Alvarion BU-DS.11 Network Router User Manual

BreezeNET DS.11 Series
BU-DS.11
RB-DS.11
User Manual
January 2005
S/W Version 4.2
P/N: 213993
ii
BreezeNET DS.11 Series User Manual
Important Notice
iii
© Copyright Alvarion Ltd (“Alvarion”). All rights reserved.
The material contained herein is proprietary, privileged, and confidential. No
disclosure thereof shall be made to third parties without the express written
permission of Alvarion.
Alvarion reserves the right to alter the equipment specifications and descriptions in
this publication without prior notice. No part of this publication shall be deemed to
be part of any contract or warranty unless specifically incorporated by reference
into such contract or warranty.
Trade Names
Alvarion, BreezeCOM, WALKair, WALKnet, BreezeNET, BreezeMANAGE,
BreezeACCESS, BreezeMAX, AlvariSTAR, MGW, eMGW and/or other products
and/or services referenced here in are either registered trademarks, trademarks or
service marks of Alvarion. All other names are or may be the trademarks of their
respective owners.
Statement of Conditions
The information contained in this manual is subject to change without notice.
Alvarion shall not be liable for errors contained herein or for incidental or
consequential damages in connection with the furnishing, performance, or use of
this manual or equipment supplied with it.
Warranties; Disclaimers
All Alvarion products purchased from Alvarion or through any of Alvarion’s
authorized resellers are subject to the following warranty and product liability
terms and conditions.
Exclusive Warranty
Alvarion warrants that the Product hardware it supplies and the tangible media on
which any software is installed, under normal use and conditions, will be free from
significant defects in materials and workmanship for a period of fourteen (14)
months from the date of shipment of a given Product to Purchaser (the “Warranty
Period”). Alvarion will, at its sole option and as Purchaser’s sole remedy, repair or
replace any defective Product in accordance with Alvarion’ standard RMA
procedure.
BreezeNET DS.11 Series User Manual
iv
Disclaimer
(a) UNITS OF PRODUCT (INCLUDING ALL THE SOFTWARE) DELIVERED TO
PURCHASER HEREUNDER ARE NOT FAULT-TOLERANT AND ARE NOT
DESIGNED, MANUFACTURED OR INTENDED FOR USE OR RESALE IN
APPLICATIONS WHERE THE FAILURE, MALFUNCTION OR INACCURACY OF
PRODUCTS CARRIES A RISK OF DEATH OR BODILY INJURY OR SEVERE
PHYSICAL OR ENVIRONMENTAL DAMAGE (“HIGH RISK ACTIVITIES”). HIGH RISK
ACTIVITIES MAY INCLUDE, BUT ARE NOT LIMITED TO, USE AS PART OF
ON-LINE CONTROL SYSTEMS IN HAZARDOUS ENVIRONMENTS REQUIRING
FAIL-SAFE PERFORMANCE, SUCH AS IN THE OPERATION OF NUCLEAR
FACILITIES, AIRCRAFT NAVIGATION OR COMMUNICATION SYSTEMS, AIR
TRAFFIC CONTROL, LIFE SUPPORT MACHINES, WEAPONS SYSTEMS OR OTHER
APPLICATIONS REPRESENTING A SIMILAR DEGREE OF POTENTIAL HAZARD.
ALVARION SPECIFICALLY DISCLAIMS ANY EXPRESS OR IMPLIED WARRANTY OF
FITNESS FOR HIGH RISK ACTIVITIES.
(b) PURCHASER’S SOLE REMEDY FOR BREACH OF THE EXPRESS WARRANTIES
ABOVE SHALL BE REPLACEMENT OR REFUND OF THE PURCHASE PRICE AS
SPECIFIED ABOVE, AT ALVARION’S OPTION. TO THE FULLEST EXTENT
ALLOWED BY LAW, THE WARRANTIES AND REMEDIES SET FORTH IN THIS
AGREEMENT ARE EXCLUSIVE AND IN LIEU OF ALL OTHER WARRANTIES OR
CONDITIONS, EXPRESS OR IMPLIED, EITHER IN FACT OR BY OPERATION OF
LAW, STATUTORY OR OTHERWISE, INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO
WARRANTIES, TERMS OR CONDITIONS OF MERCHANTABILITY, FITNESS FOR A
PARTICULAR PURPOSE, SATISFACTORY QUALITY, CORRESPONDENCE WITH
DESCRIPTION, NON-INFRINGEMENT, AND ACCURACY OF INFORMATION
GENERATED. ALL OF WHICH ARE EXPRESSLY DISCLAIMED. ALVARION’
WARRANTIES HEREIN RUN ONLY TO PURCHASER, AND ARE NOT EXTENDED
TO ANY THIRD PARTIES. ALVARION NEITHER ASSUMES NOR AUTHORIZES ANY
OTHER PERSON TO ASSUME FOR IT ANY OTHER LIABILITY IN CONNECTION
WITH THE SALE, INSTALLATION, MAINTENANCE OR USE OF ITS PRODUCTS.
(c) ALVARION SHALL NOT BE LIABLE UNDER THIS WARRANTY IF ITS TESTING
AND EXAMINATION DISCLOSE THAT THE ALLEGED DEFECT IN THE PRODUCT
DOES NOT EXIST OR WAS CAUSED BY PURCHASER’S OR ANY THIRD PERSON'S
MISUSE, NEGLIGENCE, IMPROPER INSTALLATION OR IMPROPER TESTING,
UNAUTHORIZED ATTEMPTS TO REPAIR, OR ANY OTHER CAUSE BEYOND THE
RANGE OF THE INTENDED USE, OR BY ACCIDENT, FIRE, LIGHTNING OR
OTHER HAZARD.
Important Notice
v
Limitation of Liability
(a) ALVARION SHALL NOT BE LIABLE TO THE PURCHASER OR TO ANY THIRD
PARTY, FOR ANY LOSS OF PROFITS, LOSS OF USE, INTERRUPTION OF
BUSINESS OR FOR ANY INDIRECT, SPECIAL, INCIDENTAL, PUNITIVE OR
CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES OF ANY KIND, WHETHER ARISING UNDER
BREACH OF CONTRACT, TORT (INCLUDING NEGLIGENCE), STRICT LIABILITY
OR OTHERWISE AND WHETHER BASED ON THIS AGREEMENT OR OTHERWISE,
EVEN IF ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGES.
(b) TO THE EXTENT PERMITTED BY APPLICABLE LAW, IN NO EVENT SHALL THE
LIABILITY FOR DAMAGES HEREUNDER OF ALVARION OR ITS EMPLOYEES OR
AGENTS EXCEED THE PURCHASE PRICE PAID FOR THE PRODUCT BY
PURCHASER, NOR SHALL THE AGGREGATE LIABILITY FOR DAMAGES TO ALL
PARTIES REGARDING ANY PRODUCT EXCEED THE PURCHASE PRICE PAID FOR
THAT PRODUCT BY THAT PARTY (EXCEPT IN THE CASE OF A BREACH OF A
PARTY’S CONFIDENTIALITY OBLIGATIONS).
Electronic Emission Notices
This device complies with Part 15 of the FCC rules, ETSI 300-328 and CE.
Operation is subject to the following two conditions:
1. This device may not cause harmful interference.
2. This device must accept any interference received, including interference that
may cause undesired operation.
FCC Radio Frequency Interference Statement
This equipment has been tested and found to comply with the limits for a Class B
digital device, pursuant to part 15 of the FCC Rules. These limits are designed to
provide reasonable protection against harmful interference when the equipment is
operated in a residential environment, not withstanding use in commercial,
business and industrial environments. This equipment generates, uses and can
radiate radio frequency energy and, if not installed and used in accordance with
the instructions, may cause harmful interference to radio communications.
However, there is no guarantee that interference will not occur in a particular
installation.
If this equipment does cause harmful interference to radio or television reception,
which can be determined by turning the equipment off and on, the user is
encouraged to try to correct the interference by one or more of the following
measures:
•
Reorient or relocate the receiving antenna.
•
Increase the separation between the equipment and receiver.
•
Connect the equipment into an outlet on a circuit different from that to which
the receiver is connected.
BreezeNET DS.11 Series User Manual
vi
•
Consult the dealer or an experienced radio/TV technician for help
Changes or modifications to this equipment not expressly approved by the party
responsible for compliance could void the user’s authority to operate the
equipment.
FCC Radiation Exposure Statement
To comply with FCC RF exposure requirements in section 1.1307, a minimum
separation distance of 2 m (79 inches) is required between the antenna and all
persons.
Antenna Installation
WARNING: It is the responsibility of the installer to insure that when using the
outdoor antenna kits in the United States (or where FCC rules apply), only those
antennas certified with the product are used. The use of any antenna other than
those certified with the product is expressly forbidden in accordance to FCC rules
CFR47 part 15.204.
The installer should configure the output power level of antennas, according to
country regulations and per antenna type.
Important Notice
vii
Important Notice
This manual is applicable to BreezeNET DS.11 units and is delivered subject to the
following conditions and restrictions:
♦
This manual contains proprietary information belonging to Alvarion. Such
information is supplied solely for the purpose of assisting explicitly and
properly authorized users of BreezeNET DS.11 equipment.
♦
No part of its contents may be used for any other purpose, disclosed to any
person or firm or reproduced by any means, electronic and mechanical,
without the express prior written permission of Alvarion.
♦
The text and graphics are for the purpose of illustration and reference only. The
specifications on which they are based are subject to change without notice.
♦
The software described in this document is furnished under a license. The
software may be used or copied only in accordance with the terms of that
license.
♦
Information in this document is subject to change without notice.
♦
Corporate and individual names and data used in examples herein are
fictitious unless otherwise noted.
♦
Alvarion reserves the right to alter the equipment specifications and
descriptions in this publication without prior notice. No part of this publication
shall be deemed to be part of any contract or warranty unless specifically
incorporated by reference into such contract or warranty.
♦
The information contained herein is merely descriptive in nature, and does not
constitute a binding offer for the sale of the product described herein.
♦
Any changes or modifications of equipment, including opening of the
equipment not expressly approved by Alvarion will void equipment warranty
and any repair thereafter shall be charged for. It could also void the user’s
authority to operate the equipment.
♦
Some of the equipment provided by Alvarion and specified in this manual, is
manufactured and warranted by third parties. All such equipment must be
installed and handled in full compliance with the instructions provided by such
manufacturers as attached to this manual or provided thereafter by Alvarion or
the manufacturers. Non-compliance with such instructions may result in
serious damage and/or bodily harm and/or void the user’s authority to operate
the equipment and/or revoke the warranty provided by such manufacturer.
BreezeNET DS.11 Series User Manual
viii
Contacting Alvarion Technical
Support
Should you need assistance beyond the scope of this manual, please contact your
local Alvarion reseller or distributor. If they cannot solve your problem, feel free to
contact the Alvarion Technical Support Department. The support representative
can assist you in solving any problems that cannot be solved by your reseller.
