Implementing the modern office environment: some

Implementing the modern office environment: some
Calhoun: The NPS Institutional Archive
Theses and Dissertations
Thesis Collection
1993-09
Implementing the modern office environment: some
experience with Windows for Workgroups and Groupware.
Broadwater, James C.
Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School
http://hdl.handle.net/10945/39916
AD-A272 961
NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL0'
Monterey, California
DTIC
A
F't-uV221993A
THESIS
Implementing the Modem Office Environment:
Some Experience with Windows for Workgroups,
and Groupware
by
James C. Broadwater
LieAtenant, United States Navy
September, 1993
Thesis Advisor:
Tung X. Bui
Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited.
93-28382
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UNCLASSHFID
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6a NAME OF PERFORMING ORGANIZATION
Naval Post178duAlt School
7a NAME OF MONITORING ORGANIZATION
Naval Postgraduate School
6b OFFICE SYMBOL
(if applicoblei
1 37
7b ADDRESS (city. state, and ZIP code)
Modwee) CA 93943-5000
kADDRESS (city, state, and ZIP code)
4artcrey CA 93943.5000
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II TITLE lincLude security classificarion)
IMPLEMENTING THE MODERN OFFICE ENVIRONMENT: SOME EXPERIENCE WITH WINDOWS FOR WOR](GROUPS AND GROUPWARE
12 PERSONAL AUTlHOR(S) Broadwater. James Calvin
I 3a TYPE OF REPORT
Mauste's Thesis
I13b TIME COVERED
F1rom
To
14 DATE OF REPORT (year. month, day)
1993. September
15 PAGE COUNT 88
16 SUPPLEM ENTARY NOTATION
views expressed in this thesis art those of the author and do niot reflect the official policqý or position of the Departmnent of Delense or the U.S. Goverrnment.
19 SUBJECT TERMS (continue on reverse if necessary' and idenrzlj. by. ock number)
1t7COSATI CODES
FIELD
1GROUP
1SUBGROUP
Windows for Workproups. GDSS. Groupw~are. Group Decision Support Systerns, Multimedia. Co-oP. NeGo
19 ABSTRACT
This theis antemrpts to transform the ty.pical non-dgital office into an efficient and productive digital office The digital office will funrction as an environment that will operate
asa system. integrating routine office fitnctions writh groupware. The design will utilize Windows for Workgroups; as the network~ operating s-ystemn and integrate groupware as
iools to enhance office operations. The lessons learned firom this experience will serve "as baseline for futue experiments in the intepration of commercial off-the-shelf products
o a networke office envirotiunent.
OF ABSTRACT
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Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited.
Implementing the Modem Office Environment:
Some Experience with Windows for Workgroupsa
and Groupware
by
James C. Broadwater
Lieutenant,United States Navy
B.S.C.S., University of Idaho, 1983
Submitted in partial fulfillment
of the requirements for the degree of
MASTER OF SCIENCE IN INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY MANAGEMENT
from the
NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL
September 1993
Author:
James C. Broadwater
Approved by:
Tung X. Bui, Thesis Advisor
Myung Suhjhesis Co-Advisor
Department of Administrative Sciences
ii
ABSTRACT
This thesis attempts to transform the typical non-digital
office into an efficient and productive digital office.
The
that
will
digital
office
operate
as a
with
will
as
as
groupware
lessons
baseline
for
commercial
network
tools
learned
design
The
the
to
from
future
an
as
integrating
system,
groupware.
Workgroups
function
operating
this
office
routine
will
utilize
system
products
in
to
Windows
and
will
experience
experiments
for
integrate
the
a
serve
The
as
integration
networked
environment.
!j
A-
I Iii
iii
functions
operations.
office
enhance
off-the-shelf
environment
a
of
office
TABLE OF CONTENTS
I.
II.
INTRODUCTION ...........................................
1
A. BACKGROUND ........................................
1
B.
OBJECTIVES ........................................
4
C. DISCLAIMER ........................................
6
A BRIEF OVERVIEW OF GROUPWARE TECHNOLOGY .............
7
A. DEFINITION OF GROUPWARE ..........................
7
B.
7
TEAMWORK IN ORGANIZATIONS ........................
C. GROUPWARE AS A FORM OF COLLABORATIVE COMPUTING...
8
1. Groupware for Information Sharing ...........
9
2.
Groupware for Workflow Management ...........
9
3.
Groupware for Group Decision Support ........
10
4.
Groupware for Negotiation Support ...........
10
D. GROUPWARE:
E.
TIME AND SPACE .........................
NEW TECHNOLOGY TRENDS FOR GROUPWARE ..............
1. Multimedia ...................................
2.
EXPECTED BENEFITS .................................
G. ISSUES IN IMPLEMENTING GROUPWARE .................
III. A DESCRIPTION OF A GROUPWARE ENVIRONMENT ............
A.
12
12
Wireless Connectivity to Support Mobile
Computing ...................................
F.
10
13
14
14
16
IMPLEMENTING GROUPWARE AND OFFICE SETTINGS .......
16
1. A Description of a Generic Office ...........
16
2.
Configuring the Typical Office to the
Groupware Environment ......................
iv
17
3.
Decision Room Mode ..........................
18
4.
Distributed Decision Mode ...................
19
5.
Decision Room/Distributed Decision Mode
Combination .................................
B.
20
SOFTWARE AND HARDWARE REQUIREMENTS FOR OFFICE
20
GROUPWARE ........................................
1. Software Requirements .......................
20
2.
21
Hardware Requirements .......................
a.
Disk Operating System, User
Interface,
and Network Operating
System .................................
b.
c.
Word Processing,
Spreadsheet,
23
and
Database ...............................
23
Electronic Mail ........................
23
d. Voice Mail .............................
24
e.
File Sharing ............................
24
f.
Group Decision Support Software ........
25
IV. AN IMPLEMENTATION OF A GROUPWARE ENVIRONMENT .........
A.
INTRODUCTION ......................................
27
27
B. AN OVERVIEW OF WINDOWS FOR WORKGROUPS FEATURES
AND SYSTEM REQUIREMENTS ..........................
29
1. File Sharing and Network Connectivity .......
29
2.
Printer Sharing ..............................
36
3.
Electronic Mail .............................
40
4.
Schedule Plus Network Calendaring System ....
48
V
C.
THE EFFECTS OF MULTIMEDIA ON THE WORKGROUP
ENVIRONMENT .....................................
D.
OVERVIEW OF CO-OP: A GROUP DECISION SUPPORT
SYSTEM ..........................................
E.
56
OVERVIEW OF NEGOTIATOR: A NEGOTIATION SUPPORT
SYSTEM ..............................................
V.
53
58
SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS ...............................
61
APPENDIX .................................................
64
LIST OF REFERENCES .......................................
79
INITIAL DISTRIBUTION LIST ................................
81
vi
I.
A.
INTRODUCTION
BACKGROUND
The term 'groupware'
refers to the technology that
supports the collaboration within a workgroup.
objective for groupware is
The design
to combine a set of collaborative
computing applications to enhance workgroup efficiency and
productivity.
The Department of Defense's
(DoD)
software
acquisition policy dictates that groupware be composed of
items that are of proven technologies,
shelf products,
commercial off-the-
and proven to DoD personnel.
Because of
this constraint many alternatives that are easily feasible
in
industry today cannot be utilized in the DoD environment.
Almost any useful computing technology can be useful
towards supporting a groupware environment.
The key is
for
the application to serve the individual effort while adding
support for group activities.
Examples of these activities
include:
*
group scheduling and calendaring
*
electronic mail
*
voice mail
*
file sharing
*
group decision support
In the article "Why Groupware Applications Fail: Problems in
Design and Evaluation"
[Ref.
6],
1
Grudin states:
Virtually all work is carried out in a social or group
context, but 'groupware' requires the designer to
consider explicitly that the task is done by a group,
Thus,
with individuals taking on different roles.
pairs
who
might
within
these
the
differences
consider
author/editor, sender/recipient,
work together:
speaker/listener, or supervisor/individual contributor.
Note too that the same person can shift in role, being
author at one moment and then, perhaps when reading a
The software must
collaborator's contribution, editor.
support not only several people working together on a
task, but also their potentially different roles in the
task.
Another requirement placed on the groupware environment
is
the ability of software to not only be accessed by all
participants but also to identify the person accessing the
software and for what specific purpose.
For example,
(1989))
[e.g.,Grudin
a word processor that would support group
activities by permitting users to access documents
sequentially for the purpose of editing may not qualify as
true groupware as it
does not permit simultaneous work,
identify edits by the user who makes them,
or interact with
Similar arguments could be
users according to their role.
made for multi-user databases or scheduling programs.
the premise of this argument is
adds to system development is
While
sound, the constraint it
The
often too restrictive.
disparity between those who benefit from the system
environment and those that work extra to support it
provide
the prime area of concern for a successful groupware
environment design.
Just as the designer of the first typewriter did not
intend to solve all of the potential office paperwork
2
problems,
a groupware design should not present itself as
the ideal replacement
for anything.
It
should be the tool
set that enhances the efficiency and productivity of an
existing operation,
i.e.,a
collection of tools that can be
used by a group over a local area network.
It
creates a
distributed computing environment,exhibiting the
capabilities found in
the decision room.
A groupware design
should not be defined in a rigid specification; otherwise
"ad-hoc" styled group accomplishment will be prevented
through design constraints and limited access privilege.
Packaged "one-stop one-box type" of solutions are not the
intent of groupware.
Instead groupware intends to build an
environment that enhances information flow,
"appealing" ease of use,
exhibits an
and most importantly exhibits an
equilibrium between the beneficiaries of the environment and
those whose work implement and support it.
The wide scope of requirements for a generic groupware
is
further refined by the activities to be supported within
the environment and the familiarity with those activities by
the personnel.
With the proliferation of the commercial
markets with both hardware and software tools packaged as
'groupware'
or 'workgroup
computing'
solutions,
it
is
sometimes difficult to determine which applications to
include and which to exclude.
Therefore,
design in this thesis will be incremental,
the groupware
starting with the
preexisting environment of a typical office within the DoD,
3
namely the Naval Postgraduate School,
and then projecting it
into an environment where more and more tools are to be
integrated.
Eventually,
requirements,
the design will meet all the
creating a truely effective groupware
environment and not a packaged "solution tool."
B.
OBJECTIVES
As the definition of groupware becomes more diverse
among academicians,
commercial research scientists,
marketers of "groupware"
products,
definition needs to be made.
a standard working
Products of seemingly great
importance for the future of the digital office,
the leading-edge technology,
and
designed on
remain shelved due to
complexity of operation and mostly because they are of
little
"real" use to the actual users of the technology.
The differences of opinion in the definition of groupware
have led to many products that demonstrate great advantage
to management but brings inefficiency and more to the actual
users of the technology.
