Repair manual | American Standard 1655SS.500 Indoor Furnishings User Manual

Fiat Uno
Service and Repair Manual
Peter G Strasman
(923-320-3Y7)
Models covered
Fiat Uno 45, 55, 60, 70, 1.1 and 1.4, including Turbo ie and special/limited editions
903 cc, 999 cc, 1108 cc, 1116 cc, 1299 cc, 1301 cc and 1372 cc petrol engines with manual transmissions
Does not Selecta, Fiorino type vans or Diesel engine
© Haynes Publishing 1996
A book in the Haynes Service and Repair Manual Series
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123
All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced or transmitted
in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including
photocopying, recording or by any information storage or retrieval system,
without permission in writing from the copyright holder.
Printed by J H Haynes & Co. Ltd, Sparkford, Nr Yeovil,
Somerset BA22 7JJ
Haynes Publishing
Sparkford, Nr Yeovil, Somerset BA22 7JJ, England
Haynes North America, Inc
861 Lawrence Drive, Newbury Park, California 91320, USA
ISBN 1 85960 089 1
Editions Haynes S.A.
147/149, rue Saint Honoré, 75001 Paris, France
British Library Cataloguing in Publication Data
A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library.
Haynes Publishing Nordiska AB
Fyrisborgsgatan 5, 754 50 Uppsala, Sverige
Contents
LIVING WITH YOUR FIAT UNO
Introduction
Page
0•4
Safety First!
Page
0•5
General dimensions, weights and capacities
Page
0•6
Roadside Repairs
Jump starting
Page
0•7
Jacking, towing and wheel changing
Page
0•8
Identifying leaks
Page
0•9
Page
0•10
Recommended Lubricants and Fluids
Page
0•13
Conversion factors
Page
0•14
Routine Maintenance and Servicing
Maintenance schedule (also see Chapter 13)
Contents
REPAIRS & OVERHAUL
Engine and Associated Systems
Engine (also see Chapter 13)
Page
1•1
Cooling and heating systems (also see Chapter 13)
Page
2•1
Fuel system (also see Chapter 13)
Page
3•1
Ignition system (also see Chapter 13)
Page
4•1
Clutch (also see Chapter 13)
Page
5•1
Transmission (also see Chapter 13)
Page
6•1
Driveshafts, hubs, roadwheels and tyres (also see Chapter 13)
Page
7•1
Page
8•1
Page
9•1
Steering
Page
10•1
Suspension (also see Chapter 13)
Page
11•1
Page
12•1
Supplement: Revisions and information on later models
Page
13•1
Wiring Diagrams
Page
14•1
Transmission
Brakes
Braking system (also see Chapter 13)
Electrical
Electrical system (also see Chapter 13)
Steering and suspension
Bodywork
Bodywork (also see Chapter 13)
Additional information
REFERENCE
MOT Test Checks
Page
REF•1
Tools and Working Facilities
Page
REF•5
General Repair Procedures
Page
REF•8
Fault Finding
Page
REF•9
Buying Spare Parts & Vehicle Identification Numbers
Page REF•12
Glossary of Technical Terms
Page REF•13
Index
Page REF•17
0•4
Introduction
Introduction to the
Fiat Uno
The Fiat Uno is a well designed and
constructed car having an excellent
power-to-weight ratio.
The car is very economical, but still offers
good performance with excellent body interior
space.
Attractive features include the options
available for four- or five-speeds or three- or
five-door bodywork.
All essential accessories, except a radio,
are fitted as standard and a sunroof is
optionally available.
From the home mechanic’s point of view all
repair and servicing operations are straightforward without the need for special tools.
Spare parts are immediately available at
moderate cost.
Acknowledgements
Fiat Uno 1301 cc Turbo ie
Thanks are due to Champion Spark Plug
who supplied the illustrations showing spark
plug conditions. Certain other illustrations are
the copyright of the Fiat Motor Company (UK)
Limited and are used with their permission.
Thanks are also due to Sykes-Pickavant
Limited, who provided some of the
workshop tools, and to all those people at
Sparkford who helped in the production of
this manual.
We take great pride in the accuracy of
information given in this manual, but
vehicle manufacturers make alterations
and design changes during the production
run of a particular vehicle of which they do
not inform us, No liability can be accepted
by the authors or publishers for loss,
damage or injury caused by any errors in,
or omissions from, the information given.
Fiat Uno 1372 cc 70 SX ie
Safety First!
Working on your car can be dangerous.
This page shows just some of the potential
risks and hazards, with the aim of creating a
safety-conscious attitude.
General hazards
Scalding
• Don’t remove the radiator or expansion
tank cap while the engine is hot.
• Engine oil, automatic transmission fluid or
power steering fluid may also be dangerously
hot if the engine has recently been running.
Burning
• Beware of burns from the exhaust system
and from any part of the engine. Brake discs
and drums can also be extremely hot
immediately after use.
Crushing
• When working under or near
a raised vehicle,
always
supplement the
jack with axle
stands, or use
drive-on
ramps.
Never
venture
under a car which
is only supported by a jack.
• Take care if loosening or tightening hightorque nuts when the vehicle is on stands.
Initial loosening and final tightening should
be done with the wheels on the ground.
• Mains voltage is also dangerous. Make
sure that any mains-operated equipment is
correctly earthed. Mains power points should
be protected by a residual current device
(RCD) circuit breaker.
Fume or gas intoxication
• Exhaust fumes are
poisonous; they often
contain carbon
monoxide, which is
rapidly fatal if inhaled.
Never run the
engine in a
confined space
such as a garage
with the doors shut.
• Fuel vapour is also
poisonous, as are the vapours from some
cleaning solvents and paint thinners.
Poisonous or irritant substances
• Avoid skin contact with battery acid and
with any fuel, fluid or lubricant, especially
antifreeze, brake hydraulic fluid and Diesel
fuel. Don’t syphon them by mouth. If such a
substance is swallowed or gets into the eyes,
seek medical advice.
• Prolonged contact with used engine oil can
cause skin cancer. Wear gloves or use a
barrier cream if necessary. Change out of oilsoaked clothes and do not keep oily rags in
your pocket.
• Air conditioning refrigerant forms a
poisonous gas if exposed to a naked flame
(including a cigarette). It can also cause skin
burns on contact.
Fire
Asbestos
• Fuel is highly flammable; fuel vapour is
explosive.
• Don’t let fuel spill onto a hot engine.
• Do not smoke or allow naked lights
(including pilot lights) anywhere near a
vehicle being worked on. Also beware of
creating sparks
(electrically or by use of tools).
• Fuel vapour is heavier than air, so don’t
work on the fuel system with the vehicle over
an inspection pit.
• Another cause of fire is an electrical
overload or short-circuit. Take care when
repairing or modifying the vehicle wiring.
• Keep a fire extinguisher handy, of a type
suitable for use on fuel and electrical fires.
• Asbestos dust can cause cancer if inhaled
or swallowed. Asbestos may be found in
gaskets and in brake and clutch linings.
When dealing with such components it is
safest to assume that they contain asbestos.
Electric shock
• Ignition HT
voltage can be
dangerous,
especially to
people with heart
problems or a
pacemaker. Don’t
work on or near the
ignition system with
the engine running or
the ignition switched on.
0•5
Special hazards
Hydrofluoric acid
• This extremely corrosive acid is formed
when certain types of synthetic rubber, found
in some O-rings, oil seals, fuel hoses etc, are
exposed to temperatures above 4000C. The
rubber changes into a charred or sticky
substance containing the acid. Once formed,
the acid remains dangerous for years. If it
gets onto the skin, it may be necessary to
amputate the limb concerned.
• When dealing with a vehicle which has
suffered a fire, or with components salvaged
from such a vehicle, wear protective gloves
and discard them after use.
The battery
• Batteries contain sulphuric acid, which
attacks clothing, eyes and skin. Take care
when topping-up or carrying the battery.
• The hydrogen gas given off by the battery
is highly explosive. Never cause a spark or
allow a naked light nearby. Be careful when
connecting and disconnecting battery
chargers or jump leads.
Air bags
• Air bags can cause injury if they go off
accidentally. Take care when removing the
steering wheel and/or facia. Special storage
instructions may apply.
Diesel injection equipment
• Diesel injection pumps supply fuel at very
high pressure. Take care when working on
the fuel injectors and fuel pipes.
Warning: Never expose the hands,
face or any other part of the body
to injector spray; the fuel can
penetrate the skin with potentially fatal
results.
Remember...
A few tips
DO
DON’T
• Do use eye protection when using power
tools, and when working under the vehicle.
• Don’t attempt to lift a heavy component
which may be beyond your capability – get
assistance.
• Do wear gloves or use barrier cream to
protect your hands when necessary.
• Do get someone to check periodically
that all is well when working alone on the
vehicle.
• Do keep loose clothing and long hair well
out of the way of moving mechanical parts.
• Do remove rings, wristwatch etc, before
working on the vehicle – especially the
electrical system.
• Do ensure that any lifting or jacking
equipment has a safe working load rating
adequate for the job.
• Don’t rush to finish a job, or take
unverified short cuts.
• Don’t use ill-fitting tools which may slip
and cause injury.
• Don’t leave tools or parts lying around
where someone can trip over them. Mop
up oil and fuel spills at once.
• Don’t allow children or pets to play in or
near a vehicle being worked on.
0•6
General dimensions, weights and capacities
Dimensions
Overall length . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Overall width . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Height . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Wheelbase . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Front track . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Rear track . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3644 mm (143.6 in)
1555 mm (61.3 in)
1432 mm (56.4 in)
2362 mm (93.1 in)
1340 mm (52.8 in)
1300 mm (51.2 in)
Weights (kerb)
Uno 45:
Three-door . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Five-door . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Uno 55:
Three-door . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Five-door . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Uno 70:
Three-door . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Five-door . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Uno SX:
Three-door . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Five-door . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
700 kg (1543 lb)
710 kg (1566 lb)
730 kg (1610 lb)
740 kg (1632 lb)
740 kg (1632 lb)
750 kg (1654 lb)
770 kg (1698 lb)
780 kg (1720 lb)
Capacities
Fuel tank . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
42.0 litre (9.25 gal)
Engine oil (with filter change):
903 cc engine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.42 litre (6.0 pint)
1116 and 1301 cc engines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.10 Iitre (7.2 pint)
Transmission . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.40 litre (4.2 pint)
Steering box . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
140.0 cc
Driveshaft CV joints . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
125.0 cc
Cooling system:
903 cc engine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.6 litre (8.1 pint)
1116 cc engine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6.0 litre (10.6 pint)
1301 cc engine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6.2 litre (10.9 pint)
For information applicable to later models, see Supplement at end of manual
Roadside Repairs
Jump starting will get you out
of trouble, but you must correct
whatever made the battery go
flat in the first place. There are
three possibilities:
The battery has been drained by
repeated attempts to start, or by
leaving the lights on.
1
The charging system is not working
properly (alternator drivebelt slack
or broken, alternator wiring fault or
alternator itself faulty).
2
3
The battery itself is at fault
(electrolyte low, or battery worn out).
1
Connect one end of the red jump lead to
the positive (+) terminal of the flat
battery
0•7
Jump starting
Booster battery (jump) starting
When jump-starting a car using a
booster battery, observe the following
precautions:
4 Make sure that the booster battery is
the same voltage as the discharged
one in the vehicle.
4 Before connecting the booster
battery, make sure that the ignition is
switched off.
4 If the battery is being jump-started
from the battery in another vehicle,
the two vehcles MUST NOT TOUCH
each other.
4 Ensure that all electrical equipment
(lights, heater, wipers, etc) is
switched off.
2
Connect the other end of the red lead to
the positive (+) terminal of the booster
battery.
+
+
–
–
4 Make sure that the transmission is in
neutral (or PARK, in the case of
automatic transmission).
3
Connect one end of the black jump lead
to the negative (-) terminal of the
booster battery
4
Connect the other end of the black
jump lead to a bolt or bracket on the
engine block, well away from the
battery, on the vehicle to be started.
5
Make sure that the jump leads will not
come into contact with the fan, drivebelts or other moving parts of the
engine.
6
Start the engine using the booster
battery, then with the engine running at
idle speed, disconnect the jump leads in
the reverse order of connection.
0•8
Roadside Repairs
Jacking, towing and wheel changing
To avoid repetition, the procedure for
raising the vehicle, in order to carry out work
under it, is not included before each relevant
operation described in this Manual.
It is to be preferred, and it is certainly
recommended, that the vehicle is positioned
over an inspection pit or raised on a lift. Where
these facilities are not available, use ramps or
jack up the vehicle strictly in accordance with
the following guide. Once the vehicle is raised,
supplement the jack with axle stands.
To raise the front end with a garage jack,
locate the jack under the transmission lower
mounting, just below and slightly to the rear of
the transmission oil drain plug. Protect the
mounting by placing a block of wood between
the jack head and the mounting.
To raise the rear of the car, the jack should
be placed under the spare wheel housing as
far to the rear as possible. Place a wooden
bearer between the jack head and the
housing.
ignition key to MAR to retain the steering in
the unlocked position.
Jacking
Towing
The jack supplied with the car should only
be used to change a wheel. Do not use this
jack when overhaul or repair work is being
carried out; employ a hydraulic or screw jack
and supplement it with axle stands.
Jacking points are located under the sills
for use with the jack supplied.
When being towed, use the left-hand front
towing eye.
When towing another vehicle, use the rear
towing eye adjacent to the exhaust tailpipe.
When being towed, remember that the
brake pedal will require heavier pressure due
to lack of servo assistance. Always turn the
With the car on firm level ground, apply the
handbrake fully. Remove the hub cap or
wheel trim, if fitted.
Release, but do not remove, the bolts.
Chock the front and rear of the opposite
roadwheel and then raise the car using the sill
jack supplied with the car if it is being done at
the roadside. Alternatively use a workshop
jack supplemented with axle stands.
Remove the wheel bolts, change the wheel
and screw in the bolts finger tight. It is
recommended that the bolt threads are
smeared with multi-purpose grease. Lower
the car, remove the jack and tighten the wheel
bolts to the specified torque. Refit any wheel
trim that was removed.
Spare wheel and jack stowage
Front tow hook
Rear tow hook
Wheel changing
Roadside Repairs
0•9
Identifying leaks
Puddles on the garage floor or drive, or
obvious wetness under the bonnet or
underneath the car, suggest a leak that needs
investigating. It can sometimes be difficult to
decide where the leak is coming from,
especially if the engine bay is very dirty
already. Leaking oil or fluid can also be blown
rearwards by the passage of air under the car,
giving a false impression of where the
problem lies.
Warning: Most automotive oils
and fluids are poisonous. Wash
them off skin, and change out of
contaminated clothing, without
delay.
The smell of a fluid leaking
from the car may provide a
clue to what’s leaking. Some
fluids are distinctively
coloured. It may help to clean the car and
to park it over some clean paper as an
aid to locating the source of the leak.
Remember that some leaks may only
occur while the engine is running.
Sump oil
Oil from filter
Gearbox oil
Engine oil may leak from the drain plug...
...or from the base of the oil filter.
Gearbox oil can leak from the seals at the
inboard ends of the driveshafts.
Antifreeze
Brake fluid
Power steering fluid
Leaking antifreeze often leaves a crystalline
deposit like this.
A leak occurring at a wheel is almost
certainly brake fluid.
Power steering fluid may leak from the pipe
connectors on the steering rack.
0•10
Routine maintenance
Maintenance is essential for ensuring safety and desirable for the
purpose of getting the best in terms of performance and economy
from the car. Over the years the need for periodic lubrication has been
greatly reduced if not totally eliminated. This has unfortunately tended
to lead some owners to think that because no such action is required
the items either no longer exist or will last forever. This is certainly not
the case; it is essential to carry out regular visual examinations as
comprehensively as possible in order to spot any possible defects at
an early stage before they develop into major and expensive repairs.
For information applicable to later models, see Supplement.
Every 250 miles (400 km), weekly,
or before a long journey
m
m
m
m
m
Check engine oil level
Check brake reservoir fluid level
Check tyre pressures
Check operation of all lights and horn
Top up washer fluid reservoirs, adding a screen
wash, and check operation of washers and wipers
m Check coolant level
m Check battery electrolyte level
Every 6000 miles (10 000 km)
or six months, whichever comes first
m Renew engine oil and filter (Chapter 1, Section 2)
m Check drivebelt tension (Chapter 2, Section 8)
m Check carburettor idle speed and mixture
adjustments (Chapter 3)
m Check contact points and dwell angle (mechanical
breaker distributors) (Chapter 4, Section 3)
m Check tyre tread wear (Chapter 7, Section 7)
m Check disc pads for wear (Chapter 8, Section 3)
Every 12 000 miles (20 000 km) or
12 months, whichever comes first
m Check and adjust valve clearances (Chapter 1,
Sections 5 and 26)
m Renew air cleaner element (Chapter 3, Section 2)
m Check exhaust system for corrosion (Chapter 3,
Section 19)
m Renew contact breaker points and adjust dwell
angle (mechanical breaker distributors) (Chapter 4,
Section 3)
m Check and adjust ignition timing (Chapter 4,
Section 4)
m Renew spark plugs (Chapter 4, Section 11)
m Check clutch adjustment (Chapter 5, Section 2)
m Check transmission oil level (Chapter 6, Section 2)
m Check driveshaft and steering rack gaiters for splits
(Chapters 7 and 10)
m Check rear brake shoe linings for wear (Chapter 8,
Section 4)
m Check handbrake travel (Chapter 8, Section 16)
m Check headlamp beam alignment (Chapter 9,
Section 17)
m Check balljoints for wear (Chapter 10, Section 2)
m Check front wheel alignment (Chapter 10, Section 8)
m Check suspension bushes for wear (Chapter 11,
Section 2)
m Check seat belts for fraying (Chapter 12, Section 23)
m Lubricate controls, hinges and locks
Every 24 000 miles (40 000 km)
or two years, whichever comes first
m Renew coolant anti-freeze mixture (Chapter 2,
Section 3)
m Renew transmission oil (Chapter 6, Section 2)
m Renew brake hydraulic fluid (Chapter 8, Section 12)
m Check for underbody corrosion and clean out door
and sill drain holes (Chapter 12, Section 2)
Every 36 000 miles (60 000 km)
or three years, whichever comes first
m Renew the timing belt - 1116 and 1299/1301 cc
(Chapter 1, Section 28)
Routine maintenance
0•11
Engine compartment (air cleaner removed for clarity) on 55S model
1
2
3
4
Strut upper mounting
Washer fluid reservoir
Brake fluid reservoir
Ignition coil
5
6
7
8
Throttle cable
Carburettor
Battery
Timing belt cover
9 Distributor
10 Oil filler cap
11 Radiator electric cooling
fan
12
13
14
15
Radiator
Coolant expansion tank
Front mounting
Clutch operating cable
0•12
Routine maintenance
View of front end from below on
55S model
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
View of rear end from below
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
Suspension trailing arm
Fuel tank filler hose
Rear axle beam
Rear silencer
Spring seat
Expansion box
Handbrake cable
Fuel tank support strap
Fuel tank
Handbrake cable adjuster
Tie-rod end
Track control arm
Lower mounting
Gearchange control rods
Exhaust pipe
Driveshafts
Transmission
Sump drain plug
Disc caliper
Front mounting
Horns
Radiator
Oil filter
Lubricants and Fluids
Component or system
Lubricant type/specification
1 Engine
Multigrade engine oil, viscosity SAE 15W/40, meeting API-SG or CCMC
G2/G3 specification (or equivalent multigrade engine oil with viscosity
rating suitable for ambient temperature in which vehicle is operated see owner’s handbook)
2 Transmission:
1372 cc Turbo ie model
All other models
FIAT ZC 80/S gear oil
FIAT ZC 90 gear oil
3 Cooling system
Ethylene glycol based antifreeze
4 Brake and clutch hydraulic system(s)
Hydraulic fluid to DOT 3 or 4, or SAE J1703C
5 Driveshaft CV joints and steering rack
Lithium based molybdenum disulphide
General greasing
Multi-purpose lithium based grease
0•13
0•14
Conversion Factors
Length (distance)
Inches (in)
Feet (ft)
Miles
x 25.4
x 0.305
x 1.609
= Millimetres (mm)
= Metres (m)
= Kilometres (km)
x 0.0394 = Inches (in)
x 3.281 = Feet (ft)
x 0.621 = Miles
Volume (capacity)
Cubic inches (cu in; in3)
Imperial pints (Imp pt)
Imperial quarts (Imp qt)
Imperial quarts (Imp qt)
US quarts (US qt)
Imperial gallons (Imp gal)
Imperial gallons (Imp gal)
US gallons (US gal)
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
16.387 =
0.568 =
1.137 =
1.201 =
0.946 =
4.546 =
1.201 =
3.785 =
Cubic centimetres (cc; cm3)
Litres (l)
Litres (l)
US quarts (US qt)
Litres (l)
Litres (l)
US gallons (US gal)
Litres (l)
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
0.061
1.76
0.88
0.833
1.057
0.22
0.833
0.264
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
Cubic inches (cu in; in3)
Imperial pints (Imp pt)
Imperial quarts (Imp qt)
Imperial quarts (Imp qt)
US quarts (US qt)
Imperial gallons (Imp gal)
Imperial gallons (Imp gal)
US gallons (US gal)
Mass (weight)
Ounces (oz)
Pounds (lb)
x 28.35 = Grams (g)
x 0.454 = Kilograms (kg)
x 0.035 = Ounces (oz)
x 2.205 = Pounds (lb)
x 0.278 = Newtons (N)
x 4.448 = Newtons (N)
x 0.1
= Kilograms-force (kgf; kg)
x 3.6
= Ounces-force (ozf; oz)
x 0.225 = Pounds-force (lbf; lb)
x 9.81 = Newtons (N)
x 0.070 = Kilograms-force per square
centimetre (kgf/cm2; kg/cm2)
x 0.068 = Atmospheres (atm)
Force
Ounces-force (ozf; oz)
Pounds-force (lbf; lb)
Newtons (N)
Pressure
Pounds-force per square inch
(psi; lbf/in2; lb/in2)
Pounds-force per square inch
(psi; lbf/in2; lb/in2)
Pounds-force per square inch
(psi; lbf/in2; lb/in2)
Pounds-force per square inch
(psi; lbf/in2; lb/in2)
Kilopascals (kPa)
x 0.01
x 14.223 = Pounds-force per square inch
(psi; lbf/in2; lb/in2)
x 14.696 = Pounds-force per square inch
(psi; lbf/in2; lb/in2)
x 14.5 = Pounds-force per square inch
(psi; lbf/in2; lb/in2)
x 0.145 = Pounds-force per square inch
(psi; lbf/in2; lb/in2)
x 98.1 = Kilopascals (kPa)
Millibar (mbar)
Millibar (mbar)
x
x
x 0.01 = Millibar (mbar)
x 68.947 = Millibar (mbar)
Millibar (mbar)
Millibar (mbar)
Millimetres of mercury (mmHg)
Inches of water (inH2O)
x
x
x
x
x 0.069 = Bars
x 6.895 = Kilopascals (kPa)
= Kilograms-force per square
centimetre (kgf/cm2; kg/cm2)
100
= Pascals (Pa)
0.0145 = Pounds-force per square inch
(psi; lbf/in2; lb/in2)
0.75 = Millimetres of mercury (mmHg)
0.401 = Inches of water (inH2O)
0.535 = Inches of water (inH2O)
0.036 = Pounds-force per square inch
(psi; lbf/in2; lb/in2)
x
x
x
x
1.333
2.491
1.868
27.68
=
=
=
=
Millibar (mbar)
Millibar (mbar)
Millimetres of mercury (mmHg)
Inches of water (inH2O)
Torque (moment of force)
Pounds-force inches
(lbf in; lb in)
Pounds-force inches
(lbf in; lb in)
Pounds-force inches
(lbf in; lb in)
Pounds-force feet (lbf ft; lb ft)
Pounds-force feet (lbf ft; lb ft)
Newton metres (Nm)
x 1.152 = Kilograms-force centimetre
(kgf cm; kg cm)
x 0.113 = Newton metres (Nm)
x 0.083 = Pounds-force feet (lbf ft; lb ft)
x 0.138 = Kilograms-force metres
(kgf m; kg m)
x 1.356 = Newton metres (Nm)
x 0.102 = Kilograms-force metres
(kgf m; kg m)
x 0.868 = Pounds-force inches
(lbf in; lb in)
x 8.85 = Pounds-force inches
(lbf in; lb in)
x 12
= Pounds-force inches
(lbf in; lb in)
x 7.233 = Pounds-force feet (lbf ft; lb ft)
x 0.738 = Pounds-force feet (lbf ft; lb ft)
x 9.804 = Newton metres (Nm)
Power
Horsepower (hp)
x 745.7 = Watts (W)
x 0.0013 = Horsepower (hp)
Velocity (speed)
Miles per hour (miles/hr; mph)
x 1.609 = Kilometres per hour (km/hr; kph) x 0.621 = Miles per hour (miles/hr; mph)
Fuel consumption*
Miles per gallon (mpg)
x 0.354 = Kilometres per litre (km/l)
x 2.825 = Miles per gallon (mpg)
Temperature
Degrees Fahrenheit = (°C x 1.8) + 32
Degrees Celsius (Degrees Centigrade; °C) = (°F - 32) x 0.56
* It is common practice to convert from miles per gallon (mpg) to litres/100 kilometres (l/100km), where mpg x l/100 km = 282
1•1
Chapter 1 Engine
For modifications, and information applicable to later models, see Supplement at end of manual
Contents
Part 1: General
Crankcase ventilation system . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Engine oil and filter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Major operations possible without removing the engine
from the car . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3
1
2
4
Part 2: 903 cc engine
Cylinder head - dismantling and decarbonising . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
Cylinder head - removal and refitting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
Engine - complete dismantling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
Engine - complete reassembly . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
Engine - dismantling (general) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
Engine - initial start-up after overhaul or major repair . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
Engine - method of removal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
Engine - reassembly (general) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
Engine - refitting ancillary components . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
Engine - removing ancillary components . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
Engine mountings - renewal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
Engine/transmission - reconnection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
Engine/transmission - refitting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
Engine/transmission - removal and separation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
Examination and renovation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
Fault finding - all engines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . See end of Chapter
Oil pump - removal and refitting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
Pistons/connecting rods - removal and refitting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
Sump pan - removal and refitting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
Timing chain and sprockets - removal and refitting . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
Valve clearances - adjustment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
Part 3: 1116 cc and 1301 cc engines
Camshaft and camshaft carrier - removal and refitting . . . . . . . . . . 27
Cylinder head - dismantling and decarbonising . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
Cylinder head - removal and refitting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
Engine - complete dismantling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38
Engine - complete reassembly . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42
Engine - dismantling (general) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36
Engine - initial start-up after major overhaul . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45
Engine - method of removal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34
Engine - reassembly (general) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41
Engine ancillary components - refitting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43
Engine ancillary components - removal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37
Engine mountings - renewal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
Engine/transmission - reconnection and refitting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44
Engine/transmission - removal and separation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
Examination and renovation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40
Fault finding - all engines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . See end of Chapter
Oil pump - removal and refitting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
Pistons/connecting rods - removal and refitting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
Sump pan - removal and refitting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
Timing belt - renewal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
Valve clearances - adjustment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
Valve clearances - checking . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
Degrees of difficulty
Easy, suitable for
novice with little
experience
1
Fairly easy, suitable
for beginner with
some experience
2
Fairly difficult,
suitable for competent
DIY mechanic
3
Difficult, suitable for
experienced DIY
mechanic
4
Very difficult,
suitable for expert DIY
or professional
Specifications
903 cc engine
Type
...................................................
Four cylinder in-line, liquid cooled, overhead valve. Transversely
mounted with end-on transmission
General
Bore . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Stroke . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Displacement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Compression ratio:
900 models . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
900 ES models . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Maximum power (DIN) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Maximum torque (DIN):
900 models . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
900 ES models . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Compression pressure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Maximum pressure difference between cylinders . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Firing order . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
65.0 mm (2.56 in)
68.0 mm (2.68 in)
903 cc (55 cu in)
9.0 : 1
9.7 : 1
33.1 kW at 5600 rev/min (45 bhp)
68 Nm at 3000 rev/min (49 lbf ft)
69 Nm at 3000 rev/min (51 lbf ft)
9.3 to 10.35 bar (135 to 150 lbf/in2)
0.69 bar (10 lbf/in2)
1 - 3 - 4 - 2 (No. 1 at crankshaft pulley end)
5
1
1•2 Engine – general
Cylinder block and crankcase
Material . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Bore diameter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Diameter of camshaft bearing bores in crankcase timing gear end:
Grade B . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Grade C . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Grade D . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Grade E . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Centre . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Flywheel end . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Maximum cylinder bore taper . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Maximum cylinder bore ovality . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Cast-iron
65.000 to 65.050 mm (2.5591 to 2.5610 in)
50.505 to 50.515 mm (1.9882 to 1.9886 in)
50.515 to 50.525 mm (1.9886 to 1.9890 in)
50.705 to 50.715 mm (1.9960 to 1.9964 in)
50.715 to 50.725 mm (1.9964 to 1.9968 in)
46.420 to 46.450 mm (1.8275 to 1.8287 in)
35.921 to 35.951 mm (1.4142 to 1.4154 in)
0.015 mm (0.0006 in)
0.015 mm (0.0006 in)
Pistons and piston rings
Piston diameter:
Grade A . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Grade C . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Grade E . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Oversizes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Piston clearance in cylinder bore . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Piston ring groove width:
Top . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Second . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Bottom . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Piston ring thickness:
Top . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Second . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Bottom . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Piston ring groove clearance:
Top . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Second . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Bottom . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Piston ring end gap:
Top . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Second . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Bottom . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Oversize piston rings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Gudgeon pin diameter:
Grade 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Grade 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Grade 3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Oversize . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
64.940 to 64.950 mm (2.5566 to 2.5570 in)
64.960 to 64.970 mm (2.5574 to 2.5578 in)
64.980 to 64.990 mm (2.5582 to 2.5586 in)
0.2, 0.4, 0.6 mm (0.008, 0.016, 0.024 in)
0.050 to 0.070 mm (0.0020 to 0.0028 in)
1.785 to 1.805 mm (0.0703 to 0.0711 in)
2.015 to 2.035 mm (0.0793 to 0.0801 in)
3.975 to 3.977 mm (0.1566 to 0.1567 in)
1.728 to 1.740 mm (0.0680 to 0.0685 in)
1.978 to 1.990 mm (0.0779 to 0.0784 in)
3.925 to 3.937 mm (0.1545 to 0.1550 in)
0.045 to 0.077 mm (0.0018 to 0.0030 in)
0.025 to 0.057 mm (0.0010 to 0.0022 in)
0.020 to 0.052 mm (0.0008 to 0.0020 in)
0.25 to 0.45 mm (0.0098 to 0.0177 in)
0.20 to 0.35 mm (0.0078 to 0.0137 in)
0.20 to 0.45 mm (0.0078 to 0.0177 in)
0.2, 0.4, 0.6 mm (0.008, 0.016, 0.024 in)
19.970 to 19.974 mm (0.7862 to 0.7863 in)
19.974 to 19.978 mm (0.7863 to 0.7865 in)
19.978 to 19.982 mm (0.7865 to 0.7866 in)
0.2 mm (0.008 in)
Crankshaft
Journal diameter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Standard main bearing shell thickness . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Undersizes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Crankshaft endfloat . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Crankpin diameter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Standard big-end shell bearing thickness . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Undersizes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
50.785 to 50.805 mm (1.9994 to 2.0002 in)
1.832 to 1.837 mm (0.0721 to 0.0723 in)
0.254, 0.508, 0.762,1.016 mm (0.010, 0.020. 0.030, 0.040 in)
0.06 to 0.26 mm (0.0024 to 0.0102 in)
39.985 to 40.005 mm (1.5741 to 1.5750 in)
1.807 to 1.813 mm (0.0712 to 0.0714 in)
0.254, 0.508, 0.762, 1.016 mm (0.010, 0.020, 0.030, 0.040 in)
Camshaft
Diameter of camshaft journals:
Timing end . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Centre . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Flywheel end . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Bush reamed diameters:
Timing gear end* . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Centre . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Flywheel end . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
*Supplied reamed to size
Cam lift . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Outside diameter of cam follower . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Oversizes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Cam follower running clearance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
37.975 to 38.000 mm (1.4951 to 1.4961 in)
43.348 to 43.373 mm (1.7079 to 1.7088 in)
30.975 to 31.000 mm (1.2194 to 1.2205 in)
38.025 to 38.050 mm (1.4971 to 1.4981 in)
43.404 to 43.424 mm (1.7088 to 1.7096 in)
31.026 to 31.046 mm (1.2215 to 1.2223 in)
5.1 mm (0.201 in)
13.982 to 14.000 mm (0.5505 to 0.5512 in)
0.05 to 0.010 mm (0.002 to 0.004 in)
0.010 to 0.046 mm (0.0004 to 0.0018 in)
Engine – general 1•3
Cylinder head and valves
Material (cylinder head) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Maximum distortion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Valve guide bore in head . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Valve guide outside diameter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Valve guide oversizes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Inside diameter of valve guide (reamed) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Guide fit in head (interference) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Valve stem diameter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Maximum clearance (valve stem to guide) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Valve seat angle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Valve face angle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Valve head diameter:
Inlet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Exhaust . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Contact band (valve to seat) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Valve clearance:
Inlet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Exhaust . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
For timing check . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Valve timing:
Inlet valve:
Opens . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Closes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Exhaust valve:
Opens . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Closes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Light alloy
0.05 mm (0.002 in)
12.950 to 12.977 mm (0.5099 to 0.5109 in)
13.010 to 13.030 mm (0.5122 to 0.5130 in)
0.5, 0.10, 0.25 mm (0.002, 0.004, 0.010 in)
7.022 to 7.040 mm (0.2765 to 0.2772 in)
0.033 to 0.080 mm (0.0013 to 0.0032 in)
6.982 to 7.000 mm (0.2748 to 0.2756 in)
0.022 to 0.058 mm (0.0009 to 0.0023 in)
44º 55’ to 45º 05’
45º 25’ to 45º 35’
29.0 mm (1.1417 in)
26.0 mm (1.0236 in)
1.3 to 1.5 mm (0.0512 to 0.0591 in)
0.15 mm (0.006 in)
0.20 mm (0.008 in)
0.60 mm (0.024 in)
7º BTDC
36º ABDC
1
38º BBDC
5º ATDC
Lubrication system
Oil pump type . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Tooth tip to body clearance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Gear endfloat . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Oil pressure at normal operating temperature and average road/
engine speed . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Oil capacity (with filter change) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Oil type/specification . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Oil filter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Gear, driven by shaft from camshaft
0.05 to 0.14 mm (0.0020 to 0.0055 in)
0.020 to 0.105 mm (0.0008 to 0.0041 in)
2.94 to 3.92 bar (42 to 57 lbf/ in2)
3.42 litre (6.0 pint)
Multigrade engine oil, viscosity SAE 15W/40
Champion C101
Torque wrench settings
Nm
lbf ft
Cylinder head bolts:
Stage 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Stage 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Camshaft sprocket bolt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Main bearing cap bolts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Big-end bearing cap bolts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Crankshaft pulley nut . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Flywheel bolts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Rocker pedestal nuts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Engine mounting bracket bolts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Engine mounting centre nuts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Exhaust manifold nuts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Spark plugs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Temperature sender switch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Driveshaft to hub nuts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Hub carrier to strut clamp bolts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Roadwheel bolts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Brake caliper mounting bolts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Tie-rod end balljoint nuts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Driveshaft inboard boot retainer bolts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
30
59
49
69
41
98
44
39
25
49
20
25
49
272
49
86
53
34
9
22
43.5
36
51
30
72
32
29
18
36
15
18
36
200
36
63
39
25
7
1•4 Engine – general
1116 cc and 1301 cc engine
Type . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Four cylinder in-line, liquid cooled single overhead camshaft.
Transversely mounted with end-on transmission
General
1116 cc
1301 cc
80.0 mm (3.15 in)
86.4 mm (3.40 in)
55.5 mm (2.19 in)
55.5 mm (2.19 in)
1116 cc (68.08 cu in)
1301 cc (79.36 cu in)
9.2 : 1
9.1 : 1
40.5 kW (55 bhp) at 5600 rev/min
50 kW (68 bhp) at 5700 rev/min
86.3 Nm (64 lbf ft) at
100 Nm (74 lbf ft)
2900 rev/min
at 2900 rev/min
10.35 to 11.73 bar (150 to 170 lbf/in2)
0.96 bar (14 lbf/ in2)
1 - 3 - 4 - 2 (No. 1 at crankshaft pulley end)
Bore . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Stroke . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Displacement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Compression ratio . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Maximum power (DIN) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Maximum torque (DIN) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Compression pressure (bore wear test) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Pressure difference between cylinders . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Firing order . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Pistons and piston rings
Piston diameter - 1116 cc:
Grade A . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Grade C . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Grade E . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Piston diameter - 1301 cc:
Grade A . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Grade C . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Grade E . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Oversizes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Piston clearance in cylinder bore:
1116 cc . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1301 cc . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Piston ring groove width - 1116 cc:
Top . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Second . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Bottom . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Piston ring groove width - 1301 cc:
Top . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Second . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Bottom . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Piston ring thickness:
Top . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Second . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Bottom . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Oversizes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Piston ring groove clearance - 1116 cc:
Top . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Second . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Bottom . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Piston ring groove clearance - 1301 cc:
Top . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Second . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Bottom . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Piston ring end gap - 1116 cc:
Top . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Second . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Bottom . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Piston ring end gap - 1301 cc:
Top . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Second . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Bottom . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Gudgeon pin diameter - 1116 cc:
Grade 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Grade 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Grade 3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Gudgeon pin diameter - 1301 cc:
Grade 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Grade 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Oversize . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
79.940 to 79.950 mm (3.1496 to 3.1500 in)
79.960 to 79.970 mm (3.1504 to 3.1508 in)
79.980 to 79.990 mm (3.1512 to 3.1516 in)
86.320 to 86.330 mm (3.4010 to 3.4014 in)
86.340 to 86.350 mm (3.4018 to 3.4022 in)
86.360 to 86.370 mm (3.4025 to 3.4030 in)
0.2, 0.4, 0.6 mm (0.008, 0.016, 0.023 in)
0.050 to 0.070 mm (0.0020 to 0.0027 in)
0.070 to 0.090 mm (0.0027 to 0.0035 in)
1.535 to 1.555 mm (0.1442 to 0.1461 in)
2.015 to 2.035 mm (0.0794 to 0.0802 in)
3.957 to 3.977 mm (0.1559 to 0.1567 in)
1.535 to 1.555 mm (0.0605 to 0.0613 in)
2.030 to 2.050 mm (0.0800 to 0.0808 in)
3.967 to 3.987 mm (0.1563 to 0.1571 in)
1.478 to 1.490 mm (0.0582 to 0.0587 in)
1.978 to 1.990 mm (0.0779 to 0.0784 in)
3.925 to 3.937 mm (0.1546 to 0.1551 in)
0.2, 0.4, 0.6 mm (0.008, 0.016, 0.023 in)
0.045 to 0.077 mm (0.0018 to 0.0030 in)
0.025 to 0.057 mm (0.0010 to 0.0022 in)
0.020 to 0.052 mm (0.0008 to 0.0020 in)
0.045 to 0.077 mm (0.0018 to 0.0030 in)
0.040 to 0.072 mm (0.0016 to 0.0028 in)
0.030 to 0.062 mm (0.0012 to 0.0024 in)
0.30 to 0.45 mm (0.0012 to 0.0018 in)
0.20 to 0.35 mm (0.008 to 0.014 in)
0.20 to 0.35 mm (0.008 to 0.014 in)
0.30 to 0.45 mm (0.012 to 0.016 in)
0.30 to 0.50 mm (0.012 to 0.020 in)
0.25 to 0.40 mm (0.010 to 0.016 in)
21.970 to 21.974 mm (0.8656 to 0.8658 in)
21.974 to 21.978 mm (0.8658 to 0.8659 in)
21.978 to 21.982 mm (0.8659 to 0.8661in)
21.991 to 21.994 mm (0.8664 to 0.8666 in)
21.994 to 21.997 mm (0.8666 to 0.8667 in)
0.2 mm (0.008 in)
Engine – general 1•5
Crankshaft
Journal diameter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Standard main bearing shell thickness . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Undersizes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Crankshaft endfloat . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Crankpin diameter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Standard big-end shell bearing thickness . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Undersizes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
50.785 to 50.805 mm (1.9994 to 2.0002 in)
1.825 to 1.831 mm (0.0719 to 0.0721 in)
0.254, 0.508, 0.762, 1.016 mm (0.010. 0.020, 0.030, 0.040 in)
0.06 to 0.26 mm (0.0024 to 0.0102 in)
45.498 to 45.518 mm (1.7926 to 1.7934 in)
1.531 to 1.538 mm (0.0603 to 0.0606 in)
0.254, 0.508, 0.762, 1.016 mm (0.010, 0.020, 0.030, 0.040 in)
Camshaft
Number of bearings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Diameter of camshaft journals:
No. 1 (timing end) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
No. 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
No. 3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
No. 4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
No. 5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Cam lift . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Camshaft bearing diameters in carrier:
No. 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
No. 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
No. 3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
No. 4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
No. 5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Outside diameter of cam follower . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Cam follower running clearance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5
29.944 to 29.960 mm (1.1798 to 1.1804 in)
47.935 to 47.950 mm (1.8886 to 1.8892 in)
48.135 to 48.150 mm (1.8965 to 1.8971 in)
48.335 to 48.350 mm (1.9044 to 1.9050 in)
48.535 to 48.550 mm (1.9122 to 1.9129 in)
8.8 mm (0.3467 in)
29.990 to 30.014 mm (1.1816 to 1.1825 in)
47.980 to 48.005 mm (1.8904 to 1.8913 in)
48.180 to 48.205 mm (1.8982 to 1.8992 in)
48.380 to 48.405 mm (1.9062 to 1.9072 in)
48.580 to 48.605 mm (1.9141 to 1.9150 in)
36.975 to 36.995 mm (1.4568 to 1.4576 in)
0.005 to 0.050 mm (0.0002 to 0.0020 in)
Lubrication system
Oil pump type . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Tooth tip to body clearance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Gear endfloat . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Oil pressure at normal operating temperature and average road/
engine speed . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Oil capacity (with filter change) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Oil type/specification . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Oil filter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Gear driven from auxiliary shaft
0.110 to 0.180 mm (0.0043 to 0.0071 in)
0.020 to 0.105 mm (0.0008 to 0.0041 in)
3.43 to 4.9 bar (50 to 71 lbf/in2)
4.05 litre (7.1 pint)
Multigrade engine oil, viscosity SAE 15W/40
Champion C106
Cylinder head and valves
Head material . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Maximum distortion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Valve guide bore in head . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Valve guide outside diameter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Valve guide oversizes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Inside diameter of valve guide (reamed) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Valve guide fit in cylinder head (interference) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Valve stem diameter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Maximum clearance (valve stem to guide) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Valve face angle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Valve seat angle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Valve head diameter:
Inlet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Exhaust . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Contact band (valve to seat) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Valve clearance:
Inlet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Exhaust . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
For timing check . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Valve clearance adjusting shim thicknesses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Valve timing:
Inlet valve:
Opens . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Closes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Exhaust valve:
Opens . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Closes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Light alloy
0.05 mm (0.002 in)
13.950 to 13.977 mm (0.5496 to 0.5507 in)
14.040 to 14.058 mm (0.5532 to 0.5539 in)
0.05, 0.10, 0.25 mm (0.002, 0.004, 0.010 in)
8.022 to 8.040 mm (0.3161 to 0.3168 in)
0.063 to 0.108 mm (0.0025 to 0.0043 in)
7.974 to 7.992 mm (0.3142 to 0.3149 in)
0.030 to 0.066 mm (0.0012 to 0.0026 in)
45º 25’ to 45º 35’
44º 55’ to 45º 05’
35.850 to 36.150 mm (1.4125 to 1.4243 in)
30.850 to 31.450 mm (1.2155 to 1.2391 in)
1.3 to 1.5 mm (0.0512 to 0.0591 in)
0.40 mm (0.0158 in)
0.50 mm (0.0197 in)
0.80 mm (0.0315 in)
3.25 to 4.70 mm (0.128 to 0.185 in), in increments of 0.05 mm
(0.002 in)
7º BTDC
35º ABDC
37º BBDC
5º ATDC
1
1•6 Engine – general
Auxiliary shaft
Bearing internal diameter (reamed):
No. 1 (timing belt end) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
No. 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Shaft journal diameter:
No. 1 (timing belt end) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
No. 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
35.664 to 35.684 mm (1.4052 to 1.4059 in)
32.000 to 32.020 mm (1.2608 to 1.2616 in)
35.593 to 35.618 mm (1.4024 to 1.4033 in)
31.940 to 31.960 mm (1.2584 to 1.2592 in)
Cylinder block and crankcase
Material . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Bore diameter:
1116 cc . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1301 cc . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Maximum cylinder bore taper . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Maximum cylinder bore ovality . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
80.000 to 80.050 mm (3.152 to 3.154 in)
86.400 to 86.450 mm (3.404 to 3.406 in)
0.015 mm (0.0006 in)
0.015 mm (0.0006 in)
Torque wrench settings
Nm
lbf ft
Cylinder head bolts:
Stage 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Stage 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Stage 3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Stage 4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Camshaft carrier to cylinder head . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Main bearing cap bolts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Big-end cap nuts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Flywheel mounting bolts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Camshaft sprocket bolt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Belt tensioner bolt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Exhaust manifold nuts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Auxiliary shaft sprocket bolt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Flexible mounting bracket bolts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Flexible mounting centre nuts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Oil pressure switch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Spark plugs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Roadwheel bolts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Driveshaft/hub nuts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Tie-rod end balljoint nuts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Brake caliper mounting bolts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Front strut lower clamp bolts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Driveshaft inboard boot retainer bolts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Crankshaft pulley nut . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
20
40
Turn through 90º
Turn through 90º
20
80
51
83
83
44
28
83
59
49
32
25
86
272
34
53
49
9
98
15
30
Turn through 90º
Turn through 90º
15
59
38
61
61
32
21
61
44
36
24
18
63
200
25
39
36
7
7
Part 1: General
1 Description
Cast-iron
cartridge type oil filter. An oil pressure relief
valve is incorporated in the oil pump. The
engine oil is independent of the transmission
lubricant.
1116 cc and 1301 cc
1 The Uno may be powered by one of three
engines depending upon the particular model.
903 cc
2 This is of four cylinder overhead valve type
with a light alloy cylinder head and a cast-iron
block and crankcase.
3 A three bearing crankshaft is used and the
chain-driven camshaft runs in three steel
backed white metal bearings.
4 The light alloy pistons are fitted with two
compression and one oil control ring. The
gudgeon pin is an interference fit in the small
end of the connecting rod.
5 Lubrication is provided by an oil pump
within the sump pan and both the pump and
the distributor are driven from a gear on the
camshaft. Pressurised oil passes through a
6 These engines are of single overhead
camshaft type, the camshaft being driven by a
toothed belt.
7 The difference in engine capacity is
achieved by increasing the cylinder bore on
the 1301 cc engine.
8 The cylinder head is of light alloy while the
cylinder block and crankcase are of cast-iron
construction.
9 A five bearing crankshaft is used and the
camshaft runs in a similar number of bearings,
but as these are in-line bored directly in the
camshaft carrier, no repair is possible.
10 The pistons are of light alloy with two
compression and one oil control ring. The
gudgeon pin is an interference fit in the small
end of the connecting rod.
11 An auxiliary shaft, driven by the timing belt
is used to drive the distributor, oil pump and
fuel pump.
12 The oil pump is located within the sump
pan and incorporates a pressure relief valve.
13 Pressurised oil passes through a cartridge
type oil filter.
14 The crankshaft main bearings are
supplied under pressure from drillings in the
crankcase from the main oil gallery whilst the
connecting rod big-end bearings are
lubricated from the main bearings by oil
forced through the crankshaft oilways. The
camshaft bearings are fed from a drilling from
the main oil gallery. The cams and tappets are
lubricated by oil mist from outlets in the
camshaft bearings.
15 The cylinder walls, pistons and gudgeon
pins are lubricated by oil splashed up by the
crankshaft webs. An oil pressure warning light
is fitted to indicate when the pressure is too
low.
All engines
16 The engine is mounted transversely with
the transmission at the front of the car.
17 The engine oil is independent of the
transmission lubricant.
Engine – general 1•7
1
Fig. 1.1 Longitudinal section of 903 cc engine (Sec 1)
Fig. 1.2 Cross-section of 903 cc engine (Sec 1)
Fig. 1.3 Longitudinal section of 1116 cc and 1301 cc engines
(Sec 1)
Fig. 1.4 Cross-section of 1116 cc and 1301 cc engines
(Sec 1)
1•8 Engine – general
2.2 Withdrawing engine oil dipstick
(1116 cc)
2 Engine oil and filter
2.3A Typical dipstick markings
1
1 The engine oil level should be checked at
the
weekly
service
(see
“Routine
Maintenance”). Preferably check the level
cold, first thing in the morning or if the engine
has been running, allow at least ten minutes
to elapse after switching off to permit the oil to
drain.
2 Withdraw the dipstick, wipe it clean on
non-fluffy material, re-insert it and then
withdraw it for the second time (photo).
3 The oil level should be between the MIN
and MAX marks. If not, top up with specified
oil to the MAX mark. Pour the oil slowly
through the filler orifice on the rocker cover.
To raise the oil level from MIN to MAX will
require approximately 1.1 litre (2.0 pints)
(photos).
4 At the intervals specified in “Routine
Maintenance” the oil and filter should be
renewed.
5 Have the engine at normal operating
temperature, remove the oil filler cap.
6 Place a suitable container under the sump
pan. Unscrew and remove the oil drain plug
and allow the oil to drain (photo).
7 While the oil is draining, unscrew and
discard the oil filter. To unscrew the filter, a
filter or chain wrench will normally be
required. If such a tool is not available, drive a
long screwdriver through the oil tester casing
and use it as a lever to unscrew the filter
cartridge.
8 Smear the rubber sealing ring of the new oil
filter with oil and screw into position using
hand pressure only (photo).
9 Refit the drain plug and refill the engine with
the correct quantity and grade of oil.
10 Start the engine. It will take two or three
seconds for the oil warning lamp to go out.
This is normal and is due to the time taken for
the new filter to fill with oil.
11 Switch off, check for leaks and check the
oil level, topping up if necessary.
2.3B Topping up engine oil (1116 cc)
3 Crankcase ventilation
system
1
1 This system is designed to draw oil fumes
and blow-by gas (which has passed the piston
rings) from the crankcase and draw it into the
intake manifold when it will then be burned
during the normal combustion process.
2 Regularly check the security of the system
hoses which run from the rocker cover or
crankcase breather unit (photo).
3 Periodically, detach the hoses and clean
them out with paraffin and a brush or rag pull
through.
4 Evidence of sludge or emulsified oil within
the hoses or inside the oil filler cap will
indicate that the engine is running too cool
particularly if the car is used mainly for short
journeys where the engine never reaches full
working temperature.
4 Major operations possible
without removing engine
from car
1 The following work can be carried out without
the need to remove the engine from the car.
903 cc engine
Valve clearances - checking and adjusting
Timing chain and sprockets - removal and
refitting
2.6 Engine sump drain plug
2.8 Screwing on the oil filter (903 cc)
Fig. 1.5 Sectional view of oil filter. Bypass
valve arrowed (Sec 2)
3.2 Crankcase vent hose (1116 cc)
903 cc engine 1•9
Cylinder head - removal and refitting
Sump pan - removal and refitting
Pistons/connecting rods - removal and
refitting
Oil pump - removal and refitting
Engine mountings - renewal
1116 cc and 1301 cc engines
Valve clearances - checking and adjusting
Camshaft and camshaft carrier - removal
and refitting
Timing belt - removal and refitting
Cylinder head - removal and refitting
Sump pan - removal and refitting
Oil pump - removal and refitting
Pistons/connecting rods - removal and
refitting
Engine mountings - renewal
Part 2:
903 cc engine
5 Valve clearances adjustment
6 Timing chain and sprockets
- removal and refitting
2
1 Adjust the valves when the engine is cold.
2 Unbolt and remove the rocker cover.
3 It is important that the clearance is set
when the cam follower of the valve being
adjusted is on the heel of the cam (ie;
opposite the peak). This can be done by
carrying out the adjustments in the following
order, which also avoids turning the
crankshaft more than necessary.
4 Turn the crankshaft either using a spanner
on the pulley nut or by raising a front
roadwheel, engaging a gear (3rd or 4th) and
turning the wheel in the forward direction of
travel. It will be easier to turn the engine if the
spark plugs are first removed.
Valve fully open
Check and adjust
Valve No. 8 EX
Valve No. 1 EX
Valve No. 6 IN
Valve No. 3 IN
Valve No. 4 EX
Valve No. 5 EX
Valve No. 7 IN
Valve No. 2 IN
Valve No. 1 EX
Valve No. 8 EX
Valve No. 3 IN
Valve No. 6 IN
Valve No. 5 EX
Valve No. 4 EX
Valve No. 2 IN
Valve No. 7 IN
5.7 Adjusting a valve clearance
5 Count the valves from the timing cover end
of the engine.
6 Remember, the inlet and exhaust valve
clearances are different.
7 Insert the appropriate feeler gauge between
the end of the valve stem and the rocker arm.
It should be a stiff sliding fit (photo).
8 If the clearance is incorrect, release the
rocker arm adjuster screw locknut using a ring
spanner. Turn the adjuster screw using a
small open-ended spanner, but tie something
to it in case it is inadvertently dropped
through one of the pushrod holes.
9 Once the clearance is correct, tighten the
locknut without moving the position of the
adjuster screw.
10 Repeat the operations on the remaining
seven valves.
11 Re-check all the clearances. Make sure
that the rocker cover gasket is in good
condition and fit the rocker cover.
3
1 Remove the alternator drivebelt as
described in Chapter 2.
2 Unscrew and remove the crankshaft pulley
nut.
To prevent the crankshaft
rotating, either select a gear
and have an assistant apply
the footbrake hard or
remove the starter motor and lock the
ring gear teeth with a large cold chisel
or screwdriver.
3 Disconnect the hoses from the fuel pump.
4 Unbolt and remove the fuel pump with
spacer and rod.
5 Support the engine on a hoist or under the
sump and disconnect and remove the
right-hand mounting. Then unscrew and
remove the timing cover bolts. The base of
the cover is secured by the front two sump
pan studs. Unbolt and lower the front end of
the sump. Avoid breaking the gasket. Remove
the timing cover.
6 Undo and remove the camshaft sprocket
securing bolt; this will also release the fuel
pump drive cam from the end of the camshaft.
Note the timing marks on the camshaft and
crankshaft sprockets.
7 Using two tyre levers, carefully ease the two
sprockets forwards away from the crankcase.
Lift away the two sprockets and timing chain.
8 Remove the Woodruff key from the
crankshaft nose with a pair of pliers and note
how the channel in the pulley is designed to fit
over it. Place the Woodruff key in a container
as it is a very small part and can easily
become lost. The camshaft sprocket is
located on the camshaft by a dowel peg.
Refitting
9 Fit the Woodruff key to the front of the
crankshaft.
10 Tap the crankshaft sprocket onto the front
of the crankshaft.
11 Turn the sprocket so that the Woodruff
key is uppermost.
12 Turn the camshaft until it is in such a
position that if the sprocket was fitted the
dimple timing mark on the sprocket would be
nearest to and in alignment with, the one on
the crankshaft sprocket.
Fig. 1.6 Timing chain and sprockets (Sec 6)
1 Sprocket retaining bolt
4 Camshaft sprocket
7 Woodruff key
2 Fuel pump eccentric cam
5 Sprocket locating dowel
8 Crankshaft
3 Timing chain
6 Camshaft
9 Crankshaft sprocket
1
1•10 903 cc engine
6.13A Fitting the sprockets and timing
chain
6.13B Timing mark alignment
6.13C Self-tensioning links on inside of
chain
13 Engage the timing chain with the teeth of
the crankshaft sprocket. Then locate the
camshaft sprocket within the upper loop of
the chain in such a way that when the
sprocket is pushed onto the camshaft, the
timing marks will be in alignment. Make sure
that the self-tensioning links are on the inside
of the chain against the cylinder block
(photos).
14 Place the camshaft sprocket onto the
camshaft so that its positioning dowel
engages.
15 Secure the camshaft sprocket by fitting
the special cam, that drives the fuel pump, on
its locating dowel. Fit the camshaft sprocket
retaining bolt (photo).
16 Tighten the sprocket bolt to the specified
torque.
17 If the timing cover oil seal showed signs of
leaking before engine overhaul the old seal
should be removed and a new one fitted.
18 Using a screwdriver, carefully remove the
old oil seal, working from the rear of the cover.
Fit the new seal making sure it is inserted
squarely, and tap home with a hammer.
19 Lubricate the oil seal with engine oil.
20 With all traces of old gasket and jointing
compound removed from the timing cover
and cylinder block mating faces, smear a little
grease onto the timing cover mating face and
fit a new gasket in position.
21 Fit the timing cover to the cylinder block
and finger tighten the securing bolts, and
spring washer. Ensure that the fuel pump
pushrod bush is in place in the cover.
22 Wipe the hub of the pulley and carefully
place into position on the crankshaft. It should
locate on the Woodruff key. It may be
necessary to adjust the position of the timing
cover slightly in order to centralise the oil seal
relative to the pulley hub.
23 Tighten the timing cover securing bolts in
a diagonal and progressive manner.
24 Tighten the crankshaft pulley nut to the
specified torque again holding the crankshaft
against rotation as previously described
(paragraph 2) this Section.
25 Refit the fuel pump and alternator
drivebelt.
ease the valve rocker assembly from the
cylinder head studs.
13 Remove the pushrods, keeping them in
the relative order in which they were removed.
The easiest way to do this is to push them
through a sheet of thick paper or thin card in
the correct sequence.
14 Unscrew the cylinder head securing bolts
half a turn at a time in the reverse order to that
shown in Fig. 1.7; don’t forget the one within
the inlet manifold. When all the bolts are no
longer under tension they may be unscrewed
from the cylinder head one at a time. This will
also release a section of the cooling system
pipe secured by two of the bolts. All the bolts
have washers.
15 The cylinder head may now be lifted off. If
the head is jammed, try to rock it to break the
seal. Under no circumstances try to prise it
apart from the cylinder block with a
screwdriver or cold chisel as damage may be
done to the faces of the head or block. If this
or the Hint, fail to work, strike the head
sharply with a plastic headed hammer, or with
a wooden hammer, or with a metal hammer
with an interposed piece of wood to cushion
the blows. Under no circumstances hit the
head directly with a metal hammer as this may
cause the casting to fracture. Several sharp
taps with the hammer, at the same time
pulling upwards, should free the head. Lift the
head off and place on one side.
6.15 Fitting fuel pump drive cam and
sprocket bolt
7 Cylinder head removal and refitting
3
1 For safety reasons, disconnect the battery
negative lead.
2 Refer to Chapter 2 and drain the cooling
system.
3 Refer to Chapter 3 and remove the
carburettor, air cleaner and spacer block.
4 Undo and remove the five nuts and
washers securing the exhaust manifold and
hot air ducting to the cylinder head.
5 Detach the cable from the temperature
indicator sender unit.
6 Refer to Chapter 4 and disconnect the
distributor LT lead and the coil HT lead.
7 Refer to Chapter 2 and remove the
thermostat housing from the cylinder head.
8 Disconnect the coolant hoses from the
cylinder head.
9 Note the electrical connections to the rear
of the alternator and disconnect them.
10 Disconnect the mounting and adjuster link
bolts and remove the alternator from the
engine.
11 Unscrew the four nuts securing the rocker
cover to the top of the cylinder head and lift
away the spring washers and metal packing
pieces. Remove the rocker cover and cork
gasket.
12 Unscrew the four rocker pedestal
securing nuts in a progressive manner. Lift
away the four nuts and spring washers and
If the head will not readily
free, turn the crankshaft.
The compression generated
in the cylinders will often
break the gasket joint
16 The cylinder head may now be decarbonised or dismantled, refer to Section 17.
Refitting
17 After checking that both the cylinder block
and cylinder head mating surfaces are
perfectly clean, generously lubricate each
cylinder with engine oil.
18 Always use a new cylinder head gasket as
the old gasket will be compressed and not
capable of giving a good seal.
903 cc engine 1•11
7.20 Cylinder head gasket
7.24A Cylinder head bolt in intake manifold
19 Never smear grease on the gasket as,
when the engine heats up, the grease will melt
and may allow compression leaks to develop.
20 The cylinder head gasket cannot be fitted
incorrectly due to its asymmetrical shape, but
the word ALTO should be uppermost in any
event (photo).
21 The locating dowels should be refitted to
the front right and left-hand side cylinder head
securing bolt holes.
22 Carefully fit the cylinder head gasket to
the top of the cylinder block.
23 Lower the cylinder head onto the gasket,
taking care not to move the position of the
gasket.
24 Screw in the cylinder head bolts finger
tight, remembering the bolt within the intake
manifold and the metal coolant pipe which is
held by the two cylinder head bolts adjacent to
the coolant temperature sender unit (photos).
25 Tighten the cylinder head bolts in two
stages, in the specified sequence to the
torque given in Specifications.
26 With the cylinder head in position, fit the
pushrods in the same order in which they
were removed. Ensure that they locate
properly in the stems of the tappets and
lubricate the pushrod ends before fitment
(photo).
27 Unscrew the rocker arm adjuster screws
as far as they will go.
28 Fit the rocker gear over the four studs in
the cylinder head and lower onto the cylinder
head. Make sure the ball ends of the rockers
locate in the cups of the pushrods.
29 Fit the four nuts and washers to the rocker
shaft pedestal studs and tighten in a
progressive manner to the torque wrench
setting given in the Specifications.
30 Adjust the valve clearances as described
in Section 5.
31 Fit the exhaust manifold, thermostat
housing and alternator, also the rocker cover
(photo).
32 Fit the carburettor, air cleaner and
distributor (Chapter 4).
33 Reconnect all hoses and electrical leads,
including the battery.
34 Refill the cooling system.
4 Fit the new sealing strips and if necessary,
trim their ends until they are just proud of the
sump pan flange (photo).
5 Using thick grease, stick the gasket side
strips to the crankcase.
6 Apply a blob of jointing compound at the
points of overlap of the side gaskets and
strips.
7 Offer up the sump pan, screw in and tighten
the bolts and nuts progressively (photos).
8 Refill the engine with oil.
7.31 Fitting the rocker cover
8.4 Sump pan sealing strip
8.7A Fitting the sump pan
8 Sump pan removal and refitting
7.24B Cylinder head bolts holding coolant
pipe
Fig. 1.7 Cylinder head bolt tightening
sequence (Sec 7)
1
1 Drain the engine oil.
2 Unscrew and remove the four nuts and
twelve bolts and lift away the sump pan. If it
has stuck on the gasket carefully tap the side
of the mating flange to break the seal.
Remove the gasket and clean away any
pieces of gasket cement which are adhering
to the flanges.
3 Remove the sealing strips from the
recesses at either end of the sump pan.
Refitting
7.26 Fitting a pushrod
1
1•12 903 cc engine
8.7B Sump pan nut, bolts and washers
9 Pistons/connecting rods removal and refitting
3
1 Remove the cylinder head as described in
Section 7.
2 Remove the sump pan as described in
Section 8.
3 Undo and remove the big-end cap retaining
bolts and keep them in their respective order
for correct refitting.
4 Check that the connecting rod and big-end
bearing cap assemblies are correctly marked.
Normally the numbers 1-4 are stamped on
adjacent sides of the big-end caps and
connecting rods, indicating which cap fits on
which rod and which way round the cap fits.
The numbers are located on the sides of the
rod and cap furthest away from the camshaft.
5 If numbers are not evident, then use a sharp
file to make mating marks across the rod/cap
joint. One line for connecting rod No. 1, two
for connecting rod No. 2 and so on. This will
ensure that there is no confusion later as it is
most important that the caps go back in the
correct position on the connecting rods from
which they were removed. No. 1 piston should
be at the crankshaft pulley end of the engine.
6 If the big-end caps are difficult to remove
they may be gently tapped with a soft-faced
hammer.
7 To remove the shell bearings, press the
bearing opposite the groove in both the
connecting rod and the connecting rod caps
and the bearings will slide out easily.
8 Keep the shells with their original cap or rod
if the bearings are not being renewed.
9 Withdraw the pistons and connecting rods
upwards and ensure that they are kept in the
correct order for replacement in the same
bore.
10 If the cylinder has a wear ridge at its upper
end then this may make it difficult to remove
the piston. In this event, relieve the sharp
edge of the ridge by scraping.
11 Dismantling the pistons is described in
Section 18, paragraph 17.
12 Lay the piston and connecting rod
assemblies in the correct order ready for
refitting into their respective bores.
Fig. 1.8 Piston/connecting rod components (Sec 9)
1 Bolt
2 Connecting rod
3 Oil control ring
4 Compression ring
(stepped at base)
5 Compression ring
(marked TOP)
6 Gudgeon pin
7 Piston gudgeon pins
8 Big-end shell bearings
13 With a wad of clean non-fluffy rag wipe
the cylinder bores clean.
14 Position the piston rings so that their gaps
are 120º apart and then lubricate the rings.
15 Wipe clean the connecting rod half of the
big-end bearing and the underside of the shell
bearing. Fit the shell bearing in position with
its locating tongue engaged with the
corresponding groove in the connecting rod.
16 Fit a piston ring compressor to the top of
the piston, making sure it is tight enough to
compress the piston rings.
17 Using a piece of fine wire double check
that the little jet hole in the connecting rod is
clean.
18 The pistons, complete with connecting
rods, are fitted to their bores from above. The
number stamped on the connecting rod must
face away from the camshaft with the arrow
on the piston crown pointing towards the
timing cover.
19 With the base of the piston ring compressor
resting on the cylinder block, apply the wooden
handle of a hammer to the piston crown, strike
the hammer head with the hand and drive the
piston/rod into its bore (photo).
20 Draw the rod, complete with shell bearing
down onto its crankpin.
21 Generously lubricate the crankpin journals
with engine oil, and turn the crankshaft so that
the crankpin is in the most advantageous
position for the connecting rod to be drawn
into it.
22 Wipe clean the connecting rod bearing
cap and back of the shell bearing and fit the
shell bearing in position ensuring that the
locating tongue at the back of the bearing
engages with the locating groove in the
connecting rod cap.
23 Generously lubricate the shell bearing and
offer up the connecting rod bearing cap to the
connecting rod (photo).
9.19 Fitting a piston/connecting rod
9.23 Big-end cap
903 cc engine 1•13
24 Screw in the big-end bolts and tighten to
the specified torque (photo).
25 Refit the sump pan (Sec 8) and the
cylinder head (Sec 7).
26 Refill the engine with oil and coolant.
10 Oil pump removal and refitting
1
1 Remove the sump pan as described in
Section 8.
2 Unscrew the two bolts which hold the oil
pump housing to the underside of the
crankcase and withdraw the pump. Remove
and discard the pump flange gasket.
9.24 Tightening a big-end bolt
10.3 Oil pump gasket
Refitting
3 Stick a new gasket to the oil pump location
on the underside of the crankcase (photo).
4 Locate the oil pump driveshaft in the oil
pump and then offer up the complete
assembly to the crankcase so that the gear
teeth on the driveshaft mesh with those on the
camshaft (photo).
5 Fit the securing bolts (photo).
6 Fit the sump pan and refill the engine with
oil.
11 Engine mountings renewal
1
1 The engine/transmission flexible mountings
can be removed if the power unit is supported
under the sump pan or gearbox with a jack, or
a hoist is attached to the engine lifting lugs
and the weight of the power unit just taken.
2 Unscrew the mounting bracket bolts and
remove the mounting.
3 Fit the new mounting and remove the lifting
gear.
4 In the unlikely event of all the mountings
requiring renewal at the same time, renew
them one at a time, never disconnect all the
mountings together.
Fig. 1.9 Coolant temperature switch
(Sec 13)
1
10.4 Fitting the oil pump
10.5 Tightening an oil pump bolt
12 Engine - method of removal
1 The engine/transmission should be
removed downwards and withdrawn from
under the front of the car which will have to be
raised sufficiently high to provide clearance.
13 Engine/transmission removal and separation
3
1 Open the bonnet, disconnect the
windscreen washer tube.
2 Mark the hinge positions on the underside
of the bonnet using masking tape and then
Fig. 1.10 Clutch cable disconnected (Sec 13)
C Reversing switch cables
with the help of an assistant to support its
weight unbolt the bonnet and remove it to a
safe place.
3 Disconnect the battery negative lead.
4 Drain the cooling system and engine oil.
5 Disconnect the leads from the rear of the
alternator, the starter motor and the oil pressure
switch also the coolant temperature switch.
6 Disconnect the HT lead from the ignition
coil and the LT lead from the distributor.
Disconnect the transmission earth strap.
7 Remove the air cleaner.
8 Disconnect the clutch cable from the
release lever at the transmission.
9 Disconnect the speedometer drive cable by
unscrewing the knurled nut from the
transmission.
Fig. 1.11 Speedometer drive cable at
transmission (Sec 13)
1•14 903 cc engine
Fig. 1.12 Coolant hoses at
thermostat housing (Sec 13)
Fig. 1.13 Coolant hose at rear
of coolant pump (Sec 13)
Fig. 1.14 Fuel inlet hose
disconnected from pump
(Sec 13)
Fig. 1.15 Fuel return hose
disconnected from carburettor
(Sec 13)
Fig. 1.16 Gearchange rods
disconnected (Sec 13)
Fig. 1.17 Tie-rod end balljoint
disconnected (Sec 13)
Fig. 1.18 Hub carrier detached
from strut clamp (Sec 13)
Fig. 1.19 Left-hand flexible
mounting (Sec 13)
10 Disconnect the leads from the reversing
lamp switch.
11 Disconnect the coolant hoses from the
cylinder head and coolant pump.
12 Disconnect the fuel inlet hose from the
fuel pump. Plug the hose.
13 Disconnect the throttle and choke
controls from the carburettor.
14 Disconnect the heater hoses from the
engine.
15 Disconnect the fuel return hose from the
carburettor.
16 Disconnect the exhaust downpipe from
the manifold.
17 Raise the front end of the car and support
it securely on axle stands. Remove the
roadwheels.
18 Unscrew the driveshaft to hub nuts. These
are very tight and a long knuckle bar will be
required when unscrewing them. Have an
assistant apply the brakes hard to prevent the
hub turning.
19 Working under the car, remove the
protective shields and disconnect the exhaust
system mountings and withdraw it to the
rear.
20 Disconnect the forward ends of the
gearchange rods by prising their sockets from
the ballstuds.
21 Unscrew the nuts on the steering tie-rod
end balljoints and using a suitable “splitter”
tool separate the balljoints from the steering
arms. Unbolt the brake calipers and tie them
up out of the way.
22 Unscrew and remove the bolts which
secure the hub carriers to the U-clamps at the
base of the suspension struts (photo).
23 Pull the tops of the hub carriers from the
clamps and release the driveshafts from the
hub carriers.
24 Tie the driveshafts in a horizontal plane
with lengths of wire.
25 Support the engine on a hoist or use a
trolley jack under the engine/transmission and
remove the bottom mounting and then the
upper left and right-hand ones (photo).
26 Carefully lower the power unit to the floor
and withdraw it from under the car.
27 External dirt and grease should now be
removed using paraffin and a stiff brush or a
water-soluble solvent.
28 Unbolt and remove the engine mounting
brackets and the starter motor.
29 Unbolt and remove the cover plate and
gearchange ball stud strut from the lower front
face of the flywheel housing.
30 With the engine resting squarely on its
sump pan unscrew the flywheel housing
connecting bolts noting the location of any
lifting lugs and hose and wiring brackets.
13.22 Hub carrier strut clamp
13.25 Right-hand engine mounting
Fig. 1.20 Flywheel housing cover plate
removed (Sec 13)
903 cc engine 1•15
31 Support the weight of the transmission
and withdraw it in a straight line from the
engine.
14 Engine - dismantling (general)
1 Stand the engine on a strong bench at a
suitable working height. Failing this, it can be
dismantled on the floor, but at least stand it
on a sheet of hardboard.
2 During the dismantling process, the
greatest care should be taken to keep the
exposed parts free from dirt. As the engine is
stripped, clean each part in a bath of paraffin.
3 Never immerse parts with oilways in
paraffin, e.g. the crankshaft, but to clean,
wipe down carefully with a paraffin dampened
rag. Oilways can be cleaned out with a piece
of wire. If an air line is available, all parts can
be blown dry and the oilways blown through
as an added precaution.
4 Re-use of old gaskets is false economy and
can give rise to oil and water leaks, if nothing
worse. To avoid the possibility of trouble after
the engine has been reassembled always use
new gaskets throughout.
Fig. 1.21 Camshaft and rocker gear components (Sec 16)
1 Camshaft bush
lockbolt
2 Washer
3 Camshaft front
bearing
4 Exhaust valve
5 Spring cap
6 Valve guide
7 Adjuster screw
Do not throw the old
gaskets away as it
sometimes happens that an
immediate replacement
cannot be found and the old gasket is
then very useful as a template. Hang
up the gaskets on a suitable nail or
hook as they are removed.
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
Rocker arm
Thrust washer
Circlip
Locknut
Washer
Locknut
Pedestal
Rocker arm
Plug
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
Rocker shaft
Coil spring
Stud
Split collets
Spring cap
Valve guide
Outer valve spring
Inner valve spring
Spring seat
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
Inlet valve
Camshaft bearing
Camshaft bearing
Camshaft
Locating dowel
Cam follower
Pushrod
Washer
5 To strip the engine, it is best to work from
the top downwards. The engine oil sump
provides a firm base on which the engine can
be supported in an upright position. When the
stage is reached where the pistons are to be
removed, turn the engine on its side. Turn the
block upside down to remove the crankshaft.
6 Wherever possible, replace nuts, bolts and
washers finger-tight from wherever they were
removed. This helps avoid later loss and
muddle. If they cannot be replaced then lay
them out in such a fashion that it is clear from
where they came.
15 Engine - removing ancillary
components
1 Before dismantling the engine, remove the
engine ancillary components.
Carburettor (Chapter 3)
Thermostat housing (Chapter 2)
Alternator (Chapter 9)
Coolant pump (Chapter 2)
Distributor (Chapter 4)
Exhaust manifold (Chapter 3)
Fuel pump (Chapter 3)
Oil filter cartridge (Section 2 this Chapter)
Clutch (Chapter 5)
Fig. 1.22 Cylinder head, block and crankcase (Sec 16)
1
2
3
4
Washer
Cylinder head bolt
Gasket
Rocker cover
gasket
5 Rocker cover
6
7
8
9
10
11
Washer
Plate
Nut
Stud
Plug
Cylinder head
12
13
14
15
16
17
Plug
Cylinder head bolt
Washer
Dowel
Plug
Plug
18
19
20
21
22
23
Dowel
Block/crankcase
Plug
Plug
Bolt
Plug
1
1•16 903 cc engine
Fig. 1.23 Timing cover, sump pan and oil seals (Sec 16)
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
Sump pan bolt
Washer
Sealing strip
Side gasket
Side gasket
Block/crankcase
Gasket
8
9
10
11
Bolt
Washer
Bolt and washer
Crankshaft front oil
seal
12 Timing cover
14 Gasket
16 Engine complete dismantling
3
1 Unbolt and remove the rocker cover.
2 Unscrew the rocker pedestal securing nuts
and lift away the rocker assembly.
3 Remove the pushrods, keeping them in
their original fitted order.
4 Remove the cylinder head as described in
Section 7. Remove the dipstick and guide
tube.
13 Fuel pump studs
and bush
15 Cover plate
16 Bolt and washer
17 Bolt
18 Bolt
19 Washer
20 Crankshaft rear oil
seal
21 Oil seal carrier
22 Gasket
23 Sealing strip
24 Sump pan
25 Drain plug
5 Turn the engine on its side and unbolt and
remove the sump pan.
6 Remove the piston/connecting rods as
described in Section 9.
7 Unscrew and remove the crankshaft pulley
nut. To prevent the crankshaft rotating while
this is done, either jam the flywheel ring gear
or place a block between a crankshaft
counterweight and the inside of the
crankcase.
8 Unbolt and remove the timing cover.
9 Remove the timing chain and sprockets as
described in Section 6.
10 Unbolt and remove the oil pump as
described in Section 10.
11 Unscrew and remove the camshaft front
bearing lockscrew noting that the chamfer on
the bearing is on the inboard side.
12 Withdraw the camshaft, taking great care
not to damage the bearings with the cam
lobes.
13 Lift out the cam followers and keep them
in their originally fitted sequence.
14 Unbolt and remove the flywheel. Jam the
ring gear teeth to prevent rotation.
15 Remove the engine rear plate.
16 Turn the cylinder block so that it is
standing upside down.
17 Unbolt and remove the crankshaft rear oil
seal carrier. Note the sump fixing studs.
18 The main bearing caps should be marked
1, 2 and 3 but if they are not, centre punch
them and note which way round they are
located.
19 Unscrew the main bearing cap bolts
progressively.
20 Remove the bearing caps and half shells.
If the shell bearings are to be used again,
keep them with their respective caps.
21 Note the semi-circular thrust washers on
either side of the centre main bearing which
control crankshaft endfloat.
22 Lift the crankshaft from the crankcase.
23 Remove the bearing shells from the
crankcase and mark them as to position if
they are to be used again.
17 Cylinder head - dismantling
and decarbonising
4
1 The exhaust manifold and rocker gear will
have been removed from the cylinder head
during removal (see Section 7).
2 The valves should now be removed using a
universal valve spring compressor.
3 Compress the first valve spring and extract
the split cotters.
If the valve spring refuses to
compress, do not apply
excessive force, but remove
the compressor and place a
piece of tubing on the spring retainer
and strike it a sharp blow to release the
collets from the valve stem. Refit the
compressor and resume operations
when the collets should come out.
Fig. 1.24 Crankshaft and flywheel (Sec 16)
1 Centre main
3 Crankshaft
bearing shells
4 Plug
2 Front main bearing 5 Starter ring gear
shells
6 Dowel
7 Flywheel
8 Thrust plate
9 Bolt
10 Thrust washers
11 Rear main bearing
shells
4 Gently release the compressor, take off the
spring retaining cap, the valve spring and the
spring seat. Remove the valve. Keep the valve
with its associated components together and
in numbered sequence so that they can be
returned to their original positions.
5 A small box with divisions is useful for this
purpose. Remove and discard the valve stem
oil seals.
6 Remove the other valves in a similar way.
7 Bearing in mind that the cylinder head is of
903 cc engine 1•17
light alloy construction and is easily damaged
use a blunt scraper or rotary wire brush to
clean all traces of carbon deposits from the
combustion spaces and the ports. The valve
head stems and valve guides should also be
freed from any carbon deposits. Wash the
combustion spaces and ports down with
paraffin and scrape the cylinder head surface
free of any foreign matter with the side of a
steel rule, or a similar article.
8 If the engine is installed in the car, clean the
pistons and the top of the cylinder bores. If
the pistons are still in the block, then it is
essential that great care is taken to ensure
that no carbon gets into the cylinder bores as
this could scratch the cylinder walls or cause
damage to the piston and rings. To ensure
this does not happen, first turn the crankshaft
so that two of the pistons are at the top of
their bores. Stuff rag into the other two bores
or seal them off with paper and masking tape.
The waterways should also be covered with
small pieces of masking tape to prevent
particles of carbon entering the cooling
system and damaging the coolant pump.
side rock. If this is any more than almost
imperceptible, new guides must be fitted.
Again this is a job for your dealer as a special
tool is required to ensure the correct
installation depth and the cylinder head must
be warmed to 80ºC (176ºF) before fitting the
guides.
17 Commence reassembly by oiling the stem
of the first valve and pushing it into its guide
which should have been fitted with a new oil
seal (photos).
18 Fit the spring seat. Fit the valve spring so
that the closer coils are towards the cylinder
head and then fit the spring retaining cap.
19 Compress the valve spring and locate the
split cotters in the valve stem cut-out (photo).
20 Gently release the compressor, checking
to see that the collets are not displaced.
21 Fit the remaining valves in the same way.
22 Tap the end of each valve stem with a
plastic or copper-faced hammer to settle the
components.
23 The cylinder head is now ready for
refitting as described in Section 7.
9 With a blunt scraper carefully scrape away
the carbon from the piston crown, taking care
not to scratch the aluminium. Also scrape
away the carbon from the surrounding lip of
the cylinder wall. When all carbon has been
removed, scrape away the grease which will
now be contaminated with carbon particles,
taking care not to press any into the bores. To
assist prevention of carbon build-up the
piston crown can be polished with a metal
polish. Remove the rags or masking tape from
the other two cylinders and turn the
crankshaft so that the two pistons which were
at the bottom are now at the top. Place rag in
the cylinders which have been decarbonised,
and proceed as just described.
10 Examine the head of the valves for pitting
and burning, especially the heads of the
exhaust valves. The valve seatings should be
examined at the same time. If the pitting on
the valve and seat is very slight, the marks
can be removed by grinding the seats and
valves together with coarse, and then fine,
valve grinding paste.
11 Where bad pitting has occurred to the
valve seats it will be necessary to recut them
and fit new valves. This latter job should be
entrusted to the local agent or engineering
works. In practice it is very seldom that the
seats are so badly worn. Normally it is the
valve that is too badly worn for refitting, and
the owner can easily purchase a new set of
valves and match them to the seats by valve
grinding.
12 Valve grinding is carried out as follows.
Smear a trace of coarse carborundum paste
on the seat face and apply a suction grinder
tool to the valve head. With a semi-rotary
motion, grind the valve head to its seat, lifting
the valve occasionally to redistribute the
grinding paste. When a dull matt even surface
is produced on both the valve seat and the
valve, wipe off the paste and repeat the
process with fine carborundum paste, lifting
and turning the valve to redistribute the paste
as before. A light spring placed under the
valve head will greatly ease this operation.
When a smooth unbroken ring of light grey
matt finish is produced, on both valve and
valve seat faces, the grinding operation is
complete. Carefully clean away every trace of
grinding compound, take great care to leave
none in the ports or in the valve guides. Clean
the valve seats with a paraffin soaked rag,
then with a clean rag, and finally, if an air line
is available, blow the valves, valve guides and
valve ports clean.
13 Check that all valve springs are intact. If
any one is broken, all should be renewed.
Check the free height of the springs against
new ones. If some springs are not within
specifications, replace them all. Springs suffer
from fatigue and it is a good idea to renew
them even if they look serviceable.
14 Check that the oil supply holes in the
rocker arms are clear.
15 The cylinder head can be checked for
warping either by placing it on a piece of plate
glass or using a straight-edge and feeler
blades. If there is any doubt or if its block face
is corroded, have it re-faced by your dealer or
motor engineering works.
16 Test the valves in their guides for side to
17.17A Valve stem oil seal
17.17B Inserting a valve into its guide
17.19 Fitting split collets
Press a little grease into the
gap between the cylinder
walls and the two pistons
which are to be worked on.
1
18 Examination and renovation
4
1 With the engine stripped down and all parts
thoroughly clean, it is now time to examine
everything for wear. The following items
should be checked and where necessary
renewed or renovated as described in the
following Sections.
Cylinder block and crankcase
2 Examine the casting carefully for cracks
especially around the bolt holes and between
cylinders.
3 The cylinder bores must be checked for
taper, ovality, scoring and scratching. Start by
examining the top of the cylinder bores. If they
are at all worn, a ridge will be felt on the thrust
side. This ridge marks the limit of piston ring
travel. The owner will have a good indication
of bore wear prior to dismantling by the
quantity of oil consumed and the emission of
blue smoke from the exhaust especially when
the engine is cold.
4 An internal micrometer or dial gauge can be
1•18 903 cc engine
Fig. 1.25 Checking a crankpin (Sec 18)
Fig. 1.26 Piston/connecting rod
relationship (Sec 18)
used to check bore wear and taper against
the Specifications, but this is a pointless
operation if the engine is obviously in need of
reboring due to excessive oil consumption.
5 Your engine reconditioner will be able to
re-bore the block for you and supply the
correct oversize pistons to give the correct
running clearance.
6 If the engine has reached the limit for
reboring then cylinder liners can be fitted, but
here again this is a job for your engine
reconditioner.
7 To rectify minor bore wear it is possible to
fit proprietary oil control rings. A good way to
test the condition of the engine is to have it at
normal operating temperature with the spark
plugs removed. Screw a compression gauge
(available from most motor accessory stores)
into the first plug hole. Hold the accelerator
fully depressed and crank the engine on the
starter motor for several revolutions. Record
the reading. Zero the tester and check the
remaining cylinders in the same way. All four
compression figures should be approximately
equal and within the tolerance given in the
Specifications. If they are all low, suspect
piston ring or cylinder bore wear. If only one
reading is down, suspect a valve not seating.
by specialist engine reconditioners who will
supply the matching undersize bearing shells
to give the required running clearance.
12 Inspect the connecting rod big-end and
main bearing shells for signs of general wear,
scoring, pitting and scratching. The bearings
should be matt grey in colour.
13 If a copper colour is evident, then the
bearings are badly worn and the surface
material has worn away to expose the underlay.
Renew the bearings as a complete set.
14 At the time of major overhaul it is
worthwhile renewing the bearing shells as a
matter of routine even if they appear to be in
reasonably good condition.
15 Bearing shells can be identified by the
marking on the back of the shell. Standard
sized shells are usually marked STD or 0.00.
Undersized shells are marked with the
undersize such as 0.25 mm.
Crankshaft and bearings
8 Examine the crankpin and main journal
surfaces for signs of scoring or scratches.
Check the ovality of the crankpins at different
positions with a micrometer. If more than
0.001 inch (0.025 mm) out of round, the
crankpins will have to be reground. They will
also have to be reground if there are any
scores or scratches present. Also check the
journals in the same fashion.
9 Wear in a crankshaft can be detected while
the engine is running. Big-end bearing and
crankpin wear is indicated by distinct metallic
knocking, particularly noticeable when the
engine is pulling from low engine speeds. Low
oil pressure will also occur.
10 Main bearing and journal wear is indicated
by engine rumble increasing in severity as the
engine speed increases. Low oil pressure will
again be an associated condition.
11 Crankshaft grinding should be carried out
Connecting rods
16 Check the alignment of the connecting
rods visually. If you suspect distortion, have
them checked by your dealer or engine
reconditioner on the special jig which he will
have.
17 The gudgeon pin is an interference fit in
the connecting rod small-end and removal or
refitting and changing a piston is a job best
left to your dealer or engine reconditioner due
to the need for a press and jig and careful
heating of the connecting rod.
18.22 Piston ring marking
18.20 Using feeler blades to fit piston rings
Pistons and piston rings
18 If the cylinders have been rebored, then
the reconditioner will supply the oversize
pistons and rings and the gudgeon pins. Give
the job of fitting the new pistons to the
connecting rods to him.
19 If the original piston rings or just new rings
are to be fitted to the original pistons, use
great care to remove and fit the rings as they
are easily broken if expanded too much.
Always remove and fit rings from the crown
end.
20 If three old feeler blades are slid behind
the piston rings and located at equidistant
points, the rings may be removed or fitted
without their dropping into the wrong grooves
and will reduce the chance of breakage
(photo).
21 If the original pistons are being refitted,
make sure that the ring grooves and their oil
return holes are cleaned out and freed from
carbon. A piece of piston ring is a useful tool
for this purpose.
22 The three pistons rings are as follows:
Top - Thinner compression marked TOP
Second - Thicker compression, step at base
Bottom - Oil control (photo)
23 If proprietary wear control rings are to be
fitted to overcome bore wear, fit them strictly
in accordance with the manufacturer’s
instructions.
24 Always check the piston ring groove
18.24A Checking piston ring groove
clearance
903 cc engine 1•19
18.24B Checking piston ring end gap
18.32 Camshaft bearing
clearance and end gap. Both clearances
should be checked with a feeler gauge. Check
the end gap when the ring has been pushed
squarely down the cylinder bore for two or
three inches (photos).
25 If new rings are being used and the
cylinder bores have not been rebored, always
make sure that the top compression ring has
been stepped to prevent it contacting the
bore wear ridge.
are of different sizes and they can be removed
and new ones fitted using a bolt, nut and
distance pieces. When drawing a new bearing
into position, make sure that the oil hole is
correctly aligned with the one in the
crankcase. The centre and rear bearings
require reaming after fitting, the bearing at the
timing chain end is supplied ready reamed
(photo).
33 The camshaft itself should show no marks
or scoring on the journal or cam lobe
surfaces. Where evident, renew the camshaft
or have it reprofiled by a specialist
reconditioner.
34 Check the teeth of the camshaft sprocket
for wear. Renew the sprocket if necessary.
Flywheel
26 Check the clutch mating surface of the
flywheel. If it is deeply scored (due to failure to
renew a worn driven plate) then it may be
possible to have it surface ground provided
the thickness of the flywheel is not reduced
too much.
27 If lots of tiny cracks are visible on the
surface of the flywheel then this will be due to
overheating caused by slipping the clutch or
“riding” the clutch pedal.
28 With a pre-engaged type of starter motor
it is rare to find the teeth of the flywheel ring
gear damaged or worn but if they are, then the
ring gear will have to be renewed.
29 To remove the ring gear, drill a hole
between the roots of two teeth taking care not
to damage the flywheel and then split the ring
with a sharp cold chisel.
30 The new ring gear must be heated to
between 180 and 220ºC (356 and 428ºF)
which is very hot, so if you do not have
facilities for obtaining these temperatures,
leave the job to your dealer or engine
reconditioner.
31 Where such facilities are available, then
the ring gear should be either pressed or
lightly tapped gently onto its register and left
to cool naturally, when the contraction of the
metal on cooling will ensure that it is a secure
and permanent fit. Great care must be taken
not to overheat the ring gear, as if this
happens its temper will be lost. A clutch input
shaft pilot bearing is not fitted on this engine.
Camshaft
32 Examine the camshaft bearings for wear,
scoring or pitting. If evident then the bearings
will have to be renewed. The three bearings
Cam followers
35 Examine the bearing surface of the cam
followers which are in contact with the
camshaft. Any indentations or cracks must be
rectified by renewal. Clean sludge and dirt
from the cam followers and check their fit in
their bores. Side to side rock is unusual
except at very high mileage.
Timing chain
36 Examine the teeth on both the crankshaft
sprocket and the camshaft sprocket for wear.
Each tooth forms an inverted “V” with the
sprocket periphery and if worn, the side of
each tooth under tension will be slightly
concave in shape when compared with the
other side of the tooth, ie; one side of the
inverted “V” will be concave when compared
with the other. If any sign of wear is present
the sprockets must be renewed.
37 Examine the links of the chain for side
slackness and particularly check the
self-tensioning links for freedom of
movement. Renew the chain if any slackness
is noticeable when compared with a new
chain. It is a sensible precaution to renew the
chain at about 60 000 miles (96 000 km) and
at a lesser mileage if the engine is stripped
down for a major overhaul.
Cylinder head
38 This is covered in Section 17.
18.41 Rocker components
Rockers and rocker shaft
39 Thoroughly clean out the rocker shaft. As
it acts as the oil passages for the valve gear,
clean out the oil holes and make sure they are
quite clear. Check the shaft for straightness
by rolling it on a flat surface. If it is distorted,
renew it.
40 The surface of the shaft should be free
from any wear ridges caused by the rocker
arms. If it is not, the shaft will have to be
renewed. Blocked shaft oil holes often
contribute to such wear.
41 Check the rocker arms for wear of the
rocker bushes, for wear at the rocker arm face
which bears on the valve stem, and for wear
of the adjusting ball ended screws. Wear in
the rocker arm bush can be checked by
gripping the rocker arm tip and holding the
rocker arm in place on the shaft, noting if
there is any lateral rocker arm shake. If any
shake is present, and the arm is very loose on
the shaft, remedial action must be taken. It is
recommended that a worn rocker arm be
taken to your local FIAT agent or automobile
engineering works to have the old bush drawn
out and a new bush fitted (photo).
42 Check the tip of the rocker arm where it
bears on the valve head, for cracking or
serious wear on the case hardening. If none is
present the rocker arm may be refitted. Check
the pushrods for straightness by rolling them
on a flat surface.
Oil pump
43 Unscrew the four securing bolts which
connect the two halves of the pump body.
44 Clean all the components in a bath of
paraffin and dry them.
45 Inspect the gears for wear or damage and
then check for wear in the following way.
46 Insert a feeler blade between the tooth
peak and the body. This should be between
0.05 and 0.14 mm (0.0019 and 0.0055 in).
47 Now place a straight-edge across the
body flange and check for gear endfloat. This
should be between 0.020 and 0.105 mm
(0.0008 and 0.0041 in). Where the clearances
exceed the specified limits, renew the pump.
48 Check that the oil pressure relief valve
spring is in good condition and not deformed.
1
1•20 903 cc engine
Oil seals and gaskets
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
Bolt
Bolt
Washers
Washer
Spring
Drive gear
Top housing
Driven gear
Plate
Pressure relief valve
Lower housing and
oil pick-up
12 Filter screen
Fig. 1.27 Exploded view of oil pump (Sec 18)
49 It is recommended that all gaskets and oil
seals are renewed at major engine overhaul.
Sockets are useful for removing or refitting oil
seals. An arrow is moulded onto some seals
to indicate the rotational direction of the
component which it serves. Make sure that
the seal is fitted the correct way round to
comply with the arrow.
19 Engine - reassembly (general)
1 To ensure maximum life with minimum
trouble from a rebuilt engine, not only must
every part be correctly assembled, but
everything must be spotlessly clean, all the
oilways must be clear, locking washers and
spring washers must always be fitted where
indicated and all bearing and other working
surfaces must be thoroughly lubricated during
assembly. Before assembly begins renew any
bolts or studs whose threads are in any way
damaged; whenever possible use new spring
washers.
2 Apart from your normal tools, a supply of
non-fluffy rag, an oil can filled with engine oil,
a supply of new spring washers, a set of new
gaskets and a torque wrench should be
gathered together.
20 Engine complete reassembly
4
Crankshaft and main bearings
20.1 Fitting a main bearing shell
20.2 Crankshaft thrust washer
20.4A Oiling main bearing shells
20.4B Lowering crankshaft into
position
1 With the cylinder block inverted on the
bench, wipe out the crankcase shell bearing
seats and fit the half shells so that their tabs
engage in the notches (photo).
2 Stick the semi-circular thrust washers either
side of the centre bearing in the crankcase
using thick grease. Make sure that the oil
grooves are visible when the washers are
fitted (photo).
3 If the original bearing shells are being
refitted, make sure that they are returned to
their original positions.
4 Liberally oil the bearing shells and lower the
crankshaft into position. Make sure that it is
the correct way round (photos).
5 Wipe out the main bearing caps and fit the
bearing shells into them.
6 Oil the crankshaft journals and fit the main
bearing caps, the correct way round and in
proper sequence (photo).
7 Replace the main bearing cap bolts and
screw them up finger-tight.
8 Test the crankshaft for freedom of rotation.
Should it be very stiff to turn, or possess high
spots, a most careful inspection must be
made, preferably by a skilled mechanic with a
903 cc engine 1•21
20.6 Fitting a main bearing cap
micrometer to trace the cause of the trouble.
It is very seldom that any trouble of this nature
will be experienced when fitting the
crankshaft.
9 Tighten the main bearing bolts to the
specified torque wrench settings (photo).
10 Using a dial gauge or feeler blades
inserted between a thrust washer and the
crankshaft, check the crankshaft endfloat. If it
exceeds the specified limit, the thrust washers
can be changed for thicker ones (photo).
11 Bolt on the crankshaft rear oil seal carrier
using a new gasket. The carrier should have
been fitted with a new oil seal and the seal lips
greased (photos).
12 Fit the engine rear plate (photo).
20.9 Tightening main bearing cap bolts
20.10 Checking crankshaft end float
1
20.11A Crankshaft rear oil seal carrier and
gasket
20.11B Crankshaft oil seal and carrier
fitted
20.12 Engine rear plate
20.14 Tightening flywheel bolts
20.16A Fitting camshaft
20.16B Camshaft front bearing
Flywheel
13 Offer the flywheel to the crankshaft. With
pistons No. 1 and 4 at TDC, the dimple on the
flywheel must be uppermost.
14 Screw in and tighten the bolts to the
specified torque. The crankshaft may be held
against rotation by either jamming the starter
ring gear or placing a block of wood between
one of the crankshaft webs and the inside of
the crankcase (photo).
Camshaft
15 Oil the cam followers and return them to
their original positions (photo).
16 Oil the camshaft bearings and insert the
camshaft, taking great care not to damage the
bearings with the cam lobes. Fit the front
bearing, chamfer inwards (photos).
20.15 Cam followers
1•22 903 cc engine
20.17 Camshaft front bearing lockscrew
17 Screw in the camshaft front bearing
lockscrew (photo).
Oil pump
18 Refit the oil pump as described in Section 10.
Timing chain and sprockets
19 Fit the timing chain and sprockets as
described in Section 6. Fit the Woodruff key
to the crankshaft nose.
20 Using a new gasket, fit the timing chain
cover, but leave the bolts finger tight (photo).
21 Apply grease to the lips of the timing
cover oil seal and then push the crankshaft
pulley into position.
22 Move the timing cover if necessary so that
the pulley hub is centralised in the oil seal and
then tighten the cover bolts.
23 Screw on the crankshaft pulley nut and
tighten to the specified torque (photo).
Hold the crankshaft against
rotation either by jamming
the starter ring gear or by
placing a block of wood
between a crankshaft web and the
inside of the crankcase.
20.20 Timing cover
Cylinder head
26 Stand the engine upright and fit the
cylinder head as described in Section 7.
27 Insert the pushrods in their original fitted
order.
28 With the rocker arm adjuster screws fully
unscrewed, locate the rocker gear and screw
on the fixing nuts.
29 Adjust the valve clearances as described
in Section 5.
30 Locate a new gasket in position and fit the
rocker cover (photo).
31 Screw on a new oil filter (Section 2).
21 Engine - refitting ancillary
components
25 Fit the sump pan as described in Section 8.
1 Refer to Chapter 5 and refit the clutch,
making sure to centralise the driven plate.
2 Fit the coolant pump as described in
Chapter 2. Fit the thermostat housing if it was
removed noting the air cleaner mounting
bracket on the housing studs.
3 Fit the alternator and drivebelt as described
in Chapter 9.
4 Refer to Chapter 3 and fit the exhaust
manifold and hot air collector, the carburettor
and spacer and the fuel pump.
5 Fit the distributor as described in Chapter
4. Fit the oil dipstick guide tube (photos).
20.30 Rocker cover nut and thrust plate
21.5A Dipstick guide tube
Piston/connecting rods
24 Fit these as described in Section 9.
Sump pan
20.23 Tightening crankshaft pulley nut
22 Engine/transmission reconnection
1
1 Support the weight of the transmission and
offer it squarely to the engine. The splined
input shaft should pass easily through the hub
of the driven plate, provided the plate has
been centralised as described in Chapter 5. It
may be necessary to align the splines with the
hub grooves, in which case have an assistant
turn the crankshaft pulley nut. The alignment
dowels will make the connection stiff, so
drawing the engine and transmission together
with two connecting bolts will ease it.
2 Once the engine and transmission are fully
engaged, insert and tighten all the connecting
bolts. Locate the lifting eyes.
3 Bolt on the flywheel housing cover plate
and the mounting brackets.
4 Bolt on the starter motor.
23 Engine/transmission refitting
3
1 The refitting operations are reversals of
those described in Section 13.
2 Observe the following special points.
3 Tighten the engine mounting and front
suspension (disconnected) bolts to the
specified torque when the hoist has been
21.5B Dipstick guide tube support
903 cc engine 1•23
removed and the weight of the car is again on
its roadwheels.
4 Fill the cooling system.
5 Fill the engine with oil.
6 Replenish lost transmission oil.
7 Reconnect the battery.
8 Adjust the clutch pedal as described in
Chapter 5.