When requesting support, please have the following items available:
♦
Configuration of the system, including models of the Alvarion equipment used
and other applicable equipment and connecting cables
♦
Hardware and Firmware versions of the Alvarion equipment
♦
Configuration and statistics counters as viewed in the Configuration Utility
♦
Description of the problem encountered
To contact Alvarion Technical Support Department, refer to the Alvarion web site:
www.alvarion.com/support.htm
Table of Contents
ix
User Manual
Table of Contents
Introduction
1-1
Scope of the Manual
1-2
System Description
1-3
Functional Description
1-3
BreezeNET DS.11 Compatibility and Standards
1-4
Installation
2-1
Packing List
2-2
Additional Installation Requirements
2-2
Installation Overview
2-3
Outdoor Installation Considerations
2-5
Collocating DS.11 Outdoor Units
2-5
Site Selection Factors
2-5
Rooftop Installation
2-6
Antennas for Outdoor Applications
2-6
Antenna Polarization
2-6
Antenna Seal
2-7
Cell Size/Link Distance
2-7
Using Outdoor Range Tables
2-7
Available Antennas
2-7
Precautions
2-8
Compliance with Radio Regulations
2-8
Installing the Outdoor Unit
2-9
Connecting the Ground and Antenna Cables
2-11
Connecting the Indoor-to-Outdoor Cable
2-11
Installing the Indoor Unit
2-13
Configuring Parameters
2-14
Antenna Alignment
2-14
Verifying Correct Operation
2-15
Verifying Correct Operation of the Indoor Unit
2-15
Verifying Correct Operation of the Outdoor Unit
2-15
BreezeNET DS.11 Series User Manual
x
What to do if the Self Test Fails
The DS.11 Configuration Utility
2-16
3-1
Installing and Accessing the Configuration Utility
3-2
Configuration Utility Modes
3-2
Unit Configuration Mode
3-3
Firmware Upgrade Mode
3-28
Multiple Unit Configuration Mode
3-30
Resetting the SNMP Community Strings
3-31
Reloading Factory Default Settings
3-31
Configuration Guidelines
Configuring Critical Parameters
4-1
4-2
One-Click Configuration
4-2
Short Preamble
4-2
CW Minimum
4-2
RTS Threshold
4-3
Basic Rate
4-3
Range
4-3
System Troubleshooting
Troubleshooting Guide
5-1
5-2
Technical Specifications
6-1
DS.11 FAQ
A-1
General
A-2
Collocation and Interference
A-4
Firmware
A-5
Configuration
A-6
Accessories
A-7
Management
A-8
Preparing the Indoor to Outdoor Cable
1
Radio Signal Propagation
1
RF Terms and Definitions
1
Table of Contents
xi
Table of Figures
Figure 1-1: BreezeNET DS.11 Point-to-Multipoint Application
1-3
Figure 2-1: General Installation Scheme - Pole Mounting
2-4
Figure 2-2: Installation Holes/Grooves
2-9
Figure 2-3: 3” Pole Mounting Installation Using the Supplied Brackets
2-10
Figure 2-4: Outdoor Unit Bottom Panel (shown without the service box)
2-11
Figure 2-5: The Waterproof Service Box
2-12
Figure 2-6: Indoor Unit Top Panel
2-13
Figure 3-1: DS.11 Configuration Utility Main Window (Station Control Tab)
3-3
Figure 3-2: The Set IP Dialog Box
3-4
Figure 3-3: Station Status Tab (BU-DS.11)
3-5
Figure 3-4: Networking Parameters Tab (BU)
3-6
Figure 3-5: Networking Parameters Tab (BU)
3-9
Figure 3-6: SNMP Parameters Tab
3-11
Figure 3-7: Counters Tab (BU Units)
3-12
Figure 3-8: WLAN Parameters Tab (BU Units)
3-14
Figure 3-9: WLAN Parameters Tab (RB Units)
3-14
Figure 3-10: The Station Control Tab
3-17
Figure 3-11: Encryption Tab
3-18
Figure 3-12: ACL Table Tab
3-20
Figure 3-13: Advanced Tab
3-21
Figure 3-14: General Parameters Tab (BU)
3-23
Figure 3-15: General Parameters Tab (RB)
3-23
Figure 3-16: Auto-Config Tab
3-26
Figure 3-17: Trap Monitor Tab
3-27
Figure 3-18: Firmware Upgrade Mode dialog box
3-28
Figure 3-19: Firmware Upgrade Process
3-29
Figure 3-20: Advanced TFTP Setup
3-29
Figure 3-21: Multiple Configuration Mode
3-30
xii
BreezeNET DS.11 Series User Manual
Table of Tables
Table 2-1: Available Antennas .............................................................................................2-7
Table 2-2: Indoor Unit LEDs..............................................................................................2-15
Table 2-3: Outdoor Unit LEDs ...........................................................................................2-16
Table 3-1: Regulatory Domains Specifications ...................................................................3-16
Table 3-2: Frequency List ..................................................................................................3-16
Introduction
1-1
Chapter 1
About This Chapter
This chapter is comprised of the following sections:
♦
Scope of the Manual, page 1-2, describes the chapters and topics comprising
the BreezeNET DS.11 Series User Manual.
♦
System Description, page 1-3, provides an overview of the DS.11 system and
introduces the system components.
BreezeNET DS.11 Series User Manual
1-2
Scope of the Manual
This manual provides instructions for planning and setting up a wireless link
based on the BreezeNET DS.11 wireless Base Unit and Remote Bridge.
♦
Chapter 1: Introduction - Describes how to use this manual and presents the
BreezeNET DS.11 series.
♦
Chapter 2: Installation - Describes how to install the BreezeNET DS.11 units.
♦
Chapter 3: The DS.11 Configuration Utility - Describes how to use the
DS.11 Configuration Utility to setup, configure, and manage BreezeNET DS.11
units.
♦
Chapter 4: Configuration Guidelines – Provides guidelines regarding
configuration of parameters that are critical for achieving good performance.
♦
Chapter 5: System Troubleshooting - Solves some of the more common
problems which may occur when installing and using the BreezeNET DS.11
units.
♦
Chapter 6: Technical Specifications - Lists the technical specifications of the
BreezeNET DS.11 units.
♦
Appendix A: DS.11 FAQ- Answers questions frequently asked by customers.
♦
Appendix B: Preparing the Indoor-to-outdoor Cable - Explains how to
prepare and install the cable connecting the indoor to the outdoor unit.
♦
Appendix C: Radio Signal Propagation - Describes many of the terms and
concepts related to antennas and RF (Radio Frequency) systems.
Introduction
1-3
System Description
The BreezeNET DS.11 wireless Base Unit (BU-DS.11) and Remote Bridge (RBDS.11) are designed to provide long-range point-to-multipoint links for outdoor
applications. The products use direct sequence spread spectrum radio technology
operating at the frequency range of 2.4 – 2.4835 GHz, a part of the FCC's
unlicensed Industrial, Scientific and Medical (ISM) band. Data is transmitted at
rates of up to 11 Mbps, providing network users with full 10BaseT Ethernet
speeds.
Functional Description
The BreezeNET BU-DS.11 and RB-DS.11 can be used as high-speed connections
between two or more remote networks.
Mail
Server
File
Server
Central Network
BU-DS.11
Base Unit
RB-DS.11
1
Server
Remote Network 1
RB-DS.11
2
RB-DS.11
3
Server
Remote Network 2
Server
Remote Network 3
Figure 1-1: BreezeNET DS.11 Point-to-Multipoint Application
BU-DS.11 Wireless Base Unit
The BU-DS.11 is an IEEE 802.11b compliant base station that connects one or
more remote sites to a central server or Internet connection. In a point-to-multipoint configuration the BU-DS.11 is the central unit while in point-to-point
configurations it should be installed at one end of the link.
The BU-DS.11 is available in two options: The BU-DS.11 and the BU-DS.11D.
The BU-DS.11 is the basic unit, equipped with an antenna integrated into the front
cover of the outdoor unit.
The BU-DS.11D doesn’t have an integral antenna and is equipped with a connector
(on the outdoor unit) for an external antenna (not included with the unit).
Refer to Antennas for Outdoor Applications on page 2-6 and Available Antennas on
page 2-7 for information on how to select an appropriate external antenna.
BreezeNET DS.11 Series User Manual
1-4
RB-DS.11 Wireless Bridge
The RB-DS.11 Wireless Bridge connects a remote Ethernet network to a central
network server or Internet site via a BU-DS.11 Multipoint Base Unit.
The maximum number of MAC addresses that the unit can handle at any specific
time is 1024 and the Aging algorithm is applied at all times.
When a station on the Ethernet LAN sends a message that is not destined for a
local station, the RB-DS.11 forwards the message to the BU-DS.11. When the
BU-DS.11 receives a message destined for a station on the RB-DS.11's LAN, the
BU-DS.11 forwards it to the RB-DS.11. In this manner, the RB-DS.11 and the
BU-DS.11 work together like a standard network bridge.
The first time each station on the RB-DS.11’s LAN sends a message, the station’s
address is registered by both the RB-DS.11 and the BU-DS.11. It is possible for the
RB-DS.11 and BU-DS.11 to store all the addresses necessary to support an entire
LAN connected to a RB-DS.11.
The RB-DS.11 comes in two options: The RB-DS.11 and the RB-DS.11D.
The RB-DS.11 is the basic unit, equipped with an antenna integrated into the front
cover of the outdoor unit.
The RB-DS.11D has no integral antenna and is equipped with an antenna
connector (on the outdoor unit) for the connection of an external antenna (not
included with the unit).
Refer to Antennas for Outdoor Applications on page 2-6 and Available Antennas on
page 2-7 for information on how to select an external antenna.
BreezeNET DS.11 Compatibility and Standards
BreezeNET DS.11 products are compatible with the following standards and are
interoperable with other IEEE 802.11b compatible, 2.4 GHz direct sequence
products.
♦
IEEE 802.11b Wireless LAN.
♦
IEEE 802.3 10BaseT Ethernet.
♦
DHCP for automatic IP address assignment.
♦
SNMP for system management.
Installation
2-1
Chapter 2
About This Chapter
This chapter is comprised of the following sections:
♦
Packing List, page 2-2, describes the components included with the
BreezeNET DS.11 series installation kit.
♦
Additional Installation Requirements, page 2-2, describes the additional
standard tools and materials required for installation.
♦
Installation Overview, page 2-3, provides an overview of the installation
procedures.
♦
Outdoor Installation Considerations, page 2-5, describes the factors that
must be taken into account when installing the outdoor units.
♦
Installing the Outdoor Unit, page 2-9, describes how to install the outdoor
unit.
♦
Installing the Indoor Unit, page 2-13, describes how to install the indoor unit
and configure the required parameters.
♦
Verifying Correct Operation, page 2-15, describes how to ensure that the
installation was successful and the units are functioning correctly.
BreezeNET DS.11 Series User Manual
2-2
Packing List
Ensure that all of the following items are included with the unit’s installation kit:
♦
Indoor unit.
♦
Outdoor unit (includes integrated antenna or antenna connector for optional
connection to external antenna).
♦
Pole mounting kit for the outdoor unit (includes two brackets and four sets of
bolts, nuts and washers).
♦
110/220 VAC Power Cord.
♦
Indoor-to-outdoor cable kit.
♦
Configuration Utility diskette.
Additional Installation Requirements
The following materials are not supplied with the installation kit but are required
for the installation procedure.
♦
Indoor-to-outdoor cable* (available in different lengths if the length of the cable
included with the unit is insufficient).
♦
Antenna* and RF cable* (if using an external antenna).
♦
Ground cable with an appropriate termination.
♦
Ethernet cable (straight for connecting to a hub).
♦
Installation tools and materials, including appropriate means (e.g. a pole) for
installing the outdoor unit.
♦
Crimping tool for RJ-45 connectors.
Items marked with an asterisk (*) are available as options from Alvarion.
Installation
2-3
Installation Overview
The following outlines the steps of the installation procedure.
1. Select appropriate locations for the outdoor unit, the antenna (if using an
external antenna) and the indoor unit.
2. Mount the outdoor unit. If using an external antenna mount the antenna and
connect it to the outdoor unit.
3. Connect a ground cable from the outdoor unit to an appropriate grounding point.
4. Connect the indoor-to-outdoor cable to the outdoor unit and route it to the
location selected for the indoor unit. Refer to Appendix B for instructions on
preparing the indoor-to-outdoor cable.
5. Mount the indoor unit. Connect the indoor-to-outdoor cable to the indoor
unit’s Radio port.
6. Connect the indoor unit’s Ethernet port to the user’s network using an
Ethernet cable.
7. Configure the unit’s parameters.
8. Align the antenna and verify connectivity with any other units.
NOTE:
The indoor unit should only be connected to the power source after it has been connected to the
outdoor unit.
BreezeNET DS.11 Series User Manual
2-4
Figure 2-1: General Installation Scheme - Pole Mounting
NOTE:
Use a straight Ethernet cable to connect the indoor unit to a hub, or use a crossed cable to
connect it directly to a PC’s Network Interface Card (NIC).
Installation
2-5
Outdoor Installation Considerations
This section describes various considerations to take into account when planning
an outdoor installation including site selection, antenna alignment, antenna
polarization, antenna seal, and cell size.
Collocating DS.11 Outdoor Units
Up to three BU-DS.11 units with omni-directional antennas (the exact number
depends on the number of non-overlapping channels available in the relevant
regulatory domain) can be collocated on the same building top or tower.
Collocating more than three units may decrease performance depending upon the
type of antenna and its direction. Each unit should be assigned to one of the nonoverlapping channels: 1, 7, or 13 in ETSI or 1, 6 or 11 in FCC.
The antennas of collocated units should be mounted at least 60 cm (2 feet) apart
when using UNI-16’s, 4.5 m (15 feet) apart when using UNI-24’s, and 21 m (75
feet) apart when using OMNI-8’s. Omni antennas must be separated also vertically.
Greater separation will improve the link distance.
Site Selection Factors
When selecting a location for outdoor units and external antennas, remember to
take into consideration the following guidelines:
♦
Minimum distance between sites.
♦
Maximum height above the ground.
♦
Maximum line of sight clearance.
Path of Clearest Propagation
A propagation path is the path that signals traverse between the antennas of any
two units. The “line” between two antenna sites is an imaginary straight line,
which may be drawn between the two antennas. Any obstacles in the path of the
“line” degrade the propagation path. The best propagation path is, therefore, a
clear line of sight with good clearance between the “line” and any physical obstacle.
Physical Obstacles
Any buildings or other physical structures such as trees, mountains or other
geographic features higher than the antenna and situated in the path between the
two sites can constitute obstructions and cause signal attenuation. Install outdoor
antennas high enough to avoid any obstacles that may block the signal.
BreezeNET DS.11 Series User Manual
2-6
Path Loss
Path loss is determined mainly by several factors:
♦
Distance Between Sites: Path loss is lower and system performance is better
when distances between sites are shorter.
