American Megatrends Express 500 Network Card User Manual

MegaRAID® Express 500
Hardware Guide
Preliminary Draft
MAN-475
4/14/2000
© Copyright 2000 American Megatrends, Inc.
All rights reserved.
American Megatrends, Inc.
6145F Northbelt Parkway
Norcross, GA 30071
This publication contains proprietary information which is protected by copyright. No part of this publication can be
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Revision History
4/14/00 Initial release.
ii
MegaRAID Express500 Hardware Guide
Table of Contents
1
Overview................................................... 1
Single Ended and Differential SCSI Buses .......................2
Maximum Cable Length for SCSI Standards ....................2
Documentation ..................................................................3
MegaRAID Express 500 Block Diagram ..........................4
2
Introduction to RAID................................ 5
RAID Benefits...................................................................5
In This Chapter..................................................................6
MegaRAID Express 500 – Host-Based RAID Solution....7
RAID Overview ................................................................8
Consistency Check ............................................................8
Fault Tolerance .................................................................8
Disk Striping .....................................................................9
Disk Spanning .................................................................10
Disk Mirroring ................................................................11
Parity...............................................................................12
Hot Spares.......................................................................13
Disk Rebuild ...................................................................14
Logical Drive ..................................................................15
Hot Swap.........................................................................15
SCSI Drive States............................................................15
Logical Drive States........................................................15
Disk Array Types ............................................................16
Enclosure Management ...................................................16
3
RAID Levels ............................................ 17
Selecting a RAID Level ..................................................18
RAID 0............................................................................19
RAID 1............................................................................20
RAID 3............................................................................21
RAID 5............................................................................23
RAID 10..........................................................................24
RAID 30..........................................................................25
RAID 50..........................................................................26
Preface
iii
Table of Contents, Continued
4
Features.................................................. 27
Hardware Requirements ..................................................28
Configuration Features....................................................28
Hardware Architecture Features......................................29
Array Performance Features............................................29
RAID Management Features...........................................30
Fault Tolerance Features .................................................30
Software Utilities ............................................................31
Operating System Software Drivers ................................31
MegaRAID Express 500 Specifications..........................32
PCI Bridge/CPU..............................................................33
Cache Memory ................................................................33
MegaRAID BIOS............................................................34
Onboard Speaker.............................................................34
Serial Port .......................................................................34
SCSI Bus.........................................................................34
SCSI Connectors .............................................................35
SCSI Termination............................................................35
SCSI Firmware................................................................35
RAID Management .........................................................36
Fault-Tolerance Features.................................................37
Compatibility...................................................................38
Summary .........................................................................38
5
Configuring MegaRAID Express 500.... 39
Configuring SCSI Physical Drives ..................................39
Current Configuration .....................................................40
Logical Drive Configuration ...........................................40
Physical Device Layout...................................................42
Configuring Arrays..........................................................44
Configuration Strategies..................................................45
Assigning RAID Levels ..................................................47
Configuring Logical Drives.............................................47
Optimizing Data Storage.................................................48
Planning the Array Configuration ...................................49
Array Configuration Planner ...........................................50
iv
MegaRAID Express500 Hardware Guide
Table of Contents, Continued
6
Hardware Installation ............................ 51
Installation Steps .............................................................52
Step 1 Unpack .................................................................53
Step 2 Power Down.........................................................53
Step 3 Configure Motherboard........................................53
Step 4 Install Cache Memory ..........................................54
Step 5 Set Jumpers ..........................................................56
MegaRAID Express 500 Card Layout ............................56
Step 6 Set Termination....................................................59
SCSI Termination............................................................60
Step 7 Install MegaRAID Express 500 ...........................63
Step 8 Connect SCSI Cables ...........................................64
Step 9 Set Target IDs ......................................................65
Device Identification on MegaRAID Express 500..........66
Step 10 Power Up ...........................................................67
Step 11 Run MegaRAID BIOS Setup .............................67
Step 12 Install the Operating System Driver ...................68
7
Troubleshooting .................................... 71
BIOS Boot Error Messages.............................................73
Other BIOS Error Messages............................................75
DOS ASPI Driver Error Messages..................................76
Other Potential Problems ................................................77
A
SCSI Cables and Connectors ............... 79
SCSI Connectors .............................................................79
68-Pin High Density SCSI Internal Connector................79
High-Density 68-Pin SCSI Connector Pinout .................85
68-Pin Connector Pinout for LVD SCSI .........................87
B Audible Warnings ......................................... 89
Glossary ............................................................ 91
Index ................................................................ 101
Preface
v
Preface
The MegaRAID Express 500 PCI RAID Controller supports all single ended and lowvoltage differential (LVD) SCSI devices on a 160M Ultra and Wide SCSI channel with
data transfer rates up to 160 MB/s (Megabytes per second). This manual describes
MegaRAID Express 500.
Limited Warranty The buyer agrees if this product proves to be defective, that American Megatrends is only
obligated to repair or replace this product at American Megatrends’ discretion according
to the terms and conditions of the warranty registration card that accompanies this
product. American Megatrends shall not be liable in tort or contract for any loss or
damage, direct, incidental or consequential resulting from the use of this product. Please
see the Warranty Registration Card shipped with this product for full warranty details.
Limitations of Liability American Megatrends, Inc. shall in no event be held liable for any loss, expenses, or
damages of any kind whatsoever, whether direct, indirect, incidental, or consequential
(whether arising from the design or use of this product or the support materials provided
with the product). No action or proceeding against American Megatrends may be
commenced more than two years after the delivery of product to Licensee of Licensed
Software.
Licensee agrees to defend and indemnify American Megatrends from any and all claims,
suits, and liabilities (including attorney’s fees) arising out of or resulting from any actual
or alleged act or omission on the part of Licensee, its authorized third parties, employees,
or agents, in connection with the distribution of Licensed Software to end-users,
including, without limitation, claims, suits, and liability for bodily or other injuries to
end-users resulting from use of Licensee’s product not caused solely by faults in
Licensed Software as provided by American Megatrends to Licensee.
Cont’d
vi
MegaRAID Express500 Hardware Guide
Preface, Continued
Package Contents You should have received:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
a MegaRAID Express 500 PCI RAID Controller
a CD with drivers, utilities, and documentation
a MegaRAID Express 500 Hardware Guide (on CD)
a MegaRAID Configuration Software Guide (on CD)
a MegaRAID Operating System Drivers Guide (on CD)
software license agreement (on CD)
a warranty registration card (on CD)
Technical Support If you need help installing, configuring, or running the MegaRAID Express
500 PCI RAID Controller, call your American Megatrends OEM Technical
Support representative. Before you call, please complete the MegaRAID
Problem Report form on the next page.
Web Site
We invite you to access the American Megatrends world wide web site at:
http://www.ami.com.
FTP Site
The address of the American Megatrends FTP site is:
ftp://ftp.megatrends.com
Preface
vii
MegaRAID Problem Report Form
Customer Information
Name
Company
Address
City/State
Country
email address
Phone
Fax
Motherboard:
Operating System:
Op. Sys. Ver.:
MegaRAID
Driver Ver.:
Network Card:
Other disk controllers
installed:
Description of problem:
MegaRAID Information
Today’s Date
Date of Purchase
Invoice Number
Serial Number
Cache Memory
Firmware Version
BIOS Version
System Information
BIOS manufacturer:
BIOS Date:
Video Adapter:
CPU Type/Speed:
System Memory:
Other adapter cards
installed:
Steps necessary to re-create problem:
1.
2.
3.
4.
Logical Drive Configuration
Logical
Drive
RAID
Level
Stripe
Size
Logical Drive
Size
LD1
LD2
LD3
LD4
LD5
LD6
LD7
LD8
LD9
LD10
LD11
LD12
LD13
LD14
LD15
LD16
LD17
LD18
LD19
LD20
viii MegaRAID Express500 Hardware Guide
Cache
Policy
Read
Policy
Write
Policy
# of Physical
Drives
Logical
Drive
RAID
Level
Stripe
Size
Logical Drive
Size
Cache
Policy
Read
Policy
Write
Policy
# of Physical
Drives
LD21
LD22
LD23
LD24
LD25
LD26
LD27
LD28
LD29
LD30
LD31
LD32
LD33
LD34
LD35
LD36
LD37
LD38
LD39
LD40
Preface
ix
Physical Device Layout
Channel 1
Target ID
Device Type
Logical Drive Number/ Drive Number
Manufacturer/Model Number
Firmware level
Target ID
Device Type
Logical Drive Number/ Drive Number
Manufacturer/Model Number
Firmware level
Target ID
Device Type
Logical Drive Number/ Drive Number
Manufacturer/Model Number
Firmware level
Target ID
Device Type
Logical Drive Number/ Drive Number
Manufacturer/Model Number
Firmware level
Target ID
Device Type
Logical Drive Number/ Drive Number
Manufacturer/Model Number
Firmware level
Target ID
Device Type
Logical Drive Number/ Drive Number
Manufacturer/Model Number
Firmware level
Target ID
Device Type
Logical Drive Number/ Drive Number
Manufacturer/Model Number
Firmware level
Target ID
Device Type
Logical Drive Number/ Drive Number
Manufacturer/Model Number
Firmware level
Target ID
Device Type
Logical Drive Number/ Drive Number
Manufacturer/Model Number
Firmware level
Target ID
Device Type
Logical Drive Number/ Drive Number
Manufacturer/Model Number
Firmware level
Target ID
Device Type
x
MegaRAID Express500 Hardware Guide
Channel 1
Logical Drive Number/ Drive Number
Manufacturer/Model Number
Firmware level
Target ID
Device Type
Logical Drive Number/ Drive Number
Manufacturer/Model Number
Firmware level
Target ID
Device Type
Logical Drive Number/ Drive Number
Manufacturer/Model Number
Firmware level
Target ID
Device Type
Logical Drive Number/ Drive Number
Manufacturer/Model Number
Firmware level
Target ID
Device Type
Logical Drive Number/ Drive Number
Manufacturer/Model Number
Firmware level
Preface
xi
Preface, Continued
Disclaimer
This manual describes the operation of the American Megatrends MegaRAID Express
500 Disk Array Controller. Although efforts have been made to assure the accuracy of the
information contained here, American Megatrends expressly disclaims liability for any
error in this information, and for damages, whether direct, indirect, special, exemplary,
consequential or otherwise, that may result from such error, including but not limited to
the loss of profits resulting from the use or misuse of the manual or information
contained therein (even if American Megatrends has been advised of the possibility of
such damages). Any questions or comments regarding this document or its contents
should be addressed to American Megatrends at the address shown on the cover.
American Megatrends provides this publication “as is” without warranty of any kind,
either expressed or implied, including, but not limited to, the implied warranties of
merchantability or fitness for a specific purpose.
Some states do not allow disclaimer of express or implied warranties or the limitation or
exclusion of liability for indirect, special, exemplary, incidental or consequential
damages in certain transactions; therefore, this statement may not apply to you. Also, you
may have other rights which vary from jurisdiction to jurisdiction.
This publication could include technical inaccuracies or typographical errors. Changes
are periodically made to the information herein; these changes will be incorporated in
new editions of the publication. American Megatrends may make improvements and/or
revisions in the product(s) and/or the program(s) described in this publication at any
time.
Requests for technical information about American Megatrends products should be made
to your American Megatrends authorized reseller or marketing representative.
xii
MegaRAID Express500 Hardware Guide
FCC Regulatory Statement
This device complies with Part 15 of the FCC Rules. Operation is subject to the following two conditions: (1) this device
may not cause harmful interference, and (2) this device must accept any interference received, including interference that
may cause undesired operation.
Warning: Changes or modifications to this unit not expressly approved by the party responsible for compliance
could void the user's authority to operate the equipment.
Note: This equipment has been tested and found to comply with the limits for a Class B digital device, pursuant to Part 15
of the FCC Rules. These limits are designed to provide reasonable protection against harmful interference in a residential
installation. This equipment generates, uses and can radiate radio frequency energy and, if not installed and used in
accordance with the instructions, may cause harmful interference to radio communications. However, there is no guarantee
that interference will not occur in a specific installation. If this equipment does cause harmful interference to radio or
television reception, which can be determined by turning the equipment off and on, try to correct the interference by one or
more of the following measures:
1)
2)
3)
4)
Reorient or relocate the receiving antenna.
Increase the separation between the equipment and
the receiver.
Connect the equipment into an outlet on a circuit different from
that to which the receiver is connected.
Consult the dealer or an experienced radio/TV technician
for help.
Shielded interface cables must be used with this product to ensure compliance with the Class B
FCC limits.
American Megatrends MegaRAID Express 500 PCI RAID Controller
Model Number:
Series 475
FCC ID Number:
IUESER475
Disclaimer
AMI certifies only that this product will work correctly when this
product is used with the same jumper settings, the same system
configuration, the same memory module parts, and the same
peripherals that were tested by AMI with this product. The complete
list of tested jumper settings, system configurations, peripheral
devices, and memory modules are documented in the AMI
Compatibility Report for this product. Call your AMI sales
representative for a copy of the Compatibility Report for this product.
Preface
xiii
xiv MegaRAID Express500 Hardware Guide
1
Overview
The MegaRAID® Express 500 PCI RAID controller is a high performance
intelligent PCI-to-SCSI host adapter with RAID control capabilities. The
MegaRAID Express 500 provides reliability, high performance, and faulttolerant disk subsystem management. The MegaRAID Express 500 is part of the
American Megatrends Intel i960RM/RS-based MegaRAID controller family.
The MegaRAID Express 500 is an entry level-to mid-range RAID controller
solution. MegaRAID Express 500 offers a cost-effective way to implement
RAID in a server. The MegaRAID Express 500 has a 160 M Ultra and Wide
SCSI channel supporting data transfer rates up to 160 Megabytes per second
(MB/s) per channel. The SCSI channel supports up to fifteen non-Ultra SCSI
devices. MegaRAID Express 500 includes MegaRAID features and
performance.
Features
MegaRAID Express 500 features include:
•
•
•
•
•
•
SCSI Channel
provides a high performance I/O migration path while preserving existing PCI-SCSI
software
Performs SCSI data transfers up to 160 MB/s
performs synchronous operation on a wide LVD SCSI bus
allows up to 15 LVD SCSI devices on the wide bus
includes an Intel® i960RM that performs RAID calculations and routing
supports 8, 16, 32, 64, or 128 MB of SDRAM cache memory in a DIMM socket
used for read and write-back caching and RAID 5 parity generation
The MegaRAID Express 500 upgrade card includes one Ultra3 SCSI channel.
The channel is powered by a Q-Logic ISP10160A 160M SCSI processor.
NVRAM and Flash ROM A 32 KB x 8 NVRAM stores RAID system configuration information.
The MegaRAID Express 500 firmware is stored in flash ROM for easy upgrade.
SCSI Connectors MegaRAID Express 500 has one ultra high density 68-pin external connector
for external storage subsystem and one high density 68-pin internal connector.
Chapter 1 Overview
1
Single Ended and Differential SCSI Buses
The SCSI standard defines two electrical buses:
•
•
a single ended bus
low-voltage differential bus
Maximum Cable Length for SCSI Standards
Standard
Single ended
LVD
SCSI I
Fast SCSI
Fast Wide SCSI
Ultra SCSI
Ultra SCSI
Wide Ultra SCSI
Wide Ultra SCSI
Wide Ultra SCSI
Ultra 2 SCSI
Ultra 2 SCSI
Wide Ultra 2 SCSI
Wide Ultra 2 SCSI
Ultra3 SCSI
Ultra3 SCSI
Wide Ultra3 SCSI
Wide Ultra3 SCSI
6m
6m
6m
1.5 m
3m
12 m
12 m
12 m
12 m
12 m
12 m
12 m
12 m
25 m
12 m
25 m
12 m
25m
12m
25m
12m
1.5 m
3m
Maximum Number of
Drives
7
7
15
7
3
15
7
3
1
7
1
15
1
7
1
15
SCSI Bus Widths and Maximum Throughput
SCSI Standard
SCSI I
Fast SCSI
Fast Wide SCSI
Ultra SCSI
Wide Ultra SCSI
Ultra 2 SCSI
Wide Ultra 2 SCSI
Ultra3 SCSI
Wide Ultra3 SCSI
2
MegaRAID Express 500 Hardware Guide
SCSI Bus Width
8 bits
8 bits
16 bits
8 bits
16 bits
8 bits
16 bits
8 bits
16 bits
SCSI Throughput
5 MB/s
10 MB/s
20 MB/s
20 MB/s
40 MB/s
40 MB/s
80 MB/s
80 MB/s
160 MB/s
Documentation
The MegaRAID Express 500 documentation set includes:
MegaRAID Configuration Hardware Guide This manual contains the RAID overview, RAID
planning, and RAID system configuration information you will need first. Read
the MegaRAID Express 500 Hardware Guide first.
