Allied Telesis AT-WA7500 Network Card User Manual

Access Points
®
AT-WA7500
AT-WA7501
◆
Installation
and User’s
Guide
VERSION 2.3
PN 613-000066 Rev C
Copyright © 2005 Allied Telesyn, Inc.
3200 North First Street, San Jose, CA 95134 USA
All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced without prior written permission from Allied Telesyn, Inc.
Microsoft is a registered trademark of Microsoft Corporation, Netscape Navigator is a registered trademark of Netscape
Communications Corporation. All other product names, company names, logos or other designations mentioned herein are
trademarks or registered trademarks of their respective owners.
Intermec is a registered trademark and MobileLAN is a trademark of Intermec Technologies Corporation.
Allied Telesyn, Inc. reserves the right to make changes in specifications and other information contained in this document without
prior written notice. The information provided herein is subject to change without notice. In no event shall Allied Telesyn, Inc. be liable
for any incidental, special, indirect, or consequential damages whatsoever, including but not limited to lost profits, arising out of or
related to this manual or the information contained herein, even if Allied Telesyn, Inc. has been advised of, known, or should have
known, the possibility of such damages.
Contents
Preface ............................................................................................................................................................................... 7
Document Conventions ....................................................................................................................................................... 8
Where to Find Web-based Guides ...................................................................................................................................... 9
Contacting Allied Telesyn .................................................................................................................................................. 10
Online Support ...........................................................................................................................................................10
Email and Telephone Support ....................................................................................................................................10
Returning Products.....................................................................................................................................................10
For Sales or Corporate Information ............................................................................................................................10
Management Software Updates .................................................................................................................................10
Chapter 1
Getting Started ................................................................................................................................................................ 11
Which Allied Telesyn Access Products Does This Manual Support? ................................................................................ 12
Overview of the AT-WA7500 and AT-WA7501 Access Point Products............................................................................. 13
Features .....................................................................................................................................................................15
What’s New for Software Releases 2.3? ....................................................................................................................16
Understanding the LEDs ............................................................................................................................................17
Understanding the Ports.............................................................................................................................................19
How the Access Point Fits in Your Network ...................................................................................................................... 21
Using One Access Point in a Simple Wireless Network .............................................................................................21
Using Multiple Access Points and Roaming Wireless End Devices ...........................................................................23
Using an Access Point as a WAP ..............................................................................................................................25
Using Access Points to Create a Point-to-Point Bridge..............................................................................................30
Using Dual Radio Access Points for Redundancy......................................................................................................37
Configuring the Access Point (Setting the IP Address) ..................................................................................................... 38
Using the ATI AT-WA7500 Configuration Wizard.......................................................................................................38
Using a Communications Program.............................................................................................................................40
Using a Web Browser Interface..................................................................................................................................42
Using a Telnet Session ..............................................................................................................................................44
Saving Configuration Changes .......................................................................................................................................... 46
Using a Web Browser Interface..................................................................................................................................47
Using a Telnet Session ..............................................................................................................................................48
Chapter 2
Installing the Access Points .......................................................................................................................................... 49
Installation Guidelines ....................................................................................................................................................... 50
Microwave Ovens .......................................................................................................................................................50
Cordless Telephones .................................................................................................................................................50
Other Access Points ...................................................................................................................................................51
Installing the AT-WA7501 .................................................................................................................................................. 52
Connecting the AT-WA7501 to Your Wired LAN........................................................................................................52
Connecting the AT-WA7501 to Power .......................................................................................................................53
Installing the AT-WA7500 .................................................................................................................................................. 54
Connecting the AT-WA7500 to Your Wired LAN and Power......................................................................................54
Connecting to Your Fiber Optic Network ........................................................................................................................... 55
Using and Purchasing the Required Patch Cord and Adapter ...................................................................................55
Connecting to an MT-RJ Network ..............................................................................................................................56
Connecting to an SC Network ....................................................................................................................................56
Connecting to an ST Network ....................................................................................................................................57
3
Contents
Connecting Power Over Ethernet ...................................................................................................................................... 59
External Antenna Placement Guidelines ........................................................................................................................... 60
Connecting Antennas to the Radios ...........................................................................................................................60
Positioning Antennas for 802.11g, 802.11b, and 802.11a Radios .............................................................................60
Positioning Antennas for Dual Radio Access Points ..................................................................................................61
Positioning Antennas for Antenna Diversity................................................................................................................61
Chapter 3
Configuring the Ethernet Network ................................................................................................................................ 64
Configuring the TCP/IP Settings ........................................................................................................................................ 65
Configuring the Access Point as a DHCP Client ........................................................................................................67
Configuring the Access Point as a DHCP Server .......................................................................................................70
Configuring the Access Point to Send ARP Requests................................................................................................76
Configuring Other Ethernet or Fiber Optic Settings ........................................................................................................... 77
Configuring the Ethernet Address Table.....................................................................................................................79
Configuring Ethernet Filters ............................................................................................................................................... 80
Using Ethernet Frame Type Filters.............................................................................................................................80
Using Predefined Subtype Filters ...............................................................................................................................83
Customizing Subtype Filters .......................................................................................................................................83
Chapter 4
Configuring the Radios .................................................................................................................................................. 96
About the Radios ............................................................................................................................................................... 97
Configuring the 802.11g Radio .......................................................................................................................................... 98
Configuring 802.11g Radio Advanced Parameters ..................................................................................................102
Configuring 802.11g Radio Inbound Filters ..............................................................................................................107
Applying Hot Settings ...............................................................................................................................................108
Configuring the 802.11g Radio to Communicate With a SpectraLink Network ........................................................109
Configuring the 802.11b Radio ........................................................................................................................................ 110
Configuring 802.11b Radio Advanced Parameters ..................................................................................................112
Configuring 802.11b Radio Inbound Filters ..............................................................................................................115
Configuring a SpectraLink Network ................................................................................................................................. 117
Configuring the 802.11a Radio ........................................................................................................................................ 119
Configuring 802.11a Radio Advanced Parameters ..................................................................................................124
Configuring 802.11a Radio Inbound Filters ..............................................................................................................126
Chapter 5
Configuring the Spanning Tree ................................................................................................................................... 129
About the Access Point Spanning Tree ........................................................................................................................... 130
About the Primary LAN and the Root Access Point..................................................................................................131
About Secondary LANs and Designated Bridges .....................................................................................................132
About Ethernet Bridging/Data Link Tunneling...........................................................................................................134
About Routable and Non-Routable Network Protocols.............................................................................................135
Configuring the Spanning Tree Parameters .................................................................................................................... 136
About IP Tunnels ............................................................................................................................................................. 140
Creating IP Tunnels ..................................................................................................................................................142
Using One IP Multicast Address for Multiple IP Tunnels ..........................................................................................144
How Frames Are Forwarded Through IP Tunnels ....................................................................................................145
Configuring IP Tunnels .................................................................................................................................................... 148
Configuring the IP Address List ................................................................................................................................149
Configuring IP Tunnel Filters ....................................................................................................................................150
Filter Examples ................................................................................................................................................................ 156
Example 1.................................................................................................................................................................157
Example 2.................................................................................................................................................................157
Example 3.................................................................................................................................................................159
Example 4.................................................................................................................................................................159
Comparing IP Tunnels to Mobile IP ................................................................................................................................. 160
Configuring Global Parameters........................................................................................................................................ 162
Configuring Global Flooding .....................................................................................................................................162
Configuring Global RF Parameters...........................................................................................................................165
4
AT-WA7500 and AT-WA7501 Installation and User’s Guide
Chapter 6
Configuring Security .................................................................................................................................................... 169
Understanding Security ................................................................................................................................................... 170
When You Configure Different SSIDs with Different Security Settings ....................................................................172
When You Include Multiple RADIUS Servers on the RADIUS Server List ...............................................................173
Controlling Access to Access Point Menus ..................................................................................................................... 174
Enabling Access Methods ........................................................................................................................................174
Setting Up Logins .....................................................................................................................................................176
Creating a Secure Spanning Tree ................................................................................................................................... 181
Enabling Secure Communications Between Access Points and End Devices................................................................ 184
Using an Access Control List (ACL) .........................................................................................................................184
Configuring VLANs ...................................................................................................................................................187
Configuring WEP 64/128/152 Security .....................................................................................................................189
Implementing an 802.1x Security Solution ...............................................................................................................192
Configuring Wi-Fi Protected Access (WPA) Security ...............................................................................................199
Chapter 7
Configuring the Embedded Authentication Server (EAS) ........................................................................................ 204
About the Embedded Authentication Server (EAS) ......................................................................................................... 205
About Certificates ............................................................................................................................................................ 206
Understanding Which Access Points Need Certificates ...........................................................................................206
Understanding Which Certificates Are Installed by Default ......................................................................................206
Viewing the Certificates Installed on an Access Point..............................................................................................207
Installing and Uninstalling Certificates......................................................................................................................208
Configuring the EAS ........................................................................................................................................................ 210
Enabling the EAS .....................................................................................................................................................210
Configuring the Database.........................................................................................................................................212
Using the Rejected List ............................................................................................................................................215
Exporting and Importing Databases .........................................................................................................................217
Chapter 8
Managing, Troubleshooting, and Upgrading Access Points .................................................................................... 220
Managing the Access Points ........................................................................................................................................... 221
Using the Wavelink Avalanche Client Management System....................................................................................221
Using Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP) ............................................................................................226
Maintaining the Access Points......................................................................................................................................... 228
Viewing AP Connections ..........................................................................................................................................228
Viewing AP Neighbors..............................................................................................................................................231
Viewing Port Statistics ..............................................................................................................................................234
Viewing DHCP Status ..............................................................................................................................................235
Viewing the Events Log ............................................................................................................................................236
Viewing the About This Access Point Screen...........................................................................................................237
Using the LEDs to Locate Access Points .................................................................................................................238
Restoring the Access Point to the Default Configuration..........................................................................................239
Troubleshooting the Access Points ................................................................................................................................. 240
Using the Configuration Error Messages..................................................................................................................240
Troubleshooting With the LEDs................................................................................................................................245
General Troubleshooting ..........................................................................................................................................246
Troubleshooting the Radios .....................................................................................................................................251
Troubleshooting Security..........................................................................................................................................255
Recovering a Failed Access Point............................................................................................................................258
Upgrading the Access Points .......................................................................................................................................... 261
Using a Web Browser Interface................................................................................................................................261
Troubleshooting the Upgrade ...................................................................................................................................262
Chapter 9
Additional Access Point Features ............................................................................................................................... 263
Understanding the Access Point Segments .................................................................................................................... 264
Understanding Transparent Files .................................................................................................................................... 265
5
Contents
Using the AP Monitor ....................................................................................................................................................... 266
Entering the AP Monitor ...........................................................................................................................................266
Using AP Monitor Commands ..................................................................................................................................266
Using Content Addressable Memory (CAM) Mode Commands ...............................................................................268
Using Test Mode Commands ...................................................................................................................................269
Using Service Mode Commands ..............................................................................................................................270
Using Command Console Mode ...................................................................................................................................... 276
Entering Command Console Mode...........................................................................................................................276
Using the Commands ...............................................................................................................................................277
Using TFTP Commands ...........................................................................................................................................279
Using sdvars Commands..........................................................................................................................................284
Creating Script Files......................................................................................................................................................... 288
New Sample Script for Upgrading an Access Point..................................................................................................288
Legacy Sample Script for Upgrading Any Access Point ...........................................................................................290
Copying Files To and From the Access Point.................................................................................................................. 291
Importing or Exporting an EAS RADIUS Database File ...........................................................................................292
Transferring Files Using Your Web Browser ............................................................................................................293
Viewing and Copying Files Using Your Web Browser ..............................................................................................294
Transferring Files to and from a TFTP Server ..........................................................................................................295
Starting or Stopping the TFTP Server ......................................................................................................................296
Automatically Upgrading Software............................................................................................................................296
Appendix A
Specifications ............................................................................................................................................................... 298
AT-7500 Access Point ..................................................................................................................................................... 299
AT-7501 Access Point ..................................................................................................................................................... 300
Radio Specifications ........................................................................................................................................................ 302
IEEE 802.11g ...........................................................................................................................................................302
IEEE 802.11b ...........................................................................................................................................................302
IEEE 802.11a ...........................................................................................................................................................303
Appendix B
Default Settings ............................................................................................................................................................. 305
TCP/IP Settings Menu Defaults ....................................................................................................................................... 306
DHCP Server Setup Menu Defaults................................................................................................................................. 308
IEEE 802.11g Radio Menu Defaults ................................................................................................................................ 309
IEEE 802.11b Radio Menu Defaults ................................................................................................................................ 311
IEEE 802.11a Radio Menu Defaults ................................................................................................................................ 313
Spanning Tree Settings Menu Defaults ........................................................................................................................... 315
Global Flooding Menu Defaults........................................................................................................................................ 316
Global RF Parameters Menu Defaults ............................................................................................................................. 317
Telnet Gateway Configuration Menu Defaults ................................................................................................................. 319
Ethernet Configuration Menu Defaults............................................................................................................................. 320
Ethernet Advanced Filters Menu Defaults ................................................................................................................321
IP Tunnels Menu Defaults................................................................................................................................................ 322
Tunnels Filter Menu Defaults....................................................................................................................................322
Network Management Menu Defaults.............................................................................................................................. 324
Instant On Menu Defaults .........................................................................................................................................324
Security Menu Defaults.................................................................................................................................................... 325
Passwords Menu Defaults ........................................................................................................................................325
IEEE 802.11 (g, b or a) Radio Security Menu Defaults ............................................................................................326
RADIUS Server List Menu Defaults..........................................................................................................................328
Spanning Tree Security Menu Defaults ....................................................................................................................328
Embedded Authentication Server Menu Defaults.....................................................................................................329
Appendix C
Glossary ........................................................................................................................................................................ 330
6
Preface
This manual provides you with information about the features of the Allied
Telesyn AT-WA7500 and AT-WA7501 access points with software release
2.0 (or later). This manual also describes how to install, configure, operate,
maintain, and troubleshoot the access points.
7
Preface
Document Conventions
This document uses the following conventions:
Note
Notes provide additional information.
Caution
Cautions inform you that performing or omitting a specific action
may result in equipment damage or loss of data.
Warning
Warnings inform you that performing or omitting a specific action
may result in bodily injury.
8
AT-WA7500 and AT-WA7501 Installation and User’s Guide
Where to Find Web-based Guides
The installation and user guides for all Allied Telesyn products are
available in Portable Document Format (PDF) from on our web site at
www.alliedtelesyn.com. You can view the documents on-line or
download them onto a local workstation or server.
9
Preface
Contacting Allied Telesyn
This section provides Allied Telesyn contact information for technical
support as well as sales or corporate information.
Online Support
You can request technical support online by accessing the Allied Telesyn
Knowledge Base from the following web site: www.alliedtelesyn.com/kb.
You can use the Knowledge Base to submit questions to our technical
support staff and review answers to previously asked questions.
Email and
Telephone
Support
For Technical Support via email or telephone, refer to the Support &
Services section of the Allied Telesyn web site: www.alliedtelesyn.com.
Returning
Products
Products for return or repair must first be assigned a Return Materials
Authorization (RMA) number. A product sent to Allied Telesyn without a
RMA number will be returned to the sender at the sender’s expense.
To obtain a RMA number, contact Allied Telesyn’s Technical Support at
our web site: www.alliedtelesyn.com.
For Sales or
Corporate
Information
Management
Software Updates
You can contact Allied Telesyn for sales or corporate information at our
web site: www.alliedtelesyn.com. To find the contact information for your
country, select Contact Us -> Worldwide Contacts.
You can download new releases of management software for our
managed products from either of the following Internet sites:
❑ Allied Telesyn web site: www.alliedtelesyn.com
❑ Allied Telesyn FTP server: ftp://ftp.alliedtelesyn.com
To download new software from the Allied Telesyn FTP server using your
workstation’s command prompt, you need FTP client software and you
must log in to the server. Enter “anonymous” as the user name and your
email address for the password.
10
Chapter 1
Getting Started
This chapter introduces the Allied Telesyn AT-WA7500 and AT-WA7501
access points, explains their features, and describes how you can use
them to expand your data collection network. This chapter covers these
topics:
ˆ
“Which Allied Telesyn Access Products Does This Manual Support?”
on page 12
ˆ
“Overview of the AT-WA7500 and AT-WA7501 Access Point Products”
on page 13
ˆ
“How the Access Point Fits in Your Network” on page 21
ˆ
“Configuring the Access Point (Setting the IP Address)” on page 38
ˆ
“Saving Configuration Changes” on page 46
11
Chapter 1: Getting Started
Which Allied Telesyn Access Products Does This Manual Support?
This system manual supports the AT-WA7500 and AT-WA7501 access
points with software release 2.2.
12
AT-WA7500 and AT-WA7501 Installation and User’s Guide
Overview of the AT-WA7500 and AT-WA7501 Access Point Products
The Allied Telesyn AT-WA7500 and AT-WA7501 access points deliver
reliable and seamless wireless performance to almost any operational
environment. They are designed for standards-based connectivity and
they support industry standard IEEE 802.11g, 802.11b, and 802.11a
wireless technologies.
The AT-WA7500 and AT-WA7501 access points with an IEEE 802.11g
radio installed are Wi-Fi certified for interoperability with other 802.11g and
802.11b wireless LAN devices.
The AT-WA7500 and AT-WA7501 access points with an IEEE 802.11g
radio installed are Wi-Fi® certified for interoperability with other 802.11b
and 802.11g wireless LAN devices.
The AT-WA7500 and AT-WA7501 access points with an IEEE 802.11b
radio installed are Wi-Fi certified for interoperability with other 802.11b
wireless LAN devices.
The AT-WA7500 and AT-WA7501 access points with an IEEE 802.11a
radio installed are Wi-Fi certified for interoperability with other 802.11a
wireless LAN devices.
The Allied Telesyn access family consists of these access points:
ˆ
AT-WA7500
ˆ
AT-WA7501
The access point can be configured as an access point or as a point-topoint or point-to-multipoint bridge. Normally, an access point is connected
to a wired local area network (LAN) and provides network access for
wireless end devices. A point-to-point bridge connects two wired LANs
and is often used to provide wireless communications in locations where
running cable is difficult, such as across roads or between buildings. A
point-to-multipoint bridge not only connects two wired LANs, but also
communicates with wireless end devices.
An access point can also be configured as a wireless access point (WAP)
or repeater. A WAP is not connected to a wired LAN; it receives data from
wireless end devices and forwards the data to an access point (that is
connected to the wired LAN). A WAP is useful in areas that do not support
a wired network connection.
On the left, this illustration shows the ways you can manage and configure
the access point, and on the right, it shows the access point’s general
multiport bridge architecture.
13
Chapter 1: Getting Started
Management and Configuration
Multiport Bridge
MIB
DHCP
Agent
DHCP
Forwarding
Database
Spanning
Tree
TCP/IP
TFTP
File
System
HTTP
Wireless ARP
Server
Bridging
Telnet
Configuration
Settings
Ethernet
Port
Radio
Port 1
Radio
Port 2
IP
Port
Configuration Port
RS-232 Connector
Ethernet
Antenna
Connection Connection
Antenna
Connection
Figure 1. Access Point Architecture
Access points are multiport (Ethernet-to-wireless) bridges, and because
wireless end devices operate similarly to other Ethernet devices, all your
existing Ethernet applications will work with the wireless network without
any special networking software. Any access point, except the root access
point, can concurrently receive hello messages on its Ethernet port, its
radio port, and its IP tunnel port. However, an access point can use only
one port to attach to the network. Port priorities are structured as follows:
1. Ethernet
2. IP tunnel
3. Radio
Unlike the physical Ethernet and radio ports, the IP tunnel port does not
have its own output connector. It is a logical port that provides IP
encapsulation services for frames that must be routed to reach their
destinations. Once frames are encapsulated, they are transmitted or
received through the Ethernet or radio port.
Wireless end devices may use power management to maintain battery life.
These end devices periodically wake up to receive frames that arrived
while their radio was powered down. The access point automatically
provides a pending message delivery service that holds frames until the
end device is ready to receive them.
14
AT-WA7500 and AT-WA7501 Installation and User’s Guide
Features
This table lists the features of the access points.
Table 1. Access Point Feature Comparison
Feature
AT-WA7500
AT-WA7501
Access Point
Yes
Yes
Point-to-Point Bridge (Wireless
Bridge)
Yes
Yes
Wireless Access Point (WAP) or
Repeater
Yes
Yes
Secure Wireless Hops (SWAP)
Yes
Yes
Secure Wireless Hops (TLS or
TTLS)
Yes
Yes
Radios
802.11g*
802.11b
802.11a
802.11g*
802.11b
802.11a
Dual Radio Support
Yes
Yes
Wi-Fi Compliant
Yes
Yes
Wi-Fi Protected Access (WPA) for
802.1x mode or PSK mode.
Yes
Yes
802.1x Authenticator
Yes
Yes
802.1x Authentication Server
Yes
Yes
Access Control List (ACL) Server
Yes
Yes
Password Server
Yes
Yes
Secure Web Browser Interface
(HTTPS)
Yes
Yes
10BaseT/100BaseTx
Yes
Yes
Fiber Optics Option
No
Yes
Serial Port
Yes
Yes
Data Link Tunneling
Yes
Yes
IP Tunneling
Yes
Yes
Antenna Diversity
Yes
Yes
Non-incentive Antenna System
Yes
Yes
NEMA 4/IP 54 Protection
No
Yes
Power Supply
No
AC
15
Chapter 1: Getting Started
Table 1. Access Point Feature Comparison (Continued)
Feature
AT-WA7500
AT-WA7501
Power Over Ethernet
Yes
Yes
Heater Option
No
Yes
* The 802.11g radio is sometimes referred to as the 802.11b/g radio
because it can be configured to communicate with any 802.11b and
802.11g radios that have the same SSID and security settings. For details,
see “About the Radios” on page 97.
Other features of all access points include:
What’s New for
Software Releases
2.3?
ˆ
the ability to be managed by the Wavelink Avalanche client
management system, Allied Telesyn manager, a web browser, telnet,
and SNMP.
ˆ
the ability to be a DHCP server or client and a NAT server.
ˆ
the ability to be an ARP server.
ˆ
easy software distribution using the distributed upgrade server.
ˆ
advanced filtering of wired data traffic.
ˆ
enhanced power management for wireless end devices.
ˆ
fast roaming reliability for wireless end devices.
ˆ
load balancing.
ˆ
basic WEP 64, WEP 128, or WEP 152 security for 802.11g, 802.11b,
or 802.11a radios.
Software release 2.3 can only be installed on the Allied Telesyn
AT-WA7500 and AT-WA7501 access points.
Note
To determine the model of your access point, from the menu choose
Maintenance > About this Access Point. In the Config String
field, the first five characters tell you the model.
New features include these items:
16
ˆ
Dual 802.11g radios: The access points support dual 802.11g radios.
ˆ
Wireless hops and wireless bridging: The 802.11g radio supports
wireless hops and wireless bridging. It also supports WPA security and
802.1x security across the wireless hops.
ˆ
Other new 802.11g radio features: The 802.11g radio now supports
antenna diversity, mixed 802.11g and 802.11b modes, and medium
AT-WA7500 and AT-WA7501 Installation and User’s Guide
reservation (including a fragmentation threshold and a reservation
threshold).
Understanding
the LEDs
ˆ
AT-WA7500 Configuration Wizard: You can use the configuration
wizard to help you configure and maintain your access point network.
ˆ
Ability to configure different SSIDs to use different authentication
servers.
The AT-WA7500 and AT-WA7501 access points have five LEDs. To
understand the LEDs during normal use, see the next table. To use the
LEDs to help troubleshoot the radios, see “Troubleshooting the Radios” on
page 251.
Table 2. LED Descriptions
Icon
LED
Description
Power
Remains on when power is applied.
Wireless #1
Blinks when a frame is transmitted or
received on the radio port for the radio
installed in radio slot 1.
Wireless #2
Blinks when a frame is transmitted or
received on the radio port for the radio
installed in radio slot 2 (if a second radio
is installed).
Wired LAN
Blinks when a frame is transmitted or
received on the Ethernet port.
Root/error
Blinks if this device is configured as the
root. It remains on if an error is detected.
17
Chapter 1: Getting Started
This illustration shows the LEDs that are on the AT-WA7501 access point.
For help understanding these LEDs, see the LED Descriptions table on
page 17.
Power
Wireless
#1
Wireless
#2
Allied Telesyn
Readiness
Indicator
Wired LAN
Figure 2. AT-WA7501 LEDs
This illustration shows the LEDs that are on the AT-WA7500 access point.
For help understanding these LEDs, see the LED Descriptions table on
page 17.
Unive
rsal
Acces
s Poi
nt
™
Power
Wireless #1
Wireless #2
Wired LAN
Allied Telesyn
Readiness
Indicator
21XXT018.eps
Figure 3. AT-WA7500 LEDs
18
AT-WA7500 and AT-WA7501 Installation and User’s Guide
Understanding
the Ports
The access point may have up to four ports.
Table 3. Port Descriptions
Port
Description
Power (Not AT-WA7500,
optional AT-WA7501)
Used with an appropriate power cable,
this port connects the access point to an
AC power source.
Serial
Used with an RS-232 null-modem cable,
this port connects the access point to a
terminal or PC to perform configuration.
Ethernet
10BaseT/100BaseTx port. Used with an
appropriate cable, this port connects the
access point to your Ethernet network.
The access point auto-negotiates with the
device it is communicating with so that the
data rate is set at the highest rate at which
both devices can communicate.
Fiber optic
(Not AT-WA7500,
optional AT-WA7501)
Optional 100BaseFX port. You must use a
patch cable with a female MT-RJ
connector to connect the access point to
your MT-RJ, SC, or ST fiber optic
network.
To access the ports on the AT-WA7501, you must remove the cable
access door.
To remove the AT-WA7501 cable access door
1. Unscrew the two thumbscrews on the cable access door.
2. Remove the door.
This illustration shows the ports that are on the AT-WA7501. For help
understanding these ports, see the Port Descriptions table on page 19.
19
Chapter 1: Getting Started
Cable
access
door
Power port
(optional)
Serial
port
10BaseT/
Fiber optic
100BaseTx
Ethernet port port (optional)
Figure 4. AT-WA7501 Ports
The AT-WA7500 ports are located on the bottom of the access point. This
illustration shows the ports that are on the AT-WA7500. For help
understanding these ports, see the Port Descriptions table on page 19.
10BaseT/100BaseTx
Ethernet port
Serial port
Figure 5. AT-WA7500 Ports
For more information on connecting the ports, see Chapter 2, “Getting
Started” on page 11.
20
AT-WA7500 and AT-WA7501 Installation and User’s Guide
How the Access Point Fits in Your Network
In general, the access point forwards data from wireless end devices to
the wired Ethernet network. You can also use the access point as a pointto-point bridge, or if your access point has two radios, you can use it as a
point-to-multipoint bridge or a WAP. Use the access point in the following
locations and environments.
Table 4. Access Point Environments
Access Point
Environment
AT-WA7500
Use in most indoor environments.
AT-WA7501
Use in locations where an access point is
exposed to extreme environments.
The access point supports a variety of network configurations. These
configurations are explained in the following sections:
Using One Access
Point in a Simple
Wireless Network
ˆ
“Using One Access Point in a Simple Wireless Network” on page 21
ˆ
“Using Multiple Access Points and Roaming Wireless End Devices” on
page 23
ˆ
“Using an Access Point as a WAP” on page 25
ˆ
“Using Access Points to Create a Point-to-Point Bridge” on page 30
ˆ
“Using Dual Radio Access Points for Redundancy” on page 37
You can use an access point to extend your existing Ethernet network to
include wireless end devices. The access point connects directly to your
wired network and the end devices provide a wireless extension of the
wired LAN.
This illustration shows a simple wireless network with one access point
and some wireless end devices.
Host
Access
point
Ethernet
Figure 6. Simple Wireless Network
21
Chapter 1: Getting Started
In a simple wireless network, the access point that is connected to the
wired network serves as a transparent bridge between the wired network
and wireless end devices.
To install a simple wireless network
1. Configure the initial IP address. For help, see “Configuring the Access
Point (Setting the IP Address)” on page 38.
2. Install the access point. For help, see Chapter 2, “Getting Started” on
page 11.
3. Configure the Ethernet network. For help, see Chapter 3, “Configuring
the Ethernet Network” on page 64.
4. Configure the radios. For help, see Chapter 4, “Configuring the
Radios” on page 96.
5. Decide what level of security you want to implement in your network.
For help, see Chapter 6, “Configuring Security” on page 169.
Example - Configuring an 802.11g Access Point
Host
Access
point
Ethernet
Figure 7. 802.11g Access Point
Table 5. 802.11g Access Point Parameter Settings
Screen
802.11g Radio
Spanning Tree
Settings
22
Parameter
Access Point
Node Type
Master
SSID (Network
Name)
Manufacturing
Root Priority
5
Ethernet Bridging
Enabled
Checked
AT-WA7500 and AT-WA7501 Installation and User’s Guide
Allied Telesyn recommends that you always implement some type of
security.
Using Multiple
Access Points and
Roaming
Wireless End
Devices
For larger or more complex environments, you can install multiple access
points so wireless end devices can roam from one access point to another.
Multiple access points establish coverage areas or cells similar to those of
a cellular telephone network. End devices can connect with any access
point that is within range and belongs to the same wireless network.
This illustration shows a wireless network with multiple access points.
Wireless end devices can roam between the access points to
communicate with the host and other end devices.
Host
Ethernet
Figure 8. Multiple Access Points with Roaming End Devices
An end device initiates a roam when it attaches to a new access point. The
access point sends an attach message to the root access point, which in
turn forwards a detach message to the previous access point, allowing
each access point to update its forwarding database. Intermediate access
points monitor these exchanges and update their forwarding databases.
With the access point’s multichannel architecture, you can have more than
one access point within the same cell area to increase throughput and
provide redundancy. For more information, see “Using Dual Radio Access
Points for Redundancy” on page 37.
To install multiple access points with roaming end devices
1. Follow the instructions for installing a simple wireless network in “Using
One Access Point in a Simple Wireless Network” on page 21.
23
Chapter 1: Getting Started
2. Configure the LAN ID. For help, see “Configuring the Spanning Tree
Parameters” on page 136.
3. Configure one of the access points to be a root access point. For help,
see “About the Primary LAN and the Root Access Point” on page 131.
4. If your network has a switch that is not IEEE 802.1d-compliant and is
located between access points, configure data link tunneling. For help,
see “About Ethernet Bridging/Data Link Tunneling” on page 134.
Example - Configuring an 802.11g Access Point with Roaming End
Devices
In this example, there is one 802.11g radio in each access point. Wireless
end devices can roam between the access points to communicate with the
host and other end devices.
Host
AP2
Ethernet
AP1
AP3
Figure 9. 802.11g Access Point with Roaming End Devices
24
AT-WA7500 and AT-WA7501 Installation and User’s Guide
Table 6. 802.11g Access Points Parameter Settings
Screen
AP1
802.11g
Radio
(Root)
Parameter
AP2
802.11g
Radio
AP3
802.11g
Radio
802.11g
Radio
Node Type
Master
Master
Master
SSID
Op3rat!ons
Op3rat!ons
Op3rat!ons
Spanning
Tree
Settings
LAN ID
0
0
0
Root
Priority
5
4
3
Ethernet
Bridging
Enabled
Checked
Checked
Checked
Secondary
LAN Bridge
Priority
0
0
0
The access points communicate with each other through the spanning
tree. The wireless end devices are configured as stations with LAN ID set
to 0 and SSID set to Op3rat!ons.
Using an Access
Point as a WAP
You can extend the range of your wireless network by configuring a dual
radio access point as a wireless access point (WAP). The WAP and the
wireless end devices it communicates with comprise a secondary LAN.
You can position WAPs in strategic locations so they receive data from
end devices and then forward the data to the wired network. This
configuration can be useful when distance or physical layout impedes
radio reception and transmission.
This illustration shows a simple wireless network with one access point
and one WAP. Wireless end devices use the WAP to forward data to the
access point, which forwards data to the host. If you do not want end
devices to also be able to communicate directly with the access point, use
a different SSID for the access point master radio and the WAP station
radio.
25
Chapter 1: Getting Started
Ethernet
Host
Access
point
WAP
Figure 10. Access Point as a WAP
WAPs send data from end devices to the access points via wireless hops.
Wireless hops are formed when data from end devices move from one
access point to another access point through the radio ports. The master
radio in the access point transmits hello messages, which allow the WAPs
to attach to the spanning tree in the same way as access points.
The number of radios required in the WAP depends on the type of radio
installed:
ˆ
If you have an 802.11a radio, the WAP only needs one radio because
this radio can simultaneously be a master and a station. This radio will
create wireless hops automatically when it cannot communicate to the
wired network.
ˆ
If you have an 802.11g or 802.11b radio, the WAP must contain two
radios: one configured as master and one as station. The WAP master
radio must match the end devices radios, and the WAP station radio
must match the master radio in the access point.
WAPs must be on the same IP subnet as the access point. Also, data from
wireless end devices should not go through more than three wireless hops
before it gets to an access point on the primary LAN.
The following procedure explains how to install a simple wireless network
with a WAP and no roaming end devices. For help installing a simple
wireless network with a WAP and roaming end devices, see the two
examples in the next sections.
To install a simple wireless network with a WAP and no roaming end
devices
1. Follow the instructions for installing a simple wireless network in the
section “Using One Access Point in a Simple Wireless Network” on
page 21.
2. Configure the LAN ID. For help, see “Configuring the Spanning Tree
Parameters” on page 136.
26
AT-WA7500 and AT-WA7501 Installation and User’s Guide
3. (802.11g and 802.11b) Configure the station radio in the WAP to
communicate with one of the master radio service sets in the access
point:
a. From the main menu, click the link corresponding to the station
radio. The radio screen appears.
b. In the Primary service set Node Type field, choose Station.
c. In the Primary service set SSID (Network Name) field, type the
SSID. In this example, the SSID is Manufacturing.
d. Click Submit Changes to save your changes. The screen updates.
4. To activate your changes, from the menu bar click Save/Discard
Changes, and then click Save Changes and Reboot. For help, see
“Saving Configuration Changes” on page 46.
5. Configure the master radio in the WAP to communicate with the end
devices. For help, see Chapter 4, “Configuring the Radios” on page 96.
6. Configure the master radio in the access point:
a. From the main menu, click the link corresponding to the master
radio. The radio screen appears.
b. In the Frequency field, choose the radio frequency of your wireless
network.
c. (802.11a only) Make sure the Allow Wireless Access Points field is
On Primary.
d. In the Primary service set Node Type field, choose Master.
27
Chapter 1: Getting Started
e. In the Primary service set SSID (Network Name) field, type the
SSID that matches the SSID of the end device radio. In this
example, the SSID is Manufacturing.
7. Click Submit Changes to save your changes. To activate your
changes, from the menu bar click Save/Discard Changes, and then
click Save Changes and Reboot. For help, see “Saving Configuration
Changes” on page 46.
8. Configure the access point to be a root access point. For help, see
“About the Primary LAN and the Root Access Point” on page 131.
9. Click Submit Changes to save your changes. To activate your
changes, from the menu bar click Save/Discard Changes, and then
click Save Changes and Reboot. For help, see “Saving Configuration
Changes” on page 46.
Example - Configuring an 802.11g WAP With No Roaming End
Devices
In this example, there is one 802.11g radio in the access point and there
are two 802.11g radios (802.11g Radio-1 and 802.11g Radio-2) in the
WAP. Wireless end devices only communicate with the WAP; they are not
allowed to communicate directly with the access point.
Ethernet
Host
Access
point
WAP
Figure 11. 802.11g WAP with No Roaming End Devices
28
AT-WA7500 and AT-WA7501 Installation and User’s Guide
Table 7. 802.11g Access Point and WAP Parameter Settings
WAP
802.11g
Radio-1
WAP 802.11b
Radio-2
Parameter
Access Point
802.11g
802.11g
Radio
Node Type
Master
Master
Station
SSID
Manufacturing
Warehouse
Manufacturing
Spanning
Tree
Settings
LAN ID
11
11
11
Root
Priority
5
0
(not
applicable)
Ethernet
Bridging
Enabled
Checked
Checked
(not
applicable)
Screen
You need to configure the wireless end devices to have the same SSID,
LAN ID, and frequency as the WAP radio. You do not need to configure
any secondary LAN settings because the WAP is not connected to a
secondary LAN.
Allied Telesyn recommends that you always implement some type of
security.
Example - Configuring an 802.11a WAP With Roaming End Devices
In this example, there is one 802.11a radio in the access point and there is
one 802.11a radio in the WAP. Wireless end devices can roam between
the WAP and the access point.
Ethernet
Host
Access
point
WAP
Figure 12. 802.11a WAP with Roaming End Devices
29
Chapter 1: Getting Started
Table 8. 802.11a Access Point and WAP Parameter Settings
Access Point
802.11a
WAP 802.11a
Allow Wireless Access
Points
On Primary
On Primary
Primary Node Type
Master
Master
SSID
Manufacturing
Manufacturing
LAN ID
11
11
Root Priority
5
0
Ethernet Bridging
Enabled
Checked
Checked
Secondary LAN Bridge
Priority
0
0
Screen
802.11a
Radio
Spanning
Tree
Settings
Parameter
You need to configure the wireless end devices to have the same SSID,
LAN ID, and frequency as the WAP radio. You do not need to configure
any secondary LAN settings because the WAP is not connected to a
secondary LAN.
Allied Telesyn recommends that you always implement some type of
security.
Using Access
Points to Create a
Point-to-Point
Bridge
You can use access points to create a point-to-point bridge between two
wired LANs. That is, you can have one access point wired to a primary
LAN in one building and have a second access point wired to a secondary
LAN in another building. This configuration lets wired and wireless end
devices in both buildings communicate with each other, which can be
useful in a campus environment or any other environment where
pavement or other objects prevent installation of a wired link.
This illustration shows two simple wireless networks that are connected
30
AT-WA7500 and AT-WA7501 Installation and User’s Guide
with access points that are acting as point-to-point bridges.
Secondary LAN
Primary LAN
Host
Root
Designated
bridge
Figure 13. Access Points as Point-to-Point Bridges
Point-to-point bridges send data from end devices on the secondary LAN
to the root access point via wireless hops. Wireless hops are formed when
data from end devices move from one access point to another access
point through the radio ports. The master radio in the point-to-point bridge
on the primary LAN transmits hello messages, which allow the bridge on
the secondary LAN to attach to the spanning tree in the same way as
access points.
How many radios do you need in each access point?
ˆ
If you have an 802.11a network, each access point only needs one
radio.
ˆ
If you have an 802.11g or 802.11b network and the access points are
simply acting as point-to-point bridges, each access point only needs
one radio.
ˆ
If you have an 802.11g or 802.11b network and you want the
designated bridge to also communicate with wireless end devices
(point-to-multipoint), the designated bridge must have two radios. The
designated bridge master radio must match the end device radios, and
the station radio must match the root master radio.
Data from wireless end devices should not go through more than three
wireless hops before it gets to an access point on the primary LAN.
You need to set the root priorities and secondary LAN bridge priorities for
the bridge on the primary LAN and for the bridge on the secondary LAN:
ˆ
On the primary LAN bridge, set the root priority to a number that is
greater than the root priority of the secondary LAN bridge. The access
points will not form a point-to-point bridge if the primary LAN bridge
has a lower root priority than the secondary LAN bridge.
ˆ
On the secondary LAN bridge, set the root priority to 0 and the
secondary LAN bridge priority to a number other than 0.
31
Chapter 1: Getting Started
You may also need to adjust the flooding parameters. Here are some
recommendations:
ˆ
If there are no end devices on the secondary LAN, the bridge on the
secondary LAN can use the default flooding settings. The Secondary
LAN Flooding parameter is disabled.
ˆ
If there are end devices on the secondary LAN, the bridge on the
secondary LAN should have Secondary LAN Flooding parameter set
to Multicast. If you also want unicast flooding, you can set this
parameter to Enabled.
ˆ
If there are end devices on the secondary LAN and the end devices
communicate with end devices on another secondary LAN, the root
access point should have its Multicast Flooding parameter set to
Universal. This setting ensures that all ARP requests and multicast
traffic is distributed through a second or third hop.
To install a point-to-point or a point-to-multipoint bridge
1. Follow the instructions for installing a simple wireless network in the
section “Using One Access Point in a Simple Wireless Network” on
page 21.
2. Configure the LAN ID. For help, see “Configuring the Spanning Tree
Parameters” on page 136.
3. Configure one of the master radio service sets in the designated
bridge on the secondary LAN to communicate with the end device
radios.
4. (802.11g and 802.11b) Configure the station radio in the designated
bridge to communicate with one of the master radio service sets in the
point-to-point bridge on the primary LAN:
a. From the main menu, click the link corresponding to the station
radio. The radio screen appears.
b. In the Primary service set Node Type field, choose Station.
c. In the Primary service set SSID (Network Name) field, type the
SSID that matched the SSID of the root access point radio service
set (Step 1). In this example, the SSID is Manufacturing.
d. Click Submit Changes. The screen updates.
5. Configure the spanning tree settings for the designated bridge:
a. From the main menu, click Spanning Tree Settings. The Spanning
Tree Settings screen appears.
b. In the Root Priority field, enter 0.
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AT-WA7500 and AT-WA7501 Installation and User’s Guide
c. In the Secondary LAN Bridge Priority field, enter a number other
than zero.
d. In the Secondary LAN Flooding field, choose Enabled.
6. Configure the spanning tree settings for the point-to-point bridge on the
primary LAN.
a. From the main menu, click Spanning Tree Settings. The Spanning
Tree Settings screen appears.
b. In the Root Priority field, enter a number other than 0.
c. In the Secondary LAN Bridge Priority field, enter 0.
d. In the Secondary LAN Flooding field, choose Disabled.
7. In the roaming end devices will be roaming across an IP router, you
must configure IP tunnels. For help, see “Configuring IP Tunnels” on
page 148.
8. Click Submit Changes to save your changes. To activate your
changes, from the menu bar click Save/Discard Changes, and then
click Save Changes and Reboot. For help, see “Saving Configuration
Changes” on page 46.
9. Configure the master radio in the point-to-point bridge on the primary
LAN:
a. From the main menu, click the link corresponding to the master
radio. The radio screen appears.
b. Make sure the Allow Wireless Access Points field is On Primary.
33
Chapter 1: Getting Started
c. In the Primary service set Node Type field, choose Master.
d. In the Primary service set SSID (Network Name) field, type the
SSID. In this example, the SSID is Manufacturing.
e. Click Submit Changes.
10. Configure the spanning tree settings for the point-to-point bridge on
the primary LAN:
a. From the main menu, click Spanning Tree Settings. The Spanning
Tree Settings screen appears.
b. In the Root Priority field, enter a number other than 0.
c. In the Secondary LAN Bridge Priority field, enter 0.
d. In the Secondary LAN Flooding field, choose Disabled.
11. If the roaming end devices will be roaming across an IP router, you
must configure IP tunnels. For help, see “Configuring IP Tunnels” on
page 148.
12. Click Submit Changes to save your changes. To activate your
changes, from the menu bar click Save/Discard Changes, and then
click Save Changes and Reboot. For help, see “Saving Configuration
Changes” on page 46.
Example - Configuring an 802.11g Point-to-Point Bridge
In this example, each access point only has one 802.11g radio. Since the
designated bridge only has a station radio, wireless end devices can only
communicate with the root access point. However, wired devices on the
secondary LAN can communicate with the primary LAN.
Secondary LAN
Primary LAN
Host
Root
Designated
bridge
Figure 14. 802.11g Bridge
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AT-WA7500 and AT-WA7501 Installation and User’s Guide
Table 9. 802.11g Point-to-Point Bridges Parameter Settings
Screen
Parameter
Bridge
Primary LAN
(Root)
Bridge
Secondary
LAN
(Designated
Bridge)
802.11g
Radio
Node Type
Master
Station
SSID
Manufacturing
Manufacturing
Spanning
Tree
Settings
LAN ID
0
0
Root Priority
5
0
Ethernet Bridging
Enabled
Checked
Checked
Secondary LAN Bridge
Priority
0
1
Secondary LAN Bridge
Flooding
Disabled
Enabled
Allied Telesyn recommends that you implement some type of security.
35
Chapter 1: Getting Started
Example - Configuring an 802.11a Point-to-Multipoint Bridge
In this example, each access point only has one 802.11a radio. Since the
802.11a radio can function as a master and a station, wireless end
devices can communicate with either access point.
Secondary LAN
Primary LAN
Host
Root
Designated
bridge
Figure 15. 802.11a Point-to-Point Bridges
Table 10. 802.11a Point-to-Point Bridges Parameter Settings
Bridge
Primary LAN
(Root)
Bridge
Secondary
LAN
(Designated
Bridge)
Allow Wireless Access
Points
On Primary
On Primary
Node Type
Master
Master
SSID
Manufacturing
Manufacturing
LAN ID
11
11
Root Priority
5
0
Ethernet Bridging
Enabled
Checked
Checked
Secondary LAN Bridge
Priority
0
1
Secondary LAN Bridge
Flooding
Disabled
Enabled
Screen
802.11a
Radio
Spanning
Tree
Settings
Parameter
Allied Telesyn recommends that you implement some type of security.
36
AT-WA7500 and AT-WA7501 Installation and User’s Guide
Using Dual Radio
Access Points for
Redundancy
You can configure AT-WA7500 units and AT-WA7501 units that have two
802.11g radios, two 802.11b radios, or two 802.11a radios to provide
redundancy for your network.