The purpose of this thesis is
to prototype a low-cost
groupware that would be truly effective in a typical office
setting.
The groupware is
expected to enhance the
productivity of co-workers assigned to work on a common
task.
In fact,
in
research during the last few years has resulted
an increasing number of hardware and software products
that support groupwork such as communication,
4
coordination
and cooperation.
See for example,
Grudin
(1989.)
However,
the acceptance and use of groupware has not kept pace with
the technological prcgress.
According to Grudin,
one of the
most significant factors that hinders the acceptance of
groupware in organizations is
the failure of current
groupware technology to adapt into current work practices
and flow.
This thesis attempts to provide a groupware environment
that can be implementeu quickly and inexpensively in any
networked IBM-PC compatible computers.
groupware environment is
The proposed
viewed as an enhanced computing
environment that supplements the existing comp1'ter-based
office systems such as word processors and spreadsheet
programs.
The benefits of this approach is
functionalities in
to users,
organizations in
to introduce groupware
the least intrusive way
and in a seamless integration with other
application programs currently being used on workstations.
The thesis is
organized as follows.
Chapter II
provides
a brief overview of groupware technology in:luding thie
latest effort in exploring the use of multimedia syscems,
and implementation issues that organizations should conisider
to enhance the successful use of this new technology.
Chapter III develops the groupware environment in a typical
office setting and to transform the office into the digital
office.
Chapter IV describes tie implementation of the
5
groupware environment
utilizing tools available to personnel
within the Department of Defense.
The Appendix details
preliminary installation procedures that will optimize the
installation
of the selected software products used in
the
prototype.
C.
DISCLAIMER
The products described herin are not intended to be the
sole solutions nor recommended brand names of the Department
of Defense.
Also,
limitations,
the personnel responsible for the design of
as with usual software guarantee
this prototype assume no responsibility
experienced during replication.
6
for any failures
II.
A BRIEF OVERVIEW OF GROUPWARE TECHNOLOGY
This chapter provides an overview of groupware both from
the point of view of technology and from the point of view
of its
A.
implementation in organizations.
DEFINITION OF GROUPWARE
Groupware is
defined as an "electronic or
telecommunication tool designed to facilitate the
collaboration of teams"
groupware context,
[e.g.
a team is
assigned to a common task.
PC Week,
1991].
In a
a group of workers who are
To complete this task, group
members typically have to collaborate somehow with a varying
degree of coordination,
Groupware is
communication,
and cooperation.
designed to provide organizations with the most
sensible way to distribute information as effectively as
possible to their workers.
B.
TEAMWORK IN ORGANIZATIONS
Teamwork is
organizations.
recognized as playing a crucial role in
Management scientists emphasize the
importance of teamwork in groups because groups promote:
[Ref 1]
"* Growth of Knowledge - No one person has all the
needed information to the problem at hand; the group
has a greater sum of information
"* Consolidation of shared vision
"* Team members to challenge and build on others ideas
7
TQM and consensus building,
i.e.,
working together to
make a difference
However,
groups in organizations often foster
counterproductive habits.
These pathologies are caused by
some of the following characteristics:
"* Members-inadequate communication skills, wrong
participants, absenteeism, wishful thinking and
belief, commitment to an issue
"* Groups-lax risk assessment
"* Organization's slow response time, problems in
meetings
group
"* Poor organizational support for groups
"* Environment not very conducive to communication,
building and consensus
team
"* Poor meeting skills training
"* Lack of facilitation
"* Unclear organization/group/individual
mechanisms
reward
"• Missing group support as a mechanism for
organizational learning
Groupware can be seen as an avenue to at least partially
solve these group problems.
C.
GROUPWARE AS A FORM OF COLLABORATIVE COMPUTING
As such,
groupware is
a form of "collaborative
computing" that helps people work together
[Ref.
7].
Collaboration between members could take different forms:
"* Groupware for Information Sharing
"* Groupware for Workflow Management
"• Groupware for Group Decision Support
8
Groupware for Negotiation Support
1.
Groupware for Information Sharing
The purpose of information sharing is
to help the
organization manage "shared" information by delivering
relevant information to appropriate decision makers.
Examples of such groupware include electronic bulletin
boards,
electronic mail,
information centers.
electronic boardrooms,
and
The design of these systems is
on the concepts of environment scanning
information into repositories),
based
(collecting
information diffusion to
pertinent decision makers using contextual analysis and
information filtering.
Implementation of groupware to promote information
sharing requires efficient networking
(e.g.,
LAN and WAN)and
concurrency control mechanisms.
2.
Groupware for Workflow Management
Groupware for workflow management strives to help
manage processes or workflows for a workgroup.
The design
of workflow management software is based on the concept of
shared mental models,
models,
coordination theory using data flow
intentional models,
and coordination expertise.
Process analyses and (re)-engineering are
implementation techniques used to model the management of
group processes.
9
3.
Groupware for Group Decision Support
A team often requires intense negotiation before it
can reach a group decision.
Group decision support systems
seek to help manage group decision processes and outcomes.
These systems may be designed for cooperative versus noncooperative and distributed versus face-to-face decision
settings.
A groupware to aid in group decision support
should include issue structuring and analyzing tools,
decision techniques,
4.
and voting methods.
Groupware for Negotiation Support
The focus of negotiation is
consensus.
to help search for
An example of this groupware would be a
negotiation support system.
support system,
In designing a negotiation
concepts of individual versus group methods
of decision making need to be understood.
models,
group
Negotiation
game theory, and behavioral models of negotiation
are techniques used in the implementation of groupware for
negotiation support.
D.
GROUPWARE: TIME AND SPACE
Th- design of groupware varies depending on the
dimensions of time and space it
has to bridge.
These
collaborative systems create an environment that allows the
sharing of information without the constraints of time and
space.
Time/space collaboration systems focus on the time
and place of the interaction of the workgroup and may be
grouped in the following categories
10
[Ref.7]:
TIME
PLACE
SAME
SAME
DIFFERENT
FACE-TO FACE
ASYNCHRONOUS
Occurs at the same
time and place
Occurs at
different times
but at the same
place
DIFFERENT
DISTRIBUTED
SYNCHRONOUS
DISTRIBUTED
ASYNCHRONOUS
Occurs at the same
time but at a
different place
Occurs at
different times
and at different
places
Table 2-1 Collaborative Interaction in the Dimensions of
Time and Space
The interactions illustrated above can be translated
into examples of the different forms of collaboration
between group members as discussed in the previous
section. [Ref.5]
TIME
PLACE
SAME
SAME
Meeting
DIFFERENT
Tele- ,Video,
DesktopConferencing
DIFFERENT
Team Rooms Work Shifts
Facilitation
Electronic Mail,
Computer Conferences,
Collaborative Wri ting,
Workflow Management
Table 2-2 Collaboration Forms
The dimension of predilctaoility can be added to the two
dimensional environment depicted above to further refine the
collaborative forms of interaction into three dimensions.
11
TIME
PLACE
SAME
DIFFERENT/
predictable
Work shifts
DIFFERENT/
unpredictable
Team rooms
Tele-, Video-,
Desktop
Electronic
and Voice
Collaborative
Writing
Conferencing
Mail
SAME
Meeting
facilitation
DIFFERENT/
predictable
DIFFERENT/
Broadcast
Computer
Work flow
unpredictable
Seminars
Conferences
Management
Table 2-3 Three Dimensional Map of Technology Areas [Grudin
and Poltrock 1992]
The table above depicts the dimensions as barriers that
prevent any interaction between the cells.
However,
activity actually spans all of the dimensions.
work
Therefore,
groupware properly designed and implemented will also span
the dimensions to meet its intended use.
E.
NEW TECHNOLOGY TRENDS FOR GROUPWARE
Currently,
groupware is
Products are available,
just out of its infancy.
but business is only beginning to
embrace them and most applications have not had time to
mature into efficient and productive workgroup tools.
Two
important technological trends concerning groupware are:
"*
Multimedia
"•
Wireless Connectivity to Support Mobile Computing
1.
Multimedia
According to studies,
what they hear,
audiences retain 20 percent of
40 percent of what they see,
and 70 percent
of the information learned through interaction
[Ref.8].
Existing workgroup applications can be made more productive
12
with the addition of multimedia.
Multimedia support for
workgroup applications requires the addition of high quality
audio,
compact disc quality video and sound,
possible use of full motion video.
and the
Future interaction among
workgroup members may not only replicate face to face
meetings but replace them.
2.
Wireless Connectivity to Support Mobile Computing
Local area networks and wide area networks are the
infrastructure of groupware.
In turn, electronic mail
(e-
mail) across LAN's and WAN's serve as the software
foundation of groupware
groupware,
it
is
[Ref.13].
While e-mail isn't
really
the vehicle for most groupware
applications.
The current technological trends towards wireless
LANs allow many groupware applications to run in a mobile
environment.
Examples are remote scheduling,
voice mail,
and remote voting systems.
Dropping prices and more robust technology are the
biggest inducers of wireless LAN technology to networks
[Ref.4].
As systems evolve to their most optimal use,
wireless networks make the environment less formal and
portable.
Recent academic studies have concluded that
traditional meetings may not be the most efficient way of
handling traditional business problems.
The idea is
that
face-to-face meetings tend to be dominated by personalities,
and since ideas are what meeting organizers are interested
13
in,
filtering out personalities via structured interactions
over a computer networks promote more productive results
[Ref.13].
F.
EXPECTED BENEFITS
The benefits of groupware such as an Electronic Meeting
System (EMS)
as follows:
and a Group Decision Support System (GDSS)
are
[Ref.1]
"* Enables larger meetings
"• Brings structure to unstructured meetings
"* Provides corporate memory and timely environmental
scanning
"* Promotes equal oppo.)unity for participation
"* Allows simultaneous and parallel human processing
"* Enhances task focus and problem solving
"• Permits fewer meetings in
less time
"* Increases quality of meeting output
"* Increases group satisfaction(especially post-meeting
data/resolution distribution well appreciated)
"* Increases group cohesion
"* Changes work group structure
"* Suggests that low computer literacy not deterrent
"* Underlines the importance of pre-planning
G.
ISSUES
IN IMPLEMENTING GROUPWARE
Prior to implementing any groupware for a specific
workgroup environment,
planetary group,
whether it
be a small group,
or decision-making group,
14
there must be
pre-planned solutions to issues which will impact the
probability of success of the groupware.
Some include:
[Ref.1]
"* Scope of area to be included in the group
"• Composition of the group
"* Primary tasks to be completed by the group
"• Goals of the group after installation of the
groupware
"• Group hierarchy/access rights
"* Impact transformation will have on normal operations
"* Training
15
III.
A DESCRIPTION OF A GROUPWARE ENVIRONMENT
The purpose of this chapter is
environment that is
enough to fit
to propose a groupware
cost effective,
while mobile or flexible
a typical teamwork environment.
for this chapter is
that if
The rationale
the proposed configuration can
b.e implemented and operational,
it
will provide a solid
proof-of-concept for a customized groupware that would
fulfill
A.
the requirements of any teamwork.
