Apple 10.5 Leapard Model Vehicle User Manual

Mac OS X Server
User Management
For Version 10.5 Leopard
K Apple Inc.
© 2007 Apple Inc. All rights reserved.
The owner or authorized user of a valid copy of
Mac OS X Server software may reproduce this
publication for the purpose of learning to use such
software. No part of this publication may be reproduced
or transmitted for commercial purposes, such as selling
copies of this publication or for providing paid-for
support services.
Apple, the Apple logo, AirPort, AppleShare, Bonjour,
FireWire, iCal, iTunes, Mac, Mac OS, MacBook, Macintosh,
QuickTime, SuperDrive, Xgrid, Xsan, and Xserve are
trademarks of Apple Inc., registered in the U.S. and other
countries. Apple Remote Desktop, Extensions Manager,
Finder, iWork, and Safari are trademarks of Apple Inc.
Mac is a service mark of Apple Inc.
Adobe and PostScript are trademarks of Adobe Systems
Incorporated.
Every effort has been made to ensure that the
information in this manual is accurate. Apple Inc. is not
responsible for printing or clerical errors.
The Bluetooth® word mark and logos are registered
trademarks owned by the Bluetooth SIG, Inc. and any
use of such marks by Apple is under license.
Apple
1 Infinite Loop
Cupertino, CA 95014-2084
408-996-1010
www.apple.com
Java and all Java-based trademarks and logos are
trademarks or registered trademarks of Sun
Microsystems, Inc. in the U.S. and other countries.
Use of the “keyboard” Apple logo (Option-Shift-K) for
commercial purposes without the prior written consent
of Apple may constitute trademark infringement and
unfair competition in violation of federal and state laws.
Other company and product names mentioned herein
are trademarks of their respective companies. Mention
of third-party products is for informational purposes
only and constitutes neither an endorsement nor a
recommendation. Apple assumes no responsibility with
regard to the performance of these products.
UNIX is a registered trademark of The Open Group.
019-0938/2007-09-01
1
Contents
Preface
13
13
14
15
16
17
17
18
18
About This Guide
What’s New in Workgroup Manager
What’s in This Guide
Using Onscreen Help
Mac OS X Server Administration Guides
Viewing PDF Guides Onscreen
Printing PDF Guides
Getting Documentation Updates
Getting Additional Information
Chapter 1
19
19
19
20
21
21
21
22
22
23
24
25
25
26
26
26
27
User Management Overview
Tools for User Management
Workgroup Manager
Server Admin
Server Preferences
NetBoot
NetInstall
Command-Line Tools
Accounts
Administrator Accounts
User Accounts
Group Accounts
Computer Accounts
Computer Groups
The User Experience
Authentication and Identity Validation
Information Access Control
Chapter 2
31
31
34
34
Getting Started with User Management
Setup Overview
Planning Strategies for User Management
Analyzing Your Environment
3
35
35
36
37
38
38
4
Identifying Directory Services Requirements
Determining Server and Storage Requirements
Choosing a Home Folder Structure
Devising a Home Folder Distribution Strategy
Identifying Groups
Determining Administrator Requirements
Chapter 3
41
41
41
42
42
42
43
44
45
46
46
46
47
48
48
48
49
50
50
50
51
53
Getting Started with Workgroup Manager
Configuring the Administrator’s Computer and Account
Setting Up an Administrator Computer
Creating a Domain Administrator Account
Using Workgroup Manager
Using Mac OS X Server v10.5 to Administer Earlier Versions of Mac OS X
Connecting and Authenticating to Directory Domains in Workgroup Manager
Major Workgroup Manager Tasks
Modifying Workgroup Manager Preferences
Finding and Listing Accounts
Working with Account Lists in Workgroup Manager
Listing Accounts in the Local Directory Domain
Listing Accounts in Search Policy Directory Domains
Listing Accounts in Available Directory Domains
Refreshing Account Lists
Finding Specific Accounts in a List
Using Advanced Search
Sorting Users and Groups
Shortcuts for Working with Accounts
Using Presets
Editing Multiple Accounts Simultaneously
Importing and Exporting Account Information
Chapter 4
55
55
55
56
57
57
58
59
59
60
60
60
Setting Up User Accounts
About User Accounts
Where User Accounts Are Stored
Predefined User Accounts
Administering User Accounts
Creating User Accounts