MegaRAID Configuration Software Guide This manual describes the software configuration
utilities that configure and modify RAID systems.
MegaRAID Operating System Drivers Guide This manual provides detailed information about
installing the MegaRAID Express 500 operating system drivers.
Chapter 1 Overview
3
MegaRAID Express 500 Block Diagram
4
MegaRAID Express 500 Hardware Guide
2
Introduction to RAID
RAID (Redundant Array of Independent Disks) is an array of multiple
independent hard disk drives that provide high performance and fault tolerance.
A RAID disk subsystem improves I/O performance over a computer using only a
single drive. The RAID array appears to the host computer as a single storage
unit or as multiple logical units. I/O is expedited because several disks can be
accessed simultaneously. RAID systems improve data storage reliability and
fault tolerance compared to single-drive computers. Data loss because of a disk
drive failure can be recovered by reconstructing missing data from the remaining
data and parity drives.
RAID Benefits
RAID has gained popularity because it improves I/O performance and increases
storage subsystem reliability. RAID provides data security through fault
tolerance and redundant data storage. The MegaRAID Express 500 management
software configures and monitors RAID disk arrays.
Improved I/O
Although disk drive capabilities have improved drastically, actual performance
has been improved only three to four times in the last decade. Computing
performance has been improved over 50 times during the same time period.
Increased Reliability The electromechanical components of a disk subsystem operate more
slowly, require more power, and generate more noise and vibration than
electronic devices. These factors reduce the reliability of data stored on disks.
Chapter 2 Introduction to RAID
5
In This Chapter
The following topics are discussed:
Major Topic
Host-based solution
RAID overview
Subtopic
Consistency check
Fault tolerance
Disk striping
Disk spanning
Disk mirroring
Parity
Hot spares
Disk rebuilds
Logical drive
Hot swap
SCSI drive states
Logical drive states
Disk array types
Enclosure management
6
MegaRAID Express 500 Hardware Guide
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page 8
page 8
page 8
page 9
page 10
page 11
page 12
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page 14
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page 15
page 15
page 16
page 16
MegaRAID Express 500 – Host-Based RAID Solution
RAID products are either:
• host-based or
• SCSI-to-SCSI
The MegaRAID Express 500 controller is a host-based RAID solution.
MegaRAID Express 500 is a PCI adapter card that is installed in any available
PCI expansion slot in a host system.
Host-Based
A host-based RAID product puts all of the RAID intelligence on an adapter card
that is installed in a network server. A host-based RAID product provides the
best performance. MegaRAID Express 500 is part of the file server, so it can
transmit data directly across the computer’s buses at data transfer speeds up to
132 MB/s.
The available sequential data transfer rate is determined by the following factors:
•
•
•
•
•
•
the sustained data transfer rate on the motherboard PCI bus
the sustained data transfer rate on the i960RM PCI to PCI bridge
the sustained data transfer rate of the SCSI controller
the sustained data transfer rate of the SCSI devices
the number of SCSI channels
the number of SCSI disk drives
Host-based solutions must provide operating system-specific drivers.
SCSI-to-SCSI
A SCSI-to-SCSI RAID product puts the RAID intelligence inside the RAID
chassis and uses a plain SCSI Host Adapter installed in the network server. The
data transfer rate is limited to the bandwidth of the SCSI channel. A SCSI-toSCSI RAID product that has two wide SCSI channels operating at speeds up to
160 MB/s must squeeze the data into a single wide SCSI (160 MB/s) channel
back to the host computer.
In SCSI-to-SCSI RAID products, the hard drive subsystem uses only a single
SCSI ID, which allows you to connect multiple drive subsystems to a single
SCSI controller.
Chapter 2 Introduction to RAID
7
RAID Overview
RAID (Redundant Array of Independent Disks) is a collection of specifications
that describe a system for ensuring the reliability and stability of data stored on
large disk subsystems. A RAID system can be implemented in a number of
different versions (or RAID Levels). The standard RAID levels are 0, 1, 3, and
5. MegaRAID Express 500 supports all standard RAID levels and RAID levels
10, 30, and 50, special RAID versions supported by MegaRAID Express 500.
Consistency Check
In RAID, check consistency verifies the correctness of redundant data in an
array. For example, in a system with dedicated parity, checking consistency
means computing the parity of the data drives and comparing the results to the
contents of the dedicated parity drive.
Fault Tolerance
Fault tolerance is achieved through cooling fans, power supplies, and the ability
to hot swap drives. MegaRAID Express 500 provides hot swapping through the
hot spare feature. A hot spare drive is an unused online available drive that
MegaRAID Express 500 instantly plugs into the system when an active drive
fails.
After the hot spare is automatically moved into the RAID subsystem, the failed
drive is automatically rebuilt. The RAID disk array continues to handle request
while the rebuild occurs.
8
MegaRAID Express 500 Hardware Guide
Disk Striping
Disk striping writes data across multiple disk drives instead of just one disk
drive. Disk striping involves partitioning each drive storage space into stripes
that can vary in size from 2 KB to 128 KB. These stripes are interleaved in a
repeated sequential manner. The combined storage space is composed of stripes
from each drive. MegaRAID Express 500 supports stripe sizes of 2 KB, 4 KB, 8
KB, 16 KB, 32 KB, 64 KB, or 128 KB.
For example, in a four-disk system using only disk striping (as in RAID level 0),
segment 1 is written to disk 1, segment 2 is written to disk 2, and so on. Disk
striping enhances performance because multiple drives are accessed
simultaneously; but disk striping does not provide data redundancy.
Stripe Width
Stripe width is a measure of the number of disks involved in an array where
striping is implemented. For example, a four-disk array with disk striping has a
stripe width of four.
Stripe Size
The stripe size is the length of the interleaved data segments that MegaRAID
Express 500 writes across multiple drives. MegaRAID Express 500 supports
stripe sizes of 2 KB, 4 KB, 8 KB, 16 KB, 32 KB, 64 KB, or 128 KB.
Chapter 2 Introduction to RAID
9
Disk Spanning
Disk spanning allows multiple disk drives to function like one big drive.
Spanning overcomes lack of disk space and simplifies storage management by
combining existing resources or adding relatively inexpensive resources. For
example, four 400 MB disk drives can be combined to appear to the operating
system as one single 1600 MB drive.
Spanning alone does not provide reliability or performance enhancements.
Spanned logical drives must have the same stripe size and must be contiguous. In
the following graphic, RAID 1 array is turned into a RAID 10 array.
Spanning for RAID 10, RAID 30, or RAID 50
Level
10
30
50
Note:
10
Description
Configure RAID 10 by spanning two contiguous RAID 1 logical drives.
The RAID 1 logical drives must have the same stripe size.
Configure RAID 30 by spanning two contiguous RAID 3 logical drives.
The RAID 3 logical drives must have the same stripe size.
Configure RAID 50 by spanning two contiguous RAID 5 logical drives.
The RAID 5 logical drives must have the same stripe size.
Spanning two contiguous RAID 0 logical drives does not produce a new
RAID level or add fault tolerance. It does increase the size of the logical
volume and improves performance by doubling the number of spindles.
MegaRAID Express 500 Hardware Guide
Disk Mirroring
With mirroring (used in RAID 1), data written to one disk drive is
simultaneously written to another disk drive. If one disk drive fails, the contents
of the other disk drive can be used to run the system and reconstruct the failed
drive. The primary advantage of disk mirroring is that it provides 100% data
redundancy. Since the contents of the disk drive are completely written to a
second drive, it does not matter if one of the drives fails. Both drives contain the
same data at all times. Either drive can act as the operational drive.
Disk mirroring provides 100% redundancy, but is expensive because each drive
in the system must be duplicated.
Chapter 2 Introduction to RAID
11
Parity
Parity generates a set of redundancy data from two or more parent data sets. The
redundancy data can be used to reconstruct one of the parent data sets. Parity
data does not fully duplicate the parent data sets. In RAID, this method is
applied to entire drives or stripes across all disk drives in an array. The types of
parity are:
Type
Dedicated Parity
Distributed
Parity
Description
The parity of the data on two or more disk drives is
stored on an additional disk.
The parity data is distributed across all drives in the
system.
If a single disk drive fails, it can be rebuilt from the parity and the data on the
remaining drives.
RAID level 3 combines dedicated parity with disk striping. The parity disk in
RAID 3 is the last logical drive in a RAID set.
RAID level 5 combines distributed parity with disk striping. Parity provides
redundancy for one drive failure without duplicating the contents of entire disk
drives, but parity generation can slow the write process. A dedicated parity
scheme during normal read/write operations is shown below:
12
MegaRAID Express 500 Hardware Guide
Hot Spares
A hot spare is an extra, unused disk drive that is part of the disk subsystem. It is
usually in standby mode, ready for service if a drive fails. Hot spares permit you
to replace failed drives without system shutdown or user intervention.
MegaRAID Express 500 implements automatic and transparent rebuilds using
hot spare drives, providing a high degree of fault tolerance and zero downtime.
The MegaRAID Express 500 RAID Management software allows you to specify
physical drives as hot spares. When a hot spare is needed, the MegaRAID
Express 500 controller assigns the hot spare that has a capacity closest to and at
least as great as that of the failed drive to take the place of the failed drive.
Important
Hot spares are employed only in arrays with redundancy, for
example, RAID levels 1, 3, 5, 10, 30, and 50.
A hot spare connected to a specific MegaRAID Express 500
controller can be used only to rebuild a drive that is
connected to the same controller.
Chapter 2 Introduction to RAID
13
Disk Rebuild
You rebuild a disk drive by recreating the data that had been stored on the drive
before the drive failed.
Rebuilding can be done only in arrays with data redundancy such as RAID level
1, 3, 5, 10, 30, and 50.
Standby (warm spare) rebuild is employed in a mirrored (RAID 1) system. If a
disk drive fails, an identical drive is immediately available. The primary data
source disk drive is the original disk drive.
A hot spare can be used to rebuild disk drives in RAID 1, 3, 5, 10, 30, or 50
systems. If a hot spare is not available, the failed disk drive must be replaced
with a new disk drive so that the data on the failed drive can be rebuilt.
The MegaRAID Express 500 controller automatically and transparently rebuilds
failed drives with user-definable rebuild rates. If a hot spare is available, the
rebuild starts automatically when a drive fails. MegaRAID Express 500
automatically restarts the system and the rebuild if the system goes down during
a rebuild.
Rebuild Rate
The rebuild rate is the fraction of the compute cycles dedicated to rebuilding
failed drives. A rebuild rate of 100 percent means the system is totally dedicated
to rebuilding the failed drive.
The MegaRAID Express 500 rebuild rate can be configured between 0% and
100%. At 0%, the rebuild is only done if the system is not doing anything else.
At 100%, the rebuild has a higher priority than any other system activity.
Physical Array A RAID array is a collection of physical disk drives governed by the RAID
management software. A RAID array appears to the host computer as one or
more logical drives.
14
MegaRAID Express 500 Hardware Guide
Logical Drive
A logical drive is a partition in a physical array of disks that is made up of
contiguous data segments on the physical disks. A logical drive can consist of:
•
•
•
•
•
an entire physical array
more than one entire physical array
a part of an array
parts of more than one array, or
a combination of any two of the above conditions
Hot Swap
A hot swap is the manual replacement of a defective physical disk unit while the
computer is still running. When a new drive has been installed, you must issue a
command to rebuild the drive.
SCSI Drive States
A SCSI disk drive can be in one of these states:
State
Online
(ONLIN)
Ready
(READY)
Hot Spare
(HOTSP)
Fail
(FAIL)
Rebuild
(REB)
Description
The drive is functioning normally and is a part of a configured logical
drive.
The drive is functioning normally but is not part of a configured logical
drive and is not designated as a hot spare.
The drive is powered up and ready for use as a spare in case an online
drive fails.
A fault has occurred in the drive placing it out of service.
The drive is being rebuilt with data from a failed drive.
Logical Drive States
State
Optimal
Degraded
Failed
Offline
Description
The drive operating condition is good. All configured drives are online
The drive operating condition is not optimal. One of the configured drives
has failed or is offline.
The drive has failed.
The drive is not available to MegaRAID Express 500.
Chapter 2 Introduction to RAID
15
Disk Array Types
The RAID disk array types are listed in the following table:
Type
SoftwareBased
SCSI to SCSI
Bus-Based
Description
The array is managed by software running in a host computer using
the host CPU bandwidth. The disadvantages associated with this
method are the load on the host CPU and the need for different
software for each operating system.
The array controller resides outside of the host computer and
communicates with the host through a SCSI adapter in the host.
The array management software runs in the controller. It is
transparent to the host and independent of the host operating
system. The disadvantage is the limited data transfer rate of the
SCSI channel between the SCSI adapter and the array controller.
The array controller resides on the bus (for example, a PCI or
EISA bus) in the host computer and has its own CPU to generate
the parity and handle other RAID functions. A bus-based controller
can transfer data at the speed of the host bus (PCI, ISA, EISA, VLBus) but is limited to the bus it is designed for. MegaRAID
Express 500 resides on a PCI bus, which can handle data transfer
at up to 132 MB/s. With MegaRAID Express 500, the channel can
handle data transfer rates up to 160 MB/s per SCSI channel.
Enclosure Management
Enclosure management is the intelligent monitoring of the disk subsystem by
software and/or hardware.
The disk subsystem can be part of the host computer or separate from it.
Enclosure management helps you stay informed of events in the disk subsystem,
such as a drive or power supply failure. Enclosure management increases the
fault tolerance of the disk subsystem.
16
MegaRAID Express 500 Hardware Guide
3
RAID Levels
There are six official RAID levels (RAID 0 through RAID 5). MegaRAID
Express 500 supports RAID levels 0, 1, 3, and 5. American Megatrends has
designed three additional RAID levels (10, 30, and 50) that provide additional
benefits. The RAID levels that MegaRAID Express 500 supports are:
RAID Level
0
1
3
5
10
30
50
Type
Standard
Standard
Standard
Standard
MegaRAID Express 500 only
MegaRAID Express 500 only
MegaRAID Express 500 only
turn to
page 19
page 20
page 21
page 23
page 24
page 25
page 26
Select RAID Level To ensure the best performance, you should select the optimal RAID level
when you create a system drive. The optimal RAID level for your disk array
depends on a number of factors:
•
•
•
•
the number of drives in the disk array
the capacity of the drives in the array
the need for data redundancy
the disk performance requirements
Selecting a RAID Level The factors you need to consider when selecting a RAID level are listed
on the next page.
Chapter 3 RAID Levels
17
Selecting a RAID Level
Level
0
1
3
5
10
30
50
Note:
18
Description and
Use
Data divided in
blocks and
distributed
sequentially (pure
striping). Use for
non-critical data
that requires high
performance.
Data duplicated on
another disk
(mirroring). Use
for read-intensive
fault-tolerant
systems.
Disk striping with a
dedicated parity
drive. Use for noninteractive apps
that process large
files sequentially.
Disk striping and
parity data across
all drives. Use for
high read volume
but low write
volume, such as
transaction
processing.
Data striping and
mirrored drives.
Disk striping with a
dedicated parity
drive.
Disk striping and
parity data across
all drives.
Pros
Cons
High data
throughput
for large
files
No fault
tolerance. All
data lost if
any drive
fails.
100% data
redundancy
Doubles disk
space.
Reduced
performance
during
rebuilds.
Performance
not as good as
RAID 1
Achieves
data
redundancy
at low cost
Max.
Drives
One to
32
Fault
Tolerant
No
2, 4, 6,
or 8
Yes
Three to
eight
Yes
Achieves
data
redundancy
at low cost
Performance
not as good as
RAID 1
Three to
eight
Yes
High data
transfers,
complete
redundancy
High data
transfers,
redundancy
High data
transfers,
redundancy
More
complicated
4, 6, or
8
Yes
More
complicated
Six to
32
Yes
More
complicated
Six to
32
Yes
The maximum number of physical drives supported per the Express 500
controller is 15.