♦
Clearance: Path loss is minimized when there is a clear line of sight. The
number, location, size, and makeup of obstacles determine their contribution
to path loss.
♦
Antenna Height: Path loss is lower when antennas are positioned higher.
Antenna height is the distance from the imaginary line connecting the
antennas at the two sites to ground level. Ground level in an open area is the
actual ground. In dense urban areas, ground level is the average height of the
buildings between the antenna sites.
Rooftop Installation
Rooftop installations offer several advantages:
♦
Fewer obstacles in the path.
♦
Improved performance due to greater height.
Antennas for Outdoor Applications
The BreezeNET DS.11 series can be used in point-to-point or point-to-multipoint
configurations.
Point-to-Point
The BU-DS.11/RB-DS.11 can be equipped with a directional antenna. The
required antenna gain depends on the required range and performance.
Point-to-Multipoint
Setting up a point-to-multipoint link requires the use of a Base Unit equipped with
an omni-directional antenna (or an antenna with sufficient bandwidth to
illuminate all units) and at least two remote units equipped with high-gain
directional antennas.
Antenna Polarization
Antenna polarization must be the same at both ends of the link. In most
applications, the preferred orientation is vertical polarization, which is better for
above ground propagation. To verify antenna polarization, refer to the assembly
instructions supplied with the antenna set.
Installation
2-7
Antenna Seal
When using outdoor antennas, you must seal all cable connections to prevent
water or dirt from entering the connector.
Cell Size/Link Distance
Cell size is determined by the maximum possible distance between the BU-DS.11
and a RB-DS.11 unit. For open outdoor areas with an unobstructed line of sight
between the BU-DS.11 and the RB-DS.11 units, the suggested maximum distance
is up to 10 km (6 miles) where ETSI is the regulatory domain and 25 km (15 miles)
where FCC is the regulatory domain.
NOTE:
The maximum distance of 25 km (15 miles) under FCC regulations is achieved using 24 dBi antennas
and 24 dBm output power. The maximum distance of 10 km (6 miles) under ETSI regulations is achieved
using 24 dBi antennas and –4dBm output power.
Using Outdoor Range Tables
Specific range tables, guidelines and information about extended cables can be
obtained from your local dealer or the Alvarion central offices.
Outdoor installations must have a clear line-of-sight between antennas. Large
obstacles such as buildings or hills can prevent the establishment of a link while
smaller obstacles such as trees or vehicles traffic can reduce range. Extended
coaxial cables can cause an increase in signal loss and a reduction in range.
Available Antennas
The following table lists several antennas suitable for BreezeNET DS.11 units.
TIP:
Cable length should be minimized in order to gain maximum link budget.
Model
Ant. Gain
Ideal for:
Dispersion
Dimensions
HxWxD
OMNI-8
8 dBi
Establishing 360° coverage for outdoor
multipoint links.
360°H/13° V
20" x 5/8"
Tubular
UNI-16P
16 dBi
Medium to long range outdoor links
requiring compact form factors.
28°H/28° V
11" x 11" x 3.5"
UNI-24
24 dBi
Long range outdoor point-to-point
links.
6°H/10° V
24" x 36" x 15"
Table 2-1: Available Antennas
BreezeNET DS.11 Series User Manual
2-8
Precautions
Outdoor units and antennas should be installed ONLY by experienced antenna
installation professionals who are familiar with local building and safety codes and,
wherever applicable, are licensed by the appropriate government regulatory
authorities. Failure to do so may void the BreezeNET Product Warranty and may
expose the end user to legal and financial liabilities.
Alvarion and its resellers or distributors are not liable for injury, damage or
violation of government regulations associated with the installation of external
antennas.
The system complies with the ETS 300 385 standard and is protected against
secondary lightning strikes when its outdoor unit is properly grounded according
to the applicable country-specific industry standards for protection against
lightning. The system complies with EN 61000-4-5, test level 3 (2kV).
Compliance with Radio Regulations
Regulations regarding maximum antenna gains vary from country to country. It is
the responsibility of the end user to operate within the limits of these regulations
as well as to ensure that the professional installer is aware of these regulations.
Violation of government regulations exposes the end user to legal and financial
liabilities. Alvarion, its resellers and distributors shall not be liable for expense or
damage incurred as a result of installations that exceed local transmission power
limitations.
Installation
2-9
Installing the Outdoor Unit
The outdoor unit can be secured to the pole using one of the following options:
♦
Special brackets sets (supplied with each unit). There are two pairs of threaded
holes on the units, allowing the use of the brackets with various pole widths.
♦
Metal bands (9/16” wide, minimum 12” long).
Figure 2-2 shows the locations of the holes and grooves on the back of the unit.
Figure 2-3 illustrates the method of installing a unit on a pole using the supplied
brackets.
NOTE:
Make sure to install the unit with the bottom panel (the panel with the signal strength bar and LEDs)
facing downward.
Figure 2-2: Installation Holes/Grooves
BreezeNET DS.11 Series User Manual
2-10
Figure 2-3: 3” Pole Mounting Installation Using the Supplied Brackets
NOTE:
When inserting the open-ended bolts, make sure to insert them with the grooves pointing outwards; these
grooves are intended to allow fastening of the bolts with a screwdriver.
Installation
2-11
Connecting the Ground and Antenna Cables
The Ground terminal (marked ) is located on the bottom panel of the outdoor
unit. In DS.11D units the antenna’s RF connector (marked
) is located on the
top panel of the outdoor unit.
Figure 2-4: Outdoor Unit Bottom Panel (shown without the service box)
1. Connect one end of the grounding cable to the Ground terminal and connect
the other end to a good ground connection.
2. For DS.11D units, connect an RF cable between the antenna connector and
the antenna.
Connecting the Indoor-to-Outdoor Cable
The following steps and figure illustrate how to connect the indoor-to-outdoor
cable. The cable is supplied by Alvarion with an RJ-45 on the outdoor end, with
the other end open to facilitate easy routing through holes to the location intended
for the indoor unit. The cable is supplied together with the waterproof service box.
The kit includes also an O-ring for the service box, an RJ-45 connector and a
connector cover.
2-12
BreezeNET DS.11 Series User Manual
Figure 2-5: The Waterproof Service Box
1. Place the O-ring of the service box in its intended location.
2. Connect the Ethernet cable to the outdoor unit’s RJ-45 connector.
3. Attach the service box to the outdoor unit and then tighten the top nut. Make
sure that the O-ring is in its intended location to verify proper sealing.
4. Route the cable to the location selected for the indoor unit.
5. Insert the protective cover before connecting the indoor end to the RJ-45
connector. Prepare the indoor end of the cable according to the instructions in
Appendix B.
Installation
2-13
Installing the Indoor Unit
Route the indoor-to-outdoor cable into the building so that it conveniently reaches
the indoor unit while avoiding interference sources. It is recommended that the
cable be a little longer then necessary. The cable is supplied open ended so it can
be conveniently threaded as shown into the building.
1. The unit can be placed on a desktop or a shelf. Alternatively, it may be wallmounted. The drilling template included with the unit can be used to simplify
the wall installation process.
2. Assemble an RJ-45 connector with a protective cover on the indoor side of the
indoor-to-outdoor cable. Refer to Appendix B for instructions on preparing the
RJ-45 cable connector.
3. Connect the indoor-to-outdoor cable to the Radio connector, located on the top
panel of the indoor unit shown in Figure 2-6. The indoor-to-outdoor cable
should be connected to the unit before the unit is connected to the mains
power.
4. After connecting the outdoor unit to the indoor unit using the indoor-tooutdoor cable, connect the power cord to the unit’s AC socket, located on the
bottom panel. Connect the other end of the power cord to the AC mains after
verifying that the unit is rated for the voltage in the country of use; the AC
rating is indicated on the bottom panel of the indoor unit.
NOTE:
The color codes of the power cable are:
Brown: phase ~
Blue: neutral 0
Yellow/Green: grounding
5. Verify that the yellow POWER LED located on the top panel is lit, indicating
that the unit is supplying power to the radio port.
Figure 2-6: Indoor Unit Top Panel
BreezeNET DS.11 Series User Manual
2-14
6. Connect the 10BaseT ETHERNET connector (marked
), to the network. The
cable connection should be straight Ethernet if connecting the indoor unit to a
Hub and a crossed cable if connecting it directly to a PC Network Interface
Card (NIC).
NOTE:
The length of the Ethernet cable connecting the indoor unit to the user's equipment, together with the
length of the indoor-to-outdoor cable, should not exceed 100 meters.
Configuring Parameters
Before aligning the antenna, certain key parameters must be configured to enable
connectivity with linked units.
See Unit Configuration Mode on page 3-3 for more information.
Antenna Alignment
Usually, low gain antennas do not require alignment due to their very wide
radiation pattern. High gain antennas, including the integral antenna of DS.11
units, have a narrow beam-width necessitating an alignment procedure in order to
optimize the link.
Check the antenna alignment by using the RSSI bar on the bottom panel of the
RB-DS.11 unit.
To align the antenna:
1. Confirm that the units at both ends of the link are receiving power.
2. Synchronize the units by aligning the antennas at the base and remote sites
until maximum signal quality is obtained. Check the signal quality Received
Signal Strength Indication (RSSI) bar on the bottom panel of the RB-DS.11.
The first LED lights red to indicate that the unit is working. The remaining
nine LEDs light green to indicate the signal strength. The stronger the signal
the more LEDs are lit. Rotate the antenna slowly to the left or right using
small increments until you reach the point of maximum RSSI reading. Make
sure that at all times the front of the antenna faces the general direction of the
BU-DS.11.
Installation
2-15
Verifying Correct Operation
The following sections describe how to ensure that the units are correctly installed
and functioning properly.
Verifying Correct Operation of the Indoor Unit
To verify proper operation, check the LED indicators located on the top panel of the
indoor unit as shown in Figure 2-6 on page 2-13, and as described in Table 2-2.
Name
Description
Functionality
POWER
Power indication
Orange - 48VDC is present on the Radio RJ45 port.
Off - No power is supplied to the Radio RJ45 port.
LINK
Self Test and
Ethernet Link
indication
The LINK LED indicates end-to-end connection between the
outdoor unit and the Ethernet connection to the indoor unit.
Off – No Ethernet connectivity has been detected between the
outdoor unit and the device connected to the indoor unit.
Green– Self-test passed and Ethernet connection is confirmed by the
outdoor unit (Ethernet integrity check passed).
Table 2-2: Indoor Unit LEDs
Verifying Correct Operation of the Outdoor
Unit
To verify proper operation, check the LED indicators located on the bottom panel of
the outdoor unit.
Name
Description
Functionality
WLAN
Wireless Link
Indicator
The green LED is updated every second. It will be turned on if
at least one data packet (excluding beacons) was transmitted
during the last second. Thus, it will stay on continuously when
there is high traffic. In lower traffic rates it will blink-where the
blinking rate is slower when there is less wireless traffic.
DC Power
Self Test and Power
indication
Green – Power is available and self-test passed.
BreezeNET DS.11 Series User Manual
2-16
Name
Description
Functionality
ETH
Ethernet activity/
connectivity indication
OFF –Ethernet connectivity is OK.
No traffic activity detected on the port.
Blinking Green –Ethernet connectivity is OK, with traffic on
the port.
Red – No Ethernet connectivity. When this state occurs, check
the Ethernet cable and indoor-to-outdoor cable connections.
RSSI/Load
BAR
RB-DS.11: Received Signal Strength Indication
BU-DS.11: Number of associated RB-DS.11 units
Table 2-3: Outdoor Unit LEDs
What to do if the Self Test Fails
Upon failure of the self-test, the WLAN, DC Power and ETH LEDs, as well as the
leftmost 2 LEDs of the RSSI bar are blinking synchronously. The statuses of the
other 8 LEDs of the bar indicate the specific problem type.
If the Self-Test fails, try the following:
♦
Reset unit (Disconnect/reconnect the power).
♦
Check the indoor-to-outdoor cable.
♦
Reset to factory defaults (see page 3-31).
If all fails, contact technical support and provide details regarding the status of the
RSSI LEDs.
The DS.11 Configuration Utility
3-1
Chapter 3
About This Chapter
The DS.11 Configuration Utility is an SNMP-based utility that provides a
consistent view of the wireless network. The system administrator can use the
DS.11 Configuration Utility to control a large number of DS.11 units from a single
location. The Configuration Utility can be used to manage BU-DS.11 and
RB-DS.11 units as well as other members of the BreezeNET DS.11 family including
the WBS, WBC, AP-DS.11 and SA-DS.11. The description in this manual, however,
is limited to management and configuration of BU-DS.11 and RB-DS.11 units.
Refer to the DS.11 section of www.alvarion.com for more information on how to use
the utility with other products.
Using the Configuration Utility you can:
♦
Assign radio channels for optimal cell operation.
♦
Configure units with a specified IP address.
♦
Set the SNMP Read/Write Community strings.
♦
Verify the status of all units in the network.