During normal operations, end devices send frames to the master radio in
one of the access points, which bridges the frames to the wired network. If
a section of the wired network goes down, the master radio receives the
frames, and then the station radio forwards the frames to a master radio in
another access point that is within range.
In each access point, you need to configure one radio’s node type as a
Master, which communicates with the wireless end devices, and configure
the other radio’s node type as a Station, which communicates to another
access point with a master radio and within range.
In this example, AP3 is a dual radio access point. It may be located on a
loading dock or other remote location. During normal operations, AP3
functions as a normal access point, transmitting frames to and from the
host. However, if the Ethernet connection is disrupted, AP3 can function
as a WAP and continue operations by transmitting frames to a master
radio in AP1. AP3 must be within range of AP1.
Host
AP1
AP3
Ethernet
Figure 16. Dual Radio Access Points
To install dual radio access points for redundancy
ˆ
Follow the instructions for installing a simple wireless network with a
WAP on page 25.
37
Chapter 1: Getting Started
Configuring the Access Point (Setting the IP Address)
The access point will work out of the box if you are using a DHCP server to
assign it an IP address. By default, the access point is configured to be a
DHCP client and will respond to offers from any DHCP server. However, if
you are not using a DHCP server to assign an IP address, you can use:
ˆ
the Allied Telesyn AT-WA7500 Configuration Wizard, but you need to
know the access point IP addresses. You can download this wizard
from the ATI web site. For help, see “Using the ATI AT-WA7500
Configuration Wizard” on page 38.
Note
Your PC must be on the same Ethernet segment as the access
point. Or, if your PC is communicating wirelessly with the access
point, you must have an active radio connection.
ˆ
a communications program, such as HyperTerminal, which also
configures other parameters. This program must be installed on a PC
with an open serial port. For help, see “Using a Communications
Program” on page 40.
This manual assumes that you are using a communications program for
your initial configuration, and then using a web browser interface to
perform all other configurations. You can also continue to use a
communications program or you can start a telnet session to configure the
access point.
Using the ATI
AT-WA7500
Configuration
Wizard
The AT-WA7500 Configuration Wizard is an easy-to-use Microsoft®
Windows™-based wizard that lets you:
ˆ
set the initial IP address for the access point. This wizard eliminates
the need to serially connect a PC to the access point to configure its IP
address.
ˆ
restore the access point settings to factory defaults. For help, see the
only help and “Restoring the Access Point to the Default
Configuration” on page 239.
ˆ
recover a failed access point. For help, see the online help and
“Recovering a Failed Access Point” on page 258.
ˆ
upgrade the access point software. For help, see the online help and
“Upgrading the Access Points” on page 261.
After you cofigure the IP address, you can use a web browser or a telnet
session to complete the configuration.
38
AT-WA7500 and AT-WA7501 Installation and User’s Guide
To use the Allied Telesyn AT-WA7500 Configuration Wizard
Note
To use the AT-WA7500 Configuration Wizard, you must have a PC
that is running Windows 95-OSR2/98SE/ME or Windows NT4/2000/
XP.
1. Install the AT-WA7500 Configuration Wizard on your PC. The wizard
can be downloaded either from the documentation CD that is shipped
with the access point, or from the ATI web site.
2. Extract the .zip file, double-click the .exe file, and then follow the
instructions that appear on your screen.
Note
Your PC must be on the same Ethernet segment as the access
point. Or, if your PC is communicating wirelessly with the access
point, you must have an active radio connection.
3. Start the wizard. The Allied Telesyn AT-WA7500 Configuration Wizard
window appears.
4. Select one of the following IP Address configuration options:
ˆ
Configure a range of IP addresses (default)
ˆ
Configure specific IP addresses
ˆ
Obtain IP addresses from a DHCP server on the
network/User current addresses
39
Chapter 1: Getting Started
5. Proceed with the IP Address configuration by following the on-screen
menus.
Using a
Communications
Program
You can use a communications program (such as HyperTerminal) to set
the initial IP address for the access point. After you configure the IP
address, you can continue to use the communications program to set
other parameters or you can use a web browser or a telnet session to
complete the configuration.
To use a communications program, you must have
ˆ
a terminal or PC with an open serial port and the communications
program.
ˆ
an RS-232 null-modem cable. One end of this cable must be a 9-pin
socket connector to connect to the serial port on the access point.
To use a communications program
1. Use the RS-232 null-modem cable to connect the serial port on the
access point to a serial port on your PC. You may need to remove the
serial port plug.
2. Start the communications program and configure the serial port
communications parameters on your PC, and then click OK. You
should configure the serial port communications parameters to:
ˆ
Bits per second
9600
ˆ
Data bits
8
ˆ
Parity
None
ˆ
Stop bit
1
ˆ
Flow control
None
3. Connect the access point to power. The access point has no On/Off
switch, so it boots as soon as you apply power.
40
AT-WA7500 and AT-WA7501 Installation and User’s Guide
4. Press Enter when the message “Starting system” appears on your PC
screen. The Username field appears.
5. In the Username field type the default user name “atilan”, and then
press Enter. The user name is case sensitive.
6. In the Password field type the default password “atilan”, and then
press Enter. The password is case sensitive. The Access Point
Configuration menu appears.
7. Press Enter to access the TCP/IP Settings menu.
8. If you are not using a DHCP server, you need to manually assign an IP
address. Configure these parameters in the TCP/IP Settings menu:
41
Chapter 1: Getting Started
ˆ
IP Address - A unique IP address.
ˆ
IP Subnet Mask - The subnet mask that matches the
other devices in your network.
ˆ
IP Router (Gateway) - If the access point will
communicate with devices on another subnet, enter
the address of the router that will forward frames.
Or, if you are using a DHCP server to automatically assign an IP
address to your access point, configure these parameters in the TCP/
IP Settings menu:
ˆ
DHCP Mode - Set to <Use DHCP if IP Address is
Zero>.
ˆ
DHCP Server Name - The name of the DHCP server
that the access point is to access for automatic
address assignment. If no server name is specified,
the access point responds to offers from any server.
9. Press Esc to return to the Access Point Configuration menu.
10. Choose Save Configuration.
11. Choose Reboot.
When the access point is done rebooting, you are ready to install the
access point in your network. See Chapter 2, “Installing the Access
Points” on page 49.
Using a Web
Browser
Interface
After you have set the initial IP address, you can configure, manage, and
troubleshoot the access point from a remote location using a web browser
interface. The web browser interface has been tested using Internet
Explorer. Remotely accessing the access point using other browsers may
provide unpredictable results. When using the web browser interface,
keep the following points in mind:
ˆ
Your session terminates if you do not use it for 15 minutes.
ˆ
Command Console mode is not available.
Note
If you access the Internet using a proxy server, you must add the IP
address of the access point to your Exceptions list. The Exceptions
list contains the addresses that you do not want to use with a proxy
server.
42
AT-WA7500 and AT-WA7501 Installation and User’s Guide
To use a web browser interface
1. Determine the IP address of the access point. If a DHCP server
assigned the IP address, you must get the IP address from the DHCP
server.
2. Start the web browser application.
3. Access the access point using one of these methods:
ˆ
In the Address field (Internet Explorer) or in the
Location field (Netscape Communicator), enter the IP
address, and press Enter.
ˆ
From the File menu, choose Open (Internet Explorer)
or choose Open Page (Netscape Communicator). In
the field, enter the IP address and press Enter.
The Access Point Login screen appears.
4. If necessary, enter a user name and a password. The default user
name is “atilan” and the default password is “atilan”. You can define a
user name and password. For help, see “Setting Up Logins” on
page 176.
Or you may want to log in to a secure session.
43
Chapter 1: Getting Started
5. Click Login. The TCP/IP Settings screen appears.
Your web browser session is established.
Note
Although you can use several different methods to manage the
access point remotely, this manual assumes you are using a web
browser.
Using a Telnet
Session
After you have configured the IP address, you can configure, manage, and
troubleshoot the access point from a remote location using a telnet
session.
Only one session can be active with the access point at a time. If you
session terminates abruptly or a new login screen appears, someone else
may have accessed the access point. Also, your session terminates if you
do not use it for 15 minutes.
To use a telnet session
1. Determine the IP address of the access point. If a DHCP server
assigned the IP address, you must get the IP address from the DHCP
server.
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AT-WA7500 and AT-WA7501 Installation and User’s Guide
2. From a command prompt, type: telnet IPaddress where IPaddress is
the IP address of the access point.
3. Press Enter.
4. If necessary, enter the user name and press Enter. Then, enter the
password and press Enter. The default user name is “atilan” and the
default password is “atilan”. You can define a user name and
password. For help, see “Setting Up Logins” on page 176. The Access
Point Configuration menu appears.
Your telnet session is established.
45
Chapter 1: Getting Started
Saving Configuration Changes
When you are done configuring the access point, you may want to activate
your changes immediately or you may want to save the changes now and
activate them later. If you choose to activate the changes later, they will
become active the next time the access point is booted.
Table 11. Access Point Configuration Files
Configuration File
Description
Default
This configuration file is the factory default
configuration. For help, see “Restoring the
Access Point to the Default Configuration” on
page 239.
Current
When you click Submit Changes, the access
point updates the current configuration file. The
access point does not change the active
configuration file. You can see a list of pending
changes when you click Save/Discard Changes.
Having separate files for the current and active
configurations lets you make changes while the
access point is running without interrupting
communication.
Saved
When you click Save/Discard Changes > Save
Changes without Reboot, the access point copies
the current configuration file to the saved
configuration file. Having separate files for the
saved and active configurations lets you make
changes while the access point is running without
interrupting communication.
Active
When you click Save/Discard Changes > Save
Changes and Reboot, the access point copies
the current configuration file to the active
configuration file. The active configuration file is
the file that the access point uses.
Note
For the 802.11g radio, when you configure some of the advanced
configuration parameters, you can immediately activate the changes
without rebooting the access point. For instructions, see “Applying
Hot Settings” on page 108.
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AT-WA7500 and AT-WA7501 Installation and User’s Guide
Using a Web
Browser
Interface
1. On the menu bar, click Save/Discard Changes.
This screen appears.
Select to use new configuration
settings immediately
Lists possible configuration
changes that still need
to be made
Select to use new configuration
settings the next time you reboot
the access point
Lists configuration changes
that have been made
2. Resolve any error messages listed under the heading Possible
Configurations Errors. For help, see “Using the Configuration Error
Messages” on page 240.
3. Verify that all your configuration changes appear in the Pending
Changes box.
4. Click Save Changes and Reboot to reboot the access point and
immediately use your new active configuration.
Or click Save Changes without Reboot. The access point saves the
changes to its current configuration and continues to run its active
configuration. You need to reboot the access point when you want the
current configuration to become the active configuration.
To discard the changes
ˆ
Click Discard Pending Changes.
47
Chapter 1: Getting Started
Using a Telnet
Session
1. From the Access Point Configuration menu, choose Save
Configuration.
2. Choose Reboot to reboot the access point and immediately use your
new active configuration.
48
Chapter 2
Installing the Access Points
This chapter explains how to install the Allied Telesyn AT-WA7500 and
AT-WA7501 access points in your data collection network, provides some
tips on how to position access points to improve your network
performance, and provides some external antenna guidelines. This
chapter covers these topics:
ˆ
“Installation Guidelines” on page 50
ˆ
“Installing the AT-WA7501” on page 52
ˆ
“Installing the AT-WA7500” on page 54
ˆ
“Connecting to Your Fiber Optic Network” on page 55
ˆ
“Connecting Power Over Ethernet” on page 59
ˆ
“External Antenna Placement Guidelines” on page 60
49
Chapter 2: Installing the Access Points
Installation Guidelines
Allied Telesyn recommends that you have an Allied Telesyn-certified RF
specialist conduct a site survey to determine the ideal locations for all your
Allied Telesyn wireless network devices. To conduct a proper site survey,
you need to have special equipment and training.
The following general practices should be followed in any installation:
ˆ
Locate access points centrally within areas requiring coverage.
ˆ
Overlap access point radio coverage areas to avoid coverage holes.
ˆ
Position the access point so that its LEDs are visible. The LEDs are
useful for troubleshooting.
ˆ
Install wired LAN cabling within node limit and cable length limitations.
ˆ
Use an uninterruptible power supply (UPS) when AC power is not
reliable.
Proper antenna placement can help improve range. For information about
antenna options, contact your local Allied Telesyn representative. For
more guidelines, see “External Antenna Placement Guidelines” on
page 60.
When determining ideal locations for the access points, be aware that you
may see network performance degradation from microwave ovens,
cordless telephones, and other access points. For more information, see
the next sections.
Note
Microwave ovens, cordless telephones, and other access points do
not degrade the network performance of the 802.11a radio.
Microwave Ovens
Microwave ovens operate in the same frequency band as 802.11g and
802.11b radios; therefore, if you use a microwave oven within range of
your wireless network, you may notice network performance degradation.
Both your microwave oven and your wireless network will continue to
function, but you may want to consider relocating your microwave oven
out of range of your access point.
Cordless
Telephones
If you have an 802.11g or 802.11b radio in your access point, the radio
may experience interference from some cordless telephones. For optimal
performance, consider operating cordless telephones out of range of your
access points.
50
AT-WA7500 and AT-WA7501 Installation and User’s Guide
Other Access
Points
Access points that are configured for the same frequency and that are in
the same radio coverage area may interfere with each other and decrease
throughput. You can reduce the chance of interference by configuring
access points at least five channels apart, such as channels 1, 6, and 11.
51
Chapter 2: Installing the Access Points
Installing the AT-WA7501
You can place the AT-WA7501 horizontally or vertically on a desk or
counter. If you want to mount the AT-WA7501 to a wall or beam using an
Allied Telesyn mounting bracket kit, you need one of these mounting kits:
ˆ
Mounting bracket kit (to be purchased separately)
ˆ
Rotating mounting bracket kit (to be purchased separately)
To order one of these kits, contact your Allied Telesyn representative.
To maintain the IP54 environmental rating, you must mount the
AT-WA7501 in either the horizontal or vertical position. If you order the
AT-WA7501 with the heater option, you must use one of the mounting
bracket kits to mount the AT-WA7501 with the LEDs facing down.
A variety of external antenna options are available for the AT-WA7501.
Contact your Allied Telesyn representative for information about the
various antenna options, including higher gain and directional antennas.
For more information about antennas and antenna accessories, see
“Antennas and Antenna Accessories” on page 247.
To install the AT-WA7501, do the following procedure:
1. Attach the antenna or antennas. For more information, see “External
Antenna Placement Guidelines” on page 60.
Note
If the AT-WA7501 has an 802.11a full-range radio, you must use the
antennas that are already attached to the antenna connectors.
2. Mount the AT-WA7501. For help see the AT-WA7501 Quick Install
Guide and the instructions that shipped with the bracket kit.
3. Connect the AT-WA7501 to your wired LAN (unless you are using it as
a WAP). For help, see “Connecting the AT-WA7501 to Your Wired
LAN” on page 52.
4. Connect the AT-WA7501 to power. For help, see “Connecting the
AT-WA7501 to Power” on page 53.
When you are done installing the access points, you need to configure
them to communicate with your network.
Connecting the
AT-WA7501 to
Your Wired LAN
52
Unless you are using the AT-WA7501 as a WAP, you need to connect it to
your Ethernet or fiber optic network. To connect the AT-WA7501 to your
fiber optic network, you must have a AT-WA7501 with the fiber optic
AT-WA7500 and AT-WA7501 Installation and User’s Guide
option. For help, see “Connecting to Your Fiber Optic Network” on
page 55.
To connect the AT-WA7501 to the Ethernet network
ˆ
Connecting the
AT-WA7501 to
Power
Attach one end of the Ethernet cable to the 10BaseT/100BaseTx port
on the AT-WA7501 and attach the other end to your Ethernet network
or a power bridge (if you are using power over Ethernet), a Cisco
power bridge or another 802.3af-compliant power bridge.
If your AT-WA7501 has the internal power supply option, you can use a
power cord to connect the AT-WA7501 directly to an AC power outlet.
Caution
You must use the appropriate Allied Telesyn power supply with
these devices or equipment damage may occur.
Attention: Vous devez utiliser la source d’alimentation Allied Telesyn
adéquate avec cet appareil sinon vous risquez d’endommager
l’équipement.
If you are using the power over Ethernet option, you must have the power
bridge or another 802.3af-compliant power bridge. For help, see
“Connecting Power Over Ethernet” on page 59 and the documentation that
came with your power bridge.
To connect the AT-WA7501 to power
ˆ
Plug one end of the power cord into the power port on the AT-WA7501
and plug the other end into an AC power outlet. The access point
boots as soon as you apply power.
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Chapter 2: Installing the Access Points
Installing the AT-WA7500
You can place the AT-WA7500 horizontally on a desk or counter. The
AT-WA7500 also ships with a mounting bracket that lets you mount it
vertically to a wall. Additional mounting options that you can use with the
mounting bracket include a cubicle bracket that lets you mount the
AT-WA7500 on a cubicle wall or in a locking bracket.
ˆ
Cubicle bracket kit
ˆ
Locking bracket kit
To order one of these kits, contact your Allied Telesyn representative.
Allied Telesyn also offers a variety of antennas and antenna accessories.
For more information, see “Antennas and Antenna Accessories” on page
247.
To install the AT-WA7500, do the following:
1. Attach the antenna or antennas. For more information, see “External
Antenna Placement Guidelines” on page 60.
Note
If the AT-WA7500 has an 802.11a full-range radio, you must use the
antennas that are already attached to the antenna connectors.
2. Mount the AT-WA7500. For help see the AT-WA7500 Quick Install
Guide and the instructions that shipped with the bracket kit.
3. Connect the AT-WA7500 to your wired LAN (unless you are using it as
a WAP). For help, see “Connecting the AT-WA7500 to Your Wired
LAN and Power” on page 54.
4. Connect the AT-WA7500 to power. For help, see “Connecting the
AT-WA7500 to Your Wired LAN and Power” on page 54.
When you are done installing the access points, you need to configure
them to communicate with your network.
Connecting the
AT-WA7500 to
Your Wired LAN
and Power
54
Unless you are using the AT-WA7500 as a WAP, you must connect it to
your Ethernet network. To connect the AT-WA7500 to your Ethernet
network and to power, you must first connect it to a power bridge or
another 802.3af-power bridge. For help, see “Connecting Power Over
Ethernet” on page 59 and the documentation that shipped with your power
bridge.
AT-WA7500 and AT-WA7501 Installation and User’s Guide
Connecting to Your Fiber Optic Network
You can order your AT-WA7501 access point with a fiber optic option.
Using an appropriate patch cord and adapter (as described in the next
section), you can connect your access point to:
Using and
Purchasing the
Required Patch
Cord and
Adapter
ˆ
an MT-RJ network.
ˆ
a square connector (SC) network.
ˆ
a straight tip (ST) network.
To connect the access point with the fiber optic option to your fiber optic
network, you must have a patch cord and an adapter.
The access point fiber optic port consists of a male MT-RJ connector
interface. Therefore, the patch cord must have a female MT-RJ connector
that you insert into the access point fiber optic port.
To access
point
To access
point
Insert a female MT-RJ
connector into the
fiber optic port
Do not insert a male
MT-RJ connector into
the fiber optic port
Figure 17. Patch Cord
Note
Inserting a male MT-RJ connector into the fiber optic port may result
in unreliable operation because there is no internal mechanism to
ensure the alignment of the fiber when using male-to-male
connectors. Such a connection may temporarily provide some level
of connectivity, despite a high level of signal loss. However, any
movement of the cable or change in cable tension could cause
complete loss of signal.
Both the connector at the other end of the patch cord and the adapter you
select depend on the type of network to which the access point is
connected: MT-RJ, SC, or ST.
Patch cords and adapters are available from many different
manufacturers. For help choosing the proper patch cord and adapter,
contact your local Allied Telesyn representative.
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Chapter 2: Installing the Access Points
Note
All cables must be multimode, 62.5/125 µm.
Connecting to an
MT-RJ Network
To connect to an MT-RJ network, you need:
ˆ
a patch cord with a female MT-RJ connector to insert into the access
point’s male MT-RJ fiber optic port, and another female MT-RJ
connector to insert into the MT-RJ adapter.
ˆ
an adapter for connecting the patch cord to the MT-RJ network.
To connect to an MT-RJ network
1. Remove any cable protectors attached to the patch cord and adapter.
2. Connect the access point to your network as shown in the next
illustration.
Female
MT-RJ connector
Female
MT-RJ connector
To access point
MT-RJ adapter
Patch cord
To
MT-RJ
network
Figure 18. Connecting to an MT-RJ Network
Note
The patch cord shown above must connect to the access point with
a female MT-RJ connector. For details, see “Using and Purchasing
the Required Patch Cord and Adapter” on page 55.
Connecting to an
SC Network
To connect to an SC network, you need:
ˆ
a patch cord with a female MT-RJ connector to insert into the access
point’s male MT-RJ fiber optic port, and an SC connector to insert into
the SC adapter.
ˆ
an adapter for connecting the patch cord to an SC network.
To connect to an SC network
1. Remove any cable protectors attached to the patch cord and adapter.
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AT-WA7500 and AT-WA7501 Installation and User’s Guide
2. Connect the access point to your network as shown in the next two
illustrations.
Female
MT-RJ connector
To access point
SC connector
SC adapter
SC connector
Patch cord
To SC
network
Note
The patch cord shown above must connect to the access point with
a female MT-RJ connector. For details, see “Using and Purchasing
the Required Patch Cord and Adapter” on page 55.
Female
MT-RJ connector
To access point
SC connector
SC adapter
SC connector
Patch cord
To SC
network
To SC
network
Note
The patch cord shown above must connect to the access point with
a female MT-RJ connector. For details, see “Using and Purchasing
the Required Patch Cord and Adapter” on page 55.
Connecting to an
ST Network
To connect to an ST network, you need:
57
Chapter 2: Installing the Access Points
ˆ
a patch cord with a female MT-RJ connector to insert into the access
point’s male MT-RJ fiber optic port, and an ST connector to insert into
the ST adapter.
ˆ
an adapter for connecting the patch cord to the ST network.
To connect to an ST network
1. Remove any cable protectors attached to the patch cord and adapter.
2. Connect the access point to your network as shown in the next
illustration.
Female
MT-RJ connector
To access point
ST connector
ST adapter
ST connector
To
ST network
Patch cord
To
ST network
Note
The patch cord shown above must connect to the access point with
a female MT-RJ connector. For details, see “Using and Purchasing
the Required Patch Cord and Adapter” on page 55.
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AT-WA7500 and AT-WA7501 Installation and User’s Guide
Connecting Power Over Ethernet
The AT-WA7500 is powered by power over Ethernet. The AT-WA7501
can be powered by AC power or by power over Ethernet or both. For all
access points, you need a power bridge. For a list of the power bridges
that Allied Telesyn sells, contact your local Allied Telesyn representative.
This illustration shows how you connect the AT-WA7500 to a power bridge
with a typical Ethernet cable to run power over Ethernet.
To AC
Power bridge
Power & Data
Out
Data In
Main
Power
Active
To Ethernet
Figure 19. Power Over Ethernet
To connect power over Ethernet
1. Install the power bridges. For help, see the documentation that
shipped with the power bridge.
2. Use an Ethernet cable to connect the power bridge to the Ethernet port
of the access point.
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Chapter 2: Installing the Access Points
External Antenna Placement Guidelines
Antennas and their placement play a vital role when installing a wireless
network. Every wireless network environment presents its own unique
obstacles. Therefore, the exact range that you will achieve with each
access point is difficult to determine. Allied Telesyn recommends that you
allow an Allied Telesyn-certified RF specialist to perform a site survey
before you install a wireless network. For more information, contact your
local Allied Telesyn representative.
Radio signals may reflect off some obstacles and be absorbed by others.
For example, two radios may achieve up to 305 m (1,000 ft) of range if
positioned outdoors within line of sight, with no obstacles between them.
However, the same two radios may only achieve 152 m (500 ft) of range
when the RF signal has to travel through items such as cubicles. If the
signal must penetrate office walls, the signal range may decrease to 91 m
(300 ft).
Using the proper antennas for your environment and placing them in the
proper areas can help improve range. For information about antenna
options, contact your local Allied Telesyn representative. Here are some
general guidelines for positioning antennas:
ˆ
Place the antenna as high as possible. In an office environment, try to
place it above cubicle walls.
ˆ
Keep the line-of-sight between the antennas and wireless end devices
clear of metal surfaces (like beams or girders) and large quantities of
paper products.
ˆ
Do not place a sheet of metal (such as a filing cabinet) between two
antennas.
These next sections provide detailed information about antenna
placement for those access points that can have more than one antenna.
Connecting
Antennas to the
Radios
All radios have two ports. The radio in slot 2 uses ports 3 and 4, and the
radio in slot 2 uses ports 1 and 2. If you have only one radio in the access
point, it is in slot 1.
Positioning
Antennas for
802.11g, 802.11b,
and 802.11a
Radios
For the 802.11g and 802.11b radios, the primary port is a transmit/receive
port and the secondary port is a receive-only port. The primary port is the
right connector (2 or 4) and the secondary port is the left connector (1 or
3). If you only attach one antenna to the 802.11g or 802.11b radio, you
must attach it to the primary port.
60
For the 802.11a radio, both ports are automatically transmit/receive ports,
You can attach antennas to both ports and it will automatically use
antenna diversity or you can attach one antenna to either port.
AT-WA7500 and AT-WA7501 Installation and User’s Guide
Allied Telesyn recommends that you use two antennas for each radio to
achieve optimal performance (antenna diversity) of the radios.
Positioning
Antennas for
Dual Radio
Access Points
Positioning
Antennas for
Antenna
Diversity
In addition to the earlier antenna guidelines, if you have a dual radio
access point, you need to also follow these recommendations:
ˆ
Cable the antennas at least 3.05 m (10 ft) from the access point.
ˆ
If the access point has two of the same type of radio, position the
antennas for one of the radios at least 3.05 m (10 ft) from the antennas
for the other radio.
ˆ
If the access point has two radios that are in the same frequency
range, position the antennas for one of the radios at least 3.05 m (10 ft)
from the antennas for the other radio.
Antenna diversity lets you attach two antennas to one radio to increase the
odds of receiving a better signal on either of the antennas. In addition to
the earlier antenna guidelines, if you are connecting two antennas to a
radio, you need to also follow these recommendation:
Table 12. Recommended Antenna Separation for Antenna Diversity
Location
Recommended Antenna Separation *
Highly reflective
warehouse environment
0.33 m (13 in) or 0.64 m (25 in)
Moderately reflective
warehouse environment
0.64 m (25 in), 1.22 m (4 ft), or 1.83 m (6
ft)
Open/Office environment
1.22 m (4 ft) to 3.05 m (10 ft)
* The recommendations in this table apply to omni antennas; if you are
using directional antennas, increase the recommended separation
between the antennas.
If you are using antenna diversity, where you place each antenna is critical
because each antenna has a particular function. Antennas placed too
close together may cause interference with each other. Antennas placed
too far apart may not be able to establish two-way communications with
other radios. Note these important points:
ˆ
Position omni antennas for the 802.11b radio at least 0.61 m (2 ft)
apart.
ˆ
Position directional antennas so they point in the same direction.
ˆ
Position the antennas so that both antennas are within range of the
radios they need to communicate with.
ˆ
Do not position the two antennas around a corner or so that a wall is
between them.
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Chapter 2: Installing the Access Points
ˆ
Follow the recommended antenna separation precisely when using the
closest distances. Movement of as little as 3.05 cm (1.2 in) may
strongly affect performance. You should choose the greatest distance
possible within the constraints of your environment.
Stacked Antenna Positioning for Dual Radio Access Points
As an alternative to the physical separation of omni antennas, you can
mount them along a single axis to minimize the antenna-to-antenna
coupling.
Primary antenna
for Radio 1
Secondary antenna
for Radio 1
Access Point
All four antennas
are mounted along
a single axis.
Secondary antenna
for Radio 2
Primary antenna
for Radio 2
Note that antenna diversity works differently for 802.11g, 802.11b, and
802.11a radios.
About Antenna Diversity for 802.11g Radios
The 802.11g radios support antenna diversity, but it is not automatically
enabled. You must manually enable this feature using the Access Point
Configuration menu. From the main menu, click 802.11g Radio >
Advanced Configuration. The Antenna Control field, let you choose
Diversity.
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AT-WA7500 and AT-WA7501 Installation and User’s Guide
When antenna diversity is enabled, both ports can receive, but only the
primary port transmits. To achieve optimum placement for the two
antennas, you must place the transmit/receive antenna so that it is within
range of all the radios that the receive-only antenna can hear.
About Antenna Diversity for 802.11b Radios
The 802.11b radios support antenna diversity and it is automatically
enabled when you have two antennas connected to one radio. When you
are using antenna diversity, both ports can receive, but only the primary
port transmits. To achieve optimum placement for the two antennas, you
must place the transmit/receive antenna so that it is within range of all the
radios that the receive-only antenna can hear.
About Antenna Diversity for 802.11a Radios
The 802.11a radios support antenna diversity and it is automatically
enabled. When you have two antennas connected to this radio, both ports
can transmit and receive. You can use this feature to provide redundant
coverage of the same area covered by the primary antenna or you can use
it to provide coverage of a separate area. If you are using directional
antennas, you can point them toward different areas or you can place the
second antenna on the other side of the wall.
63
Chapter 3
Configuring the Ethernet Network
This chapter explains how to configure the AT-WA7500 and AT-WA7501
access points so that they communicate with your Ethernet network. This
chapter explains:
ˆ
“Configuring the TCP/IP Settings” on page 65
ˆ
“Configuring Other Ethernet or Fiber Optic Settings” on page 77
ˆ
“Configuring Ethernet Filters” on page 80
64
AT-WA7500 and AT-WA7501 Installation and User’s Guide
Configuring the TCP/IP Settings
If you are using a DHCP server to automatically assign an IP address to
the access point, go to “Configuring the Access Point as a DHCP Client”
on page 67. If you are not using a DHCP server, you need to manually
assign some TCP/IP parameters.
Note
You should have already configured an IP address for the access
point. For help, see “Configuring the Access Point (Setting the IP
Address)” on page 38.
To configure the TCP/IP settings
1. From the menu, click TCP/IP Settings. The TCP/IP Settings screen
appears.
2. Configure the TCP/IP settings. For help, see the next table.
3. If you want to configure the access point as a DHCP server, see
“Configuring the Access Point as a DHCP Server” on page 70.
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Chapter 3: Configuring the Ethernet Network
4. If you want to configure the access point as a NAT server, see “About
Network Address Translation (NAT)” on page 75.
5. If you want to configure the access point to send ARP requests, see
“Configuring the Access Point to Send ARP Requests” on page 76.
6. Click Submit Changes to save your changes. To activate your
changes, from the menu bar click Save/Discard Changes, and then
click Save Changes and Reboot. For help, see “Saving Configuration
Changes” on page 46.
Table 13. TCP/IP Settings Descriptions
Parameter
Explanation
IP Address
Enter the IP address of the access point. The IP
address has the form x.x.x.x, where x is a number
from 0 to 255.
IP Subnet Mask
Enter the subnet mask that matches the other
devices in your network. The subnet mask has
the form x.x.x.x, where x is a number from 0 to
255.
If you use DHCP to obtain an IP address for this
access point, the subnet mask that is obtained
from DHCP will supersede this one.
66
IP Router
(Gateway)
Enter the IP address of the router that will forward
frames if the access point will communicate with
devices on another subnet. The IP address has
the form x.x.x.x, where x is a number from 0 to
255.
DNS Address 1
Enter the IP address of a domain name server
that the access point uses to resolve DNS
names. If this access point is a DHCP server, this
DNS address will be distributed to DHCP clients.
You can enter up to two DNS addresses to be
delivered to DHCP clients.
DNS Address 2
Enter the IP address of a domain name server
that the access point uses to resolve DNS names
if the DNS server at DNS Address 1 is not
responding. If this access point is a DHCP server,
this DNS address will be distributed to DHCP
clients.
AT-WA7500 and AT-WA7501 Installation and User’s Guide
Table 13. TCP/IP Settings Descriptions (Continued)
Parameter
DNS Suffix 1
Explanation
Enter a domain name suffix that will be appended
to DNS names that cannot be resolved. If the
access point is a DHCP server, this is the only
DNS suffix that is delivered to DHCP clients.
For example, enter a suffix of UVW.COM. When
you try to resolve ABC, the DNS will look for
ABC.UVW.COM.
DNS Suffix 2
Enter a domain name suffix that will be appended
to DNS names that cannot be resolved either by
themselves or using DNS suffix 1.
For example, enter a suffix of XYZ.COM. When
you try to resolve ABC, the DNS will first look for
ABC.UVW.COM and then it will look for
ABC.XYZ.COM.
Configuring the
Access Point as a
DHCP Client
You can use a DHCP server to automatically assign an IP address and
other TCP/IP settings to your access point; that is, the access point can
act as a DHCP client.
A DHCP client accepts offers from DHCP or BOOTP servers. Preference
is given to DHCP servers. If a BOOTP reply is received before a DHCP
offer, the access point waits 4 seconds. If a DHCP offer is received within
the 4 seconds, the DHCP offer is used and the BOOTP reply is ignored.
(BOOTP offers are treated like infinite DHCP leases.)
Note
You cannot configure the access point as both a DHCP server and a
DHCP client.
Note
If you are using the embedded authentication server feature, do not
configure the access point as a DHCP client.
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To configure the access point as a DHCP client
1. From the menu, click TCP/IP Settings. The TCP/IP Settings screen
appears.
2. Configure the DHCP parameters to make this access point a DHCP
client. For help, see the next table.
Note
If you set DHCP Mode to Disable DHCP and the IP address for this
access point is 0.0.0.0, all IP communications are disabled for this
access point.
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3. Click Submit Changes to save your changes. To activate your
changes, from the menu bar click Save/Discard Changes, and then
click Save Changes and Reboot. For help, see “Saving Configuration
Changes” on page 46.
Table 14. DHCP Client Parameter Descriptions
Parameter
DHCP Mode
Explanation
To configure the access point as a DHCP client,
you must choose one of these options:
Always Use DHCP: The access point uses DHCP
after every reboot whether or not an infinite lease
was granted in a previous session. If this option is
not selected, infinite leases are stored in nonvolatile memory and reused after each reboot.
(BOOTP is treated like an infinite lease.)
Use DHCP if IP Address is Zero: (Default.) The
access point uses DHCP only if the IP Address is
0.0.0.0. If you choose this option, make sure that
the IP Address is 0.0.0.0.
DHCP Server
Name
Leave this field blank if you want the access point
to respond to offers from any server.
Or enter the name of the DHCP server that this
access point accesses for information. This
access point will not respond to any other DHCP
server.
DHCP User Class
Leave the field blank if you do not want the DHCP
client to include a user class identifier in its
requests.
Or enter the DHCP user class identifier as
defined in RFC 3004. When this access point
acts as a DHCP client, the string entered in this
field is sent in DHCP option 77 in DHCP request
messages.
DHCP Vendor
Class
Leave the field blank if you do not want the DHCP
client to include the vendor class identifier in its
requests.
Or enter the DHCP vendor class identifier as
defined in RFC 2132. When this access point
acts as a DHCP client, the string entered in this
field is sent in DHCP option 60 in DHCP request
messages.
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Table 14. DHCP Client Parameter Descriptions (Continued)
Parameter
DHCP for Access
Point Network
Explanation
Determines which DHCP servers may be used by
access points and wireless devices:
Use Any Available DHCP Server: Access points
and wireless devices may receive DHCP
responses and addresses from any available
DHCP server.
Only Use Access Point DHCP Server: Access
points and any associated wireless devices may
receive DHCP responses and addresses only
from an access point DHCP server. Currently, the
DHCP server must be located in the root access
point. If this option is selected and the root
access point does not have a DHCP server
enabled, access points and wireless devices will
not be able to receive a DHCP address. You can
use this option, in combination with a DHCP user
class, to segment a network that has an existing
DHCP server and an access point DHCP server.
Configuring the
Access Point as a
DHCP Server
You can configure the access point as a simple DHCP server that
provides DHCP server functions for small installations where no other
DHCP server is available. The DHCP server will offer IP addresses and
other TCP/IP settings to any DHCP client it hears as long as a pool of
unallocated IP addresses is available. These clients may include other
access points, wireless end devices, wired hosts on the distribution LAN,
or wired hosts on secondary LANs.
Note
If you configure the access point as a DHCP server, it is not
intended to replace a general purpose, configurable DHCP server,
and it makes no provisions for synchronizing DHCP policy between
itself and other DHCP servers. Customers with complex DHCP
policy requirements should use other DHCP server software.
Note
You cannot configure the access point as both a DHCP server and a
DHCP client.
To avoid a single point of failure, you can configure more than one access
point to be a DHCP server; however, the access points do not share
DHCP client databases. You should configure each DHCP server with a
different address pool from which to allocate client IP addresses.
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To configure the access point as a DHCP server
1. From the menu, click TCP/IP Settings. The TCP/IP Settings screen
appears.
2. Verify that the IP Address field, IP Subnet Mask field, and IP Router
field are configured. For help, see “Configuring the TCP/IP Settings” on
page 65.
3. Configure the DHCP parameters to make this access point a DHCP
server. For help, see the next table.
Table 15. DHCP Server Parameter Descriptions
Parameter
Explanation
DHCP Mode
Choose This AP is a DHCP Server. The access
point must have a valid IP address and subnet
mask.
DHCP Server
Name
Enter the name for this access point as a DHCP
server.
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Table 15. DHCP Server Parameter Descriptions (Continued)
Parameter
DHCP User Class
Explanation
Leave the field blank if you want this access point
to respond to requests from any client.
Or enter the DHCP user class identifier as
defined in RFC 3004. When this access point
acts as a DHCP server, the access point offers
addresses to client requests only when the client
requests contain a matching user class identifier.
DHCP Vendor
Class
Leave the field blank if you want this access point
to respond to requests from any client.
Or enter the DHCP vendor class identifier as
defined in RFC 2132. When this access point
acts as a DHCP server, the access point offers
addresses to client requests only when the client
requests contains a matching vendor class
identifier.
DHCP for Access
Point Network
Determines which DHCP servers may be used by
access points and wireless devices:
Use Any Available DHCP Server: Access points
and wireless devices may receive DHCP
responses and addresses from any available
DHCP server.
Only Use Access Point DHCP Server: Access
points and any associated wireless devices may
receive DHCP responses and addresses only
from an access point DHCP server. Currently, the
DHCP server must be located in the root access
point. If this option is selected and the root
access point does not have a DHCP server
enabled, access points and wireless devices will
not be able to receive a DHCP address. You can
use this option, in combination with a DHCP user
class, to segment a network that has an existing
DHCP server and an access point DHCP server.
4. Click Submit Changes to save your changes. DHCP Server Setup
appears in the menu.
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5. From the menu, click DHCP Server Setup. The DHCP Server Setup
screen appears.
6. Configure the DHCP server. For help, see the next table.
7. Click Submit Changes to save your changes. To activate your
changes, from the menu bar click Save/Discard Changes, and then
click Save Changes and Reboot. For help, see “Saving Configuration
Changes” on page 46.
Table 16. DHCP Server Setup Parameter Descriptions
Parameter
Low Address
Explanation
Enter the low IP address in the range of IP
addresses available to the DHCP server for
distribution to DHCP clients.
If these addresses are not on the same subnet as
the access point, the access point will perform
Network Address Translation (NAT) for the clients
to which it grants IP addresses.
High Address
Enter the high IP address in the range of IP
addresses available to the DHCP server for
distribution to DHCP clients.
If these addresses are not on the same subnet as
the access point, the access point will perform
Network Address Translation (NAT) for the clients
to which it grants IP addresses.
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Table 16. DHCP Server Setup Parameter Descriptions (Continued)
Parameter
Lease Time
Explanation
Specifies the duration of the leases that are
granted by the DHCP server. Enter the lease time
in the format days:hours:minutes.
If you set the lease time to 0, infinite leases are
granted.
Permanently Save
IP Address
Mappings
If you check this check box, the DHCP server
stores permanent mappings of IP addresses to
DHCP client identifiers. A DHCP client is
guaranteed to receive the same IP address each
time it requests an address even if the DHCP
server reboots.
If you clear this check box, the DHCP server tries
to grant clients the same address each time, but
that result is not guaranteed.
Display-only parameters
IP Subnet Mask
Displays the subnet mask entered at the TCP/IP
Settings screen.
IP Router
(Gateway)
Displays the address of the IP Router.
DNS Address 1
Displays the IP address of the Domain Name
Server. This address will be used for name
solution and will be distributed to DHCP clients
when this access point is a DHCP server.
DNS Address 2
Displays the IP address of the Domain Name
Server. This address will be used for name
solution and will be distributed to DHCP clients
when this access point is a DHCP server.
NAT Status
This informative entry lets you know if DHCP has
been properly configured, and if the range of
addresses has automatically enabled Network
Address Translation (NAT).
Supported DHCP Server Options
When the access point is acting as a DHCP server, it issues IP address
leases to configure the IP address, along with the DNS addresses, DNS
suffixes, IP subnet mask, and IP router. These parameters will contain the
same values as those configured for the access point.
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Unsupported DHCP Server Options
When the access point is acting as a DHCP server, it does not support any
DHCP options other than those listed. The DHCP server disregards any
DHCP options that are not explicitly required by the DHCP specification.
The DHCP server ignores all frames with a non-zero giaddr (gateway IP
address). The DHCP server only responds to requests from its own
subnet.
About Network Address Translation (NAT)
NAT allows IP addresses to be used by more than one end device. The
access point can act as a NAT server, which instantaneously rewrites IP
addresses and port numbers in IP headers so that frames all appear to be
coming from (or going to) the single IP address of the access point instead
of the actual source or destination.
When an end device uses the access point as an IP router, the access
point replaces the IP header, which includes the device MAC address, IP
source address, and TCP/UDP port, with its own. You can configure the
DHCP server to indicate that the access point is the IP router when the
server allocates an IP address. Special consideration is given to changing
the FTP data connection TCP port number, which is in the body of the
TCP frame. After the frame source is modified, it is forwarded to the proper
subnet.
If the destination subnet is a different subnet from the one the access point
is on, the destination MAC address is changed to the IP router that has
been configured for the access point. If the destination subnet is the same
subnet as the one the access point is on, the access point converts the
MAC address to the MAC address that belongs to the destination IP
address. This may involve using ARP for MAC address discovery.
When the access point receives a frame with its IP address, it identifies the
need for address translation by inspecting the destination port number. If
the port number is within the pool reserved for NAT operation, it looks up
the original MAC address, IP address, and port number. The frame is then
modified and forwarded to the end device.
NAT operation is disabled or enabled automatically depending on the
continuous range of addresses you enter into the DHCP server. NAT is
disabled if the range of addresses to be given to DHCP clients is on the
same subnet as the access point. NAT is enabled if the range of
addresses to be given to DHCP clients is not on the same subnet as the
access point; thus, you are creating a virtual network and the DHCP server
will also perform NAT translation.
When NAT operation is enabled, the access point uses the low address in
the range of addresses as its own. The DHCP/NAT clients also use this
address as their router IP address. These clients can configure the access
point using this internal IP address or the normal external IP address.
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To configure the access point as a NAT server
1. From the menu, click TCP/IP Settings. The TCP/IP Settings screen
appears.
2. Verify that the IP Address field and IP Subnet Mask field are
configured. For help, see “Configuring the TCP/IP Settings” on
page 65.
3. In the DHCP Mode field, choose This AP is a DHCP Server.
4. Click Submit Changes to save your changes.
5. Click DHCP Server Setup and enter a range of IP addresses that are
not on the same subnet as the access point.
6. Click Submit Changes to save your changes. To activate your
changes, from the menu bar click Save/Discard Changes, and then
click Save Changes and Reboot. For help, see “Saving Configuration
Changes” on page 46.
Configuring the
Access Point to
Send ARP
Requests
ARP requests are multicast frames, which means they are sent to all
devices on the Ethernet network. You can configure the access point to
periodically send an unsolicited ARP request to the IP router so that all
routers can update their routing tables. This ARP request lets a network
management program learn about the access point on the network by
querying routers. The auto ARP minutes parameter controls the time
interval between ARP requests.
If the address of the IP router is 0.0.0.0, then the access point sends an
ARP request to its own IP address. Without this option, an access point
might not use its IP address for extended periods of time and the IP
address would expire from the router ARP table. If the IP address expires,
the network management program must ping all potential addresses on a
subnet to locate active IP addresses or require the user to enter a list. You
should not let the IP address for the access point expire.
To set the auto ARP period
1. From the menu, click TCP/IP Settings. The TCP/IP Settings screen
appears.
2. In the Auto ARP Minutes field, enter a time period from 1 to 120
minutes. To disable this parameter, enter 0.
3. Click Submit Changes to save your changes. To activate your
changes, from the menu bar click Save/Discard Changes, and then
click Save Changes and Reboot. For help, see “Saving Configuration
Changes” on page 46.
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Configuring Other Ethernet or Fiber Optic Settings
Many of the standard Ethernet or fiber optic settings are configured in the
TCP/IP Settings screen. For help, see “Configuring the TCP/IP Settings”
on page 65. In the Ethernet screen, you can set the port type, set the link
speed, and enable or disable the link status check.