MegaRAID Express 500 Hardware Guide
RAID 0
RAID 0 provides disk striping across all drives in the RAID subsystem. RAID 0
does not provide any data redundancy, but does offer the best performance of
any RAID level. RAID 0 breaks up data into smaller blocks and then writes a
block to each drive in the array. The size of each block is determined by the
stripe size parameter, set during the creation of the RAID set. RAID 0 offers
high bandwidth. By breaking up a large file into smaller blocks, MegaRAID
Express 500 can use several drives to read or write the file faster. RAID 0
involves no parity calculations to complicate the write operation. This makes
RAID 0 ideal for applications that require high bandwidth but do not require
fault tolerance.
Uses
RAID 0 provides high data throughput, especially for large
files. Any environment that does not require fault tolerance.
Strong Points
Provides increased data throughput for large files. No
capacity loss penalty for parity.
Weak Points
Does not provide fault tolerance. All data lost if any drive
fails.
Drives
One to 32
Chapter 3 RAID Levels
19
RAID 1
In RAID 1, MegaRAID Express 500 duplicates all data from one drive to a
second drive. RAID 1 provides complete data redundancy, but at the cost of
doubling the required data storage capacity.
Uses
Use RAID 1 for small databases or any other environment
that requires fault tolerance but small capacity.
Strong Points
RAID 1 provides complete data redundancy. RAID 1 is
ideal for any application that requires fault tolerance and
minimal capacity.
Weak Points
RAID 1 requires twice as many disk drives. Performance is
impaired during drive rebuilds.
Drives
2, 4, 6, or 8 drives.
20
MegaRAID Express 500 Hardware Guide
RAID 3
RAID 3 provides disk striping and complete data redundancy though a dedicated
parity drive. The stripe size must be 64 KB if RAID 3 is used. RAID 3 handles
data at the block level, not the byte level, so it is ideal for networks that often
handle very large files, such as graphic images. RAID 3 breaks up data into
smaller blocks, calculates parity by performing an exclusive-or on the blocks,
and then writes the blocks to all but one drive in the array. The parity data
created during the exclusive-or is then written to the last drive in the array. The
size of each block is determined by the stripe size parameter, which is set during
the creation of the RAID set.
If a single drive fails, a RAID 3 array continues to operate in degraded mode. If
the failed drive is a data drive, writes will continue as normal, except no data is
written to the failed drive. Reads reconstruct the data on the failed drive by
performing an exclusive-or operation on the remaining data in the stripe and the
parity for that stripe. If the failed drive is a parity drive, writes will occur as
normal, except no parity is written. Reads retrieve data from the disks.
Uses
Strong Points
Weak Points
Drives
Best suited for applications such as graphics, imaging, or
video that call for reading and writing huge, sequential
blocks of data.
Provides data redundancy and high data transfer rates.
The dedicated parity disk is a bottleneck with random I/O.
Three to eight
Cont’d
Chapter 3 RAID Levels
21
RAID 3, Continued
RAID 5 vs RAID 3 You may find that RAID 5 is preferable to RAID 3, even for applications
characterized by sequential reads and writes, because MegaRAID Express 500
has very robust caching algorithms.
The benefits of RAID 3 disappear if there are many small I/O operations
scattered randomly and widely across the disks in the logical drive. The RAID 3
fixed parity disk becomes a bottleneck in such applications. For example: The
host attempts to make two small writes and the writes are widely scattered,
involving two different stripes and different disk drives. Ideally both writes
should take place at the same time. But this is not possible in RAID 3, since the
writes must take turns accessing the fixed parity drive. For this reason, RAID 5
is the clear choice in this scenario.
22
MegaRAID Express 500 Hardware Guide
RAID 5
RAID 5 includes disk striping at the byte level and parity. In RAID 5, the parity
information is written to several drives. RAID 5 is best suited for networks that
perform a lot of small I/O transactions simultaneously.
RAID 5 addresses the bottleneck issue for random I/O operations. Since each
drive contains both data and parity numerous writes can take place concurrently.
In addition, robust caching algorithms and hardware based exclusive-or assist
make RAID 5 performance exceptional in many different environments.
Uses
Strong Points
Weak Points
Drives
RAID 5 provides high data throughput, especially for large
files. Use RAID 5 for transaction processing applications
because each drive can read and write independently. If a
drive fails, MegaRAID Express 500 uses the parity drive to
recreate all missing information. Use also for office
automation and online customer service that requires fault
tolerance. Use for any application that has high read request
rates but low write request rates.
Provides data redundancy and good performance in most
environments
Disk drive performance will be reduced if a drive is being
rebuilt. Environments with few processes do not perform as
well because the RAID overhead is not offset by the
performance gains in handling simultaneous processes.
Three to eight
Chapter 3 RAID Levels
23
RAID 10
RAID 10 is a combination of RAID 0 and RAID 1. RAID 10 has mirrored
drives. RAID 10 breaks up data into smaller blocks, and then stripes the blocks
of data to each RAID 1 raid set. Each RAID 1 raid set then duplicates its data to
its other drive. The size of each block is determined by the stripe size parameter,
which is set during the creation of the RAID set. RAID 10 can sustain one to
four drive failures while maintaining data integrity if each failed disk is in a
different RAID 1 array.
Uses
Strong Points
Weak Points
Drives
24
RAID 10 works best for data storage that must have 100%
redundancy of mirrored arrays and that also needs the
enhanced I/O performance of RAID 0 (striped arrays).
RAID 10 works well for medium-sized databases or any
environment that requires a higher degree of fault tolerance
and moderate to medium capacity.
RAID 10 provides both high data transfer rates and
complete data redundancy.
RAID 10 requires twice as many drives as all other RAID
levels except RAID 1.
2n, where n is greater than 1.
MegaRAID Express 500 Hardware Guide
RAID 30
RAID 30 is a combination of RAID 0 and RAID 3. RAID 30 provides high data
transfer speeds and high data reliability. RAID 30 is best implemented on two
RAID 3 disk arrays with data striped across both disk arrays. RAID 30 breaks up
data into smaller blocks, and then stripes the blocks of data to each RAID 3 raid
set. RAID 3 breaks up data into smaller blocks, calculates parity by performing
an exclusive-or on the blocks, and then writes the blocks to all but one drive in
the array. The parity data created during the exclusive-or is then written to the
last drive in each RAID 3 array. The size of each block is determined by the
stripe size parameter, which is set during the creation of the RAID set.
RAID 30 can sustain one to four drive failures while maintaining data integrity if
each failed disk is in a different RAID 3 array.
Strong Points
Use RAID 30 for sequentially written and read data, prepress and video on demand that requires a higher degree of
fault tolerance and medium to large capacity.
Provides data reliability and high data transfer rates.
Weak Points
Requires 2 – 4 times as many parity drives as RAID 3.
Drives
Six to 32
Uses
Chapter 3 RAID Levels
25
RAID 50
RAID 50 provides the features of both RAID 0 and RAID 5. RAID 50 includes
both parity and disk striping across multiple drives. RAID 50 is best
implemented on two RAID 5 disk arrays with data striped across both disk
arrays. RAID 50 breaks up data into smaller blocks, and then stripes the blocks
of data to each RAID 5 raid set. RAID 5 breaks up data into smaller blocks,
calculates parity by performing an exclusive-or on the blocks, and then writes the
blocks of data and parity to each drive in the array. The size of each block is
determined by the stripe size parameter, which is set during the creation of the
RAID set.
RAID 50 can sustain one to four drive failures while maintaining data integrity if
each failed disk is in a different RAID 5 array.
Uses
RAID 50 works best when used with data that requires high
reliability, high request rates, and high data transfer and
medium to large capacity.
Strong Points
Weak Points
RAID 50 provides high data throughput, data redundancy,
and very good performance.
Requires 2 to 4 times as many parity drives as RAID 5.
Drives
Six to 32
26
MegaRAID Express 500 Hardware Guide
4
Features
MegaRAID is a family of high performance intelligent PCI-to-SCSI host
adapters with RAID control capabilities. MegaRAID Express 500 has a SCSI
channel that supports 160M Ultra and Wide SCSI at data transfer rates up to 160
MB/s. The SCSI channel supports up to 15 Wide devices and up to seven nonWide devices.
In This Chapter Topics described in this chapter include:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
new features
configuration features
hardware architecture features
array performance features
RAID management features
fault tolerance features
utility programs
software drivers
SMART Technology The MegaRAID Express 500 Self Monitoring Analysis and Reporting
Technology (SMART) detects up to 70% of all predictable drive failures.
SMART monitors the internal performance of all motors, heads, and drive
electronics.
Configuration on Disk Configuration on Disk (drive roaming) saves configuration information
both in NVRAM on MegaRAID Express 500 and on the disk drives connected
to MegaRAID Express 500. If MegaRAID Express 500 is replaced, the new
MegaRAID Express 500 controller can detect the actual RAID configuration,
maintaining the integrity of the data on each drive, even if the drives have
changed channel and/or target ID.
Chapter 4 Features
27
Hardware Requirements
MegaRAID Express 500 can be installed in an IBM AT®-compatible or EISA
computer with a motherboard that has 5 volt/3.3 volt PCI expansion slots. The
computer must support PCI version 2.1 or later. The computer should have an
Intel Pentium, Pentium Pro, or more powerful CPU, a floppy drive, a color
monitor and VGA adapter card, a mouse, and a keyboard.
Configuration Features
Specification
RAID Levels
SCSI Channels
Maximum number of drives per channel
Array interface to host
Drive interface
Upgradable cache size
Cache Function
Multiple logical drives/arrays per
controller
Maximum number of MegaRAID Express
500 controller per system
Online capacity expansion
Dedicated and pool hot spare
Flashable firmware
Hot swap devices supported
Non-disk devices supported
Mixed capacity hard disk drives
Number of 16-bit internal connectors
Number of 16-bit external connectors
Support for hard disk drives with
capacities of more than 8 GB.
Clustering support (Failover control)
Online RAID level migration
RAID remapping
No reboot necessary after expansion
More than 200 Qtags per physical drive
Hardware clustering support on the board
User-specified rebuild rate
28
MegaRAID Express 500 Hardware Guide
Feature
0, 1, 3, 5, 10, 30, and 50.
1
15
PCI 2.1
Fast and Wide, Ultra 160M SE and
LVD
8 MB, 16 MB, 32 MB, 64 MB, or 128
MB
Write-through, write-back, ARA,
NRA, RA
Up to 40 logical drives per controller
12
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
1
1
Yes
No
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Hardware Architecture Features
The hardware architecture features include:
Specification
Processor
SCSI Controller
Size of Flash ROM
Amount of NVRAM
Hardware XOR assistance
Direct I/O
Removable cache memory module
SCSI bus termination
Double-sided DIMMs
Auxiliary TermPWR source
Direct I/O bandwidth
Feature
Intel i960RM 100
Q Logic ISP10160A
1 MB
32 KB
Yes
Yes
Yes
Active, single-ended or LVD
Yes
No
132 MB/s
Array Performance Features
The array performance features include:
Specification
Host data transfer rate
Drive data transfer rate
Maximum Scatter/Gathers
Maximum size of I/O requests
Maximum Queue Tags per drive
Stripe Sizes
Maximum number of concurrent
commands
Chapter 4 Features
Feature
132 MB/s
160 MB/s
26 elements
6.4 MB in 64 KB stripes
211
2 KB, 4 KB, 8 KB, 16 KB, 32 KB, 64
KB, or 128 KB
255
29
RAID Management Features
The RAID management features include:
Specification
Support for SNMP
Performance Monitor provided
Remote control and monitoring
Event broadcast and event alert
Hardware connector
Drive roaming
Support for concurrent multiple stripe
sizes
Web-based management tools
Windows NT and NetWare server
support via GUI client utility
SCO Unix, OS/2, and UnixWare
server support via GUI client utility
DMI support
Management through an industrystandard browser
Feature
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
RS232C
Yes
Yes
Not released yet
Yes
Yes
Yes
Not released yet
Fault Tolerance Features
The fault tolerance features include:
Specification
Support for SMART
Enclosure management
Drive failure detection
Drive rebuild using hot spares
Parity Generation and checking
30
MegaRAID Express 500 Hardware Guide
Feature
Yes
SAF-TE compliant
Automatic
Automatic
Software
Software Utilities
The software utility features include:
Specification
Graphical user interface
Management utility
Bootup configuration via MegaRAID Manager
Online Read, Write, and cache policy switching
Internet and intranet support through TCP/IP
Feature
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Operating System Software Drivers
Operating System Drivers MegaRAID Express 500 includes a DOS software configuration
utility and drivers for:
•
•
•
•
•
Windows NT V4.0
Novell NetWare 4.x,
OS/2,
SCO UnixWare 2.1x, and
SCO Open Server R5.0x
The DOS drivers for MegaRAID Express 500 are contained in the firmware on
MegaRAID Express 500 except the DOS ASPI and CD-ROM drivers. Call your
American Megatrends OEM support representative for information about drivers
for other operating systems.
Chapter 4 Features
31
MegaRAID Express 500 Specifications
Parameter
Card Size
Processor
Bus Type
PCI Controller
Bus Data Transfer Rate
BIOS
Cache Configuration
Firmware
Nonvolatile RAM
Operating Voltage
SCSI Controller
SCSI Data Transfer
Rate
SCSI Bus
SCSI Termination
Termination Disable
Devices per SCSI
Channel
SCSI Device Types
Supported
RAID Levels Supported
SCSI Connectors
Serial Port
32
MegaRAID Express 500 Hardware Guide
Specification
5.875" x 4.2" (half length PCI)
Intel i960RM™ 32-bit RISC processor @ 100 MHz
PCI 2.1
Intel i960RM
Up to 132 MB/s
AMIBIOS MegaRAID BIOS
8, 16, 32, 64, or 128 MB ECC through a 66MHz
72-bit unbuffered 3.3V SDRAM.
1 MB × 8 flash ROM
32 KB × 8 for storing RAID configuration
5.00 V ± 0.25 V
One SCSI controller for 160 M Ultra and Wide
support.
Up to 160 MB/s
LVD or single-ended
Active
Automatic through cable and device detection
Up to 15 wide or seven non-wide SCSI devices. Up
to 6 non-disk SCSI drives per MegaRAID Express
500 controller.
Synchronous or Asynchronous. Disk and non-disk.
0, 1, 3, 5,10, 30, and 50
One 68-pin internal high-density connector for 16bit SCSI devices. One ultra-high density 68-pin
external connector for Ultra and Wide SCSI.
3-pin RS232C-compatible berg
PCI Bridge/CPU
MegaRAID Express 500 uses the Intel i960RM PCI bridge with an embedded
80960JX RISC processor running at 100 MHz. The RM bridge handles data
transfers between the primary (host) PCI bus, the secondary PCI bus, cache
memory, and the SCSI bus. The DMA controller supports chaining and
unaligned data transfers. The embedded 80960JX CPU directs all controller
functions, including command processing, SCSI bus transfers, RAID processing,
drive rebuilding, cache management, and error recovery.
Cache Memory
MegaRAID Express 500 cache memory resides in a memory bank that uses 2 M
x 72 (16 MB), 4 M x 72 (32 MB), 8 M x 72 (64 MB) or 16 M x 72 (128 MB)
unbuffered 3.3V SDRAM . Possible configurations are 8, 16, 32, 64, or 128 MB.
The maximum achievable memory bandwidth is 528 MB/s.
MegaRAID Express 500 supports write-through or write-back caching,
selectable for each logical drive. To improve performance in sequential disk
accesses, the MegaRAID Express 500 controller uses read-ahead caching by
default. You can disable read-ahead caching.
Chapter 4 Features
33
MegaRAID BIOS
The BIOS resides on a 1 MB × 8 flash ROM for easy upgrade. The MegaRAID
BIOS supports INT 13h calls to boot DOS without special software or device
drivers. The MegaRAID BIOS provides an extensive setup utility that can be
accessed by pressing <Ctrl> <M> at BIOS initialization. MegaRAID BIOS
Setup is described in the MegaRAID Configuration Software Guide.
Onboard Speaker
The MegaRAID Express 500 controller has an onboard tone generator for
audible warnings when system errors occur. Audible warnings can be generated
through this speaker. The audible warnings are listed on page 89.