24 Engine - initial start-up after
overhaul or major repair
4
1 Make sure that the battery is fully charged
and that all lubricants, coolant and fuel are
replenished.
2 If the fuel system has been dismantled it will
require several revolutions of the engine on
the starter motor to pump the petrol up to the
carburettor.
3 Turn the carburettor throttle speed screw
through one complete turn to increase the idle
speed in order to offset the initial stiffness of
new engine internal components.
4 As soon as the engine fires and runs, keep
it going at a fast idle speed and bring it up to
normal working temperature.
5 As the engine warms up there will be odd
smells and some smoke from parts getting
hot and burning off oil deposits. The signs to
look for are leaks of water or oil which will be
obvious.
6 Check also the exhaust pipe and manifold
connections as these do not always “find”
their exact gas tight position until the warmth
and vibration have acted on them and it is
almost certain that they will need tightening
further. This should be done, of course, with
the engine stopped.
7 When normal running temperature has
been reached, adjust the engine idle speed as
described in Chapter 3.
8 Stop the engine and wait a few minutes to
see if any lubricant or coolant is dripping out
when the engine is stationary.
9 Road test the car to check that the timing is
correct and that the engine is giving the
necessary smoothness and power. Do not
race the engine - if new bearings and/or
pistons have been fitted it should be treated
as a new engine and run in at a reduced
speed for the first 500 km (300 miles).
10 After the first 1500 km (900 miles) the
cylinder head bolts must be re-torqued in the
following way (engine cold).
11 Remove the air cleaner and rocker cover.
Unscrew the first bolt (Fig. 1.7) through a
quarter turn and then tighten it to final stage 2
torque (see Specifications).
12 Repeat on the remaining bolts, one at a
time.
13 Check and adjust the valve clearances
(Section 5).
14 Refit the rocker cover and air cleaner.
Part 3: 1116 cc and 1301 cc engines
25 Valve clearances - checking
2
This should only be required if the valves
have been renewed or ground in, or at high
mileages when noise or poor engine
performance indicates that a check is
necessary.
It is important that each valve clearance is
set correct otherwise the timing will be
wrong and engine performance poor. If there
is no clearance at all, the valve and its seat
will soon burn. Always set the clearances
with the engine cold.
1 Remove the camshaft cover. Jack-up a
front wheel and engage top gear so that by
turning the wheel, the crankshaft can be
rotated.
2 Each valve clearance must be checked
when the high point of the cam is pointing
directly upward away from the cam follower.
3 Check the clearances in the firing order
1-3-4-2, No. 1 cylinder being at the timing
belt end of the engine. This will minimise the
amount of crankshaft rotation required.
25.4 Checking a valve clearance
4 Insert the appropriate feeler blade
between the heel of the cam and the cam
follower shim of the first valve. If necessary
alter the thickness of the feeler blade until it
is a stiff, sliding fit. Record the thickness,
which will, of course, represent the valve
clearance for this particular valve (photo).
5 Turn the crankshaft, check the second
valve clearance and record it.
6 Repeat the operations on all the remaining
valves, recording their respective clearances.
7 Remember that the clearance for inlet and
exhaust valves differs - see Specifications.
Counting from the timing cover end of the
engine, the valve sequence is:
Inlet
2-3-6-7
Exhaust
1-4-5-8
1 Check the valve clearances (Section 25).
2 Clearances which are incorrect will mean
the particular shim will have to be changed.
To remove the shim, turn the crankshaft until
the high point of the cam is pointing directly
upward. The cam follower will now have to
be depressed so that the shim can be
extracted. Special tools (A60642 and
A87001) are available from your Fiat dealer to
do the job, otherwise you will have to make
up a forked lever to locate on the rim of the
cam follower. This must allow room for the
shim to be prised out by means of the
cut-outs provided in the cam follower rim
(photo).
3 Once the shim is extracted, establish its
thickness and change it for a thicker or
thinner one to bring the previously recorded
clearance within specification. For example,
if the measured valve clearance was 1.27
mm (0.05 in) too great, a shim thicker by this
amount will be required. Conversely, if the
clearance was 1.27 mm (0.05 in) too small, a
shim thinner by this amount will be required.
4 Shims have their thickness (mm) engraved
on them; although the engraved side should
be fitted so as not to be visible, wear still
occurs and often obliterates the number. In
this case, measuring their thickness with a
metric micrometer is the only method to
establish their thickness (photo).
26.2 Removing a shim from a cam follower
26.4 Shim engraved mark
26 Valve clearances adjustment
3
1
1•24 1116 cc and 1301 cc engine
27.13A Removing camshaft end cover
27.13B Withdrawing camshaft from carrier
5 In practice, if several shims have to be
changed, they can often be interchanged, so
avoiding the necessity of having to buy more
new shims than is necessary.
6 If more than two or three valve clearances
are found to be incorrect, it will be more
convenient to remove the camshaft carrier for
easier removal of the shims.
7 Where no clearance can be measured, even
with the thinnest available shim in position,
the valve will have to be removed and the end
of its stem ground off squarely. This will
reduce its overall length by the minimum
amount to provide a clearance. This job
should be entrusted to your dealer as it is
important to keep the end of the valve stem
square.
8 On completion, refit the camshaft cover and
gasket.
fitted if it is to be completely removed. The
lettering on the belt is normally legible from
the crankshaft pulley end of the engine when
the belt is as originally fitted.
11 Unbolt the camshaft carrier and lift it
sufficiently from the cylinder head to break the
seal of the mating faces. Note: It is important
not to allow the cam followers to pull out; they
must be retained in their original locations.
This can be done if the carrier is raised very
slowly, until the fingers can be inserted to
prise the cam followers onto their respective
valve spring retainers. It is unlikely that the
valve clearance adjusting shims will be
displaced from their recesses in the cam
followers because of the suction of the
lubricating oil, but watch that this does not
happen; the shims must also be retained in
their originally fitted sequence.
12 Remove the previously loosened
camshaft sprocket bolt and take the sprocket
from the camshaft.
13 Unbolt and remove the camshaft end
cover with its gasket. Withdraw the camshaft
(photos).
14 Refitting is a reversal of the removal
process, but observe the following points.
15 Use new gaskets.
16 Retain the cam followers and shims in
their bores in the camshaft carrier with thick
grease; they must not be allowed to drop out
when the carrier is lowered onto the cylinder
head.
17 If the crankshaft or camshaft have been
moved from their set positions, re-align the
sprocket timing mark with the pointer on the
belt cover and the crankshaft pulley or
flywheel with the TDC mark. This must be
observed otherwise the valves may impinge
upon the piston crowns when the camshaft
lobes compress any of the valve springs
during bolting down of the carrier.
18 Screw in the carrier bolts and tighten
them to the specified torque (photo).
19 Refit and tension the timing belt as
described in Section 28.
20 Refit the camshaft cover and gasket.
21 Refit the hose and air cleaner.
22 Reconnect the battery.
27 Camshaft and camshaft
carrier - removal and refitting
3
1 Disconnect the battery.
2 Remove the air cleaner (see Chapter 3).
3 Disconnect the fuel filter hose from the fuel
pump and tie it back, out of the way.
4 Identify and then disconnect any electrical
leads which must be moved away to enable
the camshaft cover to be withdrawn.
5 Identify and disconnect any vacuum gases
which must be moved away to enable the
camshaft cover to be withdrawn.
6 Unscrew the securing nuts and remove the
camshaft cover.
7 Turn the crankshaft pulley nut until No. 4
piston is at TDC. This can be established as
described in Section 28.
8 Unbolt and remove the timing belt cover.
9 Check that the timing mark on the camshaft
sprocket is aligned with, and adjacent to the
pointer on the timing belt cover backplate.
10 Restrain the timing belt with the hand and
release but do not remove the camshaft
sprocket bolt. Release the belt tensioner
pulley by slackening the pulley centre nut.
Push the timing belt evenly from the
sprockets, noting which way round the belt is
27.18 Tightening a camshaft carrier bolt
28 Timing belt - renewal
3
1 Set No. 4 piston at TDC. Do this by turning
the crankshaft pulley nut or by jacking up a
front roadwheel, engaging a gear and turning
the wheel until the mark on the flywheel is
opposite to the TDC mark on the flywheel
bellhousing aperture. Remove No. 4 spark
plug, place a finger over the plug hole and feel
the compression being generated as the
crankshaft is rotated and the piston rises up
the cylinder bore.
2 On some models the TDC marks on the
crankshaft pulley and belt cover may be
visible and can be used instead.
3 Remove the alternator drivebelt (Chapter 2,
Section 8). Unbolt and remove the timing belt
cover.
4 Check that the timing mark on the camshaft
sprocket is aligned with the pointer on the belt
cover backing plate (photo).
5 Slacken the nut in the centre of the
tensioner pulley and push in on the support to
release the tension on the belt, then retighten
the nut. Slide the drivebelt off the pulleys.
6 Check that the crankshaft and camshaft
pulleys have not been moved from their
previously aligned positions.
7 To check that the auxiliary shaft sprocket
has not moved, take off the distributor cap
and check that the contact end of the rotor
arm is aligned with No. 4 HT lead contact in
the cap.
28.4 Camshaft sprocket alignment marks
1116 cc and 1301 cc engine 1•25
Fig. 1.28 TDC marks (1) at front of engine
(Sec 28)
28.8 Slipping timing belt onto tensioner
pulley
8 Fit the new belt. Start at the crankshaft
drive pulley and, taking care not to kink or
strain the belt, slip it over the camshaft pulley.
The camshaft may have to be turned slightly
to mesh the pulley with the teeth on the belt.
Fit the belt on the tensioner pulley last; if this
is difficult, do not lever or force the belt on,
recheck the belt (photo).
9 Release the tensioner nut and rotate the
crankshaft through two complete revolutions.
Retighten the nut. The belt tension may be
checked by twisting it through 90º with the
finger and thumb. It should just turn through
this angle without undue force. Note: The
above procedure serves only as a rough guide
to setting the belt tension - having it checked
by a FIAT dealer at the earliest opportunity is
recommended.
10 Refit the timing belt cover (photo). Fit and
tension the alternator drivebelt (Chapter 2,
Section 8).
5 Disconnect the HT leads from the spark
plugs.
6 Disconnect the brake servo vacuum hose
from the intake manifold.
7 Disconnect the coolant hoses from the
thermostat housing.
8 Disconnect the crankcase ventilation
system hoses from the rocker cover and
carburettor.
9 Unbolt and remove the timing belt cover.
10 Release the timing belt tensioner pulley
bolt, then lever the pulley against the spring
plunger and retighten the bolt to retain the
tensioner pulley in the non-tensioned position.
Slip the belt from the camshaft sprocket.
11 Disconnect the coolant hoses from the
carburettor and intake manifold.
12 Disconnect the exhaust downpipes from
the manifold.
13 If a crowfoot type wrench is available, the
cylinder head nuts and bolts can be removed
and the complete cylinder head camshaft
carrier assembly withdrawn (photo).
14 If this type of wrench is not available
however, remove the carrier first as described
in Section 27.
15 If a crowfoot is available, unscrew the
cylinder head nuts and bolts evenly and
progressively starting with the centre ones
and working towards both ends.
16 Rock the cylinder head by gripping the
manifolds. Note: Do not insert a lever in
the gasket joint to prise the head from the
block.
17 Pull the head off the studs and remove it
to the bench. Remove and discard the old
cylinder head gasket.
18 Unbolt and remove the hot air collecting
shield for the air cleaner from the exhaust
manifold. The exhaust and inlet manifolds can
now be unbolted. The carburettor may remain
on the inlet manifold.
19 Overhaul and decarbonising of the
cylinder head is described in Section 39.
20 Refitting is a reversal of the removal
process, but make sure the crankshaft and
camshaft timing marks are set as described in
Section 28 to avoid the valve heads digging
into the piston crowns when the head is
refitted.
21 Always use new gaskets. The cylinder
29.13 Using a crowfoot type wrench on a
cylinder head bolt
Fig. 1.30 Cylinder head bolt tightening
sequence (Sec 29)
29 Cylinder head removal and refitting
3
1 Drain the cooling system (see Chapter 2).
2 Disconnect the battery.
3 Disconnect and plug the carburettor fuel
hoses.
4 Disconnect the throttle and choke linkage
from the carburettor.
28.10 Tightening timing belt cover nut
Fig. 1.29 Timing belt arrangement (Sec 28)
1 Camshaft sprocket
2 Tensioner pulley locknut
3 Timing mark on crankshaft front oil seal
retainer
4 Crankshaft sprocket
5 Crankshaft sprocket timing mark
6 Auxiliary shaft sprocket
7 Tensioner bracket bolt
8 Tensioner pulley
9 Timing belt
10 Tensioner bracket
11 Tensioner spring
1
1•26 1116 cc and 1301 cc engine
29.21A Cylinder head gasket top face
marking
head gasket must be fitted (ALTO visible) so
that the oil pressure hole in the block is
central in the copper ringed cut-out in the
gasket (photos). Make sure that the gasket
surfaces on head and block are perfectly
clean and free from oil, otherwise the heat
sealing (polymerisation) process of the gasket
cannot take place.
22 Tighten the cylinder head nuts and bolts
to the specified torque, in the sequence
shown in Fig. 1.30. Follow the procedure very
carefully owing to the special type (ASTADUR)
of gasket used which hardens in use. Always
keep a new cylinder head gasket in its
nylon cover until just before it is required for
use.
23 Oil the cylinder head bolts and
washers and allow them to drain for thirty
minutes.
24 Tighten the bolts in the following
stages:
Stage 1
20 Nm (15 lbf ft)
Stage 2
40 Nm (30 lbf ft)
Stage 3
Through 90º
Stage 4
Through 90º (photo)
Retightening the bolts after a running-in
mileage is not required.
25 Fit the timing belt (Section 28).
26 Check the valve clearances (Section 26)
after the camshaft carrier has been fitted
(Section 27).
27 Bolt on the camshaft carrier cover.
28 Reconnect all hoses, leads and controls.
29 Reconnect the battery and refill the
cooling system.
29.21B Cylinder head gasket in position cylinder block drain plug arrowed
29.21C Lowering cylinder onto block
31 Oil pump removal and refitting
1
1 Remove the sump pan as described in the
preceding Section.
2 Unbolt the oil pump and withdraw it
complete with driveshaft.
3 Use a new gasket when refitting the pump
and prime the pump by pouring engine oil
through the pick-up filter screen (photo).
29.24 Tightening a cylinder head bolt
through 90º using a protractor
30 Sump pan removal and refitting
1
32 Pistons/connecting rod removal and refitting
3
1 Remove the sump pan and the oil pump as
described in Sections 30 and 31.
1 Position the car over an inspection pit or
raise the front wheels on ramps.
2 Disconnect the battery.
3 Drain the engine oil. Unbolt and remove the
flywheel housing lower cover plate.
4 Unbolt the sump pan and remove it
together with its gasket.
5 Refitting is a reversal of removal. Always
use a new gasket locating it on clean mating
flanges and tighten the fixing bolts evenly and
progressively (photo).
6 Fill the engine with oil and reconnect the
battery.
Fig. 1.31 Piston/connecting rod assembly
diagram (Sec 32)
30.5 Locating the sump pan gasket
31.3 Bolting on the oil pump
1 Matching numbers
2 Gudgeon pin offset
3 Auxiliary shaft
Arrow indicates direction of rotation of
crankshaft viewed from timing belt end
1116 cc and 1301 cc engine 1•27
32.14 Fitting piston into cylinder bore
32.15 Fitting a big-end cap
32.16 Tightening a big-end cap nut
2 The big-end bearing shells can be renewed
without having to remove the cylinder head if
the
caps
are
unbolted
and
the
piston/connecting rod pushed gently about
one inch up the bore (the crankpin being at its
lowest point). If these shells are worn,
however, the main bearing shells will almost
certainly be worn as well. In this case, the
engine should be removed for complete
overhaul including crankshaft removal.
3 To remove the piston/connecting rods,
remove the cylinder head as described in
Section 29.
4 Grip the oil pick-up pipe and twist or rock it
from its hole in the crankcase. It is an
interference fit in the hole.
5 Unscrew the nuts from the big-end caps,
then remove the caps with their bearing
shells. The caps and their connecting rods are
numbered 1, 2, 3 and 4 from the timing cover
end of the engine. The numbers are adjacent
at the big-end cap joint and on the side of the
crankcase furthest from the auxiliary shaft.
6 If the bearing shells are to be used again,
tape them to their respective big-end caps.
7 Push each connecting rod/piston assembly
up the bore and out of the cylinder block.
There is one reservation; if a wear ridge has
developed at the top of the bores, remove this
by careful scraping before trying to remove
the piston/rod assemblies. The ridge will
otherwise prevent removal or break the piston
rings during the attempt.
8 If the connecting rod bearing shells are to
be used again, tape the shells to their
respective rods.
9 Dismantling the piston/connecting rod is
described in Section 18.
14 Push the piston into the bore until the
piston ring clamp is against the cylinder block
and then tap the crown of the piston lightly to
push it out of the ring clamp and into the bore
(photo).
15 Oil the crankshaft journal and fit the
big-end of the connecting rod to the journal.
Fit the big-end cap and nuts, checking that
the cap is the right way round (photo).
16 Tighten the big-end nuts to the specified
torque. The correct torque is important as the
nuts have no locking arrangement. After
tightening each big-end, check the crankshaft
rotates smoothly (photo).
17 Refit the oil pick-up pipe, the cylinder
head, oil pump and sump pan, all as
described earlier.
18 Refill the engine with oil and coolant.
Refitting
1 The engine complete with transmission
should be removed by lowering it to the floor
and withdrawing it from under the front of the
car which will have been raised to provide
adequate clearance.
of the bonnet and then with the help of an
assistant to support its weight unbolt and
remove the bonnet to a safe place.
3 Disconnect the battery negative lead.
4 Drain the cooling system and the engine
and transmission oils.
5 Remove the air cleaner.
6 From the rear of the alternator disconnect
the electrical leads.
7 Disconnect the leads from the starter
motor, oil pressure and coolant temperature
switches, also the oil temperature switch.
8 Disconnect the LT lead from the distributor
and the HT lead from the ignition coil.
9 Disconnect the clutch cable from the
release lever at the transmission. Also
disconnect the speedometer drive cable
(knurled ring).
10 Pull the leads from the reversing lamp
switch.
11 Disconnect all coolant hoses from the
engine. Also disconnect the brake servo hose
from the intake manifold.
12 Disconnect the choke and throttle
controls from the carburettor.
13 Disconnect the inlet hose from the fuel
pump and plug the hose.
14 Disconnect the fuel return hose from the
carburettor.
15 Disconnect the coolant hoses from the
carburettor throttle block.
16 Raise the front of the car and remove the
front roadwheels.
17 Unscrew and remove the driveshaft to
hub nuts. These are very tight and a long
knuckle bar will be required when unscrewing
them. Have an assistant apply the brake pedal
hard to prevent the hub from turning.
18 Working under the car, remove the inner
wing protective shields and then disconnect
the exhaust downpipe from the manifold.
19 Disconnect the exhaust pipe sections by
removing the socket clamp just forward of the
rear axle beam. Remove the front section.
20 Disconnect the forward ends of the
gearchange rods by prising their sockets from
the ballstuds.
21 Unscrew the nuts on the steering tie-rod
end balljoints and then using a suitable
“splitter” tool, separate the balljoints from the
steering arms.
22 Unbolt the front brake hose support clips
10 Fit the new shells into the connecting rod
and caps, ensuring the surfaces on which the
shells seat, are clean and dry.
11 Check that the piston ring gaps are evenly
spaced at 120º intervals. Liberally oil the rings
and the cylinder bores.
12 Fit a piston ring clamp to compress the
rings.
13 Insert the piston/connecting rod into the
cylinder bore, checking that the rod assembly
is correct for that particular bore. The cap and
rod matching numbers must be furthest away
from the auxiliary shaft (Fig. 1.31).
33 Engine mountings renewal
1
1 Three
engine/transmission
flexible
mountings are used.
2 To renew a mounting, support the weight of
the engine/transmission on a hoist or jack and
unbolt and remove the mounting.
3 In the unlikely event of all three mountings
requiring renewal at the same time, only
disconnect them and renew them one at a
time.
34 Engine - method of removal
35 Engine/transmission removal and separation
3
1 Open the bonnet, disconnect the
windscreen washer tube.
2 Mark the hinge positions on the underside
1
1•28 1116 cc and 1301 cc engine
from the suspension struts and then remove
the bolts which secure the hub carriers to the
U-clamps at the base of the suspension
struts.
23 Pull the tops of the hub carriers down and
then outwards and push the driveshafts from
them.
24 Unbolt the driveshaft inboard boot
retainers and then remove the driveshafts
from the transmission.
25 Support the engine on a hoist or use a
trolley jack under the engine/transmission.
Remove the bottom mounting and then the
upper left and right-hand ones.
26 Lower the power unit to the floor by
pushing it to the left-hand side to clear the
right-hand mounting bracket and then swivel
the gearbox towards the rear of the car.
Withdraw the engine/transmission from under
the car.
27 External dirt and grease should now be
removed using paraffin and a stiff brush or a
water-soluble solvent.
28 Unbolt and remove the engine mounting
brackets and the starter motor.
29 Unbolt and remove the cover plate with
the gearchange ball stud strut from the lower
front face of the flywheel housing.
30 With the engine resting squarely on its
sump pan, unscrew the flywheel housing
connecting bolts, noting the location of any
lifting lugs and hose and wiring clips.
31 Support the weight of the transmission
and withdraw it in a straight line from the
engine.
36 Engine - dismantling (general)
Refer to Section 14, Part 2.
37 Engine ancillary components
- removal
Refer to Section 15, Part 2 and also remove
the intake manifold.
38 Engine complete dismantling
3
1 Have the engine resting squarely and
supported securely on the work surface.
2 Unbolt and remove the timing belt cover.
3 Grip the now exposed timing belt with the
hands and loosen the camshaft sprocket.
4 Release the timing belt tensioner pulley
centre bolt, then slip the belt from the pulley
and sprockets to remove it. Note which way
round the belt is fitted, usually so that the
lettering on the belt can be read from the
crankshaft pulley end of the engine.
5 Remove the camshaft sprocket.
6 Unbolt and remove the camshaft timing belt
cover backing plate.
7 Unbolt and remove the camshaft carrier
cover.
8 Unbolt the camshaft carrier and lift it off
very slowly, at the same time pushing the cam
followers and their shims down with the
fingers securely onto their respective valve
springs. It is easy to remove the camshaft
carrier too quickly with some of the cam
followers stuck in it and as the carrier is lifted
away, the cam followers will fall out. If this
happens, the valve clearances will be upset as
the cam followers and shims cannot be
returned, with any certainty, to their original
positions. Keep the cam followers and shims
in their originally fitted order.
9 Unscrew and remove the cylinder head
bolts and nuts, grip the manifold, rock the
head and remove the complete cylinder
head/manifold/carburettor assembly. Remove
and discard the cylinder head gasket.
10 Unbolt the coolant pump from the side of
the cylinder block and remove it complete
with coolant distribution pipe. Remove the
crankcase breather.
11 Remove
the
distributor/oil
pump
driveshaft. This is simply carried out by
inserting a finger into the hole vacated by the
distributor and wedging it in the hole in the
end of the driveshaft. Lift the shaft out of
mesh with the auxiliary shaft. Where the
distributor is driven by the camshaft, a cover
plate retains the oil pump driveshaft in
position.
12 Unbolt and remove the sprocket from the
end of the auxiliary shaft. The sprocket is held
to the shaft with a Woodruff key.
13 Unbolt the auxiliary shaft retainer and
withdraw the shaft from the crankcase.
14 Unscrew and remove the crankshaft
pulley nut. This is very tight and the flywheel
starter ring gear will have to be jammed with a
cold chisel or a suitably bent piece of steel to
prevent the crankshaft rotating.
15 Withdraw the crankshaft sprocket, which
is located by the Woodruff key.
16 Unbolt the front engine mounting bracket
from the cylinder block, together with the
timing belt cover screw anchor bush. Unbolt
and remove the timing belt tensioner pulley.
17 Unscrew the flywheel securing bolts. The
starter ring gear will again have to be jammed
to prevent the crankshaft rotating as the bolts
are unscrewed. Mark the flywheel position in
relation to the crankshaft mounting flange,
then remove it.
18 Unbolt the front and rear crankshaft oil
seal retainer bolts from the crankcase and the
sump. Remove the oil seal retainers.
19 Turn the engine on its side, extract the
remaining sump bolts and remove the sump.
If it is stuck, try tapping it gently with a
soft-faced hammer. If this fails, cut all round
the sump-to-gasket flange with a sharp knife.
Do not try prising with a large screwdriver; this
will only distort the sump mating flange.
20 With the sump removed, unbolt and
remove the oil pump.
21 Grip the oil pick-up pipe and twist or rock
it from its hole in the crankcase. It is an
interference fit in the hole.
22 Remove the piston/connecting rods as
described in Section 32.
23 Before unbolting the main bearing caps,
note that they are marked with one, two, three
or four notches. No. 5 main bearing cap is
unmarked. Note that the notches are nearer
the auxiliary shaft side.
24 Unbolt and remove the main bearing
caps. If the bearing shells are to be used
again, tape them to their respective caps. The
bearing shell at the centre position is plain,
the others have a lubricating groove.
25 Carefully, lift the crankshaft from the
crankcase, noting the thrust washers at No. 5
main bearing. These control the crankshaft
endfloat.
39.2 Valve spring compressor and split
collets
39.4A Valve spring cap
39 Cylinder head - dismantling
and decarbonising
4
1 The operations are similar to those
described for the ohv engine in Section 17 in
respect of decarbonising and valve grinding.
2 To remove a valve, use a valve spring
compressor to compress the first valve and
then extract the split collets (photo).
3 Release the valve spring compressor.
4 Withdraw the valve spring cap and the
double valve springs (photos).
5 Remove the valve (photo).
1116 cc and 1301 cc engine 1•29
39.4B Double valve springs
39.5 Removing a valve
6 Remove the spring seat (photo).
7 Discard the valve stem oil seal and fit a new
one (photo).
8 Remove the remaining valves in a similar
way and keep the components in their
originally fitted sequence.
9 Reassembly is a reversal of removal. Refit
the components to their original positions, but
renew the valve springs if their free length is
less than that of a new spring or if the
springs have been in operation for more than
80 000 km (50 000 miles).
10 The original valve clearance adjusting
shims will no longer provide the correct
clearances if the valves have been ground in
or the seats recut. Only where dismantling of
a valve was carried out to renew a spring is
there any purpose in returning the shims to
their original locations. Try to obtain the loan
of eight thin shims from your dealer and insert
them into the tappets (cam followers) before
assembling the cam followers to the carrier,
where they should be retained with thick
grease (photo).
11 Fit the camshaft carrier, complete with
cam followers and shims to the cylinder head.
12 Adjust the valve clearances as described
in Section 26.
40 Examination and renovation
4
1 The procedures are similar to those
described in Section 18 covering the
following:
Cylinder block and crankcase
Crankshaft and bearings
Pistons and piston rings
Flywheel
2 The following additional items must also be
examined.
Oil pump
3 Carefully, clamp the pump housing in a
vice, shaft downwards.
4 Take off the pump cover, with the suction
pipe. This will release the oil pressure relief
valve inside. Also inside is a filter.
5 Remove the internal cover plate.
39.6 Valve spring seat
1
39.7 Valve stem oil seal
6 Take out the driveshaft and the gears.
7 Clean and examine all the parts. Measure
the clearances against the Specifications. The
end clearance is measured by putting a
straight-edge across the cover face.
8 The oil pump should only need
replacements after very long mileage, when
the rest of the engine is showing great signs
of wear.
9 The length of a new gear can be measured
against the old gear to see if a new gear will
restore the end clearance to the Specifications. Otherwise the housing must be
changed.
10 The driven gear shaft is mounted in the
housing with an interference fit. If there is any
slackness, a new housing (which will come
with shaft fitted) must be used.
11 The oil pump shares its drive with the
distributor.
Camshaft, cam followers and
shims
12 The camshaft journals and cams should
be smooth, without grooves or scores.
13 Wear in the camshaft carrier bearings can
only be rectified by renewal of the carrier.
14 Cam follower wear is usually very small
and when they show slackness in their bores,
it is probably the light alloy of the camshaft
carrier which has worn.
15 Always measure the thickness of the valve
clearance shims using a metric micrometer.
Any grooving or wear marks in the shims
should be rectified by renewal with ones of
similar thickness.
39.10 Cam followers fitted to camshaft
carrier
Auxiliary shaft
16 The shaft journals, the fuel pump
eccentric, and the drivegear for the distributor
and oil pump should be smooth and shiny. If
not, the shaft will have to be renewed.
17 The bushes should still be tight in the
cylinder block, their oil holes lined up with
those in the block.
18 Measure the bearing clearance. If
excessive, the bushes will have to be
renewed. They are a press fit, and require
reaming with a special reamer after fitting.
This is a job best done by a Fiat agent with the
special tools.
19 Ensure the new bushes are fitted with the
oil holes lined up.
20 Also check the driven gear and its bush.
21 It is recommended a new oil seal is fitted
in the endplate. Hold the shaft in a vice, and
remove the pulley. Fit the new oil seal in the
endplate, lips inwards.
Timing belt tensioner
22 Check the bearing revolves smoothly and
freely, and has no play. Do not immerse it in
cleaning fluid, as it is partially sealed. Wipe
the outside, and then smear in some new
general purpose grease.
23 The action of the spring will have been felt
when the belt was taken off. It should be
cleaned, and oiled, to prevent seizure through
dirt and rust.
24 Note the circlip on the engine right-hand
mounting bracket. This retains the timing belt
tensioner plunger.
1•30 1116 cc and 1301 cc engine
42.1 Main bearing shells
42.2 Crankshaft thrust washers
42.3 Lowering crankshaft into position
blades will serve as a reasonable alternative.
The difference between the two dimensions
(feeler blades) or the total movement of the
crankshaft (dial gauge) should be within the
specified tolerance. If it is not, the thrust
washers at No. 5 main bearing will have to be
changed for thicker ones; this will require
taking out the crankshaft again to reach them.
7 Fit new oil seals to the retainers and, using
new gaskets, bolt the retainers to the front
and rear ends of the crankshaft, having first
filled the oil seal lips with grease (photos).
1 Fit the bearing shells to their crankcase
seats and to their caps. The seatings and
backs of the shells must be spotlessly clean,
otherwise tight spots will occur when the
crankshaft is fitted. The centre bearing shell is
plain (photo).
2 Fit the thrust washer halves to their
locations at No. 5 bearing, noting that the oil
grooves in the washers face outwards (photo).
3 Oil the surfaces of the bearing shells
liberally and lower the crankshaft into position
(photo).
4 Fit the main bearing caps to their correct
locations, the correct way round (numerical
chisel marks towards the auxiliary shaft). The
rear cap is unmarked. Tighten the cap bolts to
the specified torque (photos).
5 Check that the crankshaft rotates smoothly
and freely.
6 At this stage, the crankshaft endfloat
should be checked. Prise the crankshaft fully
in one direction and measure the gap
between the machined face of the flywheel
mounting flange and the crankcase. Now
push the shaft in the opposite direction and
measure again. Ideally, a dial gauge should be
used for these measurements, but feeler
42.4A Number one main bearing cap
42.4B Tightening a main bearing cap bolt
42.7A Removing oil seal from carrier
42.7B Front oil seal carrier
42.7C Rear oil seal carrier
42.9 Fitting the auxiliary shaft
41 Engine - reassembly (general)
Refer to Section 19, Part 2.
42 Engine complete reassembly
4
Crankshaft and main bearings
Pistons/connecting rods
8 The refitting operations are described in
Section 32.
Auxiliary shaft
9 Lubricate the auxiliary shaft bearings and fit
the shaft into the crankcase (photo).
10 Fit a new seal to the endplate and fit the
1116 cc and 1301 cc engine 1•31
42.10A Auxiliary shaft end plate and
gasket
42.10B Tightening auxiliary shaft end plate
bolt
42.11 Tightening camshaft sprocket bolt.
Note sprocket locking device
plate to the crankcase, using a new gasket
(photos).
11 Fit the belt sprocket and partially tighten
its bolt. Then, using an oil filter strap wrench
or similar device to hold the sprocket against
rotation, tighten the bolt to the specified
torque. Take care not to damage the teeth of
the sprocket, which is of fibre construction
(photo).
14 Fit the sump (using a new gasket) and
tighten the securing screws to the specified
torque. Note the reinforcement washers
(photo).
15 Insert the oil pump/driveshaft into the
distributor hole. This does not have to be
specially positioned as the distributor is
splined to the shaft and can be set by moving
its location in the splines (refer to Chapter 4)
(photo).
16 Push the breather into its crankcase
recess and tighten its securing bolt (photos).
the bolt holes have unequal distances
between them, it is possible to fit the flywheel
in one of two alternative positions at 180º
difference. Therefore if the original flywheel is
being refitted, align the marks made before
removal.
18 If a new flywheel is being fitted, or if
alignment marks were not made before
dismantling, set No. 1 position at TDC
(crankshaft front Woodruff key pointing
vertically). Fit the flywheel to its mounting
flange so that its timing dimple is uppermost
and in alignment with the relative position of
the TDC mark on the flywheel housing
inspection window.
19 Insert the bolts and tighten them to the
specified torque, jamming the ring gear to
Oil sump, sump pan and
breather
12 Fit the oil drain pipe by tapping it into
place, squarely in its hole in the crankcase.
Tighten its retaining bolt (photo).
13 Bolt up the oil pump, using a new gasket
at its mounting flange (photo).
Flywheel, crankshaft sprocket
and pulley
17 Make sure that the flywheel-to-crankshaft
mounting flange surfaces are clean. Although
42.12 Tightening oil drain pipe bolt
42.14 Tightening sump pan bolt
42.13 Locating oil pump and gasket
42.15 Fitting oil pump driveshaft
42.16A Crankcase breather seal
42.16B Crankcase breather and retaining
bolt
1
1•32 1116 cc and 1301 cc engine
42.19 Tightening flywheel bolts
42.20 Fitting crankshaft timing belt
sprocket
42.21 Crankshaft pulley and nut
prevent the flywheel turning. Fit the engine
endplate (photo).
20 Fit the timing belt sprocket to the front
end of the crankshaft (photo).
21 Fit the crankshaft pulley and the nut;
tighten it to the specified torque, again
jamming the starter ring gear to prevent the
crankshaft from rotating (photo).
complete with the tensioner plunger to
provide spring pressure to the belt pulley
(photos).
2 Fit the coolant pump and thermostat
housing (Chapter 2).
3 Fit the alternator and tension the drivebelt
(Chapters 9 and 2).
4 Fit the distributor (Chapter 4).
5 Fit the fuel pump (Chapter 3).
6 Fit the clutch (Chapter 5).
7 Fit a new oil filter cartridge (Section 2 of this
Chapter).
Cylinder head
22 Refitting is described in Section 29.
Camshaft carrier and camshaft
Valve clearances
25 Check the valve clearances as described
in Section 26.
26 Using new gaskets, bolt on the camshaft
carrier cover plate and the inlet and exhaust
manifolds using new gaskets. Fit the exhaust
manifold hot air collector plate (photo).
27 Locate the engine rear plate on its dowels
by sliding it behind the flywheel (photo).
23 Refitting is described in Section 27.
Timing belt and tensioner
24 Refitting is described in Section 28, but
make sure that the belt cover rear plate is
bolted into position. If the engine mounting
bracket was removed, bolt it into position
43 Engine ancillaries - refitting
1 Bolt on the carburettor (Chapter 3).
44 Engine/transmission reconnection and refitting
3
1 Offer the transmission to the engine making
sure that the clutch has been centralised as
described in Chapter 5 (photo).
42.24A Belt cover rear plate
42.24B Belt cover mounting stud
42.24C Engine mounting bracket with belt
tensioner plunger (arrowed)
42.26 Tightening a camshaft carrier cover
nut
42.27 Engine rear plate
44.1 Offering transmission to engine
1116 cc and 1301 cc engine 1•33
44.2 Lifting lug at bellhousing bolt
44.8A Raising engine/transmission into
engine compartment
44.8B Left-hand engine mounting
2 Draw the engine and transmission together
by screwing in the connecting bolts.
Refit lifting lugs and hose and wiring clips
(photo).
3 Bolt the lower cover plate to the face of the
flywheel housing.
4 Bolt the starter motor into position.
5 Bolt the mounting brackets into place.
6 Place the engine/transmission on the floor
ready for raising by hoist or jack into the
engine compartment.
7 Raise the car and position it over the
engine/transmission.
8 Hoist or jack the power unit upwards until
the left and right-hand mountings can be
connected (photos).
9 Remove the lifting mechanism and connect
the bottom mounting (photos).
10 Connect the inboard ends of the
driveshafts with the transmission and the
outboard ends with the hub carriers.
11 Reconnect the hub carriers with the
clamps at the base of the suspension struts.
Tighten the fixing bolts to the specified torque.
12 Bolt the brake flexible hose support clips
to the suspension struts.
13 Reconnect the tie-rod end balljoints
tightening the nuts to the specified torque.
14 Reconnect the gearchange rods. The
easiest way to do this is to force the sockets
onto the ball studs using a pair of self-locking
grips (photo).
15 Refit
the
exhaust
system
and
reconnect the downpipe to the manifold
(photo).
16 Screw on the driveshaft nuts and tighten
them to the specified torque. Have an
assistant apply the brake pedal hard to
prevent the driveshaft from turning.
17 Refit the front roadwheels and lower the
car to the floor.
18 Reconnect the carburettor fuel and
coolant hoses.
19 Unplug the fuel hose and connect it to the
pump.
20 Reconnect the choke and throttle controls
to the carburettor.
21 Reconnect the coolant and heater hoses
44.8C Right-hand engine mounting
brackets
44.8D Right-hand mounting bolted up
44.9A Engine/transmission lower mounting
44.9B Lower mounting attachment bolts
44.14 Connecting a gearchange rod ball
cup
44.15 Exhaust downpipe flange nuts
1
1•34 1116 cc and 1301 cc engine
44.21A Heater hose at manifold
44.21B Brake servo hose at manifold
44.22A Reversing lamp switch on
transmission
to the engine. Also reconnect the brake servo
hose to the intake manifold (photos).
22 Reconnect the leads to the reversing lamp
switch. Reconnect the transmission earth lead
(photos).
23 Reconnect the clutch cable and adjust as
described in Chapter 5.
24 Reconnect the speedometer drive cable
to the transmission and tighten the knurled
retaining ring.
25 Reconnect the low tension lead to the
distributor and the high tension lead to the
ignition coil.
26 Reconnnect the electrical leads to the
starter motor, the oil pressure and
temperature switches and the coolant
temperature switch.
27 Connect the leads to the alternator.
28 Refit the air cleaner.
29 Refill the cooling system. Refill the engine
with oil.
30 Reconnect the battery.
31 Refit the bonnet and connect the
windscreen washer tube.
32 Fit the inner wing protective shields
(photo).
1 If new bearings and rings have been fitted,
it is likely that the engine will be stiff to turn so
make sure the battery is well charged.
2 Switch on the ignition and check that
appropriate warning lights come on.
3 Start up the engine. If it refuses to start,
refer to the “Fault Finding” Section in the
Reference section of this Manual.
4 Watch the oil pressure warning light and
alternator charging indicator light. If there is
no charge or if the oil pressure warning light
does not go out after a second or two, having
had time to fill the new oil filter, switch off and
recheck.
5 If the warning lights go out, set the engine
to run on fast idle and check the engine for
leaks.
6 Check the coolant level; it will probably go
down as air locks are filled.
7 Keep the engine running at a fast idle and
bring it up to normal working temperature. As
the engine warms up, there will be some odd
smells and smoke from parts getting hot and
burning off oil deposits.
8 When the engine running temperature has
been reached, adjust the idling speed, as
described in Chapter 3. Check and, if
necessary, adjust the ignition timing using a
stroboscope (see Chapter 4).
9 Stop the engine and wait a few minutes;
check to see if there are any coolant or oil
leaks.
10 Road test the car to check that the engine
is running with the correct smoothness and
power. If it does not, refer to “Fault finding” in
the Reference section of this Manual. Do not
race the engine. If new bearings and/or
pistons and rings have been fitted, it should
be treated as a new engine and run it at
reduced speed for at east 800 km (500 miles).
11 After 800 km (500 miles) change the
engine oil and filter.
44.26B Coolant temperature switch
44.32 Inner wing protective shield
44.22B Transmission earth lead
44.26A Oil pressure warning switch
45 Engine - initial start-up after
major overhaul
4
All engines 1•35
Fault finding - all engines
Note: When investigating starting and uneven running faults, do not be tempted into snap diagnosis. Start from the beginning of the check
procedure and follow it through. It will take less time in the long run. Poor performance from an engine in terms of power and economy is not
normally diagnosed quickly. In any event, the ignition and fuel systems must be checked first before assuming any further investigation needs to
be made.
Engine fails to turn when starter operated
Difficult starting when cold
m
m
m
m
m
m
m
m
m
m
m
m
m
m
m
Battery discharged
Battery terminals loose or corroded
Battery earth to body defective
Engine/transmission earth strap broken or loose
Disconnected or broken wire in starter circuit
Ignition/starter switch defective
Starter motor or solenoid defective (see Chapter 9)
Major mechanical failure (seizure) or long disuse (piston rings rusted
to bores)
Engine turns and fails to start
m
m
m
m
m
m
m
m
m
m
m
m
m
m
m
m
m
m
m
m
m
m
m
m
Battery discharged
Battery terminals loose or corroded
Battery or engine earth strap loose
Starter motor connections loose
Oil in engine/transmission too thick
Starter motor defective
Vapour lock in fuel line (in hot conditions or at high altitude)
Blocked float chamber needle valve
Fuel pump filter blocked
Choked or blocked carburettor jets
Faulty fuel pump
Fuel tank empty
Other fuel system fault (see Chapter 3)
Shorted or disconnected low tension leads
Dirty, incorrectly set, or pitted contact breaker points
Contact breaker point spring earthed or broken
Faulty condenser
Defective ignition switch
Faulty coil
Damp or dirty HT leads, distributor cap or plug bodies
Broken, loose or disconnected LT leads
Ignition leads connected wrong way round
Other ignition fault (see Chapter 4)
Valve timing incorrect (after rebuild)
Engine fires but will not run
m
m
m
m
Insufficient choke (cold engine)
Fuel starvation or tank empty
Ignition fault (see Chapter 4)
Other fuel system fault (see Chapter 3)
Engine stalls and will not restart
m
m
m
m
m
m
m
m
m
m
Too much choke allowing too rich a mixture to wet plugs
Float damaged or leaking or needle not seating
Float lever incorrectly adjusted
Ignition failure - sudden
Ignition failure - misfiring precedes total stoppage
Ignition failure - in severe rain or after traversing water splash
No petrol in petrol tank
Petrol tank breather choked
Sudden obstruction in carburettor
Water in fuel system
Engine slow to warm up
m
m
m
m
Choke linkage maladjusted
Air cleaner temperature control unit defective
Thermostat stuck open (see Chapter 2)
Other fuel system fault (see Chapter 3)
Insufficient choke
Fouled or incorrectly gapped spark plugs
Damp or dirty HT leads, distributor cap or spark plug bodies
Dirty or maladjusted contact breaker points
Other ignition fault or timing maladjustment (see Chapter 4)
Fuel system or emission control fault (see Chapter 3)
Poor compression (may be due to incorrect valve clearances, burnt
or sticking valves, blown head gasket, worn or damaged pistons,
rings or bores)
m Incorrect valve timing (after rebuild)
Difficult starting when hot
m
m
m
m
m
Incorrect use of manual choke
Fuel line vapour lock (especially in hot weather or at high altitudes)
Incorrect ignition timing
Other fuel system or emission control fault (see Chapter 3)
Poor compression (see above)
Engine lacks power
m
m
m
m
m
m
m
m
m
m
m
m
m
m
m
m
m
m
m
m
m
m
m
m
Ignition timing incorrect
Contact breaker points incorrectly gapped
Incorrectly set spark plugs
Dirty contact breaker points
Distributor automatic advance and retard mechanisms not
functioning correctly
Other ignition system fault (see Chapter 4)
Air cleaner choked
Carburation too rich or too weak
Fuel filter blocked
Air filter blocked
Faulty fuel pump giving top and fuel starvation
Other fuel system fault (see Chapter 3)
Poor compression
Valve clearances incorrect
Carbon build-up in cylinder head
Sticking or leaking valves
Weak or broken valve springs
Worn valve guides or stems
Worn pistons and piston rings
Burnt out valves
Blown cylinder head gasket (accompanied by increase in noise)
Worn pistons and piston rings
Worn or scored cylinder bore
Brakes binding
Engine misfires throughout speed range
m
m
m
m
m
m
m
m
Defective or fouled spark plug
Loose, cracked or defective HT lead
Maladjusted, sticking or burnt valves
Ignition timing incorrect
Blown head gasket
Fuel contaminated
Other ignition fault (see Chapter 4)
Other fuel system fault (see Chapter 3)
Poor engine braking
m High idle speed
m Other fuel system fault (see Chapter 3)
m Low compression
1
1•36 All engines
Engine idles roughly
m Mixture too weak
m Air leak in carburettor
m Air leak at inlet manifold to cylinder head, or inlet manifold to
carburettor
m Carburettor incorrectly adjusted
m Other fuel system fault (see Chapter 3)
m Low tension leads on coil loose
m Low tension lead to distributor loose
m Dirty, incorrectly set, or pitted contact breaker points
m Tracking across inside of distributor cover
m Faulty coil
m Ignition leads loose
m Spark plugs fouled or incorrectly gapped.
m Ignition timing incorrect
m Other ignition fault (see Chapter 4)
m Incorrect valve clearances
m Widely differing cylinder compressions
m Low battery voltage (charging fault)
m Battery leads loose on terminals
m Battery earth strap loose on body attachment point
m Engine earth lead loose
Pre-ignition (pinking) during acceleration
m
m
m
m
m
m
m
m
Incorrect grade of fuel being used
Ignition timing over-advanced
Other ignition fault (see Chapter 4)
Engine overheated
Excessive carbon build-up
Fuel system fault (see Chapter 3)
Valve timing incorrect (after rebuild)
Mixture too weak
Engine runs on after switching off
m
m
m
m
m
Idle speed too high
Incorrect type of spark plug
Overheating
Excessive carbon build-up
Other emission control fault (see Chapter 3)
Oil being lost due to leaks
m
m
m
m
m
Leaking oil filter gasket
Leaking rocker cover gasket
Leaking timing gear cover gasket
Leaking sump gasket
Loose sump plug
Low oil pressure (verify accuracy of sender before
dismantling engine!)
m
m
m
m
m
m
m
m
Oil level low
Engine overheating
Incorrect grade of oil in use
Oil filter clogged or bypass valve stuck
Pressure relief valve stuck or defective
Oil pick-up strainer clogged or loose
Main or big-end bearings worn
Oil pump worn or mountings loose
Excessive oil consumption
m
m
m
m
m
m
Overfilling
Leaking gaskets or drain plug washer
Valve stem oil seals worn, damaged or missing after rebuild
Valve stems and/or guides worn
Piston rings and/or bores worn
Piston oil return holes clogged
Oil contaminated with water
m Excessive cold running
m Leaking head gasket
m Cracked block or head
Oil contaminated with fuel
m Excessive use of choke
m Worn piston rings and/or bores
Unusual mechanical noises
m Unintentional mechanical contact (eg fan blade)
m Worn drivebelt
m Worn valvegear (tapping noises from top of engine) or incorrect
clearance
m Peripheral component fault (generator, coolant pump)
m Worn big-end bearings (regular heavy knocking, perhaps less under
load)
m Worn main bearings (rumbling and knocking, perhaps worsening
under load)
m Small-end bushes or gudgeon pins worn (light metallic tapping)
m Piston slap (most noticeable when engine cold)
m Worn timing chain and gears (rattling from front of engine)
m Worn crankshaft (knocking, rumbling and vibration)
2•1
Chapter 2 Cooling and heating systems
For modifications, and information applicable to later models, see Supplement at end of manual
Contents
Coolant mixtures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
Coolant pump - removal, overhaul and refitting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
Cooling system - draining, flushing and refilling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
Cooling system sensors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
Description and maintenance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
Drivebelt - tensioning and renewal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
Fault finding - cooling and heating . . . . . . . . . . . . See end of Chapter
Heater - dismantling, overhaul and reassembly . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Heater unit - removal and refitting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Heating and ventilation system - description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Radiator - removal and refitting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Radiator fan thermostatic switch - removal, checking and refitting .
Radiator fan - removal and refitting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Thermostat - removal, testing and refitting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
13
12
11
7
5
6
4
Degrees of difficulty
Easy, suitable for
novice with little
experience
1
Fairly easy, suitable
for beginner with
some experience
2
Fairly difficult,
suitable for competent
DIY mechanic
3
Difficult, suitable for
experienced DIY
mechanic
4
Very difficult,
suitable for expert DIY
or professional
5
Specifications
System type
2
...........................................
“No loss” with radiator and integral expansion tank. Electric cooling
fan, belt-driven coolant pump, thermostat on cylinder head
General
Radiator fan cuts in . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Radiator fan switches off . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Thermostat opens:
903 cc engine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1116 cc and 1301 cc engines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Fully open:
903 cc . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1116 cc and 1301 cc . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Expansion tank pressure cap rating . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
90 to 94ºC (194 to 201ºF)
85 to 89ºC (185 to 192ºF)
85 to 89ºC (185 to 192ºF)
83 to 87ºC (181 to 188.6ºF)
100ºC (212ºF)
95ºC (203ºF)
0.78 bar (11 lbf/in2)
Coolant
Capacity:
903 cc . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1116 cc . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1301 cc . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Type . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Torque wrench settings
Temperature sender switch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Coolant pump mounting bolts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Alternator adjuster and mountings nuts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1 Description and
maintenance
1
1 The cooling system consists of a
front-mounted radiator with built-in expansion
tank, a coolant pump (belt-driven from the
crankshaft pulley) and a thermostaticallycontrolled electric cooling fan.
2 In order to assist rapid warm-up, a
4.6 litre (8.1 pint)
6.0 litre (10.6 pint)
6.2 litre (10.9 pint)
Ethylene glycol based antifreeze
Nm
49
34
49
thermostat is located in a housing at the
left-hand end of the cylinder head. The hose
connections to the thermostat housing vary
according to model.
3 The heater is supplied with coolant from the
engine and incorporates a matrix and blower
with the necessary controls.
4 The throttle valve plate block of the
carburettor is coolant-heated as a means of
improving fuel atomisation.
5 Maintenance is minimal as in theory no
coolant should ever be lost from the
lbf ft
36
25
36
expansion tank. Regularly check that the
coolant level is between 50.0 and 70.0 mm
(1.97 and 2.8 in) above the MIN mark on the
tank with the engine cold. The need for
regular topping up will indicate a leak
somewhere in the system. If one cannot be
found suspect an internal leak in the engine
although this is usually confirmed by a rise in
the engine oil level and water on the dipstick
(photo). Any topping-up should be done using
an antifreeze mixture (see Section 3), not plain
water.
2•2 Cooling and heating systems
1.5 Expansion tank cap
dribble out of the hole in the heater hose.
Screw in the plug.
11 Top up the expansion tank to the
specified level and screw on the tank cap.
12 Start the engine and run it until the cooling
fan cuts in. Switch off, allow to cool and top
up if necessary to the specified mark on the
expansion tank.
Fig. 2.1 Cooling system on 903 cc engine (Sec 1)
6 Avoid unscrewing the expansion tank cap
when the engine is hot, but if this must be
done, cover the cap with a cloth to avoid
scalding by escaping steam.
7 Periodically, check the condition of all
coolant hoses and tighten the clips.
1 Set the heater temperature lever to
maximum.
2 Unscrew the cap from the expansion tank.
3 Disconnect the radiator bottom hose and
unscrew the cylinder block drain plug (1116
cc and 1301 cc engines) and allow the coolant
to drain. Refer to photo 29.21B, page 64.
4 If the system is in good condition with no
sign of rust or dirt in the drained coolant, then
it may be refilled immediately. If the system
has been neglected and the antifreeze has not
been regularly renewed and there is evidence
of rust and sediment in the drained liquid then
flush the system through with a cold water
hose.
5 If the radiator should appear to be clogged,
it may be necessary to remove it (Section 7)
invert it and reverse flush it using a cold water
hose. If, after a reasonable period the water
still does not run clear, the radiator should be
flushed with a good proprietary cleaning
system. Extensive damage should be repaired
by a specialist or the unit exchanged for a
new or reconditioned radiator.
6 Reconnect the bottom hose and screw in
the drain plug.
7 Remove the plug (B) (Fig. 2.2) from the
bleed hole in the heater hose.
8 Remove the plug (D) (Fig. 2.3) from the
bleed hole in the expansion tank.
9 Pour antifreeze mixture slowly into the filler
neck of the expansion tank until it is seen to
come out of the expansion tank plug hole.
Screw in the plug.
10 Add further coolant until it is seen to
Fig. 2.2 Plug (B) in heater hose (Sec 2)
Fig. 2.3 Plug (D) in expansion tank (Sec 2)
2 Cooling system - draining,
flushing and refilling
1
3 Coolant mixtures
1 In cold climates, antifreeze is needed for
two reasons. In extreme cases, if the coolant
in the engine freezes solid it could crack the
cylinder block or head. But also in cold
weather, with the circulation restricted by the
thermostat, and any warm water that is
getting to the radiator being at the top, the
bottom of the radiator could freeze, and so
block circulation completely, making the
coolant trapped in the engine boil.
2 The antifreeze should be mixed in the
proportions advocated by the makers,
according to the climate. There are two levels
of protection. The first cuts risk of damage, as
the antifreeze goes mushy before freezing.
The second, valid all year round, is the
corrosion protection it offers - see below. The
normal proportion in a temperate climate to
provide maximum protection against freezing
and corrosion is 50% antifreeze and
50% water.
3 Use only ethylene glycol based antifreeze
and preferably soft water.
4 Antifreeze should be left in through the
summer. It has an important secondary
function, to act as an inhibitor against
corrosion. In the cooling system are many
different metals, in particular the aluminium of
the cylinder head. In contact with the coolant
this sets up electrolytic corrosion,
accentuated by any dirt in the system. This
corrosion can be catastrophically fast.
5 After about two years, the effectiveness of
the antifreeze’s inhibitor is used up. It must
then be discarded, and the system refilled
with new coolant.
6 In warm climates free from frost, an
Cooling and heating systems 2•3
4.2 Thermostat housing
4.4 Fitting thermostat housing
(1116 cc engine)
7.3A Radiator top hose
inhibitor should be used. Again, a reputable
make giving full protection must be chosen
and renewed every two years. Inhibitors with
dyes are useful for finding leaks, and on some
makes the dye shows when the inhibiting
ability is finished.
3 To remove the switch, disconnect the leads
from the terminals and unscrew the switch.
4 Connect a test bulb and battery across the
switch terminals and then immerse the
sensing part of the switch in a container of
water. Heat the water and, using a
thermometer, check the temperature of the
water when the bulb lights up, indicating the
switch is functioning. The switch should
operate at approximately 194ºF (90ºC). Allow
the water to cool and check that the switch
cuts out at 185ºF (85ºC). Renew a faulty
switch.
5 Refitting of the switch is the reverse of the
removal procedure. Always fit a new O-ring on
the switch.
3 Disconnect the coolant hoses from the
radiator (photos).
4 Release the clips from the top of the
radiator and withdraw the radiator complete
with fan from the engine compartment
(photos).
5 The radiator is of combined plastic/metal
construction and any repair should be left to
specialists. In an emergency however, minor
leaks from the radiator may be cured by using
a radiator sealant with the radiator in situ.
6 Refitting is a reversal of removal. Fill the
cooling system as described in Section 2.
4 Thermostat removal, testing and refitting
1
1 The thermostat assembly is mounted on the
flywheel end of the cylinder block.
2 Unfortunately, the thermostat/housing is a
complete unit and failure of the thermostat will
necessitate the purchase of the complete
component (photo).
3 If the thermostat/housing is removed from
the engine, it can be suspended in water and
the water heated to check out its opening
temperature. Movement of the thermostat
valve can be observed to some extent
through the openings in the housing.
4 When refitting, always use a new gasket at
its mounting face (photo).
6 Radiator fan removal and refitting
1
8 Drivebelt tensioning and renewal
1
1 Drain the cooling system.
2 If the thermostatic switch is being removed
because the fan is not operating and the
switch is suspect, check the fan fuse first,
before removing the switch.
1 Drain the cooling system.
2 Disconnect the electrical leads from the
radiator fan motor and thermostatic switch.
1 The drivebelt for the alternator and coolant
pump is correctly tensioned if it deflects
through 10.0 mm (0.39 in) under moderate
thumb pressure at the mid point of the longest
run of the belt.
2 To tighten the belt, release the mounting
and adjuster nuts on the alternator and prise
the alternator away from the engine. Tighten
the nuts when the belt is taut and then
re-check the tension as previously described.
Never over-tension a belt or the coolant pump
or alternator bearings may be damaged.
3 Check the condition of the belt at regular
intervals. If frayed or cracked, renew it in the
following way.
4 Release the alternator mounting and
adjuster nuts and push the alternator fully in
7.3B Radiator hose to thermostat housing
7.4A Radiator fixing clip
7.4B Removing radiator/fan assembly
5 Radiator fan thermostatic
switch - removal, checking
and refitting
1
1 Disconnect the electrical leads from the
radiator fan motor.
2 Unbolt the fan mounting struts from the
radiator and lift the complete assembly away.
3 Refitting is a reversal of removal.
7 Radiator removal and refitting
1
2
2•4 Cooling and heating systems
9.4 Coolant distribution tube at rear of
pump
towards the engine. Slip the belt off the
pulleys. If this is difficult, turn the crankshaft
pulley using a spanner on its retaining nut
while pressing the belt over the edge of the
pulley rim. Use this method to fit the new belt
after first having engaged it with the coolant
pump and alternator pulley grooves.
5 Tension the belt as previously described.
6 The tension of a new belt should be
checked and adjusted after the first few
hundred miles of running.
9 Coolant pump - removal,
overhaul and refitting
4
Note: The design of the pump differs between
the 903 cc and the other two engines, but the
removal, overhaul and refitting operations are
essentially similar.
1 To gain access to the coolant pump, open
the bonnet and remove the air cleaner.
2 Slacken the alternator pivot and adjustment
nuts, push the alternator in towards the
engine and slip the drivebelt from the coolant
pump pulley. Unplug and remove the
alternator.
Fig. 2.4 Sectional view of 903 cc engine coolant pump (Sec 9)
1
2
3
4
Pump body
Pump cover
Impeller
Connector for hose from
outlet to pump
5 Seal
6 Gasket
7
8
9
10
11
Circlip
Bearing shoulder washer
Inner seal
Inner bearing
Bearing retainment screw
and lock washer
3 Drain the cooling system as previously
described.
4 Disconnect the hoses from the coolant
pump, also the metal coolant transfer pipe
(photo).
5 Unscrew and remove the coolant pump
securing bolts, and lift the pump from the
engine. Peel away and discard the old gasket.
6 Clean away external dirt.
7 The pump is likely to need overhaul for
worn or noisy bearings, or if the gland is
leaking. There is a drain hole between the
gland and the bearings to prevent
contamination of the bearing grease by leaks,
and possible damage to the bearings. Gland
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
Pump cover
Bearing spacer
Bearing stop screw
Cover nuts
Lifting bracket
Housing
Impeller
Gland (seal)
Circlip
Gasket
Shouldered ring
Grommets
Bearing
Pulley
Shaft
Fig. 2.5 Sectional views of 1116 cc and 1301 cc engine coolant pump (Sec 9)
12
13
14
15
16
17
Spacer
Outer seal
Outer bearing
Lock washer
Pulley
Pump shaft
leaks are usually worse when the engine is not
running. Once started, a leak is likely to get
worse quickly, so should be dealt with soon.
Worn bearings are likely to be noted first due
to noise. To check them, the pulley should be
rocked firmly, when any free movement can
be felt despite the belt. But if the bearings are
noisy, yet there is not apparently any free
play, then the belt should be removed so the
pump can be rotated by hand to check the
smoothness of the bearings.
8 Dismantling and assembly of the pump
requires the use of a press, and it is preferable
to fit a new pump.
9 For those having the necessary facilities,
overhaul can be carried out as follows.
10 Remove the retaining nuts and separate
the two halves of the pump.
11 The pump shaft is an interference fit in the
impeller, bearings, and pulley boss. How the
pump is dismantled depends on whether only
the gland needs renewing or the bearings as
well, and what puller or press is available to
get everything apart.
12 Assuming complete dismantling is
required, proceed as follows. Supporting it
close in at the boss, press the shaft out of the
pulley. Pull the impeller off the other end of
the shaft.
13 Take out the bearing stop screw.
14 From the impeller end, press the shaft
with the bearings out of the cover half of the
housing.
15 Press the shaft out of the bearings, take
off the spacer, the circlip, and the shouldered
ring.
16 Do not immerse the bearings in cleaning
Cooling and heating systems 2•5
2 Air is drawn in through the grille at the base
of the windscreen. It then passes through the
coolant heated matrix when it can then be
distributed
through
selective
outlets
according to the setting of the control levers.
3 A booster fan is provided for use when the
car is stationary or is travelling too slowly to
provide sufficient air ram effect.
4 Fresh air outlets are provided at each end
and centrally on the facia panel.
9.21 Fitting coolant pump (1116 cc engine)
Fig. 2.6 Checking impeller clearance
(Sec 9)
fluid. They are “sealed”. Liquid will get in, but
a thorough clean will be impracticable, and it
will be impossible to get new grease in.
17 Check all the parts, get a new gland, two
new grommets, (1116 cc and 1301 cc) and a
new gasket. Scrape all deposits out of the
housing and off the impeller.
18 To reassemble, start by inserting the new
grommets (1116 cc and 1301 cc) in the
grooves by each bearing. Fit the circlip to the
shaft, then the shouldered ring, bearings and
spacer. Fit the shaft and bearing assembly
into the cover. Fit the stop screw. Press on
the pulley.
19 Fit the new gland (seal), seating it in its
location in the cover. Press the impeller onto
the shaft. The impeller must be put on part
way, and then the housing held in place to see
how far the impeller must go down the shaft
to give the correct clearance, which is 0.8 to
1.3 mm (0.03 to 0.05 in) as shown in Figs. 2.4
and 2.5.
20 The impeller clearance can be checked
through the coolant passage in the side of the
pump.
21 Refitting is a reversal of the removal
process, but use a new flange gasket and
tension the drivebelt as described in Section 8
(photo).
22 Refill the cooling system.
flux is weakened and the switches open.
5 In the event of a fault developing, before
assuming that the cause is the sensor, check
all connecting wiring.
11 Heating and ventilation
system - description
1 The heater is centrally mounted under the
facia and is of fresh air type.
12 Heater unit removal and refitting
1 Drain the cooling system.
2 Disconnect the heater hoses at the engine
compartment rear bulkhead.
3 Working within the car under the facia
panel, disconnect the leads from the
heater blower by pulling the connecting plug
apart.
4 If a radio is fitted, disconnect the
aerial, earth, speaker and power leads from
it.
10 Cooling system sensors
1 A coolant temperature sender switch is
located in the cylinder head (above No. 1
spark plug) on 903 cc engines and adjacent to
No. 2 spark plug on 1116 cc and 1301 cc
engines.
2 The switch operates the coolant
temperature gauge and an excessive
temperature warning lamp.
3 On some models, a level sensor is screwed
into the side of the expansion tank. This
sensor consists of a pair of reed switches
within a capsule which are kept closed by the
strong magnetic flux generated by the
hydrostatic force inspired by the action of the
coolant against the float.
4 If the coolant level drops then the magnetic
A Fresh air inlet flap
B Air distribution flap
C Coolant valve
1
Fig. 2.7 Heater and ventilation system (Sec 11)
D Blower
F Control levers
E Matrix
G Footwell air duct
2
2•6 Cooling and heating systems
12.5 Pulling off heater control lever knob
12.6A Heater control panel screw
12.6B Removing heater control panel
escutcheon
upper part of the heater casing (photo).
10 Unscrew the mounting nuts which hold
the heater to the bulkhead (photo).
11 Lower the heater to the floor, taking care
not to allow coolant to spill on the carpet.
12 Refitting is a reversal of removal. Fill the
cooling system.
12.8A Heater coolant valve and control
cable
5 Pull off the knobs from the control levers
(photo).
6 Extract the screws and take off the control
indicator plate (photos). Disconnect the leads
from the cigar lighter and carefully detach the
fibre optic which provides the panel
illumination.
7 Unscrew and remove the screws which
hold the console to the heater unit and
withdraw the console.
8 The control cables can be disconnected
from the arms of the control flap valves
(photos).
9 Unscrew the single screw from the upper
face of the facia panel. This screw secures the
12.8B Heater flap valve cables
Fig. 2.8 Extracting heater upper fixing
screw (Sec 12)
12.9 Heater upper fixing screw
12.10 Heater lower mounting bolt
Fig. 2.9 Control lever platform screw
(Sec 13)
Fig. 2.10 Withdrawing heater matrix
(Sec 13)
13 Heater - dismantling, overhaul
and reassembly
1
1 Remove the heater from the car as
described in the preceding Section.
Cooling and heating systems 2•7
2 The control lever mounting platform can be
removed after extracting its fixing screws.
3 The coolant control valve can be removed
after extracting its fixing nuts.
4 Unscrew the screws which hold the heater
matrix in the casing and then slide the matrix
from its location.
5 If the matrix is leaking, do not attempt a
repair, but obtain a new one. These are
usually obtainable on an exchange basis from
radiator repairers.
6 The heater casing can be separated after
prising off the clips and removing the bolts.
The blower motor/fan can then be lifted out.
7 Reassembly is a reversal of dismantling, but
set the cables to give complete range of travel
between open and closed positions of the flap
valve or coolant valve concerned.
2
Fig. 2.11 Exploded view of heater (Sec 13)
Fig. 2.12 Heater control components (Sec 13)
2•8 Cooling and heating systems
Fault finding - cooling and heating systems
Overheating
Loss of coolant
m
m
m
m
m
m
m
m
m
m
m
m
m
m
m
m
m
m
Insufficient coolant in system
Pump ineffective due to slack drivebelt
Radiator blocked either internally or externally
Kinked or collapsed hose causing coolant flow restriction
Thermostat not working properly
Engine out of tune
Ignition timing retarded or auto advance malfunction
Cylinder head gasket blown
Engine not yet run-in
Exhaust system partially blocked
Engine oil level too low
Brakes binding
Engine running too cool
m Faulty, incorrect or missing thermostat
Loose hose clips
Hoses perished or leaking
Radiator leaking
Filler/pressure cap defective
Blown cylinder head gasket
Cracked cylinder block or head
Heater gives insufficient output
m
m
m
m
Engine overcooled (see above)
Heater matrix blocked
Heater controls maladjusted or broken
Heater control valve jammed or otherwise
defective
3•1
Chapter 3 Fuel system
For modifications, and information applicable to later models, see Supplement at end of manual
Contents
Accelerator cable - adjustment and renewal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Air cleaner - servicing, removal and refitting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Carburettor - removal and refitting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Carburettor idle speed and mixture - adjustment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Carburettor (Solex C32 DISA 12) - servicing and adjustment . . . . . .
Carburettor (Solex C30 - 32 CIC/1) - servicing and adjustment . . . .
Carburettor (Solex C32 DISA 11) - servicing and adjustment . . . . . .
Carburettor (Weber 30/32 DMTR 90/250) - servicing and
adjustment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Carburettor (Weber 32 ICEV 50/250/1) - servicing and adjustment . .
Carburettor (Weber 32 ICEV 51/250) - servicing and adjustment . . .
17
2
8
7
13
15
10
14
9
12
Carburettors (Weber 32 ICEE/250 and Solex C32 DISA 14) description and adjustment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
Carburettors - general . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
Choke control cable - removal and refitting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
Description and maintenance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
Economy meter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
Fault finding - fuel system . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . See end of Chapter
Fuel level transmitter - removal and refitting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
Fuel pump - removal and refitting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
Fuel tank - removal and refitting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
Manifolds and exhaust system . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
Degrees of difficulty
Easy, suitable for
novice with little
experience
1
Fairly easy, suitable
for beginner with
some experience
2
Fairly difficult,
suitable for competent
DIY mechanic
3
Difficult, suitable for
experienced DIY
mechanic
4
Very difficult,
suitable for expert DIY
or professional
5
3
Specifications
System type
...........................................
Rear mounted fuel tank, mechanically-operated fuel pump,
downdraught carburettor
Air cleaner element
903 cc (45) and 1116 cc (55) engine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1116 cc (60) and 1299/1301 cc (70) engines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Champion W121
Champion W136
Fuel tank
Capacity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Octane rating . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
42.0 litre (9.25 gal)
Leaded 97 RON minimum (see Supplement for use of unleaded petrol)
Fuel filter
Champion L101
..............................................
Carburettor - calibration (dimensions in mm)
Weber 32 ICEV 50/250/1
Application . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Venturi . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Auxiliary venturi . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Main jet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Air bleed . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Emulsion tube . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Idle jet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Air idle jet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Pump jet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Pump outlet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Superfeed jet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Superfeed mixture jet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Fuel inlet needle valve . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Anti-syphon device . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Idle mixture adjustment hole . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Float setting (fuel level) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Float setting (travel/stroke) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Fast idle (throttle valve gap) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Accelerator pump delivery (ten strokes) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
903 cc engine
22
3.5
1.12
1.70
F89
0.47
1.60
0.40
0.40
0.80
2.50
1.50
1.00
1.50
10.5 to 11.0
45.0
0.75 to 0.80
4.0 to 5.5 cc
3•2 Fuel system
Solex C32 DISA 11
Application . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Venturi . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Auxiliary venturi . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Main jet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Air bleed jet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Emulsion tube . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Idle jet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Air idle jet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Pump jet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Pump outlet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Fuel inlet needle valve . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Anti-syphon device . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Idle mixture adjustment hole . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Float setting (fuel level) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Fast idle (throttle valve gap) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Accelerator pump delivery (ten strokes) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
903 cc engine
23
3.4
1.20
1.35
B03
0.525
1.20
0.50
0.45
1.60
2.0
1.10
2.0 to 3.0
0.90 to 1.0
2.5 to 4.5 cc
Weber 32 ICEE/250
Application . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Venturi . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Auxiliary venturi . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Main jet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Air bleed jet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Emulsion tube . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Idle jet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Air idle jet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Pump jet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Pump outlet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Superfeed jet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Superfeed mixture jet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Fuel inlet needle valve . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Anti-syphon device . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Idle mixture adjustment hole . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Float setting (fuel level) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Fast idle (throttle valve plate gap) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Accelerator pump delivery (ten strokes) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
903 cc ES engine
22
3.5
1.07
1.60
F89
0.47
1.60
0.40
0.45
0.85
2.50
1.50
1.00
1.50
10.5 to 11.0
0.75 to 0.80
4.0 to 5.5 cc
Solex C 32 DISA/14
Application . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Venturi . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Auxiliary venturi . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Main jet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Air bleed jet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Emulsion tube . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Idle jet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Idle air jet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Pump jet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Pump outlet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Fuel inlet needle valve . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Anti-syphon device . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Idle mixture adjustment hole . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Float setting (fuel level) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Fast idle (throttle valve plate gap) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Accelerator pump delivery (ten strokes) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
903 cc ES engine
23
3.4
1.20
1.30
B03
0.525
1.20
0.70
0.45
1.60
2.0
1.20
2.0 to 3.0
0.90 to 1.0
2.5 to 4.5 cc
Weber 32 ICEV 51/250
Application . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Venturi . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Auxiliary venturi . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Main jet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Air bleed jet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Emulsion tube . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Idle jet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Air idle jet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Pump jet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Pump outlet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Superfeed jet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Superfeed mixture jet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1116 cc engine
22
35
1.15
1.90
F74
0.47
1.55
0.40
0.45
0.90
2.50
Fuel system 3•3
Weber 32 ICEV 51/250 (continued)
Fuel inlet needle valve . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Anti-syphon device. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Idle mixture adjustment hole . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Float setting (fuel level) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Float setting (travel/stroke) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Fast idle (throttle valve plate gap) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Accelerator pump delivery (ten strokes) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1.50
1.00
1.50
10.5 to 11.0
45.0
0.85 to 0.90
3.2 to 5.2 cc
Solex C 32 DISA/12
Application . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Venturi . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Auxiliary venturi . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Main jet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Air bleed jet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Emulsion tube . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Idle jet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Air idle jet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Pump jet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Pump outlet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Superfeed jet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Superfeed mixture jet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Fuel inlet needle valve . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Anti-syphon device . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Idle mixture adjustment hole . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Float setting (fuel level) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Fast idle (throttle valve plate gap) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Accelerator pump delivery (ten strokes) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1116 cc engine
22
3.4
1.22
2.0
86
0.57
1.40
0.45
0.50
1.15
2.0
1.60
1.60
1.70
2.0 to 3.0
0.90 to 1.0
3.0 to 4.0 cc
Weber 30/32 DMTR 90/250
Application . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1301 cc engine
Primary
19
3.5
0.87
1.85
F43
0.50
11.0
0.45
0.40
-
Venturi . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Auxiliary venturi . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Main jet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Air bleed jet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Emulsion tube . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Idle jet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Air idle jet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Pump jet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Pump outlet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Superfeed jet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Superfeed mixture jet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Fuel inlet needle valve . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Anti-syphon device . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Idle mixture adjustment hole . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Float setting (fuel level) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Fast idle (throttle valve plate gap) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Accelerator pump delivery (ten strokes) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1.60
1.50
6.75 to 7.25
0.90 to 0.95
8.5 to 12.5 cc
Solex C 30/32 CIC/1
Application . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1301 cc engine
Venturi . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Auxiliary venturi . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Main jet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Air bleed jet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Emulsion tube . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Idle jet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Air idle jet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Pump jet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Pump outlet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Fuel inlet needle valve . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Anti-syphon device . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Idle mixture adjustment hole . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Float setting (fuel level) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Fast idle (throttle valve plate gap) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Accelerator pump delivery (ten strokes) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Primary
19
3.2
1.15
2.30
95
0.50
1.20
0.50
0.45
1.60
1.80
1.60
6.5 to 7.5
0.90 to 1.0
7.5 to 9.5 cc
Secondary
23
5
0.95
1.75
F38
0.50
0.70
0.80
2.00
1.50
Secondary
23
4
1.27
2.0
95
0.50
1.60
-
3
3•4 Fuel system
Engine idle speed
At normal operating temperature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
800 to 850 rev/min
CO percentage at idle
3.5 maximum
.................................
Torque wrench settings
Exhaust manifold nuts (903 cc) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Exhaust and intake manifold nuts (1116 cc, 1301 cc) . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Fuel pump nuts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Carburettor mounting nuts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1 Description and
maintenance
1
Nm
20
28
28
25
2 Air cleaner - servicing,
removal and refitting
lbf ft
15
20
20
18
1
6 Take out the filter element and discard it.
Wipe out the air cleaner casing (photo).
7 Locate the new element and refit the cover
aligning the appropriate symbols.
903 cc engine
1 The fuel system consists of a rear-mounted
fuel tank, a mechanically-operated fuel pump
and a carburettor and air cleaner.
2 On all engines except the 1301 cc a single
venturi downdraught carburettor is fitted. On
the 1301 cc version, a dual barrel carburettor
is fitted.
3 Maintenance consists of periodically
checking the condition and security of the fuel
hoses to the pump and carburettor. The fuel
pump cannot be cleaned or repaired and in
the event of a fault developing, the pump
must be renewed.
4 On ES versions, an electronic fuel cut-out
device is fitted which reduces fuel
consumption on overrun, see Chapter 9,
Section 33.
1 The air cleaner air intake draws air either
from the front of the car or from the outside of
the exhaust manifold according to ambient
temperature (photo).
2 At an ambient temperature of 13ºC (55ºF)
and above, the SUN symbol should align with
the intake spout arrow head. Remove the
cover nuts and turn the cover.
3 At an ambient temperature lower than this,
move the air cleaner cover until the
SNOWFLAKE symbol aligns with the intake
spout arrow head.
4 At the intervals specified in “Routine
Maintenance” renew the air cleaner filter
element.
5 To do this, remove the cover nuts and take
off the cover (photo).
2.1 Air cleaner hot air intake
2.5 Air cleaner cover
2.6 Removing air cleaner element
2.9 Crankcase vent hose at air cleaner
2.11A Air cleaner mounting studs (1116 cc)
2.11B Air cleaner mounting bracket and
pipe clip
8 To remove the air cleaner from the 903 cc
engine, unscrew the nuts and take off the
cover. Lift out the filter element.
9 Unbolt the air cleaner casing from the
carburettor flange and from the bracket on the
rocker cover. Disconnect the vent hose
(photo).
10 Disconnect the warm and cool air intake
hoses from their collecting points and lift the
air cleaner from the engine.
1116 cc and 1301 cc engines
11 Removing the air cleaner from the 1116 cc
engine is similar to that described for the
903 cc engine, but having a cylinder head
support bracket (photos).
Fuel system 3•5
3.4 Fuel pump
3.6A Fuel pump on mounting studs
3.6B Fuel pump spacer and pushrod
12 The air cleaner on the 1301 cc engine is
mounted on the four flange studs of the
carburettors, their nuts being accessible after
the air cleaner lid has been removed and the
filter element extracted.
13 Refitting of all types of air cleaner is a
reversal of removal.
spacer should always be 0.3 mm thick, but
gaskets for the outboard side are available in
thicknesses 0.3, 0.7 and 1.2 mm, as a means
of adjusting the fuel pump pressure. The
standard fuel pressure is 0.176 bar
(2.55 lbf/in 2). If the pressure is too high a
thicker gasket should be used, if too low, fit a
thinner one.
1 It is preferable to remove the fuel tank when
it has only a very small quantity of fuel in it. If
this cannot be arranged, syphon out as much
fuel as possible into a suitable container
which can be sealed.
2 The tank is mounted just forward of the rear
axle.
3 Disconnect the filler hose and the breather
hose from the tank (photo).
4 Unscrew the mounting bolts from the
support straps and lower the tank using a jack
with a block of wood as an insulator. Release
the handbrake cable from its support bracket
on the side of the tank (photo).
5 Once the tank has been lowered sufficiently
far, disconnect the fuel supply and return
hoses, breather hose and sender unit leads
and remove the tank from the car.
Warning: Never attempt to
solder or weld a fuel tank
yourself; always leave fuel tank
repairs to the experts. Never
syphon fuel into a container in an
inspection pit. Fuel vapour is heavier than
air and can remain in the pit for a
considerable time.
6 If the tank contains sediment or water,
clean it out by using several changes of
paraffin and shaking vigorously. In order to
avoid damage to the sender unit, remove this
before commencing operations.
7 Finally allow to drain and rinse out with
clean fuel.
8 Refit by reversing the removal operations.
9 On 1984 and later models, the fuel tank is
of plastic construction.
5.3 Fuel tank filler and vent hoses
5.4 Fuel tank mounting straps
3 Fuel pump removal and refitting
2
1 On 903 cc engines, the fuel pump is
mounted on the side of the timing chain cover
and is driven by a pushrod from an eccentric
on the front of the camshaft.
2 On the 1116 cc and 1301 cc engines, the
fuel pump is mounted on the side of the
crankcase and is driven by a pushrod from an
eccentric on the auxiliary shaft.
3 The removal of both types of pump is
carried out in a similar way.
4 Disconnect the fuel inlet hose from the
pump and plug the hose (photo).
5 Disconnect the fuel outlet hose from the
pump.
6 Unscrew the pump fixing bolt and remove it
together with spacer, pushrod and gaskets
(photos).
7 Refitting is a reversal of removal. Make sure
that a new gasket is located on each side of
the spacer.
8 The gasket on the inboard side of the
4.1 Fuel tank transmitter
4 Fuel level transmitter removal and refitting
1
1 The transmitter is accessible after having
removed the small cover panel from the floor
of the car under the rear seat (tipped forward)
with the floor covering peeled back (photo).
2 Disconnect the fuel flow and return hoses
and the electrical leads from the transmitter.
3 Unscrew the securing ring and lift the
transmitter from the tank.
4 Refitting is a reversal of removal. Use a new
rubber sealing ring.
5 Fuel tank removal and refitting
1
3
3•6 Fuel system
Fig. 3.1 Weber 32 ICEV 50/250 (Sec 6)
Fig. 3.2 Solex C32 DISA 11 (Sec 6)
Fig. 3.3 Weber 32 ICEV 51/250 (Sec 6)
Fig. 3.4 Solex C32 DISA 12 (Sec 6)
Fig. 3.5 Weber 30/32 DMTR 90/250 (Sec 6)
Fig. 3.6 Weber 32 ICEE/250 (Sec 6)
6 Carburettors - general
Fig. 3.7 Solex C30/32 CIC/1 (Sec 6)
Fig. 3.8 C32 DISA 14 (Sec 6)
Key to carburettor illustrations
1 Idle speed screw
A Throttle valve plate
2 Anti-tamper plug an idle mixture adustment screw
B Idle cut out device
1 The need to completely overhaul a
carburettor is rare. A carburettor can normally
be kept in good working order if the top cover
is removed and the fuel mopped out of the
fuel bowl. Individual jets can be removed and
blown through. Never probe them with wire or
their calibration will be ruined.
2 Take the opportunity to check the jet sizes
and other components against those listed in
the Specifications in case a previous owner
has substituted some of incorrect calibration.
3 When the stage is reached where the valve
plate spindle bushes have worn, then the
carburettor should be renewed complete.
4 When reassembling the carburettor, use
new gaskets which can be obtained in a repair
pack.
Fuel system 3•7
8.2 Fuel hose at carburettor
7 Carburettor idle speed and
mixture - adjustment
8.6 Carburettor mounting flange nut
4
1 All carburettors have their mixture
adjustment set in production. The screw is
fitted with a tamperproof cap.
2 Under normal circumstances, only the idle
speed screw need be adjusted to set the
engine idle speed to the specified level.
3 Before attempting to adjust the idle speed
or mixture, it is important to have the ignition
and valve clearances correctly set and the
engine at normal operating temperature with
the air cleaner fitted.
4 Where the mixture must be adjusted, prise
out the tamperproof plug and turn the mixture
screw in to weaken or out to enrich the
mixture until the engine runs smoothly without
any tendency to “hunt”.
5 Ideally an exhaust gas analyser should be
used to make sure that the CO level is within
the specified range.
6 Once the mixture has been correctly set,
re-adjust the idle speed screw.
8 Carburettor removal and refitting
2
1 Remove the air cleaner.
2 Disconnect the flow and return fuel hoses
from the carburettor and plug them.
3 Disconnect the coolant hoses from the
carburettor throttle valve plate block.
Provided the cooling system is cold and not
under pressure there should be almost no loss
of coolant. Tie the hoses up as high as
possible with a piece of wire.
4 Disconnect the vacuum and vent hoses
from the carburettor.
5 Disconnect the throttle and choke controls
from the carburettor.
6 Unscrew the mounting flange nuts and lift
the carburettor from the intake manifold
(photo).
7 Refitting is a reversal of removal. Use a new
flange gasket and make sure that the fuel
return hose is routed above the air cleaner
intake.
9 Carburettor
(Weber 32 ICEV 50/250/1) servicing and adjustment
1 The carburettor top cover with float may be
removed without the need to withdraw the
carburettor from the manifold. The other
adjustments described will require removal of
the carburettor.
2 Unscrew the filter plug from the top cover,
clean the filter screen and refit it.
3 Extract the top cover fixing screws, lift the
cover and tilt it to unhook it from the
diaphragm capsule link rod.
4 Access to the fuel inlet needle valve is
Fig. 3.10 Float setting diagram (Weber 32 ICEV 50/250) (Sec 9)
A = 10.5 to 11.0 mm (0.41 to 0.44 in)
4
B = 45.0 mm (1.77 in)
Fig. 3.9 Fuel return hose correctly located
(Sec 8)
obtained by carefully tapping out the float arm
pivot pin. Take care, the pivot pin pillars are
very brittle.
5 Check that the needle valve body is tight
otherwise fuel can bypass the needle valve
and cause flooding.
Float adjustment
6 Reassemble and check the float setting. Do
this by holding the top cover vertically so that
the float hangs down under its own weight.
Measure dimension (A) (Fig. 3.10) which
should be between 1 0.50 and 11.10 mm
(0.41 to 0.44 in) with the gasket in position. If
necessary, bend the float arm tab to adjust.
7 Now check the float travel which should be
45.0 mm (1.77 in). If adjustment is required,
bend the end of the float arm.
Accelerator pump stroke
8 Using a twist drill as a gauge, open the
throttle valve plate through 3.5 mm (0.138 in).
9 Turn the nut on the accelerator pump rod
until it just makes contact with the pump
control lever.
Fast idle adjustment
10 With the choke valve plate fully closed by
means of the control lever, the throttle valve
Fig. 3.11 Accelerator pump setting diagram
(Weber 32 ICEV 50/250) (Sec 9)
X = 3.5 mm (0.138 in)
3
3•8 Fuel system
Fig. 3.12 Fast idle adjustment diagram (Weber 32 ICEV 50/250)
(Sec 9)
Fig. 3.13 Anti-flooding device (Weber 32 ICEV 50/250)
(Sec 9)
A = 0.75 to 0.80 mm (0.030 to 0.032 in)
Y = 3.75 to 4.25 mm (0.148 to 0.167 in)
plate should be open (dimension A) (Fig. 3.1 2)
between 0.75 and 0.80 mm (0.030 and
0.032 in). Adjust if necessary by means of the
screw and locknut.
Anti-flooding device
11 This consists of a diaphragm capsule and
link rod.
12 The condition of the diaphragm can be
checked by applying a vacuum source to the
hole in the throttle valve plate block. The
vacuum pressure will drop if there is a leak.
13 Actuate the choke valve plate lever fully
and depress the control lever of the
anti-flooding device to simulate operating
vacuum.
14 There should be a gap (Y) (Fig. 3.15)
between the edge of the choke valve plate
and the wall of the carburettor throat of
between 3.75 and 4.25 mm (0.148 and
0.167 in). Any adjustment that may be needed
should be carried out by bending the link rod.
10 Carburettor
(Solex C32 DISA 11) servicing and adjustment
Fig. 3.14 Anti-flooding device vacuum
intake (Weber 342 ICEV 50/250) (Sec 9)
1 Vacuum intake hole
4
1 The carburettor top cover with float may be
removed without the need to withdraw the
carburettor from the manifold. The other
adjustments described will require removal of
the carburettor.
Fig. 3.15 Choke valve gap opening
(Weber 32 ICEV 50/250) (Sec 9)
Fig. 3.16 Float setting diagram
(Solex C32 DISA 11) (Sec 10)
Y = 3.75 to 4.25 mm (0.148 to 0.167 in)
A = 2.0 to 3.0 mm (0.079 to 0.118 in)
2 Extract the top cover fixing screws,
disconnect the small externally mounted
tension spring and take off the top cover.
3 Access to the fuel inlet needle valve is
obtained by carefully tapping out the float arm
pivot pin. Take care, the pivot pin pillars are
very brittle.
4 Check that the needle valve body is tight
otherwise fuel can bypass the needle valve
and cause flooding.
Float adjustment
5 Reassemble and check the float setting. Do
this by inverting the top cover so that the
weight of the float fully depresses the ball of
the needle valve. The distance (A) (Fig. 3.16)
between the float and the surface of the top
cover flange gasket should be between 2.0
and 3.0 mm (0.079 and 0.118 in). If
adjustment is required, alter the thickness of
the washer under the needle valve.
Accelerator pump
6 Fill the carburettor float chamber and then
operate the throttle valve plate lever several
times to prime the pump.
7 Position a test tube under the accelerator
Fig. 3.17 Adjusting accelerator pump rod
(Solex C32 DISA 11) (Sec 10)
Fuel system 3•9
Fig. 3.18 Fast idle adjustment diagram (Solex C32 DISA 11)
(Sec 10)
Fig. 3.19 Anti-flooding device adjustment diagram
(Solex C32 DISA 11) (Sec 10)
X = 0.90 to 1.0 mm (0.035 to 0.039 in)
X = 4.75 to 5.25 mm (0.187 to 0.207 in)
pump jet and give ten full strokes of the
throttle lever, pausing between each stroke to
allow fuel to finish dripping.
8 The total volume of fuel collected should be
between 2.5 and 4.5 cc. Adjust the nut on the
pump control and if necessary to increase or
decrease the volume of fuel ejected.
Fast idle adjustment
9 With the choke valve plate fully closed, the
throttle valve plate should be open to give a
dimension (X) (Fig. 3.18) of between 0.90 and
1.0 mm (0.035 to 0.039 in). Use a twist drill of
suitable diameter to measure the gap. If
necessary, adjust by means of the screw and
locknut.
Anti-flooding device
10 Close the choke valve plate by means of
the control lever. At the same time, push the
lean out valve rod towards the valve.
11 There should be a gap (X) (Fig. 3.19)
between the edge of the choke valve plate
Fig. 3.20 Moving lean out valve rod
(Solex C32 DISA 11) (Sec 10)
X = 4.75 to 5.25 mm (0.187 to 0.207 in)
and the carburettor throat of between 4.75
and 5.25 mm (0.187 to 0.207 in). Adjust if
necessary by means of the screw and locknut
on the lean out valve.
11 Carburettors (Weber 32 ICEE/
250 and Solex C32 DISA 14) description and adjustment
4
1 One of these carburettors is used on
903 cc ES engines. They are very similar to
the Weber 32 ICEV 50/250 and Solex
C32 DISA 11 already described in this
Chapter except that a fuel cut-out solenoid
valve is fitted in association with the Digiplex
ignition system (see Chapters 4 and 9).
2 The solenoid valve cuts off the supply of
fuel to the carburettor whenever the
accelerator pedal is released during overrun
conditions.
3 A fuel cut-out device control unit receives
information regarding engine speed from the
static ignition control unit.
4 A throttle butterfly switch relays information
Fig. 3.21 Sectional view of fuel cut-off
switch (Solex C32 DISA 14) (Sec 11)
that the accelerator pedal is in the released
state.
5 At certain minimum idle speeds during
deceleration, the fuel cut-out solenoid valve is
re-energised so that engine idling is
maintained without the tendency to cut out.
6 The Solex type control unit varies the fuel
cut-out point according to the deceleration
value.
Fault testing
7 Should a fault develop, connect a test lamp
between the fuel cut-out solenoid switch and
a good earth.
8 Connect a reliable tachometer to the engine
in accordance with the maker’s instructions.
9 Start the engine and raise its speed to
between 3000 and 4000 rev/min, then fully
release the accelerator pedal.
10 The test lamp should only go out during
the period when the accelerator pedal is
released. Should the test lamp remain on all
the time, or never come on, check the throttle
switch earth and the solenoid switch
connections.
11 Disconnect the multi-plug from the control
unit. Switch on the ignition and check that a
test lamp connected between contact 7 of the
multi-plug and earth will illuminate. If it does
not, there is an open circuit from connection
15/54 of the fuel cut-off switch.
12 Switch off the ignition and check for
continuity between contact 3 of the multiplug
and earth. An ohmmeter will be required for
this test.
13 If there is no continuity (ohmmeter shows
infinity), check all the system earth
connections. Also check that the wiring plug
under the control unit is properly connected.
14 Finally, check the engine speed signal. To
do this, a tachometer must be connected to
the single socket under the control unit within
the engine compartment.
15 If the tachometer registers correctly then
this confirms that the electronic ignition
3
3•10 Fuel system
Fig. 3.22 Primary valve plate opening
(Weber 30/32 DMTR 90/250) (Sec 14)
Fig. 3.23 Bending throttle lever stop
(Weber 30/32 DMTR 90/250) (Sec 14)
X = 6.45 to 6.95 mm (0.25 to 0.27 in)
X (primary) = 13.5 to 14.5 mm (0.53 to 0.57 in)
Y (secondary) = 14.5 to 15.5 mm (0.57 to 0.61 in)
control unit is functioning, if the tachometer
does not register, renew the ignition control
unit.
16 If a replacement carburettor is to be fitted,
only fit the Solex assembly including the
control module, even if a Weber was originally
fitted.
12 Carburettor
(Weber 32 ICEV 51/250) servicing and adjustment
Fig. 3.24 Throttle valve plate openings
(Weber 30/32 DMTR 90/250) (Sec 14)
4
1 This carburettor, fitted to 1116 cc engines,
is very similar to the unit described in Section 9.
2 The fast idle adjustment procedure is
identical, but note that dimension (A) (Fig.
3.12) should be between 0.85 and 0.90 mm
(0.033 and 0.035 in).
3 The choke valve plate gap (Y) (Fig. 3.13)
should be between 5.5 and 6.5 mm (0.22 and
0.26 in) and if adjustment is required, bend
the stop on the control lever.
13 Carburettor
(Solex C32 DISA 12) servicing and adjustment
4
1 This carburettor is an alternative to the
Weber fitted to 1116 cc engines.
2 The adjustments described in Section 9
apply.
Float adjustment
3 Hold the cover vertically so that the floats
hang down under their own weight. Measure
the distance between the float and the surface
of the gasket on the top cover. This should be
between 6.75 and 7.25 mm (0.27 and 0.29 in).
4 Bend the float arm if necessary to adjust
the setting.
Primary valve plate opening
14 Carburettor
(Weber 30/32 DMTR 90/250)
- servicing and adjustment
4
1 The carburettor top cover with float may be
removed without the need to withdraw the
carburettor from the manifold. The other
adjustments described in this Section will
require removal of the carburettor.
2 Extract the top cover fixing screws and lift
away the top cover with float. Access to the
fuel inlet needle valve is as described in
Section 9 paragraphs 4 and 5.
5 With the throttle valve plate control lever in
contact with the stop, the primary valve plate
should be open (dimension X Fig. 3.22)
between 6.45 and 6.95 mm (0.25 and 0.27 in).
If adjustment is required, carefully bend the
lever stop.
Primary and secondary valve
plate openings
6 With the throttle control lever fully actuated
the valve plate gaps (X and Y Fig. 3.24) should
be:
X = 13.5 to 14.5 mm (0.53 to 0.57 in)
Y = 14.5 to 15.5 mm (0.57 to 0.61 in)
Fast idle
7 Close the choke valve plate fully and check
the gap (A) (Fig. 3.25) between the edge of the
throttle valve plate and the carburettor throat.
The gap should be between 0.90 and
0.95 mm (0.035 and 0.037 in), a twist drill is
useful for measuring this.
8 If adjustment is required, carry this out
using the screw and locknut.
Anti-flooding device
(mechanically-operated)
Fig. 3.25 Fast idle adjustment diagram
(Weber 30/32 DMTR 90/250) (Sec 14)
A = 0.90 to 0.95 mm (0.035 to 0.037 in)
Fig. 3.26 Anti-flooding device (mechanical)
adjustment diagram
(Weber 30/32 DMTR 90/250) (Sec 14)
X = 7.0 to 7.5 mm (0.28 to 0.30 in)
9 With the choke control pulled fully out, it
should be possible to open the choke valve
plate to give a gap (X) of between 7.0 and
7.5 mm (0.28 and 0.30 in). If adjustment is
required, carefully bend the stop on the
control lever (Fig. 3.26).
Fuel system 3•11
Fig. 3.28 Float setting diagram
(Solex C30-32 CIC/1) (Sec 14)
Fig. 3.27 Anti-flooding device (automatic)
adjustment diagram
(Weber 30/32 DMTR 90/250) (Sec 14)
Y = 3.75 to 4.25 mm (0.148 to 0.167 in)
Anti-flooding device (automatic)
10 Pull the choke control fully out and hold the
control lever, on the anti-flooding device,
depressed. There should be a gap (Y)
(Fig. 3.27) between the edge of the choke valve
plate and the carburettor wall of between 3.75
and 4.25 mm (0.15 and 0.17 in). If adjustment is
required, turn the adjuster screw provided.
15 Carburettor
(Solex C30-32 (CIC/1) servicing and adjustment
4
A = 6.7 to 7.5 mm (0.26 to 0.30 in)
weight of the floats depresses the ball of the
needle valve.
6 Measure the distance between the float and
the surface of the cover gasket. This should
be between 6.5 and 7.5 mm (0.26 and 0.30 in).
If adjustment is required, change the
thickness of the needle valve washer or
carefully bend the float arm.
Accelerator pump
7 Refer to Section 10, paragraphs 6 and 7.
The total volume of fuel collected should be
between 7.5 and 9.5 cc. If the volume of fuel
is incorrect, release the locknut and turn the
adjuster screw on the pump lever then re-test
the volume ejected.
Fast idle
1 The carburettor top cover with float may be
removed without the need to withdraw the
carburettor from the manifold.
2 The other adjustments described in this
Section will require removal of the carburettor.
3 Extract the top cover fixing screws and lift
away the top cover with float.
4 Refer to Section 9 paragraphs 4 and 5 for
details of removal of the fuel inlet needle
valve.
Float adjustment
5 Invert the carburettor cover so that the
Fig. 3.30 Fast idle screw on
Solex C30-32 CIC/1 (Sec 15)
A Choke control lever
B Fast idle adjustment
C Lean out valve
8 Operate the choke control lever to close the
choke valve plate. The gap between the edge
of the primary throttle valve plate and the
venturi wall should be between 0.90 and
1.00 mm (0.035 and 0.039 in). If adjustment is
required, turn the nut on the fast idle rod.
Automatic anti-flooding device
9 The vacuum system of the device can be
checked for leaks by applying a vacuum to
the drilling in the carburettor throttle valve
block. If vacuum cannot be maintained, renew
the diaphragm.
Fig. 3.31 Vacuum drilling for automatic
anti-flooding device (Solex C30-32 CIC/1)
(Sec 15)
Fig. 3.29 Adjusting accelerator pump
stroke (Solex C30-32 CIC/1) (Sec 15)
Choke valve plate automatic
opening
10 Move the choke control lever to fully close
the choke valve plate and then press the lean
out valve rod. There should now be a gap (X)
(Fig. 3.32) between the edge of the choke
valve plate and the wall of the carburettor
throat of between 4.75 and 5.25 mm (0.187
and 0.207 in).
11 Where adjustment is required, release the
locknut and turn the screw on the lean out
valve.
16 Economy meter
1 This device is fitted to ES (energy saving)
models. It is essentially a vacuum gauge to
advise the driver with regard to economical
throttle opening related to engine and road
speed. The point of change to a higher gear
can also be deduced from this gauge. The
latter facility is provided by an LED (light
emitting diode).
2 Fault testing of the system is described in
Chapter 9.
Fig. 3.32 Choke valve plate setting
(Solex C30-32 CIC/1) (Sec 15)
X = 4.75 to 5.25 mm (0.187 to 0.207 in)
3
3•12 Fuel system
17.4 Throttle cable sleeve and bracket
17 Accelerator cable adjustment and renewal
2
1 The socket type cable end fitting is
detached from the carburettor throttle lever
simply by prising it off the ball stud.
2 Adjustment can be carried out by releasing
the locknut and turning the end fitting. With
the accelerator pedal fully depressed, check
that full throttle can be obtained at the
carburettor.
3 To renew the cable, prise off the end fitting
from the carburettor throttle lever.
4 Slip the cable sleeve from its retaining
bracket (photo).
5 Working inside the car under the facia
panel, slip the cable from the fork at the top of
the accelerator pedal arm (photo).
17.5 Accelerator pedal
18.2 Choke cable at carburettor
6 Withdraw the cable through the engine
compartment bulkhead.
7 Fit the new cable by reversing the removal
operations, adjust as described in paragraph 2.
control lever and the choke warning lamp lead
unplugged.
5 Withdraw the cable assembly through the
engine compartment rear bulkhead.
6 Fit the new cable by reversing the removal
operations. Before tightening the inner cable
pinch screw at the carburettor, hold the choke
valve plate open and pull the control lever out
2.0 or 3.0 mm, then tighten the screw. This
will provide just enough free movement to
ensure that when the control is pushed fully in
the choke valve plate will remain fully open
even with engine movement slightly stretching
the cable.