Editing User Account Information
Working with Read-Only User Accounts
Working with Guest Users
Working with Windows User Accounts
Deleting a User Account
Disabling a User Account
Contents
61
61
62
62
62
63
63
63
64
65
66
67
68
68
69
70
70
70
72
72
72
73
73
74
75
75
76
77
77
78
78
79
79
80
80
81
81
81
82
82
83
Working with Presets
Creating a Preset for User Accounts
Using Presets to Create Accounts
Renaming Presets
Editing Presets
Deleting a Preset
Working with Basic Settings
Modifying User Names
Modifying Short Names
Choosing Stable Short Names
Avoiding Duplicate Names
Modifying User IDs
Assigning a Password to a User
Assigning Administrator Privileges for a Server
Choosing a User’s Login Picture
Working with Privileges
Removing Administrative Privileges from a User
Giving a User Limited Administrative Capabilities
Giving a User Full Administrative Capabilities
Working with Advanced Settings
Enabling a User’s Calendar
Allowing a User to Log In to More Than One Computer At a Time
Choosing a Default Shell
Choosing a Password Type and Setting Password Options
Creating a Master List of Keywords
Applying Keywords to User Accounts
Editing Comments
Working with Group Settings
Choosing a User’s Primary Group
Reviewing a User’s Group Memberships
Adding a User to a Group
Removing a User from a Group
Working with Home Settings
Working with Mail Settings
Enabling Mail Service Account Options
Disabling a User’s Mail Service
Forwarding a User’s Mail
Working with Print Quota Settings
Enabling a User’s Access to All Available Print Queues
Enabling a User’s Access to Specific Print Queues
Removing a Print Quota For a Queue
Contents
5
83
84
84
85
85
86
87
87
87
87
6
Resetting a User’s Print Quota
Disabling a User’s Access to Print Queues That Enforce Quotas
Working with Info Settings
Working with Windows Settings
Changing a Windows User’s Profile Location
Changing a Windows User’s Login Script Location
Changing a Windows User’s Home Folder Drive Letter
Changing a Windows User’s Home Folder Location
Working with GUIDs
Viewing GUIDs
Chapter 5
89
89
89
90
90
91
91
92
92
93
94
94
95
95
95
96
97
98
99
99
100
100
101
101
103
Setting Up Group Accounts
About Group Accounts
How Group Accounts Track Membership
Where Group Accounts Are Stored
Predefined Group Accounts
Administering Group Accounts
Creating Group Accounts
Creating a Preset for Group Accounts
Editing Group Account Information
Creating Hierarchical Groups
Upgrading Legacy Groups
Working with Read-Only Groups
Deleting a Group
Working with Basic Settings for Groups
Naming a Group
Defining a Group ID
Choosing a Group’s Login Picture
Enabling a Group’s Web Services
Working with Member Settings for Groups
Adding Users or Groups to a Group
Removing Group Members
Working with Group Folder Settings
Specifying No Group Folder
Creating a Group Folder
Designating a Group Folder for Use by Multiple Groups
Chapter 6
105
105
106
107
107
Setting Up Computers and Computer Groups
About Computer Accounts
Creating Computer Accounts
Working with Guest Computers
Working with Windows Computers
Contents
108
108
108
108
109
110
111
111
112
112
About Computer Groups
Differences Between Computer Groups and Computer Lists
Administering Computer Groups
Creating a Computer Group
Creating a Preset for Computer Groups
Using a Computer Group Preset
Adding Computers or Computer Groups to a Computer Group
Removing Computers and Computer Groups from a Computer Group
Deleting a Computer Group
Upgrading Computer Lists to Computer Groups
Chapter 7
113
113
114
114
115
116
116
117
118
119
121
121
122
123
124
127
129
130
130
130
130
Setting Up Home Folders
About Home Folders
Hosting Home Folders for Mac OS X Clients
Hosting Home Folders for Other Clients
Distributing Home Folders Across Multiple Servers
Administering Share Points
Setting Up a Share Point
Setting Up an Automountable AFP Share Point for Home Folders
Setting Up an Automountable NFS Share Point for Home Folders
Setting Up an SMB Share Point
Administering Home Folders
Specifying No Home Folder
Creating a Home Folder for a Local User
Creating a Network Home Folder
Creating a Custom Location for Home Folders
Setting Up a Home Folder for a Windows User
Setting Disk Quotas