Serial Port
MegaRAID Express 500 includes a 3-pin RS232C-compatible serial port berg
connector, which can connect to communications devices.
SCSI Bus
MegaRAID Express 500 has a Fast and Wide Ultra 160M SCSI channel that
supports both LVD and single-ended devices with active termination.
Synchronous and asynchronous devices are supported. MegaRAID Express 500
provides automatic termination disable via cable detection. The SCSI channel
supports up to 15 wide or seven non-wide SCSI devices at speeds up to
160 MB/s. MegaRAID Express 500 supports up to six non-disk devices per
controller.
34
MegaRAID Express 500 Hardware Guide
SCSI Connectors
MegaRAID Express 500 has two types of SCSI connectors:
• a 68-pin high density internal connector and
• a 68-pin external ultra-high-density connector.
Both connector types can be used for the SCSI channel.
SCSI Termination
MegaRAID Express 500 uses active termination on the SCSI bus conforming to
Alternative 2 of the SCSI-2 specifications. Termination enable/disable is
automatic through cable detection.
SCSI Firmware
The MegaRAID Express 500 firmware handles all RAID and SCSI command
processing and also supports:
Feature
Disconnect/
Reconnect
Tagged Command
Queuing
Scatter/Gather
Multi-threading
Stripe Size
Rebuild
Chapter 4 Features
Description
Optimizes SCSI Bus seek.
Multiple tags to improve random access
Multiple address/count pairs
Up to 255 simultaneous commands with elevator sorting and
concatenation of requests per SCSI channel
Variable for all logical drives: 2 KB, 4 KB, 8 KB, 16 KB, 32
KB, 64 KB, or 128 KB.
Multiple rebuilds and consistency checks with userdefinable priority.
35
RAID Management
RAID management is provided by software utilities that manage and configure
the RAID system and MegaRAID Express 500, create and manage multiple disk
arrays, control and monitor multiple RAID servers, provide error statistics
logging, and provide online maintenance. They include:
•
•
•
•
MegaRAID BIOS Setup
Power Console 500
MegaRAID Manager
General Alert Module
MegaRAID BIOS Setup BIOS Setup configures and maintains RAID arrays, formats disk drives,
and manages the RAID system. It is independent of any operating system. See
the MegaRAID Configuration Software Guide for additional information.
Power Console 500 Power Console 500 runs in Windows NT. It configures, monitors, and
maintains multiple RAID servers from any network node or a remote location.
See the MegaRAID Configuration Software Guide for additional information.
MegaRAID Manager This is a character-based utility that works in DOS, SCO Unix SVR3.2
R4.2, SCO UnixWare, OS/2 2.x, OS/2 Warp, and Novell NetWare 3.x and 4.x.
See the MegaRAID Configuration Software Guide for additional information.
36
MegaRAID Express 500 Hardware Guide
Fault-Tolerance Features
The MegaRAID Express 500 fault-tolerance features are:
•
•
•
•
automatic failed drive detection,
automatic failed drive rebuild with no user intervention required,
hot swap manual replacement without bringing the system down, and
SAF-TE compliant enclosure management.
Detect Failed Drive The MegaRAID Express 500 firmware automatically detects and rebuilds
failed drives. This can be done transparently with hot spares.
Hot Swap
MegaRAID Express 500 supports the manual replacement of a disk unit in the
RAID subsystem without system shutdown.
Chapter 4 Features
37
Compatibility
MegaRAID Express 500 compatibility issues include:
•
•
•
server management,
SCSI device compatibility, and
software compatibility
Server Management As an SNMP agent, MegaRAID Express 500 supports all SNMP managers
and RedAlert from Storage Dimensions.
SCSI Device Compatibility MegaRAID Express 500 supports SCSI hard disk drives, CD-ROMs,
tape drives, optical drives, DAT drives and other SCSI peripheral devices.
Software
All SCSI backup and utility software should work with MegaRAID Express 500.
Software that has been tested and approved for use with MegaRAID Express 500
includes Cheyenne®, CorelSCSI®, Arcserve®, and Novaback®. This software
is not provided with MegaRAID Express 500.
Summary
MegaRAID Express 500 Features were discussed in this chapter.
Configuring MegaRAID Express 500 is discussed in Chapter 5.
38
MegaRAID Express 500 Hardware Guide
5
Configuring MegaRAID Express 500
Configuring SCSI Physical Drives
SCSI Channel
Physical SCSI drives must be organized into logical drives. The arrays and
logical drives that you construct must be able to support the RAID level that you
select.
Your MegaRAID Express 500 adapter has one SCSI channel.
Basic Configuration Rules You should observe the following guidelines when connecting and
configuring SCSI devices in a RAID array:
•
•
•
•
•
attach non-disk SCSI devices to a single SCSI channel that does not have
any disk drives,
you can place up to eight physical disk drives in an array,
include all drives that have the same capacity to the same array,
make sure any hot spare has a capacity that is at least as large as the largest
drive that may be replaced by the hot spare, and
when replacing a failed drive, make sure that the replacement drive has a
capacity that is at least as large as the drive being replaced.
Chapter 5 Configuring MegaRAID Express 500
39
Current Configuration
SCSI ID
Device Description
SCSI Channel 1
Termination?
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
Logical Drive Configuration
Logical
Drive
RAID
Level
Stripe
Size
Logical Drive
Size
LD1
LD2
LD3
LD4
LD5
LD6
LD7
LD8
LD9
LD10
LD11
LD12
LD13
LD14
LD15
LD16
LD17
LD18
LD19
LD20
LD21
LD22
LD23
LD24
LD25
LD26
LD27
LD28
LD29
40
MegaRAID Express 500 Hardware Guide
Cache
Policy
Read
Policy
Write
Policy
# of Physical
Drives
Logical
Drive
RAID
Level
Stripe
Size
Logical Drive
Size
Cache
Policy
Read
Policy
Write
Policy
# of Physical
Drives
LD30
LD31
LD32
LD33
LD34
LD35
LD36
LD37
LD38
LD39
LD40
Cont’d
Chapter 5 Configuring MegaRAID Express 500
41
Physical Device Layout
Channel 1
Target ID
Device Type
Logical Drive Number/ Drive Number
Manufacturer/Model Number
Firmware level
Target ID
Device Type
Logical Drive Number/ Drive Number
Manufacturer/Model Number
Firmware level
Target ID
Device Type
Logical Drive Number/ Drive Number
Manufacturer/Model Number
Firmware level
Target ID
Device Type
Logical Drive Number/ Drive Number
Manufacturer/Model Number
Firmware level
Target ID
Device Type
Logical Drive Number/ Drive Number
Manufacturer/Model Number
Firmware level
Target ID
Device Type
Logical Drive Number/ Drive Number
Manufacturer/Model Number
Firmware level
Target ID
Device Type
Logical Drive Number/ Drive Number
Manufacturer/Model Number
Firmware level
Target ID
Device Type
Logical Drive Number/ Drive Number
Manufacturer/Model Number
Firmware level
Target ID
Device Type
Logical Drive Number/ Drive Number
Manufacturer/Model Number
Firmware level
Target ID
Device Type
Logical Drive Number/ Drive Number
Manufacturer/Model Number
Firmware level
Target ID
Device Type
42
MegaRAID Express 500 Hardware Guide
Channel 1
Logical Drive Number/ Drive Number
Manufacturer/Model Number
Firmware level
Target ID
Device Type
Logical Drive Number/ Drive Number
Manufacturer/Model Number
Firmware level
Target ID
Device Type
Logical Drive Number/ Drive Number
Manufacturer/Model Number
Firmware level
Target ID
Device Type
Logical Drive Number/ Drive Number
Manufacturer/Model Number
Firmware level
Target ID
Device Type
Logical Drive Number/ Drive Number
Manufacturer/Model Number
Firmware level
Chapter 5 Configuring MegaRAID Express 500
43
Configuring Arrays
Organize the physical disk drives in arrays after the drives are connected to
MegaRAID Express 500, formatted, and initialized. Each array can consist of
one to eight physical disk drives.
MegaRAID Express 500 supports up to eight arrays. The number of drives in a
array determines the RAID levels that can be supported.
Arranging Arrays You must arrange the arrays to provide additional organization for the drive
array. You must arrange arrays so that you can create system drives that can
function as boot devices.
You can sequentially arrange arrays with an identical number of drives so that
the drives in the group are spanned. Spanned drives can be treated as one large
drive. Data can be striped across multiple arrays as one logical drive.
You can create spanned drives by using the MegaRAID BIOS Setup utility or
the MegaRAID Manager.
Creating Hot Spares Any drive that is present, formatted, and initialized but is not included in a
array or logical drive is automatically designated as a hot spare.
You can also designate drives as hot spares via MegaRAID BIOS Setup, the
MegaRAID Manager, or Power Console 500.
Creating Logical Drives Logical drives are arrays or spanned arrays that are presented to the
operating system. You must create one or more logical drives.
The logical drive capacity can include all or any portion of a array. The logical
drive capacity can also be larger than an array by using spanning. MegaRAID
Express 500 supports up to 40 logical drives.
44
MegaRAID Express 500 Hardware Guide
Configuration Strategies
The most important factors in RAID array configuration are: drive capacity,
drive availability (fault tolerance), and drive performance. You cannot configure
a logical drive that optimizes all three factors, but it is easy to choose a logical
drive configuration that maximizes one factor at the expense of the other two
factors, although needs are seldom that simple.
Maximize Capacity RAID 0 achieves maximum drive capacity, but does not provide data
redundancy. Maximum drive capacity for each RAID level is shown below.
OEM level firmware that can span up to 4 logical drives is assumed.
RAID
Level
0
Striping
without parity
Drives
Required
1 – 32
Capacity
(Number of disks) X capacity of
smallest disk
1
Mirroring
2
(Capacity of smallest disk) X (1)
3
Striping with
fixed parity
drive
Striping with
floating parity
drive
Mirroring and
Striping
3–8
(Number of disks) X (capacity of
smallest disk) - (capacity of 1 disk)
3–8
(Number of disks) X (capacity of
smallest disk) - (capacity of 1 disk)
4 – 8 (Must
be a multiple
of 2)
6 – 32 (Must
be a multiple
of arrays)
(Number of disks) X (capacity of
smallest disk) / (2)
(Number of disks) X (capacity of
smallest disk) – (capacity of 1 disk X
number of Arrays)
6 – 32 (Must
be a multiple
of arrays)
(Number of disks) X (capacity of
smallest disk) – (capacity of 1 disk X
number of Arrays)
5
10
Note:
Description
30
RAID 3 and
Striping
50
RAID 5 and
Striping
The maximum number of physical drives supported per controller is 15.
Cont’d
Chapter 5 Configuring MegaRAID Express 500
45
Configuration Strategies, Continued
Maximizing Drive Availability You can maximize the availability of data on the physical disk
drive in the logical array by maximizing the level of fault tolerance. The levels of
fault tolerance provided by the RAID levels are:
RAID Level
0
1
3
5
10
30
50
Fault Tolerance Protection
No fault tolerance.
Disk mirroring, which provides 100% data redundancy.
100% protection through a dedicated parity drive.
100% protection through striping and parity. The data is
striped and parity data is written across a number of physical
disk drives.
100% protection through data mirroring.
100% protection through data striping. All data is striped
across all drives in two or more arrays.
100% protection through data striping and parity. All data is
striped and parity data is written across all drives in two or
more arrays.
Maximizing Drive Performance You can configure an array for optimal performance. But
optimal drive configuration for one type of application will probably not be
optimal for any other application. A basic guideline of the performance
characteristics for RAID drive arrays at each RAID level is:
RAID Level
0
1
3
5
10
30
50
46
Performance Characteristics
Excellent for all types of I/O activity, but provides no data
security.
Provides data redundancy and good performance.
Provides data redundancy.
Provides data redundancy and good performance in most
environments.
Provides data redundancy and excellent performance.
Provides data redundancy and good performance in most
environments.
Provides data redundancy and very good performance.
MegaRAID Express 500 Hardware Guide
Assigning RAID Levels
Only one RAID level can be assigned to each logical drive. The drives required
per RAID level is:
RAID
Level
0
1
3
5
10
30
50
Note:
Minimum Number of
Physical Drives
One
Two
Three
Three
four
Six
Six
Maximum Number of Physical
Drives
32
Two
Eight
Eight
Eight
32
32
The maximum number of physical drives supported per controller is 15.
Configuring Logical Drives
After you have installed the MegaRAID Express 500 controller in the server and
have attached all physical disk drives, perform the following actions to prepare a
RAID disk array:
Step
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
Action
Optimize the MegaRAID Express 500 controller options for your system.
See Chapter 6 for additional information.
Perform a low-level format the SCSI drives that will be included in the
array and the drives to be used for hot spares.
Press <Ctrl> <M> to run the MegaRAID Manager.
Define and configure one or more logical drives. Select Easy Configuration
in MegaRAID Manager or select New Configuration to customize the
RAID array.
Create and configure one or more system drives (logical drives). Select the
RAID level, cache policy, read policy, and write policy.
Save the configuration.
Initialize the system drives. After initialization, you can install the
operating system.
Chapter 5 Configuring MegaRAID Express 500
47
Optimizing Data Storage
Data Access Requirements Each type of data stored in the disk subsystem has a different
frequency of read and write activity. If you know the data access requirements,
you can more successfully determine a strategy for optimizing the disk
subsystem capacity, availability, and performance.
Servers that support Video on Demand typically read the data often, but write
data infrequently. Both the read and write operations tend to be long. Data stored
on a general-purpose file server involves relatively short read and write
operations with relatively small files.
Array Functions You must first define the major purpose of the disk array. Will this disk array
increase the system storage capacity for general-purpose file and print servers?
Does this disk array support any software system that must be available 24 hours
per day? Will the information stored in this disk array contains large audio or
video files that must be available on demand? Will this disk array contain data
from an imaging system?
You must identify the purpose of the data to be stored in the disk subsystem
before you can confidently choose a RAID level and a RAID configuration.
48
MegaRAID Express 500 Hardware Guide
Planning the Array Configuration
Answer the following questions about this array:
Question
Number of physical disk drives in the array
Purpose of this array. Rank the following factors:
Maximize drive capacity
Maximize the safety of the data (fault tolerance)
Maximize hard drive performance and throughput
How many hot spares?
Amount of cache memory installed on MegaRAID Express 500
Are all of the disk drives and the server protected by a UPS?
Answer
Using the Array Configuration Planner The following table lists the possible RAID levels, fault
tolerance, and effective capacity for all possible drive configurations for an array
consisting of one to eight drives. This table does not take into account any hot
spare (standby) drives. You should always have a hot spare drive in case of drive
failure. RAID 1 and RAID 10 require 2, 4, 6, or 8 drives. RAID 30 and RAID 50
require at least 6 drives.
Chapter 5 Configuring MegaRAID Express 500
49
Array Configuration Planner
Number of
Drives
1
1
2
2
2
3
3
3
3
4
4
4
4
4
4
5
5
5
5
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
7
7
7
7
50
Possible
RAID Levels
None
RAID 0
None
RAID 0
RAID 1
None
RAID 0
RAID 3
RAID 5
None
RAID 0
RAID 1
RAID 3
RAID 5
RAID 10
None
RAID 0
RAID 3
RAID 5
None
RAID 0
RAID 1
RAID 3
RAID 5
RAID 10
RAID 30
RAID 50
None
RAID 0
RAID 3
RAID 5
MegaRAID Express 500 Hardware Guide
Relative
Performance
Excellent
Excellent
Excellent
Excellent
Good
Excellent
Excellent
Good
Good
Excellent
Excellent
Good
Good
Good
Good
Excellent
Excellent
Good
Good
Excellent
Excellent
Good
Good
Good
Good
Good
Good
Excellent
Excellent
Good
Good
Fault
Tolerance
No
No
No
No
Yes
No
No
Yes
Yes
No
No
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
No
No
Yes
Yes
No
No
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
No
No
Yes
Yes
Effective
Capacity
100%
100%
100%
100%
50%
100%
100%
67%
67%
100%
100%
50%
75%
75%
50%
100%
100%
80%
80%
100%
100%
50%
83%
83%
50%
67%
67%
100%
100%
86%
86%
6
Hardware Installation
Requirements
You must have the following:
•
•
•
•
•
•
a MegaRAID Express 500 Controller
a host computer with an available PCI expansion slot
the MegaRAID Express 500 Installation CD
the necessary SCSI cables and terminators (this depends on the number and type of
SCSI devices to be attached)
an Uninterruptible Power Supply (UPS) for the entire system
160M, Ultra, Fast SCSI 2 or Wide SCSI hard disk drives and other SCSI devices, as
desired
Optional Equipment You may also want to install SCSI cables that connect MegaRAID Express
500 to external SCSI devices.