18 Choke control cable removal and refitting
2
1 Remove the air cleaner.
2 Release the choke outer cable clamp and
the inner cable from the swivel on the choke
control lever (photo).
3 The choke control is of lever type. To
remove it, extract its hinge screw, accessible
when the lever is pulled upwards (photo).
4 Withdraw the choke cable assembly until
the inner cable can be released from the hand
18.3 Extracting choke control lever screw
19.4A Manifold gasket
19.4B Fitting exhaust manifold
19.4C Fitting intake manifold complete
with carburettor
19 Manifolds and exhaust
system
1
1 The intake manifold on 903 cc engines is
integral with the cylinder head.
2 On the other engines, the intake and
exhaust manifolds are mounted on the same
side of the cylinder head.
3 A hot air collector plate is fitted over the
exhaust manifold from where the air cleaner
draws air when in the winter setting.
4 When fitting a manifold, thoroughly clean
the cylinder head and manifold mating
surfaces, use a new gasket and tighten nuts
to the specified torque (photos).
5 The exhaust system on 903 cc models is of
single downpipe, single silencer two section
type.
19.7A Exhaust pipe support rings
Fuel system 3•13
19.7B Exhaust tailpipe mounting
19.10 Exhaust pipe socket clamp
6 On 1116 cc and 1301 cc models, the
exhaust system is of dual downpipe, two
silencer, two section type.
7 The exhaust system is flexibly mounted
(photo).
8 Do not attempt to separate the sections of
the exhaust system, while in position in the
car. Unbolt the pipe from the manifold and,
using a screwdriver, prise off the flexible
suspension rings. Provided the car is then
raised on jacks, ramps or placed over
an inspection pit, the complete exhaust
system can be withdrawn from under the car.
9 If only one section is to be renewed, it is far
easier to separate once the complete system
is out of the car.
10 When refitting, grease the pipe sockets
and fit the clamps loosely until the suspension
rings are connected and the downpipe bolted
up (using a new copper gasket). Check the
attitude of the sections with regard to each
other and the adjacent parts of the
underbody. Fully tighten the clamps and
downpipe flange nuts, remembering to bend
up the lockplate tabs on 1116 cc and 1301 cc
models (photo).
11 On the larger engined models, it may be
necessary to raise the vehicle at the rear and
support it on axle stands so that the rear suspension hangs down and is fully extended.
This will allow sufficient clearance between
the axle and the body for the exhaust system
to be withdrawn.
Fault finding - fuel system
Unsatisfactory engine performance and excessive fuel consumption
are not necessarily the fault of the fuel system or carburettor. In fact they
more commonly occur as a result of ignition and timing faults. Before
acting on the following it is necessary to check the ignition system first.
Even though a fault may lie in the fuel system it will be difficult to trace
unless the ignition is correct. The faults below, therefore, assume that
this has been attended to first (where appropriate).
Smell of petrol when engine is stopped
m Leaking fuel lines or unions
m Leaking fuel tank
Smell of petrol when engine is idling
m Leaking fuel line unions between pump and carburettor
m Overflow of fuel from float chamber due to wrong level setting,
ineffective needle valve or punctured float
Excessive fuel consumption for reasons not
covered by leaks or float chamber faults
m
m
m
m
Worn jets
Over-rich setting
Sticking mechanism
Dirty air cleaner element
Difficult starting when cold
m Choke control
m Insufficient use of manual choke
m Weak mixture
Difficult starting, uneven running, lack of power,
cutting out
m
m
m
m
One or more jets blocked or restricted
Float chamber fuel level too low or needle valve sticking
Fuel pump not delivering sufficient fuel
Induction leak
Difficult starting when hot
m
m
m
m
Excessive use of manual choke
Accelerator pedal pumped before starting
Vapour lock (especially in hot weather or at high altitude)
Rich mixture
Engine does not respond properly to throttle
m Faulty accelerator pump
m Blocked jet(s)
m Slack in accelerator cable
Engine idle speed drops when hot
m Incorrect air cleaner intake setting
m Overheated fuel pump
Engine runs on
m Idle speed too high
3
4•1
Chapter 4 Ignition system
For modifications and information applicable to later models, see Supplement at end of manual
Contents
Condenser (capacitor) - removal, testing and refitting . . . . . . . . . . .
Digiplex (electronic) - ignition checks and adjustments . . . . . . . . . .
Digiplex (electronic) ignition - location of components and
precautions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Distributor - removal and refitting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Distributor (mechanical breaker type) - overhaul . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Dwell angle - checking . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5
10
9
6
7
3
Fault finding - ignition system . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . See end of Chapter
General description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
Ignition coil - (mechanical breaker ignition) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
Ignition switch - removal and refitting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
Ignition timing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
Mechanical contact breaker - points servicing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
Spark plugs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
Degrees of difficulty
Easy, suitable for
novice with little
experience
1
Fairly easy, suitable
for beginner with
some experience
2
Fairly difficult,
suitable for competent
DIY mechanic
3
Difficult, suitable for
experienced DIY
mechanic
4
Very difficult,
suitable for expert DIY
or professional
5
Specifications
System type
Except ES engines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
ES engines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Battery, coil mechanical breaker distributor
Marelli Digiplex electronic with breakerless distributor
Firing order
1 - 3 - 4 - 2 (No. 1 cylinder at crankshaft pulley end)
............................................
Mechanical breaker distributor
Type . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Contact breaker points gap . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Condenser capacity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Dwell angle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Rotor rotational direction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Ignition timing (dynamic)
903 cc engine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1116 and 1301 cc engines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Centrifugal advance:
903 cc engine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1116 and 1301 cc engines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Vacuum advance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Ignition coil
Primary winding resistance at 20ºC (68ºF) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Secondary winding resistance at 20ºC (68ºF) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Marelli or Ducellier
0.37 to 0.43 mm (0.015 to 0.017 in)
0.20 to 0.25 µF
52 to 58º
Clockwise
5º BTDC at idle
10º BTDC at idle
Between 30 and 34º max
Between 22 and 24º max
Between 10 and 14º max
Between 2.6 and 3.3 ohms depending upon make of coil
Between 6745 and 12 000 ohms depending upon make of coil
Marelli Digiplex electronic ignition
Rotor arm resistance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Advance range . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1000 ohms
Between 6 to 10º and 47 to 51º
Engine speed sensor
Resistance on flywheel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Sensor to flywheel tooth gap . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
612 to 748 ohms
0.25 to 1.3 mm (0.0099 to 0.0512 in)
TDC sensor
Resistance on pulley . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Sensor to pulley tooth gap . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
612 to 748 ohms
0.4 to 1.0 mm (0.016 to 0.039 in)
Ignition coil
Primary winding resistance at 20ºC (68ºF) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Secondary winding resistance at 20ºC (68ºF) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
0.310 to 0.378 ohms
3330 to 4070 ohms
4
4•2 Ignition system
Spark plugs
Type . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Electrode gap . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Champion RN9YCC or RN9YC
0.8 mm (0.031 in)
HT leads
903 cc (45) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1116, 1299 and 1301 cc (55, 60 and 70) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Champion LS-07
Champion LS-05
Torque wrench setting
Nm
25
Spark plugs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1 General description
On all models except the 903 ES engine
version, a mechanical contact breaker type
distributor is fitted.
On 45 Super ES models which have the
903 ES engine, an electronic (Digiplex) ignition
system is used which incorporates a
breakerless distributor.
contact breaker points causes the high
tension voltage to build up, jump the gap from
the rotor arm to the appropriate metal
segment, and so via the spark plug lead to the
spark plug, where it finally jumps the spark
plug gap before going to earth.
The ignition timing is advanced and
retarded automatically, to ensure the spark
lbf ft
18
occurs at just the right instant for the
particular load at the prevailing engine speed.
The ignition advance is controlled
mechanically, and by vacuum. The
mechanical governor mechanism consists of
two weights, which move out from the
distributor shaft as the engine speed rises,
due to centrifugal force. As they move
Mechanical contact breaker
system
For the engine to run correctly, it is
necessary for an electrical spark to ignite the
fuel/air mixture in the combustion chamber at
exactly the right moment in relation to engine
speed and load. The ignition system is based
on feeding low tension voltage from the
battery to the coil where it is converted to high
tension voltage. The high tension voltage is
powerful enough to jump the spark plug gap
in the cylinders under high compression
pressures, providing that the system is in
good condition and that all adjustments are
correct.
The ignition system is divided into two
circuits, the low tension (LT) circuit and the
high tension (HT) circuit.
The low tension (sometimes known as the
primary) circuit consists of the battery, the
lead to the ignition switch, the lead from the
ignition switch to the low tension or primary
coil windings, and the lead from the low
tension coil windings to the contact breaker
points and condenser in the distributor.
The high tension circuit consists of the high
tension or secondary coil windings, the heavy
ignition lead from the centre of the coil to the
centre of the distributor cap, the rotor arm,
and the spark plug leads and spark plugs.
The system functions in the following
manner: High tension voltage is generated in
the coil by the interruption of the low tension
circuit. The interruption is effected by the
opening of the contact breaker points in this
low tension circuit. High tension voltage is fed
from the centre of the coil via the carbon
brush in the centre of the distributor cap to
the rotor arm of the distributor.
The rotor arm revolves at half engine speed
inside the distributor cap, and each time it
comes in line with one of the four metal
segments in the cap, which are connected to
the spark plug leads, the opening of the
Fig. 4.1 Typical ignition circuit (mechanical contact breaker distributor) (Sec 1)
1
2
3
4
Control unit
Multi-plug
Ignition coil
Distributor cap
Fig. 4.2 Digiplex electronic ignition system (Sec 1)
5 Crankshaft pulley
9 Spark plugs
6 Flywheel
10 Wiring connector
7 Battery
S1 Engine speed sensor
8 Rev counter
S2 TDC sensor
Ignition system 4•3
outwards, they rotate the cam relative to the
distributor shaft, and so advance the spark.
The weights are held in position by two
springs and it is the tension of the springs
which is largely responsible for correct spark
advancement.
The vacuum advance is controlled by a
diaphragm capsule connected to the
carburettor venturi. The vacuum pressure
varies according to the throttle valve plate
opening and so adjusts the ignition advance
in accordance with the engine requirements.
Digiplex ignition system
This electronic system eliminates the
mechanical contact breaker and centrifugal
advance mechanism of conventional
distributors and uses an electronic control
unit to provide advance values according to
engine speed and load. No provision is made
for adjustment of the ignition timing.
Information relayed to the control unit is
provided by two magnetic sensors which
monitor engine speed and TDC directly from
the engine crankshaft.
A vacuum sensor in the control unit
converts intake manifold vacuum into an
electric signal.
The control unit selects the optimum
advance angle required and a closed
magnetic circuit resin coil guarantees a spark
owing to the low primary winding resistance.
Five hundred and twelve advance values
are stored in the control unit memory to suit
any combination of engine operating
conditions.
No maintenance is required to the
distributor used on this system.
Distributor drive
The mechanical breaker type distributor on
903 cc engines and the Digiplex type
distributor on 903 cc ES engines are mounted
on the cylinder head and driven from a gear
on the camshaft through a shaft which also
drives the oil pump.
The distributor on 1116 cc and 1301 cc
engines is mounted on the crankcase and is
driven from a gear on the auxiliary shaft as is
also the oil pump.
2.16 Interior of distributor cap showing
carbon brush
2 Mechanical contact breaker
- points servicing
3
1 At the intervals specified in “Routine
Maintenance”, prise down the clips on the
distributor cap and place the cap with high
tension leads to one side.
2 Pull off the rotor.
3 Remove the spark shield. Mechanical wear
of the contact breaker reduces the gap.
Electrical wear builds up a “pip” of burned
metal on one of the contacts. This
|prevents the gap being measured for
re-adjustment, and also spoils the electric
circuit.
Ducellier type distributor
4 To remove the contact breaker movable
arm, extract the clip and take off the washer
from the top of the pivot post.
5 Extract the screw and remove the fixed
contact arm.
6 Clean the points by rubbing the surfaces on
a fine abrasive such as an oil stone. The point
surface should be shaped to a gentle convex
curve. All the “pip” burned onto one contact
must be removed. It is not necessary to go on
until all traces of the crater have been
removed from the other. There is enough
metal on the contacts to allow this to be done
once. At alternate services, fit new points.
Wash debris off cleaned points and
preservatives off new ones.
7 Now the distributor should be lubricated.
This lubrication is important for the correct
mechanical function of the distributor, but
excess lubrication will ruin the electrical
circuits, and give difficult starting.
8 Whilst the contact breaker is off, squirt
some engine oil into the bottom part of the
distributor, onto the centrifugal advance
mechanism below the plate.
9 Wet with oil the felt pad on the top of the
distributor spindle, normally covered by the
rotor arm.
10 Put just a drip of oil on the pivot for the
moving contact.
2.20 Marelli distributor
11 Smear a little general purpose grease
onto the cam, and the heel of the moving
contact breaker.
12 Refit the contact points and then set the
gap in the following way.
13 Turn the crankshaft by applying a spanner
to the pulley nut or by jacking up a front
wheel, engaging top gear and turning the
roadwheel in the forward direction of
travel. Keep turning until the plastic
heel of the movable contact arm is on the
high point of a cam lobe on the distributor
shaft.
14 Set the points gap by moving the fixed
contact arm until the specified feeler blades
are a sliding fit. Tighten the fixed contact arm
screw.
15 Check the contact end of the rotor arm.
Remove any slightly burnt deposits using fine
abrasive paper. Severe erosion will
necessitate renewal of the rotor.
16 Wipe out the distributor cap and check for
cracks or eroded contacts (photo). Renew if
evident or if the carbon brush is worn.
17 Refit the spark shield, rotor and distributor
cap.
18 Setting the contact breaker gap with a
feeler blade must be regarded as a means of
ensuring that the engine will start. For
optimum engine performance, the dwell angle
must be checked and adjusted as described
in Section 3.
Marelli type distributor
19 Open the points with a finger nail and
inspect their condition. If they are badly
eroded or burned, then they must be
renewed. The contact points can only be
renewed complete with carrier plate as an
assembly.
20 Release the low tension leads from the
terminals on the distributor body (photo).
21 Extract the screws which hold the vacuum
advance capsule to the distributor body. Tilt
the capsule and release its link rod from the
contact breaker carrier plate (photo).
22 Prise out the E-clip from the breaker
carrier and then withdraw the contact
assembly from the top of the distributor shaft.
2.21 Extracting vacuum diaphragm unit
screw
4
4•4 Ignition system
2.22A Marelli contact breaker E-clip
2.22B Washers above contact breaker
Note the washers above and below the
contact assembly (photos).
23 Fit the new contact assembly by reversing
the removal operations.
24 Although the points gap is normally set in
production, check it using feeler blades when
the plastic heel of the movable arm is on a
high point of the shaft cam. Adjust if
necessary by inserting an Allen key (3.0 mm)
into the socket-headed adjuster screw.
25 Carry out the operations described in
paragraphs 14 to 17 in this Section.
3 Dwell angle - checking
Fig. 4.3 Marelli contact breaker (Sec 2)
Fig. 4.4 Adjusting Marelli type contact
breaker points gap (Sec 2)
4.2 Distributor vacuum hose
3
The dwell angle is the number of degrees
through which the distributor cam turns
between the instants of closure and opening
of the contact breaker points.
1 Connect a dwell meter in accordance with
the maker’s instruction. The type of meter that
operates with the engine running is to be
preferred; any variation in contact breaker
gap, caused by wear in the distributor shaft or
bushes, or the height of the distributor cam
peaks, is evened out when using this.
2 The correct dwell angle is given in the
Specifications at the beginning of this
Chapter. If the angle is too large, increase the
contact points gap. If the angle is too small,
reduce the points gap. Only very slight
adjustments should be made to the gap
before re-checking.
Fig. 4.5 Flywheel housing timing marks
(Sec 4)
3 On Ducellier distributors, adjustment of the
dwell angle can only be carried out by
switching off the ignition, removing the
distributor cap, rotor and spark shield and
adjusting the points gap.
4 Re-check once the engine is running.
Adjustment may have to be carried out
several times to obtain the correct dwell
angle.
5 On Marelli distributors, adjustment of the
points gap (dwell angle) is carried out with the
engine running by inserting a 3.0 mm Allen
key in the hole provided in the distributor
body.
6 Always check and adjust the dwell angle
before timing the ignition as described in
Section 4.
4 Ignition timing
3
1 Timing the ignition on engines with
mechanical breaker distributors is carried out
in the following way.
2 Disconnect the vacuum hose from the
distributor diaphragm capsule (photo).
3 Have the engine at normal operating
temperature and idling with a stroboscope
connected in accordance with the
manufacturer’s instructions.
4 Point the stroboscope at the timing marks
on the flywheel and the index on the aperture
on the flywheel housing. The mark on the
flywheel should be opposite to the BTDC
mark on the index specified for your particular
engine. Alternatively, use the notch on the
crankshaft pulley and the marks on the timing
belt cover (photo), but this will necessitate
removal of the wheel arch shield.
5 If the marks are not in alignment, release
the distributor clamp plate and turn the
distributor gently until they are (photo).
6 Tighten the clamp plate nut, switch off the
ignition, reconnect the vacuum hose and
remove the stroboscope.
7 If there is any difficulty in seeing the timing
marks clearly, highlight them by painting with
quick-drying white paint.
4.4 Ignition timing marks on belt cover
Ignition system 4•5
5 Condenser (capacitor) removal, testing and refitting
1
The purpose of the condenser (sometimes
known as the capacitor) is to ensure that when
the contact breaker points open there is no
sparking across them which would weaken
the spark and cause rapid deterioration of the
points.
The condenser is fitted in parallel with the
contact breaker points. If it develops a short
circuit it will cause ignition failure as the points
will be prevented from interrupting the low
tension circuit.
1 If the engine becomes very difficult to start
(or begins to misfire whilst running) and the
breaker points show signs of excessive
burning, suspect the condenser has failed
with open circuit. A test can be made by
separating the points by hand with the ignition
switched on. If this is accompanied by a
bright spark at the contact points, it is
indicative that the condenser has failed.
2 Without special test equipment, the only
sure way to diagnose condenser trouble is to
replace a suspected unit with a new one and
note if there is any improvement.
3 To remove the condenser from the
distributor, take out the screw which secures
it to the distributor body and disconnect its
leads from the terminals.
4 When fitting the condenser, it is vital to
ensure that the fixing screw is secure. The
lead must be secure on the terminal with no
chance of short circuiting.
6 Distributor removal and refitting
3
1 Remove the spark plug from No. 4 cylinder
and then turn the crankshaft either by
applying a spanner to the pulley nut or by
jacking up a front wheel, engaging top gear
and turning the wheel in the forward direction
of travel.
2 Place a finger over the plug hole and feel
the compression being generated as the
piston rises up the cylinder bore.
3 Alternatively, if the rocker cover is off,
check that the valves on No. 1 cylinder are
closed.
4 Continue turning the crankshaft until the
flywheel and flywheel housing (BTDC) ignition
timing marks are in alignment. Number 4
piston is now in firing position.
5 Remove the distributor cap and place it to
one side complete with high tension leads.
6 Disconnect the distributor vacuum hose
and low tension lead (photo).
7 Mark the distributor pedestal mounting
plinth in relation to the crankcase. Also mark
the contact end of the rotor in relation to the
rim of the distributor body.
4.5 Distributor clamp plate nut
6.6 Distributor LT connection
8 Unbolt the clamp plate and withdraw the
distributor.
9 Refit by having No. 4 piston at its firing
position and the distributor rotor and pedestal
marks aligned, then push the distributor into
position, mating it to the splined driveshaft.
10 If a new distributor is being fitted then of
course alignment marks will not be available
to facilitate installation in which case, hold the
unit over its mounting hole and observe the
following.
903 cc engine: Distributor cap high tension
lead sockets pointing towards alternator and
at 90º to centre line of rocker cover. Contact
end of rotor arm pointing towards No. 4
contact in distributor cap (when fitted).
1116 cc and 1301 cc engine: Distributor
vacuum unit pointing downwards at 135º to
rear edge of timing belt cover. Contact end of
rotor arm pointing towards No. 4 contact in
distributor cap (when fitted).
11 Tighten the distributor clamp bolt,
reconnect the vacuum hose and the low
tension leads. Refit the distributor cap. Screw
in the spark plug.
12 Check the ignition timing as described in
Section 4.
4 To remove the contact breaker movable
arm, extract the clip and take off the washer
from the top of the pivot post.
5 Extract the screw and remove the fixed
contact arm.
6 Carefully record the setting of the advance
toothed segment and then remove the spring
clip and vacuum capsule fixing screws and
withdraw the capsule with link rod.
7 Pick out the lubrication pad from the recess
in the top of the distributor shaft. Unscrew the
screw now exposed.
8 Mark the relationship of the cam to the
counterweight pins and then remove the cam
assembly.
9 There is no way to test the bob weight
springs other than by checking the
performance of the distributor on special test
equipment, so if in doubt, fit new springs
anyway. If the springs are loose where they
loop over the posts, it is more than possible
that the post grooves are worn. In this case,
the various parts which include the shaft will
need renewal. Wear to this extent would mean
that a new distributor is probably the best
solution in the long run. Be sure to make note
of the engine number and any serial number
on the distributor when ordering.
10 If the mainshaft is slack in its bushes or
the cam on the spindle, allowing sideways
play, it means that the contact points gap
setting can only be a compromise; the cam
position relative to the cam follower on the
moving point arm is not constant. It is not
practical to re-bush the distributor body
unless you have a friend who can bore and
bush it for you. The shaft can be removed by
driving out the roll pin from the retaining collar
at the bottom. (The collar also acts as an oil
slinger to prevent excess engine oil creeping
up the shaft.)
7 Distributor (mechanical
breaker type) - overhaul
3
Ducellier
1 The cap must have no flaws or cracks and
the HT terminal contacts should not be
severely corroded. The centre spring-loaded
carbon contact is renewable. If in any doubt
about the cap, buy a new one.
2 The rotor deteriorates minimally, but with
age the metal conductor tip may corrode. It
should not be cracked or chipped and the
metal conductor must not be loose. If in
doubt, renew it. Always fit a new rotor if fitting
a new cap.
3 With the distributor removed as described
in the preceding Section, take off the rotor
and contact breaker.
Marelli
11 With the distributor removed from the
engine, take off the spark shield and rotor.
12 Remove the contact breaker and carrier
as described in Section 2.
13 Refer to paragraphs 9 and 10 for details of
counterweight springs and shaft bushes
(photo).
4
4•6 Ignition system
7.13 Marelli distributor centrifugal weights
and springs
Reassembly
14 This is a reversal of dismantling. On
Ducellier distributors, make sure that the
advance toothed segment is returned to its
original setting otherwise the advance curves
for your particular engine will be upset.
8 Ignition coil (mechanical
breaker ignition)
1 Coils normally last the life of a car. The
most usual reason for a coil to fail is after
being left with the ignition switched on but the
engine not running. There is then constant
current flowing, instead of the intermittent
flow when the contact breaker is opening. The
coil then overheats, and the insulation is
damaged (photo).
2 If the coil seems suspect after fault finding,
the measurement of the resistance of the
primary and secondary windings (usually an
ohmmeter) can establish its condition. If an
ohmmeter is not available, it will be necessary
to try a new coil.
Fig. 4.6 Exploded view of typical Ducellier distributor (Sec 7)
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
Cap
Rotor
Movable breaker arm
Vacuum advance link
Fixed contact breaker arm
Contact breaker baseplate
Cam assembly
8 Centrifugal advance weight
control springs
9 Driveshaft and plate
10 Body
11 LT insulator
12 Condenser
13 Vacuum capsule
14
15
16
17
18
19
Cap retaining spring
Thrust washer
Spacer washer
Driving dog
Retaining pin
Felt pad
9 Digiplex (electronic) ignition
- location of components and
precautions
1 The main components of this system are
located within the engine compartment as
shown.
2 On cars equipped with this system, it is
1
2
3
4
Control unit
Cut-out control unit
Ignition coil
Flywheel (engine
speed) sensor
5 Crankshaft pulley
(TDC) sensor
6 Vacuum hose
8.1 Ignition coil
Fig. 4.7 Main components of Digiplex ignition system (Sec 9)
Ignition system 4•7
Fig. 4.8 Location of Digiplex ignition system components (Sec 9)
1 Control unit
2 Distributor
3 Ignition coil
4 TDC sensor
5 Wiring connector plug
important that the following precautions are
observed.
3 Never start the engine if the battery leads
are loose.
4 Do not stop the engine by pulling off a
battery lead.
5 Remove the control unit if ambient
temperature (paint drying oven) is above 80ºC
(176ºF).
6 Never connect or disconnect the multi-plug
at the control unit unless the ignition is
switched off.
7 Disconnect the battery negative lead before
carrying out electric body welding.
Fig. 4.9 Digiplex control unit (Sec 9)
1 Vacuum hose connector
2 Multi-plug socket
6 Engine speed sensor
7 Wiring connector plug
Supply circuit and continuity of
coil primary winding
10 Digiplex (electronic) ignition
- checks and adjustments
3
1 Without special equipment, any work on the
system components should be restricted to
the following.
Engine speed sensor
2 The gap between the sensor and the teeth
of the flywheel should be between 0.25 and
1.3 mm (0.0099 to 0.0512 in). Any
deviation will be due to mechanical damage to
the sensor, no adjustment being possible.
5 Connect a test lamp between contacts 11
and 9 of the multi-plug having first pulled it
from the control unit.
6 Switch on the ignition, the test lamp should
come on. If it does not, either the connection
at the positive pole of the control unit or the
coil primary winding is open.
Control unit earth
7 Connect a test lamp between contacts 8
and 9 of the multi-plug having first pulled it
from the control unit. Switch on the ignition,
the test lamp should come on. If it does not,
improve the earth connection.
TDC sensor
11 Spark plugs
1
3 The gap between the sensor and one of the
TDC reference marks on the crankshaft pulley
should be between 0.4 and 1.0 mm (0.016 to
0.039 in).
4 Any deviation will be due to the sensor
plate becoming loose. To reposition it will
necessitate setting No. 1 piston at TDC which
can only be carried out accurately by your
dealer using special tools.
1 The correct functioning of the spark plugs is
vital for the correct running and efficiency of the
engine. It is essential that the plugs fitted are
appropriate for the engine, and the suitable type
is specified at the beginning of this chapter. If
Fig. 4.12 Test lamp connected between
terminals 11 and 9 of control unit
multi-plug (Sec 10)
Fig. 4.13 Test lamp connected between
terminals 8 and 9 of control unit multi-plug
(Sec 10)
Fig. 4.10 Engine speed sensor gap
(Sec 10)
Fig. 4.11 TDC sensor gap (Sec 10)
4
4•8 Ignition system
Fig. 4.14 Spark plug connections on
903 cc engine (Sec 11)
this type is used and the engine is in good
condition, the spark plugs should not need
attention between scheduled replacement
intervals. Spark plug cleaning is rarely
necessary and should not be attempted unless
specialised equipment is available as damage
can easily be caused to the firing ends.
2 At the specified intervals, the plugs should
be renewed. The condition of the spark plug
will also tell much about the overall condition
of the engine.
3 If the insulator nose of the spark plug is
clean and white, with no deposits, this is
indicative of a weak mixture, or too hot a plug.
(A hot plug transfers heat away from the
electrode slowly - a cold plug transfers it away
quickly.)
4 If the tip of the insulator nose is covered
with sooty black deposits, then this is
indicative that the mixture is too rich. Should
the plug be black and oily, then it is likely that
the engine is fairly worn, as well as the mixture
being too rich.
5 The spark plug gap is of considerable
importance, as, if it is too large or too small
the size of the spark and its efficiency will be
seriously impaired. The spark plug gap should
be set to the gap shown in the Specifications
for the best results.
6 To set it, measure the gap with a feeler
gauge, and then bend open, or close, the
outer plug electrode until the correct gap is
achieved. The centre electrode should never
be bent as this may crack the insulation and
cause plug failure, if nothing worse.
7 When fitting new plugs, check that the plug
seats in the cylinder head are quite clean.
Refit the leads from the distributor in the
correct firing order, which is 1-3-4-2; No 1
12.2 Ignition switch and lock
Fig. 4.15 Spark plug connections on
1116 cc and 1301 cc engines (Sec 11)
11.7 Distributor cap HT lead markings
cylinder being the one nearest the flywheel
housing (903 cc) or timing belt (1116 or
1301 cc). The distributor cap is marked with
the HT lead numbers to avoid any confusion.
Simply connect the correctly numbered lead
to its respective spark plug terminal (photo).
12 Ignition switch removal and refitting
1
1 Access to the steering column lock/ignition
switch is obtained after removing the steering
wheel and column shrouds (Chapter 10) and
the column switch unit (Chapter 9).
2 In the interest of safety, disconnect the
battery negative lead and the ignition switch
wiring plug (photo).
3 Insert the ignition key and turn to the STOP
position (photo).
4 Pull the two leads from the switch.
5 Turn the ignition key to MAR.
6 Using a screwdriver depress the retaining
tabs (1) (Fig. 4.16) and release the ignition
switch.
7 Set the switch cam (2) so that the notches
(3) are in alignment.
8 Insert the switch into the steering lock and
engage the retaining tabs.
9 Turn the ignition key to STOP and connect
the two leads.
10 Reconnect the battery and refit the
steering wheel, switch and shrouds.
11 Removal and refitting of the steering
12.3 Ignition key positions
1 AVV (Start)
2 Park (Parking lights on)
3 Stop (Lock)
4 MAR (Ignition)
It’s often difficult to insert spark plugs
into their holes without cross-threading
them. To avoid this possibility, fit a
short piece of rubber hose over the end
of the spark plug. The flexible hose
acts as a universal joint, to help align
the plug with the plug hole. Should the
plug begin to cross-thread, the hose
will slip on the spark plug, preventing
thread damage.
column lock is described in Chapter 10.
Note: The ignition key is removable when set
to the STOP position and all electrical circuits
will be off. If the interlock button is pressed,
the key can be turned to the PARK position in
order that the parking lamps can be left on
and the steering lock engaged, but the key
can be withdrawn.
Fig. 4.16 Typical ignition switch (Sec 12)
1 Retaining tabs
2 Switch cam
3 Alignment notches
4 Locating projection
Ignition system 4•9
Fault finding - mechanical breaker ignition system
Engine fails to start
Engine starts and runs but misfires
m
m
m
m
m
m
m
m
m
m
m
m
m
m
m
Loose battery connections
Discharged battery
Oil in contact points
Disconnected ignition leads
Faulty condenser
Engine overheats, lacks power
m Seized distributor weights
m Perforated vacuum pipe
m Incorrect ignition timing
Faulty spark plug
Cracked distributor cap
Cracked rotor arm
Worn advance mechanism
Incorrect spark plug gap
Incorrect contact points gap
Faulty condenser
Faulty coil
Incorrect timing
Poor engine/transmission earth connections
Fault finding - Digiplex (electronic) ignition system
Engine fails to start
Engine lacks power, high fuel consumption
m
m
m
m
m
m Incorrect ignition advance
m TDC sensor incorrectly set
m Distributor vacuum hose blocked
Excessive gap on TDC sensor
TDC or engine speed sensor short circuited or earthed
Defective ignition control unit
Control unit multi-plug contacts corroded
Defective coil
4
8•1
Chapter 8 Braking system
For modifications, and information applicable to later models, see Supplement at end of manual
Contents
Brake disc - inspection, renovation or renewal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
Brake drum - inspection, renovation or renewal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
Brake pedal - removal and refitting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
Caliper - removal, overhaul and refitting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
Disc pads - inspection and renewal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
Fault finding - braking system . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . See end of Chapter
General description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
Handbrake - adjustment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
Handbrake cable - renewal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
Hydraulic hoses and pipes - inspection and renewal . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
Hydraulic system - bleeding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Maintenance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Master cylinder - removal, overhaul and refitting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Pressure regulating valve . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Rear brake shoes - inspection and removal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Rear wheel cylinder - removal, overhaul and refitting . . . . . . . . . . . .
Stop lamp switch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Vacuum servo unit - description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Vacuum servo unit - removal and refitting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Vacuum servo unit - servicing and testing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
12
2
9
10
4
7
19
13
15
14
Degrees of difficulty
Easy, suitable for
novice with little
experience
1
Fairly easy, suitable
for beginner with
some experience
2
Fairly difficult,
suitable for competent
DIY mechanic
3
Difficult, suitable for
experienced DIY
mechanic
4
Very difficult,
suitable for expert DIY
or professional
5
Specifications
System type
...........................................
Dual-circuit hydraulic with servo unit and pressure regulating valve.
Discs front, drums rear. Handbrake mechanical to rear wheels.
Disc brakes
Type . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Disc diameter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Disc thickness . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Minimum regrind thickness . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Minimum wear thickness of pad friction material . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Caliper cylinder diameter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Single cylinder, sliding caliper
227.0 mm (8.94 in)
10.7 to 10.9 mm (0.42 to 0.43 in)
9.0 mm (0.35 in)
1.5 mm (0.06 in)
48.0 mm (1.89 in)
8
Drum brakes
Type . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Drum internal diameter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Maximum regrind diameter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Minimum shoe lining friction material thickness . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Cylinder diameter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Single cylinder, with automatic adjusters
185.24 to 185.53 mm (7.30 to 7.31 in)
187.0 mm (7.37 in)
1.5 mm (0.06 in)
19.05 mm (0.75 in)
Master cylinder bore diameter
19.05 mm (0.75 in)
Vacuum servo diameter
........................
...............................
Hydraulic fluid type/specification
.....................
158.5 mm (6.0 in)
Hydraulic fluid to DOT 3 or 4, or SAE J1703C
System capacity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
0.33 litre (0.58 pint)
Torque wrench settings
Nm
53
10
20
25
20
Caliper mounting bracket bolts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Rear wheel cylinder mounting bolts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Pressure regulating valve mounting bolts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Master cylinder mounting nuts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Rear brake backplate bolts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
lbf ft
39
7
15
18
15
8•2 Braking system
2 Maintenance
1
2
3
4
Fig. 8.1 Components of the braking system (LHD shown) (Sec 1)
Caliper
5 Cap and fluid level sensor
8 Pipeline
Hose
6 Vacuum servo unit
9 Hose
Master cylinder
7 Rear wheel cylinder
10 Pressure regulating valve
Fluid reservoir
1
1 At the weekly service check, inspect the
fluid level in the master cylinder reservoir.
Topping up should only be required at very
infrequent intervals and should only be
necessary owing to the need for extra fluid in
the hydraulic system caused by wear of the
friction material of the disc pads and shoe
linings.
2 The need for frequent or regular topping up
will be due to a leak in the system, probably
from a hydraulic cylinder seal or a flexible
hose. Correct the problem immediately.
3 Use only clean new fluid for topping up. lt
must be of the specified type and have been
stored in a closed container and not have
been shaken for at least 24 hours (photo).
4 At regular intervals, check the hoses and
pipelines for condition. Adjust the handbrake
if the lever travel becomes excessive. Check
the condition and security of the brake servo
vacuum hose. All these operations are
described later in this Chapter.
The braking system is of four wheel
hydraulic type with discs on the front wheels
and drums on the rear.
The hydraulic system is of dual-circuit type
and incorporates a pressure regulator valve to
limit pressure to the rear brakes during heavy
braking to prevent rear wheel lock up.
A vacuum servo unit is fitted to some
models.
The handbrake is mechanically operated on
the rear wheels.
2.3 Fluid reservoir cap and float for
warning switch
3.2A Removing a disc pad locking block
clip
1 Jack up the front of the car and remove the
roadwheels.
2 Extract the spring clips and slide out the
locking blocks (photos).
3 On SX versions, carefully disconnect the
wear sensor lead connecting plug.
4 Lift the caliper body from the disc and
inspect the thickness of the friction material
on each pad (photo). If it is 1.5 mm (0.06 in) or
less, renew the pads.
5 Withdraw the pads and the anti-rattle
springs.
6 Brush away any dust and dirt from the
caliper, taking care not to inhale the dust - this
contains asbestos and is thus potentially
injurious to health.
7 As the new pads are thicker than the old
ones, the caliper piston must be depressed
3.2B Removing a locking block
3.4 Removing the caliper unit
3.8A Disc pad and anti-rattle spring
1 General description
3 Disc pads inspection and renewal
2
Braking system 8•3
3.8B Cylinder body located on caliper
bracket
4.7 Rear brake assembly
4.11 Rear hub showing cut-outs on rear
face for shoe self-adjuster bosses
into its cylinder to accommodate them. This
will cause the fluid level to rise in the reservoir.
Anticipate this by syphoning some out
beforehand, but take care not to let it drip
onto the paintwork - it acts as an effective
paint stripperl
8 Refit the anti-rattle springs, the pads
(friction lining-to-disc), the cylinder body, the
locking blocks and their retaining clips
(photos).
9 Refit the roadwheel and apply the footbrake
hard, several times, to bring the pads into
contact with the brake disc.
10 Renew the pads on the opposite brake.
The pads should always be renewed in axle
sets.
11 Top up the fluid reservoir.
Note also into which holes in the shoe web
the return springs are connected. Sketch the
shoes or mark the holes on the new shoes
with quick drying paint if you are doubtful
about remembering (photo).
8 Undo the steady springs by depressing and
rotating their caps a quarter turn to disengage
the slot from the pin. On later models a
U-shaped steady spring is used. Depress and
slide it out.
9 Rotate the hub until the cut-outs in its rear
flange face are in alignment with the shoe
self-adjusters.
10 Pivot the trailing shoe on the self-adjuster
post and disengage the ends of the shoe from
the slot in the wheel cylinder tappet and from
the lower anchor block.
11 Work the shoe up the self-adjuster pivot
post until the self-adjuster boss enters the
cut-out in the hub flange. The shoe can now
be withdrawn (photo).
12 Once off the self-adjuster post, the
pull-off spring tension is eased, as the shoe
can move towards the other, so the springs
can be unhooked.
13 Remove the leading shoe in a similar way.
14 The new shoes will already be fitted with
new self-adjusters.
15 Fit the new shoes to their self-adjuster
posts, making sure that the handbrake shoe
lever is correctly located. Engage the ends of
the shoes.
16 Using a wooden or plastic-faced mallet,
tap the shoes inwards against the friction of
their self-adjuster coil springs. This will have
the effect of reducing the overall diameter of
the shoes to facilitate fitting of the shoe return
springs and to allow the brake drum to slide
over them.
17 Using pliers, reconnect the upper (longer)
and lower shoe return springs.
18 Hold the steady pins in position from the
rear of the backplate. Fit the small coil springs
and the retaining cap, again using pliers to
grip the cap and to depress and turn it to
engage the pin. On later models fit the
U-shaped springs.
19 Before refitting the drum, clean it out and
examine it for grooves or scoring (refer to
Section 8).
20 Fit the drum and the roadwheel.
21 Apply the brakes two or three times to
position the shoes close to the drum.
22 Renew the shoes on the opposite brake in
a similar way.
23 The handbrake should be automatically
adjusted by the action of the shoe adjuster. If
the handbrake control lever has excessive
travel, refer to Section 16 for separate
adjusting instructions.
4 Rear brake shoes inspection and renewal
2
1 Jack up the rear of the car and remove the
roadwheels.
2 Fully release the handbrake.
3 Unscrew and remove the drum securing
bolts. One of these is a long locating spigot
for the roadwheel.
4 Pull off the drum. lf it is tight, clean off the
rust at its joint with the hub flange, and apply
a little penetrating fluid. Two bolts may be
screwed into the drum securing bolt holes if
necessary and the drum thus eased off the
hub. The securing bolt holes are tapped for
this purpose.
5 Brush away all the dust and dirt from the
shoes and operating mechanism, taking care
not to inhale it.
6 The friction linings fitted as original
equipment are of the bonded type and the
rivet heads normally used as a guide to wear
are not, of course, fitted. However, if the
thickness of the friction linings is down to
1.5 mm (0.06 in) or less, the shoes must be
renewed. Always purchase new or factory
relined brake shoes.
7 Before removing the brake shoes, note the
way in which the shoes are positioned, with
respect to leading and trailing ends (the end
of the shoe not covered by lining material).
5 Caliper - removal,
overhaul and refitting
4
Note: Purchase a repair kit in advance of
overhaul.
1 Jack up the front roadwheel and remove it.
2 Brush away all dirt from the caliper
Fig. 8.2 Exploded view of caliper (Sec 5)
8
8•4 Braking system
assembly and the flexible pipe, particularly the
fixing bracket and union at the car end of the
flexible pipe.
3 Have ready a container suitable to catch
the brake fluid, and sheets of clean
newspaper on which to put parts.
4 Take out the spring clips and locking
blocks, and take the caliper off the support
bracket.
5 Disconnect the hydraulic flexible pipe at the
under wing support bracket and cap both
pipe ends. It may help to prevent loss of fluid
if the vent in the reservoir cap is sealed with
adhesive tape, to create a vacuum.
6 Remove the caliper to the bench or other
work surface, and clean it thoroughly with
hydraulic fluid or methylated spirit.
7 Depress the piston until the dust excluding
boot can be removed.
8 Now apply air pressure to the flexible hose
and eject the piston. Quite a low pressure is
required for this, such as can be generated
with a hand or foot operated pump.
9 Pick out the piston seal from its groove in
the cylinder. Use a sharp probe, but take care
to avoid scratching the cylinder bore.
10 Examine the surface of the piston and
cylinder bore. If either is corroded, scored or
shows metal-to-metal rubbed areas, the
complete assembly should be renewed.
11 If the components are in good condition,
discard the oil seals, clean the piston and
cylinder and fit the new seal for the piston.
This is included in the repair kit. Use the
fingers only to manipulate it into its groove.
12 Lubricate the piston with clean hydraulic
fluid and insert it partially into the cylinder.
13 Fit the new dust excluding boot to its
projecting end, push the piston fully into the
cylinder and engage the dust excluder with
the rim of the cylinder.
14 Refit the caliper, reconnect the flexible
hose, then bleed the front hydraulic circuit
(refer to Section 12).
6 Brake disc - inspection,
renovation or renewal
2
1 Whenever the front disc pads are being
checked for wear, take the opportunity to
inspect the discs for deep scoring or
grooving. After a high mileage the disc may
become reduced in thickness away from the
extreme outer edge of the disc. lf this wear is
rapid, it is possible that the friction pads are of
too hard a type.
2 If the disc has evidence of many tiny cracks,
these may be caused by overheating due to a
seized caliper piston in the “applied” position.
3 The foregoing conditions may be corrected
by regrinding the disc provided that the
thickness of the disc is not reduced below
that specified by such action. Alternatively, fit
a new disc.
4 To remove a disc, take off the caliper and
Fig. 8.3 Sectional view of caliper (Sec 5)
1 Pads
2 Dust excluder
3 Piston seal
4 Piston
5 Cylinder body
pads as described in Sections 3 and 5. Tie the
caliper up, out of the way.
5 Knock back the tabs of the lockplates and
unbolt the caliper support bracket from the
hub carrier.
6 Unscrew and remove the two bolts which
hold the disc assembly to the hub. One of
these bolts is for wheel locating purposes.
7 Pull the disc from the hub.
8 Refitting is a reversal of the removal
process. If the disc has excessive run-out,
repositioning it in relation to the hub may
bring it within tolerance by cancelling out the
run-out characteristics in the hub and disc,
once the most suitable fitted position has
been found.
7 Rear wheel cylinder removal, overhaul and refitting
4
Note: Purchase a repair kit in advance of
overhaul.
1 If fluid seepage is observed from the ends
of the rear wheel cylinder when the brake
drum has been removed, the seals are leaking
and immediate action must be taken.
2 Although the cylinder can be dismantled
without taking it from the backplate, this is not
recommended due to the possibility of under
wing dirt and mud dropping onto the
components as work proceeds.
3 Remove the brake shoes, as described in
Section 4.
4 Disconnect the hydraulic line from the
wheel cylinder and cap the open end of the
pipe. lt may help to reduce the loss of fluid if
the vent hole in the reservoir cap is taped over
to create a vacuum.
5 Unscrew and remove the setscrews which
hold the cylinder to the backplate and
withdraw the cylinder. Prise off the rubber
dust excluding boots.
6 Apply gentle air pressure from a hand or
foot operated pump to eject the pistons and
spring. Alternatively, tap the end of the
cylinder on a piece of hardwood and the
pistons should move out.
7 Inspect the piston and cylinder bore
surfaces for scoring, corrosion or evidence of
metal-to-metal rubbing areas. lf these are
found, discard the assembly and purchase a
new one.
8 If the components are in good condition,
note which way round the lips are fitted, then
discard the seals and boots and wash the
pistons and cylinder bore in clean hydraulic
fluid or methylated spirit.
9 Manipulate the new seals into position,
using the fingers only for this job.
10 Dip the pistons in clean hydraulic fluid and
insert them with the coil spring and washers
into the cylinder.
11 Fit the new dust excluding boots.
12 Refit the wheel cylinder to the backplate,
reconnect the hydraulic pipe, then refit the
shoes, the drum and the roadwheel.
13 Bleed the rear hydraulic circuit as
described in Section 12.
8 Brake drum - inspection,
renovation or renewal
2
1 Whenever the rear brake linings are being
checked for wear, take the opportunity to
inspect the internal surfaces of the brake
drums.
2 If the drums are grooved or deeply scored,
they may be reground, provided that their new
internal diameter will not then exceed the
specified dimension. If it will, or the drum is
cracked, it must be renewed.
3 Removal and refitting of a brake drum is
described in Section 4.
Fig. 8.4 Exploded view of a rear wheel cylinder (Sec 7)
Braking system 8•5
9 Master cylinder - removal,
overhaul and refitting
4
Note: Purchase a repair kit in advance of
overhaul.
1 The master cylinder is mounted on the front
face of the brake vacuum servo unit (55 and
70 models) or directly to the bulkhead (45
models).
2 Cover the front wings with polythene
sheeting or similar material, in case hydraulic
fluid spills onto the paintwork of the car during
removal of the cylinder.
3 Detach the leads from the terminals on the
reservoir cap, then unscrew and remove the
cap and float.
4 Unscrew the pipe unions and prise the
pipes carefully away from the master cylinder.
Cap the open ends of the pipes and catch any
fluid leaking from the master cylinder in a
suitable container.
5 Unscrew the mounting nuts and withdraw
the master cylinder from the bulkhead or from
the servo unit.
6 Clean away all external dirt and tip out the
fluid from the reservoir and cylinder body.
7 The fluid reservoirs need not be removed
from the master cylinder but if they are, renew
the rubber sealing collars when refitting.
8 Grip the master cylinder in a vice, then
unscrew and remove the end plug. Catch the
coil spring.
9 Using a thin rod, apply pressure to the end
of the primary piston then unscrew and
remove the two stop bolts and sealing
washers.
10 The internal piston assemblies with seals
and springs can now be pushed out of the
cylinder body. Keep all the components in
Fig. 8.5 Sectional view of master cylinder (Sec 9)
1
2
3
4
5
6
Cylinder body
Spring and cup
Inlet from reservoir
Secondary piston
Seal
Fluid outlet to front brakes
7
8
9
10
12
Spring and cup
Inlet from reservoir
Primary piston
Seal
Stop bolts
13
14
15
16
Spacer
Springs
Seal
End plug and fluid outlet to
rear brakes
1
4
3
2
Fig. 8.6 Exploded view of master cylinder (Sec 9)
1 Cylinder body
2 Secondary piston
3 Primary piston
4 Stop bolt
Fig. 8.7 Sectional view of vacuum servo unit (Sec 9)
1 Master cylinder
2 Master cylinder
primary piston
3 Non-return valve
4 Front seal
5 Pushrod
6 Front chamber
7 Vacuum port
8 Plunger
9 Seal centraliser
10 Valve
11 Spring cup
12 Spring cup
13 Filter
14 Pushrod
15 Dust excluding
boot
16 Return spring
17 Valve spring
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
Valve cup
Rear seal
Seal
Cup
Rear chamber
Backing plate
Diaphragm
Vacuum piston
Front shell
Return spring
Cup
Guide bush
Seal
Rear shell
A = Projection of
pushrod above
vacuum cylinder
face
8
8•6 Braking system
10.4 Pressure regulating valve bracket and
tension spring
their originally fitted sequence and note in
which direction the seal lips are located.
11 Inspect the surfaces of the piston and
cylinder bore. If scoring, corrosion or
metal-to-metal rubbing areas are evident,
renew the master cylinder complete.
12 If the components are in good condition,
discard the oil seals and manipulate the new
ones into position, using the fingers only.
13 Refit by reversing the removal operations;
apply pressure to the piston ends so that the
stop bolts can be fitted, then tighten the end
plug. Make sure that the grooves in the
pistons engage in the stop bolts.
14 Before refitting the master cylinder to the
servo, measure the projection of the servo
piston pushrod. When the master cylinder is
fitted, there must be a clearance (see A in
Fig. 8.7) between the end of the pushrod and
the primary piston end face of between 0.825
and 1.025 mm (0.03 and 0.04 in). A depth
gauge will be required for these
measurements, the reference point being the
mating surfaces of the master cylinder and the
vacuum servo.
15 Alter the adjusting screw on the servo as
necessary and lock it by applying locking fluid
to the threads on completion.
Fig. 8.9 Components of the pressure
regulating valve (Sec 10)
Fig. 8.8 Pressure regulating valve (Sec 10)
16 Bolt the master cylinder to the vacuum
servo or bulkhead, then reconnect the
pipelines and reservoir cap leads.
17 Bleed the complete hydraulic system, as
described in Section 12.
10 Pressure regulating valve
3
1 The pressure regulating valve is a load
proportioning valve which restricts the
hydraulic pressure to the rear brakes
according to car weight during heavy
applications of the brake pedal. This prevents
the rear wheels locking.
2 A faulty or non-operational valve should be
renewed complete, no repair being possible.
3 To remove the valve, unscrew the pipe
unions and disconnect the hydraulic pipes
from the valve. Cap the ends of the pipes to
prevent loss of fluid.
4 Unbolt the valve mounting bracket,
withdraw it and disconnect the tension spring
(photo).
5 Refit the new valve and then adjust it in the
following way.
6 Have the car standing on a level floor.
7 The car should be normally loaded (kerb
weight) with fuel, oil, spare wheel etc. Load
the luggage compartment immediately behind
the seat back with:
65 kg (143 lbs) on three-door models or
Fig. 8.10 Weight attachment point for
pressure regulating valve adjustment (Sec 10)
1 Fixing bolt
2 Bracket eye
55 kg (121 lbs) on five-door models
8 Refer to Fig. 8.10 and slacken the valve
bracket securing bolt (1).
9 Attach a 6.0 kg (13.2 lb) weight to the
bracket eye (2) as shown and then tighten the
bracket securing bolt.
10 Bleed the braking system if a new valve
has been fitted. Bleeding will not of course be
required if only adjustment has been carried
out to an existing valve.
11 Hydraulic hoses and pipes inspection and renewal
3
Flexible hoses
1 Periodically, all brake pipes, pipe
connections and unions should be completely
and carefully examined.
2 First examine for signs of leakage where the
pipe unions occur. Then examine the flexible
hoses for signs of chafing and fraying and, of
course, leakage. This is only a preliminary part
of the flexible hose inspection, as exterior
condition does not necessarily indicate the
interior condition, which will be considered
later.
3 Flexible hoses are always mounted at both
ends in a rigid bracket attached to the body or
a sub-assembly. To remove them, it is
necessary first of all to unscrew the pipe
unions of the rigid pipes which go into them.
Fig. 8.11 Typical hydraulic hose connection
(Sec 11)
Braking system 8•7
11.3 Front hydraulic hose bracket
Fig. 8.12 Bleeding a rear wheel cylinder
(Sec 12)
12.8 Caliper bleed screw with dust cap
fitted
The hose ends can then be unclipped from
the brackets. The mounting brackets,
particularly on the body frame, are not very
heavy gauge and care must be taken not to
wrench them off (photo).
4 With the flexible hose removed, examine
the internal bore. If it is blown through first, it
should be possible to see through it. Any
specks of rubber which come out, or signs of
restriction in the bore, mean that the inner
lining is breaking up and the pipe must be
renewed.
5 When refitting the flexible hoses check they
cannot be under tension, or rub, when the
wheels are at the full range of suspension or
steering movement.
6 Bleed the system (see Section 12) on
completion.
reversal of the removal procedure. If the rigid
pipes have been made up, it is best to get all
the sets bends in them before trying to fit
them. Also, if there are any acute bends ask
your supplier to put these in for you on a tube
bender. Otherwise, you may kink the pipe and
thereby restrict the bore area and fluid flow.
11 Bleed the system (see Section 12) on
completion.
9 Engage the help of an assistant.
10 Push one end of the bleed tube onto the
flrst bleed screw and immerse the other end
of the glass jar which should contain enough
hydraulic fluid to cover the end of the tube.
11 Open the bleed screw one half a turn and
have your assistant depress the brake pedal
fully then slowly release it. Tighten the bleed
screw at the end of each pedal downstroke to
obviate any chance of air or fluid being drawn
back into the system.
12 Repeat this operation until clean hydraulic
fluid, free from air bubbles, can be seen
coming through into the jar.
13 Tighten the bleed screw at the end of a
pedal downstroke and remove the bleed tube.
Bleed the remaining screws in a similar way.
Rigid pipes
7 Inspect the condition of the braking system
rigid pipelines at frequent intervals. They must
be cleaned off and examined for any signs of
dents (or other percussive damage) and rust
and corrosion. Rust and corrosion should be
scraped off and, if the depth of pitting in the
pipes is significant, they will need renewal.
This is particularly likely in those areas
underneath the car body and along the rear
axle where the pipes are exposed to the full
force of road and weather conditions.
8 Rigid pipe removal is usually straightforward. The unions at each end are undone,
the pipe and union pulled out, and the centre
sections of the pipe removed from the body
clips where necessary. Underneath the car,
exposed unions can sometimes be very tight.
As one can use only an open-ended spanner
and the unions are not large, burring of the
flats is not uncommon when attempting to
undo them. For this reason, a self-locking grip
wrench (Mole) is often the only way to remove
a stubborn union.
9 Rigid pipes which need renewal can usually
be purchased at any garage where they have
the pipe, unions and special tools to make
them up. All they need to know is the total
length of the pipe, the type of flare used at
each end with the union, and the length and
thread of the union. Fiat is metric, remember.
10 Fitting your new pipes is a straightforward
12 Hydraulic system bleeding
3
1 If the master cylinder or the pressure
regulating valve has been disconnected and
reconnected then the complete system (both
circuits) must be bled.
2 If a component of one circuit has been
disturbed then only that particular circuit need
be bled.
3 The two disc brakes comprise the front
circuit and the two rear brakes the rear circuit.
4 Unless the pressure bleeding method is
being used, do not forget to keep the fluid
level in the master cylinder reservoir topped
up to prevent air from being drawn into the
system which would make any work done
worthless.
5 Before commencing operations, check that
all system hoses and pipes are in good
condition with all unions tight and free from
leaks.
6 Take great care not to allow hydraulic fluid
to come into contact with the vehicle
paintwork as it is an effective paint stripper.
Wash off any spilled fluid immediately with
cold water.
7 As the system on 55 and 70 models
incorporates a vacuum servo, destroy the
vacuum by giving several applications of the
brake pedal in quick succession. The car
should be loaded with enough weight to
actuate the pressure regulating valve before
bleeding commences.
Bleeding - using a one way
valve kit
14 There are a number of one-man, one-way
brake bleeding kits available from motor
accessory shops. It is recommended that one
of these kits is used wherever possible as it will
greatly simplify the bleeding operation and also
reduce the risk of air or fluid being drawn back
into the system quite apart from being able to
do the work without the help of an assistant.
15 To use the kit, connect the tube to the
bleedscrew and open the screw one half a
turn.
16 Depress the brake pedal fully and slowly
release it. The one-way valve in the kit will
prevent expelled air from returning at the end
of each pedal downstroke. Repeat this
operation several times to be sure of ejecting
all air from the system. Some kits include a
translucent container which can be positioned
so that the air bubbles can actually be seen
being ejected from the system.
17 Tighten the bleed screw, remove the tube
and repeat the operations on the remaining
brakes.
18 On completion, depress the brake pedal. If it
still feels spongy repeat the bleeding operations
as air must still be trapped in the system.
Bleeding - two man method
Bleeding - using a pressure
bleeding kit
8 Gather together a clean glass jar and a
length of rubber or plastic tubing which will be
a tight fit on the brake bleed screws (photo).
19 These kits too are available from motor
accessory shops and are usually operated by
air pressure from the spare tyre.
8
8•8 Braking system
20 By connecting a pressurised container to
the master cylinder fluid reservoir, bleeding is
then carried out by simply opening each bleed
screw in turn and allowing the fluid to run out,
rather like turning on a tap, until no air is
visible in the expelled fluid.
21 By using this method, the large reserve of
hydraulic fluid provides a safeguard against
air being drawn into the master cylinder
during bleeding which often occurs if the fluid
level in the reservoir is not maintained.
22 Pressure bleeding is particularly effective
when bleeding “difficult” systems or when
bleeding the complete system at time of
routine fluid renewal.
All methods
23 When bleeding is completed, check and
top up the fluid level in the master cylinder
reservoir.
24 Check the feel of the brake pedal. If it
feels at all spongy, air must still be present in
the system and further bleeding is indicated.
Failure to bleed satisfactorily after a
reasonable period of the bleeding operation,
may be due to worn master cylinder seals.
25 Discard brake fluid which has been
expelled. lt is almost certain to be
contaminated with moisture, air and dirt
making it unsuitable for further use. Clean
fluid should always be stored in an airtight
container as it absorbs moisture readily
(hygroscopic) which lowers its boiling point
and could affect braking performance under
severe conditions.
13 Vacuum servo unit description
A vacuum servo unit is fitted into the brake
hydraulic circuit on 55 and 70 models in series
with the master cylinder, to provide assistance
to the driver when the brake pedal is
depressed. This reduces the effort required by
the driver to operate the brakes under all
braking conditions.
The unit operates by vacuum obtained from
the induction manifold and comprises basically
a booster diaphragm and non-return valve. The
servo unit and hydraulic master cylinder are
connected together so that the servo unit
piston rod acts as the master cylinder pushrod.
The driver’s braking effort is transmitted
through another pushrod to the servo unit
piston and its built-in control system. The servo
unit piston does not fit tightly into the cylinder,
but has a strong diaphragm to keep its edges
in constant contact with the cylinder wall, so
assuring an air tight seal between the two
parts. The forward chamber is held under
vacuum conditions created in the inlet manifold
of the engine and, during periods when the
brake pedal is not in use, the controls open a
passage to the rear chamber so placing it
under vacuum conditions as well. When the
brake pedal is depressed, the vacuum passage
to the rear chamber is cut off and the chamber
opened to atmospheric pressure. The
consequent rush of air pushes the servo piston
forward in the vacuum chamber and operates
the main pushrod to the master cylinder.
The controls are designed so that
assistance is given under all conditions and,
when the brakes are not required, vacuum in
the rear chamber is established when the
brake pedal is released. All air from the
atmosphere entering the rear chamber is
passed through a small air filter.
Under normal operating conditions, the
vacuum servo unit is very reliable and does
not require overhaul except at very high
mileages. In this case, it is far better to obtain
a service exchange unit, rather than repair the
original unit.
It is emphasised that the servo unit assists
in reducing the braking effort required at the
foot pedal and in the event of its failure, the
hydraulic braking system is in no way affected
except that the need for higher pressures will
be noticed.
14 Vacuum servo unit servicing and testing
1 Regularly, check that the vacuum hose
which runs between the servo unit and the
inlet manifold is in good condition and is a
tight fit at both ends.
2 If broken or badly clogged, renew the air
filter which is located around the brake pedal
push rod. Access to this is obtained by
disconnecting the pushrod from the
cross-shaft or pedal arm, withdrawing the
pushrod, dust excluding boot and end cap.
3 If the new filter is cut diagonally from its
centre hole, future renewal can be carried out
without the need for disconnection of the
pushrod.
4 If the efficiency of the servo unit is suspect,
it can be checked out in the following way.
5 Run the engine, then switch off the ignition.
Depress the footbrake pedal; the distinctive
in-rush of air into the servo should be clearly
heard. It should be possible to repeat this
operation several times before the vacuum in
the system is exhausted.
6 Start the engine and have an assistant
apply the footbrake pedal and hold it down.
Disconnect the vacuuum hose from the servo.
There should not be any in-rush of air into the
servo through the connecting stub. lf there is,
the servo diaphragm is probably faulty. During
this test, expect the engine to idle roughly,
unless the open end of the hose to the inlet
manifold is plugged. Reconnect the hose.
7 With the engine off, depress the brake
pedal fully. Start the engine with the brake
pedal still depressed; the pedal should be felt
to go down fractionally.
8 If the results of these tests are not
satisfactory, remove the unit and fit a new one
as described in the next Section.
15 Vacuum servo unit removal and refitting
3
1 Syphon as much fluid as possible out of the
master cylinder reservolr.
2 Disconnect electrical leads from the
terminals in the reservoir cap then uncouple
the rigid pipelines from the master cylinder
body. Be prepared to catch leaking fluid and
plug the open ends of the pipelines.
3 The master cylinder can be unbolted now
from the servo unit, or detached later when
the complete assembly is withdrawn.
4 Working inside the car, disconnect the
servo pushrod from the pedal then remove the
servo mounting nuts.
5 Withdraw the servo assembly into the
engine compartment, then remove it to the
bench. lf the master cylinder is still attached,
cover the wings with protective sheeting, in
case brake fluid is spilled during removal.
6 Refitting is a reversal of the removal
process, but adjust the pushrod clearance as
described in Section 9. On completion of
refitting, bleed the complete hydraulic system
as described in Section 12. Note: Where the
help of an assistant is available, the servo
pushrod need not be disconnected from the
pedal. The rod is a sliding fit in the servo and
the servo can be simply pulled off the rod.
Refitting without having disconnected the rod
from the pedal can be difficult unless the help
of an assistant is available.
16 Handbrake - adjustment
1
Adjustment is normally automatic, by the
movement of the rear brake shoes on their
automatic adjusters.
However, owing to cable stretch,
supplementary adjustment is occasionally
required at the control lever adjuster nut. The
need for this adjustment is usually indicated
by excessive movement of the control lever
when fully applied.
1 The rear brakes should be fully applied
when the handbrake control lever has been
pulled over four or five notches.
2 If adjustment is required, release the
16.2 Handbrake adjuster nuts
Braking system 8•9
locknut and turn the adjuster nut on the
handbrake primary rod (photo).
3 Raise the rear roadwheels and check that
they turn freely when the handbrake lever is
fully released.
17 Handbrake cable renewal
1
1 There are two cables, either of which may
be renewed independently
2 Disconnect the cable, which is to be renewed,
from the shoe lever at the brake backplate.
3 Disconnect the longer cable from the
primary link or rod and release the cable from
its retainers. On later models with a plastic
fuel tank, a cable bracket is moulded into the
side of the tank (photo).
17.4 Handbrake cable pulley
17.3 Handbrake cable guide on fuel tank
4 Disconnect the shorter cable from the pivot
lever at the pulley on the rear axle (photo).
5 Refit the new cables by reversing the
removal operations and then adjust as
described in the preceding Section.
18 Brake pedal removal and refitting
1
1 The operations are described in
conjunction with the clutch pedal in Chapter
5, Section 4.
2 The brake pedal pushrod will slide out of
the servo unit as the pedal is withdrawn.
19 Stop lamp switch
1
1 The brake stop lamp switch is of plunger
type acting on the pedal arm.
2 Adjust the position of the switch by turning
the locknuts until the stop lamps illuminate
when the pedal arm is depressed through 1.0
mm (0.039 in).
Fig. 8.13 Handbrake components (Sec 17)
Fault finding - braking system
Excessive pedal travel
Excessive effort required to stop car
m
m
m
m
m
m
m
m
m
m
m
Pads or shoes excessively worn
Incorrect pedal or servo pushrod adjustment
Automatic adjusters faulty
Seized wheel cylinder or caliper piston
Master cylinder seals worn
Pedal feels spongy or soggy
m
m
m
m
m
Air in hydraulic system
Low fluid level
Loose connections
Flexible hose perished
Defective wheel cylinder or caliper seal
Pedal feels springy
m New pads or linings not bedded-in
m Master cylinder mounting loose
Worn or contaminated linings or pads
Incorrect grade of lining or pad material
Servo vacuum hose leaking or disconnected
Faulty servo or non-return valve (55 or 70 models)
Seized caliper or wheel cylinder piston
One circuit defective on dual circuit hydraulic system
Brakes pull to one side
m Friction linings contaminated on one side of car
m Seized hydraulic piston on one side of car
m Different types of linings fitted on different sides of car, or new
linings on one side only
m Seized automatic adjuster on one side of car
Brakes drag
m Handbrake linkage overadjusted or seized
m Seized caliper or wheel cylinder piston
Pedal vibrates when brakes applied
Brakes squeal
m
m
m
m
m Drums or discs rusty or damp (temporary fault - no action
necessary)
m Dust or grit in brake drums
m Linings excessively worn
Discs or drums distorted
Friction linings excessively worn
Loose backplate or caliper mounting bolts
Wear in steering or suspension components
8
9•1
Chapter 9 Electrical system
For modifications, and information applicable to later models, see Supplement at end of manual
Contents
Alternator - maintenance and precautions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
Alternator - overhaul . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
Alternator - removal and refitting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
Battery - inspection, charging, removal and refitting . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
Central door locking system . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
Check control (warning module) system . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34
Cigar lighter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36
Clocks - setting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
Courtesy lamp switch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
Economy gauge (Econometer) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
Electrically-operated front door windows . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
Exterior lamps - bulb renewal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
Fault finding - electrical system . . . . . . . . . . . . . . See end of Chapter
Fuses and relays . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
General description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
Headlamp - removal and refitting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
Headlamp beam - alignment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
Headlamp bulb - renewal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
Heated tailgate window - precautions and repair . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
Horns . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Instrument panel - dismantling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Instrument panel - removal and refitting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Interior lamps - bulb renewal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Radio/cassette - fitting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Rocker and push-button switches . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Speedometer drive cable - renewal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Starter motor - description and testing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Starter motor - overhaul . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Starter motor - removal and refitting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Steering column combination switch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Tailgate contacts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Tailgate wiper blade and arm - removal and refitting . . . . . . . . . . . .
Tailgate wiper motor - removal and refitting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Voltage regulator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Washer system . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Windscreen wiper blade and arm - removal and refitting . . . . . . . . .
Windscreen wiper motor - removal and refitting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
15
22
21
20
30
13
23
7
9
8
11
14
26
27
6
28
24
25
Degrees of difficulty
Easy, suitable for
novice with little
experience
1
Fairly easy, suitable
for beginner with
some experience
2
Fairly difficult,
suitable for competent
DIY mechanic
3
Difficult, suitable for
experienced DIY
mechanic
4
Very difficult,
suitable for expert DIY
or professional
5
Specifications
System type
...........................................
12 negative earth, battery alternator and pre-engaged starter
Battery
Except 70S . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
70S . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
30 Ah
40 Ah
Alternator
Type . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Nominal voltage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Minimum brush (wear) length . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Marelli, Valeo or Bosch 45A, 55A or 65A, with integral voltage
regulator
14 V
6.0 mm (0.236 in)
Starter motor
Type . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Nominal power . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Armature shaft endfloat . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Minimum brush (wear) length . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Marelli, Bosch or Femsa pre-engaged
0.8 kW or 1.0 kW
0.1 to 0.5 mm (0.0039 to 0.0197 in)
10.0 mm (0.39 in)
Wiper blades
Front . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Rear . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Champion X-4801 (19 in) or X-4503 (18 in)
Champion X-3303
9
9•2 Electrical system
Fuses
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
Circuit protected
Stop lamps, direction indicator lamps, instrument panel warning
lamps, tachometer economy gauge, check control system . . . . . .
Windscreen wiper and washer, rear screen wiper/washer, check
system panel illumination . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Left front parking, right rear tail lamp, cigar lighter illumination,
heater control and clock, digital clock illumination . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Right front parking lamp and left rear tail lamp, instrument panel
illumination and rear number plate lamp . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Left-hand dipped headlamp, rear foglamps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Right-hand dipped headlamp . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Left-hand headlamp (main beam) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Right-hand headlamp (main beam) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Engine cooling fan and horn (Comfort) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Heater booster fan, digital clock map reading lamp . . . . . . . . . . . .
Heated tailgate glass . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Courtesy lamps, cigar lighter, radio power feed, disc pad
sensors, economy gauge (ES models) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Hazard warning lamps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Spare (Comfort), Horn (Super) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Bulbs
Headlamp . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Front parking . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Side repeater . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Tail . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Stop . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Reversing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Rear foglamp . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Direction indicator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Rear number plate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Courtesy lamp (roof) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Courtesy lamp (pillar) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Warning and indicator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Torque wrench settings
Alternator mounting and adjustment nuts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Starter motor bolts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1 General description
The electrical system is of 12 volt negative
earth type and employs a belt-driven
alternator and a pre-engaged type starter
motor.
The models in the range are all adequately
equipped with electrical accessories, while SX
versions also have power windows and
centralised door locking plus a check control
system (Section 34).
2 Battery - inspection, charging,
removal and refitting
2
1 The battery is of maintenance-free type and
under normal circumstances, no topping up
will be required, but regularly check that the
electrolyte level is between the minimum and
maximum lines on the translucent battery
casing.
2 If the electrolyte level does drop below the
Fuse rating (A)
10
20
7.5
7.5
10
10
10
10
25
20
20
10
10
20
Wattage
40/45 or Halogen H4 60/55
5
5
5
21
21
21
21
5
10
5
Wedge base
Nm
50
48
minimum line, suspect a leak in the battery
casing or that the alternator is overcharging. If
the latter is the case, rectify the alternator fault
and then prise out the two rectangular plugs
from the top of the battery and top up with
distilled or purified water.
3 Always keep the battery terminals clean
and smear them with petroleum jelly to
prevent corrosion.
lbf ft
87
35
7 To remove the battery from the car, first
disconnect the leads from the battery
terminals (earth first) and then unscrew the
securing clamp from the casing projection at
the base of the casing (photo).
8 Lift the battery from its mounting platform.
Refitting is a reversal of removal. Reconnect
the earth cable last.
If battery terminal corrosion
has occurred, it may be
neutralised by applying
sodium bicarbonate or
household ammonia.
4 The battery will normally be kept fully
charged by the alternator, but it is possible for
the battery to become discharged if the daily
mileage is very low with much use being
made of the starter and electrical accessories.
5 When the battery begins to deteriorate with
age it may also require a boost from a mains
charger.
6 Disconnect both battery leads before
connecting the mains charger.
2.7 Battery clamp
Electrical system 9•3
4.2A Alternator mounting
3 Alternator maintenance and precautions
1
To avoid damage to the alternator, the
following precautions should be observed.
1 Disconnect the leads from the battery
before connecting a mains charger to the
battery terminals.
2 Never stop the engine by pulling off one of
the battery leads.
3 Disconnect the battery if electric welding is
to be carried out on the vehicle.
4 If using booster cables from another battery
to start the car, make sure that they are
connected positive to positive and negative to
negative.
5 Maintenance consists of keeping the
outside of the alternator clean, the electrical
connections secure and the drivebelt correctly
tensioned, see Chapter 2, Section 8.
4 Alternator removal and refitting
4.2B Alternator adjuster bolt
5.3A Alternator brush holder bolt
2 Release the mounting and adjuster link nuts
and push the alternator as far as it will go in
towards the engine (photos).
3 Slip the drivebelt from the pulley.
4 Remove the mounting and adjuster bolts
and lift the alternator from the brackets on the
engine. Remove downwards on 1116 cc and
1301 cc models.
5 Refitting is a reversal of removal, tension
the drivebelt as described in Chapter 2,
Section 8.
economical to exchange it for a new or
factory-reconditioned one, rather than renew
worn components on the original unit.
5 Alternator - overhaul
3
1 Overhaul of the alternator should be limited
to renewal of the brushes. If the unit has
covered a high mileage, it will be found more
Brush renewal
(Marelli alternator)
2 Unscrew the nuts and take off the rear cover.
3 Unscrew the two small bolts and withdraw
the brush holder (photos).
4 Fit the new brush holder which is supplied
complete with brushes, by reversing the
removal operations.
Brush renewal
(Bosch alternator)
5 Where applicable, remove the radio
suppression condenser (capacitor) from the
rear end frame (one screw and washer, and a
plug-in connection).
6 Undo the two screws which retain the brush
holder to the rear frame of the alternator, then
1
Note: Depending on the model, access to the
alternator from above may be poor in which
case it will be necessary to work from the
underside of the vehicle, through the
right-hand wheel arch (after removing the
roadwheel and the lower undershield). Refer
to Chapter 13 for details.
1 Disconnect the leads from the rear of the
alternator.
9
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
5.3B Removing alternator brush holder
Fig. 9.1 Exploded view of typical alternator (Sec 5)
Pulley
9 Body
16 Screws and
24
Fan
10 Brush
washers
25
Bolts
11 Spring
17 Plug socket
26
Washers
12 Brush holder
18 Suppressor
27
Drive-end bracket 13 Condenser
19 Shaft nut
28
Stator windings
14 Screws and
20 Spring washer
29
Plate screw
washers
21 Thrust ring
30
Diode plate
15 Screws and
22 Bearing
31
(rectifier pack)
washers
23 Retainer plate
Thrust ring
Spring washer
Screw and washer
Key
Rotor
Bearing
Backing washer
Shield (where
applicable)
9•4 Electrical system
whilst listening to the starter. Listen to find out
if the solenoid clicks into position. If it does
not, pull off the solenoid wire, and check it
with a test bulb. If the wire is live when the key
is turned, but the solenoid does not move,
take off the starter and remove it to the bench
for overhaul.
8 Starter motor removal and refitting
8.2 Starter motor connections
ease the holder out of the alternator. Inspect
the brushes and if worn below the specified
minimum length, they must be renewed.
7 Disconnect the brush leads by unsoldering
or carefully cutting them.
8 When soldering the new brush leads, do
not allow solder to run down them or their
flexibility will be ruined.
Gripping the brush leads with
a pair of pliers to act as a
heat sink will prevent heat
transfer to the internal
components of the alternator.
9 When inspecting or renewing brushes,
check the surface of the slip rings. Clean them
with solvent or if they are very discoloured,
use very fine glasspaper.
6 Voltage regulator
1 This is of integral type and is part of the
brushholder assembly.
2 No provision is made for adjustment or
overhaul.
8.3 Removing starter motor
7 Starter motor description and testing
2
1 The starter motor may be one of two
different makes. Both are of pre-engaged
type.
2 This type of starter motor incorporates a
solenoid mounted on top of the starter motor
body. When the ignition switch is operated,
the solenoid moves the starter drive pinion,
through the medium of the shift lever, into
engagement with the flywheel starter ring
gear. As the solenoid reaches the end of its
stroke, and with the pinion by now partially
engaged with the flywheel ring gear, the main
fixed and moving contacts close and engage
the starter motor to rotate the engine.
3 This pre-engagement of the starter drive
does much to reduce the wear on the flywheel
ring gear associated with inertia type starter
motors.
4 If the starter fails, some fault-finding can be
done with it still on the car. Check the ignition
warning light comes on, and does not go out
when the starter is switched on. If it goes out,
the fault is probably in the battery. If it stays
bright, get an assistant to work the switch,
1
1 Disconnect the battery negative lead.
2 Disconnect the lead from the starter motor
(photo).
3 Unscrew the fixing bolts and withdraw the
starter motor, downwards on 1116 cc and
1301 cc models (photo).
4 Refitting is a reversal of the removal
procedure.
9 Starter motor - overhaul
3
1 As with the alternator, the operations
should normally be limited to renewal of the
brushes. If the unit has covered a high
mileage it will usually be more economical to
purchase a new or factory-reconditioned one
rather than renew several components of the
original unit.
2 Owing to the possibility that a fault can
develop in the starter motor solenoid or drive
assembly, full dismantling procedures are
given later in this Section.
Brush - renewal
3 Slide off the cover band.
4 Using a hooked piece of wire, pull up the
springs so that the brushes can be withdrawn
and their lengths checked for wear. If they
have worn below the specified minimum
length, renew them by extracting the brush
lead connecting screws (photo).
Solenoid
5 Disconnect the field connecting wire from
the solenoid.
6 Unscrew the bolts which hold the solenoid
to the end-frame.
7 Unscrew the yoke tie-rod nuts.
Fig. 9.2 Exploded view of typical starter motor (Sec 9)
1 Armature
3 Drive end bracket
5 Solenoid
7 Brush
2 Drive pinion/clutch 4 Shift lever
6 Brush endplate
8 Field windings
9.4 Starter motor brush partly withdrawn
Electrical system 9•5
9.8 Starter motor dismantled
10.1 Fuse block (later models)
11.4 Unscrewing steering column switch
clamp nut
1 Horn relay
2 Heated tailgate window relay
8 Withdraw the solenoid and yoke off the
armature and from the drive end bracket.
Note the steel and fibre washers and the
shims on the armature shaft (photo).
9 Extract the split pin and tap out the
engagement lever pivot pin.
10 Pull the rubber packing piece from the
drive end bracket.
11 Withdraw the armature with solenoid
plunger, coil spring and engagement lever.
12 Clean the commutator with a fuel soaked
rag or very fine glass paper. Do not undercut
the mica insulators on the commutator.
Drive
13 To remove the drive assembly from the
armature shaft, use a piece of tubing to tap
the stop collar down the shaft to expose the
snap ring. Remove the snap ring and stop
collar and slide the drive assembly from the
shaft.
14 Refitting is a reversal of removal, but use a
new snap ring to secure the drive to the
armature shaft.
10 Fuses and relays
1
1 The fuse box is located under the left-hand
side of the facia panel and is held in place by
two hand screws (photo).
12.1 Courtesy lamp switch
1 Direction indicator flasher unit (relay)
2 The fuses and the circuits protected are
identified by symbols. Refer also to Specifications.
3 If a fuse blows, always renew it with one of
identical rating. If the new fuse blows
immediately, find the cause before renewing
the fuse for the second time. This is usually
due to defective wiring insulation causing a
short circuit.
4 Never substitute a piece of wire or other
makeshift device for a proper fuse.
5 Various relays are plugged into the fuse
block and include those for the heated rear
screen, heater and horns.
6 On cars fitted with power-operated front
windows and centralised door locking, the
fuses and relays for these circuits are
mounted separately under the right-hand side
of the facia panel.
7 The relay (flasher unit) for the direction
indicators and hazard warning lamps is
located on the lower part of the
steering column combination switch and
is accessible after removing the column
shroud.
11 Steering column
combination switch
1 Disconnect the battery negative lead.
2 Remove the steering column shrouds.
13.4 Switch panel screw
1
3 The switch can be removed without
having to take off the steering wheel, but for
clarity, the photographs show the wheel
removed.
4 Unscrew the switch clamp nuts, disconnect
the wiring plug and remove the switch from
the steering column (photo).
5 Refitting is a reversal of removal, but make
sure that the activating projections on the
steering wheel hub engage correctly with the
switches.
12 Courtesy lamp switch
1
1 These are located in and secured to the
body pillars with a single screw (photo).
2 Disconnect the battery negative lead.
3 Extract the switch screw and withdraw the
switch.
4 If the leads are to be disconnected, tape
them to the pillar to prevent them from
slipping inside.
5 Refitting is a reversal of removal. Apply
petroleum jelly to the switch contacts to
prevent corrosion.
9
13 Rocker and push-button
switches
1
1 These are mounted in panels on each side
of the instrument panel.
2 Disconnect the battery negative lead.
3 Prise off the instrument panel hood cover.
This is held in place by clips. The careful use
of a screwdriver will assist in releasing them
(see Section 21).
4 Extract the switch panel fixing screws.
These compress spring clips which in turn
secure the switch panel (photo).
5 Withdraw the switch panel until the wiring
plugs can be disconnected. Record the
location of the plugs before disconnecting
9•6 Electrical system
13.5A Withdrawing switch panel
13.5B Switch panel fibre optic
14.2A Tailgate contact block
them. Carefully release the fibre optic
filaments (photos).
6 A push-button switch can be removed by
compressing its retaining tabs and pushing it
from the panel.
7 A rocker switch can be removed if its knob
is pulled off and the switch sections
withdrawn from the panel.
8 Reassembly and refitting of both types of
switches are reversals of removal and
dismantling.
14 Tailgate contacts
14.2B Body contact block
1
1 Contact blocks are used to transmit power
to the heated tailgate window and to the wiper
motor.
2 The block on the tailgate or the body may
be released by prising their ends with a
screwdriver (photos).
15 Horns
16.1 Headlamp plug and rubber
cover
16.2A Headlamp bulbholder spring
clips
1
1 These are mounted close to the
engine/transmission left-hand mounting
below the radiator.
2 Apart from keeping the connecting leads
secure, no maintenance or adjustment is
required.
16.2B Headlamp halogen type bulb
16 Headlamp bulb - renewal
1
1 Open the bonnet and pull off the plug and
the rubber cover from the rear of the
headlamp (photo).
2 Prise back the spring bulbholder clips and
withdraw the combined bulb and holder
(photos).
3 Refit the new bulb. Avoid fingering it if it is
of halogen type. Should the fingers touch the
bulb, wipe it with a rag soaked in methylated
spirit to remove any residual grease.
4 Turn the bulbholder until the pip on its
flange engages in the cut-out in the rim of the
reflector.
5 Snap back the spring retaining clips, refit
the rubber cover and reconnect the plug.
17 Headlamp beam - alignment
2
1 It is recommended that the headlamp
beams are aligned by your dealer or a service
station having optical setting equipment.
2 Where an owner wishes to do the job
himself, proceed in the following way.
3 Have the car standing on a level floor with
Fig. 9.3 Headlamp beam adjustment
screws (Sec 17)
A Vertical
B Horizontal
Electrical system 9•7
18.1 Headlamp upper fixing screw
18.2 Withdrawing headlamp
the tyres correctly inflated and square to a
wall, at a distance of 10.0 m (32.8 ft) from it.
4 Mark the wall to correspond with the
centres of the headlamps.
5 Switch to dipped beams when the brightest
parts of the light pattern should be below the
marks on the wall by an amount equal to one
tenth of the distance between the floor and
the mark on the wall.
6 Adjust the beams as necessary by turning
the adjuster screws (A) vertical or (B) horizontal, which are located at the rear of the
headlamp.
2 Open the bonnet, push and twist the
bulbholder from its location (photo).
3 The wedge base type bulb is simply pulled
from its holder.
18 Headlamp removal and refitting
1
19.2 Front parking lamp bulb
7 Remove the bulb from the holder.
Rear lamp cluster
4 Extract the screws and remove the lens
(photo).
5 Depress and twist the bayonet fitting type
bulb from its holder.
8 Open the tailgate.
9 Gently prise up the clips on the top surface of
the lens. Pull the upper part of the lens outwards
and release it from the lower fixings (photo).
10 The individual lamp bulbs may be
renewed, all of them being of bayonet fitting
type (photo).
Side repeater lamp
Rear number plate lamp
6 This bulb may be renewed in one of two
ways. Either partially remove the underwing
protective shield and reach up under the front
wing and pull the holder out of the lamp body
or depress the lamp retaining tab and
withdraw the lamp from outside the wing. The
tab is very brittle (photo).
11 Insert a screwdriver blade in the lens slot
and prise it from the bulb holder. Withdraw
the bulb.
12 If preferred, the complete lamp may be
removed from the bumper by reaching up
under the bumper and squeezing the lamp
retaining tabs (photo).
19.4 Front direction indicator lamp lens
and bulb
19.6 Side repeater lamp
Front direction indicator lamp
1 Open the bonnet and extract the two
headlamp mounting screws from the top rail
(photo).
2 Pull the headlamp unit forward off its
ballstud and then disconnect the wiring plug
(photo).
3 Refitting is a reversal of removal.
19 Exterior lamps bulb renewal
1
Front parking lamp
1 The bulbholder is located in the headlamp
reflector.
19.9 Rear lamp lens upper clip
19.10 Rear lamp bulbs
A Direction indicator C Stop E Fog
B Reversing
D Tail
19.12 Rear number plate lamp withdrawn
9
9•8 Electrical system
20.1 Interior roof lamp withdrawn
20 Interior lamps bulb renewal
1
Courtesy lamp
1 The lamp lenses, whether roof or pillar
mounted, are removed by prising off using a
screwdriver inserted under one end (photo).
2 The festoon type bulb is pulled from its
spring contacts.
Instrument panel lamps
3 Remove the instrument panel hood cover
as described in the next Section. The panel
lighting bulbs may be renewed without further
dismantling, but access to the warning and
indicator bulbs can only be obtained if the
instrument panel is partially withdrawn as
described in the next Section (photo).
20.3 Instrument panel warning lamp
Fig. 9.4 Instrument hood cover (1) (Sec 21)
4 Pull out the appropriate bulbholder and
withdraw the wedge base type bulb.
5 Fit the new bulb, the holder, instrument
panel and hood cover.
5 Remove the instrument panel upwards
(photo).
6 Refitting is a reversal of removal.
21 Instrument panel removal and refitting
1
1 Disconnect the battery negative lead.
2 Remove the instrument panel hood cover.
The easiest way to do this is to insert the
fingers at the sides, and pull the hood sharply
upwards off its retaining clips.
3 Extract the two fixing screws from the
instrument panel and pull it towards you until the
speedometer drive cable can be disconnected
by squeezing its plastic retaining ring (photo).
4 Disconnect the wiring plugs and record
their exact locations.
22 Instrument panel dismantling
1 With the instrument panel removed from
the car, individual instruments may be
removed in the following way.
2 Pull off the speedometer trip device knob.
3 Remove the instrument hood cover by
gently releasing the plastic clips (Fig. 9.4).
4 The speedometer is secured by two screws
for its metal casing and one screw for its
plastic casing. Other instruments are held to
the panel by nuts (photo).
5 On models equipped with a check control
system (see Section 34), the speedometer
cannot be removed until the control unit has
first been withdrawn.
6 On ES versions, the speedometer cannot
be removed until the economy gauge control
unit has been removed.
23 Speedometer drive cable renewal
21.2 Removing instrument panel hood
cover
21.3 Removing instrument panel screw
21.5 Instrument panel and steering wheel
removed
22.4 Rear view of instrument panel
1
1
1 Remove the instrument panel hood cover
as described in Section 21.
2 Disconnect the speedometer cable from
the speedometer by squeezing the plastic
retaining ring (photo).
23.2 Speedometer cable connector at
head
Electrical system 9•9
Fig. 9.5 Windscreen wiper blade fixing
(Sec 24)
23.3 Speedometer cable connector at
transmission
24.4 Windscreen wiper arm nut
3 Working at the transmission, disconnect
the speedometer cable by unscrewing the
knurled retaining ring (photo).
4 Withdraw the cable through the bulkhead
grommet.
5 Refit the new cable assembly by reversing
the removal operations.
wiper arm. The blade can then be withdrawn,
passing the wiper arm hook through the
slot (C) in the blade stretcher (Fig. 9.5).
3 Before removing the wiper arm, it is
worthwhile sticking a strip of masking tape on
the screen to indicate the setting of the arm
and blade as a guide to refitting.
4 Flip up the plastic cover and unscrew the
arm retaining nut. Pull off the arm from the
splined drive spindle (photo).
5 Refitting is a reversal of removal.
24 Windscreen wiper blade and
arm - removal and refitting
1
1 The wiper blade can be removed once the
arm has been pulled away from the glass and
locked in position.
2 Depress the small tab (A) and push the
U-shaped carrier out of the hook (B) of the
25 Windscreen wiper motor removal and refitting
A Tab
2
25.4 Removing windscreen wiper motor
mounting screws
1 Open the bonnet and disconnect the
battery negative lead.
2 Remove the wiper arm and blade as
previously described.
3 Prise off the sealing cover from around the
drive spindle and then unscrew the drive
spindle bezel nut.
4 Pull back the weathersealing strip from
above the wiper motor location and remove
the two screws which are exposed (photo).
5 Withdraw
the
motor/gearbox
with
protective cover from under the lip of the
upper bulkhead. Disconnect the wiring plug
(photos).
6 Refitting is a reversal of removal.
25.5A Windscreen wiper motor cover
25.5B Removing windscreen wiper motor
B Wiper arm
C Blade slot
Fig. 9.6 Windscreen wiper motor
components (Sec 25)
1 Gears
2 Crank arm
3 Shaft gear
4 Intermittent
control unit
5 Motor yoke
26 Tailgate wiper blade and arm
- removal and refitting
1
1 Pull the wiper arm from the glass until it
locks.
2 With the thumb nail pull down the tab to
release the peg (B) from the hole (A) (Fig. 9.7).
Pull the blade from the arm.
3 To remove the arm, flip up the plastic cover
and remove the nut exposed. Pull the arm
from the drive spindle.
4 Refitting is a reversal of removal.
Fig. 9.7 Tailgate wiper blade fixing (Sec 26)
A Hole
B Peg
9
9•10 Electrical system
27.4 Tailgate wiper motor
27 Tailgate wiper motor removal and refitting
28.1 Washer fluid reservoir
1
1 Remove the blade and arm as previously
described. Unscrew the drive spindle bezel
nut.
2 Open the tailgate fully.
3 Unclip and remove the wiper motor cover.
4 Unscrew the mounting screws, withdraw
the motor and disconnect the wiring plug
(photo).
5 Refitting is a reversal of removal.
28 Washer system
1
1 The washer system for the windscreen and
the tailgate operates from a bag type fluid
reservoir within the engine compartment
(photo).
2 The reservoir bag is fitted with two pumps,
one for each system (photo).
3 Use screen cleaning fluid mixed in the
recommended proportion in the washer fluid
reservoir and in very cold weather add a small
quantity of methylated spirit.
4 To clear a blocked washer jet nozzle or to
adjust the wash jet glass-striking pattern,
insert a pin part way into the jet nozzle.
29 Heated tailgate window precautions and repair
28.2 Washer pumps
2
1 The heater element inside the tailgate glass
should be treated with care.
2 Clean only with a damp cloth and wipe in
the direction in which the filaments run. Avoid
scratching with rings on the fingers, or by
allowing luggage to rub on the glass. Never
stick adhesive labels over the heater element.
3 Should one of the heater filaments be
broken it can be repaired using one of the
special silver paints available, but follow the
manufacturer’s instructions carefully.
30 Radio/cassette - fitting
2
1 In-car entertainment equipment is not
provided as standard on the models covered
by this Manual.
2 However, the centre console is designed to
receive a radio set after removing the blanking
plate behind which a power lead is already
provided.
3 The ignition system and other electrical
components
are
suppressed
during
production of the car and further suppression
should not be required other than earthing the
wiper motor.
Receiver
4 Fit the radio/cassette using the installation
kit supplied with the equipment.
5 On Comfort models, fit an in-line fuse in the
power feed. On Super models the radio
supply is protected by fuse number 12.
6 Make sure that the radio is well earthed to a
metal body component.
Aerial
Fig. 9.8 Radio housing and power lead (A)
(Sec 30)
7 The recommended locations for the aerial
are towards the rear of the right-hand front
wing or on the windscreen pillar.
8 Fitting instructions for Fiat aerials are
supplied with them, but the following general
advice will help if using non-Fiat equipment.
9 Motorised automatic aerials rise when the
equipment is switched on and retract at
switch-off. They require more fitting space
and supply leads, and can be a source of
trouble.
10 There is no merit in choosing a very long
aerial as, for example, the type about three
metres in length which hooks or clips on to
the rear of the car, since part of this aerial will
inevitably be located in an interference field.
For VHF/FM radios the best length of aerial is
about one metre. Active aerials have a
transistor amplifier mounted at the base and
this serves to boost the received signal. The
aerial rod is sometimes rather shorter than
normal passive types.
11 A large loss of signal can occur in the
aerial feeder cable, especially over the Very
High Frequency (VHF) bands. The design of
feeder cable is invariably in the co-axial form,
ie a centre conductor surrounded by a flexible
copper braid forming the outer (earth)
conductor. Between the inner and outer
conductors is an insulator material which can
be in solid or stranded form. Apart from
insulation, its purpose is to maintain the
correct spacing and concentricity. Loss of
signal occurs in this insulator, the loss usually
being greater in a poor quality cable. The
quality of cable used is reflected in the price
of the aerial with the attached feeder cable.
12 The capacitance of the feeder should be
within the range 65 to 75 picofarads (pF)
approximately (95 to 100 pF for Japanese and
American
equipment),
otherwise
the
adjustment of the car radio aerial trimmer may
not be possible. An extension cable is
necessary for a long run between aerial and
receiver. If this adds capacitance in excess of
the above limits, a connector containing a
series capacitor will be required, or an
extension
which
is
labelled
as
“capacity-compensated”.
13 Fitting the aerial will normally involve
making a 7/8 in (22 mm) diameter hole in the
bodywork, but read the instructions that come
with the aerial kit. Once the hole position has
been selected, use a centre punch to guide
the drill. Use sticky masking tape around the
area for this helps with marking out and drill
location, and gives protection to the
Electrical system 9•11
Fig. 9.9 Door speaker mounting (Sec 30)
paintwork should the drill slip. Three methods
of making the hole are in use:
a) Use a hole saw in the electric drill. This is,
in effect, a circular hacksaw blade
wrapped round a former with a centre
pilot drill.
b) Use a tank cutter which also has cutting
teeth, but is made to shear the metal by
tightening with an Allen key.
c) The hard way of drilling out the circle is
using a small drill, say 1/8 in (3 mm), so
that the holes overlap. The centre metal
drops out and the hole is finished with
round and half-round files.
14 Whichever method is used, the burr is
removed from the body metal and paint
removed from the underside. The aerial is fitted
tightly ensuring that the earth fixing, usually a
serrated washer, ring or clamp, is making a
solid connection. This earth connection is
important in reducing interference. Cover any
bare metal with primer paint and topcoat, and
follow by underseal if desired.
15 Aerial feeder cable routing should avoid
the engine compartment and areas where
stress might occur, eg under the carpet where
feet will be located.
Fig. 9.10 Rear speaker mounting (Sec 30)
Loudspeakers
16 A mono speaker may be located under
the facia panel beneath the glovebox.
17 Provision is made for twin speakers within
the door tidy bins or under the rear shelf
mountings.
18 Speakers should be matched to the
output stage of the equipment, particularly as
regards the recommended impedance. Power
transistors used for driving speakers are
sensitive to the loading placed on them.
31 Electrically-operated front
door windows
3
1 The electrically-operated front door
windows are controlled by switches on the
centre console or in the door armrest
(depending on model). The regulator motor
and cable are located within the door cavity.
2 To gain access to the assembly, remove
the door trim panel as described in Chapter 12.
3 Disconnect the wiring plug (1) (Fig. 9.11).
4 Release the bolts which connect the power
lift to the glass mounting.
5 Remove the bolts which hold the lift
assembly to the door.
6 The motor and glass mounting may be
disconnected from the cable guide and sleeve
and any faulty components renewed.
7 When refitting the assembly to the door,
make sure that the window glass slides
smoothly before fully tightening the cable
guide bolts. Refer to Section 10 for details of
system fuses and relays.
32 Central door locking system
1
1 The doors are locked simultaneously from
the outside by turning the key in either
direction.
2 The doors can be locked from inside the car
in the following ways:
All doors locked or unlocked - depress or lift
a front door lock plunger knob.
One rear door locked or unlocked - depress
or lift a rear door lock plunger knob.
9
Fig. 9.11 Power-operated window motor
(Sec 31)
1 Connector plug
Fig. 9.12 Power operated window
components (Sec 31)
1 Electric motor
4 Cable
2 Glass mounting
5 Cable sleeve
3 Cable guide
Fig. 9.13 Central door locking system
components (Sec 32)
1 Solenoid
4 Exterior handle
2 Lock relay lever
lever
3 Link rod
9•12 Electrical system
3 The centralised door locking system can
operate independently of the key.
4 To gain access to the lock solenoid and
linkage, remove the front door trim panel as
described in Chapter 12.
5 Disconnect the battery negative lead.
6 Disconnect the electrical wiring plugs from
the solenoid within the door cavity.
7 Disconnect the solenoid from the lock lever
by removing the clip.
8 Unscrew the two bolts which secure the
solenoid to the door and remove it.
9 Renew the solenoid or switch as necessary.
10 Refitting is a reversal of removal.
11 Refer to Section 10 for details of system
fuses and relays.
33 Economy gauge
(Econometer)
2
1 This device is fitted to ES (energy saving)
models and indicates to the driver the fuel
consumption (in litres per 100 km) coupled
with a needle which moves over coloured
sections of a dial to make the driver aware
that his method of driving is either conducive
to high or low fuel consumption. Refer to
Chapter 3, Section 16.
2 The device is essentially a vacuum gauge
which also incorporates a warning lamp to
indicate to the driver when a change of gear is
required.
3 A fuel cut-out valve (see Chapter 3, Section 11) is used in conjunction with the
economy gauge so that when the accelerator
pedal is released during a pre-determined
engine speed range, fuel supply to the engine
is stopped, but resumes when the engine
speed falls below the specified range.
LED (light emitter diode)
4 The gearchange indicator will only light up
at engine speeds in excess of 2000 rev/min
for vacuum pressures up to 600 mm Hg in 1st,
2nd and 3rd speed gears and for vacuum
pressures up to 676 mm Hg in 4th speed
gear. The light will not come on if 5th speed
gear is engaged or if the coolant temperature
is below 55ºC.
5 There is a two second delay in the light
coming on to prevent it operating during rapid
acceleration in a low gear.
6 If the LED light comes on during
deceleration it should be ignored.
34 Check control (warning
module) system
Fault finding
7 A faulty economy gauge should be checked
in the following way.
8 Refer to Section 21 and remove the
instrument panel.
9 Disconnect the economy gauge L
connector and then connect a test lamp
between the BN cable contact and earth. If
the lamp comes on then the gauge supply
circuit is not open. If the lamp does not come
on, check all connections in the supply cable
which comes from the interconnecting unit of
the electrical system, also Fuse No 12.
10 Now connect a voltmeter between the
white cable and earth. Check the voltage with
the engine not running, but the ignition
switched on. It should be between 0.7 and
0.9 volt. If the reading varies considerably
from that specified, check the connections
between the economy gauge and the fuel
cut-out device control unit. If the fault cannot
be rectified, renew the ignition control unit
(Digiplex system, see Chapter 4).
11 Now check the closed throttle valve plate
switch by connecting a voltmeter between the
brown and BN cables of the L connector. With
the valve plate open, there should be no
reading, but with it open, voltage should be
indicated.
12 Failure to conform as described will be
due to a faulty earth in the switch or a faulty
fuel cut-out device control unit.
13 A further test of the throttle valve plate
switch may be carried out by disconnecting
the multi-plug from the fuel cut-out device
control unit.
14 Connect a test lamp to contact 4 (positive
battery terminal). The lamp should come on,
when the engine is idling or the accelerator
released. If it does not, renew the throttle
valve plate switch.
A Parking lamps
B Coolant level
2
1 This is fitted into the instrument panel of
certain models to provide a means of
checking the operation of many electrical
circuits and other systems in the interest of
safety. Sensors are used where appropriate.
2 The following components are not
monitored by the system, but have separate
warning lamps:
Handbrake “on”
Choke in use
Low engine oil pressure
Battery charge indicator
3 The multi-functional electronic device
automatically checks the following functions
whether the engine is running or not:
Coolant level
Disc pad wear
Door closure
Engine oil level
Front parking lamps
Rear foglamps
Stop lamps
4 The check information is stored by the
system monitor until the engine is started
when the display panel then indicates the
situation by means of the LEDs (light emitter
diodes) and the general lamp.
5 If all functions are in order, the green panel
lamp will come on when the ignition key is
turned and will go out after two to three
seconds.
6 If some functions are not in order, then the
red panel lamp will come on also the
appropriate LED.
Sensors - checking
7 If a fault signal occurs which is
subsequently found to be incorrect, first
check the wiring connections between the
Fig. 9.15 Check system control panel (Sec 34)
Fig. 9.14 Location of control units (Sec 33)
A Digiplex ignition system control unit
B Fuel cut-out valve control unit
15 Connect a tachometer to the brown/white
cable contact in the L connector and record
the engine speed with the engine running. If
no reading is obtained, renew the Digiplex
ignition control unit which must be faulty.