Setting Disk Quotas for Windows Users to Avoid Data Loss
Using Presets to Choose Default Home Folders
Moving Home Folders
Deleting Home Folders
Chapter 8
131
131
132
133
134
134
135
136
136
Managing Portable Computers
About Mobile Accounts
About Portable Home Directories
Logging In to Mobile Accounts
Resolving Sync Conflicts
About External Accounts
Logging In to External Accounts
Considerations and Strategies for Deploying Mobile Accounts
Advantages of Using Mobile Accounts
Contents
7
8
137
139
140
140
141
141
142
142
144
144
Considerations for Using Mobile Accounts
Strategies for Syncing Content
Setting Up Mobile Accounts for Use on Portable Computers
Configuring Portable Computers
Managing Mobile Clients Without Using Mobile Accounts
Unknown Mac OS X Portable Computers
Using Mac OS X Portable Computers with One Primary Local User
Using Mac OS X Portable Computers with Multiple Users
Securing Mobile Clients
Optimizing the File Server for Mobile Accounts
Chapter 9
147
148
149
149
150
151
152
152
Client Management Overview
Using Network-Visible Resources
Customizing the User Experience
The Power of Preferences
Designing the Login Experience
Choosing a Workgroup
Working with Synced Homes
Improving Workflow
Chapter 10
155
155
156
159
159
160
160
161
162
162
163
163
164
165
167
168
168
169
170
171
171
172
Managing Preferences
Using Workgroup Manager to Manage Preferences
Understanding Managed Preference Interactions
Understanding Hierarchical Preference Management
Setting the Permanence of Management
Caching Preferences
Preference Management Basics
Managing User Preferences
Managing Group Preferences
Managing Computer Preferences
Managing Computer Group Preferences
Disabling Management for Specific Preferences
Managing Access to Applications
Controlling User Access to Specific Applications and Folders
Allowing Specific Dashboard Widgets
Disabling Front Row
Allowing Legacy Users to Open Specific Applications and Folders
Managing Classic Preferences
Selecting Classic Startup Options
Choosing a Classic System Folder
Allowing Special Actions During Restart
Controlling Access to Classic Apple Menu Items
Contents
173
174
174
174
175
176
177
177
178
179
180
181
182
182
183
183
184
184
185
185
185
186
186
187
187
188
189
189
191
192
193
194
196
197
198
199
200
200
201
201
202
Adjusting Classic Sleep Settings
Maintaining Consistent User Preferences for Classic
Managing Dock Preferences
Controlling the User’s Dock
Providing Easy Access to Group Folders
Adding Items to a User’s Dock
Preventing Users from Adding or Deleting Dock Items
Managing Energy Saver Preferences
Using Sleep and Wake Settings for Desktop Computers
Setting Energy Saver Settings for Portable Computers
Displaying Battery Status to Users
Scheduling Automatic Startup, Shutdown, or Sleep
Managing Finder Preferences
Setting Up Simple Finder
Keeping Disks and Servers from Appearing on the User’s Desktop
Controlling the Behavior of Finder Windows
Hiding the Alert Message When a User Empties the Trash
Making Filename Extensions Visible
Controlling User Access to Remote Servers
Controlling User Access to an iDisk
Preventing Users from Ejecting Discs
Hiding the Burn Disc Command in the Finder
Controlling User Access to Folders
Removing Restart and Shut Down from the Apple Menu
Adjusting the Appearance and Arrangement of Desktop Items
Adjusting the Appearance of Finder Window Contents
Managing Login Preferences
Changing the Appearance of the Login Window
Configuring Miscellaneous Login Options
Choosing Who Can Log In
Customizing the Workgroups Displayed at Login
Enabling the Use of Login and Logout Scripts
Choosing a Login or Logout Script
Automatically Opening Items After a User Logs In
Providing Access to a User’s Network Home Folder
Providing Easy Access to the Group Share Point
Managing Media Access Preferences
Controlling Access to CDs, DVDs, and Recordable Discs
Controlling Access to Hard Drives, Disks, and Disk Images
Ejecting Removable Media Automatically When a User Logs Out
Managing Mobility Preferences
Contents
9
202
203
204
205
207
208
209
210
211
212
212
213
213
214
215
215
216
216
217
217
217
218
219
220
221
221
222
222
223
223
224
224
225
227
227
228
228
230
230
231
231
10
Creating a Mobile Account