To configure the Ethernet or fiber optic settings
1. From the main menu, click Ethernet. The Ethernet screen appears.
2. Configure the parameters. For help, see the next table.
3. Click Submit Changes to save your changes. To activate your
changes, from the menu bar click Save/Discard Changes, and then
click Save Changes and Reboot. For help, see “Saving Configuration
Changes” on page 46.
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Table 17. Ethernet Parameter Descriptions
Parameter
Port Type
Explanation
Appears only if the access point has a fiber optic
port.
This field specifies the port that the access point
uses to communicate with the Ethernet network:
10/100 Mb Twisted-Pair: The access point
communicates with the Ethernet network through
the Ethernet port.
100 Mb Fiber Optic: The access point
communicates with the Ethernet network through
the fiber optic port.
Link Speed
If Port Type is 100 Mb Fiber Optic, this field is
automatically set to 100 Mbps Fiber Optic (full
duplex).
Choose the speed and duplex mode you want
this port to use to communicate with the Ethernet.
If you want the access point to auto-negotiate this
field, choose Auto Select. Auto Select should
work for most networks.
Enable Link Status
Check
Check this check box if you want the access point
to periodically check its Ethernet connection. If it
loses the connection, this access point can no
longer be the root access point and any end
devices that are connected to this access point
(whether or not it is the root) will roam to a
different access point. The access point will
attempt to reconnect to the spanning tree through
one of its radio ports.
Clear this check box if this access point must be
the root access point or if it is used as a WAP.
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Configuring the
Ethernet Address
Table
If you have a secondary LAN, you should configure the Ethernet address
table in the designated bridge or WAP on the secondary LAN. This table
contains all the MAC addresses on the secondary LAN that are
communicating with the primary LAN. You must enter the MAC addresses
of all devices on the secondary LAN that do not always initiate
communication.
If you choose not to configure this table, the designated bridge or WAP
may need to flood frames to the Ethernet and radio ports to learn the path
to the MAC address.
These addresses become permanent entries in the forwarding table of the
designated bridge or WAP.
To configure the Ethernet address table
1. From the main menu, click Ethernet > Address Table. The Address
Table screen appears.
2. Enter up to 20 MAC addresses. MAC addresses consist of six hex
pairs that are separated by spaces, colons, or hyphens.
3. Click Submit Changes to save your changes. To activate your
changes, from the menu bar click Save/Discard Changes, and then
click Save Changes and Reboot. For help, see “Saving Configuration
Changes” on page 46.
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Configuring Ethernet Filters
You can set both Ethernet and IP tunnel filters, and you can create
protocol filters for both predefined and user-defined protocol types. In
addition, you can define arbitrary frame filters based on frame content.
Setting Ethernet filters prevents the Ethernet port from sending out
unnecessary traffic to the wireless network.
Ethernet frame type filter and predefined subtype filter settings override
customizable subtype filter settings. However, Allied Telesyn recommends
that when creating customizable subtype filters, you do not duplicate
existing frame type or predefined subtype filters or unexpected results
may occur.
For more examples of using Ethernet filters and for help configuring IP
filters, see “Configuring IP Tunnel Filters” on page 150.
Using Ethernet
Frame Type
Filters
You can define filters for common networking protocols such as IP, Novell
IPX, and 802.2 LLC. You can also set filters that will pass only those
Ethernet frame types found on your network.
You can set the default action for general and specific frame types. For
example, you cannot pass the DIX-Other EtherTypes frame parameter
and then use the subtype menus to pass only those specific DIX types that
are used in your radio network.
You can also set the scope for general and specific frame types. For
example, for DIX-IP-TCP ports, you cannot pass all frame types. Then, all
IP frames with the TCP type will be dropped even if specific TCP parts are
set to pass in the subtype menus.
Here is the action and scope you can set for each parameter:
Allow/Pass: Check or clear this check box. Check the check box to pass
all frames of that type. Clear the check box to drop all frames of that type.
Scope: Set scope to Unlisted or All. If you select All, then all frames of that
type are unconditionally passed or dropped, depending on the action you
specified. If you select Unlisted, then frames are passed or dropped only if
the frame type is not listed in the predefined or customizable tables.
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To set frame type filters
1. From the main menu, click Ethernet > Frame Type Filters. The Frame
Type Filters screen appears.
2. For each frame type field, check or clear the Allow/Pass check box to
configure if the frame types are allowed to pass or are dropped. If you
check the check box, the frame type is allowed to pass. For help, see
the next table.
3. For each frame type field, set the Scope field to Unlisted or All. For
help, see the next table.
4. Click Submit Changes to save your changes. To activate your
changes, from the menu bar click Save/Discard Changes, and then
click Save Changes and Reboot. For help, see “Saving Configuration
Changes” on page 46.
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5. If you set the Scope field to Unlisted for any of the frame types, you
must also configure predefined subtype filters or customizable subtype
filters. For help, see the next section, “Using Predefined Subtype
Filters” on page 83 or “Customizing Subtype Filters” on page 83.
Table 18. Frame Type Filter Descriptions
Frame Type
Explanation
DIX IP TCP Ports
DIX IP UDP Ports
SNAP IP TCP Ports
SNAP IP UDP Ports
Primary Internet Protocol Suite (IP)
transport protocols.
DIX IP Other Protocols
SNAP IP Other Protocols
IP protocols other than TCP or User
Datagram Protocol (UDP).
DIX IPX Sockets
Novell NetWare protocol over Ethernet II
frames.
SNAP IPX Sockets
Novell NetWare protocol over 802.2
SNAP frames.
802.3 IPX Sockets
Novell NetWare protocol over 802.3 RAW
frames.
DIX Other Ethernet Types
SNAP Other Ethernet
Types
DIX or SNAP registered protocols other
than IP or IPX.
802.2 IPX Sockets
Novell running over 802.2 Logical Link
Control (LLC).
802.2 Other SAPs
802.2 SAPs other than IPX or SNAP.
Note
You should not filter HTTP, Telnet, SNMP, and ICMP frames if you
are using WAPs because these frame types are used for
configuring, troubleshooting, and upgrading WAPs.
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Using Predefined
Subtype Filters
You can configure the access point to pass or drop certain predefined
frame subtypes.
To configure predefined subtype filters
1. From the main menu, click Ethernet > Predefined Subtype Filters. The
Predefined Subtype Filters screen appears.
2. For each frame subtype field, check or clear the Allow/Pass check box
to configure if the frame subtypes are allowed to pass or are dropped.
If you check the check box, the frame subtype is allowed to pass.
3. Click Submit Changes to save your changes. To activate your
changes, from the menu bar click Save/Discard Changes, and then
click Save Changes and Reboot. For help, see “Saving Configuration
Changes” on page 46.
Customizing
Subtype Filters
You can configure the access point to pass or drop certain customized
frame subtypes. You define the action, subtype, and value parameters:
Allow/Pass: Check or clear this check box. Check this check box to pass
all frames of the subtype and value. Clear this check box to drop all frames
of the subtype and value.
SubType: Selects the frame subtype you wish to configure. For help
setting the subtype and value, see the Table 19, ”Subtype Filter
Descriptions” on page 84.
Value: The value must be two hex pairs. When a match is found between
frame subtype and value, the specified action is taken.
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To customize subtype filters
1. From the main menu, click Ethernet > Customizable Subtype Filters.
The Customizable Subtype Filters screen appears.
2. For each subtype field, check or clear the Allow/Pass check box to
configure if the subtypes are allowed to pass or are dropped. If you
check the check box, the subtype is allowed to pass.
3. In the SubType field, choose the customizable frame subtype. For
help, see the next table.
4. In the Value field, enter the two hex pairs. For help, see the next table.
5. Click Submit Changes to save your changes. To activate your
changes, from the menu bar click Save/Discard Changes, and then
click Save Changes and Reboot. For help, see “Saving Configuration
Changes” on page 46.
Table 19. Subtype Filter Descriptions
SubType
84
Value
DIX-IP-TCP-Port
Port value in hexadecimal.
DIX-IP-UDP-Port
Port value in hexadecimal.
DIX-IP-Protocol
Protocol number in hexadecimal.
DIX-IPX-Socket
Socket value in hexadecimal.
DIX-EtherType
Specify the registered DIX type in hexadecimal.
SNAP-IP-TCP-Port
Port value in hexadecimal.
AT-WA7500 and AT-WA7501 Installation and User’s Guide
Table 19. Subtype Filter Descriptions (Continued)
SubType
Value
SNAP-IP-UDP-Port
Port value in hexadecimal.
SNAP-IP-Protocol
Port value in hexadecimal.
SNAP-IPX-Socket
Socket value in hexadecimal.
SNAP-EtherType
SNAP type in hexadecimal. To filter on both
SNAP type and OUI, use advanced filters.
802.3-IPX-Socket
Socket value in hexadecimal.
802.2-IPX-Socket
Socket value in hexadecimal.
802.2-SAP
802.2 SAP in hexadecimal.
Example
This example shows you how to use customizable filters to allow only the
wireless end devices (DHCP clients) communicating with the access point
(DHCP server) to receive TCP/IP settings. This example prevents the
wireless end devices from receiving TCP/IP settings from another DHCP
server on the Ethernet network. It also prevents the access point from
providing TCP/IP settings to DHCP clients on the wired network.
For this example, set these customizable subtype filters.
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Table 20. Example – Customizable Subtype Filter
Filter
1
2
Parameter
Value
Allow/Pass
Clear (drop)
Subtype
DIX-IP-UDPPort
Value
00 43
Allow/Pass
Clear (drop)
Subtype
DIX-IP-UDPPort
Value
00 44
Explanation
This filter drops
DHCP
responses to
wireless end
devices
communicating
with this access
point.
This filter drops
DHCP requests
from DHCP
clients on the
Ethernet
network.
Configuring Advanced Filters
You can configure advanced filters if you need more flexibility in your
filtering. Settings for advanced filters execute after those for other filters;
that is, advanced filters are only applied if the frame has passed the other
filters.
You can use filter values and filter expressions to minimize network traffic
over the wireless links; however, Allied Telesyn recommends that you use
advanced Ethernet filters only if you have an extensive understanding of
network frames and their contents. Use other existing filters whenever
possible.
Setting Filter Values
You can associate an ID with a pattern value by selecting a filter and then
entering an ID and a value. All values with the same value ID belong to the
same list.
To set the value ID and value
1. From the main menu, click Ethernet > Advanced Filters. The Filter
Values screen appears.
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2. Enter up to 22 value IDs and values.
3. Click Submit Changes to save your changes. To activate your
changes, from the menu bar click Save/Discard Changes, and then
click Save Changes and Reboot. For help, see “Saving Configuration
Changes” on page 46.
Setting Filter Expressions
You can set filter expressions by specifying parameters for frame filters.
You can also create a filter expression, which is executed in ascending
order based on the ExprSeq values until the access point determines
whether to pass or drop the frame.
To set filter expressions
1. From the main menu, click Ethernet > Advanced Filters > Filter
Expressions. The Filter Expressions screen appears.
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2. Configure the filter expressions parameters. For help, see the next
table.
3. Click Submit Changes to save your changes. To activate your
changes, from the menu bar click Save/Discard Changes, and then
click Save Changes and Reboot. For help, see “Saving Configuration
Changes” on page 46.
Table 21. Filter Expressions Parameter Descriptions
Parameter
ExprSeq
(Expression
Sequence)
Explanation
Indicates the order in which the filters will be
executed. When you change the parameter, the
statements are reordered and renumbered so the
Expression Sequence order is maintained. The
range is from 0 to 255.
This parameter works with the Action parameter;
for example, if the action is set to And, then the
next sequence in another expression is
processed.
Offset
88
Identifies a point inside the frame where testing
for the expression is to start. The range is from 0
to 65535.
AT-WA7500 and AT-WA7501 Installation and User’s Guide
Table 21. Filter Expressions Parameter Descriptions (Continued)
Parameter
Mask
Explanation
Applies a data pattern to the frame. If the data
pattern in the mask matches the frame, then the
specific action is performed. The mask indicates
the bits that are significant at the specified offset.
A bit is significant if a bit in the mask is set to one.
If this field is empty, the length of the field is
determined by the longest value in the Filter
Values menu for the specified value ID.
The mask values are entered in 0 to 8
hexadecimal pairs.
Op (Operation)
Performs a logical operation when a data pattern
matches a value in the Filter Values menu to
determine if the specified action should be taken.
Valid operations include: EQ (equal), NE (not
equal), GT (greater than), LT (less than or equal)
Value ID
Represents a value in the Filter Values menu.
The bytes after the frame offset are compared to
the data pattern indicated by the value. Value ID
can be from 0 to 255 and must match one or
more value IDs in the Filter Values menu.
Action
Sets the action to Pass, Drop, or And. If you set
the action to And, the filter expression with the
next highest sequence is applied.
Example 1
This example shows you how to use Ethernet filters to filter all traffic that
passes through the access point to the wireless network except for traffic
for specified MAC addresses. These filters do not prevent wireless traffic
from reaching the Ethernet network. For this example, set these filter
values.
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Table 22. Example 1 - Filter Values
Value ID
90
Value
Description
1
ff ff ff ff ff ff
Allows multicast traffic to enter the
wireless network, which is necessary for
IP end devices to communicate
2
00 02 2d 04
b7 a4
The MAC address of an end device you
want to be able to communicate.
3
00 02 2d 0d
54 25
The MAC address of an end device you
want to be able to communicate.
AT-WA7500 and AT-WA7501 Installation and User’s Guide
For this example, set these filter expressions.
Table 23. Example 1 – Filter Expressions
Parameter
Value
Explanation
ExprSeq
10
The order that you want the expressions
executed. You must have an expression
for each Value ID that is listed in the Filter
Values menu.
Offset
0
Since the filter is applied to the destination
address, which is the first value in the
frame, the offset is 0.
Mask
ff ff ff ff ff ff
Compares the entire 6-byte destination
address for an exact match.
Op
EQ
Compares the value after the offset and
mask are applied to the value of the Value
ID from the Filter Values menu to see if
they are equal. (If the value at the offset
equals the specified value on the Filter
Values menu, the frame is multicast.)
Value ID
1
This filter expression applies to value ID 1
from the Filter Values menu.
Action
Pass
If this filter expression is true, continue to
the next expression.
You must enter a filter expression for each Value ID in the Filter Values
menu. In this example, only the ExprSeq and the Value ID values change.
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Chapter 3: Configuring the Ethernet Network
Example 2
This example shows how to use Ethernet filters to discard all DIX IP
multicast frames except those from selected devices. Three entries have a
value ID of 3 to demonstrate how to enter a list. All entries with the same
value ID belong to the same list. For this example, set these filter values.
Table 24. Example 2 - Filter Values
Value ID
Value
Description
1
08 00
Check for a DIX IP frame.
2
01
Check for a multicast frame.
3
00 c0 b2 00 00 01
Check for these specific MAC
device addresses.
00 c0 b2 00 00 02
00 c0 b2 00 00 03
You must enter a filter expression for each Value ID in the Filter Values
menu. In this example, three expressions combine to form a single
compound expression. The compound expression forms an advanced
filter that drops all DIX IP multicast frames except those from the three
Ethernet stations whose addresses are listed on the Filter Values menu.
The default action is the opposite of the action specified in the last
expression. In this example, the action of the last expression is drop;
therefore, the default action is pass. Any frame that meets the conditions
specified in the advanced filter is passed.
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AT-WA7500 and AT-WA7501 Installation and User’s Guide
Set the first filter expression as shown below.
Table 25. Example 2 – First Filter Expression
Parameter
Value
Explanation
ExprSeq
1
The first expression that is executed. You
must have an expression for each Value
ID that is listed in the Filter Values menu.
Offset
0
Since the filter is applied to the destination
address, which is the first value in the
frame, the offset is 0.
Mask
01
Checks only the Ethernet multicast bit.
Op
EQ
Compares the value after the offset and
mask are applied to the value of the Value
ID from the Filter Values menu to see if
they are equal. (If the value at the offset
equals the specified value on the Filter
Values menu, the frame is multicast.)
Value ID
2
This filter expression applies to value ID 2
from the Filter Values menu.
Action
And
If this filter expression is true, continue to
the next expression.
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Chapter 3: Configuring the Ethernet Network
Set the second filter expression as shown below.
Table 26. Example 2 – Second Filter Expression
Parameter
94
Value
Explanation
ExprSeq
2
The second expression that is executed.
Offset
12
Checks for the DIX IP frame type, which
starts 12 bytes from the destination
address.
Mask
ff ff
Checks the 2-byte DIX IP frame type for
an exact match.
Op
EQ
Compares the value after the offset and
mask are applied to the value of the Value
ID from the Filter Values menu to see if
they are equal. (If the value at the offset
equals the specified value on the Filter
Values menu, the frame is DIX IP.)
Value ID
1
This filter expression applies to value ID 1
from the Filter Values menu.
Action
And
If this filter expression is true, continue to
the next expression.
AT-WA7500 and AT-WA7501 Installation and User’s Guide
Set the third filter expression as shown below.
Table 27. Example 2 – Third Filter Expression
Parameter
Value
Explanation
ExprSeq
3
The third expression that is executed.
Offset
6
Checks the source Ethernet address,
which starts 6 bytes from the destination
address.
Mask
ff ff ff ff ff ff
Checks the 6-byte source Ethernet
address for an exact match.
OP
NE
Compares the value after the offset and
mask are applied to the value of the Value
ID from the Filter Values menu to see if
they are not equal. (Compare the source
Ethernet address with the list of MAC
addresses from the Filter Values menu.)
Value ID
3
This filter expression applies to value ID 3
from the Filter Values menu.
Action
Drop
If the source Ethernet address does not
match any address in the list on the Filter
Values menu, then drop the frame.
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Chapter 4
Configuring the Radios
This chapter explains how to configure the radios in the AT-WA7500 and
AT-WA7501 access points so that they communicate with your wireless
end devices. This chapter covers these topics:
ˆ
“About the Radios” on page 97
ˆ
“Configuring the 802.11g Radio” on page 98
ˆ
“Configuring the 802.11b Radio” on page 110
ˆ
“Configuring the 802.11a Radio” on page 119
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AT-WA7500 and AT-WA7501 Installation and User’s Guide
About the Radios
The AT-WA7500 and AT-WA7501 access products may contain one or
two radios. You can use access points that contain two different types of
radios to support two different types of wireless networks, such as legacy
networks. You can use access points with two of the same type of radios
as WAPs, as point-to-multipoint bridges, to increase throughput in a busy
network, or to provide redundancy.
Table 28. Access Point Radios Supported and Features
802.11g*
802.11b
802.11a
Dual
Radio
Support
WA7500
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
WA7501
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Access
Point
Radio Supported
Radio
Independent
* The 802.11g radio is sometimes referred to as the 802.11b/g because it
can be configured to communicate with any 802.11b and 802.11g radios
that have the same SSID and security settings.
The next sections explain how to configure the radios that are in your
access point. Only the radios actually installed in your access point appear
in the configuration menus.
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Chapter 4: Configuring the Radios
Configuring the 802.11g Radio
You can configure the 802.11g radio to communicate with other 802.11g
and 802.11b radios that have the same:
ˆ
SSID (Network Name)
ˆ
Security
For each radio, you can assign up to four service sets, creating one
primary service set and up to three secondary service sets. Each service
set shares the same Advanced Configuration and Inbound Filters settings,
but you can customize the security settings. However, most clients do not
support a mixed security environment using multiple service sets:
ˆ
If you configure security on the primary service set, then you should
also configure security on the secondary service sets.
ˆ
If you do not configure security on the primary service set, then you
cannot configure security on the secondary service sets.
For details, see “When You Configure Different SSIDs with Different
Security Settings” on page 172.
Multiple service sets are used primarily to allow one physical radio to
support multiple virtual LANs (VLANs). For details about VLANs, see
“Configuring VLANs” on page 187.
To configure the 802.11g radio
1. From the main menu, click 802.11g Radio. The 802.11g Radio screen
appears.
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AT-WA7500 and AT-WA7501 Installation and User’s Guide
2. Configure the parameters for the radio. For help, see the next table.
3. Configure the advanced parameters for the radio. For help, see
“Configuring 802.11g Radio Advanced Parameters” on page 102.
4. (Master only) Configure inbound filters. For help, see “Configuring
802.11g Radio Inbound Filters” on page 107.
5. Click Submit Changes to save your changes. To activate your
changes, from the menu bar click Save/Discard Changes, and then
click Save Changes and Reboot. For help, see “Saving Configuration
Changes” on page 46.
6. (Optional) Configure security by clicking Configure security settings for
this service set. For help, see Chapter 6, “Configuring Security” on
page 169.
Table 29. 802.11g Radio Parameter Descriptions
Parameter
Explanation
Frequency
(Master radio only)
Choose the frequency that this access point uses
to transmit and receive frames. The available
frequencies depend on the country and the radio
option configured on the access point. See the
Table 30, ”Worldwide Frequencies for 802.11g
and 802.11b Radios” on page 101.
You may want to use a single frequency to isolate
the installation to part of the band; for example,
use a single frequency if other wireless networks
or microwave ovens are in the area.
For optimal performance of master radios in
access points that are in range of each other,
configure the frequencies to be at least five
channels apart. For example, configure the
frequency to use channels 1, 6, and 11.
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Chapter 4: Configuring the Radios
Table 29. 802.11g Radio Parameter Descriptions (Continued)
Parameter
Node Type
Explanation
Configure the 802.11g radio to master, station, or
disabled:
Master: The radio always operates in Master
mode. The radio becomes active to accept
connections for wireless devices when the
access point joins the spanning tree. All service
sets to be configured for a VLAN must be set to
Master.
Station: The radio always operates in Station
mode. The radio searches for an access point
with an active Master mode radio to connect to. If
a connection is established, this link becomes a
possible connection to the root.
Disabled: The radio is disabled.
You can create up to four service sets for this
radio by setting the Node Type as follows:
SSID
(Network Name)
ˆ
If the primary service set is Master, up to
three secondary SSIDs may be set to Master.
ˆ
If the primary SSID is Station, all secondary
service sets are disabled and do not appear
on screen.
ˆ
If the primary service set is Disabled, all
secondary service sets (and the physical
radio) are disabled.
Enter a unique SSID for each enabled service
set. You can configure up to four service sets for
this radio. The SSID is case sensitive and cannot
be more than 32 alphanumeric characters.
802.11g radios can be configured to
communicate with other 802.11g and/or 802.11b
radios with the same SSIDs.
You need to assign the same SSID to the
wireless end devices that will connect to the
radio.
Member Limit
100
Controls the maximum number of devices that
can be associated with this enabled service set.
AT-WA7500 and AT-WA7501 Installation and User’s Guide
Table 30. Worldwide Frequencies for 802.11g and 802.11b Radios
Channel
FCC
ETSI
France
Japan
1
2412
2412
2412
2
2417
2417
2417
3
2422
(default)
2422
(default)
2422
(default)
4
2427
2427
2427
5
2432
2432
2432
6
2437
2437
2437
7
2442
2442
2442
8
2447
2447
2447
9
2452
2452
2452
10
2457
2457
2457
2457
11
2462
2462
2462
(default)
2462
12
2467
2467
2467
13
2472
2472
2472
14
Israel
2422
(default)
2484
The 802.11g and 802.11b channels that are allowed in a given country
may change without notice. Be sure you use only those frequencies that
are permissible in the given country. Note the following:
ˆ
FCC countries include the United States, Canada, China, Taiwan,
India, Thailand, Indonesia, Malaysia, Hong Kong, and most South
American countries.
ˆ
ETSI countries include all European Union countries except France. It
also includes Switzerland, Iceland, Norway, Czech Republic, Slovenia,
Slovakia, Turkey, Russia, and the United Arab Emirates.
ˆ
France, Mexico, and Singapore use the same channels.
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Chapter 4: Configuring the Radios
Configuring
802.11g Radio
Advanced
Parameters
You can configure advanced parameters for the 802.11g radio primary
service set. These settings are shared by any secondary service sets
defined for the radio.
To configure advanced parameters
1. From the main menu, click 802.11g Radio > Advanced Configuration.
The Advanced Configuration screen appears.
2. Configure the advanced parameters. For help, see the next table.
3. Click Submit Changes to save your changes. To activate your
changes, from the menu bar click Save/Discard Changes, and then
click Save Changes and Reboot. For help, see “Saving Configuration
Changes” on page 46.
Note
If the field name is marked with an asterisk (*), you can immediately
activate the changes without rebooting. For help, see “Applying Hot
Settings” on page 108.
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AT-WA7500 and AT-WA7501 Installation and User’s Guide
Table 31. 802.11g Radio Advanced Parameter Descriptions
Parameter
Client
Type/Performance
Description
Specifies if this radio will communicate with
802.11b and/or 802.11g radios:
11b/11g with range reliability (Not Wi-Fi):
Allows clients with 802.11b or 802.11g
radios. Parameters are adjusted for longer
range. Basic rates are 1 or 2 Mbps.
Extended rates are 6, 12, or 24 Mbps. Data
rates are 1, 2, 5.5, or 11 Mbps and
extended data rates are 6, 9, 12, 18, 24,
36, 48, or 54 Mbps.
11b/11g with Wi-Fi compatible rates:
Allows clients with 802.11b or 802.11g
radios. Basic rates are 1, 2, 5.5, or 11
Mbps. Data rates are 1, 2, 5.5, or 11 Mbps.
Extended data rates are 6, 9, 12, 18, 24,
36, 48, or 54 Mbps.
11g only for better throughput (Wi-Fi): Only
allows clients with 802.11g radios only.
Clients without extended rates capabilities
are rejected. Basic rates are 1, 2, 5.5, 11,
6, 12, or 24 Mbps. Data rates are 1, 2, 5.5,
11, 6, 9, 12, 18, 24, 36, 48, or 54 Mbps.
11b/11g using 11b supported rates (Wi-Fi):
Allows clients with 802.11b or 802.11g
radios. Clients that have mandatory
extended data rate requirements will not
associate. Basic rates are 1 or 2 Mbps.
Data rates are 1, 2, 5, 5, or 11 Mbps.
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Chapter 4: Configuring the Radios
Table 31. 802.11g Radio Advanced Parameter Descriptions (Continued)
Parameter
Power Output Level*
Description
Set the transmitted power level:
Maximum (63 mW): Sets the output power
to the highest level supported by the radio.
Medium (32 mW): Sets the output power to
3 dB lower than the highest level
supported by the radio.
Low (16 mW): Sets the output power to a
level higher than the minimum level
supported by the radio.
Minimum (2 mW): Sets the output power to
the lowest level supported by the radio.
Lowering the power output level reduces
the radio coverage for this area and
reduces the range for this radio.
Enable Medium
Reservation
Determines if you want to set a reservation
threshold.
Check this check box to set a threshold
value. Click Submit Changes, and the
Reservation Threshold parameter
appears.
If you clear this check box, you may
improve network response time in
installations that usually send very small
frames or that have no hidden stations.
Reservation Threshold
Appears only if the Enable Medium
Reservation parameter is checked.
If you enable medium reservation, you
need to set a threshold value, which is the
largest data frame that can be transmitted
without reserving air time. Air time is
normally reserved to help prevent
collisions with other transmitters.
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AT-WA7500 and AT-WA7501 Installation and User’s Guide
Table 31. 802.11g Radio Advanced Parameter Descriptions (Continued)
Parameter
Fragmentation Threshold
Description
Specifies the largest data frame that can
be transmitted without fragmentation.
Range is 256 to 1600.
On certain radios, the fragmentation does
not occur unless the radio detects
interference. Larger frame sizes can
improve throughput on a reliable
connection. Smaller frame sizes can
improve throughput on a poor connection.
Antenna control*
Specifies whether the radio uses two
antennas or one antenna:
Two Antennas: The radio selects the
antenna for transmission and reception
based on best reception.
One Antenna: The radio uses only one
antenna for transmission and reception.
Mixed Mode
Performance*
Optimizes the frame burst window length
to optimize performance for specific
clients. Gives more time to higher rate
frames to maximize throughput in the
presence of low rate clients. Range is 0 to
2000.
Optimized for 802.11g clients: 802.11g
transmissions are maximized.
Optimized for 802.11b clients: 802.11b
transmissions are maximized.
Optimize Mixed (802.11g and 802.11b):
Allows an optimal mix of 802.11g and
802.11b transmissions.
Enable Data Rate
Fallback
Determines if you want the radio to drop to
a slower data rate when it has trouble
communicating with another radio.
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Chapter 4: Configuring the Radios
Table 31. 802.11g Radio Advanced Parameter Descriptions (Continued)
Parameter
Disallow SSID (Network
Name) of ‘ANY
(Master radio only)
Description
Determines if end devices that have their
SSID set to ANY or are left blank (empty)
can associate with this radio.
Clear this check box to allow these end
devices to associate with this radio.
Although this setting is 802.11 compliant, it
is not very secure.
Check this check box to prevent end
devices with an SSID of ANY or are left
blank from associating with this radio.
DTIM Period
(Master radio only)
Specifies the number of beacon periods to
skip before including a DTIM (delivery
traffic indication message) in a beacon
frame. Range is 1 to 65535.
Setting a higher DTIM period may
conserve battery life in an end device, but
it may increase response time.
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AT-WA7500 and AT-WA7501 Installation and User’s Guide
Configuring
802.11g Radio
Inbound Filters
You can configure inbound filters for the 802.11g radio primary service set.
These settings are shared by any secondary service sets defined for the
radio. You can filter different types of wireless traffic that it may receive.
You may want to use this feature by itself or with an access control list
(ACL) to help secure your network. If you clear all the check boxes, the
radio cannot communicate with any other radios.
You need to check the Allow IAPP check box if you want the access point
to be able to communicate with other access points and participate in the
spanning tree.
You can use this feature to form a secure wireless hop. Clear all check
boxes, except for the Allow IAPP check box.
Or you may want to use this feature in a terminal emulation environment
when you know the end devices are sending only UDP Plus or Wireless
Transport Protocol (WTP) frames. Check the Allow UDP Plus check box or
the Allow Wireless Transport Protocol check box and clear all other check
boxes (except the Allow IAPP check box). The access point master radio
will only accept the UDP Plus or WTP frames and discard all other frames,
which can make a more secure network.
Note
If any of the devices are also DHCP clients, you need to check the
Allow DHCP check box.
To configure 802.11g radio inbound filters
1. From the main menu, click 802.11g Radio > Advanced Configuration >
Inbound Filters (Primary Only). The Inbound Filters screen appears.
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Chapter 4: Configuring the Radios
2. For each frame type, check or clear each check box. For help, see the
next table.
3. Click Submit Changes to save your changes. To activate your
changes, from the menu bar click Save/Discard Changes, and then
click Save Changes and Reboot. For help, see “Saving Configuration
Changes” on page 46.
Table 32. 802.11g Radio Inbound Filter Descriptions
Parameter
Applying Hot
Settings
Description
Allow IAPP
Determines if this radio accepts IAPP (Inter
Access Point Protocol) frames from other access
point station radios. The IAPP frames must match
Ethernet protocol 875c.
Allow Wireless
Transport Protocol
(WTP)
Determines if this radio accepts WTP frames
from end devices. The WTP frames must match
Ethernet protocol 875b.
Allow UDP Plus
(UDP/IP Port 5555)
Determines if this radio accepts UDP Plus frames
from end devices. The UDP Plus frames must
match the UDP network port 5555 on the DCS
30X, Allied Telesyn Gateway, or ARP.
Allow DHCP
Determines if this radio accepts DHCP frames.
The DHCP frames must match UDP destination
port 67 and ARP. Check this check box if the end
devices are DHCP clients.
Allow All Other
Protocols
Determines if this radio accepts all other
protocols that are not filtered by one of the filters
in this screen.
You can “hot set” some advanced parameters (marked with an *), such as
Power Output Level, Antenna Control, and Mixed Mode Performance, for
the 802.11g radio, which means that the new settings can be immediately
activated without rebooting the access point.
To apply hot settings
1. From the main menu, click 802.11g Radio > Advanced Configuration
and change the parameters as needed.
2. Click Submit Changes to save your changes to the “current”
configuration file (as defined in “Saving Configuration Changes” on
page 46).
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AT-WA7500 and AT-WA7501 Installation and User’s Guide
3. From the main menu, click Apply Hot Settings to save your changes to
the “active” configuration file (as defined in “Saving Configuration
Changes” on page 46). The Apply Hot Settings screen appears. This
screen is read-only.
Configuring the
802.11g Radio to
Communicate
With a
SpectraLink
Network
SpectraLink wireless telephone systems simplify network infrastructure
and network management by combining voice and data traffic over one
wireless network, leveraging 802.11b wireless LAN technology. The
802.11g radio can communicate the SpectraLink network. For more
information on the SpectraLink Network, see “Configuring a SpectraLink
Network” on page 117.
802.11g radios can support both voice and data communications. You still
need to define the normal 802.11g parameters, such as SSID (Network
Name) and security.
To configure the 802.11g radio
1. From the main menu, click 802.11g Radio > Advanced Configuration.
The Advanced Configuration screen appears.
2. In the Client Type/Performance field, choose 11b/11g with range
reliability (Not Wi-Fi).
3. Click Submit Changes to save your changes. To activate your
changes, from the menu bar click Save/Discard Changes, and then
click Save Changes and Reboot. For help, see “Saving Configuration
Changes” on page 46.
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Chapter 4: Configuring the Radios
Configuring the 802.11b Radio
The 802.11b radio will communicate with other 802.11b radios that have
the same:
ˆ
SSID (Network Name)
ˆ
Security
To configure the 802.11b radio
1. From the main menu, click 802.11b Radio. The 802.11b Radio screen
appears.
2. Configure the parameters for the radio. For help, see the next table.
3. Configure the advanced parameters for the radio. For help, see
“Configuring 802.11b Radio Advanced Parameters” on page 112.
4. (Master only) Configure inbound filters. For help, see “Configuring
802.11b Radio Inbound Filters” on page 115.
5. Click Submit Changes to save your changes. To activate your
changes, from the menu bar click Save/Discard Changes, and then
click Save Changes and Reboot. For help, see “Saving Configuration
Changes” on page 46.
6. (Optional) Configure security by clicking Configure security settings for
this radio. For help, see Chapter 6, “Configuring Security” on
page 169.
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AT-WA7500 and AT-WA7501 Installation and User’s Guide
Table 33. 802.11b Radio Parameter Descriptions
Parameter
Description
Node Type
Configure the 802.11b radio as a master or
station. You can also disable the radio.
SSID
(Network Name)
Enter the SSID (network name) for this radio. The
network name is case sensitive and can be no
more than 32 alphanumeric characters.
802.11b radios communicate with other 802.11b
radios with the same SSID.
You need to assign the same SSID to the
wireless end devices that will connect to the
radio.
Frequency
(Master radio only)
Choose the frequency within the 2.4 to 2.5 GHz
range that this access point uses to transmit and
receive frames. The available frequencies are
country-dependent and are determined by the
radio. See the Table 30, ”Worldwide Frequencies
for 802.11g and 802.11b Radios” on page 101.
Configure all access points used in Spain,
France, or Japan to a common frequency. For all
other countries, configure all access points to a
common frequency, or select up to three
frequencies that are at least three channels (or 25
MHz) apart. For example, you could select 2412
MHz, 2437 MHz, and 2462 MHz. You may want
to use a single frequency to isolate the installation
to part of the band; for example, use a single
frequency if other wireless networks or
microwave ovens are in the area.
For optimal performance of master radios in
access points that are in range of each other,
configure the frequencies to be at least five
channels apart. For example, configure the
frequency to use channels 1, 6, and 11.
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Chapter 4: Configuring the Radios
Configuring
802.11b Radio
Advanced
Parameters
1. From the main menu, click 802.11b Radio > Advanced Configuration.
The Advanced Configuration screen appears.
2. Configure the advanced parameters. For help, see the next table.
3. Click Submit Changes to save your changes. To activate your
changes, from the menu bar click Save/Discard Changes, and then
click Save Changes and Reboot. For help, see “Saving Configuration
Changes” on page 46.
Table 34. 802.11b Radio Advanced Parameter Descriptions
Parameter
112
Description
Data Rate
Choose the rate at which the access point
transmits data. In general, higher speeds mean
shorter range and lower speeds mean longer
range. You can set this rate to 11, 5.5, 2, or 1
Mbps.
Allow Data Rate
Fallback
Determines if you want the radio to drop to a
slower data rate when it has trouble
communicating with another radio.
AT-WA7500 and AT-WA7501 Installation and User’s Guide
Table 34. 802.11b Radio Advanced Parameter Descriptions (Continued)
Parameter
Description
Basic Rate
Choose the rate at which the access point
transmits multicast and beacon frames. In
general, higher speeds mean shorter range and
lower speeds mean longer range. Do not set this
rate higher than the maximum rate at which your
end devices can receive multicast frames. You
can set this rate to 11, 5.5, 2, or 1 Mbps. This
parameter should usually be left at the default 2
Mbps.
Enable Medium
Reservation
Determines if you want to specify a reservation
threshold. Check this check box to set a threshold
value. Click Submit Changes, and the
Reservation Threshold parameter appears.
If you clear this check box, you may improve
network response time in installations that usually
send very small frames or that have no hidden
stations.
Reservation
Threshold
Appears only if the Enable Medium Reservation
parameter is checked.
If you enable medium reservation, you need to
set a threshold value, which is the largest data
frame that can be transmitted without reserving
airtime. Airtime is normally reserved to help
prevent collisions with other transmitters.
Distance Between
APs
Controls the roaming sensitivity of your end
devices. This setting should match the setting on
your end devices.
You can use this parameter to virtually reduce the
range of your access point. If you choose Small
or Medium, you do not reduce the absolute range
of your radio, but you modify the collision
detection mechanism to allow significant overlap
of the wireless cells. Thus, you create a higher
performance radio network, but you need more
access points to cover an area.
Enable Microwave
Oven Robustness
Determines if the access point activates a
modified algorithm for automatic rate fallback,
which prevents the access point from falling back
to 1 Mbps when trying to retransmit radio frames
when 2.4 GHz interference is present.
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Chapter 4: Configuring the Radios
Table 34. 802.11b Radio Advanced Parameter Descriptions (Continued)
Parameter
Description
Enable Load
Balancing
Determines if end devices can distribute their
connections across multiple access points.
Enable Medium
Density Distribution
Determines if these access point parameters—
Enable Medium Reservation, Distance Between
APs, Enable Microwave Oven Robustness—are
distributed to end devices that support this
feature.
Data/Voice
Settings
(Master radio only)
Choose the setting that optimizes the wireless
network:
Data Traffic Only: The access point transmits
only data traffic.
Data and SpectraLink Traffic: The access point
transmits both data and voice traffic. SpectraLink
telephone frames are sent in the high priority
queue. Frames in the high priority queue are sent
ahead of frames in the normal priority queue. No
special filtering.
SpectraLink Traffic Only: The access point
transmits only voice traffic. SpectraLink
telephone frames are sent with a priority setting.
All other multicast/broadcast frames are dropped.
Disallow SSID
(Network Name) of
‘ANY’
(Master radio only)
Determines if end devices that have their SSID
(Network Name) set to ANY or are left blank can
associate with this radio.
Clear this check box to allow these end devices
to associate with this radio. Although this setting
is 802.11 compliant, it is not very secure.
Check this check box to prevent end devices with
an SSID of ANY or are left blank from associating
with this radio.
DTIM Period
(Master radio only)
114
Specifies the number of beacon frames to skip
before including a DTIM (delivery traffic indication
message) in a beacon frame. Setting a higher
DTIM period may conserve battery life in an end
device, but it may increase response time.
AT-WA7500 and AT-WA7501 Installation and User’s Guide
Configuring
802.11b Radio
Inbound Filters
When configuring a master radio, you can filter different types of wireless
traffic that it may receive. You may want to use this feature by itself or with
an access control list (ACL) to help secure your network. If you clear all the
check boxes, the radio cannot communicate with any other radios.
You should check the Allow IAPP check box so the access point can
communicate with other access points and participate in the spanning
tree.
You can use this feature to form a secure wireless hop. Clear all check
boxes, except for the Allow IAPP check box.
Or you may want to use this feature in a terminal emulation environment
when you know the end devices are sending only UDP Plus or Wireless
Transport Protocol (WTP) frames. Check the Allow UDP Plus check box or
the Allow Wireless Transport Protocol check box and clear all other check
boxes (except the Allow IAPP check box). The access point master radio
will only accept the UDP Plus or WTP frames and discard all other frames,
which can make a more secure network.
Note
If any of the devices are also DHCP clients, you need to check the
Allow DHCP check box.
To configure 802.11b radio inbound filters
1. From the main menu, click 802.11b Radio > Advanced Configuration >
Inbound Filters. The Inbound Filters screen appears.
2. For each frame type, check or clear each check box. For help, see the
next table.
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Chapter 4: Configuring the Radios
3. Click Submit Changes to save your changes. To activate your
changes, from the menu bar click Save/Discard Changes, and then
click Save Changes and Reboot. For help, see “Saving Configuration
Changes” on page 46.
Table 35. 802.11b Radio Inbound Filter Descriptions
Parameter
116
Description
Allow IAPP
Determines if this radio accepts IAPP (Inter
Access Point Protocol) frames from other access
point station radios. The IAPP frames must match
Ethernet protocol 875c.
Allow Wireless
Transport Protocol
(WTP)
Determines if this radio accepts WTP frames
from end devices. The WTP frames must match
Ethernet protocol 875b.
Allow SpectraLink
Voice Protocol
(SVP)
Determines if this radio accepts SVP frames from
voice wireless telephones. The SVP frames must
match IP 119.
Allow UDP Plus
(UDP/IP Port 5555)
Determines if this radio accepts UDP Plus frames
from end devices. The UDP Plus frames must
match the UDP network port 5555 on the DCS
30X, Allied Telesyn Gateway, or ARP.
Allow DHCP
Determines if this radio accepts DHCP frames.
The DHCP frames must match UDP destination
port 67 and ARP. Check this check box if the end
devices are DHCP clients.
Allow All Other
Protocols
Determines if this radio accepts all other
protocols that are not filtered by one of the filters
in this screen.
AT-WA7500 and AT-WA7501 Installation and User’s Guide
Configuring a SpectraLink Network
SpectraLink wireless telephone systems simplify network infrastructure
and network management by combining voice and data traffic over one
wireless network, leveraging 802.11b wireless LAN technology. You use
your SpectraLink telephone to make and receive calls, just like a regular
telephone, subject to the restrictions of your PBX.
SpectraLink telephones and gateways operate as adjuncts to existing
wireless LANs and PBXs. SpectraLink networks use digital spread
spectrum radio technology and integrate with enterprise telephone
switching and networking systems. These features provide voice quality
throughout the coverage area because there are no clicks, no fading, and
no dead spots.
If you are using a SpectraLink network with your ATI access products and
wireless data collection network, you need to configure an 802.11b radio
port to accept voice traffic. 802.11b radios can support both voice and data
communications. You still need to define the normal 802.11b parameters,
such as SSID (Network Name) and security.
Table 36. Number of Phones Supported
Number of
802.11b Radios
Installed
2
1
Number of
Phones
Supported (Voice
Only)
Number of Phones
Supported (Voice and Data)
14 (7 per radio)
7
Both radios are
set to voice traffic
only.
Set one radio to voice traffic
only. Dedicate the other radio
to data traffic only or to data
and voice traffic.
7
7
To configure a SpectraLink network Note
Note
If your access point contains dual radios, use a different SSID
(Network Name) for each radio so you can specify which end
devices/telephones attach to which radio. You also must enter the
Network Name on each telephone.
1. 1 From the main menu, click 802.11b Radio > Advanced
Configuration. The Advanced Configuration screen appears.
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Chapter 4: Configuring the Radios
2. In the Data/Voice Settings field, choose either Data and SpectraLink
Traffic or SpectraLink Traffic Only. For help, see “Configuring 802.11b
Radio Advanced Parameters” on page 112.
3. Check the Allow Data Rate Fallback check box.
4. In the Basic Rate field:
ˆ
if you are using a 2 Mbps SpectraLink telephone, set it
to 2 Mbps.
ˆ
if you are using a 1 Mbps SpectraLink telephone, set it
to 1 Mbps.
5. Click Submit Changes to save your changes. To activate your
changes, from the menu bar click Save/Discard Changes, and then
click Save Changes and Reboot. For help, see “Saving Configuration
Changes” on page 46.
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AT-WA7500 and AT-WA7501 Installation and User’s Guide
Configuring the 802.11a Radio
The 802.11a radio will communicate with other 802.11a radios that have
the same:
ˆ
SSID (Network Name)
ˆ
Security
For each radio, you can assign up to four SSIDs, creating one primary
service set and up to three secondary service sets. Each service set
shares the same Advanced Configuration and Inbound Filters settings, but
you can customize the security settings. However, most clients do not
support a mixed security environment using multiple service sets:
ˆ
If you configure security on the primary service set, then you should
also configure security on the secondary service sets.
ˆ
If you do not configure security on the primary service set, then you
cannot configure security on the secondary service sets.
For details, see “When You Configure Different SSIDs with Different
Security Settings” on page 172.
Multiple service sets are used primarily to allow one physical radio to
support multiple virtual LANs (VLANs). For details about VLANs, see
“Configuring VLANs” on page 187.
The 802.11a radio ships with either the full-range (5.15 to 5.35 GHz)
option or the mid-range (5.25 to 5.35 GHz) option. The full-range option
can only be used indoors and with the integrated antenna.
If you configure an 802.11a radio as a master radio, it provides
simultaneous master and station support. This feature means that not only
do you only need one radio in WAPs and point-to-multipoint bridges, but
also it can “heal itself.” If the access point can no longer communicate with
the Ethernet network, it will try to wirelessly connect to the root through
another access point. Any access point that may become a WAP should
have a root priority set to 0 and have a secondary LAN bridge priority.