C Engine oil level
D Door closure
E Brake fluid level
F Disc pad wear
Electrical system 9•13
Fig. 9.16 Digital clock controls (Sec 35)
A Control button - hour setting
B Control button - display (ignition off)
C Control button - minute setting
D Map reading lamp switch
sensors, lamp circuits and the control unit.
Corrosion at the terminals may also be a
contributory cause.
8 Never short circuit a sensor supply wire or
the electronic module will be damaged.
the red and green general warning lamps.
Unscrew the two monitor fixing bolts.
36 Cigar lighter
35 Clocks - setting
Check control unit and monitor removal and refitting
9 Remove the instrument panel as described
in Section 21.
10 Unbolt the control unit housing from the
instrument panel.
11 Access to the monitor can only be
obtained after removing the tachometer and
display minutes and seconds and again to
display hours and minutes.
3 To correct the hour setting, press button C
then button A and release it at the correct
time. Depress button C three times to display
hours and minutes.
4 To correct the minute setting, depress
button C twice. Depress button A and release
it when the correct time is shown. Depress
button C twice to display hours and minutes.
5 To correct the second setting, depress
button C three times. Depress button A and
hold it depressed to zero the seconds then
release the button. Depress button C to
display the hours and minutes.
6 Switch D, Fig. 9.16 operates the map
reading lamp fitted to SX models in
conjunction with the digital clock.
1
Quartz type
1 To set the hands, depress the knob and
turn it.
Digital type
2 To set the clock, depress button A to
1
1 This device can be operated without
switching on the ignition.
2 Push in the knob and when it springs out it
is ready for use.
3 The cigar lighter socket may be used as a
power source provided the rating of the
accessory does not exceed 100 watts.
Fault finding overleaf
9
9•14 Electrical system
Fault finding - electrical system
No voltage at starter motor
Horn fails to operate
m
m
m
m
m
m Blown fuse
m Cable or cable connection loose, broken or disconnected
m Horn has an internal fault
Battery discharged
Battery defective internally
Battery terminals loose or earth lead not securely attached to body
Loose or broken connections in starter motor circuit
Starter motor switch or solenoid faulty
Voltage at starter motor - faulty motor
m
m
m
m
Starter brushes badly worn, sticking, or brush wires loose
Commutator dirty, worn or burnt
Starter motor armature faulty
Field coils earthed
Starter motor noisy or rough in engagement
m Pinion or flywheel gear teeth broken or worn
m Starter drive main spring broken
m Starter motor retaining bolts loose
Horn emits intermittent or unsatisfactory noise
m Cable connections loose
m Horn incorrectly adjusted
Lights do not come on
m
m
m
m
If engine not running, battery discharged
Light bulb filament burnt out or bulbs broken
Wire connections loose, disconnected or broken
Light switch shorting or otherwise faulty
Lights come on but fade out
m If engine not running, battery discharged
Alternator not charging*
Lights give very poor illumination
m Drivebelt loose and slipping, or broken
m Brushes worn, sticking, broken or dirty
m Brush springs weak or broken
* If all appears to be well but the alternator is still not charging, take the
car to an automobile electrician for checking of the alternator
m
m
m
m
m
m
Ignition light fails to go out, battery runs flat in a
few days
m Drivebelt loose and slipping, or broken
m Alternator faulty
Battery will not hold charge for more than a few
days
m
m
m
m
m
m
m
m
Battery defective internally
Electrolyte level too low or electrolyte too weak due to leakage
Plate separators no longer fully effective
Battery plates severely sulphated
Drivebelt slipping
Battery terminal connections loose or corroded
Alternator not charging properly
Short in lighting circuit causing continual battery drain
Fuel gauge gives no reading
m
m
m
m
m
Fuel tank empty!
Electric cable between tank sender unit and gauge earthed or loose
Fuel gauge case not earthed
Fuel gauge supply cable interrupted
Fuel gauge unit broken
Lamp glasses dirty
Reflector tarnished or dirty
Lamps badly out of adjustment
Incorrect bulb with too low wattage fitted
Existing bulbs old and badly discoloured
Electrical wiring too thin not allowing full current to pass
Lights work erratically, flashing on and off,
especially over bumps
m Battery terminals or earth connections loose
m Lights not earthing properly
m Contacts in light switch faulty
Wiper motor fails to work
m
m
m
m
m
Blown fuse
Wire connections loose, disconnected or broken
Brushes badly worn
Armature worn or faulty
Field coils faulty
Wiper motor works very slowly and takes
excessive current
m
m
m
m
Commutator dirty, greasy or burnt
Drive spindle binding or damaged
Armature bearings dry or unaligned
Armature badly worn or faulty
Wiper motor works slowly and takes little current
m Electric cable between tank unit and gauge broken or disconnected
m Brushes badly worn
m Commutator dirty, greasy or burnt
m Armature badly worn or faulty
Horn operates all the time
Wiper motor works but wiper blade remains static
m Horn push either earthed or stuck down
m Horn cable to horn push earthed
m Drive spindle damaged or worn
m Wiper motor gearbox parts badly worn
Fuel gauge registers full all the time
10•1
Chapter 10 Steering
Contents
Description and maintenance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
Fault finding - steering . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . See end of Chapter
Steering angles and front wheel alignment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
Steering column - removal, overhaul and refitting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
Steering column lock - removal and refitting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
Steering gear - overhaul . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Steering rack - removal and refitting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Steering rack gaiter - renewal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Steering wheel - removal and refitting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Tie-rod end balljoint - renewal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7
6
3
4
2
Degrees of difficulty
Easy, suitable for
novice with little
experience
1
Fairly easy, suitable
for beginner with
some experience
2
Fairly difficult,
suitable for competent
DIY mechanic
3
Difficult, suitable for
experienced DIY
mechanic
4
Very difficult,
suitable for expert DIY
or professional
5
Specifications
Type
...................................................
Steering wheel diameter
..............................
Number of turns, lock-to-lock
Turning circle
........................
.........................................
Rack and pinion with safety column
381.0 mm (15.0 in)
4
9.4 m (3084 ft)
Steering angles of roadwheels
Inner wheel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Outer wheel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
32º 58’
39º 8’
Front suspension steering angles
Camber . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Castor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Toe-in . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
0º 5’ negative to 0º 55’ positive
1º 40’ to 2º 20’ positive
0 to 2.0 mm (0 to 0 08 in)
Rear suspension
Camber . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
0º (non-adjustable)
Rack lubricant
Type . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Capacity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Lithium based molybdenum disulphide grease
140 cc
Torque wrench settings
Nm
50
27
24
35
35
5
Steering wheel nut . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Steering shaft coupling pinch-bolt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Steering gear mounting bolts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Tie rod balljoint locknut . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Tie-rod balljoint taper pin nut . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Steering column upper mounting bolts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1 Description and
maintenance
1
1 The steering gear is of rack and pinion type
with a universally-jointed column which
incorporates a steering lock and ignition
switch.
2 The steering wheel is of two spoke type on
all models except the SX which has four
spokes.
3 The system is maintenance-free except to
check occasionally the pinch-bolts.
4 At the intervals specified in “Routine
Maintenance” carefully inspect the rack gaiters
for splits, particularly at the bottom of the
vees, as a split here can often go unnoticed.
5 Check the tie-rod balljoints for wear. To do
lbf ft
37
20
18
26
26
3
this, have an assistant turn the steering wheel
repeatedly in both directions through an arc of
about 10 or 15 degrees. Observe the balljoints
for lost motion or slackness. If evident, renew
the balljoint as described in Section 2
Fig. 10.1 Sectional view of steering gear (Sec 1)
10
10•2 Steering
section of the rack will take the grease into the
housing as it returns.
9 Reconnect the tie-rod end to the tie-rod
and the eye of the steering arm. Provided the
locknut is tightened by only rotating it through
the same distance by which it was loosened,
the front wheel alignment (tracking) should not
have been unduly disturbed. Even so, check
the alignment as described in Section 8.
4 Steering wheel removal and refitting
2.2 Disconnecting a tie-rod end balljoint
2 Tie-rod end balljoint renewal
4
1 Jack up the front of the car and remove the
roadwheel from the side on which the balljoint
is to be renewed.
2 Unscrew the tie-rod balljoint taper pin nut
and, using a suitable extractor, separate the
tie-rod balljoint from the eye of the steering
arm (photo).
3 Release the locknut on the tie-rod,
unscrewing it only just enough to be able to
unscrew the tie-rod end from the tie-rod.
4 With the tie-rod end removed, wire brush
the threads on the tie-rod without disturbing
the position of the locknut; apply grease to
the threads and screw on the new tie-rod end
until the locknut can be tightened by turning it
through the same amount of rotation it was
given when unscrewed.
5 Reconnect the balljoint taper pin to the eye
of the steering arm and tighten the retaining nut
to the specified torque. Never grease the taper
pin or eye; the pin will otherwise turn when the
nut is tightened. If a taper pin is inclined to
rotate when a nut is being tightened, apply
pressure to the socket of the joint to force the
taper pin into closer contact with the tapered
hole in the eye. If a taper pin is pointing
downward, a strong lever can be used to apply
the extra pressure. Where the taper pin of a
balljoint points upward, a jack placed under the
joint socket will produce the desired result.
6 Although the careful fitting of the new
tie-rod end will have approximately
1
4.2 Removing steering wheel hub plate
maintained the original front wheel alignment
of the car, manufacturing differences alone of
the new component make it essential to
check the setting, as described in Section 8
and to adjust if necessary.
3 Steering rack gaiter renewal
4
1 If lubricant is found to be leaking from the
gaiters (at the ends of the housing), first check
that the gaiter clips are secure.
2 If the lubricant is leaking from the gaiter
through a split, the gaiter can be removed in
the following way, without the necessity of
withdrawing the gear from the car.
3 Remove the tie-rod end from the side
concerned, as described in the preceding
Section.
4 Release the gaiter clips; draw the gaiter
from the rack housing and off the tie-rod.
5 If the gaiter has only just split, road dirt is
unlikely to have entered and lubricant can be
wiped away. If it is severely grit contaminated,
the steering gear should be completely
removed, the original lubricant flushed out
and new lubricant pumped in.
6 If the gear does not have to be removed
from the car, slide the new gaiter into position
and secure it with the inboard clip.
7 The rack lubricant is molybdenum
disulphide type grease.
8 When recharging the gaiter with this type of
lubricant, give full steering lock to the side
being replenished so that the extended
1 Disconnect the battery negative lead.
2 Set the steering wheel and the front
roadwheels in the straight-ahead attitude.
Prise out the hub plate (photo).
3 Unscrew and remove the steering wheel
securing nut, then pull the wheel from the
column shaft. If it is tight on its splines, tap it
upward at the wheel rim, using the palms of
the hands.
4 Refitting is a reversal of the removal
process; make sure that the spokes of the
wheel are in the lower part of the wheel.
5 Tighten the securing nut to the specified
torque.
5 Steering column - removal,
overhaul and refitting
3
1 Remove the steering wheel as previously
described.
2 Extract the screws from the underside of
the steering column upper shroud and then lift
off the upper and lower shroud sections
(photo). Where applicable, detach and remove
the trim panel from the underside of the facia
on the driver’s side.
3 Disconnect the battery negative lead.
4 Disconnect the wiring plug for the steering
column combination switch.
5 Unscrew the clamp nuts and pull the
combination switch off the end of the steering
shaft.
6 Unscrew the column upper mounting
bracket bolts and lower the shaft/column tube
to rest on the seat (photo).
7 Remove the pinch-bolt from the lower
universal joint coupling and remove the
shaft/column tube from the car.
Overhaul
5.2 Removing steering column shrouds
5.6 Steering column upper mounting
8 Remove the pinch-bolt from the upper
universal joint and disconnect the lower shaft.
9 Grip the tube mounting flange in the jaws of
a vice and relieve the staking at the base of
the tube.
10 Using a plastic or copper-faced hammer,
tap the shaft down out of the tube.
11 The lower bush will be ejected while the
upper one should be prised out of the tube.
12 Reassemble the upper shaft into the tube
by tapping new bushes into position.
Steering 10•3
Fig. 10.2 Removing steering column
shroud screws (Sec 5)
Fig. 10.3 Unscrewing combination switch
clamp nuts (Sec 5)
Fig. 10.4 Renewing steering shaft bushes
(Sec 5)
13 Stake the lower end of the tube to retain
the bush.
14 Reassembly is a reversal of removal,
noting that the universal joint coupling
pinch-bolts should pass smoothly through the
grooves in the steering shaft.
15 Fit the steering wheel when the
roadwheels are in the straight-ahead position.
16 Tighten all nuts and bolts to the specified
torque. Reconnect the battery.
steering shaft lower coupling by unscrewing
and removing the pinch-bolt (photo).
3 Disconnect the tie-rod end balljoints from
the steering arms as described earlier in this
Chapter.
4 Unscrew and remove the rack clamp
mounting bolts and withdraw the steering
gear from the car crossmember (photo).
5 Refitting is a reversal of removal, but on
completion check the front wheel alignment
as described in Section 8.
induced through the steering will give a feeling
of play, and sometimes faint clonking can be
heard. In extreme cases, free play in the
steering may be felt, though this is rare. If the
steering is compared with that of a new rack
on another car, the lack of friction damping is
quite apparent in the ease of movement of the
steering wheel of the worn one.
6 Centralise the steering rack. Do this by
counting the number of turns lock-to-lock and
then turning the steering wheel from one lock
through half the number of turns counted.
7 Take the cover plate off the damping
slipper, remove the spring and shims, and refit
the cover plate.
8 Screw in the cover plate bolts just enough
to hold the slipper against the rack.
9 Measure the gap between the cover plate
and the rack housing using feeler blades.
10 Select shims from the thicknesses
available (0.10, 0.125 and 0.30 mm) to provide
a shim pack thicker than the gap by between
0.05 and 0.13 mm.
11 Remove the cover plate, fit the spring and
bolt on the cover plate with the selected shims.
6 Steering rack removal and refitting
4
1 Set the steering in the straight-ahead
mode.
2 Working inside the car, disconnect the
7 Steering gear - overhaul
4
1 A worn steering gear should not be
overhauled, but a new or factory
reconditioned unit fitted.
2 After a high mileage, the following
adjustment may be needed however.
Rack damper - adjustment
6.2 Steering shaft coupling
6.4 Steering rack housing at pinion end
3 The slipper in the rack housing presses the
rack into mesh with the pinion. This cuts out
any backlash between the gears. Also, due to
its pressure, it introduces some stiffness into
the rack, which cuts out excessive reaction
from the road to the steering wheel.
4 In due course, wear reduces the pressures
exerted by the slipper. The pressure is
controlled by the cover plate and a spring.
5 The need for resetting of the slipper is not
easy to detect. On bumpy roads, the shock
Fig. 10.5 Sectional view of rack damper
(Sec 7)
8 Steering angles and front
wheel alignment
4
1 Accurate front wheel alignment is essential
to provide good steering and roadholding characteristics and to ensure slow and even tyre
Fig. 10.6 Camber angle (Sec 8)
A Vertical line
B Camber angle (positive)
10
10•4 Steering
Fig. 10.8 Front wheel alignment diagram
(Sec 8)
Fig. 10.7 Castor angle (Sec 8)
A Vertical line
B Castor angle (positive)
wear. Before considering the steering angles,
check that the tyres are correctly inflated, that
the front wheels are not buckled, the hub
bearings are not worn or incorrectly adjusted
and that the steering linkage is in good order,
without slackness or wear at the joints.
2 Wheel alignment consists of four factors:
Camber, is the angle at which the road
wheels are set from the vertical when viewed
from the front or rear of the vehicle. Positive
camber is the angle (in degrees) that the wheels
are tilted outwards at the top from the vertical.
Castor, is the angle between the steering
axis and a vertical line when viewed from each
side of the vehicle. Positive castor is indicated
when the steering axis is inclined towards the
rear of the vehicle at its upper end.
Steering axis inclination, is the angle when
viewed from the front or rear of the vehicle
between vertical and an imaginary line drawn
between the upper and lower suspension
strut mountings.
Toe, is the amount by which the distance
between the front inside edges of the
roadwheel rims differs from that between the
rear inside edges.
3 If the distance between the front edges is
less than that at the rear, the wheels are said
to toe-in. If the distance between the front
inside edges is greater than that at the rear,
the wheels toe-out.
4 Camber and castor are set during
production of the car and are not adjustable.
Any deviation from specification will be due to
X Front dimension
Y Rear dimension
Y - X = Toe-in
collision damage or to gross wear in the
components concerned.
5 To check the front wheel alignment, first
make sure that the lengths of both tie-rods are
equal when the steering is in the straight-ahead
position. Measure between the locknut at the
balljoint and the ball cup at the end of the rack
housing by passing a thin rod under the rack of
the gaiter. If adjustment is required, release the
locknut and turn the tie-rod.
6 Obtain a tracking gauge. These are
available in various forms from accessory
stores or one can be fabricated from a length
of steel tubing suitably cranked to clear the
sump and bellhousing and having a setscrew
and locknut at one end.
7 With the gauge, measure the distance
between the two wheel inner rims (at hub
height) at the rear of the wheel. Push the
vehicle forward to rotate the wheel through
180º (half a turn) and measure the distance
between the wheel inner rims, again at hub
height, at the front of the wheel. This last
measurement should differ from (be less than)
the first by the appropriate toe-in according to
the Specification (see Specifications Section).
8 Where the toe-in is found to be incorrect,
release the tie-rod balljoint locknuts and turn
the tie-rods equally. Only turn them a quarter
of a turn at a time before re-checking the
alignment. Viewed from the centre line of the
car, turning the tie-rod clockwise will
decrease the toe-in.
9 Make sure that the gaiter outboard clip is
Fig. 10.9 Steering column lock shear bolts
(arrowed) (Sec 9)
released otherwise the gaiter will twist as the
tie-rod is rotated.
10 Always turn both rods in the same
direction when viewed from the centre line of
the vehicle otherwise the rods will become
unequal in length. This would cause the
steering wheel spoke position to alter and
cause problems on turns with tyre scrubbing.
11 On completion, tighten the tie-rod balljoint
locknuts without altering their setting. Check
that the balljoint is at the centre of its arc of
travel and then retighten the gaiter clip.
9 Steering column lock removal and refitting
1
1 Remove the steering wheel and column
shrouds as described in Section 5, also the
steering column combination switch.
2 Unscrew and remove the steering column
mounting bolts and lower the column to
expose the lock shear bolts.
3 Drill out the bolts or extract them using an
extractor.
4 Refer to Chapter 4 for details of separation
of the ignition switch from the lock section.
5 When fitting the new lock, tighten the shear
bolts until their heads break off.
6 Bolt up the column, fit the combination
switch, shrouds and steering wheel and
tighten all nuts and bolts to the specified
torque.
Fault finding - steering
Note: Before diagnosing steering faults, be
sure that trouble is not due to incorrect or
uneven tyre pressures, inappropriate tyre
combinations, or braking system or
suspension defects.
Car pulls to one side
m Incorrect steering geometry
m Collision damage
Vibration at steering wheel
m Roadwheels out of balance or loose
m Tyre damage
m Loose driveshaft-to-hub nuts
Car wanders
Rattles from steering
m Play in steering gear
m Wear in steering balljoints
Play at steering wheel
m Steering damper defective or in need of
adjustment
m Loose steering column mounting bolts
m Loose steering column/shaft coupling
pinch-bolts
m Loose steering rack housing mounting bolts
m Worn steering shaft bushes
m Wear in steering rack or balljoints
m Loose steering shaft coupling pinch-bolt or
worn splines
m Worn steering column/shaft universal joints
m Incorrect steering geometry
m Worn steering components
m Collision damage
Heavy or stiff steering
m Lack of lubricant in steering gear or balljoints
m Incorrect steering geometry
m Collision damage
Excessive or uneven tyre wear
11•1
Chapter 11 Suspension
For modifications, and information applicable to later models, see Supplement at end of manual
Contents
Fault finding - suspension . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . See end of Chapter
Front coil spring - removal and refitting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
Front crossmember - removal and refitting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
Front hub carrier - removal and refitting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
Front suspension strut - removal and refitting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
General description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
Maintenance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Rear coil spring - removal and refitting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Rear shock absorber - removal and refitting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Rear suspension - removal and refitting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Track control arm - removal and refitting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Trailing arm rubber bush - renewal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2
9
8
11
6
10
Degrees of difficulty
Easy, suitable for
novice with little
experience
1
Fairly easy, suitable
for beginner with
some experience
2
Fairly difficult,
suitable for competent
DIY mechanic
3
Difficult, suitable for
experienced DIY
mechanic
4
Very difficult,
suitable for expert DIY
or professional
5
Specifications
Front suspension
Type . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Independent with MacPherson struts and coil springs
Coil springs
Free height:
903 cc models . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1116 and 1301 cc models . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Number of coils . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
334 mm (13.16 in)
342 mm (13.5 in)
4.25
Rear suspension
Type . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Beam axle, trailing arms, coil springs and double-acting gas-filled
shock absorbers
Coil springs
Free height . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Number of coils . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
246.5 mm (9.7 in)
2.75
Torque wrench settings
Nm
lbf ft
Front suspension
Driveshaft/hub nut . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Strut upper mounting nuts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Strut spindle nut . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Strut base clamp bolts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Track control arm balljoint nuts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Track control arm inboard mounting bolts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Roadwheel bolts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Crossmember bolts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
272
24
60
49
49
90
86
60
200
18
44
36
36
66
63
44
Rear suspension
Trailing arm bracket to body bolts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Trailing arm pivot bolt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Shock absorber lower mounting bolt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Shock absorber upper mounting nuts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Shock absorber spindle nut . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Roadwheel bolts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
20
70
30
12
30
86
15
52
22
9
22
63
11
11•2 Suspension
Fig. 11.1 Front suspension arrangement (Sec 1)
1 General description
The front suspension is of independent
MacPherson strut type.
The rear suspension consists of a beam
axle with trailing arms, coil springs and double
acting gas-filled telescopic shock absorbers.
Operations covering the hubs, roadwheels
and tyres are described in Chapter 7.
2 Maintenance
4
1 Periodically check the tightness of all
suspension nuts and bolts using a torque
wrench.
2 At the intervals specified in “Routine
Maintenance” inspect all suspension rubber
bushes for deterioration or wear. Renew
where necessary.
3 Check for wear in the track control arm to
hub carrier balljoint. Do this by raising the
roadwheel and prising the control arm down.
If the hub carrier is pulled outwards, any up
and down movement or slackness will
necessitate renewal of the track control arm,
although it may be possible to obtain a
balljoint repair kit from a motor factor.
4 A defective strut or shock absorber can
usually be detected by the tendency of the car
to pitch badly when braking or cornering.
However the component can be tested more
thoroughly in the following way.
5 Remove the strut and take off the coil
spring or withdraw the rear shock absorber as
described later in this Chapter.
6 Grip the strut or shock absorber lower
mounting in the jaws of a vice and then fully
extend and contract the unit five or six times,
with the unit held in a vertical attitude. If there is
any lack of resistance, jerkiness or seizure, then
the unit will have to be renewed, no repair being
possible. It is recommended that struts or
Fig. 11.2 Rear suspension arrangement (Sec 1)
shock absorbers are renewed in pairs as axle
sets, in order to maintain similar suspension
characteristics on both sides of the car.
7 Check for signs of hydraulic fluid leakage
from around the front strut spindle gland and
also the condition of the dust excluding boot.
Oil leakage will mean a new unit, a split boot
can be renewed after having withdrawn the
coil spring.
1 Raise the front of the car, support it
securely and remove the roadwheel.
2 Release the brake hydraulic hose
from the strut by unscrewing the retaining clip
bolt.
3 Unscrew and remove the two bolts from the
clamp at the bottom of the strut, push the hub
carrier down out of the clamp (photo).
4 Open the bonnet. Unscrew and remove the
domed reinforcement cover. Then remove the
strut top mounting nuts from the turret. Do not
attempt to unscrew the centre spindle nut
(photos).
5 Withdraw the strut downwards and out
from under the wing (photo).
6 Coil spring clamps must now be fitted.
These are available from most motor stores or
can be hired (photo).
7 Once the spring has been compressed to
3.3 Strut clamp bolt
3.4A Strut reinforcement plate
3.4B Strut upper mounting nuts
3.5 Withdrawing a front strut
3 Front suspension strut removal and refitting
4
Suspension 11•3
release its top coil from the strut upper
mounting, hold the flats on the strut spindle
and unscrew the spindle nut.
8 Take off the upper mounting components
and the clamped coil spring. The clamps need
not be removed if the spring is to be fitted to a
new strut.
9 Commence reassembly by fitting the coil
spring onto the strut. Make sure that the
smaller coil is at the top and the lower coil is
up against its end stop in the spring seat.
10 Check that the strut boot is in position.
11 Fit the upper mounting components and
screw on the spindle nut.
12 Gently release the spring clamps and
remove them.
13 Refit the strut to the car by reversing the
removal operations.
Note: On cars built before 1985, when
assembling the strut top mounting, apply a
bead of sealant as shown in Figs. 11.4 and
11.5 to prevent the entry of water into the strut
bearing. Later models are fitted with a rubber
seal.
4
4 Front coil spring removal and refitting
1 The operations
preceding Section.
are
covered
in
the
3.6 Spring clamps in position
2 The springs are colour coded according to
model and a replacement must be of identical
type to the original.
5 Front hub carrier removal and refitting
3
1 Disconnect the driveshaft from the hub
carrier as described in Chapter 7, Section 2,
paragraphs 1 to 8.
2 Unbolt the brake caliper and tie it up out of
the way.
3 Unscrew the nut from the track control arm
balljoint taper pin and then separate the
Fig. 11.3 Front strut components (Sec 3)
1 Top mounting
cover
2 Coil spring
3 Boot
4
5
6
7
Strut
Hub carrier
Track control arm
Crossmember
11
Fig. 11.4 Waterproof bead applied to strut with top cover
removed (Sec 3)
Fig. 11.5 Waterproof bead applied to strut with top cover in
position (Sec 3)
11•4 Suspension
and remove them. Leave the steering rack
hanging loose.
8 Remove the front crossmember mounting
bolts and manoeuvre it from the car.
9 Refitting is a reversal of removal. Tighten all
nuts and bolts to the specified torque wrench
settings and on completion, check the front
wheel alignment as described in Chapter 10.
8 Rear shock absorber removal and refitting
6.2 Separating track control arm balljoint
from hub carrier
6.3 Track control arm inboard fixing
balljoint from the hub carrier using a suitable
“splitter” tool. If such a tool is not available,
support the base of the brake disc and drive
the balljoint taper pin downwards, but screw
on the nut to protect the threads.
4 Remove the hub carrier.
5 Refitting is a reversal of removal, use a new
driveshaft nut and tighten all nuts and bolts to
the specified torque. Stake the driveshaft nut
after tightening.
may, however, be possible to obtain a
replacement balljoint through a motor factor.
5 Refitting is a reversal of removal. Tighten all
nuts and bolts to the specified torque. Use a
new driveshaft nut and stake it into the
driveshaft groove after tightening.
6 Track control arm removal and refitting
3
1 Raise the front of the car and support it
securely.
2 Unless a special tool is available to press
the track control arm balljoint from the hub
carrier, the driveshaft will have to be
disconnected as described in Chapter 7,
Section 2, paragraphs 1 to 8 to provide more
space to enable the balljoint taper pin to be
driven from the hub carrier. This should now
be done as described in the preceding
Section (photo).
3 Unbolt the inboard end of the track control
arm. This is retained by a pivot bolt and a
clamp (photo).
4 As previously explained, a worn balljoint or
flexible pivot bushes will necessitate renewal
of the track control arm complete. Note that it
Fig. 11.6 Steering rack mounting bolts
(Sec 7)
7 Front crossmember removal and refitting
3
1 Raise the front of the car, support securely
with axle stands placed under the
side-members or sill jacking points.
2 Remove the front roadwheels.
3 Unscrew the nuts from the tie-rod end
balljoint taper pins and then using a balljoint
“splitter” tool disconnect the balljoints from
the steering arms on the hub carrier.
4 Unscrew the bolts which hold the inboard
track control arms to the body members, and
also withdraw the pivot bolt from the body
bracket.
5 Support the weight of the engine/
transmission using a hoist or support bar
across the top of the engine compartment as
described in Chapter 6.
6 Disconnect the lower (central) engine/
transmission flexible mounting from the floor
pan.
7 Unscrew the steering rack mounting bolts
Fig. 11.7 Front crossmember bolts (Sec 7)
3
1 Open the tailgate and remove the cover
from the shock absorber top mounting which
is located within the luggage area (photo).
2 Hold the flats on the spindle with an
open-ended spanner and then unscrew the
self-locking nut.
3 Working under the car, disconnect the
shock absorber lower mounting.
4 Withdraw the unit from under the wing.
5 The shock absorber can be tested as
described in Section 2.
6 Refitting is a reversal of removal. Tighten
mounting nuts and bolts to the specified
torque.
9 Rear coil spring removal and refitting
3
1 Raise the rear of the car and support it
securely on axle stands placed under the
side-members or sill jacking points.
2 Remove the roadwheel.
3 Place a jack under the brake drum and
support the suspension trailing arm.
4 Disconnect the shock absorber lower
mounting and then lower the trailing arm jack
until the coil spring can be withdrawn.
5 Refitting is a reversal of removal. If the
spring is being changed, make sure that it is
of the same colour code as the original and
that its lower coil is correctly located up
against its stop in the spring pan.
6 Tighten the shock absorber lower mounting
bolt to the specified torque.
8.1 Rear shock absorber upper mounting
cover
Suspension 11•5
Fig. 11.9 Removing trailing arm pivot bolt
(Sec 10)
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
Trailing arm bracket
Axle beam
Buffer
Shock absorber top mounting
Coil spring
Shock absorber
Stub axle
Hub
Fig. 11.8 Rear suspension components (Sec 8)
10 Trailing arm rubber bush renewal
3
1 A worn trailing arm rubber bush may be
renewed in the following way.
2 Raise the rear of the car and support
securely on axle stands placed under the
body side-members or sill jacking points.
3 Remove the roadwheels.
4 Unscrew and remove both pivot bolts
which hold the forward ends of the trailing
arms to the body brackets.
Fig. 11.11 Handbrake cable and lever at
brake backplate (Sec 11)
5 Pull the trailing arms downward out of the
body brackets.
6 A two-legged puller may be used to press
the old bush out and to force the new one in.
Smear the bush with soapy water or brake
fluid to facilitate fitting.
7 Reconnect the trailing arms to the body
brackets. Use jacks if necessary to push the
arms upwards into the brackets.
8 Tighten the pivot bolts to the specified
torque, but only when the car has been
located with four occupants or the equivalent
plus 40 kg (88 lb) of luggage.
11.7 One side of the rear suspension
Fig. 11.10 Method of renewing trailing arm
bush (Sec 10)
11 Rear suspension removal and refitting
3
1 Raise the rear of the car, support it securely
and remove the rear road wheels.
2 Unhook the brake pressure regulating valve
arm tension spring from its bracket.
3 Disconnect the handbrake cables from the
brake backplate levers.
4 Disconnect the flexible brake hose at its
junction with the rigid pipeline adjacent to the
pressure regulating valve. Cap the open ends
of hose and pipe.
5 Support the trailing arms and then
disconnect the shock absorber upper
mountings.
6 Unbolt the trailing arm forward end support
brackets from the body, lower the complete
rear suspension and withdraw it from under
the car.
7 Refitting is a reversal of removal, but tighten
the trailing arm pivot bolts to the specified
torque only when the car is loaded with four
occupants and 40 kg (88 lb) of luggage
(photo).
8 Bleed the brakes as described in Chapter 8.
11
11•6 Suspension
Fault finding - suspension
Note: Before diagnosing suspension defects, be sure that trouble is not due to incorrect or uneven tyre pressures, in inappropriate combinations.
Car pulls to one side
Car wanders or skips on rough surfaces
m Worn or weak shock absorbers or struts on one side
m Defective shock absorbers or struts
Excessive roll on corners
Vibration and wheel wobble
m Weak shock absorbers or struts
m Coil spring weak or cracked
m Loose or defective shock absorbers or struts
Excessive or uneven tyre wear
m Worn suspension components
12•1
Chapter 12 Bodywork
For modifications, and information applicable to later models, see Supplement at end of manual
Contents
Bonnet - removal and refitting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Bonnet - lock and release . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Centre console - removal and refitting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Door - dismantling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Door - removal and refitting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Door trim panel - removal and refitting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Facia panel - removal and refitting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Fixed side window (five-door) - removal and refitting . . . . . . . . . . . .
Front bumpers - removal and refitting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Front seat - removal and refitting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Front wing - removal and refitting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
General description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Grab handles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Maintenance - bodywork and underframe . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7
8
21
12
13
11
22
17
9
19
10
1
25
2
Maintenance - upholstery and carpets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Major body damage - repair . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Minor body damage - repair . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Opening side window (three-door) - removal and refitting . . . . . . . .
Radiator grille - removal and refitting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Rear bumpers - removal and refitting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Rear seat - removal and refitting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Rear view mirrors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Roof rack . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Seat belts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Sunroof - operation and maintenance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Tailgate - removal and refitting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Tailgate glass - removal and refitting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Windscreen glass - removal and refitting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3
5
4
18
6
26
20
24
27
23
28
14
16
15
Degrees of difficulty
Easy, suitable for
novice with little
experience
1
Fairly easy, suitable
for beginner with
some experience
2
Fairly difficult,
suitable for competent
DIY mechanic
3
Difficult, suitable for
experienced DIY
mechanic
4
Very difficult,
suitable for expert DIY
or professional
5
Specifications
For dimensions, weights etc. refer to the Introductory Section of this Manual.
1 General description
The Uno is an all steel, welded Hatchback
of unitary construction available in three- or
five-door versions.
Various levels of trim and equipment are
available depending upon model.
Factory fitted options include a sunroof,
central door locking and electrically-operated
front windows.
2 Maintenance bodywork and underframe
1
The general condition of a vehicle’s
bodywork is the one thing that significantly
affects its value. Maintenance is easy, but
needs to be regular. Neglect, particularly after
minor damage, can lead quickly to further
deterioration and costly repair bills. It is
important also to keep watch on those parts
of the vehicle not immediately visible, for
instance the underside, inside all the wheel
arches, and the lower part of the engine
compartment.
The basic maintenance routine for the
bodywork is washing - preferably with a lot of
water, from a hose. This will remove all the
loose solids which may have stuck to the
vehicle. It is important to flush these off in
such a way as to prevent grit from scratching
the finish. The wheel arches and underframe
need washing in the same way, to remove any
accumulated mud, which will retain moisture
and tend to encourage rust. Paradoxically
enough, the best time to clean the underframe
and wheel arches is in wet weather, when the
mud is thoroughly wet and soft. In very wet
weather, the underframe is usually cleaned of
large accumulations automatically, and this is
a good time for inspection.
Periodically, except on vehicles with a waxbased underbody protective coating, it is a
good idea to have the whole of the
underframe of the vehicle steam-cleaned,
engine compartment included, so that a
thorough inspection can be carried out to see
what minor repairs and renovations are
necessary. Steam-cleaning is available at
many garages, and is necessary for the
removal of the accumulation of oily grime,
which sometimes is allowed to become thick
in certain areas. If steam-cleaning facilities are
not available, there are some excellent grease
solvents available which can be brush-
applied; the dirt can then be simply hosed off.
Note that these methods should not be used
on vehicles with wax-based underbody
protective coating, or the coating will be
removed. Such vehicles should be inspected
annually, preferably just prior to Winter, when
the underbody should be washed down, and
any damage to the wax coating repaired.
Ideally, a completely fresh coat should be
applied. It would also be worth considering
the use of such wax-based protection for
injection into door panels, sills, box sections,
etc, as an additional safeguard against rust
damage, where such protection is not
provided by the vehicle manufacturer.
After washing paintwork, wipe off with a
chamois leather to give an unspotted clear
finish. A coat of clear protective wax polish
will give added protection against chemical
pollutants in the air. If the paintwork sheen
has dulled or oxidised, use a cleaner/polisher
combination to restore the brilliance of the
shine. This requires a little effort, but such
dulling is usually caused because regular
washing has been neglected. Care needs to
be taken with metallic paintwork, as special
non-abrasive cleaner/polisher is required to
avoid damage to the finish. Always check that
the door and ventilator opening drain holes
and pipes are completely clear, so that water
12
12•2 Bodywork
2.4A Door drain hole
2.4B Sill drain with non-return valve
can be drained out (photos). Brightwork
should be treated in the same way as
paintwork. Windscreens and windows can be
kept clear of the smeary film which often
appears, by the use of proprietary glass
cleaner. Never use any form of wax or other
body or chromium polish on glass.
details on more ambitious repairs involving
welding and panel beating.
3 Maintenance upholstery and carpets
1
Mats and carpets should be brushed or
vacuum-cleaned regularly, to keep them free
of grit. If they are badly stained, remove them
from the vehicle for scrubbing or sponging,
and make quite sure they are dry before
refitting. Seats and interior trim panels can be
kept clean by wiping with a damp cloth. If they
do become stained (which can be more
apparent on light-coloured upholstery), use a
little liquid detergent and a soft nail brush to
scour the grime out of the grain of the
material. Do not forget to keep the headlining
clean in the same way as the upholstery.
When using liquid cleaners inside the vehicle,
do not over-wet the surfaces being cleaned.
Excessive damp could get into the seams and
padded interior, causing stains, offensive
odours or even rot.
If the inside of the vehicle
gets wet accidentally, it is
worthwhile taking some
trouble to dry it out properly,
particularly where carpets are involved.
Do not leave oil or electric heaters
inside the vehicle for this purpose.
4 Minor body damage repair
3
Note: For more detailed information about
bodywork repair, Haynes Publishing produce
a book by Lindsay Porter called “The Car
Bodywork Repair Manual”. This incorporates
information on such aspects as rust treatment,
painting and glass-fibre repairs, as well as
Repairs of minor scratches in
bodywork
If the scratch is very superficial, and does
not penetrate to the metal of the bodywork,
repair is very simple. Lightly rub the area of
the scratch with a paintwork renovator, or a
very fine cutting paste, to remove loose paint
from the scratch, and to clear the surrounding
bodywork of wax polish. Rinse the area with
clean water.
Apply touch-up paint to the scratch using a
fine paint brush; continue to apply fine layers
of paint until the surface of the paint in the
scratch is level with the surrounding
paintwork. Allow the new paint at least two
weeks to harden, then blend it into the
surrounding paintwork by rubbing the scratch
area with a paintwork renovator or a very fine
cutting paste. Finally, apply wax polish.
Where the scratch has penetrated right
through to the metal of the bodywork, causing
the metal to rust, a different repair technique
is required. Remove any loose rust from the
bottom of the scratch with a penknife, then
apply rust-inhibiting paint to prevent the
formation of rust in the future. Using a rubber
or nylon applicator, fill the scratch with
bodystopper paste. If required, this paste can
be mixed with cellulose thinners to provide a
very thin paste which is ideal for filling narrow
scratches. Before the stopper-paste in the
scratch hardens, wrap a piece of smooth
cotton rag around the top of a finger. Dip the
finger in cellulose thinners, and quickly sweep
it across the surface of the stopper-paste in
the scratch; this will ensure that the surface of
the stopper-paste is slightly hollowed. The
scratch can now be painted over as described
earlier in this Section.
Repairs of dents in bodywork
When deep denting of the vehicle’s
bodywork has taken place, the first task is to
pull the dent out, until the affected bodywork
almost attains its original shape. There is little
point in trying to restore the original shape
completely, as the metal in the damaged area
will have stretched on impact, and cannot be
reshaped fully to its original contour. It is
better to bring the level of the dent up to a
point which is about 3 mm below the level of
the surrounding bodywork. In cases where the
dent is very shallow anyway, it is not worth
trying to pull it out at all. If the underside of the
dent is accessible, it can be hammered out
gently from behind, using a mallet with a
wooden or plastic head. Whilst doing this,
hold a suitable block of wood firmly against
the outside of the panel, to absorb the impact
from the hammer blows and thus prevent a
large area of the bodywork from being
“belled-out”.
Should the dent be in a section of the
bodywork which has a double skin, or some
other factor making it inaccessible from
behind, a different technique is called for. Drill
several small holes through the metal inside
the area - particularly in the deeper section.
Then screw long self-tapping screws into the
holes, just sufficiently for them to gain a good
purchase in the metal. Now the dent can be
pulled out by pulling on the protruding heads
of the screws with a pair of pliers.
The next stage of the repair is the removal
of the paint from the damaged area, and from
an inch or so of the surrounding “sound”
bodywork. This is accomplished most easily
by using a wire brush or abrasive pad on a
power drill, although it can be done just as
effectively by hand, using sheets of abrasive
paper. To complete the preparation for filling,
score the surface of the bare metal with a
screwdriver or the tang of a file, or
alternatively, drill small holes in the affected
area. This will provide a really good “key” for
the filler paste.
To complete the repair, see the Section on
filling and respraying.
Repairs of rust holes or gashes
in bodywork
Remove all paint from the affected area,
and from an inch or so of the surrounding
“sound” bodywork, using an abrasive pad or a
wire brush on a power drill. If these are not
available, a few sheets of abrasive paper will
do the job most effectively. With the paint
removed, you will be able to judge the severity
of the corrosion, and therefore decide
whether to renew the whole panel (if this is
possible) or to repair the affected area. New
body panels are not as expensive as most
people think, and it is often quicker and more
satisfactory to fit a new panel than to attempt
to repair large areas of corrosion.
Remove all fittings from the affected area,
except those which will act as a guide to the
original shape of the damaged bodywork (eg
headlight shells etc). Then, using tin snips or a
hacksaw blade, remove all loose metal and
any other metal badly affected by corrosion.
Hammer the edges of the hole inwards, in
order to create a slight depression for the filler
paste.
Wire-brush the affected area to remove the
powdery rust from the
surface of the remaining metal. Paint the
Bodywork 12•3
affected area with rust-inhibiting paint, if the
back of the rusted area is accessible, treat
this also.
Before filling can take place, it will be
necessary to block the hole in some way. This
can be achieved by the use of aluminium or
plastic mesh, or aluminium tape.
Aluminium or plastic mesh, or glass-fibre
matting, is probably the best material to use
for a large hole. Cut a piece to the
approximate size and shape of the hole to be
filled, then position it in the hole so that its
edges are below the level of the surrounding
bodywork. It can be retained in position by
several blobs of filler paste around its
periphery.
Aluminium tape should be used for small or
very narrow holes. Pull a piece off the roll, trim
it to the approximate size and shape required,
then pull off the backing paper (if used) and
stick the tape over the hole; it can be
overlapped if the thickness of one piece is
insufficient. Burnish down the edges of the
tape with the handle of a screwdriver or
similar, to ensure that the tape is securely
attached to the metal underneath.
Bodywork repairs - filling and
respraying
Before using this Section, see the Sections
on dent, deep scratch, rust holes and gash
repairs.
Many types of bodyfiller are available, but
generally speaking, those proprietary kits
which contain a tin of filler paste and a tube of
resin hardener are best for this type of repair. A
wide, flexible plastic or nylon applicator will be
found invaluable for imparting a smooth and
well-contoured finish to the surface of the filler.
Mix up a little filler on a clean piece of card
or board - measure the hardener carefully
(follow the maker’s instructions on the pack),
otherwise the filler will set too rapidly or too
slowly. Using the applicator, apply the filler
paste to the prepared area; draw the
applicator across the surface of the filler to
achieve the correct contour and to level the
surface. As soon as a contour that
approximates to the correct one is achieved,
stop working the paste - if you carry on too
long, the paste will become sticky and begin
to “pick-up” on the applicator. Continue to
add thin layers of filler paste at 20-minute
intervals, until the level of the filler is just
proud of the surrounding bodywork.
Once the filler has hardened, the excess
can be removed using a metal plane or file.
From then on, progressively-finer grades of
abrasive paper should be used, starting with a
40-grade production paper, and finishing with
a 400-grade wet-and-dry paper. Always wrap
the abrasive paper around a flat rubber, cork,
or wooden block - otherwise the surface of
the filler will not be completely flat. During the
smoothing of the filler surface, the wet-anddry paper should be periodically rinsed in
water. This will ensure that a very smooth
finish is imparted to the filler at the final stage.
At this stage, the “dent” should be
surrounded by a ring of bare metal, which in
turn should be encircled by the finely
“feathered” edge of the good paintwork.
Rinse the repair area with clean water, until all
of the dust produced by the rubbing-down
operation has gone.
Spray the whole area with a light coat of
primer - this will show up any imperfections in
the surface of the filler. Repair these
imperfections with fresh filler paste or
bodystopper, and once more smooth the
surface with abrasive paper. Repeat this
spray-and-repair procedure until you are
satisfied that the surface of the filler, and the
feathered edge of the paintwork, are perfect.
Clean the repair area with clean water, and
allow to dry fully.
If bodystopper is used, it can
be mixed with cellulose
thinners to form a really thin
paste which is ideal for
filling small holes
The repair area is now ready for final
spraying. Paint spraying must be carried out
in a warm, dry, windless and dust-free
atmosphere. This condition can be created
artificially if you have access to a large indoor
working area, but if you are forced to work in
the open, you will have to pick your day very
carefully. If you are working indoors, dousing
the floor in the work area with water will help
to settle the dust which would otherwise be in
the atmosphere. If the repair area is confined
to one body panel, mask off the surrounding
panels; this will help to minimise the effects of
a slight mis-match in paint colours. Bodywork
fittings (eg chrome strips, door handles etc)
will also need to be masked off. Use genuine
masking tape, and several thicknesses of
newspaper, for the masking operations.
Before commencing to spray, agitate the
aerosol can thoroughly, then spray a test area
(an old tin, or similar) until the technique is
mastered. Cover the repair area with a thick
coat of primer; the thickness should be built
up using several thin layers of paint, rather
than one thick one. Using 400-grade wet-anddry paper, rub down the surface of the primer
until it is really smooth. While doing this, the
work area should be thoroughly doused with
water, and the wet-and-dry paper periodically
rinsed in water. Allow to dry before spraying
on more paint.
Spray on the top coat, again building up the
thickness by using several thin layers of paint.
Start spraying at one edge of the repair area,
and then, using a side-to-side motion, work
until the whole repair area and about 2 inches
of the surrounding original paintwork is
covered. Remove all masking material 10 to 15
minutes after spraying on the final coat of
paint.
Allow the new paint at least two weeks to
harden, then, using a paintwork renovator, or
a very fine cutting paste, blend the edges of
the paint into the existing paintwork. Finally,
apply wax polish.
5 Major body damage repair
5
1 Major repair to the body should be left to
your Fiat dealer or specialist body repairer.
2 Special jigs and alignment gauges are
required without which steering and
suspension characteristics may be incorrect
after the repairs are completed.
6 Radiator grille removal and refitting
1
1 Open the bonnet.
2 Extract the single fixing screw from the
centre of the grille slats (photo).
3 Release the retaining clips and withdraw
the grille upwards from its lower spigot holes
(photo).
4 Refitting is a reversal of removal.
7 Bonnet removal and refitting
1
1 Open the bonnet and support it on its stay.
2 Pencil around the hinges on the underside
12
6.2 Grille screw
6.3 Grille clip
12•4 Bodywork
7.2 Bonnet hinge
of the bonnet or stick strips of masking tape
around them as a guide to refitting (photo).
3 With the help of an assistant, support the
weight of the bonnet, unbolt the hinges and
lift the bonnet from the car.
4 Refitting is a reversal of removal, but do not
fully tighten the hinge bolts until the bonnet
has been gently closed and its alignment
checked. If the gap between the bonnet and
the front wings is not equal on both sides,
release the hinge bolts and move the bonnet
within the elongation provided at the bolt
holes.
8.1 Bonnet release lever
8 Bonnet lock and release
8.2 Bonnet lock
1
1 The bonnet lock is operated by a remote
control lever inside the car through a cable
(photo).
2 When closing the bonnet, the spring-loaded
striker should enter the lock centrally. If it
does not, release the lock bolts and slide the
lock as necessary (photo).
3 Engagement of the striker in the lock should
be adjusted for depth in order that the surface
of the bonnet is level with the front wings. To
do this, release the striker locknut and turn the
striker in or out by inserting a screwdriver in
its slot.
4 In conjunction with the striker adjustment,
screw the bonnet rubber buffers in or out as
necessary to provide secure rattle-free
closure of the bonnet (photo).
5 If the lock must be removed, first withdraw
the radiator grille as described in Section 6.
6 To renew the release cable, unclip and
lower the release lever under the facia panel.
7 Disconnect the cable from the lever and
then slip it from the lock operating arm.
Withdraw the cable.
8 Refit the new cable by reversing the
removal operations.
9 Front bumpers removal and refitting
Fig. 12.1 Bonnet lock and release cable (Sec 8)
8.4 Bonnet buffer
Fig. 12.2 Adjusting bonnet lock striker
(Sec 8)
1
1 Remove the radiator grille as described in
Section 6 to expose the two upper bumper
fixing screws. Remove them (photos).
2 Working inside at the lower edge of the
bumper remove the three fixing bolts.
3 Finally, unscrew the side bracket fixing
bolts and lift the bumper away.
4 Refitting is a reversal of removal.
9.1A Front bumper upper fixing screw
Bodywork 12•5
9.1B Front bumper upper fixing screw
Fig. 12.3 Front bumper (Sec 9)
Fig. 12.4 Front bumper upper screws (Sec 9)
10 Front wing removal and refitting
1
1 Remove the headlamp and front parking
lamp as described in Chapter 9.
10.4A Unscrewing wing shield screw
Fig. 12.5 Front bumper lower screws (Sec 9)
2 Withdraw the side repeater lamp and
disconnect the leads.
3 Remove the front roadwheel.
4 Working under the wing, remove the fixing
screw and withdraw the plastic protective
shield (photos).
5 Unscrew the wing lower fixing screws at the
front and rear ends.
6 Open the bonnet and support it. Then
unscrew and remove the row of fixing screws
from the inner top edge of the wing.
7 The wing joints will have to be cut round
with a sharp knife to release the mastic seal
before the wing can be lifted away.
8 Clean the body mating flanges in readiness
for fitting the new wing.
9 Apply a bead of mastic to the body flanges
and offer the new wing into position.
10 Refit the fixing screws.
11 Apply protective coating to the underside
of the wing and refinish the outer surface to
match the bodywork.
12 Refit the headlamp, parking lamp and
repeater lamp.
13 Fit the under wing shield and the
roadwheel, close the bonnet.
11 Door trim panel removal and refitting
1
1 Open the door and extract the three
armrest fixing screws. Remove the armrest in
a downward direction (photos).
2 Remove the screws from the door tidy bin
(photo).
3 Push the door remote control escutcheon
rearwards towards the door lock and remove
it (photos).
4 Remove the window regulator handle
spring clip. Do this by inserting a length of
wire with a hooked end or by pulling a strip of
12
10.4B Removing wing shield
11.1A Removing an armrest screw
11.1B Removing armrest downward
12•6 Bodywork
11.2 Door tidy bin screw
11.3A Removing remote control handle
escutcheon
11.3B Remote control handle withdrawn
11.4 Window regulator handle removed
11.6 Removing door trim panel
11.7 Window regulator handle ready for
fitting
Fig. 12.6 Door glass mounting screw
(Sec 12)
Fig. 12.7 Removing door weatherseal
(Sec 12)
Fig. 12.8 Removing door glass (Sec 12)
Fig. 12.9 Door window regulator fixing
screws (Sec 12)
rag between the handle and the door trim
panel at its lower gap (photo).
5 Insert the fingers or a broad blade between
the trim panel and the door and release the
panel.
6 Remove the trim panel and the waterproof
sheet (photo).
7 Refitting is a reversal of removal, but when
refitting the window regulator handle locate its
retaining spring clip fully and then simply
locate the handle on its splined shaft and
strike it sharply with the hand. Make sure that
with the window fully closed, the angle of the
regulator handle matches the one on the
opposite door (photo).
12 Door - dismantling
3
1 Remove the trim panel as described in the
preceding Section.
Lock remote control handle
2 Slide the handle rearwards to disengage
the tabs from the cut-outs.
3 Rotate the lock handle and disconnect it
from the link rod.
Door glass
4 Extract the screws from the glass
mounting.
5 With the glass fully lowered, remove the
weatherseal strips from the glass slot in the
door.
Bodywork 12•7
12.7 Door glass mounting
Fig. 12.10 Removing door window
regulator (Sec 12)
Fig. 12.11 Removing door handle fixing
screw (three-door model) (Sec 12)
Fig. 12.12 Extracting glass guide channel
screw (Sec 12)
Fig. 12.13 Removing glass guide channel
(Sec 12)
Fig. 12.14 Removing door lock fixing
screw (Sec 12)
6 Turn the glass very carefully and withdraw it
from the door. A new glass is supplied
complete with lower mounting.
10 Extract the screws which hold the lock to
the edge of the door and remove it.
Window regulator
7 Extract the fixing screws (arrowed) (Fig.
12.9) and withdraw the regulator from the
door through one of the larger lower apertures
(photo).
Door lock (three-door)
8 Extract the screw and remove the handle
from the edge of the door.
9 Remove the glass guide channel fixing
bolts and withdraw the channel from the door.
Door lock (five-door)
11 Extract the screws which hold the lock to
the door edge. Withdraw the lock and
disconnect the lock plunger link rod (photo).
12 The exterior handle with cylinder lock can
be removed by reaching into the door cavity
and unscrewing the two fixing nuts.
Refitting
13 This is a reversal of the removal
operations. Oil and grease the lock and
window regulator mechanism.
13 Door removal and refitting
1
1 Open the door fully and support it under its
lower edge on jacks or blocks covered with an
insulating pad.
2 The door hinges are fixed to the doors with
hexagonal headed bolts and to the body pillar
with socket-headed bolts.
3 The door check is incorporated in the lower
hinge (photo).
4 On cars equipped with door mounted
12
Fig. 12.15 Door lock components (Sec 12)
12.11 Door lock plunger rod
12•8 Bodywork
13.3 Door lower hinge
13.9 Door lock striker
14.2 Tailgate strut ball cup
speakers, central door locking or power
operated windows, the electrical leads must be
disconnected and withdrawn through the
flexible duct before the door hinges are
unbolted. Disconnection will require removal of
the door trim panel as described in Section 11.
5 It is recommended that the door is unbolted
from the hinge, leaving the hinge attached to
the body pillar.
6 Refitting is a reversal of removal, but leave
the bolts finger tight until the door has been
gently closed and its alignment checked.
7 The door can be moved up and down or
sideways using the travel provided by the
elongated bolt holes.
8 If the door is not flush with the adjacent
body panels then shims should be inserted
under the hinges.
9 Adjust the striker to provide smooth
positive closure (photo).
re-alignment is required, then the rear section
of the roof lining will have to be removed and
the hinge to body bolts released.
6 Adjust the position of the lock striker to
provide smooth positive closure. The rubber
buffers should be screwed in or out in
conjunction with the adjustment of the striker
(photos).
7 On some models, a remote control tailgate
opening release lever is fitted. Removal and
refitting of the cable is similar to that
described in Section 8 (photo).
14 Tailgate removal and refitting
1
1 Open the tailgate and have an assistant
support it.
2 From the upper ends of the struts, prise out
the locking wedges from the ball cups and
disconnect the struts (photo).
3 Disconnect the washer tube.
4 Unscrew the hinge mounting bolts from the
tailgate and lift the tailgate from the car
(photo).
5 Refitting is a reversal of removal, but if
15 Windscreen glass removal and refitting
5
14.4 Tailgate hinge
14.6A Tailgate lock
1 Remove the interior rear view mirror, the tax
disc and the wiper blade and arm.
2 If the glass is intact, go inside the car and
pull the lip of the weatherseal downwards off
the body metal all along the top edge.
3 Push the glass outwards while an assistant
stands outside ready to catch it.
4 Clean the body flange and fit the
weatherstrip to the glass.
5 Insert a length of strong cord in the body
flange groove of the weatherseal so that the
ends of the cord cross over at the centre of
the bottom run and hang out a few inches.
6 Brush soapy water onto the edge of the
body flange and then offer the glass to the
14.6B Tailgate striker
14.6C Tailgate rubber buffer
14.7 Tailgate remote control release lever
Bodywork 12•9
Fig. 12.16 Peeling back lip of windscreen
glass weatherseal (Sec 15)
Fig. 12.18 Components of opening side window (Sec 18)
17 Fixed side window
(five-door) removal and refitting
Fig. 12.17 Position of cord for fitting
windscreen weatherseal (Sec 15)
body so that the bottom edge of the rubber
seal engages over the metal flange.
7 With an assistant pressing on the outside of
the glass, go inside and pull the cords evenly.
This will draw the lip of the weatherseal over
the body flange and seat the glass.
8 Tap the glass with the palm of the hand to
settle it.
9 If the weatherseal is in good condition then
it should prove waterproof, but if there is any
doubt, apply sealant with a gun between the
rubber and the glass and the rubber and the
body flange.
10 Refit the mirror, tax disc and wiper.
16 Tailgate glass removal and refitting
5
1 The operations are very similar to those
described for the windscreen, but disconnect
the leads from the heater element terminals.
5
1 The operations are similar to those
described for the windscreen in Section 15.
18 Opening side window
(three-door) removal and refitting
1
1 Have an assistant support the glass and
then extract the screws from the hinges and
the toggle type fastener.
2 Swivel the glass outwards and downwards
to remove it.
3 Refitting is a reversal of removal.
19 Front seat removal and refitting
1
1 Unbolt the seat front anchorage clamps
(photo).
2 Slide the seat fully rearwards out of its
guide rails, but bend the end of the seat
adjustment lever so that it passes over its
stop.
20 Rear seat removal and refitting
1
1 The rear seat may be of one piece design or
split (60/40) depending upon the model.
2 Either type of seat is easily removable once
the hinge bolts have been unscrewed and
removed (photo).
21 Centre console removal and refitting
1
1 Pull the small black knobs from the heater
control levers.
2 Extract the screws from both sides of the
heater control panel, remove the panel. As the
panel is withdrawn, disconnect the leads from
the cigar lighter and take care not to damage
the fibre optics.
3 From inside the glove box, prise out the lid
stop block. Insert a screwdriver in the hole left
by its removal and unscrew the console fixing
screw (photo).
12
19.1 Front seat mounting clamp
20.2 Rear seat mounting hinges
21.3 Removing screw (glovebox side) from
centre console
12•10 Bodywork
Fig. 12.19 Facia panel fixing screws (Sec
22)
22.5C Facia panel lower mounting screw
(left-hand side)
22.5A Facia fixing screw inside glovebox
Fig. 12.20 Rear view of facia panel showing fixing screw locations (Sec 22)
1 and 5 Clips
2, 3 and 4 Screws
4 Reach up behind the facia panel on the side
opposite to the glove box and unscrew the
remaining console fixing screw.
5 Withdraw the console downwards and
disconnect the fibre optics from their source.
6 Refitting is a reversal of removal.
22 Facia panel removal and refitting
23.3 Front seat belt lower
mounting
23.4 Rear seat belt reel
22.5B Facia panel lower mounting screw at
centre console
1
1 Remove the instrument panel as described
in Chapter 9.
2 Remove the steering wheel (Chapter 10).
23.5 Front seat belt upper
mounting
3 Disconnect the choke control lever and
cable from the facia panel as described in
Chapter 3.
4 Remove the screws arrowed in Fig. 12.19.
5 Remove the facia fixing screws, their
locations on the facia are shown in Fig. 12.20.
Screw (3) is inside the glove box (photos).
6 Release the facia from the upper clips and
withdraw it.
7 Refitting is a reversal of removal.
23 Seat belts
1
1 Seat belts are fitted as standard equipment
to both the front and rear seats.
2 Regularly inspect the belts for fraying and if
evident, renew the belt.
3 The front belt reel may be unbolted if the
seat is pushed fully forward and the reel cover
panel removed (photo).
4 The rear belt reels are located at each side
of the luggage area (photo).
5 When removing or refitting a belt from its
anchorage point, it is essential to maintain the
original fitted sequence of spacer, washer and
wave washer otherwise the belt anchor plate
will not swivel (photo).
Bodywork 12•11
24.2 Exterior mirror control knob
24.3 Mirror ring nut and C-spanner
24.4 Withdrawing exterior mirror and trim
plate
25.1 Grab handle screw
Fig. 12.21 Rear bumper (Sec 26)
24 Rear view mirrors
1
Interior
1 The mirror may be removed after extracting
the fixing screws. The mirror is designed to
break off if struck.
Exterior
2 The mirror is remotely controlled. To
remove the mirror, peel back the rubber cover
from the control knob (photo).
3 Unscrew the ring nut using a C-spanner or
similar (photo).
4 Withdraw the mirror from its mounting
hole, the triangular trim plate will come
with it. Refitting is a reversal of removal
(photo).
26 Rear bumpers removal and refitting
1
1 Refer to Chapter 9 and withdraw the
number plate lamp. Disconnect the leads.
2 Open the tailgate and three bumper fixing
bolts from the top edge.
3 Working under the car, remove the two side
and the three lower edge fixing bolts.
4 Remove the bumper from the car.
5 Refitting is a reversal of removal.
27 Roof rack
1
1 As the car is not fitted with conventional
type rain water gutters, the Fiat roof rack
should be used which incorporates clamps
which engage under the door arches. The
doors are then closed on them.
2 On three-door models, the rear clamps fit
into recesses provided just above the rear
side window weatherseals.
12
25 Grab handles
1
1 These are located above the door openings
and can be removed if the end covers are
prised back on their hinges to expose the
fixing screws (photo).
Fig. 12.22 Roof rack clamp locations
(Sec 27)
Fig. 12.23 Sunroof control handle (A)
(Sec 28)
12•12 Bodywork
28 Sunroof operation and maintenance
Fig. 12.24 Prising out sunroof glass panel
screw caps (Sec 28)
Fig. 12.25 Extracting sunroof panel screw
(Sec 28)
1 To unlock the sunroof, bring the control
lever down and turn it anti-clockwise. The
glass sunroof will partially rise and then slide
rearwards.
2 A sliding louvre is provided to decrease
noise and airflow.
3 On cars fitted with a sunroof, the interior
lamps are of pillar-mounted type.
4 If the sunroof must be removed, prise out
the screw caps using a thin blade.
5 Extract the screws which hold the glass
panel to the rails.
6 The sunroof channel water drain hoses
should be kept clear. If the hoses are to be
cleared of obstruction remove the trim panels
at the sides of the front footwells and insert a
length of curtain spring in the bottom ends of
the hoses.
7 The rear drain hoses are accessible once
the parcels shelf supports are removed and
the trim panels unclipped.
Fig. 12.26 Rear parcels shelf supports (Sec 28)
Fig. 12.27 Sunroof front drainhose
routing at body pillar (Sec 28)
1
Fig. 12.28 Sunroof components (Sec 28)
13•1
Chapter 13 Supplement:
Revisions and information on later models
Contents
Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
Specifications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
Routine maintenance - all models from June 1991 . . . . . . . . . . . 3
Engine 903 and 1299/1301 cc . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
Sump pan sealing strips (903 cc engine) - modification
1299 cc engine - description
Rocker cover (903 cc engine) - removal
Cylinder head (903 cc engine) - refitting
Engine - 999 and 1108 cc (FIRE) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
Part A: General
Description
Part B: Operations possible with engine in car
Valve clearances - adjustment
Timing belt - renewal
Camshaft - removal and refitting
Cylinder head - removal and refitting
Sump pan - removal and refitting
Oil pump - removal, checking and refitting
Pistons/connecting rods - removal and refitting
Pistons/connecting rods - separation and piston ring renewal
Engine/transmission mountings - renewal
Part C: Engine removal and dismantling
Method of removal - general
Engine/transmission - removal and separation
Dismantling - general
Complete dismantling
Examination and renovation
Part D: Engine reassembly and refitting
Reassembly - general
Complete reassembly
Engine/transmission - reconnection and refitting
Initial start-up after major overhaul
Engine 1301 cc Turbo ie .................................................................. 6
Part A: General
Description
Lubrication system - description
Part B: Operations possible with engine in car
Camshaft and camshaft carrier - removal and refitting
Cylinder head - removal and refitting
Piston rings
Engine mountings - renewal
Timing belt - renewal
Oil pump drivegear cover plate
Engine oil cooler - removal and refitting
Part C: Engine removal, dismantling, reassembly and refitting
Engine/transmission - removal and separation
Engine - dismantling and reassembly
Engine/transmission - reconnection and refitting
Initial start-up after major overhaul
Engine 1372 cc ie and 1372 cc Turbo ie ......................................... 7
Part A: General
Description
Maintenance
Part B: Operations possible with the engine in car
Valve clearances - checking and adjustment
Timing belt, tensioner and sprockets - removal and refitting
Camshaft front oil seal - renewal
Camshaft, housing and followers - removal and refitting
Camshaft housing, camshaft and cam followers - dismantling,
inspection and reassembly
Cylinder head (1372 cc ie engine) - removal and refitting
Cylinder head (1372 cc Turbo ie engine) - removal and refitting
Cylinder head - inspection and renovation
Crankshaft front oil seal - removal and renewal
Crankshaft rear oil seal - removal and renewal
Flywheel - removal, inspection and refitting
Sump - removal and refitting
Oil pump - removal, checking and refitting
Pistons/connecting rods - removal and refitting
Pistons/connecting rods - examination and renovation
Engine/transmission mountings - renewal
Part C: Engine removal and dismantling
Method of removal - general
1372 cc ie engine/transmission - removal and separation
1372 cc Turbo ie engine/transmission - removal and separation
Engine dismantling - general
Auxiliary shaft - removal, inspection and refitting
Engine - complete dismantling
Crankshaft and main bearings - removal
Engine components - examination and renovation
Part D: Engine reassembly
Reassembly - general
Crankshaft and main bearings - refitting
Pistons and connecting rods - refitting
Oil pump - refitting
Sump - refitting
Flywheel - refitting
Auxiliary shaft - refitting
Cylinder head - refitting
Timing belt and covers - refitting
Engine/transmission - reconnection and refitting
Initial start-up after major overhaul
13
13•2 Supplement: Revisions and information on later models
Cooling system ................................................................................. 8
Part A: 999 cc engine
Description
Maintenance
Thermostat - removal and refitting
Coolant pump - removal and refitting
Part B: 1301 cc Turbo ie engine
Description
Part C: 1372 cc ie and 1372 cc Turbo ie engines
Description
Maintenance
Cooling system - draining, flushing and refilling
Radiator (and cooling fan) - removal and refitting
Thermostat - removal and refitting
Coolant pump - removal and refitting
Coolant pump/alternator drivebelt - checking, renewal and
tensioning
Part D: Heater unit later models
Heater unit - removal and refitting
Heater unit - dismantling and reassembly
Fuel and exhaust systems ............................................................... 9
Part A: General
Unleaded fuel
Air cleaner modified types
Fuel pump (999 cc engine) - description, removal and
refitting
Fuel tank (999 cc engine)
Part B: Carburettor models
Carburettor (Weber 32 TLF) - description
Carburettor (Weber 32 TLF) - idle speed and mixture
Carburettor (Weber 32 TLF) - removal and refitting
Carburettor (Weber 32 TLF) - overhaul
Carburettor (Weber 30/32 DMTE) - general
Carburettor (Weber 30/32 DMTE) - overhaul
Carburettor (Weber 32 ICEV 61/250 and DMTE 30/32,
DMTE 30/150) - general
Carburettor (Solex C 30/32-CIC 8) - description
Part C: Bosch LE-2 Jetronic fuel injection system
Description
Maintenance
Fuel filter - renewal
Air cleaner element - renewal
Idle speed and mixture - adjustment
Fuel injection system - electrical tests
Fuel injection system - mechanical tests
Fuel injection system components - removal and
refitting
Throttle control linkage - general
Fuel tank - general
Part D: Bosch Mono-Jetronic fuel injection system
Description
Maintenance
Fuel filter - renewal
Air cleaner element - renewal
Idle speed and mixture adjustment
Accelerator control system - check and adjustment
Fuel system - depressurisation
Fuel pump and supply - system checks
Fuel pump - removal and refitting
Injector unit - removal and refitting
Intake air temperature sensor - removal and refitting
Fuel injector - removal and refitting
Electronic control unit (ECU) - removal and refitting
Inlet manifold - removal and refitting
Exhaust manifold - removal and refitting
Catalytic converter - general information
Fuel evaporation control system - general
Part E: Bosch L3.1/2 Jetronic fuel injection systems
Description
Fuel system - depressurisation
Maintenance
Fuel filter - renewal
Air cleaner element - renewal
Checks and adjustments
Injection system components - removal and refitting
Part G: Turbocharger system
Description
Precautions
Turbocharger (1301 cc ie engine) - removal and refitting
Turbocharger (1372 cc ie engine) - removal and refitting
Intercooler - removal and refitting
Injector cooling fan - removal and refitting
Fault finding - fuel injection system
Fault finding - turbocharger system
Ignition system ................................................................................. 10
General
Ignition timing (all later models)
Breakerless ignition system - description
Distributor (breakerless type) - removal and refitting
Distributor (breakerless type) - overhaul
Breakerless ignition system components - testing
Microplex ignition system - description
Distributor (Microplex) - removal and refitting
Microplex ignition system components - testing
Digiplex 2 ignition system - description
Distributor (Digiplex 2) - removal and refitting
Spark plugs and HT leads - general
Fault finding - Microplex ignition system
Clutch ................................................................................................ 11
Clutch pedal adjustment (cable clutch)
Hydraulic clutch - description
Maintenance (hydraulic clutch)
Clutch master cylinder - removal, overhaul and
refitting
Clutch operating cylinder - removal, overhaul and
refitting
Clutch hydraulic system - bleeding
Transmission .................................................................................... 12
Part A: 1301 cc Turbo ie engine
Description
Gearchange linkage - removal and refitting
Gearchange linkage (Antiskid models) - general
Final drive output shafts - description and oil seal
renewal
Part B: 1372 cc ie and 1372 cc Turbo ie engines
Description
Maintenance
Oil level - checking
Oil - renewal
Gearlever and linkages - general
Transmission - removal and refitting
Part C: 999 and 1108 cc with C514 type transmission
Description
Maintenance
Driveshafts ........................................................................................ 13
Inboard joint boots (non-Turbo models, September 1987 on) modification
Intermediate driveshaft (Turbo ie models)
Inboard CV joints (Turbo ie models - overhaul
Right-hand driveshaft damper weight (1108 and 1372 cc
models) - removal and refitting
Supplement: Revisions and information on later models 13•3
Braking system................................................................................. 14
Part A: Braking system general
Front brake pads all later models
Part B: Braking system - Turbo ie models
Description
Front disc pads - renewal
Front disc caliper - removal and refitting
Front disc caliper - overhaul
Front brake disc - inspection, renovation or renewal
Rear disc pads - renewal
Rear disc caliper - removal, overhaul and refitting
Rear brake disc - inspection, renovation and renewal
Pressure regulating valve
Brake pedal - removal and refitting
Vacuum servo unit and master cylinder - general
Antiskid system - description
Electrical system .............................................................................. 15
Alternator (999 cc models) - removal and refitting
Alternator (later models) - removal and refitting
Alternator brushes - renewal
Starter motor (999 cc models) - removal and refitting
Starter motor (1301 cc Turbo ie, 1372 cc ie, 1372 cc Turbo ie)
- removal and refitting
Starter motor brushes (later models) - renewal
Fuses - later models
Relays (Turbo ie models) - general
Headlamps - later models
Headlamp beam adjusters for load compensation - later models
Headlamp unit removal - later models
Headlamp dim-dip system - description
Front fog lamps bulb/unit - removal and refitting and beam
adjustment
Horn - relocation
Steering column combination switches (later models) - removal
and refitting
Instrument panel (Turbo ie models) - removal and refitting
Facia-mounted switches (1301 cc Turbo ie model) - removal
and refitting
Instrument panel (later models) - removal and refitting
Auxiliary control panel (later models) - removal and refitting
Heater control panel (later models) - removal and refitting
Trip master
Interior roof mounted spotlamp, switch and/or clock - removal
and refitting
Central door locking system
Cigar lighter (later models) - removal and refitting
Electrically operated window switches - removal and refitting
Windscreen wiper motor (later models) - removal and refitting
Windscreen washer reservoir (Turbo) - removal and refitting
Tailgate wiper motor (later models) - removal and refitting
Radio Check control system sensors - description
Check control system sensors - testing
Suspension ....................................................................................... 16
Front anti-roll bar - removal and refitting
Suspension strut later models
Bodywork .......................................................................................... 17
Plastic components
Rear view mirrors
Door armrest
Tailgate (Turbo ie model) - component removal and refitting
Radiator grille (1301 cc Turbo ie model) - removal and
refitting
Radiator grille (1372 cc ie and 1372 cc Turbo ie models) removal and refitting
Bumpers (1301 cc Turbo ie, 1372 cc ie and 1372 cc Turbo ie
models) - removal and refitting
Rear hinged windows - removal and refitting
Door trim panel (Turbo ie model) - removal and refitting
Degrees of difficulty
Easy, suitable for
novice with little
experience
1
Fairly easy, suitable
for beginner with
some experience
1 Introduction
Since its introduction in 1983, the FIAT Uno
has had a number of modifications and
improvements including the fitting of a twin
choke carburettor, low profile tyres, tinted
windows and remotely-controlled central door
locking.
The major mechanical change was the
introduction of the FIRE (Fully Integrated
Robotised Engine) on 45 and 45S models to
be followed by a new 1108 cc “FIRE” engine
on the 60S model from 1989 on.
A 1301 cc Turbo ie engine model was
2
Fairly difficult,
suitable for competent
DIY mechanic
3
Difficult, suitable for
experienced DIY
mechanic
available for a short period. This model had a
Bosch LE2 Jetronic electronic fuel injection
(ie) and a turbocharger to give added
performance. To uprate the braking to suit,
disc brakes were fitted to the rear in place of
the original drum type brakes.
A 1372 cc engine model was introduced in
1989. Two versions were initially available. A
Bosch Mono-Jetronic single-point fuel
injection (SPi) system, as found on the 70 SX
model and Bosch L3.1 or L3.2 Jetronic
multi-point fuel injection (MPi) systems were
fitted to Turbo models. L3.2 MPi system
models were equipped with catalytic
converters, to improve exhaust emission. All
fuel injection engines are fitted with electronically controlled engine management systems.
A new style instrument panel, switchgear
4
Very difficult,
suitable for expert DIY
or professional
5
and a revised facia layout was introduced in
1989.
During 1992, SPi fuel systems were fitted to
the 999 cc and 1108 cc engines, along with
catalytic converters for improved exhaust
emissions.
Five speed transmissions were introduced
to 999 cc models in 1993.
It is recommended that this Supplement is
always referred to before the main Chapters
of the Manual.
Project vehicles
The vehicles used in the preparation of this
supplement, and appearing in many of the
photographic sequences were a 1986 Uno
45S FIRE, a 1988 1301 cc Uno Turbo ie and a
1991 1372 cc Uno SXie.
13
13•4 Supplement: Revisions and information on later models
2 Specifications
Note: All Specifications are in addition or revisions of those given in the preceding Chapters.
Engine
General
Type . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Application:
999 cc (FIRE) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1108 cc (FIRE) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1116 cc . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1299/1301 cc . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1372 cc . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Bore:
999 and 1108 cc . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1116 cc . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1299/1301 cc . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1372 cc . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Stroke:
999 cc . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1108 cc . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1116 cc . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1299 cc . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1301 cc . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1372 cc . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Compression ratio:
999 cc:
Up to mid 1988 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
From mid 1988* . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1108 cc . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1116 cc . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1299 cc . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1301 cc . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1372 cc:
Non-Turbo . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Turbo . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Maximum torque (DIN):
999 cc:
Up to mid 1988 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
From mid 1988* . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1108 cc . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1116 cc . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1299/1301 cc Turbo ie . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1372 cc ie . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1372 cc Turbo . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Maximum power (DIN):
999 cc . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1108 cc . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1299/1301 cc Turbo ie . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1372 cc ie . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1372 cc Turbo ie . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Compression pressure (bore wear test):
All models . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Maximum pressure difference between cylinders:
All models . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Firing order:
All models . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Cylinder block and crankcase material:
All models . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Crankshaft endfloat:
All models . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Cylinder head material:
All models . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Valve clearances:
999 and 1108 cc . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1299, 1301 cc and 1372 cc . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
*95 RON (unleaded fuel) engines
Four-cylinder, in-line overhead camshaft. Transversely mounted with
end-on transmission
45, and 45S
60S and 1.1 ie
55 and 60
70, Turbo and ie
70S, Sxie. 1.4 ie and Turbo ie
70.0 mm
80.0 mm
86.4 mm
80.5 mm
64.9 mm
72.0 mm
55.5 mm
55.4 mm
55.5 mm
67.4 mm
9.8:1
9.5:1
9.6:1
9.1:1
8.1:1
7.7:1
9.2:1
7.8:1
80 Nm at 2750 rpm
78 Nm at 2750 rpm
87 Nm at 2900 rpm
86 Nm at 3000 rpm
147 Nm at 3200 rpm
106 Nm at 3250 rpm
161 Nm at 3500 rpm
33 kW at 5250 rpm
37 kW at 5250 rpm
77 kW at 5750 rpm
54 kW at 6000 rpm
87 kW at 6000 rpm
11 ± 0.75 bars
0.96 bars
1-3-4-2 (No 1 at timing belt end)
Cast-iron
0.055 to 0.265 mm
Light alloy
Inlet
0.25 to 0.35 mm
0.35 to 0.45 mm
Exhaust
0.35 to 0.45 mm
0.45 to 0.55 mm
Supplement: Revisions and information on later models 13•5
Valve timing clearance:
999 cc . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1108 cc . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1372 cc . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Valve timing:
999 cc:
Opens . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Closes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1108 cc:
Opens . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Closes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1116 cc:
Opens . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Closes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1299/1301 cc:
Opens . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Closes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1299/1301 cc Turbo ie:
Opens . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Closes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1372 cc ie:
Opens . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Closes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1372 cc Turbo ie:
Opens . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Closes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Cam lift:
999 cc . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1108 cc . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1116 cc . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1299/1301 cc . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1372 cc ie . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1372 cc Turbo ie
Inlet valves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Exhaust valves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1.0 mm
0.70 mm
0.80 mm
Inlet
Exhaust
1º BTDC
19º ABDC
29º BBDC
9º ATDC
2º BTDC
19º ABDC
42º BBDC
2º ATDC
7º BTDC
35º ABDC
37º BBDC
5º ATDC
9º BTDC
31º ABDC
39º BBDC
1º ATDC
0º TDC
40º ABDC
30º BBDC
10º ATDC
7º BTDC
35º ABDC
37º BBDC
5º ATDC
14º BTDC
44º ABDC
36º BBDC
6º ATDC
7.1 mm
8.0 mm
8.8 mm
8.0 mm
8.8 mm
9.5 mm
8.8 mm
View of engine compartment (air
cleaner removed) on the 999 cc
FIRE engined model
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
Wiper motor cover
Suspension strut turret
Brake hydraulic fluid reservoir
Carburettor
Washer fluid reservoir
Right-hand engine mounting
Fuel pump
Ignition distributor
Ignition coil
Headlamp
Oil filler cap
Battery
Radiator cooling fan
Coolant filler/expansion tank
Radiator
13
13•6 Supplement: Revisions and information on later models
View of front end from below on
the 999 cc FIRE engined model
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
View of engine compartment on
the 1301 cc Turbo ie engined
model
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
Alternator air cooling intake
Washer fluid reservoir cap
Suspension strut turret
Secondary fuel filter
Fuel supply hose
Coolant expansion tank
Brake fluid reservoir cap
Ignition system ECU
Inlet manifold
Excessive pressure switch
Air cleaner
Timing belt cover
Fuel pressure regulator
Airflow meter
Throttle position switch
Air intake duct
Air intake to throttle valve
housing
Engine oil filler cap
Radiator cooling fan
Headlamp dim-dip transformer
Intercooler air duct
Ignition distributor
Headlamp
Main idle speed adjusting screw
Base setting idle speed screw
Left hand front engine mounting
Transmission
Track control arm
Driveshaft
Left hand rear (lower) engine
mounting
Gearchange rods
Exhaust pipe
Oil filter cartridge
Brake caliper
Sump pan drain plug
Supplement: Revisions and information on later models 13•7
View of front end from below on
the 1031 cc Turbo ie engined
model
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
Anti-roll bar
Exhaust pipe
Track control arm
Engine centre mounting
Gearchange rods
Brake caliper
Left-hand driveshaft
Intermediate driveshaft
Right-hand driveshaft
Transmission
Engine oil drain plug
Auxiliary lamp
Horn
Intercooler
Starter motor
Oil filter cartridge
Oil pressure sender unit
Engine oil cooler
Right-hand underwing shield
Left-hand underwing shield
View of engine compartment (air
cleaner removed) on the
1372 cc ie engined model
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
Engine oil level dipstick
Timing belt cover
Engine mounting (right-hand)
Clutch master cylinder fluid
reservoir
Fuel supply and return hoses
Injection unit
Inlet manifold
Washer reservoir
Brake master cylinder and fluid
reservoir
Injection system fuse/relay block
Suspension strut turret
Ignition coil
Ignition system ECU
Battery
Coolant filter expansion tank
Ignition distributor
Radiator cooling fan
Engine oil filler cap
Starter motor
Oil filter
13
13•8 Supplement: Revisions and information on later models
View of front end from below on
the 1372 cc ie engine model
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
Oil filter
Engine oil drain plug
Starter motor
Horns
Transmission front mounting
Front fog lamp and adjuster
Driveshaft
Transmission rear mounting
Gearchange linkage
Exhaust downpipe and system
joint
Anti-roll bar
Track control arm
Tie-rod balljoint
Brake unit
Driveshaft damper
Underwing shield
Lubrication system
Oil pump type:
999/1108 cc . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1372 cc . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Tooth tip-to-body clearance (999/1108 cc) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Gear endfloat:
999/1108 cc . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1372 cc . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Oil pressure (at normal operating temperature) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Oil filter:
999/1108 cc . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1372 cc . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Torque wrench settings
Auxiliary shaft sprocket bolt (1372 cc) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Big-end cap bolts:
999/1108 cc . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1372 cc . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Camshaft bearing cap bolts:
M8 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
M6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Camshaft cover screws . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Camshaft housing to lower cylinder head securing bolt (1372 cc) . . . . .
Camshaft housing to inlet manifold bracket bolt (1372 cc) . . . . . . . . . .
Camshaft sprocket bolt
999/1108 cc . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1372 cc . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Centre mounting to final drive casing bracket (1201/1301 cc) . . . . . . . .
Coolant temperature switch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Crankshaft pulley bolts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Crankshaft pulley nut (1372 cc) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Crankshaft rear oil seal retainer bolts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Crankshaft sprocket bolt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Gear driven from front of crankshaft.
Pump operated from front of crankshaft. Oil pressure relief valve in
front cover.
0.080 to 0.186 mm
0.025 to 0.056 mm
0.040 to 0.106 mm
3.4 to 4.9 bars
Champion F107
Champion C106
Nm
83
lbf ft
62
41
51
30
38
19
10
8
20
25
14
7
6
15
18
68
83
23
25
25
197
10
79
50
62
17
18
18
145
7
58
Supplement: Revisions and information on later models 13•9
Torque wrench settings (continued)
Cylinder head bolts:
903 cc (from engine number 581470), 999 and 1108 cc:
Stage 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Stage 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Stage 3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1299/1301 cc (10 main bolts):
Stage 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Stage 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Stage 3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Stage 4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1299/1301 cc (4 next to spark plug holes) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1372 cc (M10):
Stage 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Stage 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Stage 3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1372 cc (M8) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Engine mounting bracket body . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Engine mounting bracket-to-body bolt (1299/1301 cc) . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Engine mounting bracket-to-transmission nut (1299/1301 cc) . . . . . . .
Engine mounting nuts:
M10 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
M8 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Engine mountings to brackets (1299/1301 cc) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Engine mounting to engine and transmission (999/1108 cc) . . . . . . . . .
Engine mounting-to-engine bracket bolt (1299/1301 cc) . . . . . . . . . . .
Flywheel bolts:
999/1108 cc . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1372 cc . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Ignition distributor cover (in crankcase) bolt (1372 cc) * . . . . . . . . . . . .
Main bearing cap bolts:
999/1108 cc:
Stage 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Stage 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1372 cc . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Manifold nuts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Mounting bracket to final drive casing (1299/1301 cc) . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Oil pressure sender unit (1372 cc) * . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Oil pressure switch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Oil pump backplate screws . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Oil pump mounting bolts:
999/1108 cc . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1372 cc * . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Oil pump shaft driven gear bolt (1372 cc ie only) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Oil temperature sender unit (1372 cc) * . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Sump pan fixing screws . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Timing belt tensioner nut . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Turbine-to-exhaust manifold and head nut * . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Water pump-to-crankcase bolt (1372 cc) * . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
* Turbo models only
Nm
lbf ft
30
Angle tighten by another 90º
Angle tighten by another 90º
22
20
40
Angle tighten by another 90º
Angle tighten by another 90º
30
15
30
22
40
Angle tighten by another 90º
Angle tighten by another 90º
30
25
48
85
30
22
18
35
63
57
25
23
60
85
42
18
17
44
63
43
83
25
32
62
18
40
Angle tighten by another 90º
80
27
95
37
31
7
30
59
20
70
28
23
5
10
25
83
50
10
27
29
25
7
18
61
37
7
20
21
18
Cooling system
General
Thermostat:
Begins to open:
999/1108 cc . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1301 cc Turbo ie . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1372 cc . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Fully open:
999/1108 cc . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1301 cc Turbo ie . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1372 cc . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Expansion tank pressure cap rating:
1372 cc . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
85 to 90ºC
78 to 82ºC
80 to 84ºC
100ºC
95ºC
96ºC
0.98 bar
13
13•10 Supplement: Revisions and information on later models
Cooling system (continued)
Radiator fan cut-in temperature:
1301 cc Turbo ie:
1st speed . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2nd speed . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1372 cc . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Radiator fan switch-off temperature:
1301 cc Turbo ie:
1st speed . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2nd speed . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1372 cc . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Coolant pump/alternator drivebelt tension:
1372 cc . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Torque wrench settings
Coolant pump mounting bolts (999/1108 cc) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Coolant pump to crankcase (1372 cc) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Coolant temperature gauge sender unit (1372 cc ie) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Coolant temperature sender unit (1372 cc) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Fan thermostatic switch (1372 cc) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Thermal valve on inlet manifold (1372 cc):
M10 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
M8 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Water pump cover (1372 cc) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
86 to 90ºC
90 to 94ºC
90 to 94ºC
81 to 85ºC
85 to 89ºC
85 to 89ºC
Approximately 10 mm deflection midway between crankshaft and
alternator pulleys under firm thumb pressure
Nm
8
25
30
27
30
lbf ft
6
18
22
20
22
20
10
15
15
7
11
Fuel system
General
Air cleaner element
999 cc and 1108 cc . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1372 cc ie . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1301/1372 cc Turbo ie . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Fuel filter:
999 cc and 1108 cc . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1372 cc ie . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1301/1372 cc Turbo ie . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Champion U520
Champion U533
Champion U522
Champion L101
Champion L201
Champion L203
Carburettor calibration
Weber 32
Application . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Accelerator pump capacity (for 10 strokes) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Air bleed jet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Air compensating jet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Air idle jet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Anti-flooding device (choke valve plate gap) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Auxiliary venturi . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Fast idle (throttle valve plate gap) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Float level (with gasket) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Full power jet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Emulsion tube . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Exhaust gas CO at idle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Idle air bleed . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Idle jet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Idle mixture adjustment port . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Idle speed . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Main jet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Needle valve . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Pump jet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Pump outlet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Venturi . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
ICEV 61/250
903 cc
3.8 to 6.3 cc
1.80 mm
1.60 mm
3.5 mm
10.75 mm
0.50 mm
F74
1.0 to 2.0%
0.47 mm
1.50 mm
750 to 800 rpm
1.10 mm
1.50 mm
0.40 mm
0.40 mm
22 mm
TLF 4/250
999 cc
50/90
165
4.0 to 5.0 mm
0.65 to 0.75 mm
26.75 to 27.25 mm
50
F70
1.0 to 2.0%
50/90
47
750 to 800 rpm
105
1.5 mm
35
22 mm
Weber 32
Application . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Accelerator pump capacity (for 10 strokes) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Air bleed jet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Air idle jet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Auxiliary venturi . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Emulsion tube . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
TLF 4/252 (and 251)
999 cc
8 to 12 cc
1.65 mm
0.50 mm
4.5 mm
F70
TLF 27/251
1108 cc
8 to 12 cc
1.65 mm
0.50 mm
4.5 mm
F70
Supplement: Revisions and information on later models 13•11
Weber 32 (continued)
Exhaust gas CO at idle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Fast idle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Float level (with gasket) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Float travel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Full power jet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Idle jet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Idle mixture adjustment port . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Idle speed . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Main jet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Needle valve . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Pump jet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Pump outlet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Superfeed jet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Superfeed mixture jet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Venturi . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Weber 30/32 DMTE 30/150
Application . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Exhaust gas CO at idle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Float level (with gasket fitted) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Idle pull-down . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Idle speed . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Needle valve . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Pull down capsule bush . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Air correction jet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Emulsion tube . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Idle air jet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Idle jet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Idle jet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Full power jet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Main jet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Main venturi . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Pump discharge . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Pump jet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Secondary venturi . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Weber 30/32 DMTE 10/150
Application . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Accelerator pump capacity (ten strokes) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Anti-flooding device (automatic - Y) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Anti-flooding device (mechanical - X) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Excess fuel discharge orifice . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Exhaust gas CO at idle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Float setting (fuel level) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Idle speed . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Needle valve . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Primary and secondary valve plate openings:
X ....................................................
Y ....................................................
Primary valve plate opening (X) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Throttle valve plate opening - fast idle (A) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
TLF 4/252 (and 251)
1.0 to 2.0%
0.65 to 0.75 mm
26.75 to 27.25 mm
33.7 to 34.7 mm
0.50 mm
0.47 mm
1.50 mm
750 to 800 rpm
1.05 mm
1.50 mm
0.40 mm
0.40 mm
0.40 mm
3.00 mm
22 mm
TLF 27/251
0.5 to 1.5%
26.75 to 27.25 mm
33.7 to 34.7 mm
0.55 mm
0.45 mm
1.50 mm
800 to 850 rpm
1.05 mm
1.50 mm
0.40 mm
0.40 mm
0.45 mm
3.00 mm
22 mm
1116 cc engine (95 RON unleaded engine)
1.0 to 2.0%
6.5 to 7.5 mm
3.0 to 3.5 mm
800 to 900 rpm
1.50 mm
0.20 mm
Primary
Secondary
2.10
1.80
F30
F30
1.15
0.70
1.50
0.47
0.40
0.40
0.90
1.05
19
23
0.40
0.45
4.5
1116 cc
8.5 to 12.5 cc
3.75 to 4.25 mm
8.0 to 9.5 mm
0.40
0.5 to 1.5%
6.5 to 7.5 mm
800 to 900 rpm
1.5 mm
13.5 to 14.5 mm
14.5 to 15.5 mm
6.45 to 6.95 mm
0.90 to 0.95 mm
Primary
195
40
3.5
F42
47
90
19.0 mm
Air correction jet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Accelerator pump jet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Auxiliary venturi . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Emulsion tube . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Idle jet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Main jet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Venturi diameter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Solex C 30/32 - CIC8
Application . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1116 cc
All calibration as for the Weber 30/32 DMTE 10/150 except for the following:
Primary
Accelerator pump jet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50
Air correction jet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 230
Idle jet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47.5
Main jet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100
Needle valve . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.6
Secondary
195
40
5
F38
70
95
23.0 mm
13
Secondary
50
190
40
100
1.6
13•12 Supplement: Revisions and information on later models
Weber 30/32 DMTE 12/150
Application . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1299/1301 cc
All calibration as for the Weber 30/32 DMTE 10/150 except for the following:
Primary
Accelerator pump jet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45
Air correction jet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.20
Idle jet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45
Main jet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.90
Secondary
45
1.75
70
0.97
Fuel injection systems
System type:
999/1108 cc ie (from 1992) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1301 Turbo ie . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1372 cc ie . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1372 cc Turbo ie (up to 1992) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1372 cc Turbo ie (from 1992) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Fuel pump:
All fuel injection models . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Fuel pressure:
999/1108/1372 cc . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1301 cc Turbo ie . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1372 cc Turbo ie . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Fuel octane rating:
Without catalyst . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
With catalyst . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Idle speed:
999/1108 cc . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1301 cc Turbo ie . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1372 cc ie . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1372 cc Turbo ie . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Exhaust gas CO at idle:
999/1108 cc . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1301 cc Turbo ie . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1372 cc Turbo ie . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Torque wrench settings
Coolant pipe bolt to turbocharger . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Coolant pipe union nut to turbocharger . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Exhaust bracket nuts and bolts (999/1108 cc) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Exhaust manifold flange nut (1372 cc models) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Exhaust manifold to crankcase bracket (1372 cc) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Exhaust manifold to cylinder head (1372 cc) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Exhaust pipe flange-to-manifold nuts (999/1108 cc) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Fuel pump mounting bolts (999/1108 cc) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Fuel pump unions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Fuel pressure regulator nut . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Inlet and exhaust manifold to cylinder head nuts (999/1108 cc) . . . . . .
Rear exhaust pipe/silencer mounting bracket nut . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Turbocharger-to-exhaust manifold-and-cylinder head nut . . . . . . . . . .
Bosch Mono-Jetronic SPi with catalyst
Bosch LE2 Jetronic MPi
Bosch Mono-Jetronic SPi
Bosch L3.1 Jetronic MPi
Bosch L3.2 Jetronic MPi with catalyst
Electric
0.8 to 1.10 bars
1.6 bars
6.0 bars maximum
98 RON minimum (unleaded or leaded)
95 RON minimum (unleaded only)
850 ± 50 rpm
850 ± 50 rpm
850 ± 50 rpm
825 ± 25 rpm
0 to 0.35%
0.5 to 1.5%
1.2 to 1.8%
Nm
25
38
23
18
25
25
18
8
15
48
27
24
28
lbf ft
18
28
17
13
18
18
13
6
11
35
20
18
21
Ignition system
“Breakerless” (999, 1108, 1116, 1299/1301 cc)
General
System type . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Spark plug type . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Spark plug electrode gap . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
HT lead type (999 and 1108 cc) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Component testing values
Magnetic impulse generator resistance:
Models with Marelli distributors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Models with the Ducellier distributor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Ignition coil resistance at 20ºC (68ºF):
Models with BA506A coil:
Primary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Secondary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Models with BA506D coil:
Primary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Secondary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Magnetic impulse generator electronic
Champion RC9YCC or RC9YC
0.8 mm
Champion LS-20
758 to 872 ohms
171 to 209 ohms
0.756 to 0.924 ohms
3330 to 4070 ohms
0.666 to 0.814 ohms
2970 to 3630 ohms
Supplement: Revisions and information on later models 13•13
Ignition timing (in relation to distributor type)
At idle with vacuum hose disconnected and plugged:
Marelli SE101A and Ducellier 525473A . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Marelli SE100EX, SE100CX and SE100NX . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Marelli SE101G . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Marelli SE100SX . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Centrifugal advance (maximum):
Marelli SE101A and Ducellier 525473A . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Marelli SE100EX and SE100CX . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Marelli SE100NX . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Marelli SE101G . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Marelli SE100SX . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Vacuum advance (maximum):
Marelli SE101A, Ducellier 525473A and Marelli SE101G . . . . . . . . . .
Marelli SE100NX . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Marelli SE100EX and SE100CX . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Marelli SE100SX . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2º BTDC
10º BTDC
3º BTDC
Not available
26 to 30º BTDC
22 to 26º BTDC
18 to 22º BTDC
23 to 27º BTDC
20 to 24º BTDC
12 to 14º BTDC
14 to 16º BTDC
10 to 14º BTDC
13 to 17º BTDC
Digiplex 2 (1372 cc ie)
General
System type . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Spark plug type . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Spark plug electrode gap . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Ignition timing
At 800 to 850 rpm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Maximum advance (at 4500 to 6200 rpm
with 0.6 bar/8.7 lbf/in2 vacuum) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Component testing values
Ignition coil:
Primary resistance at 23ºC (73ºF) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Secondary resistance at 23ºC (73ºF) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Engine speed/TDC sensor:
Resistance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Sensor-to-flywheel tooth gap . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Marelli Digiplex 2 electronic
Champion RN9YCC or RN9YC
0.8 mm
2 to 6º BTDC
44 to 48º BTDC
0.405 to 0.495 ohms
4320 to 5280 ohms
680 to 920 ohms
0.2 to 0.8 mm
Microplex (1301 cc Turbo ie)
General
System type . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Spark plug type . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Spark plug electrode gap . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Rotor arm resistance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Ignition timing
At idle with vacuum hose detached:
Up to mid 1988 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
From mid 1988 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Maximum advance:
Up to mid 1988 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
From mid 1988 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Component testing values
Ignition coil:
Primary winding resistance at 20ºC (68ºF) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Secondary winding resistance at 20ºC (68ºF) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Engine speed sensor:
Resistance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Sensor-to-flywheel tooth gap . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
TDC sensor:
Resistance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Sensor-to-crankshaft pulley tooth gap . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Marelli Microplex electronic
Champion RC7YCC or RC7YC
0.8 mm
800 to 1200 ohms
8 to 12º BTDC
8.5 to 11.5º BTDC
36 to 40º BTDC
32.5 to 35.5 BTDC
0.31 to 0.37 ohms
3330 to 4070 ohms
612 to 748 ohms
0.25 to 1.3 mm
612 to 748 ohms
0.4 to 1.0 mm
Microplex (1372 cc Turbo ie)
General
System type . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Spark plug type . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Spark plug electrode gap . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Marelli Microplex electronic ignition
Champion RC7BYC4
0.9 mm
13
13•14 Supplement: Revisions and information on later models
Ignition timing
At idle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Maximum advance (at 4000 to 6000 rpm
with 0.377 bars/5.5 lbf/in2 vacuum) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Component testing values
Ignition coil:
Primary resistance at 20ºC (68ºF) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Secondary resistance at 20ºC (68ºF) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Engine speed sensor:
Resistance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Sensor to flywheel teeth clearance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
TDC sensor:
Resistance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Sensor to crankshaft pulley tooth gap . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8º to 12º BTDC
32º to 36º BTDC
0.40 to 0.49 ohms
4320 to 5280 ohms
612 to 748 ohms
0.25 to 1.3 mm
612 to 748 ohms
0.4 to 1.0 mm
Clutch
Pedal height
All later models . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
136 to 146 mm
Driven plate diameter
903, 999 and 1301 cc . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1108 cc . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1372 cc ie . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1372 cc Turbo ie . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
170 mm
180 mm
181.5 mm
200 mm
Transmission
General
Type number:
903, 999,1108 and 1372 cc ie . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
999 and 1108 (from 1992) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1372 cc, Turbo ie . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
C.501.5.10
C.514
C.510.5.17
Final drive ratios
903 cc . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
999 and 1108 cc (except C514 type transmission) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
999 cc (with C514 type transmission) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1108 cc (with C514 type transmission) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1301 cc Turbo ie (without Antiskid) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1301 cc Turbo ie (with Antiskid) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1372 cc Turbo ie . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.071:1
3.733:1
3.866:1
3.733:1
3.588:1
3.562:1
3.353:1
Oil type/specification:
1372 cc Turbo ie . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Fiat ZC 80/S gear oil
Driveshafts
Roadwheels
Turbo ie . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5 1/2 J x 13
Tyres
Turbo ie
Size . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Pressures:
Front and rear, normal load . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Front, full load . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Rear, full load . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Spare wheel tyre size . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Spare wheel tyre pressure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1372 cc ie with catalyst (1.4 ie S)
Size . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Pressures:
Front . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Rear - normal load . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Rear - full load . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
175/60 HR 13
2.2 bars
2.3 bars
2.5 bars
5.50B x 13 FH
2.2 bars
155/70 SR 13
2.0 bars
1.9 bars
2.2 bars
Supplement: Revisions and information on later models 13•15
Torque wrench settings
Driveshaft flange connecting bolts (Turbo ie) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Final drive output shaft bearing cover bolts (Turbo ie) . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Intermediate shaft support to crankcase (Turbo ie) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Nm
43
24
48
lbf ft
32
18
35
Braking system (903, 999, 1108, 1116 and 1372 cc)
General
Note: The following items differ, or are additional to those specified in Chapter 8:
Master cylinder bore diameter:
903 cc, 999 cc, 1108 cc and 1116 cc . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19.05 mm
1372 cc ie . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20.65 mm
Vacuum servo diameter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 152.4 mm
Hydraulic push rod-to-master cylinder support plate clearance . . . . . . 0.825 to 1.025 mm
Braking system (1301 and 1372 cc Turbo ie)
General
System type . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Master cylinder bore diameter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Vacuum servo diameter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Four-wheel discs, ventilated front, solid rear. Vacuum servo. Pressure
regulating valve on rear brakes
22.225 mm
177.8 mm
Front disc brakes
Disc diameter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Disc thickness - new . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Disc thickness - minimum (refinishing) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Disc thickness - minimum (wear limit) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Minimum thickness of pad friction material . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Caliper cylinder diameter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
240.0 mm
19.9 to 20.1 mm
18.6 mm
18.2 mm
1.5 mm
48.0 mm
Rear disc brakes
Disc diameter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Disc thickness - new . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Disc thickness minimum (refinishing):
1301 cc Turbo ie . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1372 cc Turbo ie . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Disc thickness - minimum (wear limit) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Minimum thickness of pad friction material . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Caliper cylinder diameter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Torque wrench settings
Front caliper cylinder housing mounting bolts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Front caliper support bracket bolts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Front disc fixing bolts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Rear caliper support bracket bolts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Rear caliper cylinder housing mounting bolts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
227.0 mm
10.7 to 10.9 mm
9.7 mm
9.35 mm
9.0 mm
1.5 mm
34.0 mm
Nm
52
52
25
25
52
lbf ft
38
38
18
18
38
Electrical system
Battery
Turbo ie engine models . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
45 Ah
Fuses (903, 999, 1116, 1299/1301 and 1301 cc Turbo ie)
Fuse No.