IMPLEMENTING GROUPWARE AND OFFICE SETTINGS
1.
A Description of a Generic Office
Figure 3-1 depicts a typical office setting in which
workers at management levels have Their own office with
desktop computing power.
The office manager or secretary
often plays the role of the coordinator by arranging
meetings,
preparing relevant documentation,
keeping the
appointment calendar of the office staff, and distributing
mail.
In a digital office setting,
offices are typically
equipped with networked desktop computers,
facsimile/modem,
printers,
scanners,
OCR,
phone systems,
intercoms and
software for office use (i.e., word processors,
management system, project scheduler,
presentation/graphics software,
software.)
16
database
spreadsheet,
and communications
smmierssio
Rom
asai
IL
dif
Seretrle
_
_
_=
Figure 3-1 A Non-digital Office Environment
The staff often consists of co-workers sharing a
same mission but assuming different roles.
2.
Configuring the Typical Office to the Groupware
Environment
Configuring a groupware for a typical office
environment involves attaching PC's to the local area
network,
installing the network operating system that
provides all network functionalities,
executing groupware applications.
and installing and
This procedure would
include the selection of the best network operating system,
user interface,
and the most appropriate application
software described in the preceding sections.
17
Scveral alternative configurations can be derived
for the basic office setup.
the typical office setup,
of the following modes:
Discussion will be limited to
configuring the groupware in one
the decision room mode,
a
distributed decision mode setting, or a combination of the
decision room and distributed setting.
3.
Decision Room Mode
The decision room mode is
incorporated via a
facility equipped with leading-edge technology and physical
surroundings to maximize 'omfort,
display visibility, and
group interactions
The installation described by Vogel and
Nunnamaker [Ref.14]
corresponds to this design mode.
Although the physical organization may not be identical to
the detail of the decision room described in the reference,
this design will provide an optimal setting utilizing
criteria from proven designs.
The hardware will consist of
an appropriate number of PC's,
either installed, portable,
or laptop.
All will be connectable to the network and
therefore all will have dynamic access to the software
available on at least one of the PC's.
This portability of
a stationary design provides the advantage that the decision
room mode described in the reference cannot,
familiarity of using one's own PC.
is
which is
the
A generic desktop that
supposed to empower the majority of users the majority of
the time and is
people tested is
easy to operate by the majority of the
no longer an issue.
18
A facilitator merely
sets up and tests the groupware environment
for easy access.
Attendees simply plug into the network and start their
session.
The anci.llary equipment will be supplied and
positioned by the facilitator.
Confereme Room
l
qr.necyel
L__
Figure 3-2 A Digital Office Environment
4.
Distributed Decision Mode
The distributed decision mode applies to
applications that allow team members to utilize networked
group decision support software within the confines of their
offices.
Team members can input their preferences either in
a scheduled electronic meeting at their desktop PC's or even
prior to a decision point deadline when their own time
schedule permits.
The advantage of this decision mode is
19
that a facilitator is
not needed and time is not required by
team members for outside attendance.
5.
Decision Room/Distributed Decision Mode Combination
In this combination of the two setting modes,
members are required to attend decision meetings but
attendance is
offices.
at their own desktop PC's within their
Either video applications,
voice applications,
or
recorded sessions may be utilized to facilitate this event.
B.
SOFTWARE AND HARDWARE REQUIREMENTS FOR OFFICE GROUPWARE
1.
Software Requirements
As described earlier,
the broad spectrum of software
currently available cloud the description of groupware to
the point of uncertainty.
The recommended design of the
groupware environment will utilize IBM type PC's with the
following software functionalities:
"* Installed Disk Operating System
"* A Network Operating System
In addition to the functionalities of the systems
software,
the following applications should be supported:
"* Word Processing
"* Spreadsheet
"* Database
"* Communications Program
"* Electronic Mail
"* Voice Mail
"* Scheduling/Calendaring Program
20
"* File Sharing capability
"• Group Decision Support Software
The above listed application software is
generic to
All with the exception of some Group
a certain extent.
Decision Support software are readily obtainable from
commercial vendors.
The specific software selected is
determined by company or organizational preference and its
compatibility with the systems software installed in the
workgroup PC's.
The following paragraphs will address
specifics required of the functional and application
software as they relate to optimizing the groupware
environment.
2.
Hardware Requirements
The hardware includes individual PC's, normally of
the IBM or clone type.
Although other manufacturer's
computers are available it
is
agreed that the Intel-based
PC's are more commonly available and more familiar to
personnel within the DoD.
Each PC is
"• a 386 based processor
"* at least 4MB RAM,
equipped with:
8MB recommended
"* a hard disk of sufficient space to support the
operation for which it is specified and for the
storage of the data
"* two floppy disks drives are to be used, one 514"
and one 3W"
"* A high resolution color monitor with associated
VGA or SVGA graphics adapter installed and
accompanying software drivers
21
"
a mouse or template-designated function keys to
interact with the system
"
a 16 bit Ethernet network adapter card and
associated software drivers
The following accessories need not be installed in
but at least one of the following is
each PC,
required to be
installed on one of the PC's on each associated workgroup:
"* modem, at least 2400 data baud, preferably a fax
modem operating at V.32bis
"* printer,
either dot matrix or laser
"* remote network access, a capability for remote
phone access to the workgroup local area network
"
a video display board capable of displaying fullat reasonable
motion video clips as well as stills
This will
definition, preferably 800X600 pixels.
give the capability of embedding video into
electronic mail messages as well as application's
data files
"
a sound board capable of playing CD-quality 16-bit
audio, as well as business audio which includes
voice messages, voice annotation of documents, and
voice recognition
"* a CD-ROM with associated software drivers
The hardware requirements described above are
designed to utilize preexisting equipment while providing
the users with the capability of sharing multimedia
information if
needed to enhance documents and enrich media
presentation.
While the hardware will support a wide range
of capabilities within the scope of the original design
environment,
the ability to access other distributed
information networks influences further groupware
optimization.
22
a.
Disk Operating System,
User Interface, and Network
Operating System
The operating system software must be of a version
that is
compatible with the version of Windows interface and
network operating system.
Since these systems software
operate in the background for most of the time,
exception of the user interface,
with the
they can be chosen based on
the compatibility of the system and application software
already in use.
The network operating system will interact with the
disk operating system and the Windows user interface
software,
sometimes replacing the character-based user
interface.
The network operating system also provides the
basis for some of the applications that are required in the
groupware environment.
sharing,
Electronic mail,
voice mail,
file
end scheduling come packaged with some network
operating system software.
b.
Word Processing, Spreadsheet, and Database
Word Processing,
spreadsheet,
and database programs
are usually selected based on a preference or requirement by
the company or organization.
Since the design constraint
dictates the use of equipment previously installed and
already in use,
these programs are most likely already in
place.
c.
Electronic Mail
Electronic mail provides users with the ability to
send messages across the network confines.
23
A "chat" mode
-nables users to type on-line messages in real time as a
simplex teletype system does.
An advanced electronic mail
software should also have the capability to share files, add
voice and video annotation,
d.
and schedule on line.
Voice Hail
Voice mail capability as a stand alone is
from the ability to annotate mail documents.
different
Voice mail is
more like an telephone answering machine where users leave
voice messeges that can later be answered as messages left
on the senders machine.
A voice "chat" mode is
also
available with some systems so users can chat in real time
over the network.
This allows users to remain at their
workstation and continue working while talking.
e.
File Sharing
File sharing can be utilized in many different
modes.
Most common is
processors,
author,
the sharing of documents from word
spreadsheets,
or databases.
annotate revisions or editions,
on to other users.
Shared users can
or pass the document
These processes can also be accomplished
by many users simultaneously instead of sequentially.
sharing is
accc~nplished by a file manager either in the disk
operating system or the Windows environment.
sharing in
File
the electronic mail system,
Unlike file
this type of sharing
involves granting an access to the hard drive of a selected
PC on the network.
The access may be limited to 'read only'
or may extend to full read and write capability.
24
File
sharing is the most complicated capability to design and
implement as it requires a complex plan of access across
users.
Since these accesses may change, a system
administrator may be required to manage these changes.
Preplanning of any type of implementation is a requirement
and the type of software used will have direct impact on the
complexity of the implementation.
The groupware environmnent
as designed will require a sort of file sharing access
matrix that should be more dynamic than static.
Although
most workgroup operations should have a plan of action and
schedule of events, the groupware environment should not
prevent all "ad hoc" type of activities.
f.
Group Decision Support Software
In the event that the workgroup needs assistance in
attaining a consensus for a decision, a software package to
support group decision making may be used.
approaches to decision making.
There are two
One is a cooperative
approach where the parties involved make a cooperative
decision based on prioritization of decision variables.
The
other is a negotiating decision based on two parties
negotiating for a solution.
The ability to accomplish this
in a distributed environment or a decision room setting will
be discussed in detail in the following section.
However,
these capabilities will exist transparently across the
system in either setting.
Other enhancements to the
decision support software will include a wireless remote
25
voting system.
This system will optimize the decision room
environment.
26
IV. AN IMPLEMENTATION OF A GROUPWARE ENVIRONMENT
A.
INTRODUCTION
The purpose of this chapter is
to illustrate how a
groupware environment could be implemented,
based on the
criteria developed in the previous chapter.
In doing so,
the network operating system selected was Microsoft
Corporation's Windows for Workgroups
in the office become more complex,
(WFW).
As daily tasks
the capabilities of the
office equipment must be upgraded to meet the needs of the
office personnel.
WFW is
a simple,
commercial-off-the-
shelf, peer-to-peer network software that readily and
inexpensively meets most of the needs of the groupware
environment.
A peer-to-peer network is
the associated PC's in
That is,
there is
from the others.
WFW is
the network are essentially equal.
no one PC which controls or routes work
The other network configuration,
server-based system is
clients,
one in which all of
the
one in which all associated PC's,
are controlled from one central PC,
the
the server.
actually Microsoft's Windows version 3.1 with built-
in networking and workgroup capabilities.
capabilities are easy to set up,
The networking
learn, and use,
and offer a
cost-effective way to share information across a standard
platform.
WFW has the capabilities to share files,
peripherals,
and applications.
This saves each user the
requirement to equip each PC with CD-ROM drives,
27
laser
printers, modem,
and so on.
It
also increases productivity
because documents can be easily passed throughout the office
with the ability to edit,
cut,
and paste from one person's
work to anothers.
The next portion of the operating environment to be
described is
the effect multimedia will have on the
gxoupware environment.
Multimedia is
defined as the
addition of sound and video to applications to enrich the
man-machine interaction.
By choosing WFW this addition will
be simpler for the most novice of computer users.
easily share CD-ROM drives.
