowest numeric
identifier will be enabled.
The range is 0 - 255.
(Path) Cost
100/19/4
This parameter is used by the STA algorithm to
determine the best path between devices. Therefore,
lower values should be assigned to ports attached to
faster media, and higher values assigned to ports with
slower media.
The default and recommended range is:
Standard Ethernet: 100 (50~600)
Fast Ethernet:
19 (10~60)
Gigabit Ethernet:
4 (3~10)
The full range is 0 - 65535.
Note: Path cost takes precedence over port priority.
FastForwarding
ENABLED
This parameter is used to enable/disabled the Fast
Spanning Tree mode for the port. In this mode, ports
skip the Blocked, Listening and Learning states and
proceed straight to Forwarding.
FastForwarding enables end-node workstations and
servers to overcome time-out problems when the
Spanning Tree Algorithm is implemented in a network.
Therefore, FastForwarding should only be enabled for
ports that are connected to an end-node device.
3-20
Configuring Bridge MIB Extensions
Configuring Bridge MIB Extensions
The Bridge MIB includes extensions for managed devices that support Traffic
Classes, Multicast Filtering and Virtual LANs. To configure these extensions, use the
Extended Bridge Configuration screen as shown below:
Bridge Capability
Parameter
Description
Extended Multicast
Filtering Services
Indicates that the switch does not support the filtering of individual multicast
addresses based on GMRP (GARP Multicast Registration Protocol). Note
that this function is not implemented in the current firmware release.
Traffic Classes
Indicates that the switch provides mapping of user priorities to multiple traffic
classes. (Refer to the Priority menu on page 3-23.)
Static Entry Individual
Port
Indicates that the switch allows the static filtering of unicast and multicast
addresses. (Refer to the Address Table Configuration on page 3-14.)
VLAN Learning
This switch uses Independent VLAN Learning (IVL), whereby each port
maintains its own VLAN filtering database.
Configurable
PVID Tagging
Indicates that the switch allows you to override the default PVID setting (Port
VLAN ID used in frame tags) and its egress status (VLAN-Tagged or
Untagged) on each port. (Refer to VLAN Port Configuration on page 3-30.)
Local VLAN Capable
This switch does not support multiple local bridges (that is, multiple Spanning
Trees).
3-21
Web Interface
Bridge Settings
Parameter
Description
Traffic Class*
Multiple traffic classes are supported by this switch as indicated under Bridge
Capabilities. However, you can disable this function by clearing this
checkbox.
GMRP*
GARP Multicast Registration Protocol (GMRP) allows network devices to
register endstations with multicast groups. Note that this function is not
implemented in the current firmware release.
The Internet Group Management Protocol (IGMP) is currently used by this
switch to provide automatic multicast filtering.
GVRP*
GARP VLAN Registration Protocol (GVRP) defines a way for switches to
exchange VLAN information in order to register necessary VLAN members on
ports across the network. This function should be enabled to permit VLAN
groups which extend beyond the local switch.
* Not implemented in the current firmware release.
3-22
Priority
Priority
IEEE 802.1p defines up to 8 separate traffic classes. This switch supports Quality of
Service (QoS) by using two priority queues, with weighted fair queuing for each port.
You can use the Priority menu to configure the default priority for each port, or to
display the mapping for the traffic classes as described in the following sections.
Port Priority Configuration
The default priority for all ingress ports is zero. Therefore, any inbound frames that
do not have priority tags will be placed in the low priority output queue. Default
priority is only used to determine the output queue for the current port; no priority tag
is actually added to the frame. You can use the Port Priority Configuration screen to
adjust default priority for any port as shown below:
Parameter
Description
Port
Numeric identifier for switch port.
Default Ingress
User Priority
Default priority can be set to any value from 0~7, where 0~3 specifies the low
priority queue and 4~7 specifies the high priority queue.
Number of Egress
Traffic Classes
Indicates that this switch supports two priority output queues.
3-23
Web Interface
Port Traffic Class Information
This switch provides two priority levels with weighted fair queuing for port egress.
This means that any frames with a default or user priority from 0~3 are sent to the
low priority queue “0” while those from 4~7 are sent to the high priority queue “1” as
shown in the following screen:
Parameter
Description
Port
Numeric identifier for switch port.
User Priority
Shows that user priorities 0~3 specify the low priority queue and 4~7 specify
the high priority queue.
3-24
Configuring Virtual LANs
Configuring Virtual LANs
You can use the VLAN configuration menu to assign any port on the switch to any of
up to 256 VLAN groups. In conventional networks with routers, broadcast traffic is
split up into separate domains. Switches do not inherently support broadcast
domains. This can lead to broadcast storms in large networks that handle a lot of
IPX and NetBEUI traffic. By using IEEE 802.1Q compliant VLANs and GARP VLAN
Registration Protocol, you can organize any group of network nodes into separate
broadcast domains, confining broadcast traffic to the originating group. This also
provides a more secure and cleaner network environment. For more information on
how to use VLANs, see “Virtual LANs” on page 4-2. The VLAN configuration
screens are described in the following sections.
VLAN Basic Information
The VLAN Basic Information screen displays basic information on the VLAN type
supported by this switch.
Parameter
Description
VLAN Version Number
The VLAN version used by this switch as specified in the IEEE 802.1Q
standard.
Maximum VLAN ID
Maximum VLAN ID recognized by this switch.
Maximum Number of
Supported VLANs
Maximum number of VLANs that can be configured on this switch.
Current Number of
802.1Q VLANs
Configured
The number of VLANs currently configured on this switch.
Note: All ports are assigned only to VLAN 1 by default.
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Web Interface
VLAN Current Table
This screen shows the current port members of each VLAN and whether or not the
port supports VLAN tagging. Ports assigned to a large VLAN group that crosses
several switches should use VLAN tagging. However, if you just want to create a
small port-based VLAN for one or two switches, you can assign ports to the same
untagged VLAN see “VLAN Port Configuration” on page 3-30. The current
configuration is shown in the following screen.
Parameter
Description
VLAN Entry Delete
Count
The number of times a VLAN entry has been deleted from this table.