1
2
Rating
7.5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3
4
5
6
10 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
10 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
25 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
10 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7
8
9
10
10 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
10 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
20 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
10 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
11
12
13
14
20 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
20 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
- ..............................................
10 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Circuit
LH tail, RH front parking, rear number plate, check panel
RH tail, LH front parking, cigar lighting, clock light, heater control
illumination, map reading lamp.
RH headlamp main beam
LH headlamp main beam and warning light
Radiator cooling fan, econometer and horns
Cigar lighter, courtesy lamps, digital clock, stop-lamp switch, clock
and radio
RH headlamp dipped beam
LH headlamp dipped beam, rear fog warning lamp and indicator
Heated rear screen and warning lamp
Instrument panel, stop-lamps, direction indicators, reversing lamps
and warning module
Heater fan, fan control illumination and digital clock
Windscreen wiper, washer pump and rear screen wiper
Spare
Hazard warning lamps and indicator
13
13•16 Supplement: Revisions and information on later models
Fuses (903, 999, 1116, 1299/1301 and 1301 cc Turbo ie) (continued)
Fuse No. Rating
Supplementary fuses at side of main fuse block:
A
20 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
B
30 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
C
10 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
D
30 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
E
10 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Circuit
Front fog lamps
Cooling fan (Turbo ie models)
Fuel injector cooling fan (Turbo ie models)
Electric windows
Fuel pump (Turbo ie models)
Fuses (later 903, 999, 1108, 1372 ie and 1372 cc Turbo ie)
Fuse
1
2
Rating
7.5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3
4
5
6
10 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
10 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
25 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
10 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7
8
9
10
11
10 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
10 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
10 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
20 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
10 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
12
20 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
13
20 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
14
20 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
15
10 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Supplementary fuses at side of main fuse block:
A
30 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
B
25 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
C
10 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
D
20 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
E
20 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
F
- ..............................................
G
10 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
10 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Supplementary fuses on steering column relay bracket:
10 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
25 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Circuit
LH tail, RH front parking, rear number plate lamps and check panel
RH tail, LH front parking, cigar lighter illumination, clock light, heater
control illumination and map reading light
RH headlamp main beam
LH headlamp main beam and warning light
Radiator cooling fan (except Turbo ie models) and horn
Cigar lighter, courtesy lamps, digital clock, stop-lamp switch, clock
and radio
RH headlamp dipped beam
LH headlamp dipped beam
Rear fog lamp and warning lamp
Heated rear screen and warning lamp
Instrument panel, stop-lamps, direction indicators, reversing lamps,
warning module and carburettor cut-off (FIRE models only)
Heater fan, heater/ventilation control illumination lights and digital
clock light
Windscreen wiper, windscreen washer pump and rear wiper/washer
(where fitted)
Horns and relay
Hazard warning light and indicator light
Electric windows
Central locking (where fitted)
Injector cooling fan (where fitted)
Headlamp washers (where fitted)
Foglamp and warning lamp
Spare
Fuel pump (fuel injection models)
Heated Lambda sensor
Antiskid monitor circuit (where fitted)
Antiskid supply circuit (where fitted)
Steering and suspension
General
1301 cc Turbo ie
Castor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Number of turns of steering wheel, lock-to-lock . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1º 55’ to 2º 35’ positive
3.42
Later models
Steering angles:
Camber . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Castor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Toe-in . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
-30’ ± 30’
2º10’ ± 15’
0 to 2.0 mm
1301/1372 cc Turbo ie
Steering angles of roadwheels:
Inner wheel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Outer wheel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
36º 43’
31º 27’
Torque wrench settings
Anti-roll bar clamp bolts (1301 and 1372 cc Turbo ie) . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Anti-roll bar end fixing nuts (1301 and 1372 cc Turbo ie) . . . . . . . . . . .
Nm
25
15
lbf ft
18
11
Supplement: Revisions and information on later models 13•17
General dimensions, weights and capacities
Dimensions
Overall length . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Overall width:
Base and Super models . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
SX and Turbo models . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Height (unladen):
1372 cc (except Turbo) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1299/1301 cc (except Turbo) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Turbo . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
All other models . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3689 mm
1558 mm
1562 mm
1425 mm
1420 mm
1405 mm
1415 mm
Weights (kerb)
Note: 3-door model weights are given. Add 15 kg to the following for 5-door models. Weight will also vary according to the model version.
903 cc . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 740 kg
999 cc (45, 45 S and 45 SX) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 740 to 775 kg
1108 cc (60 S and 60 SX) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 760 to 795 kg
1299/1301 cc (70 SX) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 770 kg
1301 cc Turbo ie . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 845 kg
1372 cc (1.4 ie S catalyst) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 830 kg
1372 cc ie (70 SX) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 795 to 845 kg
1732 cc Turbo ie . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 925 kg
Capacities
Fuel tank:
1372 cc Turbo ie . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
All other models . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Engine oil (with filter change):
903, 999 and 1108 cc . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1116, 1299/1301 and 1372 cc . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Transmission:
1301 cc Turbo ie . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1372 cc Turbo ie . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
All other engines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Cooling system:
903, 999 and 1108 cc . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1116 and 1299/1301 cc, non-catalyst 1372 cc ie . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1372 cc ie with catalyst . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1301 cc Turbo ie . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1372 cc Turbo ie . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
50 litres
42 litres
3.8 litres
4.1 litres
2.9 litres
2.0 litres
2.4 litres
4.6 litres
6.2 litres
6.5 litres
6.9 litres
7.7 litres
13
13•18 Supplement: Revisions and information on later models
3 Routine maintenance - all models from June 1991
The maintenance intervals in this manual are provided with the
assumption that you, not the dealer, will be carrying out the work.
These are the minimum maintenance intervals recommended by us, for
vehicles driven daily. If you wish to keep your vehicle in peak condition
at all times, you may wish to perform some of these procedures more
often. We encourage frequent maintenance, since it enhances the
efficiency, performance and resale value of your vehicle.
If the vehicle is driven in dusty areas, used to tow a trailer, or driven
frequently at slow speeds (idling in traffic) or on short journeys, more
frequent maintenance intervals are recommended.
When the vehicle is new, it should be serviced by an authorised
dealer to preserve the factory warranty.
Every 250 miles (400 km), weekly or
before a long journey
m Proceed as described for the earlier models at the
start of this manual
Every 6000 miles (10 000 km) or
12 months (whichever comes first)
m Renew the engine oil and oil filter (Turbo models
only)
Every 9000 miles (15 000 km) or
12 months (whichever comes first)
m Check the tyre pressures and their condition
(including the spare)
m Where a pad wear warning light is fitted, check its
operation
m Check the front brake disc pads for excessive wear
m Check the underbody condition (fuel and brakes
pipes, exhaust system, hoses, bushes and gaiters)
m Check the condition and tension of drivebelts
m Check the engine idle speed and CO emissions
m Check the EGR system (If fitted)
m Check fluid levels (coolant, brake fluid and
windscreen washer)
m Renew spark plugs (1372 cc Turbo models)
m Renew the engine oil and oil filter (non-Turbo
models)
m Check the HT leads and connections
m Check the condition of all coolant, fuel and
hydraulic hoses and connections
Every 18 000 miles (30 000 km) or
24 months (whichever comes first)
In addition to the items listed for 9000 mile (15 000 km) or 12 months
service
m Check the rear brake disc pads for wear (where
applicable)
m Check/adjust the valve clearances
m Check and tighten (if necessary), inlet and exhaust
manifolds
m Check the clutch adjustment (cable operated
models)
m Renew the fuel filter (where applicable)
m Renew the air cleaner element
m Renew the spark plugs and check the HT leads
and connections (all models)
m Where applicable, have the ignition and injection
systems checked (special equipment needed)
m Renew coolant
m Renew brake fluid
Every 28 000 miles (45 000 km) or
36 months (whichever comes first)
In addition to the items listed for 9000 mile (15 000 km) or 12 months
service
m Check Lambda (oxygen) sensors operation (special
equipment needed)
m Check fuel evaporation system (where fitted)
m Check the transmission oil level
m Check the condition crankcase ventilation system
Every 37 000 miles (60 000 km) or
48 months (whichever comes first)
In addition to the items listed for 18 000 mile (30 000 km) or
24 months service
m Check the condition of the rear brake shoe linings
m Check the condition of the timing belt
Every 65 000 miles (105 000 km)
m Renew the timing belt
Every 74 500 miles (120 000 km)
m Renew the manual transmission oil
Supplement: Revisions and information on later models 13•19
Fig. 13.1 Correct method of fitting sump
pan sealing strip (Sec 4)
4 Engine 903 and 1299/1301 cc
Sump pan sealing strips (903 cc
engine) - modification
1 The design of the sealing strips which go
between the sump pan and the main bearing
caps has been changed. Make sure that the
narrower side of the strip fits into the channel
in the sump pan.
1299 cc engine - description
2 In April 1984, a 1299 cc engine was
introduced, progressively replacing the
1301 cc units used previously. The new
engine is identical to the 1301 cc engine
described in Chapter 1, with the exception of
having a slightly shorter stroke.
3 However, as of approximately September
1987, the 1299 cc unit was phased out, being
progressively replaced by the 1301 cc engine
used initially.
4 As mentioned above, the two engines are
all but identical, so identification of the unit
fitted should not be necessary in practice.
Consult a FIAT dealer if in doubt.
Rocker cover (903 cc engine) removal
5 Before removing the rocker cover, it will be
necessary to remove the distributor, first.
Refer to Chapter 4 for more details.
Cylinder head (903 cc engine) refitting
6 Modified cylinder head bolts are fitted to
903 cc models, from engine number 8581470.
When refitting the cylinder head, tighten each
head bolt, as described in Chapter 1, by the
torques and angles shown the Specifications
in this Chapter.
Fig. 13.2 Cross-section view of the 999 and 1108 cc engine (Sec 5A)
5 Engine 999 and 1108 cc (FIRE)
Note: Later models are fitted with SPi fuel
injection. Where a procedure refers to a
carburettor, if applicable, replace with throttle
body.
PART A: GENERAL
Description
1 Both of these engine types are designated
FIRE (Fully Integrated Robotised Engine),
being largely manufactured and assembled by
computer-controlled mechanical robots.
2 The engine is of oversquare design, having
four cylinders and a belt-driven overhead
camshaft.
3 The high torque of this engine enables
higher gear ratios to be used with the result
that fuel economy is exceptionally good.
4 The cylinder head is of light alloy, while the
cylinder block is cast-iron.
5 The camshaft is supported in three
bearings which have detachable caps.
6 Valve clearances are maintained by shims
located in the cam followers (tappets).
7 The cylinder head is of crossflow type
having the intake manifold (coolant-heated)
and exhaust manifold on opposite sides.
8 The pistons have two compression rings
and one oil control ring and are connected to
the connecting rods by means of a gudgeon
pin which is an interference fit in the rod
small-end.
9 The crankshaft is supported in five main
bearings. The upper section of the centre
bearing shell retains semi-circular thrust
washers to control crankshaft endfloat.
10 The oil pump, which is of gear type, is
13
13•20 Supplement: Revisions and information on later models
Fig. 13.3 Longitudinal sectional view of the 999 and 1108 cc
engine (Sec 5A)
mounted on the front end of the crankshaft
and driven by it.
11 The flexible toothed timing belt drives the
Fig. 13.4 999 and 1008 cc engine lubrication system (Sec 5A)
camshaft and the coolant pump from a
sprocket on the front end of the crankshaft.
The
belt
is
tensioned
by
an
eccentrically-mounted pulley.
12 The distributor and the fuel pump
(carburettor models) are driven from the
flywheel end of the camshaft. The fuel pump
on fuel injection models is an integral unit
combined with the fuel gauge sender unit and
immersed in the fuel tank.
part numbers for the FlRE engine 1860443000 and 1887001000 (photos).
2 Remember that the clearance for inlet and
exhaust valves differs see Specifications at
the beginning of this Supplement.
3 Counting from the timing cover end of the
engine, the valve sequence is as follows.
Inlet 2-4-5-7
Exhaust 1-3-6-8
PART B:
OPERATIONS POSSIBLE
WITH ENGINE IN CAR
5B.1A Checking a valve clearance
1 The operations are similar to those
described in Chapter 1, Section 26, but note
that the special tools referred to have different
4 Remove the air cleaner.
5 Slacken and remove the alternator
drivebelt, then remove the spark plugs.
6 Unbolt and remove the timing belt cover.
Note the bolt located at the bottom of the
cover, this can be easily overlooked (photo).
7 Unbolt and remove the crankshaft pulley
(photo).
5B.1B Using a modified C-spanner and
screwdriver to remove a shim
5B.6 Timing cover lower fixing bolt
removal
5B.7 Unscrewing the crankshaft pulley
bolts
Valve clearances - adjustment
Timing belt - renewal
#
Supplement: Revisions and information on later models 13•21
5B.8A Camshaft sprocket timing mark and
cylinder head timing mark in alignment
5B.8B Crankshaft sprocket timing mark
and oil pump cover alignment mark
(arrowed)
5B.9 Releasing the timing belt tensioner
nut
8 Turn the crankshaft sprocket bolt, or
engage top gear and raise and turn a front
roadwheel, until the camshaft sprocket TDC
timing mark is aligned with the mark on the
cylinder head and the crankshaft sprocket
timing mark is aligned with the mark on the oil
pump cover (photos).
9 Release the nut on the timing belt
tensioner, move the pulley away from the belt
and retighten the nut to hold the pulley in the
retracted position (photo).
10 Slide the drivebelt from the sprockets.
11 When refitting the new belt, make sure
that the sprocket timing marks are still in
alignment and fit the belt so that the arrows
on the belt point in the direction of engine
rotation, and the lines of the belt coincide with
the sprocket marks.
12 Engage the timing belt with the crankshaft
sprocket first, then place it around the coolant
pump sprocket and the camshaft sprocket
(photo). Finally slip the belt around the
tensioner pulley.
13 Release the tensioner nut and push the
pulley against the belt until the belt is quite
taut. Check that the sprocket timing marks
have not moved out of alignment. If they have,
reset them by moving them over the belt
teeth.
14 Still applying force to the pulley, tighten its
nut.
15 Turn the crankshaft through two complete
turns in the normal direction of rotation and
check that when the centre of the longest run
of the belt is gripped between finger and
thumb it can just be twisted through 90º. If
increased tension is required to achieve this,
release the tensioner nut and prise the pulley
against the timing belt. Note: The above
procedure serves only as a rough guide to
setting the belt tension having it checked by a
FIAT dealer at the earliest opportunity is
recommended.
16 Refit the timing belt cover, the crankshaft
pulley, alternator drivebelt, spark plugs and
the air cleaner.
Warning: Refer to the beginning
of Section 9 before starting any
work.
17 Remove the air cleaner and the fuel pump
(carb. models), as described in Section 9 of
this Supplement.
18 Remove the distributor (Section 10).
19 Remove the timing belt cover.
20 Unbolt and remove the camshaft cover,
having first disconnected the HT lead clip
(photos).
21 Turn the crankshaft (by engaging top gear
and raising and turning a front roadwheel)
until No. 4 piston is at TDC. The timing mark
on the camshaft sprocket will be in alignment
with the mark on the cylinder head.
22 Pass a rod through one of the holes in the
camshaft sprocket to prevent it rotating and
then unscrew the sprocket fixing bolt. Slip the
sprocket from the camshaft and out of the
loop of the belt (photos).
23 Mark the camshaft bearing caps as to
position and then unbolt and remove the
5B.12 Fitting the timing belt
5B.20A Camshaft cover HT lead clip
Camshaft removal and refitting
#
13
5B.20B Removing the camshaft cover
5B.22A Unscrewing the camshaft sprocket
bolt
5B.22B Camshaft sprocket bolt and
washer
13•22 Supplement: Revisions and information on later models
5B.22C Camshaft sprocket showing
integral key (arrowed)
5B.23C Camshaft lubrication pipe
5B.23A Prising out the camshaft oil feed
pipe stub
5B.23D Camshaft bearing cap showing
short and long positioning dowels for
correct fitting
5B.23B Unscrewing the camshaft
bearing/banjo union bolt
lubrication pipe (prise the oil feed stub out
with a screwdriver), unscrew the remaining
bolts and take off the bearing caps (photos).
24 Lift the camshaft carefully from the
cylinder head, checking that the valve
clearance shims and cam followers are not
withdrawn by the adhesion of the oil (photo).
25 If the shims and cam followers are to be
removed, keep them in their originally fitted
order (photos).
26 Refitting is a reversal of removal but use a
new camshaft oil seal and camshaft cover
gasket. Oil the camshaft bearings (photos).
27 Make sure that the timing belt is
reconnected and tensioned as described
previously.
28 Check the valve clearances.
29 Tighten all nuts and bolts to the specified
torque.
Cylinder head removal and refitting
#
5B.24 Removing the camshaft
2B.25A Valve clearance shim showing
thickness mark
Warning: Refer to the beginning
of Section 9 before starting any
work.
Note: The cylinder head should be removed
cold.
30 Drain the cooling system.
31 Remove the air cleaner.
32 Disconnect the throttle and choke
connections from the carburettor (photo).
33 On carburettor models, disconnect the
fuel hoses from the fuel pump and the
carburettor. On fuel injection models,
5B.25B Removing a cam follower (tappet)
with shim
5B.26A Camshaft oil seal
5B.26B Camshaft cover gasket
Supplement: Revisions and information on later models 13•23
5B.32 Disconnecting the throttle cable
5B.34 Inlet manifold coolant hose (A) and
brake servo vacuum hose (B)
depressurize the fuel system, before
disconnecting the fuel pipes and removing the
throttle body, as described in Section 9D.
34 Disconnect the coolant and vacuum
hoses from the cylinder head and inlet
manifold (photo).
35 Disconnect the electrical lead from the
coolant temperature switch, the LT leads from
the distributor and the idle cut-off solenoid
lead.
36 Remove the distributor cap, disconnect
the plug leads and place the cap and leads to
one side of the engine compartment.
37 Unbolt and remove the timing belt cover.
38 Set No. 4 piston to TDC and then release
the timing belt tensioner and slip the belt from
the camshaft and coolant pump sprockets.
39 Unbolt and remove the inlet manifold,
complete with carburettor, or throttle body as
applicable.
40 Unbolt the exhaust manifold from the
cylinder head and tie it to one side of the
engine compartment; the downpipe bracket
will have to be disconnected.
41 Unscrew the cylinder head bolts, a half
turn at a time in the reverse order to that
shown in Fig. 1.30 of Chapter 1. When the
bolts are free, remove them with their
washers.
42 Lift the cylinder head from the block. If it is
stuck tight, insert pieces of wood into the
exhaust or inlet ports and use them as levers
to “rock” the head off the block. On no
account drive levers into the gasket joint or
attempt to tap the head sideways as it is
located on positioning dowels.
43 Remove and discard the cylinder head
gasket and both manifold gaskets.
44 The cylinder head can be dismantled after
removing the camshaft and cam followers as
described in the preceding sub-Section.
45 Further dismantling and decarbonising are
described in Chapter 1, Section 39. Note that
single valve springs are used.
46 If the valves have been ground in, the
valve clearances will require adjusting, as
described previously. This should be done
before the cylinder head is refitted to the
engine.
47 Before refitting the assembled cylinder
head, make sure that the head and block
mating surfaces are perfectly clean, and that
the block bolt holes have been cleared of any
oil.
48 The camshaft sprocket timing mark must
be aligned with the one on the cylinder head.
49 The new gasket should not be removed
from its nylon cover until required for use. Fit
the gasket dry to perfectly clean surfaces.
50 Place the gasket on the cylinder block so
that the word ALTO can be read from above
(photos).
51 Lower the cylinder head onto the block so
that it locates on the positioning dowels
(photo).
52 The cylinder head bolts must have clean
threads, dipped in engine oil and allowed to
drain for thirty minutes. Screw the bolts in
5B.50A Cylinder head gasket
5B.50B Cylinder head gasket top surface
marking
finger-tight and then tighten them in the
sequence shown in Fig. 1.30 of Chapter 1,
and in the stages specified (see Specification)
(photos).
53 Refit the inlet manifold and carburettor
using a new gasket.
54 Reconnect the exhaust manifold using a
new gasket. Tighten all nuts to the specified
torque. Reconnect the exhaust downpipe
bracket.
55 Reconnect the timing belt and tension it
as described earlier.
56 Refit the timing belt cover and the
distributor cap and camshaft cover.
57 Reconnect all hoses, electrical leads and
controls.
58 Fit the air cleaner.
59 Fill and bleed the cooling system.
13
5B.51 Fitting the cylinder head
5B.52A Inserting a cylinder head bolt
5B.52B Typical disc for angular tightening
of cylinder head bolts
13•24 Supplement: Revisions and information on later models
5B.61 Removing the flywheel housing
cover plate
Sump pan removal and refitting
¡
60 Drain the engine oil.
61 Unbolt and remove the cover plate from
the lower part of the flywheel housing (photo).
The two lower bolts retain the gearchange rod
support strut.
62 Unscrew the sump pan securing screws
and pull the sump pan downwards to remove
it (photo). The joint sealant will require cutting
with a sharp knife to release the pan. Clean
away all old gasket material.
63 A bead 3.0 mm in diameter of RTV
silicone instant gasket should be applied to
the sump pan flange and then the pan offered
up. Screw in the fixing screws and tighten to
the specified torque. Note the flange end
fixing screw nuts (photos).
5B.62 Removing the sump pan
5B.63A Tightening a sump pan screw
64 Wait one hour before filling with engine oil.
65 Refit the flywheel housing cover plate.
71 Extract the oil pump fixing bolts and
withdraw the pump.
72 The oil pump incorporates a pressure
relief valve which can be removed for
examination by depressing the spring plunger
and pulling out the keeper plate (photos).
73 If pump wear is suspected, check the
gears in the following way. Extract the fixing
screws and remove the rear cover plate. The
screws are very tight and will probably require
the use of an impact driver to release them
(photo).
74 Check the clearance between the outer
gear and the pump housing using feeler
blades, and also the gear endfloat by placing
a straight-edge across the pump body and
checking the gap between the straight-edge
and gear face. If the clearances are outside
the specified tolerance, renew the oil pump
complete (photos).
Oil pump - removal,
checking and refitting
#
66 Drain the engine oil and remove the sump
pan as described in the last sub-Section.
Unscrew and remove the oil filter cartridge.
67 Remove the timing belt.
68 Lock the crankshaft against rotation either
by placing a block of wood between a
crankshaft web and the inside of the
crankcase or by jamming the flywheel starter
ring gear with a suitable tool.
69 Unscrew and remove the crankshaft
sprocket bolt and take off the timing belt
sprocket. If it is tight, use two screwdrivers to
lever it off or use a two- or three-legged puller.
70 Unbolt and remove the oil pick-up/filter
screen assembly. Note the sealing washer.
5B.63B Sump pan flange end fixing screw
and nut
5B.72A Removing the oil pump relief valve
keeper plate
5B.72B Oil pump relief valve components
5B.73 Removing the oil pump rear cover
plate screws
5B.74A Checking the oil pump gear-tohousing clearance
5B.74B Checking the oil pump gear
endfloat
Supplement: Revisions and information on later models 13•25
5B.77A Removing the oil pump seal
5B.77B Using a socket to fit the new oil
pump oil seal
5B.78 Fitting the oil pump
75 If the pump is unworn, refit the rear cover
plate and tighten the screws fully.
76 Apply air pressure from a tyre pump to the
oil pump oil ducts to clear any sludge or other
material and then prime the pump by pouring
clean engine oil into its intake duct at the
same time turning the oil pump inner gear with
the fingers.
77 Lever out the oil seal and drive a new one
squarely into the oil pump casing (photos).
Lubricate the oil seal lips.
78 Bolt the pump into position using a new
joint gasket. Note one bolt is longer than the
others (photo).
79 Bolt on the oil pick-up assembly using a
new sealing washer.
80 Fit the crankshaft sprocket and tighten the
bolt to specified torque.
81 Fit and tension the timing belt.
82 Fit the sump pan. Screw on a new oil filter
cartridge. Wait for the specified period of time
(one hour) and then fill the engine with oil.
83 Run the engine for a few minutes, then
check and top up the oil level.
however, the main bearing shells will almost
certainly be worn as well, necessitating a
complete overhaul, including crankshaft
removal.
87 To remove the piston/connecting rods,
the cylinder head must be removed.
88 The big-end caps and their connecting
rods are numbered 1, 2, 3 and 4 from the
timing cover end of the engine. The numbers
are located either side of the rod/cap joint on
the engine oil dipstick tube side (photo).
89 Turn the crankshaft as necessary to bring
the first connecting rod big-end crankpin to its
lowest point, then unscrew the cap bolts and
remove the cap and shell bearing.
90 Push the connecting rod/piston assembly
up the bore and out of the cylinder block.
There is one reservation; if a wear ridge has
developed at the top of the bores, remove this
by careful scraping before trying to remove
the piston/rod assemblies. The ridge will
otherwise prevent removal, or break the
piston rings during the attempt.
91 Remove the remaining piston/connecting
rods in a similar way. If the bearing shells are
to be used again, tape them to their
respective caps or rods.
92 Removal of the piston rings and
separation of the piston from the connecting
rod is covered in the next sub-Section.
93 Fit the bearing shells into the connecting
rods and caps, ensuring that the recesses into
which the shells seat are clean and dry.
94 Check that the piston ring gaps are evenly
spaced at 120º intervals. Liberally oil the rings
and the cylinder bores.
95 Fit a piston ring clamp to compress the
rings, oiling the rings and the clamp interior
surfaces liberally.
96 Insert the first piston/connecting rod into
its cylinder bore. Make sure that the assembly
is the correct one for its particular bore. The
cap and rod matching numbers must be
towards the engine oil dipstick guide tube and
the arrow on the piston crown towards the
timing belt (photo).
97 Push the piston into the bore until the
piston ring clamp is against the cylinder block
and then tap the crown of the piston lightly to
push it out of the ring clamp and into the bore
(photo).
98 Oil the crankshaft journal and fit the
big-end of the connecting rod to the journal.
Check that the bearing shells are still in
position, then fit the big-end cap and bolts;
check that the cap is the right way round
(photo).
Pistons/connecting rods removal and refitting
#
84 Remove the sump pan.
85 Unbolt and remove the oil pump
pick-up/filter screen assembly.
86 The big-end bearing shells can be
renewed without having to remove the
cylinder head if the caps are unbolted and the
piston/connecting rod pushed gently about
one inch up the bore (the crankpin being at its
lowest point). If these shells are worn,
5B.88 Connecting rod and cap numbers
13
5B.96 Piston directional arrow
5B.97 Fitting a piston/connecting rod
5B.98 Fitting a big-end bearing cap
13•26 Supplement: Revisions and information on later models
5B.99 Tightening a big-end cap bolt
Fig. 13.5 Piston ring arrangement on the
999 cc engine (Sec 5B)
99 Tighten the big-end bolts to the specified
torque (photo). The correct torque is
important as the bolts have no locking
arrangement. After tightening each big-end,
check that the crankshaft rotates smoothly.
100 Repeat the operations on the remaining
piston/rod assemblies.
101 Refit the oil pump pick-up assembly
using a new sealing ring.
102 Refit the sump pan and the cylinder head
as described in earlier sub-Sections.
103 Fill the engine with oil and coolant.
the piston rings should be fitted so that the
word TOP is uppermost.
105 If new pistons are to be fitted, it is
recommended that the gudgeon pins are
removed and refitted by a FIAT dealer as the
connecting rods must be carefully heated in
order to be able to push the gudgeon pin out
of the rod small-end, change the piston and
push the pin back into position. Locating the
gudgeon pin will require a special tool. The
gudgeon pin is a sliding fit in the piston but an
interference fit in the connecting rod.
106 Refer to Fig. 13.6 for the correct
assembly of the piston and connecting rod.
Pistons/connecting rods separation and piston
ring renewal
™
104 If the piston/connecting rods have been
removed in order to renew the piston rings,
refer to Chapter 1, Section 18, but note that
Engine/transmission mountings
- renewal
107 Refer to Chapter 1, Section 33. Three
mountings are used (photos).
Fig. 13.6 Piston/connecting rod correctly
assembled - 999 and 1108 cc engine
(Sec 5B)
1 Piston grade (A) and directional arrow on
piston crown (towards timing belt)
2 Rod/cap matching numbers
3 Gudgeon pin offset in piston (0.9 to 1.1 mm)
Arrow indicates crankshaft rotation direction
PART C: ENGINE REMOVAL
AND DISMANTLING
Method of removal - general
1 The engine, complete with transmission,
should be removed upwards out of the engine
compartment.
Engine/transmission removal and separation
5B.107A Left-hand front
engine/transmission mounting
5B.107B Left-hand rear
engine/transmission mounting
5B.107C Right-hand engine mounting
5C.7A Radiator hose connection to coolant
distribution tube
#
Warning: Refer to the beginning
of Section 9 before starting any
work.
2 Mark the position of the hinges on the
underside of the bonnet and then, with the
help of an assistant, unscrew the hinge bolts
and lift the bonnet to a safe storage area.
3 Drain the coolant; a cylinder block drain
plug is not fitted.
4 Drain the engine and transmission oils.
5 Disconnect the battery, negative lead first.
6 Remove the air filter.
7 Disconnect the radiator hoses from the
engine (photos).
5C.7B Radiator hose at thermostat
housing
Supplement: Revisions and information on later models 13•27
5C.9 Fuel hose identification at pump; inlet
hose (1), hose to carburettor (2), return
hose (3)
5C.12 Choke cable connection at
carburettor
5C.15 Ignition coil HT lead connection
8 Disconnect the heater hose from the inlet
manifold.
9 On fuel injection models, depressurize the
fuel system (refer to Section 9D). Disconnect
the fuel inlet and return hoses from the fuel
pump (photo) or throttle body, as applicable.
10 Disconnect the brake servo vacuum hose
from the inlet manifold.
11 Disconnect the throttle cable from the
carburettor, or throttle body as applicable.
12 Disconnect the choke cable, if applicable
(photo).
13 Disconnect the leads from the alternator.
14 Disconnect the battery earth lead from the
transmission casing.
15 Disconnect the leads from the starter
motor and the HT lead from the ignition coil
(photo).
16 Disconnect the coolant temperature
switch lead and the HT leads from the
distributor (photo).
17 Disconnect the lead from the carburettor
fuel cut-off (anti-diesel) solenoid valve, where
applicable.
18 Disconnect the lead from the oil pressure
switch (photo).
19 Although not essential, removal of the
radiator is recommended as a precaution
against its damage during removal of the
power unit. Disconnect the wiring plugs
from the fan and thermostatic switches
(photos).
20 Disconnect the leads from the reversing
lamp switch on the transmission.
21 Disconnect the clutch cable from the
release lever on the transmission.
22 Disconnect the speedometer cable from
the transmission by unscrewing the knurled
ring.
23 Working under the car, disconnect the
exhaust downpipes from the manifold and the
lower support bracket (photos).
24 Disconnect the gearchange rods from the
levers on the transmission. One rod is
retained by a spring clip, the other by a
5C.16 Coolant temperature switch
5C.18 Oil pressure switch
5C.19A Radiator retaining clip
13
5C.19B Radiator fan motor wiring
connector
5C.19C Radiator fan cut-out thermostatic
switch
5C.19D Removing the radiator/fan
assembly
13•28 Supplement: Revisions and information on later models
5C.23A Exhaust downpipe flange nuts
5C.23B Unscrewing the exhaust pipe lower
support bracket bolt
5C.24B Gearchange rod with ball socket
connection
5C.24C Gearchange rod support bracket
5C.25A Two of the left-hand driveshaft
joint gaiter retaining plate screws
(arrowed)
5C.25B Driveshaft joint gaiter withdrawn
5C.26 Left-hand rear (lower) transmission
mounting disconnected
5C.31A Right-hand engine mounting
disconnected
5C.24A Gearchange rod connecting pin
and spring clip
snap-on ball socket. Unbolt the gearchange
rod support bracket from the cover plate on
the flywheel housing (photos).
25 Remove the screws from the driveshaft
inboard gaiter retaining plates (photos).
Expect slight oil loss.
26 Disconnect
the
rear
left-hand
transmission mounting. Do this by unscrewing
the two outer bolts not the centre one. The
engine will incline to the rear once the
mounting is released (photo).
27 Raise the front of the car and support it
securely so that the front roadwheels hang
free.
28 Remove the front roadwheels.
29 Unscrew the tie-rod end balljoint taper pin
nuts, and then using a suitable “splitter” tool,
disconnect the balljoints from the eyes of the
steering arms.
30 Unscrew the bolts from the clamps at the
bottom of the front suspension struts, tilt the
hub carriers outwards and partially disconnect
the driveshaft inboard joints from the
transmission.
31 Support the weight of the engine/
transmission on a suitable hoist, and then
disconnect the right-hand and lefthand front engine/transmission mountings
(photos).
32 Unbolt and remove the engine mounting
brackets from the engine and the
transmission (photo).
33 Raise the power unit slowly until the
driveshafts release from the transmission and
5C.31B Left-hand engine mounting and
bracket
Supplement: Revisions and information on later models 13•29
5C.32 Right-hand engine mounting
brackets on body and engine
5C.34 Lifting out the engine and
transmission
5C.39 Separating the engine and
transmission
can be lowered to rest on the exhaust and
bodymember.
34 Continue to raise the engine and the
transmission until it can be removed from the
engine compartment and placed on the work
surface (photo).
35 Clean the exterior of the engine and
transmission by steam cleaning or using a
water soluble solvent.
36 Unbolt and remove the starter motor.
37 Unscrew the flywheel housing-to-engine
flange bolts. Note the location of the engine
lifting lug.
38 Unbolt and remove the lower cover plate
from the flywheel housing.
39 Pull the transmission from the engine. It is
located by two hollow dowels and one stud
(photo).
46 Unscrew and discard the oil filter
cartridge.
47 Unbolt the thermostat housing, discard
the joint gasket.
48 Remove the fuel pump, together with its
insulator block and actuating pushrod, if
applicable.
49 Remove the carburettor, or throttle body,
as appropriate.
50 Remove the inlet manifold and discard the
joint gasket.
51 Remove the alternator and its drivebelt
and withdraw the engine oil dipstick.
52 Unbolt and remove the crankshaft pulley.
53 Unbolt and remove the timing belt
tensioner.
54 Remove the timing belt.
55 Unbolt and remove the coolant pump.
56 Remove the cylinder head.
57 Remove and discard the cylinder head
gasket.
58 Remove the clutch.
59 Lock the flywheel starter ring gear teeth
and remove the crankshaft sprocket bolt and
sprocket.
60 Unbolt and remove the sump pan,
then the exhaust pipe support bracket
(photos).
61 Prevent rotation of the crankshaft by
locking the starter ring gear teeth and then
unbolt and remove the flywheel. The flywheel
can only be fitted in one position as it is
located on a dowel.
62 Remove the engine rear plate. Note the
small socket-headed screw which holds the
timing index plate (photo).
63 Unbolt and remove the oil pump pick-up
assembly, followed by the oil pump itself.
64 Turn the engine on its side and remove
the piston/connecting rod assemblies.
65 Stand the engine on its cylinder block
machined face, and then unbolt and remove
the crankshaft rear oil seal retainer. Discard
the gasket.
66 Note the markings on the main bearing
caps. One line on the cap nearest the timing
belt, then two, C for centre cap, then three
and four (photo).
67 The caps will only fit one way round.
68 Unbolt the main bearing caps, removing
them with the shell bearings.
69 Lift the crankshaft from the crankcase and
remove the bearing half shells from the
Dismantling - general
40 Refer to Chapter 1, Section 14.
Complete dismantling
#
Warning: Refer to the beginning
of Section 9 before starting any
work.
41 Unbolt and remove the camshaft cover.
42 Unbolt and remove the timing belt cover.
43 Remove the distributor (Section 10).
44 Remove the hot air collector and the
exhaust manifold.
45 Release, disconnect and remove the
coolant distribution pipe from the rear of the
coolant pump.
5C.60A Removing the sump pan
13
5C.60B Exhaust pipe support bracket
attached to crankcase
5C.62 Unscrewing socket-head screw
from timing index plate
5C.66 Main bearing cap markings
13•30 Supplement: Revisions and information on later models
5C.80 Timing belt tensioner
Fig. 13.8 Checking a cam follower for
ovality - 999 and 1108 cc engine (Sec 5C)
crankcase. If the shells are to be used again,
keep them with their respective bearing caps.
70 The thrust washers which control
crankshaft endfloat are located in the
crankcase, and retained by the turned-over
edges of the centre main bearing shell.
71 The engine is now fully stripped.
81 The timing belt should be inspected at
regular intervals for correct adjustment and
condition (see Section 3 or “Routine
maintenance” at the beginning of the Manual).
If there is evidence of worn teeth, cracking or
fraying, or oil contamination, renew the belt.
The vehicle manufacturers recommend that
the belt is renewed whenever it is removed,
and it should certainly be renewed at the
intervals specified in Section 3 or the main
“Routine maintenance” section at the
beginning of this Manual as a precautionary
measure against belt breakage and
consequent expensive engine damage.
Examination and renovation
72 The procedures for the following items are
essentially as described in Chapter 1, Section 18.
Cylinder block and crankcase
Crankshaft and bearings
Flywheel
Oil seals and gaskets
Cylinder head
73 Using a straight-edge, check the cylinder
head gasket surface for distortion. If it
exceeds the specified tolerance, it must be
surface ground by your dealer.
Fig. 13.7 Metal removing areas (arrowed)
on connecting rod - 999 and 1108 cc
engine (Sec 5C)
74 Refer to Chapter 1, Section 39, for
dismantling and renovation operations. Note
that single valve springs are fitted.
Oil pump
75 Checking operations are described in
sub-Section B.
Pistons and connecting rods
76 Refer to sub-Section B.
77 If one or more connecting rods are
changed, it is important that its weight is
identical to that of the original. Use an
accurate balance to weigh them and remove
metal if necessary from the new rod in the
areas indicated in Fig. 13.7.
Camshaft and cam followers
PART D:
ENGINE REASSEMBLY AND
REFITTING
Reassembly - general
1 Refer to Chapter 1, Section 19.
Complete reassembly
#
5D.2 Main bearing shell in crankcase
80 The tensioner is a lubricant-sealed pulley,
and it should be tested for smooth and quiet
operation by turning it with the fingers. Any
evidence of roughness or rattle will indicate
the need for a new assembly (photo).
2 With the cylinder block/crankcase standing
on the work surface, fit the bearing half shells
into their crankcase seats (photo). Make sure
that the seats are perfectly clean as dirt or grit
trapped under the shell will cause binding
when the crankshaft is turned.
3 The centre bearing crankcase web
incorporates the thrust washers held by the
lips of the bearing shell (photo).
4 Oil the shells and lower the crankshaft into
the crankcase (photo).
5 Fit the bearing shells into the main bearing
caps, again making sure that the shell seats
are perfectly clean (photo).
5D.3 Crankshaft thrust washer at centre
bearing
5D.4 Fitting the crankshaft
5D.5 Main bearing cap and shell
78 If the camshaft journals or bearings show
any sign of wear or scoring, then the
camshaft, or cylinder head, or both must be
renewed.
79 The cam followers should be checked for
ovality using a micrometer. Unless unworn
they should be renewed.
Timing belt tensioner and timing belt
Supplement: Revisions and information on later models 13•31
5D.6 Fitting a main bearing cap
5D.7A Initial tightening of a main bearing
cap bolt
5D.7B Angle-tightening a main bearing cap
bolt
6 Fit the main bearing caps in their numbered
sequence and the correct way round (photo).
7 Clean the threads of the main bearing cap
bolts, lightly oil them and screw them in
finger-tight. Tighten all bolts progressively to
the specified torque, then check that the
crankshaft turns smoothly and evenly
(photos).
8 Now check the crankshaft endfloat. Do this
using a dial gauge or feeler blades inserted
between the machined shoulder of a journal
and the side of the bearing cap (photo). Move
the crankshaft fully in one direction and then
the other to ensure that full movement is
obtained. If the endfloat is outside the
specified tolerance and new bearing shells
have been fitted, then a fault must have
occurred during crankshaft regrinding.
9 Fit a new oil seal to the crankshaft rear oil
seal retainer. Apply grease to the seal lips. A
conventional gasket is not used at the oil seal
joint face but a 3.0 mm diameter bead of RTV
silicone instant gasket must be applied
to a clean surface as shown in Fig. 13.9
(photo).
10 Bolt the retainer into position. One hour at
least must be allowed for the RTV to cure
before oil contacts it.
11 Turn the engine on its side and fit the
piston/connecting rods as described in
sub-Section B.
12 Fit a new oil seal to the oil pump, oil the
seal lips and bolt on the pump using a new
joint gasket (photos).
13 Use a new sealing washer and fit the oil
pick-up/filter screen assembly.
14 Fit the engine rear plate and then the
flywheel on its mounting flange. Apply
thread-locking fluid to (clean) bolt threads and
screw in the bolts to the specified torque
(photo). Hold the flywheel against rotation by
locking the starter ring gear with a suitable
tool.
15 Fit the sump pan as described in
sub-Section B.
16 Fit the crankshaft sprocket so that the
timing mark is visible. Lock the flywheel
starter ring gear teeth, and screw in and
5D.8 Checking crankshaft endfloat using a
dial gauge
Fig. 13.9 Application area for silicone
gasket on crankshaft rear oil seal retainer
(Sec 5D)
5D.9 Fitting crankshaft rear oil seal
retainer
13
5D.12A Oil pump gasket
5D.12B Tightening an oil pump bolt
5D.14 Tightening a flywheel bolt
13•32 Supplement: Revisions and information on later models
5D.16A Crankshaft sprocket showing
integral key
5D.16B Tightening the crankshaft sprocket
bolt
5D.20 Fitting the timing belt rear cover
tighten the sprocket bolt to the specified
torque (photos).
17 Refit the clutch to the flywheel as
5D.22 Crankshaft pulley installation
described in Chapter 5. Make sure that the
driven plate is centralised.
18 Fit the cylinder head.
19 Refit the coolant pump. A conventional
gasket is not used at the joint face, but apply
a continuous bead of RTV silicone instant
gasket 3.0 mm in diameter to the pump
mating surface. Allow at least one hour for
curing before permitting coolant to contact it.
20 Fit the timing belt rear cover, then the
timing belt tensioner and lock in its retracted
position (photo).
21 Fit and tension the timing belt as
described in sub-Section B.
22 Bolt on the crankshaft pulley (photo).
23 Refit the alternator and drivebelt (photo).
24 Refit the engine oil dipstick.
25 Using a new gasket, bolt on the inlet
manifold, tightening the nuts to the specified
torque (photos).
26 Refit the carburettor, or throttle body, as
appropriate.
27 Fit the fuel pump, insulator block and
actuating rod, if applicable. Make sure that a
new gasket is placed on each side of the
pump insulator block.
28 Using a new gasket, bolt on the
thermostat housing.
29 Oil the sealing ring of a new oil filter
cartridge and screw it into position using hand
pressure only (photo).
30 Refit the coolant distribution pipe to the
rear of the coolant pump. Use a new seal
(photo).
31 Using a new gasket, bolt on the exhaust
manifold (photo).
5D.23 Alternator and drivebelt
5D.25A Inlet manifold gasket
5D.25B Fitting the inlet manifold
5D.29 Oil filter cartridge and mounting
base
5D.30 Coolant distribution pipe
5D.31 Exhaust manifold
Supplement: Revisions and information on later models 13•33
5D.32 Air cleaner hot air collector plate
5D.38 Lifting eye on flywheel housing
flange
5D.45 Connecting ball socket type
gearchange rod
32 Fit the hot air collector plate for the air
cleaner (photo).
33 Refer to Section 10 and fit the distributor.
34 Bolt on the timing belt cover.
35 Fit the camshaft cover, using a new
gasket unless the original one is in perfect
condition.
torque, having located the lifting eye (photo).
39 Bolt on the starter motor.
40 Refit the cover plate to the flywheel
housing, but do not insert the lower bolts at
this stage as they retain the support bracket
for the gearchange rod.
41 The engine and transmission are now
ready for refitting. The operations are a direct
reversal of the operations described earlier,
but observe the following points.
42 Have the engine/transmission perfectly
horizontal and suspended on the hoist.
43 Lower it into position very slowly until it is
possible to engage the driveshaft inboard
joints with the transmission.
44 Continue lowering until the driveshafts
can be fully engaged and the mountings
reconnected. Remove the hoist.
45 Tighten all nuts and bolts to the specified
torque. Note the method shown for
connecting the gearchange rod ball socket
using pliers (photo).
46 Refill the engine with oil and coolant and
replenish the transmission oil.
Engine/transmission reconnection and refitting
#
36 Locate the engine in an upright position
on wooden blocks to allow for the greater
depth of the transmission flywheel housing
when it is joined to the engine.
37 Make sure that the clutch driven plate has
been centralised, offer the transmission to the
engine and locate the flywheel housing on the
single stud and dowels.
38 Tighten the connecting bolts to specified
Initial start-up after major
overhaul
47 Refer to Chapter 1, Section 45.
6 Engine 1301 cc Turbo ie
PART A: GENERAL
Description
1 This engine is similar in design to the
1301 cc engine described in Chapter 1, but
the fuel and ignition systems are different, and
a turbocharger, oil cooler and intercooler are
fitted.
2 Many dimensions and tolerances have
been altered for this engine, and reference
should be made to the Specifications at the
beginning of this Supplement.
3 Operations which differ from those
described in Chapter 1 are given in the
following sub-Sections.
Lubrication system - description
Fig. 13.10 Cutaway view of the 1301 cc Turbo ie engine (Sec 6A)
4 The lubrication system differs from the
non-Turbo 1301 cc engine in the following
respects.
5 An oil cooler is fitted, which comprises a
matrix with inlet and outlet hoses connected
to the oil filter cartridge mounting base.
6 A thermostatic control switch is fitted,
which diverts the oil flow through the matrix
only at oil temperatures above 84ºC (183ºF).
Note that a faulty switch will require renewal
of the complete oil filter mounting base.
7 Special oil spray nozzles are located in the
crankcase main bearing webs, to cool the
underside of the pistons.
8 The ball-type valves in the nozzles open
when the engine oil pressure reaches 1.2 bars
(17.4 lbf/in2).
9 An oil pressure sender unit is screwed into
13
13•34 Supplement: Revisions and information on later models
6A.9 Oil pressure sender unit
PART B:
OPERATIONS POSSlBLE
WITH ENGINE IN CAR
Camshaft and camshaft
carrier - removal and
refitting
#
Warning: Refer to the beginning
of Section 9 before starting any
work.
Fig. 13.11 1301 cc Turbo ie engine lubrication system (Sec 6A)
1
2
3
4
5
Oil pick-up strainer
Oil pump
Oil pressure relief valve
Oil filter cartridge
Main oil gallery
6
7
8
9
10
Camshaft oil feed
Low oil pressure switch
Engine oil cooler
Filter mounting base
Turbocharger oil feed
the crankcase to operate the oil pressure
gauge. In addition, a low oil pressure switch
screwed into the camshaft oil gallery actuates
a warning light on the instrument panel in the
11 Turbocharger oil return
12 Oil pressure sender unit
13 Oil temperature sender
unit
14 Piston oil spray nozzle
event of the pressure dropping dangerously
low (photo).
10 Oil supply/return ducts provide the
turbocharger lubrication.
1 Disconnect the battery, negative lead first.
2 Disconnect its leads and unbolt the
distributor from the end of the camshaft, and
place it to one side.
3 Disconnect the air intake hose from the
throttle valve housing.
4 Disconnect the short throttle control cable
from its sector.
5 Remove the throttle cable support bracket.
6 Disconnect the earth leads from the
camshaft cover.
7 Refer to Section 9, Part C of this
Supplement and remove the following
components.
Supplementary air valve
Inlet manifold with fuel pressure regulator
and excess pressure safety switch
Injector cooling duct
8 Disconnect the wiring plug from the
Microplex ignition anti-knock sensor.
9 Carry out the operations described in
Chapter 1, Section 27, paragraphs 4 to 12.
10 Refitting is a reversal of removal, referring
to Section 28 of Chapter 1 for the timing belt
refitting procedure, and to Chapter 1, Section 27, paragraphs 15 to 18.
Cylinder head removal and refitting
Fig. 13.12 Piston oil spray nozzle locations - 1301 cc Turbo ie engine (Sec 6A)
Letters denote cylinder bore grade
#
11 Carry out the operations described in
paragraphs 4 to 9 in the preceding
sub-Section, then refer to Chapter 1, Section
29, but ignore all references to the
carburettor.
12 Note the distributor mounting cover.
13 Four additional cylinder head bolts are
used on these engines, adjacent to the spark
plugs (photo). Note that their tightening torque
differs from the other cylinder head bolts - see
Specifications. These four bolts are tightened
Supplement: Revisions and information on later models 13•35
Fig. 13.13 Cylinder head bolt tightening
sequence on the 1301 cc Turbo ie engine
(Sec 6B)
Fig. 13.14 Piston ring arrangement on the
1301 cc Turbo ie engine (Sec 6B)
separately, after the ten main bolts (see
Fig. 13.13).
17 The operations described in Chapter 1,
Section 28 generally apply, but the following
differences should be noted.
18 Remove the engine compartment
right-hand shield. This is secured by plastic
clips. To remove a clip, push out its centre
pin.
19 The TDC sensor must be unbolted to
provide room to remove and refit the timing
belt, which can be carried out without
having to remove the crankshaft pulley
(photos).
20 The belt tensioner on later versions
does not incorporate a spring, but is of
eccentric centre bolt hole type. Have the
pulley bolt released, and tension the belt by
turning the pulley using a pin wrench or
circlip pliers in the two holes provided.
Keep the tension applied while the lockbolt
is tightened. Turn the crankshaft through
two complete turns, and then check the belt
tension. With moderate finger and thumb
pressure, the belt should just twist through
6B.16A Engine/transmission centre
mounting
6B.16B Engine/transmission right-hand
mounting
Piston rings
14 The piston rings comprise two
compression rings marked TOP, and an oil
control ring.
15 Cross-sections and fitting details are
shown in Fig. 13.14.
Engine mountings - renewal
16 The operations are essentially as
described in Section 33 of Chapter 1, but note
the design and fixings of the individual
mountings used on the turbocharged engine
(photos).
Timing belt - renewal
#
6B.13 Two of the four additional cylinder
head bolts (arrowed)
90º when gripped at the mid-point of its
longest run (photo). Note: This procedure
serves only as a rough guide to setting the
belt tension - having it checked by a FIAT
dealer at the earliest opportunity is
recommended.
Oil pump drivegear cover plate
21 Due to the fact that the distributor is
driven from the end of the camshaft, the oil
pump gear does not have an extension to
drive the distributor, which would be the case
if it was mounted on the crankcase.
22 The crankcase aperture is therefore
covered by a plate and gasket, together with a
wiring clip (photo).
6B.19A Removing the TDC sensor
13
6B.19B Removing the timing belt
6B.20 Belt tensioner pulley locknut
(arrowed)
6B.22 Distributor drive hole cover plate
(arrowed)
13•36 Supplement: Revisions and information on later models
6B.23 Oil cooler
Engine oil cooler removal and refitting
¡
23 The oil cooler is mounted behind the front
bumper/spoiler (photo).
24 Disconnect the oil flow and return hoses,
either from the cooler or the oil filter cartridge
mounting base. Be prepared for some
leakage of oil (photos).
25 Unscrew the mounting bolts and remove
the oil cooler heat exchanger (photo).
26 When refitting, make sure that the banjo
union sealing washers are in good condition.
PART C: ENGINE REMOVAL,
DISMANTLING, REASSEMBLY
AND REFITTING
Engine/transmission removal and separation
#
Warning: Refer to the beginning
of Section 9 before starting any
work.
1 Refer to Chapter 1, Section 35, and carry
out the operations described in paragraphs 1
to 11.
2 Disconnect the excessive air pressure
switch from the inlet manifold.
3 Disconnect the ducts and remove the
airflow meter.
4 Disconnect the leads from the spark plugs
and the distributor LT connector, and unbolt
and remove the distributor from the rear end
of the camshaft carrier.
5 Disconnect the fuel return hose from the
pressure regulator.
6B.24A Oil cooler pipe connection
(arrowed)
6B.24B Connections at oil filter cartridge
mounting base
6 Disconnect the fuel inlet hose from the
injector rail.
7 Disconnect the wiring plugs from the fuel
injectors.
8 Disconnect the leads from the oil pressure
sender unit, the low oil pressure switch and
the coolant temperature switch.
9 Remove the hose/pipe assemblies from the
intercooler.
10 Disconnect the throttle control rod at the
balljoint.
11 Disconnect the hoses and ducts from the
turbocharger and the mechanical bypass
valve.
12 Disconnect the leads from the engine
speed and anti-knock sensors.
13 Raise the front of the car and support it
securely. As the engine/transmission will
eventually be lowered to the floor, make sure
that there is sufficient clearance under the
front end for the assembly to be withdrawn. If
the car is over an inspection pit, then the car
need only be raised enough to lift the
roadwheels from the floor.
14 Remove the front roadwheels.
15 Disconnect the transmission earth cable.
16 Working under the car, remove the engine
shields from under the wheel arches.
17 Remove the engine oil cooler, and the
intercooler.
18 Unscrew the fixing screws and disconnect
the driveshafts from the flanges at the
transmission final drive. The right-hand
driveshaft will not release until the upper bolt
on the suspension strut-to-hub carrier clamp
has been removed, and the hub assembly
tilted downwards.
19 Disconnect the exhaust downpipe from
the manifold, and then remove the front
section of the exhaust system.
20 Disconnect the coolant return pipe from
the turbocharger.
21 Disconnect the gearchange control rods
from the transmission selector rod. Do this by
unscrewing the self-locking nut from the bolt
which connects the clevis fork.
22 Attach suitable lifting gear to the engine
lifting eyes, and take the weight of the
engine/transmission.
23 Disconnect the left-front, centre-rear and
the right-hand engine/transmission mountings.
Do this by removing the bolts from the
diamond-shaped mounting plates there is no
need to disturb the flexible mounting centre
bolts.
24 Lower the engine/transmission to the floor
and withdraw it from under the car.
25 Carry out the operations described in
Chapter 1, Section 35, paragraphs 27 to 31.
Engine dismantling and
reassembly
26 The operations are essentially as
described for the 1301 cc engine in Chapter 1,
but reference must be made to Sections 9
and 10 of this Chapter for the procedures for
removing and refitting the components of the
fuel injection, turbocharger and ignition
systems.
Engine/transmission reconnection and refitting
6B.25 Oil cooler mounting bolts (arrowed)
6C.27 Filling the engine with oil
27 The operations are a reversal of those
described in paragraphs 1 to 25, but
otherwise the following (photo).
a) Tighten all nuts and bolts to the specified
torque.
b) Use a new gasket at the exhaust
downpipe-to-manifold flange.
c) Check and adjust the clutch pedal travel.
d) Refill the cooling system.
e) Refill the engine and transmission with oil.
f) Reconnect the battery, negative lead
last.
Supplement: Revisions and information on later models 13•37
7A.11 Topping up the engine oil level 1372 cc engine
Initial start-up after major
overhaul
28 Refer to Chapter 1, Section 45, but note
that an oil pressure gauge is fitted to indicate
oil pressure.
29 Check the ignition static timing as
described in Section 10.
30 Check the engine idle speed and CO level
as described in Section 9.
7 Engine 1372 cc ie and 1372 cc
Turbo ie
PART A: GENERAL
Description
1 The 1372 cc engine is similar in design to
the OHC engine fitted to the FIAT Tipo
variants. The engine is of four-cylinder, in-line,
overhead
camshaft
type,
mounted
transversely at the front of the vehicle.
2 The crankshaft runs in five main bearings.
Thrustwashers are fitted to the rear (flywheel
end) main bearing in order to control
crankshaft endfloat.
3 The connecting rods are attached to the
crankshaft by horizontally split shell-type
big-end bearings. The pistons are attached to
the connecting rods by fully-floating gudgeon
pins which are secured by circlips. The
aluminium alloy pistons are fitted with three
piston rings: two compression rings and an oil
control ring.
4 The camshaft is driven by a toothed belt
and operates the valves via bucket and shim
type cam followers. The camshaft is located in
a separate housing on top of the cylinder
head.
5 The inlet and exhaust valves are each
closed by double valve springs, and operate
in guides pressed into the cylinder head.
6 The auxiliary shaft, which is also driven by
the toothed belt, drives the oil pump.
7 Lubrication is by means of a gear type
pump which draws oil through a strainer
located in the sump, and forces it through a
full-flow filter into the engine oil galleries from
7A.12A Engine sump drain plug - 1372 cc
engine
where it is distributed to the crankshaft,
camshaft and auxiliary shaft. The big-end
bearings are supplied with oil via internal
drillings in the crankshaft. The undersides of
the pistons are cooled by oil spray nozzles
located in each main bearing location in the
crankcase.
8 A crankcase ventilation system is
employed, whereby piston blow-by gases are
drawn via an oil separator into the air cleaner,
from where they are drawn into the inlet
manifold and re-burnt with fresh air/fuel
mixture.
9 The 1372 cc ie engine is fitted with a Bosch
Mono-Jetronic single point fuel injection (SPi)
system. Whilst the higher performance
1372 cc Turbo ie engine is fitted with a Bosch
L3.1 (L3.2 from 1992) Jetronic multi-point
injection (MPi) system and turbocharger with
intercooler and oil cooling. The L3.2 system
models are fitted with catalytic converters.
Maintenance
™
10 At the intervals specified in Section 3 or
“Routine maintenance” at the beginning of
this Manual, carry out the following tasks.
11 Check the engine oil level as follows. With
the vehicle parked on level ground, and with
the engine having been stopped for a few
minutes, withdraw the oil level dipstick, wipe it
on a clean rag, and re-insert it fully. Withdraw
the dipstick again and read off the oil level
relative to the MAX and MIN marks. The oil
level should be between the marks. If the level
is at or below the MIN mark, top up through
the filler on the camshaft cover without delay
(photo). The quantity of oil required to raise
the level from MIN to MAX on the dipstick is
approximately 1.0 litre (1.8 pints). Do not
overfill.
12 Renew the engine oil and filter as
described in Section 2 of Chapter 1 (photos).
13 Check and if necessary adjust the valve
clearances as described in Part B of this
Section.
14 Inspect the engine for signs of oil, coolant
or fuel leaks and rectify as necessary.
15 Inspect the crankcase ventilation hose for
blockage or damage. Clean or renew as
necessary.
16 Check the condition and tension of the
7A.12B Engine oil filter removal using a
strap wrench - 1372 cc engine
Fig. 13.15 Engine oil level dipstick location
and level markings on the 1372 cc ie and
Turbo ie engines (Sec 7A)
timing belt as described in Part B of this
Section.
17 Renew the timing belt as described in
Part B of this Section.
PART B:
OPERATIONS POSSlBLE
WITH ENGINE IN CAR
Valve clearances checking and adjustment
#
1 It is important to ensure that the valve
clearances are set correctly, as incorrect
clearances will result in incorrect valve timing
thus affecting engine performance.
2 The clearances must be checked and
adjusted with the engine cold.
3 On the ie engine, refer to Section 9 in this
Chapter for details and remove the air cleaner
unit.
4 On the ie engine disconnect the crankcase
ventilation hose from the injector unit and
position the hose out of the way.
5 On Turbo ie engines, loosen off the clips
and remove the air hose to the inlet manifold
(above the camshaft cover).
6 On Turbo ie engines, disconnect the
accelerator cable from the throttle housing
and the support bracket on the camshaft
cover.
7 Unscrew the securing nuts and washers
and remove the camshaft cover, noting that
on later models two of the nuts also secure
the hose clip assembly. Recover the gasket.
8 Numbering from the front (timing belt) end
of the engine, the exhaust valves are 1, 4, 5
and 8, and the inlet valves are 2, 3, 6 and 7.
13
13•38 Supplement: Revisions and information on later models
7B.10 Measuring a valve clearance
(No 2 valve shown)
7B.14 Special tool for retaining cam
follower in depressed position
7B.15 Removing a shim from a cam
follower
9 Turn the engine clockwise using a suitable
socket on the crankshaft pulley bolt, until the
exhaust valve of No 1 cylinder (valve No 1) is
fully closed; ie the cam lobe is pointing
directly upwards. Alternatively, the engine can
be turned by jacking up one front corner of
the vehicle and supporting it securely on an
axle stand (apply the handbrake and chock
the diagonally-opposite rear wheel before
jacking), engaging top gear and turning the
raised roadwheel in the forward direction of
travel. In both cases, it will be easier to turn
the engine if the spark plugs are removed, but
if this is done, take care not to allow dirt or
other foreign matter to enter the spark plug
holes.
10 Insert a feeler gauge of the correct
thickness between the cam follower shim and
the heel of the No 1 cam lobe (photo). If
necessary, increase or reduce the thickness
of the feeler gauge until it is a firm sliding fit.
Record the thickness of the feeler gauge,
which will represent the valve clearance for
this particular valve.
11 Turn the crankshaft, and repeat the
procedure for the remaining valves, recording
their respective clearances. Note that the
clearance for inlet and exhaust valves differs.
12 If a clearance is incorrect, the relevant
cam follower shim must be removed, and a
thicker or thinner shim must be fitted to
achieve the correct clearance. To remove a
shim proceed as follows.
13 Turn the crankshaft until the relevant cam
lobe is pointing directly upwards.
14 The cam follower must now be depressed
in order to extract the shim. FIAT special tool
No 1860642000 is available for this purpose,
but alternatively a suitable tool can be
improvised (photo). The tool should locate on
the rim of the cam follower, leaving enough
room for the shim to be prised out by means
of the cut-outs provided in the cam follower
rim. Depress the cam follower by turning the
crankshaft as described previously until the
relevant cam lobe is pointing directly
downwards, then fit the tool between the
camshaft and the edge of the cam follower to
retain the cam follower in the depressed
position.
15 Ensure that the tool is securely located, as
there is a risk of personal injury if the tool is
dislodged whilst the cam follower is
depressed, then turn the crankshaft until the
relevant cam lobe is pointing directly
upwards, leaving sufficient room to extract
the shim (photo). A pair of angle-nosed pliers
will greatly ease removal of the shim.
16 Once the shim has been extracted,
establish its thickness. The thickness in mm
should be stamped into the face of the shim,
although it is possible for wear to obliterate
the number, in which case the use of a metric
micrometer is the only way to accurately
establish the thickness.
17 Refer to the clearance recorded for the
valve concerned. If the clearance recorded
was larger than that specified, a thicker shim
must be fitted, and if the clearance recorded
was smaller than that specified, a thinner shim
must be fitted. The required thickness of shim
can be
calculated as follows.
Sample calculation - clearance too large:
Desired clearance (A)
0.40 mm
Measured clearance (B)
0.45 mm
Difference (B - A)
+ 0.05 mm
Original shim thickness
3.40 mm
Required shim thickness 3.40 + 0.05 =
3.45 mm
Sample calculation - clearance too small:
Desired clearance (A)
0.50 mm
Measured clearance (B)
0.35 mm
Difference (B - A)
0.15 mm
Original shim thickness
4.55 mm
Required shim thickness 4.55 - 0.15 =
4.40 mm
18 Shims are available in thicknesses from
3.20 to 4.70 mm, in steps of 0.05 mm. Note
that if several shims have to be changed, they
can often be interchanged, thus avoiding the
need by buy more new shims than are
necessary.
19 The shims should be fitted to the cam
followers with the stamped thickness marking
against the face of the cam follower.
20 After fitting a shim, rotate the crankshaft
as described previously until the relevant cam
lobe is pointing directly downwards (resting
on the shim), then carefully remove the tool
used to retain the follower in the depressed
position.
21 Re-check each relevant valve clearance
after fitting the shim.
22 On completion, where applicable, lower
the vehicle to the ground.
23 Refit the camshaft cover, using a new
gasket.
24 On the ie engine, reconnect the hoses and
refit the air cleaner unit.
25 On the Turbo ie engine, reconnect the air
hose and the accelerator cable.
Timing belt tensioner
and sprockets removal and refitting
#
Note: The timing belt must be renewed after
removal: never refit a used drivebelt. When
fitting the new timing belt it will need to be
correctly tensioned and to achieve this the
manufacturers specify the use of special tools
1860745200 (18760745300 on Turbo model)
and 1860745100. If these tools are not readily
available, an approximate setting can be
made, but in this instance it is strongly
recommended that the car be taken to a FIAT
dealer at the earliest opportunity to have the
belt tension checked and correctly set using
the recommended tools.
26 Loosen off the front right-hand side wheel
bolts, then raise and support the car at the
front end on axle stands. Remove the front
right-hand roadwheel.
27 Remove the underwing shield from the
right-hand wheel arch to allow access to the
lower timing cover and alternator fixings (photo).
7B.27 Underwing shield (A) showing
central compression pin (B) and retaining
clip (C). Drive pin through clip to remove
Supplement: Revisions and information on later models 13•39
7B.29 Slide back inspection cover in the
timing case
7B.30A Camshaft sprocket timing notch
aligned with timing (TDC) pointer in timing
case
7B.30B Crankshaft pulley and timing cover
timing marks
28 Loosen off the retaining clips and detach
the air intake pipe from the air filter.
29 Slide back the inspection cover from the
upper end of the timing cover (photo).
30 Turn the engine over by hand to bring the
TDC timing marks of the flywheelto-bellhousing and the camshaft sprocket
-to-rear cover projection into alignment. The
crankshaft pulley also has a TDC timing mark
and this should be positioned as shown
(photos).
31 Loosen off the retaining and adjustment
strap fixings, then pivot the alternator towards
the engine.
32 Unscrew the upper retaining bolts
securing the timing cover.
33 Loosen off the nut securing the alternator
and its drivebelt relay, then detach and
remove the alternator drivebelt.
34 Unscrew and remove the crankshaft
pulley nut. Where the engine is in the car,
prevent the crankshaft from turning by
engaging top gear and having an assistant
apply the brake pedal hard. Unscrew and
remove the flywheel housing lower cover bolts
and remove the cover. The flywheel ring gear
can now be jammed with a suitable lever or
implement to prevent the crankshaft from
rotating. It should be noted that the pulley nut
is tightened to a considerable torque and a
strong socket, together with an L-bar and
extension tube, will therefore be required to
loosen and remove it (photo). Take care not to
damage the gearbox/flywheel housing by
jamming the flywheel at a weak point.
35 Withdraw the crankshaft pulley (photo).
36 Unscrew and remove the lower retaining
bolts and remove the timing cover upwards
from the vehicle.
37 Check that the previously mentioned
timing marks are still in alignment. Loosen off
the timing belt tensioner nut, then with the
tension released, withdraw the timing belt
from the sprockets.
38 To remove the drivebelt tensioner, undo
the securing nut and withdraw the tensioner
pulley unit noting that it is in three sections
(photos).
39 If desired, the sprockets and the rear
timing belt cover can be removed as follows,
otherwise proceed to paragraph 49.
40 To remove the camshaft sprocket, a
suitable tool must be used to hold the
camshaft stationary as the sprocket bolt is
loosened. A suitable tool can be improvised
as shown in photo 7B.48 using two pieces of
steel bar joined together by a pivot bolt, with
suitable bolts through the ends of the steel
bars to engage with the holes in the sprocket.
41 Unscrew the sprocket bolt, then recover
the plain washer, and the thrust washer which
is bonded into a plastic sleeve (photo).
42 The sprocket can now be withdrawn from
the end of the camshaft. If the sprocket is
tight, carefully lever it from the camshaft using
two screwdrivers, but take care not to
damage the rear timing belt cover.
43 The crankshaft sprocket can be removed
by simply pulling it from the end of the
7B.34 Crankshaft pulley nut removal
7B.35 Crankshaft pulley removal
13
7B.38A Timing belt tensioner removal
7B.38B The three sections of the timing
belt tensioner
7B.41 Removing the crankshaft sprocket
bolt, plain washer and thrust washer
13•40 Supplement: Revisions and information on later models
7B.43 Remove the crankshaft Woodruff
key if it is loose
7B.45 Withdrawing the auxiliary shaft
sprocket
7B.46 Tightening the auxiliary shaft
sprocket bolt
crankshaft after the pulley securing nut has
been removed. Recover the Woodruff key
from the end of the crankshaft if it is loose
(photo).
44 To remove the auxiliary shaft sprocket, a
suitable tool must be used to hold the
sprocket stationary as the securing bolt is
loosened (the bolt is extremely tight). In the
workshop, a “scissors” style tool was
improvised, using two pieces of steel bar
joined together by a pivot bolt, with their ends
bent through a right-angle to engage securely
between the teeth on the sprocket - see photo
7B.46.
45 Unscrew the sprocket bolt, and recover
the washer, then withdraw the sprocket from
the end of the auxiliary shaft (photo). If the
sprocket is tight, carefully lever it from the
shaft using two screwdrivers.
46 Refit the auxiliary shaft sprocket, making
sure that the lug on the end of the shaft
engages with the hole in the sprocket, then
tighten the securing bolt to the specified
torque (ensure that the washer is in place
under the bolt head). Prevent the sprocket
from turning as during removal (photo).
47 Where applicable, refit the Woodruff key
to the end of the crankshaft, then refit the
crankshaft sprocket with the flanged side
against the oil seal housing (photo).
48 Refit the camshaft sprocket to the end of
the camshaft, making sure that the lug on the
end of the shaft engages with the hole in the
sprocket, then refit the thrust washer, plain
washer, and bolt, and tighten the bolt to the
specified torque. Prevent the camshaft from
turning as during removal (photo).
49 Refit the belt tensioner pulley assembly,
ensuring that the washer is in place under the
securing nut, but do not fully tighten the nut at
this stage.
50 Before refitting the new timing belt into
position, first ensure that the crankshaft and
camshaft sprocket timing marks are still
aligned as described in paragraph 30 (photo).
51 If the new timing belt has two timing marks
on its outer face they must align with the
corresponding marks on the crankshaft and
camshaft sprockets. Do not distort or bend the
belt any more than is necessary during its
fitting or its structural fibres may be damaged.
52 Refit the belt around the sprockets and
the tensioner pulley, starting at the crankshaft
sprocket. One of the timing index marks must
align with the scribed mark on the lower edge
of the crankshaft sprocket (opposite the
Woodruff key) whilst the second mark must
align with the timing marks of the camshaft
and rear timing belt cover (photos).
53 With the belt fitted over the sprockets and
correctly aligned, temporarily refit the
crankshaft pulley nut (tightening it to its full
torque wrench setting) and then adjust the
timing belt tension.
7B.47 Refitting the crankshaft sprocket
7B.48 Tightening the crankshaft sprocket
bolt
54 The timing belt tension can be checked
approximately by twisting it between the
7B.50 Crankshaft at TDC with key and
timing mark aligned (arrowed)
7B.52A Timing belt refitted over the
sprockets and tensioner
7B.52B Timing belt mark aligned with
scribed mark on crankshaft sprocket
(arrowed)
Approximate setting
Supplement: Revisions and information on later models 13•41
thumb and forefinger at the centre of the run
between the auxiliary shaft sprocket and the
camshaft sprocket. Using this method it
should just be possible to twist the belt
through 90º using moderate pressure.
55 To adjust the tension, loosen off the
tensioner pulley nut then insert two rods (or
screwdrivers) into position in the pulley holes
and position a lever between them.
56 Gently lever the tensioner pulley in the
required direction to set the tension as
described, then initially tighten the pulley nut
to lock the tensioner in the required position.
57 Remove the tools from the tensioner,
recheck the tension and then tighten the
tensioner pulley nut securely.
58 Rotate the crankshaft clockwise through
two complete turns using a socket or spanner
on the crankshaft pulley nut, then recheck the
belt tension. To avoid the possibility of
unscrewing the pulley nut, remove the spark
plugs to enable the engine to be turned over
easier.
59 If further adjustment is required, repeat
the previously mentioned procedures. If in
doubt, err on the slightly tight side when
adjusting the tension. If the belt is set too
loose, it may jump off the sprockets resulting
in serious damage.
60 Remove the crankshaft pulley retaining
nut, fit the timing belt cover, then refit and
tighten the pulley nut to the specified torque
setting.
61 Refit the remaining components in the
reverse order of removal. Tighten the retaining
nuts/bolts to the specified torque settings
where given. Adjust the tension of the
alternator drivebelt as described in Section 8.
Adjustment using FIAT special
tools
62 Assemble the special tools and fit them to
the belt tensioner pulley as shown in
Fig. 13.16. When fitted, the tool rod must be
as vertical as possible and it is important to
note that no sliding weights must be attached
to tool No. 1860745100.
63 Slacken the tensioner pulley nut, if not
already done. Rotate the crankshaft clockwise
through two complete turns using a socket or
spanner on the crankshaft pulley nut. The
special tool rod may move from the vertical as
7B.77 Removing one of the camshaft
housing shorter securing bolts
Fig. 13.16 FIAT special tool No. 1860745100 (A) for timing belt adjustment shown fitted to
the tensioner pulley - 1372 cc ie and Turbo ie engines (Sec 7B)
Use with adapter No. 1860745200 on 1372 cc ie engines and No. 1860745300 on 1372 cc
Turbo ie engines
the engine is turned over, in which case the
joint will need to be re-adjusted to return the
rod to the vertical and the operation repeated.
64 With the two revolutions of the crankshaft
completed, tighten the belt tensioner pulley
nut securely and remove the special tools.
65 Remove the crankshaft pulley retaining
nut, fit the timing belt cover, then refit and
tighten the pulley nut to its specified torque
setting.
66 Refit the remaining components in the
reverse order of removal. Tighten the retaining
nuts/bolts to the specified torque settings
where given. Adjust the tension of the
alternator drivebelt as described in Section 8.
Camshaft front oil seal renewal
#
67 The camshaft front oil seal may be
renewed with the engine in the vehicle, and
the camshaft in situ, as follows.
68 Remove the timing belt and the camshaft
sprocket as described previously in this
Section.
69 Punch or drill a small hole in the centre of
the exposed oil seal. Screw in a self-tapping
screw, and pull on the screw with pliers to
extract the seal.
70 Clean the oil seal seat with a wooden or
plastic scraper.
71 Lubricate the lips of the new seal with
clean engine oil, and drive it into position until
it is flush with the housing, using a suitable
socket or tube. Take care not to damage the
seal lips during fitting. Note that the seal lips
should face inwards.
72 Refit the camshaft sprocket and the
timing belt as described previously in this
Section.
Camshaft, housing and
followers removal and refitting
#
Note: The engine must be cold when
removing the camshaft housing. Do not
remove the camshaft housing from a hot
engine. New camshaft housing and camshaft
cover gaskets must be used on refitting.
73 If the engine is still in the vehicle,
disconnect the battery negative lead.
74 Refer to paragraphs 3 to 7 in this part of
this Section for details and remove the
camshaft cover.
75 Remove the camshaft sprocket and timing
belt as described previously in this Section.
76 Remove the three securing nuts and the
single securing bolt, and withdraw the upper
section of the rear timing belt cover.
77 Unscrew the camshaft housing securing
bolts. There are seven bolts which are
accessible from outside the camshaft
housing, and five shorter bolts which are
accessible from inside the housing (these
bolts are normally covered by the camshaft
cover). Note that each bolt is fitted with two
washers (photo).
78 Carefully lift the camshaft housing from
the cylinder head. Be prepared for the cam
followers to drop from their bores in the
camshaft housing as the camshaft housing is
lifted, and ensure that the cam followers are
identified for position so that they can be
refitted in their original positions (this can be
achieved by placing each cam follower over
its relevant valve in the cylinder head).
13
13•42 Supplement: Revisions and information on later models
7B.82 Locating a new camshaft housing
gasket on the cylinder head
7B.84 Lowering the camshaft housing on
to the cylinder head
7B.85 Tightening a camshaft housing
securing bolt
79 Recover the gasket.
80 Removal of the camshaft from the
housing, and inspection of the components is
described in the following sub-Section.
81 Commence refitting by cleaning the
gasket mating surfaces of the camshaft
housing and cylinder head.
82 Locate a new gasket on the cylinder head,
making sure that it is correctly positioned over
the dowels (photo).
83 Ensure that the cam followers are
correctly located over their relevant valves.
84 Liberally oil the cam follower bores in the
camshaft housing, then carefully lower the
housing over the cam followers, and onto the
cylinder head (photo). Some manipulation will
be required to engage the cam followers with
their relevant bores in the camshaft housing.
85 Loosely refit all the camshaft housing
securing bolts, ensuring that the washers are
in place under their heads, then tighten them
progressively to the specified torque, starting
at the centre of the housing and working
outwards in a spiral pattern (photo).
86 Refit the upper section of the rear timing
belt cover.
87 Refit the camshaft sprocket and the
timing belt as described previously in this
Section.
88 Check the valve clearances as described
earlier in this Section.
89 Refit the camshaft cover using a new
gasket, and tighten the securing nuts,
ensuring that the washers are in place
(photos). Where applicable, ensure that the
hose clip is in place before refitting the
relevant camshaft cover securing nuts.
90 The remainder of the refitting procedure is
a reversal of that given for removal.
7B.89A Locate a new gasket on the
camshaft housing . . .
7B.89B . . . and refit the camshaft cover
7B.93 Withdrawing the camshaft from its
housing
7B.97A Prising out the camshaft front oil
seal
Camshaft, housing and followers
- dismantling, inspection
and reassembly
#
91 With the camshaft housing removed from
the cylinder head as previously described
proceed as follows.
92 Unscrew the three securing bolts, and
withdraw the blanking plate from the end of
the camshaft housing. Recover the gasket.
93 The camshaft can now be carefully
withdrawn from the blanking plate/distributor
end of the camshaft housing, taking care not
to damage the bearing journals (photo).
94 With the camshaft removed, examine the
bearings in the camshaft housing, and the
cam follower bores for signs of obvious wear
or pitting. If evident, a new camshaft housing
will probably be required.
95 The camshaft itself should show no signs
of marks or scoring on the journal or cam lobe
surfaces. If evident, renew the camshaft.
96 Examine the cam followers for signs of
obvious wear, and for ovality, and renew if
necessary.
97 It is advisable to renew the camshaft front
oil seal as a matter of course if the camshaft
has been removed. Prise out the old seal
using a screwdriver, and drive in the new seal
until it is flush with the housing, using a
suitable socket or tube (photos).
7B.97B Inserting the new camshaft front
oil seal
Supplement: Revisions and information on later models 13•43
7B.119 Locating a new cylinder head
gasket on the cylinder block (engine
shown on dismantling stand)
98 Commence reassembly by liberally oiling
the bearings in the housing, and the oil seal lip.
99 Carefully insert the camshaft into the
housing from the blanking plate/distributor
end, taking care to avoid damage to the
bearings.
100 Refit the blanking plate using a new
gasket.
101 Refit the camshaft housing as described
previously in this Section.
Cylinder head
(1372 cc ie engine) removal and refitting
#
Note: The following instructions describe
cylinder head removal and refitting leaving the
camshaft, manifolds and associated items in situ
In the head. If required, these items can be
removed separately. When removing the
cylinder head the engine must be cold - do not
remove the head from a hot engine. A new
cylinder head gasket and any associated gaskets
must be used during reassembly. FIAT specify
that the main cylinder head bolts should be
renewed after they have been used (ie tightened)
four times. If in any doubt as to the number of
times that they have been used renew them as a
precaution against possible failure.
Warning: Refer to the beginning
of Section 9 before starting any
work.
102 Depressurise the fuel supply system as
described in Section 9 of this Chapter.
103 Disconnect the battery negative lead.
104 Drain the engine coolant as described in
Section 8.
105 Remove the air cleaner unit as described
in Section 9.
106 Remove the timing belt as described
previously in this Section.
7B.120A Lower the cylinder head onto the
block . . .
7B.120B . . . and engage the positioning
dowels in their holes
107 Disconnect the crankcase ventilation
hose from the cylinder head and the SPi
injector unit.
108 Disconnect the accelerator cable at the
engine end.
109 Detach the engine idle speed check
actuator lead, the inlet manifold vacuum
sensor lead, the coolant temperature sensor
lead, the injector supply lead, the throttle
position switch lead and the distributor cap
(with HT leads). Position them out of the way.
110 Disconnect the brake servo hose from
the manifold.
111 Disconnect the coolant hoses from the
thermostat and the inlet manifold.
112 Slowly release the fuel supply and return
hose retaining clips and detach the hoses
from the injector unit housing and
connections. Catch any fuel spillage in a clean
cloth and plug the hoses to prevent the
ingress of dirt and further fuel loss.
113 Unbolt and detach the exhaust downpipe
from the manifold.
114 Loosen off the cylinder head retaining
bolts in a progressive manner, reversing the
sequence shown in Fig. 13.17. When all of the
bolts are loosened off, extract them and
collect the washers.
115 Check that all fittings and associated
attachments are clear of the cylinder head,
then carefully lift the head from the cylinder
block. If necessary tap the head lightly with a
soft-faced mallet to free it from the block, but
do not lever it free between the joint faces.
Note that the cylinder head is located on
dowels.
116 Recover the old cylinder head gasket and
discard it.
117 Clean the cylinder head and block mating
surfaces by careful scraping. Take care not to
damage the cylinder head - it is manufactured in
light alloy and is easily scored. Cover the coolant
passages and other openings to prevent dirt and
carbon from falling into them. Mop out all the oil
from the cylinder head bolt holes - if oil is left in
them, hydraulic pressure, caused when the bolts
are refitted, could cause the block to crack.
118 If required the cylinder head can be
dismantled and overhauled as described in
paragraphs 129 to 131 of this Section.
119 The new gasket must be removed from
its protective packing just before it is fitted.
Do not allow any oil or grease to come into
contact with the gasket. Commence refitting
the cylinder head by locating the new gasket
on the cylinder block so that the word “ALTO”
is facing up (photo).
120 With the mating faces scrupulously
clean, refit the cylinder head into position and
engage it over the dowels. Refer to the note at
the beginning of this part of the Section, then
refit the ten main cylinder head bolts and
washers. Screw each bolt in as far as possible
by hand to start with. Do not fit the smaller
(M8 x 1.25) bolts at this stage (photos).
121 The bolts must now be tightened in stages
and in the sequence shown in Fig. 13.17. Refer
to the specified torque wrench settings and
tighten all bolts to the Stage 1 torque, then
using a suitable angle gauge, tighten them to
the second stage, then the third stage (photos).
122 With the main cylinder head bolts fully
13
Fig. 13.17 Cylinder head bolt tightening
sequence on the 1372 cc ie and Turbo ie
engines (Sec 7B)
7B.121A Tighten main cylinder head bolts
to specified torque . . .
7B.121B . . . and then through the specified
angle
13•44 Supplement: Revisions and information on later models
7B.122 Tighten the smaller cylinder head
bolts to their specified torque setting
7B.130A Inlet (A) and exhaust (B) valves
and associate components - 1372 cc
engine
7B.130B Valve assembly - 1372 cc engine;
insert valve into guide . . .
tightened, refit the five smaller (M8 x 1.25)
bolts adjacent to the line of the spark plug
holes and tighten them to their specified
torque wrench setting (photo).
123 Reconnect the associated fittings to the
cylinder head in the reverse order of removal.
Ensure that the mating faces of the exhaust
manifold-to-downpipe are clean and fit a new
gasket when reconnecting.
124 Ensure that all wiring connections are
cleanly and securely made.
125 Top up the engine oil and coolant levels
as required on completion.
127 The cylinder head cannot be removed
and refitted with the manifolds and
turbocharger fitted. It is therefore first
necessary to detach and remove the inlet
manifold, then the turbocharger and the
exhaust manifold as described in Section 9.
128 The ignition distributor is mounted on the
side of the engine, not the rear end of the
cylinder head as on the “ie” engine. It is
therefore only necessary to disconnect the HT
leads from the spark plugs.
129 Use a straight-edge to check the cylinder
head gasket surface for distortion. If it
exceeds the specified tolerance, it must be
resurfaced by a FIAT dealer or automotive
engineer.
130 Refer to Section 39 in Chapter 1 for the
general details on dismantling and renovating
operations on the cylinder head but note that
there is a spring seat and a flat washer fitted
between the cylinder head and the valve
springs (photos).
Cylinder head
(1372 cc Turbo ie engine)
- removal and refitting
Cylinder head - inspection
and renovation
¢
Crankshaft front oil seal removal and renewal
#
126 Proceed as described in paragraphs 102
to 125 above for the non-Turbo model, but
note the following differences.
Note: Refer to a dealer for advice before
attempting to carry out valve grinding or seat
recutting operations. These operations may
not be possible for the DIY mechanic due to
the fitment of hardened valve seats for use
with unleaded petrol.
131 Remove the timing belt as described
earlier in this Section. Note that as mentioned
previously, the timing belt will need to be
renewed during reassembly.
132 Referring to Fig. 13.18, loosen off the bolt
indicated from the timing belt rear cover.
7B.130C . . . locate stem oil seal . . .
7B.130D . . . and drive it into position
7B.130E Refit the flat washer . . .
7B130F . . . locate the spring seat . . .
7B.130G . . . the inner spring . . .
7B.130H . . . the outer spring . . .
#
Supplement: Revisions and information on later models 13•45
7B.130I . . . and cap
7B.130J Compress spring and refit the split
collets
133 Drain the engine oil from the sump into a
suitable container. Disconnect the lead from
the engine oil level sensor in the sump.
134 Where applicable, unscrew and remove
the bolts retaining the gear linkage mounting
bracket and the clutch housing lower cover
bolts. Remove the cover from the clutch
housing.
135 Unscrew the sump retaining nuts and
bolts, then lower and remove the sump.
136 Unscrew the timing belt rear cover
retaining bolts.
137 Move the timing belt rear cover towards
the front of the car to gain access to the
retaining bolt and then unscrew and remove
the three oil seal housing retaining bolts.
Remove the crankshaft front oil seal housing.
138 Note the orientation of the seal in its
housing prior to its removal. Support the
underside of the housing and carefully drive
the old oil seal from the housing using a
punch or a tubular drift of suitable diameter.
An alternative method is to punch or drill a
small hole in the face of the oil seal (but take
care not to drill into the housing) and insert a
self-tapping screw into the seal. Withdraw the
seal by gripping the screw with pliers and
pulling the seal from the housing. If necessary,
fit a second screw into the seal on the
opposite side to provide an even pull.
139 Clean the mating faces of the housing
and the front of the crankcase using a suitable
scraper.
140 Drive or press the new seal into position
in the housing in the reverse order of removal,
but ensure that it is correctly orientated as
noted during removal (photo).
141 Refit the oil seal housing with a new
gasket and tighten the retaining bolts to the
specified torque setting (photos).
142 Refit the sump as described later in this
Section using a new gasket. Tighten its
retaining nuts and bolts to the specified
torque. Refit the clutch cover and the gear
linkage mounting bracket.
143 Fit the new timing belt, adjust its tension
and refit the crankshaft pulley as described
earlier in this Section.
144 Reconnect the remaining components
that were detached during removal in the
reverse order and top up the engine oil level to
complete.
Crankshaft rear oil seal removal and renewal
Fig. 13.18 Timing belt rear cover bolt
(arrowed) - 1372 cc ie and Turbo ie engines
(Sec 7B)
Fig. 13.19 Unscrew the bolts at the points
indicated to release the gear linkage
mounting bracket - 1372 cc ie and Turbo ie
engines (Sec 7B)
#
145 If the engine is still in the car, disconnect
the battery negative lead.
146 Remove the flywheel as described in the
next sub-Section.
147 Punch or drill a small hole in the rear face
of the rear oil seal (but take care not to drill
into the housing) and insert a self-tapping
screw into the seal. Withdraw the seal by
gripping the screw with pliers and pulling it
from the housing. If necessary, fit a second
screw into the seal on the opposite side to
provide an even pull.
148 Clean the seal housing, then locate the
Fig. 13.20 Removing the timing belt rear
cover on the 1372 ie and Turbo ie engines
(Sec 7B)
13
7B.140 Driving a new crankshaft front oil
seal into its housing
7B.141A Refit the crankshaft front oil seal
housing . . .
7B.141B . . . ensuring it is flush with the
face of the cylinder block
13•46 Supplement: Revisions and information on later models
7B.158A Locate the flywheel, washer plate
and bolts . . .
7B.158B . . . tighten the bolts to the
specified torque
7B.165 Apply sealant to the front oil seal
housing/cylinder block joint
new oil seal, ensuring that it is correctly
orientated, and drive it squarely into position.
149 Refit all disturbed components.
necessary, and let it cool naturally without
quenching in any way.
157 Ensure that the mating faces are clean,
then locate the flywheel on the rear of the
crankshaft, aligning the previously made
marks on the flywheel and crankshaft.
158 Fit the washer plate, and insert the
securing bolts, then prevent the flywheel from
turning as described in paragraph 151 whilst
the bolts are tightened progressively to the
specified torque setting in a diagonal
sequence (photos).
159 If applicable, refit the clutch as described
in Chapter 5.
equivalent) to the joints between the
crankshaft front and rear oil seal housings and
the mating face of the crankcase (photo).
166 Locate the new gasket in position on the
crankcase then fit the sump. As it is fitted it
will need to be twisted to avoid fouling the oil
pump unit. Refit the retaining bolts and nuts
and tighten them to the specified torque
(photos).
167 Check that the sump drain plug is refitted
and fully tightened. If the engine is in the car,
top up the engine oil level.
Flywheel - removal,
inspection and refitting
#
150 If not already done, remove the clutch as
described in Chapter 5.
151 Prevent the flywheel from turning by
jamming the ring gear teeth, or by bolting a
strap between the flywheel and the cylinder
block.
152 Make alignment marks on the flywheel
and the end of the crankshaft, so that the
flywheel can be refitted in its original position.
153 Unscrew the securing bolts and remove
the washer plate, then withdraw the flywheel.
Do not drop it, it is very heavy.
154 With the flywheel removed, the ring gear
can be examined for wear and damage.
155 If the ring gear is badly worn or has
missing teeth it should be renewed. The old
ring gear can be removed from the flywheel by
cutting a notch between two teeth with a
hacksaw and then splitting it with a cold
chisel. Wear eye protection when doing this.
156 Fitting of a new ring gear requires heating
the ring to a temperature of 80ºC (176ºF). Do
not overheat, or the hard-wearing properties
will be lost. The gear has a chamfered inner
edge which should fit against the shoulder on
the flywheel. When hot enough, place the gear
in position quickly, tapping it home if
7B.166A Locate the new gasket . . .
Sump removal and refitting
¡
Oil pump - removal,
checking and refitting
™
160 Drain the engine oil from the sump as
described in Chapter 1.
161 Disconnect the lead from the engine oil
level sensor in the sump.
162 Unscrew and remove the bolts retaining the
gear linkage mounting bracket (where applicable)
and the clutch housing lower cover bolts.
Remove the cover from the clutch housing.
163 Unscrew and remove the sump retaining
bolts and nuts and lower the sump from the
crankcase. Recover the gasket.
164 Clean all traces of old gasket from the
sump, crankcase and both oil seal housing
mating surfaces.
165 Commence reassembly by applying
sealing compound (FIAT No. 5882442 or
168 Drain the engine oil and remove the
sump as described in the previous
sub-Section.
169 Unscrew the retaining bolts then
withdraw the oil pump and intake pipe/filter
from its location within the crankcase.
Remove the gasket.
170 If oil pump wear is suspected, first check
the cost and availability of new parts and the
cost of a new pump. Then examine the pump
as described below and decide whether
renewal or repair is the best course of action.
171 Unscrew the three securing bolts and
remove the oil pump cover (photo). Note that
as the cover is removed, the oil pressure relief
valve components will be released.
172 Recover the oil pressure relief valve,
spring and spring seat.
7B.166B . . . refit the sump . . .
7B.166C . . . and insert the retaining bolts
Supplement: Revisions and information on later models 13•47
7B.171 Undo the oil pump cover bolts
7B.175 Correct alignment of scribed marks
(arrowed) on gears
7B.176 Check gear-to-body clearance
173 Lift the intermediate plate from the oil
pump body.
174 The gears can now be removed from the
oil pump body. Inspect them for obvious signs
of wear or damage, and renew if necessary.
175 Commence reassembly by lubricating
the gears with clean engine oil, and refitting
them to the casing. Note that the scribed
marks on the top faces of the gears should
face each other with the gears installed
(photo).
176 Using a feeler gauge, check that the
clearance between the gears and the pump
body is within the limits given in the Specifications (photo).
177 Using a straight-edge placed across the
top of the pump body and the gears, and a
feeler gauge, check that the gear endfloat is
within the limits given in the Specifications
(photo).
178 If either the gear-to-body clearance, or
the gear endfloat is outside the specified
limits, both gears should be renewed.
179 Locate the intermediate plate on the
pump body (photo).
180 Place the pressure relief valve and spring
over the pressure relief hole in the
intermediate plate, and locate the spring seat
over the boss in the pump cover, then refit the
pump cover, ensuring that the pressure relief
valve components seat correctly (photos).
181 Refit and tighten the pump cover
securing bolts.
182 Thoroughly clean the mating faces of the
pump and crankcase before refitting the
pump. Prime the pump by injecting clean
engine oil into it and turning it by hand.
183 Fit the pump using a new gasket, then
insert the securing bolts and tighten them.
184 Refit the sump and top up the engine oil
level.
185 Remove the sump and the cylinder head
as described previously in this Section.
186 The big-end caps and connecting rods
normally have identification marks stamped
into their sides, facing the coolant pump side
of the cylinder block. If no marks are present,
use a centre-punch to identify the bearing
caps and the connecting rods for location.
187 Turn the crankshaft so that No. 1
crankpin is at its lowest point, then unscrew
the nuts and tap off the bearing cap. Keep the
bearing shells in the cap and the connecting
rod if they are to be re-used, taping them in
position if necessary to avoid loss.
188 Using the handle of a hammer, push the
piston and connecting rod up the bore and
withdraw it from the top of the cylinder block.
Loosely refit the cap to the connecting rod.
189 Repeat the procedure given in
paragraphs 187 and 188 on No. 4 piston and
connecting rod, then turn the crankshaft through half a turn and repeat the
procedure on Nos 2 and 3 pistons and
connecting rods.
190 The pistons and connecting rods and the
big-end bearings can be examined and if
7B.177 Checking the gear endfloat
7B.179 Refitting the intermediate plate
Pistons/connecting rods removal and refitting
#
13
7B.180A Locate pressure relief valve and
spring on the intermediate plate
7B.180B Locate spring seat over boss
within pump cover . . .
7B.180C . . . then fit the cover
13•48 Supplement: Revisions and information on later models
7B.194A Fitting a ring compressor to a
piston
7B.194B Tapping a piston into its bore
7B.195 Assemble the shell bearing to the
connecting rod . . .
necessary renovated as described later in this
Section.
191 Commence refitting as follows.
192 Clean the backs of the bearing shells and
the recesses in the connecting rods and
big-end caps.
193 Lubricate the cylinder bores with engine
oil.
194 Fit a ring compressor to No. 1 piston, then
insert the piston and connecting rod into No. 1
cylinder. With No 1 crankpin at its lowest point,
drive the piston carefully into the cylinder with
the wooden handle of a hammer (photos).
Leave enough space between the connecting
rod and the crankshaft to allow the bearing
shell to be fitted. The piston must be fitted with
the cut-out in the piston crown on the auxiliary
shaft side of the engine, and the cylinder identification marking on the connecting rod and
big-end cap on the coolant pump side of the
engine - see Fig. 13.21.
195 Slide the appropriate bearing shell into
position in the connecting rod big-end, then
pull the connecting rod firmly into position on
the crankpin (photo).
196 Press the appropriate bearing shell into
position in the big-end cap (photo).
197 Oil the crankpin, then fit the big-end
bearing cap with the cylinder identification
marking on the coolant pump side of the
engine, and tighten the nuts to the specified
torque setting (photos).
198 Check that the crankshaft turns freely.
199 Repeat the procedure in paragraphs 194
to 198 inclusive on the remaining pistons.
200 Refit the cylinder head and the sump.
described for the smaller engines in Section 18 of Chapter 1. However, the following
additional points should be noted.
202 When renewing a gudgeon pin, first
check the fit in the piston. It should be
possible to fit the gudgeon pin using hand
pressure, but the pin should be a tight enough
fit that it does not drop out under its own
weight. Oversize gudgeon pins are available
as spares if necessary. Use new circlips when
refitting the pistons to the connecting rods.
203 Before fitting the pistons to their
connecting rods, weigh each piston and
check that their weights are all within 2.5 g of
each other. If not, the heavier pistons must be
lightened by machining metal from the
underside of the small-end bosses. This
operation must be entrusted to a FIAT dealer
or engine reconditioning specialist.
204 The pistons should be fitted to the
connecting rods so that the higher, flat side of
the piston crown is on the side of the
connecting rod with the stamped cylinder
identification number, ie the gudgeon pin is
offset towards the cylinder identification
number see Fig. 13.21.
205 The piston rings should be fitted with the
word “TOP” on each ring facing uppermost,
or if no marks are visible, as noted during
removal. If a stepped top compression ring is
being fitted, fit the ring with the smaller
diameter of the step uppermost. The ring end
gaps should be offset 120º from each other.
Use two or three old feeler gauges to assist
Fig. 13.21 Correct orientation of piston
and connecting rod in engine - 1372 cc ie
and Turbo ie engines (Sec 7B)
1 Auxiliary shaft
2 Cylinder identification markings on
connecting rod and big-end cap
Arrow denotes direction of engine rotation
Note offset gudgeon pin
7B.196 . . . and big-end bearing cap . . .
Pistons/connecting rods examination and
renovation
#
201 The procedures for inspecting and
renovating the pistons and connecting rod
assemblies are in general the same as that
7B.197A . . . then fit the cap . . .
7B.197B . . . and tighten the nuts to the
specified torque
Supplement: Revisions and information on later models 13•49
fitting, as during removal. Note that the
compression rings are brittle, and will snap if
expanded too far.
206 If new pistons are to be fitted, they must
be selected from the grades available, after
measuring the cylinder bores. Normally, the
appropriate oversize pistons are supplied by
the dealer when the block is rebored.