Although each PC will be
required to have a sound card installed,
well worth the cost.
WFW can
this addition is
With a sound board installed, a sound
system can be incorporated into each workgroup workstation.
This greatly enhances the capabilities of the workgroup as
all equipped workstations will now be capable of utilizing
voice mail and on-line "chat mode,"
a function of mail.
Voice annotation of word processing documents and
spreadsheets can also be included as increased capabilities.
Additional capability will be added to the digital
office groupware environment by installing two group
decision support system programs.
CooPlm and NeGo2M will be
utilized to aid in the decision making capability of the
networked digital office environment.
In defining the operating environment,
it
was determined
that a typical non-digital office would be transformed to a
28
digital office by utilizing the specified groupware
applications.
A brief description of each selected software
will be provided followed by the implementation description.
B.
AN OVERVIEW OF WINDOWS FOR WORKGROUPS FEATURES AND
SYSTEM REQUIREMENTS
This section will deal with the different features of
WFW as applied to the digital office environment.
installed as directed in the appendix,
Once
WFW will have the
functionalities as described below.
1.
File Sharing and Network Connectivity
The File Manager in Windows ver.
to manage local files.
In WFW it
3.1 allows the user
also performs the
necessary network functions such as accessing files located
someplace else in
the workgroup,
sharing files located
within your workstation with another workstation accessible
by your workgroup,
electronic mail.
operating in
and
the sending and receipt of
To share files, workstations must be
the 386 enhance mode in WFW,
but to access
directories located elsewhere in the workgroup,
enhanced or the standard mode is
in
acceptable.
two different modes: Standard or Enhanced.
difference is based on what kind of PC is
access the File Manager,
either 386
WFW can be run
The
utilized'.
To
double-click the filing cabinet
icon within the Program Manager.
lBasically, standard mode requires a 80286 processor and at least 2
Enhanced mode requires at least a 80386SX
megabytes of memory.
processor and at least 4 megabytes of memory. [Ref.9]
29
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TheWFW File Manager Screen
Figure 4-1 represents the file manager as it
in
the 386 enhanced mode.
capabilities,
appears
To fully utilize the
the user must be familiar with the Tool Bar
a row of icons that are exclusive to the WFW file
which is
The features of the tool bar are explained below
manager.
in
IP
the same order as they appear on the File Manager screen:
[Ref.9]
"* Connect Network Drive - Click on this to connect
to a shared directory
"
Disconnect Network Drive - Click on this to
Another way
disconnect from a shared directory.
to disconnect from network drives is by choosing
Disconnect Network Drive button from the Disk
pull-down menu
30
"* Share As - To mark a directory for sharing , click
on this button, select the directory to share, and
click OK
"* Stop Sharing - To stop sharing a directory, click
this button, select the directory to stop sharing,
then click OK
"
Show Filenames Only - Click this button to change
the configuration of the file listing on screen.
This configuration will display filenames only
leaving room to display more filenames
"
Show All File Details - Click this button to
display full information on, each file, such as
size, date and time it was created
"
Sort Files by Name - Click this button to sort
files alphabetically by name
"
Sort Files by Type - Click this button to sort
files alphabetically by type, i.e., .EXE, .DOC,
.TXT,
.DLL, etc.
Sort Files by Size - Click this button to sort
files by size, the largest being the first to be
displayed the smallest being the last
"
Sort Files by Date - Click this button to sort
files by date
"
Send Mail and Attach Selected Files - Click this
button to send mail directly from the File
Manager.
Just highlight the file or portion of
the file to be mailed, click on the Mail button,
type the correct password and it will be sent
The mosL important point to remember when sharing
files is
that WFW does not control access to individual
files, only to directories and subdirectories.
Every file
and application in a shared directory and all subdirectories
beneath it
are available to any workgroup member that has
access to that directory.
Therefore,
plan which files are to be shared.
31
it
is
important to
A small workgroup,
as
the groupware environment,
the digital office depicted in
might place all shared files in a common workgroup
directory.
still
This will enable individual office members to
be able to have files that are private and unreachable
by others in the workgroup.
sharing:
To mark a directory for
[Ref.9]
"* Click on the File Manager from the Main program
group
"* Select the directory that is
Drive bar
to be shared from the
* Click the Share As button on the Toolbar
"* The directory that is chosen will automatically be
entered in the Path line. Also the "Access
Rights" and "Passwords" sections of the dialog box
can be filled to select access privilege desired
and password if required
"* Click the OK button
WFW can access files from connected networks such as
LAN Manager- or Novell NetWare-,
however users on those
networks cannot access files from WFW workstations even if
those files have been marked as shared.
above,
once the Share As button is
needs to be determined.
Read Only, Full,
selected.
clicked,
and Depends on Password.
access right
If
no password is
then Read Only or Full
granted to everyone in the workgroup,
Read Only is
As stated
There are three levels of access:
entered in the appropriate box,
access is
[Ref.9].
whichever is
the default value set to all
directories that are shared.
If
only certain members of the
workgroup are supposed to have Read Only access,
32
then a Read
Only password would be appropriate.
only persons with the corr,
shared Read Only files.
read/write access.
By using this method
password would have access to
Full access is
also known as
All files in the directory marked for
Full access can be used by all workgroup members as if
were residing on their office PC's.
they
As with Read Only the
password function can enhance the security of the
directories given Full access.
Lastly, the Depends on
Password utilizes the best functionalities of both of the
aforementioned access controls.
Depends on Password allows
the user to assign a password to give Re;.-d Only access to
files in a directory,
while a different password can give
Full access to the samte files in the same directory.
This
function can provide great flexibility for the network
within the digital office.
the office electronically,
review it
A document can be passed around
allowing some individuals to
while others have the capability to amend or edit
it.
After determining the optimal selections for file
sharing and access rights for the digital office setting,
the network connections between workgroup workstations need
to be completed.
This i- all done within the WFW File
Manager toolbar.
As specified in the preceding section,
simply click on the Connect Network Drive icon on the
toolbar.
A display will appear as in
33
the following figure.
I!
Dive:
r-'
EaP
h:
1%,3ROUPA %
OK
j j' L i e,
Z Reconviecl at Staitup
ihow Shamed Diectomes on:
ANPS
SGROUPB
Shated Deecotoies on %%GROUPA:
&COOP
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Fig-are 4-2 The Connect Network Drive Screen
Figure 4-2 displays the shared directories for each defined
workgroup.
(See Appendix).
Once the proper selection is
made,
the Path will be automatically inserted in the correct
box.
Each time that the Connect Network Drive is
to share directories,
a new drive icon is
utilized
automatically
displayed in the drive box and next to the toolbar in
File Manager.
the
This enables the user to directly access the
drive by just clicking on the appropriate icon.
Remember to
click on the "Reconnect at Startup" box prior to clicking OK
to restart the connection each time the workstation is
turned on.
is
made.
Finally, click the OK button and the connection
The only limitation to this operation is
the
number of drives connected to any workstation cannot exceed
34
the number listed in the "LASTDRIVE= command in
CONFIG.SYS file.
the
Once the file sharing matrix of operations
has been determined and implemented using the directions
provided above,
performance.
WFW should now be tuned for optimal
Perform the following:
"* From the Main program group,
Panel
"* Open the Network icon.
in Figure 4-3 below
EAompute Name:
iGROUPl
Wwokgroup:
~INPS
[Ref.9]
Click on Control
The screen will appear as
iZI
Co~mmen:
fl
Enable Sharing
erformance Prioity:
Fppications I
Run Fattest
R
-.
Resources
Shaed Fattest
Figure 4-3 The Network Settings Screen
The slide bar marked Performance Priority is
to maximizing WFW performance.
the key
To do so select the most
appropriate setting using the following rules of thumb:
"* Applications Run Fastest - when the home PC is
utilized heavily for local work and most
applications are resident
"* Resources Run Fast - home PC is heavily used by
others in the workgroup and home PC is rarely used
locally
35
The above descriptions only discuss the endpoints of any
possible configurations and any operation in-between can
best be optimized by trial and error.
There are other ways to share files using WFW.
alternative is
if
One
most members of the workgroup use the same
applications then network performance can be improved by
having all members run their applications locally and share
only the data from those files.
There are three ways to
share data using Windows and WFW:
[Ref.10]
* Clipboard for Windows ver.
WFW
3.1 and Clipbook for
* OLE (Object Linking and Embedding)
* DDE (Dynamic Data Exchange)
These three alternatives are usually reserved for the more
advanced users and to completely master these techniques
technical documentation should be reviewed.
2.
Printer Sharing
The number of printers assigned to the network will
depend on the size and desires of the workgroup.
Any
combination of printers may be utilized depending on the
availability of the printer drivers as they must reside on
all PC's in the workgroup for their use to be available to
them.
Usually a laser and a dot matrix are made available
to each workgroup to satisfy most office needs.
In order to
share printers among workstations in the workgroup the
following steps must be completed:
36
[Ref.9]
* Physically connect the printer to a workstation.
This station will be the Print Server
* Install the appropriate printer driver on the
print server and all workstations that will
require use of the printer
* Complete the steps required to make the printer
available for sharing
0 Connect the other workstations to the network
printer
The printer driver is
the software that allows WFW
to operate the printer or printers.
If
the printers to be
utilized were selected during the WFW installation or
upgrade,
If
then the printer drivers were already installed.
unsure,
group.
If
click on the Print Manager in the Main program
the display does not show the desired printer or
printers to be utilized by the workgroup,
printer drivers
need to be installed.
then the correct
Installing,
additional printers, or deleting printers is
adding
accomplished in
one of two methods:
"* From the Main group, click the Control Panel icon,
then on the Printers icon
"* From the Main group, click on the Print Manager
icon, pull down the Options menu, and then choose
Print Setup
In either case the outcome will be the WFW Printers
screen shown below.
37
Default Painlt
P LaszeJet Seids IIan LPTI:
Cace
t1
"InstaledEginteis:
Apple LasoeWiiles Pls on COM1:
Genigio hicsO DNvet on GENI:
I
I
It
si-
77.
Suse Print Manages
Figure 4-4 The Printers Screen
Figure 4-4 shows the printer installed and a list
drivers available for installation.
used by the workgroup,
its
If
of printer
a FAX modem is
to be
driver will also be displayed in
the Installed Printers box.
FAX modems can be shared just
like printers but special "server software" must be
installed on the workstation to which FAX modem is
physically installed and special "client software" must be
installed on each workstation that will share its use.
[Ref.9].
After the printer or printers are physically
installed and the appropriate printer driver software is
all workstations in
the workgroup printers can be made
available for sharing.
Like sharing directories
workstations must be running in the 386 enhanced mode to
share printers.