VLAN ID
The ID for the VLAN currently displayed.
Up Time at Creation
The value of sysUpTime (System Up Time) when this VLAN was created.
Status
Shows how this VLAN was added to the switch:
Dynamic GVRP: Automatically learned via GVRP.
Permanent: Added as a static entry.
Egress Ports
Shows the ports which have been added to the displayed VLAN group.
Untagged Ports
Shows the untagged VLAN port members.
3-26
Configuring Virtual LANs
VLAN Static List
Use this screen to create or remove VLAN groups.
Parameter
Description
Current
Lists all the current VLAN groups created for this system. Up to 256 VLAN
groups can be defined. To allow this switch to participate in external VLAN
groups, you must use the VLAN ID for the concerned external groups.
New
Allows you to specify the name and numeric identifier for a new VLAN group.
(The VLAN name is only used for management on this system; it is not added
to the VLAN tag.)
Status
Enables/disables the specified VLAN.
Add
Adds a new VLAN group to the current list.
Remove
Removes a VLAN group from the current list. If any port is assigned to this
group as untagged, it will be reassigned to VLAN group 1 as untagged.
Note: No VLANs are statically configured by default.
VLAN Static Table
Use this screen to modify the settings for an existing VLAN. You can add/delete port
members for a VLAN, disable or enable VLAN tagging for any port, or prevent a port
from being automatically added to a VLAN via the GVRP protocol. (Note that
VLAN 1 is fixed as an untagged VLAN containing all ports on the switch, and cannot
be modified via this screen.)
Parameter
VLAN
Description
The ID for the VLAN currently displayed.
Range: 1-2048
Name
A user-specified symbolic name for this VLAN.
String length: 8 alphanumeric characters
Status
Enables/disables the specified VLAN.
3-27
Web Interface
Use the screens shown below to assign ports to the specified VLAN group as an
IEEE 802.1Q tagged port. Assign ports as tagged if they are connected to 802.1Q
VLAN compliant devices. If the port is connected to VLAN-unaware devices, frames
will be passed to the untagged VLAN group to which this port has been assigned
under the VLAN Port Configuration screen (page 3-30).
Parameter
Description
Egress Ports
Adds ports to the specified VLAN.
Forbidden Egress Ports
Prevents a port from being automatically added to this VLAN via GVRP.
Untagged Ports
Adds untagged ports to the specified VLAN.
3-28
Configuring Virtual LANs
VLAN Static Membership by Port
Use the screen shown below to assign VLAN groups to the selected port. To perform
detailed port configuration for a specific VLAN, use the VLAN Static Table (page
3-27).
Parameter
Description
Port Number
Port number on the switch selected from the upper display panel.
Add/Remove
Add or remove selected VLAN groups for the port indicated in the Port
Number field.
3-29
Web Interface
VLAN Port Configuration
Use this screen to configure port-specific settings for IEEE 802.1Q VLAN features.
Parameter
Description
PVID
The VLAN ID assigned to untagged frames received on this port. Use the
PVID to assign ports to the same untagged VLAN.
Acceptable Frame
Type1
This switch accepts “All” frame types, including VLAN tagged or VLAN
untagged frames. Note that all VLAN untagged frames received on this port
are assigned to the PVID for this port.
Ingress Filtering1
If set to “True,” incoming frames for VLANs which do not include this port in
their member set will be discarded at the inbound port.
GVRP Status2
Enables or disables GVRP for this port. When disabled, any GVRP packets
received on this port will be discarded and no GVRP registrations will be
propagated from other ports.
Note that, before this port setting takes effect, GVRP must be enabled for the
switch (see Configuring Bridge MIB Extensions on page 3-21).
GVRP Failed
Registrations2
The total number of failed GVRP registrations, for any reason, on this port.
GVRP PDU Origin2
The Source MAC Address of the last GVRP message received on this port.
1. This control does not affect VLAN independent BPDU frames, such as GVRP or STP. However, it does
affect VLAN dependent BPDU frames, such as GMRP.
2. GVRP is not available for the current firmware release.
3-30
IGMP Multicast Filtering
IGMP Multicast Filtering
Multicasting is used to support real-time applications such as video conferencing or
streaming audio. A multicast server does not have to establish a separate
connection with each client. It merely broadcasts its service to the network, and any
hosts that want to receive the multicast register with their local multicast switch/
router. Although this approach reduces the network overhead required by a
multicast server, the broadcast traffic must be carefully pruned at every multicast
switch/router it passes through to ensure that traffic is only passed on to the hosts
that subscribed to this service.
This switch uses IGMP (Internet Group Management Protocol) to query for any
attached hosts who want to receive a specific multicast service. The switch looks up
the IP Multicast Group used for this service and adds any port which received a
similar request to that group. It then propagates the service request on to any
neighboring multicast switch/router to ensure that it will continue to receive the
multicast service. (For more information, see “IP Multicast Filtering” in the Users
Guide.)
Configuring IGMP
This protocol allows a host to inform its local switch/router that it wants to receive
transmissions addressed to a specific multicast address group. Use the IGMP
Configuration screen to set key parameters for multicast filtering as shown below.
Parameter
Description
IGMP Status
If enabled, the switch will monitor network traffic to determine which hosts
want to receive multicast traffic.
IGMP Query Count
The maximum number of queries issued for which there has been no
response before the switch takes action to solicit reports.
IGMP Report Delay
The time (in seconds) between receiving an IGMP Report for an IP multicast
address on a port before the switch sends an IGMP Query out that port and
removes the entry from its list.
Note: The default values are indicated in the sample screen.
3-31
Web Interface
IP Multicast Registration Table
Use the IP Multicast Registration Table to display all the multicast groups active on
this switch, including multicast IP addresses and the corresponding VLAN ID.
Parameter
Description
VLAN ID
VLAN ID assigned to this multicast group.
Multicast IP Address
IP address for specific multicast services.
Learned by
Indicates the manner in which this address was learned: dynamic or IGMP.
Multicast Group Port List
The switch ports registered for the indicated multicast service.