♦
Configuration of a wide range of operational parameters, including WLAN, IP
and Security parameters.
♦
View Tx and Rx counters.
♦
Obtain general information such as the Firmware version and system name.
This chapter is comprised of the following sections:
♦
Installing and Accessing the Configuration Utility, page 3-2, describes how
to install and initialize the configuration application.
♦
Configuration Utility Modes, page 3-2, describes the various modes, functions
and parameters of the Configuration Utility.
♦
Reloading Factory Default Settings, page 3-31, describes how to revert unit
parameters to their original factory defaults.
BreezeNET DS.11 Series User Manual
3-2
Installing and Accessing the
Configuration Utility
The Configuration Utility is provided for installation on a 3.5” diskette.
1. Insert the provided diskette into the computer where you wish to install the
Configuration Utility.
2. Run DS11mgr.exe.
3. Follow all instructions until you are informed that the Utility was installed
successfully.
4. Run the Configuration Utility from the Start menu by selecting it in the DS.11
Configuration Utility folder under Programs.
Configuration Utility Modes
There are several DS.11 Configuration Utility modes of operation; these options are
selected via the Mode menu in the configuration utility main window (shown
below). The selected mode(s) is indicated by a check mark in the menu.
♦
Unit configuration: This is the default mode and is used for setting
parameters as detailed in this manual.
♦
Firmware upgrade: Used for upgrading the embedded software in managed
units; refer to Firmware Upgrade Mode, on page 3-28 for instructions on using
this feature.
♦
Multiple configuration: Used for setting configuration parameters for more
than one unit simultaneously; refer to Multiple Unit Configuration Mode, on
page 3-30, for instructions on using this feature.
♦
Trap quick view: When set to this mode, the PC switches automatically to the
Trap Monitor tab when Unit Configuration mode is selected.
The DS.11 Configuration Utility
3-3
Unit Configuration Mode
The following sections describe the various screens, controls and parameters
available in Unit Configuration mode.
Control Window
In this section, you can:
♦
Discover the units that are connected to the network.
♦
View the DS.11 units that have been discovered by their IP address.
♦
Select the units you wish to manage.
♦
Locate units behind a router that cannot be detected by the autodiscovery
feature
♦
Assign unit IP addresses based on unit MAC addresses.
♦
Set the SNMP Community string.
NOTE:
If there are many units in the managed network, you can enlarge the list box by clicking the horizontal line
above the list Click again to toggle back the default display state. The list box also displays the location of
each unit, as set in the Station Status window.
Tabs Section
This section consists of several tabs, each containing parameters required for the
management of the selected unit. The different tabs are described in the following
sections. When you switch between the tabs, the unit selection section with the
selected unit address remains displayed.
Tab Selection
Control
Area
and Unit
Selection
Area
Selected Tab
Figure 3-1: DS.11 Configuration Utility Main Window (Station Control Tab)
BreezeNET DS.11 Series User Manual
3-4
Control Window
The following sections describe how to work with the Control Window.
Selecting Units
You can select a unit to manage in one of the following ways:
♦
Click the Network Autodiscovery button. All the IP addresses of units in the
same domain but not hidden behind a router (under the selected community)
are displayed in the list box underneath the button. Click on an address to
select the corresponding unit for viewing and configuration.
♦
Type the unit's IP address in the Locate Unit field (for stations which are
located behind a router) and click
selection list.
. This will add the unit information to the
Setting the SNMP Community String
Type the known Read/Write Community string in the Community field (the default
string is public for read and private for read/write) and click the
confirm.
button to
Assigning and Editing IP Addresses Manually (based on
MAC addresses)
This section describes how to manually input or modify the IP address of the
selected unit.
1. Click the Set IP button. The Set IP dialog box appears.
Figure 3-2: The Set IP Dialog Box
2. Type the parameters in the appropriate fields and click OK; the MAC address
is shown on the bottom label of the indoor and outdoor units. A message box
is displayed notifying you when the changes are to take affect. This feature
can be used only if the DS.11 Configuration Utility is on the same Ethernet
segment as the unit and not behind a router.
The DS.11 Configuration Utility
3-5
NOTE:
In order to see the unit after assigning the IP address, the PC with the Configuration utility should be on
the same IP subnet as the assigned IP address.
Units receive auto IP address if there is no DHCP server and the unit is configured to work in the Smart
mode. The IP address will be chosen randomly in the 169.254.x.x range with a subnet mask of
255.255.0.0.
Application Control Buttons
The following buttons always appear at the bottom of the Configuration Utility
window. Additional buttons, specific to certain tabs, are explained when relevant.
♦
Hide to Tray: Minimizes the application into the
icon, placed in the
Windows task bar (at the bottom of the Windows desktop). To restore the
application, click the
icon.
♦
Apply: Implements any changes you made.
♦
Refresh: Refreshes the window with the most recent data from the unit.
♦
Cancel: Closes the window without implementing any changes you made.
Configuration Utility Tabs
The following sections describe the tabs and parameters provided by the
Configuration Utility in Unit Configuration mode.
Station Status Tab
The Station Status tab displays general information regarding the unit's firmware
and hardware versions as well as general unit address information.
Figure 3-3: Station Status Tab (BU-DS.11)
The Station Status tab is comprised of the following components:
♦
System Name: The name of the selected unit.
BreezeNET DS.11 Series User Manual
3-6
♦
Location: A user-defined description of the location of the selected unit, up to
28 ASCII characters long (optional).
♦
MAC Address: MAC address of the selected unit.
♦
Firmware: The current firmware version.
♦
BSS Address (RB-DS.11 units only): Defines the MAC address of the BSS,
which is the BU-DS.11 the unit is associated with.
♦
Associated Stations (BU-DS.11 units only): Details concerning the RB-DS.11
units associated with the BU-DS.11. The information provided for each
associated RB-DS.11 unit includes its’ MAC address and the level in dBm at
which it is received by the BU-DS.11 (RSSI).
Networking Parameters Tab
The Networking Parameters tab enables you to define or edit the IP and VLAN
parameters of units. In BUs it is comprised of two sub-tabs: The General tab and
the CPE Table tab.
Networking Parameters-General Tab
Figure 3-4: Networking Parameters Tab (BU)
The networking IP parameters can be configured manually. They may also be
assigned automatically by a DHCP server.
IP Parameters
♦
IP Address: The IP address of the selected unit.
♦
Subnet mask: The Subnet mask of the selected unit.
♦
Default gateway: The default gateway of the selected unit.
The DS.11 Configuration Utility
3-7
DHCP
♦
Use DHCP: Sets the way your system utilizes the Dynamic Host Configuration
Protocol (DHCP, used for automatic IP assignment).
Always: The system searches for a DHCP server each time the unit is
turned on.
Smart: The system searches for a DHCP server only if no IP address was
assigned. If an IP address was assigned manually, the system will not
search for a DHCP server.
Never: The system never searches for a DHCP server.
The default value is Smart.
NOTE:
When the unit is configured to use a DHCP server and none exists, the unit will assign itself an
automatic class B address in the range 169.254.X.X; this can be used with Auto Discovery when the
MAC address is not available.
VLAN Support
♦
VLAN ID Management: The VLAN ID Management defines the VLAN ID for
management frames, which identifies remote stations for management
purposes. This applies to all management applications using protocols such as
SNMP, TFTP, ICMP (ping), DHCP and Telnet. When management VLAN is
enabled, all servers/stations using these protocols must tag the management
frames sent to the unit with the value of the VLAN ID Management parameter.
• Management VLAN
•VLAN ID from 1 - 4094
•Set separately for the BU and for each RB
RB
Only with matching
Management VLAN
Only with matching
Management VLAN
R
BU
RB
Only with matching
Management VLAN
Important note:
Management VLAN for RBs over the AIR assumes Data VLAN is disabled
Operation with Management VLAN enabled (VLAN ID Management is 1-4094):
The unit accepts only tagged management frames with a matching VLAN ID
received on either the Ethernet or wireless link ports.
BreezeNET DS.11 Series User Manual
3-8
A VLAN Management Tag is inserted in all management frames generated
by the unit before transmission to either the Ethernet or wireless link port.
The tag includes the values of the VLAN ID Management and the VLAN
Priority Management parameters.
Operation with Management VLAN disabled (VLAN ID Management is 65535)):
The unit accepts only untagged management frames received on either the
Ethernet or wireless link ports.
Management frames generated by the unit are not tagged.
Valid values: 1 to 4094 or 65535 (No VLAN).
The default value is 65535 (No VLAN).
♦
VLAN Priority Management: When Management VLAN is enabled, a VLAN tag
is inserted in all management frames generated by the unit before transmission
to either the Ethernet or wireless link port. The tag includes the values of the
VLAN ID Management and the VLAN Priority Management parameters. The
VLAN Priority Management defines the value of the VLAN Priority field for these
tags. This parameter only impacts the way other VLAN aware devices handle
the frame.
Valid values range from 0 to 7.
The default value is 3 for both RBs and BUs.
♦
VLAN ID Access (BU only): The VLAN ID Access is the default VLAN ID for RBs
that are not included in the CPE Table (see below).
Valid values: 1 to 4094 or 65535 (No VLAN).
The default value is 65535 (No VLAN).
♦
VLAN Priority Access (BU only): The VLAN Priority Access is the default VLAN
Priority for RBs that are not included in the CPE Table (see below).
Valid values range from 0 to 7.
The default value is 3.
♦
802.1Q Compatible (BU only): In SW version 4.1, encapsulation of tagged
frames transmitted on the wireless port was not compatible with the IEEE
802.1Q standard. The 802.1Q Compatible parameter enables choosing the
encapsulation method: 802.1Q compatible or DS.11 SW version 4.1
compatible.
When this parameter is disabled, encapsulation will be the same as in SW
version 4.1, providing compatibility with DS.11 RBs running SW version 4.1. In
this case there is no compatibility with other devices that are 802.1Q
compatible.
When this parameter is enabled, encapsulation will be in accordance with the
802.1Q standard. However, there will not be compatibility with DS.11 units
running SW version 4.1.
The default is Disable.
The DS.11 Configuration Utility
3-9
Networking Parameters-CPE Table Tab (BU only)
Figure 3-5: Networking Parameters Tab (BU)
The CPE Table tab enables defining the VLAN functionality for data frames for each
of the RBs associated with the BU. The VLAN functionality of associated RBs that
are not defined in the CPE Table is defined by the VLAN ID Access and VLAN
Priority Access parameters in the General tab.
♦
VLAN ID: Defines the VLAN functionality for the specific RB. A value from 1 to
4094 defines Access port functionality. A value of 65535 (no VLAN) defines
Hybrid port functionality.
Valid values: 1 to 4094 or 65535
♦
VLAN Priority: Defines the VLAN Priority field when a VLAN tag is added to a
packet, according to the functionality described below
Valid values range from 0 to 7.
♦
To add an RB to the table: Enter the MAC Address in the Add/Delete MAC
Address text box. Select the VLAN ID and VLAN Priority, check the Add check
box and click Apply.
♦
To remove an RB from the table: Enter the MAC Address in the Add/Delete
MAC Address text box. Check the Delete check box and click Apply.
BreezeNET DS.11 Series User Manual
3-10
♦
Filtering/Forwarding packets received on the BU’s Ethernet port:
The unit accepts from the Ethernet port only data frames with a destination
on the Wireless port side (an associated RB).
If the destination RB is configured as Hybrid port (VLAN ID = 65535), both
tagged and untagged data packets will be forwarded to the RB without any
change.
If the destination RB is configured as Access port, only data packets with a
matching VLAN ID will be forwarded. The VLAN tag is removed. All other
data frames (with a non-matching VLAN ID or with no VLAN tag) are not
accepted.
♦
Filtering/Forwarding packets received on the BU’s Wireless port:
If the source RB is configured as Hybrid port, all data packet are forwarded
to the bridging mechanism.
If the source RB is configured as Access port, data packets with a VLAN tag
are dropped. Data packets without VLAN are forwarded to the bridging
mechanism with the VLAN ID and VLAN Priority of the source RB.
Data packets that were forwarded to the bridging mechanism, whose
destination is on the Ethernet port, are forwarded to the Ethernet port
without any change.
Data packets that were forwarded to the bridging mechanism, whose
destination is an RB on the wireless port side that is configured as Hybrid
port, are forwarded to the Wireless port without any change.
A data packet that was forwarded to the bridging mechanism, whose
destination is an RB on the wireless port side that is configured as Access
port, is forwarded to the wireless port only if it is tagged with a VLAN ID
that matches the VLAN ID configured for the destination RB. The VLAN tag
is removed.
NOTE:
Because of the rules above it is possible that some broadcast packets will be transmitted twice on the
wireless port: Once with a VLAN tag and another time without VLAN. This may happen when the
broadcast packet has a VLAN tag, some of the destination RBs are configured as Hybrid ports and
some of the destination RBs are configured as Access ports with a VLAN ID that matches the VLAN ID
of the broadcast packet.