To share a printer:
"* From the Print Maneger select the printer for
sharing
"* On the Toolbar,
click the Share As button
38
on
Printer
Qocument
Pw&@riiogimner Name
Yiew
Options
Help
0
Apple Lasitr Phi on COM1 inot shared)
Ie
6,0i
0 Kobs
9
Genigraphsics Dive an GENI (not shaedJ
Ide
0 cbs
Thepnnteris idle.
*
-
-Status,
. .
......
.
..
Figure 4-5 The Print Manager Screen
Figure 4-5 shows the display where the user will make
selections to share printers with the workgroup.
Note that
a password can be used to grant or limit access to the
shared printers.
After the printers are set up for sharing they must
be connected to the other workstations before they are ready
for use.
To connect the other wcrkstations to the network
printer accomplish the following:
"* From the Print Manager, click the Connect to
Network Printer button on the Toolbar
"* Select the printer to be shazed
Notice the similarities to the Connect Network Drive dialog
box.
Also,
In WFW,
remember to select the Reconnect at Startup box.
the Print Manager spools the print jobs from the
workgroup.
To check the status of a particular print job,
click the minimized icon of the Print Manager and the status
39
of all print jobs in progress will be displayed.
To
prioritize print tasking use the Print Manager's Background
Printing option located on the Options pull-down menu to
allocate system time between printing and running other
applications on the workstation to which the printer is
connected.
The default setting is
the Normal setting and
usually works best for small workgroups.
printer is
or if
However,
the
used heavily by other workstations on the network
the workstation to which the printer is
used lightly for applications,
priority is
if
used otherwise.
connected is
use High priority.
Low
Experimentation with the
different priorities should result in optimal setting.
Lastly, workstations that do not have a network printer
connected directly to them have the most versatility as they
can share multiple printers and modems.
Workstations that
do have a network printer connected directly to them cannot
share another printer.
3.
Electronic Mail
WFW Mail is
a versatile communications package.
Usually projects are completed by workgroups of individuals
with contributions from different members at different
intervals.
The ability of workgroup members to communicate
electronically and efficiently enables smooth completion of
projects on time.
The Mail function of WFW enables members
of the workgroup to: [Ref.1l]
* Send and receive messages
40
"* Attach files created with other applications,
as word processing or spreadsheet data, to
messages
such
"* Locate messages based on user selected criteria
"* Print messages
"* Organize and file messages into preselected
folders
Before Mail can be used by the workgroup,
Workgroup Post Office
(WGPO)
must be set up.
a
The WGPO will
contain all of the information about Mail user accounts in
the workgroup and act as a mail drop area for the
individuals in the workgroup.
The location of the WGPO will
determine who will be the Post Office administrator.
person will create and manage the WGPO.
This
Each user will have
a message file where his or her messages are stored.
This
message file will be private and password protected.
Once
signed on to Mail the user will be shown his or her Inbox
and be able to view message headers.
Priorities set by the
message originators are displayed with the message headers
to alert the recipient of their importance.
An exclamation
point signifies a high priority and a down arrow identifies
a low priority.
subject and date.
Messages can be sorted by priority,
sender,
Also, messages can be stored in folders
which simplify organization.
This includes the originator
of messages who has the ability to store copies of their
sent messages in
the Sent Mail folder.
are displayed in the following manner.
files to mail are displayed as icons.
41
Received messages
Note that attached
Just click on the
icon and the attached file will be displayed.
See figure 4-
6.
To create a message click on the Compose button on
the toolbar.
See
A Send Note form will be displayed.
figure 4-7.
File
Edit
Yiew
Mail
Window
Help
Presentation
Eii:
Preview Input
From TUNG X BUI
To Jim
Subject: Presentation Preview Input
Date: Friday, July 0g, 1993 8:06PM
<<File Attachment: 31TRANSP.PPT>>
input at todays meeting
Please preview this file and provide
.2 messages I unre
-1:-62AM
Figure 4-6 The Received Mail Display
The process is
simplified as addresses are kept in
an address book which is merely a customized version of the
WGPO user roster.
Click the Address button on the toolbar
to bring up the addressee of the message to be sent,
highlight the name and the message header is
figure 4-8.
42
then
generated.
See
Fecew
D~a
TUNGX-BUI:
fniday. Jui 09. 1993 8:0"P
Ca~
Subehjm
Roenetation PRovimwInpt~
31 TRANSP.PPT
Please preview this file and provide input at todays meeting
12 messages: Ilunre
Figure 4-7 Th
110:49AM
ent Mail. Display
As was addressed earlier, prior to starting Mail for
the first time, the post office must be created and an
account for each individual in the workgroup must be
assigned by the administrator of the WGPO.
To connect to a
post office perform the following:
"* From the Main program group, click on the Mail
icon. See figure below
"* Select Create a new Workgroup Post office
once it is confirmed that it is desired to create a
new post office, the system will query as to where the post
office will reside.
Either select a local drive and
directory form the window or select a network server by
43
clicking on the Network button.
post office is
It
is
recommended that the
created in the Windows directory.
Next the
Administrators Account Details screen will be displayed.
The administrator should fill
Once completed,
the WGPO is
in all pertinent information.
created and all details will be
copied to the directories created.
If
all is
correct,
a
message will appear under a box titled Mail which will
prompt the administrator to share the WGPO directory since
it
is
required prior to any use of the Mail function.
procedure for sharing the WGPO directory is
The
exactly the same
as was demonstrated in the section on File Sharing.
It
should be remembered to grant Full access to mail users to
enable sending and receiving of mail and also to select the
Re-share at Start-up box.
Once the WGPO directory is
shared, the mail administrator can set-up accounts for all
members in the workgroup or allow users to set up their own
accounts.
the first
Workgroup members can set up their own accounts
time that they attempt to use Mail.
Instead of
choosing Create a new Workgroup Post office as previously
discussed,
select Connect to an existing post office.
This
will initiate the process to set-up the individual Mail
account.
At the Enter Your Account Details screen,
fill
in
all of the pertinent information including the password and
click OK.
Note that if
a password is
forgotten,
retrieved from the Mail admin~itrator if
one that created the account.
If
44
it
can be
he or she was the
the account was user
initiated then the MSMAIL.INI file in the local Windows
directory must be deleted and the process of staiting Mail
for the first
time repeated.
Clicking on the Options button of the main Mail
screen displays a menu with the following selections:
[Ref.9]
"
Return Receipt - sends a message back to the
originator when the recipient picks up their mail
"
Save Sent Messages - Saves a copy of all of the
messages in the users individual Outbox
"
Priority - High places a "!"
before messages in
the recipients Inbox, Normal is a normal delivery
with no distinguishing marks, and Low places the
messages at the bottom of the recipients Inbox
SJ
Jim
Pro1Bui
Irec -TUNG×X'uI
Figure 4-8 The Address Book
Another way to optimize the Mail function is
create Mail Groups.
to
Although address book allows the user
45
to customize the post office list
book,
to a more personal address
specifically named groups can be created to more
efficiently utilize the mail function.
groups,
To build personal
choose Personal Groups from the Mail pull-down menu
while in the Mail program.
created personal groups,
If
there aren't any previously
click on New and the Personal
Groups screen will be displayed.
Fill in the information
and the workgroup members naes desired.
There is
no set
limit to the number of personal groups that can be created
in a workgroup.
Creating personal groups in Mail also
creates a folder specific to each group.
This capability
aids in the efficiency of an electronic mail function for
any workgroup.
One of the most powerful features of Mail is
of folders. Folders do just as the name implies.
storage areas for Mail messages.
the use
They are
WFW Mail can create two
types of folders:
"* Private folders
"* Shared folders
Private folders can only be accessed and read by the
individual.
Shared folders are obviously open to certain
groups or individuals as access is
delineated.
A hierarchy
of folders would provide security and access control to
various persons in the workgroup.
To create a folder,
pull
down the File menu in Mail and choose the New Folder option.
46
Shared folders can be imported and exported to other
workstation within the workgroup.
The mail administrator should check the status of
memory that the WGPO is
using and ensure that there is
enough available snace to continue operations.
The shared
folders function is very crucial as Shared folders created
by individual workgroup members are stored on the mail
server while Private folders are stored on the local
workstation on which they were created.
Shared folders can
be compressed to save disk space using the Compress buttcn
on the Shared Folders screen.
Chat is
a useful WFW utility that allows real on-
line real-time electronic communications.
Mail as discussed earlier,
It
is
not "•"e
as Chat only works in real-time
and can only be held with one other workgroup member at a
time.
What is
typed is
immediately visible on the screen of
the workgroup member called as is
start Chat,
all that is
responded.
click the Chat icon initially located in
Accessories group.
into two halves,
To
the
The screen displayed will be divided
the top displays the operator's screen and
the bottom for the computer screen of the recipient of the
call.
Chat operates as a telephone conversation does except
that words are typed instead of spoken.
temporary.
Chat files are
When either party in the conversation wishes to
exit the Chat utility
he or she just clicks the Hang-up
icon.
47
Mail can run on a file server that is
a part of an
existing network such as LAN W-nager or Novell NetWare as
long as it
is
connected to the workgroup.
Other details of
this operation are found in books on advanced operation with
WFW.
4.
Schedule Plus Network Calendaring System
Schedule is
designed to keep track of appointments
and tasks,
set up group meetings,
resources.
[Ref.12]
and manage group
Schedule is Mail-enabled and relies on
Mail for logging on, accessing the address book,
and receiving messages.
To use Schedule,
office must have already been set up.
click the Schedule icon in
and sending
a workgroup post
To operate Schedule
the Mail group.
Once Schedule has started the user can choose to
work either Off-line or On-line.
the user must exit WFW,
Schedule.
In order to work off-line
run SHARE.EXE,
and restart WFW and
The Schedule has a dual functionality as it
maintai4: an off-line and an on-line calendar.
This permits
use as a personal time and task planner resident on a single
hard drive off-line and as a workgroup-wide planning tool to
coordinate appointments,
tasks and resources with the other
members of the workgroup on-line.
line,
When using Schedule off-
all calendar files are kept on the local hard drive.
When using Schedule on-line
(the default),
the calendar
files are kept on the Mail server's post office.
Schedule
keeps the on-line and off-line calendars synchronized.
46
A
personal file will be updated to match the corresponding online file automatically each time that Schedule is
The Schedule screen display is
shown in
started.
Figure 4-9.
The functions of Schedule are illustrated by the tabs along
the left side of the appointment book.
They are:
* Today
* Appointment
* Planner
a Task List
File
Edit
Appointments
Tasks
Options
Window
Help
Messages
S. ..
____
________
__":"
.....
____
___
___
__
*s...
...
W
;
-
.5 1314
,,S 7 ;1
. 17
10
114 12
1516
IFS221U22
1____0____
Mi
:"1:00
.:30
__
_
_
_
_
_
_
__
_
_
_
_
i4
_
_
_
Figure 4-9 The Schedule+ Screen Display
By clicking the Today button all of the day's
appointments will be displayed.