3-32
Port Menus
Port Menus
Port Information
The Port Information screen displays the port status, link state, the communication
speed and duplex mode, as well as the flow control in use. To change any of the port
settings, use the Port Configuration menu. The parameters shown in the following
figure and table are for the RJ-45 ports.
Parameter
Description
Admin Status
Shows if the port is enabled or not.
Link Status
Indicates if the port has a valid connection to an external device.
Speed Status
Shows the port speed (1000M).
Duplex Status
Displays the current duplex mode.
Flow Control Status
Shows the flow control type in use. Flow control can eliminate frame loss by
“blocking” traffic from end stations connected directly to the switch. Back
pressure is used for half duplex and IEEE 802.3x for full duplex.
Note: The port information displayed is not valid if the link status is down.
3-33
Web Interface
Port Configuration
Use the Port Configuration menus to configure any port on the switch.
Parameter
Default
Description
Flow Control Mode
DISABLED
Allows you to enable or disable flow control for all ports
on the switch.
Admin Status
Enable
Allows you to disable a port due to abnormal behavior
(e.g., excessive collisions), and then re-enable it after
the problem has been resolved. You may also disable a
port for security reasons.
Duplex Status
Auto-Negotiation
Used to set the current port duplex mode or
auto-negotiation. The default is auto-negotiation.
Flow Control status
Disabled
Used to enable or disable flow control. Flow control can
eliminate frame loss by “blocking” traffic from end
stations or segments connected directly to the switch
when its buffers fill. Back pressure is used for half
duplex and IEEE 802.3x for full duplex. Note that flow
control should not be used if a port is connected to a
hub.
3-34
Port Menus
Port Broadcast Storm Protect Configuration
Use the Port Broadcast Storm Protect Configuration screen to configure broadcast
storm control for any port on the switch
Parameter
Default
Description
Broadcast Storm
Protect Mode
Enabled
Allows you to enable/disable broadcast storm control for all
ports on the switch.
Protect Status
Enabled
Enables/disables broadcast control for the port. When
enabled, the switch will employ a broadcast-control
mechanism if the packet-per-second threshold is exceeded.
This mechanism limits the amount of broadcasts passed by
the port to half of the received packet-per-second count. The
control mechanism remains in effect until the number of
received broadcasts falls back below the packet-per-second
threshold.
Threshold
500
The packet-per-second threshold for broadcast packets on
the port.
3-35
Web Interface
Port Security Configuration
Use the Port Security Configuration screen to enable and configure port security for
the switch. Port Security allows you to configure each port with a list of MAC
addresses of devices that are authorized to access the network through that port.
Parameter
Description
Port Number
The port number on the unit.
Status
Port security can be set to three states; Static, Disable, or Learning. When
set to Static, the switch will drop packets from the port if the source MAC
address does not match one of the addresses in the MAC Address list. If
set to Learning, the switch will add the source MAC address of all packets
received on the port to the authorized MAC Address list.
MAC Address List
A list of the authorized MAC addresses that can access the network
through the specified port.
New Address
A specific MAC address to be added to the list.
Add
Adds a new specified MAC address to the current list.
Remove
Removes a MAC address from the current list.
Clear All
Clears all the MAC addresses for the current port.
3-36
Using a Port Mirror for Analysis
Using a Port Mirror for Analysis
You can mirror traffic from any source port to a target port for real-time analysis. You
can then attach a network sniffer or RMON probe to the target port and study the
traffic crossing the source port in a completely unobtrusive manner. When mirroring
port traffic, note that the target port must be configured in the same VLAN and be
operating at the same duplex mode as the source port (see VLAN Static List on page
3-27).
You can use the port mirror configuration screen to designate a single port pair for
mirroring as shown below:
Parameter
Description
Status
Enables/disables port mirroring.
Mirror Source Port
The port whose traffic will be monitored.
Mirror Target Port
The port that will duplicate or “mirror” all the traffic happening on the
monitored port.
Port Trunk Configuration
Port trunks can be used to increase the bandwidth of a network connection or to
ensure fault recovery. You can configure up four trunk connections (combining 2~4
ports into a fat pipe) between any two Omnistack® 8008 switches. However, before
making any physical connections between devices, use the Trunk Configuration
menu to specify the trunk on the devices at both ends. When using a port trunk, note
that:
• Ports can only be assigned to one trunk.
• The ports at both ends of a connection must be configured as trunk ports.
• The ports at both ends of a trunk must be configured in an identical manner,
including duplex mode and VLAN assignments.
• None of the ports in a trunk can be configured as a mirror source port or mirror
target port.
• All the ports in a trunk have to be treated as a whole when moved from/to, added
or deleted from a VLAN.
• The Spanning Tree Algorithm will treat all the ports in a trunk as a whole.
• Enable the trunk prior to connecting any cable between the switches to avoid
creating a loop.
• Disconnect all trunk port cables or disable the trunk ports before removing a port
trunk to avoid creating a loop.
3-37
Web Interface
Use the Port Trunking Configuration screen to set up port trunks as shown below.
Remember that you must “Enable” a new configuration before it will take effect.
Parameter
Description
Trunk Number
A unique identifier for this trunk. You can configure up to four trunks per
switch.
Port
The port members of this trunk. Select from 2~4 ports per trunk.
3-38
Port Statistics
Port Statistics
Use the Port Statistics menu to display Etherlike or RMON statistics for any port on
the switch. Select the required port. The statistics displayed are indicated in the
following figure and table.
Etherlike Statistics
Etherlike Statistics display key statistics from the Ethernet-like MIB for each port.
Error statistics on the traffic passing through each port are displayed. This
information can be used to identify potential problems with the switch (such as a
faulty port or unusually heavy loading). Values displayed have been accumulated
since the last system reboot.
Parameter
Description
Alignment Errors
The number of frames received that are not an integral number of octets in
length and do not pass the FCS check.
FCS Errors
The number of frames received that are an integral number of octets in length
but do not pass the FCS check.
Single Collision Frames*
The number of successfully transmitted frames for which transmission is
inhibited by exactly one collision.
Multiple Collision Frames* A count of successfully transmitted frames for which transmission is inhibited by
more that one collision.