Preventing the Creation of a Mobile Account
Manually Removing Mobile Accounts from Computers
Enabling FileVault for Mobile Accounts
Selecting the Location of a Mobile Account
Creating External Accounts
Setting Expiration Periods for Mobile Accounts
Choosing Folders to Sync at Login and Logout, or in the Background
Stopping Files from Syncing for a Mobile Account
Setting the Background Sync Frequency
Showing Mobile Account Status in the User’s Menu Bar
Managing Network Preferences
Configuring Proxy Servers by Port
Allowing Users to Bypass Proxy Servers for Specific Domains
Enabling Passive FTP Mode
Disabling Internet Sharing
Disabling AirPort
Disabling Bluetooth
Managing Parental Controls Preferences
Hiding Profanity in Dictionary
Preventing Access to Adult Websites
Allowing Access Only to Specific Websites
Setting Time Limits and Curfews on Computer Usage
Managing Printing Preferences
Making Printers Available to Users
Preventing Users from Modifying the Printer List
Restricting Access to Printers Connected to a Computer
Setting a Default Printer
Restricting Access to Printers
Adding a Page Footer to All Printouts
Managing Software Update Preferences
Managing Access to System Preferences
Managing Time Machine Preferences
Managing Universal Access Preferences
Adjusting the User’s Display Settings
Setting a Visual Alert
Adjusting Keyboard Accessibility Options
Adjusting Mouse and Pointer Responsiveness
Enabling Universal Access Shortcuts
Allowing Devices for Users with Special Needs
Using the Preference Editor with Preference Manifests
Contents
232
234
235
236
237
Chapter 11
239
239
239
240
241
242
242
242
242
242
243
243
243
243
244
245
245
245
245
245
245
246
246
246
247
247
247
247
248
248
249
249
249
250
250
Adding to the Preference Editor’s List
Editing Application Preferences with the Preference Editor
Removing an Application’s Managed Preferences in the Preference Editor
Using the Preference Editor to Manage Core Services
Using the Preference Editor to Manage Safari
Solving Problems
Diagnosing Common Network Issues
Testing Your Network’s Time and Time Zones
Testing Your DNS Service
Testing Your DHCP Service
Solving Account Problems
If You Want to Use Earlier Versions of Workgroup Manager
If You Can’t Edit an Account Using Workgroup Manager
If Users Can’t See Their Names in the Login Window
If You Can’t Unlock an LDAP Directory
If You Can’t Modify a User’s Open Directory Password
If You Can‘t Change a User’s Password Type to Open Directory
If You Can’t Assign Server Administrator Privileges
If Users Can’t Log In or Authenticate
If Users Relying on a Password Server Can’t Log In
If Users Can’t Log In with Accounts in a Shared Directory Domain
If Users Can’t Access Their Home Folders
If Users Can’t Change Their Passwords
If Users Can’t Authenticate Using Single Sign-On or Kerberos
Problems with a Primary or Backup Domain Controller
If a Windows User Can’t Log in to the Windows Domain
If a Windows User Has No Home Folder
If a Windows User’s Profile Settings Revert to Defaults
If a Windows User Loses the Contents of the My Documents Folder
Solving Preference Management Problems
Testing Your Managed Client Settings
If Users Don’t See a List of Workgroups at Login
If Users Can’t Open Files
If Users Can’t Add Printers to a Printer List
If Login Items Added by a User Don’t Open
If Items Placed in the Dock by a User Are Missing
If a User’s Dock Has Duplicate Items
If Users See a Question Mark in the Dock
If Users See a Message About an Unexpected Error
If You Can’t Manage Network Views
Contents
11
12
Appendix
251
251
252
252
253
253
254
255
256
Glossary
257
Index
267
Importing and Exporting Account Information
Understanding What You Can Import and Export
Limitations for Importing and Exporting Passwords
Maintaining GUIDs When Importing from Earlier Versions of Mac OS X Server
Archiving the Open Directory Master
Using Workgroup Manager to Import Accounts
Using Workgroup Manager to Export Accounts
Using XML Files Created with Mac OS X Server v10.1 or Earlier
Using XML Files Created with AppleShare IP 6.3
Contents
Preface
About This Guide
This guide explains how to use Workgroup Manager to set up
and manage accounts and preferences for clients.