49
The Appointments tab will
display both tentative and confirmed appointments.
Tentative appointments will appear in gray and confirmed
appointments show as "busy" times on the schedule.
The
Planner can be used to scan appointments for several days at
a time or compare them to other persons schedules to choose
an appropriate meeting time.
list
The Task List is
that can be prioritized by the user.
be grouped together.
Also,
a "to-do"
Related tasks can
a task can be copied to a
specific time slot in the appointment book as well.
Recurring appointments can be scheduled
automatically and are indicated as such by an icon at the
beginning of the entry.
Schedule can also be programmed to
make reminders to the user for upcoming appointments.
reminder is
icon is
a pop-up message and alarm bell.
The
The alarm bell
displayed on appointments for which the user has
selected a reminder.
Click on Options to pull-down the
General Options dialog box and select Reminders.
For Group Scheduling,
the scheduler of the meeting
must have access privileges to the schedules of all
prospective attendees.
will click on File,
The person scheduling the meeting
then click Open Other's Appt.
Book.
The
screen comes up with the post office directory of the
members of the workgroup.
Select the people to attend and
their schedules will be merged with the person's calendar
scheduling the meeting.
meet is
To find a time when the group can
accomplished by selecting a time slot that is
50
visually open as displayed on the screen or by clicking
Appointments and selecting Auto-select.
This function will
automatically go to the first available time slot in
group's Planner.
Again,
as in
the
the Mail function the process
can be optimized with the use of a customized address book.
After the meeting time is
Meeting button.
selected,
then click the Request
A Send Request screen is
Ask for Response box selected
(default).
displayed with the
Schedule will
update the calendars of all attendees as well as the
scheduler of the meeting.
The icon of shaking hands will
indicate that the meeting has been confirmed by all
attendees.
To cancel a meeting,
meeting from their own calendar.
the user just deletes the
If
the meeting is
meeting the screen will display a message asking if
a group
the user
wishes to inform the meeting coordinator that they cannot
attend the meeting.
If
it
is
the meeting coordinator that
wishes to cancel the meeting then the message will ask if
he
or she wants to send a message to all attendees to notify
them that the meeting has been canceled.
Response messages
can be checked either by clicking the messages icon or by
choosing messages from the pull-down menu after clicking
Window.
Resources can be managed via a separate schedule for
workgroup use just as a personal schedule.
equipment such as overhead projectors,
presentation monitors,
Portable office
big screen
or portable public address systems
51
can be managed and scheduled just as personal schedules are.
To do so, a separate account for that resource must be set
up by the Mail administrator of that particular WGPO.
The Task list
allows workgroup members to keep track
of tasks and projects and to set priority levels and
deadlines.
Reminders can also be added to the task list
just as with the appointment book.
Setting access privilege is very important.
Access
privileges for all of the above functions are provided by
clicking the Options menu and selecting the Set Access
Privileges from the pull-down menu.
the Access privilege dialog box.
Figure 4-10 below shows
All selections are self
explanatory with the exception of Assistant,
whose
designation will allow that person full access to all
personal and workgroup calendars.
The designated assistant
will be able to do everything in Schedule and Mail on behalf
of whomever designated that porson their assistant.
Ue:_
__
Asstant
TUNG X. BUI
()
_
_
_
onS
L
OK
IkCancel_
0 l?.w Frm/Buty Tieas
o Rjked Appointment& &Tasks
1*.rseate Appointments &Tasks
o Modify Appointments &Tasks
____
Fds
1&e4uovvI
0 Assistant
Figure 4-10 The Access Privilege Box
The calendar file has the potential to become very
large,
very fast.
In order to ensure that the schedule does
52
not exceed the available disk space,
been added to save data in
an Archive process has
a compressed format.
the File menu and click Create Archive.
days is
the default amount for archiving,
of days can be changed.
Click on
Data older than ten
however the number
The only other information that is
required for the archiving process is
the location for the
data to be stored, which can be any local or network drive.
C.
THE EFFECTS OF MULTIMEDIA ON THE WORKGROUP ENVIRONMENT
Multimedia means different things to different people.
The variety of definitions all focus on the addition of a
CD-ROM,
high quality audio,
and the capability to process
full-motion video or animation.
All of the above
capabilities bring a new dimension to workgroup computing.
CD-ROM's bring in
features of digital high-quality audio,
and full-motion video.
Also,
they can hold over 600MB of
data, which will greatly increase the amount of shared
resources for the workgroup.
makes and models,
CD-ROM's come in a variety of
both internal and external installations,
and with different technical specifications.
The most
important of the specifications are the data transfer rate
and the access time.
Standard data transfer rates range
from 150KB to 300KB per second.
time it
the
takes for the drive to actually find the data that
was requerted.
range.
The access speed is
Most drives are in the 200-300 millisecond
These speeds are about ten times slower than most
53
The numeric value is
hard drive access times.
deceiving as
CD-ROM drives access very large portions of data each time
[Ref.9].
To select a CD-ROM that is
compatible with WFW,
choose one that is MPC (Multimedia PC)
"XA"(eXtended Architecture)
version 2)
specification.
or with the
or "XA-2"(eXtended Architecture
These drives exhibit relatively
fast data transfer and access speeds.
To share a CD-ROM drive with a workgroup,
version 2.21
of MSCDEX.EXE or higher must be installed in the
AUTOEXEC.BAT file.
Also the "Is"
used with the MSCDEX.EXE file.
automatically installed in
run.
(share) switch must be
The driver will then be
the CONFIG.SYS when WFW Setup is
Note when sharing a CD-ROM use the Read-Only access.
Since sound cards are required for most CD-ROM players
in order for them to play high-quality audio,
they are
sometimes considered the core of the multimedia extension to
a PC.
However,
in the digital office,
multimedia extension is
the core of the
"business audio."
Examples of
business audio are:
"* Voice messages
"* Voice annotation of documents
"* Voice recognition
In order to use multimedia sound within the workgroup,
every workstation in
sound card.
the workgroup must be equipped with a
The addition of the sound card will bring the
waveform audio (WAV)
capability to the workgroup.
54
This is
the type of audio file that creates business audio by
permitting voice annotation of documents and Mail.
The
Schedule function can also be enhanced with voice reminders.
Word processing documents and spreadsheets can also display
voice recognition so documents can be "proof-read" by the
PC.
Passing documents or spreadsheets, previewing
pXesentations, or showing CD-ROM "infomercials" allow
workgroup members to remain at their workstations while
actually meeting with their workgroup.
Multimedia in the digital office environment provides a
great enhancement to the form of media available across the
local area network.
Business audio is the most cost
effective multimedia followed by CD-ROM video and high
quality audio.
Full motion video can be attained by the
addition of one of many video application boards.
of these are:
"
Examples
[Ref.93
Television boards which enable cable TV to be
displayed on the desktop. Financial news or special
reports can be viewed at the workstation
" Video display/capture boards which enable recorded
video from a video recorder or VCR to be replayed to
the desktop
WFW provides ý_a-::bilities fý-_r e-Ii Tf the digit-al office
functions described in the preceding chapters while
satisfying the criteria described for typical DoD
installations.
The transformation of the non-digital office
to a digital one can be accomplished with relative ease and
55
little
expense taking into account the added capabilities
achieved by following this process.
D.
OVERVIEW OF CO-OP: A GROUP DECISION SUPPORT SYSTEM
Co-Op is
a Group Decision Support System (GDSS)
multiple criteria decision making.
environment,
it
is
a color-based,
Installed in
for
the WFW
multitask window GDSS
which can accommodate several decision members in a face-toface or distributed group decision making process.
Each
participant of the workgroup has his or her own decision.
support system whose model base is
adapted from a multiple
criteria decision methods
Recent enhancements to
(MCDM).
the software have expanded the model base to include ELECTRE
3,
ELECTRE 4,
and PROMETHEE.
Also,
the Minimum Variance and
the Min-Max techniques have incorporated.
These consensus
seeking techniques of aggregation of preferences promote
timely, well thought out and planned,
selections or
decisions that are made remotely and individually while
seemingly face-to-face within a group setting.
This
powerful enhancement to the digital office can very
efficiently replace hours of lost time due to in-house
meetings that limit creativity and judgment because of time
constraint and structure.
An example of Co-Op's versatility
in the WFW environment would begin by a meeting scheduled
using the Schedule utility
with voice annotation of the
meetings structure and intended outcomes,
to rent or buy.
i.e.,
a decision
The Schedule utility would select the first
56
available time slot to conduct the meeting.
acknowledged by all workgroup members,
set.
Once
the meeting time is
Prior to the official meeting the workgroup could
individually access Co-oP program and input their
preferences and prioritizations of the criteria for the rent
or buy decision.
Meanwhile,
Co-oP is
utilizing the model
base to arrive at a consensus based on the entire workgroups
input.
The outcome of the process can be discussed or
debated at the formal scheduled meeting.
This process could
also have produced an agreeable outcome to management
without the formal meeting and consensus could have been
attained over the network.
This example of efficiency
within the digital office through electronic meeting can
spawn further productivity in operational and research
areas.
After successful installation,
the following way.
[Ref.3]
The Co-Op main menu consists of
six steps:
(1) problem definition,
definition,
(3)
In the first
(2)
group norm
prioritization evaluation criteria,
individual selection alternatives,
alternatives,
Co-Op can be utilized in
(6)
(5)
(4)
group selection of
consensus seeking and negotiation.
step, the workgroup or portion of the
workgroup selected to make the decision,
identify and define a decision,
is
to collectively
the rent or buy decision.
The workgroup members should share the same decision space.
This could be accomplished by query within the WFW
57
environment prior to when each individual begins working
with Co-Op.
Next,
assign passwords.
the group will identify its members and
It
also needs to decide on the means in
which the decision making software will be utilized,
i.e.,
type of decision technique used and any other constraints.
The third step deals with the prioritization of the
evaluation criteria.
This is
done by group members
assigning weights to the criteria or using a routine to
devise a hierarchical prioritization scheme.
The fourth Co-
Op process allows individual evaluation of alternatives
using the preferred MCDM.
Next,
is
the computation of the
group results using a technique of aggregation of
preferences.
Finally, if
unanimity is
not obtained,
consensus seeking algorithm can be used.
still
If
a
results are
not obtained users are urged to return to previous
steps to refine the process and possibly attain the desired
outcome.
Co-Op allows the user to interrupt these processes at
any step, thus allowing group work to be completed in part
individually and at the user's convenience prior to any
deadline if
E.
one has been set.
OVERVIEW OF NEGOTIATOR: A NEGOTIATION SUPPORT SYSTEM
A Negotiation Support System (NSS)
is
found to be useful
in the digital office environment to help users evaluate
claims,
decipher opponents'
positions,
58
gain additional
insights,
and to maximize opportunities to tactfully
negotiate the terms of an agreement.