SQE Test Errors*
A count of times that the SQE TEST ERROR message is generated by the PLS
sublayer.
Deferred Transmissions*
A count of frames for which the first transmission attempt on a particular
interface is delayed because the medium was busy.
Late Collisions
The number of times that a collision is detected later than 512 bit-times into the
transmission of a packet.
Excessive Collisions*
The number of frames for which transmission failed due to excessive collisions.
Internal Mac Transmit
Errors*
The number of frames for which transmission failed due to an internal MAC
sublayer transmit error.
Carrier Sense Errors*
The number of times that the carrier sense condition was lost or never asserted
when attempting to transmit a frame.
Frames Too Long
The number of frames received that exceed the maximum permitted frame size.
Internal Mac Receive
Errors
The number of frames for which reception failed due to an internal MAC
sublayer receive error.
* The reported values will always be zero because these statistics are not supported by the internal chip set.
3-39
Web Interface
RMON Statistics
RMON Statistics display key statistics for each port from RMON group 1. (RMON
groups 2, 3 and 9 can only be accessed using SNMP management software.) The
following screen displays overall statistics on traffic passing through each port.
RMON statistics provide access to a broad range of statistics, including a total count
of different frame types passing through each port. Values displayed have been
accumulated since the last system reboot.
Parameter
Description
Drop Events
The total number of events in which packets were dropped due to lack of
resources.
Received Bytes
Total number of bytes of data received on the network. This statistic can be
used as a reasonable indication of Ethernet utilization.
Received Frames
The total number of frames (bad, broadcast and multicast) received.
Broadcast Frames
The total number of good frames received that were directed to the broadcast
address. Note that this does not include multicast packets.
Multicast Frames
The total number of good frames received that were directed to this multicast
address.
CRC/Alignment Errors
The number of frames received with CRC/alignment errors (FCS or alignment
errors).
Undersize Frames
The total number of frames received that were less than 64 octets long
(excluding framing bits, but including FCS octets) and were otherwise well
formed.
Oversize Frames
The total number of frames received that were longer than 1518 octets
(excluding framing bits, but including FCS octets) and were otherwise well
formed.
Fragments
The total number of frames received that were less than 64 octets in length
(excluding framing bits, but including FCS octets) and had either an FCS or
alignment error.
Jabbers
The total number of frames received that were longer than 1518 octets
(excluding framing bits, but including FCS octets), and had either an FCS or
alignment error.
Collisions
The best estimate of the total number of collisions on this Ethernet segment.
3-40
Port Statistics
Parameter
Description
64 Byte Frames
The total number of frames (including bad packets) received and transmitted
that were 64 octets in length (excluding framing bits but including FCS octets).
65-127 Byte Frames
The total number of frames (including bad packets) received and transmitted
that were between 65 and 127 octets in length inclusive (excluding framing
bits but including FCS octets).
128-255 Byte Frames
The total number of packets (including bad packets) received and transmitted
that were between 128 and 255 octets in length inclusive (excluding framing
bits but including FCS octets).
256-511 Byte Frames
The total number of packets (including bad packets) received and transmitted
that were between 256 and 511 octets in length inclusive (excluding framing
bits but including FCS octets).
512-1023 Byte Frames
The total number of packets (including bad packets) received and transmitted
that were between 512 and 1023 octets in length inclusive (excluding framing
bits but including FCS octets).
1024-1518 Byte Frames
The total number of packets (including bad packets) received and transmitted
that were between 1024 and 1518 octets in length inclusive (excluding
framing bits but including FCS octets).
3-41
Web Interface
3-42
Chapter 4: Advanced Topics
The Alcatel OmniStack® 8008 supports Layer 2 switching and other advanced
features, which are described in this chapter.
Layer 2 Switching
When a frame enters a port, its destination MAC address is checked in the address
database to see which port leads to this destination. If the destination address
belongs to the incoming port, the frame is dropped or “filtered” because it is
addressed to the local segment. If the destination address is found on another port,
the frame is forwarded to that port and queued for output. But, if the destination
address is not found in the address database, the frame is sent to one or more
output ports based on the rules for handling tagged or untagged VLAN frames.
If the source MAC address of the frame was not found in the address database, it is
recorded along with the incoming port number where it entered the switch. This
information is then used to make later decisions for frame forwarding.
Switching involves the following steps:
•
•
•
•
•
VLAN Classification
Learning
Filtering
Forwarding
Aging
Spanning Tree Algorithm
The Spanning Tree Algorithm (that is, the STA configuration algorithm as outlined in
IEEE 802.1D) can be used to detect and disable network loops, and to provide link
backup. This allows the switch to interact with other bridging devices (including
STA-compliant switches, bridges or routers) in your network to ensure that only one
route exists between any two stations on the network. If redundant paths or loops
are detected, one or more ports are put into a blocking state (stopped from
forwarding packets) to eliminate the extra paths. Moreover, if one or more of the
paths in a stable spanning tree topology fail, this algorithm will automatically change
ports from blocking state to forwarding state to reestablish contact with all network
stations.
The STA uses a distributed algorithm to select a bridging device (STA-compliant
switch, bridge or router) that serves as the root of the spanning tree network. It
selects a root port on each bridging device (except for the root device) which incurs
the lowest path cost when forwarding a packet from that device to the root device.
Then it selects a designated bridging device from each LAN which incurs the lowest
path cost when forwarding a packet from that LAN to the root device. All ports
connected to designated bridging devices are assigned as designated ports. After
determining the lowest cost spanning tree, it enables all root ports and designated
ports, and disables all other ports. Network packets are therefore only forwarded
between root ports and designated ports, eliminating any possible network loops.
4-1
Advanced Topics
Once a stable network topology has been established, all bridges listen for Hello
BPDUs (Bridge Protocol Data Units) transmitted from the Root Bridge. If a bridge
does not get a Hello BPDU after a predefined interval (Maximum Age), the bridge
assumes that the link to the Root Bridge is down. This bridge will then initiate
negotiations with other bridges to reconfigure the network to reestablish a valid
network topology.
The following figure gives an illustration of how the Spanning Tree Algorithm assigns
bridging device ports.