Mac OS X Server includes Workgroup Manager, a user management tool you can use to
create and manage accounts.
When managing accounts, you can define core account settings like name, password,
home folder location, and group membership. You can also manage preferences,
allowing you to customize the user’s experience, granting or restricting access to his or
her own computer’s settings and to network resources.
Workgroup Manager works closely with a directory domain. Directory domains are like
databases but are specifically designed for storing account information and handling
authentication.
What’s New in Workgroup Manager
 Computer accounts and computer groups. You can create computer accounts for
individual computers. By managing computer accounts individually, you can fully
customize preference management settings for those computers.
You can create computer groups composed of these individual computer accounts,
or of hierarchical groups. Managed preferences for a parent computer group in a
hierarchical group also apply to child computer groups.
The addition of computer accounts and computer groups eases administration and
increases flexibility. For more information, see Chapter 6, “Setting Up Computers and
Computer Groups.”
 Improved mobile accounts. Mobile accounts are now more secure, efficient, and
portable.
You can protect mobile accounts with FileVault. You can set account expiry options
so that local home folders are deleted after a period of inactivity. You can also create
mobile accounts on an external drive, so users can still access a synced home folder
with cached managed preferences even when they don’t have their computers.
13
You can enable these features by managing Mobility preferences. For more
information, see Chapter 8, “Managing Portable Computers.”
 New managed preferences. Preferences now let you manage Parental Controls,
Dashboard, Front Row, and Time Machine. Existing preferences have been enhanced,
using embedded and detached signatures to prevent the launching of unapproved
applications, giving you more control over the login window, and letting you create
page footers on printed documents. For more information, see Chapter 10,
“Managing Preferences.”
What’s in This Guide
This guide includes the following chapters:
 Chapter 1, “User Management Overview,” highlights important concepts, introduces
user management tools, and tells you where to find additional information about
user management and related topics.
 Chapter 2, “Getting Started with User Management,” provides planning and setup
information to create a user management environment.
 Chapter 3, “Getting Started with Workgroup Manager,” describes how to set up
Workgroup Manager and use its core features.
 Chapters 4, 5, and 6 explain how to use Workgroup Manager to set up users, groups,
computers, and computer groups.
 Chapter 7, “Setting Up Home Folders,” covers creating home folders.
 Chapter 8, “Managing Portable Computers,” details considerations for managing
portable computers.
 Chapter 9, “Client Management Overview,” introduces client management tools and
concepts, such as how to customize a user’s work environment and provide user
access to network resources.
 Chapter 10, “Managing Preferences,” describes how to use Workgroup Manager to
control preference settings for users, groups, computers, and computer groups that
use Mac OS X.
 Chapter 11, “Solving Problems,” helps you address issues involving account creation,
home folder maintenance, preference management, and client setup, and also helps
you solve problems encountered by managed clients.
In addition, the appendix, “Importing and Exporting Account Information,” provides
information you’ll need when you want to transfer account information to or from an
external file.
Finally, the glossary defines terms you’ll encounter as you read this guide.
Note: Because Apple periodically releases new versions and updates to its software,
images shown in this book may be different from what you see on your screen.
14
Preface About This Guide
Using Onscreen Help
You can get task instructions onscreen in the Help Viewer application while you’re
managing Leopard Server. You can view help on a server or an administrator computer.
(An administrator computer is a Mac OS X computer with Leopard Server
administration software installed on it.)
To get help for an advanced configuration of Leopard Server:
m Open Server Admin or Workgroup Manager and then:
 Use the Help menu to search for a task you want to perform.
 Choose Help > Server Admin Help or Help > Workgroup Manager Help to browse
and search the help topics.
The onscreen help contains instructions taken from Server Administration and other
advanced administration guides described in “Mac OS X Server Administration Guides,”
next.