The DS.11 Configuration Utility
3-11
SNMP Parameters Tab
The SNMP parameters tab allows you to define or edit the SNMP community
strings and the SNMP-related parameters.
Figure 3-6: SNMP Parameters Tab
The SNMP Parameters tab is comprised of the following components:
♦
Read: The read-only community string of the unit. Default is public.
♦
Read/Write: The read/write community string of the unit. Default is private.
This value is displayed as asterisks for security purposes.
♦
Trap Host IP Address: The IP address of the host to which SNMP traps are
sent.
♦
Click
to apply the defined Trap Host IP address.
♦
Click
to disable the sending of traps (inserts a value of 255.255.255.255).
BreezeNET DS.11 Series User Manual
3-12
Counters Tab
The Counters tab displays a series of statistics related to usage and performance.
Figure 3-7: Counters Tab (BU Units)
Using the Counters tabs, you can view a wide range of performance data at both
sides of the link. For RB units, you can monitor the received signal strength
through the RSSI (Received Signal Strength Indication) bar indicator at the bottom
of the window. This RSSI bar can be used to optimize antenna alignment and
improve link quality.
To obtain a graph that displays the counter values, select a counter and drag it to
the
♦
icon.
Tx Counters
Tx Fragments: The number of transmitted frames. The count includes data
and management frames and the number of retransmissions of data frames
(for example, if the same data frame is retransmitted ten times then the
count will increase ten times).
Tx Frames: The number of frames successfully transmitted to the wireless
media. The count includes successful transmissions of data frames
(excluding retransmissions), and the number of management frames.
Multicast Tx Frames: The number of successfully transmitted multicast
frames.
Retry Count: The number of frames that were successfully transmitted
after one or more retransmissions.
Multiple Retry: This counter is incremented when a packet is successfully
transmitted after more than one retransmission.
The DS.11 Configuration Utility
3-13
Failed Count: This counter is incremented when a packet is not
transmitted successfully due to the number of transmit attempts exceeding
either the Short Retry Limit or Long Retry Limit.
♦
Rx Counters
Rx Fragments: The number of frames received, including duplicate data
frames.
Multicast Rx Frames: The number of received multicast frames.
FCS Error: The number of frames received with a CRC error.
FCS Error (%): The percentage of frames received with a CRC error,
calculated as 100*FCS Error / (Rx Fragments + FCS Error).
Frame Duplicate: The number of duplicate frames that were received.
ACK Failed: The number of time that an expected ACK was not received.
RTS Success: The number of successful RTS transmissions, meaning the
number of times that CTS was received as a response to RTS.
RTS Failed: The number of unsuccessful RTS transmissions, meaning the
number of times that CTS was not received after transmitting RTS.
♦
Link Counters
The Tx Success and Tx Fail counters displayed at the end of the counters list are
link-specific; to activate these counters for a specific link, select the MAC
address of the unit at the other end of the link.
Tx Success: The number of data and management frames (except for
beacons and multicasts) that were transmitted and acknowledged by the
intended recipient.
Tx Fail: The number of data and management frames (except for beacons
and multicasts) that were transmitted without being acknowledged by the
intended recipient.
Tx Fail (%) – The percentage of data and management frames (except for
beacons and multicasts) that were transmitted without being acknowledged
by the intended recipient, calculated as follows:
100*T x Fail / (Tx Success + Tx Fail)
♦
Resetting Counters
You can reset the counters displayed in the Counters tab by clicking the Reset
Counters button. All displayed values are reset to display zero.
Note that this action does not reset the counters stored in the actual unit, but
just resets the values displayed in the screen. Therefore, if you exit the
Counters tab, after performing a reset and reopen it at a later time the counter
values are displayed to reflect the values stored in the unit. To reset the
counters in the unit, turn off the unit and then turn it back on.
BreezeNET DS.11 Series User Manual
3-14
WLAN Parameters Tab
The WLAN parameters tab allows you to define or edit parameters related to the
Wireless LAN environment in which the selected unit is operating. The window
displayed varies depending on the type of unit selected.
Figure 3-8: WLAN Parameters Tab (BU Units)
Figure 3-9: WLAN Parameters Tab (RB Units)
The WLAN Parameters tab is comprised of the following components:
♦
Regulatory Domain: Displays the regulatory authorities in the relevant
country of use (e.g., Canada, ETSI, FCC, Japan).
♦
Power: Displays the current output power level at the antenna port.
The DS.11 Configuration Utility
3-15
♦
ESSID: An ASCII string of up to 32 characters used to identify a WLAN and
prevents the unintentional merging of two overlapping WLANs. It is essential
that the ESSID is set to the same value in all Remote Bridges and Base Units
that are meant to communicate with each other. The ESSID field is casesensitive.
♦
Maximum data rate: By default, the unit adaptively selects the highest
possible rate for transmission. Under certain conditions (for range/speed tradeoff) you may decide not to use the higher rates. Possible values are 2, 5.5 or
11 Mbps. The default value is 11 Mbps.
♦
Range: The operative range of your WLAN or Wireless Link in the drop down
list. This parameter affects the acknowledge delay time which needs to be
increased in long links. The default value is up to 5km.
♦
Short Preamble (BU only): Two different preamble types are defined: the
mandatory supported Long Preamble, which interoperates with the 1 Mbps and
2 Mbps specifications as described in IEEE 802.11 standard, and a Short
Preamble, as described in IEEE 802.11b standard. The Short Preamble may be
used to minimize overhead and thus increase the data throughput. However,
the Short Preamble is supported only by the IEEE 802.11b standard (HighRate), and not by the original IEEE 802.11 standard. That means that stations
using Short Preamble cannot communicate with stations that support only the
IEEE 802.11 standard. Thus, Short Preamble may be enabled only if all units
support the IEEE 802.11b standard and can be configured to support Short
Preamble. This parameter is available only in BU; the RB will identify the
preamble type used by the BU and will use it as well.
♦
Channel: Channel selection varies, depending on the type of unit.
For BU-DS.11 units, select the channel that the unit will use by selecting a
value (range: 1-13, depending on your regulatory domain) from the Channel
drop down menu. Refer to Table 3-2 on page 3-16 for the list of corresponding
frequencies.
For RB-DS.11 units, there are two channel setting options: if you select the
Fixed Channel option by clicking the appropriate radio button, then the
RB-DS.11 will search for the BU-DS.11 unit on the selected channel (from the
Channel pull down field) and synchronize with it. The channel you select must
match the channel selected in the BU-DS.11 unit at the other end of the link.
If you select the Scanning Mode option (by selecting the appropriate radio
button), you can specify preferred channels by clicking one or more of the
buttons displayed at the bottom of the window. In this mode the Channel pull
down field is disabled. The RB-DS.11 will scan and search for one of the
preferred channel frequencies you selected. If it does not find the BU-DS.11 on
any of the preferred channels, it will continue to scan until it finds the
BU-DS.11 on one of the channels permitted according to the regulatory
domain.
BreezeNET DS.11 Series User Manual
3-16
Table 3-1 describes the channels used in each regulatory domain, the default
channel, the maximum output power and the default output power.
Regulatory
Domain
Lowest
Channel
Highest
Channel
Default
Channel
Max. Output
Power (dBm)
Default Output
Power (dBm)
ETSI
1
13
7
14
4
FCC
1
11
6
24
24
TELEC
1
13
7
14
6
France
10
13
11
14
4
Canada
1
11
6
24
24
Table 3-1: Regulatory Domains Specifications
Channel
Frequency
1
2412 MHz
2
2417 MHz
3
2422 MHz
4
2427 MHz
5
2432 MHz
6
2437 MHz
7
2442 MHz
8
2447 MHz
9
2452 MHz
10
2457 MHz
11
2462 MHz
12
2467 MHz
13
2472 MHz
Table 3-2: Frequency List
NOTE:
The frequencies listed in the table are at the center of the channel. Each channel occupies 22MHz,
therefore each channel occupies -11MHz to +11 MHz from the frequency specified.
The DS.11 Configuration Utility
3-17
Station Control Tab
The Station Control tab enables you to revert the unit parameters to their factory
defaults, reset the unit and export the unit’s configuration to a configuration file.
Figure 3-10: The Station Control Tab
The Station Control tab is comprised of the following components:
♦
Station Control: Click the
factory defaults.
♦
button to export the current basic configuration of this unit
Click the
to a file. A popup window is displayed prompting you to specify the name of the
file. The created file can be used to save the configuration information or to
send it to tech support as a reference for troubleshooting.
♦
Reset Unit: Click the
button to reset the unit and apply
any changes made to the system parameters.
button for all parameters to revert to the
The flash memory can store two software versions. One version is called
Current and the other is called Shadow. New software versions are loaded as
the shadow version. You can select the shadow version as the new active
version by selecting Reset and Boot from Shadow Version. However, after the
next reset, the current version is re-activated. To continue using the currently
active version after the next reset, select Use Current Version After Reset.
The parameters configured in the unit are not changed as a result of loading
new software versions unless the new version includes additional parameters
or additional changes in the list of parameters. New parameters are loaded with
their default values.
♦
Click the
shadow version.
button to reset the unit and boot from the
♦
Click the
the next reset.
button to use the current running version after
BreezeNET DS.11 Series User Manual
3-18
Security Tab
The Security tab enables you to define the encryption parameters. In the BU, an
additional ACL (Access Control List) Table tab enables to define stations that are
allowed to associate with the BU.
Encryption Tab
Figure 3-11: Encryption Tab
This tab displays information regarding the unit’s security configuration.
Wired Equivalent Privacy (WEP) is an encryption algorithm that protects authorized
Wireless LAN users against eavesdropping and is implemented in BreezeNET DS.11
units. WEP is defined in the IEEE 802.11 standard. This encryption is applicable
for both authentication and data. It supports key length of either 64 bits or 128
bits, including a 24 bit Initialization Vector.
DS.11 units can use one of the following authentication algorithms (as defined in
the IEEE 802.11b standard).
♦
Open System: Any station in the WLAN can associate with any other unit and
receive and transmit data freely (null authentication).
♦
Shared Key: Only units using a shared key encryption are allowed to associate
with each other, provided they use the same WEP Key.
The default authentication algorithm is Open System.
The DS.11 Configuration Utility
3-19
If you select the Shared Key algorithm, set the following parameters:
♦
WEP: Enable access to the Default Key ID parameter and WEP keys table.
The default is Disable.
♦
Default Key ID – Sets the key to be used for encryption/decryption. The
default WEP key is the first key.
♦
WEP keys – Defines the encryption keys used. Define each key by clicking the
appropriate WEP Key row and entering 10 (for 64 bits keys) or 26 (for 128 bits
keys) hexadecimal characters for each of the four keys. After clicking Apply, the
WEP Key values are displayed as zeros for security reasons.
NOTE:
All units in the same cell should use the same key.
♦
Scrambler: The scrambling mechanism is another security measure that can
be enabled or disabled independently of the WEP mechanism. It may also be
used for simple to implement security without the administrative effort
associated with distributing and managing keys. It is a differentiating element,
disabling association of stations that do not have this feature. The default is
Disable.
BreezeNET DS.11 Series User Manual
3-20
ACL Table Tab (BU only)
Figure 3-12: ACL Table Tab
The Access Control List table is used to authorize/deny access to certain stations.
The list can contain up to 128 MAC addresses.
♦
To Add a MAC Address to the list – Type the MAC address in the Add/Delete
MAC Address edit box. The format should be XX-XX-XX-XX-XX-XX. The status
of the entry is defined by checking the Allowed check box: check to allow
association of the station with the defined address, or uncheck to disable
association of the station. Check the Add check box to add the entry, and click
the apply button. If the format of the entry is not valid the add operation shall
not be carried out. Duplicate entries are discarded.
♦
To Delete a MAC Address from the list – Click the row containing the MAC
address to be deleted and check the Delete check box. The entry will be
removed from the list after clicking the Apply button.
♦
To Change the Status – The address must first be deleted from the list and
then added again with the new status.
The broadcast address FF-FF-FF-FF-FF-FF can serve as a default entry to define
the status of addresses that are not otherwise defined in the list.
If the table is empty, access is denied to all addresses.
The default is a list that includes only the FF-FF-FF-FF-FF-FF address, with an
Allowed status, meaning that all stations can associate with the BU.
The DS.11 Configuration Utility
3-21
Advanced Tab
The Advanced tab provides additional performance parameters.
Figure 3-13: Advanced Tab
The Advanced tab is comprised of the following components:
♦
CW Min/Max: The size of the Contention Window. The contention window
back-off algorithm is a method used to resolve contention between different
stations trying to access the medium. The valid range is from 7 to 1023.
Defaults are 31 for CW Min and 1023 for CW Max.
Setting the CW min parameter to 7 should only be used for short-range pointto-point links.
Setting the CW min to 15 will improve performance for more uni-directional
traffic loads.
CW min of 31 will minimize the PER for heavy bi-directional traffic loads.