Virtual LANs
Switches do not inherently support broadcast domains, which can lead to broadcast
storms in large networks that handle a lot of IPX or NetBEUI traffic. In conventional
networks with routers, broadcast traffic is split up into physically separate domains to
confine broadcast traffic to the originating group and provide a much cleaner network
environment. This switch creates segregated broadcast domains based on easily
configurable VLANs, these VLANs are then linked, as required, using a router or
Layer 3 switch.
An IEEE 802.1Q VLAN is a group of ports that can be located anywhere in the
network, but communicate as though they belong to the same physical segment.
VLANs help to simplify network management by allowing you to move devices to a
new VLAN without having to change any physical connections. VLANs can be easily
organized to reflect departmental groups (such as Marketing or R&D), usage groups
(such as e-mail), or multicast groups (used for multimedia applications such as video
conferencing).
VLANs provide greater network efficiency by reducing broadcast traffic, but also
allow you to make network changes without having to update IP addresses or IP
subnets. VLANs inherently provide a high level of network security, since traffic must
pass through a Layer 3 switch or a router to reach a different VLAN.
4-2
Virtual LANs
This switch supports the following VLAN features:
• Up to 256 VLANs can be configured based on the IEEE 802.1Q standard
• Distributed VLAN learning across multiple switches using explicit or implicit tagging
and GVRP protocol
• Port overlapping, allowing a port to participate in multiple VLANs
• End stations can belong to multiple VLANs
• Passing traffic between VLAN-aware and VLAN-unaware devices
• Priority tagging
• Port trunking with VLANs
Assigning Ports to VLANs
Before enabling VLANs for the switch, you must first assign each port to the VLAN
group(s) it will participate in. (By default all ports are assigned to VLAN 1 as
untagged ports.) Add a port as a tagged port (that is, a port attached to a
VLAN-aware device) if you want it to carry traffic for one or more VLANs and the
device at the other end of the link also supports VLANs. Then assign the port at the
other end of the link to the same VLAN(s). However, if you want a port on this switch
to participate in one or more VLANs, but the device at the other end of the link does
not support VLANs, then you must add this port as an untagged port (that is, a port
attached to a VLAN-unaware device).
Port-based VLANs are tied to specific ports. The switch’s forwarding decision is
based on the destination MAC address and its associated port. Therefore, to make
valid forwarding and flooding decisions, the switch learns the relationship of the
MAC address to its related port—and thus to the VLAN—at run-time. When the
switch receives a frame, it assigns the frame to the port’s default VLAN if the frame
is untagged (determined by the PVID of the receiving port), or maps it for output to
the broadcast domain associated with the frame’s VLAN tag.
Port Overlapping
Port overlapping can be used to allow access to commonly shared network
resources among different VLAN groups, such as file servers or printers. Note that if
you implement VLANs which do not overlap, but still need to communicate, you can
connect them using a router or Layer 3 switch.
Automatic VLAN Registration (GVRP)
GVRP defines a system whereby the switch can automatically learn the VLANs
each endstation should be assigned to. If an endstation (or its network adapter)
supports the IEEE 802.1Q VLAN protocol, it can be configured to broadcast a
message to your network indicating the VLAN groups it wants to join. When this
switch receives these messages, it will automatically place the receiving port in the
specified VLANs, and then forward the message to all other ports. When the
message arrives at another switch that supports GVRP, it will also place the
receiving port in the specified VLANs, and pass the message on to all other ports.
VLAN requirements are propagated in this way throughout the network.
4-3
Advanced Topics
This allows GVRP-compliant devices to be automatically configured for VLAN
groups based solely on endstation requests.
Forwarding Traffic with Unknown VLAN Tags
This switch only supports 256 VLANs with VLAN IDs ranging from 1 to 2048, but the
IEEE 802.1Q VLAN standard allows for VLAN IDs from 1 to 4094. Therefore, if this
switch is attached to endstations that issue VLAN registration requests, it will have to
forward unknown VLAN tags. This traffic can only be propagated to the rest of the
network if automatic VLAN registration is enabled on your switch.
Forwarding Tagged/Untagged Frames
Ports can be assigned to multiple tagged or untagged VLANs. Each port on the
switch is therefore capable of passing tagged or untagged frames. To forward a
frame from a VLAN-aware device to a VLAN-unaware device, the switch first
decides where to forward the frame, and then strips off the VLAN tag. However, to
forward a frame from a VLAN-unaware device to a VLAN-aware device, the switch
first decides where to forward the frame, and then inserts a VLAN tag reflecting this
port’s default VID. The default PVID is VLAN 1 for all ports, but this can be changed
(see page 2-48 or page 3-30).
Connecting VLAN Groups
The switch supports intra-VLAN communication using wire-speed switching.
However, if you have devices in separate VLANs that must communicate, and it is
not practical to include these devices in a common VLAN, then the VLANs can be
connected via a Layer 3 switch or router.
4-4
Multicast Filtering
Multicast Filtering
Multicasting sends data to a group of nodes instead of a single destination. The
simplest way to implement multicasting is to broadcast data to all nodes on the
network. However, such an approach wastes a lot of bandwidth if the target group is
small compared to overall the broadcast domain.
Since applications such as video conferencing and data sharing are more widely
used today, efficient multicasting has become vital. A common approach is to use a
group registration protocol that lets nodes join or leave multicast groups. A switch or
router can then easily determine which ports contain group members and send data
out to those ports only. This procedure is called multicast filtering.
The purpose of multicast filtering is to optimize a switched network’s performance,
so multicast packets will only be forwarded to those ports containing multicast group
hosts or multicast routers/switches instead of flooding to all ports in the subnet
(VLAN). The OmniStack® 8008 supports multicast filtering by passively monitoring
IGMP Query and Report messages.
IGMP Snooping
A Layer 2 switch can passively snoop on IGMP Query and Report packets
transferred between IP Multicast Routers/Switches and IP Multicast host groups to
learn the IP Multicast group members. It simply monitors the IGMP packets passing
through it, picks out the group registration information, and configures multicast
filters accordingly. IGMP Snooping generates no additional network traffic, allowing
you to significantly reduce the multicast traffic passing through your switch.