Various proven
techniques are incorporated to assist
negotiatcrs
reaching a consensus.
Negotiator
(NeGo)
in
can be used
individually as a stand-alone decision tool or in
environment to aid in
NeGo is
[Ref.2)
(2)
group problem solving.
implemented with three design architecture's:
(1) DSS based on Economic Models of Negotiation,
DSS based on Inductive Learning,
Approach to a NeGo's DSS.
the first
the WFW
two designs.
to gain advantage,
(3)
A Hybrid
The third design is
a hybrid of
As with any negotiation,
to "strike a deal,"
individual needs or utility.
when the utility
and
parties try
that satisfies
their
The optimum solution occurs
of one party can no longer be increased
without decreasing the utility
of the other.
This
negotiated "optimum solution" therefore exhibits the best
deal for both parties.
An example of a negotiated solution
would entail two parties that are inherently noncooperative,
trying to reach a decision that satisfies both
parties requirements,
certain attributes.
like the price to pay for a home given
One party wants to pay what the best
price would be for their money,
the other wanting to
maximize their profit murgin based on market value.
Somewhere in between the two values is
settlement.
59
a negotiated
In the digital office,
a negotiated decision can be made
within the WFW environment utilizing NeGo.
The scenario
would be set up similar to the decision making scenario
discussed using the Co-Op program.
Inputs can be
individually entered into NeGo with the outcomes discussed
in a structured,
formal group setting or in an informal
unstructured electronic meeting.
The usefulness of both the
GDSS and the NSS programs can be made optimal through office
training,
practice,
and when applications supporting their
use arise.
60
V.
SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS
Transforming the typical non-digital office into an
efficient and productive digital office brings with it
a
separate set of problems regarding the selection of the
appropriate groupware environment.
This environment must
satisfy the opeiating characteristics of both the existing
office applications that will migrate to the new environment
and be compatible with any new features selected Lo improve
overall office efficiency and effectiveness.
The underlying office operating system will be the local
area network and its associated connections or gateways to
other local area networks and wide area networks.
The
selected network operating system will be the backbone of
the environment,
providing enhancement to existing office
applications and determining the compatibility of any new
features added to the system.
Office tools that will create the digital office
environment typically will be applications that are routine
to the daily operation of the office and familiar to the
personnel that use them.
Also management functions will be
added so as to enhance the environment with tools that
electronically mail,
schedule,
making in a group environment.
architecture,
chat,
and aid in decision
Once bundled into a system
the environment will be complete and ready for
61
use.
At that time the digital office functionality can be
tested and improvements based on experiences gained from the
operation can be implemented.
environment and its
Windows for Workgroups provides the most acceptable
solution to the transformation and integration problems
foreseen during the design phase.
system it
is
As a network operating
very easily installed and because the Windows
operating environment is
practically a PC standard,
subsequent additions of applications,
whether through the
software upgrade process or the addition of new
functionality,
can be expected without unforeseen software
compatibility problems.
Also the features that come
packaged with the network operating system complete the
digital office environment without having the need to
purchase separate software packages that sometimes do not
operate as seemlessly as packaged system software.
for Workgroups'
installed utilities
group scheduling,
Windows
of electronic mail and
along with the Microsoft Windows Open
Systems Architecture
(WOSA),
support standard API's which
enhance the ease of addition of new applications.
Groupware as an additional application provides immense
possibilities to the digital office environment.
Group
decision support systems and groupware in general provide
the digital office design with a functionality that when
meshed with the other office functions becomes a system tool
62
that greatly enhances the efficient and productive operation
of the total office as a system.
63
APPENDIX
INSTALLATION PROCEDURES FOR A GROUPWARE ENVIRONMENT
A.
GENERAL INFORMATION
This appendix provides step-by step instructions to
quickly set up a groupware environment as described in the
previous sections.
B.
INSTALLATION PROCEDURES
Installation of hardware and software specific to the
generic GDSS prototype is
paragraphs.
described in the following
Care has been taken not only to focus on the
general installation procedures contained in the owners
manual but to also summarize some of the more user specific
functionality reserved for the more experienced users of the
individual software packages.
the software and hardware is
The order of installation of
based on a bottom-up design
method' utilizing a new 486/33 MHz IBM or clone type PC.
Variations of the installation procedures for PC's of
different types are referred to in the owners manual of the
individual software package to identify CPU speed, RAM,
and
hard disk drive free memory space requirements.
iBottom-up design refers to a methodology of implementing the lowest
level modules on a "stand-alone" basis and then integrating them with
other modules as they are designed and tested continuing until the
entire system is functional.
64
1.
MS-DOS Installation
If
new,
the system that MS-DOS 6.0 is
to be installed is
check to see that a version of MS-DOS is
installed by
typing "ver" at the DOS prompt.
a.
MS-DOS Version 3 of Earlier
If
running a version of MS-DOS version 3 or
earlier copy MS-DOS from the floppy disks to the hard disk
using a two step process.
The first
step uses the System
(sys)command to copy two hidden files that MS-DOS needs in
order to start up from the hard disk drive.
following:
Type the
[Ref.15]
*
MS-DOS responds:
A>sys c:
System transferred.
The second step uses the COPY command to copy
the remaining files to the hard disk drive.
*
Type:
A>copy command.com c:\
Create the MS-DOS directory:
*
A>md c:\dos
Copy the files from the MS-DOS disk to the DOS
directory:
*
b.
A>copy *
c:\dos
MS-DOS Version 4
Ve-sion 4 of MS-DOS comes with an installation
program that prompts the installer throughout the
installation process.
Insert the floppy diskette labeled
65
then
Install into drive A and start or restart the computer,
press enter to begin.
From that point on the installation
program called Select [Ref.151 queries the user to make
selections and follows up by prompting the user to insert
the correct floppy diskette for proper installation.
c.
MS-DOS Verslon 5 and 6
Upgrading from version 5 or 6 has the same
installation procedures.
Insert Disk 1 of MS-DOS into drive
A and type:
"*
C>A:
"*
A>setup
Setup checks the memory and devices on the
computer system, offers help at every stage,
when a response is
required.
version 5 and version 6 is
and prompts
The only difference between
version 6 comes equipped with
procedures to make an Uninstall diskette in case the setup
program fails during installation.
d.
MS-DOS Not Installed
If
a version of DOS is
not installed,
start by
inserting the floppy disk labeled Disk 1 in drive A.
Then
Setup will guide the user
start or restart the computer.
through the entire installation process as described above.
[Ref.151
66
2.
Windows for Workgroups Installation
Windows for Workgroups requires hardware and
software installation.
Also the minimum requirements for
using Windows for Workgroups are a 386SX based system with a
hard disk drive,
[Ref.10]
Also,
4MB of RAM,
a mouse,
and a VGA monitor.
a network card and cabling to connect the
workstations, MS-DOS 3.2 or above,
and Windows for
Workgroups software are required.
The network card,
cabling,
and software are all supplied with the Windows for
Workgroups Starter Kit.
Also,
the above specifications are
minimum and for more optimal performance the recommended
system should have at least 8MB of RAM,
space on the hard disk.
and 14.5MB of free
A reminder being that with 14.5MB
of free space on the hard disk leaves virtually no space for
data storage or additional applications.
space area is
a.
A 60 to 100MB free
a reasonable choice.
Hardware Installation
Prior to installing the Windows for Workgroups
software,
a Network Interface Card (NIC),
network adapter,
also called a
must be installed in each computer.
Ethernet cards are the most common and the type that is
supplied with the Windows for Workgroups Starter Kit.
[Ref.10]
Token-ring cards are also common,
but more
expensive and more often used in very large installations.
If
the system already has a NIC,
Windows for Workgroups is
compatible with a large number of industry standard boards.
67
The installation kit provides a list
of supported and non-
supported industry standard compatible network adapter cards
that will work with Windows for Workgroups.
A network can
comprise of different types of NIC's as long as they are
supported by Windows for Workgroups.
The installation procedures for the NIC are
detailed in
the Getting Started Manual supplied with the
Windows for Workgroups Starter Kit.
the installation steps.
Below is
a synopsis of
Any questions concerning the
installation should be referred to the manual.
the computer for installation:
To prepare
[Ref.9]
"* Quit running all applications
"* Turn off and unplug the computer
"* Remove the cover from the computer
Once the cover is
installation steps:
removed, perform the following
"• Locate an unused 16 bit slot.
Do not use an
empty 32 slot in VESA or EISA standard
motherboard
"* Remove the cover from the associated slot
"* Discharge any static electricity from the
hands by touching a grounded metal surface
"* Remove the NIC from its protective wrapper
being careful not to touch the gold contacts
on the bottom edge of the card
"* Align the card and press firmly into the
selected 16 bit slot
"* Check to see the card is seated properly and
aligns with the other installed cards
68
Secure the card in
a
place with the screw that
was removed from with the slot cover
*
Replace the computer cover and screws
6
Reconnect any cables and power cords that
were disconnected or unplugged
*
Repeat the above procedures for all
computer
that will be connected to the network
To connect the network coax cables and
terminators to the network computers complete the following
steps:
b.
"*
Connect a T-connector to the connector jack
on each NIC
"*
Connect the cable from one side of the Tconnector on one computer to one side of
the T-connector on the next computer.
Continue until all computers in the network
or workgroup are connected in series.
This
should leave the two end units with one end
of their T-connectors still
open
"*
At the open ends install a terminator.
At
this point all T-connectors of all
installed computers on the network or
workgroup should have either a cable end or
a terminator plug installed
Network Interface Card Configuration Settings
All NIC's use an interrupt, base I/O port,
sometimes use a base memory address.
and
These configuration
settings are used by the PC to identify and communicate to
the NIC.
Interrupts,
also known as IRQ's are the way the
processor communicates with the NIC.
The base I/O port is
the memory address through which data is
from the NIC.
The base memory address,
69
transferred to and
sometimes called the
RAM start address,
memory that is
defines the memory location used by
physically located on the NIC.
This is
why
base memory addresses are not always used as the NIC may not
come with it's
own RAM.
These settings must also not
interfere with other existing system components that have
the same settings.
Most NIC's come preconfigured with
standard default settings.
However,
if
Use these whenever possible.
the PC to be used in the workgroup has numerous
add-on cards such as a sound card or voice mail card,
preconfigured default settings may not work.
the configuration settings must be changed.
not sure which interrupts, base I/O ports,
addresses are being used by the PC,
the
In this case
If
the user is
or base memory
run the Microsoft
Diagnostic Utility supplied with the Windows 3.1 software.
Do not run this utility
simply type MSD.
utility
from Windows!
At the DOS prompt
The user can then determine from the
which configuration settings are conflicting.
NIC must use an interrupt that is
not otherwise being used.