CW Min of 63 should be used for large, long-range multi-point links.
♦
RTS Threshold: The minimum packet size required for an RTS (Request to
Send) to be sent. For packets with a size below the RTS Threshold value, an
RTS is not sent and the data packet is transmitted directly to the WLAN. The
range is from 60 to 2347 bytes. The default is the maximum value, which
practically disables the RTS/CTS mechanism.
♦
Short Retry Limit: The maximum number of transmission attempts for a
frame that is shorter than or equal to the RTS Threshold. The range is from 1
to 255. The default value is 8.
♦
Long Retry Limit: The maximum number of transmission attempts for a frame
that is longer than the RTS Threshold. The range is from 1 to 255. The default
value is 4.
BreezeNET DS.11 Series User Manual
3-22
♦
Basic Rate: The maximum rate of multicast, broadcast and control frames
transmissions. Multicast and broadcast transmissions are not acknowledged;
therefore there is a chance that such transmissions will not be properly
received without the possibility of using the acknowledgement mechanism for
retransmission. Therefore, it is recommended to use a lower rate for
transmission of broadcast, multicast and control frames, to increase the
probability that they will be received without errors. Enter the data rate at
which broadcast, multicast and control frames are transmitted. The valid
values are 1, 2, 5.5 and 11 Mbps. The default value is 2 Mbps.
NOTE:
The Basic Rate parameter should be changed only if you are sure that all units in the cell can handle the
defined rate. Use this parameter with caution, as it may bring the link down.
♦
Power: The transmit power level. The possible values are -4, -2, 4, 6, 12, 14,
20, 24 dBm.
NOTE:
The Power setting should not exceed the maximum output allowed in the applicable regulatory domain
according to Table 3-1 on page 3-16.
The DS.11 Configuration Utility
3-23
General Parameters Tab
The General Parameters tab provides various bridging and association parameters.
Figure 3-14: General Parameters Tab (BU)
Figure 3-15: General Parameters Tab (RB)
♦
Ethernet Back Off: Disabling the Ethernet back-off algorithm may improve
performance under certain conditions, such as when there is high traffic on the
Ethernet LAN. The default is Disable.
BreezeNET DS.11 Series User Manual
3-24
♦
Bridging Mode: Control the flow of packets that are sent to unknown
addresses.
Wireless: Select Reject Unknown to allow forwarding to the Ethernet port
of frames received on the wireless port only if the destination address is
known to the unit. All other frames will be dropped. Select Forward
Unknown to forward to the Ethernet port all frames received on the
wireless port, except for those sent to addresses that are recognized as
being on the wireless port side. The default is Forward Unknown.
Ethernet: Select Reject Unknown to allow forwarding to the wireless port
of frames received on the Ethernet port only if the destination address is
known to the unit. All other frames will be dropped. Select Forward
Unknown to forward to the wireless port all frames received on the
Ethernet port, except for those sent to addresses that are recognized as
being on the Ethernet port side. The default is Forward Unknown.
♦
Unicast Relaying (BU only): When unicast relaying is enabled, unicast
messages originating on the wireless side can be transmitted back to the
wireless link. When disabled, these packets are not sent back to the wireless
link even if they are intended for addresses on the wireless port side. The
default is Enable.
♦
Multicast Relaying (BU only): When multicast relaying is enabled, multicast
messages originating on the wireless side are transmitted back to the wireless
link as well as to the Ethernet. When disabled, these packets are transmitted
only to the Ethernet and are not sent back to the wireless link. The default is
Enable.
♦
Broadcast Relaying (BU only): When broadcast relaying is enabled, broadcast
messages originating on the wireless side are transmitted back to the wireless
link as well as to the Ethernet. When disabled, these packets are transmitted
only to the Ethernet and are not sent back to the wireless link. The default is
Enable.
NOTE:
To enable devices behind an RB to communicate with devices behind another RB in the same cell when
communication between the RBs is blocked, the devices must be set to different subnets. Note that in
this case, the BU passes packets from one RB destined to another RB to the router behind it. The router
sends these packets back to the BU for transmission to the destination RB. Thus, the rule that no two
RBs are communicating directly with each other prevails.
♦
Allow ESSID ANY (BU only): When enabled, the BU will enable association of
any RB unit whose ESSID is configured to a null value (an empty string). The
default is Disable.
♦
Auto BU Disconnect (BU only): When enabled, the BU will send a broadcast
disassociation message upon identifying that its Ethernet link has been
disconnected. Furthermore, the BU will not enable association with any RB as
long as the Ethernet link is disconnected. The default is Disable.
The DS.11 Configuration Utility
3-25
♦
Preferred BU (RB only) Parameters: When the Enforce option is enabled, the
RB will associate only with the BU whose MAC address is defined in the MAC
Address edit box. The default for the Enforce option is Disable. The default
Preferred BU MAC Address is 00-00-00-00-00-00 (none). If the Preferred BU
MAC Address is the default one (none), then the Enforce option has no effect
and unit will operate normally –it will either use the Best BU Selection
algorithm (if enabled), or try to associate with the first BU it finds (if the Best
BU Selection algorithm is disabled).
♦
Best BU Selection (RB only): When enabled, the RB performs a scanning cycle
measuring the strength of the signal received from all BUs it finds. If the RB
can connect to more than one BU, it will connect to the BU with the strongest
signal. The default is Disable.
♦
Bridge Aging Time (BU only): Defines the time that an RB can remain nonactive without being removed from the bridging table. If for the defined time
there was no traffic to/from the RB, it will be de-authenticated. The range is
from 10 to 1,000,000 seconds. The default value is 1800 seconds.
♦
Ethernet Broadcast/Multicast Limiter parameters: Enable to limit the
number of broadcast and/or multicast packets that can be transmitted per
second, in order to prevent the potential flooding of the wireless media by
certain ARP attacks.
When the Limiter Option is enabled and the limit is reached the unit will send
a trap. The trap will be sent periodically till the number of broadcast/multicast
packets will be less than the maximum. The trap will inform the user how
many packets were discarded in the last period.
The Ethernet Broadcast/Multicast Limiter parameters are:
Limiter Option: Defines the limiter’s functionality. The available options
are:
•
Disable
•
Limit only Broadcasts
•
Limit Only Multicasts (Not Broadcasts)
•
Limit All Multicasts (Including Broadcasts)
The default selection is Disable.
Limiter Threshold (packets/sec): Defines the maximum number of
packets per second that will pass the limiter when it is enabled is enabled.
The range is from 0 to 20480 (packets/second).
The default is 20480.
BreezeNET DS.11 Series User Manual
3-26
Send Trap Interval (sec): The time interval between two successive traps
when the number of transmitted broadcasts/multicasts exceeds the
permitted threshold.
The range is from 0 to 65535 seconds. 0 is for disabling traps sending.
The default is 300 seconds.
Auto-Config Tab
The Auto-Config tab enables quick configuration of various modes by setting
predefined values for several parameters upon clicking the applicable button.
Figure 3-16: Auto-Config Tab
♦
Set PtP Mode: Click to set the following parameters to support optimized
configuration for Point-to-Point operation:
Minimum Contention Window = 15
RTS Threshold = 2437
♦
Set PtMP Mode: Click to set the following parameters to support optimized
configuration for Point-to-Multi-Point operation with 2-5 RBs:
Minimum Contention Window = 63
RTS Threshold = 2437 in BU, 60 in RB
The DS.11 Configuration Utility
♦
3-27
Set Compatibility Mode: Click to set the following parameters, which are
unique to DS.11 version 4.0, to values that will ensure interoperability with
DS.11 units running previous versions as well as with other IEEE 802.11
compliant devices:
Basic rate=2Mbps
Short preamble = Disable (BU)
Scrambling: Disable
NOTE:
To ensure compatibility, verify that a 128-bit WEP Key is not used.
♦
Set High Performance Mode: The units can be configured to deliver high
performance (high throughput) if the RSSI of all links is –80 dBm or better,
provide that all units run SW version 4.0. Upon clicking this button, the
following parameters will be configured to support high performance:
Basic rate=11Mbps
Short Preamble = Enable (only in BU)
Trap Monitor Tab
The Trap Monitor tab enables you to view messages received from the selected unit.
Figure 3-17: Trap Monitor Tab
When an event occurs, a trap is sent to the defined host address (the setting is
made in the SNMP Parameters tab described on page 3-7). This window displays
the recorded traps.
Click Clear List to clear the display area.
BreezeNET DS.11 Series User Manual
3-28
Firmware Upgrade Mode
This mode enables the embedded software in managed units to be upgraded. When
you select this mode from the Options menu, the following window is displayed.
Figure 3-18: Firmware Upgrade Mode dialog box
NOTE:
The Configuration utility does not resolve the topology of the cell. Therefore, firmware upgrades should
be made from the central site where the BUs are located.
The list box on the left-hand side of the dialog box displays the managed units; it is
sorted sequentially by BU-DS.11 followed by RB-DS.11 units.
To upgrade the firmware:
1. Select the units that you wish to upgrade from the list box. Use Shift-click
and/or Ctrl-click to select multiple units, or select multiple units by dragging
with the mouse.
2. Specify the firmware file you wish to use in the Local file name fields; there are
separate fields for files of different device type. The field text is displayed in
blue when corresponding unit types are selected in the list box. The AP, SA,
WBS and WBC file name fields are for other product families that are also
supported by the Firmware Upgrade utility.
3. In the Remote File Name field, enter the Read/Write community string of the
unit(s).
4. Click Advanced to change the settings of the TFTP session used in the
upgrade download. The Advanced TFTP setup window is described in the
following page.
5. Click Start to initiate the firmware upgrade; progress bars are displayed
indicating the progress of the operation. If both BU-DS.11 and
RB-DS.11 devices are selected, the program will upgrade RB-DS.11 units first.
The DS.11 Configuration Utility
3-29
At the end of the upgrade session, the following window is displayed indicating that
the operation was successful.
Figure 3-19: Firmware Upgrade Process
NOTES:
Do not disconnect any cables or try to stop the process before downloading is completed.
All configured parameters are saved during the upgrade/download procedure.
Advanced TFTP Settings
This section describes how to configure advanced parameters when using the
firmware upgrade utility.
Figure 3-20: Advanced TFTP Setup
The Advanced TFTP Setup window enables you to tune the TFTP session
parameters for a more efficient firmware upgrade, depending on your actual
deployment.
♦
Packet timeout: Defines the time (in seconds) it takes for a packet to timeout.
The range is from 1 to 30 seconds with a default of 3 seconds.
♦
Packet Retries: Defines the number of times that a packet will be sent after it
timeouts in a TFTP session. The range is from 1 to 5 retries with a default of
3 retries.
BreezeNET DS.11 Series User Manual
3-30
♦
Session Retries: Defines the number of times a TFTP session will be repeated
before the firmware upgrade operation is designated a failure. The range is 1-5
retries with a default of 3 retries.
Multiple Unit Configuration Mode
This feature enables configuration parameters to be downloaded to multiple units
simultaneously. When you select this option from the Options menu, all
configuration windows are displayed as write-only. Irrelevant parameters are
disabled. The multiple configuration mode does not include the General
Parameters tab that is not supported by units running firmware version 3.0 or
lower.
NOTE:
The Configuration Utility does not resolve the topology of the cell. Therefore, multiple unit configuration
operations should be done at the location where the BUs are located.
Select the units whose parameters should be modified from the list box on the
left-hand side of the window. Use Shift-click and/or Ctrl-click to select multiple
units.
Enter the configuration parameter values and click Apply. The following window is
displayed.
Figure 3-21: Multiple Configuration Mode
This window lists the selected units and displays the configuration changes to be
made during the multiple configuration session. Select the Reset units after
setting parameters check box to reset all selected units.
NOTE:
To ensure proper configuration changes and avoid SNMP Error messages, do not try to configure in BU
units parameters that are applicable only to RB units, and vice versa.
A log of the multiple configuration session is displayed during and after the operation.
The DS.11 Configuration Utility
3-31
Resetting the SNMP Community
Strings
The SNMP Read/Write Community strings serve as an SNMP security feature to
restrict management access to authorized persons only.
To reset the SNMP community strings, insert a paper clip or another suitable tool
into the Reset button on the top panel of the unit and press the button it for than
one second at least (see Figure 2-6 on page 2-13) while the unit is operating. After
one more second the community strings are reset to the default values, private
(Read/Write) and public (Read).
Reloading Factory Default Settings
To reset the unit to the factory defaults:
1. Disconnect the power cable from the indoor unit.
2. Insert a paper clip or another suitable tool into the Reset button on the top
panel of the unit (see Figure 2-6 on page 2-13). Keep the Reset button pressed
while inserting the power cable back into its socket. Keep the Reset button
pressed for at least 3 seconds after reinserting the power cable. After one more
second the unit will be reset to its factory default configuration.
Configuration Guidelines
4-1
Chapter 4
About This Chapter
This section provides guidelines regarding configuration of parameters that are
important for ensuring optimal performance under various conditions.