To configure the 802.11a radio
1. From the main menu, click 802.11a Radio. The 802.11a Radio screen
appears.
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Chapter 4: Configuring the Radios
If your screen does not look like the previous one, your primary service set
may be configured as station (instead of master), so that the secondary
service sets are not available, as shown next.
2. Configure the parameters for the radio. For help, see the next table.
3. Configure the advanced parameters for the radio. For help, see
“Configuring 802.11a Radio Advanced Parameters” on page 124.
4. (Master only) Configure inbound filters. For help, see “Configuring
802.11a Radio Inbound Filters” on page 126.
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AT-WA7500 and AT-WA7501 Installation and User’s Guide
5. Click Submit Changes to save your changes. To activate your
changes, from the menu bar click Save/Discard Changes, and then
click Save Changes and Reboot. For help, see “Saving Configuration
Changes” on page 46.
6. (Optional) Configure security by clicking Configure security settings for
this radio. For help, see Chapter 6, “Configuring Security” on
page 169.
Table 37. 802.11a Radio Parameter Descriptions
Parameter
Explanation
Frequency
(Master radio only)
Choose the frequency within the 5.15 to 5.35
GHz range that this access point uses to transmit
and receive frames. You can also set the
frequency to Dynamic, which lets the access
point choose the best available channel to use.
The available frequencies depend on the country
and the radio option configured on the access
point. See the Table 38, ”Worldwide Frequencies
for the 802.11a Radio” on page 123. If the radio is
a mid range radio, you can only choose 52, 56,
60, or 64.
You may want to use a single frequency to isolate
the installation to part of the band; for example,
use a single frequency if other wireless networks
or microwave ovens are in the area.
Allow Wireless
Access Points
Choose which service set provides connection for
wireless access points:
On Primary: The primary service set connects to
wireless access points.
On Secondary n: The secondary service set n
(where n is 1, 2, or 3) connects to wireless access
points.
Do not allow wireless access points: No service
set connects to wireless access points. You can
block access points from forming a wireless hop
to this radio entirely.
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Chapter 4: Configuring the Radios
Table 37. 802.11a Radio Parameter Descriptions (Continued)
Parameter
Node Type
Explanation
Configure the 802.11a radio to master, station, or
disabled:
Master: The radio operates in Master mode when
it sees the root access point on its Ethernet port.
If it cannot see the root, it operates in Master/
Station mode and tries to find the root through its
radio port.
Station: The radio always operates in Station
mode.
Disabled: The radio is disabled.
You can create up to four service sets for this
radio by setting the Node Type field as follows:
SSID
(Network Name)
ˆ
If the primary service set is Master, up to
three secondary service sets may be set to
Master.
ˆ
If the primary service set is Station, all
secondary service sets are disabled and do
not appear on screen.
ˆ
If the primary service set is Disabled, all
secondary service sets (and the physical
radio) are disabled.
Enter a unique SSID for each service set. You
can enter up to four SSIDs for this radio. The
SSID is case sensitive and cannot be more than
32 alphanumeric characters.
802.11a radios communicate with other 802.11a
radios with the same SSID.
You need to assign the same network name to
the wireless end devices that will connect to the
radio.
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AT-WA7500 and AT-WA7501 Installation and User’s Guide
Table 38. Worldwide Frequencies for the 802.11a Radio
Channel
FCC
ETSI
France
Japan
Israel
36*
5180
(default)
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
40*
5200
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
42*
5210 Turbo
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
44*
5220
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
48*
5240
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
50*
5250 Turbo
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
52
5260
(default)
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
56
5280
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
58
5290 Turbo
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
60
5300
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
64
5320
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
ˆ
Channels marked with an asterisk (*) are not available in the midrange radio.
ˆ
If you set the Frequency parameter to Dynamic, turbo channels are
never selected.
ˆ
FCC countries include the United States, Canada, China, Taiwan,
India, Thailand, Indonesia, Malaysia, Hong Kong, and most South
American countries. The 802.11a channels that are allowed in a given
country may change without notice. Be sure you use only those
frequencies that are permissible in the given country.
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Chapter 4: Configuring the Radios
Configuring
802.11a Radio
Advanced
Parameters
1. From the main menu, click 802.11a Radio > Advanced Configuration.
The Advanced Configuration screen appears.
2. Configure the advanced parameters. For help, see the next table.
3. Click Submit Changes to save your changes. To activate your
changes, from the menu bar click Save/Discard Changes, and then
click Save Changes and Reboot. For help, see “Saving Configuration
Changes” on page 46.
Table 39. 802.11a Radio Advanced Parameter Descriptions
Parameter
Power Output Level
Description
Set the transmitted power level:
Maximum: Sets the output power to the highest
level supported by the radio.
Medium: Sets the output power to a lower level
than the highest level supported by the radio.
Low: Sets the output power to a level higher than
the lowest level supported by the radio.
Minimum: Sets the output power to the lowest
level supported by the radio.
Lowering the power output level reduces the
radio coverage for this area and reduces the
range for this radio.
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AT-WA7500 and AT-WA7501 Installation and User’s Guide
Table 39. 802.11a Radio Advanced Parameter Descriptions (Continued)
Parameter
Data Rate
Description
Choose the rate at which the access point
transmits data. In general, higher speeds mean
shorter range and lower speeds mean longer
range.
If you choose the Speed Mode to be 802.11
compliant, you can set this rate to 54, 48, 36, 24,
12, or 6 Mbps.
Allow Data Rate
Fallback
Determines if you want the radio to drop to a
slower data rate when it has trouble
communicating with another radio.
If this parameter is disabled, the Basic Rate
parameter is not available because the basic rate
becomes the same value as the Data Rate
parameter.
Basic Rate
Appears only if the Allow Data Rate Fallback
parameter is enabled.
Choose the rate at which the access point
transmits multicast and beacon frames. In
general, higher speeds mean shorter range and
lower speeds mean longer range. Do not set this
rate higher than the maximum rate at which your
end devices can receive multicast frames. You
can set this rate to 24, 12, or 6 Mbps. This
parameter should usually be left at the default of
6 Mbps.
Reservation
Threshold
You may need to set a threshold value, which is
the largest data frame that can be transmitted
without reserving airtime. Airtime is normally
reserved to help prevent collisions with other
transmitters.
If you set this threshold to 2347, this parameter is
disabled.
Fragmentation
Threshold
Specifies the largest data frame that can be
transmitted without fragmentation. On certain
radios, the fragmentation does not occur unless
the radio detects interference. Larger frame sizes
can improve throughput on a reliable connection.
Smaller frame sizes can improve throughput on a
poor connection.
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Chapter 4: Configuring the Radios
Table 39. 802.11a Radio Advanced Parameter Descriptions (Continued)
Parameter
Description
Disallow SSID
(Network Name) of
‘ANY’
(Master radio only)
Determines if end devices that have their SSID
(Network Name) set to ANY or are left blank can
associate with this access point.
Clear this check box to allow these end devices
to associate with this access point. Although this
setting is 802.11 compliant, it is not very secure.
Check this check box to prevent end devices with
an SSID of ANY or are left blank from associating
with this access point.
Beacon Period
Specifies how often the access point sends out a
beacon frame. This rate is in TU. (A TU is 1024
ms and is often considered to be equivalent to 1
ms.)
DTIM Period
Specifies the number of beacon periods to skip
before including a DTIM (delivery traffic indication
message) in a beacon frame.
Setting a higher DTIM period may conserve
battery life in an end device, but it may increase
response time.
Configuring
802.11a Radio
Inbound Filters
When configuring a master radio, you can filter different types of wireless
traffic that it may receive. You may want to use this feature by itself or with
an access control list (ACL) to help secure your network. If you clear all
the check boxes, the radio cannot communicate with any other radios.
You check the Allow IAPP check box so the access point can
communicate with other access points and participate in the spanning
tree.
You can use this feature to form a secure wireless hop. Clear all check
boxes, except for the Allow IAPP check box.
Or you may want to use this feature in a terminal emulation environment
when you know the end devices are sending only UDP Plus or Wireless
Transport Protocol (WTP) frames. Check the Allow UDP Plus check box
or the Allow Wireless Transport Protocol check box and clear all other
check boxes (except the Allow IAPP check box). The access point master
radio will only accept the UDP Plus or WTP frames and discard all other
frames, which can make a more secure network.
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AT-WA7500 and AT-WA7501 Installation and User’s Guide
Note
If any of the devices are also DHCP clients, you need to check the
Allow DHCP check box.
To configure 802.11a radio inbound filters
1. From the main menu, click 802.11a Radio > Inbound Filters. The
Inbound Filters screen appears.
2. For each frame type, check or clear each check box. For help, see the
next table.
3. Click Submit Changes to save your changes. To activate your
changes, from the menu bar click Save/Discard Changes, and then
click Save Changes and Reboot. For help, see “Saving Configuration
Changes” on page 46.
Table 40. 802.11a Radio Inbound Filter Descriptions
Parameter
Description
Allow IAPP
Determines if this radio accepts IAPP (Inter
Access Point Protocol) frames from other access
point station radios. The IAPP frames must match
Ethernet protocol 875c.
Allow Wireless
Transport Protocol
(WTP)
Determines if this radio accepts WTP frames
from end devices. The WTP frames must match
Ethernet protocol 875b.
Allow UDP Plus
(UDP/IP Port 5555)
Determines if this radio accepts UDP Plus frames
from end devices. The UDP Plus frames must
match the UDP network port 5555 on the DCS
30X, Allied Telesyn Gateway, or ARP.
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Chapter 4: Configuring the Radios
Table 40. 802.11a Radio Inbound Filter Descriptions (Continued)
Parameter
Allow DHCP
Description
Determines if this radio accepts DHCP frames.
The DHCP frames must match UDP destination
port 67 and ARP.
Check this check box if the end devices are
DHCP clients.
Allow All Other
Protocols
Determines if this radio accepts all other
protocols that are not filtered by one of the filters
in this screen.
Multicast Filter
Determines if this radio can receive and send
multicast frames.
File Name
Specifies the name of the radio’s driver software.
Allied Telesyn recommends that you change this
name only when directed to do so by Allied
Telesyn Technical Support.
Hello Period
Controls how frequently the access point
broadcasts hello messages on this radio port.
Hello messages help maintain the spanning tree
and serve as beacon messages to synchronize
communications with end devices.
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Chapter 5
Configuring the Spanning Tree
This chapter explains how to configure the AT-WA7500 and AT-WA7501
access points so that they create a spanning tree topology. This chapter
covers these topics:
ˆ
“About the Access Point Spanning Tree” on page 130
ˆ
“Configuring the Spanning Tree Parameters” on page 136
ˆ
“About IP Tunnels” on page 140
ˆ
“Configuring IP Tunnels” on page 148
ˆ
“Filter Examples” on page 156
ˆ
“Comparing IP Tunnels to Mobile IP” on page 160
ˆ
“Configuring Global Parameters” on page 162
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Chapter 5: Configuring the Spanning Tree
About the Access Point Spanning Tree
AT-WA7500 and AT-WA7501 access points with the same LAN ID
arrange themselves into a self-organized network using a spanning tree
topology. The spanning tree provides efficient, loop-free forwarding of
frames through the network and allows efficient roaming of wireless end
devices. It contains at least a primary LAN and a root access point, but it
may also contain secondary LANs, designated bridges, and other access
points.
This spanning tree contains a root access point on the primary LAN and a
designated bridge on the secondary LAN.
Host
Root
Primary LAN
(root IP subnet)
Designated
bridge
Secondary LAN
(remote IP subnet)
Within the spanning tree, access points use IAPP (Inter Access Point
Protocol) or secure IAPP to communicate with each other across the
Ethernet network, over wireless secondary LANs, and through IP tunnels
to remote IP subnets. IAPP also enables fast roaming in an 802.11g,
802.11b or 802.11a network using 802.1x security. Secure IAPP prevents
unauthorized access products from joining the spanning tree.
For example, when an end device roams to a new access point, the new
access point informs the old access points via the root access point that
any traffic for the end device needs to be routed to the new access point.
As end devices are added to or removed from the network, access points
are automatically updated so they can maintain reliable operation and
communication.
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AT-WA7500 and AT-WA7501 Installation and User’s Guide
About the
Primary LAN
and the Root
Access Point
The primary LAN (also called the root IP subnet) contains the root access
point, which initiates the spanning tree. When choosing the primary LAN,
ideally you should choose the IP subnet that contains gateways or servers
for the wireless end devices. However, these gateways and servers may
also be on another subnet.
The root access point coordinates the network and distributes common
system parameters to other access points and end devices. Consider
these selection criteria when choosing which access point to be the root:
ˆ
The root must be installed on the primary LAN.
ˆ
The root should be an access point that does not handle a large
volume of wireless traffic.
ˆ
Because the root distributes parameters to the child access points, the
root should have the latest version of software available. In a mixed
network of an AT-WA7500 or AT-WA7501 access point with ATWL2411 access points, choose an AT-WA7500 or AT-WA7501 access
point with software release 2.2 (or later) as the root.
The root is elected from a group of access points that are designated as
root candidates: access points that are powered on, active, and do not
have a root priority of 0. The access point with the highest root priority is
the root. Root priority can range from 0 (off) to 7. The value 1 is the highest
priority for a participating access point.
The election process also occurs in the event of a root access point failure.
Besides the root, you should have two or three access points with a nonzero root priority. (Use the selection criteria listed earlier in this section to
determine which access points should be root candidates.) If two access
points have the same root priority, the access point with the highest
Ethernet address becomes the root. You should configure your network
with overlapping coverage so that the network can automatically recover
from any single point of failure.
After the root access point is elected, it transmits hello messages on all
enabled ports. The spanning tree forms as other access points receive
hello messages and attach to the network on the optimal path to the root.
A non-root access point also transmits hello messages after it is attached
to the network. Each hello message contains the LAN ID of the access
point that originated the message. IAPP does not allow wireless links to
exist between access points that do not have matching LAN IDs.
To configure a root access point
1. Using the selection criteria listed earlier in this section, determine
which access point to configure as the root.
2. On that access point, from the main menu click Spanning Tree
Settings. The Spanning Tree Settings screen appears.
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Chapter 5: Configuring the Spanning Tree
3. Configure the LAN ID. All access points that want to participate in the
spanning tree must have the same LAN ID.
4. Set the Root Priority parameter to be the highest number of all access
points on the primary LAN. Verify that the Enable Ethernet Bridging
check box is checked. The range is 1 to 7. The value 1 is the highest
priority.
5. Verify that the Secondary LAN Bridge Priority is zero.
6. Verify that the Secondary LAN Flooding parameter is Disabled.
7. Click Submit Changes to save your changes. To activate your
changes, from the menu bar click Save/Discard Changes, and then
click Save Changes and Reboot. For help, see “Saving Configuration
Changes” on page 46.
About Secondary
LANs and
Designated
Bridges
There are two types of secondary LANs:
ˆ
A wireless secondary LAN, which is an Ethernet segment containing
access points that join the primary LAN network through a wireless
connection
ˆ
A remote IP subnet, which is connected via an IP tunnel.
Table 41. Comparison of Wireless Secondary LANS and Remote IP
Subnets
Wireless Secondary LANs
Remote IP Subnets
Any access point can provide a
wireless link to another access
point.
Only the root access point can
originate an IP tunnel to another
access point.
A wireless link provides a
transparent bridge for both wired
and wireless devices.
An IP tunnel provides a
transparent bridge for wireless end
devices on a remote IP subnet.
The access point that is responsible for bridging data between a
secondary LAN and the primary LAN is called the designated bridge.
Consider these selection criteria when choosing which access point to be
the designated bridge:
132
ˆ
The designated bridge should have the latest version of software
available. In a mixed network of AT-WA7500 and AT-WA7501 access
points with AT-WL2411 access points, choose a AT-WA7500 or
AT-WA7501 access point with software release 2.2 (or later) as the
designated bridge.
ˆ
The designated bridge must be installed on the secondary LAN and
within radio coverage of an access point on the primary LAN.
AT-WA7500 and AT-WA7501 Installation and User’s Guide
ˆ
The designated bridge must be configured so that the Secondary LAN
Bridge Priority value is a non-zero number.
ˆ
The designated bridge must have at least one radio set to Station
mode, or the designated bridge must be the endpoint of an IP tunnel
(as defined in “About IP Tunnels” on page 140).
If more than one access point meets these requirements, the access point
with the highest secondary LAN bridge priority is the designated bridge. If
two access points have the same secondary LAN bridge priority, the
access point with the highest Ethernet address becomes the designated
bridge. If the designated bridge goes offline, the remaining access points
negotiate to determine which access point becomes the new designated
bridge.
To configure a designated bridge
1. Using the selection criteria listed earlier in this section, determine
which access point to configure as the designated bridge.
2. On that access point, from the main menu click Spanning Tree
Settings. The Spanning Tree Settings screen appears.
3. Configure the LAN ID. All access points that want to participate in the
spanning tree must have the same LAN ID.
4. Set the Root Priority parameter to zero. All access points on the
secondary LAN should have a root priority of zero.
5. Verify that the Enable Ethernet Bridging check box is checked.
6. Set the Secondary LAN Bridge Priority to be the highest number of all
access points on the secondary LAN. The range is 1 to 7. The value 1
is the highest priority.
7. Set the Secondary LAN Flooding parameter to Enabled.
8. Click Submit Changes to save your changes. To activate your
changes, from the menu bar click Save/Discard Changes, and then
click Save Changes and Reboot. For help, see “Saving Configuration
Changes” on page 46.
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Chapter 5: Configuring the Spanning Tree
About Ethernet
Bridging/Data
Link Tunneling
Ethernet bridging is simply forwarding a frame received on the radio port
to the Ethernet port, and vice versa. Using this default mode, the access
point acts as a bridge between the wireless and wired networks.
Note
Allied Telesyn recommends that you enable Ethernet bridging on all
access points. However, if you meet the criteria listed later in this
section, you can disable Ethernet bridging and use data link
tunneling instead. Be aware that data link tunneling increases
network traffic.
Turning off Ethernet bridging enables data link tunneling. The data link
tunneling mode causes the child access point to encapsulate inbound
wireless data into an 875C frame. This data frame is then forwarded via
the Ethernet port to the next access point on the path, and so on, until the
frame reaches the root access point or designated bridge. The root access
point or designated bridge encapsulates the frame and forwards it to the
host. When the root access point or designated bridge receives data on
the Ethernet network for an end device, it reverses this process.
When should you use data link tunneling?
ˆ
Use data link tunneling if you have Ethernet switches that do not
support the IEEE 802.1d requirements for backward learning. Some
proprietary VLAN switches and ATM LANE bridges do not support this
standard.
If the access points are connected to different ports on an Ethernet
switch, each time an end device roams to a new access point, it
appears on a different port. Thus, frames sent to the end device from
the host are sent to the wrong port. If the switch does not support
802.1d, it may become confused and communications with the end
device are disrupted. Data link tunneling makes end device roaming
transparent to the switch. All the information appears to originate from
only one port on the switch–the port that is connected to the root
access point or designated bridge.
ˆ
Use data link tunneling when you are using IP tunnels to provide
mobility of other routable protocols, such as IPX. In some network
installations, detecting these addresses may generate alarms or cause
switches to behave erroneously. In this situation, using data link
tunneling does not increase network traffic.
To enable data link tunneling on the primary LAN
1. Make sure that all access points have the same LAN ID.
2. On the root access point, on the Spanning Tree Settings screen verify
that the Enable Ethernet Bridging check box is checked.
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3. On all other access points on the primary LAN, clear the Enable
Ethernet Bridging check box.
4. Make sure that the Root Priority parameter for all other access points
is less than the root access point. The range is 1 to 7. The value 1 is
the highest priority.
To enable data link tunneling on the secondary LAN
1. Make sure that all access points have the same LAN ID as the ones on
the primary LAN.
2. On the designated bridge, on the Spanning Tree Settings screen verify
that the Enable Ethernet Bridging check box is checked.
3. On all other access points on the secondary LAN, clear the Enable
Ethernet Bridging check box.
4. Make sure that the Secondary LAN Bridge Priority parameter for all
other access points is less than the designated bridge.
If you use data link tunneling on the secondary LAN and end devices have
IP addresses on the secondary LAN, network monitoring tools and other
network components cannot detect their MAC/IP addresses. For more
information, see “About IP Tunnels” on page 140.
About Routable
and NonRoutable
Network
Protocols
Hosts that use a routable network protocol such as IP or IPX may be
located on any IP subnet; however, triangular routing can be minimized if
servers are located on the root IP subnet. (Note that this is also true for
standard mobile IP.) You should be able to use default flooding and
spanning tree settings if you are using routable protocols, even if hosts are
located on remote IP subnets.
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Configuring the Spanning Tree Parameters
When you configure the spanning tree parameters, you identify the access
point as part of the spanning tree. That is, you specify if this access point
is a root, or a candidate to become a root, or a designated bridge, or a
candidate to become a designated bridge.
You also specify if the access point uses Ethernet bridging to forward
frames between the wired and wireless networks. Allied Telesyn
recommends that you use Ethernet bridging on all access points unless
you meet the criteria listed in “About Ethernet Bridging/Data Link
Tunneling” on page 134.
Note
On the designated bridge, if you disable Ethernet bridging or if you
set the Secondary LAN Bridge Priority to 0, wireless traffic is
encapsulated on the secondary LAN, which eliminates
communication from wired devices on the secondary LAN.
To configure the spanning tree parameters
1. From the main menu, click Spanning Tree Settings. The Spanning
Tree Settings screen appears.
2. Configure the spanning tree parameters. For help, see the next table.
3. Click Submit Changes to save your changes. To activate your
changes, from the menu bar click Save/Discard Changes, and then
click Save Changes and Reboot. For help, see “Saving Configuration
Changes” on page 46.
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4. (Optional) Configure security by clicking Configure Spanning Tree
Security. For help, see “Creating a Secure Spanning Tree” on
page 181.
Table 42. Spanning Tree Parameter Descriptions
Parameter
Explanation
AP Name
Enter a unique name for this access point. The
name can be from 1 to 16 characters. The default
is the access point serial number.
LAN ID (Domain)
Enter the LAN ID. All access points must have
the same LAN ID to participate in the same
spanning tree. The LAN ID is a number from 0 to
254.
Root Priority
Determines if this access point is a candidate to
become the root of the spanning tree. The access
point with the highest root priority becomes the
root whenever it is powered on and active.
The root priority can be a value from 0 (off) to 7.
The value 1 is the highest priority for a
participating access point.
If you set the root priority to 0, the access point
can never become the root access point. All
access points on the secondary LAN should have
a root priority of 0.
For help deciding if this access point should be a
candidate to become root, see “About the
Primary LAN and the Root Access Point” on
page 131.
Enable GVRP for
VLAN
The access point uses GARP VLAN Registration
Protocol (GVRP) to request a VLAN-capable
Ethernet switch to forward traffic for specific
VLANs.
Enabling this parameter lets the switch exchange
VLAN configuration information with other GVRP
switches, prune unnecessary broadcast, prune
unknown unicast traffic, and dynamically create
and manage VLANs on switches connected
through 802.1Q trunk ports.
A switch may also be configured statically to
always forward specific VLANs to specific ports.
You should clear this check box for a static
configuration.
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Table 42. Spanning Tree Parameter Descriptions (Continued)
Parameter
Explanation
Rightmost LED
Behavior
Choosing Spanning Tree Root Indicator causes
the LED to blink if the access point is configured
as the root and remain on if an error is detected.
Enable Ethernet
Bridging
Determines how frames from end devices are
moved between the wired and wireless networks.
For more details, see “About Ethernet Bridging/
Data Link Tunneling” on page 134.
Check this check box if you want frames to be
forwarded directly to the Ethernet network. Allied
Telesyn recommends that you enable this
parameter on all access points.
Clear this check box if you meet the selection
criteria listed in “About Ethernet Bridging/Data
Link Tunneling” on page 134 and you want to use
data link tunneling.
Note
If you enable this parameter on the root or
designated bridge, but you disable it on all
other access points on the same IP subnet,
then Ethernet bridging is disabled on the IP
subnet. This means that data link tunneling
is enabled on the IP subnet.
Secondary LAN
Bridge Priority
Determines when this access point can become
the designated bridge in a secondary LAN. The
access point that meets all the other
requirements and has the highest secondary LAN
bridge priority becomes the designated bridge.
The secondary LAN bridge priority can be a value
from 0 to 7. If you set this value to 0, the access
point can never become the designated bridge.
For help deciding if this access point should
become the designated bridge, see the selection
criteria listed in “About Secondary LANs and
Designated Bridges” on page 132.
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Table 42. Spanning Tree Parameter Descriptions (Continued)
Parameter
Secondary LAN
Flooding
(Outbound)
Explanation
Appears for Designated Bridge only.
Specifies the types of frames it forwards from the
primary LAN to the secondary LAN:
Disabled: No flooding occurs unless the root
access point (in the Global Flooding screen)
enables the Multicast or Unicast Outbound to
Secondary LANs parameter.
Enabled: Multicast and unicast flooding occurs
unless the root access point (in the Global
Flooding screen) disables multicast or unicast
flooding.
Multicast: Multicast flooding occurs unless the
root access point (in the Global Flooding screen)
disables multicast flooding.
Unicast: Unicast flooding occurs unless the root
access point (in the Global Flooding screen)
disables unicast flooding.
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About IP Tunnels
The physical boundary of a network is usually defined by the existence of
an IP router. Before IP tunnels technology was developed, wireless end
devices could only operate within the limited coverage area of their own
network and could not roam across IP subnet boundaries. Using IP tunnel
technology, end devices can roam across IP subnet boundaries. IP tunnel
technology safely and transparently coexists with routed IP installations
while supporting mobility for end devices.
IP tunnels do the following:
ˆ
Enable access points on different remote IP subnets to belong to the
same wireless network.
ˆ
Support fast roaming of end devices between access points that are
on different IP subnets without losing network connections.
ˆ
Support end devices using both IP and other routable or nonroutable
protocols.
Only one IP tunnel can exist between the root access point and an access
point (usually the designated bridge) on a remote IP subnet. The root
access point has a one-to-one relationship with each wireless network. All
roaming end devices must have an IP address from the root IP subnet.
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Host
Root
AP2
Primary LAN
(root IP subnet)
IP router
IP network
IP router
Designated
bridge
AP4
AP5
Secondary LAN
(remote IP subnet)
IP tunnels use encapsulation to establish a virtual LAN (VLAN) segment
through IP routers. The VLAN segment includes the root IP subnet and
logically extends to include end devices attached to access points on
remote IP subnets. IP tunnels are branches in the spanning tree topology.
Any access point on a secondary LAN that can receive IP hello messages
can be the endpoint of an IP tunnel. Usually, the access point that is the
endpoint of an IP tunnel is also the designated bridge. After an IP tunnel is
formed between the root access point and an access point on a remote IP
subnet, end devices can roam to the remote IP subnet. End devices must
have an IP address from the root IP subnet. However, there are no
address restrictions for non-IP end devices. When end devices roam to the
remote IP subnet, their data is IP tunneled back to the root IP subnet
(where it belongs) and everything works properly.
If you have a DHCP server in your network, it must be on the root IP
subnet. All access points on secondary LANs must have permanent IP
addresses. On the root access point, you must allow IP multicast frames to
pass.
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When an access point at the endpoint of the IP tunnel receives data from
an end device, it uses a standard IP protocol called Generic Router
Encapsulation (GRE) to encapsulate the data into a frame. These
encapsulated IP/GRE frames use normal IP routing to pass through IP
routers to the root access point. The root access point unencapsulates the
frame and forwards it to the host. When the root access point receives
data on the Ethernet network for an end device that is communicating on a
remote IP subnet, it reverses this process.
IP tunneling also allows non-routable traffic, such as WTP and NNL, to
roam across routers. The end devices using these protocols are not IP
based, but they work in the same way. Data traffic that is not passed by
routers (since they are not IP) will be tunneled from the remote IP subnet
to the root subnet. It will be dumped on the Ethernet on the root subnet
(where it belongs) and everything works properly.
Creating IP
Tunnels
An IP tunnel is established when an access point on a remote IP subnet
attaches to the root access point through its IP tunnel port. The number of
IP tunnels the root access point can originate is practically unlimited.
However, currently the IP address list can only contain eight entries, which
effectively limits the number of tunnels that can be created if you want to
use unicast and directed broadcast IP addresses.
The IP address list can contain any combination of IP unicast, IP
broadcast, or IP multicast addresses:
ˆ
Only one IP tunnel can be created for each IP unicast address in the
list.
ˆ
One IP directed broadcast address can be used to create a practically
unlimited number of tunnels to a single remote IP subnet. (An IP
directed broadcast address is typically used to specify all hosts on a
single remote subnet.)
ˆ
One IP multicast address can be used to create a practically unlimited
number of tunnels to remote IP subnets. For help, see “Using One IP
Multicast Address for Multiple IP Tunnels” on page 144.
Once you have configured the IP tunnels, the root access point sends IP
hello messages to each IP address in its IP address list. An IP tunnel is
automatically established when an access point on a remote IP subnet
receives this hello message. This access point then transmits IP hello
messages on its subnet so that other access points on the same subnet
that do not receive hello messages can also attach to the spanning tree.
To create a unicast IP tunnel
1. Make sure that end devices that will roam between the root IP subnet
and the remote IP subnet have IP addresses from the root IP subnet
and have their default router set the same as the root access point.
There are no address restrictions for non-IP end devices.
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2. Make sure that the root access point and the access point at the
endpoint of the IP tunnel have the same LAN ID.
3. On the root access point, set the Mode parameter to Originate if Root.
For help configuring a root access point, see “About the Primary LAN
and the Root Access Point” on page 131.
4. On the access point at the endpoint of the IP tunnel, set the Mode
parameter to Listen.
5. On the root access point, click IP Tunnels > IP Addresses. Enter the IP
address or DNS name of the access point at the endpoint of the IP
tunnel.
6. On the root access point and the access point at the endpoint of the IP
tunnel, click Frame Type Filters. If you have end devices
communicating using IP, set these DIX filters to Pass:
ˆ
DIX-IP-TCP Ports
ˆ
DIX-IP-UDP Ports
ˆ
DIX-IP-Other Protocols
ˆ
DIX-IPX Sockets
ˆ
DIX-Other EtherTypes
7. On the root access point and the access point at the endpoint of the IP
tunnel, click Predefined Subtype Filters.
If you have end devices communicating using IP, set these filters to
Pass:
ˆ
DIX ARP
ˆ
ICMP
8. Click Submit Changes to save your changes. To activate your
changes, from the menu bar click Save/Discard Changes, and then
click Save Changes and Reboot. For help, see “Saving Configuration
Changes” on page 46.
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Using One IP
Multicast
Address for
Multiple IP
Tunnels
IP tunneling supports IP multicast and Internet Group Management
Protocol (IGMP). IP multicast provides an ideal way to distribute IP hello
messages. These hello messages are only forwarded to those IP subnets
and IP hosts (such as access points) that participate in the multicast
group. IP multicast has these advantages:
ˆ
You do not have to know the unicast or directed broadcast IP
addresses in advance.
ˆ
IP multicast provides better built-in redundancy than IP unicast,
because any access point can establish an IP tunnel.
IGMP is a standard protocol that lets you originate multiple IP tunnels
using one IP multicast address. It allows IP multicast frames to be routed
to remote IP subnets that have hosts participating in the multicast group.
Note that IGMP is independent of IP; it can be used to facilitate multicast
for IP or any other application. IGMP has these advantages:
ˆ
Causes IP hello messages to be forwarded only to those subnets that
participate in the IP multicast group
ˆ
Increases redundancy because multiple access points on a remote
subnet can receive IP hello messages
IP routers only forward multicast frames to those subnets that have IP
hosts that participate in the respective IP multicast group. An IP host uses
IGMP to notify IP routers that it wants to participate in an IP multicast
group.
Access points can act as IP hosts and participate in an IP multicast group
by enabling IGMP. The Internet Assigned Numbers Authority has
allocated 224.0.1.65 for the AT-WA750x’s IAPP. You must enter this
address in the IP address list in the root access point (the address list may
contain other IP addresses) and in the Multicast Address field in the other
access points.
If you enable IGMP on the root access point, the root access point uses a
Class D IP multicast address to send IP hello messages through IP
routers to access points on other subnets. If you enable IGMP on remote
IP subnets, intermediate IP routers will forward the IP hello messages to
those subnets. Normally, you should enable IGMP and configure the IP
multicast address in at least one access point on each remote IP subnet.
(Some routers can provide proxy IGMP services for IP hosts.)
To create a multicast IP tunnel
1. Make sure that end devices that will roam between the root IP subnet
and the remote IP subnet have IP addresses from the root IP subnet
and their default router is set the same as the root access point. There
are no address restrictions for non-IP end devices.
2. Make sure that your routers are configured to pass multicast frames.
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3. Make sure that the root access point and the access point at the
endpoint of the IP tunnel have the same LAN ID.
4. On the root access point, set the Mode parameter to Originate if Root.
For help configuring a root access point, see “About the Primary LAN
and the Root Access Point” on page 131.
5. On the access point at the endpoint of the IP tunnel, set the Mode
parameter to Listen.
6. On the root access point, click IP Tunnels > IP Addresses. Enter the
Allied Telesyn multicast address 224.0.1.65.
7. On the access point at the end of the IP tunnel, check the Enable
IGMP check box.
8. Click Submit Changes to save your changes. To activate your
changes, from the menu bar click Save/Discard Changes, and then
click Save Changes and Reboot. For help, see “Saving Configuration
Changes” on page 46.
How Frames Are
Forwarded
Through IP
Tunnels
The access point maintains a forwarding database of all MAC addresses,
and it knows the correct port for each MAC address. The access point
updates this database by monitoring source addresses on each port
(backward learning), by receiving explicit attachment messages, and by
examining messages exchanged between access points when end
devices roam. The database also includes the power management status
of each end device, which allows the access point to support the pending
message feature of the network. The forwarding database allows the
Ethernet bridging software to make efficient forwarding decisions.
Any frame that is sent through an IP tunnel is addressed to the unicast IP
address of the access point at the other end of the tunnel. An access point
at the remote end of the tunnel learns the unicast IP address of the root
access point by listening to IP hello messages. The root access point
learns the unicast IP address of a remote access point when the access
point attaches to the network.
Outbound Frames
Frames are forwarded outbound (to a secondary LAN) through an IP
tunnel if:
ˆ
an end device is known to be attached to an access point on a remote
IP subnet.
ˆ
the frame type is configured to pass.
IP and ARP frames are never forwarded outbound through an IP tunnel
unless the destination IP address belongs to the root IP subnet. Usually,
these frames are destined for wireless end devices that have roamed
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away from their root IP subnet.
Unicast frames are not flooded. Unicast frames are only forwarded
outbound through an IP tunnel if the destination address identifies an end
device that has roamed to a remote IP subnet. End devices attach to the
root access point, which maintains entries for these devices in its
forwarding database. The database entries indicate the correct subnet for
outbound forwarding.
For TCP/IP applications, IP and ARP frames must be forwarded through
IP tunnels. An IP or ARP frame is only forwarded outbound if the
destination address identifies an end device on the root IP subnet.
Usually, ARP requests (which are multicast frames) that originate on the
root IP subnet are forwarded outbound to all devices on the network,
including through IP tunnels to remote IP subnets. However, if you enable
ARP flooding, ARP frames are only sent through the IP tunnel to the
destination end device.
MAC frames that are forwarded outbound are encapsulated in the root
access point, forwarded through the network, unencapsulated by the
access point at the remote end of the IP tunnel, and forwarded to the
appropriate access point (if necessary) for delivery to the destination end
device.
Inbound Frames
Frames are forwarded inbound (to the primary LAN) through an IP tunnel
if:
ˆ
an end device is known to be attached to an access point on a remote
IP subnet.
ˆ
the frame type is configured to pass.
IP and ARP frames are only forwarded inbound through the IP tunnel if the
source IP address belongs to the root IP subnet. Usually, these frames
originate from wireless end devices that have roamed away from their root
IP subnet. Frames transmitted by servers or wired devices that are
connected to a remote IP subnet are not forwarded inbound through IP
tunnels if the IP address does not belong to the root IP subnet.
MAC frames that are forwarded inbound are encapsulated by the access
point at the remote end of the IP tunnel, forwarded through the IP tunnel to
the root access point, unencapsulated, and placed on the network.
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Frame Types That Are Never Forwarded
Certain frame types are never forwarded through IP tunnels. Frame types
that are never forwarded include IP frames used for coordinating routers
and MAC frames used for coordinating bridges. Other frame types that are
never forwarded include:
ˆ
802.1d bridge frames
ˆ
Proprietary VLAN switch frames
ˆ
IP frames with a broadcast or multicast Ethernet address
ˆ
IP frames with the following router protocol types and decimal values:
ˆ
ˆ
ˆ
ˆ
DGP (86) (Dissimilar Gateway Protocol)
ˆ
EGP (8) (Exterior Gateway Protocol)
ˆ
IDPR (35) (Inter-Domain Policy Routing Protocol)
ˆ
IDRP (45) (Inter-Domain Routing Protocol)
ˆ
IGP (9) (Interior Gateway Protocol)
ˆ
IGRP (88)
ˆ
MHRP (48) (Mobile Host Routing Protocol)
ˆ
OSPFIGP (89) (Open Shortest Path First Interior Gateway
Protocol)
IP ICMP (Internet Control Message Protocol) types:
ˆ
IPv6
ˆ
Mobile IP
ˆ
Router Advertisement
ˆ
Router Selection
IP/UDP (User Datagram Protocol) frames with the following destination
protocol port numbers:
ˆ
BGP (179) (Border Gateway Protocol)
ˆ
RAP (38) (Route Access Protocol)
ˆ
RIP (520) (Routing Information Protocol)
IP/TCP frames with the following destination or source protocol port
numbers:
ˆ
BGP (179) (Border Gateway Protocol)
ˆ
RAP (38) (Route Access Protocol)
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Configuring IP Tunnels
For guidelines, see “About IP Tunnels” on page 140.
To configure the IP Tunnels screen
1. From the main menu, click IP Tunnels. The IP Tunnels screen
appears.
2. Configure the IP tunnels parameters. For help, see the next table.
3. Click Submit Changes to save your changes. To activate your
changes, from the menu bar click Save/Discard Changes, and then
click Save Changes and Reboot. For help, see “Saving Configuration
Changes” on page 46.
Table 43. IP Tunnel Parameter Descriptions
Parameter
Mode
Explanation
Choose the mode:
Originate if Root: Lets the root access point and
root candidates originate the IP tunnel if they are
functioning as the root access point for the
network.
Listen: Configures access points that are
designated bridges or designated bridge
candidates for their remote IP subnets to serve as
the endpoint of an IP tunnel.
Disabled: Disables the IP tunnel port.
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Table 43. IP Tunnel Parameter Descriptions (Continued)
Parameter
Allow IP Multicast
Explanation
Appears only if Mode parameter is Originate if
Root.
Determines if the root access point should
forward IP multicast frames through its IP
tunnels. Check this check box if you have a
DHCP server issuing TCP/IP information to end
devices.
Enable IGMP
Appears only if Mode parameter is Listen.
Determines if IGMP is enabled or disabled.
Multicast Address
Appears only if Enable IGMP check box is
checked.
Enter the Class D IP multicast address. You also
need to enter this IP address in the root access
point’s IP address list. The Internet Assigned
Numbers Authority has allocated 224.0.1.65 for
Allied Telesyn’s inter-access-point protocol
(IAPP).
Configuring the
IP Address List
On the root access point and root candidates, the IP address list contains
the IP addresses or DNS names of all the access points at the endpoint of
the IP tunnels. You can only configure this list if you set the Mode field to
Originate If Root.
To configure the IP address list
1. From the main menu, click IP Tunnels > IP Addresses/DNS Names.
The IP Addresses/DNS Names screen appears.
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2. If you enabled IGMP, enter the Class D IP multicast address. The
default is 224.0.1.65.
3. Enter the IP addresses or DNS names of all the access points that can
be the endpoints of IP tunnels.
4. Click Submit Changes to save your changes. To activate your
changes, from the menu bar click Save/Discard Changes, and then
click Save Changes and Reboot. For help, see “Saving Configuration
Changes” on page 46.
Configuring IP
Tunnel Filters
You can set both Ethernet and IP tunnel filters, and you can create
protocol filters for predefined protocol types. In addition, you can define
arbitrary frame filters based on frame content.
By default, all IP tunnel traffic (except NNL traffic) is dropped. IP tunnel
filters are only outbound filters. That is, when you configure IP tunnel filters
in the root access point, you are only defining what type of traffic the root
will send through the tunnel. The root will receive anything sent to it by the
access point at the endpoint of the tunnel. The access point at the
endpoint of the tunnel acts the same way. In order for a particular type of
traffic to pass, you need to set the same filters to pass in both in the root
access point and in the access point at the endpoint of a tunnel.
For help configuring Ethernet filters, see “Configuring Ethernet Filters” on
page 80.
Using IP Tunnel Frame Type Filters
The IP tunnel port automatically provides some filtering for wireless end
devices. You can define permanent IP tunnel port filters to prevent
unwanted frame forwarding through an IP tunnel. ICMP frames with the
following types are always forwarded:
ˆ
Echo Request
ˆ
Parameter Problem
ˆ
Echo Reply
ˆ
Time Stamp
ˆ
Destination Unreachable
ˆ
Time Stamp Reply
ˆ
Source Quench
ˆ
Address Mask Request
ˆ
Redirect
ˆ
Address Mask Reply
ˆ
Alternate Host Address
ˆ
Trace Route
ˆ
Time Exceeded
IP and ARP frames are never forwarded inbound through an IP tunnel to
the root IP subnet unless the source IP address belongs to the root IP
subnet. (Frames are only forwarded inbound if the source IP address in
the IP or ARP frame identifies an end device that has roamed away from
its root IP subnet.) IP and ARP frames are never forwarded outbound
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through an IP tunnel by the root access point unless the destination IP
address belongs to the root IP subnet. (Frames are only forwarded
outbound to end devices that have roamed away from the root IP subnet.)
For detailed information about other frame types that are never forwarded,
see “Frame Types That Are Never Forwarded” on page 147.
You can set the default action and scope for general and specific frame
types:
Allow/ Pass: Check or clear this check box. Check this check box to pass
all frames of the type. Clear this check box to drop all frames of the type.
Scope: Set scope to Unlisted or All. If you select All, then all frames of that
type are unconditionally passed or dropped, depending on the action you
specified. If you select Unlisted, then frames are passed or dropped only if
the frame type is not listed in the predefined or customizable tables.
To use IP tunnel frame type filters
1. From the main menu, click IP Tunnels > Frame Type Filters. The
Frame Type Filters screen appears.
2. For each frame type field, check or clear the check box to configure if
the frame types are passed or are dropped. If you check the check
box, the frame type is allowed to pass.
For each frame type field, set the Scope field to Unlisted or All. For
help, see the next table.
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3. Click Submit Changes to save your changes. To activate your
changes, from the menu bar click Save/Discard Changes, and then
click Save Changes and Reboot. For help, see “Saving Configuration
Changes” on page 46.
4. If you set the Scope field to Unlisted for any of the frame types, you
must also configure predefined subtype filters or customizable subtype
filters. For help, see “Using Predefined Subtype Filters” on page 153
or “Customizing Subtype Filters” on page 153.
Table 44. Frame Type Filter Descriptions
Frame Type
Explanation
DIX IP TCP Ports
DIX IP UDP Ports
SNAP IP TCP Ports
SNAP IP UDP Ports
Primary Internet Protocol Suite (IP)
transport protocols.
DIX IP Other Protocols
SNAP IP Other Protocols
IP protocols other than TCP or User
Datagram Protocol (UDP).
DIX IPX Sockets
Novell NetWare protocol over Ethernet II
frames.
SNAP IPX Sockets
Novell NetWare protocol over 802.2
SNAP frames.
802.3 IPX Sockets
Novell NetWare protocol over 802.3 RAW
frames.
DIX Other Ethernet Types
SNAP Other Ethernet
Types
DIX or SNAP registered protocols other
than IP or IPX.
802.2 IPX Sockets
Novell running over 802.2 Logical Link
Control (LLC).
802.2 Other SAPs
802.2 SAPs other than IPX or SNAP.
Note
You should not filter HTTP, Telnet, SNMP, and ICMP frames if you
are using IP tunnels, because these filters are used for configuring,
troubleshooting, and upgrading access points.
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Using Predefined Subtype Filters
You can configure the access point to pass or drop certain predefined
frame subtypes.
To configure predefined subtype filters
1. From the main menu, click IP Tunnels > Predefined Subtype Filters.
The Predefined Subtype Filters screen appears.
2. For each frame subtype field, check or clear the check box to configure
if the frame subtypes are passed or are dropped. If you check the
check box, the frame subtype is allowed to pass.
3. Click Submit Changes to save your changes. To activate your
changes, from the menu bar click Save/Discard Changes, and then
click Save Changes and Reboot. For help, see “Saving Configuration
Changes” on page 46.
Customizing Subtype Filters
You can define output filters that restrict customized frame subtypes that
can pass through an IP tunnel. Frames can be filtered by the DIX, 802.2,
or 802.3 SNAP type; the IP protocol type; or the TCP or UDP port number.
By default, the filters drop all protocol types except the NNL DIX Ethernet
type (hexadecimal 875B). Filters must be configured in all root candidates
and in any access point that can attach to the remote end of an IP tunnel.