Checklist
Check
Step
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
Action
Turn all power off to the server and all hard disk drives,
enclosures, and system, components.
Prepare the host system. See the host system technical
documentation.
Determine the SCSI ID and SCSI termination requirements.
Make sure the jumper settings on the MegaRAID Express 500
controller are correct. Install the cache memory.
Install the MegaRAID in the server and attach the SCSI cables
and terminators as needed. Make sure Pin 1 on the cable matches
Pin 1 on the connector. Make sure that the SCSI cables you use
conform to all SCSI specifications.
Perform a safety check. Make sure all cables are properly
attached. Make sure the MegaRAID card is properly installed.
Turn power on after completing the safety check.
Install and configure the MegaRAID software utilities and drivers.
Format the hard disk drives as needed.
Configure system drives (logical drives).
Initialize the logical drives.
Install the network operating system drivers as needed.
Chapter 6 Hardware Installation
51
Installation Steps
MegaRAID Express 500 provides extensive customization options. If you need
only basic MegaRAID Express 500 features and your computer does not use
other adapter cards with resource settings that may conflict with MegaRAID
Express 500 settings, even custom installation can be quick and easy.
Step
Action
1 Unpack the MegaRAID controller and
inspect for damage. Make sure all items are
in the package.
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
Turn the computer off and remove the
cover.
Make sure the motherboard jumper settings
are correct.
Install cache memory on the MegaRAID
Express 500 card.
Check the jumper settings on the
MegaRAID Express 500 controller.
Set SCSI termination.
Install the MegaRAID Express 500 card.
Connect the SCSI cables to SCSI devices.
Set the target IDs for the SCSI devices.
Replace the computer cover and turn the
power on.
11 Run MegaRAID BIOS Setup.
12 Install software drivers for the desired
operating systems.
Additional Information
If damaged, call your
American Megatrends
OEM support
representative.
8 MB minimum cache
memory is required.
See page 55 for the
MegaRAID Express 500
jumper settings.
Be sure the SCSI devices
are powered up before or at
the same time as the host
computer.
Optional.
Each step is described in detail below.
Cont’d
52
MegaRAID Express 500 Hardware Guide
Step 1 Unpack
Unpack and install the hardware in a static-free environment. The MegaRAID
Express 500 controller card is packed inside an anti-static bag between two
sponge sheets. Remove the controller card and inspect it for damage. If the card
appears damaged, or if any item listed below is missing, contact American
Megatrends or your MegaRAID OEM support representative. The MegaRAID
Express 500 Controller is also shipped with the following on CD:
•
•
•
•
•
•
the MegaRAID Configuration Software Guide
the MegaRAID Operating System Drivers Guide
the MegaRAID Express 500 Hardware Guide
the software license agreement
the MegaRAID Express 500 Configuration Utilities for DOS
the warranty registration card
Step 2 Power Down
Turn off the computer and remove the cover. Make sure the computer is turned
off and disconnected from any networks before installing the controller card.
Step 3 Configure Motherboard
Make sure the motherboard is configured correctly for MegaRAID Express 500.
MegaRAID Express 500 is essentially a SCSI Controller. Each MegaRAID
Express 500 card you install will require an available PCI IRQ; make sure an
IRQ is available for each controller you install.
Chapter 6 Hardware Installation
53
Step 4 Install Cache Memory
Use 72-bit 3.3V unbuffered SDRAM only. The maximum memory bandwidth is
528 MB/s with an SDRAM DIMM.
Important
A minimum of 8 MB of cache memory is required. The cache memory
must be installed before MegaRAID Express 500 is operational.
SDRAM
SDRAM specifications are specified below.
Memory
Type
Volt
SDRAM
SDRAM
Speed
Parity
Type
BBU
Support
Bank I
Total Memory
3.3 V PC-100
Yes
Single-sided
Yes
2M x 72
16 MB
3.3 V PC-100
Yes
Single-sided
Yes
4M x 72
32 MB
SDRAM
3.3 V PC-100
Yes
Double-sided
Yes
4M x 72
32 MB
SDRAM
3.3 V PC-100
Yes
Single-sided
Yes
8M x 72
64 MB
SDRAM
3.3 V PC-100
Yes
Double-sided
Yes
8M x 72
64 MB
SDRAM
3.3 V PC-100
Yes
Double-sided
Yes
16M x 72
128 MB
Cont’d
54
MegaRAID Express 500 Hardware Guide
Step 4 Install Cache Memory Continued
Important
If the DIMM SDRAM is not installed when you receive your MegaRAID Express
500 RAID controller, you must call the manufacturer for a list of approved DIMM
vendors. You must use an approved DIMM only. Call American Megatrends
technical support at 770-246-8600 for the latest list of approved memory vendors.
Install cache memory on the MegaRAID Express 500 card in the DIMM socket.
This socket accepts a 168-pin DIMM.
Lay the controller card component-side up on a clean static-free surface to install
the DIMM. The memory socket is a right-angle connector and is mounted flush
with the MegaRAID card. The DIMM card, when properly installed, will be
parallel to the MegaRAID card.
The DIMM clicks into place, indicating proper seating in the socket, as shown
below. The MegaRAID card is shown laying on a flat surface in the illustration
below.
Chapter 6 Hardware Installation
55
Step 5 Set Jumpers
Make sure the jumper settings on the MegaRAID Express 500 card are correct.
The jumpers and connectors are:
Connector
J1
J2
J3
J4
J5
J6
J7
J8
J9
J10
J11
J13
J15
J16
J17
Description
SCSI bus termination enable control
CPLD programming
NVRAM clear
Serial EPROM
Serial port
Write Pending
BIOS enable
User activity LED
I2C connector
SCSI bus termination power
Internal straddle-mount connector
External SCSI connector
Rub1 slot interrupt steering
Rub1 slot interrupt steering
Rub1 slot interrupt steering
Type
3-pin header
10-pin header
2-pin header
2-pin header
3-pin header
2-pin header
2-pin header
4-pin connector
4-pin header
2-pin header
68-pin connector
68-pin connector
3-pin header
3-pin header
3-pin header
MegaRAID Express 500 Card Layout
Cont’d
56
MegaRAID Express 500 Hardware Guide
Step 5 Set Jumpers, Continued
J1 Termination Enable J1 is a three-pin header that specifies hardware or software control of
SCSI termination.
Type of SCSI Termination
Software control of SCSI termination via drive detection.
Permanently disable all onboard SCSI termination.
Permanently enable all onboard SCSI termination.
J10 Setting
Short Pins 1-2
Short Pins 2-3
OPEN
J9 I2C Interface Connector J9 is a four-pin header that allows the i960JX core processor to serve
as a master and slave device that resided on the I2C bus when used with the I2C
Bus Interface Unit. Attach a four-wire cable from J9 to the I2C Bus Interface
Unit.
Pin
1
2
3
4
J5 Serial Port
Description
GND
SDA
VCC
SCL
J5 is a 9-pin berg that attaches to a serial cable. The pinout is:
Pin
1
3
5
7
9
Signal Description
Carrier Detect
Receive Data
Transmit Data
Data Terminal Ready
Ground
Pin
2
4
6
8
Signal Description
Data Set Ready
Request to Send
Clear to Send
Ring Indicator
Cont’d
Chapter 6 Hardware Installation
57
Step 5 Set Jumpers, Continued
J8 Hard Disk LED J8 is a four-pin connector that attaches to a cable that connects to the hard
disk LED mounted on the computer enclosure. The LED indicates data transfers.
Pin
1
2
3
4
Description
VCC through pullup
SCSI Activity Signal
SCSI Activity Signal
VCC through pullup
J10 Term PowerJ10 is a 2-pin jumper. The factory setting is Pins 1-2 shorted. Pins 1-2 should
always be shorted for J10 to enable onboard term power.
J15 Rub1 Slot Interrupt Steering J15 is a 3-pin jumper. You can short the pins for a standard
PCI slot or a PCI RUBI slot.
Short…
Pins 1-2
Pins 2-3
For…
Standard PCI slot
PCI RUBI slot
J12, J13 Rub1 Slot Interrupt Steering J12 and J13 are 3-pin jumpers. You can short them for a
one-channel or two-channel motherboard.
Short…
Pins 1-2 on both jumpers
Pins 2-3 on both jumpers
58
MegaRAID Express 500 Hardware Guide
For…
2-channel motherboard RAID
1-channel motherboard
Step 6 Set Termination
You must terminate the SCSI bus properly. Set termination at both ends of the
SCSI cable. The SCSI bus is an electrical transmission line and must be
terminated properly to minimize reflections and losses. Termination should be
set at each end of the SCSI cable(s), as shown below. Termination is always
enabled, regardless of the configuration. However, you can override this setting
by setting another state.
For a disk array, set SCSI bus termination so that removing or adding a SCSI
device does not disturb termination. An easy way to do this is to connect the
MegaRAID Express 500 card to one end of the SCSI cable and to connect an
external terminator module at the other end of the cable. The connectors between
the two ends can connect SCSI devices. Disable termination on the SCSI
devices. See the manual for each SCSI device to disable termination.
Chapter 6 Hardware Installation
59
SCSI Termination
The SCSI bus is an electrical transmission line and it must be terminated
properly to minimize reflections and losses. You complete the SCSI bus by
setting termination at both ends.
You can let MegaRAID Express 500 automatically provide SCSI termination at
one end of the SCSI bus. You can terminate the other end of the SCSI bus by
attaching an external SCSI terminator module to the end of the cable or by
attaching a SCSI device that internally terminates the SCSI bus at the end of the
SCSI channel.
Selecting a Terminator Use standard external SCSI terminators on a SCSI channel operating at
10 MB/s or higher synchronous data transfer.
Terminating Internal SCSI Disk Arrays Set the termination so that SCSI termination and
termination power are intact when any disk drive is removed from a SCSI
channel, as shown below:
Cont’d
60
MegaRAID Express 500 Hardware Guide
SCSI Termination, Continued
Terminating External Disk Arrays In most array enclosures, the end of the SCSI cable has an
independent SCSI terminator module that is not part of any SCSI drive. In this
way, SCSI termination is not disturbed when any drive is removed, as shown
below:
Terminating Internal and External Disk Arrays You can use both internal and external drives
with MegaRAID Express 500. You still must make sure that the proper SCSI
termination and termination power is preserved, as shown below:
Cont’d
Chapter 6 Hardware Installation
61
SCSI Termination, Continued
Connecting Non-Disk SCSI Devices SCSI Tape drives, scanners, CD-ROM drives, and other
non-disk drive devices must each have a unique SCSI ID regardless of the SCSI
channel they are attached to. The general rule for Unix systems is:
• tape drive set to SCSI ID 2
• CD-ROM drive set to SCSI ID 5
Make sure that no hard disk drives are attached to the same SCSI channel as the
non-disk SCSI devices. Drive performance will be significantly degraded if SCSI
hard disk drives are attached to this channel.
Warning
Since all non-disk SCSI devices are single ended, it is not
advisable to attach a non-disk device to a MegaRAID Express
500 RAID controller if LVD disk drives are also attached because
the SCSI bus will then operate in single ended mode.
62
MegaRAID Express 500 Hardware Guide
Step 7 Install MegaRAID Express 500
Choose a 3.3 V or 5 V PCI slot and align the MegaRAID Express 500 controller
card bus connector to the slot. Press down gently but firmly to make sure that the
card is properly seated in the slot. The bottom edge of the controller card should
be flush with the slot.
Insert the MegaRAID Express 500 card in a PCI slot as shown below:
Screw the bracket to the computer frame.
Chapter 6 Hardware Installation
63
Step 8 Connect SCSI Cables
Connect SCSI cables to SCSI devices. MegaRAID Express 500 provides two
SCSI connectors: J11, the SCSI channel internal high-density 68-pin connector
for Wide (16-bit) SCSI and J13, the SCSI channel external ultra high-density 68pin connector for Wide (16-bit) SCSI.
Connect SCSI Devices When connecting SCSI devices:
Step
1
2
3
4
5
Action
Disable termination on any SCSI device that does not sit at the end of the
SCSI bus.
Configure all SCSI devices to supply TermPWR.
Set proper target IDs (TIDs) for all SCSI devices.
The cable length should not exceed three meters for Fast SCSI (10 MB/s)
devices or single ended 1.5 meters for Ultra SCSI devices. The cable length
can be up to 12 meters for LVD devices.
The cable length should not exceed six meters for non-Fast SCSI devices.
Cont’d
64
MegaRAID Express 500 Hardware Guide
Step 8 Connect SCSI Cables, Continued
Cable Suggestions System throughput problems can occur if SCSI cable use is not maximized.
You should:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
you can use cables up to 12 meters for LVD devices
for single ended SCSI devices, use the shortest SCSI cables (no more than 3 meters
for Fast SCSI, no more than 1.5 meters for an 8-drive Ultra SCSI system and no
more than 3 meters for a 6-drive Ultra SCSI system)
use active termination
avoid clustering the cable nodes
cable stub length should be no more than 0.1 meter (4 inches)
route SCSI cables carefully
use high impedance cables
do not mix cable types (choose either flat or rounded and shielded or non-shielded)
ribbon cables have fairly good cross-talk rejection characteristics
Step 9 Set Target IDs
Set target identifiers (TIDs) on the SCSI devices. Each device in a specific SCSI
channel must have a unique TID in that channel. Non-disk devices (CD-ROM or
tapes) should have unique SCSI IDs regardless of the channel where they are
connected. See the documentation for each SCSI device to set the TIDs. The
MegaRAID Express 500 controller automatically occupies TID 7 in the SCSI
channel. Eight-bit SCSI devices can only use the TIDs from 0 to 6. 16-bit
devices can use the TIDs from 0 to 15. The arbitration priority for a SCSI device
depends on its TID.
Priority
TID
Highest
7
6
Lowest
5
…
2
1
0
15
14
…
9
8
Important
Non-disk devices (CD-ROM or tapes) should have unique SCSI
IDs regardless of the channel they are connected to.
Chapter 6 Hardware Installation
65
Device Identification on MegaRAID Express 500
All logical drives on each SCSI bus are identified to the host as ID 0.
Differentiate the drives with Logical Unit Identifiers (LUNs). ID 0 cannot be
used for non-disk devices because they are limited to IDs 1 through 6. The
MegaRAID Express 500 is limited to eight logical drives because LUNs are used
to present logical drives. The SCSI-2 ANSI specification has a limit of eight
LUNs per ID. The SCSI-3 specification increased the number of LUNs to 16. An
example of ID mapping follows.
Example of MegaRAID Express 500 ID Mapping
ID
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
Channel 1
A1-1
A2-1
CD
A2-5
CD
A4-1
Optical
Reserved
A5-2
A5-6
A6-1
A6-4
A6-7
A7-2
A7-5
A7-8
As Presented to the Operating System
ID
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
66
LUN
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
MegaRAID Express 500 Hardware Guide
Device
Disk (A1-X)
Disk (A2-X)
Disk (A3-X)
Disk (A4-X)
Disk (A5-X)
Disk (A6-X)
Disk (A7-X)
Disk (A8-X)
ID
1
2
3
4
5
6
LUN
0
0
0
0
0
0
Device
Scanner
CD
Tape
CD
Tape
Optical
Step 10 Power Up
Replace the computer cover and reconnect the AC power cords. Turn power on
to the host computer. Set up the power supplies so that the SCSI devices are
powered up at the same time as or before the host computer. If the computer is
powered up before a SCSI device, the device might not be recognized.
During boot, the MegaRAID Express 500 BIOS message appears:
MegaRAID Express 500 Disk Array Adapter BIOS Version x.xx date
Copyright (c) American Megatrends, Inc.
Firmware Initializing... [ Scanning SCSI Device ...(etc.)... ]
The firmware takes several seconds to initialize. During this time the adapter will
scan the SCSI channel. When ready, the following appears:
Host Adapter-1 Firmware Version x.xx DRAM Size 4 MB
0 Logical Drives found on the Host Adapter
0 Logical Drives handled by BIOS
Press <Ctrl><M> to run MegaRAID Express 500 BIOS Configuration Utility
The <Ctrl> <M> utility prompt times out after several seconds. The MegaRAID
Express 500 host adapter (controller) number, firmware version, and cache
DRAM size are displayed in the second portion of the BIOS message. The
numbering of the controllers follows the PCI slot scanning order used by the host
motherboard.