BreezeNET DS.11 Series User Manual
4-2
Configuring Critical Parameters
One-Click Configuration
To facilitate fast configuration and avoid mistakes, optimization of several
operation modes can be ensured by configuring predefined values of several
parameters using the button in the Auto-Config tab. These modes are:
♦
Point-to-Point links
♦
Point-to-Multi-Point systems with 2 to 5 RBs.
♦
Compatibility mode, for interoperability wwith DS.11 running previous software
versions and other IEEE 802.11 devices.
♦
High Performance mode to deliver optimal throughput when the RSSI of all
links is –80 dBm at least, and all units run SW version 4.0.
Short Preamble
The use of a Short Preamble will reduce overheads and increase throughput by up
to 30% in links that operate at 11 Mbps. Therefore, it is recommended to always
use Short Preamble, except for situations where there is a need to communicate
with other units that do not support the Short Preamble option.
CW Minimum
The value of the Minimum Contention Window can significantly influence the
performance of DS.11 links. A value that is too small may result in an excessive
number of collisions, while a value that is too large will cause an inefficient use of
the available bandwidth. In both cases the actual throughput will be lower than
the achievable performance level.
The value selected for CW Min should be increased when:
a. A larger number of RBs are served by the BU
b. One or more RBs are located at relatively higher distances from the BU.
c. Long Preamble is used (Short Preamble option is disabled).
When in doubt, it is better to choose a larger number for CW Min, as the negative
effect of a value that is too high is smaller than that of a value that is too small.
Following are recommended values of CW Min for several scenarios:
♦
Setting the CW min parameter to 7 should only be used for short-range pointto-point links.
Configuration Guidelines
4-3
♦
Setting the CW min to 15 will improve performance for links with
uni-directional traffic patterns.
♦
CW min of 31 will minimize the PER for heavy bi-directional traffic loads.
♦
CW Min of 63 should be used for long-range multi-point links with more than 3
RBs.
RTS Threshold
The default value for the minimum packet size required for transmission of a
Request To Send message is 2347 bytes. Using this value will practically disable
the RTS/CTS mechanism, enabling high throughput in point-to-point links.
In point-to-multipoint applications with more than 3 RBs, a lower RTS Threshold
(e.g. 512 or even 60 bytes) should be used to reduce the effect of collisions. This is
especially critical in deployment with hidden stations, where one RB may not
“hear” another RB. In deployments with hidden stations the RTS Threshold must
be decreased to 60 bytes.
Basic Rate
The default value for the Basic Rate is 2 Mbps. In very good quality links a higher
basic rate could be used to increase throughput. As the quality of the link gets
poorer, the basic rate should be decreased to a rate where there is a very high
probability that all transmissions will be properly received.
Note that the basic rate cannot be increased above 2 Mbps if the cell includes
legacy units that do not support higher basic rates.
Range
A Range value that is too high may reduce throughput as it causes an inefficient
use of the available capacity by allowing an acknowledgement time-out that is too
high.
A Range value that is too low must be avoided as it may completely disable the
ability for proper communication by not allowing a sufficient acknowledgement
time-out.
4-4
BreezeNET DS.11 Series User Manual
System Troubleshooting
5-1
Chapter 5
About This Chapter
The following troubleshooting guide provides answers to some of the more common
problems that may occur when installing and using the BreezeNET DS.11. If
problems not mentioned in this guide should arise, checking the Ethernet and
WLAN counters may help. If the problem persists, please feel free to contact your
local distributor or the Alvarion Technical Support Department.
BreezeNET DS.11 Series User Manual
5-2
Troubleshooting Guide
Problem and
Indication
Possible Cause
Corrective Action
No power to unit.
Power LED is off.
Power cord is not
properly connected.
Verify power cord is properly connected to the BreezeNET unit
and to the power outlet.
Failure to
establish wireless
link. WIRELESS
LINK LED is off.
1. Power supply to units
may be faulty
1. Verify power to units.
Failure to
establish wireless
link (“D”
models/external
antennas)
2. The RB-DS.11 units
may not have the same
ESSID as the BUDS.11.
1. Power supply to units
may be faulty.
2. Verify that all units in the network have the same ESSID
(ESSID must be identical in all units in the WLAN; the ESSID is
case sensitive). Check that the units are on the same channel.
3. Verify wireless link:
Set BU-DS.11 and RB-DS.11 units side by side.
Power on each unit and see if a wireless link is established (even
“D” models without their external antennas should establish a link
if placed side by side).
If the units fail to associate, reset units to factory default values.
The units should now establish a wireless link.
1. Verify power to units.
2. Verify that all cables are connected securely.
2. Cables may be
improperly connected
3. There may be some
problem with antenna
installation.
3. Refer to previous Section and verify wireless link between the
units.
4. Verify that the antenna(s) are properly installed (see relevant
section in this manual):
Check antenna alignment.
Verify that antenna polarization is the same at both ends.
Verify that the range matches specifications.
Verify line-of-sight/antenna alignment/antenna height.
Wireless link
established, but
there is no
Ethernet activity
(BU-DS.11 and
RB-DS.11 units).
1. Ethernet hub port or
UTP cable is faulty.
2. Ethernet port in unit
is faulty.
3. The RB-DS.11 is
associated to a
BU-DS.11 unit that is
not connected correctly
to the LAN.
1. Check that the LINK LED is lighted Green. If this is not the
case, the port is inactive. Try another port on the hub or another
UTP cable.
2. Verify that Ethernet port in unit is working. Ping unit to verify
Ethernet connection.
3. Verify that you are using a cross-over UTP cable (pins 1 & 3, 2
& 6) if connected directly to a workstation, or a straight-through
cable if connected to a hub.
4. Check that the BU-DS.11 is correctly connected to the LAN.
Technical Specifications
6-1
Chapter 6
Supported Standards
♦
Compliant with ETS 300 328 and ETS 300 826 (CE marked).
♦
IEEE 802.11b HR standard for Wireless LAN at 11 and 5.5 Mbps.
♦
IEEE 802.11b standard for 1 and 2 Mbps.
Configuration and Management
Management and
Setup
SNMP based Configuration Utility
Site Survey Tool
Integrated into the configuration utility
SNMP Agents
MIB II, DS.11 Private MIBs
Simultaneous multiple units software upgrade using the configuration utility
Software Upgrade
Via TFTP
Indoor Unit
LED Indicators
Outdoor Unit
Power status
Power Status
End-to-end Ethernet status
Ethernet Status / Traffic
Wireless Link Status / Traffic
10-LED display bar: RSSI in the RB/ Load
Gauge in BU
BreezeNET DS.11 Series User Manual
6-2
Radio
Frequency Range
2.4 - 2.4835 GHz
Radio Type
Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum (DSSS)
Wireless LAN Standards
Compliant with IEEE 802.11b HR
FCC :
1-11
ETSI :
1-13
Japan TELEC :
1-13
France :
10-13
Selectable sub Channels
FCC:
-4, -2, 4, 6, 12, 14, 20, 24 (dBm)
ETSI
-4, -2, 4, 6, 12, 14 (dBm)
Output Power
(at the antenna port)
Japan TELEC
-4, -2, 4, 6, 12, 14 (dBm)
Data Rate
Sensitivity
Modulation
Sensitivity
11 Mbit/s
-85 dBm
256 CCK
(BER 10E-6)
5.5 Mbit/s
-88 dBm
16 CCK
2 Mbit/s
-90 dBm
DQPSK
1 Mbit/s
-93 dBm
DBPSK
Processing Gain
10.4 dB Nominal
Integrated Antenna Type
Flat Panel 16 dBi, 20° Vertical /Horizontal
Range
Europe/ ETSI
(20 dBm EIRP)
Up to 10 km
US FCC
Up to 25 km (15 miles)
Security
Authentication and Data
Encryption
64 bit and 128 bit RC4 WEP
Scrambling
Proprietary
Technical Specifications
6-3
Outdoor Unit-to-Indoor Unit Communication
Cable Type
Cat 5 FTP 4x2x24 Double Jacket
Maximum Cable length
100 m (including the length of the Ethernet cable to the user equipment)
Interfaces
RF (antenna) connector in
the outdoor unit (DS.11D
models)
N-Type jack, lightning protected
Baseband
(indoor-to-outdoor units)
Outdoor units: Shielded RJ-45 with special water proof sealed cap
Indoor units: Shielded RJ-45
Ethernet
Indoor units: 10BaseT, (RJ-45) with 2 embedded LEDs
Electrical
Power Consumption
110VAC: 25W
220VAC: 24W
Mechanical Dimensions
Outdoor Unit
30.5 x 12 x 5 cm (12 x 4.7 x 2 inch)
Indoor Unit
16 x 9 x 6 cm (6.3 x 3.5 x 2.3 inch)
Environmental
Operating Temperature
Indoor unit: 0°C to 40°C (32°F to 104°F)
Outdoor unit: -40°C to 55°C (-40°F to 131°F)
Operating Humidity
5% to 95% non-condensing. Outdoor units are weather protected.
Standards Compliance, General
EMC
EN 300-385, FCC Part 15
Safety
EN 60950, UL 1950
Environmental
ETS 300 019
Radio
ETSI ETS 300 328, FCC Part 15
6-4
BreezeNET DS.11 Series User Manual
DS.11 FAQ
A-1
Appendix A
This appendix provides answers to the most commonly asked questions concerning
the DS.11 system.
The appendix is divided into the following categories:
♦
General, page A-2.
♦
Collocation, page A-4.
♦
Firmware, page A-5.
♦
Configuration, page A-6.
♦
Accessories, page A-7.
♦
Management, page A-8.
BreezeNET DS.11 Series Use Manual
A-2
General
Can the BU-DS.11/RB-DS.11D indoor unit be placed outdoors?
It is not recommended. The BU-DS.11/RB-DS.11 indoor units are specified to
operate between 0°C and 40°C and is not weather protected. Therefore, if it is
necessary to install it outdoors, it should be placed in a protective cabinet.
Do DS.11 units support 802.1Q VLAN?
The DS.11 passes VLAN packets transparently within a VLAN network without
taking any action on 802.1Q frames.
What is the maximum number of networked PCs the BU-DS.11/RB-DS.11 can
learn?
The DS.11 units can learn up to 1024 network MAC addresses from the LAN side.
Can the BU-DS.11/RB-DS.11 be used for multi-point as well as point-to-point
links?
The BU-DS.11 can support multiple RB-DS.11 units creating a point-to-multipoint network.
How many RB-DS.11 units can one BU-DS.11 support?
The maximum number of associations is 128.
What is the practical limit to the number of RB-DS.11 units per BU-DS.11?
And, what performance can I expect for a multi-point link?
This depends upon expected average throughput at peak traffic hours. All clients
would have the maximum throughput available for burst traffic. However, the
overall average would depend on the utilization of the network. For example, in a
heavily utilized network needing about 350Kbps to 500kbps average net
throughput per site, 9 to 12 RB-DS.11’s would be the limit. For a moderately
utilized network needing about 175Kbps to 258Kbps average, 18 to 24 RB-DS.11’s
should be used, and for a lightly used network needing 32Kbps to 48Kbps average
net throughput per site could use up to 128 RB-DS.11’s.
What is the range of the BU-DS.11/RB-DS.11 Bridges?
A range of 25 km/15 miles (FCC) or 10 km/6 miles (ETSI) can be achieved using
the UNI-24 antenna kit for a point-to-point link. Consult the antenna and
accessory guide range tables for distances using other antennas.
Does the BU-DS.11/RB-DS.11D support 802.1d spanning tree protocol?
The BU-DS.11/RB-DS.11 does not support spanning tree.
DS.11 FAQ
A-3
What is the normal PER (Packet Error Rate) for the BU-DS.11/RB-DS.11?
The error rate will be about 4%-6% (transmitted fragments vs. retry count). This is
typical when operating in a non-interference environment at maximum range for bidirectional traffic loads. If the traffic load is more uni-directional, then the PER will be
lower.
What is the best value for the CW min parameter?
Setting the CW min parameter to 7 should only be used for short-range point-topoint links.
Setting the CW min to 15 will improve performance for more uni-directional traffic
loads.
CW min of 31 will minimize the PER for heavy bi-directional traffic loads.
CW Min of 63 should be used for large, long-range multi-point links.
Is the DS.11 compatible with other DS equipment from other vendors?
The DS.11 is compatible with other IEEE 802.11b compliant devices from other
vendors. However, in some cases it may not interoperate if the other manufacturer’s
implementation is not pure 802.11b. The BU-DS.11/RB-DS.11 can operate at 1 and
2 Mbps with legacy 802.11b DS equipment, provided the Short Preamble option is not
enabled. It can operate at all rates with 802.11b High Rate DS equipment. BreezeNET
DS.11 units are also fully WI-FI compliant. When the proprietary Scrambler
differentiating option is activated, the units will not interoperate with equipment from
other vendors.
What is the typical latency of a BU-DS.11/RB-DS.11?
The latency in a point-to-point link is about 2mS.