You define the action, subtype, and value parameters in customized filters:
Allow/Pass: Check or clear this check box. Check this check box to pass
all frames of the subtype and value. Clear this check box to drop all frames
of the subtype and value.
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Subtype: Selects the frame subtype you wish to configure.
Value: The next table describes frame subtypes and their values. The
value must be two hex pairs. When a match is found between frame
subtype and value, the specified action is taken.
To customize subtype filters
1. From the main menu, click IP Tunnels > Customizable Subtype Filters.
The Customizable Subtype Filters screen appears.
2. For each frame subtype field, check or clear the Allow/Pass check box
to configure if the frame subtypes are passed or are dropped. If you
check the check box, the frame subtype is allowed to pass.
3. In the SubType field, choose the customizable frame subtype. For
help, see the next table.
4. In the Value field, enter the two hex pairs. For help, see the next table.
5. Click Submit Changes to save your changes. To activate your
changes, from the menu bar click Save/Discard Changes, and then
click Save Changes and Reboot. For help, see “Saving Configuration
Changes” on page 46.
Table 45. Subtype Filter Descriptions
Subtype
154
Value
DIX-IP-TCP-Port
Port value in hexadecimal.
DIX-IP-UDP-Port
Port value in hexadecimal.
DIX-IP-Protocol
Protocol number in hexadecimal.
AT-WA7500 and AT-WA7501 Installation and User’s Guide
Table 45. Subtype Filter Descriptions (Continued)
Subtype
Value
DIX-IPX-Socket
Socket value in hexadecimal.
DIX-EtherType
Specify the registered DIX type in hexadecimal.
SNAP-IP-TCP-Port
Port value in hexadecimal.
SNAP-IP-UDP-Port
Port value in hexadecimal.
SNAP-IP-Protocol
Port value in hexadecimal.
SNAP-IPX-Socket
Socket value in hexadecimal.
SNAP-EtherType
SNAP type in hexadecimal. To filter on both
SNAP type and OUI, use advanced filters.
802.3-IPX-Socket
Socket value in hexadecimal.
802.2-IPX-Socket
Socket value in hexadecimal.
802.2-SAP
802.2 SAP in hexadecimal.
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Filter Examples
These examples illustrate how to set both Ethernet and IP tunnel filters to
optimize network performance. The next illustration includes:
ˆ
wireless end devices using TCP/IP to communicate with other devices.
ˆ
a secondary LAN containing IP and IPX hosts, linked by AP2 and AP4.
ˆ
an IPX router connecting to another Novell network.
ˆ
DIX and 802.3 SNAP frames.
This illustration shows a typical network that will be used in the next
examples.
IP Host
Root
(AP1)
Novell Server
AP3
IPX router
Primary LAN
(root IP subnet)
AP2
IP Host
AP5
Designated
bridge (AP4)
Secondary LAN
(remote IP subnet)
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AP6
IPX Host
AT-WA7500 and AT-WA7501 Installation and User’s Guide
Example 1
The root (AP1), AP3, AP5, and AP6 service only wireless end devices.
These access points need to pass IP traffic, but not pass IPX traffic that
does not need to be forwarded to the primary or secondary LAN.
For this example, set these options on the Ethernet Frame Type Filters
screen. No subtype filters are needed.
Example 2
AP2 and AP4 (designated bridge) service end devices and the IP host and
IPX host on the secondary LAN. Also, these access points pass IPX traffic.
The IPX router in this network periodically sends IPX RIP frames for
coordinating with other routers. These do not need to be forwarded to the
secondary LAN, because the secondary LAN does not contain a router.
To filter the IPX RIP frames, you need to configure subtype filters. This
example sets filters for three different cases: DIX, 802.2, and 802.3 SNAP
frames. In many actual networks, only one type of filter is required,
because all stations are configured using one of the three options.
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For this example, set these options on the Ethernet Frame Type Filters
screen.
In the Predefined Subtype Filters screen, set the 802.2-IPX-RIP field to
drop 802.2, DIX, and 802.3 frames.
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Example 3
If you have a DHCP server on a Windows NT server and you want to use
this DHCP server to assign TCP/IP parameters to end devices on a
remote IP subnet, you need to set these filters to allow for the necessary
IP tunneling.
1. On the root access point, set these filters:
ˆ
On the IP Tunnels screen, check the Allow IP Multicast
check box.
ˆ
In the IP Tunnel Frame Type Filter table, configure
DIX-IP-UDP Ports to pass all frames.
2. On the access point at the endpoint of the IP tunnel, set this filter:
ˆ
Example 4
In the IP Tunnel Frame Type Filter table, configure DIX-IP-UDP
Ports to pass all frames.
If you have a Linux or Unix DHCP server and want to use this DHCP
server to assign TCP/IP parameters to end devices on a remote subnet,
you need to set this filter to allow for the necessary IP tunneling:
ˆ
In the IP Tunnel Frame Type Filter table, configure DIX-IP-UDP Port to
pass all frames.
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Comparing IP Tunnels to Mobile IP
The AT-WA7500 and AT-WA7501 access points support IP tunneling,
which allows end devices to roam across different subnets (routers)
without having to change IP addresses. IP tunneling supports IETF RFC
1701 using GRE and the same encapsulation technique as mobile IP. IP
tunnels technology is designed primarily to operate in local environments,
where handheld or vehicle-mounted devices may move rapidly between
access point coverage areas on a subnet (although it is possible to attach
a geographically remote subnet through an IP tunnel).
The Internet Engineering Task Force developed RFC 2002, IP Mobility
Support, commonly referred to as mobile IP, to provide mobility for IP
hosts. Mobile IP is designed primarily to address the needs of wireless
end devices that may move between geographically separated locations.
The two technologies are complimentary and may coexist. Both protocols
use similar encapsulation to forward frames to or from end devices that
have roamed away from a root IP subnet. The root access point functions
much like a mobile IP home agent; an access point attached to the remote
end of an IP tunnel functions much like a mobile IP foreign agent.
Table 46. IP Tunnels and Mobile IP Comparison
Issue
160
IP Tunneling
Mobile IP
Software compatibility
No changes are required to
existing IP software stacks in
end devices.
Requires a mobile IP client
software stack in end devices.
Addressing limitations for
IP end devices
Requires that end device IP
addresses belong to the root
IP subnet.
None.
Security
Guest addresses are not
used. Data link security.
Mobile IP authentication is
required for “guest” access to
foreign subnets.
Roaming detection
Data link indications facilitate
fast roaming with no added
broadcast traffic.
Foreign agent
advertisements.
Roaming restrictions
Currently, roaming is limited to
a single network that may
include multiple IP subnets.
None.
Roaming support for nonIP protocols
Configurable using IP filters.
None.
Scalability
No practical limitations using
IGMP.
Has no inherent limitations.
AT-WA7500 and AT-WA7501 Installation and User’s Guide
Table 46. IP Tunnels and Mobile IP Comparison (Continued)
Issue
Special network software
IP Tunneling
Standard network feature. No
additional network software is
required.
Mobile IP
Requires home and foreign
agents located on each
network or subnetwork.
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Chapter 5: Configuring the Spanning Tree
Configuring Global Parameters
Global parameters are configured on the root access point and on any
other access point that is a root candidate (does not have a root priority of
0). The root access point sends these settings to all other access points in
the spanning tree. You should set the same global parameters for the root
access point and its backup candidates. Any global parameters you set on
the root access point will override those you set in other access points.
Configuring
Global Flooding
When the destination address is unknown, most bridges flood frames on
all ports. Most wireless end devices operate at lower speeds than the
Ethernet can support; therefore, indiscriminate flooding from a busy
Ethernet network can consume a substantial portion of the available
wireless bandwidth and reduce system performance. On the access point,
you can set flooding control options for both unicast and multicast frames
to free up bandwidth and improve system performance.
Access points try to forward frames to the port with the shortest path to the
destination address. When the access point has not learned the direction
of the shortest path, you can configure it to flood the frames in certain
directions to try to locate the destination address.
ARP requests are multicast frames that are periodically sent out to all
devices on the Ethernet network. An ARP cache is a table of known MAC
addresses and their IP addresses that the access point maintains. When
an access point receives an ARP request, it checks its ARP cache to
determine if the destination end device’s IP address is known.
To configure global flooding
1. From the main menu, click Spanning Tree Settings > Global Flooding.
The Global Flooding screen appears.
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AT-WA7500 and AT-WA7501 Installation and User’s Guide
2. Configure the Global Flooding parameters. For help, see the next
table.
3. Click Submit Changes to save your changes. To activate your
changes, from the menu bar click Save/Discard Changes, and then
click Save Changes and Reboot. For help, see “Saving Configuration
Changes” on page 46.
Table 47. Global Flooding Parameter Descriptions
Parameter
Multicast Flooding
Explanation
Determines the flooding structure when this
access point receives inbound multicast frames
on non-root ports with unknown destination
addresses:
Disabled: You do not want the access point to
flood any inbound multicast frames.
Universal: The access point forwards the
multicast frame to every port. This option uses
more bandwidth. Use this option if the root
access point is supporting more than one
wireless hop to ensure that ARP requests and
multicast traffic are distributed.
Hierarchical: The access point forwards the
multicast frame only to the port to which the root
access point is attached.
Multicast Outbound
to Secondary LANs
Appears only if Multicast Flooding is enabled.
Specifies if outbound multicast frames with
unknown destination addresses are flooded
toward secondary LANs:
Enabled: The root access point controls flooding
for all the designated bridges on secondary
LANs. Enabling this parameter makes managing
secondary LANs easier because you do not need
to set secondary LAN flooding parameters.
Set Locally: The designated bridges control
flooding on their LANs.
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Chapter 5: Configuring the Spanning Tree
Table 47. Global Flooding Parameter Descriptions (Continued)
Parameter
Explanation
Allow Multicast
Outbound to
Terminals
Appears only if Multicast Flooding is enabled.
Unicast Flooding
Determines the flooding structure when this
access point receives inbound unicast frames on
non-root ports with unknown destination
addresses:
Determines if outbound multicast frames with
unknown destination addresses are flooded
toward end devices. Typically, this parameter is
checked. However, if your wired devices do not
need to initiate communication with wireless end
devices, you may want to clear this check box.
Disabled: You do not want the access point to
flood any inbound unicast frames.
Universal: The access point forwards the unicast
frame to every port. This option uses more
bandwidth.
Hierarchical: The access point forwards the
unicast frame only to the port to which the root
access point is attached.
Unicast Outbound
to Secondary LANs
Appears only if Unicast Flooding is enabled.
Specifies if outbound unicast frames with
unknown destination addresses are flooded
toward secondary LANs:
Enabled: The root access point controls flooding
for all the designated bridges on secondary
LANs. Enabling this parameter makes managing
secondary LANs easier because you do not need
to set secondary LAN flooding parameters.
Set Locally: The designated bridges control
flooding on their LANs.
Allow Unicast
Outbound to
Terminals
164
Appears only if Unicast Flooding is enabled.
Determines if outbound unicast frames with
unknown destination addresses are flooded
toward end devices.
AT-WA7500 and AT-WA7501 Installation and User’s Guide
Table 47. Global Flooding Parameter Descriptions (Continued)
Parameter
Enable ARP
Flooding
Explanation
Check this check box to enable ARP flooding.
When an access point receives an ARP request,
it checks its ARP cache to determine if the
destination end device’s IP address is known.
If you enable ARP flooding and:
ˆ
the destination end device is known, the
access point translates the ARP request into
a unicast frame, which is only forwarded to
the destination end device. Therefore, all end
devices do not need to wake up to listen to
the ARP request, which saves battery life.
ˆ
the destination end device is not known, the
access point forwards the ARP request based
on its flooding and filtering settings.
If you disable ARP flooding, the access point
ignores ARP requests for destination end devices
that are not in its ARP cache. You should only
use this option if you have no IP devices in your
wireless network.
Configuring
Global RF
Parameters
Use global RF parameters to set various parameters on the access points.
If you are configuring the root access point and you check the Set Globally
check box, the value for that parameter is set globally for all access points
and wireless end devices in the network. If you are configuring the root
access point and you clear the Set Globally check box or if you are not
configuring the root access point, each device uses its local setting.
To configure global RF parameters
1. From the menu, click Spanning Tree Settings > Global RF Parameters.
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Chapter 5: Configuring the Spanning Tree
The Global RF Parameters screen appears.
Click to set
the global RF
2. Configure the global RF parameters. Click the links in the Global RF
Parameters menu to set more parameters. For help, see the next
table.
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3. Click Submit Changes to save your changes. To activate your
changes, from the menu bar click Save/Discard Changes, and then
click Save Changes and Reboot. For help, see “Saving Configuration
Changes” on page 46.
Table 48. Global RF Parameter Descriptions
Parameter
Explanation
Perform RFC1042/
DIX Conversion
Determines how the access point will handle the
conversion of RFC1042/DIX frames that are
received on its radio ports.
Check this check box if the frames that are
received and have a protocol type equal to a
value in the “RFC1042 types to pass through” list
are forwarded without conversion. If the frame
has a protocol type that is not found in the list, it
will be converted to DIX format before it is
forwarded.
Clear this check box if the frames that are
received are forwarded without conversion; that
is, when a SNAP frame is received from a radio
with an OUI (Organizationally Unique Identifier)
equal to 000000, it will be forwarded without
conversion.
S-UHF Rfp
Threshold
(S-UHF radios
only)
S-UHF Frag Size
(S-UHF radios
only)
902 MHz Frag Size
(902 MHz radios
only)
Specifies the largest data frame that can be
transmitted without reserving airtime. Air time is
normally reserved to help prevent collisions with
other transmitters; however, when the amount of
data is small enough, sending the data may be
more effective than creating the reservation.
Specifies the largest data frame that can be
transmitted without fragmentation. On certain
radios, fragmentation does not occur unless the
radio detects interference. Larger frame sizes can
improve throughput on a reliable connection,
while smaller frame sizes can improve throughput
on a poor connection.
Specifies the largest data frame that can be
transmitted without fragmentation. On certain
radios, fragmentation does not occur unless the
radio detects interference. Larger frame sizes can
improve throughput on a reliable connection,
while smaller frame sizes can improve throughput
on a poor connection.
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Table 48. Global RF Parameter Descriptions (Continued)
Parameter
S-UHF/902 MHz
Awake Time
(S-UHF and 902
MHz radios only)
RFC1042 Types to
Pass Through
(802.11g, 802.11b,
or 802.11a radios
only)
Explanation
Specifies the amount of time that a wireless end
device stays awake when radios are inactive. A
sleeping device is less responsive to radio
activity; however, the longer a device is kept fully
awake, the larger the drain on the battery. You
should set a device to stay awake long enough to
receive an expected reply to a transmission and
short enough to reduce power consumption. The
awake time can be set to a number from 0 to 250
tenths of a second.
If the RFC1042/DIX Conversion field is Enabled,
this parameter specifies values for protocol types
that are to be passed without conversion. The list
includes the Apple Talk protocol type, value
80F3.
Values entered in this parameter represent the
protocol types of frames that will be passed
without conversion to DIX format.
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Chapter 6
Configuring Security
This chapter explains how to use different security solutions to ensure that
you have a secure wireless network. This chapter covers these topics:
ˆ
“Understanding Security” on page 170
ˆ
“Controlling Access to Access Point Menus” on page 174
ˆ
“Creating a Secure Spanning Tree” on page 181
ˆ
“Enabling Secure Communications Between Access Points and End
Devices” on page 184
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Chapter 6: Configuring Security
Understanding Security
The AT-WA7500 and AT-WA7501 access points provide many different
security features and solutions that you can use to create a secure
wireless network. To create a secure wireless network, you need to be
concerned about:
ˆ
securing your backbone. Only authorized users should be able to
communicate with your network.
ˆ
keeping your data private. Make it difficult for an eavesdropper, such
as a rogue access point, to monitor your data.
ˆ
authenticating wireless end devices. End devices must prove who they
are before they are allowed to communicate with your network.
Depending on the radios in the access point and the amount of security
you need in your network, you can implement one or more of the security
solutions in the following table.
Table 49. AT-WA7500 and AT-WA7501 Security Solutions
Security Type
Secure
Backbone
Change default
parameters
X
Disable access methods
X
Enable secure IAPP
X
Enable secure wireless
hops
X
Use a password server
to manage access point
logins
X
Configure a VLAN for
each radio
X
Data
Privacy
X
Use an Access Control
List (ACL)
X
Use WEP 64/128/152
security
170
Client
Authentication
X
Use an 802.1x security
solution
X
X
X
Use Wi-Fi Protected
Access (WPA)
X
X
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AT-WA7500 and AT-WA7501 Installation and User’s Guide
These security features and solutions are listed below in the order of
amount of security and ease of use (most basic/least secure to most
secure). Allied Telesyn recommends you configure your wireless network
for the maximum possible security that you deem necessary for the
integrity of your network.
1. Change the SSID from its default value of ATILAN and check the
Disallow Network Name of ‘ANY’ check box. For help, see Chapter 4,
“Configuring the Radios” on page 96.
2. Enable/disable access methods. For example, if you are not using
telnet sessions to configure or manage your access point, you can
disable this access method. For help, see “Controlling Access to
Access Point Menus” on page 174.
3. Use a password server to maintain a list of authorized users who can
configure and manage the access points. You can either use an
external RADIUS server or you can use any access point’s embedded
authentication server (EAS).
Or change the default login for users who need to configure or manage
the access point. For help, see “Setting Up Logins” on page 176.
4. Create a secure spanning tree, which between access points, and
includes secure IAPP and secure wireless hops. For help, see
“Creating a Secure Spanning Tree” on page 181.
5. Use a RADIUS server to maintain an access control list (ACL), which is
a list of MAC addresses of end devices that can connect to the network
through access point. You can either use an external RADIUS server
or you can use any access point’s embedded authentication server
(EAS). For help, see “Using an Access Control List (ACL)” on
page 184.
6. Configure VLANs that separate secure and non-secure
communications in your network. For help, see “Configuring VLANs”
on page 187.
7. Implement one of these mutually-exclusive security solutions (on each
service set) to ensure secure communications between the access
points and wireless end devices in your network:
Use basic WEP 64/128/152 security. You can configure up to four
different WEP keys on the access point and most wireless end
devices, and then you specify which key is being used to encrypt data.
You should periodically change which WEP key these devices use.
802.11g and 802.11b radios support WEP 64/128 security, and
802.11a radios support 64/128/152 security. For help, see “Configuring
WEP 64/128/152 Security” on page 189.
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Chapter 6: Configuring Security
Use an 802.1x security solution. 802.1x security provides a framework
to authenticate user traffic to a protected wireless network. Using
802.1x security provides secure data transmission by creating a
secure spanning tree and dynamically rotating the WEP keys. You
configure the access point as an authenticator. For the authentication
server, you can either use an external RADIUS server or you can use
the access point’s embedded authentication server (EAS). For help,
see “Implementing an 802.1x Security Solution” on page 192.
Use Wi-Fi Protected Access (WPA) security. WPA is a strongly
enhanced, interoperable Wi-Fi security that addresses many of the
vulnerabilities of Wired Equivalent Privacy (WEP). For help, see
“Configuring Wi-Fi Protected Access (WPA) Security” on page 199.
For help troubleshooting security, see “Troubleshooting Security” on
page 255.
When You
Configure
Different SSIDs
with Different
Security Settings
You can configure each 802.11g and 802.11a radio with up to four SSIDs
or service sets. Although each service set shares one physical radio
configuration, you can configure each service set with a different security
configuration. Also, you can configure each service set for a separate
VLAN. For example, you can configure:
ˆ
primary service set for WPA/PSK.
ˆ
secondary 1 service set for WPA/802.1x and VLAN 13.
ˆ
secondary 2 service set for static WEP and an ACL.
ˆ
secondary 3 service set for Dynamic WEP/802.1x and VLAN 150.
Note that using multiple services sets is not part of the Wi-Fi standard.
When multiple service sets are enabled, the SSID is hidden in the
beacons, which is similar to checking the Disallow Network Name of 'ANY'
check box. The access point master radio only sends a beacon from the
primary service set. However, if an end device's radio sends a probe
request for an SSID that belongs to a secondary service set, then the
access point radio will send a probe response from that service set.
Many end device radios do not support using multiple service sets to
implement a mixed security environment. The radios do not understand
different security information coming from the beacons and probe
responses. This means:
ˆ
if any type of security is set on the primary service set, then the
secondary service sets should also the same type of security.
ˆ
if no security is set on the primary service set, then the secondary
service sets cannot use any type of security.
For example, you have an access point with an 802.11g radio. You
configure the primary service set for WPA/PSK and you do not configure
any security for the secondary 1 service set. An older end device with an
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802.11b radio is configured with no security and you expect it to associate
with the secondary 1 service set. However, when the end device receives
the beacon from the access point that indicates that some type of security
is being used, the end device does not communicate with the access
point.
Another important consideration is that the service set that allows wireless
hops should have the strongest security configuration possible for your
environment. Do not enable wireless hops on the ports that have no
security. WAPs configured on the other service sets will hear the
unencrypted hellos on the wireless hop port and those WAPs will attach to
the spanning tree, even though they should not.
When You
Include Multiple
RADIUS Servers
on the RADIUS
Server List
You can use multiple RADIUS servers to act as password servers, to
support ACLs, to use in an 802.1x security solution as authentication
servers, and to use in an WPA/802.1x security solution as authentication
servers. If you don't configure the server port map, the access point uses
the first RADIUS server (Server 1) in the list as the main server. Other
servers are simply backup servers.
ˆ
If the first RADIUS server responds and the client’s information does
not appear in that server’s database, the client is blocked. The access
point does not check the databases on any other RADIUS servers.
ˆ
If the first RADIUS server goes down during the operation and a
RADIUS server lookup needs to occur, the authenticator access point
will time out looking for the first server. Then, the access point looks for
the next server in the list. If the authenticator access point finds the
next server, it stays with that server forever, even if the first server
comes back. If the backup server goes down, the authenticator access
point continues looking down the list and eventually wraps around to
the first server again.
However, you can configure the server port map so that the access point
uses different RADIUS servers to serve different ports.
To configure the server port map
ˆ
From the main menu, click Security > RADIUS Server List > Server
Port Map. The Server Port Map screen appears with the IP Address/
DNS Name column populated with the RADIUS servers that you
configured in the Server Selection screen.
For example, you can select one RADIUS server to service parent access
points authenticating child access points using IAPP authentication by
checking the check box in the IAPP Authentication column. Then, you can
select another RADIUS server to service access points authenticating end
devices by checking the check box for the appropriate service set.
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Chapter 6: Configuring Security
Controlling Access to Access Point Menus
There are several ways that you can manage who can configure and
manage the access points in your network:
ˆ
Enable/disable access methods.
ˆ
Set up individual logins.
ˆ
Change the default logins and create a read-only login.
The next sections explain how to implement these strategies.
Enabling Access
Methods
There are five access methods that you can enable or disable depending
on how you want users to be able to configure or manage the access
points:
ˆ
Web browser interface (HTTP or HTTPS)
ˆ
Telnet session
ˆ
Any SNMP management station
ˆ
TFTP
ˆ
Programs that uses ICMP echo
ˆ
Wavelink Avalanche client management system
All access methods are enabled by default. You may want to disable any
of these methods that you will not use to prevent access by an
unauthorized method.
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To enable or disable access methods
1. From the main menu, click Security. The Security screen appears.
2. Enable or disable the access methods that users can use to connect to
the access point. For help, see the next table.
3. Click Submit Changes to save your changes. To activate your
changes, from the menu bar click Save/Discard Changes, and then
click Save Changes and Reboot. For help, see “Saving Configuration
Changes” on page 46.
Table 50. Security Parameter Descriptions
Parameter
Browser Access
Description
Determines if users can use a web browser to
configure or manage this access point. Browser
access is through either port 80 or port 443.
Choose Secure-Only if you want to force users to
log in using the secure web browser (HTTPS)
interface. Secure-only access is through port 443.
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Table 50. Security Parameter Descriptions (Continued)
Parameter
Allow Telnet
Access (Port 23)
Description
Determines if users can use a telnet session (or
communications program) to configure or
manage this access point.
Do not clear this check box if you plan to
configure the Telnet Gateway and allow wireless
clients to upgrade the access point over the telnet
port. For details, see page 210.
Setting Up Logins
Allow SNMP
Access (Port 161/
162)
Determines if users can use MobileLAN manager
or another SNMP management station to
configure or manage this access point.
Allow TFTP Access
(Read-Only)
Determines if users can use TFTP clients to
exchange files with the access point.
Allow ICMP
Configuration
Determines if users can use another program that
uses ICMP echo (PING) to set the IP address or
restore factory defaults on this access point.
Allow Avalanche
Access
Determines if users can use the Wavelink
Avalanche client management system to manage
this access point.
To ensure login security for configuring or maintaining the access points,
you should either use a password server (typically an EAS or another
RADIUS server) or change the default user name and password.
To use the password server, you must have:
ˆ
a password server on the network that contains the user name/
password database. For help, see “Configuring the Access Point to
Use a Password Server” on page 177. You can either configure an
EAS or you can use an external RADIUS server as a password server.
ˆ
access points, which are the RADIUS clients.
If you use a password server, you enable RADIUS for login authorization.
That is, when a user attempts to log in to the access point, the user must
enter a user name and password. This login is sent through the RADIUS
client (access point) to the RADIUS server. The server compares the login
to its list of authorized logins. If a match is found, the server returns an
access-accept frame and the user is logged in to the access point with
read/write privileges.
If no RADIUS server is available when the user attempts a login and the
Allow Service Password check box is checked, the service password is
checked. If the login does not match the service password, the login fails.
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Note
Each time the service password login attempt fails, the process may
take up to 8 seconds.
If you do not want to enable RADIUS authorization, you should change the
default login user name and password. You may also want to change the
read-only password. For help, see “Changing the Default Login” on
page 178.
Configuring the Access Point to Use a Password Server
If you use a password server to manage users who can log in to this
access point, you need to tell this access point how to communicate with
the password server and then you need to configure the password server.
The password server can either be an EAS or an external RADIUS server.
To configure the access point to use a password server
1. From the main menu, click Security > Passwords. The Passwords
screen appears.
2. Check the Use RADIUS for Login Authorization check box.
3. (Optional) Make sure the Allow Service Password check box is
checked.
4. Click Submit Changes to save your changes.
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5. Configure the password server by clicking Select a RADIUS server for
login authorization. The RADIUS Server List screen appears.
6. For each password server, enter the IP address or DNS name, enter
the shared secret key, port number, and check the Login check box.
Note
If you enter more than one password server, see page 130 for a
description of how the access point uses the servers.
7. Configure the password server database:
ˆ
In the EAS database, in the Type field choose Login and then enter
the user name and password for each login. For help, see Chapter
7, “Configuring the Embedded Authentication Server (EAS)” on
page 204.
ˆ
For help configuring an external RADIUS server database, see the
documentation that came with your server.
Changing the Default Login
If you are not using a password server to authorize user logins, you should
change the default user name and password and create a read-only
password.
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To set up logins
1. From the main menu, click Security > Passwords. The Passwords
screen appears.
2. Verify that the Use RADIUS for Login Authorization check box is
cleared.
3. Click Submit Changes to save your changes.
4. Configure the parameters. For help, see the next table.
5. Click Submit Changes to save your changes. To activate your
changes, from the menu bar click Save/Discard Changes, and then
click Save Changes and Reboot. For help, see “Saving Configuration
Changes” on page 46.
Once the changes are activated, you must enter these new values when
you use a web browser or telnet to connect to this access point.
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Table 51. Password Parameter Descriptions
Parameter
Description
Use RADIUS for
Login Authorization
Determines if you are using a password server to
authenticate end devices that can communicate
with this access point. Clear this check box.
User Name
Enter the user name you need to use to log in to
this access point. This parameter can be from 0
to 16 characters long.
If you leave the user name and password fields
blank, a user will not need to log in to the access
point.
Password
Enter the password you need to use to log in to
this access point. This password gives you read
and write access to the access point
configuration. This parameter can be from 0 to 16
characters long.
If you leave the user name and password fields
blank, a user will not need to log in to the access
point.
Read Only
Password
Enter the password you need to use to log in to
this access point. This password gives the user
read-only access to the access point. This user is
able to view the configuration and execute
diagnostics but cannot perform any tasks that
affect the operation of the access point, such as
changing configuration options, rebooting, or
downloading software.
To disable this password, delete it.
Allow Service
Password
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If the user enters a login that does not match
either the user name and password or the read
only password, check this check box to allow the
login to be checked against the service
password. Allied Telesyn Technical Support may
use this service password if they need to
troubleshoot this access point.
AT-WA7500 and AT-WA7501 Installation and User’s Guide
Creating a Secure Spanning Tree
When you configure a radio to use 802.1x security, you automatically
enable spanning tree security, which can be used for both wired and
wireless access points (WAPs). However, if you configure a radio to use
another security solution, you may want to still create a secure spanning
tree. A secure spanning tree has two functions:
1. To require authentication of any access point attempting to join the
spanning tree.
2. To provide encryption of critical Inter-Access Point Protocol (IAPP)
frames.
There are three authentication methods that you can use to secure the
spanning tree: Simple Wireless Authentication Protocol (SWAP), TTLS, or
TLS.
SWAP is an proprietary protocol that is based on the EAP-MD5 challenge.
Since it requires less processing power, it requires less memory and you
can use it on all access points. Also, SWAP does not require an
authentication server so it is easier to configure. With these advantages,
SWAP is sufficient for most users. TTLS and TLS are industry standard
protocols. However, they require more administrative support.
When deciding on which type of spanning tree security to use, the
supplicant access point and the authenticator will negotiate an
authentication method that can be used by both. If the Allow SWAP check
box is checked on both access points, SWAP will always be used. If the
Allow SWAP check box is cleared on one or both of the access points,
either TTLS or TLS will be used, depending on the setting of the Preferred
Protocol field of the supplicant access point.
Note these potential problems:
ˆ
If you enable secure IAPP on a root access point that is running
software release 1.80 or later and other access points in your network
are running an earlier software release than 1.80, the access points
with the earlier software release will not attach to the root. The access
points with the earlier software release do not support secure IAPP. If
you want to use secure IAPP, upgrade all access points to software
release 1.80.
ˆ
If you enable secure IAPP on a non-root access point and the root
access point has secure IAPP disabled, the access points will form
separate spanning trees with the same LAN ID. If you want to use
secure IAPP, enable secure IAPP on all access points.
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To create a secure spanning tree
Note
You do not need to perform this procedure if you are implementing
an 802.1x security solution. 802.1x authentication automatically
enables secure IAPP and secure wireless hops. See “Implementing
an 802.1x Security Solution” on page 192.
1. From the main menu, click Security > Spanning Tree Security. The
Spanning Tree Security screen appears.
2. Check the Secure IAPP check box.
3. Click Submit Changes to save your changes.
4. In the IAPP Secret Key field, enter a secret key. This secret key must
be between 16 and 32 bytes.
5. Determine how the access points authenticate to the network:
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ˆ
Check the Allow SWAP check box if you have older access points
or you are not implementing an 802.1x security solution.
ˆ
Check the Allow TLS check box, if you are implementing an 802.1x
security solution and you want to use TLS. The access point must
have a server certificate loaded on it.
ˆ
Check the Allow TTLS (MSCHAPv2) check box, if you are
implementing an 802.1x security solution and you want to use
TTLS. You must also enter a User Name and Password that
matches an entry in the authentication server.
AT-WA7500 and AT-WA7501 Installation and User’s Guide
6. Click Submit Changes to save your changes. To activate your
changes, from the menu bar click Save/Discard Changes, and then
click Save Changes and Reboot. For help, see “Saving Configuration
Changes” on page 46.
7. Repeat Steps 1 through 6 for each access point in your spanning tree.
All access points must have the same IAPP secret key to
communicate with each other.
In the access point that contains the master radio, click Maintenance > AP
Connections. The AP Connections screen lists the station radios (including
ones in other access points) that are communicating with the master radio.
For help, see “Viewing AP Connections” on page 228.
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Enabling Secure Communications Between Access Points and End
Devices
There are several ways that you can ensure secure communications
between access points and wireless end devices in your network:
ˆ
Use an access control list (ACL).
ˆ
Configure virtual LANs (VLANs).
ˆ
Configure WEP 64/128/152 security.
ˆ
Implement an 802.1x security solution.
ˆ
Configure Wi-Fi Protected Access (WPA) security.
The next sections explain how to configure these methods.
Using an Access
Control List
(ACL)
You can use an access control list (ACL) that contains the MAC addresses
that are authorized to communicate with the network through the access
point. The end devices do not need any special client software. To use the
ACL, you must have:
ˆ
a RADIUS server on the network that contains the ACL. You can either
use an external RADIUS server or you can configure an EAS. For
help, see Chapter 7, “Configuring the Embedded Authentication
Server (EAS)” on page 204.
ˆ
access points, which are the RADIUS clients.
If the access point has two radios, or if the access point contains one
802.11g or 802.11a radio with multiple service sets, you can use an ACL
for one radio and another type of security for the other radio.
For example, you have some end devices that have an 802.1x supplicant
and you have some end devices that do not have a supplicant. You can
enable one radio to use 802.1x security and the other radio to use an ACL.
You can also use one ACL for both radios. However, you cannot use a
different ACL for each radio.
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To use an ACL
1. From the main menu, click Security and then click the radio service set
you are configuring. The appropriate radio screen appears.
2. Check the Enable ACL Client Authorization check box if you want to
use an ACL to authorize end devices to communicate with the
network.
3. Click Submit Changes to save your changes.
4. Normally, the access point issues RADIUS requests with the user
name and password of the end device that is trying to communicate
with the network.
Check the Enable Alternative Method ACL check box if you want the
access point to issue RADIUS requests with the user name and
password both set to the MAC address of the end device that is trying
to communicate with the network.
5. (External RADIUS server only) In the ACL RADIUS Client Password
field, enter the password that is used to sign RADIUS access requests
for all end devices attached to this access point. This password must
match the password that is configured in the RADIUS server.
6. Click Submit Changes to save your changes. To activate your
changes, from the menu bar click Save/Discard Changes, and then
click Save Changes and Reboot. For help, see “Saving Configuration
Changes” on page 46.
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7. Configure the RADIUS server by clicking Select a RADIUS server for
ACL authorization. The RADIUS Server List screen appears.
8. For each RADIUS server, enter the IP address or DNS name, enter
the shared secret key, port number, and check the ACL or Login check
box.
Note
If you enter more than one server, see page 130 for a description of
how the access point uses the servers.
9. Configure the database. Enter the MAC address for each end device
radio that is allowed to communicate with the network:
ˆ
In the EAS database, in the Type field choose ACL and then enter
the MAC address for each end device radio.
Or, if you checked the Enable Alternative Method ACL check box,
in the Type field choose Login and then enter the MAC address for
each end device radio in both the user name and password fields.
For help, see Chapter 7, “Configuring the Embedded
Authentication Server (EAS)” on page 204.
ˆ
186
For help configuring an external RADIUS server database, see the
documentation that came with your server. In the database, you will
also need to enter the ACL RADIUS client password. The default
password is wireless (case-sensitive).
AT-WA7500 and AT-WA7501 Installation and User’s Guide
Configuring
VLANs
Virtual LANs (VLANs) make it easy to create and manage logical groups of
wireless end devices that communicate as if they were on the same LAN.
You can group all wireless users on a particular VLAN in order to manage
the IP address space differently. Or, you can use VLANs to separate
secure and non-secure traffic. For example, you may grant your
employees full access to your network, while routing all traffic from visitors
to the Internet. The access points may be configured to participate in a
properly configured VLAN.
You can configure each 802.11g and 802.11a radio with up to four SSIDs,
creating up to four service sets. Each service set shares one physical
radio configuration, but you may customize its security configuration.
Therefore, each service set can be configured to support a separate
VLAN.
However, an 802.11b radio can be configured with only one SSID.
Therefore, each 802.11b radio can support only one VLAN, and you would
need multiple 802.11b radios to implement multiple VLANs.
You configure each radio (or each service set) as a master radio with a
unique SSID and security solution. Then, you distribute the SSID of the
secure network to your end devices and the SSID of the non-secure
network to your customers.
The access points support the 802.1Q standard for VLAN tagging. When
the access point receives a frame from an end device, it applies the
appropriate VLAN tag to the frame and then bridges the VLAN-tagged
frame to the wired network. If you configure the VLAN field to 1, no VLAN
tag will be applied and the frames will be put on the wired network as
normal Ethernet frames. A VLAN-capable Ethernet switch receives the
VLAN-tagged frame and routes it appropriately. Only VLAN-aware devices
understand frames with VLAN tags; end devices only understand and
accept frames that are meant for them that do not have a VLAN tag.
In order for the spanning tree to work, all access points must be on the
same Native port on the Ethernet switch. The switch must be able to
support a “hybrid” VLAN, which means the switch can support both VLANtagged and normal Ethernet frames on the switch port. The access point
only encapsulates wireless traffic. Any communication with the access
point across the wired network is always normal Ethernet traffic.
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To configure a VLAN
1. From the main menu, click Spanning Tree Settings. The Spanning
Tree Settings screen appears.
2. Check or clear the Enable GVRP for VLAN check box:.
ˆ
Check the check box if the VLAN switch is configured to
dynamically configure its ports based on the end devices’ needs.
ˆ
Clear the check box if the VLAN switch is statically configured to
always forward specific VLANs to specific ports.
3. Click Submit Changes to save your changes.
4. From the main menu, click Security. If you have enabled more than the
primary service set, you can configure each secondary service set for
a different VLAN.
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5. Under the Security link, click the radio service set you want to
configure for the VLAN. This screen appears.
6. In the VLAN field, enter the VLAN number that encapsulates all frames
received on this radio port. This value must match the values that are
set in the VLAN-capable Ethernet switches on the primary LAN.
Note
The value in the VLAN field is also called the VLAN tag.
7. Repeat Steps 5 and 6 to assign a unique VLAN tag to each service set
that you want to configure to support a VLAN.
8. Click Submit Changes to save your changes. To activate your
changes, from the menu bar click Save/Discard Changes, and then
click Save Changes and Reboot. For help, see “Saving Configuration
Changes” on page 46.
Configuring
WEP 64/128/152
Security
You can configure static WEP keys to provide security between the access
points and the wireless end devices. To use static WEP keys, your radios
must support WEP encryption. All access points and wireless end devices
on a particular network must use the same WEP encryption type and the
same WEP transmit key. You should periodically change this WEP
transmit key to prevent an unauthorized person with a sniffing tool from
monitoring your network and discovering the WEP key.
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Since static WEP keys can be difficult to update, the AT-WA7500 and
AT-WA7501 access products let you enter up to four WEP keys, and then
pick a WEP transmit key (1-4). It is easier to rotate the WEP transmit key
than to individually change all the WEP keys.
802.11g and 802.11b radios support WEP 64/128 security, and 802.11a
radios supports 64/128/152 security:
ˆ
WEP 64 has four 40-bit encryption keys and one 24-bit initialization
vector (IV) key. Enter five ASCII characters or five hex pairs for the
WEP keys.
ˆ
WEP 128 provides a higher degree of encryption protection. It has four
104-bit encryption keys and one 24-bit IV key. Enter 13 ASCII
characters or hex pairs.
ˆ
WEP 152 provides the highest degree of encryption protection. It has
four 128-bit encryption keys and one 24-bit IV key. Enter 16 ASCII
characters or hex pairs.
To configure WEP 64/128/152 security
1. From the main menu, click Security and then click the radio service set
you are configuring. The appropriate radio screen appears.
2. In the Security Level field, select Static WEP.
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3. Click Submit Changes to save your changes. This screen appears.
4. Configure the parameters for WEP configuration. To ensure maximum
security, configure each WEP key with a different WEP code. For help,
see the next table.
5. Click Submit Changes to save your changes. To activate your
changes, from the menu bar click Save/Discard Changes, and then
click Save Changes and Reboot. For help, see “Saving Configuration
Changes” on page 46.
Table 52. WEP Security Parameter Descriptions
Parameter
Explanation
Security Level
Select Static WEP from the drop-down menu to
use WEP 64/128/152 security.
WEP Transmit Key
Determines which of the four WEP keys this
access point uses to transmit data.
WEP Key 1
WEP Key 2
WEP Key 3
WEP Key 4
For WEP 64, enter five ASCII characters or five
hex pairs. For WEP 128, enter 13 ASCII
characters or hex pairs. For WEP 152, enter 16
ASCII characters or hex pairs.
To enter a hexadecimal key, prefix it with 0x. For
example, the ASCII key ABCDE is equivalent to
0x4142434445.
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Implementing an
802.1x Security
Solution
You can implement 802.1x security in your network. The IEEE 802.1x
standard provides an authentication protocol for 802.11 LANs. 802.1x
provides strong authentication, access control, and key management, and
lets wireless networks scale by allowing centralized authentication of
wireless end devices.
The 802.1x authentication process uses a RADIUS server, which is the
authentication server, and access points, which are the authenticators, to
manage the wireless end device authentication and wireless connection
attributes. Extensible Authentication protocol (EAP) authentication types
provide devices with secure connections to the network. They protect
credentials and data privacy. Examples of EAP authentication types
include Transport Layer Security (EAP-TLS) and Tunneled Transport
Layer Security (EAP-TTLS).
To implement 802.1x security, you must have the following:
192
ˆ
An authentication server (RADIUS server), which is software that is
installed on a PC or server on your network or an EAS. The
authentication server accepts or rejects requests from end devices that
want to communicate with the 802.1x-enabled network. For help, see
Chapter 7, “Configuring the Embedded Authentication Server (EAS)”
on page 204.
ˆ
An authenticator, which is an access point on your network. The
authenticator receives requests from end devices that want to
communicate with the network and forwards these requests to the
authentication server. The authenticator also distributes the WEP keys
to end devices that are communicating with it.
ˆ
End devices that are 802.1x-enabled. These end devices have an
802.11b or an 802.11a radio and a supplicant (EAP-TLS, EAP-TTLS or
PEAP) loaded on them. Supplicants request communication with the
authenticator using a specific EAP authentication type. For more
information on the availability of 802.1x-enabled end devices, contact
your local Allied Telesyn representative.
ˆ
A trusted certificate authority (CA), which issues digital authentication
certificates. Allied Telesyn and others can provide the service of acting
as a CA and can issue certificates. For more information, contact your
local Allied Telesyn representative.
ˆ
The authentication server and end devices with supplicants need
certificates. A CA certificate is the root certificate or public key. A
server certificate (sometimes referred to as the client certificate) is the
private key. For more details, see“About Certificates” on page 206.
ˆ
The authentication server must have both a CA certificate and a
server certificate installed on it.
ˆ
An end device with an EAP-TTLS supplicant or a child access point
using secure IAPP-TTLS needs only the CA certificate.
AT-WA7500 and AT-WA7501 Installation and User’s Guide
ˆ
Any device with an EAP-TLS supplicant (end device or child access
point) needs both the CA certificate and the server certificate.
ˆ
If the child access point is using SWAP and is an authenticator, it
does not need any certificates loaded on it. Only the authentication
server and supplicants need certificates.
If the access point has two radios, or if the access point contains one
802.11g or 802.11a radio with multiple service sets, you can implement
802.1x security on one radio network or both radio networks, as long as
the radio supports 802.1x security.
For example, you have an access point with dual 802.11b radios and
some end devices that have a supplicant and some end devices that do
not have a supplicant. In the access point, you can configure one 802.11b
radio to use 802.1x security and the other 802.11b radio to use an ACL.
Configuring the Access Point as an Authenticator
The access point, when acting as an authenticator, receives requests from
end devices that want to communicate with the network and forwards
these requests to the authentication server. It also distributes the WEP
keys to end devices that are communicating with it. Before you configure
the access point as an authenticator, the access point should be installed
and configured to communicate with the wireless end devices.
To configure the access point as an authenticator
1. From the main menu, click Security and then click the radio service set
that you are configuring. The appropriate radio screen appears.
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2. In the Security Level field, select Dynamic WEP/802.1x.
3. Click Submit Changes to save your changes. This screen appears.
4. In the Key Rotation Period (Minutes) field, enter how often (in minutes)
the access point generates a new WEP key to distribute to the end
devices.
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5. Click Submit Changes to save your changes. To activate your
changes, from the menu bar click Save/Discard Changes, and then
click Save Changes and Reboot. For help, see “Saving Configuration
Changes” on page 46.
6. Configure the RADIUS server by clicking Select a RADIUS server for
802.1x authentication. The RADIUS Server List screen appears.
7. For each authentication server, enter the IP address or DNS name,
enter the shared secret key, port number, and check the 802.1x check
box.
Note
If you enter more than one authentication server, see page 132 for a
description of how the access point uses the servers.
8. Configure the database. Depending on the authentication type, enter
the information for each end device that is allowed to communicate
with the 802.1x network:
ˆ
In the EAS database, in the Type field choose the authentication
type and then enter the information for each end device. For help,
see Chapter 7, “Configuring the Embedded Authentication Server
(EAS)” on page 204.
ˆ
For help configuring an external RADIUS server, see the
documentation that came with your server. You need to enter each
authenticator’s IP address and the shared secret key. In the
database, you need to enter the information for each end device.
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Enabling Secure Communications Between Access Points
When you configure a radio to use 802.1x security, you automatically
enable spanning tree security, which can be used for both wired access
points and WAPs. A secure spanning tree has two functions:
1. To require authentication of any access point attempting to join the
spanning tree.
2. To provide encryption of critical Inter-Access Point Protocol (IAPP)
frames.
There are three authentication methods that you can use to secure the
spanning tree: SWAP, TTLS, or TLS.