IGMP Protocol
The Internet Group Management Protocol (IGMP) runs between hosts and their
immediately neighboring multicast router/switch. IGMP is a multicast host
registration protocol that allows any host to inform its local router that it wants to
receive transmissions addressed to a specific multicast group.
A router, or multicast-enabled switch, can periodically ask its hosts if they want to
receive multicast traffic. If there is more than one router/switch on the LAN
performing IP multicasting, one of these devices is elected “querier” and assumes
the responsibility of querying the LAN for group members.
Based on the group membership information learned from IGMP, a router/switch can
determine which (if any) multicast traffic needs to be forwarded to each of its ports.
At Layer 3, multicast routers use this information, along with a multicast routing
protocol such as DVMRP, to support IP multicasting across the Internet.
Note that IGMP neither alters nor routes any IP multicast packets. A multicast router/
switch must be used to deliver IP multicast packets across different subnetworks.
4-5
Advanced Topics
Class-of-Service (CoS) Support
The OmniStack® 8008 provides two transmit queues on each port, with a Weighted
Fair Queuing scheme. This function can be used to provide independent priorities
for various types of data such as real-time video or voice, and best-effort data.
Priority assignment to a packet in the OmniStack® 8008 can be accomplished in any
of the following ways:
• Priority can be explicitly assigned by end stations which have applications that
require a higher priority than best-effort. This switch utilizes the IEEE 802.1p and
802.1Q tag structure to decide priority assignments for the received packets.
• A port may be manually configured as high priority. In this case, when any other
port receives traffic from a high-priority port, that traffic is automatically placed in
the high-priority output queue.
Port Trunks
Ports can be combined into an aggregate link to increase the bandwidth of a network
connection or ensure fault recovery. You can group ports into trunks that consist of
two, three or four ports, creating an aggregate bandwidth of up to 8 Gbps. Besides
balancing the load across each port in the trunk, the additional ports provide
redundancy by taking over the load if another port in the trunk should fail.
When using port trunks, remember that:
• Before removing a port trunk via the configuration menu, you must disable all the
ports in the trunk or remove all the network cables. Otherwise, a loop may be
created.
• To disable a single link within a port trunk, you should first remove the network
cable, and then disable both ends of the link via the configuration menu. This
allows the traffic passing across that link to be automatically distributed to the other
links in the trunk, without losing any significant amount of traffic.
SNMP Management Software
SNMP (Simple Network Management Protocol) is a communication protocol
designed specifically for managing devices or other elements on a network. Network
equipment commonly managed with SNMP includes hubs, switches, bridges,
routers and host computers. SNMP is typically used to configure these devices for
proper operation in a network environment, as well as monitor them to evaluate
performance and detect potential problems.
4-6
Remote Monitoring
Remote Monitoring
Remote Monitoring (RMON) provides a cost-effective way to monitor large networks
by placing embedded or external probes on distributed network equipment (hubs,
switches or routers). Network management software can access the probes
embedded in recent Alcatel network products to perform traffic analysis,
troubleshoot network problems, evaluate historical trends, or implement proactive
management policies. RMON has already become a valuable tool for network
managers faced with a quickly changing network landscape that contains dozens or
hundreds of separate segments. RMON is the only way to retain control of the
network and analyze applications running at multi-megabit speeds. It provides the
tools you need to implement either reactive or proactive policies that can keep your
network running based on real-time access to key statistical information.
This switch provides support for basic RMON which contains the four key groups
required for basic remote monitoring. These groups include:
Statistics: Includes all the tools needed to monitor your network for common errors
and overall traffic rates. Information is provided on bandwidth utilization, peak
utilization, packet types, errors and collisions, as well as the distribution of packet
sizes.
History: Can be used to create a record of network utilization, packet types, errors
and collisions. You need a historical record of activity to be able to track down
intermittent problems. Historical data can also be used to establish normal baseline
activity, which may reveal problems associated with high traffic levels, broadcast
storms, or other unusual events. Historical information can also be used to predict
network growth and plan for expansion before your network becomes too
overloaded.
Alarms: Can be set to test data over any specified time interval, and can monitor
absolute or changing values (such as a statistical counter reaching a specific value,
or a statistic changing by a certain amount over the set interval). Alarms can be set
to respond to either rising or falling thresholds.
Events: Defines the action to take when an alarm is triggered. The response to an
alarm can include recording the alarm in the Log Table or sending a message to a
trap manager. Note that the Alarm and Event Groups are used together to record
important events or immediately respond to critical network problems.
4-7
Advanced Topics
4-8
Appendix A: Troubleshooting
Troubleshooting Chart
Troubleshooting Chart
Symptom
Action
Cannot connect using
Telnet, Web browser, or
SNMP software
• Be sure you have configured the agent with a valid IP address, subnet
mask and default gateway.
• Check that you have a valid network connection to the switch and that
the port you are using has not been disabled.
• Check network cabling between the management station and the
switch.
• If you cannot connect using Telnet, there may already be another active
session. Try connecting again at a later time.
Cannot access the
on-board configuration
program via a serial port
connection
• Be sure you have set the terminal emulator program to VT100
compatible, 8 data bits, 1 stop bit, no parity, and 9600 bps.
Forgot or lost the
password
• Contact Alcatel’s technical support for help.
• Check that the null-modem serial cable conforms to the pin-out
connections provided in Appendix B.
A-1
Troubleshooting
Upgrading Firmware via the Serial Port
You can upgrade system firmware by connecting your computer to the serial port on
the switch, and using a console interface package that supports the XModem
protocol. (See “Required Connections” on page 1-1.)
1. Restart the system by using the Restart System command; or by pulling out the
power cord to reset the power, waiting five seconds, and plugging it back in.
2. When the system initialization screen appears as shown below, press “D” to
download system firmware, and then indicate the code type (<1> Runtime image
or <2> POST image).
Alcatel OmniStack 8008
Alcatel OmniStack - Copyright (c), 2000 Alcatel and its licensors.