207 Whenever new piston rings are being
installed, the glaze on the original cylinder
bores should be removed using either
abrasive paper or a glaze-removing tool in an
electric drill. If abrasive paper is used, use
strokes at 60º to the bore centre-line, to
create a cross-hatching effect.
Engine/transmission
mountings - renewal
¡
208 The engine/gearbox assembly is
suspended in the engine compartment on
three mountings, two of which are attached to
the gearbox, and one to the engine.
Right-hand mounting
209 Apply the handbrake, then jack up the
front of the vehicle and support it securely on
axle stands.
210 Suitable lifting tackle must now be
attached to the engine in order to support it as
the engine mounting is removed. No lifting
brackets are provided, so care must be taken
when deciding on an engine lifting point. In the
workshop, a right-angled bracket was made up
by bending a suitable piece of steel plate. The
bracket was then bolted to the engine using the
rear right-hand camshaft housing securing bolt
with suitable packing washers.
211 Attach the lifting tackle to the bracket on
the engine and just take the weight of the
assembly.
212 Working under the vehicle, unbolt the
engine mounting bracket from the cylinder
block, and unbolt the mounting from the
body, then withdraw the bracket/mounting
assembly.
213 Unscrew the nut and through-bolt,
counter holding the bolt with a second
spanner or socket, and separate the mounting
from the bracket.
214 Fit the new mounting to the bracket, and
tighten the nut to the specified torque, while
counterholding the through-bolt using a
suitable spanner or socket.
215 Refit the mounting bracket to the cylinder
block, and tighten the securing bolts to the
specified torque.
216 Refit the mounting to the body and
tighten the securing bolts to the specified
torque.
217 Disconnect the lifting tackle from the
engine, and remove the engine lifting bracket.
218 Lower the vehicle to the ground.
order to support the weight of the assembly
as the mounting is removed.
221 Attach the lifting tackle to the bracket on
the gearbox, and just take the weight of the
assembly.
222 Working under the vehicle, unbolt the
mounting bracket from the gearbox, and
unbolt the mounting from the body, then
withdraw the bracket/mounting assembly.
223 Proceed as described in paragraphs 213
and 214.
224 Refit the mounting bracket to the
gearbox, and tighten the securing bolts to the
specified torque.
225 Refit the mounting to the body and
tighten the mounting bolts to the specified
torque.
226 Disconnect the lifting tackle from the
engine.
227 Lower the vehicle to the ground.
PART C: ENGINE REMOVAL
AND DISMANTLING
Method of removal - general
1 The engine (complete with transmission) is
disconnected and lowered downwards
through the engine compartment, then
withdrawn from the front underside of the car.
1372 cc engine/
transmission - removal
and separation
#
Warning: Refer to the beginning
of Section 9 before starting any
work.
2 Depressurize the fuel system as described
in Section 9 of this Chapter.
3 Disconnect the battery negative lead.
4 Mark the position of the hinges on the
underside of the bonnet, then with the aid of
an assistant, unscrew the hinge bolts and lift
the bonnet clear of the car. Store the bonnet
in a safe area.
5 Drain the engine coolant.
6 Drain the engine and transmission oils.
7 Disconnect and remove the air filter.
8 Disconnect the coolant hoses from the
engine, including the hose to the inlet
manifold.
9 Detach the ignition coil (HT) lead from the
distributor.
7C.10 Engine idle speed actuator/SPi unit
lead connection (arrowed)
10 Compress the retaining clip and detach
the engine idle speed actuator lead from the
SPi unit (photo).
11 Disconnect the brake servo vacuum pipe
from its connector on the inlet manifold.
12 Disconnect the throttle cable from the SPi
unit.
13 Disconnect the engine speed sensor lead.
14 Release and detach the reversing light
lead from the switch on the transmission
(photo).
15 Before disconnecting the hydraulic hose
from the clutch slave cylinder, remove the
filler cap from the reservoir and place a piece
of polythene sheet over the filler neck, then
refit the cap; this will help prevent excess fluid
loss. Once disconnected, plug the hose and
its cylinder connection to prevent the ingress
of dirt into the hydraulic system.
16 Disconnect the wiring connector from the
alternator.
17 Position a clean rag under the fuel supply
and return hose connections to the SPi unit,
then slowly unscrew the hose clips to release
the system pressure; catch fuel leakage in the
rag and dispose of it safely. Detach the hoses
and plug them to prevent ingress of dirt and
any further fuel leakage. Position the hoses
out of the way.
18 Detach the wiring connector from the
engine coolant temperature sender unit
(photo).
19 Release the retaining clip and detach the
wiring connector from the throttle position
switch. Also detach the associated earth
leads from the cylinder head.
13
Left-hand mountings
219 Apply the handbrake, then jack up the
front of the vehicle and support it securely on
axle stands.
220 Suitable lifting tackle must now be
attached to the gearbox lifting bracket in
7C.14 Reversing light switch and lead
7C.18 Engine coolant temperature sender
and wiring connector
13•50 Supplement: Revisions and information on later models
7C.20 Fuel injector wiring connection
7C.32 Disconnecting the speedometer
drive cable from the transmission
7C.36A Engine right-hand mounting
7C.36B Transmission rear mounting
20 Release the retaining clip and detach the
wiring connector from the fuel injector
connection (photo).
21 Loosen off the front wheel bolts each
side, then raise and support the car at the
front end on axle stands. When raised,
support at a height which will allow the engine
and transmission to be withdrawn from the
underside when fully disconnected. Ensure
that the vehicle is securely supported before
working underneath it.
22 Unscrew the wheel bolts and remove the
front roadwheels.
23 Release the retaining clips and remove
the underwing shield from the right- and
left-hand front wheel arch.
24 Relieve the staking, then unscrew and
remove the front hub nut using a socket and
suitable extension. Repeat the procedure on
the opposite front hub.
25 Unscrew the retaining nut and disconnect
the tie-rod to steering arm balljoint using a
suitable balljoint separator tool. Repeat the
procedure on the other side.
26 Note the direction of fitting, then unscrew
and remove the hub-to-strut retaining bolts
and nuts on each side.
27 Unscrew and remove the anti-roll barto-track control arm retaining nuts each side.
28 Unscrew and remove the front brake
caliper hydraulic pipe support bracket bolt
each side.
Fig. 13.22 The underwing
shield retaining clips (arrowed)
on the 1372 cc ie and Turbo ie
engines (Sec 7C)
Fig. 13.23 Engine oil level
sensor wiring connector
(arrowed) on the 1372 cc ie and
Turbo ie engines (Sec 7C)
7C.33 Disconnect the transmission earth
strap
29 Pull the wheel hub outwards and detach
the driveshaft from it, noting that there may be
a small amount of oil spillage as it is
withdrawn. Repeat the procedure on the
opposite side.
30 Disconnect the wiring connector from the
engine oil level sensor lead.
31 Unscrew the retaining nuts to detach and
remove the exhaust pipe front section or
alternatively, remove the system complete.
32 Unscrew the knurled retaining nut and
detach the speedometer cable from the
transmission (photo).
33 Unscrew the retaining nut and detach the
earth strap from the transmission (photo).
34 Extract the split pin and detach the gear
selector rod from the transmission pin.
Disconnect the gear engagement and selector
levers from the balljoints.
35 The weight of the engine will now need to
be supported from above. Connect a suitable
lift hoist and sling to the engine. When
securely connected, take the weight of the
engine/transmission unit so that the tension is
relieved from the mountings.
36 Unscrew and remove the engine and
transmission support mounting bolts at the
points indicated (photos).
37 The engine/transmission unit should now
be ready for removal from the vehicle. Check
that all of the associated connections and
Fig. 13.24 Disconnect the gear
selector rod at the connection
indicated on the 1372 cc ie and
Turbo ie engines (Sec 7C)
Fig. 13.25 Gear engagement
and selector lever balljoints
(arrowed) on the 1372 cc ie and
Turbo ie engines (Sec 7C)
Supplement: Revisions and information on later models 13•51
7C.36C Transmission front mounting
fittings are disconnected from the engine and
transmission and positioned out of the way.
Enlist the aid of an assistant to help steady
and guide the power unit down through the
engine compartment as it is removed, If
available, position a suitable engine trolley or
crawler board under the engine/transmission
so that when lowered, the power unit can be
withdrawn from the front end of the vehicle
and moved to the area where it is to be
cleaned and dismantled.
38 Carefully lower the engine and
transmission unit, ensuring that no fittings
become snagged. Detach the hoist and
withdraw the power unit from under the
vehicle.
39 To separate the engine from the
transmission, unbolt and remove the starter
motor, then unscrew the retaining bolts and
withdraw the transmission from the engine. As
it is withdrawn, do not allow the weight of the
engine or transmission to be taken by the
input shaft.
40 To remove the clutch unit, refer to
Chapter 5 for details.
1372 cc Turbo ie
engine/transmission removal and separation
#
41 The engine and transmission removal and
refitting details for Turbo-engined models are
similar to those described for the non-Turbo
models in the previous sub-Section, but the
following differences should be noted.
42 To provide access for the disconnection
of the turbo and related components, first
remove the inlet manifold. Removal of the inlet
manifold and the turbocharger is described in
Section 9 of this Chapter.
43 The ignition distributor on the Turbo
engine is driven from the auxiliary shaft and is
mounted at the front of the engine, towards
the timing cover end.
44 The right-hand driveshaft has a steady
bearing and this will need to be unbolted and
detached.
Engine dismantling - general
45 Refer to Chapter 1, Section 14 for details.
7C.53 Driving a new oil seal into the
auxiliary shaft cover
Auxiliary shaft - removal,
inspection and refitting
#
46 Remove the engine and transmission from
the vehicle as described previously in this
Section part.
47 Drain the engine oil and remove the sump
as described in Part B of this Section.
48 Remove the oil pump as described in Part
B of this Section.
49 Remove the timing belt and the auxiliary
shaft sprocket as described in Part B of this
Section.
50 Unscrew the three retaining bolts and
remove the auxiliary shaft cover. Remove the
gasket.
51 Withdraw the auxiliary shaft from the
cylinder block.
52 Examine the shaft and its bearing bushes
in the cylinder block for signs of excessive
wear and/or damage and renew it if
necessary. Bush renewal is described in
paragraph 79 in this Section.
53 The cover gasket and the oil seal should
always be renewed whenever the cover is
removed. To renew the seal, support the
cover on blocks of wood and drive out the old
seal using a suitable drift inserted in the
cut-out in the back of the cover. Clean the
seal location in the housing. Drive the new
seal into place using a suitable metal tube or
socket (photo). The sealing lip must face
towards the cylinder block. Smear the sealing
lips with clean engine oil before installation.
54 Commence refitting by lubricating the
7C.54 Inserting the auxiliary shaft into the
cylinder block (rear timing belt cover
removed)
auxiliary shaft journals with clean engine oil,
then insert the shaft into the cylinder block
(photo).
55 Refit the auxiliary shaft cover, using a new
gasket, and tighten the securing bolts
(photos).
56 Refit the auxiliary shaft sprocket, timing
belt, cover and crankshaft pulley as described
in Part B of this Section.
57 Refit the engine and transmission with
reference to Part D of this Section.
Engine complete dismantling
#
Warning: Refer to the beginning
of Section 9 before starting any
work.
58 Detach and remove the following ancillary
items. Where applicable, refer to the
appropriate Chapter or Section within this
Chapter for more detailed removal instructions.
Engine oil dipstick
Ignition distributor and HT leads
Fuel pump
Alternator
Oil filter
Oil vapour recovery unit
Inlet and exhaust manifolds and associated
fuel injection components (as applicable)
Clutch unit
59 Refer to Part B of this Section for details
and remove the timing cover and drivebelt.
60 Refer to Part B of this Section for details
and remove the cylinder head unit.
13
7C.55A Refit the auxiliary shaft cover with
a new gasket . . .
7C.55B . . . and tighten the securing bolts
13•52 Supplement: Revisions and information on later models
the new plugs with sealant and tap them
squarely into position.
78 Clean and examine the cylinder block as
described in paragraphs 2 to 7 of Section 18,
Chapter 1.
79 If the auxiliary shaft bushes are
excessively worn or are oval, they must be
renewed. When the new bushes are installed,
they may need to be reamed to suit. The
renewal of the auxiliary shaft bushes is
therefore best entrusted to an engine
reconditioner or FIAT dealer. When the
bushes are renewed, ensure that the oil hole
in each bush is aligned with the oil channel in
the cylinder block.
7C.69 Identification notches on No. 3 main
bearing cap
7C.70 Measuring crankshaft endfloat using
feeler gauge method
61 Refer to Part B of this Section for details
and remove the flywheel.
62 Refer to the previous sub-Section for
details and remove the auxiliary shaft.
63 Refer to Part B of this Section for details
and remove the sump.
64 Refer to Part B of this Section for details
and remove the oil pump unit.
65 Refer to Part B of this Section for details
and remove the front and rear crankshaft oil
seals.
66 Refer to Part B of this Section and remove
the piston/connecting rod assemblies.
67 Refer to Part B of this Section for details
and remove the crankshaft and main bearing
assemblies.
crankcase, keeping them identified for
location if they are to be re-used, and recover
the thrust washers from No. 5 main bearing
location.
PART D: ENGINE
REASSEMBLY
Engine components examination and
renovation
1 Refer to Chapter 1, Section 19.
Crankshaft and main
bearings - removal
#
68 Unscrew the securing bolts and remove
the front and rear crankshaft oil seal housings.
Recover the gaskets.
69 Check the main bearing caps for identification marks and if necessary use a
centre-punch to identify them. Normally the
caps have identifying notches cut into their
top face nearest the timing belt end of the
engine, with the exception of No 5 cap
(flywheel end) which has no marking (photo).
70 Before removing the crankshaft, check
that the endfloat is within the specified limits.
Ideally a dial gauge should be used, but
alternatively feeler gauges can be used as
follows. Push the crankshaft as far as possible
towards the timing end of the engine, and
using a feeler gauge, measure the gap
between the rear face of the flywheel
mounting flange on the crankshaft and the
outer face of the thrust washer (photo). Now
push the crankshaft as far as possible in the
opposite direction and take the same
measurement again. The difference between
the two measurements is the crankshaft
endfloat. If the endfloat is outside the
specified limits, new thrustwashers will be
required.
71 Unscrew the bolts and tap off the main
bearing caps complete with bearing shells. If
the bearing shells are to be re-used, tape
them to their respective caps.
72 Lift the crankshaft from the crankcase.
73 Extract the bearing shells from the
#
74 With the engine completely stripped,
clean all the components and examine them
for wear. Each part should be checked and
where necessary renewed or renovated as
described elsewhere in this Section. Renew
main and big-end bearing shells as a matter of
course, unless it is known that they have had
little wear and are in perfect condition.
75 If in doubt as to whether to renew a
component which is still just serviceable,
consider the time and effort which will be
incurred should the component fail at an early
date. Obviously the age and expected life of
the vehicle must influence the standards
applied.
76 Gaskets, oil seals and O-rings must all be
renewed as a matter of course. FIAT specify
that the main cylinder head bolts should be
renewed after they have been used (ie
tightened) four times - if in any doubt as to the
number of times the bolts have been used,
renew them in any case as a precaution
against possible failure.
77 Take the opportunity to renew the engine
core plugs while they are easily accessible.
Knock out the old plugs with a hammer and
chisel or punch. Clean the plug seats, smear
7D.6A No. 3 main bearing shell is plain . . .
Reassembly - general
Crankshaft and main
bearings - refitting
#
2 Ensure that the crankcase and crankshaft
are thoroughly clean, and that the oilways are
clear. If possible, blow through the oil drillings
with compressed air, and inject clean engine
oil into them.
3 Unless they are virtually new, the old main
bearing shells should be renewed. Failure to
do so is a false economy.
4 If new bearing shells are being fitted, wipe
away all traces of protective grease.
5 Note that there is a tag on the back of each
bearing shell, which engages with a groove in
the relevant seat in the crankcase or bearing
cap.
6 Wipe clean the bearing shell locations in the
crankcase with a non-fluffy rag, then lubricate
them and fit the five upper halves of the
bearing shells to their seats. Note that the
centre (No. 3) bearing shell is plain, whereas
all the other shells have oil grooves (photos).
7 Fit the thrustwashers to the No. 5 main
bearing shell location, with the grooved side
of each washer facing away from the face of
the cylinder block - ie towards the thrust face
of the crankshaft (photos).
8 Wipe the bearing shell locations in the
7D.6B . . . all others have oil groove
Supplement: Revisions and information on later models 13•53
7D.7A Locate the thrust washer . . .
7D.7B . . . sliding them into position each
side of the No. 5 main bearing
7D.8 Locate the bearing shells into the
main bearing caps . . .
bearing caps with a soft non-fluffy rag, then fit
the lower halves of the bearing shells to their
seats. Again, note that the centre (No. 3)
bearing shell is plain, whereas all the other
shells have oil grooves (photo).
9 Lubricate the crankshaft journals and the
upper and lower main bearing shells with
clean engine oil (photo).
10 Carefully lower the crankshaft into the
crankcase (photo). If necessary, seat the
crankshaft using light taps with a
rubber-faced hammer on the crankshaft
balance webs.
11 Lubricate the crankshaft main bearing
journals again, the fit the No. 1 bearing cap.
Fit the two securing bolts, and tighten them as
far as possible by hand.
12 Fit the No. 5 bearing cap, and as before
tighten the bolts as far as possible by hand.
13 Fit the centre and then the intermediate
bearing caps, and again tighten the bolts as
far as possible by hand.
14 Check that the markings on the bearing
caps are correctly orientated as noted during
dismantling - ie the identification grooves
should face towards the timing side of the
engine, then working from the centre cap
outwards in a progressive sequence, finally
tighten the bolts to the specified torque
(photo).
15 Check that the crankshaft rotates freely.
Some stiffness is to be expected with new
components, but there should be no tight
spots or binding.
16 Check that crankshaft endfloat is within
the specified limits, as described in paragraph
70 of Part C in this Section.
17 Examine the condition of the front and
rear crankshaft oil seals and renew if
necessary with reference to Part B of this
Section. It is advisable to renew the oil seals
as a matter of course unless they are in
perfect condition.
18 Lubricate the oil seal lips with clean
engine oil, then carefully fit the front and rear
oil seal housings using new gaskets.
assembly and manifolds as a complete unit.
Details of refitting the camshaft housing (and
followers) to the cylinder head will be found
separately in Part B.
Pistons and connecting rods refitting
19 Refer to Part B of this Section.
Oil pump - refitting
20 Refer to Part B of this Section.
Sump - refitting
21 Refer to Part B of this Section.
Flywheel - refitting
22 Refer to Part B of this Section. When the
flywheel is bolted in position, refer to Chapter
5 for details and refit the clutch unit.
Auxiliary shaft - refitting
23 Refer to Part C of this Section.
Cylinder head - refitting
24 Refer to Part B of this Section. Note that
this procedure describes cylinder head
refitting complete with the camshaft housing
Timing belt and covers refitting
25 Refer to Part B of this Section.
Engine/transmission reconnection and refitting
#
Note: A suitable hoist and lifting tackle will be
required for this operation. New locktabs will
be
required
for
the
exhaust
downpipe-to-manifold nuts, and suitable
exhaust assembly paste, will be required when
reconnecting the downpipes to the exhaust
manifold.
26 Before attempting to reconnect the
engine to the gearbox, check that the clutch
friction disc is centralised as described in
Chapter 5, Section 8. This is necessary to
ensure that the gearbox input shaft splines
will pass through the splines in the centre of
the friction disc.
27 Check that the clutch release arm and
bearing are correctly fitted, and lightly grease
the input shaft splines.
28 Mate the engine and gearbox together,
ensuring that the engine adapter plate is
correctly located, and that the gearbox
locates on the dowels in the cylinder block,
then refit the engine-to-gearbox bolts and the
single nut, but do not fully tighten them at this
stage. Ensure that any brackets noted during
13
7D.9 . . . and lubricate the shells
7D.10 Lower the crankshaft into position
7DS.14 Tighten the main bearing cap bolts
to the specified torque setting
13•54 Supplement: Revisions and information on later models
removal
are
in
place
under
the
engine-to-gearbox bolts. Do not allow the
weight of the gearbox to hang on the input
shaft as it is engaged with the clutch friction
disc.
29 Refit the starter motor, ensuring that the
wiring harness bracket is in position on the
top bolt.
30 Locate the engine/transmission unit at the
front of the car and move it into position under
the engine compartment. Attach the lifting
sling and hoist as during removal.
31 Enlist the aid of an assistant to help
steady the combined units as they are raised
into position and to locate the mountings in
the engine compartment.
32 Once they are located, tighten the
mountings to the specified torque settings,
then disconnect the lifting hoist and sling.
33 The remainder of the refitting and
reconnection procedures are a reversal of the
removal procedure described in Part C. For
further details on reconnecting the
suspension and driveshaft components,
refer to Chapter 7 and Section 13 of this
Chapter.
34 Ensure that the exhaust downpipe-tomanifold connection is clean and renew the
gasket when reconnecting this joint. Use a
smear of exhaust assembly paste on the joint
faces. Use new lockwashers and tighten the
flange nuts securely.
35 Ensure that all fuel and coolant
connections are cleanly and securely made.
36 Ensure that all wiring connections are
correct and securely made.
37 Top up the engine and transmission oil
levels.
38 Refill the cooling system.
39 Check that all connections are securely
made, then reconnect the battery negative
lead.
Initial start-up after major
overhaul
40 Refer to Chapter 1, Section 45.
8 Cooling system
PART A:
999 AND 1108 CC ENGINES
Description
1 The operation and function of the cooling
system is essentially as described in Chapter
2 but note the location of the various
components and the routing of the coolant
hoses in Fig. 13.26.
Fig. 13.26 Cooling system circuit - 999 and 1108 cc engines (Sec 8A)
1 Coolant pump
2 Thermostat
Maintenance
2 Topping-up,
draining
and
refilling
procedures are as for 1116 and 1301 cc
engines in Chapter 2, but note that the
coolant capacity is different (see Specifications).
Thermostat removal and refitting
¡
3 The thermostat is located on the left-hand
end of the cylinder head, below the
distributor.
4 The thermostat cannot be renewed
independently of its housing and if faulty the
complete assembly must be renewed.
5 Drain the cooling system.
6 Although the thermostat housing can be
removed directly from the cylinder head,
better access is provided if the distributor is
first withdrawn as described in Section 10 of
this Chapter (photo).
7 Disconnect the coolant hose from the
thermostat housing and unscrew the housing
flange bolts. Remove the assembly. Note that
it may be necessary to tap it free with a
plastic-faced or wooden mallet if stuck in
place.
8 Remove the gasket and clean the mating
surfaces.
9 Use a new gasket and bolt the assembly
into position (photo).
10 Reconnect the coolant hose, then fill and
bleed the cooling system.
8A.6 The thermostat housing (shown with
distributor removal) on the 999 cc engine
3 Heater matrix
Fig. 13.27 Cooling system thermostat in open and closed positions - 999 and 1108 cc
engines (Sec 8A)
8A.9 Fitting the thermostat housing. Note
the new gasket
Supplement: Revisions and information on later models 13•55
Fig. 13.28 Sectional view of the coolant
pump on the 999 and 1108 cc engines
(Sec 8A)
Coolant pump removal and refitting
#
11 The coolant pump is located on the
crankshaft pulley end of the engine and is
driven by the timing belt.
12 The pump cannot be repaired and must
be regarded as disposable.
13 Drain the cooling system.
14 Remove the timing belt cover and then set
No. 1 piston to TDC. To achieve this, turn the
crankshaft pulley bolt until the camshaft
sprocket timing mark is aligned with the one
on the cylinder head.
15 Release the belt tensioner and slip the
timing belt off the camshaft and coolant pump
sprockets.
16 Unbolt and remove the coolant pump and
clean the mounting face of all old gasket
material.
17 Apply a continuous bead of RTV silicone
sealant (instant gasket) to the mounting face
of the coolant pump and bolt it into position
(photos).
18 Check that the camshaft sprocket and the
crankshaft have not been moved and fit the
timing belt to the camshaft and coolant pump
sprockets. The pump sprocket does not
require setting in any particular position
before connecting the timing belt.
19 Tension the belt as described in Section 5B of this Chapter.
20 Fit the timing belt cover.
21 After allowing one hour for the gasket
material to cure, refill and bleed the cooling
system.
8A.17A Fitting the coolant pump to the
999 cc engine
PART B:
1301 CC TURBO IE ENGINE
Description
1 The cooling system on this model has flow
and return connections to the turbocharger,
and is an essential means of cooling the
turbocharger.
2 The radiator cooling fan is of two-speed
type, being controlled by a two-stage
thermostatic switch screwed into the radiator
side tank.
3 According to the coolant temperature level,
the fan speed is regulated to provide the most
effective cooling.
4 The remote cooling system expansion tank
is mounted in the left-hand rear corner of the
engine compartment (photo).
PART C:
1372 CC IE AND 1372 CC
TURBO IE ENGINES
Description
1 The cooling system layout and components
for the 1372 cc engines is shown in
Figs. 13.29 and 13.30.
2 The system on each engine operates in
essentially the same manner as that
described for the other models in Chapter 2,
but the location of components and the
coolant hose routings differ according to
model. The cooling system expansion tank
location differs according to model, being
either located on the side of the radiator or
8A.17B Tightening the coolant pump bolts
mounted separately on the side of the inner
wing panel.
3 On Turbo models, the cooling system also
assists in cooling the turbocharger.
Maintenance
4 The
maintenance
procedures
are
essentially the same as those described for
the other models in Chapter 2.
¡
Cooling system - draining,
flushing and refilling
Warning: Wait until the engine is
cold before starting this
procedure. Do not allow
antifreeze to come into contact
with your skin or painted surfaces of the
vehicle. Rinse off spills immediately with
plenty of water. Never leave antifreeze
lying around in an open container or in a
puddle in the driveway or on the garage
floor. Children and pets are attracted by its
sweet smell. Antifreeze is fatal if ingested.
5 Disconnect the battery negative lead.
6 Working inside the vehicle, turn the heater
temperature control knob fully to the right,
which will fully open the heater coolant valve.
7 With the expansion tank cap removed,
place a suitable container beneath the
radiator bottom hose.
8 Loosen the clip and ease the bottom hose
away from the radiator outlet (photo). Allow
the coolant to drain into the container.
9 Reposition the container under the front of
the cylinder block, and unscrew the cylinder
block drain plug (photo). Allow the coolant to
drain into the container.
13
8B.4 Topping up the expansion tank with
antifreeze on the 1301 cc engine
8C.8 Bottom hose connection to the
radiator
8C.9 Cylinder block drain plug
13•56 Supplement: Revisions and information on later models
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
Expansion tank
Radiator
Electric fan
Coolant supply hose (thermostat
to radiator)
Coolant manifold pipe
Coolant pump
Coolant supply hose (thermostat
to heater matrix)
Coolant return hose (heater
radiator to manifold pipe)
Heater matrix
10 Coolant return hose (inlet manifold
to manifold pipe)
11 Coolant return hose (radiator to
manifold pipe)
12 Thermostat
13 Fan thermostatic switch
Fig. 13.29 Cooling system circuit - 1372 cc ie engine (Sec 8C)
Fig. 13.30 Cooling system circuit - 1372 cc Turbo ie engine (Sec 8C)
1
2
3
4
Electric fan
Radiator
Thermostat
Coolant supply hose (inlet
manifold to heater matrix)
5 Heater matrix
6 Coolant return hose (heater
matrix to the manifold pipe)
7 Coolant pump
8 Coolant manifold pipe
9 Coolant supply hose (cylinder
block/crankcase to the
turbocharger)
10 Coolant return hose
(turbocharger to the expansion
tank)
11 Coolant supply hose (expansion
tank to the manifold pipe)
12 Expansion tank
13 Coolant return hose (radiator to
the manifold pipe)
14 Fan thermostatic switch
15 Coolant supply hose
(thermostat to the radiator)
16 Coolant return hose (radiator to
the expansion tank)
Supplement: Revisions and information on later models 13•57
8C.14 Bleed screw location on top of the
expansion tank (arrowed)
8C.21A Cooling fan and wiring connector
8C.21B Cooling fan switch wiring
connector
10 Apply suitable sealant to the threads of
the drain plug, then refit and tighten the plug.
11 Dispose of the drained coolant safely, or
keep it in a covered container if it is to be
re-used.
12 If required, the system can be flushed
through as described in Section 2 of Chapter 2.
13 Before attempting to refill the cooling
system, make sure that all hoses have been
reconnected, that the hoses and clips are in
good condition, and that the clips are tight.
Also ensure that the cylinder block drain plug
has been refitted and tightened. Note that an
antifreeze mixture must be used all year round
to prevent corrosion of the engine
components - refer to Section 3, Chapter 2.
14 Open the bleed screw in the top of the
expansion tank (photo).
15 Remove the expansion tank cap, and fill
the system by slowly pouring the coolant into
the expansion tank to prevent air locks from
forming.
16 Top up the coolant until liquid free from air
bubbles emerges from the radiator bleed
screw orifice, then close the bleed screw.
17 Continue topping up until the coolant
reaches the Maximum mark on the expansion
tank.
18 Start the engine and run it until it reaches
normal operating temperature, then stop the
engine and allow it to cool. Normal operating
temperature is reached when the cooling fan
cuts into operation. Feel the radiator top hose
to ensure that it is hot. If cool, it indicates an
air lock in the system.
19 Check for leaks, particularly around
disturbed components. Check the coolant
level in the expansion tank, and top up if
necessary. Note that the system must be cold
before an accurate level is indicated. There is
a risk of scalding if the expansion tank cap is
removed whilst the system is hot.
26 Note their direction of fitting, then prise
free the radiator retaining clips. Carefully lift
the radiator from the car.
27 Refitting is a reversal of the removal
procedure. Ensure that as the radiator is
lowered into position, it engages in the two
rubber location grommets.
28 With the radiator (and cooling fan) refitted,
top up the cooling system as described earlier
in this Section (photo).
Radiator (and cooling fan)
- removal and refitting
¡
20 Disconnect the battery negative lead.
21 Detach the wiring connectors from the
cooling fan and the fan switch located in the
radiator (photos).
22 If preferred, the cooling fan unit can be
removed separately from the radiator, by
undoing the attachment bolts and carefully
withdrawing the unit upwards from the
vehicle. Take care not to damage the radiator
core as it is lifted clear (photo).
23 Drain the cooling system as described
earlier in this part of the Section, but note that
it will not be necessary to remove the cylinder
block drain plug.
24 Undo the retaining screws and remove
the front grille panel.
25 Loosen off the retaining clips and detach
the upper coolant hose and the expansion
hose from the radiator.
Thermostat removal and refitting
¡
Note: A new thermostat cover gasket must be
used on refitting.
29 Drain the cooling system as described
earlier in this Section, but note that there is no
need to drain the cylinder block.
30 Disconnect the coolant hoses from the
thermostat cover (situated at the gearbox end
of the cylinder head).
31 Unscrew the two thermostat cover
securing bolts, noting that the left-hand bolt
may also secure the HT lead bracket, and
remove the thermostat/cover assembly.
Recover the gasket (photo).
32 If faulty, the thermostat must be renewed
complete with the housing as an assembly.
33 If desired the thermostat can be tested as
described in Chapter 2.
34 Refitting is a reversal of removal, bearing
in mind the following points.
13
8C.22 Cooling fan to radiator securing bolt
8C.28 Topping up the radiator coolant level
on the 1372 cc ie engine. Note orientation
of radiator retaining clip (arrowed)
8C.31 Thermostat unit removal on the
1372 cc ie engine (distributor removed for
clarity)
13•58 Supplement: Revisions and information on later models
8C.40 Coolant pump/alternator bracket
bolt removal
35 Clean the mating faces of the thermostat
cover and cylinder head, and use a new
gasket when refitting the cover.
36 Refill the cooling system as described
earlier in this Section.
Coolant pump removal and refitting
¡
Note: A new coolant pump gasket must be
used on refitting. If the pump is found to be
worn it must be renewed as a complete unit as
dismantling and repair is not possible.
37 Disconnect the battery negative lead.
38 Drain the cooling system as described
earlier in this Section.
39 Remove the coolant/alternator drivebelt
as described in the next sub-Section.
40 Unscrew the four coolant pump securing
bolts, noting that two of the bolts also secure
the alternator adjuster bracket, and withdraw
the pump from the housing (photo). Recover
the gasket.
41 Refitting is a reversal of removal, bearing
in mind the following points.
42 Use a new gasket between the pump and
the housing.
43 Refit
and
tension
the
coolant
pump/alternator drivebelt as described in the
next sub-Section.
44 On completion, refill the cooling system
as described earlier in this Section.
8C.52 Fitting a new coolant
pump/alternator drivebelt around the
pulleys
8C.48 Top side view of water pump,
alternator and drivebelt
Coolant pump/alternator
drivebelt - checking,
renewal and tensioning
¡
45 At the intervals specified in Section 3 or
“Routine maintenance” at the beginning of
this manual (as applicable), the drivebelt
should be checked and if necessary
re-tensioned.
46 Access to the drivebelt is made from the
underside of the car on the right-hand side.
Loosen off the front right-hand roadwheel
retaining bolts, then raise and support the car
on axle stands at the front. Remove the front
roadwheel on the right-hand side.
47 Remove the underwing shield from the
right-hand wheel arch by drifting the
compression pins out from the retaining
clips. Prise free the clips and remove the
shield.
48 Additional, though somewhat restricted,
access can be obtained from above by
removing the air cleaner unit on the non-Turbo
ie-engine (photo).
49 Check the full length of the drivebelt for
cracks and deterioration. It will be necessary
to turn the engine in order to check the
portions of the drivebelt in contact with the
pulleys. If a drivebelt is unserviceable, renew it
as follows (photo).
50 Loosen the alternator mounting and
adjuster nuts and bolts and pivot the
alternator towards the cylinder block.
8C.53 Tightening the alternator adjuster
nut
8C.49 Alternator/water pump drivebelt and
tensioner viewed from the right-hand
wheel arch
51 Slip the drivebelt from the alternator,
coolant pump and crankshaft pulleys.
52 Fit the new drivebelt around the pulleys,
then lever the alternator away from the
cylinder block until the specified belt tension
is achieved. Lever the alternator using a
wooden or plastic lever at the pulley end to
prevent damage. It is helpful to partially
tighten the adjuster nut before tensioning the
drivebelt (photo).
53 When the specified tension has been
achieved, tighten the mounting and adjuster
nuts and bolts (photo).
PART D: HEATER UNIT- LATER
MODELS
Heater unit removal and refitting
¡
1 The heater unit is removed complete with
the facia/control panel. Commence by
draining the cooling system as described
previously in this Section.
2 Disconnect the battery negative lead.
3 Refer to Section 15 of this Chapter for
details and remove the ashtray/cigar lighter
and the auxiliary control panel.
4 Undo the upper screw retaining the heater
unit to the facia (see Fig. 13.31).
5 Remove the radio from the central facia.
6 Undo the retaining screw on each side at
the front of the gear lever console. Prise free
Fig. 13.31 Removing the heater unit-tofacia upper retaining screw (Sec 8D)
Supplement: Revisions and information on later models 13•59
Fig. 13.33 Heater pipe shield securing
screw positions on later models (Sec 8D)
Fig. 13.32 Heater unit facia to main facia
retaining screw locations (arrowed)
(Sec 8D)
the trim cover, undo the retaining screw at the
rear of the console. Prise free and release the
gear lever gaiter and lift clear the central
console.
7 Undo the retaining screws and remove the
steering column upper and lower shroud.
8 Detach and remove the lower facia trim on
the side of the central facia.
9 Referring to Fig. 13.32, unscrew and
remove the four heater facia to main facia
retaining screws from the points indicated.
10 Undo the two retaining nuts securing the
heater to the body on the driver’s side.
11 Undo the retaining screws and remove
the pipe shield from the side of the heater
unit, then disconnect the coolant supply and
return hoses from the heater. As the hoses are
detached, be prepared to catch any remaining
coolant as it flows from the hoses and heater
connections.
12 Undo the remaining two heater unit
securing nuts and withdraw the heater unit
from the car. As the unit is removed, detach
the wiring and position the hoses with their
ends pointing upwards to avoid further
coolant spillage.
13 Refit in the reverse order of removal.
Ensure that the hoses are securely
reconnected. Top up the cooling system on
completion.
Heater unit - dismantling
and reassembly
¡
14 Remove the heater unit as described
previously.
15 Pull free the heater/fresh air and blower
control knobs (photo).
16 Undo the two retaining screws and
withdraw the control panel from the facia.
Detach the wiring connectors from the panel
illumination lights and remove the panel.
8D.15 Pull free the heater/fresh air and
blower control knobs
17 Unscrew the retaining bolts and remove
the centre panel from the heater unit.
18 Undo the retaining screws and remove
the control lever mounting.
19 Loosen off the grub screws and detach
the cables from the control levers.
20 Undo the retaining screws and remove
the control valve.
21 Undo the two retaining screws and
withdraw the heater matrix from the heater
housing.
22 To separate the casing halves, drill out the
pop rivet securing the mounting bracket,
release the retaining clips and unscrew the
securing bolts.
23 Reassemble in the reverse order of
dismantling. Check that the control cables are
correctly adjusted and that the controls
operate in a satisfactory manner before
refitting the heater unit to the car.
13
Fig. 13.34 Heater unit components on later models (Sec 8D)
1 Coolant inlet tap
2 Centre panel
3 Side casings
4 Heater matrix
5 Blower fan
13•60 Supplement: Revisions and information on later models
9A.4A Air cleaner toggle clip on the 999 cc
model
9 Fuel and exhaust systems
Warning: Many of the
procedures in this Section
require the removal of fuel lines
and connections that may result
in some fuel spillage. Before carrying out
any operation on the fuel system refer to
the precautions given in ‘Safety first!’ at
the beginning of this Manual and follow
them implicitly. Petrol is a highly
dangerous and volatile liquid, and the
precautions necessary when handling it
cannot be overstressed.
Caution: On fuel injection
models, the system is
pressurised, therefore extra
care must be taken when
disconnecting fuel lines. When
disconnecting a fuel line union, loosen the
union slowly, to avoid a sudden release of
pressure that may cause fuel to spray out
and have a container and cloth ready to
catch spillages. Fuel pressure checking
must be entrusted to a Fiat dealer, or other
specialist, who has the necessary special
equipment.
9A.4B Air cleaner element on the 999 cc
model
9A.5A Air cleaner hot air intake and lower
retaining clip on the 999 cc model
only unleaded petrol must be used - the use
of leaded petrol will destroy the catalyst.
1 It is possible to use unleaded fuel (minimum
95 RON) in the following models with the
indicated serial numbers.
Engine
Serial number
903 cc
146A.000
146A.046
146A.048
999 cc
156A2.00
1108 cc
160A3.000
1116 cc
138B.000
138B.046
146A4000
146A4.048
1299/1301 cc
138B2.000
138B2.046
149A7.000
1149A7.000
146A2.000
1372 cc
146C1.000
146A8.000
160A1.046
2 On all except the 903 cc engine, the use of
unleaded fuel is conditional upon the
avoidance of constant high speeds and
sudden acceleration.
9A.5B Air cleaner cold air intake on the
999 cc model
Note: On models with catalytic converters
3 The air cleaner on later models is of the
automatic temperature controlled type. The
need to move the intake control lever to winter
or summer positions is no longer required.
4 The air cleaner on the 999 cc engine is of
rectangular shape and the element is
removed for renewal after prising back the
toggle type clips (photos).
5 To remove this type of air cleaner,
disconnect the cold and hot air intake hoses
and the large and small breather hoses
(photos).
6 Unscrew the nut from the upper casing
section and then release the lower toggle type
clip and lift the air cleaner from the carburettor
(photo). Note the sealing ring between the air
cleaner and the carburettor. Unless the ring is
in good condition, renew it.
7 If the thermostatically-controlled cold air
flap opener in the air cleaner casing is faulty
(checked by holding a mirror against the cold
air intake when the engine is warm), renew the
opener (single fixing screw); no repair is
possible (photo).
9A.5C Air cleaner breather hoses on the
999 cc model
9A.6 Air cleaner casing nut on the 999 cc
model
9A.7 Air cleaner thermostatic flap opener
on the 999 cc model
PART A: GENERAL
Unleaded fuel
Air cleaner - modified types
Supplement: Revisions and information on later models 13•61
9A.8A Air cleaner on the 1116 cc, 1299 cc
and 1301 cc models
9A.8B Circular type air cleaner element
10 The thermostatically-controlled cold air
flap opener is similar to that described in
paragraph 7.
11 The air cleaner on the 1372 cc ie engine is
of rectangular shape. The element can be
removed after releasing the spring clips at the
front of the unit, followed by the two screws
from its top face. The air cleaner end cover
can then be withdrawn and the element
removed. The air cleaner unit on the 1372 cc
Turbo ie engine is located in the front
right-hand corner of the engine compartment.
Prise free the four clips to release the top
cover and expose the element.
Fuel pump (999 and 1108 cc
carburettor models) description, removal
and refitting
¡
9A.9A Circular type air cleaner fixing nuts
9A.9B Circular type air cleaner nut on the
camshaft cover (arrowed)
8 The air cleaner on the 1116 cc and
1299/1301 cc engine is of circular type.
Access to the element is obtained by
extracting the three cover nuts and lifting off
the lid (photos).
9 The air cleaner casing can be removed after
unscrewing the four nuts which hold it to the
carburettor and the single nut on the camshaft
cover bracket. As the casing is withdrawn,
disconnect the hoses from it (photos).
12 The fuel pump is mechanically-operated
via a pushrod which is in contact with an
eccentric cam on the camshaft. The pump is
of sealed, disposable type - no repair or
cleaning being possible.
13 To remove the pump, disconnect the
flexible hoses and unbolt the pump from the
cylinder head. Retain the pushrod and the
insulator block.
14 Refitting is a reversal of removal, use new
gaskets, one on each side of the insulator
block.
Fuel tank (999 and 1108 cc
engines)
15 In conjunction with the plastic type fuel
tank, the breather and fuel level transmitter
unit have been modified as shown in
Fig. 13.35.
13
Fig. 13.35 Fuel tank and supply circuit on the 999 and 1108 cc engines (Sec 9A)
1 Carburettor
2 Fuel pump
3 Fuel return pipe
4 Fuel feed pipe
5 Tank vent valve
6 Fuel level sender unit
13•62 Supplement: Revisions and information on later models
9B.2A Weber 32 TLF 4/250 carburettor
from anti-run-on solenoid valve side
PART B:
CARBURETTOR MODELS
Carburettor (Weber 32 TLF) description
Warning: Refer to the beginning
of this Section before starting
any work.
1 This carburettor is used on the 999 cc
engine and is of the single venturi
downdraught type, with a manually-operated
choke (cold start).
2 The unit incorporates an automatic
anti-flooding device, a full power valve and an
accelerator pump (photos).
3 The throttle valve block, although
incorporating coolant hose stubs, is not in fact
coolant-heated.
9B.2B Weber 32 TLF 4/250 carburettor
from choke linkage side
9B.2C Weber 32 TLF 4/250 carburettor
from accelerator pump side
4 A solenoid-operated idle cut-off valve is
fitted to prevent running-on (dieseling) when
the ignition is switched off.
been extensively overhauled, the mixture may
require adjusting.
8 Prise out the tamperproof plug and connect
an exhaust gas analyser to the car in
accordance
with
the
instrument
manufacturer’s instructions (photo).
9 With the engine at normal operating
temperature and idling at the specified speed,
turn the mixture screw until the CO
percentage is within the specified tolerance
(photo).
10 If an exhaust gas analyser is not available,
turn the mixture screw anti-clockwise to
obtain maximum idle speed and then turn it
clockwise until the speed just starts to drop.
Re-adjust the idle speed screw to bring the
idle speed to the specified level.
11 Switch off the engine and remove the test
instruments. It is advisable to fit a new
tamperproof cap to the mixture screw if it is
intended to take the vehicle overseas. This is
required to meet legislation in certain
countries.
Carburettor (Weber 32 TLF) idle speed and mixture
adjustment
¢
5 If the car is not equipped with a rev counter,
connect one in accordance with the
manufacturer’s instructions.
6 Have the engine at normal operating
temperature and idling. Turn the idle speed
screw on the carburettor until the speed
matches that specified (photo).
7 The idle mixture is set in production, and
the adjustment screw is sealed with a
tamperproof cap. If, however, the idling is not
smooth or the engine or carburettor have
™
Carburettor (Weber 32 TLF)
- removal and refitting
9B.2D Weber 32 TLF 4/250 carburettor
from throttle linkage side
9B.2E Weber 32 TLF 4/250 carburettor
from above
9B.6 Weber 32 TLF 4/250 carburettor idle
speed screw (arrowed)
9B.8 Weber 32 TLF 4/250 carburettor
mixture screw location under tamperproof
plug (arrowed)
12 Remove the air cleaner.
13 Release the clips and disconnect the fuel
hoses from the carburettor. Take extreme
care that fuel spillage is contained and that
there are no naked flames in the vicinity of the
work area. Do not smoke.
14 Disconnect the distributor vacuum hose
from the carburettor.
9B.9 Mixture adjustment - Weber 32 TLF
carburettor
Supplement: Revisions and information on later models 13•63
9B.18 Removing the Weber 32 TLF
carburettor by gripping air cleaner
mounting bracket
9B.19 Carburettor insulator block
9B.22 Fuel filter removal from the Weber
32 TLF carburettor
15 Release the clamp screw and pinch-bolt,
and disconnect the choke cable.
16 Slacken the throttle cable by releasing the
locknut and turning the adjuster sleeve, then
slip the cable nipple out of the notch in the
throttle spindle quadrant.
17 Disconnect the lead from the idle cut-off
solenoid valve.
18 Unscrew the two long mounting bolts and
lift the carburettor from the inlet manifold
(photo).
19 Refitting is a reversal of removal, but
observe the following points (photo).
a) Use a new flange gasket at each side of
the insulator block.
b) Check that the choke cable is fitted so
that full choke can be obtained but the
choke is fully off when the choke control
lever is pushed right in.
c) Adjust the throttle cable so that there is
just a slight amount of slackness when the
accelerator pedal is released, but when
fully depressed, full throttle can be
obtained (throttle valve plate quadrant up
against its stop).
21 Normally, the following operations are all
that will be required to keep the carburettor
working perfectly. The unit need not be
removed from the manifold unless the throttle
block is to be detached; simply remove the air
cleaner.
22 Periodically, unscrew the large hexagonal
plug adjacent to the fuel inlet pipe, extract the
filter and clean it. Refit the filter and plug
(photo).
23 Obtain a repair kit for your carburettor
which will contain all the necessary
replacement gaskets and seals. Extract the top
cover and choke diaphragm assembly fixing
screws, remove the small plastic cover and
push out the bush, then lift the top cover from
the carburettor. Discard the gasket (photos).
24 Mop out fuel and sediment from the float
chamber.
25 The various jets and calibrated bleeds can
then be removed and cleared by blowing
them through with air from a tyre pump. Do
not attempt to clear them by probing with
wire, as this will ruin the calibration.
26 Check the tightness of the fuel inlet
needle valve. If necessary, remove the float
and its pivot pin so that a close-fitting ring
spanner can be used on the valve body. Take
care to support the pivot pin pedestals as the
pin is tapped out - they are brittle. The throttle
valve plate block can be removed after
extracting the screws (photos).
27 As reassembly progresses, carry out the
following checks and adjustments.
9B.23A Choke linkage cover removal from
the Weber 32 TLF carburettor
9B.23B Disconnecting the choke linkage
on the Weber 32 TLF carburettor
Carburettor (Weber 32
TLF) - overhaul
¢
20 It is rare for a carburettor to require
complete overhaul and if the unit has seen
considerable service and wear is detected in
the throttle valve spindle bushes, it is
recommended that a new or rebuilt carburettor is obtained.
13
9B.23C Underside view of the cover on the
Weber 32 TLF carburettor
9B.26A Floats and pivot pin arrangement
on the Weber 32 TLF carburettor
9B.26B Fuel inlet valve needle removal
from the Weber 32 TLF carburettor
13•64 Supplement: Revisions and information on later models
9B.26C Fuel inlet valve body and washer
removal from the Weber 32 TLF
carburettor
9B.26D Extracting the throttle valve block
screws from the Weber 32 TLF carburettor
9B.26E Throttle valve block gasket on the
Weber 32 TLF carburettor
Fast idle - adjustment (requires
removal of the carburettor)
29 Close the choke valve plate by moving the
control lever fully. Retain the lever in this
position with a rubber band.
30 The throttle valve plate should now be
open to give a gap between its edge and the
progression holes as specified. Check the gap
using a twist drill of equivalent diameter.
31 If adjustment is required, release the
locknut and turn the adjustment screw.
Retighten the locknut.
9B.26F Main parts of the Weber 32 TLF
carburettor
Automatic anti-flooding device adjustment
28 With the carburettor top cover held
vertically so that the float arm just touches the
fuel inlet needle valve ball, measure between
the float and the surface of the flange gasket
as shown in Fig. 13.36. If the dimension is not
within the specified tolerance, bend the float
tab which bears on the needle valve ball.
32 Operate the choke valve plate lever fully.
33 Move the control lever on the automatic
anti-flooding device downwards to simulate
vacuum pull-down. The choke butterfly
should open, leaving a gap (B - Fig 13.38) as
specified. Measure the gap with a twist drill of
equivalent diameter and make sure that the
choke valve plate is in the position shown. If
adjustment is required, turn the screw on the
diaphragm unit.
Fig. 13.36 Float level measurement Weber 32 TLF carburettor (Sec 9B)
Fig. 13.37 Fast idle adjustment Weber 32 TLF carburettor (Sec 9B)
A = 26.75 to 27.25 mm (1.05 to 1.07 in)
A = 0.65 to 0.75 mm (0.026 to 0.030 in)
Float level - checking and adjustment
9B.34A Weber 30/32 DMTE carburettor
from anti-flood device link side
Carburettor
(Weber 30/32 DMTE) - general
34 The carburettor is of twin barrel
downdraught type with a manually-operated
choke and an electronic fuel cut-off overrun
valve (photos).
35 Periodically, remove the large hexagonal
plug from its location at the fuel inlet pipe
stubs, and clean any dirt from the filter gauge.
Fig. 13.38 Automatic anti-flooding device
adjustment - Weber 32 TLF carburettor
(Sec 9B)
B = 4.5 mm (0.18 in)
Supplement: Revisions and information on later models 13•65
9B.34B Weber 30/32 DMTE carburettor
from diaphragm hose side
9B.34C Weber 30/32 DMTE carburettor
from choke link side
9B.34D Weber 30/32 DMTE carburettor
from throttle link side
9B.34E Weber 30/32 DMTE carburettor
from above (with cover removed)
9B.36A Showing idle speed screw
(arrowed) and . . .
9B.37A Fuel inlet and return hoses on the
Weber 30/32 DMTE carburettor
9B.37B Throttle cable connection on the
Weber 30/32 DMTE carburettor
Idle speed and mixture adjustment
36 Refer to Chapter 3, Section 7 (photos).
Removal and refitting
37 The operations are similar to those
described for the Weber 32 TLF earlier in this
Supplement, but note that the carburettor is
secured by four nuts and additional electrical
leads must be disconnected (photos).
¢
Carburettor (Weber 30/32
DMTE) - overhaul
38 The carburettor top cover with float may
be removed without the need to withdraw the
carburettor from the manifold. Other
9B.36B . . . mixture screw (arrowed) on the
Weber 30/32 DMTE carburettor
13
9B.37C Choke cable connection on the
Weber 30/32 DMTE carburettor
9B.37D Electrical lead to automatic antiflood device on the Weber 30/32 DMTE
carburettor
9B.37E Carburettor lead connectors on the
Weber 30/32 DMTE carburettor
13•66 Supplement: Revisions and information on later models
9B.37F Unscrewing a carburettor fixing nut
9B.40 Unscrewing a top cover screw from
the Weber 30/32 DMTE carburettor
47 When refitting the new valve, always use a
new sealing washer.
Float stroke (travel) - see Fig. 3.10
48 The float stroke should be between 42.5
and 43.5 mm when measured from the top
cover gasket. Adjust if necessary by bending
the tab on the end of the arm.
Accelerator pump
9B.45 Float pivot arrangement and needle
valve on the Weber 30/32 DMTE
carburettor
adjustments described in this sub-Section,
however, will require removal of the
carburettor.
39 Disconnect the short, curved diaphragm
hose from the top cover.
40 Extract the top cover screws, lift the cover
from the carburettor body, and rotate it in
order to release the cranked choke control
rod from its key hole (photo). Mop out the fuel
and clean the jets.
41 Check the jet sizes and other components
against those listed in the Specifications, in
case a previous owner has substituted
incorrect components (photo).
42 Overhaul procedures are generally as
given in Chapter 3, Section 14 for the Weber
30/32 DMTR, but use the Specifications listed
in this Chapter. Additional overhaul
procedures are given here.
Fuel inlet needle valve
43 If a high float level causing flooding of the
carburettor has been evident, first check that
the inlet valve housing is tight, and its washer
is sealing satisfactorily. A leak here will cause
fuel to bypass the inlet valve.
44 If the needle valve is to be renewed,
remove it in the following way.
45 Access to the fuel inlet needle valve is
obtained by carefully tapping out the float arm
pivot pin. Take care, the pivot pin pillars are
very brittle (photo).
46 Unscrew the fuel inlet valve body and
remove the valve and washer.
49 Adjustment of the accelerator pump is
very rarely required, but if performance is
suspect, carry out the following operations.
50 Fill the carburettor float chamber and then
operate the throttle valve plate lever several
times to prime the pump.
51 Position a test tube under the accelerator
pump jet and give ten full strokes of the
throttle lever, pausing between each stroke to
allow fuel to finish dripping.
52 The total volume of fuel collected should
be as specified. Adjust the nut on the pump
control if necessary to increase or decrease
the volume of fuel ejected.
General
53 When the stage is reached where the
valve plate spindle bushes have worn, then
the carburettor should be renewed complete.
54 When reassembling the carburettor, use
new gaskets which can be obtained in a repair
pack.
Carburettor (Weber 32 ICEV
61/250 and DMTE 30/32,
DMTE 30/150) - general
9B.41 Jets on the Weber 30/32 DMTE
carburettor (top cover removed)
PART C:
BOSCH LE2-JETRONIC
FUEL INJECTION SYSTEM
Description
Warning: Refer to the beginning
of this Section before starting
any work.
1 The Bosch LE2-Jetronic fuel injection
system, fitted to the 1301 cc Turbo ie model,
is an electronically controlled multi-point
injection (MPi) system.
2 The fuel injectors are fed at constant
pressure in relation to inlet manifold vacuum
pressure.
3 The system electronic control unit (ECU)
actuates the injectors for variable duration,
and so supplies the precise volume of fuel
required for any given engine speed and load
condition.
4 The ECU also monitors the air induction, air
temperature, coolant temperature and throttle
opening as additional parameters to compute
the required opening of the fuel injectors,
giving maximum power with fuel economy.
Fuel supply system
5 The fuel supply system consists of an
electric pump and primary filter, located
adjacent to the fuel tank. A fuel pressure peak
damper is located next to the pump (photo).
6 Fuel is then pumped through a filter to the
fuel rail and injectors. The injectors are of the
55 These carburettor types are fitted to later
models according to engine type. They are
similar in structure and operation to their
equivalents described in Chapter 3. Reference
can therefore be made to that Chapter for the
description and any operations concerning
them, but refer to Section 2 of this Chapter for
their specifications.
Carburettor (Solex
C 30/32-CIC 8) - description
56 This carburettor is fitted as an alternative
to the Weber unit on 1116 cc models
produced for certain markets. The removal,
refitting and overhaul procedures are
essentially the same as described earlier for
the Weber carburettors.
9C.5 Electric fuel pump/filter/pressure
damper assembly location on a 1301 cc
Turbo ie model
Supplement: Revisions and information on later models 13•67
Fig. 13.39 Sectional view of airflow meter 1301 cc Turbo ie engine (Sec 9C)
Fig. 13.40 Sectional view of throttle valve
housing - 1301 cc Turbo ie engine (Sec 9C)
1 Floating plate
2 Potentiometer
3 Compensating butterfly valve
4 Damper chamber
6 Spring
7 Bypass channel
8 CO adjusting screw
9 Tamperproof plug
Terminals
5, 7, 8, Potentiometer
9 Air temperature sensor
E Sealed (not to be touched)
1
2
3
4
solenoid-operated type, actuated from the
ECU.
7 Fuel pressure is regulated according to inlet
manifold vacuum pressure by a fuel pressure
regulator. Excess unpressurised fuel is
returned to the fuel tank.
Butterfly-type throttle valve
Idle bypass channel
Idle speed adjusting screw
Throttle valve plate setting screw
to set the closing position of the throttle valve
plate.
Supplementary air valve
16 This controls the air volume requirement
during cold starting. Essentially, the valve is an
electrically-heated bi-metallic strip, which rotates
the plate (4) (Fig. 13.41) to vary the volume of air
being drawn in through the aperture (1),
according to the temperature of the engine.
17 The requirement for additional air during
cold starting is to dilute the additional fuel,
which is injected and controlled by the ECU
as a result of monitoring the engine coolant
temperature sensor.
Airflow meter
Electrical control circuit
8 This component measures the quantity of
air drawn into the engine, and converts this
into an electric signal which is transmitted to
the ECU.
9 The intake air exerts a force on the floating
plate (1) (Fig. 13.39) which is connected to a
potentiometer (2).
10 A compensating butterfly valve (3)
compensates for any reflex pressure which
may occur, and is subject to the braking effect
of the damper chamber (4).
11 The idle mixture (air/fuel ratio) is altered by
means of the screw (8), which alters the
cross-section of the bypass channel (7).
12 An integral-type temperature sensor is
fitted, the resistance value of which decreases
as the temperature of the intake air increases.
This facility is used to correct the mixture
strength within a pre-determined air
temperature range.
18 The main components of the system are
the ECU and the system control relay. The
relay incorporates a fuel cut-off facility, which
cuts off the fuel supply in the event of engine
failure, the vehicle turning over, or a fuel line
breaking. The relay energises the following
electrical components.
19 Coolant temperature sensor, which
signals the coolant temperature to the ECU.
20 Throttle position switch, which signals the
ECU when the throttle valve plate is closed, in
order to actuate the deceleration fuel cut-off
device at speeds above 2500 rpm.
Fig. 13.41 Supplementary air valve 1301 cc Turbo ie engine (Sec 9C)
1
2
3
4
Aperture
Bi-metallic strip
Passage
Rotating plate (closed position)
21 The switch also signals the ECU at full
throttle, so that the mixture can be enriched to
cope with full-power requirements.
22 The system control relay also monitors the
engine speed directly from the ignition coil
primary winding.
Maintenance
¡
23 Regularly check the security of all system
hoses, wiring connections and plugs.
24 At the intervals specified in Section 3,
renew the fuel filter and the air cleaner element.
Fuel filter - renewal
¡
25 This is located within the engine
compartment just above the timing belt cover.
Disconnect the fuel hoses, but be prepared
for loss of fuel (photo).
26 When fitting the new filter, make sure that
the arrow stamped on it is pointing towards
the fuel injector rail.
Air cleaner element renewal
¡
27 Prise back the toggle-type clips and take
off the air cleaner lid. Remove and discard the
element, and wipe any dirt from the inside of
the casing (photos).
28 Fit the new element and replace the lid.
Throttle valve housing
13 The housing incorporates a conventional
butterfly-type throttle valve, actuated by
cables and rods from the accelerator pedal.
14 The idle bypass channel (2) (Fig. 13.40) is
fitted with an adjustment screw (3) to vary the
idle speed.
15 The other screw (4) and locknut are used
13
9C.25 Secondary fuel filter
9C.27A Removing the air cleaner lid
13•68 Supplement: Revisions and information on later models
9C.27B Removing the air cleaner element
Idle speed and mixture
adjustment
¢
29 Before carrying out any adjustments, the
engine must be at operating temperature, the
fan having cut in at second speed and then
switched off.
30 Release the locknut and turn the main idle
speed screw in the throttle valve housing until
the engine idles at the specified speed. This
should be all that is necessary to obtain the
correct idle speed, as the throttle valve plate
base setting is set during production.
However, if wear has taken place, or incorrect
adjustment has been carried out previously,
proceed in the following way.
31 Disconnect the intake duct from the
throttle valve housing. Release the locknut on
the base (small) adjusting screw, and turn the
9C.31A Disconnecting the throttle valve
housing intake duct
9C.31B Idle speed base setting screw (1)
and main adjustment screw (2)
screw until there is a clearance between the
lower edge of the throttle valve plate and the
throat wall of between 0.05 and 0.1 mm
(photos).
32 With the engine still at operating
temperature, start the engine, and having
released the locknut, turn the main (large) idle
speed screw fully clockwise to close the
bypass passage.
33 Now turn the base (small) screw until the
engine idles at between 700 and 800 rpm.
Tighten the locknut.
34 Finally, turn the main (large) adjusting
screw to give an idle speed of between 800
and 900 rpm.
35 It is unlikely that the mixture will require
alteration, but if it does, connect an exhaust
gas analyser to the car in accordance with the
equipment manufacturer’s instructions.
36 With the engine at operating temperature,
prise out the tamperproof cap, and turn the
mixture screw, which is located in the airflow
meter, until the CO level is as given in the
Specifications. Turning the screw clockwise
richens the mixture, turning it anti-clockwise
weakens the mixture. Use a close-fitting Allen
key for the adjustment (photo).
cables. The component wiring plug will of
course be disconnected for the test.
ECU connector Component connector
plug terminal
plug terminal
1
1 of ignition coil
2
2 of throttle position
switch
3
3 of throttle position
switch
4
50 of ignition switch
5
Earth
5
5 of airflow meter
7
7 of airflow meter
8
8 of airflow meter
9
9 of airflow meter
9
9 of throttle position
switch
9
18 of supplementary air
valve
9
87 main relay socket
10
10 of coolant temperature
sensor
12
Injector terminals
13
Earth
Fuel injection system electrical tests
9C.31C Checking throttle valve plate
opening with a feeler blade
9C.36 Using an Allen key to adjust the
mixture (CO level)
™
37 When carrying out checks to trace a fault
in the system, an ohmmeter should be used
for the following tests.
38 Disconnect the multipin connector from
the ECU, and also the one from the system
control relay, and apply the probes of the
ohmmeter in accordance with the following
sequence to check for continuity in the
System control
relay connector
plug terminal
1
15
30
31
50
87
87
87
87b
Component connector
plug terminal
1 of ignition coil
15 of ignition switch
Battery positive
Earth
50 of ignition switch
Injector terminals
18 of throttle position
switch
9 of ECU multipin socket
Fuel pump (fused)
Fig. 13.42 ECU and component connector plug terminals - 1301 cc Turbo ie engine (Sec 9C)
For colour code see main wiring diagrams
Supplement: Revisions and information on later models 13•69
Fig. 13.43 System control relay connector
plug terminals 1301 cc Turbo ie engine
(Sec 9C)
9C.55A Disconnecting the duct from the air
cleaner
39 Now use the ohmmeter to check the
resistance of the following components.
microswitch is heard to click immediately the
throttle butterfly is opened.
Supplementary air valve
Fuel injection system mechanical tests
40 Resistance between the terminals should
be between 40 and 60 ohms at 20ºC (68ºF).
Airflow meter
41 Resistance between terminals 5 and 8 of
the potentiometer should be between 330 and
360 ohms at 20ºC (68ºF).
42 Resistance between terminals 8 and 9 of
the internal circuit should be between 190 and
210 ohms at 20ºC (68ºF) and between 170
and 190 ohms at 60ºC (140ºF).
Coolant temperature sensor
43 At 20ºC (68ºF) the resistance should be
between 2 and 4 k ohms. At 50ºC (122ºF) the
resistance should be between 600 and
900 ohms. At 90ºC (194ºF) the resistance
should be between 100 and 300 ohms.
Fuel injectors
44 The winding resistance should
between 15 and 17 ohms at 20ºC (68ºF).
be
Throttle position switch
45 With the throttle butterfly valve closed,
there should be continuity between terminals 18 and 2, and with the valve fully open,
there should be no continuity between
terminals 18 and 3.
46 The throttle position switch should not be
disturbed unless absolutely necessary. If it
has to be removed, then refit it so that the
9C.55B Removing the air cleaner casing
upper bracket
™
Fuel pump
47 To test the pressure of the fuel pump, a
pressure gauge will be required, connected
into the fuel delivery hose.
48 Remove the multipin plug from the system
control relay and bridge terminals 87b and 30.
49 Turn the ignition switch on. The pump
should operate and indicate a pressure of
between 2.8 and 3.0 bars (40 and 44 lbf/in2).
50 To check the operation of the peak
pressure regulator, pinch the fuel return hose.
If the fuel pressure increases, the regulator
must be faulty, and should be renewed.
51 Check that the fuel pressure increases
when, with the engine idling, the accelerator is
depressed sharply.
Supplementary air valve
52 With the engine at normal operating
temperature
and
idling,
pinch
the
supplementary air valve hose using a pair of
pliers. The engine speed should not drop by
more than 50 rpm. If it does, renew the valve.
Fuel injection system
components removal and refitting
™
53 Disconnect the battery before carrying out
any of the following operations.
9C.55C Air cleaner casing lower bracket
and bolt (arrowed)
Air cleaner
54 Remove the cover and filter element as
previously described.
55 Disconnect the duct from the air cleaner
casing, and then unbolt and remove the
casing. Note that the lower bracket bolt need
not be completely removed, only unscrewed,
due to the design of the bracket. The air
cleaner metal duct is routed over the top of
the radiator (photos).
Airflow meter
56 Release the securing clip and disconnect
the air intake duct (photo).
57 Release the securing clip and disconnect
the air outlet duct (photo).
58 Disconnect the wiring plug.
59 Unscrew the fixing screws and remove
the airflow meter from its mounting bracket.
13
9C.55D Air cleaner metal duct over
radiator
9C.56 Air intake duct at airflow meter
(securing clip arrowed)
9C.57 Air outlet duct securing clip removal
from airflow meter
13•70 Supplement: Revisions and information on later models
9C.60 Fuel pressure regulator
Fuel pressure regulator
60 Disconnect the vacuum hose from the
regulator (photo).
61 Anticipate some loss of pressurised fuel,
and then disconnect the fuel hose from the
regulator. Unbolt and remove the unit.
Excessive air pressure switch
62 This is screwed into the end of the inlet
manifold. Disconnect the electrical leads and
unscrew the switch.
Coolant temperature sensor
63 This is screwed into the cylinder head and
has wires connected to it. Drain the cooling
system before commencing operations.
64 Disconnect the wiring plug and unscrew
the sensor.
9C.70A Brake servo vacuum hose
connection to inlet manifold
Throttle valve housing and inlet
manifold
65 Disconnect the air inlet hose from the
throttle valve housing, and also the
supplementary air valve hose.
66 Disconnect the throttle control cable by
swivelling the grooved sector and slipping the
cable nipple from its recess.
67 Disconnect the wiring plug from the
throttle position (potentiometer) switch.
68 Unbolt the fuel pressure regulator/wiring
loom bracket, and also the wiring loom
bracket at the other end of the inlet manifold.
Move the wiring loom aside.
69 Unbolt and remove the throttle housing
support bracket.
70 Disconnect the vacuum servo hose and
the fuel pressure regulator vacuum hoses
9C.72 Double nuts at the end of the inlet
manifold
9C.73 Removing the inlet manifold
9C.74 Removing an inlet manifold twin
pipe stub
9C.75 Disconnecting the fuel delivery hose
union
9C.70B Fuel pressure regulator vacuum
hose connection at the inlet manifold
from the inlet manifold (photos).
71 Disconnect the leads from the excessive
air pressure switch.
72 Unscrew the inlet manifold fixing nuts.
Note that double nuts are used at the ends of
the manifold in order to secure the exhaust
heat shield (photo). The shield should be
released and lowered to rest on the exhaust
manifold.
73 Unscrew and remove the remaining two
nuts now exposed by lowering the heat shield
and lifting the inlet manifold away (photo).
74 If necessary, the injectors and cooling
tube can be withdrawn, and the two twin inlet
pipe stubs removed. These are retained with
the exhaust manifolds using nuts and washers
(photo).
Fuel rail and injectors
75 Disconnect the fuel delivery hose from the
fuel rail by unscrewing the union nut (photo).
Be prepared for some loss of pressurised fuel.
76 Disconnect the fuel return hose.
77 Unbolt the fuel pressure regulator and the
wiring loom brackets (photo).
78 Disconnect the air intake hose from the
throttle valve housing, and then unbolt and
remove the throttle valve housing support
bracket (photo).
79 Disconnect the hose from the injector
cooling fan, and also disconnect the fan
thermo-switch on the underside of the injector
cooling air duct (photo). Disconnect the
injector wiring plugs, and then slide out the
injector cooling air duct.
9C.77 Wiring loom clip and bracket
Supplement: Revisions and information on later models 13•71
9C.78 Throttle valve housing support
bracket
9C.79 Fan thermostatic switch on
underside of injector cooling air duct (duct
removed for clarity)
9C.80A Extracting a fuel injector screw
9C.80B Fuel injector removal
9C.81A Fuel injectors attached to fuel rail
9C.81B Fuel injector cooling air duct
refitting
9C.81C Injector wiring plug refitting
80 The injector retaining plate socket-headed
screws may now be removed using an Allen
key. Withdraw the fuel injectors and insulators
(photos).
81 New injectors, complete with the fuel rail,
must be purchased as an assembly. Always
use new seals when refitting the injectors and
the insulators (photos).
Electronic control unit (ECU)
82 The ECU is located under the right-hand
side of the facia panel.
83 Pull off the multipin connector plug and
extract the fixing screws (photo).
System control relay
84 This is located adjacent to the airflow
meter. Pull off the multipin connector and
release the relay fixing (photo).
Fuel injector cooling fan
85 This is located low down on the left-hand
side of the radiator (photo).
86 Remove the spiral-wire-wound hose
which connects with the injector cooling duct.
87 Pull off the wiring plug, and unbolt and
remove the fan.
Supplementary air valve
88 Disconnect the hoses and wiring plug
from the valve, which is located on the front
face of the engine (photos).
89 Unscrew the mounting bracket screws
and withdraw the valve.
13
9C.83 ECU multipin plug
9C.84 Fuel injector system relay
9C.85 Fuel injector cooling fan
13•72 Supplement: Revisions and information on later models
9C.88A Disconnecting the supplementary
air valve hose from the inlet manifold
9C.88B Supplementary air valve (arrowed)
9C.90 Throttle position switch (wiring plug
arrowed)
Throttle position switch
(potentiometer)
disconnecting the fuel hoses and wiring plug,
and then releasing the mounting clamp.
Throttle control linkage general
90 This is located on the left side of the
throttle valve housing (photo).
91 Disconnect the wiring plug, unscrew the
two fixing screws and withdraw the switch.
Refitting all components
99 This is of the cable and rod type. Adjust the
cable by means of the end fitting and nut, to give
the slightest play in the cable when the plastic
socket is engaged with the ball on the link rod
which runs across the camshaft cover (photos).
100 Keep the cross-shaft pivots and return
springs lubricated.
93 The fuel pump can be removed from its
location beside the fuel tank after
94 Refitting of all components is a reversal of
removal, but observe the following points.
95 Use new seals and gaskets as applicable,
noting that three rubber seals are used on
each fuel injector and insulator (photos).
96 Adjust the throttle position switch as
described in paragraph 46 of this Section.
97 When refitting a new fuel filter, make sure
that the arrow marked on it is in the direction
of the fuel flow.
98 Apply gasket cement to the threads of the
coolant temperature sensor.
9C.95A Fuel injector large seal
9C.95B Fuel injector small seal
9C.95C Fuel injector insulator seal
9C.95D Inlet pipe stub gasket
9C.99A Throttle cable and end fitting
(primary section)
9C.99B Throttle cable (secondary section)
and cross-shaft
Fuel filter
92 Unscrew the fuel line banjo unions from
the filter, which is located in the right-hand
rear corner of the engine compartment. Be
prepared for some loss of pressurised fuel,
and mop it up with rags.
Fuel pump
Fuel tank - general
101 The fuel tank is of metal construction, but
note the plastic anti-blow-back compartment
between the filler cap and the tank. This is
accessible from under the right-hand wheel
arch (photo).
Supplement: Revisions and information on later models 13•73
9C.99C Throttle cable nipple (arrowed) in
throttle linkage cut-out
PART D:
BOSCH MONO-JETRONIC
FUEL INJECTION SYSTEM
Warning: Refer to the beginning
of this Section before starting
any work.
Description
1 The Bosch Mono-Jetronic fuel injection
system fitted to the 1372 cc ie engine and
later 999/1108 ‘FIRE’ models is an electronically-controlled single point injection (SPi)
system. The SPi system is a compromise
between a conventional carburettor fuel
supply system and a multi-point fuel injection
(MPi) system.
2 Compared with a conventional carburettor,
the SPi unit is a relatively simple device. Fuel
is pumped to the SPi unit and then injected
into the inlet system by a single solenoid valve
(fuel injector), mounted centrally on top of the
unit. The injector is energised by an electrical
signal sent from the electronic control unit
(ECU), at which point the injector pintle is
lifted from its seat and atomised fuel is
delivered into the inlet manifold under
pressure. The electrical signals take two forms
of current; a high current to open the injector
and a low current to hold it open for the
duration required. At idle speed the injector
is pulsed at every other intake stroke rather
than with every stroke as during normal
operation.
3 The air-to-fuel mixture ratio is regulated by
values obtained from the ignition coil (engine
speed), engine coolant temperature sensor,
throttle position switch, and the Lambda
sensor in the exhaust system. No adjustments
to the fuel mixture are possible.
4 The throttle position switch enables the
ECU to compute both throttle position and its
rate of change. Extra fuel can then be
provided for acceleration when the throttle is
suddenly
opened.
Throttle
position
information, together with the idle tracking
switch, provide the ECU with the closed
throttle position information.
5 The 1372 cc ie system layout and principal
components are shown in Figs. 13.44 and
9C.99D Throttle cable balljoint retaining
spring clip (arrowed)
9C.101 Fuel tank anti-blow-back
compartment (arrowed)
13.45. Note that the Digiplex 2 electronic
ignition, is not fitted to FIRE models
(999/1108 cc).
6 The fuel system pump is immersed in the
fuel tank and forms a combined unit with the
fuel level sender unit. A cartridge type in-line
fuel filter is fitted to the fuel line, and is located
in the engine compartment.
7 The fuel pressure in the system is
controlled by a mechanical diaphragm
regulator in the injection unit turret. High
pressure in the system causes the diaphragm
to operate and excess fuel is returned to the
fuel tank.
8 The air intake temperature and volume is
regulated to ensure the correct mixture ratio
under all operating conditions. The
temperature of the air passing through the
injection unit is measured by a sensor which
transmits such information to the ECU for the
Fig. 13.44 Bosch Mono-Jetronic fuel injection system components and layout on the
1372 cc ie engine (Sec 9D)
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
Fuel pump relay
Injection system relay
Fuel pump fuse
Ignition coil
Digiplex 2 ECU
Battery
Idle speed check actuator
Injector connector
9
10
11
12
13
Fuel pressure regulator
Injector
Throttle position switch
Ignition switch
Coolant temperature
sensor
14 Engine speed and TDC
sensor
15
16
17
18
19
20
Secondary fuel filter
Fuel supply pipe
Fuel return pipe
Diagnostic socket
Fuel injection ECU
Fuel pump/level sender
unit
13
13•74 Supplement: Revisions and information on later models
9D.8 Atmospheric air intake for air
temperature sensor (1). Also shown are the
supply and return fuel line connections (2
and 3) and the throttle position sensor (4)
Fig. 13.45 Mono-Jetronic fuel injection component locations in the engine compartment
- 1372 cc ie engine (Sec 9D)
1 Injector resistor
9 Injector holder turret
2 Lambda sensor signal connector
10 Lambda sensor
3 Lambda sensor heating connector
11 Nut for adjusting accelerator cable
4 Secondary fuel filter
12 Engine speed and TDC sensor connector
5 Fuel return pipe
13 Ignition control unit
6 Fuel supply pipe
14 Ignition coil
7 Coolant temperature sensor
15 Diagnostic socket
8 ECU
16 Fuel pump relay and system relay
necessary processing (photo). A conventional
paper type air filter element is used and this
must be renewed at the specified intervals.
9 The ECU is specific to the model type, its
function being to control the fuel system
under all operating conditions, including
starting from cold - it richens the fuel mixture
as required but at the same time prevents
flooding. As the engine temperature rises, the
injection impulses are progressively reduced
until the normal operation temperature is
reached.
10 An integral emergency system enables
the fuel injection system to remain operational
in the event of any of the following
components malfunctioning. These items are
the coolant temperature sensor, the air intake
sensor, the Lambda sensor, the idle speed
check actuator and the throttle position
switch. In the event of the throttle position
switch malfunctioning, the fuel system
becomes automatically inoperative.
11 The catalytic converter fitted in the
exhaust system minimises the amount of
pollutants which escape into the atmosphere.
The Lambda sensor in the exhaust system
provides the fuel injection system ECU with
constant feedback which enables it to adjust
the mixture to provide the best possible
conditions for the converter to operate. The
fuel tank ventilation is contained within the
system. This is done by feeding any excess
vapours through a carbon filter back into the
engine intake, using solenoids and valves, as
shown in Fig. 13.46.
Maintenance
¡
12 Regularly check the condition and
security of the system hoses and
connections. Also check the system wiring
connections for condition and security.
13 At the specified intervals, renew the air
cleaner element and the fuel filter.
Fuel filter - renewal
Fig. 13.46 Fuel evaporation control system (Sec 9D)
1 Fuel tank
2 Two-way safety valve
3 Throttle body
4 Two-way vapour vent
valve
5 Vapour cut-off solenoid
6 Carbon filter
7 Elbi solenoid
8 ECU
¡
14 The in-line fuel filter is secured to the
right-hand suspension turret in the engine
compartment. To remove the filter, first
depressurize the fuel in the system as
described later in this Part.
Supplement: Revisions and information on later models 13•75
9D.15 Secondary fuel filter element
9D.17A Release the air cleaner end cover
retaining clips . . .
9D.17B . . . remove the cover and extract
the element
15 Undo the retaining strap bolt and
withdraw the filter from its location bracket.
Disconnect the inlet and supply hose from the
filter. If crimp connectors are fitted they will
have to be cut free and new screw type clips
fitted (photo).
16 Connect the hoses to the new filter
ensuring that the filter is correctly orientated
(the arrow mark on the body indicates the
direction of fuel flow). Ensure that the hose
clips are secure before refitting the filter into
the retaining strap and securing the retaining
bolt. When the engine is restarted, check the
hose connections to ensure that there is no
fuel leakage from them.
18 Wipe any dirt from within the casing then
locate the new element and refit it together
with the end cover.
the engine is at its normal operating
temperature. This is achieved by running the
engine for a period of about fifteen minutes,
by which time the cooling fan should have cut
into operation several times. At this point,
stop the engine, turn the ignition key to the
OFF position and proceed as follows.
21 Remove the air cleaner unit.
22 Place a 10 mm shim (X) between the
adjustment screw and the cam lever (between
items 1 and 2 in Fig. 13.47), on the throttle
body. This will open the thottle butterfly by
20º.
23 Loosen off the locknuts (C1 and C2) from
each linkage end. Insert another 10 mm
shim (Y) between the cable support bracket
and the nut (C1). Carefully tighten the nut
against the shim, ensuring that the cam does
not move whilst making the cable slightly taut.
24 Remove the shim (Y) and carefully tighten
the nut (C2) against the bracket without
allowing the nut (C1) to move. Remove the
shim (X) and release the accelerator pedal.
Check that the butterfly is completely open
when the the pedal is fully depressed.
¡
Air cleaner element renewal
17 Release the spring clip each side at the
front of the air cleaner, then unscrew and
remove the two screws from the top front face
of the housing. Withdraw the end cover and
element from the filter unit (photos).
Idle speed and mixture
adjustment
∞
19 No manual idle speed and/or mixture
adjustments to this type of fuel system are
necessary or possible. Any such adjustments
are automatically made by the ECU. If the
engine idle speed and/or mixture adjustment
is suspect, it must be checked using CO
measuring equipment; a task best entrusted
to a FIAT dealer or a competent garage. The
most probable cause of a malfunction is likely
to be a defective sensor or incorrectly
adjusted accelerator control cable.
#
Accelerator control system
- check and adjustment
20 To check the adjustment of the
accelerator control system, it is essential that
Fuel system
depressurisation
¡
Warning: Refer to the beginning
of this Section before starting
any work.
25 The fuel system should always be
depressurised whenever any fuel hoses
and/or system components are disconnected
and/or removed. This can easily be achieved
as follows.
13
Fig. 13.47 Accelerator linkage and butterfly control lever - SPi models (Sec 9D)
A
B
C1
C2
D
Cable
Bracket
Locknut
Locknut
Pulley
E
H
K
R
Pawl
Protection
Pedal
Bush
X
Y
1
2
Shim
Shim
Adjustment screw
Cam lever
9D.22 Accelerator control rod and cable
connections
13•76 Supplement: Revisions and information on later models
9D.26 Fuel pump relay (1), injection control
relay (2), Lambda sensor fuse (3) and pump
fuse (4) with cover (5) removed
9D.27 Fuel pump relay removal
9D.30 Test lead connected to relay
terminals 30 and 87
26 Loosen off the knurled retaining nut and
remove the cover from the fuel pump relay.
This is located on the left-hand suspension
turret in the engine compartment (photo).
27 Carefully pull free the fuel pump relay,
then start the engine and run it until it stops
(photo). The fuel system is now
depressurised. Turn the ignition off before
removing/dismantling any components.
28 Do not refit the fuel pump relay or turn the
ignition on until the system is fully
reconnected. When the engine is ready to be
restarted, refit the relay and its cover, then
restart the engine in the normal manner.
it in a suitable container. With the fuel pump
relay removed, connect up a suitable test lead
with a 7.5 amp (10 amp on models with
catalyst) fuse, in series, to the relay terminals
30 and 87, and check that fuel flows into the
container from the supply pipe (photo). If a
suitable pressure gauge is available for
connecting into the fuel line between the
engine compartment fuel filter and the
injection unit, check that the fuel pressure is
as specified at the beginning of this Chapter.
31 If the pump fails to operate, check that the
battery is in good condition and that the pump
wiring connections are clean and secure
before condemning the pump. To remove the
pump unit from the fuel tank, proceed as
described in the following sub-Section.
for identity to avoid incorrect attachment
during refitting.
36 Unscrew the retaining nuts then carefully
lift out and withdraw the fuel pump/level
sender unit from the fuel tank.
37 Refitting is a reversal of the removal
procedure. A new seal gasket must be used
and it is important to ensure that all
connections are securely and correctly made.
Fuel pump and supply
system checks
∞
29 Specialised equipment is required to
undertake accurate tests in the fuel supply
system and such checks must therefore be
entrusted to a FIAT dealer or a fuel injection
specialist. If the fuel pump is suspected of
malfunction, a basic check can be made by
removing the fuel filler cap then listening
through the filler pipe, get an assistant to turn
on the ignition whilst you listen to hear if the
pump is heard to operate in the tank. If the
pump fails to operate, check that the pump
fuse is sound and that its connection (and
also that of the relay) are clean and secure.
30 The pump can be further checked by first
depressurising the fuel system as described in
the previous sub-Section, then disconnect the
fuel supply pipe at the injector unit and locate
Fuel pump removal and refitting
¡
32 Release the pressure from the fuel system
as described previously.
33 Move the front seats forward, then tilt the
rear seat cushions forward. Peel back the
luggage area floor cover from the right-hand
side towards the centre to expose the access
cover above the pump/sender unit in the floor.
Remove the access cover.
34 Detach the wiring connectors from the
pump unit and the fuel level sender unit.
35 Loosen off the hose retaining clips and
detach the fuel supply and return hoses from
the pump unit connections. Mark the hoses
Injector unit removal and refitting
Intake air temperature
sensor - removal and
refitting
9D.39 Removing the filter seal from the
injector unit
9D.44 Injector unit retaining screws
(arrowed)
¡
38 Depressurise the fuel system as
described previously, then disconnect the
battery negative lead.
39 Remove the air cleaner unit and the
rubber seal (photo).
40 Disconnect the engine idle speed check
actuator lead and the throttle position switch
lead from the side faces of the injector unit.
41 Undo the retaining clips and detach the
fuel supply and return hose from the injector
unit. If crimped type retaining clips are fitted,
they will have to be carefully cut free and new
screw type clips obtained to replace them.
Take care not to cut into the hoses when
releasing the crimped type clips.
42 Detach the crankcase ventilation hose
from the fuel injector unit.
43 Disconnect the accelerator linkage at the
throttle lever on the injector unit.
44 Undo the four retaining screws and lift the
injector unit from the inlet manifold. Remove
the gasket (photo).
45 Clean the injector unit and the inlet
manifold mating faces.
46 Refit in the reverse order of removal.
¡
47 The air temperature sensor is located in
the top of the injector unit. It is basically a
resistor which varies its value in accordance
with the air temperature entering the induction
circuit from the air filter. The sensor can then
transmit the registered air temperature at this
point to the ECU temperature sensor (2).
48 Remove the air cleaner unit and its
mounting bracket in the injector.
49 Disconnect the wiring connector from the
Supplement: Revisions and information on later models 13•77
9D.49 Fuel injector unit sensor retaining
screw (1). Also shown is the intake air
temperature sensor (2)
9D.58A Detach the multiplug (arrowed) . . .
9D.58B . . . for access to the ECU retaining
screw (arrowed)
air temperature sensor. Undo the retaining
screw and remove the sensor from the
injector unit (photo).
50 Refit in the reverse order of removal.
64 Detach the brake servo vacuum hose
from the connector on the manifold.
65 Unscrew and remove the inlet manifold
securing bolts and nuts and remove the
manifold from the cylinder head. As they are
removed, note the location of the fastenings
and their spacers.
66 Remove the gasket and clean the mating
faces of the manifold and the cylinder head.
The gasket must be renewed when refitting
the manifold.
67 Refitting is a reversal of the removal
procedure. Ensure that the spacers are
correctly located (where applicable) and
tighten the retaining bolts and nuts to the
specified torque settings.
72 Undo the manifold-to-cylinder head
securing bolts/nuts and withdraw and remove
the manifold and heat shield.
73 Remove the gasket and clean the mating
faces of the manifold, cylinder head and
downpipe flange. The gasket must be
renewed when refitting the manifold.
74 Refitting is a reversal of the removal
procedure. Tighten the retaining bolts/nuts to
the specified torque setting.
Fuel injector removal and refitting
¡
51 Depressurise the fuel system as
described previously, then disconnect the
battery negative lead.
52 Remove the air cleaner unit.
53 Release the injector feed wiring mutliplug
and detach it from the injector.
54 Bend over the locking tabs retaining the
injector screws, then undo and remove the
screws. Withdraw the injector retaining collar,
then carefully withdraw the injector (noting its
orientation) followed by its seal.
55 Refit in the reverse order of removal.
Always use new seals in the unit and the
retaining collar and lightly lubricate them with
clean engine oil prior to assembly. Take care
not to damage the seals when fitting and also
when the injector is fitted; check that it
engages correctly.
Fuel injection electronic
control unit (ECU) removal and refitting
¡
56 The control unit is located under the facia
on the driver’s side of the vehicle. Commence
by disconnecting the battery negative lead.
57 To gain access to the control unit, detach
and remove the trim panel from the underside
of the facia on the driver’s side of the car.
58 Disconnect the wiring multiplug from the
control unit, then undo the retaining screw
and remove the unit from the car (photos).
59 Refit in the reverse order of removal.
Inlet manifold removal and refitting
Exhaust manifold removal and refitting
¡
68 Remove the inlet manifold as described
previously (1372 cc models only).
69 Disconnect the Lambda sensor lead
(photo).
70 Raise and support the car at the front end
on axle stands to allow sufficient clearance to
work underneath the car and disconnect the
exhaust downpipe from the manifold.
71 Straighten the tab washers, then unscrew
and remove the exhaust downpipeto-manifold retaining nuts (photo). Detach the
downpipe from the manifold. Support the
downpipe so that the Lambda sensor will not
get knocked and/or damaged.
Catalytic converter general information
75 The catalytic converter is a reliable and
simple device which needs no maintenance in
itself, but there are some facts of which an
owner should be aware if the converter is to
function properly for its full service life.
a) DO NOT use leaded petrol in a car
equipped with a catalytic converter - the
lead will coat the precious metals,
reducing their converting efficiency and
will eventually destroy the converter.
b) Always keep the ignition and fuel systems
well-maintained in accordance with the
maintenance schedule - particularly, ensure that the air cleaner filter element the
fuel filter and the spark plugs are renewed
at the correct interval - if the intake air/fuel
mixture is allowed to become too rich due
to neglect, the unburned surplus will enter
and burn in the catalytic converter,
overheating the element and eventually
destroying the converter.
¡
60 Remove the fuel injector unit as described
previously.
61 Drain the cooling system as described in
Section 8 of this Chapter.
62 Detach the coolant hose and coolant
temperature sensor from the inlet manifold.
63 Unbolt and remove the accelerator
cable/throttle linkage support bracket from
the top of the inlet manifold. The cable can be
left attached to the bracket.
13
9D.69 Lambda sensor in exhaust
downpipe
9D.71 Exhaust downpipe to manifold
flange connection showing retaining nuts
and locktabs
13•78 Supplement: Revisions and information on later models
c) If the engine develops a misfire, do not
drive the car at all (or at least as little as
possible) until the fault is cured - the
misfire will allow unburned fuel to enter
the converter, which will result in its
overheating, as noted above.
d) DO NOT push- or tow-start the car - this
will soak the catalytic converter in
unburned fuel, causing it to overheat
when the engine does start - see b)
above.
e) DO NOT switch off the ignition at high
engine speeds - if the ignition is switched
off at anything above idle speed,
unburned fuel will enter the (very hot)
catalytic converter, with the possible risk
of its igniting on the element and
damaging the converter.
f) DO NOT use fuel or engine oil additives these may contain substances harmful to
the catalytic converter.
g) DO NOT continue to use the car if the
engine burns oil to the extent of leaving a
visible trail of blue smoke - the unburned
carbon deposits will clog the converter
passages and reduce its efficiency; in
severe cases the element will overheat.
h) Remember that the catalytic converter
operates at very high temperatures and
the casing will become hot enough to
ignite combustible materials which brush
against it. DO NOT, therefore, park the car
in dry undergrowth, over long grass or
piles of dead leaves.
i) Remember that the catalytic converter is
FRAGILE - do not strike it with tools
during servicing work, take great care
when working on the exhaust system,
ensure that the converter is well clear of
any jacks or other lifting gear used to raise
the car and do not drive the car over
rough ground road humps, etc., in such a
way as to ground the exhaust system.
j) In some cases, particularly when the car is
new and/or is used for stop/start driving, a
sulphurous smell (like that of rotten eggs)
may be noticed from the exhaust. This is
common to many catalytic
converter-equipped cars and seems to be
due to the small amount of sulphur found
in some petrols reacting with hydrogen in
the exhaust to produce hydrogen sulphide
(H2S) gas; while this gas is toxic, it is not
produced in sufficient amounts to be a
problem. Once the car has covered a few
thousand miles the problem should
disappear - in the meanwhile a change of
driving style or of the brand of petrol used
may effect a solution.
k) The catalytic converter, used on a
well-maintained and well driven car,
should last for at least 50 000 miles
(80 000 km) or five years - from this point
on, careful checks should be made at all
specified service intervals on the CO level
to ensure that the converter is still
operating efficiently - if the converter is no
longer effective it must be renewed.
Fuel evaporation control system
- general
76 As mentioned earlier, fuel evaporation is
contained within the system. In high outdoor
temperatures, when the vehicle is parked for a
period of time, the fuel in the tank evaporates,
building up pressure. When the pressure builds
up to a predetermined level a vent valve opens
to allow the vapours to pass on to and absorbed
by a carbon filter. However, if extreme pressure
or vacuum should build up, a two way safety
valve opens to allow external venting.
77 If the safety valve needs replacing, note
that it must be fitted correctly. The black end
should be connected to the fuel tank and the
blue to the carbon filter.
78 The vapours in the carbon filter are
flushed by warm air passing through the filter
on to a ECU controlled vapour cut-off
solenoid.
79 The cut-off solenoid is closed when
starting the engine and opens to allow
vapours to be drawn into the inlet manifold,
through a second solenoid. If the cut-off
solenoid needs replacing ensure that the
black arrow on the casing is pointing towards
the inlet manifold.
80 The second solenoid, known as an Elbi
solenoid, is closed when the engine is turned
off, thus preventing engine run-on. The side
facing connection is for the inlet manifold
pipe.
PART E:
BOSCH L3.1/2 JETRONIC
FUEL INJECTION SYSTEMS
Warning: Refer to the beginning
of this Section before starting
any work.
Description
1 A Bosch L3.1 (or L3.2, as fitted from 1992)
Jetronic fuel injection system is fitted to the
1372 cc Turbo ie engine. The system circuit
and main component locations are shown in
Figs. 13.48 and 13.49.
2 The L3.1/2 Jetronic system is a multi-point
fuel injection (MPi) system. It operates in a
similar manner to that of the LE2-Jetronic
system fitted to the 1301 cc Turbo ie engine
described in Part C of this Section. The L3.1/2
system is more sophisticated and has the
ability to provide reasonably efficient engine
operation when system sensors malfunction.
As with the LE2 system, the fuel and air
supply mixture circuits are regulated in
accordance with the electronic control unit
(ECU), but on the L3.1/2 system the control
unit is attached to the upper part of the
airflow meter.
3 The ECU analyses the information passed
to it from the system sensors. These signals
are then processed and the air/fuel mixture is
constantly adjusted as required to provide the
Fig. 13.48 Bosch L3.1 Jetronic fuel injection system - 1372 cc Turbo ie engine (Sec 9E)
1 ECU
1A Diagnostic socket
2 Injection system relay and
fuel pump relay
3 Ignition switch
4 Battery
5 Fuel tank
6 Fuel pump
6A Primary fuel filter
7 Coolant temperature
sensor
8 Intake air cooling radiator
(intercooler)
9 Air cleaner
10 Supplementary air valve
11 Throttle position switch
11A Throttle housing
12 Airflow meter
12A Intake air temperature
sensor
13 Fuel pressure regulator
14 Fuel rail (to injectors)
15 Secondary fuel filter
16 Injectors
17 Injector cooling fan
18 Thermostatic switch (to
engage injector cooling fan)
Supplement: Revisions and information on later models 13•79
optimum engine operating efficiency. In the
event of a system sensor malfunction, errors
in data passed to the ECU are overcome by
an emergency operation, whereby the ECU
supplies the injectors with one of two set
injection periods independent of the sensors.
One period (2.2 ms) is for idle speed and the
other (2.5 ms) is for speeds above idle
(actuated when the idle speed contact is
opened).
4 An injection system relay and a fuel pump
relay are fitted and are located in the engine
compartment, adjacent to the ECU on the lefthand inner wing panel. In the event of the
engine not being started within two seconds of
the ignition being switched to the “ON”
position, the fuel pump relay is deactivated.
The fuel pump circuit fuse is located in the
main fuse block located under the facia within
the car. Note: To avoid possible damage to the
ECU, it is essential that the ignition is switched
off before disconnecting (or connecting) the
wiring multi-plug from the ECU. A Lambda (or
oxygen) sensor is fitted to L3.2 equipped
models, to measure exhaust gas oxygen
content. In sending signals to the ECU,
optimum catalyst operation is maintained.
Fuel system depressurisation
¡
5 The fuel system should always be
depressurised whenever any fuel hoses
and/or system components are disconnected
and/or removed. This can easily be achieved
as follows.
6 The fuel pump relay is located next to the
ECU and airflow meter in the engine
compartment. Carefully pull free the fuel
pump relay, then start the engine and run it
until it stops. The fuel system is now
depressurised. Turn the ignition off before
removing/dismantling any components.
7 Do not refit the fuel pump relay or turn the
ignition on until the system is fully
reconnected. When the engine is ready to be
restarted, refit the relay and its cover, then
restart the engine in the normal manner.
Maintenance
¡
8 Regularly check the condition and security
of the system hoses and connections. Also
check the system wiring connections for
condition and security.
Fig. 13.49 Fuel injection system components layout in engine compartment on the
1372 cc Turbo ie engine (Sec 9E)
1 ECU
1A Diagnostic socket
2 Ignition system relay and
fuel pump relay
7 Coolant temperature
sensor
10 Supplementary air valve
11 Throttle position switch
11A Throttle housing
12 Airflow meter
13 Fuel pressure regulator
15 Secondary fuel filter
9 At the specified intervals, renew the air
cleaner element and the fuel filter.
Fuel filter - renewal
¡
10 This is located in the engine compartment
on the right-hand side. Disconnect the fuel
inlet and outlet hoses, but be prepared for the
loss of fuel. Loosen off the clamp and remove
the filter.
11 Reverse the removal procedure to fit the
new filter, but ensure that the arrow indicating
fuel flow is pointing towards the fuel injector rail.
Air cleaner element renewal
16 Injectors
17 Injector cooling fan
18 Thermostatic switch (to
engage injector cooling
fan)
13 Wipe clean the inside surfaces of the air
cleaner housing, then insert the new element,
refit the cover and secure it with the four
retaining clips.
Checks and adjustments
∞
Engine idle speed and mixture
adjustment
14 Before carrying out any adjustments, the
engine must be at its normal operating
temperature, the cooling fan having cut into
¡
12 Prise free the four retaining clips, then
remove the cover and the air cleaner element.
13
Fig. 13.50 Secondary fuel filter with arrows
indicating direction of flow - 1372 cc Turbo
ie engine (Sec 9E)
Fig. 13.51 Air cleaner cover securing clips
(arrowed) on the 1372 cc Turbo ie engine
(Sec 9E)
Fig. 13.52 Idle speed adjustment screw (1)
on the 1372 cc Turbo ie engine (Sec 9E)
Note method of compressing the
supplementary air valve pipe (arrowed)
13•80 Supplement: Revisions and information on later models
the pump fuse is sound and that its
connection (and also that the relay) are clean
and secure.
24 The pump can be further checked as
described previously for the LE2 fuel injection
system fuel pump in Part C of this Section.
Supplementary air valve check
25 With the engine at its normal operating
temperature, allow it to idle, then pinch the
supplementary air valve hose using suitable
pliers as shown in Fig. 13.52 and check to see
if the engine speed drops by more than 50
rpm. If it does, the supplementary air valve is
defective and in need of renewal.
Fig. 13.53 Mixture adjustment screw
location on the 1372 cc Turbo ie engine
(Sec 9E)
operation twice. Also prior to making
adjustments ensure that the supplementary
air valve pipe is in good condition, with no
leaks. Compress the air valve pipe using a
pair of grips to prevent incorrect adjustment
caused by a defective supplementary air
valve.
15 The air cleaner must be connected when
checking and/or adjusting the engine idle
speed. To adjust, turn the adjuster screw in
the required direction to set the engine idle
speed to that specified.
16 It is unlikely that the mixture will require
adjustment and unless this is proven by
measuring the exhaust gases using a CO
content analyser, its setting should not be
altered. As with idle speed adjustment, the
engine must be at its normal operating
temperature when making this check and
adjustment. It is also necessary to ensure that
the ignition idle advance is as specified.
Checking and adjustment must not be made
with the engine cooling fan, air conditioning
(where fitted) or other related items switched
on.
17 If adjustment to the mixture is required,
prise free the tamperproof plug from the front
of the mixture adjustment screw in the control
unit, then turn the screw as required. Turn the
screw inwards (clockwise) to increase the CO
content or outwards (anti-clockwise) to
weaken it.
Fig. 13.54 Accelerator cable adjustment
on the 1372 cc Turbo ie engine (Sec 9E)
1 Adjuster
2 Inner cable
3 Quadrant support
Accelerator cable adjustment
20 If the accelerator cable is removed or
detached from the support bracket at the
throttle control housing at any time, care must
be taken to adjust it correctly. When the inner
cable is connected to the throttle quadrant,
set the outer cable in the bracket so that the
inner cable has a minimal amount of free play,
yet does not prevent the throttle valve from
fully closing.