Step 11 Run MegaRAID BIOS Setup
Press <Ctrl> <M> to run the MegaRAID BIOS Setup utility. See the MegaRAID
Configuration Software Guide for information about running MegaRAID BIOS
Setup.
Chapter 6 Hardware Installation
67
Step 12 Install the Operating System Driver
Important
When booting the system from a drive connected to a MegaRAID controller
and using EMM386.EXE, MEGASPI.SYS must be loaded in CONFIG.SYS
before EMM386.EXE is loaded. If you do not do this, you cannot access the
boot drive after EMM386 is loaded.
DOS ASPI Driver The MegaRAID Express ASPI driver can be used under DOS, Windows 3.x,
and Windows 95. The DOS ASPI driver supports:
•
•
ASPI Driver
up to six non-disk SCSI devices (each SCSI device must use a unique SCSI ID
regardless of the SCSI channel it resides on. SCSI IDs 1 through 6 are valid,
up to six MegaRAID Express adapters (you should only configure one MegaRAID
adapter per system if possible).
The ASPI driver is MEGASPI.SYS. It supports disk drives, tape drives, CDROM drives, etc. You can use it to run CorelSCSI, Novaback, PC Tools, and
other software that requires an ASPI driver. CorelSCSI, Novaback, and PC
Tools are not provided with MegaRAID Express. Copy MEGASPI.SYS to your
hard disk drive. Add the following line to CONFIG.SYS. MEGASPI.SYS must
be loaded in CONFIG.SYS before EMM386.EXE is loaded.
device=<path>\MEGASPI.SYS /v
Parameters
The MEGASPI.SYS parameters are:
Parameter
/h
/v
/a
/q
Description
INT 13h support is not provided.
Verbose mode. All message are displayed on the screen.
Physical drive access mode. Permits access to physical drives.
Quiet mode. All message except error message are suppressed.
Cont’d
68
MegaRAID Express 500 Hardware Guide
Step 12 Install Operating System Driver, Continued
CD-ROM Driver A device driver is provided with MegaRAID Express 500 for CD-ROM drives
operating under DOS, Windows 3.x, and Windows 95. The driver filename is
AMICDROM.SYS.
The MEGASPI.SYS ASPI manager must be added to the CONFIG.SYS file
before you can install the CD-ROM device driver. See the instructions on the
previous page for adding the MEGASPI.SYS driver. Copy AMICDROM.SYS to
the root directory of the C: drive. Add the following line to CONFIG.SYS,
making sure it is preceded by the line for MEGASPI.SYS:
DEVICE=C:\AMICDROM.SYS
Add the following to AUTOEXEC.BAT. Make sure it precedes the
SMARTDRV.EXE line.
MSCDEX /D:MSCD001
MSCDEX is the CD-ROM drive extension file that is supplied with MS-DOS®
and PC-DOS® Version 5.0 or later. See your DOS manual for the command line
parameters for MSCDEX.
Chapter 6 Hardware Installation
69
Summary
This chapter discussed hardware installation. Configure the RAID system via
software configuration utilities. See the MegaRAID Configuration Software
Guide for all information about MegaRAID Express 500 software utilities. The
utility programs for configuring MegaRAID Express 500 are:
Configuration Utility
MegaRAID BIOS Setup
MegaRAID Manager
Power Console 500
70
MegaRAID Express 500 Hardware Guide
Operating System
independent of the operating system
DOS
SCO UNIX SVR3.2
Novell NetWare 3.x, 4.x
SCO UnixWare
Microsoft Windows NT,
Windows 95
7
Troubleshooting
Problem
The system hangs during the boot
process after installation.
The system hangs during the boot
process after installation.
Some operating systems do not load
in a computer with a MegaRAID
Express 500 adapter.
Suggested Solution
Make sure the SCSI BIOS on the motherboard
has been disabled.
Make sure the MegaRAID Express 500
adapter card is installed in the proper PCI
expansion slot. It must be installed in the
RAID Upgrade PCI slot..
Check the system BIOS configuration for PCI
interrupt assignments. Make sure some
Interrupts are assigned for PCI.
One of the hard drive in the array
fails often
Initialize the logical drive before installing the
operating system.
Check the drive error counts using Power
Console 500.
Format the drive.
Rebuild the drive
Pressed <Ctrl> <M>. Ran
Megaconf.exe and tried to make a
new configuration. The system
hangs when scanning devices.
Multiple drives connected to
MegaRAID Express 500 using the
same power supply. There is a
problem spinning the drives all at
once.
Pressing <Ctrl> <M> or running
megaconf.exe does not display the
Management Menu.
At system power-up with the
MegaRAID Express 500 installed,
the screen display is garbled or does
not appear at all.
Cannot flash or update the
EEPROM.
Chapter 7 Troubleshooting
If the drive continues to fail, replace the drive
with another drive with the same capacity.
Check the drives IDs on each channel to make
sure each device has a different ID.
Check the termination. The device at the end
of the channel must be terminated.
Replace the drive cable.
Set the drives to spin on command. This will
allow MegaRAID Express 500 to spin two
devices simultaneously.
These utilities require a color monitor.
For proper cache memory operation, you must
install at least 8 MB of memory in MegaRAID
Express 500.
You may need a new EEPROM.
71
Problem
Firmware Initializing...
appears and remains on the screen.
Suggested Solution
Make sure that TERMPWR is being properly
provided to each peripheral device populated
channel.
Make sure that each end of the channel chain
is properly terminated using the recommended
terminator type for the peripheral device. The
channel is automatically terminated at the
MegaRAID Express 500 card if only one cable
is connected to a channel.
Make sure (on a channel basis) only two type
of cables are connected at any one time.
What SCSI IDs can a non-hard disk
device have and what is maximum
number allowed per adapter?
Why does a failed logical array still
get a drive assignment?
72
MegaRAID Express 500 Hardware Guide
Make sure that the MegaRAID Express 500
controller is properly seated in the PCI slot.
Non-hard disk devices can accommodate only
SCSI IDs 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 or 6, regardless of the
channel used. A maximum of six non-hard
disk devices are supported per MegaRAID
Express 500 adapter.
To maintain the DOS Path statement integrity.
BIOS Boot Error Messages
Message
Adapter BIOS Disabled.
No Logical Drives
Handled by BIOS
Host Adapter at Baseport
xxxx Not Responding
No MegaRAID Express
500 Adapter
Configuration of
NVRAM and drives
mismatch.
Run View/Add
Configuration option of
Configuration Utility.
Press any key to run the
Configuration Utility.
1 Logical Drive Failed
X Logical Drives
Degraded
Problem
The MegaRAID BIOS is
disabled. Sometimes the
BIOS is disabled to
prevent booting from the
BIOS.
The BIOS cannot
communicate with the
adapter firmware.
The BIOS cannot
communicate with the
adapter firmware.
The configuration stored
in the MegaRAID Express
500 adapter does not
match the configuration
stored in the drives.
A logical drive failed to
sign on.
x number of logical drives
signed on in a degraded
state.
Suggested Solution
Enable the BIOS via the
MegaRAID BIOS Setup
utility.
Make sure MegaRAID
Express 500 is properly
installed.
Make sure MegaRAID
Express 500 is properly
installed.
Press a key to run
MegaRAID Manager.
Choose View/Add
Configuration from the
Configure menu.
Use View/Add
Configuration to examine
both the configuration in
NVRAM and the
configuration stored on the
disk drives. Resolve the
problem by selecting one
of the configurations.
Make sure all physical
drives are properly
connected and are powered
on.
Run MegaRAID Manager
to find out if any physical
drives are not responding.
Reconnect, replace, or
rebuild any drive that is
not responding.
Make sure all physical
drives are properly
connected and are powered
on.
Run MegaRAID Manager
to find if any physical
drives are not responding.
Reconnect, replace, or
rebuild any drive that is
not responding.
Chapter 7 Troubleshooting
73
Message
1 Logical Drive Degraded
Insufficient memory to
run BIOS. Press any key
to continue…
Insufficient Memory
The following SCSI IDs
are not responding:
Channel x:a.b.c
74
Problem
A logical drive signed on
in a degraded state.
Not enough MegaRAID
Express 500 memory to
run MegaRAID BIOS.
Not enough memory on
the MegaRAID Express
adapter to support the
current configuration.
The physical drives with
SCSIO IDs a, b, and c are
not responding on SCSI
channel x.
MegaRAID Express 500 Hardware Guide
Suggested Solution
Make sure all physical
drives are properly
connected and are powered
on.
Run MegaRAID Manager
to find out if any physical
drives are not responding.
Reconnect, replace, or
rebuild any drive that is
not responding.
Make sure MegaRAID
Express 500 memory has
been properly installed.
Make sure MegaRAID
Express memory has been
properly installed.
Make sure the physical
drives are properly
connected and are powered
on.
Other BIOS Error Messages
Message
Following SCSI
disk not found
and no empty
slot available for
mapping it
Following SCSI
IDs have the
same data y, z
Channel x: a, b,
c
Unresolved
configuration
mismatch
between disks
and NVRAM on
the adapter
Problem
The physical disk roaming
feature did not find the physical
disk with the displayed SCSI
ID. No slot is available to map
the physical drive. MegaRAID
Express cannot resolve the
physical drives into the current
configuration.
The physical drive roaming
feature found the same data on
two or more physical drive on
channel x with SCSI IDs a, b,
and c. MegaRAID Express
cannot determine the drive that
has the duplicate information.
The configuration stored in the
MegaRAID Express NVRAM
does not match the
configuration stored on the
drives.
Suggested Solution
Reconfigure the array.
Remove the drive or drives
that should not be used.
Press a key to run MegaRAID
Manager.
Choose View/Add
Configuration from the
Configure menu.
Use View/Add Configuration
to examine both the
configuration in NVRAM and
the configuration stored on the
disk drives. Resolve the
problem by selecting one of
the configurations.
Chapter 7 Troubleshooting
75
DOS ASPI Driver Error Messages
Message
American Megatrends Inc.
ASPI Manager has NOT
been loaded.
Controller setup FAILED
error code=[0xab]
Corrective Action
The ASPI manager is not loaded. One of the failure
codes listed below is displayed next.
Correct the condition that caused the failure. The failure
codes are:
0x40
0x80
0x81
No non-disk devices were
located
'ERROR: VDS support is
*INACTIVE* for
MegaRAID Express logical
drives
76
MegaRAID Express 500 Hardware Guide
No MegaRAID adapters found
Timed out waiting for interrupt to be posted
Timed out waiting for MegaRAID Express
500 Response command.
0x82
Invalid command completion count.
0x83
Invalid completion status received.
0x84
Invalid command ID received.
0x85
No MegaRAID Express adapters found or no
PCI BIOS support.
0x90
Unknown Setup completion error
The driver did not find any non-hard drive devices
during scanning. A SCSI device that is not a hard disk
drive, such as a tape drive or CD-ROM drive, must be
attached to this SCSI channel. The SCSI ID must be
unique for each adapter and cannot be SCSI ID 0. The
supported SCSI IDs are 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6.
The /h option is appended to driver in
CONFIG.SYS or this driver is used with a BIOS that is
earlier than v1.10, or no logical drives are configured.
Other Potential Problems
Topic
DOS ASPI
CD-ROM drives
under DOS
Physical Drive Errors
Virtual Sizing
BSD Unix
Multiple LUNs
MegaRAID Express
Power Requirements
SCSI Bus
Requirements
Information
MEGASPI.SYS, the MegaRAID DOS ASPI manager, uses
6 KB of system memory once it is loaded.
At this time, copied CDs are not accessible from DOS even
after loading MEGASPI.SYS and AMICDROM.SYS.
To display the MegaRAID Manager Media Error and Other
Error options, press <F2> after selecting a physical drive
under the Physical Drive menu, selected from the Objects
menu. A Media Error is an error that occurred while
actually transferring data. An Other Error is an error that
occurs at the hardware level because of a device failure,
poor cabling, bad termination, signal loss, etc.
The Virtual Sizing option enables RAID expansion. Virtual
Sizing must be enabled to increase the size of a logical
drive or add a physical drive to an existing logical drive.
Run MegaRAID Manager by pressing <Ctrl> <M> to
enable Virtual Sizing. Select the Objects menu, then select
the Logical Drive menu. Select View/Update Parameters.
Set Virtual Sizing to Enabled.
We do not provide a driver for BSDI Unix. MegaRAID
Express 500 does not support BSDI Unix.
MegaRAID Express 500 supports one LUN per each target
ID. No multiple LUN devices are supported.
The Maximum MegaRAID Express 500 power
requirements are 15 watts at 5V and 3 Amps.
The ANSI specification dictates the following:
The maximum signal path length between terminators is 3
meters when using up to 4 maximum capacitance (25 pF)
devices and 1.5 meters when using more than 4 devices.
SCSI devices should be uniformly spaced between
terminators, with the end devices located as close as
possible to the terminators.
The characteristic impedance of the cable should be 90 +/6 ohms for the /REQ and /ACK signals and 90 +/- 10 ohms
for all other signals.
The stub length(the distance from the controller's external
connector to the mainline SCSI bus) shall not exceed.1m
(approximately 4 inches).
The spacing of devices on the mainline SCSI bus should be
at least three times the stub length.
All signal lines shall be terminated once at both ends of the
bus powered by the TERMPWR line.
Chapter 7 Troubleshooting
77
Topic
Windows NT
Installation
Information
When Windows NT is installed via a bootable CD, the
devices on the MegaRAID Express 500 will not be
recognized until after the initial reboot. The Microsoft
documented workaround is in SETUP.TXT:
SETUP.TXT is on the CD
To install drivers when Setup recognizes one of the
supported SCSI host adapters without making the devices
attached to it available for use:
1
2
Restart Windows NT Setup.
When Windows NT Setup displays
Setup is inspecting your computer's
hardware configuration...,
press <F6> to prevents Windows NT Setup from
performing disk controller detection. This allows
you to install the driver from the Drivers disk you
created. All SCSI adapters must be installed
manually.
3
When Windows NT Setup displays
Setup could not determine the type
of one or more mass storage devices
installed in your system, or you
have chosen to manually specify an
adapter,
press S to display a list of supported SCSI host
adapters.
78
4
Select Other from the bottom of the list.
5
Insert the Drivers Disk you made when prompted
to do so and select MegaRAID Express 500 from this
list. In some cases, Windows NT Setup repeatedly
prompts to swap disks. Windows NT will now
recognize any devices attached to this adapter.
Repeat this step for each host adapter not already
recognized by Windows NT Setup.
MegaRAID Express 500 Hardware Guide
A
SCSI Cables and Connectors
SCSI Connectors
MegaRAID Express 500 provides several different types of SCSI connectors.
The connectors are:
•
•
one 68-pin high density internal connector, and
one 68-pin ultra high density external connector.
68-Pin High Density SCSI Internal Connector
The SCSI channel on the MegaRAID Express 500 Controller has a 68-pin high
density 0.050 inch pitch unshielded connector.
This connector provides all signals needed to connect MegaRAID Express 500
to wide SCSI devices. The following connector pinouts are provided for both
single-ended and differential primary bus (P-CABLE) as specified in the SPI
(SCSI Parallel Interface) documentation.