All rights reserved. OmniStack is a trademark of Alcatel registered
in the United States Patent and Trademark Office.
LOADER Version V1.02
POST
Version V1.04
------ Performing the Power-On Self Test (POST) -----EPROM Checksum Test ....................... PASS
Testing the System SDRAM .................. PASS
CPU Self Test ............................. PASS
EEPROM Checksum Test ...................... PASS
MAC Address .............. 00-00-11-11-43-21
------------ Power-On Self Test Completed -----------(D)ownload System Image or (S)tart Application: [S]
Select the Firmware Type to Download (1)Runtime (2)POST [1]: 1
Your Selection: Runtime Code
Change Baud Rate to 115200 and Press <ENTER> to Download.
3. Change your baud rate to 115200 bps, and press Enter to enable download.
From the terminal emulation program, select the file you want to download, set
the protocol to XModem, and then initialize downloading.
Notes: 1. If you use Windows HyperTerminal, disconnect
reconnect
, set the baud rate, and
.
2. The download file must be the correct binary file for the switch; otherwise the
agent will not accept it.
4. After the file has been downloaded, the console screen will display information
similar to that shown below. Press Enter to download to permanent memory,
change the baudrate back to 9600, press Enter to start decompressing the new
firmware, and then press Enter to open the Logon screen.
XModem Download to DRAM buffer area 0x00200000: ............ SUCCESS !
Verifying image in DRAM download buffer 0x00200000... SUCCESS !
Update FlashROM Image at 0x02880000 ... SUCCESS !
(D)ownload another Image or (S)tart Application: [S]
Change Baud Rate to 9600 and Press <ENTER>.
A-2
Upgrading Firmware via the Serial Port
For details on managing the switch, refer to Chapter 2 for information on the
out-of-band console interface, or Chapter 3 for information on the Web interface.
A-3
Troubleshooting
A-4
Appendix B: Pin Assignments
Console Port Pin Assignments
The DB-9 serial port on the switch’s rear panel is used
to connect to the switch for out-of-band console
configuration. The on-board menu-driven configuration program can be accessed
from a terminal or from a PC running a terminal emulation program. The pin
assignments used to connect to the serial port are provided in the following tables.
DB-9 Port Pin Assignments
EIA
Circuit
CCITT
Signal
CF
109
BB
104
BA
Description
Switch’s
DB9 DTE
Pin #
PC DB9
DTE
Pin #
Signal
Direction
DTE-DCE
DCD (Data Carrier Detected)
1
1
<------
RxD (Received Data)
2
2
<------
103
TxD (Transmitted Data)
3
3
------>
CD
108.2
DTR (Data Terminal Ready)
4
4
------>
AB
102
SG (Signal Ground)
5
5
-------
CC
107
DSR (Data Set Ready)
6
6
<------
CA
105
RTS (Request-to-Send)
7
7
------>
CB
106
CTS (Clear-to-Send)
8
8
<------
CE
125
RI (Ring Indicator)
9
9
<------
Console Port to 9-Pin COM Port on PC
Switch’s 9-Pin Serial
Port
CCITT Signal
PC’s 9-Pin COM
Port
1 DCD
-----------DCD ------------
2 RXD
<---------TXD ------------
1
3
3 TXD
-----------RXD ---------->
2
4 DTR
-----------DSR ---------->
6
5 SGND
-----------SGND ----------
5
6 DSR
-----------DTR ------------
4
7 RTS
-----------CTS ----------->
8
8 CTS
<---------RTS -------------
7
9 RI
-----------RI ---------------
9
B-1
Pin Assignments
Console Port to 25-Pin DTE Port on PC
Switch’s 9-Pin Serial
Port
1 DCD
2 RXD
3 TXD
4 DTR
5 SGND
6 DSR
7 RTS
8 CTS
9 RI
B-2
Null Modem
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
9
20
1
3
2
8
20
7
4
5
6
PC’s 25-Pin DTE
Port
8 DCD
3 TXD
2 RXD
20 DTR
7 SGND
6 DSR
4 RTS
5 CTS
22 RI
Glossary
Bandwidth Utilization
The percentage of packets received over time as compared to overall bandwidth.
BOOTP
Boot protocol used to load the operating system for devices connected to the
network.
GARP VLAN Registration Protocol (GVRP)
Defines a way for switches to exchange VLAN information in order to register
necessary VLAN members on ports along the Spanning Tree so that VLANs defined
in each switch can work automatically over a Spanning Tree network.
Generic Attribute Registration Protocol (GARP)
GARP is a protocol that can be used by endstations and switches to register and
propagate multicast group membership information in a switched environment such
that multicast data frames are propagated only to those parts of a switched LAN
containing registered endstations. (Formerly called Group Address Registration
Protocol.)
Group Address Registration Protocol
See Generic Attribute Registration Protocol.
Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP)
An integral part of the Internet Protocol (IP) that handles error and control
messages. ICMP also includes an echo request /reply used to test whether a
destination is reachable and responding.
IEEE 802.1D
Specifies a general method for the operation of MAC bridges, including the
Spanning Tree Protocol.
IEEE 802.1Q
VLAN Tagging defines Ethernet frame tags which carry VLAN information. It allows
switches to assign end-stations to different virtual LANs, and defines a standard way
for VLANs to communicate across switched networks.
IEEE 802.3ac
Defines frame extensions for VLAN tagging.
In-Band Management
Management of the network from a station that is attached to the network.
Glossary-1
Glossary
Link Aggregation
See Port Trunk.
MIB
An acronym for Management Information Base. It is a set of database objects that
contains information about the device. It defines variables needed by the SNMP
protocol to monitor and control components in a network.
Out-of-Band Management
Management of the network from a station that is not attached to the network.
Port Mirroring
A method whereby data on a target port is mirrored to an analysis port for
troubleshooting with a network sniffer or RMON probe. This allows data on the target
port to be studied unobtrusively.
Port Trunk
Defines network link aggregation and trunking standards which specify how to
create a single high-speed logical link that combines several lower-speed physical
links.