To change the configuration settings,
supplied with the NIC.
follow the directions
The most common configuration
setting required to be changed is
the interrupt
hardware device in the PC uses and interrupt.
interrupts
(2 through 15) available for use.
systems IRQ's 3,
5,
The
and 15 are available.
(IRQ).
Each
There are 14
For most
Table A-i
[Ref.9]
displays the standard interrupts for the 80286 processor and
above.
70
XRQ
UTILIZZD FOR
2
Graphics Adapter
3
Second Serial Port (COM2)
4
First Serial Port (COMI)
5
Usually free. Used for second printer (LPT2)
6
Floppy disk controller
7
Parallel port (LPTl)
8
System clock
9
Connected to IRQ2
10
Usually free
11
Usually free
12
Usually free
13
Math coprocessor if
installed otherwise free
14
Hard disk controller
15
Usually free
Table A-i Interrupts
(IRQ)
Just as each hardware device must have an
interrupt,
A-2
[Ref.9]
it
must also have a unique memory address.
is
a list
of base I/O addresses.
71
Table
Port Address
Used for
Port LAddress
200-20F
Game port
300-30F
210-21F
310-31F
220-22F
320-32F
230-23F
Bus mouse
HDD controller
330-33F
240-24F
340-34F
250-25F
350-35F
260-26F
360-36F
270-27F
Used for
LPT3:
370-37F
LPT2:
280-28F
Z80-38F
290-29F
390-39F
2A0-2AF
3A0-3AF
2B0-2BF
3B0-3BF
2C0-2CF
3C0-3CF
EGA/VGA
2D0-2DF
3D0-3DF
Color video
2E0-2EF
3E0-3EF
2F0-2FF
COM2:
3F0-3FF
LPTl:
FDD Controller
Table A-2 Base I/O Addresses
If
300 as it
address,
is
unsure about which base I/O port to use try
usually free.
try D8000.
If
The same goes for base memory
there is
the NIC and the system is
a base memory address with
utilizing MS-DOS Expanded Memory
Manager, the base memory address of the NIC mast be included
in
the "x=" parameter of the "device=emm386" line in
CONFIG. SYS.
72
the
Once the NIC is
setup and is
installed and the system is
configured so that it
operates without
interrupts, proceed with the Windows for Workgroups software
installation procedures.
c.
Software Installation
Windows for Workgroups can be installed for two
different purposes.
Either to upgrade a previous version of
Windows or to install Windows for Workgroups for the first
time.
Before installing the software prepare the hard disk
drive by completing the following:
[Ref.9]
"*
Delete all files and applications that are
not required
"*
Run CHKDSK from the MS-DOS prompt to check
available space and ensure that there are
no problems
"*
Run a disk defragmentation program.
MS-DOS
6.0 has a function that will accomplish
this.
Do not run this command from
Windows! The basic command is: C:\>defrag
If
To utilize the defragmentation utility
to
it's
fullest extent refer to the MS-DOS 6.0
manual supplied with the software
Make a backup of the hard disk drive.
Again MS-DOS 6.0 has a built in utility
that will accomplish this.
To backup all
files on drive "C" type the following
command at the DOS prompt:
C:\>backup c:\
a: /s
73
Ensure that an Emergency Disk is prepared
that at least contains a copy of the
AUTOEXEC.BAT and CONFIG.SYS files that can
start the computer in its original state
should a malfunction or interruption occur
during the installation of the software
The installation of the software is very basic.
Installation can be accomplished from either the A or B disk
drives.
Log onto the appropriate disk drive from the DOS
prompt as follows:
"*
C:\>a: or C:\>b: then type:
"*
C:\>setup or B:\>setup at the prompt
The user is
SETUP or CUSTOM SETUP.
then prompted to choose from EXPRESS
For most cases it
that EXPRESS SETUP be used.
version of Windows,
applications,
If
is
recommended
upgrading from a previous
EXPRESS SETUP will preserve all
groups,
and printer settings.
CUSTOM SETUP
provides the user with more control over the setup procedure
with the ability to override some of the default settings
and to choose whether some of the functionality of Windows
for Workgroups is needed.
If
freeing memory space is
critical to the operation of the system, the user may choose
not to install the complete software package.
is
still
EXPRESS SETUP
recommended in this case as those functionalities
can be deleted after installation.
The setup program will determine if
memory space is
Windows is
free on the hard disk drive.
already installed on the system, it
74
enough
Also, if
will ask if
the user wants to add Windows for Workgroups.
of Windows prior to version 3.1 is
update it
to version 3.1.
installed,
If
a version
setup will
The user should be ready to
supply the following information during the setup procedure:
"*
name
"*
company (optional)
"*
workgroup
"*
type of printer
"*
printer port
The computer name identif'es the user to others
on the network.
The workgroup name will be identical to all
users in the same workgroup.
An example would be
"Information Technology Workgroup."
has completed,
After the setup program
a reboot must be initiated in order to
install the network drivers that the software needs to be
able to communicate with other systems.
d.
Passwords
The first
Workgroups,
time that the user starts Windows for
the screen will display the computer name
entered during setup and will ask the user for a password.
If
password access is
not desired press Enter, otherwise
type a password of up to fourteen characters.
Next,
the
system will ask if
the user would like to create a password
file.
and press Enter.
Choose "OK"
Then the system will ask
the user to type that password again.
75
When a password is
Windows for Workgroups.
password list
If
it
chosen it
is
is
encoded into
forgotten,
then the
file must be deleted and the password startup
process must be started again from the beginning.
password list
The
can be viewed from the SYSTEM.INI file in the
Windows directory.
The appropriate section will appear as
follows:
0
[Password Lists]
* WRITERS=C:\WINDOWS\WRlTERS.PWL
Deleting the WRITERS.PWL file will clear the
password for that particular machine and the user may then
restart Windows for Workgroups and initiate a new password
list.
e.
Bypassing the Logon Password Process
If
the user would prefer to bypass the logon
password process entirely every time that Windows for
Workgroups is
started,
double click on the Network Icon in
the Windows Control Panel.
Click the Password button and
the Change Logon Password dialog box will appear.
current password in the Old Password text box.
Type the
Leave the
New Password and Confirm New Password text boxes blank and
click OK.
From this point on each time that Windows for
Workgroups is
accessed the password box will not appear.
76
3.
ConSensus-Builder Voting System Installation
The ConSensus-Builder Voting System is
contained portable product.
above,
a fully self-
Unlike the products described
ConSensus-Builder does not require permanent
installation within the GDSS prototype.
It
can be easily
attached to any machine in the network to facilitate a
voting scheme matched to the experiment being conducted with
the GDSS.
a.
Hardware Setup
To setup the ConSensus-Builder Voting System,
follow the directions provided with the system.
Simply
install the three antenna in the connectors located on the
top of the transceiver.
in
Next install the phone-jack adapter
the serial COM2 port on the selected PC in the network.
Finally connect phone cable coming from the transceiver to
the adapter in
the communications port.
When to operate,
ready turn the power switch to the on position.
b.
Software Installation
The software for ConSensus-Builder is
utilizing the Setup Program.
installed
At the DOS prompt type the
following:
"* C:\>type A: or B:
"* C:\>setup or B:\>setup
Follow the instructions and make selections from
the choices provided.
The main choice is
77
selecting the type
of keypads to be utilized.
The ConSenuas-Builder Voting
System tested on the GDSS prototype will be using wireless
keypads.
Disk number 2 of the software will automatically
install the appropriate keypad driver from this selection.
Once software installation is
system is
4.
complete the ConSensus-Builder
ready to operate.
Co-oP Installation
Co-oP is
a ConSensus searching tool for two groups.
No extra hardware is
a.
required for operation on a network.
Software Installation
Co-oP software is
program.
installed utilizing the setup
At the DOS prompt of the drive selected type setup
as was done with the ConSensus-Builder software described
above.
5.
Once installed,
the software is
ready to use.
NeGo Installation
NeGo is
GDSS prototype.
a negotiating tool selected for use on the
Extra hardware is not required for
operation on a network.
a.
Software Installation
NeGo software is
program.
installed utilizing the setup
The procedures for installation are the same as
those of the Co-oP software.
78
LIST OF REFERENCES
[I]
Bui, Tung X., presentation notes and overheads,
Naval Postgraduate School, Monterey, CA., 1993.
[2]
Bui, Tung,X., NEGOTIATOR: A Bilateral; MultipleIssue Single-Party Negotiation Support System,
Proceedings of the Hawaii International Conference
on System Sciences, January, 1992.
[3]
Bui, Tung, X., Co-oP: A Group Decision Support
System for Cooperative Multiple Criteria Group
Decision Making, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1987.
[4]
Gibson, Stanley, Easy installation and low prices
are making wireless LAN's appealing, PC WEEK
Supplement, April 19,1993.
[5]
Grudin, Jonathan and Poltrock, Steven E.,
Supported Cooperative Work and Groupware,
Notes, CSCS 1992.
[6]
Grudin Jonathan, Why Groupware Applications Fail:
Problems in design and Evaluation, Office:
Technology and People, April 3, 1989.
[7]
Hsu, Jeffrey and Lockwood, Tony,
Computing, Byte, March 1993.
[8]
Koffman, Gail, Strike up the Bandwidth,
Magazine, November, 1992.
[9]
Miastkowski, Stan and Lent, Anne Fischer, The
Windows for Workgroups Bible, Addison-Wesley
Company, Reading MA., 1993.
[10]
Microsoft Corporation, User's Guide to Microsoft
Windows for Workgroups, 1992.
[i1]
Microsoft Corporation, Mail User's Guide to
Microsoft Windows for Workgroups, 1992.
[12]
Microsoft Corporation, Schedule + User's Guide to
Microsoft Windows for Workgroups, 1992.
[13]
Stevenson, Ted, Groupware: Are We Ready?,
Magazine, June 15, 1993.
79
Computer
Tutorial
Collaborative
LAN
PC
[14]
Vogel, Douglas R. and Nunnamaker, Jay, F., Design
and Assessment of a Group Decision Support System,
Intellectual Teamwork: The Social and Technological
Bases of Cooperative Work, Ed. Jolene Galegher,
1990.
[15]
Wolverton, Van, Running MS-DOS,
Redmond, WA., 1993.
80
Microsoft Press,
INITIAL DISTRIBUTION LIST
1.
Defense Technical Information Center
Cameron Station
Alexandria, Virginia 22304-6145
2
2.
Library, Code 052
Naval Postgraduate School
Monterey, California 93943-5002
2
3.
Curricular Officer, Code 037
Naval Postgraduate School
Monterey, California 93943-5002
1
4.
Prof. Tung X. Bui, Code AS/BD
Naval Postgraduate School
Monterey, California 93943-5002
1
5.
Prof. Myung Suh, Code AS/Su
Naval Postgraduate School
Monterey, California 93943-5002
1
6.
LT James C. Broadwater
56 Phelps Road
Apartment 3B
Middletown, Rhode Island 02840
1
81
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