21 When the engine is restarted, check that
the engine idle speed is as specified and that
the action of the accelerator is satisfactory.
Fuel pump and supply system checks
22 Although the following basic checks can
be made to the fuel pump and fuel supply
system, specialised equipment is required to
undertake full and accurate tests of the fuel
supply system. Such checks must therefore
be entrusted to a FIAT dealer or a fuel
injection specialist.
23 If the fuel pump is suspected of
malfunction, a basic check can be made by
turning the ignition on and listening around
the area of the pump unit to hear if it is
operating. The pump is located on the
underside of the car, just forward of the fuel
tank. If the pump fails to operate, check that
Injection system
components removal and refitting
¡
Warning: Refer to the beginning
of this Section before starting
any work.
26 With the exception of the items mentioned
below, the various components of the fuel
injection system are removed in the same
manner as that described for the equivalent
items in Part C of this Chapter.
27 Disconnect the battery negative lead
before carrying out any of the removal and
refitting operations. Where fuel lines are to be
disconnected it will first be necessary to
depressurise the injection system.
Airflow meter
28 Release the retaining clips and detach the
air intake and outlet ducts from the airflow
meter.
29 Ensure that the ignition is switched off,
then disconnect the multiplug from the ECU.
Unscrew the retaining bolts and remove the
airflow meter complete with the ECU.
30 If required, the ECU can be separated
from the airflow meter by undoing the
securing bolts.
Throttle valve housing/inlet manifold
31 Loosen off the retaining clip and detach
the air intake duct from the throttle housing,
the air cooling hoses for the injectors and the
supplementary air valve.
32 Detach the accelerator cable from the
throttle linkage.
Throttle position switch adjustment
18 This switch will not normally require
adjustment having been set during
production. The switch should not be
loosened off or reset unless absolutely
necessary.
19 If a new switch is fitted it can be set by
loosely fitting the securing bolts, turning the
switch fully anti-clockwise, then clockwise
until one of the internal contacts is felt to click
into engagement. Hold the switch in this
position and tighten the retaining screws.
Reconnect the wiring multiplug to the switch.
Fig. 13.55 Disconnecting the air intake
duct and accelerator cable from the
throttle housing on the 1372 cc Turbo ie
engine (Sec 9E)
Fig. 13.56 Disconnecting the injector air
cooling hoses and the supplementary air
valve hose on the 1372 cc Turbo ie engine
(Sec 9E)
Supplement: Revisions and information on later models 13•81
Fig. 13.59 Disconnecting the earth leads
(arrowed) on the 1372 cc Turbo ie engine
(Sec 9E)
Fig. 13.57 Detach the vacuum pick-up
pipes from the points arrowed on the
1372 cc Turbo ie engine (Sec 9E)
Fig. 13.58 removing the inlet manifold
mounting bracket from the cylinder head
on the 1372 cc Turbo ie engine (Sec 9E)
33 Detach the vacuum pick-up pipes from
the points indicated in Fig. 13.57.
34 Detach the wiring connector from the
throttle position switch.
35 Unscrew and remove the inlet manifold
mounting bracket-to-cylinder head retaining
bolt shown in Fig. 13.58.
36 Unscrew and remove the injector cable
shield retaining screws. Detach the cables
from the injectors.
37 Disconnect the earth leads and the air
intake sensor lead shown in Fig. 13.59.
38 Release and withdraw the injector cable
shield from the left-hand underside of the
throttle housing.
39 Unscrew and detach the injector fuel
supply pipe and disconnect the fuel pressure
regulator pipe from its inlet manifold union.
40 Disconnect the injector cooling fan
thermostatic switch lead.
41 Unscrew the securing bolts and remove
the fuel pressure regulator.
42 Unscrew and remove the heat
shield-to-exhaust manifold retaining bolts.
Unscrew the retaining bolts at the rear and
withdraw the heat shield.
43 Undo the inlet manifold retaining
bolts/nuts and carefully withdraw the
manifold/throttle housing. Remove the gasket
from the mating face.
45 Disconnect the fuel supply line from the
fuel rail.
46 Disconnect the fuel return line from the
base of the fuel pressure regulator. Unbolt
and remove the pressure regulator from the
fuel rail.
47 Unscrew and remove the injector cable
shield retaining screws. Detach the cables
from the injectors.
48 Disconnect the fuel rail/injector unit and
withdraw the fuel rail, together with the
injectors, from the engine.
49 With the injectors and the fuel rail
removed, one or more injectors can be
removed and renewed as described below.
Note that the connecting hoses will be
destroyed during removal and these together
with the injector seals will therefore need to be
renewed.
Injectors and fuel rail
44 Depressurise the system as described
previously.
Injector(s) and connecting hoses
50 Remove the injectors and the injector fuel
rail as described in the previous sub-Section
and secure the fuel rail in a vice, but do not
overtighten.
51 Cut free the hose between the fuel rail and
the injector. Make the cut in-line with the hose
and cut the hose as close as possible to the
fuel rail connection, then pull the hose free
from its retaining cap. Once the hose is
detached, the retaining cap is released.
52 Repeat the procedure and release the
hose and its retaining cap from the injector.
53 Whether or not the injector unit itself is to
be renewed, the injector O-ring seals must
always be renewed when disturbed.
54 Check that the connections of the fuel rail
and the injector are clean, then push the new
injector with retaining cap onto the new hose.
Ensure that the hose is fully located in the
retaining cap.
55 Check that the fuel rail-to-hose retaining
cap is located on the connector, then push
the other end of the injector hose over the fuel
rail connector. Ensure that the hose is fully
located in the retaining cap.
56 The interconnecting hose between the
fuel rail sections can be removed and
renewed in the same manner as that
described above for the injector hoses.
Electronic control unit (ECU)
57 The ECU is mounted on the top face of
the airflow meter. Ensure that the ignition is
switched off before disconnecting the
multiplug from the ECU. Disconnect the wiring
multiplug connector by compressing the tag
and pulling the connector free from the unit.
Undo the retaining screws and remove the
ECU from the airflow meter. Handle the unit
with care and if removed for an extensive
period, store it in a safe place where it will not
get knocked or damaged.
Fuel pump - removal and refitting
58 Depressurise the fuel system as
described previously.
59 Raise the car at the rear and support it on
axle stands. Detach and remove the
3
13
1
2
Fig. 13.60 Disconnecting the injector fuel
supply pipe and fuel pressure regulator pipe
on the 1372 cc Turbo ie engine (Sec 9E)
Fig. 13.61 Cutting free the hose from an
injector on the 1372 cc Turbo ie engine
(Sec 9E)
3
Fig. 13.62 ECU (1) wiring multiplug (2) and
tag (3) - 1372 cc Turbo ie engine (Sec 9E)
13•82 Supplement: Revisions and information on later models
are securely and correctly made.
63 Do not reconnect the battery until all the
refitting procedures are complete.
64 When the engine is restarted, check
around the fuel injection system for any signs
of leakage from the fuel supply and return
components.
Lambda sensor - general
Fig. 13.63 Fuel pump and sender unit
location on the 1372 cc Turbo ie engine
(Sec 9E)
1
2
3
4
Fuel level gauge sender connector
Fuel pump connector
Fuel return hose
Fuel supply hose
protective shield to gain access to the pump
which is located forward of the fuel tank.
60 Disconnect the fuel hoses and the wiring
connector, release the retaining clamp and
withdraw the pump unit.
Refitting all components
61 Refitting of all components is a reversal of
the removal procedure, but note the following
specific points.
62 Ensure that all components are clean prior
to refitting and where applicable, use new
seals and gaskets. Ensure that all connections
9F.5 Maximum air pressure switch
(arrowed)
9F.14 Alternator heat shield
65 The sensor is screwed into the exhaust in
front of the catalytic converter.
66 A faulty sensor can damage the converter,
therefore it must be checked regularly (see
Maintenance schedule, Section 3) by a dealer
using special equipment.
67 Use of leaded fuel will also damage this
sensor, as well the converter.
PART F:
TURBOCHARGER SYSTEM
Description
1 A turbocharger is fitted to certain 1301 and
1372 cc ie engines. The accompanying
photographs are all taken from a 1301 cc
engine, but the system is much the same for
both engine types.
2 The turbocharger is basically a shaft with an
exhaust gas-driven turbine at one end, and a
compressor located at the other end which
draws in outside air and forces it into the inlet
manifold. By compressing the incoming air, a
larger charge can be let into each cylinder,
and greater power output is achieved than
with normal aspiration.
9F.7 Bypass valve
9F.16A Turbocharger-to-exhaust flange
nut (arrowed)
3 Lubrication of the turbocharger shaft
bearings is provided by pressurised engine
oil, and the unit is cooled by the coolant from
the engine cooling system.
4 A wastegate valve is incorporated in the
turbocharger to divert excessive exhaust gas
pressure from the turbine into the exhaust
pipe at a predetermined pressure level.
5 A maximum air pressure switch is located in
the inlet manifold. Its purpose is to cut the
ignition system off when the turbocharger
system pressure continues to increase
beyond 0.86 bars (12.5 lbf/in 2). This would
otherwise damage the engine, due to high
combustion temperatures and pressures
(photo).
6 An intercooler (heat exchanger) is located
between the turbocharger and the inlet
manifold. Its function is to cool the inlet
charge, thus increasing its density, to provide
greater power output.
7 A mechanical bypass valve is located
between the low-pressure pipe (downstream)
and the high-pressure pipe (upstream), which
reduces the inherent noise from the
turbocharger when the accelerator pedal is
released (photo).
8 None of the components of the
turbocharger system can be repaired and
parts are not available. Any fault will therefore
mean that the turbocharger or associated
assemblies will have to be renewed complete.
Precautions
9 The following precautions should be
observed when using a turbocharged vehicle.
a) Never operate the engine without the air
cleaner fitted.
b) Never switch off the engine before its
speed has dropped to idling. If the car
has been driven hard, allow it to idle for a
few minutes before switching off. Failure
to observe these recommendations can
cause damage to the turbocharger due to
lack of lubrication.
10 Always keep the fuel injection system
well-maintained and tuned. Operating on a
weak mixture can cause overheating of the
turbocharger.
Turbocharger
(1301 cc ie engine) removal and refitting
¡
11 Disconnect and remove the airflow meter
as described in Section 9C.
12 Disconnect the spiral-wound hose from
the fuel injector cooling duct.
13 Remove the turbocharger air hoses from
within the left-hand side of the engine
compartment. Note particularly their routing.
14 Remove the throttle housing/inlet
manifold as described in Section 9C, also the
fuel rail, injectors and inlet manifold branch
pipe stubs. Remove the alternator heat shield
(photo).
15 Remove the exhaust heat shield.
16 Unscrew the turbocharger-to-exhaust
pipe flange nuts (photos).
Supplement: Revisions and information on later models 13•83
9F.16B Unscrewing turbocharger-toexhaust manifold nut
17 Disconnect the air hoses from the
turbocharger (photo).
18 Drain the cooling system, and then
disconnect the coolant hoses from the
turbocharger (photos).
19 Disconnect the oil feed pipe, which has a
banjo-type union (photo).
20 Disconnect the oil return pipe which runs
to the engine sump pan (photo).
21 Working underneath the car, disconnect
the exhaust manifold support bracket (photo).
22 Unbolt the exhaust manifold and lift it out
of the engine compartment, complete with
turbocharger.
23 The turbocharger may now be unbolted
from the exhaust manifold (photo).
24 Refitting is a reversal of removal, but use
new gaskets and seals throughout.
9F.19 Turbocharging oil feed pipe
9F.17 Releasing turbocharger air hose clip
Turbocharger
(1372 cc ie engine) removal and refitting
9F.18A Releasing turbocharger coolant
inlet union (arrowed)
¡
25 Refer to Part E of this Section for details
and remove the inlet manifold.
26 Drain the cooling system as described in
Section 8 of this Chapter.
27 Unscrew the union bolt and disconnect
the oil supply pipe from the turbocharger.
28 Loosen off the securing clip and detach
the air hose from the turbocharger filter.
29 Raise and support the car at the front end
on axle stands.
30 Working from underneath the car, unscrew
the downpipe-to-exhaust system joint nuts
then unscrew the retaining nuts and detach
the exhaust downpipe from the turbocharger
outlet flange. Remove the downpipe.
1 Exhaust connecting nut
2 Oil return hose
3 Coolant pipe union
9F.20 Turbocharger oil return pipe at sump
9F.21 Exhaust manifold support bracket
9F.18B Turbocharger connections
13
9F.23 Exhaust manifold bolts
Fig. 13.64 Turbocharger oil supply pipe
connection (arrowed) (Sec 9F)
Fig. 13.65 Detach the air hose from the
Turbocharger (arrowed) (Sec 9F)
13•84 Supplement: Revisions and information on later models
Fig. 13.66 Turbocharger mounting bracket
bolts (arrowed) (Sec 9F)
Fig. 13.67 Disconnect the heat exchanger
air hose and the oil return pipe
(turbocharger-to-sump) (Sec 9F)
Fig. 13.68 Turbocharger mounting bracket
bolts removal (Sec 9F)
Fig. 13.69 Turbocharger coolant pipe-topump bolt location (arrowed) (Sec 9F)
9F.40 Intercooler location (1301 cc engine)
9F.43 Intercooler mounting bolt (arrowed)
on 1301 cc engine
31 Unscrew
and
remove
the
two
turbocharger mounting bracket bolts.
32 Referring to Fig. 13.67, loosen off the
retaining clip and detach the air hose from the
heat exchanger and the oil return pipe from
the turbocharger (to sump).
33 Working from above, undo the
turbocharger mounting bracket bolts.
34 Unscrew and remove the coolant
pipe-to-pump
retaining
bolts.
The
turbocharger can now be removed from above
by withdrawing it together with the exhaust
manifold from the engine compartment.
35 Locate and support the exhaust manifold
in a vice. Fit protector clamps to the jaws of the
vice to avoid possible damage to the manifold.
36 Note the orientation and fitted position of
the turbocharger mounting bracket, then
unscrew the retaining nuts and detach the
bracket.
37 Undo the retaining nuts, separate and
remove the exhaust manifold from the
turbocharger.
38 The turbocharger and wastegate valve are
not repairable and must therefore be renewed
as a complete unit. This being the case,
remove the following ancillary items from the
turbocharger unit before renewing it.
a) Loosen off the retaining clip and remove
the air outlet hose from turbocharger.
b) Undo the two retaining bolts and remove
the oil return hose union.
c) Unscrew the union and bolt and coolant
inlet pipe.
d) Undo the retaining nuts and remove the
turbocharger-to-exhaust manifold
connector.
39 Where applicable, always use new
gaskets and ensure that the mating faces are
clean before refitting the ancillary components
to the turbocharger.
Intercooler removal and refitting
Injector cooling fan removal and refitting
Difficult starting from cold
Difficult to start when hot
m
m
m
m
m Choked air cleaner element
m Fuel pump fault
Excessive fuel consumption
m
m
m
m
Incorrect mixture setting
Dirty air cleaner element
Coolant temperature sensor fault
Airflow sensor fault
Uneven idling
m
m
m
m
¡
44 This unit is located on the left-hand side at
the front of the car. It can be accessed for
removal from above, in the engine compartment.
45 Detach and remove the air intake duct
from the air cleaner unit to the ECU/airflow
meter.
46 Disconnect and remove the air duct from
the air blower unit.
47 Undo the air blower retaining nuts, withdraw
the unit and detach its wiring connector.
Fault finding - fuel injection system
Fuel pump fault
Blocked fuel pipe or filter
Supplementary air valve fault
Coolant temperature sensor fault
¡
40 The intercooler is mounted behind the
left-hand side of the front bumper/spoiler (photo).
41 Disconnect the air ducts from the intercooler.
42 Unscrew the mounting bolts and lift the
intercooler from the car.
43 Refitting is a reversal of removal (photo).
Incorrect mixture setting
Intake system air leak
Throttle position switch out of adjustment
Loose ECU connector
Supplement: Revisions and information on later models 13•85
Fault finding - turbocharger system
Noise or vibration
Power loss/indicated boost pressure too low
m
m
m
m
m
m
m
m
m
m
Worn shaft bearings
Lack of lubrication
Inlet or exhaust manifold leaking
Out-of-balance impeller shaft
Engine “pinking”
m
m
m
m
High boost pressure, caused by faulty wastegate valve
Fuel octane rating too low
Faulty TDC sensor (ignition advanced)
Incorrect spark plugs or plug gaps, or spark plugs worn
Turbocharger leaking, or leak at turbocharger mounting
Incorrectly adjusted wastegate valve/wastegate valve not closing
Blocked exhaust pipe
Clogged air cleaner element
Faulty TDC sensor (ignition retarded)
Turbo/intercooler connecting hose leaking
Oil leaks from shaft oil seals, with blue exhaust
fumes
m Oil return pipe blocked
m Air cleaner element clogged
m Worn oil seals
Indicated boost pressure too high
m Faulty wastegate valve
m Ice forming in exhaust pipe (during very cold weather)
10 Ignition system
General
1 The ignition systems dealt with in this
Section are all fully electronic and are referred
to individually according to type as the
“breakerless”, Microplex and Digiplex 2
system. The Microplex system is used on the
1301 and 1372 cc Turbo ie engines, the
Digiplex 2 on the 1372 cc ie engine and the
“breakerless” system on all other models.
Ignition timing
(all later models)
#
10.2A Flywheel timing marks
(999 cc engine)
2 The ignition timing check on all systems
covered in this Section is made using a
stroboscope, connected up in accordance with
the manufacturer’s instructions and pointed at
one of the two positions given below (photos).
a) The timing marks on the crankshaft pulley
and the timing cover. The right-hand
underwing shield will need to be
detached and removed to allow access to
view these marks (see photos 7B.27 and
7B.30B in this Chapter).
b) The timing marks on the flywheel and the
clutch housing. The rubber plug will need
to be extracted for access to these marks.
3 A dwell angle check is not possible on any
of these systems.
4 When making the stroboscopic ignition
timing check it is necessary to disconnect the
vacuum hose from the distributor or inlet
manifold to module (as applicable) and plug it.
The engine must be at its normal operating
temperature and running at the normal
specified idle speed when making the check.
Refer to the appropriate part of the Specifications at the start of this Chapter for the idle
speed and ignition settings.
Breakerless ignition system description
5 On 903 cc engines, the distributor is driven
from an extension of the oil pump driveshaft
which is geared to the camshaft.
10.2B Flywheel timing marks
(1372 cc ie engine)
13
Fig. 13.70 Breakerless ignition system - 999 and 1108 cc engines (Sec 10)
1
2
3
4
Battery
Ignition switch
Ignition coil
Coil HT lead
5
6
7
8
Distributor
ECU
LT cables
Vacuum advance unit
9 Spark plug HT leads
10 Spark plugs
11 Vacuum hose
13•86 Supplement: Revisions and information on later models
Fig. 13.72 Rotor aligned with arrow on
distributor dust shield - 999 and 1108 cc
engines (Sec 10)
Fig. 13.71 Location of electronic ignition
components on early models with
breakerless ignition (Sec 10)
1
2
3
4
ECU
Ignition coil
Distributor
Vacuum advance
unit
5 Pick-up filter with
calibrated opening
for atmospheric
pressure
6 On 999, 1108 and 1372 cc engines, the
distributor is driven from the rear end of the
camshaft.
7 On the 1116 and 1299/1301 cc engines, the
distributor is driven from an extension of the
oil pump driveshaft which is geared to the
auxiliary shaft.
8 The distributor contains a reluctor mounted
on its shaft, and a magnet and stator fixed to
the baseplate.
9 Ignition advance is controlled in the
conventional way mechanically by centrifugal
weights and a diaphragm unit for vacuum
advance.
10 Instead of the conventional method of
interrupting the low tension circuit to generate
high tension voltage in the coil by means of a
mechanical contact breaker, when the
electronic ignition is switched on, the
switching of the transistors in the electronic
control unit (ECU) prevents current flow in the
coil primary windings.
11 Once the crankshaft rotates, the reluctor
moves through the magnetic field created by
the stator and when the reluctor teeth are in
alignment with the stator projections a small
AC voltage is created. The ECU amplifies this
voltage and applies it to switch the transistors
and so provide an earth path for the primary
circuit.
12 As the reluctor teeth move out of
alignment with the stator projections the AC
voltage changes, the transistors in the ECU
are switched again to interrupt the primary
circuit earth path. This causes a high voltage
to be induced in the secondary winding.
Distributor
(breakerless type) removal and refitting
#
13 Removal of the distributor on the 903,
1116, 1299 and 1301 cc engines is as
described in Chapter 4, Section 6.
14 On 999, 1108 and 1372 cc engines, mark
the position of the distributor clamp plate in
relation to the cylinder head surface.
15 Unclip the distributor cap and move it to
one side with the HT leads attached.
16 Disconnect the LT lead plug and, where
applicable, the vacuum hose (photo).
17 Unscrew the distributor fixing nuts and
withdraw the unit.
18 The distributor drive is by means of an
offset dog no special procedure is required to
refit it. Providing the dog engages in its slot
and the distributor body is turned to align the
marks made before removal, the timing will
automatically be correct.
19 If a new distributor is being fitted (body
unmarked), set No. 4 piston at TDC (0º) by
turning the crankshaft pulley bolt until the
timing marks on the crankshaft pulley and
engine front cover are in alignment.
20 Align the drive dog and fit the distributor
then turn the distributor body until the contact
end of the rotor is aligned with the arrow on
the distributor dust shield.
21 Tighten the distributor clamp nuts. Refit the
cap and disconnected components and then
check ignition timing using a stroboscope.
Distributor (breakerless
type) - overhaul
#
22 It is recommended that a worn out or
faulty distributor is renewed. However,
individual components such as the cap, rotor,
reluctor, magnet/stator/baseplate assembly,
vacuum diaphragm unit, and drive gear or dog
are available separately.
Breakerless
ignition system
components - testing
™
23 A voltmeter and an ohmmeter will be
required for this work.
Primary circuit voltage
24 Turn on the ignition, and using a voltmeter
check the voltage at the ignition coil LT
terminals. Any deviation from battery voltage
will indicate a faulty connection, or if these are
satisfactory, then the coil is unserviceable.
10.16 Distributor LT lead connecting plug
Magnetic impulse generator winding
25 Remove the distributor and ECU and
disconnect their connecting leads.
26 Connect an ohmmeter to the impulse
generator terminals and note the reading. The
resistance should be as given in the Specifications at the beginning of this Chapter.
27 Now check between one of the impulse
generator terminals and the metal body of the
distributor. Infinity should be indicated on the
ohmmeter. If it is not, renew the impulse
generator carrier plate. Note: When carrying out
this test it is imperative that the connections are
remade as originally observed. Also ensure that
there is no possibility of the ECU supply (red)
cable and earth cable making contact in service.
Ignition coil winding resistance
28 Check the resistance using an ohmmeter
between the coil LT terminals. Refer to the
Specifications for the expected coil resistance.
29 Check the resistance between the LT lead
socket on the coil and each of the LT
terminals. Refer to the Specifications for the
expected coil resistance.
30 The rotor arm resistance should be
approximately 5000 ohms.
Microplex ignition system description
31 This system is fitted to the 1301 and
1372 cc Turbo ie models, and comprises the
following components.
Electro-magnetic sensors
32 Two sensors are used to pick up engine
speed and TDC position directly from the
crankshaft.
Pressure and vacuum sensor
33 This converts inlet manifold vacuum
pressure into an electrical signal for use by
the electronic control unit (ECU).
Anti-knock sensor
34 This converts “pinking” detonations which
occur within the combustion chambers into
an electrical signal for use by the ECU (photo).
Electronic Control Unit (ECU)
35 This computes the optimum ignition
advance angle from the sensor signals
received, and controls the action of the
ignition unit (photo).
Supplement: Revisions and information on later models 13•87
10.34 Anti-knock sensor
Fig. 13.75 Microplex ignition system components on the 1301 cc Turbo ie engine (Sec 10)
10.35 Ignition ECU on rear bulkhead
(1301 cc Turbo ie engine)
1 ECU
2 Safety pressure switch
3 Ignition unit and coil
4 Distributor
5 Anti-knock sensor
S1 TDC sensor
S2 Engine speed sensor
1 Battery
2 Ignition switch
3 Ignition coil with
control unit
4 ECU
5 Distributor
6 Anti-knock sensor
7 Air pressure
switch
8 Engine speed
sensor
9 TDC sensor
10 Tachometer
13
Fig. 13.76 Microplex ignition system components on the 1372 cc Turbo ie engine (Sec 10)
13•88 Supplement: Revisions and information on later models
Fig. 13.73 Wiring diagram of the Microplex ignition system on the 1301 cc Turbo ie
engine (Sec 10)
1
2
3
4
5
6
ECU
Safety pressure switch
Ignition unit with coil
Distributor
Anti-knock sensor
Vacuum/pressure pick-up in engine inlet
manifold
7 Socket for diagnostic equipment
8 Tachometer
9 Spark plugs
10 Switch to earth (to retard advance
curve if necessary)
11 Turbocharger operation warning light
12 Anti-theft relay (where fitted)
13 Hidden anti-theft switch (where fitted)
Fig. 13.74 Wiring diagram of the Microplex ignition system on the 1372 cc Turbo ie
engine (Sec 10)
1 ECU
2 Pipe (pressure/vacuum
in inlet manifold to
control unit)
3 Spark plug
4 Distributor
5 Ignition coil (with
control unit)
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
Tachometer
Ignition switch
Connector
TDC sensor
Engine speed
Anti-knock sensor
Air pressure safety
switch
13 Speedometer signal
for electronic injection
14 Connector
15 Diagnostic socket
a Crankshaft pulley
b Flywheel
Supplement: Revisions and information on later models 13•89
10.36 Ignition coil (1) and power module (2)
on 1301 cc Turbo ie engine
Ignition unit
36 This comprises four elements (photo).
a) Power module - receives the ignition
advance command and controls the
conduction angle of the primary current
and energy stored in the coil.
b) Dissipater plate - eliminates the heat
which is generated by the high volume of
current.
c) Ignition coil with low primary resistance.
d) Distributor - a means of distributing high
tension to the spark plugs. The rotor is
driven in an anti-clockwise direction
(viewed from transmission) by a dog on
the end of the camshaft.
37 The system incorporates a safety
pressure switch, which cuts out the ignition if
the turbocharging pressure exceeds a value
of between 0.84 and 0.93 bars (12.2 and
13.5 lbf/in2) above atmospheric pressure.
Distributor (Microplex) removal and refitting
#
38 Remove the distributor cap and place it to
one side, complete with spark plug leads
(photo).
39 Turn the crankshaft by means of the
pulley nut, or by raising and turning a front
wheel with top gear engaged, until No. 4
piston is on its firing stroke. This will be
indicated when the contact end of the rotor
10.38 Removing the distributor cap
arm is aligned with the mark on the distributor
body rim, and the lug on the crankshaft pulley
is aligned with the timing pointer on the
engine. The right-hand underwing shield will
have to be removed in order to see the marks
(photo).
40 Unscrew the distributor fixing nuts and
withdraw the distributor.
41 When fitting the distributor, the offset
drive dog will automatically locate the
distributor rotor in its correct position, but the
distributor body may require rotating in order
to align the rim mark with the rotor. The
elongated slots for the fixing studs are to
permit initial alignment, not for subsequent
adjustment, as advance angle alterations are
carried out automatically by the system ECU
(photos).
42 Tighten the nuts and refit the cap with
leads.
43 Unless a stroboscope and a vacuum
pressure gauge are available, it will not be
possible to check the advance values with the
engine running. Where these instruments are
available, connect the vacuum gauge to the
inlet manifold, and the stroboscope in
accordance with the equipment manufacturer’s instructions. Refer to Fig. 13.79
according to the inlet manifold vacuum
pressure indicated.
10.39 Crankshaft pulley timing marks
(arrowed)
Microplex ignition system
components - testing
™
44 An ohmmeter and a voltmeter will be
required for these tests.
45 Remove the multipin plug from the ECU.
Engine speed sensor
46 Insert the probes of an ohmmeter
between terminals 3 and 16 of the multipin
connector; 618 to 748 ohms (1301 cc) or
578 to 782 ohms (1372 cc) should be
indicated.
47 If necessary, carry out a check of the gap
between the sensor and flywheel teeth as
described in Chapter 4, Section 10.
10.41A Distributor body showing elongated
slots in the mounting lugs
13
10.41B Distributor drive dog
Fig. 13.77 Crankshaft pulley timing mark
aligned with timing pointer - Microplex
ignition system (Sec 10)
1 TDC sensor
Fig. 13.78 Rotor aligned with distributor
body rim mark - Microplex ignition system
(Sec 10)
13•90 Supplement: Revisions and information on later models
Power module (1372 cc)
54 Proceed as described in paragraph 53.
Anti-knock sensor
55 If “pinking” occurs, or loss of power is
noticed, test the sensor by substitution of a
new one.
Ignition coil
56 Disconnect the leads from terminals 1
and 15 on the coil before testing.
57 Using the ohmmeter, check the resistance
of the primary winding. This should be
between 0.31 and 0.37 ohms (1301 cc) or
0.40 to 0.49 ohms (1372 cc), at an ambient
temperature of 20ºC (68ºF).
58 The secondary winding resistance should
be between 3330 and 4070 ohms (1301 cc) or
4320 to 5280 ohms (1372 cc), at an ambient
temperature of 20ºC (68ºF).
Distributor
59 Check the resistance of the rotor arm,
which should be between 800 and
1200 ohms.
60 Where all the foregoing tests have proved
satisfactory, then any problem must be due to
a fault in either the power module or the ECU.
These components can only be checked by
the substitution of a new unit - power module
first, then the ECU.
Fig. 13.79 Ignition advance curves - Microplex ignition system on the 1301 cc Turbo ie
(Sec 10)
TDC sensor
48 Insert the probes of the ohmmeter
between terminals 1 and 2 of the multipin
connector; 618 to 748 ohms (1301 cc) or 578
to 782 ohms (1372 cc) should be indicated.
49 If necessary, carry out a check of the gap
between the sensor and the crankshaft pulley,
as described in Chapter 4, Section 10.
ECU supply
50 Switch on the ignition, and then insert the
probes of a voltmeter between terminals 13
and 11 of the multipin connector. Battery
voltage should be indicated. If not, check the
battery earth, ignition switch or intermediate
connector plug for security.
Power module supply (1301 cc)
51 Pull the multipin plug from the power
module, and connect the probes of a
voltmeter between terminal 4 of the connector
and earth. If the reading is less than battery
voltage, check the security of all connections
between the ignition switch and terminal + 15
of the ignition coil.
52 Reconnect the multipin connector to the
ECU, but have the one from the power
module disconnected, and then switch on the
ignition.
53 Connect the voltmeter between terminals
4 and 2 of the power module multipin
connector. If the indicated voltage is less than
battery voltage, check the security of all
connections between the ignition switch and
terminal + 15 of the ignition coil, and the
battery earth. If all are satisfactory, check for
continuity between terminals 11 and 12. If
continuity is broken, renew the ECU.
Safety pressure switch
61 The device protects the engine from
excessive turbocharging pressure, cutting off
the ignition by earthing the Microplex ECU.
Testing is not possible without a special
pressure pump, so the easiest way to check a
suspected fault is to fit a new unit.
Digiplex 2 ignition system description
62 This system operates in a similar manner
to that of the earlier type described in Chapter 4, but the circuit layout differs to suit the
Mono Jetronic fuel injection system. In
operation, the main difference is that the
Digiplex 2 system has a greater number of
Fig. 13.80 Microplex ignition system ECU multipin connector (Sec 10)
Fig. 13.81 Microplex ignition system
control unit connection (Sec 10)
For colour code, see main wiring diagrams
For colour code, see main wiring diagrams
Supplement: Revisions and information on later models 13•91
1 Connection point (lines connected to
the intake manifold)
2 ECU
3 Ignition coil
4 Distributor
5 Engine flywheel (with
five pins)
6 On/off switch (if fitted)
for advance reduction
7 On/off switch 2 (if fitted)
for curves
8 Battery
9 Spark plugs
10 Tachometer
11 Diagnostic socket
12 Engine speed and TDC sensor
13 To check actuator idle speed
14 To terminal no. 1 of injection control unit
(rpm signal)
Fig. 13.82 Digiplex 2 ignition system wiring circuits and components (Sec 10)
advance points than the earlier system.
Comparison of Fig. 13.82 with Fig. 4.2
illustrates the difference in layout. Note that
the distributor is mounted on the rear end of
the cylinder head and is driven by the
camshaft.
63 When working on the Digiplex 2 ignition
system or associated components, the
precautionary notes outlined in Section 9 of
Chapter 4 must be adhered to.
64 As with the earlier system, test
procedures possible on the Digiplex 2 system
are restricted due to the need for specialised
testing equipment. The following checks are
possible, however, using a conventional test
meter.
Ignition coil check
65 To check the resistance of the coil’s
primary windings, connect the probes of an
ohmmeter between the positive terminal and
the negative terminal as shown in Fig. 13.83,
and check that the resistance reading at 18 to
28ºC is 0.45 ohms ± 10% (photo).
66 To check the resistance of the coil’s
secondary windings, connect the probes of an
ohmmeter between the positive terminal and
the HT lead terminal as shown in Fig. 13.84.
Check that the resistance reading at 18 to
28ºC (64 to 82ºF) is 4800 ohms ± 10%.
Ignition timing check
necessitates its renewal. The sensor is
accurately positioned during manufacture and
secured with tamperproof screws; it does not
require any adjustment during servicing. If it is
necessary to renew the sensor, a special gap
setting tool is required and the task is
therefore best entrusted to a FIAT dealer.
67 Refer to paragraph 2 in this Section.
Engine speed and TDC sensor check
68 To check the resistance between the
sensor and the ECU, detach the wiring
connector (photo). Connect the probes of an
ohmmeter to the connector terminals and
check that the resistance reading is between
600 and 760 ohms at 20ºC (68ºF). If the
reading is not as specified, the sensor must
be renewed.
69 The gap between the sensor and the pins
on the rear face of the flywheel must be
between 0.2 and 0.8 mm. Any deviation
outside of this clearance will be due to
mechanical damage to the sensor and
Fig. 13.83 Test connections for ignition
coil primary windings check - Digiplex 2
ignition system (Sec 10)
13
10.65 Ignition coil and connections on the
1372 cc ie engine
10.68 ECU location on the 1372 cc ie
engine
Fig. 13.84 Test connections for ignition
coil secondary windings check - Digiplex 2
ignition system (Sec 10)
13•92 Supplement: Revisions and information on later models
10.70 Ignition distributor and HT lead
connections on the 1372 cc ie engine
Distributor (Digiplex Z) removal and refitting
#
70 Proceed as described in paragraphs 14
to 21. When refitting the distributor, ensure that
the engine is still set at the TDC position. Engage
the rotor arm into position on the shaft so that its
lug engages in the slot in the top end of the drive
spindle. Align the rotor arm with the reference
slot on the edge of the distributor housing as
shown in Fig. 13.85, then fit the distributor into
position and secure with the retaining nuts
(photo). As previously mentioned, the fine timing
is made automatically through the ECU.
10.72 HT lead connecting sequence on the
1301 cc Turbo ie engine
72 The HT lead connection sequence to the
distributor cap on the 999 and 1108 cc
engines is shown in Fig. 13.86. That for the
1301 cc Turbo ie is as shown (photo).
Fig. 13.85 Rotor arm must align with
slot (1) in distributor housing when refitting
distributor - Digiplex 2 ignition system
(Sec 10)
Spark plugs and HT leads general
71 Copper-cored spark plugs are now fitted
to all models. The recommended types are
given in the Specifications Section of this
Supplement.
Fig. 13.86 HT lead connections on distributor cap of the 999 and 1108 cc engines (Sec 10)
Fault finding - Microplex ignition system
Starter motor turns but engine will not start
Engine firing on three cylinders
m Excessive TDC sensor gap
m Engine speed or TDC sensors short-circuited
m Faulty ECU
m ECU multipin contacts corroded
m Defective ignition coil
m Defective ignition switch
m ECU terminal 8 cable faulty
m Faulty spark plug
m Distributor cap cracked
m Faulty HT cable
11 Clutch
¡
Clutch pedal - adjustment
(cable clutch)
1 The method of adjusting the clutch has
been revised.
2 Fully depress the clutch pedal two or three
times.
3 Using a suitable measuring stick placed in
contact with the floor panel (carpet peeled
back), measure dimension “X” in Fig. 13.87.
This dimension must be taken between the
centre of the pedal pad and the floor, first with
Loss of power, excessive fuel consumption
m TDC sensor incorrectly located
m Fault in ECU advance angle facility
the pedal in the fully depressed position, and
then in the fully released position.
4 The dimension measured should fall within
the range quoted in the Specifications for this
Supplement.
5 Any adjustment which may be required
should be carried out by slackening the
locknut on the cable at the release lever (on
top of the gearbox) and turning the adjusting
nut. Tighten the locknut on completion.
Hydraulic clutch - description
6 Some later models are fitted with an
hydraulically operated clutch in place of the
cable operated type. The main components of
the system are a master cylinder, with
separate hydraulic fluid reservoir, and the
operating cylinder. The master cylinder is
Fig. 13.87 Clutch pedal adjustment
diagram - cable clutch (Sec 11)
For dimension “X” , refer to Specifications
Supplement: Revisions and information on later models 13•93
mounted in-line with and just forward of the
clutch pedal. The operating cylinder is
mounted within a housing on top of the
transmission. The fluid reservoir is located in
the engine compartment and is mounted on
the left-hand side near the bulkhead. No
settings or specific procedures are given by
the manufacturer at the time of writing.
Maintenance
(hydraulic clutch)
¡
7 Periodically check the fluid level in the
reservoir. If the level has dropped, top it up
with the specified fluid. The fluid level must
not be allowed to drop below the MIN level
mark on the side of the reservoir (photos). If
the fluid level drops by a significant amount, it
is indicative of a leak in the hydraulic circuit
and this must therefore be traced and
repaired at the earliest opportunity.
8 Inspect the fluid lines and connections for
security and any signs of leaks.
Clutch master cylinder removal, overhaul
and refitting
#
9 If the cylinder is to be dismantled, it will first
be necessary to obtain a cylinder repair kit.
Start by detaching and removing the trim
panel from the underside of the facia on the
driver’s side.
10 Place a suitable covering over the floor
carpet to prevent staining in the event of fluid
spillage. Clamp the fluid supply hose at the
master cylinder end, then unscrew the
retaining clip and detach the hose from the
cylinder. Position the hose out of the way and
with its end pointing up.
11 Detach the operating rod clevis from the
brake pedal.
12 Unscrew and detach the hydraulic pipe to
the operating cylinder from the master
cylinder (photo).
13 Undo the two retaining nuts and withdraw
the master cylinder.
14 To dismantle the cylinder, prise free and
pull back the dust boot, extract the retainer
and withdraw the operating rod.
15 Invert the cylinder and shake free the
piston and seal assembly. If it is stuck inside
the cylinder, apply moderate air pressure
(from a foot pump) into the tail end and catch
Fig. 13.88 Exploded view of the hydraulic clutch components (Sec 11)
1
2
3
4
Filler cap
Fluid reservoir
Hose
Master cylinder
5
6
7
8
Cover
Clip
Bracket
Hose
the assembly in a clean cloth as it is ejected.
16 Remove the seals noting their orientation.
Clean all components in methylated spirits or
new hydraulic fluid. If the cylinder is damaged,
scored or badly worn it must be renewed. The
seals must always be renewed once they are
removed.
17 Assemble the new seals to the piston and
lubricate the cylinder, seals and piston
assembly with new hydraulic fluid (of the
specified type) before assembling them.
Ensure that the seals are fitted the correct
way round (as noted during removal).
18 Renew the dust boot, fit and secure the
operating rod into position with the retainer,
then refit the dust boot over the cylinder.
19 If the intake pipe connector was removed,
this must be refitted using a new seal.
20 Refit the cylinder in the reverse order of
removal. Connect and hand tighten the
hydraulic pipe to the operating cylinder before
fully tightening the cylinder securing nuts. The
hydraulic pipe can then be fully tightened.
9
10
11
12
Operating cylinder
Bracket
Circlip
Operating lever
21 Reconnect the fluid supply hose to the
cylinder and tighten the retaining clip to
secure. Release the clamp.
22 Top up the clutch fluid level in the
reservoir then bleed the system as described
later in this Section.
Clutch operating cylinder removal, overhaul
and refitting
¢
23 If the cylinder is to be dismantled once it
is removed, it will first be necessary to obtain
a cylinder repair kit. Access is much improved
by first detaching the appropriate ducts and
hoses from the areas directly above the
cylinder, on top of the transmission/clutch
housing.
24 To avoid excessive fluid loss when the
hydraulic line is detached from the operating
cylinder, remove the filler cap from the
reservoir, place a clean piece of polythene
sheet over the filler neck and refit the reservoir
cap.
13
11.7A Clutch hydraulic fluid reservoir
showing MIN and MAX markings
11.7B Topping up the fluid level in the
clutch fluid reservoir
11.12 Clutch master cylinder and hydraulic
pipe connections
13•94 Supplement: Revisions and information on later models
at the gear lever end as described in Chapter 6, Section 3.
5 Disconnect the rods at the transmission
end by unscrewing the nuts and bolts which
connect the linkage rods to the selector rods
(photo).
6 Extract the spring clip which retains the end
of the short link rod (photo).
Gearchange linkage
(Antiskid models) - general
11.25 Clutch operating cylinder showing
hydraulic line connection and bleed nipple
(arrowed)
11.26 Clutch operating lever (A) and
operating cylinder bracket-to-transmission
housing bolt (B)
25 Unscrew the union nut and detach the
hydraulic fluid line from the operating cylinder
(photo).
26 Undo the cylinder/mounting bracket
retaining bolts and lift clear the cylinder
together with the bracket (photo). Release the
retaining clip and separate the cylinder from
the bracket.
27 To dismantle the cylinder, prise free and
pull back the dust boot, withdrawing it
together with the operating rod.
28 Invert the cylinder and shake free the
piston and seal assembly. If it is stuck inside
the cylinder, remove the bleed screw then
apply moderate air pressure (from a foot
pump) into the bleed port and catch the
cylinder in a clean cloth as it is ejected.
29 Remove the seals noting their orientation.
Clean all components in methylated spirits or
new hydraulic fluid. If the cylinder is damaged,
scored or badly worn it must be renewed. The
seals must always be renewed once they are
removed.
30 Assemble the new seals to the piston and
lubricate the cylinder, seals and piston
assembly with new hydraulic fluid (of the
specified type) before assembling them.
Ensure that the seals are fitted the correct
way round (as noted during removal).
31 Renew the dust boot, fit and secure the
operating rod into position then refit the dust
boot over the cylinder. If removed, refit the
bleed screw.
32 Reconnect the cylinder to the mounting
bracket and refit the combined assembly to
the vehicle in the reverse order of removal.
Ensure the hydraulic union is clean and take
care not to damage the threads as it is
reconnected.
33 Remove the polythene seal from the
hydraulic reservoir filler neck, top up the fluid
level and bleed the system as described
below.
the end of the operating cylinder (see
photo 11.25). The clutch hydraulic circuit
reservoir is mounted in the engine
compartment on the left-hand side near the
bulkhead and is separate from the master
cylinder. As the system is being bled, ensure
that the fluid level in the reservoir is
maintained between the MIN and MAX level
marks. Do not allow the fluid level to drop
below the MIN level mark otherwise air will
enter the system and greatly lengthen the
operation. Wipe clean any fluid spillage from
the paintwork or adjacent components as it
has a corrosive effect if left.
Clutch hydraulic system bleeding
12 Transmission
PART A:
1301 CC TURBO IE ENGINE
Description
1 The transmission is of five-speed type,
based on that used in the Fiat Strada 105 TC.
2 For all practical purposes, the operations
described in Chapter 6 apply, but observe the
following differences.
7 The gearchange linkage and internal
selector arrangement has been modified, as
shown in Fig. 13.89.
Final drive output shafts description and
oil seal renewal
#
8 The output shafts on this transmission
incorporate a flange on the left-hand side, to
which a coupling flange on the driveshaft is
bolted. On the right-hand side, an
intermediate shaft (see Section 13) is splined
directly into the differential side gear.
9 A leaking oil seal may be renewed on the
left-hand side of the final drive casing after
first disconnecting the driveshaft. Then using
two levers, prise out the flange/stub shaft
against the tension of its retaining circlip.
10 Unbolt and remove the bearing cover.
When refitting the cover, make sure that the
O-ring is in good condition.
11 To renew the oil seal on the right-hand
side, first remove the intermediate driveshaft,
and then prise the defective seal out of the
final drive housing using a suitable tool.
12 Apply grease to the new seal lips before
refitting the intermediate shaft or the stub
shaft. Tighten all bolts to the specified torque.
PART B:
1372 CC IE AND 1372 CC
TURBO IE ENGINES
Description
3 This is of two-rod type.
4 Remove the gaiter and disconnect the rods
1 The transmission is of five-speed type,
based on that used in the FIAT Tipo. The
transmission is mounted in-line with the
engine and is located in the left-hand side of
the engine compartment. Drive from the
clutch is transferred through the input shaft
and the mainshaft to the integrally-located
12A.5 Gearchange rod connections at
transmission (1301 cc Turbo ie engine)
12A.6 Gearchange link rod spring clip
(arrowed) on the 1301 cc Turbo ie engine
Gearchange linkage removal and refitting
¡
#
34 The clutch hydraulic circuit is bled in
much the same manner to that described for a
brake circuit. Refer to Section 12 in Chapter 8
and proceed as described, but note that the
bleed screw for the clutch circuit is located in
Supplement: Revisions and information on later models 13•95
final drive unit. The inboard end of each
driveshaft locates in the differential. All helical
gear clusters are in constant mesh, with the
fifth gear assembly located on an intermediate
plate mounted on the rear end of the gearbox.
Gear engagement is made by sliding
synchromesh hubs. Gearchanges are made
via a central floor-mounted gear lever.
Maintenance
¡
2 Maintenance is limited to periodically
checking the oil level, topping up as required,
renewing the oil, and visually inspecting the
transmission for oil leaks. The most likely
source of an oil leak will be from the driveshaft
seals.
Oil level - checking
Fig. 13.89 Gearchange control linkage on the 1301 cc Turbo ie model with Antiskid
(Sec 12)
¡
3 For improved access, jack up the vehicle
and support it on axle stands. Note that the
vehicle must be level in order to carry out this
check.
4 If the transmission is hot due to the car
having been driven recently, allow it to cool
before making the check; oil foams when hot
and can produce a false level reading. Wipe
the area around the filler plug then unscrew
and remove the plug from its location in the
front of the casing. The oil should be level with
the base of the filler plug hole.
5 If necessary, top up with oil of the specified
grade.
6 On completion refit the filler plug, wipe
clean any oil spillage, then lower the car to the
ground.
Oil - renewal
¡
7 The transmission oil should ideally be
drained when hot (directly after the vehicle
has been used). For improved access, jack up
the vehicle and support it on axle stands.
Note that the vehicle must be level to ensure a
correct level reading when topping up.
8 Wipe clean the area around the filler plug on
the front face of the transmission casing, then
unscrew and remove the plug.
9 Position a suitable container underneath
the drain plug (located at the left-hand end of
the transmission). Unscrew the plug and allow
the oil to drain into the container. Oil will start
to drain before the plug is fully withdrawn so
take precautions against scalding. Wait about
ten minutes to allow the oil to drain fully.
10 When the oil has finished draining, clean
around the threads of the drain plug and its
location in the transmission casing, then refit
the plug and tighten it.
11 Refill the transmission with the specified
quantity and grade of oil through the
filler/lever plug hole. With the vehicle level and
the transmission cold check the oil level as
described above, then refit and tighten the
plug. Lower the vehicle to complete.
Gearlever and linkages - general
Fig. 13.90 Exploded view of the transmission unit fitted to 1372 cc models (Sec 12)
12 The component parts of the gearchange
and selector assemblies are shown in
Figs. 13.91 and 13.92. They do not normally
13
13•96 Supplement: Revisions and information on later models
Fig. 13.91 Exploded view of the gear selector lever, rod and linkage components on
1372 cc models (Sec 12)
require maintenance other than general
inspection for wear in the linkage joints. If
excessive wear is found in any of the joints, they
can be individually detached and renewed.
13 Access to the control rods is eased by
detaching and lowering the exhaust system
from the exhaust manifold.
14 If a new adjustable control rod is to be
fitted, remove the original rod as a unit, but do
not alter its adjustment for length. The new
rod can then (if required) be set to the same
length as the original in order to maintain the
original setting. Do so by loosening off the
locknut and turning the balljoint as required;
ensure that the angle of the joint is correct
before tightening the locknut.
15 Access to the gear lever/main connecting
rod joint from above is made by prising back
the gear lever gaiter from the centre console.
Access from underneath can be made by
raising and supporting the car on axle stands.
Working from the underside of the lever, undo
the retaining nuts and remove the inspection
plate from the floor (photos).
16 Any adjustment to the gear linkage should
be entrusted to a FIAT dealer.
Transmission removal and refitting
Fig. 13.92 Exploded view of the gear selector and control road assembly components
fitted to 1372 cc models (Sec 12)
12B.15A Gear lever connection to the main
connecting rod on the 1372 cc engine
12B.15B Access cover to gear lever lower
connection to rod on the 1372 cc engine
#
17 The transmission can be removed
together with the engine and then separated
as described in Section 7, or on its own (as
described below), leaving the engine in
position in the car. Before starting to remove
the transmission, it should be noted that
suitable equipment will be required to support
the engine during this procedure.
18 Disconnect the battery negative lead.
19 Remove the bonnet as described in
Chapter 12.
20 Refer to Section 11 in this Chapter for
details and detach the clutch operating
cylinder together with its mounting bracket
from the top of the transmission, but do not
disconnect the hydraulic fluid hose from the
cylinder connection. Leave the cylinder
attached to the bracket. Tie the cylinder and
bracket up to support them out of the way.
21 Reaching down between the transmission
and the bulkhead, unscrew the knurled
retaining nut and withdraw the speedometer
cable from the transmission.
22 Remove the front roadwheel trims, then
loosen off the front wheel retaining bolts.
Raise the vehicle and support it on axle
stands at a suitable height to allow working
underneath and
eventual transmission
removal from under the front end.
23 Drain the transmission oil as described
previously in this Section.
24 Disconnect and remove the starter motor
(photos).
25 Detach the reversing light switch lead
connector.
26 Undo the retaining bolt and detach the
earth lead from the rear end of the
transmission (see photo 7C.33). Refit the bolt
once the lead has been disconnected.
Supplement: Revisions and information on later models 13•97
12B.24A Starter motor electrical
connection . . .
12B.24B . . . and retaining bolts (arrowed)
on the 1372 cc ie engine
27 The engine must now be supported at its
left-hand end. If the engine/transmission lift
bracket is unbolted it can be attached at
another suitable position on the engine and
the lift sling/tool attached to it, but take care
not to attach it to a weak fixing point.
28 The engine will need to be supported
using an engine lift beam/support bar of the
type shown in Fig. 13.93. A strong wood or
metal beam resting on blocks in the front wing
drain channels will suffice, or alternatively use
an engine lift hoist and sling.
29 Refer to Section 13 in this Chapter and
Section 2 in Chapter 7 for details and remove
the front driveshaft each side.
30 Prise back the tabs of the retaining
washers, then undo the retaining nuts and
detach the exhaust downpipe from the
manifold. Detach the exhaust mounting
bracket (where applicable) and lower the
exhaust to allow access to the gearchange
linkages.
31 Disconnect the gearchange control and
selector link rod balljoints (photo). Do not alter
their lengths or the adjustment setting will be
affected.
32 Using a small diameter pin punch, drive the
retaining pins from the retaining clips which
secure the left-hand side underwing shield.
Prise free the clips and detach the shield.
33 Undo the retaining bolts and remove the
lower cover plate from the flywheel housing
(photo).
34 Position a trolley jack under the
transmission with an interposed block of
wood to protect the casing and spread the
load. Raise the jack to support the weight of
the transmission.
35 Check that the weight of the engine is
securely supported, then unbolt and detach
the front engine mounting unit, then the rear
engine mounting unit.
36 Unscrew and remove the remaining bolts
securing the transmission to the engine. As
they are removed, note the position of any
brackets or additional fixings secured by
these bolts (photo).
37 Check around the transmission to ensure
that all fixings are detached from it and out of
the way, then carefully pull the transmission
free from the engine dowel pins. If possible
engage the aid of an assistant to help in
guiding or lowering the unit as it is removed.
As the unit is withdrawn from the engine, take
care not to place any strain on the input shaft.
Once the input shaft is clear of the clutch, the
transmission can be lowered and manoeuvred
from underneath the car. If available, lower the
unit onto a suitable crawler board to ease its
withdrawal from under the front end of the car.
38 Dismantling and overhaul of this
transmission is not recommended. If the
transmission has covered a high mileage it is
likely that several internal components are in
need of renewal. The cumulative cost of
renewing all worn and defective components
will almost certainly make overhaul
uneconomical when compared with the cost
of a new or service exchange transmission
from a FIAT dealer or transmission specialist.
Fig. 13.93 FIAT lift beam/support bar in
place to support the weight of the engine.
Inset shows lift hook engagement point 1372 cc models (Sec 12)
39 Refitting is a reversal of the removal
procedure, but note the following special
points.
a) Ensure that the engine and transmission
mating surfaces and the dowel pins are
clean and that all clutch components are
in good condition.
b) Apply a thin smear of molybdenum
disulphide grease to the splines of the
input shaft. Do not over-lubricate though
or the grease may work its way onto the
clutch friction surfaces and cause clutch
slip.
c) Raise the transmission so that it is in-line
with the engine, engage the end of the
input shaft into the clutch driven plate hub
and align the splines of each to enable the
transmission to be pushed home. It may
well be necessary to turn the flywheel a
fraction so that the splines align for
re-engagement
d) Do not fully tighten the engine and
transmission retaining bolts until all are
attached.
e) Tighten all retaining bolts and nuts of the
specified torque wrench settings (where
given).
f) Refer to Section 13 in this Chapter for
details on refitting the driveshafts.
g) Refill the transmission with the specified
quantity and grade of oil before lowering
the car to the ground (see paragraph 11).
13
12B.31 Gear control and selector link rod
joints
12B.33 Lower cover plate and retaining
bolts (arrowed)
12B.36 Transmission upper retaining bolts.
Note bracket under the left-hand bolt
13•98 Supplement: Revisions and information on later models
1 Sliding part of gear
lever
2 Reverse gear inhibitor
device flexible control
cable
3 Gear selector control
rod
4 Gear engagement
control cable
5 Gear selector
adjustable control rod
6 Gear selector and
engagement control
shaft
7 Reverse gear inhibitor
device
Fig. 13.94 C514 type 5-speed transmission
PART C: 999 CC AND
1108 CC WITH C514 TYPE
TRANSMISSIONS
Description
1 A new 5-speed transmission was
introduced to selected models during 1992.
Identified by the way reverse gear is engaged.
The gear knob needs to pressed downwards
whilst pushing the lever to the extreme right.
2 The new design includes control cables as
well as rods for gear selection, see Fig. 13.94.
Maintenance
¡
Fig. 13.95 Gear selector adjustable rod (C514 type transmissions)
A Adjusting nut
B Location of notch in outer sleeve
3 At the time of writing, no maintenance
instructions were available, however should
selecting gears become difficult, check the
following.
4 The gear lever should rest vertically in
neutral. If it does not, alter the gear selector
adjustable rod, as appropriate.
5 Whilst turning the adjustment nut,
counterhold with a 10 mm open ended
spanner, located in the notch built into the
sleeve. Refer to Fig. 13.95.
13 Driveshafts
Inboard joint boots (non-Turbo
models, September 1987 on) modification
1 Modified boots have been fitted to the
differential ends of the driveshafts on nonTurbo models produced after September 1987.
2 The new boots incorporate a seal/bearing
assembly, and it is very important when a
boot is being fitted to the driveshaft that it is
located as shown in Fig. 13.96.
Fig. 13.96 Driveshaft boot positioning diagram - later non-Turbo models (Sec 13)
Left-hand shaft
Right-hand shaft
With 4-speed transmission,
With 4-speed transmission,
A = 143.0 mm (5.63 in)
A = 123.0 mm (4.84 in)
With 5-speed transmission,
With 5-speed transmission,
A = 133.0 mm (5.24 in)
A = 108.9 mm (4.25 in)
B = 0 to 1 mm (0 to 0.04 in)
Supplement: Revisions and information on later models 13•99
Fig. 13.98 Components of the intermediate
driveshaft - Turbo ie models (Sec 13)
Fig. 13.97 Crimping the driveshaft boot
securing band (Sec 13)
3 The boot retaining band must be crimped
using suitable pinchers at the highest point on
the boot.
Intermediate driveshaft
(Turbo ie models)
#
1 Bearing retaining
plate
2 Ball bearing
3 Wave washer
4 Circlip
5 Bearing cap
be renewed after removing the plate, circlip
and washer, and pressing the shaft out of the
bearing.
10 When fitting the new bearing, apply
pressure only to the inner track, and do not
apply any heat.
Description
Refitting
4 On these models, an intermediate
driveshaft is fitted between the final drive of
the transmission and the flange of the
right-hand driveshaft.
5 A support bearing assembly for the
intermediate shaft is bolted to the engine
crankcase. The bearing carrier also acts as
the alternator bracket.
11 This is a reversal of removal. Tighten all
bolts to the specified torque and replenish the
transmission oil.
Removal
6 Drain the transmission oil. Disconnect the
right-hand driveshaft from the intermediate
shaft flange, move the driveshaft aside, and
support it.
7 Unscrew and remove the bolts which hold
the intermediate shaft retainer plate to the
crankcase support bracket.
8 Withdraw the intermediate shaft from the
final drive housing. The shaft assembly,
complete with bearing, will pass through the
crankcase support bracket until the bearing
retainer and flexible boot can be slipped off
the shaft.
Inboard CV joints (Turbo
ie models) - overhaul
#
12 A worn joint is best renewed, but it may
be necessary to dismantle it for cleaning, if
replacement of a split boot has been
neglected.
13 Disconnect the boot securing clip and pull
the boot up the shaft. Wipe away the old
grease.
Fig. 13.99 Extracting the CV joint circlip Turbo ie models (Sec 13)
14 Extract the joint securing circlip and pull
the joint from the shaft.
15 Renew the joint complete if it is worn or
damaged.
16 Before dismantling the joint, align the
housing and ball cage marks “A” and “B”
(Fig. 13.100).
17 Tap the joint from its backplate.
18 Turn the ball/cage assembly through 90º,
mark its relative position to the outer track
and withdraw it (photo).
19 The balls are a light snap fit in the cage.
Once they are removed, the inner and outer
cage members can be separated; again, mark
the side of the cages in relation to the outer
track (photos).
Bearing renewal
9 The bearing on the intermediate shaft can
13.18 Removing inboard CV joint ball/cage
assembly from outer track
13.19A CV joint balls and cage
13
Fig. 13.100 CV joint housing and ball cage
alignment marks (A and B) - Turbo ie
models (Sec 13)
13.19B Separating inner and outer cage
members
13.19C Components of CV joint
13•100 Supplement: Revisions and information on later models
13.21 Outer track reference groove
Fig. 13.101 Correct position of driveshaft damper weight on 1108 cc and 1372 cc ie
models (Sec 13)
Dimensions in mm
13.24 Right-hand driveshaft damper weight
20 When reassembling, pack the joint with
special FIAT Tutela MRM2 lubricant; if this is not
available, use molybdenum disulphide grease.
21 The reference groove on the outer track
must be assembled so that it is towards the
final drive when refitted (photo).
22 Pack the joint and the inside of the boot
liberally with the specified grease.
23 If a new joint is being fitted to the shaft,
make sure that the joint and shaft colour
codes match.
Shaft colour
Joint colour
Blue
Blue or white
Red
Red or white
Right-hand driveshaft damper
weight (1108 cc and
1372 cc ie models) removal and refitting
#
24 A damper weight is fitted to the longer,
right-hand driveshaft to reduce vibration (photo).
14A.2A Front brake pad locking block is
secured by a clip on the inboard end of the
brake unit on certain models
25 It should not be necessary to remove the
damper weight unless the driveshaft is to be
renewed, or the weight has been damaged.
26 The weight is in two halves, and can be
removed by simply unscrewing the two clamp
bolts securing the two halves to the
driveshaft. Note that the weight locates on a
rubber mounting which is split along its
length, and can simply be pulled from the
driveshaft for renewal if necessary.
27 Refitting is a reversal of removal, but
ensure that the damper weight is positioned
exactly as shown in Fig. 13.101.
14 Braking system
PART A: BRAKING
SYSTEM - GENERAL
2 On some models the clip securing the disc
pad locking block is located on the inboard
end, rather than the outer end (shown in
Chapter 8). To ensure correct reassembly,
check the location of the original block
retaining clip before dismantling the brake
unit. The alternative fixing arrangement is
shown in the accompanying photos, in this
instance on a 1372 cc ie model (photos).
PART B: BRAKING SYSTEM
- TURBO IE MODELS
Description
1 Disc brakes are fitted to all four wheels on
the Turbo ie models. The front disc brakes are
of different design from those used on other
models, in that the wear in the pads can be
checked without the need to remove the
caliper cylinder housing.
Front disc pads - renewal
™
1 The front brake pads have modified
anti-vibration plates and a wire spring fitted to
prevent them from vibrating and knocking in
operation.
2 Raise the front of the car and remove the
roadwheels.
3 Check the thickness of the friction material
on the pads through the aperture in the caliper
cylinder body. If the thickness of the material
is 1.5 mm or less, then the pads on both sides
must be renewed (photo).
14A.2B Front brake locking block
orientation with inboard retaining clip
14B.3 Front disc pads (arrowed) on Turbo
ie model
Front brake pads - all later
models
Supplement: Revisions and information on later models 13•101
14B.4 Unscrewing the caliper cylinder
housing lower guide bolt
14B.6 Disc pad and anti-rattle spring
removal
14B.10 Applying thread-locking fluid to the
bolt threads
4 Using a ring spanner and an open-ended
spanner, unscrew and remove the caliper
cylinder housing lower guide bolt (photo).
Release the upper bolt, but do not remove it.
5 Swivel the cylinder housing upwards and tie
it up out of the way. There is no need to
disconnect the hydraulic hose. The sensor
wiring plug will have to be disconnected
(where fitted).
6 Remove the pads, complete with anti-rattle
springs (photo).
7 Clean away all dust and dirt, taking care not
to inhale it as it may be injurious to health.
8 The caliper piston must now be fully
depressed to accommodate the new, thicker,
pads. Do this using a G-clamp or lever, but
anticipate a rise in the brake fluid reservoir
level by syphoning out some of the fluid using
a clean syringe.
9 Fit the new pads, which must be of the
same type as the originals, complete with
anti-rattle springs.
10 Locate the cylinder body. The fixing bolts
are of self-locking type, and should be
renewed whenever they are loosened or
removed. If new ones are not available, clean
the threads of the old ones thoroughly and
apply thread-locking fluid (photo). Tighten the
bolts to the specified torque. Check that the
rubber dust excluders are in good condition.
11 Reconnect the sensor wiring plug.
12 Renew the pads on the other front wheel.
13 Refit the roadwheels, and then apply the
footbrake several times to position the pads
against the discs.
14 Top up the brake fluid reservoir if
necessary (photo).
cylinder body, once the car has been jacked
up and the roadwheels removed (photo).
24 If the thickness of the pad friction material
is less than 1.5 mm, renew the pads on both
sides in the following way.
25 Using a ring spanner and an open-ended
spanner, unscrew the caliper cylinder body
fixing bolts.
26 Withdraw the caliper and remove the disc
pads, complete with anti-rattle springs (photo).
27 Clean away all dust and dirt, but avoid
inhaling it, as it may be injurious to health.
28 Fully retract the caliper piston in order to
accommodate the new, thicker, pads. To do
this, rotate the piston clockwise, using a
suitable tool engaged in the handbrake
sectors (photo). Anticipate a rise in the brake
fluid reservoir level by syphoning out some
fluid, using a clean syringe.
Front disc caliper removal and refitting
#
15 Raise the front of the car and remove the
appropriate roadwheel.
16 Using a ring spanner and an open-ended
spanner, unscrew and remove the cylinder
housing fixing bolts.
17 Withdraw the cylinder housing, and then,
holding it firmly, release the flexible hydraulic
hose union. Unscrew the cylinder body from
the end of the flexible hose, and then cap the
end of the hose to prevent loss of fluid.
18 If required, the disc pads can be removed
and the caliper support bracket unbolted and
removed.
19 Refitting is a reversal of removal, but use
new fixing bolts.
20 Bleed the front hydraulic circuit.
Front disc caliper - overhaul
21 The operations are as described in
Chapter 8, Section 5, paragraphs 6 to 13.
Front brake disc - inspection,
renovation or renewal
22 The operations are as described in
Chapter 8, Section 6, but the caliper fixing
bolts are secured with thread-locking fluid;
lockplates are not used.
Rear disc pads - renewal
™
23 Any wear in the disc pads can be
observed through the aperture in the caliper
14B.14 Topping up the brake fluid reservoir
(1301 cc Turbo ie model)
13
14B.23 Rear brake pad inspection aperture
14B.26 Withdrawing the rear brake caliper
14B.28 Rotating a rear caliper piston
13•102 Supplement: Revisions and information on later models
14B.29 Rear disc pad
14B.36 Disconnecting the handbrake cable
from the caliper lever
14B.42 Unscrewing a rear caliper bracket
bolt
29 Fit the new pads, complete with anti-rattle
springs (photo).
30 Refit the caliper using new self-locking
bolts, or if not available, apply thread-locking
fluid to clean threads of the original bolts.
Tighten the bolts to the specified torque.
31 Apply the brake pedal several times to
bring the disc pads up against the disc.
32 Top up the brake fluid reservoir if
necessary.
33 Check the adjustment of the handbrake.
34 Refit the roadwheels and lower the car to
the ground.
36 Disconnect the handbrake cable from the
caliper. To do this, grip the cable nipple and
pull it until the cable can be slipped out of its
lever groove (photo). If necessary, slacken the
cable adjustment.
37 Using a pair of pliers or similar tool, turn
the piston in an anti-clockwise direction until it
can be removed from the cylinder.
38 Having obtained a repair kit, renew the
seal and dust excluder.
39 Reassemble the piston to the cylinder,
turning it clockwise as far as it will go.
40 Reconnect the handbrake cable.
41 Carry out the operations described in
paragraphs 30 to 32.
44 The brake master cylinder and vacuum
servo are mounted on the left-hand side of the
engine compartment rear bulkhead. In consequence, the brake pedal on right-hand drive
cars operates through a cross-shaft, which is
located underneath the facia panel inside the
car.
45 The cross-shaft is supported in two
brackets, whose mounting nuts can be
reached through cut-outs in the insulation on
the engine compartment rear bulkhead (photo).
46 To remove the cross-shaft, working inside
the car, take off the cover from the left-hand
end of the shaft, and then disconnect the
servo pushrod from the crankarm on the
cross-shaft (photo).
47 Disconnect the brake pedal from the
right-hand crankarm on the cross-shaft
(photo).
48 Disconnect the accelerator pedal by
extracting the split pin which secures its pivot
spindle.
49 The cross-shaft may now be removed
after extracting the cotter pin from the
left-hand end of the shaft.
50 Push the shaft first to the right, and then
to the left, to release it from its brackets.
51 Alternatively, the cross-shaft, complete
with brackets, may be removed as an
assembly if the bulkhead nuts are unscrewed.
52 Removal of the brake and clutch pedals is
described in Chapter 5, Section 4, but note
that on hydraulic clutch models, the master
cylinder will also require removal as described
in Section 11 of this Chapter.
53 Refitting is a reversal of the removal
procedure.
14B.47 Right-hand end of brake pedal
cross-shaft
14B.54 Master cylinder/vacuum servo
located next to the coolant expansion tank
(1301 cc Turbo ie model)
Rear disc caliper removal, overhaul and
refitting
¢
35 Carry out the operations described in
paragraphs 25 to 27.
Rear brake disc inspection, renovation
or renewal
™
42 The operations are as described in
Chapter 8, Section 6, but the caliper bracket
fixing bolts are of the socket-headed type and
thread-locking fluid is used, not lockplates
(photo).
Pressure regulating valve
43 The valve renewal and adjustment
operations are described in Chapter 8,
Section 10, but the luggage compartment
should be loaded with 45 kg and the load
applied to the bracket eye should be 11 kg.
14B.45 Brake pedal cross-shaft fixed nut
(arrowed) on engine compartment rear
bulkhead
14B.46 Left-hand end of brake pedal
cross-shaft
Brake pedal removal and refitting
#
Supplement: Revisions and information on later models 13•103
1 Electronic control unit
(ECU)
2 Roadwheel speed
sensors
3 Pressure modulators
4 Vacuum reservoir
5 Check valve
6 Air cleaner
7 Load proportioning
(pressure regulating)
valves
8 Vacuum switch
9 ECU relay
10 System fault warning
lamp relay
11 System fault warning
lamp
12 Brake stop lamp
switch
Fig. 13.102 Braking system on Turbo ie Antiskid models (Sec 14)
Vacuum servo unit and master
cylinder - general
54 Access to the vacuum servo unit and the
master cylinder can only be obtained after the
cooling system expansion tank has been
released and moved aside (photo).
always be of the type originally fitted by the
vehicle manufacturer.
61 Maintenance of the system should be
limited to checking the security of all electrical
and hydraulic connections. Individual components are not repairable, and must be
renewed complete if faulty.
Antiskid system - description
55 This system is available as an option on
the Turbo ie models only.
56 The purpose of the system is to prevent
the wheel(s) locking during heavy brake
applications. This is achieved by automatic
release of the brake on a roadwheel which is
about to lock up, after which the brake is
re-applied. This cycle is carried out many
times per second under heavy braking,
retaining full steering control to avoid any
hazards.
57 The main components of the system are
shown in Fig. 13.102. The control module
processes the signals received from the
sensors, and compares them with
deceleration values of the roadwheel and the
slip values of the tyre, which are stored in the
module memory.
58 When reference values are exceeded and
wheel lock is imminent, the control module
signals the pressure modulators, which in turn
decrease the brake hydraulic pressure.
59 Vehicle road speeds are also taken into
account by the module’s electronic circuits.
60 In order to retain optimum system
performance, the tyres and wheels should
15 Electrical system
Alternator (999 and
1108 cc models) removal and refitting
¡
bolts, then raise and support the car at the
front end on axle stands. Remove the
right-hand roadwheel.
8 Remove the wheel arch underwing shield
by driving the compression pins from the
centre of the retaining clips (using a 2 mm
drift), then prise free the panel retaining clips
and remove the shield. Keep the pins and
clips in a safe place and renew any that may
have been damaged during removal (photo).
9 Detach the wiring connector from the
alternator.
10 Release the alternator mounting and belt
adjuster link bolts, and take off the drivebelt.
11 Take out the alternator top and bottom
mounting bolts.
1 To remove the alternator from 999 cc
engine models, disconnect the leads from the
terminals on its rear face.
2 Extract the screws and remove the plastic
drivebelt guard.
3 Slacken the mounting and adjuster bolts,
push the alternator in towards the engine and
remove the drivebelt.
4 Remove the mounting and adjuster bolts,
and withdraw the alternator downwards
through the gap between the right-hand
driveshaft and the engine sump pan (photo).
5 Refitting is a reversal of removal; re-tension
the drivebelt.
¡
13
Alternator (later models) removal and refitting
6 Disconnect the battery negative lead.
7 Loosen off the right-hand front roadwheel
15.4 Removing the alternator from the
999 cc engine
13•104 Supplement: Revisions and information on later models
15.8 Remove the wheel arch lower guard
panel for access to the alternator
12 Disconnect the air cooling hose from the
rear cover of the alternator, and then unscrew
the fixing nuts and take off the rear cover with
hose spout. Mark the position of the cover on
the alternator before removing it, so that the
spout will be correctly positioned when
refitted (photos).
13 Unbolt
the
driveshaft
bearing
support/alternator bracket from the engine
crankcase, and swivel the support
downwards to provide space for withdrawal of
the alternator (photo).
14 Withdraw the alternator from under the
right-hand front wing (photo).
15 Refit in the reverse order of removal. Refit
the drivebelt and ensure correct engagement
with the pulleys, then set the drivebelt tension
and tighten the alternator retaining nuts.
15.12A Alternator air cooling hose
Alternator brushes renewal
#
16 Depending on model, the brush holder is
secured by two screws, which should be extracted and the brush holder removed (photos).
17 New brushes and the holder are supplied
as an assembly.
Starter motor
(999 cc models) removal and refitting
¡
18 To remove the starter motor from 999 and
1108 cc models, first disconnect the leads
from the starter motor terminals.
19 Release the washer fluid reservoir flexible
bag from the engine compartment rear
bulkhead and move it to the left-hand side.
20 Unscrew the starter motor mounting
15.12B Alternator rear cover and fixing nut
bolts, withdraw the starter from the flywheel
bellhousing, and then lift it out of the left-hand
side of the engine compartment (photo).
21 Refitting is a reversal of removal.
Starter motor (1301 cc Turbo ie,
1372 cc ie,
1372 cc Turbo ie) removal and refitting
¡
22 Disconnect the battery. Working from
under the front end of the car, unscrew the
starter motor mounting bolts and disconnect
the electrical leads.
23 Withdraw the starter motor downwards. On
Turbo models, there is just enough clearance, if
the oil cooler hose and the oil pressure switch
lead are deflected carefully aside (photos).
24 Refit by reversing the removal operations.
15.13 Driveshaft bracket swivelled
downwards
15.14 Withdrawing the alternator
15.16A Extracting the alternator brush
holder screw
15.16B Removing the alternator brush
holder
15.20 Starter motor removal from the
999 cc engine
15.23A Starter motor removal from the
1301 cc Turbo ie engine
Supplement: Revisions and information on later models 13•105
15.23B Starter motor and wiring
connections on the 1372 cc ie engine
Starter motor brushes
(later models) - renewal
#
25 When renewing the starter motor brushes
on later models, the old brushes will need to
be crushed (in a vice or with a hammer) and
their leads then soldered to the new brushes.
Fuses - later models
26 The fuse arrangement is slightly different
on later models, but the circuits protected are
still identified by a symbol. Refer to the
Specifications Section for full details. Note
also the terminal block with plastic cover,
which can be used to isolate the battery from
the electrical system by disconnecting the
leads from the terminals (photos).
15.26A Fuse block on the 1301 cc Turbo ie
model
15.26B Battery lead terminal block on the
1301 cc Turbo ie model
29 Some later models are fitted with
headlamp beam adjusters which allow
temporary resetting to be made (such as
when the car is fully loaded). Access to these
adjusters is made by lifting the bonnet (photo).
30 Turn the adjusters anti-clockwise to lower
the beam to the normal level or clockwise to
raise the beam (when the car is unloaded).
Repeat the procedure on the opposite
headlamp unit an equal amount.
31 Other later models have separate
horizontal and vertical beam adjusters,
positioned as shown (photos). A load
compensating lever is attached to the
adjusters to enable temporary resetting of the
headlamp beams, without changing the
normal adjustment. Turn the lever to the
appropriate side (right or left) to make the
adjustment as required. The normal setting
15.28 Headlamp unit fitted to the 1372 cc ie
model
15.29 Headlamp beam adjuster on the
999 cc Turbo ie model
Fuel injection system main control relay adjacent to airflow meter
Headlamps later models
28 The headlamp units fitted on later models
differ according to model, but the bulb and
unit replacement details are generally the
same as described for previous models in
Chapter 9. Note that the rubber cover can
only be fitted with the tab to the top as shown
(photo).
Headlamp beam adjusters for
load compensation - later
models
Relays (Turbo ie models) general
27 On Turbo ie models, the relays mounted
in the fuse block are as shown in Fig. 13.103.
Additional relays are located as follows:
Headlamp relay - on lead under main fuse
block
Fig. 13.103 Auxiliary fuses and relays on
1301 cc Turbo ie models (Sec 15)
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
Horn relay
Heated rear screen relay
Foglamps relay
Radiator fan relay
Electric windows relay
Foglamps fuse
Radiator fan second speed fuse
Fuel injector fan fuse
Electric windows fuse
Electric fuel pump fuse
13
15.31A Headlamp horizontal beam
alignment adjuster screw on a 1372 cc ie
model
15.31B Headlamp vertical beam alignment
adjuster screw on a 1372 cc ie model. Note
the load compensator lever which is set in
the “O” (normal load) setting position
13•106 Supplement: Revisions and information on later models
15.34 Headlamp dim-dip transformer
15.37A Undo the retaining bolts . . .
15.37B . . . and withdraw the front fog lamp
unit . . .
adjustment procedures are the same as those
outlined for the previous model units in
Chapter 9, but ensure that the load
compensation lever is turned to the “O”
(normal load setting) position before making
any adjustments.
on parking lamps only in built-up areas.
34 Headlamp intensity is reduced by the
transformer located at the front of the engine
compartment (photo).
35 Any attempt to start the car with parking
lamps only on will automatically cause the
headlamps to switch on with a low-intensity
dipped beam. Dipped and main beam
function normally.
36 The headlamp dim-dip system is a legal
requirement for all UK models registered after
April 1st, 1987.
screws and withdraw the lamp unit from the
underside of the front bumper (photos).
38 Undo the retaining screw and remove the
access cover from the unit (photo).
39 Disconnect the wiring connector from the
bulb, release the clips and withdraw the bulb
from the lamp (photo).
40 Refit in the reverse order of removal.
Check the light for satisfactory operation and
if the beam requires resetting, turn the
adjustment screw in the required direction.
41 To adjust the beam, position the car 5 m
from, and square on to, a wall or similar.
42 Measure the height of the centre of the
lamp lens from the ground and mark the
position on the wall. Switch on the lamp. The
demarcation line (cut-off) of the light should
be below the mark on the wall by 50 mm plus
one-third of the ground-to-lamp centre
measurement. Adjust the beam as required
using the long centre screw.
Headlamp unit removal - later
models
32 The removal and refitting procedures
described in Chapter 9 also apply to the later
headlamp type, but note that later units are
secured in position by three retaining screws.
Headlamp dim-dip system description
Front fog lamps - bulb/unit
removal and refitting
and beam adjustment
33 On later models, the wiring circuit has
been modified to prevent the car being driven
37 Ensure that the front fog lamps are
switched off, then unscrew the two retaining
™
Horn - relocation
43 The single horn, on applicable models, is
now located behind the grille, bolted on a
bracket attached to the top rail (photo).
Steering column combination
switches (later models) removal and refitting
¡
15.38 . . . remove the rear cover . . .
15.39 . . . detach the wires, extract the bulb
15.43 Horn location
15.45A Undo the retaining screws . . .
44 Disconnect the battery negative lead.
45 Undo the retaining screws and remove
the steering column shrouds (photos).
46 Remove the steering wheel as described
in Chapter 10.
15.45B . . . then remove the upper . . .
Supplement: Revisions and information on later models 13•107
15.45C . . . and the lower column
shroud . . .
15.47A Undo the retaining screw . . .
47 Loosen off the switch-to-column clamp
screw, disconnect the wiring connectors to
the switch and withdraw the switch from the
column (photos).
48 Refit in the reverse order of removal, but
ensure that the lug of the switch aligns with
the slot in the column as it is fitted into
position. Check for satisfactory operation of
the switches on completion.
53 Insert a thin-bladed screwdriver into the
joint between the switch block and the switch
block housing, to depress the plastic retaining
tabs. Do this carefully, otherwise the switch
block or casing will be damaged.
54 Withdraw the switch block. Individual
switches can now be pushed out of the block.
Fibre optics are used to illuminate some
switches, these simply pull out of their
sockets (photos). The illumination bulb is
located on a crossmember found behind the
instrument pack. Removal of instruments/top
cover allows access.
55 The switch housing can be removed after
extracting the fixing screws (photos).
56 Refitting is a reversal of removal.
Instrument panel
(Turbo ie models) removal and refitting
¡
49 The instrument panel on these models
incorporates an engine oil pressure gauge
and a turbo boost gauge. The latter is
connected directly to the inlet manifold.
50 Apart from disconnecting the boost gauge
rubber hose, the instrument panel removal
and refitting procedure is as described in
Chapter 9 for the 1301 cc model or from
paragraph 57 in this Section for the 1372 cc
model.
51 A digital electronic instrument panel is
available as an option on Turbo ie models.
The removal and refitting procedures differ
from analogue instrument panels in respect of
the electrical connections - a speedometer
drive cable is not used.
Facia-mounted switches
(1301 cc Turbo ie model) removal and refitting
52 Disconnect the battery.
¡
15.54A Switch block withdrawal on the
1301 cc Turbo ie model
15.47B . . . and remove the column switch
Instrument panel
(later models) removal and refitting
¡
57 Disconnect the battery negative lead.
58 Unscrew and remove the two instrument
panel-to-facia retaining screws (photo).
59 Remove the lower facia trim panel, which
is secured by two screws and a nut. Reach up
to the rear of the instrument panel to
disconnect the speedometer cable, then push
the panel from its recess in the facia.
Disconnect the multi-connectors from the rear
face of the panel and withdraw it (photo).
60 Refit in the reverse order of removal.
Ensure that the speedometer cable is fully
engaged as the unit is refitted into position.
15.54B Disconnecting a fibre optic cable
from its holder on the 1301 cc Turbo ie
model
13
15.55A Facia switch housing lower screw
removal on the 1301 cc Turbo ie model
15.55B Facia switch housing inner screw
removal on the 1031 cc Turbo ie model
15.58 Remove the retaining screws . . .
13•108 Supplement: Revisions and information on later models
15.59A . . . withdraw the instrument
panel . . .
Auxiliary control panel
(later models) removal and refitting
¡
61 Disconnect the battery negative lead.
62 Insert the flat of a screwdriver under the
trim piece at the end of the auxiliary panel as
shown and prise it free. Repeat the procedure
and remove the trim piece at the other end of
the panel (photo).
63 Undo the retaining screws, withdraw the
panel from the facia. Disconnect the wiring
connectors from the panel switches to
remove the panel completely (photo).
64 A switch bulb can be renewed by
untwisting the holder and removing the holder
and bulb.
65 A switch unit can be removed from the
panel by unscrewing the four retaining screws.
15.59B . . . and disconnect the
speedometer cable
15.62 Prise free the trim covers for access
to retaining screws . . .
66 Refitting is a reversal of the removal
procedure. Ensure that the wiring connections
are securely made and check for satisfactory
operation of the switches on completion.
75 Fuel consumption is only displayed when
the road speed exceeds 8.0 km/h (5.0 mph).
76 The fuel range is only displayed after a
road speed of between 25.0 and 70.0 km/h
(15.0 to 44.0 mph) has been maintained for at
least 90 seconds or at higher speeds for
22 seconds.
77 A reset button is provided, also a display
change button (from instant to average or
total values). Should the instrument reading
exceed 99 hours, 59 minutes or 1000 km
(622 miles) depressing the display change
button will display all zeros. Depress button E
to resume normal function.
78 Refer to the end of the manual for a wiring
diagram of the check panel, incorporating the
trip master.
Heater control panel
(later models) removal and refitting
Trip master
15.63 . . . and withdraw the auxiliary
control panel
15.68 Remove the control knobs . . .
¡
67 Disconnect the battery negative lead.
68 Pull free the heater/fresh air and blower
control knobs (photo).
69 Undo the two retaining screws and
withdraw the control panel from the facia
(photos). Detach the wiring connectors from the
panel illumination lights and remove the panel.
70 Refitting is a reversal of the removal
procedure. Ensure that the wiring connections
are securely made and on completion check
that the operation of the controls is satisfactory.
¡
Interior roof mounted spotlamp,
switch and/or clock removal and refitting
¡
71 This electronic instrument is fitted into the
check panel of 1100SL and 1300SL models
from 1986.
72 The device provides information on fuel
consumption, range, speed and elapsed time.
73 With the ignition key turned to MAR,
figures are displayed in respect of the last
journey - average fuel consumption, average
speed and elapsed time (up to switching off
the ignition).
74 As soon as the engine is started, the
instrument processes the current values to
include fuel consumption, range and the
actual time.
79 Disconnect the battery negative lead.
80 Prise free the lamp unit from its aperture
in the roof panel using a thin-bladed
screwdriver. The lamp bulb can be inspected
by untwisting the holder and withdrawing it
from the rear of the unit (photos). Extract the
bulb from the holder if it requires renewal.
81 To remove the lamp switch from the
panel, reach through the lamp aperture and
press it free from the roof panel (photo).
Detach the wiring connectors.
82 To remove the clock, reach through the
lamp aperture and undo the retaining screws
(photo). Withdraw the clock and detach the
wiring connectors.
15.69A . . . undo the retaining screws
(arrowed)
15.69B . . . and withdraw the heater control
panel
Supplement: Revisions and information on later models 13•109
15.80A Prising free the roof-mounted
spotlamp
83 Refitting is a reversal of the removal
procedure. Reset the clock on completion.
Central door locking system
15.80B Roof-mounted spotlamp bulb
removal
Cigar lighter
(later models) removal and refitting
¡
84 Certain later models, equipped with a
central door locking system, have an infra-red
remote control for opening the door locks.
85 It is important that the battery used in the
hand control is renewed when necessary with
one of identical type (Duracell 7H34). This is
only available as a FIAT spare part (No
7595393).
86 The remote control door lock receiver unit
can be removed by carefully prising it free
from the roof panel and disconnecting the
wiring connector (photo).
87 If either this unit or the hand control are
renewed at any time, recoding will be
necessary and this is a task best entrusted to
a FIAT dealer.
88 Pivot back the cover and lift out the ashtray.
89 Undo the retaining screws and remove
the trim together with the lighter unit. Detach
the wiring connector and release the lighter
unit from the panel.
90 Refit in the reverse order of removal.
15.82 Roof-mounted clock retaining screw
removal
15.86 Remote control receiver unit removal
Electrically operated windozw
switches removal and refitting
¡
91 The window regulator switches on later
models are located in the door pull trim. To
remove a switch, prise it free from the trim by
inserting a thin-bladed screwdriver under the
switch flange, then lever it free from its
aperture (photo). Take care not to damage the
15.81 Roof-mounted spotlamp switch
removal
trim. Detach the wiring connector to fully
remove the switch.
92 Refit in the reverse order of removal and
then check the operation of the switch.
Windscreen wiper motor
(later models) removal and refitting
™
93 Disconnect the battery negative lead.
94 Remove the bonnet as described in
Chapter 12.
95 Remove the wiper arm and blade as
described in Chapter 9, then unscrew and
remove the pivot nut (photo).
96 Undo the air inlet grille retaining screws
noting that two are not fitted with washers.
Where applicable, remove the washer
reservoir filler cap from the reservoir neck
protruding through the grille. Carefully prise
free and lift the air inlet grille clear of the body.
15.91 Prising free the window regulator
switch from the armrest
13
15.95 Unscrewing the wiper pivot nut
15.96A Release the air grille from its fixing
points . . .
15.96B . . . and detach the windscreen
washer hose
13•110 Supplement: Revisions and information on later models
15.98A Remove the wiper motor retaining
screws . . .
15.98B . . . separate the wiper motor from
its cover . . .
As it is lifted, invert it and detach the washer
hose from the washer nozzle (photos).
97 Where applicable, detach and remove the
washer reservoir from the recess in the front
of the windscreen to allow access to the wiper
motor.
98 Unscrew and remove the two wiper motor
retaining screws. Lower and withdraw the
unit, then detach the cover from the motor.
Disconnect the wiring from the wiper motor
and withdraw it from the car (photos).
99 Refit in the reverse order of removal.
Check for satisfactory operation of the wiper
and washer on completion.
withdraw it from the recess in front of the
windscreen so that the wiring connection and
the washer supply hoses (to the windscreen
washer and the rear screen washer nozzles)
can be detached from the pump unit. Remove
the reservoir from the vehicle.
105 Refit in the reverse order of removal. If the
washer pump unit was detached from the
reservoir, use a new seal washer when refitting
it. Top up the reservoir and check the screen
washers for satisfactory operation before
refitting the grille panel and the wiper arm/blade.
Brake fluid level sensor
Tailgate wiper motor
(later models) removal and refitting
112 This is basically a circuit wire embedded
in the pad friction material. As the pad wears,
the wire is eventually exposed and contacts
the disc, whereupon the warning lamp comes
on to indicate that pad renewal is necessary.
Windscreen washer reservoir
(Turbo ie models) removal and refitting
¡
100 Disconnect the battery negative lead.
101 Remove the bonnet as described in
Chapter 12.
102 Remove the wiper arm and blade as
described in Chapter 9, then unscrew and
remove the pivot nut.
103 Undo the air inlet grille retaining screws
noting that two are not fitted with washers.
Where applicable, remove the washer
reservoir filler cap from the reservoir neck
protruding through the grille. Carefully prise
free and lift the air inlet grille clear of the body.
As it is lifted, invert it and detach the washer
hose from the washer nozzle.
104 Syphon any remaining washer fluid from
the reservoir, then disconnect it and partially
15.106 Tailgate wiper motor - later model
¡
106 Although the tailgate wiper motor differs
in appearance, its removal and refitting
procedures are much the same as those
described for the earlier models in Section 27
of Chapter 9 (photo).
Radio
107 All later models are now equipped with
power supply and speaker leads for radio
installation.
108 Installation of the standard FIAT aerial
mounted on the windscreen pillar is shown
(photos).
15.98C . . . and detach the wiring
connector
110 This is mounted in the master cylinder
fluid reservoir cap, and comprises a pair of
reed switches in a glass bulb, and a magnet at
the end of a float.
111 When the fluid level is correct, the
magnetic flux closes the switches. In the
event of a leak in the system, the magnet
moves away, the switches open and the
warning lamp comes on.
Brake disc pad wear sensor
Coolant level sensor
113 This is located in the cooling system
expansion tank, and is of the reed switch
type, which operates in a similar way to that
described for the brake fluid sensor.
Engine oil level sensor
109 The locations of the sensors referred to in
Chapter 9, Section 34 are given in the
following paragraphs, and their construction
differs according to their individual function.
114 This is located at the end of the dipstick,
and comprises a pair of switches at the end of a
bi-metallic strip, heated by electrical resistance.
115 The heat is dissipated by the immersion
of the dipstick in the engine oil, so preventing
the bi-metallic strip from curving so much that
the switches would open.
116 If the oil level drops, the heat is no longer
dissipated, the switches open, and the
warning lamp comes on.
15.108A Pillar upper screws for aerial
15.108B Pillar lower screw for aerial
Check control system sensors description
Supplement: Revisions and information on later models 13•111
16.3 Anti-roll bar clamp
Door closure sensor
117 The sensor consists of a microswitch
within the lock. The switch actuates the
warning lamp according to whether the lock is
in the open or closed mode.
Check control system sensors testing
Brake fluid level sensor
118 With the fluid level correct, switch on the
ignition and depress the centre of the
reservoir cap. If the sensor switches are
working correctly, then “FAULT” should be
indicated on the check panel.
16.4 Anti-roll bar fixing nuts (arrowed)
16.7 Suspension strut upper mounting
nuts, showing bracket and cable clip on
the 1372 cc ie model
as follows. Firstly loosen off the front
roadwheel bolts, then raise the front of the
car, securely support it on axle stands and
remove the front roadwheels.
2 Disconnect the two gearchange rods from
the transmission.
3 Unbolt and disconnect the anti-roll bar
insulating clamps from the floorpan (photo).
4 Unbolt the end links from the track control
arms and withdraw the anti-roll bar (photo).
5 Refitting is a reversal of removal, but only
tighten the nuts and bolts to the specified
torque with the car parked on level ground,
with four passengers and 40 kg of luggage
inside.
by using a hot air gun to heat up and fuse a
plastic filler rod into the groove. Any excess
plastic is then removed and the area rubbed
down to a smooth finish. It is important that a
filler rod of the correct plastic is used, as
body components can be made of a variety
of different types (e.g. polycarbonate, ABS,
polypropylene). Damage of a less serious
nature (abrasions, minor cracks, etc.) can be
repaired by the DIY owner using a two-part
epoxy filler repair material. Once mixed in
equal proportions, this is used in similar
fashion to the bodywork filler used on metal
panels. The filler is usually cured in twenty to
thirty minutes, ready for sanding and
painting.
2 If the owner is renewing a complete
component himself, or if he has repaired it
with epoxy filler, he will be left with the
problem of finding a suitable paint for
finishing which is compatible with the type of
plastic used. At one time the use of a
universal paint was not possible owing to the
complex range of plastics encountered in
body component applications. Standard
paints, generally speaking, will not bond to
plastic or rubber satisfactorily. However, it is
now possible to obtain a plastic body parts
finishing kit which consists of a pre-primer
treatment, a primer and coloured top coat.
Full instructions are normally supplied with a
kit, but basically the method of use is to first
apply the pre-primer to the component
concerned and allow it to dry for up to
30 minutes. Then the primer is applied and
left to dry for about an hour before finally
applying the special coloured top coat. The
result is a correctly coloured component
where the paint will flex with the plastic or
rubber, a property that standard paint does
not normally possess.
Coolant level sensor
119 With the coolant level in the expansion
tank correct, switch on the ignition and then
pull the wiring plug from the sensor. “FAULT”
should be indicated on the check panel. If it is
not, then it is the panel which is faulty.
120 An ohmmeter should be used to check
for continuity, holding the float in both the full
and low level positions.
Engine oil level sensor
121 With the oil level correct, disconnect the
wiring plug from the dipstick, and then bridge
the plug terminals (not dipstick side) with a 12
ohm resistor. Switch on the ignition.
122 If the red light on the check panel goes
out, then the fault is due to the sensor.
123 If the light stays on, then it is the check
panel module which is faulty.
Door closure sensor
124 Any fault in the lock microswitch can best
be detected using an ohmmeter.
16 Suspension
Front anti-roll bar removal and refitting
™
1 A front anti-roll bar is fitted to the 1301 cc,
1372 cc ie and 1372 cc Turbo ie engined
models. Removal of the bar on all models is
Suspension strut - later models
6 The suspension strut upper mounting nuts
on later models also secure the brackets for
the mounting of ancillary components such as
the fuel filter, fuel system relays and fuses,
etc. (depending on model).
7 When removing the suspension strut units,
it will therefore be necessary to detach and
support these brackets and their fittings
(photo).
17 Bodywork
Plastic components
1 With the use of more and more plastic
body
components
by
the
vehicle
manufacturers (e.g. bumpers, spoilers, and in
some cases major body panels), rectification
of more serious damage to such items has
become a matter of either entrusting repair
work to a specialist in this field, or renewing
complete components. Repair of such
damage by the DIY owner is not really
feasible owing to the cost of the equipment
and materials required for effecting such
repairs. The basic technique involves making
a groove along the line of the crack in the
plastic using a rotary burr in a power drill. The
damaged part is then welded back together
Rear view mirrors
¡
Interior
3 The mirror is of safety type, “breaking” off
its ball fixing upon impact from a front seat
occupant.
4 To remove the mirror, grip the head and
13
13•112 Supplement: Revisions and information on later models
17.4 Interior mirror base
17.5 Interior mirror mounting plate
17.7A Exterior mirror trim plate
push it towards the windscreen; the ball
socket will release (photo).
5 Extract the screws from the mounting plate
(photo).
6 When refitting the mirror, engage the front
of the socket on the ball and then twist the
mirror rearwards and upwards.
models. This is simply secured by two
self-tapping screws (photo).
Exterior
Tailgate (Turbo ie model) component
removal and refitting
¡
17.8 Extracting the mirror balljoint screw
17.9 Door armrest
10 The tailgate on these models is of plastic
injection-moulded type, with a bonded
window glass.
11 Renewal of the glass or repair of the
tailgate should be entrusted to your FIAT
dealer or a specialist repairer, due to the need
for special products and techniques.
12 To remove the tailgate lock and handle,
open the tailgate and extract the lock handle
screws.
13 Prise off the link rod socket from the
ball-pin (photos). Unbolt and remove the
handle and lock.
14 A remote type of tailgate release is fitted,
with a control handle located by the driver’s
seat. Access to the handle can be obtained by
removing the seat and sill trim, and peeling
back the carpet.
15 If a new cable is to be fitted, disconnect it
from the tailgate latch, tape the new cable to
the old one, and draw it carefully around the
side panel and sill trim (photo).
16 To remove the tailgate wiper motor, first
take off the wiper arm and blade.
17 Extract the plastic clips and take
off the wiper motor protective cover.
Disconnect, unbolt, and remove the wiper
motor (photo).
17.13 Tailgate handle link rod (arrowed)
17.15 Tailgate release cable (arrowed)
17.17 Tailgate wiper motor
7 On models without remotely-controlled
type exterior mirrors, the ball-jointed mirror is
held in position by the two self-tapping
screws which secure the triangular trim plate
inside the car (photos).
8 To dismantle the mirror, extract the balljoint
fixing screw, but take care as considerable
force is exerted by the interior coil spring
(photo).
17.7B Withdrawing the exterior mirror
Door armrest
¡
9 A redesigned armrest is used on some
Supplement: Revisions and information on later models 13•113
17.19A Extracting a radiator grille screw
17.19B Prising down a radiator grille clip
18 Refitting of all components is a reversal of
removal.
bolts and captive nuts but to reach them, the
underwing shields must be released and
pulled away.
26 Disconnect the leads from the auxiliary
lamps which are mounted in the spoiler, and
then lift the bumper/spoiler from the car.
Radiator grille (1301 cc
Turbo ie model) removal and refitting
¡
19 The grille is secured by a central screw
and two upper clips. Use a screwdriver to
prise the tabs on the upper clips downwards
(photos).
20 Lift the grille upwards and forwards to
disengage its lower mountings (photo).
21 Refitting is a reversal of removal.
Radiator grille (1372 cc ie
and 1372 cc Turbo ie
models) - removal
and refitting
¡
17.20 Removing the radiator grille from a
1301 cc Turbo ie model
Refitting - front and rear
30 Refitting either front or rear bumpers is a
reversal of removal.
Rear hinged windows removal and refitting
™
27 Open the tailgate to provide access to the
bumper upper mounting screws.
28 Disconnect the leads from the rear
number plate lamp. Unscrew the lower
mounting nuts (photo).
29 Disconnect the bumper end fixings, which
are accessible under the rear wing edges
(photo).
31 These have toggle-type catches and
hinges bolted directly through the glass
(photo).
32 To remove the window glass, have an
assistant support it, and then unscrew the
cross-head hinge screws and the toggle catch
anchor plate screws. Lift the glass away. If the
toggle catch must be removed from the glass,
first drive out the handle pivot pin and then,
using a pin wrench or circlip pliers, unscrew
17.22 Radiator grille screw removal on a
1372 cc SX ie model
17.24 Front bumper upper mounting screw
(arrowed)
Removal - rear
22 The radiator grille on these models is
secured by screws at the top edge (photo).
Raise and support the bonnet. Undo the
retaining screws, then lift the grille clear.
23 Refit in the reverse order of removal.
Bumpers (1301 cc Turbo ie,
1372 cc ie and 1372 cc
Turbo ie models) removal and refitting
¡
Removal - front
24 Remove the radiator grille as previously
described, to provide access to the bumper
upper mounting screws (photo).
25 The ends of the bumpers are secured with
13
17.28 Rear bumper lower mounting nut
17.29 Unscrewing a bumper end fixing nut
17.31 Rear window toggle-type catch
13•114 Supplement: Revisions and information on later models
17.34A Armrest electric window switches
the ring nut which secures the handle to the
glass.
33 When refitting the screws or ring nut to
the glass, make sure that the insulating
washers are in good condition to prevent
metal-to-glass contact.
17.34B Disconnecting an electric window
regulator switch plug
Door trim panel
(Turbo ie model) removal and refitting
¡
34 The operations are similar to those
described in Chapter 12, Section 11, except
that electric windows are fitted instead of a
17.34C Door interior showing electric
window motor (arrowed)
conventional mechanical regulator and
handle. Before the trim panel can be
withdrawn, the window control switches
must be disconnected from the wiring plug,
and the plug fed through the panel aperture
(photos).