BreezeNET DS.11 Series Use Manual
A-4
Collocation and Interference
How many BU-DS.11 or RB-DS.11 units can be collocated on the same
building or tower?
Up to 3 BU-DS.11 or RB-DS.11 units can be collocate on the same structure. Each
unit is assigned to one of three non-overlapping channel (e.g. channels 1, 6, and
11 in FCC compliant installations).
What is the antenna separation requirement for collocating BU-DS.11 or RBDS.11 units on the same building or tower?
The antennas should be mounted at least 60 cm (2 feet) apart when using
UNI-16’s, 4.5 m (15 feet) apart when using UNI-24’s, and 21 m (75 feet) apart when
using OMNI-8’s. Greater separation will improve the link distance.
Can a Frequency Hopping network operate in the same area as the
BreezeNET DS.11?
A Spread Spectrum Frequency Hopping network can operate in the same area as
the DS.11 network. However, in a collocated network both products will suffer
some a decrease in performance. The degree of performance loss depends on
network utilization. For example, the higher the utilization of the Frequency
Hopping network, the higher the level of impact on the Direct Sequence (DS.11)
network, and vice versa. Typically, in light to moderately utilized networks, the
performance loss is not significant.
Can I use DS.11 Bridges to feed a Frequency Hopping distribution point?
DS.11 can be used to feed a Frequency Hopping distribution point. Impact on
performance of both systems can be minimized if the network is designed using
cross-polarized directional antennas with as much spatial separation as possible.
Contact technical support for more information.
What if the DS.11 link experiences interference?
If interference is affecting the DS.11 link, one of the other channels may be
selected to operate away from the frequency of the interference. Also, physically relocating the antennas may help.
DS.11 FAQ
A-5
Firmware
Can the BU-DS.11/RB-DS.11 firmware be upgraded?
The firmware in the BU-DS.11/RB-DS.11 is stored in flash and can be upgraded
using the built in Configuration Utility or the TFTP server.
Can the BU-DS.11/RB-DS.11 flash be erased or the firmware changed by an
unauthorized person?
The flash is protected against unauthorized access. The TFTP server in the
BU-DS.11/RB-DS.11 requires the SNMP write community name (password) to
perform an upgrade.
Can the firmware flash be corrupted when upgrading to a new version?
If the TFTP file transfer is interrupted during a flash update the loaded firmware
may be corrupted. The DS.11 has two flash memories: Current and Shadow. The
new firmware is loaded as the shadow version. If the newly loaded firmware is
corrupt, then the unit can continue operation using the primary (current) version.
Can DS.11 firmware be downgraded?
An earlier version of firmware can be loaded and used by the units.
Can the previous version of firmware be kept?
The previous version is maintained in the flash memory, and the user can switch
between the two versions using the Flash Control commands.
BreezeNET DS.11 Series Use Manual
A-6
Configuration
Can the regulatory domain (country) of a DS.11 unit be changed?
The regulatory domain is factory set and cannot be changed.
How can the DS.11 be configured or managed if the SNMP Community name
has been forgotten?
Press the reset button on the top panel with a paper clip. This will set the read and
write Community names to public and private, respectively.
How can the DS.11 unit be returned to factory default settings?
There are two ways to return the unit to its factory default settings. One way is to
use the Default button on the Station Control Tab in the DS.11 Configuration
Utility. The other is to press and hold the reset button on the back of the unit while
powering on the unit. Remember that all settings including IP addresses will be
lost when setting the unit to its factory defaults.
DS.11 FAQ
A-7
Accessories
Can I use the same accessories on my BreezeNET DS.11 as on my BreezeNET
PRO.11?
Not all BreezeNET PRO.11 accessories are compatible with the DS.11. For example,
the TPA (Transmit Power Amplifier), LNA (Low Noise Receive Amplifier) and AMP
250/500 (Bi-Directional Amplifier), which are all compatible with the BreezeNET
PRO.11, cannot be used with the DS.11.
Can the BreezeNET PI-CAT5 product be used with a DS.11 unit?
The PI-CAT5 is specifically for the BreezeNET PRO.11 units only and cannot be
used with DS.11 units. The voltage is not the same between the two product
families.
BreezeNET DS.11 Series Use Manual
A-8
Management
What management options are available for the DS.11?
The BU-DS.11/RB-DS.11D comes with a graphical Configuration Utility that
operates on any Windows based network ready PC. With this utility you can
configure and monitor every DS.11 on your network. You can also use the DS.11
SNMP MIB on standard management platforms like SNMPc, and HP Openview.
Does the DS.11 offer out-of-band management?
The DS.11 does not offer out-of-band management. The DS.11 is managed in-band
only using SNMP.
What installation and site survey tools are available for BU-DS.11/RBDS.11?
The DS.11 comes with a Windows based manager utility. With this utility you can
configure link parameters and monitor signal quality and RSSI (Received Signal
Strength Indication). Optimizing antenna alignment is done using the signal
quality and RSSI display. Any computer on the network can use this utility to
manage the BU-DS.11/RB-DS.11.
Preparing the Indoor to Outdoor Cable
B-1
Appendix B
The following figure shows the wire pair connections required for the indoor-tooutdoor cable.
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
4+5
1+2
7+8
3+6
Ethernet Connector Pin Assignments
The color codes used in cables supplied by Alvarion are:
Wire color
Pin
Blue
1
Blue/white
2
Orange
3
Orange/white
6
Brown
4
Brown/white
5
Green
7
Green/white
8
Use a crimp tool for RJ-45 connectors to prepare the wires. Insert them into the
appropriate pins and use the crimp tool to crimp the connector. Make sure to do
the following:
1. Remove as small a length as possible of the external jacket. Verify that the
external jacket is well inside the service box to ensure good sealing.
2. Take back the shield drain wire before inserting the cable into the connector,
to ensure a good connection with the connector’s shield after crimping.
B-2
BreezeNET DS.11 Series User Manual
Radio Signal Propagation
C-1
Appendix C
This section explains and simplifies many of the terms relating to antennas and RF
(Radio Frequency) systems.
The following diagram depicts a typical radio system:
Figure C-1: A Typical Radio System
A radio system transmits information to the transmitter. The information is
transmitted through an antenna that converts the RF signal into an
electromagnetic wave. The transmission medium for electromagnetic wave
propagation is free space.
The electromagnetic wave is intercepted by the receiving antenna, which converts it
back to an RF signal. Ideally, this RF signal is the same as that originally
generated by the transmitter. The original information is then demodulated back to
its original form.
RF Terms and Definitions
dB
The dB convention is an abbreviation for decibels. It shows the logarithmic
relationship (10 x Log (a/b) between two values.
RF Power Level
RF power level at either the transmitter output or the receiver input is expressed in
Watts. It can also be expressed in dBm. The relation between dBm and Watts can
be expressed as follows:
BreezeNET DS.11 Series User Manual
C-2
PdBm = 10 x Log Pmw
For example:
1 Watt = 1000 mW; PdBm = 10 x Log 1000 = 30 dBm
100 mW; PdBm = 10 x Log 100 = 20 dBm
For link budget calculations, the dBm convention is more convenient than the
Watts convention.
Attenuation
Attenuation (fading) of an RF signal is defined as follows:
Figure C-2: Attenuation of an RF signal
Pin is the incident power level before attenuation
Pout is the output power level after attenuation
Attenuation is expressed in dB as follows: PdB = -10 x Log (Pout/Pin)
For example: If, due to attenuation, half the power is lost (Pout/Pin =
1/2),
attenuation in dB is -10 x Log (1/2) = 3dB
Path Loss
Loss of power of an RF signal traveling (propagating) through space. It is expressed
in dB. Path loss depends on:
♦
The distance between transmitting and receiving antennas
♦
Line of sight clearance between the receiving and transmitting antennas
♦
Antenna height
Free Space Loss
Attenuation of the electromagnetic wave while propagating through space. This
attenuation is calculated using the following formula:
Free space loss = 32.4 + 20xLog(FMHz) + 20xLog(RKm)
F is the RF frequency expressed in MHz.
R is the distance between the transmitting and receiving antennas (expressed in
Km).
At 2.4 GHz, this formula is: 100+20xLog(RKm)
Radio Signal Propagation
C-3
Antenna Characteristics
Isotropic Antenna
A hypothetical antenna having equal radiation intensity in all directions. Used as a
zero dB gain reference in directivity calculation (gain).
Antenna Gain
A measure of directivity. It is defined as the ratio of the radiation intensity in a
given direction to the radiation intensity that would be obtained if the power
accepted by the antenna was radiated equally in all directions (isotropically).
Antenna gain is expressed in dBi.
Radiation Pattern
A graphical representation in either polar or rectangular coordinates of the spatial
energy distribution of an antenna.
Side Lobes
The radiation lobes in any direction other than that of the main lobe.
Omni-directional Antenna
Radiates and receives equally in all directions in azimuth. The following diagram
shows the radiation pattern of an omni-directional antenna with its side lobes in
polar form.
Figure C-3: Radiation Pattern of an Omni Antenna - Side View
Figure C-4: Radiation Pattern of an Omni Antenna - Top View
BreezeNET DS.11 Series User Manual
C-4
Directional Antenna
Radiates and receives most of the signal power in one direction. The following
diagram shows the radiation pattern of a directional antenna with its side lobes in
polar form:
Figure C-5: Radiation Pattern of Directional Antenna
Antenna Beamwidth
The directiveness of a directional antenna. Defined as the angle between two halfpower (-3 dB) points on either side of the main lobe of radiation.
System Characteristics
Receiver Sensitivity
The minimum RF signal power level required at the input of a receiver for certain
performance (e.g. BER).
EIRP (Effective Isotropic Radiated Power)
The antenna transmitted power. Equal to the transmitted output power minus
cable loss plus the transmitting antenna gain.
Pout - Output power transmitted in dBm
Ct - Transmitter cable attenuation in dB
Gt - Transmitting antenna gain in dBi
Gr - Receiving antenna gain in dBi
Pl - Path loss in dB
Cr - Receiver cable attenuation in dB
Si - Received power level at receiver input in dBm
Ps - Receiver sensitivity in dBm
Si = Pout - Ct + Gt - Pl + Gr - Cr
EIRP = Pout - Ct + Gt
Radio Signal Propagation
C-5
Link Parameters
Frequency: 2.4 GHz
Pout = 4 dBm (2.5 mW)
Tx and Rx cable length (Ct and Cr) = 10 m. cable type RG214 (0.6 dB/meter)
Tx and Rx antenna gain (Gt and Gr) = 18 dBi
Distance between sites = 3 Km
Receiver sensitivity (Ps) = -84 dBm
Link Budget Calculation
EIRP = Pout - Ct + Gt = 16 dBm
Pl = 32.4 + 20xLog(FMHz) + 20xLog(RKm) ≅ 110 dB
Si = EIRP - Pl + Gr - Cr = -82 dBm
In conclusion, the received signal power is above the sensitivity threshold, so the
link should work. The problem is that there is only a 2 dB difference between
received signal power and sensitivity. Normally, a higher margin is desirable due to
fluctuation in received power as a result of signal fading.
Signal Fading
Fading of the RF signal is caused by several factors:
♦
Multipath
The transmitted signal arrives at the receiver from different directions, with different path lengths, attenuation and delays. The summed signal at the receiver
may result in an attenuated signal.
Figure C-6: Multipath Reception
♦
Bad Line of Sight
An optical line of sight exists if an imaginary straight line can connect the antennas on either side of the link.
Radio wave clear line of sight exists if a certain area around the optical line of sight
(Fresnel zone) is clear of obstacles. A bad line of sight exists if the first Fresnel zone
is obscured.
BreezeNET DS.11 Series User Manual
C-6
♦
Distance
♦
Weather conditions (rain, wind, etc.)
At high rain intensity (150 mm/hr), the fading of an RF signal at 2.4 GHz may
reach a maximum of 0.02 dB/Km. Wind may cause fading due to antenna motion.
♦
Interference
Interference may be caused by another system on the same frequency range,
external noise, or some other co-located system.
The Line of Sight Concept
An optical line of sight exists if an imaginary straight line can be drawn connecting
the antennas on either side of the link.
Clear Line of Sight
A clear line of sight exists when no physical objects obstruct viewing one antenna
from the location of the other antenna.
A radio wave clear line of sight exists if a defined area around the optical line of
sight (Fresnel Zone) is clear of obstacles.
Fresnel Zone
The Fresnel zone is the area of a circle around the line of sight.
The Fresnel Zone is defined as follows:
Figure C-7: Fresnel Zone
R = ½ √ xD
R: radius of the first Fresnel zone.
λ: wavelength (expressed in feet).
D: distance between sites (expressed in Km).
Radio Signal Propagation
C-7
Figure C-8: Fresnel Zone Clear of Obstacles
When at least 80% of the first Fresnel Zone is clear of obstacles, propagation loss is
equivalent to that of free space.
C-8
BreezeNET DS.11 Series User Manual