When the Access Point Is the Supplicant
By default, TTLS is enabled. If you want to use TTLS, you must also enter
a user name and password. This login must match an entry in the
authentication server database. When the access point is acting as a
supplicant and the authentication server offers the TTLS protocol, the
access point sends its user name and password.
You can also enable TLS as the authentication method. You must install a
server certificate on each access point that will use this method to
authenticate to the network. When the access point is acting as a
supplicant and the authentication server offers the TLS protocol, the
access point sends its certificate credentials.
If you choose to use both TTLS and TLS, you must choose which protocol
the access point offers first and the access point must have a login
configured and a server certificate.
By default, Secure Wireless Authentication Protocol (SWAP) is also
enabled. The access point tells the authenticator that it can perform
SWAP. If the authenticator allows SWAP, SWAP is used. SWAP allows
access points to authenticate using an EAP-MD5 challenge. If the
supplicant or the authenticator does not allow SWAP, the authentication
must happen at the authentication server using TTLS or TLS.
When the Access Point Is the Authenticator
If the Allow SWAP check box is cleared, the access point that is acting as
the authenticator will not perform any authentications using SWAP.
Supplicants will need to authenticate with the authentication server using
TTLS or TLS.
However, older access points do not support these authentication
methods. If the Allow SWAP check box is checked, the access point that is
acting as the authenticator will authenticate any supplicants that offer
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SWAP. Note that SWAP authentication is susceptible to downgrade
attacks from rogue supplicants as it is easier to break SWAP than TLS or
TTLS.
Configuring Spanning Tree Security
Note
If you are implementing an 802.1x security solution, secure IAPP
and secure wireless hops are automatically enabled.
1. From the main menu, click Security > Spanning Tree Security. The
Spanning Tree Security screen appears.
2. In the IAPP Secret Key field, enter a secret key. This secret key must
be between 16 and 32 bytes.
3. Choose which authentication methods you want to use to authorize the
access point to communicate with the network. For help, see the next
table.
4. Check the Verify CA Certificate check box and enter the authentication
server common names to verify that the access point is connecting to
the correct authentication server. Allied Telesyn recommends that you
perform this step because it provides another layer of security.
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5. Click Submit Changes to save your changes. To activate your
changes, from the menu bar click Save/Discard Changes, and then
click Save Changes and Reboot. For help, see “Saving Configuration
Changes” on page 46.
6. Repeat Steps 1 through 5 for each access point in your spanning tree.
All access points must have the same IAPP secret key to
communicate with each other.
In the access point that contains the master radio, click Maintenance > AP
Connections. The AP Connections screen lists the station radios
(including ones in other access points) that are communicating with the
master radio. For help, see “Viewing AP Connections” on page 228.
Table 53. Spanning Tree Security–Authentication Method Descriptions
Parameter
198
Description
Allow SWAP
Determines if this access point authenticates to
other access points using SWAP.
Allow TLS
If the authentication server offers the TLS
protocol for the authentication method, this check
box determines if this access point can use its
server certificate to authenticate to the network.
Allow TTLS
(MSCHAPv2)
If the authentication server offers the TTLS
protocol for the authentication method, this check
box determines if this access point uses a login to
authenticate to the network. This login must be in
the authentication server database.
Preferred Protocol
If TLS and TTLS are enabled, this field specifies
which protocol is sent to the authentication server
when it sends an unsupported protocol.
User Name
Enter the user name of the access point when it
uses TTLS to authenticate to the network.
Password
Enter the password of the access point when it
uses TTLS to authenticate to the network.
Verify CA
Certificate
Determines if you want to verify that the access
point is connected to the correct authentication
server. The server certificate signature is verified
against the CA certificate and the server common
name is verified against the authentication server
common names that are configured in the access
point.
AT-WA7500 and AT-WA7501 Installation and User’s Guide
Configuring WiFi Protected
Access (WPA)
Security
Wi-Fi Protected Access (WPA) is a strongly enhanced, interoperable Wi-Fi
security that addresses many of the vulnerabilities of Wired Equivalent
Privacy (WEP). WPA bundles authentication, key management, data
encryption, message integrity checks and counter measures in the event
of a message attack into one implementation standard.
WPA provides stronger RC4 encryption over standard WEP with the
Temporal Key Integrity Protocol (TKIP). In addition, the Michael algorithm
provides forgery protection and message integrity. A four-way handshake
between the client and access point ensures the reliable and secure
distribution of key material needed for encryption and message integrity
checks.
Currently, WPA satisfies some of the requirements in the IEEE 802.11i
draft standard. When the standard is finalized, WPA will maintain forward
compatibility.
WPA runs in Enterprise (802.1x) mode or PSK (pre-shared key) mode:
ˆ
In Enterprise mode, WPA provides user authentication using 802.1x
authentication and the Extensible Authentication Protocol (EAP). An
authentication server (such as a RADIUS server) must authenticate
each device before the device can communicate with the wireless
network.
ˆ
In PSK mode, WPA provides user authentication using a shared secret
key between the access point and the end devices. It does not require
an authentication server. WPA-PSK is a good solution for small offices
or home offices that do not want to use an authentication server.
To use WPA security, you need:
ˆ
An access point with an 802.11 radio that supports WPA
ˆ
End devices with a radio and software that support WPA
ˆ
(Enterprise mode only) An authentication server, which is software that
is installed on a PC or server on your network or an EAS. The
authentication server accepts or rejects requests from end devices that
want to communicate with the 802.1x-enabled network. For help, see
Chapter 7, “Configuring the Embedded Authentication Server (EAS)”
on page 204.
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Chapter 6: Configuring Security
To configure WPA security
1. From the main menu, click Security and then click the radio service set
you are configuring. The appropriate radio screen appears.
2. In the Security Level field, choose either WPA - PSK or WPA - 802.1x.
3. Click Submit Changes to save your changes. The screen changes,
depending on the security level you choose. For help, see one of the
next two screens.
4. Fill in the fields. For help, see one of the next two tables.
5. Click Submit Changes to save your changes. To activate your
changes, from the menu bar click Save/Discard Changes, and then
click Save Changes and Reboot. For help, see “Saving Configuration
Changes” on page 46.
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To continue configuring WPA security for WPA – 802.1x mode
1. Configure the RADIUS server by clicking Select a RADIUS server for
802.1x authentication. The RADIUS Server List screen appears.
2. For each authentication server, enter the IP address or DNS name,
enter the shared secret key, port number, and check the 802.1x check
box.
Note
If you enter more than one authentication server, see page 132 for a
description of how the access point uses the servers.
3. Configure the database. Depending on the authentication type, enter
the information for each end device that is allowed to communicate
with the 802.1x network:
ˆ
In the EAS database, in the Type field choose the authentication
type and then enter the information for each end device. For help,
see Chapter 7, “Configuring the Embedded Authentication Server
(EAS)” on page 204.
ˆ
For help configuring an external RADIUS server, see the
documentation that came with your server. You need to enter each
authenticator’s IP address and the shared secret key. In the
database, you need to enter the information for each end device.
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Configuring WPA PSK Security
Table 54. WPA PSK Security Parameter Descriptions
Parameter
Explanation
Multicast
Encryption Type
Indicates that TKIP is used as the data encryption
method for broadcast and multicast for this radio
port. A station connected to this port may not
select a weaker encryption method to exchange
unicast frames.
Pre-shared Key
Allows you to enter the pre-shared key for WPA.
You can enter a 256 (32 byte) hexadecimal value
or up to a 63 character ASCII passphrase. To
enter a hexadecimal key, start the value with 0x
and follow it with 64 hexadecimal digits. If you
omit the 0x, the value is treated as an ASCII
pass-phrase and the key is derived from the
pass-phrase using the PBKDF2 algorithm.
A short PSK is not as secure as a long PSK.
Key Rotation
Period (Minutes)
202
Allows you to specify the key rotation policy for
encryption keys when using WEP in 802.1x and
for TKIP group keys when using WPA. The value
represents key duration in minutes. The default
value is 5 minutes.
AT-WA7500 and AT-WA7501 Installation and User’s Guide
Configuring WPA 802.1x Security
Table 55. WPA 802.1x Security Parameter Descriptions
Parameter
Explanation
Multicast
Encryption Type
Allows you to select the data encryption method
for broadcast and multicast for this radio port. A
station connected to this port may not select a
weaker encryption method to exchange unicast
frames.
Key Rotation
Period (Minutes)
Allows you to specify the key rotation policy for
encryption keys when using WEP in 802.1x and
for TKIP group keys when using WPA. The value
represents key duration in minutes. The default
value is 5 minutes.
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Chapter 7
Configuring the Embedded
Authentication Server (EAS)
This chapter explains how to configure the embedded authentication
server (EAS) in your access point for different security solutions to ensure
that you have a secure wireless network. This chapter covers these topics:
ˆ
“About the Embedded Authentication Server (EAS)” on page 205
ˆ
“About Certificates” on page 206
ˆ
“Configuring the EAS” on page 210
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AT-WA7500 and AT-WA7501 Installation and User’s Guide
About the Embedded Authentication Server (EAS)
The AT-WA7500 and AT-WA7501 access points have an embedded
authentication server (EAS), which is an internal RADIUS server. In your
network, you can use the EAS on any access point. The EAS can act as:
ˆ
a password server that maintains a list of logins of users who can
configure and manage the access point.
ˆ
a RADIUS server that maintains an ACL, which is a list of MAC
addresses that can connect to the network.
ˆ
a RADIUS server that maintains a list of RADIUS clients (usually
access points) that are authorized to connect to the network.
ˆ
a RADIUS server that authorizes TLS, TTLS, and PEAP clients to
connect to the network.
If you use the EAS, you may not need to buy an external RADIUS server.
An EAS supports up to 128 database entries. If you need more database
entries, you may be able to use the EAS on different access points for
different purposes. For example, you can use the EAS on one access
point as a password server and another EAS on another access point as
the authentication server.
This table lists the maximum number of end devices that an EAS supports
if you turn on the end devices at the same time. However, if you turn on
the end devices in groups, the EAS supports 128 clients with unique
security credentials.
Table 56. Maximum Number of Simultaneous
Authentications Supported
Maximum
Authentications
Type of RADIUS Server
Password server
128
ACL authentication server
128
802.1x authentication
server
60
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Chapter 7: Configuring the Embedded Authentication Server (EAS)
About Certificates
Certificates encrypt communication between the internal RADIUS server,
RADIUS clients, and the supplicants and HTTPS clients.
There are two types of certificates:
Understanding
Which Access
Points Need
Certificates
ˆ
The trusted certificate authority (CA) certificate (commonly referred to
as the “root certificate” or “root cert”) is the public key. Trusted CA
certificates can be in *.PEM format or *.CER format. They can contain
several trusted CAs but should be kept to a maximum file size of 2Kb.
ˆ
The server certificate (sometimes referred to as the client certificate) is
the private key. Server certificates can be in either PKCS12 (*.P12/
*.PFX) or *.PEM format.
The next table summarizes when an access point needs to have a CA
certificate and/or a server certificate installed on it.
Table 57. Access Points and Certificates
CA
Certificate
Needed
Server
Certificate
Needed
If you want to use the secure web browser
(HTTPS) on this access point
No
Yes
If this access point is an authentication
server in your 802.1x-enabled network
Yes
Yes
If this access point is a supplicant
EAP-TTLS client
Yes
No
If this access point is a supplicant
EAP-TLS client
Yes
Yes
If this access point is a backup RADIUS
server
No
Yes
If the child access point is using SWAP
and is an authenticator access point
No
No
Access Point
Understanding
Which
Certificates Are
Installed by
Default
206
Your access point comes from the factory with a unique server certificate
with a unique common name and passphrase. It also comes with a trusted
CA certificate that supports clients running the TLS authentication type.
These certificates support the secure web browser interface and provide
basic security for all authentication types.
Allied Telesyn can provide the service of acting as a certificate authority
and can issue certificates. For more information, contact your local ATI
AT-WA7500 and AT-WA7501 Installation and User’s Guide
representative. Or you can install certificates from a third-party certificate
authority.
Note
Access points also come with a default server certificate
(ValidforHTTPSOnly). This default certificate supports the secure
web browser interface and provides basic security for clients running
the TTLS authentication type. As described in the previous section,
you may also need a trusted CA certificate and/or a unique server
certificate, depending on how you use the access point.
Viewing the
Certificates
Installed on an
Access Point
You can view the Certificate Details screen to determine which certificates
are installed on the access point.
To view the certificates
ˆ
From the main menu, click Security > Certificate Details. The
Certificate Details screen appears.
The Server Certificate table lists the server certificate that is installed, and
the CA Certificate table lists the trusted CA certificate that is installed.
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Installing and
Uninstalling
Certificates
Once you have determined that you need to install a certificate, use this
procedure.
To install certificates
1. From the main menu, click Security > Certificate Details. The
Certificate Details screen appears.
2. Click Install certificates in the certificate store. The Import Certificate
screen appears.
Note
If you are not using the secure web browser, you will be prompted to
log in again. Click A secure session is available and log in to the
access point. If a Security Alert dialog box appears, click Yes to
proceed. Repeat Steps 1 and 2.
3. Click Server Certificate or Trusted CA Certificate.
4. In the Enter or select the name of the certificate file to import field,
enter the path and filename of the server certificate. Or click Browse to
locate the certificate.
5. (Server Certificate only) In the Enter the associated passphrase for
this certificate field, carefully enter the passphrase for the certificate.
6. Click Import Certificate.
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To uninstall all certificates
Note
If you follow the procedure to uninstall all certificates, you will lose
the unique server certificate and the trusted CA certificate. You will
need to contact your local Allied Telesyn representative to purchase
new certificates.
1. From the main menu, click Security > Certificate Details. The
Certificate Details screen appears.
2. Click Uninstall All Certificates. The unique server certificate and the
trusted CA certificate are deleted.
You can still use the secure web browser interface and install new
certificates using the default certificate (ValidforHTTPSOnly).
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Chapter 7: Configuring the Embedded Authentication Server (EAS)
Configuring the EAS
Once you decide which access point will be configured to use its EAS, you
need to enable the EAS on that access point and configure its database.
To configure the EAS
1. Install any certificates. For help, see “Installing and Uninstalling
Certificates” on page 208.
2. On the access point that will contain the EAS, enable the EAS. For
help, see “Enabling the EAS” in the next section.
3. Configure the EAS database. For help, see “Configuring the
Database” on page 212.
4. Make sure that all access points that are using this EAS (as a
password server, ACL, authentication server, etc.) are configured with
this access point’s IP address in the appropriate RADIUS server IP
Address field. For help, see:
Enabling the EAS
ˆ
“Configuring the Access Point to Use a Password Server” on
page 177.
ˆ
“Using an Access Control List (ACL)” on page 184.
ˆ
“Configuring the Access Point as an Authenticator” on page 193.
In both AT-WA7500 and AT-WA7501 access points, the default secret key
is the same. By having the same default secret key, you can verify that all
access points can communicate with the EAS. Then, for more security,
you should change the secret key to prevent unauthorized access points
from communicating with your network.
If you want to use the same secret key for communications between the
EAS and all access points, in the Embedded Authentication Server
screen, enter the default secret key. For each access point, in the RADIUS
Server List screen, enter the EAS IP address, enter the default secret key
and check the 802.1x check box.
If you want to use a different secret key for communications between the
EAS and each access point, you need to add each access point to the
EAS database as a RADIUS client. For each access point, in the RADIUS
Server List, enter the EAS IP address, enter the secret key and check the
802.1x check box.
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To enable the EAS
1. Log in to the access point whose EAS you are enabling.
2. From the main menu, click Security > Embedded Authentication
Server. The Embedded Authentication Server screen appears.
3. Check the Enable Server check box.
4. Click Submit Changes to save your changes.
5. Configure the parameters. For help, see the next table.
6. Click Submit Changes to save your changes. To activate your
changes, from the menu bar click Save/Discard Changes, and then
click Save Changes and Reboot. For help, see “Saving Configuration
Changes” on page 46.
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Table 58. EAS Parameter Descriptions
Parameter
Configuring the
Database
Explanation
Enable Server
Determines if you are using a password server to
authenticate end devices that can communicate
with this access point. Clear this check box.
Default Secret Key
Enter a default secret key that is used between
the EAS and all access points. This secret key
can be from 1 to 32 characters in ASCII or in
hexadecimal. To enter a hexadecimal key, it must
start with 0x.
UDP Port
Enter the UDP port number on which the EAS
listens. Port number assignments are
administered by the Internet Assigned Number
Authority (IANA). If you change this value you
should choose a number between 49152 and
65535.
Authorization Time
Enter the amount of time that RADIUS clients
(access points) remain authorized by the server
before they need to be reauthorized. The format
is d:hh:mm, where d is days, hh is hours, and mm
is minutes. If you enter zeros, the RADIUS server
will only authenticate a RADIUS client the first
time it connects.
Enable PEAP Fast
Reconnect
Determines if PEAP clients can perform a fast
reconnect when roaming. Some Microsoft
Windows CE supplicants do not support fast
reconnect so this option must be disabled to allow
them to authenticate.
The EAS database contains up to 128 clients that this access point
authorizes for logins, RADIUS clients, ACL clients, and 802.1x clients.
This screen is hot settable; that is, to activate a change, you click Save/
Discard changes, and then click Save Changes without Reboot.
You can also create a database (using Microsoft Excel or Notepad) and
then import it. Or you can configure one database, export it, and import it
to an EAS in another RADIUS server. For help, see “Exporting and
Importing Databases” on page 217.
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Note
Allied Telesyn recommends that when you are done configuring the
database, you export it and save the file in a safe place. If you
restore the access point to its default configuration, the database is
not saved. For help, see “Exporting and Importing Databases” on
page 217.
To configure the database
1. Log in to the access point whose EAS you are using.
2. From the main menu, click Security > Embedded Authentication
Server > Database. The Database screen appears.
3. In the Type field, choose the type of client you are entering in the
database. For help, see the next table.
4. Click Submit Changes to save your changes.
5. Enter the appropriate user name and password, if applicable. User
names and passwords can be from 1 to 32 characters. For help, see
the next table.
6. Click Submit Changes to save your changes.
7. Repeat Steps 3 through 6 for each client.
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8. Click Save/Discard changes, and then click Save Changes without
Reboot.
Table 59. Embedded Authentication Server Entry Descriptions
Type Field
Login
Description
Enter user names and
passwords for users who
are authorized to configure
and maintain access points
using the password server.
User Name
Field
Password
Field
User name
User
password
RADIUS
client IP
address or
DNS name
Secret key
MAC
address
None
If you enabled the
alternative method ACL,
enter the MAC address in
the username and
password field (no
punctuation) for all end
devices that are authorized
to communicate with the
network.
RADIUS
Enter an IP address/DNS
name and secret key that
is shared by the RADIUS
client (access point) and
the RADIUS server.
You do not need to enter
any RADIUS clients if you
do not change the default
secret key.
For more security, you
should change the default
secret key.
ACL
214
Enter the end device radio
MAC address for all end
devices that are authorized
to communicate with the
network.
AT-WA7500 and AT-WA7501 Installation and User’s Guide
Table 59. Embedded Authentication Server Entry Descriptions (Continued)
Type Field
802.1x
(TTLS/
PEAP)
Description
Enter the login name and
password of all end
devices that are authorized
to communicate with the
802.1x-enabled network.
User Name
Field
Password
Field
End device
login name
End device
login
password
Client
certificate
common
name
None
For more security, you
should delete the user
name “anonymous” and
the password
“anonymous.”
802.1x
(TLS)
Using the
Rejected List
Enter the client certificate
common name of all end
devices that are authorized
to communicate with the
802.1x-enabled network.
The Rejected List screen displays the users and devices that have been
rejected by the EAS. You can use this list to discover which users and
devices may need to be added to the database. When using the web
browser interface, you can immediately add previously rejected end
devices to the database. You do not need to click Submit Changes or
reboot the access point.
Note
When you reboot the access point, the rejected list is cleared.
To view the rejected list
1. Log in to the access point whose EAS you are using.
2. From the main menu, click Security > Embedded Authentication
Server > Rejected List. The Rejected List screen appears.
3. Determine which users and devices you need to add to the database.
For help understanding the list, see the next table.
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4. Add users and devices to the database. For help see “Adding Entries
to the Database” on page 216.
Table 60. Rejected List Values
Column
Description
Type
Lists the type of authentication that failed. The type can
be: Login, ACL, TTLS/PAP, TTLS/CHAP, TTLS/EAP,
TTLS/MSCHAP, TTLS/MSCHAP-V2, PEAP/MSCHAPV2, PEAP/GTC, or TLS.
User Name
Lists the value that was passed in the User Name field of
the RADIUS server database during the failed attempt.
Last Time
Indicates how long ago the last authentication was
attempted.
Count
Indicates how many times the authentication failed.
NAS IP
Address
Displays the IP address of the RADIUS server that
rejected the client.
Adding Entries to the Database
When you accept TTLS/PAP and PEAP/GTC entries, they are added to
the database and require no further configuration.
If the authentication type does not allow the EAS to learn the password of
the rejected client (such as TTLS/CHAP), only the user name is added to
the database. You need to manually enter the password into the
database, click Submit Changes > Save/Discard Changes > Save
Changes without Reboot.
To add all entries to the database
1. Click Select All Entries. A check box appears next to all entries.
2. Click Accept Selected Entries.
To add one entry to the database
1. Check the check box next to the entry you want to add to the
database.
2. Click Accept Selected Entries.
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Clearing the Rejected List
To clear the rejected list, you can either reboot the access point or perform
these steps.
1. Click Select All Entries. A check box appears next to all entries.
2. Click Clear Selected Entries.
Exporting and
Importing
Databases
Note
Allied Telesyn recommends that you use the secure web browser
interface (HTTPS) when you export and import databases.
Otherwise, the information in the databases is sent in the clear.
The EAS database is simply a comma-separated text file. You can create
the database offline (using Microsoft Excel or Notepad) and then import it.
The file must have the following format:
ACL, 11-22-33-44-55-66
TTLS, username, password
TLS, commonname
LOGIN, username, password
RADIUS, 0.0.0.0, secretkey
Note
PEAP entries are imported and exported as TTLS entries, since they
require the same parameters.
You should export the database so you have a backup version. You may
also want to create the database in the primary RADIUS server, and then
export it to a file that you can import to a backup RADIUS server.
To export a database
1. Log in to the access point whose EAS you are using.
2. From the menu bar, click File Import/Export > Read or write the EAS
RADIUS database. The EAS Database Import/Export screen appears.
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3. If you are not using the secure web browser, click “A secure session is
available.” Repeat Steps 1 and 2.
4. Click Export the EAS database from this access point. A File
Download dialog box appears.
5. Make sure Save this file to disk is selected, and then click OK. The
Save As dialog box appears.
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6. Choose the location and filename of the database. If you use the
*.CSV extension, you can import it into Microsoft Excel, which
recognizes it as a comma separated text file.
7. Click Save.
To import a database
Note
As soon as you import the database, it is active.
1. Log in to the access point whose EAS you are using.
2. From the menu bar, click File Import/Export > Read or write the EAS
RADIUS database. The EAS Database Import/Export screen appears.
3. If you are not using the secure web browser, click A secure session is
available. Repeat Steps 1 and 2.
4. Enter the path and filename of the database. Or click Browse to locate
the file.
5. Click Import Database.
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Chapter 8
Managing, Troubleshooting, and
Upgrading Access Points
This chapter explains how to manage, maintain, troubleshoot, and
upgrade the access products. This chapter covers these topics:
ˆ
“Managing the Access Points” on page 221
ˆ
“Maintaining the Access Points” on page 228
ˆ
“Troubleshooting the Access Points” on page 240
ˆ
“Upgrading the Access Points” on page 261
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AT-WA7500 and AT-WA7501 Installation and User’s Guide
Managing the Access Points
There are several methods that you can use to manage the access points:
Wavelink Avalanche client management system: You can install the
Wavelink Avalanche system to help you manage your wireless network.
To use Avalanche, you need Avalanche Manager v3.0 or later. For help,
see “Using the Wavelink Avalanche Client Management System” on
page 221.
MobileLAN manager: You can purchase this software to make it easy for
you to support your wireless network without having expert knowledge of
access points or MIBs. It works with the access point’s event-driven
notification method (instead of traditional polling processes) to maintain
real-time status on all access points. It also helps you troubleshoot your
network by providing you with multiple views of your network, including
what end devices are connected to which access point.
Web browser: For help, see “Using a Web Browser Interface” on page 42.
Communications program (such as HyperTerminal): For help, see “Using
a Communications Program” on page 40.
Telnet session: Go to an MS-DOS prompt and type telnet IPaddress,
where IPaddress has the form x.x.x.x and x is a number from 0 to 255. For
more help, see “Using a Communications Program” on page 40. The
interface looks similar.
SNMP management station: For help, see “Using Simple Network
Management Protocol (SNMP)” on page 226.
Using the
Wavelink
Avalanche Client
Management
System
The Wavelink Avalanche client management system uses three main
components to help you easily manage your wireless network.
Table 61. Wavelink Avalanche Components
Component
Description
Enabler
Resides on all devices managed by the
Avalanche system. It communicates information
about the device to the Avalanche Agent and
manages software applications on the device.
Agent
Automatically detects and upgrades all devices in
the Avalanche system and manages the daily
processing functions.
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Table 61. Wavelink Avalanche Components (Continued)
Component
Console
Description
The administrative user interface that lets you
configure and communicate with the Avalanche
Agent. From the console, you can configure and
monitor devices and build and install software
packages and software collections.
The enabler is already installed on access points with software release 2.0
or later. You can install the agent and the console on the same PC.
Avalanche uses a hierarchical file system organized into software
packages and software collections:
ˆ
Software packages are groups of files for an application that resides
on the device.
ˆ
Software collections are logical groups of software packages.
For more information about software packages and software collections,
see the Wavelink Avalanche documentation and online help. Or, visit the
Wavelink web site at www.wavelink.com.
Configuring Your Access Points to Use Avalanche
The first time an access point is assigned an IP address, either manually
or from a DHCP server, it attempts to connect to the Avalanche
Management Console through the Avalanche Agent. Once it finds the
agent, it automatically configures the console IP address.
Note
The access points that you want Avalanche to configure and
manage must be on the same subnet as the agent.
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To configure your access points to use Avalanche
1. From the main menu, click Network Management. The Network
Management page appears.
2. In the Avalanche Agent Name field, enter the IP address or DNS name
of the console.
Or, leave this field blank and the access point sends out a broadcast
request looking for any available agent.
3. Click Submit Changes to save your changes.
4. From the main menu, click Security. The Security page appears.
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5. Verify that the Allow Avalanche Access check box is checked.
6. Click Submit Changes to save your changes. To activate your
changes, from the menu bar click Save/Discard Changes, and then
click Save Changes and Reboot. For help, see “Saving Configuration
Changes” on page 46.
7. Repeat Steps 1 through 6 for each access point.
Managing Your Access Points Using Avalanche
Each time the access point is rebooted, it attempts to connect to the
Avalanche Agent. When the access point connects to the agent, the agent
determines whether an update is available and immediately starts the
software upgrade, file transfer, or configuration update. You can also
schedule these updates or you can manually initiate an update.
Note
The first time the access point locates the agent, it needs to
synchronize with the Avalanche system. On the agent, you must
have installed a software package that can be downloaded to the
access point.
To use Avalanche to manage your access points
1. On your PC, start Avalanche Package Builder. This screen appears.
2. Create a software package (.AVA file) that includes the latest software
release (.BIN file) using Avalanche Package Builder.
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3. Install the software package using the Avalanche Management
Console.
4. Schedule access point updates or manually initiate an update using
the console.
For more information on using the Wavelink Avalanche client management
system, see the Wavelink Avalanche documentation and online help. Or,
visit the Wavelink web site at www.wavelink.com.
Table 62. Avalanche Parameters
Parameter
Explanation
Package Title
A descriptive title of the application. For example,
enter WA7500.
Package Type
Choose Application.
Package Revision
The package version number. For example, enter
2.20.
Menu Order
Enter 1.
Target
Specifies which access points can receive this
application. Enter a | between each ModelName.
ModelName=ITCAPWA21
ModelName=ITCAPWA22
Package Files
The files that are included in this package. For
example, ap220web.bin.
Important Information When Using Avalanche
ˆ
If an access point is a DHCP server and Avalanche contains a network
profile for the access point that assigns IP addresses from a DHCP
server, the access point will lose its static IP address. Any devices that
were supposed to receive an IP address from the access point will not
succeed.
ˆ
If you change security parameters in your wireless network and you
are using Avalanche, make sure that you update the security
parameters on your end devices before you update the security
parameters on your access point. Otherwise, you will lose connectivity
between your end devices and your access point.
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Using Simple
Network
Management
Protocol (SNMP)
The access point can be managed using Simple Network Management
Protocol (SNMP); that is, you access the access point from an SNMP
management station. Contact your Allied Telesyn representative if you
need to obtain a copy of the MIB.
Before you can use an SNMP management station, you must define the
access point’s SNMP community strings.
To configure the SNMP community strings
1. From the menu, click Network Management. The Network
Management screen appears.
2. Configure the SNMP community parameters. For help, see the next
table.
3. Click Submit Changes to save your changes. To activate your
changes, from the menu bar click Save/Discard Changes, and then
click Save Changes and Reboot. For help, see “Saving Configuration
Changes” on page 46.
Table 63. SNMP Community Parameter Descriptions
Parameter
SNMP Read
Community
Description
Specify a password that provides read-only
access. This password can be from 1 to 15
characters and is case sensitive.
The default is public.
SNMP Write
Community
Specify a password that provides read and write
access. This password can be from 1 to 15
characters and is case sensitive.
The default is CR52401.
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Table 63. SNMP Community Parameter Descriptions (Continued)
Parameter
SNMP Secret
Community
Description
Specify a password that provides read and write
access and lets the user change the community
strings. This password can be from 1 to 15
characters and is case sensitive.
The default is Secret.
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Maintaining the Access Points
The Maintenance menu lets you view different parameters configured for
the access point, including connections, port statistics, and a configuration
summary. This information may be needed when you contact Allied
Telesyn Technical Support.
You can also view security events that are in the Security Events log, and
then you can export them to a file.
Viewing AP
Connections
The AP Connections screen shows information about the spanning tree
status and the devices connected through the spanning tree.
To view AP connections
ˆ
228
From the menu, click Maintenance > AP Connections. The AP
Connections screen appears. For help interpreting the information on
this read-only screen, see the next table.
AT-WA7500 and AT-WA7501 Installation and User’s Guide
Table 64. AP Connections Screen Fields
Display Field
Spanning Tree
Connection Status
Description
Indicates the current status of this access point in
relation to the spanning tree:
This access point is root: This access point has
formed a spanning tree and is serving as root.
Connected to root: This access point is
participating in a spanning tree as a child directly
connected to the root access point. Or, this
access point has found a spanning tree and is
negotiating with the root access point to join the
tree.
Connected to non-root: This access point is
participating in a spanning tree as a child that is
not directly connected to the root. Or, this access
point has found a spanning tree and is
negotiating with a non-root to join the tree.
Not connected: This access point is currently
searching for a spanning tree, cannot find a
spanning tree, or is unable to form its own
spanning tree.
Wireless Stations
Displays the number of devices for which this
access point provides connectivity via its radio
ports.
Access Points
Displays the number of other access points to
which this access point has a direct link in the
spanning tree.
Ethernet Hosts
Displays the number of Ethernet devices for
which this access point is bridging, if this access
point is providing bridging for an IP tunnel or
wireless LAN segment via its Ethernet network.
ACL/802.1x
Indicates which devices are passed or blocked if
you are using an ACL or 802.1x security.
If an access point or WAP is blocked and should
be allowed to pass, you need to re-enter the IAPP
secret key in both devices.
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Table 64. AP Connections Screen Fields (Continued)
Display Field
MAC Address
Description
Shows the address of the connected device.
If another access point is connected to this
access point, you see the Ethernet MAC address.
If a WAP is connected to this access point, you
see the radio MAC address.
Click the hyperlink to perform a MAC ping or
display a radio link statistics screen.
Type
Indicates the nature of the connection:
Root/Parent or Parent: Indicates an access point
serving as root access point or parent, to which
this access point is connected.
Pending Root: Indicates that this access point
has found a suitable spanning tree and is
attempting to join the tree.
AP: Indicates an access point linked to this root
access point via the Ethernet.
AP Wireless: Indicates an access point bridging
for a wireless secondary LAN linked to this
access point.
AP Tunnel: Indicates an access point bridging for
an IP tunnel linked to this root access point.
AP Remote: Indicates an access point serving as
a child on a secondary LAN.
Term: Indicates a wireless end device connected
to a radio port on this access point.
EHost: Indicates a secondary LAN Ethernet
device for which this access point provides
bridging to the spanning tree.
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Table 64. AP Connections Screen Fields (Continued)
Display Field
Port
Description
Displays the port through which the connection is
established:
E: Ethernet port
1, 1:1, 1:2, or 1:3: First radio slot (primary,
secondary 1, secondary 2, or secondary 3).
2, 2:1, 2:2, or 2:3: Second radio slot (primary,
secondary 1, secondary 2, or secondary 3).
I: IP tunnel port.
Viewing AP
Neighbors
Age
Displays the number of minutes since last contact
with this device.
Next Hop
Displays the path to the root access point of the
spanning tree via this connection.
IP Address
The IP address associated with this device, if
discovered by the access point. Click the
hyperlink to perform the ICMP Echo ping.
The AP Neighbors screen provides information on all the access points
(even hidden access points) in the area. It displays information gathered
by the radios receiving beacons from other sources as it operates on a
specific channel. You can use this screen to help you:
ˆ
distribute channels for maximum wireless network performance.
ˆ
identify interference problems.
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To view AP neighbors
ˆ
From the menu, click Maintenance > AP Neighbors. The AP Neighbors
screen appears. For help interpreting the information on this read-only
screen, see the next table.
Table 65. AP Neighbors Screen Fields
Display Field
232
Description
Address
Displays the MAC address of the originator of the
contact.
Channel
Displays the channel advertised in the beacon.
Signal (dBm)
Displays the power level of reception measured
in dBm. Graph colors red, yellow, green indicate
poor, adequate, good signal levels for
communication, respectively.
SSID
Displays the SSID advertised in the beacon. This
field may or may not be advertised by the
originator of the contact.
Age (sec)
Displays the amount of time in seconds that has
elapsed since the last contact from the originator.
AT-WA7500 and AT-WA7501 Installation and User’s Guide
Table 65. AP Neighbors Screen Fields (Continued)
Display Field
Capabilities
Description
This information is derived from the capability
information sent in the beacon. Capabilities may
include:
ESS: Set for an access point and cleared for an
end device or ad-hoc device.
IBSS: Cleared for an access point and set for an
end device or ad-hoc device.
Privacy: Indicates that encryption is required on
this service set.
Short Preamble: Indicates that short preambles
may be used for frame transmission on this
service set.
OFDM Allowed: Use of DSSS-OFDM is allowed
within this BSS.
Short Slot: Indicates that short slot timing is being
used on this service set. If this field is not present,
then longer slot timing is being used for backward
compatibility.
CFPoll: Access point uses point coordination
function for delivery and polling.
CFReq: Access point uses point coordination
function for delivery but does not support polling.
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Viewing Port
Statistics
The Port Statistics screen shows the total number of frames and bytes that
the access point has received and transmitted since it was last booted.
You can also view graphs of inbound and outbound packets for the port.
To view port statistics
ˆ
234
From the menu, click Maintenance > Port Statistics. The Port Statistics
screen appears. This screen is read-only.
AT-WA7500 and AT-WA7501 Installation and User’s Guide
Viewing DHCP
Status
The DHCP Status screen shows a status report for the DHCP client or
DHCP server. If the access point is a DHCP server and if the Permanently
Save IP Address Mappings check box is checked, you can delete entries
from the server’s permanent address map.
To view DHCP status
ˆ
From the menu, click Maintenance > DHCP Status. The DHCP Status
screen appears.
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Viewing the
Events Log
The Events Log screen shows a the events that have been logged by this
access point. These events are cleared when the access point loses
power or is rebooted.
To view the Events Log
ˆ
From the menu, click Maintenance > Events Log. The Events Log
screen appears. For help understanding the events on this read-only
screen, see the next table.
Table 66. Events Log Description
Column
Description
MAC Address
Indicates the Ethernet MAC address of the device
that caused the event.
IP Address
Indicates the IP address of the device that
caused the event.
Priority
Indicates the priority of the event: Critical, High,
Low, and Informative.
Critical and High priority events generate an
SNMP trap.
236
Trap?
Indicates whether an SNMP trap is sent for this
particular event type.
Count
Indicates the number of times the event occurred.
Type
Indicates a description of the event.
Additional Data
Indicates extra event-specific information.
Age
Indicates the amount of time that has passed
since the event occurred.
AT-WA7500 and AT-WA7501 Installation and User’s Guide
Viewing the
About This
Access Point
Screen
This screen shows information about the access point, such as the
software version, radio versions, and MAC addresses. It also provides a
configuration summary section, which can either show you the
configuration settings that are different from the factory default settings or
it can show you all the configuration settings. Also, you can view a
processor utilization graph.
To view About This Access Point
1. From the menu, click Maintenance > About This Access Point. The
About This Access Point screen appears. This screen is read-only.
2. Scroll down to view more information about the access point.
3. Continue scrolling down until you see the subtitle Configuration
Summary.
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4. Click the button under the Configuration Summary title to switch
between displaying all configuration settings and displaying the
configuration settings that are different from the factory default
settings.
To view a processor utilization graph
1. From the main menu, click Maintenance > About This Access Point.
The About This Access Point screen appears. This screen is readonly.
2. Click the Processor and Revision link. The Processor Utilization graph
appears.
Using the LEDs
to Locate Access
Points
You can use the LEDs to help you locate a specific access point in your
building.
To locate an access point
1. From the menu, click Maintenance > About this Access Point. The
About this Access Point screen appears.
2. Click the Find This Access Point button. The access point LEDs start
blinking, as shown in the next table.
Table 67. Find This Access Point
Power
Wireless #1
LED On
Wireless #2
LED Off
Wired LAN
Root/Error
LED Flashing
3. The LEDs continue to blink until you click the Finished Finding Access
Point button.
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AT-WA7500 and AT-WA7501 Installation and User’s Guide
Restoring the
Access Point to
the Default
Configuration
You may need to restore the access point to the factory default
configuration. For a list of the default settings, see Appendix B, “Default
Settings.” To restore the access point to the default configuration, you can
use the Web browser interface, as explained in the following procedure:
1. In the menu bar, click Save/Discard Changes.
This screen appears.
2. Click Restore Factory Defaults. Under Pending Changes, you will see
a list of what parameters need to be changed.
3. Click Save Changes and Reboot. When the access point is done
rebooting, it will use the factory default settings as its active
configuration. You may need to reset the IP address and other network
parameters.
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Troubleshooting the Access Points
This section provides you with information on the installation,
configuration, and operation of the access point.
Using the
Configuration
Error Messages
When you click Save/Discard Changes, the access point checks for
potential problems with the network configuration and security settings.
The access point displays error messages under the Possible
Configuration Errors heading. Each error message is a hyperlink, which
you can click to go to the screen where you can fix the possible
configuration error.
You can save the configuration changes without resolving any of the
possible configuration errors, but the access point may not operate as
expected.
Note
The access point can only check its own configuration for possible
errors. It cannot check to see if the SSIDs, passwords, shared
secret keys, and other settings are all the same or compatible on
other devices.
Screen Showing Possible Configuration Errors
To resolve possible configuration errors
1. Using your web browser, click Save/Discard Changes on the menu
bar.
2. Review the error messages listed under the Possible Configuration
Errors heading.
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AT-WA7500 and AT-WA7501 Installation and User’s Guide
3. Click each error message to jump to the configuration screen where
you can resolve the possible configuration error.
The configuration error messages are listed in the next table. Most are
self explanatory, but a few require additional information.
Table 68. Alphabetized List of Configuration Error Messages
Configuration Error Message
Additional Information
A RADIUS entry in the RADIUS database
has a IP address but no secret key
(password).
A RADIUS entry in the RADIUS database
has a secret key (password) but no IP
address.
A RADIUS server entry points at this
access point but the Embedded
Authentication Server is not enabled.
A RADIUS server entry points at this
access point but the shared secret does
not match that of the Embedded
Authentication Server.
The Default Secret Key for
the EAS does not match
the secret key value in the
RADIUS Server List. For
help, see “Enabling the
EAS” on page 210.
A RADIUS server entry points at this
access point but the UDP port number
does not match that of the Embedded
Authentication Server.
The UDP port number in
the EAS does not match
the port number entered in
the RADIUS Server List.
For help, see “Enabling the
EAS” on page 210.
A secure service set is available, but
wireless hops are allowed on an insecure
service set.
A username/password entry in the
RADIUS database has a password but no
username.
A username/password entry in the
RADIUS database has a username but no
password.
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Table 68. Alphabetized List of Configuration Error Messages (Continued)
Configuration Error Message
Additional Information
All SSID values must be unique per
physical radio.
While configuring multiple
service sets, you did not
specify a unique SSID
(network name) for each
service set. For help, see
“Configuring the 802.11g
Radio” on page 98 or
“Configuring the 802.11a
Radio” on page 119.
An entry in the RADIUS server list is using
a default secret key.
Allied Telesyn
recommends that you
change the secret key from
the default for security
reasons.
At least one 802.1x supplicant protocol
must be enabled.
Matching WEP keys will merge VLAN
multicast.
No RADIUS servers have been
configured for 802.1x authentication.
Click the message and
check the 802.1x check
box for at least one server
in the RADIUS Server List.
No RADIUS servers have been
configured for ACL authorization.
Click the message and
check the ACL check box
for at least one server in
the RADIUS Server List.
No RADIUS servers have been
configured for login authorization.
Click the message and
check the Login check box
for at least one server in
the RADIUS Server List.
The 802.1x username and password have
not been changed from their default
values.
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Table 68. Alphabetized List of Configuration Error Messages (Continued)
Configuration Error Message
Additional Information
The access point is set to originate IP
tunnels but no there are no tunnel IP
addresses.
On the IP Tunnels screen,
Mode is set to Originate if
Root, but no IP addresses
have been added to the IP
Addresses screen. Either
change the mode or add
some addresses. For help,
see “Configuring IP
Tunnels” on page 148 and
“Configuring the IP
Address List” on page 149.
The address range for the DHCP server is
invalid.
On the TCP/IP Settings >
DHCP Server Setup
screen, the Low Address
and High Address are not
set correctly. For help, see
the Table 16, ”DHCP
Server Setup Parameter
Descriptions” on page 73.
The DHCP server is enabled with an
address range that is too large. If saved,
the range will be truncated to the
maximum number of addresses.
On the TCP/IP Settings >
DHCP Server Setup
screen, the Low Address
and High Address are not
set correctly. For help, see
the Table 16, ”DHCP
Server Setup Parameter
Descriptions” on page 73.
The DHCP server requires a non-zero IP
address.
For help, see “Configuring
the Access Point as a
DHCP Server” on page 70.
The DHCP server subnet mask is invalid.
For help, see the Table 16,
”DHCP Server Setup
Parameter Descriptions”
on page 73.
The IAPP secret key has not been
changed from its default value.
Allied Telesyn
recommends that you
change the IAPP secret
key from the default for
security reasons.
The IP Address is zero.
For help, see “Configuring
the TCP/IP Settings” on
page 65.
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Table 68. Alphabetized List of Configuration Error Messages (Continued)
Configuration Error Message
Additional Information
The IP Address and IP Router must share
the same subnet.
For help, see “Configuring
the TCP/IP Settings” on
page 65.
The IP Subnet Mask is invalid.
For help, see “Configuring
the TCP/IP Settings” on
page 65.
The IP Subnet Mask should not be zero.
For help, see “Configuring
the TCP/IP Settings” on
page 65.
The login password has not been
changed from its default value.
The RADIUS server shared secret has not
been changed from its default value.
The read-only password has the same
value as the read-write password.
There are TLS entries in the embedded
authentication server database but no CA
certificate is installed.
You need to install a
trusted CA certificate. For
help, see “Installing and
Uninstalling Certificates”
on page 208.
This device is configured as a login
RADIUS server but no login database
entries exist.
For help, see Table 59,
”Embedded Authentication
Server Entry Descriptions”
on page 214.
You have elected to verify the server
certificate but no CA certificate is installed
in the certificate store.
You need to install a
trusted CA certificate. For
help, see “Installing and
Uninstalling Certificates”
on page 208.
You have elected to verify the server
certificate but the authentication server
common name is blank.
You have enabled Secure Credential
Creation for Instant-On, but no 802.1xenabled RADIUS servers have been
selected.
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AT-WA7500 and AT-WA7501 Installation and User’s Guide
Table 68. Alphabetized List of Configuration Error Messages (Continued)
Troubleshooting
With the LEDs
Configuration Error Message
Additional Information
You have enabled the embedded
authentication server but you have not
installed a server certificate to identify this
device.
You need to install a server
certificate. For help, see
“Installing and Uninstalling
Certificates” on page 208.
You have enabled TLS authentication but
you have not installed a server certificate
to identify this device.
You need to install a server
certificate. For help, see
“Installing and Uninstalling
Certificates” on page 208.
You have enabled WPA pre-shared key
for a radio port but the pre-shared key for
that port is empty.
For help, see the Table 54,
”WPA PSK Security
Parameter Descriptions”
on page 202.
When the access point boots, it performs internal diagnostics and the
LEDs display the pattern shown in the next table.