Wiring diagrams 14•1
Component key for wiring diagrams 1 to 29
Note: Not all the items listed will be fitted to all models
No
00200
00500
01001
01202
01203
01206
01207
01252
01253
01254
01255
01400
01401
01420
01500
01502
01504
02001
02010
02011
02012
02013
02015
02210
02215
02400
02405
02490
02492
03000
03002
03003
03004
03005
03006
03007
03008
03028
03029
03034
03035
03036
03053
03059
03060
03110
03114
03123
03142
03144
03145
03305
03306
Description
Alternator with built-in regulator
Battery
Starter motor
Rear front electric window motor
Left front electric window motor
Windscreen wiper motor
Rear screen wiper motor
Right front door locking motor
Left front door locking motor
Right rear door locking motor
Left rear door locking motor
Windscreen washer pump
Rear screen washer pump
Electric fuel pump
Engine cooling fan
Injector cooling fan
Ventilation fan
Engine cut-out solenoid on injection pump
Fuel injector
Fuel injector
Fuel injector
Fuel injector
Supplementary air valve
Accelerator pump outlet cut-out solenoid on
carburettor
Supplementary air valve
Ignition coil
Ignition coil with electronic control unit
Static advance ignition control unit
Microplex ignition system control unit
Insufficient engine oil pressure switch
Right front door ajar switch
Left front door ajar switch
Right rear door ajar switch
Left rear door ajar switch
Handbrake ‘on’ warning switch
Brake stop-lamp switch
Reversing light switch
Radiator thermostatic switch
Coolant overheating warning light thermostatic switch
Injector cooling fan thermostatic switch
Accelerator pump outlet cut-out solenoid thermostatic
switch
Radiator thermostatic switch with two operating ranges
Map reading light switch
Foglamps switch
Rear foglamp switch
Heated rear screen switch
Ventilation fan switch
Air pressure switch
Choke warning light switch
Reset switch
Display switch
Right front door open light push button
Left front door open light push button
No
03319
03500
03505
03506
03530
03531
03546
03550
04010
04022
04032
04214
04215
04225
04241
04260
04283
04291
04292
04441
04700
04701
04720
05008
05009
05013
05015
05016
05410
05411
05412
05413
05640
05690
05691
06000
06026
06076
06080
06084
06300
06305
06310
06311
06315
06320
06335
06336
06343
06344
06345
06350
Description
Horn push button
Ignition switch
Butterfly valve cut-off switch
Throttle position switch
Right front electric window switch
Left front electric window switch
Rear screen wash/wipe switch
Hazard warning lights switch
Steering column switch unit, direction indicators
Steering column switch unit, headlamps, main beam
and dipped, side lights
Steering column switch unit, windscreen wash/wipe
Fuel injection system control relay
Antiskid system failure relay
Radiator fan 2nd speed engagement relay feed
Foglamps relay feed
Electric windows motor relay feed
Antiskid system relay
Horn relay feed
Heated rear screen relay feed
Dim-dip cut-out 04600 Ignition distributor
Coolant temperature sender unit
Electronic injection coolant temperature sender unit
Oil pressure sender unit
Right headlamp, main beam and dipped with side light
Left headlamp, main beam and dipped with side light
Abnormal fuel consumption sensor
Right foglamp
Left foglamp
Right front direction indicator
Left front direction indicator
Right front side direction indicator
Left front side direction indicator
Rear number plate lamp
Right rear light cluster, sidelight, direction indicator,
brake light, rear foglamp
Left rear light cluster; side light, direction indicator,
brake light, rear foglamp
Centre courtesy light
Map reading light
Ideogram fibre optic light
Heater controls light
Instrument panel light
Sidelights warning light
Main beam headlamps warning light
Rear foglamps warning light
Foglamps warning light
Hazard warning lights warning light
Direction indicators warning light
Insufficient brake fluid level warning light
Handbrake ‘on’ warning light
Insufficient engine oil pressure warning light
Insufficient brake fluid level warning light
Fuel reserve warning light
Coolant overheating warning light
14
14•2 Wiring diagrams
Component key for wiring diagrams 1 to 29 (continued)
Note: Not all the items listed will be fitted to all models
No
06355
06365
06368
06385
06800
06801
06802
07000
07001
07003
07015
07016
07020
07021
07022
07023
07037
07050
07051
07052
07060
07107
07109
07191
07192
07400
07410
07415
07420
07430
07460
07461
Description
Battery charging warning light
Choke warning light
Antiskid system failure lamp
Heated rear screen warning light
Horn
Right horn
Left horn
Coolant level sensor
Engine oil level sensor
Brake fluid level sensor
Right front brake pad wear sensor
Left front brake pad wear sensor
Engine speed sensor
TDC sensor
Anti-knock sensor
Diagnostic socket
Butterfly valve (cut-off) switch
Fuel gauge
Instant fuel consumption gauge (econometer)
Airflow meter
Idle cut-off device
Roadwheel speed sensors
Vacuum switch
Absolute pressure sensor
Vacuum switch
Fuel gauge
Engine oil temperature gauge
Coolant temperature gauge
Engine oil pressure gauge
Tachometer
Clock
Digital clock
No
Description
08051 Ignition coil condenser
09000 Dim-dip transformer
09008 Radiator cooling fan 1st speed resistor
09100 Heated rear screen
10022 Cut-off device electronic control unit
10500 Control (fuse) box
10515 Electronic injection control unit
10571 Central locking control unit
10584 Antiskid system ECU
10586 Pressure modulators
59000 Cigar lighter
60000 Instrument panel
60204 Four place fusebox
70090 General earth
70091 General earth
70092 Earth plate
M Electronic control unit
Wire colour codes
A Light blue
B White
C Orange
G Yellow
H Grey
L Blue
M Brown
N Black
R Red
S Pink
V Green
Z Violet
Example of two-colour wire: BN (White/Black)
Wiring diagram 2 - starting, charging, oil pressure and low brake fluid
(Comfort and ES models)
Wiring diagrams 14•3
Wiring diagram 1 - starting, ignition, charging, oil pressure, low brake fluid,
choke warning light and handbrake “on” (S and SX models)
14
14•4 Wiring diagrams
Wiring diagram 3 - direction indicators, hazard warning lamps, brake stoplamps and horn (S and SX models)
Wiring diagram 4 - direction indicators, hazard warning lamps, brake stoplamps and horn (Comfort and ES)
Wiring diagram 6 - electronic ignition, fuel cut-off device and economy
gauge (ES models)
Wiring diagrams 14•5
Wiring diagram 5 - front parking lamps, rear number plate lamp and fuel
gauge (Comfort, ES, S and SX models)
14
14•6 Wiring diagrams
Wiring diagram 7 - headlamps, reversing lamps and front and rear foglamps
(SX model)
Wiring diagram 8 - headlamps, reversing lamps and rear foglamps (Comfort,
ES and S models)
Wiring diagram 10 - windscreen wash/wipe, radiator fan and coolant
temperature sensor (Comfort and ES models)
Wiring diagrams 14•7
Wiring diagram 9 - windscreen wash/wipe, radiator fan, coolant
temperature sensor, heated rear screen and instrument panel illumination
14
14•8 Wiring diagrams
Wiring diagram 11 - courtesy lamps, heater fan, heater illumination, cigar
lighter, digital clock and radio (S and SX models)
Wiring diagram 12 - courtesy lamps, heater fan and heater illumination
(Comfort and ES models)
Wiring diagram 14 - tachometer, digital clock, map reading lamp and
vacuum gauge (Comfort, ES, S and SX models)
Wiring diagrams 14•9
Wiring diagram 13 - heated rear screen and rear wash/wipe
(S and SX models)
14
14•10 Wiring diagrams
Wiring diagram 15 - central door locking and electric windows
(S and SX models)
Wiring diagram 16 - headlamp dim-dip system (1987-on models)
Wiring diagrams 14•11
14
Wiring diagram 17 - check panel (S and SX models)
14•12 Wiring diagrams
Wiring diagram 18 - check panel with trip master (SL model)
Wiring diagrams 14•13
Wiring diagram 19 - ignition and idle cut-out (later 45 models)
14
Wiring diagram 20 - ignition cut-off device, tachometer and accelerator pump cut-out (60 and 70 models)
14•14 Wiring diagrams
Wiring diagram 21 - starting, charging, Microplex ignition, LE-2 Jetronic fuel injection, fuel pump and fuel injector cooling fan
(1301 cc Turbo ie model)
Wiring diagram 23 - courtesy lamps, heater fan, heater illumination, cigar
lighter, digital clock, radio, low oil pressure lamp, oil pressure switch, oil
temperature gauge and tachometer (1301 cc Turbo ie model)
Wiring diagrams 14•15
Wiring diagram 22 - direction indicators, hazard warning lamps, brake stoplamps, horn and low brake fluid sensor (1301 cc Turbo ie model)
14
14•16 Wiring diagrams
Wiring diagram 24 - dipped headamps, headlamp main beam, foglamps
(front and rear) and reversing lamps (1301 cc Turbo ie model)
Wiring diagram 25 - front parking lamps, rear number plate lamp, fuel gauge
and low level warning lamp, and instrument panel illumination
(1301 cc Turbo ie model)
Wiring diagram 27 - electric windows (1301 cc Turbo ie model)
Wiring diagrams 14•17
Wiring diagram 26 - windscreen wash/wipe, radiator fan, heated rear
screen, instrument panel fibre optic, coolant temperature gauge and rear
screen wash/wipe (1301 cc Turbo ie model)
14
14•18 Wiring diagrams
Wiring diagram 28 - check panel (1301 cc Turbo ie model)
Wiring diagrams 14•19
14
Wiring diagram 29 - Antiskid braking system (1301 cc Turbo ie model - where fitted)
14•20 Wiring diagrams
Component key for wiring diagrams 30 to 52
Note: Not all the items listed will be fitted to all models
No
1
2
3
4
5
6
6A
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
Description
Injector cooling fan
Left front light cluster
Left foglamp
Left front engine compartment earth
Radiator cooling fan
Double contact thermostatic switch
on engine radiator
Thermostatic switch on engine
radiator
Left horn
Right horn
Resistor for engaging radiator fan 1st
speed
Right front light cluster
Right foglamp
Right front engine compartment earth
Battery
Ignition coil
Ignition distributor with magnetic
impulse generator
Left front side direction indicator
Ignition power module
MPi electronic injection control unit
Join between injection/ignition cables
in engine compartment
Battery cables join in engine
compartment
Antiskid braking system wiring join
Starting go-ahead relay
Earth for battery
Radiator coolant temperature sender
unit for electronic injection
Anti-knock sensor
Injection system diagnostic socket
Switch signalling insufficient engine
oil pressure
Radiator coolant temperature sender
unit
Engine oil temperature sender unit
Engine oil pressure sender unit
Right front side direction indicator
Engine oil temperature sender unit
cable join
Battery recharging signal cable join
Windscreen washer pump
Rear screen washer pump
Reversing switch
Fuel injectors relay feed
Insufficient brake fluid level sensor
Left brake pad wear sensor
Microplex electronic ignition control
unit
Injection cables join in engine
compartment
Ignition cables join in engine
compartment
Join between battery cable and
injection cables
Join between engine cable and
battery cables
Left front brake pad cables join
Starter motor
No
47
48
49
50
51
52
53
54
55
56
57
58
59
60
61
62
63
64
65
66
67
68
69
70
71
72
73
74
75
76
77
78
79
80
81
82
83
84
85
86
87
88
89
90
91
Description
Windscreen wiper motor
Headlamp washer pump
Fuel injector
Fuel injector
Fuel injector
Fuel injector
Supplementary air valve
Spark plug
Spark plug
Spark plug
Spark plug
Excess supercharging pressure
switch
Throttle position switch
Engine speed sensor
Ignition diagnostic socket
Connector block
Connector block
Alternator
Thermostatic switch for injector
cooling fan
Right brake pad wear sensor
TDC sensor
Connector block
Connector block
Connector block
Connector block
Join with right brake pad cables
Electronic earth
Power earth
Brake stop-lamp switch
20 A fuse for central locking
10 A fuse for electric fuel pump
30 A fuse for radiator cooling fan
30 A fuse for electric windows
10 A fuse for injector cooling fan
20 A fuse for headlamp
wash/wipe
20 A fuse for foglamps
Junction box with fuses and relays:
E1 Horn relay (for single tone horns
bridge between 86 and 87)
E2 Heated rear screen relay
E3 Heater (bridge between 85 and 30)
Join between front cable and rear
cables
Join between front cable and door
ajar sensor cables
Earth on dashboard, left hand side
Earth on dashboard, right hand
side
Choke warning light switch
Ignition switch
Hazard warning lights switch
Steering column switch unit
A Rear screen wash/wipe switch
B Horn button
C Direction indicators switch
D Windscreen wiper intermittent
speed selector switch
E Windscreen/headlamp washer
control switch
No
92
93
94
95
96
97
98
99
100
101
102
103
104
105
106
107
108
109
110
Description
F Rear foglamps/headlamp washer
intermittent device switch
G Headlamp dip switch
H External lights switch
I Flasher switch
Foglamp relay
Electric fuel pump relay
Electric windows relay feed
Headlamp wash/wipe intermittent
device
Direction indicators/hazard warning
lights flasher unit
Central locking receiver
Central locking control unit
Join with brake pad cables
Join between engine cable and
dashboard cables
Automatic heater cable join
Instrument panel
A Foglamps warning light
B Main beam headlamps warning
light
C Side lights warning light
D Rear foglamps warning light
E Heated rear screen warning light
F Hazard warning lights warning
light
G Direction indicators warning light
H Handbrake applied and insufficient
brake fluid level warning light
I Choke warning light
K Instrument panel light bulbs
L Battery recharging warning light
M Insufficient engine oil pressure
warning light
O Antiskid braking system failure
warning light
P Maximum turbocharging pressure
warning light
Q Brake pad wear warning light
R Door ajar warning light
U Fuel level gauge
V Engine oil pressure gauge
W Engine oil temperature gauge
Y Tachometer
Z Coolant temperature gauge
Join with remote control central
locking cables
Cigar lighter
Radio receiver
Heater unit
Switch unit
A Heated rear screen switch
B Rear foglamps switch
C Switch unit light bulb
D Rear screen wiper switch
E Foglamps switch
F Clock
Left front electric window motor
Left front central locking geared
motor
Switch signalling left front door ajar
Wiring diagrams 14•21
Component key for wiring diagrams 30 to 52 (continued)
Note: Not all the items listed will be fitted to all models
No Description
111 Push button on left front pillar for
centre courtesy light
112 Front electric windows switch panel,
driver’s side
113 Join between dashboard cable and
adjustable map reading light cables
114 Join with left front electric window
cables
115 Join between dashboard cable and
rear cables
116 Join between rear cable and courtesy
light cables
117 Left front speaker
118 Handbrake ‘on’ switch
119 Centre courtesy light bulb
119A Adjustable map reading light on rear
view mirror
120 Right front electric window motor
121 Right front central locking geared
motor
122 Switch signalling right front door ajar
123 Push button on right front pillar for
centre courtesy light
124 Electric windows control panel,
passenger side
125 Fuel level gauge
126 Join with right front electric window
cables
127 Join between engine cable and
dashboard cables
128 Right front speaker
129 Left rear light cluster
130 Join between rear cable and luggage
compartment courtesy light
131 Windscreen washer pump wiring join
132 Rear screen washer pump wiring join
133 Left rear earth
134 Rear screen wiper motor
135 Electric fuel pump
136 Rear number plate lamp
137 Heated rear screen
138 Right rear light cluster
139 Rear foglamp go-ahead switch
140 Join between front cable and antiskid
brakes cables
141 Join between front cable and antiskid
brakes cables
142 25 A fuse for antiskid brakes
143 Antiskid braking system control unit
144 Left modulator for antiskid brakes
145 Right modulator for antiskid brakes
146 Sensor on left front wheel
147 Sensor on right front wheel
148 10A fuse for antiskid braking system
149 Vacuum switch for antiskid braking
system
150 Antiskid braking system engagement
relay
151 Antiskid braking system failure
signalling switch
152 Digiplex electronic ignition control
unit
No Description
153 Bosch SPi Mono-Jetronic injection
system control unit
155 Join between engine cable and
injection cables
156 Join between engine cable and rear
cables for SPi system
157 Idle adjustment actuator
158 Throttle position switch
159 Injector current restriction resistor
(SPi)
162 Engine cut-out solenoid
163 Idle cut-out solenoid valve
168 Tachometer electro-magnetic sensor
169 Automatic heater control unit
170 Heater fan
171 Outside temperature sensor
172 Mixed air temperature sensor
173 Air mixture flap electrical control
motor
174 Diagnostic socket for automatic
heater
175 Connector block
176 Connector block
177 Join with cables for automatic heater
178 Radiator coolant circulation solenoid
valve
179 Automatic heater unit:
A Temperature control potentiometer
B Fan speed control potentiometer
C Heater controls light bulbs
D Ideogram signalling automatic
function engaged
E Automatic function engaged
switch
180 Horn
181 Check Panel:
A Insufficient engine oil level warning
light
B Insufficient coolant level warning
light
C Failure with side lights/rear
foglamp/rear number
plate light/braking lights warning light
D Insufficient brake fluid level
warning light
E Door ajar warning light
F Brake pad wear warning light
182 Earth on dashboard
183 Join with cables for central locking
184 Join with cables for central locking
185 Left rear central locking geared motor
186 Right rear central locking geared
motor
187 Contact on choke lever
188 Resistor for inlet manifold heating
189 Pre-heating thermal switch
191 Heated Lambda sensor
192 Lambda sensor protective fuse
193 Silicon diode
194 Join between front cable and injection
cable
197 Connector block
No
198
199
200
201
202
203
204
205
206
207
208
209
210
211
212
213
214
215
216
217
218
219
220
225
226
227
228
229
230
231
232
233
234
235
236
237
Description
Rear cable join
Insufficient engine oil level sensor
Insufficient coolant level sensor
Switch signalling left rear door ajar
Switch signalling right rear door ajar
Switch on gear selector
Light for gear selector panel signalling
gear engaged
Parking signal not on
Connector block
Join in engine compartment with
injection cables
Petrol vapour cut out-solenoid valve
Petrol vapour cut out-solenoid valve
Airflow meter
Speedometer relay
LE2 Jetronic electronic injection
control unit
Connector block
Connector block
Connector block
Ignition cable join
Join between front cable and
emission control cable
Join between front cable and battery
cable
Injection system air temperature
sensor
Ignition control unit relay feed
Front cable join
Front cable join
Dim-dip circuit cut out switch
Dim-dip circuit resistance
Dim-dip circuit 7.5 A protective fuse
Driver’s side seat heated pad
Driver’s seat backrest heated pad
10 A protective fuse for driver’s seat
heated pads
Foglamps go-ahead switch
Driving lights cut out switch
Dipped headlamps relay
Main beam headlamps relay
Join between engine cable and
dashboard cables
Wire colour codes
A
Light blue
B
White
C
Orange
G
Yellow
H
Grey
L
Blue
M
Brown
N
Black
R
Red
S
Pink
V
Green
Z
Violet
Example of two-colour wire:
BN (White/Black)
14
14•22 Wiring diagrams
* To the rev counter (only for the 999 SX – 1108 SX)
** Non-existent for the 903
Wiring diagram 30 - starting, charging, ignition, low oil pressure and choke warning lamps (1990-on 45, and 55 models)
Wiring diagrams 14•23
* To the rev counter
Wiring diagram 31 - starting, charging, Digiplex 2 ignition, SPi fuel injection, fuel pump and low oil pressure
(1990-on 70 SX and 1.4 models)
14
14•24 Wiring diagrams
* To the rev counter
** Only for the 1372 Turbo with A.B.S. (AP)
Wiring diagram 32 - starting, charging, Microplex ignition, MPi fuel injection, fuel pump and low oil pressure
(1372 cc Turbo ie model)
Wiring diagrams 14•25
* Only for 1372 S ie – 1372 SX ie
Wiring diagram 33 - parking lamps, main/dipped headlamps, headlamp flasher and rear number plate lamp
(1990-on 45, 55, 70 and 1.4 models)
14
14•26 Wiring diagrams
* Only for 1116 S (CTX) and 1372 (CTX) versions
** Only for 1116 S (CTX) and 1372 Turbo ie versions
Wiring diagram 34 - parking lamps, main/dipped headlamps, headlamp flasher and rear number plate lamp
(1372 cc Turbo ie models)
Wiring diagrams 14•27
14
Wiring diagram 35 - direction indicators, hazard warning lamps, reversing lamps and brake stop-lamps
(1990-on 45, 55, 70 and 1.4 models)
14•28 Wiring diagrams
Wiring diagram 36 - direction indicators, hazard warning lamps, reversing lamps and brake stop-lamps
(1372 cc Turbo ie model)
Wiring diagrams 14•29
14
Wiring diagram 37 - rear foglamps (1990-on 45 and 55 models)
14•30 Wiring diagrams
Wiring diagram 38 - front and rear foglamps (1990-on 70 SX and 1.4 models)
Wiring diagrams 14•31
14
Wiring diagram 39 - front and rear foglamps (1372 cc Turbo ie model)
14•32 Wiring diagrams
Wiring diagram 40 - courtesy lamps and instrument panel lamps (1990-on 45, 55, 70 and 1.4 models)
Wiring diagrams 14•33
14
Wiring diagram 41 - courtesy lamps and instrument panel lamps (1372 cc Turbo ie model)
14•34 Wiring diagrams
Wiring diagram 42 - horns, heated rear screen and windscreen/rear screen wash/wipe (1990-on 45 and 55 models)
Wiring diagrams 14•35
14
Wiring diagram 43 - horns, heated rear screen and windscreen/rear screen wash/wipe (1990-on 70 SX and 1.4 models)
14•36 Wiring diagrams
Wiring diagram 44 - horns, heated rear screen, windscreen/rear screen wash/wipe and headlamp wash/wipe
(1372 cc Turbo ie model)
Wiring diagrams 14•37
14
Wiring diagram 45 - radiator cooling fan, heater, radio and cigar lighter (1990-on 45, 55, 70 and 1.4 models)
14•38 Wiring diagrams
Wiring diagram 46 - radiator cooling fan, heater, radio and cigar lighter (1372 cc Turbo ie model)
Wiring diagrams 14•39
*Only for 1372 S ie – 1372 SX ie – 1697 D
** Only for D versions
s Only for SX versions
14
Wiring diagram 47 - fuel gauge, tachometer, digital clock, brake fluid and handbrake warning lamp
(1990-on 45, 55, 70 and 1.4 models)
14•40 Wiring diagrams
Wiring diagram 48 - fuel gauge, tachometer, digital clock, brake fluid level sensor, handbrake-on switch, brake pad wear sensor,
door ajar switch and oil pressure/temperature sender units (1372 cc Turbo ie model)
Wiring diagrams 14•41
14
Wiring diagram 49 - electric windows and central locking (1990-on 3-door models)
14•42 Wiring diagrams
Wiring diagram 50 - electric windows and central locking (1990-on 5-door models)
Wiring diagrams 14•43
14
Wiring diagram 51 - Antiskid braking system (1372 cc Turbo ie model - where fitted)
14•44 Wiring diagrams
Wiring diagram 52 - check panel (1990-on 5-door models (3-door similar)
MOT Test Checks
REF•1
This is a guide to getting your vehicle through the MOT test.
Obviously it will not be possible to examine the vehicle to the same
standard as the professional MOT tester. However, working through
the following checks will enable you to identify any problem areas
before submitting the vehicle for the test.
Where a testable component is in borderline condition, the tester
has discretion in deciding whether to pass or fail it. The basis of such
discretion is whether the tester would be happy for a close relative or
friend to use the vehicle with the component in that condition. If the
vehicle presented is clean and evidently well cared for, the tester may
be more inclined to pass a borderline component than if the vehicle is
scruffy and apparently neglected.
It has only been possible to summarise the test requirements here,
based on the regulations in force at the time of printing. Test standards
are becoming increasingly stringent, although there are some
exemptions for older vehicles. For full details obtain a copy of the Haynes
publication Pass the MOT! (available from stockists of Haynes manuals).
An assistant will be needed to help carry out some of these checks.
The checks have been sub-divided into four categories, as follows:
1
1
Checks carried out
FROM THE DRIVER’S
SEAT
2
Checks carried out
WITH THE VEHICLE
ON THE GROUND
3
Checks carried out
WITH THE VEHICLE
RAISED AND THE
WHEELS FREE TO
TURN
4
Checks carried out on
YOUR VEHICLE’S
EXHAUST EMISSION
SYSTEM
Checks carried out
FROM THE DRIVER’S SEAT
Handbrake
M Test the operation of the handbrake.
Excessive travel (too many clicks) indicates
incorrect brake or cable adjustment.
M Check that the handbrake cannot be
released by tapping the lever sideways. Check
the security of the lever mountings.
M Check that the brake pedal is secure and in
good condition. Check also for signs of fluid
leaks on the pedal, floor or carpets, which
would indicate failed seals in the brake master
cylinder.
M Check the servo unit (when applicable) by
operating the brake pedal several times, then
keeping the pedal depressed and starting the
engine. As the engine starts, the pedal will
move down slightly. If not, the vacuum hose or
the servo itself may be faulty.
Footbrake
M Depress the brake pedal and check that it
does not creep down to the floor, indicating a
master cylinder fault. Release the pedal, wait
a few seconds, then depress it again. If the
pedal travels nearly to the floor before firm
resistance is felt, brake adjustment or repair is
necessary. If the pedal feels spongy, there is
air in the hydraulic system which must be
removed by bleeding.
movement of the steering wheel, indicating
wear in the column support bearings or
couplings.
Windscreen and mirrors
M The windscreen must be free of cracks or
other significant damage within the driver’s
field of view. (Small stone chips are
acceptable.) Rear view mirrors must be
secure, intact, and capable of being adjusted.
Steering wheel and column
M Examine the steering wheel for fractures or
looseness of the hub, spokes or rim.
M Move the steering wheel from side to side
and then up and down. Check that the
steering wheel is not loose on the column,
indicating wear or a loose retaining nut.
Continue moving the steering wheel as before,
but also turn it slightly from left to right.
M Check that the steering wheel is not loose
on the column, and that there is no abnormal
REF
REF•2
MOT Test Checks
Electrical equipment
M Switch on the ignition and check the
operation of the horn.
M Check the windscreen washers and wipers,
examining the wiper blades; renew damaged
or perished blades. Also check the operation
of the stop-lights.
M Inspect both front brake flexible hoses for
cracks or deterioration of the rubber. Turn the
steering from lock to lock, and ensure that the
hoses do not contact the wheel, tyre, or any
part of the steering or suspension mechanism.
With the brake pedal firmly depressed, check
the hoses for bulges or leaks under pressure.
Seat belts and seats
Note: The following checks are applicable to
all seat belts, front and rear.
M Examine the webbing of all the belts
(including rear belts if fitted) for cuts, serious
fraying or deterioration. Fasten and unfasten
each belt to check the buckles. If applicable,
check the retracting mechanism. Check the
security of all seat belt mountings accessible
from inside the vehicle.
M The front seats themselves must be
securely attached and the backrests must
lock in the upright position.
Doors
M Both front doors must be able to be opened
and closed from outside and inside, and must
latch securely when closed.
2
Checks carried out
WITH THE VEHICLE ON THE
GROUND
Vehicle identification
M Number plates must be in good condition,
secure and legible, with letters and numbers
correctly spaced – spacing at (A) should be
twice that at (B).
M Check the operation of the sidelights and
number plate lights. The lenses and reflectors
must be secure, clean and undamaged.
M Check the operation and alignment of the
headlights. The headlight reflectors must not
be tarnished and the lenses must be
undamaged.
M Switch on the ignition and check the
operation of the direction indicators (including
the instrument panel tell-tale) and the hazard
warning lights. Operation of the sidelights and
stop-lights must not affect the indicators - if it
does, the cause is usually a bad earth at the
rear light cluster.
M Check the operation of the rear foglight(s),
including the warning light on the instrument
panel or in the switch.
Footbrake
M Examine the master cylinder, brake pipes
and servo unit for leaks, loose mountings,
corrosion or other damage.
Steering and suspension
M Have your assistant turn the steering wheel
from side to side slightly, up to the point where
the steering gear just begins to transmit this
movement to the roadwheels. Check for
excessive free play between the steering
wheel and the steering gear, indicating wear or
insecurity of the steering column joints, the
column-to-steering gear coupling, or the
steering gear itself.
M Have your assistant turn the steering wheel
more vigorously in each direction, so that the
roadwheels just begin to turn. As this is done,
examine all the steering joints, linkages,
fittings and attachments. Renew any
component that shows signs of wear or
damage. On vehicles with power steering,
check the security and condition of the
steering pump, drivebelt and hoses.
M Check that the vehicle is standing level,
and at approximately the correct ride height.
Shock absorbers
M Depress each corner of the vehicle in turn,
then release it. The vehicle should rise and
then settle in its normal position. If the vehicle
continues to rise and fall, the shock absorber
is defective. A shock absorber which has
seized will also cause the vehicle to fail.
M The VIN plate and/or homologation plate
must be legible.
M The fluid reservoir must be secure and the
fluid level must be between the upper (A) and
lower (B) markings.
MOT Test Checks
Exhaust system
M Start the engine. With your assistant
holding a rag over the tailpipe, check the
entire system for leaks. Repair or renew
leaking sections.
Front and rear suspension and
wheel bearings
M Starting at the front right-hand side, grasp
the roadwheel at the 3 o’clock and 9 o’clock
positions and shake it vigorously. Check for
free play or insecurity at the wheel bearings,
suspension balljoints, or suspension mountings, pivots and attachments.
M Now grasp the wheel at the 12 o’clock and
6 o’clock positions and repeat the previous
inspection. Spin the wheel, and check for
roughness or tightness of the front wheel
bearing.
REF•3
M The same general checks apply to vehicles
fitted with other suspension types, such as
torsion bars, hydraulic displacer units, etc.
Ensure that all mountings and attachments are
secure, that there are no signs of excessive
wear, corrosion or damage, and (on hydraulic
types) that there are no fluid leaks or damaged
pipes.
M Inspect the shock absorbers for signs of
serious fluid leakage. Check for wear of the
mounting bushes or attachments, or damage
to the body of the unit.
Driveshafts
(fwd vehicles only)
M Rotate each front wheel in turn and inspect
the constant velocity joint gaiters for splits or
damage. Also check that each driveshaft is
straight and undamaged.
3
Checks carried out
WITH THE VEHICLE RAISED
AND THE WHEELS FREE TO
TURN
Jack up the front and rear of the vehicle,
and securely support it on axle stands.
Position the stands clear of the suspension
assemblies. Ensure that the wheels are
clear of the ground and that the steering
can be turned from lock to lock.
Steering mechanism
M Have your assistant turn the steering from
lock to lock. Check that the steering turns
smoothly, and that no part of the steering
mechanism, including a wheel or tyre, fouls
any brake hose or pipe or any part of the body
structure.
M Examine the steering rack rubber gaiters
for damage or insecurity of the retaining clips.
If power steering is fitted, check for signs of
damage or leakage of the fluid hoses, pipes or
connections. Also check for excessive
stiffness or binding of the steering, a missing
split pin or locking device, or severe corrosion
of the body structure within 30 cm of any
steering component attachment point.
M If excess free play is suspected at a
component pivot point, this can be confirmed
by using a large screwdriver or similar tool and
levering between the mounting and the
component attachment. This will confirm
whether the wear is in the pivot bush, its
retaining bolt, or in the mounting itself (the bolt
holes can often become elongated).
Braking system
M If possible without dismantling, check
brake pad wear and disc condition. Ensure
that the friction lining material has not worn
excessively, (A) and that the discs are not
fractured, pitted, scored or badly worn (B).
M Carry out all the above checks at the other
front wheel, and then at both rear wheels.
Springs and shock absorbers
M Examine the suspension struts (when
applicable) for serious fluid leakage, corrosion,
or damage to the casing. Also check the
security of the mounting points.
M If coil springs are fitted, check that the
spring ends locate in their seats, and that the
spring is not corroded, cracked or broken.
M If leaf springs are fitted, check that all
leaves are intact, that the axle is securely
attached to each spring, and that there is no
deterioration of the spring eye mountings,
bushes, and shackles.
M Examine all the rigid brake pipes
underneath the vehicle, and the flexible
hose(s) at the rear. Look for corrosion, chafing
or insecurity of the pipes, and for signs of
bulging under pressure, chafing, splits or
deterioration of the flexible hoses.
M Look for signs of fluid leaks at the brake
calipers or on the brake backplates. Repair or
renew leaking components.
M Slowly spin each wheel, while your
assistant depresses and releases the
footbrake. Ensure that each brake is operating
and does not bind when the pedal is released.
REF
REF•4
MOT Test Checks
M Examine the handbrake mechanism,
checking for frayed or broken cables,
excessive corrosion, or wear or insecurity of
the linkage. Check that the mechanism works
on each relevant wheel, and releases fully,
without binding.
M It is not possible to test brake efficiency
without special equipment, but a road test can
be carried out later to check that the vehicle
pulls up in a straight line.
Fuel and exhaust systems
M Inspect the fuel tank (including the filler
cap), fuel pipes, hoses and unions. All
components must be secure and free from
leaks.
M Examine the exhaust system over its entire
length, checking for any damaged, broken or
missing mountings, security of the retaining
clamps and rust or corrosion.
properly seated, and that the wheel is not
distorted or damaged.
M Check that the tyres are of the correct size
for the vehicle, that they are of the same size
and type on each axle, and that the pressures
are correct.
M Check the tyre tread depth. The legal
minimum at the time of writing is 1.6 mm over
at least three-quarters of the tread width.
Abnormal tread wear may indicate incorrect
front wheel alignment.
Body corrosion
M Check the condition of the entire vehicle
structure for signs of corrosion in load-bearing
areas. (These include chassis box sections,
side sills, cross-members, pillars, and all
suspension, steering, braking system and
seat belt mountings and anchorages.) Any
corrosion which has seriously reduced the
thickness of a load-bearing area is likely to
cause the vehicle to fail. In this case
professional repairs are likely to be needed.
M Damage or corrosion which causes sharp
or otherwise dangerous edges to be exposed
will also cause the vehicle to fail.
4
Checks carried out on
YOUR VEHICLE’S EXHAUST
EMISSION SYSTEM
Petrol models
Wheels and tyres
M Examine the sidewalls and tread area of
each tyre in turn. Check for cuts, tears, lumps,
bulges, separation of the tread, and exposure
of the ply or cord due to wear or damage.
Check that the tyre bead is correctly seated
on the wheel rim, that the valve is sound and
M Have the engine at normal operating
temperature, and make sure that it is in good
tune (ignition system in good order, air filter
element clean, etc).
M Before any measurements are carried out,
raise the engine speed to around 2500 rpm,
and hold it at this speed for 20 seconds. Allow
the engine speed to return to idle, and watch
for smoke emissions from the exhaust
tailpipe. If the idle speed is obviously much
too high, or if dense blue or clearly-visible
black smoke comes from the tailpipe for more
than 5 seconds, the vehicle will fail. As a rule
of thumb, blue smoke signifies oil being burnt
(engine wear) while black smoke signifies
unburnt fuel (dirty air cleaner element, or other
carburettor or fuel system fault).
M An exhaust gas analyser capable of
measuring carbon monoxide (CO) and
hydrocarbons (HC) is now needed. If such an
instrument cannot be hired or borrowed, a
local garage may agree to perform the check
for a small fee.
CO emissions (mixture)
M At the time of writing, the maximum CO
level at idle is 3.5% for vehicles first used after
August 1986 and 4.5% for older vehicles.
From January 1996 a much tighter limit
(around 0.5%) applies to catalyst-equipped
vehicles first used from August 1992. If the
CO level cannot be reduced far enough to
pass the test (and the fuel and ignition
systems are otherwise in good condition) then
the carburettor is badly worn, or there is some
problem in the fuel injection system or
catalytic converter (as applicable).
HC emissions
M With the CO emissions within limits, HC
emissions must be no more than 1200 ppm
(parts per million). If the vehicle fails this test
at idle, it can be re-tested at around 2000 rpm;
if the HC level is then 1200 ppm or less, this
counts as a pass.
M Excessive HC emissions can be caused by
oil being burnt, but they are more likely to be
due to unburnt fuel.
Diesel models
M The only emission test applicable to Diesel
engines is the measuring of exhaust smoke
density. The test involves accelerating the
engine several times to its maximum
unloaded speed.
Note: It is of the utmost importance that the
engine timing belt is in good condition before
the test is carried out.
M Excessive smoke can be caused by a dirty
air cleaner element. Otherwise, professional
advice may be needed to find the cause.
Tools and Working Facilities
Introduction
A selection of good tools is a fundamental
requirement for anyone contemplating the
maintenance and repair of a motor vehicle.
For the owner who does not possess any,
their purchase will prove a considerable
expense, offsetting some of the savings made
by doing-it-yourself. However, provided that
the tools purchased meet the relevant national
safety standards and are of good quality, they
will last for many years and prove an
extremely worthwhile investment.
To help the average owner to decide which
tools are needed to carry out the various tasks
detailed in this manual, we have compiled
three lists of tools under the following
headings: Maintenance and minor repair,
Repair and overhaul, and Special. Newcomers
to practical mechanics should start off with
the Maintenance and minor repair tool kit, and
confine themselves to the simpler jobs around
the vehicle. Then, as confidence and
experience grow, more difficult tasks can be
undertaken, with extra tools being purchased
as, and when, they are needed. In this way, a
Maintenance and minor repair tool kit can be
built up into a Repair and overhaul tool kit over
a considerable period of time, without any
major cash outlays. The experienced do-ityourselfer will have a tool kit good enough for
most repair and overhaul procedures, and will
add tools from the Special category when it is
felt that the expense is justified by the amount
of use to which these tools will be put.
Maintenance and minor repair
tool kit
The tools given in this list should be
considered as a minimum requirement if
routine maintenance, servicing and minor
repair operations are to be undertaken. We
recommend the purchase of combination
spanners (ring one end, open-ended the
other); although more expensive than openended ones, they do give the advantages of
both types of spanner.
M Combination spanners: 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13,
14, 15, 16, 17, 19, 21, 22, 24 & 26 mm
M Adjustable spanner - 35 mm jaw (approx)
M Set of feeler gauges
M Spark plug spanner (with rubber insert)
M Spark plug gap adjustment tool
M Brake bleed nipple spanner
M Screwdrivers: Flat blade and cross blade –
approx 100 mm long x 6 mm dia
M Combination pliers
M Hacksaw (junior)
M Tyre pump
M Tyre pressure gauge
M Oil can
M Oil filter removal tool
M Fine emery cloth
M Wire brush (small)
M Funnel (medium size)
Repair and overhaul tool kit
These tools are virtually essential for
anyone undertaking any major repairs to a
motor vehicle, and are additional to those
given in the Maintenance and minor repair list.
Included in this list is a comprehensive set of
sockets. Although these are expensive, they
will be found invaluable as they are so
versatile - particularly if various drives are
included in the set. We recommend the halfinch square-drive type, as this can be used
with most proprietary torque wrenches. If you
cannot afford a socket set, even bought
piecemeal, then inexpensive tubular box
spanners are a useful alternative.
The tools in this list will occasionally need
to be supplemented by tools from the Special
list:
M Sockets (or box spanners) to cover range in
previous list
M Reversible ratchet drive (for use with
sockets) (see illustration)
M Extension piece, 250 mm (for use with
sockets)
M Universal joint (for use with sockets)
M Torque wrench (for use with sockets)
M Self-locking grips
M Ball pein hammer
M Soft-faced mallet (plastic/aluminium or
rubber)
M Screwdrivers:
Flat blade - long & sturdy, short (chubby),
and narrow (electrician’s) types
Cross blade - Long & sturdy, and short
(chubby) types
M Pliers:
Long-nosed
Side cutters (electrician’s)
Circlip (internal and external)
M Cold chisel - 25 mm
M Scriber
M Scraper
M
M
M
M
M
M
M
M
M
M
M
M
M
REF•5
Centre-punch
Pin punch
Hacksaw
Brake hose clamp
Brake bleeding kit
Selection of twist drills
Steel rule/straight-edge
Allen keys
Selection of files
Wire brush
Axle stands
Jack (strong trolley or hydraulic type)
Light with extension lead
Special tools
The tools in this list are those which are not
used regularly, are expensive to buy, or which
need to be used in accordance with their
manufacturers’ instructions. Unless relatively
difficult mechanical jobs are undertaken
frequently, it will not be economic to buy
many of these tools. Where this is the case,
you could consider clubbing together with
friends (or joining a motorists’ club) to make a
joint purchase, or borrowing the tools against
a deposit from a local garage or tool hire
specialist. It is worth noting that many of the
larger DIY superstores now carry a large
range of special tools for hire at modest rates.
The following list contains only those tools
and instruments freely available to the public,
and not those special tools produced by the
vehicle manufacturer specifically for its dealer
network. You will find occasional references
to these manufacturers’ special tools in the
text of this manual. Generally, an alternative
method of doing the job without the vehicle
manufacturers’ special tool is given. However,
sometimes there is no alternative to using
them. Where this is the case and the relevant
tool cannot be bought or borrowed, you will
have to entrust the work to a franchised
garage.
M Valve spring compressor (see illustration)
M Valve grinding tool
M Piston ring compressor (see illustration)
M Piston ring removal/installation tool (see
illustration)
M Cylinder bore hone (see illustration)
M Balljoint separator
M Coil spring compressors (where applicable)
M Two/three-legged hub and bearing puller
(see illustration)
REF
REF•6
Tools and Working Facilities
Sockets and reversible ratchet drive
Valve spring compressor
Piston ring compressor
Piston ring removal/installation tool
Cylinder bore hone
Three-legged hub and bearing puller
Micrometer set
Vernier calipers
Dial test indicator and magnetic stand
Compression testing gauge
Clutch plate alignment set
Brake shoe steady spring cup removal tool
Tools and Working Facilities
M Impact screwdriver
M Micrometer and/or vernier calipers (see
illustrations)
M Dial gauge (see illustration)
M Universal electrical multi-meter
M Cylinder compression gauge
(see illustration)
M Clutch plate alignment set (see
illustration)
M Brake shoe steady spring cup removal tool
(see illustration)
M Bush and bearing removal/installation set
(see illustration)
M Stud extractors (see illustration)
M Tap and die set (see illustration)
M Lifting tackle
M Trolley jack
Buying tools
For practically all tools, a tool factor is the
best source, since he will have a very
comprehensive range compared with the
average garage or accessory shop. Having
said that, accessory shops often offer
excellent quality tools at discount prices, so it
pays to shop around.
Remember, you don’t have to buy the most
expensive items on the shelf, but it is always
advisable to steer clear of the very cheap
tools. There are plenty of good tools around at
Bush and bearing removal/installation set
reasonable prices, but always aim to
purchase items which meet the relevant
national safety standards. If in doubt, ask the
proprietor or manager of the shop for advice
before making a purchase.
Care and maintenance of tools
Having purchased a reasonable tool kit, it is
necessary to keep the tools in a clean and
serviceable condition. After use, always wipe
off any dirt, grease and metal particles using a
clean, dry cloth, before putting the tools away.
Never leave them lying around after they have
been used. A simple tool rack on the garage
or workshop wall for items such as
screwdrivers and pliers is a good idea. Store
all normal spanners and sockets in a metal
box. Any measuring instruments, gauges,
meters, etc, must be carefully stored where
they cannot be damaged or become rusty.
Take a little care when tools are used.
Hammer heads inevitably become marked,
and screwdrivers lose the keen edge on their
blades from time to time. A little timely
attention with emery cloth or a file will soon
restore items like this to a good serviceable
finish.
Working facilities
Not to be forgotten when discussing tools
Stud extractor set
REF•7
is the workshop itself. If anything more than
routine maintenance is to be carried out,
some form of suitable working area becomes
essential.
It is appreciated that many an ownermechanic is forced by circumstances to
remove an engine or similar item without the
benefit of a garage or workshop. Having done
this, any repairs should always be done under
the cover of a roof.
Wherever possible, any dismantling should
be done on a clean, flat workbench or table at
a suitable working height.
Any workbench needs a vice; one with a
jaw opening of 100 mm is suitable for most
jobs. As mentioned previously, some clean
dry storage space is also required for tools, as
well as for any lubricants, cleaning fluids,
touch-up paints and so on, which become
necessary.
Another item which may be required, and
which has a much more general usage, is an
electric drill with a chuck capacity of at least 8
mm. This, together with a good range of twist
drills, is virtually essential for fitting
accessories.
Last, but not least, always keep a supply of
old newspapers and clean, lint-free rags
available, and try to keep any working area as
clean as possible.
Tap and die set
REF
REF•8
General Repair Procedures
Whenever servicing, repair or overhaul work
is carried out on the car or its components,
observe the following procedures and
instructions. This will assist in carrying out the
operation efficiently and to a professional
standard of workmanship.
Joint mating faces and gaskets
When separating components at their
mating faces, never insert screwdrivers or
similar implements into the joint between the
faces in order to prise them apart. This can
cause severe damage which results in oil
leaks, coolant leaks, etc upon reassembly.
Separation is usually achieved by tapping
along the joint with a soft-faced hammer in
order to break the seal. However, note that
this method may not be suitable where
dowels are used for component location.
Where a gasket is used between the mating
faces of two components, a new one must be
fitted on reassembly; fit it dry unless otherwise
stated in the repair procedure. Make sure that
the mating faces are clean and dry, with all
traces of old gasket removed. When cleaning a
joint face, use a tool which is unlikely to score
or damage the face, and remove any burrs or
nicks with an oilstone or fine file.
Make sure that tapped holes are cleaned
with a pipe cleaner, and keep them free of
jointing compound, if this is being used,
unless specifically instructed otherwise.
Ensure that all orifices, channels or pipes
are clear, and blow through them, preferably
using compressed air.
Oil seals
Oil seals can be removed by levering them
out with a wide flat-bladed screwdriver or
similar implement. Alternatively, a number of
self-tapping screws may be screwed into the
seal, and these used as a purchase for pliers or
some similar device in order to pull the seal free.
Whenever an oil seal is removed from its
working location, either individually or as part
of an assembly, it should be renewed.
The very fine sealing lip of the seal is easily
damaged, and will not seal if the surface it
contacts is not completely clean and free from
scratches, nicks or grooves. If the original
sealing surface of the component cannot be
restored, and the manufacturer has not made
provision for slight relocation of the seal
relative to the sealing surface, the component
should be renewed.
Protect the lips of the seal from any surface
which may damage them in the course of
fitting. Use tape or a conical sleeve where
possible. Lubricate the seal lips with oil before
fitting and, on dual-lipped seals, fill the space
between the lips with grease.
Unless otherwise stated, oil seals must be
fitted with their sealing lips toward the
lubricant to be sealed.
Use a tubular drift or block of wood of the
appropriate size to install the seal and, if the
seal housing is shouldered, drive the seal
down to the shoulder. If the seal housing is
unshouldered, the seal should be fitted with
its face flush with the housing top face (unless
otherwise instructed).
Screw threads and fastenings
Seized nuts, bolts and screws are quite a
common occurrence where corrosion has set
in, and the use of penetrating oil or releasing
fluid will often overcome this problem if the
offending item is soaked for a while before
attempting to release it. The use of an impact
driver may also provide a means of releasing
such stubborn fastening devices, when used
in conjunction with the appropriate
screwdriver bit or socket. If none of these
methods works, it may be necessary to resort
to the careful application of heat, or the use of
a hacksaw or nut splitter device.
Studs are usually removed by locking two
nuts together on the threaded part, and then
using a spanner on the lower nut to unscrew
the stud. Studs or bolts which have broken off
below the surface of the component in which
they are mounted can sometimes be removed
using a stud extractor. Always ensure that a
blind tapped hole is completely free from oil,
grease, water or other fluid before installing
the bolt or stud. Failure to do this could cause
the housing to crack due to the hydraulic
action of the bolt or stud as it is screwed in.
When tightening a castellated nut to accept
a split pin, tighten the nut to the specified
torque, where applicable, and then tighten
further to the next split pin hole. Never slacken
the nut to align the split pin hole, unless stated
in the repair procedure.
When checking or retightening a nut or bolt
to a specified torque setting, slacken the nut
or bolt by a quarter of a turn, and then
retighten to the specified setting. However,
this should not be attempted where angular
tightening has been used.
For some screw fastenings, notably
cylinder head bolts or nuts, torque wrench
settings are no longer specified for the latter
stages of tightening, “angle-tightening” being
called up instead. Typically, a fairly low torque
wrench setting will be applied to the
bolts/nuts in the correct sequence, followed
by one or more stages of tightening through
specified angles.
Locknuts, locktabs and washers
Any fastening which will rotate against a
component or housing during tightening
should always have a washer between it and
the relevant component or housing.
Spring or split washers should always be
renewed when they are used to lock a critical
component such as a big-end bearing
retaining bolt or nut. Locktabs which are
folded over to retain a nut or bolt should
always be renewed.
Self-locking nuts can be re-used in noncritical areas, providing resistance can be felt
when the locking portion passes over the bolt
or stud thread. However, it should be noted
that self-locking stiffnuts tend to lose their
effectiveness after long periods of use, and
should then be renewed as a matter of course.
Split pins must always be replaced with
new ones of the correct size for the hole.
When thread-locking compound is found
on the threads of a fastener which is to be reused, it should be cleaned off with a wire
brush and solvent, and fresh compound
applied on reassembly.
Special tools
Some repair procedures in this manual
entail the use of special tools such as a press,
two or three-legged pullers, spring compressors, etc. Wherever possible, suitable
readily-available alternatives to the manufacturer’s special tools are described, and are
shown in use. In some instances, where no
alternative is possible, it has been necessary
to resort to the use of a manufacturer’s tool,
and this has been done for reasons of safety
as well as the efficient completion of the repair
operation. Unless you are highly-skilled and
have a thorough understanding of the
procedures described, never attempt to
bypass the use of any special tool when the
procedure described specifies its use. Not
only is there a very great risk of personal
injury, but expensive damage could be
caused to the components involved.
Environmental considerations
When disposing of used engine oil, brake
fluid, antifreeze, etc, give due consideration to
any detrimental environmental effects. Do not,
for instance, pour any of the above liquids
down drains into the general sewage system,
or onto the ground to soak away. Many local
council refuse tips provide a facility for waste
oil disposal, as do some garages. If none of
these facilities are available, consult your local
Environmental Health Department, or the
National Rivers Authority, for further advice.
With the universal tightening-up of legislation regarding the emission of environmentally-harmful substances from motor vehicles,
most vehicles have tamperproof devices fitted
to the main adjustment points of the fuel
system. These devices are primarily designed
to prevent unqualified persons from adjusting
the fuel/air mixture, with the chance of a
consequent increase in toxic emissions. If
such devices are found during servicing or
overhaul, they should, wherever possible, be
renewed or refitted in accordance with the
manufacturer’s requirements or current
legislation.
Note: It is
antisocial and
illegal to dump
oil down the
drain. To find
the location of
your local oil
recycling
bank, call this
number free.
Fault Finding
Introduction
The vehicle owner who does his or her own
maintenance according to the recommended
schedules should not have to use this section
of the manual very often. Modern component
reliability is such that, provided those items
subject to wear or deterioration are inspected
or renewed at the specified intervals, sudden
failure is comparatively rare. Faults do not
usually just happen as a result of sudden
failure, but develop over a period of time.
Major mechanical failures in particular are
usually preceded by characteristic symptoms
over hundreds or even thousands of miles.
Those components which do occasionally fail
without warning are often small and easily
carried in the vehicle.
With any fault finding, the first step is to
decide where to begin investigations.
Sometimes this is obvious, but on other
occasions a little detective work will be
necessary. The owner who makes half a
dozen
haphazard
adjustments
or
replacements may be successful in curing a
fault (or its symptoms), but he will be none the
wiser if the fault recurs and he may well have
spent more time and money than was
necessary. A calm and logical approach will
be found to be more satisfactory in the long
run. Always take into account any warning
signs or abnormalities that may have been
noticed in the period preceding the fault –
power loss, high or low gauge readings,
unusual noises or smells, etc – and remember
that failure of components such as fuses or
spark plugs may only be pointers to some
underlying fault.
The pages which follow here are intended
to help in cases of failure to start or
breakdown on the road. There is also a Fault
Diagnosis Section at the end of each Chapter
which should be consulted if the preliminary
checks prove unfruitful. Whatever the fault,
certain basic principles apply. These are as
follows:
Verify the fault. This is simply a matter of
being sure that you know what the symptoms
are before starting work. This is particularly
important if you are investigating a fault for
someone else who may not have described it
very accurately.
Don’t overlook the obvious. For example,
if the vehicle won’t start, is there petrol in the
tank? (Don’t take anyone else’s word on this
particular point, and don’t trust the fuel gauge
either!) If an electrical fault is indicated, look
for loose or broken wires before digging out
the test gear.
Cure the disease, not the symptom.
Substituting a flat battery with a fully charged
one will get you off the hard shoulder, but if
the underlying cause is not attended to,the
new battery will go the same way. Similarly,
changing oil-fouled spark plugs for a new set
will get you moving again, but remember that
the reason for the fouling (if it wasn’t simply an
incorrect grade of plug) will have to be
established and corrected.
Don’t take anything for granted.
Particularly, don’t forget that a ‘new’
component may itself be defective (especially
if it’s been rattling round in the boot for
months), and don’t leave components out of a
fault diagnosis sequence just because they
are new or recently fitted. When you do finally
diagnose a difficult fault, you’ll probably
realise that all the evidence was there from
the start.
Electrical faults
Electrical faults can be more puzzling than
straightforward mechanical failures, but they
are no less susceptible to logical analysis if
the basic principles of operation are
understood. Vehicle electrical wiring exists in
extremely unfavourable conditions – heat,
vibration and chemical attack and the first
things to look for are loose or corroded
connections and broken or chafed wires,
REF•9
especially where the wires pass through holes
in the bodywork or are subject to vibration.
All metal-bodied vehicles in current
production have one pole of the battery
‘earthed’, ie connected to the vehicle
bodywork, and in nearly all modern vehicles it
is the negative (–) terminal. The various
electrical components – motors, bulb holders,
etc – are also connected to earth, either by
means of a lead or directly by their mountings.
Electric current flows through the component
and then back to the battery via the
bodywork. If the component mounting is
loose or corroded, or if a good path back to
the battery is not available, the circuit will be
incomplete and malfunction will result. The
engine and/or gearbox are also earthed by
means of flexible metal straps to the body or
subframe; if these straps are loose or missing,
starter motor, generator and ignition trouble
may result.
Assuming the earth return to be
satisfactory, electrical faults will be due either
to component malfunction or to defects in the
current supply. Individual components are
dealt with in Chapter 9. If supply wires are
broken or cracked internally this results in an
open-circuit, and the easiest way to check for
this is to bypass the suspect wire temporarily
with a length of wire having a crocodile clip or
suitable connector at each end. Alternatively,
a 12V test lamp can be used to verify the
presence of supply voltage at various points
along the wire and the break can be thus
isolated.
If a bare portion of a live wire touches the
bodywork or other earthed metal part, the
electricity will take the low-resistance path
thus formed back to the battery: this is known
as a short-circuit. Hopefully a short-circuit will
blow a fuse, but otherwise it may cause
burning of the insulation (and possibly further
short-circuits) or even a fire. This is why it is
inadvisable to bypass persistently blowing
fuses with silver foil or wire.
REF
REF•10
Fault Finding
Spares and tool kit
Most vehicles are supplied only with
sufficient tools for wheel changing; the
Maintenance and minor repair tool kit detailed
in Tools and working facilities, with the
addition of a hammer, is probably sufficient
for those repairs that most motorists would
consider attempting at the roadside. In
addition a few items which can be fitted
without too much trouble in the event of a
breakdown should be carried. Experience and
available space will modify the list below, but
the following may save having to call on
professional assistance:
m Spark plugs, clean and correctly gapped
m HT lead and plug cap – long enough to
reach the plug furthest from the distributor
m Distributor rotor, condenser and contact
breaker points (where applicable)
Engine will not start
Engine fails to turn when starter
operated
m Flat battery (recharge use jump leads or
push start)
m Battery terminals loose or corroded
m Battery earth to body defective
m Engine earth strap loose or broken
m Starter motor (or solenoid) wiring loose or
broken
m Ignition/starter switch faulty
m Major mechanical failure (seizure)
m Starter or solenoid internal fault (see
Chapter 12)
m Drivebelt(s) — emergency type may
suffice
m Spare fuses
m Set of principal light bulbs
m Tin of radiator sealer and hose bandage
m Exhaust bandage
m Roll of insulating tape
m Length of soft iron wire
m Length of electrical flex
m Torch or inspection lamp (can double as
test lamp)
m Battery jump leads
m Tow-rope
m Ignition waterproofing aerosol
m Litre of engine oil
m Sealed can of hydraulic fluid
m Emergency windscreen
m Wormdrive clips
m Tube of filler paste
If spare fuel is carried, a can designed for
the purpose should be used to minimise risks
of leakage and collision damage. A first aid kit
and a warning triangle, whilst not at present
compulsory in the UK, are obviously sensible
items to carry in addition to the above. When
touring abroad it may be advisable to carry
additional spares which, even if you cannot fit
them yourself, could save having to wait while
parts are obtained. The items below may be
worth considering:
m Starter motor (or solenoid) wiring loose
m Starter motor internal fault (see Chapter 9)
m Excessive choke (hot engine) or insufficient
choke (cold engine)
m Fouled or incorrectly gapped spark plugs
(remove, clean and regap)
m Other ignition system fault (see Chapter 4)
m Other fuel system fault (see Chapter 3)
m Poor compression (see Chapter 1)
m Major mechanical failure (eg camshaft drive)
Starter motor spins without
turning engine
m Flywheel gear teeth damaged or worn
m Starter motor mounting bolts loose
m
m
m
m
Clutch and throttle cables
Cylinder head gasket
Alternator brushes
Tyre valve core
One of the motoring organisations will be
able to advise on availability of fuel, etc, in
foreign countries.
Engine turns normally but fails to
start
Engine fires but will not run
m Damp or dirty HT leads and distributor cap
(crank engine and check for spark)
m No fuel in tank (check for delivery at
carburettor)
m
m
m
m
Insufficient choke (cold engine)
Air leaks at carburettor or inlet manifold
Fuel starvation (see Chapter 3)
Ignition fault (see Chapter 4)
Starter motor turns engine slowly
m Partially discharged battery (recharge, use
jump leads, or push start)
m Battery terminals loose or corroded
m Battery earth to body defective
m Engine earth strap loose
A simple test lamp is useful for checking
electrical faults
Carrying a few spares may save you a long walk!
Fault Finding
Engine cuts out and will not restart
Engine cuts out suddenly –
ignition fault
m Loose or disconnected LT wires
m Wet HT leads or distributor cap (after
traversing water splash)
m Coil failure (check for spark)
m Other ignition fault (see Chapter 4)
Engine misfires before cutting out
– fuel fault
m Fuel tank empty
m Fuel pump defective or filter blocked
(check for delivery)
m Fuel tank filler vent blocked (suction will be
evident on releasing cap)
m Carburettor needle valve sticking
m Carburettor jets blocked (fuel contaminated)
m Other fuel system fault (see Chapter 3)
Engine cuts out – other causes
m Serious overheating
m Major mechanical failure (eg camshaft
drive)
Engine overheats
Ignition (no-charge) warning light
illuminated
Wire to sender unit earthed
Engine overheating
Oil filter clogged or bypass valve defective
Oil pressure relief valve defective
Oil pick-up strainer clogged
Oil pump worn or mountings loose
Worn main or big-end bearings
m Slack or broken drivebelt — retension or
renew (Chapter 9)
Ignition warning light not
illuminated
m Coolant loss due to internal or external
leakage (see Chapter 2)
m Thermostat defective
m Low oil level
m Brakes binding
m Radiator clogged externally or internally
m Electric cooling fan not operating correctly
m Engine waterways clogged
m Ignition timing incorrect or automatic
advance malfunctioning
m Mixture too weak
Note: Do not add cold water to an overheated
engine or damage may result
Engine noises
Pre-ignition (pinking) on
acceleration
m
m
m
m
m
Incorrect grade of fuel
Ignition timing incorrect
Distributor faulty or worn
Worn or maladjusted carburettor
Excessive carbon build-up in engine
Whistling or wheezing noises
m Leaking vacuum hose
m Leaking carburettor or manifold gasket
m Blowing head gasket
Tapping or rattling
Low engine oil pressure
Note: Low oil pressure in a high-mileage
engine at tickover is not necessarily a cause
for concern. Sudden pressure loss at speed is
far more significant. In any event check the
gauge or warning light sender before
condemning the engine.
Gauge reads low or warning light
illuminated with engine running
Crank engine and check for spark. Note
use of insulated tool
m
m
m
m
m
m
m
REF•11
m Oil level low or incorrect grade
m Defective gauge or sender unit
m Incorrect valve clearances (where applicable)
m Worn valve gear
m Worn timing chain or belt
m Broken piston ring (ticking noise)
Knocking or thumping
m Unintentional mechanical contact (eg fan
blades)
m Worn drivebelt
m Peripheral component fault (generator,
water pump, etc)
m Worn big-end bearings (regular heavy
knocking, perhaps less under load)
m Worn main bearings (rumbling and
knocking, perhaps worsening under load)
m Piston slap (most noticeable when cold)
REF
REF•12
Buying spare parts & Vehicle identification numbers
Buying spare parts
Spare parts are available from many
sources, for example, FIAT garages, other
garages and accessory shops, and motor
factors. Our advice regarding spare parts is as
follows:
Officially appointed FIAT garages - This is
the best source of parts which are peculiar to
your car and otherwise not generally available
(eg complete cylinder heads, internal gearbox
components, badges, interior trim etc). It is
also the only place at which you should buy
parts if your vehicle is still under warranty;
non-FlAT components may invalidate the
warranty. To be sure of obtaining the correct
parts it will always be necessary to give the
partsman your car’s engine number, chassis
number and number for spares, and if
possible, to take the old part along for positive
identification. Many parts are available under
a factory exchange scheme - any parts
returned should always be clean. It obviously
makes good sense to go straight to the
specialists on your car for this type of part for
they are best equipped to supply you. They
will also be able to provide their own FIAT
service manual for your car should you require
one.
Other garages and accessory shops - These
are often very good places to buy material
and components needed for the maintenance
of your car (eg oil filters, spark plugs, bulbs,
drivebelts, oils and grease, touch-up paint,
filler paste etc). They also sell accessories,
usually have convenient opening hours,
charge lower prices and can often be found
not far from home.
Motor factors - Good factors stock all of the
more important components which wear out
relatively quickly (eg clutch components,
pistons, valves, exhaust systems, brake
pipes/seals/shoes and pads etc). Motor
factors will often provide new or reconditioned
components on a part exchange basis - this
can save a considerable amount of money.
parts manuals and lists are compiled upon a
numerical basis, the individual vehicle
numbers being essential to correct identification of the component required.
The chassis type and number plate is
located on the wing valance under the bonnet.
The identification data plate is located on the
radiator top rail. The engine type and number
is stamped on the cylinder block. The
paintwork colour code is given on a label
stuck to the inner surface of the tailgate.
Vehicle identification
numbers
Modifications are a continuing and
unpublicised process in vehicle manufacture
quite apart from major model changes. Spare
Engine number on 1116 cc engine
Manufacturer’s plate legend
Location of under-bonnet identification numbers and plates
A
B
C
D
Chassis type and number
Manufacturer’s plate
Engine number (903 cc)
Engine number (1116 cc and 1301 cc)
A
B
C
D
E
F
Name of manufacturer
Approval number
Vehicle identification number
Chassis serial number
Maximum laden weight
Maximum laden weight
(vehicle plus trailer)
G
H
I
L
M
N
Maximum front axle weight
Maximum rear axle weight
Engine type
Body type
Spares reference
Diesel models only (smoke
coefficient)
Glossary of Technical Terms
A
ABS (Anti-lock brake system) A system,
usually electronically controlled, that senses
incipient wheel lockup during braking and
relieves hydraulic pressure at wheels that are
about to skid.
Air bag An inflatable bag hidden in the
steering wheel (driver’s side) or the dash or
glovebox (passenger side). In a head-on
collision, the bags inflate, preventing the
driver and front passenger from being thrown
forward into the steering wheel or windscreen.
Air cleaner A metal or plastic housing,
containing a filter element, which removes
dust and dirt from the air being drawn into the
engine.
Air filter element The actual filter in an air
cleaner system, usually manufactured from
pleated paper and requiring renewal at regular
intervals.
Asbestos is a health hazard and the dust
created by brake systems should never be
inhaled or ingested.
Axle A shaft on which a wheel revolves, or
which revolves with a wheel. Also, a solid
beam that connects the two wheels at one
end of the vehicle. An axle which also
transmits power to the wheels is known as a
live axle.
Axleshaft A single rotating shaft, on either
side of the differential, which delivers power
from the final drive assembly to the drive
wheels. Also called a driveshaft or a halfshaft.
B
Ball bearing
An anti-friction bearing
consisting of a hardened inner and outer race
with hardened steel balls between two races.
Bearing The curved surface on a shaft or in a
bore, or the part assembled into either, that
permits relative motion between them with
minimum wear and friction.
Air filter
Allen key A hexagonal wrench which fits into
a recessed hexagonal hole.
Alligator clip A long-nosed spring-loaded
metal clip with meshing teeth. Used to make
temporary electrical connections.
Alternator A component in the electrical
system which converts mechanical energy
from a drivebelt into electrical energy to
charge the battery and to operate the starting
system, ignition system and electrical
accessories.
Ampere (amp) A unit of measurement for the
flow of electric current. One amp is the
amount of current produced by one volt
acting through a resistance of one ohm.
Anaerobic sealer A substance used to
prevent bolts and screws from loosening.
Anaerobic means that it does not require
oxygen for activation. The Loctite brand is
widely used.
Antifreeze A substance (usually ethylene
glycol) mixed with water, and added to a
vehicle’s cooling system, to prevent freezing
of the coolant in winter. Antifreeze also
contains chemicals to inhibit corrosion and
the formation of rust and other deposits that
would tend to clog the radiator and coolant
passages and reduce cooling efficiency.
Anti-seize compound
A coating that
reduces the risk of seizing on fasteners that
are subjected to high temperatures, such as
exhaust manifold bolts and nuts.
Asbestos A natural fibrous mineral with great
heat resistance, commonly used in the
composition of brake friction materials.
Bearing
Big-end bearing The bearing in the end of
the connecting rod that’s attached to the
crankshaft.
Bleed nipple A valve on a brake wheel
cylinder, caliper or other hydraulic component
that is opened to purge the hydraulic system
of air. Also called a bleed screw.
Brake bleeding Procedure for removing air
from lines of a hydraulic brake system.
REF•13
Brake drum The component of a drum brake
that rotates with the wheels.
Brake linings The friction material which
contacts the brake disc or drum to retard the
vehicle’s speed. The linings are bonded or
riveted to the brake pads or shoes.
Brake pads The replaceable friction pads
that pinch the brake disc when the brakes are
applied. Brake pads consist of a friction
material bonded or riveted to a rigid backing
plate.
Brake shoe The crescent-shaped carrier to
which the brake linings are mounted and
which forces the lining against the rotating
drum during braking.
Braking systems For more information on
braking systems, consult the Haynes
Automotive Brake Manual.
Breaker bar A long socket wrench handle
providing greater leverage.
Bulkhead The insulated partition between
the engine and the passenger compartment.
C
Caliper The non-rotating part of a disc-brake
assembly that straddles the disc and carries
the brake pads. The caliper also contains the
hydraulic components that cause the pads to
pinch the disc when the brakes are applied. A
caliper is also a measuring tool that can be set
to measure inside or outside dimensions of an
object.
Camshaft A rotating shaft on which a series
of cam lobes operate the valve mechanisms.
The camshaft may be driven by gears, by
sprockets and chain or by sprockets and a
belt.
Canister A container in an evaporative
emission control system; contains activated
charcoal granules to trap vapours from the
fuel system.
Canister
Brake bleeding
Brake disc The component of a disc brake
that rotates with the wheels.
Carburettor A device which mixes fuel with
air in the proper proportions to provide a
desired power output from a spark ignition
internal combustion engine.
Castellated Resembling the parapets along
the top of a castle wall. For example, a
castellated balljoint stud nut.
Castor In wheel alignment, the backward or
forward tilt of the steering axis. Castor is
positive when the steering axis is inclined
rearward at the top.
REF
REF•14
Glossary of Technical Terms
Catalytic converter A silencer-like device in
the exhaust system which converts certain
pollutants in the exhaust gases into less
harmful substances.
Catalytic converter
Circlip A ring-shaped clip used to prevent
endwise movement of cylindrical parts and
shafts. An internal circlip is installed in a
groove in a housing; an external circlip fits into
a groove on the outside of a cylindrical piece
such as a shaft.
Clearance The amount of space between
two parts. For example, between a piston and
a cylinder, between a bearing and a journal,
etc.
Coil spring A spiral of elastic steel found in
various sizes throughout a vehicle, for
example as a springing medium in the
suspension and in the valve train.
Compression Reduction in volume, and
increase in pressure and temperature, of a
gas, caused by squeezing it into a smaller
space.
Compression ratio The relationship between
cylinder volume when the piston is at top
dead centre and cylinder volume when the
piston is at bottom dead centre.
Constant velocity (CV) joint A type of
universal joint that cancels out vibrations
caused by driving power being transmitted
through an angle.
Core plug A disc or cup-shaped metal device
inserted in a hole in a casting through which
core was removed when the casting was
formed. Also known as a freeze plug or
expansion plug.
Crankcase The lower part of the engine
block in which the crankshaft rotates.
Crankshaft The main rotating member, or
shaft, running the length of the crankcase,
with offset “throws” to which the connecting
rods are attached.
Crankshaft assembly
Crocodile clip See Alligator clip
D
Diagnostic code Code numbers obtained by
accessing the diagnostic mode of an engine
management computer. This code can be
used to determine the area in the system
where a malfunction may be located.
Disc brake A brake design incorporating a
rotating disc onto which brake pads are
squeezed. The resulting friction converts the
energy of a moving vehicle into heat.
Double-overhead cam (DOHC) An engine
that uses two overhead camshafts, usually
one for the intake valves and one for the
exhaust valves.
Drivebelt(s)
The belt(s) used to drive
accessories such as the alternator, water
pump, power steering pump, air conditioning
compressor, etc. off the crankshaft pulley.
Endfloat
The amount of lengthwise
movement between two parts. As applied to a
crankshaft, the distance that the crankshaft
can move forward and back in the cylinder
block.
Engine management system (EMS) A
computer controlled system which manages
the fuel injection and the ignition systems in
an integrated fashion.
Exhaust manifold A part with several
passages through which exhaust gases leave
the engine combustion chambers and enter
the exhaust pipe.
F
Fan clutch A viscous (fluid) drive coupling
device which permits variable engine fan
speeds in relation to engine speeds.
Feeler blade A thin strip or blade of hardened
steel, ground to an exact thickness, used to
check or measure clearances between parts.
Accessory drivebelts
Driveshaft Any shaft used to transmit
motion. Commonly used when referring to the
axleshafts on a front wheel drive vehicle.
Drum brake A type of brake using a drumshaped metal cylinder attached to the inner
surface of the wheel. When the brake pedal is
pressed, curved brake shoes with friction
linings press against the inside of the drum to
slow or stop the vehicle.
E
EGR valve A valve used to introduce exhaust
gases into the intake air stream.
Electronic control unit (ECU) A computer
which controls (for instance) ignition and fuel
injection systems, or an anti-lock braking
system. For more information refer to the
Haynes Automotive Electrical and Electronic
Systems Manual.
Electronic Fuel Injection (EFI) A computer
controlled fuel system that distributes fuel
through an injector located in each intake port
of the engine.
Emergency brake
A braking system,
independent of the main hydraulic system,
that can be used to slow or stop the vehicle if
the primary brakes fail, or to hold the vehicle
stationary even though the brake pedal isn’t
depressed. It usually consists of a hand lever
that actuates either front or rear brakes
mechanically through a series of cables and
linkages. Also known as a handbrake or
parking brake.
Feeler blade
Firing order The order in which the engine
cylinders fire, or deliver their power strokes,
beginning with the number one cylinder.
Flywheel A heavy spinning wheel in which
energy is absorbed and stored by means of
momentum. On cars, the flywheel is attached
to the crankshaft to smooth out firing
impulses.
Free play The amount of travel before any
action takes place. The “looseness” in a
linkage, or an assembly of parts, between the
initial application of force and actual
movement. For example, the distance the
brake pedal moves before the pistons in the
master cylinder are actuated.
Fuse An electrical device which protects a
circuit against accidental overload. The typical
fuse contains a soft piece of metal which is
calibrated to melt at a predetermined current
flow (expressed as amps) and break the
circuit.
Fusible link A circuit protection device
consisting of a conductor surrounded by
heat-resistant insulation. The conductor is
smaller than the wire it protects, so it acts as
the weakest link in the circuit. Unlike a blown
fuse, a failed fusible link must frequently be
cut from the wire for replacement.
Glossary of Technical Terms
G
I
Gap The distance the spark must travel in
jumping from the centre electrode to the side
electrode in a spark plug. Also refers to the
spacing between the points in a contact
breaker assembly in a conventional pointstype ignition, or to the distance between the
reluctor or rotor and the pickup coil in an
electronic ignition.
Ignition timing The moment at which the
spark plug fires, usually expressed in the
number of crankshaft degrees before the
piston reaches the top of its stroke.
Inlet manifold A tube or housing with
passages through which flows the air-fuel
mixture (carburettor vehicles and vehicles with
throttle body injection) or air only (port fuelinjected vehicles) to the port openings in the
cylinder head.
J
Jump start Starting the engine of a vehicle
with a discharged or weak battery by
attaching jump leads from the weak battery to
a charged or helper battery.
L
Adjusting spark plug gap
Gasket Any thin, soft material - usually cork,
cardboard, asbestos or soft metal - installed
between two metal surfaces to ensure a good
seal. For instance, the cylinder head gasket
seals the joint between the block and the
cylinder head.
Load Sensing Proportioning Valve (LSPV) A
brake hydraulic system control valve that
works like a proportioning valve, but also
takes into consideration the amount of weight
carried by the rear axle.
Locknut A nut used to lock an adjustment
nut, or other threaded component, in place.
For example, a locknut is employed to keep
the adjusting nut on the rocker arm in
position.
Lockwasher A form of washer designed to
prevent an attaching nut from working loose.
M
Gasket
Gauge An instrument panel display used to
monitor engine conditions. A gauge with a
movable pointer on a dial or a fixed scale is an
analogue gauge. A gauge with a numerical
readout is called a digital gauge.
H
Halfshaft A rotating shaft that transmits
power from the final drive unit to a drive
wheel, usually when referring to a live rear
axle.
Harmonic balancer A device designed to
reduce torsion or twisting vibration in the
crankshaft. May be incorporated in the
crankshaft pulley. Also known as a vibration
damper.
Hone An abrasive tool for correcting small
irregularities or differences in diameter in an
engine cylinder, brake cylinder, etc.
Hydraulic tappet A tappet that utilises
hydraulic pressure from the engine’s
lubrication system to maintain zero clearance
(constant contact with both camshaft and
valve stem). Automatically adjusts to variation
in valve stem length. Hydraulic tappets also
reduce valve noise.
MacPherson strut
A type of front
suspension system devised by Earle
MacPherson at Ford of England. In its original
form, a simple lateral link with the anti-roll bar
creates the lower control arm. A long strut - an
integral coil spring and shock absorber - is
mounted between the body and the steering
knuckle. Many modern so-called MacPherson
strut systems use a conventional lower A-arm
and don’t rely on the anti-roll bar for location.
Multimeter An electrical test instrument with
the capability to measure voltage, current and
resistance.
N
NOx Oxides of Nitrogen. A common toxic
pollutant emitted by petrol and diesel engines
at higher temperatures.
O
Ohm The unit of electrical resistance. One
volt applied to a resistance of one ohm will
produce a current of one amp.
Ohmmeter An instrument for measuring
electrical resistance.
O-ring A type of sealing ring made of a
special rubber-like material; in use, the O-ring
is compressed into a groove to provide the
sealing action.
Overhead cam (ohc) engine An engine with
the camshaft(s) located on top of the cylinder
head(s).
REF•15
Overhead valve (ohv) engine An engine with
the valves located in the cylinder head, but
with the camshaft located in the engine block.
Oxygen sensor A device installed in the
engine exhaust manifold, which senses the
oxygen content in the exhaust and converts
this information into an electric current. Also
called a Lambda sensor.
P
Phillips screw A type of screw head having a
cross instead of a slot for a corresponding
type of screwdriver.
Plastigage A thin strip of plastic thread,
available in different sizes, used for measuring
clearances. For example, a strip of Plastigage
is laid across a bearing journal. The parts are
assembled and dismantled; the width of the
crushed strip indicates the clearance between
journal and bearing.
Plastigage
Propeller shaft The long hollow tube with
universal joints at both ends that carries
power from the transmission to the differential
on front-engined rear wheel drive vehicles.
Proportioning valve A hydraulic control
valve which limits the amount of pressure to
the rear brakes during panic stops to prevent
wheel lock-up.
R
Rack-and-pinion steering A steering system
with a pinion gear on the end of the steering
shaft that mates with a rack (think of a geared
wheel opened up and laid flat). When the
steering wheel is turned, the pinion turns,
moving the rack to the left or right. This
movement is transmitted through the track
rods to the steering arms at the wheels.
Radiator A liquid-to-air heat transfer device
designed to reduce the temperature of the
coolant in an internal combustion engine
cooling system.
Refrigerant Any substance used as a heat
transfer agent in an air-conditioning system.
R-12 has been the principle refrigerant for
many years; recently, however, manufacturers
have begun using R-134a, a non-CFC
substance that is considered less harmful to
the ozone in the upper atmosphere.
Rocker arm A lever arm that rocks on a shaft
or pivots on a stud. In an overhead valve
engine, the rocker arm converts the upward
movement of the pushrod into a downward
movement to open a valve.
REF
REF•16
Glossary of Technical Terms
Rotor In a distributor, the rotating device
inside the cap that connects the centre
electrode and the outer terminals as it turns,
distributing the high voltage from the coil
secondary winding to the proper spark plug.
Also, that part of an alternator which rotates
inside the stator. Also, the rotating assembly
of a turbocharger, including the compressor
wheel, shaft and turbine wheel.
Runout The amount of wobble (in-and-out
movement) of a gear or wheel as it’s rotated.
The amount a shaft rotates “out-of-true.” The
out-of-round condition of a rotating part.
Sprocket A tooth or projection on the
periphery of a wheel, shaped to engage with a
chain or drivebelt. Commonly used to refer to
the sprocket wheel itself.
Starter inhibitor switch On vehicles with an
automatic transmission, a switch that
prevents starting if the vehicle is not in Neutral
or Park.
Strut See MacPherson strut.
S
T
Sealant A liquid or paste used to prevent
leakage at a joint. Sometimes used in
conjunction with a gasket.
Sealed beam lamp An older headlight design
which integrates the reflector, lens and
filaments into a hermetically-sealed one-piece
unit. When a filament burns out or the lens
cracks, the entire unit is simply replaced.
Serpentine drivebelt A single, long, wide
accessory drivebelt that’s used on some
newer vehicles to drive all the accessories,
instead of a series of smaller, shorter belts.
Serpentine drivebelts are usually tensioned by
an automatic tensioner.
Serpentine drivebelt
Shim Thin spacer, commonly used to adjust
the clearance or relative positions between
two parts. For example, shims inserted into or
under bucket tappets control valve
clearances. Clearance is adjusted by
changing the thickness of the shim.
Slide hammer A special puller that screws
into or hooks onto a component such as a
shaft or bearing; a heavy sliding handle on the
shaft bottoms against the end of the shaft to
knock the component free.
Tappet
A cylindrical component which
transmits motion from the cam to the valve
stem, either directly or via a pushrod and
rocker arm. Also called a cam follower.
Thermostat A heat-controlled valve that
regulates the flow of coolant between the
cylinder block and the radiator, so maintaining
optimum engine operating temperature. A
thermostat is also used in some air cleaners in
which the temperature is regulated.
Thrust bearing The bearing in the clutch
assembly that is moved in to the release
levers by clutch pedal action to disengage the
clutch. Also referred to as a release bearing.
Timing belt A toothed belt which drives the
camshaft. Serious engine damage may result
if it breaks in service.
Timing chain A chain which drives the
camshaft.
Toe-in The amount the front wheels are
closer together at the front than at the rear. On
rear wheel drive vehicles, a slight amount of
toe-in is usually specified to keep the front
wheels running parallel on the road by
offsetting other forces that tend to spread the
wheels apart.
Toe-out The amount the front wheels are
closer together at the rear than at the front. On
front wheel drive vehicles, a slight amount of
toe-out is usually specified.
Tools For full information on choosing and
using tools, refer to the Haynes Automotive
Tools Manual.
Tracer A stripe of a second colour applied to
a wire insulator to distinguish that wire from
another one with the same colour insulator.
Tune-up A process of accurate and careful
adjustments and parts replacement to obtain
the best possible engine performance.
Turbocharger A centrifugal device, driven by
exhaust gases, that pressurises the intake air.
Normally used to increase the power output
from a given engine displacement, but can
also be used primarily to reduce exhaust
emissions (as on VW’s “Umwelt” Diesel
engine).
U
Universal joint or U-joint A double-pivoted
connection for transmitting power from a
driving to a driven shaft through an angle. A
U-joint consists of two Y-shaped yokes and a
cross-shaped member called the spider.
V
Valve A device through which the flow of
liquid, gas, vacuum, or loose material in bulk
may be started, stopped, or regulated by a
movable part that opens, shuts, or partially
obstructs one or more ports or passageways.
A valve is also the movable part of such a
device.
Valve clearance The clearance between the
valve tip (the end of the valve stem) and the
rocker arm or tappet. The valve clearance is
measured when the valve is closed.
Vernier caliper
A precision measuring
instrument that measures inside and outside
dimensions. Not quite as accurate as a
micrometer, but more convenient.
Viscosity The thickness of a liquid or its
resistance to flow.
Volt
A unit for expressing electrical
“pressure” in a circuit. One volt that will
produce a current of one ampere through a
resistance of one ohm.
W
Welding Various processes used to join metal
items by heating the areas to be joined to a
molten state and fusing them together. For
more information refer to the Haynes
Automotive Welding Manual.
Wiring diagram A drawing portraying the
components and wires in a vehicle’s electrical
system, using standardised symbols. For
more information refer to the Haynes
Automotive Electrical and Electronic Systems
Manual.
Index
REF•17
Note: References throughout this index relate to Chapter•page number
A
Accelerator cable - 3•12, 13•80
Accelerator control system - 13•75
Accelerator pump - 3•7, 3•8, 3•11, 13•66
Acknowledgements - 0•4
Aerial - 9•10
Air bags - 0•5
Air cleaner - 3•4, 13•60, 13•69, 13•67,
13•75, 13•79
Air pressure switch - 13•70
Air temperature sensor - 13•76
Airflow meter - 13•67, 13•69, 13•80
Alternator - 9•3, 13•58, 13•103, 13•104
Alternator fault - 9•14
Anti-flooding device - 3•8, 3•9, 3•10, 3•11,
13•64
Anti-knock sensor - 13•86, 13•90
Anti-roll bar - 13•111
Antifreeze - 0•6, 0•13, 2•1, 2•2
Antiskid system - 13•103
Armrest - 13•112
Asbestos - 0•5
Auxiliary shaft - 1•29, 1•30, 13•51, 13•53
B
Battery - 0•5, 9•2
Battery fault - 9•14
Bleeding brakes - 8•7
Bleeding clutch - 13•94
Bodywork - 12•1 et seq, 13•111, REF•4
Bonnet - 12•3, 12•4
Boots - 7•2, 10•2, 13•98
Brake fluid - 0•13, 8•1, 13•110, 13•111
Braking system - 8•1 et seq, 13•100,
REF•1, REF•2, REF•3
Braking system fault finding - 8•9
Breakerless ignition system - 13•85, 13•86
Bumpers - 12•4, 12•11, 13•113
Burning - 0•5
C
Cables - 3•12, 5•1, 8•9, 9•8, 13•80
Calipers - 8•3, 13•101, 13•102
Camshaft - 1•19, 1•21, 1•24, 1•29, 1•32,
13•21, 13•30, 13•34, 13•41, 13•42
Capacities - 0•6, 13•17
Carburettors - 3•6 to 3•11, 13•62 to 13•66
Carpets - 12•2
Cassette player- 9•10
Catalytic converter - 13•77
Central door locking - 9•11, 13•109
Centre console - 12•9
Check control (warning module) system 9•12, 9•13, 13•110, 13•111
Choke - 3•11, 3•12
Cigar lighter - 9•13, 13•109
Clock - 9•13, 13•108
Clutch - 5•1 et seq, 13•83, 13•92, 13•94
Clutch fault finding - 5•3
Clutch fluid - 0•13
CO emissions (mixture) - REF•4
Coil - 4•6, 13•86, 13•90, 13•91
Coil spring - 11•3, 11•4
Condenser - 4•5
Connecting rods - 1•12, 1•18, 1•22, 1•26,
1•30, 13•25, 13•26, 13•30, 13•35,
13•47, 13•48, 13•53
Console - 12•9
Constant velocity joint - 0•13, 7•3, 13•98,
13•99
Contact breaker points - 4•2, 4•3
Contents - 0•2
Control panel - 13•108
Conversion factors - 0•14
Coolant - 0•6, 0•13, 2•1, 2•2, 13•69, 13•70,
13•110, 13•111
Coolant pump - 2•4, 13•55, 13•58
Cooling and heating systems - 2•1 et seq,
13•54, 13•55
Cooling and heating systems fault finding 2•8
Courtesy lamp - 9•5, 9•8
Crankcase - 1•17
Crankcase ventilation system - 1•8
Crankshaft - 1•18, 1•20, 1•30, 1•31, 13•44,
13•45, 13•52
Crossmember - 11•4
Crushing - 0•5
CV joints - 0•13, 7•3, 13•98, 13•99
Cylinder block - 1•17
Cylinder head - 1•10, 1•16, 1•19, 1•22,
1•25, 1•28, 1•32, 13•19, 13•22, 13•30,
13•34, 13•43, 13•44, 13•53
D
Dents in bodywork - 12•2
Depressurisation (fuel system) - 13•75
Digiplex 2 ignition system - 13•90
Dim-dip system - 13•106
Dimensions - 0•6, 13•17
Direction indicators - 9•7
Discs - 8•4, 13•101, 13•102
Distributor - 4•3, 4•5, 13•86, 13•89, 13•90,
13•92
Doors - 9•11, 12•5, 12•6, 12•7, 13•111,
13•112, 13•114, REF•2
Drivebelts - 2•3, 13•58
Driveshaft
Driveshafts and hubs fault finding - 7•6
Driveshafts, hubs, roadwheels and tyres 0•13, 7•1 et seq, 10•4, 11•3, 11•6,
13•98, 13•99, REF•3, REF•4
Drums - 8•4
Dwell angle - 4•4
E
Economy gauge (Econometer) - 3•11, 9•12
Electric shock - 0•5
Electric windows - 9•11, 13•109
Electrical control circuit (ECU) - 13•67,
13•71, 13•81, 13•86, 13•90
Electrical system - 9•1 et seq, 13•103,
REF•2
Electrical system fault finding - 9•14,
REF•9
Electronic ignition - 4•3, 4•6, 4•7
Engine - 1•1 et seq, 13•19, 13•33, 13•37
Engine fault finding - 1•35, 1•36, 2•8, 3•13,
4•9, 13•92, REF•10, REF•11
Engine oil - 0•6, 0•13, 1•3, 1•4, 1•8
Engine speed sensor - 4•7, 13•89, 13•91
Environmental considerations - REF•8
Exhaust emission checks - REF•4
Exhaust manifold - 13•77
Exhaust system - 3•12, REF•3
REF
REF•18
Index
F
H
Facia - 12•10, 13•107
Fan - 2•3, 13•57, 13•71, 13•84
Fast idle adjustment - 3•7, 3•9, 3•10, 3•11,
13•64
Fault finding - REF`•9 et seq
Fault finding - braking system - 8•9
Fault finding - clutch - 5•3
Fault finding - cooling and heating systems
- 2•8
Fault finding - driveshafts and hubs - 7•6
Fault finding - Econometer - 9•12
Fault finding - electrical system - 9•14,
REF•9
Fault finding - engine - 1•35, 1•36, 2•8,
3•13, 4•9, 13•92, REF•10, REF•11
Fault finding - fuel system - 3•9, 3•13,
13•84
Fault finding - ignition system - 4•9,
REF•11
Fault finding - Microplex ignition system 13•92
Fault finding - steering - 10•4
Fault finding - suspension - 11•6
Fault finding - transmission - 6•4
Fault finding - turbocharger system - 13•84
Filling - 12•3
Final drive output shafts - 13•94
Fire - 0•5
Float adjustment - 3•7, 3•8, 3•10, 3•11,
13•64, 13•66
Flywheel - 1•19, 1•21, 1•31, 13•46, 13•53
Fog lamps - 13•106
Fuel evaporation control system - 13•78
Fuel filter - 13•67, 13•72, 13•74, 13•79
Fuel gauge fault - 9•14
Fuel injection electronic control unit (ECU)
- 13•77
Fuel injection system - 13•68, 13•69
Fuel injection system fault finding - 13•84
Fuel injectors - 13•69, 13•70, 13•71, 13•76,
13•77, 13•81, 13•84
Fuel level transmitter - 3•5
Fuel pressure regulator - 13•70
Fuel pump - 3•5, 13•61, 13•69, 13•72,
13•76, 13•80, 13•81
Fuel rail - 13•70, 13•81
Fuel system - 3•1 et seq, 13•60, REF•4
Fuel system fault finding - 3•9, 3•13
Fuel tank - 3•5, 13•61, 13•72
Fume or gas intoxication - 0•5
Fuses - 9•5, 13•105
Handbrake - 8•8, 8•9, REF•1
Handles - 12•11
HC emissions - REF•4
Headlamp - 9•6, 9•7, 13•105, 13•106
Heated tailgate window - 9•10
Heater - 2•5, 2•6, 13•58, 13•59, 13•108
Heater fault - 2•8
Horn - 9•6, 13•106
Horn fault - 9•14
HT leads - 13•92
Hubs - 7•3, 7•4, 11•3
Hydraulic hoses and pipes - 8•6
Hydraulic system - 8•7
Hydrofluoric acid - 0•5
G
Gaiters - 7•2, 10•2, 13•98
Gashes in bodywork - 12•2
Gaskets - 1•20
Gearbox - See Transmission
Gearchange lever - 6•2
Gearchange linkage - 13•94, 13•95
Glossary of technical terms - REF•13 et seq
Grille - 12•3, 13•113
I
Idle speed adjustment - 3•7, 13•62, 13•65,
13•68, 13•75, 13•79
Idling fault - 1•36, 3•13, 13•84
Ignition coil - 13•86, 13•90, 13•91
Ignition switch - 4•8
Ignition system - 4•1 et seq, 13•85
Ignition system fault finding - 4•9, 9•14,
REF•11
Ignition unit - 13•89
Indicators - 9•7
Injectors - 13•69, 13•70, 13•71, 13•76,
13•77, 13•81, 13•84
Inlet manifold - 13•70, 13•77, 13•80
Instrument panel - 9•8, 13•107
Intercooler - 13•84
Interior lamps - 9•5, 9•8
Introduction to the Fiat Uno - 0•4
J
Jacking - 0•8
Joint mating faces and gaskets - REF•8
Jump starting - 0•7
L
Lambda sensor - 13•82
Lamps - 9•6, 9•7, 9•8
Leaks - 0•9, 1•36, 13•84
LED (light emitter diode) - 9•12
Lights fault - 9•14
Locknuts, locktabs and washers - REF•8
Locks - 9•11, 10•4, 12•4, 12•6, 12•7,
13•109
Loudspeakers - 9•11
Lubricants and fluids - 0•13
M
Magnetic impulse generator winding 13•86
Main bearings - 1•20, 1•30, 13•52
Maintenance - 0•10, 13•18
Manifolds - 3•12, 13•70, 13•77, 13•80
Master cylinder - 8•5, 13•103, 13•93
Microplex ignition system - 13•86, 13•89
Microplex ignition system fault finding 13•92
Mirrors - 12•11, 13•111, REF•1
Misfire - 1•35, 4•9, REF•11
Mixture adjustment - 3•7, 13•62, 13•65,
13•68, 13•75, 13•79
MOT test checks - REF•1 et seq
Mountings - 1•13, 1•27, 13•26, 13•35,
13•49
N
Needle valve - 13•66
Number plate lamp - 9•7
O
Oil cooler - 13•36
Oil filter - 1•8
Oil level sensor - 13•110, 13•111
Oil pressure fault - 1•36, REF•11
Oil pump - 1•13, 1•19, 1•22, 1•26, 1•29,
13•24, 13•30, 13•35, 13•46, 13•53
Oil seals - 1•20, 13•41, 13•44, 13•45,
13•94, REF•8
Oil, engine - 0•6, 0•13, 1•3, 1•4, 1•8
Oil, transmission - 0•6, 0•13, 6•1, 13•14,
13•95
Overheating - 2•8, 4•9, REF•11
P
Pad wear sensor - 13•110
Pads - 8•2, 13•100, 13•101
Parking lamp - 9•7
Pedals - 5•2, 8•9, 13•92, 13•102
Pinking - 1•36, 13•84, REF•11
Pistons - 1•12, 1•18, 1•22, 1•26, 1•30,
13•25, 13•26, 13•30, 13•35, 13•47,
13•48, 13•53
Plastic components - 13•111
Points - 4•2, 4•3
Poisonous or irritant substances - 0•5
Power module - 13•90
Pre-ignition - 1•36, 13•84, REF•11
Pressure regulating valve - 8•6, 13•102
Pressure sensor - 13•86
R
Radiator - 2•3, 12•3, 13•57, 13•113
Radio - 9•10, 13•110
Rear lamp cluster - 9•7
Regulator (voltage) - 9•4
Regulator (window) - 12•7
Relays - 9•5, 13•71, 13•105
Repair procedures - REF•8
Respraying - 12•3
Rocker cover - 13•19
Rockers - 1•19
Roof rack - 12•11
Routine maintenance - 0•10, 13•18
Rust holes in bodywork - 12•2
Index
REF•19
S
T
V
Safety first - 0•5
Safety pressure switch - 13•90
Scalding - 0•5
Scratches in bodywork - 12•2
Screw threads and fastenings - REF•8
Seat belts - 12•10, REF•2
Seats - 12•9, REF•2
Servo unit - 8•8, 13•103
Shock absorbers - 11•4, REF•2, REF•3
Shoes - 8•3
Side light - 9•7
Side repeater lamp - 9•7
Spares - REF•10, REF•12
Spark plugs - 4•7, 13•92
Speedometer - 9•8
Spotlamp - 13•108
Springs - 11•3, 11•4, REF•3
Starter motor - 9•4, 13•104, 13•105
Starter fault - 1•35, 9•14, 13•92, REF•10
Steering - 9•5, 10•1 et seq, 13•106, REF•1,
REF•2, REF•3
Steering fault finding - 10•4
Stop lamp switch - 8•9
Struts - 11•2, 13•111
Sump - 1•11, 1•22, 1•26, 1•31, 13•19,
13•24, 13•46, 13•53
Sunroof - 12•12
Supplement: Revisions and information on
later models - 13•1 et seq
Supplementary air valve - 13•67, 13•69,
13•71, 13•80
Suspension - 11•1 et seq, 13•111, REF•2,
REF•3
Suspension fault finding - 11•6
Switches - 2•3, 4•8, 8•9, 9•5, 13•69, 13•72,
13•80, 13•90, 13•106 to 13•109
Tailgate - 9•6, 12•8, 12•9, 13•112
TDC sensor - 4•7, 13•90, 13•91
Thermostat - 2•3, 13•54, 13•57
Throttle control linkage - 13•72
Throttle position switch - 13•69, 13•72,
13•80
Throttle valve housing - 13•67, 13•70,
13•80
Tie-rod - 10•2
Timing - 4•4, 13•85, 13•91
Timing belt - 1•24, 1•29, 1•32, 13•20,
13•30, 13•35, 13•38, 13•53
Timing chain - 1•9, 1•19, 1•22
Tools - REF•5, REF•7, REF•8, REF•10
Towing - 0•8
Track control arm - 11•4
Trailing arms - 11•5
Transmission - 1•13, 1•22, 1•27, 1•32, 6•1
et seq, 13•26, 13•33, 13•36, 13•49,
13•53, 13•94, 13•96
Transmission fault finding - 6•4
Transmission oil - 0•6, 0•13, 6•1, 13•14,
13•95
Trim panels - 12•5, 13•114
Trip master - 13•108
Tripode joint - 7•3
Turbocharger - 13•82, 13•83
Turbocharger fault finding - 13•84
Tyres - 7•5, 10•4, 11•6, REF•4
Vacuum sensor - 13•86
Vacuum servo - 8•8, 13•103
Valve clearances - 1•9, 1•23, 1•32, 13•20,
13•37
Vehicle identification - REF•2, REF•12
Voltage regulator - 9•4
U
Underframe - 12•1
Unleaded fuel - 13•60
Upholstery - 12•2
W
Washer system - 9•10, 13•110
Water pump - 2•4, 13•55, 13•58
Weights - 0•6, 13•17
Wheel alignment - 10•3
Wheel bearings - 7•3, 7•4, REF•3
Wheel changing - 0•8
Wheel cylinder - 8•4
Wheels - 7•5, REF•4
Window regulator - 12•7
Windows - 9•11, 12•6, 12•9, 13•109,
13•113
Windscreen - 12•8, REF•1
Wings - 12•5
Wiper blade and arm - 9•9
Wiper motor - 9•9, 9•10, 13•109, 13•110
Wiper fault - 9•14
Wiring diagrams - 14•1 et seq
Working facilities - REF•7
REF
REF•20
Preserving Our Motoring Heritage
<
The Model J Duesenberg
Derham Tourster.
Only eight of these
magnificent cars were
ever built – this is the
only example to be found
outside the United
States of America
Almost every car you’ve ever loved, loathed or desired is gathered under one roof at the Haynes Motor
Museum. Over 300 immaculately presented cars and motorbikes represent every aspect of our motoring
heritage, from elegant reminders of bygone days, such as the superb Model J Duesenberg to curiosities like
the bug-eyed BMW Isetta. There are also many old friends and flames. Perhaps you remember the 1959 Ford
Popular that you did your courting in? The magnificent ‘Red Collection’ is a spectacle of classic sports cars
including AC, Alfa Romeo, Austin Healey, Ferrari, Lamborghini, Maserati, MG, Riley, Porsche and Triumph.
A Perfect Day Out
Each and every vehicle at the Haynes Motor Museum has played its part in the history and culture of
Motoring. Today, they make a wonderful spectacle and a great day out for all the family. Bring the kids, bring
Mum and Dad, but above all bring your camera to capture those golden memories for ever. You will also find
an impressive array of motoring memorabilia, a comfortable 70 seat video cinema and one of the most
extensive transport book shops in Britain. The Pit Stop Cafe serves everything from a cup of tea to
wholesome, home-made meals or, if you prefer, you can enjoy the large picnic area nestled in the beautiful
rural surroundings of Somerset.
>
John Haynes O.B.E.,
Founder and
Chairman of the
museum at the wheel
of a Haynes Light 12.
<
Graham Hill’s Lola
Cosworth Formula 1
car next to a 1934
Riley Sports.
The Museum is situated on the A359 Yeovil to Frome road at Sparkford, just off the A303 in Somerset. It is about 40 miles south of Bristol, and
25 minutes drive from the M5 intersection at Taunton.
Open 9.30am - 5.30pm (10.00am - 4.00pm Winter) 7 days a week, except Christmas Day, Boxing Day and New Years Day
Special rates available for schools, coach parties and outings Charitable Trust No. 292048
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