The cable assemblies that interface with the 68-pin connector are:
•
•
•
•
•
flat ribbon or twisted pair cable for connecting internal wide SCSI devices
flat ribbon or twisted pair cable for connecting internal and external wide
SCSI devices
cable assembly for converting from internal wide SCSI connectors to
internal non-wide (Type 2) connectors
cable assembly for converting from internal wide to internal non-wide SCSI
connectors (Type 30)
cable assembly for converting from internal wide to internal non-wide SCSI
connectors
Cont’d
Appendix A SCSI Cables and Connectors
79
68-Pin High Density Connectors, Continued
Cable Assembly for Internal Wide SCSI Devices The cable assembly for connecting internal
wide SCSI devices is shown below:
pin 1
pin 1
pin 1
Connectors: 68 position plug (male)
AMP - 786090-7
Cable:
Flat Ribbon or Twisted-Pair Flat Cable
68 Conductor 0.025 Centerline
30 AWG
Cont’d
80
MegaRAID Express 500 Hardware Guide
68-Pin High Density Connectors, Continued
Connecting Internal and External Wide Devices The cable assembly for connecting internal
wide and external wide SCSI devices is shown below:
A
pin 1
pin 1
B
pin 1
B
Connector A: 68 position panel mount receptacle
with 4-40 holes (female)
AMP - 786096-7
NOTE: To convert to 2-56 holes, use screwlock
kit 749087-1, 749087-2, or 750644-1
from AMP
Connector B: 68 position plug (male)
AMP - 786090-7
Cable:
Flat Ribbon or Twisted-Pair Flat Cable
68 Conductor 0.025 Centerline
30 AWG
Cont’d
Appendix A SCSI Cables and Connectors
81
68-Pin High Density Connectors, Continued
Converting Internal Wide to Internal Non-Wide (Type 2) The cable assembly for converting
internal wide SCSI connectors to internal non-wide SCSI connectors is shown
below:
68 POSITION
CONNECTOR
CONTACT NUMBER
50 POSITION
CONNECTOR
CONTACT NUMBER
6
40
7
1
2
3
41
4
pin 1
*
*
*
49
16
50
17
51
18
OPEN
OPEN
OPEN
52
19
A
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
*
*
*
29
63
30
64
TABLE 1:
47
48
49
50
pin 1
pin 1
B
B
Connector A: 68 position plug (male)
AMP - 749925-5
Connector B:50 position IDC receptacle (female)
AMP - 499252-4, 1-746285-0, 1-746288-0
Wire:
Twisted-Pair Flat Cable or
Laminated Discrete Wire Cable
25 pair 0.050 centerline
28 AWG
CONNECTOR CONTACT
CONNECTION FOR WIDE
TO NON-WIDE CONVERSION
Cont’d
82
MegaRAID Express 500 Hardware Guide
68-Pin High Density Connectors, Continued
Converting Internal Wide to Internal Non-Wide (Type 30) The cable assembly for connecting
internal wide SCSI devices to internal non-wide SCSI devices is shown below:
pin 1
A
pin 1
B
Connector A: 68 position plug (male)
AMP - 749925-5
Connector B:50 position plug (male)
AMP - 749925-3
Wire:
Twisted-Pair Flat Cable or
Laminated Discrete Wire Cable
25 pair 0.050 centerline
28 AWG
Cont’d
Appendix A SCSI Cables and Connectors
83
68-Pin High Density Connectors, Continued
Converting from Internal Wide to Internal Non-Wide (Type 3) The cable assembly for
connecting internal wide SCSI devices to internal non-wide (Type 3) SCSI
devices is shown below:
pin 1
A
pin 1
B
Connector A: 68 position plug (male)
AMP - 786090-7
Connector B:50 position plug (male)
AMP - 786090-7
Wire:
Flat ribbon or twisted-pair flat cable
50 conductor 0.025 centerline
30 AWG
SCSI Cable Vendors
Manufacturer
Cables To Go
System Connection
Technical Cable Concepts
GWC
Telephone Number
Voice: 800-826-7904 Fax: 800-331-2841
Voice: 800-877-1985
Voice: 714-835-1081
Voice: 818-579-0888
SCSI Connector Vendors
Manufacturer
AMP
Fujitsu
Honda
84
Connector Part Number
749111-4
FCN-237R050-G/F
PCS-XE50MA
MegaRAID Express 500 Hardware Guide
Back Shell Part Number
749193-1
FCN-230C050-D/E
PCS-E50LA
High-Density 68-Pin SCSI Connector Pinout
Signal
Ground
Ground
Ground
Ground
Ground
Ground
Ground
Ground
Ground
Ground
Ground
Ground
Ground
Ground
Ground
Ground
TERMPWR
TERMPWR
Reserved
Ground
Ground
Ground
Ground
Ground
Ground
Ground
Ground
Ground
Ground
Ground
Ground
Ground
Ground
Ground
Connector
Pin
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
Cable
Pin
1
3
5
7
9
11
13
15
17
19
21
23
25
27
29
31
33
35
37
39
41
43
45
47
49
51
53
55
57
59
61
63
65
67
Cable
Pin
2
4
6
8
10
12
14
16
18
20
22
24
26
28
30
32
34
36
38
40
42
44
46
48
50
52
54
56
58
60
62
64
66
68
Connector
Pin
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51
52
53
54
55
56
57
58
59
60
61
62
63
64
65
66
67
68
Signal
-DB(12)
-DB(13)
-DB(14)
-DB(15)
-DB(P1)
-DB(0)
-DB(1)
-DB(2)
-DB(3)
-DB(4)
-DB(5)
-DB(6)
-DB(7)
-DB(P)
SWAP L
SHELF_OK
TERMPWR
TERMPWR
Reserved
FAULT_CLK H
-ATN
FAULT_DATA H
-BSY
-ACK
-RST
-MSG
-SEL
-C/D
-REQ
-I/O
-DB(8)
-DB(9)
-DB(10)
-DB(11)
Cont’d
Appendix A SCSI Cables and Connectors
85
68-Pin SCSI Connector Pinout, Continued
High-Density Single Ended Connector The following applies to the high-density SCSI connector
table on the previous page:
•
•
•
•
A hyphen before a signal name indicates that signal is active low.
The connector pin refers to the conductor position when using 0.025 inch
centerline flat ribbon cable with a high-density connector
(AMPLIMITE.050 Series connectors).
Eight-bit devices connected to the P-Cable must leave the following signals
open: -DB (8), -DB (9), -DB (10), -DB (11), -DB(12), -DB (13), -DB (14), DB 15), and -DB (P1).
All other signals should be connected as defined.
Caution
Lines labeled RESERVED should be connected to Ground
in the bus terminator assemblies or in the end devices on the
SCSI cable.
RESERVED lines should be open in the other SCSI
devices, but can be connected to Ground.
86
MegaRAID Express 500 Hardware Guide
68-Pin Connector Pinout for LVD SCSI
Signal
+DB(12)
+DB(13)
+DB(14)
+DB(15)
+DB(P1)
+DB(0)
+DB(1)
+DB(2)
+DB(3)
+DB(4)
+DB(5)
+DB(6)
+DB(7)
+DB(P)
Ground
DIFFSENS
TERMPWR
TERMPWR
Reserved
Ground
+ATN
Ground
+BSY
+ACK
+RST
+MSG
+SEL
+C/D
+REQ
+I/O
+DB(8)
+DB(9)
+DB(10)
+DB(11)
Note:
Connector
Pin
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
Cable
Pin
1
3
5
7
9
11
13
15
17
19
21
23
25
27
29
31
33
35
37
39
41
43
45
47
49
51
53
55
57
59
61
63
65
67
Cable
Pin
2
4
6
8
10
12
14
16
18
20
22
24
26
28
30
32
34
36
38
40
42
44
46
48
50
52
54
56
58
60
62
64
66
68
Connector
Pin
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51
52
53
54
55
56
57
58
59
60
61
62
63
64
65
66
67
68
Signal
-DB(12)
-DB(13)
-DB(14)
-DB(15)
-DB(P1)
-DB(0)
-DB(1)
-DB(2)
-DB(3)
-DB(4)
-DB(5)
-DB(6)
-DB(7)
-DB(P)
Ground
Ground
TERMPWR
TERMPWR
Reserved
Ground
-ATN
Ground
-BSY
-ACK
-RST
-MSG
-SEL
-C/D
-REQ
-I/O
-DB(8)
-DB(9)
-DB(10)
-DB(11)
The conductor number refers to the conductor position when using flat-ribbon
cable.
Appendix A SCSI Cables and Connectors
87
88
MegaRAID Express 500 Hardware Guide
B Audible Warnings
The MegaRAID Express 500 RAID controller has an onboard tone generator
that indicates events and errors.
Tone Pattern
Three seconds on
and one second
off
One second on
and one second
off
One second on
and three seconds
off
Meaning
A logical drive is
offline.
A logical drive is
running in degraded
mode.
An automatically
initiated rebuild has
been completed.
Examples
One or more drives in a RAID
0 configuration failed.
Two or more drives in a RAID
1, 3, or 5 configuration failed.
One drive in a RAID 3 or 5
configuration failed.
While you were away from the
system, a disk drive in a RAID
1, 3, or 5 configuration failed
and was rebuilt.
Important
The audible warning were not enabled at the time this manual
went to press.
Appendix B Audible Warnings
89
90
MegaRAID Express 500 Hardware Guide
Glossary
Array
A grouping or array of disk drives combines the storage space on the disk drives
into a single segment of contiguous storage space. MegaRAID can group disk
drives on one or more SCSI channels into an array. A hot spare drive does not
participate in an array.
Array Management Software Software that provides common control and management for a
disk array. Array Management Software most often executes in a disk controller
or intelligent host bus adapter, but can also execute in a host computer. When it
executes in a disk controller or adapter, Array Management Software is often
called firmware.
Array Spanning Array spanning by a logical drive combines storage space in two arrays of disk
drives into a single, contiguous storage space in a logical drive. MegaRAID
logical drives can span consecutively numbered arrays that each consist of the
same number of disk drives. Array spanning promotes RAID levels 1, 3, and 5 to
RAID levels 10, 30, and 50, respectively. See also Disk Spanning.
Asynchronous Operations Operations that bear no relationship to each other in time and can
overlap. The concept of asynchronous I/O operations is central to independent
access arrays in throughput-intensive applications.
Cache I/O
A small amount of fast memory that holds recently accessed data. Caching
speeds subsequent access to the same data. It is most often applied to processormemory access, but can also be used to store a copy of data accessible over a
network. When data is read from or written to main memory, a copy is also
saved in cache memory with the associated main memory address. The cache
memory software monitors the addresses of subsequent reads to see if the
required data is already stored in cache memory. If it is already in cache memory
(a cache hit), it is read from cache memory immediately and the main memory
read is aborted (or not started.) If the data is not cached (a cache miss), it is
fetched from main memory and saved in cache memory.
Channel
An electrical path for the transfer of data and control information between a disk
and a disk controller.
Cont’d
Glossary
91
Glossary, Continued
Consistency Check An examination of the disk system to determine whether all conditions are
valid for the specified configuration (such as parity.)
Cold Swap
A cold swap requires that you turn the power off before replacing a defective
hard drive in a disk subsystem.
Data Transfer Capacity The amount of data per unit time moved through a channel. For disk I/O,
bandwidth is expressed in megabytes per second (MB/s).
Degraded
A drive that has become non-functional or has decreased in performance.
Disk
A non-volatile, randomly addressable, rewritable mass storage device, including
both rotating magnetic and optical disks and solid-state disks, or non-volatile
electronic storage elements. It does not include specialized devices such as
write-once-read-many (WORM) optical disks, nor does it include so-called
RAM disks implemented using software to control a dedicated portion of a host
computer volatile random access memory.
Disk Array
A collection of disks from one or more disk subsystems combined with array
management software. It controls the disks and presents them to the array
operating environment as one or more virtual disks.
Disk Duplexing A variation on disk mirroring where a second disk adapter or host adapter and
redundant disk drives are present.
Disk Mirroring Writing duplicate data to more than one (usually two) hard disks to protect
against data loss in the event of device failure. It is a common feature of RAID
systems.
Disk Spanning Disk spanning allows multiple disk drives to function like one big drive.
Spanning overcomes lack of disk space and simplifies storage management by
combining existing resources or adding relatively inexpensive resources. For
example, four 400 MB disk drives can be combined to appear to the operating
system as one single 1600 MB drive. See also Array Spanning and Spanning.
Cont’d
92
MegaRAID Express 500 Hardware Guide
Glossary, Continued
Disk Striping
A type of disk array mapping. Consecutive stripes of data are mapped roundrobin to consecutive array members. A striped array (RAID Level 0) provides
high I/O performance at low cost, but provides lowers data reliability than any of
its member disks.
Disk Subsystem A collection of disks and the hardware that connects them to one or more host
computers. The hardware can include an intelligent controller or the disks can
attach directly to a host computer I/O a bus adapter.
Double Buffering A technique that achieves maximum data transfer bandwidth by constantly
keeping two I/O requests for adjacent data outstanding. A software component
begins a double-buffered I/O stream by issuing two requests in rapid sequence.
Thereafter, each time an I/O request completes, another is immediately issued. If
the disk subsystem is capable of processing requests fast enough, double
buffering allows data to be transferred at the full-volume transfer rate.
Failed Drive
A drive that has ceased to function or consistently functions improperly.
Fast SCSI
A variant on the SCSI-2 bus. It uses the same 8-bit bus as the original SCSI-1,
but runs at up to 10MB (double the speed of SCSI-1.)
Firmware
Software stored in read-only memory (ROM) or Programmable ROM (PROM).
Firmware is often responsible for the behavior of a system when it is first turned
on. A typical example would be a monitor program in a computer that loads the
full operating system from disk or from a network and then passes control to the
operating system.
FlexRAID Power Fail Option The FlexRAID Power Fail option allows a reconstruction to restart
if a power failure occurs. This is the advantage of this option. The disadvantage
is, once the reconstruction is active, the performance is slower because an
additional activity is added.
Cont’d
Glossary
93
Glossary, Continued
Format
The process of writing zeros to all data fields in a physical drive (hard drive) to
map out unreadable or bad sectors. Because most hard drives are factory
formatted, formatting is usually only done if a hard disk generates many media
errors.
GB
Shorthand for 1,000,000,000 (10 to the ninth power) bytes. It is the same as
1,000 MB (megabytes).
Host-based Array A disk array with an Array Management Software in its host computer rather
than in a disk subsystem.
Host Computer Any computer that disks are directly attached to. Mainframes, servers,
workstations, and personal computers can all be considered host computers.
Hot Spare
A stand-by drive ready for use if another drive fails. It does not contain any user
data. Up to eight disk drives can be assigned as hot spares for an adapter. A hot
spare can be dedicated to a single redundant array or it can be part of the global
hot-spare pool for all arrays controlled by the adapter.
Hot Swap
The substitution of a replacement unit in a disk subsystem for a defective one,
where the substitution can be performed while the subsystem is running
(performing its normal functions). Hot swaps are manual.
I/O Driver
A host computer software component (usually part of the operating system) that
controls the operation of peripheral controllers or adapters attached to the host
computer. I/O drivers communicate between applications and I/O devices, and in
some cases participates in data transfer.
Initialization
The process of writing zeros to the data fields of a logical drive and generating
the corresponding parity to put the logical drive in a Ready state. Initializing
erases previous data and generates parity so that the logical drive will pass a
consistency check. Arrays can work without initializing, but they can fail a
consistency check because the parity fields have not been generated.
Cont’d
94
MegaRAID Express 500 Hardware Guide
Glossary, Continued
Logical Disk
A set of contiguous chunks on a physical disk. Logical disks are used in array
implementations as constituents of logical volumes or partitions. Logical disks
are normally transparent to the host environment, except when the array
containing them is being configured.
Logical Drive
A virtual drive within an array that can consist of more than one physical drive.
Logical drives divide the contiguous storage space of an array of disk drives or a
spanned group of arrays of drives. The storage space in a logical drive is spread
across all the physical drives in the array or spanned arrays. Each MegaRAID
adapter can be configured with up to eight logical drives in any combination of
sizes. Configure at least one logical drive for each array.
Mapping
The conversion between multiple data addressing schemes, especially
conversions between member disk block addresses and block addresses of the
virtual disks presented to the operating environment by Array Management
Software.
MB
(Megabyte) An abbreviation for 1,000,000 (10 to the sixth power) bytes. It is the
same as 1,000 KB (kilobytes).
Multi-threaded Having multiple concurrent or pseudo-concurrent execution sequences. Used to
describe processes in computer systems. Multi-threaded processes allow
throughput-intensive applications to efficiently use a disk array to increase I/O
performance.
Operating Environment The operating environment includes the host computer where the array
is attached, any I/O buses and adapters, the host operating system, and any
additional software required to operate the array. For host-based arrays, the
operating environment includes I/O driver software for the member disks, but
does not include Array Management Software, which is regarded as part of the
array itself.