Table 69. MobileLAN access LED Boot Sequence for Release 2.2 (or later)
Power
Wireless #1
Wireless #2
Wired LAN
Root/Error
Description
Checksum Test
starts
Checksum Test
fails
Monitor Load
PCI Bus Test
starts
PCI Bus Test
fails
RAM Test starts
RAM Test fails
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Table 69. MobileLAN access LED Boot Sequence for Release 2.2 (or later) (Continued)
Only Boot ROM
code is
available on
access point.
Load new files.
(Wireless #1 and #2 blink
in unison.)
LED On
LED Off
LED Flashing
After the AT-WA7500 or AT-WA7501 successfully boots, the LEDs display
one of these patterns:
Table 70. AT-WA7500 and AT-WA7501 Normal LED Pattern After Booting
(Blinks for
wireless
data traffic.)
General
Troubleshooting
(Blinks if a
radio is
installed.)
(Blinks for
wired data
traffic.)
(Blinks if the
AP
becomes
root.)
Table 71. General Troubleshooting
Problem/Question
The Wireless #1, Wireless
#2, and/or Wired LAN
LEDs are on solid at the
end of the boot process.
Possible Solution/Answer
An error occurred during the booting
process. Consult the previous section to
determine which test failed.
Connect the access point to a PC with an
RS-232 cable, reboot the access point,
and watch the error messages.
The access point may have a hardware
problem. Contact Allied Telesyn Technical
Support.
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AT-WA7500 and AT-WA7501 Installation and User’s Guide
Table 71. General Troubleshooting (Continued)
Problem/Question
The Power LED is not on.
Possible Solution/Answer
1.Make sure the power cable is firmly
plugged into the AT-WA7501 access point
and the power source. Or make sure the
Ethernet cable is firmly plugged into the
AT-WA7500 access point and the power
over Ethernet bridge.
2.Verify that the power injector has power
and will work with another access point at
the port in question.
3.Make sure all eight wires in the Ethernet
cable are connected, or the power over
Ethernet option won’t work.
4.Unplug the access point, and then plug
it back into the power source. After the
access point boots, verify that the Power
LED remains on.
5.The access point may have a hardware
problem. Contact Allied Telesyn Technical
Support.
You cannot connect to the
access point using the
serial port.
1.Verify that you are using a null-modem
cable to connect the access point to your
terminal or PC.
2.Verify that you are communicating
through the correct serial port.
3.Verify that your terminal or PC is set to
9600, N, 8, 1, no flow control. (Verify that
the baud rate is not 115200.)
4.Your system may be in autobaud mode.
Reboot and press a key once per second
until the sign on screen appears.
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Table 71. General Troubleshooting (Continued)
Problem/Question
Possible Solution/Answer
You cannot connect to the
access point using a web
browser.
1.Verify that you are not using a crossover
cable if connected to a hub or a switch.
Verify that you are using a crossover
cable if connected directly to the PC or
server.
2.Verify that you did not disable the
Browser Access field in the Security
screen.
3.If you access the Internet through a
proxy server, be sure you have added the
IP address of the access point to the
Exceptions list.
4.Depending on the security configuration
of your network, your PC may need to be
located on the same subnet as the access
point.
You cannot ping or telnet to
an access point.
1.You must set an IP address and subnet
mask using a communications program
before you can remotely connect to the
access point.
2.Verify that you did not disable the Telnet
Access field in the Security screen.
3.The access point may have lost its files.
For help, see “Recovering a Failed
Access Point” on page 258.
248
The Ping Utility screen
does not appear when you
click a MAC address or an
IP address in the AP
Connections screen.
The web browser you are using does not
have Java support. Allied Telesyn
recommends that you use Internet
Explorer v3.0 (or later) or Netscape
Communicator v4.0 (or later).
You cannot connect to the
access point using
MobileLAN manager or
another SNMP
management station.
Verify that you did not disable the SNMP
Access field in the Security screen.
AT-WA7500 and AT-WA7501 Installation and User’s Guide
Table 71. General Troubleshooting (Continued)
Problem/Question
The end device cannot
connect to the network.
Possible Solution/Answer
ˆ
From the Maintenance menu, choose
AP Connections and verify that the
MAC address of your end device
appears on your PC screen. If it does
not appear, your end device is not
communicating with the access point.
Check your radio configuration
settings.
ˆ
Verify that the access point is not
filtering out the type of traffic you are
trying to pass through it.
The end device cannot
synch to the access point.
Verify that the end device and the access
point have the same SSID (network
name) and security.
The end devices are
unable to roam from one
access point to another.
The switches in your network may not
support backward learning. Use data link
tunneling to force all wireless traffic
through a fixed point so that roaming is
transparent to the bridges or switches.
The end devices must have IP addresses
from the root IP subnet.
For help, see “About Ethernet Bridging/
Data Link Tunneling” on page 134.
The end devices are
unable to roam between a
MobileLAN access product
and 011X devices.
Set the Unicast Flood Mode to
Hierarchical. For help, see “Configuring
Global Flooding” on page 162.
You cannot originate an IP
tunnel to an access point
on a remote IP subnet.
1. Verify that the IP Router (Gateway)
address is correct.
2. Verify that the access points on the
ends of the tunnel have the same LAN
ID.
3. On the root access point verify that the
IP address of the access point at the
endpoint of the IP tunnel appears in
the IP Addresses list.
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Table 71. General Troubleshooting (Continued)
Problem/Question
You need to verify the
static WEP keys.
You cannot verify the WEP keys. The
keys are encrypted after you enter them
and are never displayed again. You may
need to reconfigure your access points
and end devices to reset the WEP keys.
The filters are not filtering
properly.
Check all of your filter settings. Conflicts
may exist between the various filters.
You need to confirm which
master radio a WAP is
connected to.
To verify that a WAP is communicating
with a particular radio, view the AP
Connections screen for the access point.
Click Maintenance > AP Connections.
The throughput seems
slow.
ˆ
Verify that your antennas are well
placed and that metal or other
obstacles do not block them.
ˆ
You may want to add a second access
point and implement roaming if you
move the antenna closer to the device
and throughput increases.
ˆ
You may be able to set filters to
eliminate Ethernet traffic on the
wireless network. For help, see
“Configuring IP Tunnel Filters” on
page 150.
The radio coverage is less
than you expected it to be.
250
Possible Solution/Answer
Verify that the antennas or antenna cables
are plugged into the correct connectors by
reading the label on the access point.
AT-WA7500 and AT-WA7501 Installation and User’s Guide
Troubleshooting
the Radios
If you are having problems communicating with your wireless network, you
can use the access point LEDs, error messages, Radio MAC Ping, or
ICMP Echo to troubleshoot any radio problems.
Using LEDs
If the access point LEDs show the following pattern after it boots, the radio
may be faulty or the configuration matrix string is incorrect. Contact your
local Allied Telesyn representative to help you correct the problem.
Table 72. AT-WA7500 and AT-WA7501 LEDs
or
(Blinks for
wired data
traffic.)
LED On
LED Off
or
(Blinks if the
AP
becomes
root.)
LED Flashing
Using a Communications Program or a Telnet Session
If you are communicating with the access point using a communications
program or a telnet session, an error message may appear on your PC
after the access point reboots or when a session is saved. The error
messages are described in the following table. Contact your local Allied
Telesyn representative to help you correct the problem.
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In this table, “Radio A” refers to the radio in slot 1 and “Radio B” refers to
the radio in slot 2. These error messages may appear for either radio.
Table 73. Radio Error Messages
Error Message
Explanation
Couldn’t read
country code from
radio A
The radio may be faulty.
Invalid country
code in string for
radio A
The country code in the configuration matrix
string does not match the country code in the
radio in the access point.
Radio A has
unknown country
code
The radio may have been configured incorrectly
at the factory.
Radio string
doesn’t match radio
installed
When this error message appears, additional
information also appears on the screen; for
example, “Expected 504,000 but found 491 in slot
A, nothing in slot B” may appear. The radio may
be faulty.
Using Radio MAC Ping (802.11g and 802.11b Radios)
Radio MAC Ping runs at the MAC sublayer of the Data Link layer, thus
allowing you to ping any 802.11b device that is connected to the access
point. Radio MAC Ping can help you determine the connectivity and signal
strength of an 802.11b radio.
To use radio MAC ping
1. From the menu, click Maintenance > AP Connections. The AP
Connections screen appears. All devices that support a radio MAC
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ping will have their MAC address listed with a hyperlink.
2. Click a MAC address hyperlink. The access point pings the device,
and then this screen appears showing the results.
By default, the Refresh Mode is Manual. To configure the software to
refresh automatically at a set interval, click 10 Sec or 1 Min.
By default, the Pings per refresh is None. To increase the number of
pings that occur after each refresh, click 25 or 100.
3. Click the X in the upper right corner of the window to return to the AP
Connections screen.
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Using ICMP Echo
ICMP (Internet Control Message Protocol) echo lets you ping devices
using their IP address. ICMP echo can only be used if the access point
has determined the IP address of the end device or another access point.
If the access point is acting as an ARP server, it will determine the IP
addresses of the end devices that are attached to it and allow you to use
ICMP echo on the wireless network. The access point always knows the
IP address of all access points in the spanning tree.
To use ICMP echo
1. From the menu, click Maintenance > AP Connections. The AP
Connections screen appears.
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AT-WA7500 and AT-WA7501 Installation and User’s Guide
2. Click an IP address hyperlink. The access point pings the device, and
then the Ping Utility screen appears showing the results.
Note
The information on this screen varies with the type of request sent
and the capabilities of the medium through which it is sent. Echo
requests sent through different radios may report different results.
3. Click Return to connections to return to the AP Connections screen.
Troubleshooting
Security
This section helps you troubleshoot problems you may have while
installing and configuring security in your network. For more help
troubleshooting 802.1x security, refer to the documentation for the
MobileLAN secure 802.1x security solution, the Odyssey server, and the
end devices.
Viewing the Security Events Log
The access point logs a variety of 802.1x events in its Security Events log.
Only the access point that generates the security event displays it in its
Security Events log.
To see all the 802.1x events in your network, you need to use MobileLAN
manager or another SNMP management station or network management
tool.
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To view the Security Events log
ˆ
From the menu, click Security > Security Events. The Security Events
log appears.
For help understanding the events, see the next table.
Table 74. Security Events Log Description
Column
Description
MAC Address
Indicates the Ethernet MAC address of the device
that caused the event.
IP Address
Indicates the IP address of the device that
caused the event.
Priority
Indicates the priority of the event: Critical, High,
Low, or Informative
Critical and High priority events generate an
SNMP trap.
256
Trap?
Specifies if the event generated an SNMPreliable trap.
Count
Indicates the number of times the event occurred.
Type
Includes details of the event that occurred.
Additional Data
Includes extra event-specific information.
Age
Indicates the amount of time that has passed
since the event occurred.
AT-WA7500 and AT-WA7501 Installation and User’s Guide
Note
If you use an SNMP management station or another network
management tool, the age represents how much time has passed
since the access point was booted that this event occurred.
Exporting the Security Events Log
You can export the Security Events log from the web browser interface to
a comma-separated file. You can open this file using Microsoft Excel or
Notepad.
To export the security events log
1. From the menu, click Security > Security Events. The Security Events
log appears.
2. Click Export the Security Events Log from this access point. A File
Download box may appear.
3. Click Save. The Save As dialog box appears.
4. Choose where you want to save the SECLOG.CSV file and click Save.
General Security Troubleshooting
This section provides you with information on getting help with your secure
network and some problems and solutions.
Table 75. General Security Troubleshooting
Problem/Question
You enabled secure IAPP
in your network, but the
access points do not
communicate with the root
access point.
Possible Solution/Answer
ˆ
Verify that the root access point is running software
release 1.80 or later. Upgrade all access points to
the same software release as the root access point.
ˆ
Verify that you enabled secure IAPP on all access
points.
ˆ
In the root access point, click Maintenance > AP
Connections. If any access point station radios are
blocked, re-enter the IAPP secret key in all access
points.
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Table 75. General Security Troubleshooting (Continued)
Problem/Question
You are implementing
802.1x security and you
cannot get an end device
to authenticate with a
RADIUS server.
Recovering a
Failed Access
Point
Possible Solution/Answer
ˆ
Verify that the root access point is running software
release 1.72 or later.
ˆ
Verify that the RADIUS server IP address is correct.
Re-enter the RADIUS server secret key in both the
access point and the RADIUS server.
ˆ
Verify that the IAPP secret key is the same in all
access points.
ˆ
Verify that the access point that the end device is
communicating with has the 802.1x Authentication
field set to authenticate the radio that is in the end
device.
ˆ
Verify that your end device is configured properly
for 802.1x security. For help, see the end device
user’s manual.
Note
Do not use this procedure to upgrade your access point software.
For help, see “Upgrading the Access Points” on page 261.
You should never need to use this procedure. However, if your access
point is not functioning, you may need to download an entirely new file
system. If the access point loses all its files except the boot ROM code,
you cannot ping the access point, you cannot establish a telnet session to
the access point, and the LEDs display this pattern.
Table 76. LED Pattern of a Failed Access Point
Only Boot
ROM code
is available
on access
point. Load
new files.
(Wireless #1 and #2 blink
in unison.)
LED On
258
LED Off
LED Flashing
AT-WA7500 and AT-WA7501 Installation and User’s Guide
You can recover a failed access point using a Windows NT4/2000/XP PC.
The procedure is explained in the next subsection.
Using a Windows NT4/2000/XP PC
You can use a Windows NT4/2000/XP PC and a command prompt to
recover a failed access point. To access a command prompt, see your
Windows documentation. For this procedure you will need to contact Allied
Telesyn Technical Support to obtain the AP824X.DNL file.
To recover a failed access point
1. From a command prompt, type this command to create a static ARP
cache entry for the netloader.
arp –s x.x.x.x yy-yy-yy-yy-yy-yy
where:
x.x.x.xis the IP address that you want to assign the access point
yy-yy-yy-yy-yy-yyis the MAC address of the access point. This MAC
address is printed on a label that is on the bottom of the access point.
Note
If you are only recovering one access point, you can enter
00:10:40:FF:FF:FF. This special MAC address works with all access
points.
2. Type this command to continuously ping the access point while you
boot the access point.
ping –t –l 100 IPaddress
where IPaddress is the access point IP address you assigned in Step
1.
3. Disconnect and reconnect the power cable (or Ethernet cable, if you
are using power over Ethernet) to the access point. The access point
has no On/Off switch, so it boots as soon as you apply power.
4. When the access point responds to the ping, use any TFTP client to
transfer AP824X.DNL file to the access point. Make sure the Transfer
mode is binary.
tftp –i IPaddress put AP824X.dnl
where IPaddress is the access point IP address you assigned in Step
1.
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Once the TFTP transfer is complete, the access point will begin
booting the image that was just passed to it. This image is only
resident in RAM. If you reboot the access point or if the access point
loses power, the AP824X.DNL image will be lost.
5. Type this command to remove the static ARP cache entry from your
PC.
arp –d IPaddress
where IPaddress is the access point IP address you assigned in Step
1.
When the access point is done booting, all access point services are
available. You can now telnet to the access point to upgrade it with a
permanent image and configure it.
Note
You may be unable to access the web browser interface if the
support files for this interface still need to be recovered. If so, use
telnet to upgrade the access point, and then use the web browser
interface to configure it.
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AT-WA7500 and AT-WA7501 Installation and User’s Guide
Upgrading the Access Points
For optimal performance, you should install the most current software
version on all the access points in your network. To upgrade the software,
you must copy the software release to your PC and then upload the
release to your root access point and other access points. However, you
can also configure the root access point to copy the release to all other
access points in its spanning tree.
You can upgrade the access point software using a web browser interface,
as explained in the next subsection.
Note
New releases of the firmware for the access point are available for
downloading from the Allied Telesyn web site.
Using a Web
Browser
Interface
You can use a web browser interface to upgrade the access points one at
a time. In other words, for each access point you want to upgrade, you will
need to establish a web browser session with it, upgrade its software, save
the new configuration, and reboot it.
To upgrade the access point software
1. Establish a web browser session with the access point you want to
upgrade.
2. From the menu bar, click Upgrade Software. The Upgrade Software
screen appears.
3. Enter the path and filename of the upgrade file (AP*WEB.BIN) or click
Browse to find the file on your PC. For example, AP21WEB.BIN.
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Note
If you have not already copied the upgrade file to your PC, follow the
instructions in “Upgrading the Access Points” on page 261.
4. Click Upgrade to start the upgrade. The upgrade may take up to 3
minutes to complete.
5. When the upgrade is complete, click Save Changes and Reboot.
When the access point is done rebooting, it is upgraded to the new
software. Repeat this procedure for each access point you want to
upgrade.
Troubleshooting
the Upgrade
Each access point on a wired LAN requires approximately 3 minutes to
upgrade (it takes slightly longer for wireless access points). The web
browser screen updates every 30 seconds as the upgrade progresses and
shows the final status when all upgrades are complete. If you checked the
Reboot selected Access Points after successful upgrade check box, the
web browser disconnects. Click the Refresh button to log in again.
Errors may occur during the upgrade process or during the final reboot. If
an error occurs, an explanation appears on the web browser screen.
If an error occurs during the upgrade, none of the access points reboot.
You should:
1. Recheck the access points where the error occurred.
2. Click Start Upgrade to attempt the upgrade again. If the upgrade is
successful and you checked the Reboot selected Access Points after
successful upgrade check box, the access points will reboot.
If an error occurs during the final reboot, you should:
1. Wait 5 minutes for the access points that did not reboot to refresh.
2. Refresh your web browser screen and check the access points that
are not running the new version.
3. Click Start Upgrade to attempt the upgrade again. If the upgrade is
successful and you checked the Reboot selected Access Points after
successful upgrade check box, the access points will reboot according
to your Reboot selection.
If you need to downgrade an access point to an earlier release, contact
Allied Telesyn Technical Support.
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Chapter 9
Additional Access Point Features
This chapter explains some of the more advanced ways that you can
maintain the access points. This chapter covers these topics:
ˆ
“Understanding the Access Point Segments” on page 264
ˆ
“Understanding Transparent Files” on page 265
ˆ
“Using the AP Monitor” on page 266
ˆ
“Using Command Console Mode” on page 276
ˆ
“Creating Script Files” on page 288
ˆ
“Copying Files To and From the Access Point” on page 291
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Chapter 9: Additional Access Point Features
Understanding the Access Point Segments
The AT-WA7500 and AT-WA7501 access points contain one flash
memory segment, as well as temporary memory (RAM).
Several of the commands described in this chapter require that you
specify the segment where a file is located on the access point. To
indicate the segment where the file is located, you precede the filename
with either a segment number or name followed by a colon. For example,
1:ap824x.prg refers to the AP824X.PRG file is located in segment 1.
The segment numbers (1, 2, 3, and 4) and names (id, ib, ad, and ab)
actually indicate specific segments on older access points. But these
numbers and names all indicate the same flash memory segment on an
access point.
When you use a command that requires a segment number or name, you
can specify 1, 2, 3, 4, id, ib, ad, or ab to indicate the one flash memory
segment on the access point. For consistency, all the commands in this
chapter use the segment number 1.
If you do not specify a segment name or number in a command, the
access point first searches RAM and then the flash memory segment until
it finds a file that matches the file name.
Note
Legacy scripts with commands that specify segment numbers or
names can be run on AT-WA7500 and AT-WA7501 access points
without generating errors.
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AT-WA7500 and AT-WA7501 Installation and User’s Guide
Understanding Transparent Files
The AT-WA7500 and AT-WA7501 access points with software release 2.2
support transparent files, which are files without file headers. Transparent
files all have the date May 14, 2002 (5-14-2002) and have no version.
The advantage of using file headers is that the date and file versions are
correct when you use the FD command to view the directory. All provided
.DNL files have file headers. All files to be uploaded by script files must
have file headers.
For help using the TFTP GET command with transparent files, see
page 280.
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Using the AP Monitor
The AP (access point ROM) monitor is system software that lets you
manipulate the access point files and file segments. You can only access
the AP monitor through the serial port using a communications program.
Note
Certain functions available through the AP monitor can erase the
access point configuration. Allied Telesyn strongly recommends that
you only use the AP monitor when absolutely necessary. For
example, you might use the AP monitor to upgrade the access point
software or when instructed to do so by Allied Telesyn Technical
Support.
Entering the AP
Monitor
1. Use a communications program to start a session with the access
point.
2. Reboot the access point.
3. When you see the message <Press any key within 5 seconds to enter
the AP monitor> during the boot process, press Enter. The ap prompt
(ap>) appears.
Using AP
Monitor
Commands
266
You can display a list of AP monitor commands on the screen anytime you
see the ap prompt.
AT-WA7500 and AT-WA7501 Installation and User’s Guide
To list AP monitor commands
ˆ
Press any key (except the letter B, which reboots the access point),
and then press Enter. A list of AP monitor commands appears.
B
Purpose: Reboots the access point.
Syntax: B
FD
Purpose: Displays the flash file system directory, including information
about the boot file.
Syntax: FD
FR
Purpose: Finds the first executable file in the access point boot segment
and tries to run it; therefore, the first executable file in the access point
boot segment must be the boot file.
Syntax: FR
FX
Purpose: Downloads a file using Ymodem batch protocol into the flash
segment that is specified by s.
Syntax: FX s
where s is destination segment. You can use any number (1, 2, 3, or 4) to
specify the one flash memory segment on the access point.
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Chapter 9: Additional Access Point Features
MR
Purpose: Displays the manufacturing record for the access point. Use the
MR command to display the MAC address, configuration string, and serial
number for your access point.
Syntax: MR
SR
Purpose: Sets the baud rate of the access point.
Syntax: SR z
where z is the baud rate. You must enter the baud rate as a whole number
with no commas. For example, to enter a baud rate of 19,200, you must
enter 19200.
You can also set the baud rate to autobaud, which lets the access point
set its baud rate to match the baud rate of your wireless end device. Type
SR 0 and press Enter twice.
Using Content
Addressable
Memory (CAM)
Mode Commands
You may need to use CAM commands to perform certain functions. Since
the Ethernet port on the access points supports data rates significantly
higher than the radio ports, all frames cannot be forwarded from the
Ethernet network to the radios. CAM, which is controlled by the Field
Programmable Gate Array (FPGA), filters frames based on the radio’s
capability.
Because the commands can cause undesirable results if not properly
executed, you should contact Technical Support for assistance if you are
unsure about the proper procedure to use.
To enter CAM mode
1. Type CAM and press Enter.
2. Enter a password. The default password is EV98203C (case
sensitive).
When you are in CAM mode, the CAM prompt (CAM>) appears.
To exit CAM mode
ˆ
At the CAM prompt, type X and press Enter.
You return to the ap prompt.
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AT-WA7500 and AT-WA7501 Installation and User’s Guide
To display CAM commands
ˆ
Using Test Mode
Commands
Type any letter or number other than B and press Enter. The CAM
commands appear on the screen.
Within the AP monitor, Test mode lets you perform certain test functions.
Because the commands can cause undesirable results if not properly
executed, you should contact Technical Support for assistance if you are
unsure about the proper procedure to use.
To enter Test mode
1. Type TEST and press Enter.
2. Enter a password. The default password is EV98203T (case
sensitive).
When you are in Test mode, the test prompt (test>) appears.
To exit Test mode
ˆ
At the test prompt, type X and press Enter.
You return the ap prompt.
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To display test commands
ˆ
Using Service
Mode Commands
Type any letter or number other than B and press Enter. The test
commands appear on the screen.
In Service mode, you can perform file functions and segment functions
such as deleting a file, downloading a file using the Ymodem protocol, and
erasing a segment.
To enter Service mode
1. At the ap prompt, type SRVC and press Enter.
2. Enter the service password. The default password is EV98203S (case
sensitive).
The service prompt (service>) appears.
To exit Service mode
ˆ
At the service prompt, type X and press Enter.
You return the ap prompt.
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AT-WA7500 and AT-WA7501 Installation and User’s Guide
To list service commands
ˆ
Press any key (except the letter B, which reboots the access point),
and then press Enter. The service commands appear on the screen.
Many of the commands that are available in Service mode are also
available in the AP monitor or Console Command mode.
B
Purpose: Reboots the access point.
Syntax: B
FB
Purpose: Makes an inactive segment the active segment. Because the
access point has only one flash memory segment, this command has no
affect on an AT-WA7500 or AT-WA7501. This command is included here
for backward compatibility with older scripts only.
Syntax: FB bootsegment (datasegment)
where:
bootsegment is the name or number of the boot segment to be activated.
datasegment is the optional name or number of the data segment to be
activated.
Example: These examples apply to non-AT-WA7500 and
AT-WA7501products and are included for your reference only.
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To make segment 2 the active boot segment and segment 4 the active
data segment, enter:
FB 2 4
You can use an asterisk instead of a segment name if you want to leave
that segment unchanged. For example, to leave the active boot segment
unchanged and make segment 4 the active data segment, you could
enter:
FB * 4
After loading software into the access point a common task is to activate
the new software. To activate the new software, enter:
FB IB: ID:
This command activates the inactive boot and data segments. You do not
need to know which of the boot and data segment numbers the flash is
loaded into.
FC
Purpose: Compacts the files in a particular segment.
Syntax: FC s
where s indicates the segment to be compacted. You can use any
segment number or name to specify the one flash memory segment on the
access point.
Example: To compact the contents of the flash memory segment, enter:
FC 1
FD
Purpose: Displays the flash file system directory, including information
about the boot file and the file type: E (executable), D (data), and T
(transparent). For information about transparent files, see “Understanding
Transparent Files” on page 265.
Syntax: FD
Example: To display the contents of the flash memory segment, enter:
FD
To display the contents of the memory card, enter:
FD APP:
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AT-WA7500 and AT-WA7501 Installation and User’s Guide
FDEL
Purpose: Deletes a particular file.
Note
When you use the FDEL command, the file is marked as invalid and
remains in the file system. To reclaim the file space, you must erase
the entire segment. Use the FE command to erase a segment.
Syntax: FDEL f (s)
where:
f
is the name of the file to be deleted.
s
is the optional segment location of the file.
Examples: To delete the file AP824X.PRG from the flash memory
segment, enter:
FDEL 1:AP824X.PRG
To delete the file FILE.DAT from the optional memory card on an
AT-WA7500, enter:
FDEL APP:FILE.DAT
FE
Purpose: Erases all the files in a particular segment, including those that
have been “deleted” with FDEL. To recover the files after they have been
erased, you must reload them from another source.
Note
You must execute this command before you execute a TFTP
transfer.
Syntax: FE s
where s indicates segment to be erased. You can use any segment
number or name (1, 2, 3, 4, id, ib, ad, or ab) to specify the one flash
memory segment on the access point.
Example: To erase the contents of the flash memory segment, enter:
FE 1
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Chapter 9: Additional Access Point Features
To erase the contents of the memory card, enter:
FE APP:
FFR
Purpose: Runs a program f, from a location s.
Syntax: FFR f (s)
where:
f
is the program name.
s
is the optional segment location of the program.
Example: To run program UAPBOOT.PRG from the flash memory
segment, enter:
FFR UAPBOOT.PRG 1
FI
Purpose: Reinitializes the access point file system. If the access point file
system or a file segment becomes corrupt, use this command to reset it.
Syntax: FI (s)
where s is the optional number of the segment to be reinitialized. You can
use any segment number (1, 2, 3, or 4) to specify the one flash memory
segment on the access point.
FX
Purpose: Downloads a file using Ymodem batch protocol into the flash
segment that is specified by s.
Syntax: FX s
where s is destination segment. You can use any segment number (1, 2,
3, or 4) to specify the one flash memory segment on the access point.
HDW
Purpose: Loads the FPGA configuration file into the access point. If you
are directed to change the FPGA firmware in the access point, use this
command.
Syntax: HDW f (s)
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AT-WA7500 and AT-WA7501 Installation and User’s Guide
where:
f
is the FPGA configuration filename.
s
is the optional segment where you want to load the configuration file.
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Using Command Console Mode
You can use the Command Console mode to manipulate some access
point files and file segments. You can also use Command Console mode
to upgrade access points using TFTP and script files.
You access the Command Console mode through the serial port using a
communications program or over the network using a telnet session. You
cannot access Command Console mode using a web browser interface.
Entering
Command
Console Mode
1. Use a communications program or telnet to start a session with the
access point. For help, see “Using a Communications Program” on
page 40.
2. From the Access Point Configuration menu, choose Maintenance.
3. From the Maintenance menu, choose Command Console. The list of
commands appears.
To exit Command Console mode
ˆ
At the prompt, type exit.
You return to the Maintenance menu.
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Using the
Commands
Several of these commands require that you enter filenames. To indicate
the segment where the file is located, you precede the filename with either
a segment number or name followed by a colon. For example,
1:ap824x.prg refers to the AP824X.PRG file is located in segment 1.
For details about using segment numbers and names for an access point,
which contains only one flash memory segment, see “Understanding the
Access Point Segments” on page 264.
FB
Purpose: Makes an inactive segment the active segment. Because the
AT-WA7500 and AT-WA7501 have only one flash memory segment, this
command has no affect on the access points. This command is included
here for backward compatibility with older scripts only.
Syntax: FB bootsegment datasegment
where:
bootsegment is the name or number of the boot segment to be activated.
datasegment is the name or number of the data segment to be activated.
Example: These examples apply to non-AT-WA7500 and AT-WA7501
products and are included for your reference only.
To make segment 2 the active boot segment and segment 4 the active
data segment, enter:
FB 2 4
You can use an asterisk instead of a segment name if you want to leave
that segment unchanged. For example, to leave the active boot segment
unchanged and make segment 4 the active data segment, you could
enter:
FB * 4
After loading software into the access point a common task is to activate
the new software. To activate the new software, enter:
FB IB: ID:
This command activates the inactive boot and data segments. You do not
need to know which of the boot and data segment numbers the flash is
loaded into.
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FD
Purpose: Displays the flash file system directory, which includes
information about the boot file and file type: E (executable), D (data), and
T (transparent). Use this command to ensure that the correct version of
the file is in the active boot segment. For information about transparent
files, see “Understanding Transparent Files” on page 265.
Syntax: FD
Example: To display the files loaded in the flash memory segment, enter:
FD 1
Note
If the flash memory segment contains no files when you reboot the
access point, the access point enters the AP monitor and you will no
longer be able to telnet to it during this session. If this occurs, you
must access the access point through its serial port to correct the
problem.
To show the files loaded in the memory card, enter:
FD app:
FDEL
Purpose: Deletes a particular file.
Note
When you use the FDEL command, the file is marked as invalid and
remains in the file system. To reclaim the file space, you must erase
the entire segment. Use the FE command to erase a segment.
Syntax: FDEL f
where f is the name of the file to be deleted.
Example: To delete the file AP824X.PRG from the flash memory segment,
enter:
FDEL 1:AP824X.PRG
To delete the file FILE.DAT from the memory card, enter:
FDEL APP:FILE.DAT
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FE
Purpose: Erases all the files in a particular segment, including those that
have been “deleted” with FDEL. To recover the files after they have been
erased, you must reload them from another source.
Note
You must execute the FE command before you execute a TFTP
transfer.
Syntax: FE s
where s is the segment to be erased. You can use any segment number or
name (1, 2, 3, 4, id, ib, ad, or ab) to specify the one flash memory segment
on the access point.
Example: To erase the contents of the flash memory segment, enter:
FE 1
To erase the contents of the memory card, enter:
FE app:
SCRIPT
Purpose: Executes a specified file as a list of console commands. You can
create a script file to automate a software download.
Syntax: SCRIPT f
where f is the name of the script file to be executed.
For more information about using the script command, see “Creating
Script Files” on page 288.
Using TFTP
Commands
TFTP commands are file transfer commands. An access point can act as
either a client or server in the TFTP environment. As a server, the access
point can service read and write requests from an access point client. As a
client, the access point can read files from and write files to any TFTP
server on the network. Both the client and server must operate in octet, or
8-bit, mode.
When executing a script file, the access point retries TFTP client
commands get and put until the command is successfully completed. If the
first attempt fails, the access point retries after a one-minute delay. With
each successive failure, the retry time doubles until it reaches eight
minutes. Once this limit is reached, it remains at eight minutes until the
command is completed.
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In general, TFTP client sessions should fail only if the server is not
responding either because it is busy serving other clients or because it has
not been started. In either case, the access point backoff algorithm should
prevent excessive network traffic when many access points are trying to
contact a TFTP server.
TFTP GET
Purpose: TFTP client requests a file from the TFTP server.
Note
You must use the FE command to erase the segment before you
execute a TFTP GET command. If you do not erase the segment,
you may get a “can’t write file” error.
Syntax: TFTP GET IPaddress foreignfilename localfilename
where:
IPaddress
is the IP address or DNS name of the server. You can
use an asterisk (*) here if you want to use the value in the internal variable
serveripaddress (as defined on page 284).
foreignfilename is the name of the file on the server. The filename can
contain directory path information and must be in the format required by
the server operating system. The file must already have the appropriate
file header before the transfer to the access point.
localfilename
is the name you wish to call the file on the access point.
The name must begin with a segment number or name followed by a
colon. You may or may not have to specify a filename after the colon: if the
file has a header, the filename is optional; if the file does not have a
header, the filename is required.
Example: If the file has a header, you do not have to include a filename as
part of the localfilename because the filename is set to the filename
embedded in the file header on the server:
TFTP GET * file.dat 1:
If the file is a transparent file (without a header), you must include a
filename as part of the localfilename:
TFTP GET * file.dat 1:file.dat
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The following command gets file UAP.DNL from a directory on a PC server
with IP address 1.2.3.4 and stores it in the flash memory segment on the
access point.
TFTP GET 1.2.3.4 C:\STARTUP\UAP.DNL 1:
The access point may generate these error messages when it issues a
TFTP GET command. Other error messages may be returned from the
server and displayed by the access point. See your server documentation
for additional information.
Table 77.
Error Message
Can’t write file
Explanation
The file may be too big.
The file may not have an access point file
header (filehdr.exe).
The file name may be incorrectly formed.
The file may already exist in the segment
and cannot be overwritten. You must
erase the file first.
Invalid opcode during read
This error should not occur under normal
operating conditions. This error indicates
a TFTP protocol error that will not occur
when you use TFTP servers that conform
to the protocol.
TFTP PUT
Purpose: Copies a file from a TFTP client to the TFTP server or to another
access point.
Syntax: TFTP PUT IPaddress foreignfilename localfilename
where:
IPaddress
is the IP address or DNS name of the server. You can
use an asterisk (*) here if you want to use the value in the internal variable
serveripaddress (as defined on page 284).
foreignfilename is the name of the file as it will appear on the server.
The file name can contain directory path information and must be in the
format required by the server operating system.
localfilename
is the name of the file to be sent from the access point.
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Example: The following command takes file AP824X.PRG that is saved in
the active boot drive on the access point client and stores it in the flash
memory segment on the access point server that has IP address 1.2.3.4.
TFTP PUT 1.2.3.4 IB:AP824X.PRG 1:AP824X.PRG
The access point may generate these error messages when it issues a
TFTP PUT command. Other error messages may be returned from the
server and displayed by the access point. See your server documentation
for additional information.
Table 78.
Error Message
Explanation
Can’t read file
The requested file may not exist.
Invalid opcode during put
This error should not occur under normal
operating conditions. This error indicates
a TFTP protocol error that will not occur
when you use TFTP servers that conform
to the protocol.
TFTP SERVER LOG
Purpose: The access point can function as a TFTP server. You can use
the TFTP server log command to save a history of TFTP client requests.
The TFTP server log contains useful TFTP server status information. The
log begins when you set up the server. To clear the log, reboot the access
point.
Syntax: TFTP SERVER LOG
TFTP SERVER START
Purpose: Use this command to enable the access point to act as a server.
You can enable one access point to act as a TFTP server and download
files to additional access points.
Syntax: TFTP SERVER START access
where access is blank for read-only access (default), or rw for read/write
access. TFTP does not require any authentication, so a read/write TFTP
server is very insecure and should be used only briefly. When the access
point boots, read-only access is restored.
After you issue this command, the access point responds to TFTP client
requests that are directed to its IP address. When acting as a server, the
access point supports up to four concurrent TFTP sessions.
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TFTP SERVER STOP
Purpose: When you are done transferring files, you can stop the access
point from being a TFTP server by using this command.
Syntax: TFTP SERVER STOP
After you issue this command, the access point no longer responds to
TFTP client requests; however, current TFTP sessions with the server are
allowed to complete. This table lists error messages that can be issued
from the TFTP server. These messages are sent to the client and should
be read from the client perspective.
Table 79. TFTP Server Stop
Error Message
Explanation
TFTP server only supports
octet mode
The client is attempting to transfer a file in
ASCII mode. The access point TFTP
server only supports octet mode, which
includes binary and image.
Unable to open remote file
The TFTP server cannot open the file that
is named in the read or write request. If
you are trying to read a file, the file may
not exist. If you are trying to write a file,
the file may be too big, the file may not
have an access point file header, or the
file name may be incorrectly formed.
Can’t read remote file
The server returns this message if the
access point file system returns an error
while the server is attempting to read the
file. This message is unlikely to occur.
Can’t write remote file
The server returns this message if the
access point file system returns an error
while the server is attempting to write the
file. This message is unlikely to occur.
TFTP opcode not read or
write request
This error should not occur under normal
operating conditions. This error indicates
that the TFTP client does not conform to
the protocol.
Invalid opcode during read
This error should not occur under normal
operating conditions. This error indicates
that the TFTP client does not conform to
the protocol.
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Table 79. TFTP Server Stop
Using sdvars
Commands
Error Message
Explanation
Invalid opcode during write
This error should not occur under normal
operating conditions. This error indicates
that the TFTP client does not conform to
the protocol.
Use sdvars commands to manipulate certain software download variables.
Sdvars commands support both GET and SET arguments. You can enter
sdvars commands to GET a software download object, and then issue the
sdvars command using the SET argument to assign the object a specified
value.
This section describes the sdvars commands using the SET argument. To
execute an sdvars command using the GET argument, omit the variable
from the end of the command.
sdvars set serveripaddress
Purpose: Sets the internal variable called serveripaddress to a specified
address.
Syntax: sdvars set serveripaddress ipaddress
where ipaddress is the address of the TFTP server.
Example: To set the IP address of the server to 192.168.49.29, enter:
sdvars set serveripaddress 192.168.49.29
sdvars set scriptfilename
Purpose: Sets the internal variable scriptfilename to a specified string. The
specified string should be the filename of the script to be retrieved from
the TFTP server.
Syntax: sdvars set scriptfilename foreignfilename
where foreignfilename is a script filename on the TFTP server.
Example: To set the scriptfilename to SCRIPT.DAT, enter:
sdvars set scriptfilename script.dat
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sdvars set starttime
Purpose: Sets the internal variable starttime. Starttime is a countdown
time; that is, when zero is reached, the software download process begins.
Set this variable to reflect how far into the future the access point is to
begin downloading and executing the script file from the TFTP server.
When the timer reaches 0, the access point uses the values in
serveripaddress and scriptfilename to get the script file that is to be
executed. If either serveripaddress or scriptfilename contains no value, an
error is noted in the status variable and the software download process is
terminated.
Syntax: sdvars set starttime dd:hh:mm:ss
where dd:hh:mm:ss is how far in the future the reboot is to begin and
dd
is days.
hh
is hours.
mm is minutes.
ss
is seconds.
Example: To begin the script file download in 5 minutes, enter:
sdvars set starttime 00:00:05:00
Note
If you need to stop the download, you can do so by setting starttime
to 0 if it has not already been reached by the countdown. Resetting
starttime to 0 stops the timer and the download process.
sdvars set checkpoint
Purpose: Sets the internal variable called checkpoint to a specified value.
The checkpoint variable is useful for monitoring the progress of a script file
as it is executed. You can set the checkpoint variable to a different value
after each script command, and then query the checkpoint value using
SNMP to determine the progress of the download.
Syntax: sdvars set checkpoint value
where value is a whole number.
Example: Consider the following script file commands:
sdvars set checkpoint 1
fe 1
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sdvars set checkpoint 2
TFTP get * ap824x.prg 1
sdvars set checkpoint 3
reboot
When the software download is started, you can use SNMP to query its
progress by reading the checkpoint variable. If the variable has a value of
2, you know that the access point is trying to execute the TFTP get
statement. If the value is 3, you know the script has completed and the
reboot was executed. The value of the checkpoint variable may also be
helpful in determining where an error occurred if the script fails.
sdvars set terminate
Purpose: Sets the internal variable terminate to a specified value. Use
terminate to stop a countdown process in the access point. If either
starttime or nextpoweruptime is counting down, setting this variable stops
the timer and halts the countdown process.
Note
You should use caution when using this command. If the script file is
being downloaded or executed, setting this variable interrupts the
processing and can leave the access point in an undetermined state
that may require user intervention.
Syntax: sdvars set terminate
sdvars set setactivepointers
Purpose: Sets the setactivepointers command to change inactive
segments to active segments the next time the access point is rebooted.
This command is usually used with the nextpoweruptime command.
Syntax: sdvars set setactivepointers none/boot/data/both
where:
none
does not change the active segments. The default is none. Also,
when the reboot is completed, the access point resets this value to none.
boot
changes the inactive boot segment to the active boot segment.
data
changes the inactive data segment to the active data segment.
both
changes both the boot and data inactive segments to the active
segments.
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Example: To change the inactive boot and data segments to active at the
next reboot, enter:
sdvars set setactivepointers both
sdvars set nextpoweruptime
Purpose: Sets the nextpoweruptime command to set the internal variable
nextpoweruptime to a countdown time so that when 0 is reached, the
access point will reboot. When the nextpoweruptime counter reaches 0,
the access point checks the value of the setactivepointers variable, takes
the appropriate action, and then reboots.
Note
If you need to terminate the reboot, you can set nextpoweruptime to
0 if it has not already been reached by the countdown. By resetting
nextpoweruptime to 0, the timer stops so the access point does not
reboot.
Syntax: sdvars set nextpoweruptime dd:hh:mm:ss
where dd:hh:mm:ss is how far in the future the reboot is to begin and
dd
is days.
hh
is hours.
mm is minutes.
ss
is seconds.
Example:
To reboot the access point 2 hours from now, enter:
sdvars set nextpoweruptime 00:02:00:00
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Creating Script Files
You can create a script file that executes a series of commands. For
example, when you upgrade the access point, you typically need to erase
the flash memory segment, download the new files, and reboot using the
new software. You can create a script file to perform these commands.
Script files are ASCII text files with a 32-byte file system header
appended. You may need to contact your local representative for a copy of
the header file called FILEHDR.EXE. Follow these rules when creating
script files:
ˆ
The total file size including the header must be less than 4096 bytes,
which is the size of the RAM file segment.
ˆ
Each line in the script file must have fewer than 80 characters
ˆ
Each line in the script file must be terminated by an LF or CR.
ˆ
You can only have one command per line.
ˆ
Any file that is to be uploaded by script must have a file header. This
does not include the script file itself.
ˆ
You can include comments on a line by using the pound (#) sign; all
characters after a pound sign are ignored.
To test a script file, log onto an access point and type each of the script file
commands.
New Sample
Script for
Upgrading an
Access Point
This new sample script upgrades an AT-WA7500 or AT-WA7501 access
point. This script is based on upnopath.dnl, which is included in the AP
upgrade package. A header file is not required. All files are copied into
segment 1: on the access point.
Sample script file for upgrading an access point
file sdvars set checkpoint 1
file fe 1:
file sdvars set checkpoint 2
file tftp get * software\ap824x.dnl 1:
file tftp get * software\boot824x.dnl 1:
file tftp get * software\act.dnl 1:
file tftp get * software\ap3890.dnl 1:
file tftp get * software\applets.dnl 1:
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file tftp get * software\cert.dnl 1:
file tftp get * software\closed.dnl 1:
file tftp get * software\discinca.dnl 1:
file tftp get * software\easdb.dnl 1:
file tftp get * software\echo.dnl 1:
file tftp get * software\favicon.dnl 1:
file tftp get * software\file.dnl 1:
file tftp get * software\fileimp.dnl 1:
file tftp get * software\filemenu.dnl 1:
file tftp get * software\fpga8245.dnl 1:
file tftp get * software\fsys.dnl 1:
file tftp get * software\help.dnl 1:
file tftp get * software\hlp.dnl 1:
file tftp get * software\jsutil.dnl 1:
file tftp get * software\login.dnl 1:
file tftp get * software\logo.dnl 1:
file tftp get * software\logo2.dnl 1:
file tftp get * software\menu.dnl 1:
file tftp get * software\netdwnl.dnl 1:
file tftp get * software\open.dnl 1:
file tftp get * software\sftdwnl.dnl 1:
file tftp get * software\sta3890.dnl 1:
file tftp get * software\stastats.dnl 1:
file tftp get * software\tbldata.dnl 1:
file tftp get * software\tftpcl.dnl 1:
file tftp get * software\tftpsrv.dnl 1:
file tftp get * software\welcome.dnl 1:
file sdvars set checkpoint 5
file sdvars set NextPowerUpTime 00:00:00:5
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Legacy Sample
Script for
Upgrading Any
Access Point
This sample script file was created for older access points with multiple
segments. Although this script specifies segments that do not exist on
AT-WA7500 and AT-WA7501 access points, you can run this script on the
access points without generating errors.
For help understanding these commands, see the command descriptions
in this chapter.