Remote Monitoring (RMON)
RMON provides comprehensive network monitoring capabilities. It eliminates the
polling required in standard SNMP, and can set alarms on a variety of traffic
conditions, including specific errors types.
Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP)
An application protocol offering network management services in the Internet suite
of protocols.
Serial Line Internet Protocol (SLIP)
A standard protocol for point-to-point connections using serial lines.
Spanning Tree Algorithm (STA)
A technology that checks your network for any loops. A loop can often occur in
complicated network systems or systems with redundant links. Spanning-tree
detects and directs data along the shortest path, maximizing the performance and
efficiency of the network.
Spanning Tree Protocol (STP)
See Spanning Tree Algorithm.
Glossary-2
Glossary
Telnet
Defines a remote communication facility for interfacing to a terminal device over
TCP/IP.
Trivial File Transfer Protocol (TFTP)
The TCP/IP standard protocol for file transfer with minimal capability and minimal
overhead. TFTP depends on the connectionless datagram delivery service, UDP.
Virtual LAN (VLAN)
A Virtual LAN is a collection of network nodes that share the same collision domain
regardless of their physical location or connection point in the network. A VLAN
serves as a logical workgroup with no physical barriers, allowing users to share
information and resources as though located on the same LAN.
XModem
A protocol used to transfer files between devices. Data is grouped in 128-byte
blocks and error-corrected.
Glossary-3
Glossary
Glossary-4
Index
Numerics
H
802.1p port priority 4-6
802.1Q VLANs 4-2
hardware version 3-8
HTTP
configuration 2-12
server 2-12
A
address table, static unicast 3-15
Administrator password, setting 3-11
aging time of address table 3-15
automatic VLAN registration 4-3
B
banner message configuration 2-21
baud rate, configuring 3-5
BOOTP, for IP configuration 1-2, 3-9
bridge
capability 3-21
MIB extensions 2-40, 3-21
Bridge Protocol Data Units
(BPDUs) 4-2
Broadcast Storm Control 2-38, 2-39
C
Class of Service (CoS) 4-6
community strings, configuring 3-10
connections
serial port 1-1
Web browser 1-2
console login configuration 2-17
console port
configuring 3-5
connections 1-1
pin assignments B-1
I
IGMP 3-31
multicast filtering 2-36
protocol 4-5
query 4-5
report 4-5
snooping 4-5
in-band connections 1-2
Internet Group Management Protocol,
see IGMP
IP
configuration 2-10, 3-9
multicast filtering 2-36
L
Layer 2 switching 4-1
link aggregation 4-6
log-in
console interface 2-1
Web interface 3-2
M
firmware
upgrades A-2
firmware upgrade
TFTP download 3-13
Web upload 3-12
firmware version 3-8
MAC address of agent 3-9
main boad information 3-8
main menu 2-2, 3-6
description 3-6
management
configuration 2-20
firmware upgrades 3-12
options 1-1
software, SNMP 4-6
using SNMP 3-10
MIB extensions, configuring 3-21
mirror port configuration 3-37
multicast filtering 4-5
configuring 3-31
G
N
GVRP 4-3
network management station
access 3-10
D
downloading software A-2
F
Index-1
Index
O
out-of-band connection 1-1
P
password configuration 3-11
pin assignments, console port B-1
Ping 2-11
port
configuration 3-34, 3-35
information 3-33
mirror 3-37
overlapping 4-3
priority 2-41
statistics 3-39
trunk configuration 2-34
trunks 3-37, 4-6
priority
port configuration 3-23
traffic class 3-24
problems, troubleshooting A-1
PVID 4-3
Q
QoS configuration 2-41
Quality of Service (QoS) 3-23
R
remote monitoring (RMON) 4-7
restoring switch configuration 3-14
RMON probes and mirror ports 3-37
S
screen refresh 3-5
security configuration 3-11
serial number of main board 3-8
serial port
configuring 3-5
connections 1-1
XModem downloads A-2
Simple Network Management Protocol
see SNMP
SNMP
community 2-15, 3-10
configuration 3-10
management 1-2
software downloads A-2
sofware upgrades 3-12
Spanning Tree Algorithm, see STA
STA 2-26, 3-16, 4-1
Index-2
statistics
Etherlike 3-39
RMON 3-40
switch information 2-7, 3-8
switching, Layer 2 4-1
system information 2-6, 3-7
T
tagged
ports 4-3
VLANs 3-26, 3-28, 4-4
Telnet sessions, maximum number
of 3-9
TFTP
configuration for downloads 2-18
protocol 2-18
timeout, console 3-5
traffic classes configuration 2-41
traffic classes, configuring 4-6
trap managers, configuring 3-11
Traps, enabling 3-11
troubleshooting A-1
trunks, configuring 2-34, 3-37
U
untagged
ports 4-3
VLANs 4-4
upgrading firmware 3-12
upgrading software A-2
user password 2-1
V
Virtual LAN
see VLAN
VLAN
assigning ports 4-3
automatic registration 4-3
configuration 2-44, 3-25
connecting 4-4
port overlapping 4-3
static list 3-27
static membership by port 3-29
static table 3-27
static table configuration 2-46
tagged 3-26, 4-4
unknown tags 4-4
untagged 4-4
Index
W
Web
access requirements 3-1
browser connection 1-2
Web interface
configuration buttons 3-3
home page 3-2
panel display 3-4
passwords 3-2
Web server 2-12
Weighted Fair Queuing 2-41
X
XModem downloads A-2
Index-3
www.alcatel.com/enterprise
Alcatel
26801 West Agoura Road
Calabasas, CA 91301 USA
Contact Center
(800) 995-2612 US/Canada
(818) 880-3500 Outside US
www.alcatel.com/enterprise
Product specifications contained in this document are subject to change without notice. Contact
your local Alcatel representative for the most current information. Copyright © 2003 Alcatel
Internetworking, Inc. All rights reserved. This document may not be reproduced in whole or in
part without the expressed written permission of Alcatel Internetworking, Inc. Alcatel® and the
Alcatel logo are registered trademarks of Alcatel. All other trademarks are the property of their
respective owners.
P/N 060117-10, Rev. B 01/02
F2.5 E012002-R03
150515-102