Cont’d
Glossary
95
Glossary, Continued
Parity
Parity is an extra bit added to a byte or word to reveal errors in storage (in RAM
or disk) or transmission. Parity is used to generate a set of redundancy data from
two or more parent data sets. The redundancy data can be used to reconstruct
one of the parent data sets. However, parity data does not fully duplicate the
parent data sets. In RAID, this method is applied to entire drives or stripes across
all disk drives in an array. Parity consists of dedicated parity, in which the parity
of the data on two or more drives is stored on an additional drive, and distributed
parity, in which the parity data are distributed among all the drives in the system.
If a single drive fails, it can be rebuilt from the parity of the respective data on
the remaining drives.
Partition
An array virtual disk made up of logical disks rather than physical ones. Also
known as logical volume.
Physical Disk
A hard disk drive that stores data. A hard disk drive consists of one or more rigid
magnetic discs rotating about a central axle with associated read/write heads and
electronics.
Physical Disk Roaming The ability of some adapters to detect when hard drives have been moved
to a different slots in the computer, for example, after a hot swap.
Protocol
A set of formal rules describing how to transmit data, especially across a
network. Low level protocols define the electrical and physical standards to be
observed, bit- and byte- ordering, and the transmission and error detection and
correction of the bit stream. High level protocols deal with the data formatting,
including the message syntax, the terminal-to-computer dialogue, character sets,
and sequencing of messages.
RAID
Redundant Array of Independent Disks (originally Redundant Array of
Inexpensive Disks) is an array of multiple small, independent hard disk drives
that yields performance exceeding that of a Single Large Expensive Disk
(SLED). A RAID disk subsystem improves I/O performance on a server using
only a single drive. The RAID array appears to the host server as a single storage
unit. I/O is expedited because several disks can be accessed simultaneously.
Cont’d
96
MegaRAID Express 500 Hardware Guide
Glossary, Continued
RAID Levels
A style of redundancy applied to a logical drive. It can increase the performance
of the logical drive and can decrease usable capacity. Each logical drive must
have a RAID level assigned to it. The RAID level drive requirements are: RAID
0 requires one or more physical drives, RAID 1 requires exactly two physical
drives, RAID 3 requires at least three physical drives, RAID 5 requires at least
three physical drives. RAID levels 10, 30, and 50 result when logical drives span
arrays. RAID 10 results when a RAID 1 logical drive spans arrays. RAID 30
results when a RAID 3 logical drive spans arrays. RAID 50 results when a RAID
5 logical drive spans arrays.
RAID Migration RAID migration is used to move between optimal RAID levels or to change
from a degraded redundant logical drive to an optimal RAID 0. In Novell, the
utility used for RAID migration is MEGAMGR and in Windows NT its Power
Console. If a RAID 1 is being converted to a RAID 0, instead of performing
RAID migration, one drive can be removed and the other reconfigured on the
controller as a RAID 0. This is due to the same data being written to each drive.
Read-Ahead
A memory caching capability in some adapters that allows them to read
sequentially ahead of requested data and store the additional data in cache
memory, anticipating that the additional data will be needed soon. Read-Ahead
supplies sequential data faster, but is not as effective when accessing random
data.
Ready State
A condition in which a workable hard drive is neither online nor a hot spare and
is available to add to an array or to designate as a hot spare.
Rebuild
The regeneration of all data from a failed disk in a RAID level 1, 3, 4, 5, or 6
array to a replacement disk. A disk rebuild normally occurs without interruption
of application access to data stored on the array virtual disk.
Rebuild Rate
The percentage of CPU resources devoted to rebuilding.
Cont’d
Glossary
97
Glossary, Continued
Reconstruct
The act of remaking a logical drive after changing RAID levels or adding a
physical drive to an existing array.
Redundancy
The provision of multiple interchangeable components to perform a single
function to cope with failures or errors. Redundancy normally applies to
hardware; a common form of hardware redundancy is disk mirroring.
Replacement Disk A disk available to replace a failed member disk in a RAID array.
Replacement Unit A component or collection of components in a disk subsystem that are always
replaced as a unit when any part of the collection fails. Typical replacement units
in a disk subsystem includes disks, controller logic boards, power supplies, and
cables. Also called a hot spare.
SAF-TE
SCSI Accessed Fault-Tolerant Enclosure. An industry protocol for managing
RAID enclosures and reporting enclosure environmental information.
SCSI
(Small Computer System Interface) A processor-independent standard for
system-level interfacing between a computer and intelligent devices, including
hard disks, floppy disks, CD-ROM, printers, scanners, etc. SCSI can connect up
to 7 devices to a single adapter (or host adapter) on the computer's bus. SCSI
transfers eight or 16 bits in parallel and can operate in either asynchronous or
synchronous modes. The synchronous transfer rate is up to 40 MB/s. SCSI
connections normally use single ended drivers, as opposed to differential drivers.
The original standard is now called SCSI-1 to distinguish it from SCSI-2 and
SCSI-3, which include specifications of Wide SCSI (a 16-bit bus) and Fast SCSI
(10 MB/s transfer).
SCSI Channel
MegaRAID controls the disk drives via SCSI-2 buses (channels) over which the
system transfers data in either Fast and Wide or Ultra SCSI mode. Each adapter
can control up to three SCSI channels. Internal and external disk drives can be
mixed on channels 0 and 1, but not on channel 2.
Cont’d
98
MegaRAID Express 500 Hardware Guide
Glossary, Continued
SCSI ID
A SCSI physical drive can be in one of these states:
•
•
•
•
Online Powered-on and operational.
Hot Spare - Powered-on stand-by disk drive, ready for use if an online
disk fails.
Rebuild A disk drive to which one or more logical drives is restoring
data.
Not Responding The disk drive is not present, is not powered-on, or
has failed.
Service Provider The Service Provider (SP) is a program that resides in the desktop system or
server and is responsible for all DMI activities. This layer collects management
information from products (whether system hardware, peripherals or software)
stores that information in the DMI database and passes it to management
applications as requested.
SMARTer
Self-Monitoring, Analysis, and Reporting Technology with Error Recovery. An
industry standard protocol for reporting server system information. SelfMonitoring, Analysis and Reporting Technology for disk drives is a specification
designed to offer an early warning for some disk drive failures. These failures
are predicted based upon actual performance degradation of drive components
that are then reported back to a user through a graphical interface.
SNMP
Simple Network Management Protocol, the most widely used protocol for
communication management information between the managed elements of a
network and a network manager. SNMP focuses primarily on the network
backbone. The Internet standard protocol that manages nodes on an Internet
Protocol (IP) network.
Spanning
Array spanning by a logical drive combines storage space in two arrays of disk
drives into a single, contiguous storage space in a logical drive. MegaRAID
logical drives can span consecutively numbered arrays that each consist of the
same number of disk drives. Array spanning promotes RAID levels 1, 3, and 5 to
RAID levels 10, 30, and 50, respectively. See also Disk Spanning and Spanning.
Cont’d
Glossary
99
Glossary, Continued
Spare
A hard drive available to back up the data of other drives.
Stripe Size
The amount of data contiguously written to each disk. You can specify stripe
sizes of 4 KB, 8 KB, 16 KB, 32 KB, 64 KB, and 128 KB for each logical drive.
For best performance, choose a stripe size equal to or smaller than the block size
used by the host computer.
Stripe Width
The number of disk drives across which the data are striped.
Striping
Segmentation of logically sequential data, such as a single file, so that segments
can be written to multiple physical devices in a round-robin fashion. This
technique is useful if the processor can read or write data faster than a single disk
can supply or accept it. While data is being transferred from the first disk, the
second disk can locate the next segment. Data striping is used in some modern
databases and in certain RAID devices.
Terminator
A resistor connected to a signal wire in a bus or network for impedance matching
to prevent reflections, e.g., a 50 ohm resistor connected across the end of an
Ethernet cable. SCSI chains and some LocalTalk wiring schemes also require
terminators.
Ultra-SCSI
An extension of SCSI-2 that doubles the transfer speed of Fast-SCSI, providing
20MBs on an 8-bit connection and 40MBs on a 16-bit connection.
Ultra2-SCSI
An extension of SCSI-2 that doubles the transfer speed of Ultra-SCSI, providing
40MBs on an 8-bit connection and 80MBs on a 16-bit connection.
Ultra3-SCSI or 160M An extension of SCSI-2 that doubles the transfer speed of Ultra2-SCSI,
providing 80MBs on an 8-bit connection and 160MBs on a 16-bit connection.
Virtual Sizing
FlexRAID Virtual Sizing is used to create a logical drive up to 80 GB. A
maximum of eight logical drives can be configured on a RAID controller and
RAID migration is possible for all logical drives except the eighth. Because it is
not possible to do migration on the last logical drive, the maximum space
available for RAID migration is 560 GB.
Wide SCSI
A variant on the SCSI-2 interface. Wide SCSI uses a 16-bit bus, double the
width of the original SCSI-1. Wide SCSI devices cannot be connected to a SCSI1 bus. Wide SCSI supports transfer rates up to 20 MB/s, like Fast SCSI.
100 MegaRAID Express 500 Hardware Guide
Index
1
160M and Wide SCSI, 27
6
68-Pin High Density Connectors, 79
A
AMICDROM.SYS, 69
AMPLIMITE .050 Series connectors, 86
Array, 91
Array Configuration Planner, 50
Array Management Software, 91
Array Performance Features, 29
Array Spanning, 91
ASPI Driver Error Messages, 76
ASPI Drivers, 68
ASPI manager, 76
Assigning RAID Levels, 47
Asynchronous Operations, 91
Audible Warnings, 89
Automatic Failed Drive Detection and Rebuild,
37
B
BIOS, 32
BIOS Boot Error Messages, 73
BIOS Setup, 67
Bus Data Transfer Rate, 32
Bus Type, 32
Bus-Based, 16
C
Cable Assembly for Internal Wide SCSI Devices,
80
Cable Length, 2
Cables To Go, 84
Cache Configuration, 32
Cache I/O, 91
Cache Memory, 33
Installation, 54
Card Size, 32
CD-ROM Driver, 69
Channel, 91
Cold Swap, 92
Compatibility, 38
Configuration Features, 28
Configuration on Disk Configuration, 27
Index
Configuration Strategies, 45
Configuring Logical Drives, 47
Connecting Internal and External Wide Devices,
81
Consistency check, 8
Consistency Check, 92
Converting from Internal Wide to Internal NonWide (Type 3), 84
Converting Internal Wide to Internal Non-Wide,
82
Converting Internal Wide to Internal Non-Wide
(Type 30), 83
CPU, 33
D
Data redundancy
Using mirroring, 11
Data Transfer Capacity, 92
Dedicated Parity, 12
Degraded, 15, 92
Devices per SCSI Channel, 32
DIMMs, 55
Disconnect/Reconnect, 35
Disk, 92
Disk Activity LED, 56
Disk Array, 92
Disk Array Types, 16
Disk Duplexing, 92
Disk Mirroring, 11, 92
Disk Rebuild, 14
Disk Spanning, 10, 92
Disk Striping, 9, 93
Disk Subsystem, 93
Distributed Parity, 12
DOS ASPI driver, 68
Double Buffering, 93
Drive roaming, 27
Drive States, 15
Drivers, 68
E
Enclosure Management, 16
Error
Failure codes, 76
Error Messages
ASPI Driver, 76
F
Fail, 15
Failed, 15
101
Failed Drive, 93
Fast SCSI, 93
Fault Tolerance, 8
Fault Tolerance Features, 30
Fault-Tolerance, 37
Features, 27
Firmware, 32, 93
Flash ROM, 1
FlexRAID Power Fail Option, 93
Format, 94
FTP Site, v
G
GB, 94
Glossary, 91
GWC, 84
H
Hardware Architecture Features, 29
Hardware Installation, 51
Hardware Requirements, 28
High-Density 68-Pin SCSI Connector and PCable Single-Ended Cable Pinouts,
85, 87
High-Density Connector, 86
Host Computer, 94
Host-based Array, 94
Host-Based RAID Solution, 7
Hot spare
Using during disk rebuild, 14
Hot Spare, 13, 15, 94
Hot Swap, 15, 37, 94
I
I/O Driver, 94
Initialization, 94
Install Drivers, 68
Installation Steps
Custom, 52
J
J1 Termination Enable, 57
J10 Term Power, 58
J11, 64
J12, 58
J13, 56, 58, 64
J15, 56, 58
J16 Channel 1 WIDE (16-bit) SCSI connector,
56
J18 Disk Activity LED, 56
J5 Serial Port, 57
J8 Hard Disk LED, 58
J9 I2C Interface Connector, 57
Jumpers, 56
on motherboard, 53
102 MegaRAID Express 500 Hardware Guide
L
Logical Disk, 95
Logical Drive, 15, 95
Logical Drive States, 15
M
Mapping, 95
MB, 95
MegaRAID BIOS, 34
MegaRAID BIOS Setup, 36
MegaRAID Express 500 Card
Installing, 63
MegaRAID Express 500 Card Layout, 56
MegaRAID Manager, 36
Mirroring, 11
Motherboard Jumpers, 53
Multi-threaded, 95
Multi-threading, 35
N
Nonvolatile RAM, 32
Novell NetWare, 31
NVRAM, 1
O
Offline, 15
Onboard Speaker, 34
Online
Drive state, 15
Operating Environment, 95
Operating System Software Drivers, 31
Operating Voltage, 32
Optimal, 15
Optimizing Data Storage, 48
OS/2 2.x, 36
Other BIOS Error Messages, 75
P
Package Contents, v
packing slip, v
Parity, 12, 96
Partition, 96
PCI Controller, 32
Physical Array, 14
Physical Disk, 96
Physical Disk Roaming, 96
Physical drive, 14
Power Console, 36
Power Down, 53
Processor, 32
Product Specifications, 32
Protocol, 96
R
RAID, 96
Benefits, 5
Introduction to, 5
RAID 0, 19
RAID 1, 20
Spanning to configure RAID 10, 10
RAID 10, 24
Configuring, 10
RAID 3, 21
Parity disk, 12
Spanning to configure RAID 30, 10
RAID 30, 25
Configuring, 10
RAID 5, 23
Spanning to make RAID 50, 10
RAID 50, 26
Configuring, 10
RAID Benefits
Improved I/O, 5
Increased Reliability, 5
RAID Levels, 17, 97
RAID Levels Supported, 32
RAID Management, 36
RAID Management Features, 30
RAID Migration, 97
RAID Overview, 8
Read-Ahead, 97
Ready, 15
Ready State, 97
Rebuild, 15, 35
Rebuild Rate, 14, 97
Rebuilding a disk, 14
Reconnect, 35
Reconstruct, 98
Reconstruction, 97
RedAlert, 38
Redundancy, 98
Replacement Disk, 98
Replacement Unit, 98
S
SAF-TE, 98
Scatter/Gather, 35
SCO Open Server R5.0x, 31
SCO Unix, 36
SCO UnixWare 2.1x, 31
SCSI, 98
SCSI backup and utility software, 38
SCSI Bus, 32, 34
SCSI Buses, 2
SCSI Cable Vendors, 84
SCSI Cables
Connecting, 64
SCSI Channel, 98
SCSI Connectors, 32, 35, 79
SCSI Connectors Vendors, 84
SCSI Controller, 32
Index
SCSI Data Transfer Rate, 32
SCSI Device Compatibility, 38
SCSI Device Types Supported, 32
SCSI Drive State, 15
SCSI Firmware, 35
SCSI ID, 99
SCSI Termination, 32, 35, 60
Set, 59
SCSI to SCSI, 16
SCSI-to-SCSI RAID Product, 7
Serial Port, 34
Serial port connector, 56
Server Management, 38
Service Provider, 99
Set SCSI Termination, 59
SLED, 5
SMART Technology, 27
SMARTer, 99
SNMP, 99
SNMP agent, 38
SNMP managers, 38
Software Utilities, 31
Software-Based, 16
Spanning, 10, 99
Spare, 100
Standby rebuild, 14
Stripe Size, 9, 35, 100
Stripe Width, 9, 100
Striping, 100
System Connection, 84
System Management and Reporting Technologies
with Error Recovery., 99
T
Tagged Command Queuing, 35
Target IDs
Setting, 65
Technical Cable Concepts, 84
Technical Support, v
Termination Disable, 32
Terminator, 100
Troubleshooting, 71
U
Ultra SCSI, 100
Ultra2-SCSI, 100
Ultra3-SCSI (160M), 100
UnixWare, 36
Unpack, 53
V
Virtual Sizing, 100
W
Wide SCSI, 100
Windows NT, 31
103
104 MegaRAID Express 500 Hardware Guide