#Sample script file for upgrading an access point
#Step 1: Delete files
file sdvars set checkpoint 1
file fe ib:
file fe id:
#Step 2: Get boot files
file sdvars set checkpoint 2
file tftp get * \data\bootchk.dnl ib:
file tftp get * \startup\uap.dnl ib:
file tftp get * \startup\uapboot.dnl ib:
#Step 3: Get data files
file sdvars set checkpoint 3
file tftp get * \data\bkgrnd.dnl id:
file tftp get * \data\bootchk.dnl id:
file tftp get * \data\discinca.dnl id:
file tftp get * \data\falcon_.dnl id:
file tftp get * \data\help.dnl id:
file tftp get * \data\hlp.dnl id:
file tftp get * \data\intermec.dnl id:
file tftp get * \data\menu.dnl id:
file tftp get * \data\sftdwnl.dnl id:
file tftp get * \data\welcome.dnl id:
file tftp get * \data\write.dnl id:
#Step 4: Set checkpoint to show completed
file sdvars set checkpoint 4
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Copying Files To and From the Access Point
You can accomplish a variety of file import/export tasks from the File
Import/Export screen. In the menu bar, click File Import/Export, and the
File Import and Export screen appears.
From this screen you can perform these tasks, which are described next:
ˆ
To import or export an EAS RADIUS database file
ˆ
To transfer files to the access point using your web browser
ˆ
To view and copy files from the access point using your web browser
ˆ
To transfer files to and from a TFTP server
ˆ
To start or stop the TFTP server
ˆ
To automatically upgrade software (in a network with older access
point software)
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Importing or
Exporting an
EAS RADIUS
Database File
To import or export an EAS RADIUS database file
1. Click Read or write the EAS RADIUS database. The EAS Database
Import/Export screen appears.
2. To import a file, enter of select the name of the database file to import
and click Import Database.
Note
For details about the purpose and format of import files, scroll down
this screen and read the help text.
3. To export a database, click Export the EAS database from this access
point. The export link can be used to extract the current database from
the access point into a comma separated text file format. This file can
be used to propagate the database to another access point. 802.1x
(PEAP) entries are exported as type 802.1x (TTLS) entries.
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Transferring
Files Using Your
Web Browser
To transfer files to the access point using your web browser
1. Click Transfer files to this device using your browser. The File Import
screen appears.
2. (Optional) You can type a filename in the first input field to specify the
name that the file will have on the access point.
To import a file to the memory card, use the app segment identifier
alone (app) or with a file name (app:test.txt).
3. In the second input field, type the file name or click Browse to select
the file to be imported to the device.
4. When the correct file name is displayed in the input field, click Import to
start the file transfer.
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Viewing and
Copying Files
Using Your Web
Browser
To view and copy files from the access point using your web browser
1. Click View the file system directory from this device using your
browser. The File System Directory screen appears.
Note
The segment column on this screen contains the identifier AB, which
indicates that single flash memory segment on an access point. For
help, see “Understanding the Access Point Segments” on page 264.
The segment column could contain APP, which would indicate a file
stored on the memory card.
2. Click any file name to transfer the file from the access point to your
PC.
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Transferring
Files to and from
a TFTP Server
To transfer files to and from a TFTP server
1. Click Transfer files to or from this device using the TFTP client. The
TFTP Client screen appears.
2. In the Server IP Address field, enter the IP address or DNS name of
the TFTP server.
3. In the Server File Name field, type the name in the format required by
the operating system of the server.
4. In the Local File Name field, type the file name for the file on the
device. Access point filenames (for software release 2.2 or later) use
this format: segment:filename, where segment is 1 for memory or app
for the memory card.
When performing TFTP GET commands, this field need only contain
the segment identifier (1 or app) because the file name is determined
by the header of the downloaded file.
5. Click Get or Put.
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Starting or
Stopping the
TFTP Server
To start or stop the TFTP server
1. Click Start or stop the TFTP server. The TFTP Server screen appears.
2. Click Stop Server to stop the TFTP server. Or click Start Server to start
the TFTP server.
You can also use the TFTP SERVER START and STOP commands,
described on page 282, to start and stop the TFTP server.
Automatically
Upgrading
Software
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To automatically upgrade software (in a network with older access point
software)
1. Click Upgrade software using automated software download. The
Automated Software Download screen appears.
AT-WA7500 and AT-WA7501 Installation and User’s Guide
2. In the Server IP Address field, type the IP address of an active TFTP
server from which the software download script file will be retrieved.
3. In the Script File Name field, type the name of a file on the TFTP
server that contains the commands that define the download process.
4. In the Start Time field, enter the time in the format dd:hh:mm:ss
(days:hours:minutes:seconds). When this timer expires, the access
point performs a TFTP get to read the script file from the server and
begins execution of the software download script.
5. In the Next Power Up Time field, enter the time in the format
dd:hh:mm:ss (days:hours:minutes:seconds). When this timer expires,
the access point will reboot, allowing the new firmware to take affect.
6. Click Start.
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Appendix A
Specifications
This appendix contains AT-WA7500 and AT-WA7501 specifications for
reference purposes only. Actual product performance and compliance with
local telecommunications regulations may vary from country to country.
Allied Telesyn only ships products that are type approved in the
destination country.
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AT-7500 Access Point
Table 80. AT-7500 Technical Specifications
Dimensions
HxLxW
4.6 cm x 25.0 cm x 15.9 cm
(1.8 in x9.8 in x 6.3 in)
Weight
526 g (1.16 lb)
POE Electrical Rating
x 48V, 315 mA
Operating temperature
-20oC to +55oC (-4oF to +131oF)
Storage temperature
-40oC to +70oC (-40oF to +158oF)
Humidity (non-condensing)
10 to 90%
Architecture
Transparent bridge
Ethernet interfaces
10Base-T/100Base-TX (twisted-pair)
Ethernet compatibility
Ethernet frame types and Ethernet addressing
Ethernet data rate
10 Mbps/100 Mbps (Ethernet)
Radios supported
IEEE 802.11g, IEEE 802.11b, IEEE 802.11a
Media Access protocol
CSMA/CD
Filters (protocol)
IP, IPX, NetBEUI, DECNET, AppleTalk
Filters (others)
IP, ARP, Novell RIP, SAP, LSP
Serial port maximum data
rate
115,200 bps
Management interfaces
Web browser-based manager, text-based menu
system, serial port, Telnet, SNMP
SNMP agent
RFC 1213 (MIB-2), RFC 1398 (dot3), RFC 1493
(Bridge), 802.11, 802.1x
Regulatory Approvals
EN 550022/CISPR 22 Class A; FCC Part 15 &
ICES-003 Class A; C tick Marked (AS 3548); CE
Market, Compliant with RTT&E, EMC, LVD
directives; (See separate radio approvals); UL
Listed 1950 & IEC 60529-IP53; CSA Certified,
C22.2 #950 & C22.3 #94-ENC 3.5; TUV
Licensed, EN 60950 & EN 60529-IP53; NYCE
Certified, NOM 19, plenum-rated
299
Appendix A: Specifications
AT-7501 Access Point
Table 81. AT-7501 Technical Specifications
300
Dimensions
HxLxW
9.5 cm x 35.0 cm x 23.6 cm
(3.8 in x 14.0 in x 5.8 in)
Weight
2.63 kg (5.8 lb)
AC electrical rating
Standard:
~100 to 240V, 1.0 to 0.5A, 50 to 60 Hz
Heater (optional)
~100 to 120V, 1.0A, 50 to 60 Hz
or ~200 to 240V, 0.5A, 50 to 60 Hz
POE Electrical Rating
x 48V, 315 mA
Operating temperature
Standard
-25oC to +70oC (-13oF to +158oF)
Heater (optional) AC only
-30oC to +70oC (-22oF to +158oF)
Heater/insulated bag (optional), AC only
-30oC to +0oC (-22oF to +32oF)
Storage temperature
-40oC to +70oC (-40oF to +158oF)
Humidity (non-condensing)
10 to 90%
Industrial sealing
IP54 (NEMA 4)
Architecture
Transparent bridge
Ethernet interfaces
10Base-T/100Base-TX (twisted-pair)
Ethernet compatibility
Ethernet frame types and Ethernet addressing
Ethernet data rate
10 Mbps/100 Mbps (Ethernet)
100 Mbps (Fiber optic)
Fiber optic interface
(optional)
MT-RJ
Radios supported
IEEE 802.11g, IEEE 802.11b, IEEE 802.11a
Media Access protocol
CSMA/CD
Filters (protocol)
IP, IPX, NetBEUI, DECNET, AppleTalk
Filters (others)
IP, ARP, Novell RIP, SAP, LSP
AT-WA7500 and AT-WA7501 Installation and User’s Guide
Table 81. AT-7501 Technical Specifications
Serial port maximum data
rate
115,200 bps
Management interfaces
Web browser-based manager, text-based menu system,
serial port, Telnet, SNMP
SNMP agent
RFC 1213 (MIB-2), RFC 1398 (dot3), RFC 1493
(Bridge), 802.11, 802.1x
Regulatory Approvals
EN 55022/CISPR 22 Class A; FCC Part 15 & ICES-003
Class A; C tick Marked (AS 3548); CE Market, Compliant
with RTT&E, EMC, LVD directives; (See separate radio
approvals); UL Listed 1950/C22.2 #950 IEC; 60529-IP53
and C22.2 #94-ENC 3.5; TUV Licensed, EN 60950 & EN
60539-IP53; NYCE Certified, NOM 19, plenum-rated
301
Appendix A: Specifications
Radio Specifications
IEEE 802.11g
Table 82. IEEE 802.11g Radio Technical Specifications
Frequency band
2.4 to 2.5 GHz worldwide
Type
Direct sequence, spread spectrum
Modulation
Direct sequence, spread spectrum (CCK,
DQPSK, DBPSK)
Power output
63 mW (18 dBm)
Basic data rate
11, 5.5, 2, and 1 Mbps
Extended data rate
54, 48, 36, 24, 18, 12, 9, and 6 Mbps
Channels
11 (North America), 13 (Europe), 4 (France), 14
(Japan). 1 (Israel)
Range (Maximum
power output, 11
Mbps)a
160 m (525 ft) open environment
50 m (165 ft) semi-open environment
24 m (80 ft) in closed environment
Unlimited range with roaming
Receiver sensitivity
(11 Mbps)
-82 dBm
Security
IEEE 802.11 Wired Equivalent Privacy (WEP)
standard, WEP 64, WEP 128, Wi-Fi Protected
Access (WPA)
a. Lowering the power output level reduces the range.
IEEE 802.11b
Table 83. IEEE 802.11b Radio Technical Specifications
302
Frequency band
2.4 to 2.5 GHz worldwide
Type
Direct sequence, spread spectrum
Modulation
Direct sequence, spread spectrum (CCK,
DQPSK, DBPSK)
Power output
32 mW (15 dBm)
Data rate
11 Mbps (High), 5.5 Mbps (Medium), 2 Mbps
(Standard), 1 Mbps (Low) with automatic
fallback for increased range
AT-WA7500 and AT-WA7501 Installation and User’s Guide
Table 83. IEEE 802.11b Radio Technical Specifications
Channels
11 (North America), 13 (Europe), 4 (France), 14
(Japan). 1 (Israel)
Range (11 Mbps)
160 m (525 ft) open environment
50 m (165 ft) semi-open environment
24 m (80 ft) in closed environment
Unlimited range with roaming
Receiver sensitivity
(11 Mbps)
-82 dBm
Security
IEEE 802.11 Wired Equivalent Privacy (WEP)
standard, WEP 64, WEP 128, Wi-Fi Protected
Access (WPA)
IEEE 802.11a
Table 84. IEEE 802.11a Radio Technical Specifications
Frequency band
Full range:
5.15 to 5.35 GHz (Indoor only)
Mid range
5.25 to 5.35 GHz (Indoor and outdoor)
Type
Direct sequence, spread spectrum
Power output
40mW
Data rate
802.11 compliant mode: 54 Mbps, 48 Mbps, 36
Mbps, 24 Mbps, 12 Mbps, 6 Mbps with
automatic fallback for increased range
Turbo mode: 72 Mbps, 48 Mbps, 36 Mbps, 24
Mbps, 12 Mbps with automatic fallback for
increased range
Channels
802.11 compliant mode (Full range): 8 (North
America)
802.11 compliant mode (Mid range): 4 (North
America)
Turbo mode: 3 (North America)
303
Appendix A: Specifications
Table 84. IEEE 802.11a Radio Technical Specifications
304
Range (depending
on environment)
248 m (813.7 ft)
240 m (787.4 ft)
175 m (574.2 ft)
132 m (433.1 ft)
56 m (183.7 ft)
37 m (121.4 ft)
19 m (62.3 ft)
Receiver sensitivity
(54 Mbps)
-68 dBm
6 Mbps
12 Mbps
18 Mbps
24 Mbps
36 Mbps
48 Mbps
54 Mbps
Appendix B
Default Settings
This appendix provides factory defaults for reference purposes only.
The factory default settings for the access points are listed in this section.
You can record the settings for your installation in each table for reference.
305
Appendix B: Default Settings
TCP/IP Settings Menu Defaults
Table 85. TCP/IP Settings Menu Defaults
Parameter
Name
306
Range
Default
IP Address
4 nodes, 0 to
255 or DNS
name
0.0.0.0
IP Subnet Mask
4 nodes, 0 to
255
255.255.255.0
IP Router
(Gateway)
4 nodes, 0 to
255
0.0.0.0
DNS Address 1
4 nodes, 0 to
255
0.0.0.0
DNS Address 2
4 nodes, 0 to
255
0.0.0.0
DNS Suffix 1
0 to 31
characters
(blank)
DNS Suffix 2
0 to 31
characters
(blank)
DHCP Mode
Always use
DHCP, Use
DHCP if IP
Address is
Zero, Disable
DHCP, This AP
is a DHCP
Server
Use DHCP if IP
Address is Zero
DHCP Server
Name
0 to 31
characters
(blank)
DHCP User
Class
DHCP user
class identifier,
as defined in
RFC 2132
(blank)
DHCP Vendor
Class
DHCP vendor
class identifier,
as defined in
RFC 2132
(blank)
Your Site?
AT-WA7500 and AT-WA7501 Installation and User’s Guide
Table 85. TCP/IP Settings Menu Defaults
Parameter
Name
Range
Default
DHCP for
Access Point
Network
Use Any
Available
DHCP Server,
Only Use
Access Point
DHCP Server
Use Any
Available
DHCP Server
Auto ARP
Minutes
0 to 120
5
Your Site?
307
Appendix B: Default Settings
DHCP Server Setup Menu Defaults
Table 86. DHCP Server Setup Menu Defaults
Parameter
Name
308
Range
Default
Low
Address
4 nodes, 0 to 255
10.10.10.100
High
Address
4 nodes, 0 to 255
10.10.10.199
Lease Time
days:hours:minutes
0:00:20
Permanently
Save IP
Address
Mappings
Check/Clear
Clear
IP Subnet
Mask
4 nodes, 0 to 255
255.255.255.0
Your Site?
AT-WA7500 and AT-WA7501 Installation and User’s Guide
IEEE 802.11g Radio Menu Defaults
Table 87. 802.11g Radio Menu Defaults
Parameter Name
Range
Default
Frequency
Channel 1 to
11, 2412 to
2462 MHz
Channel 03,
2422 MHz
Node Type
Master, Station,
Disabled
Master
SSID (Network
Name)
0 to 32
characters
atilan
Member Limit
128 or 100
128 for Primary,
100 for
Secondary
Your Site?
Advanced Configuration
Client Type/
Performance
11b/11g with
range reliability
(Not Wi-FI),
11b/11g with
Wi-Fi
compatible
rates (Wi-Fi),
11g only for
better
throughput (WiFi)
11b/11g with
range reliability
(Not Wi-FI)
Power Output
Level
Maximum,
Medium, Low,
Minimum
Maximum
Enable Medium
Reservation
Check/Clear
Clear
Reservation
Threshold
(Appears if
Enable Medium
Reservation is
enabled)
1 to 65535
500
Fragmentation
256 to 2346
1600
309
Appendix B: Default Settings
Table 87. 802.11g Radio Menu Defaults
Parameter Name
Range
Default
Antenna Control
Two Antennas/
One Antenna
One Antenna
Mixed Mode
Performance
Optimize Mixed
(802.11b and
802.11g),
Optimize for
802.11g clients,
Optimize for
802.11b clients
Optimize Mixed
(802.11b and
802.11g)
Disallow
Network Name
of ‘ANY’
Check/Clear
Clear
DTIM Period
1 to 65535
1
Inbound Filters (Primary Only)
310
Allow IAPP
Check/Clear
Check
Allow Wireless
Transport
Protocol (WTP)
Check/Clear
Check
Allow UDP Plus
(UDP/IP Port
5555)
Check/Clear
Check
Allow DHCP
Check/Clear
Check
Allow All Other
Protocols
Check/Clear
Check
Your Site?
AT-WA7500 and AT-WA7501 Installation and User’s Guide
IEEE 802.11b Radio Menu Defaults
Table 88. 802.11b Radio Menu Defaults
Parameter
Name
Range
Default
Node Type
Master, Station,
Disabled
Master
SSID (Network
Name)
0 to 32 characters
atilan
Frequency
Channel 1 to 11,
2412 to 2462 MHz
Channel 03,
2422 MHz
Your Site?
Advanced Configuration Parameters
Data Rate
11, 5.5, 2, or 1
Mbps
11 Mbps (High)
Allow Data
Rate Fallback
Check/Clear
Check
Basic Rate
11, 5.5, 2, or 1
Mbps
2 Mbps
(Standard)
Enable
Medium
Reservation
Check/Clear
Clear
Reservation
Threshold
(Appears if
Enable
Medium
Reservation is
enabled)
1 to 65535
500
Distance
Between APs
Large, Medium, or
Small
Large
Enable
Microwave
Oven
Robustness
Check/Clear
Clear
Enable Load
Balancing
Check/Clear
Clear
311
Appendix B: Default Settings
Table 88. 802.11b Radio Menu Defaults
Parameter
Name
Range
Default
Enable
Medium
Density
Distribution
Check/Clear
Clear
Data/Voice
Settings
Data Traffic Only,
Data and
SpectraLink
Traffic,
SpectraLink
Traffic Only
Data Traffic
only
Disallow
Network
Name of
‘ANY’
Check/Clear
Clear
DTIM Period
1 to 65535
1
Inbound Filters Parameters
312
Allow IAPP
Check/Clear
Check
Allow
Wireless
Transport
Protocol
(WTP)
Check/Clear
Check
Allow
SpectraLink
Voice Protocol
(SVP)
Check/Clear
Check
Allow UDP
Plus (UDP/IP
Port 5555)
Check/Clear
Check
Allow DHCP
Check/Clear
Check
Allow All
Other
Protocols
Check/Clear
Check
Your Site?
AT-WA7500 and AT-WA7501 Installation and User’s Guide
IEEE 802.11a Radio Menu Defaults
Table 89. 802.11a Radio Menu Defaults
Parameter
Name
Range
Default
Frequency
Dynamic, 36, 40,
42, 44, 48, 50, 52,
56, 58, 60, 64
(full-range)
Channel 36,
5180 MHz IEEE
(mid-range)
Channel 52,
5260 MHz IEEE
Allow Wireless
Access Points
On Primary
On Secondary 1
On Secondary 2
On Secondary 3
Do not allow
wireless access
points
On Primary
Node Type
Master, Station,
Disabled
Master
SSID (Network
Name)
0 to 32 characters
atilan
Your Site?
Advanced Configuration Parameters
Power Output
Level
Maximum,
Medium, Low,
Minimum
Maximum
Data Rate
54, 48, 36, 24, 12,
or 6 Mbps
54 Mbps (High)
Allow Data
Rate Fallback
Check/Clear
Check
Basic Rate
24, 12, 6 Mbps
6 Mbps (Low)
Reservation
Threshold
(2347 to
Disable)
1 to 65535
2347
Fragmentation
Threshold
256 to 2346
2346
313
Appendix B: Default Settings
Table 89. 802.11a Radio Menu Defaults
Parameter
Name
Range
Default
Reservation
Threshold
(2347 to
Disable)
1 to 65535
2347
Fragmentation
Threshold
256 to 2346
2346
Disallow
Network
Name of ‘ANY’
Check/Clear
Clear
Beacon Period
20 to 1000 TU
100
DTIM Period
1 to 5
1
Allow IAPP
Check/Clear
Check
Allow Wireless
Transport
Protocol
(WTP)
Check/Clear
Check
Allow UDP
Plus (UDP/IP
Port 5555)
Check/Clear
Check
Allow DHCP
Check/Clear
Check
Allow All Other
Protocols
Check/Clear
Check
Inbound Filters
314
Your Site?
AT-WA7500 and AT-WA7501 Installation and User’s Guide
Spanning Tree Settings Menu Defaults
Table 90. Spanning Tree Setting Menu Defaults
Parameter
Name
Range
Default
AP Name
0 to 16
characters
(access point
serial number)
LAN ID
(Domain)
0 to 254
0
Root Priority
0 to 7
1
Enable
Ethernet
Bridging
Check/Clear
Check
Enable GVRP
for VLAN
Check/Clear
Clear
Rightmost LED
Behavior
Ready-to-Work
Indicator/
Spanning Tree
Root Indicator
Ready-to-Work
Enable
Ethernet
Bridging
Check/Clear
Check
Secondary LAN
Bridge Priority
0 to 7
0
Secondary LAN
Flooding
Enabled,
Multicast,
Unicast,
Disabled
Disabled
Your Site?
315
Appendix B: Default Settings
Global Flooding Menu Defaults
Table 91. Global Flooding Menu Defaults
Parameter
Name
Range
Default
Multicast
Flooding
Universal,
Hierarchical,
Disabled
Hierarchical
Multicast
Outbound to
Secondary
LANs
Enabled
globally/Set
locally
Set locally
Allow Multicast
Outbound to
Terminals
Check/Clear
Check
Unicast
Flooding
Universal,
Hierarchical,
Disabled
Disabled
If Unicast Flooding is Universal or Hierarchical
Unicast
Outbound to
Secondary
LANs
Enabled
globally/Set
locally
Set locally
Allow Unicast
Outbound to
Terminals
Check/Clear
Check
Check/Clear
Check
Enable ARP
Flooding
316
Your Site?
AT-WA7500 and AT-WA7501 Installation and User’s Guide
Global RF Parameters Menu Defaults
Table 92. Global RF Parameters Menu Defaults
Parameter
Name
Perform
RFC1042/DIX
Conversion
Range
Check/Clear
Default
Your Site?
Check
S-UHF Rfp Threshold
Set Globally
Enabled/
Disabled
Disabled
Value
0 to 250 bytes
70 bytes
Set Globally
Enabled/
Disabled
Disabled
Value
50 to 250 bytes
250 bytes
S-UHF Frag Size
902 MHz Frag Size
Set Globally
Enabled/
Disabled
Disabled
Value
50 to 250 bytes
250 bytes
S-UHF/902 MHz Awake Time
Set Globally
Enabled/
Disabled
Disabled
Value
0 to 250 tenths
of a second
10 (902 MHz)
20 (S-UHF)
RFC1042 Types to Pass Through
1
Two sets of
hexadecimal
pairs 00
through FF.
80 F3
2
Two sets of
hexadecimal
pairs 00
through FF.
81 37
317
Appendix B: Default Settings
Table 92. Global RF Parameters Menu Defaults
Parameter
Name
3 through 20
318
Range
Two sets of
hexadecimal
pairs 00
through FF.
Default
00 00
Your Site?
AT-WA7500 and AT-WA7501 Installation and User’s Guide
Telnet Gateway Configuration Menu Defaults
Table 93. Telnet Gateway Configuration Menu Defaults
Parameter
Name
Range
Default
Host Name
IP address or
DNS name
(blank)
Host Port
23
23
Term Port
Off, 23,5000,
5001, 5002,
5003, 5004,
5005, 5006,
5007, 5008,
5008
Off
Idle Time
1 to 255
0 (disabled)
Lost Time
1 to 255
0 (disabled)
Your Site?
319
Appendix B: Default Settings
Ethernet Configuration Menu Defaults
Table 94. Ethernet Configuration Menu Defaults
Parameter
Name
Range
Default
Port Type
10/100 Mb TwistedPair
100 Mb Fiber Optic
10/100 Mb
Twisted-Pair
Link Speed
Auto Select, 100
Mbps Full-Duplex,
100 Mbps HalfDuplex, 10 Mbps
Full-Duplex, 10
Mbps Half-Duplex
Auto Select
Enable Link
Status Check
Check/Clear
Clear
Six sets of
hexadecimal pairs
00 through FF.
00 00 00 00 00
00
Address Table
1 through 20
Frame Type Filters
Allow/Pass
Check/Clear
Check
Scope
Unlisted/All
Unlisted
Predefined Subtype Filters
Allow/Pass
320
Check/Clear
Check
Your Site?
AT-WA7500 and AT-WA7501 Installation and User’s Guide
Ethernet
Advanced Filters
Menu Defaults
Table 95. Ethernet Advanced Filters Menu Defaults
Parameter
Name
Range
Default
Your Site?
Customizable Subtype Filters
Allow/Pass
Check/Clear
Check
SubType
DIX-IP-TCP-Port,
DIX-IP-UDP-Port,
DIX-IP-Protocol,
DIX-IPX-Socket,
DIX-EtherType,
SNAP-IP-TCP-Port,
SNAP -IP-UDP-Port,
SNAP -IP-Protocol,
SNAP -IPX-Socket,
SNAP -EtherType,
802.3-IPX-Socket,
802.2 -IPX-Socket,
802.2-SAP
DIX-IP-TCP-Port
Value
Two sets of
hexadecimal pairs
00 through FF.
00 00
Filter Values
Value ID
0
Value
(blank)
Filter Expressions
ExprSeq
0
Offset
0
Mask
(blank)
Op
EQ, NE, GT, LE
Value ID
Action
EQ
0
And, Pass, Drop
And
321
Appendix B: Default Settings
IP Tunnels Menu Defaults
Table 96. IP Tunnels Menu Defaults
Parameter Name
Range
Default
Mode
Listen, Originate If
Root, Disabled
Listen
Enable IGMP
(Appears if Mode
is Listen)
Check/Clear
Clear
Multicast Address
(Appears if Enable
IGMP is checked)
4 nodes, 0 to 255
224.0.1.65
Allow IP Multicast
(Appears if Mode
is Originate if
Root)
Check/Clear
Clear
IP Addresses (1-8)
(Appears if Mode
is Originate if
Root)
4 nodes, 0 to 255
or DNS name up to
31 characters
(blank)
Tunnels Filter
Menu Defaults
Table 97. Tunnel Filters Menu Defaults
Parameter Name
Range
Default
Frame Type Filters
Allow/Pass
Check/Clear
Clear
Scope
Unlisted/All
Unlisted
Predefined Subtype Filters
Allow/Pass
Check/Clear
Clear (except
Check for
NNL)
Customizable Subtype Filters
Allow/Pass
322
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Check/Clear
Clear
Your Site?
AT-WA7500 and AT-WA7501 Installation and User’s Guide
Table 97. Tunnel Filters Menu Defaults
Parameter Name
Range
Default
SubType
DIX-IP-TCP-Port,
DIX-IP-UDP-Port,
DIX-IP-Protocol,
DIX-IPX-Socket,
DIX-EtherType,
SNAP-IP-TCPPort,
SNAP -IP-UDPPort,
SNAP -IP-Protocol,
SNAP -IPX-Socket,
SNAP -EtherType,
802.3-IPX-Socket,
802.2 -IPX-Socket,
802.2-SAP
DIX-IP-TCPPort
Value
Two sets of
hexadecimal pairs
00 through FF.
00 00
Your Site?
323
Appendix B: Default Settings
Network Management Menu Defaults
Table 98. Network Management Menu Defaults
Parameter Name
Instant On Menu
Defaults
Default
SNMP Read
Community
1 to 15
characters
public
SNMP Write
Community
1 to 15
characters
CR52401
SNMP Secret
Community
1 to 15
characters
Secret
Avalanche Agent
Name
IP address or
DNS name
(blank)
Your Site?
Table 99. Instant On Menu Defaults
Parameter Name
324
Range
Range
Default
Enable Instant On
Server
Check/Clear
Clear
Enable Secure
Credential
Creation (Appears
if Enable Instant
On Server is
enabled)
Check/Clear
Clear
Your Site?
AT-WA7500 and AT-WA7501 Installation and User’s Guide
Security Menu Defaults
Table 100. Security Menu Defaults
Parameter
Name
Range
Default
Browser
Access
Secure-Only
(Port 443),
Enabled
(Port 80/443),
Disabled
Enabled (Port
80/443)
Allow Telnet
Access (Port
23)
Check/Clear
Check
Allow SNMP
Access
(Port 161/162)
Check/Clear
Check
Allow TFTP
Access
(Read-Only)
Check/Clear
Check
Allow ICMP
Configuration
Check/Clear
Check
Allow
Avalanche
Access
Check/Clear
Check
Passwords Menu
Defaults
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Table 101. Password Menu Defaults
Parameter
Name
Range
Default
Use RADIUS
for Login
Authorization
Check/Clear
Clear
User Name
1 to 32
characters (Not
case sensitive)
atilan
Your Site?
325
Appendix B: Default Settings
Table 101. Password Menu Defaults
Parameter
Name
IEEE 802.11 (g, b
or a) Radio
Security Menu
Defaults
326
Range
Default
Password
1 to 32
characters (Not
case sensitive)
atilan
Read Only
Password
1 to 32
characters (Not
case sensitive)
(blank)
Allow Service
Password
Check/Clear
Check
Your Site?
Table 102. IEEE 802.11g/b/a Radio Security Menu Defaults
Parameter
Name
Range
Default
Enable ACL
Client
Authorization
Check/Clear
Clear
Enable
Alternative
Method ACL
Check/Clear
Clear
ACL RADIUS
Client
Password
(Appears if
Enable ACL
Client
Authorization is
enabled)
1 to 32
characters
wireless
VLAN
1-4094
1 (Disabled)
Security Level
None, Static
WEP, Dynamic
WEP/802.1x,
WPA/PSK,
WPA + 802.1x
None
Must match the
password
configured in
the external
RADIUS
server)
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AT-WA7500 and AT-WA7501 Installation and User’s Guide
Table 102. IEEE 802.11g/b/a Radio Security Menu Defaults
Parameter
Name
Range
Default
Your Site?
If Security Level is Static WEP
WEP Transmit
Key
1, 2, 3, or 4
1
WEP Key 1 to
4
5 ASCII
characters (or
hex pairs) to 16
ACSII
characters (or
hex pairs)
80211
If Security Level is Dynamic WEP/802.1x
Key Rotation
Period
Any number
5
If Security Level is WPA/PSK
Multicast
Encryption
Type
TKIP
TKIP
Pre-share Key
256 (32 byte)
hexadecimal
value or an
ASCII passphrase
(blank)
Key Rotation
Period
Any number
5
If Security Level is WPA + 802.1x
Multicast
Encryption
Type
WEP, TKIP
TKIP
Key Rotation
Period
Any number
5
327
Appendix B: Default Settings
RADIUS Server
List Menu
Defaults
Table 103. RADIUS Server List Menu Defaults
Parameter
Name
Range
Default
IP Address/
DNS name
4 nodes, 0 to
255 or DNS
name
0.0.0.0
Secret Key
16 to 32 bytes
(factory default)
Port
1-65535
Recommended
range is
49152-65535
1812
802.1x
Check/Clear
Clear except
Servers 5 and 6
ACL
Check/Clear
Clear except
Servers 3 and 4
Login
Check/Clear
Clear except
Servers 1 and 2
Spanning Tree
Security Menu
Defaults
Table 104. Spanning Tree Security Menu Defaults
Parameter
Name
Secure IAPP
Range
Check/Clear
Default
Clear
If 802.1x security or Secure IAPP is enabled
328
Your Site?
IAPP Secret
Key
16 to 32 bytes
(factory default)
Allow SWAP
Check/Clear
Check
Allow TLS
Check/Clear
Clear
Allow TTLS
Check/Clear
Check
Preferred
Protocol
SWAP/TLS/
TTLS
TTLS
User Name
1 to 31
characters
anonymous
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AT-WA7500 and AT-WA7501 Installation and User’s Guide
Table 104. Spanning Tree Security Menu Defaults
Parameter
Name
Embedded
Authentication
Server Menu
Defaults
Range
Default
Password
1 to 31
characters
anonymous
Verify CA
Certificate
Check/Clear
Clear
Your Site?
Table 105. Embedded Authentication Server Menu Defaults
Parameter
Name
Enable Server
Range
Check/Clear
Default
Your Site?
Clear
If Enable Server is enabled
Default Secret
Key
16 to 32 bytes
(factory default)
UDP Port
49152-65535
1812
Authorization
Time
hh:dd:mm
0:01:00
Enable PEAP
Fast Reconnect
Check/Clear
Check
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Appendix C
Glossary
ARP (Address Resolution Protocol) cache
A table that stores IP addresses and their corresponding MAC addresses.
The access point maintains an ARP cache and can act as an ARP server.
BFSK (Binary Frequency Shift Key)
A broadcasting method that lengthens the range but halves the throughput
as compared to the QFSK method. In access points using an OpenAir
radio, the radio can be configured so that it automatically switches to this
method when the RF protocol determines that throughput is degrading due
to range. The transmit mode parameter determines if BFSK will be used.
The default setting for transmit mode is AUTO, which allows this automatic
switching to occur.
broadcast
A type of transmission in which a message sent from the host is received
by many devices on the system.
data link tunneling
An access point feature that encapsulates the data into an OWL data
frame. This frame is then forwarded via the Ethernet port to the next
access point on the path and so on until the frame reaches the root access
point or designated bridge. The root access point or designated bridge
unencapsulates the frame and forwards it to the host. When the root
access point or designated bridge receives data on the Ethernet network
for an end device, it reverses this process.
You should only use data link tunneling if you have Ethernet switches that
do not support the IEEE 802.1d requirements for backward learning or if
you are using IP tunnels to provide mobility of other routable protocols.
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To enable data link tunneling, disable Ethernet bridging.
designated bridge
Also called a secondary LAN bridge. An access point that is assigned the
role of bridging frames destined for or received from a secondary LAN. A
designated bridge connects a secondary LAN with the primary LAN. In the
access point, the secondary LAN bridge priority parameter determines if
the access point is a candidate to become the designated bridge.
DHCP (Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol)
An Internet standard stack protocol that allows dynamic distribution of IP
address and other configuration information to IP hosts on a network.
Implementation of the DHCP client in Allied Telesyn network devices
simplifies installation because the devices automatically receive IP
addresses from a DHCP server on the network.
directional antenna
An antenna (often called a yagi) that transmits and receives RF signals
more in one direction than others. This radiation pattern is similar to the
light that a flashlight produces. These antennas have a narrower beam
width, which limits coverage on the sides of the antennas. Directional
antennas have much higher gain than omni antennas and work best for
covering large narrow areas or on point-to-point bridges.
distribution LAN
Any Ethernet LAN attached to access points that are bridging between the
Ethernet LAN and the radio network. At any given time, only one access
point in a distribution LAN provides access to the Ethernet LAN for a given
node in the domain.
DIX
A standardized Ethernet frame format developed by Digital Equipment
Corporation, Intel Corporation, and Xerox. Another frame format is 802.3.
EAP (Extensible Authentication Protocol)
Used in 802.1x-enabled networks. A standard mechanism for support of
different authentication methods. EAP authentication types provide
devices with secure connections to the network as well as protect
credentials and data privacy. See also “TLS” and “TTLS.”
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Ethernet bridging
When an access point receives wireless traffic and the destination
address is known, it forwards frames to the port with the shortest path to
the destination address. When the access point has not learned the
direction of the shortest path for the destination address, it forwards
frames based on flooding settings to try to locate the destination address.
flooding
A frame is flooded when the destination location is unknown. The
destination location of a multicast frame is never known. Unicast and
multicast flooding parameters determine how a flooded frame is
forwarded.
hello period
A time increment (usually 1, 2, or 3 seconds) that determines how often
the access point sends out a type of multicast frame so that it can
dynamically discover and test connections to other devices in the network.
Once this information is learned, the access point and routers can
exchange routing information.
home IP subnet
Also called the root IP subnet and primary LAN. The IP subnet that
contains the root access point. If wireless end devices need to roam
between IP subnets, each end device needs to have an IP address from
the home IP subnet.
IAPP (Inter Access Point Protocol)
Access points use this protocol to communicate with each other. For
example, when a wireless end device roams to a new access point, the
new access point informs the old access points via the root access point
that any traffic for the end device needs to be routed to the new access
point.
This protocol also allows 802.1x-ready devices to roam seamlessly
through the network without having to reauthenticate after each roam.
IAPP distributes security credentials throughout the network. When an
end device roams from one access point to another, its credentials are
also transferred.
Secure IAPP prevents unauthorized Allied Telesyn access products from
joining the spanning tree and it encrypts IAPP frames. If you enable
secure IAPP, access points will use SWAP to create secure wireless hops
when communicating with each other.
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IGMP (Internet Group Management Protocol)
A standard protocol that lets you originate multiple IP tunnels using one IP
multicast address. IGMP allows IP multicast frames to be routed to remote
IP subnets that have hosts participating in the multicast group. By enabling
IGMP, access points can act as IP hosts and participate in an IP multicast
group.
inbound frames
Frames moving toward the primary LAN.
IP router
A software and hardware connection between two or more subnetworks
that permits traffic to be routed from one network to another on the basis of
the intended destinations.
IP subnet
A single member of the collection of hardware networks that comprise an
IP network. Host addresses on a given subnet share an IP network
number with hosts on all other subnets of the IP network. The local
address is divided into subnet-number and host-number fields to indicate
which subnet a host is on.
IP tunneling
IP tunneling is used on networks with routers. IP tunneling allows wireless
end devices to roam across IP subnet boundaries without losing
connection. IP tunneling encapsulates standard IP frames with Generic
Routing Encapsulation (GRE) and forwards the frames from the root
access point on a home IP subnet to another access point on a remote IP
subnet. IP tunneling is done through the access points’ logical IP ports.
MAC address
There are two types of MAC addresses: unicast and broadcast. Unicast
specifies a single Ethernet interface, while multicast specifies a group of
Ethernet addresses. Broadcast is a variation of multicast in which a
multicast is received by all interfaces.
MIB (Management Information Base)
This repository stores network traffic information that SNMP management
programs collect. Your network administrator can use management
software interacting with the MIB to obtain information about network
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activity. The MIB for the access point is available from the Allied Telesyn
web site at www.alliedtelesyn.com.
multicast address
A form of broadcast address through which copies of the frame are
delivered to a subset of all possible destinations that have a common
multicast address.
NAT (Network Address Translation)
A mechanism for reducing the need for different IP addresses. NAT allows
an organization with IP addresses that are not unique to connect to the
network by translating those addresses into routable address space. The
access point can act as a DHCP/NAT server.
non-bridging secondary LAN
A secondary LAN that does not have a designated bridge. A non-bridging
secondary LAN is used to interconnect access points without using
wireless hops.
omni antenna
An antenna that transmits and receives RF signals in all directions equally
on a horizontal plane. This radiation pattern is similar to a doughnut with
the antenna being in the center of the doughnut hole. These antennas
provide the widest coverage and are most commonly used inside
buildings.
outbound frames
Frames moving away from the primary LAN.
peer-to-peer network
A type of LAN whose workstations are capable of being both clients and
servers.
point-to-multipoint bridge
See also wireless bridge. A bridge that connects two wired networks with
similar architectures. Two access points can be used to provide a point-tomultipoint bridge between two buildings so that wired and wireless devices
in each building can communicate with devices in the other building. A
point-to-multipoint bridge has two radios, which allows wireless end
devices to communicate with it.
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point-to-point bridge
See also wireless bridge. A bridge that connects two wired networks with
similar architectures. Two access points can be used to provide a point-topoint bridge between two buildings so that wired and wireless devices in
each building can communicate with devices in the other building.
power bridge
A power bridge combines power and data onto an Ethernet cable that is
connected to the access point with the power over Ethernet option.
primary bridging
Ethernet bridging on a root port. An access point uses primary bridging to
bridge frames to and from the Ethernet network on its root port. Note that
primary bridging is not the same as bridging to the primary LAN.
primary LAN
Also called the home IP subnet and root IP subnet. The IP subnet that
contains the root access point. The primary LAN is typically the LAN on
which the servers are located.
QFSK (Quad Frequency Shift Key)
A broadcasting method that shortens the range but doubles the throughput
as compared to the BFSK method. In access points using a 2.4 GHz
OpenAir radio, the radio can automatically switch between QFSK and
BFSK as needed if the transmit mode is set to AUTO.
remote IP subnet
An IP subnet that is separated from the primary IP subnet (primary LAN)
by a router. Remote IP subnets communicate with the primary LAN
through IP tunnels. A remote IP subnet is a type of secondary LAN.
root access point
The access point with the highest root priority becomes the root of the
network spanning tree. If the root becomes inactive, the remaining root
candidates negotiate to determine which access point becomes the new
root. The root can be used to set system-wide flooding and RF
parameters. The root is also the only node in the network that can
originate IP tunnels.
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Appendix C: Glossary
root port
The access point port that provides the inbound connection to the
spanning tree. The root port provides a link to a parent access point. Note
that a root access point does not have a root port.
root IP subnet
Also called the home IP subnet and primary LAN. The IP subnet that
contains the root access point. If wireless end devices need to roam
between IP subnets, each end device needs to have an IP address from
the root IP subnet.
secondary bridging
Ethernet bridging on a non-root port. An access point that is the
designated bridge for a secondary LAN uses secondary bridging to bridge
frames to and from the secondary LAN on a non-root port.
secondary LAN
Any LAN that is reached by routing traffic through an access point.
Wireless end devices that are communicating through a WAP comprise a
secondary LAN. A remote IP subnet is a type of secondary LAN.
service set
A logical (not physical) radio. You can create up to four service sets for
each physical 802.11g and 802.11a radio in an access point. Each service
set shares the same physical radio configuration (including the
parameters set for Advanced Configuration and Inbound Filters). Each
service set has a unique SSID (network name), and you may customize its
security configuration and member limit. Multiple service sets are used
primarily to allow one radio to support multiple VLANs.
SNAP
A protocol extension typically used by AppleTalk networks.
SNMP (Simple Network Management Protocol)
SNMP is a popular network management protocol in the TCP/IP and SPX/
IPX protocol suite. SNMP allows TCP/IP and SPX/IPX sites to exchange
configuration and status information. It uses management programs called
“agents” to monitor network traffic. SNMP stores the information it collects
in the Management Information Base (MIB). Your network administrator
can use management software, such as MobileLAN manager, interacting
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with the MIB to obtain information about network activity.
spanning tree
A form of network organization in which each device on the network has
only one path to the root. The access points automatically configure into a
self-organized network that provides efficient, loop-free forwarding of
frames through the network.
splitter
A splitter converts 48V input power to 5V or 3.3V output power. If you want
to use power over Ethernet, you plug the access point into the splitter and
then you plug the splitter into a power bridge.
The AT-WA7500 and AT-WA7501 do not use a splitter.
SWAP (Secure Wireless Authentication Protocol)
This protocol creates secure wireless hops if you enable secure IAPP. It
forces access points to authenticate each other using an EAP-MD5
challenge.
Telnet Gateway
A software feature in Release 2.1 that allows the access point to keep
telnet sessions alive even when the wireless client is idle or disconnected
for any reason (because the client has roamed out of range, been
powered off, lost battery power, etc.).
TLS (Transport Layer Security)
An EAP authentication type that not only requires a certificate on the
authentication server, but also one on the end device. There is both server
and client side authentication before the end device can communicate with
the network.
TTLS (Tunneled Transport Layer Security)
An EAP authentication type that only requires a certificate on the
authentication server. End devices have a user name and password that
proves that they are authorized to communicate with the network.
triangular routing
The routing logic used for a mobile IP end device that has roamed to a
foreign network. Frames destined for a mobile end device are always sent
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to the home subnet of the end device. If the end device has roamed to
another subnet, the frame must be forwarded to the remote subnet where
the end device currently resides.
unicast address
A unique Ethernet address assigned to a single device on the network.
VLAN (virtual LAN)
A network of wireless end devices that behave as if they are connected to
the same wire even though they may actually be physically located on
different segments of a local area network. You can group all wireless
users on a particular VLAN in order to manage the IP address space
differently. Or you can use VLANs to separate secure and non-secure
traffic.
WAP (Wireless Access Point)
Also called a repeater. This access point does not have any connections
on its Ethernet port. It forwards data between the access point and the
secondary LAN.
WEP (Wired Equivalent Privacy) encryption
A feature that can be enabled in the IEEE 802.11b or 802.11a radio that
allows data encryption for wireless communications.
wireless bridge
Also called a point-to-point bridge. A wireless link that connects two wired
Ethernet segments. Two access points can be used to provide a wireless
bridge between two buildings, so that wired and wireless devices in each
building can communicate with devices in the other building.
wireless hop
A wireless link that occurs when data from a wireless end device moves
from one access point to another access point through the radio ports.
Using Allied Telesyn access products, Allied Telesyn recommends that
your data does not travel through more than three wireless hops.
Secure wireless hops are created when secure IAPP is enabled. Access
points use SWAP to authenticate each other.
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WPA (Wi-Fi Protected Access)
A feature that can be implemented in the 802.11g, 802.11b, and 802.11a
radios for security in a wireless network. WPA is a strongly enhanced,
interoperable Wi-Fi security protocol that addresses many of the
vulnerabilities of WEP. It provides stronger RC4 encryption over standard
WEP with TKIP.
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