To see the most recent server help topics:
m Make sure the server or administrator computer is connected to the Internet while
you’re getting help.
Help Viewer automatically retrieves and caches the most recent server help topics from
the Internet. When not connected to the Internet, Help Viewer displays cached help
topics.
Preface About This Guide
15
Mac OS X Server Administration Guides
Getting Started covers installation and setup for standard and workgroup configurations
of Mac OS X Server. For advanced configurations, Server Administration covers planning,
installation, setup, and general server administration. A suite of additional guides, listed
below, covers advanced planning, setup, and management of individual services. You
can get these guides in PDF format from the Mac OS X Server documentation website:
www.apple.com/server/documentation
16
This guide ...
tells you how to:
Getting Started and
Installation & Setup Worksheet
Install Mac OS X Server and set it up for the first time.
Command-Line Administration
Install, set up, and manage Mac OS X Server using UNIX commandline tools and configuration files.
File Services Administration
Share selected server volumes or folders among server clients
using the AFP, NFS, FTP, and SMB protocols.
iCal Service Administration
Set up and manage iCal shared calendar service.
iChat Service Administration
Set up and manage iChat instant messaging service.
Mac OS X Security Configuration
Make Mac OS X computers (clients) more secure, as required by
enterprise and government customers.
Mac OS X Server Security
Configuration
Make Mac OS X Server and the computer it’s installed on more
secure, as required by enterprise and government customers.
Mail Service Administration
Set up and manage IMAP, POP, and SMTP mail services on the
server.
Network Services Administration
Set up, configure, and administer DHCP, DNS, VPN, NTP, IP firewall,
NAT, and RADIUS services on the server.
Open Directory Administration
Set up and manage directory and authentication services, and
configure clients to access directory services.
Podcast Producer Administration
Set up and manage Podcast Producer service to record, process,
and distribute podcasts.
Print Service Administration
Host shared printers and manage their associated queues and print
jobs.
QuickTime Streaming and
Broadcasting Administration
Capture and encode QuickTime content. Set up and manage
QuickTime streaming service to deliver media streams live or on
demand.
Server Administration
Perform advanced installation and setup of server software, and
manage options that apply to multiple services or to the server as a
whole.
System Imaging and Software
Update Administration
Use NetBoot, NetInstall, and Software Update to automate the
management of operating system and other software used by
client computers.
Upgrading and Migrating
Use data and service settings from an earlier version of Mac OS X
Server or Windows NT.
Preface About This Guide
This guide ...
tells you how to:
User Management
Create and manage user accounts, groups, and computers. Set up
managed preferences for Mac OS X clients.
Web Technologies Administration
Set up and manage web technologies, including web, blog,
webmail, wiki, MySQL, PHP, Ruby on Rails, and WebDAV.
Xgrid Administration and High
Performance Computing
Set up and manage computational clusters of Xserve systems and
Mac computers.
Mac OS X Server Glossary
Learn about terms used for server and storage products.
Viewing PDF Guides Onscreen
While reading the PDF version of a guide onscreen:
 Show bookmarks to see the guide’s outline, and click a bookmark to jump to the
corresponding section.
 Search for a word or phrase to see a list of places where it appears in the document.
Click a listed place to see the page where it occurs.
 Click a cross-reference to jump to the referenced section. Click a web link to visit the
website in your browser.
Printing PDF Guides
If you want to print a guide, you can take these steps to save paper and ink:
 Save ink or toner by not printing the cover page.
 Save color ink on a color printer by looking in the panes of the Print dialog for an
option to print in grays or black and white.
 Reduce the bulk of the printed document and save paper by printing more than one
page per sheet of paper. In the Print dialog, change Scale to 115% (155% for Getting
Started). Then choose Layout from the untitled pop-up menu. If your printer supports
two-sided (duplex) printing, select one of the Two-Sided options. Otherwise, choose
2 from the Pages per Sheet pop-up menu, and optionally choose Single Hairline from
the Border menu. (If you’re using Mac OS X version 10.4 or earlier, the Scale setting is
in the Page Setup dialog and the Layout settings are in the Print dialog.)
You may want to enlarge the printed pages even if you don’t print double sided,
because the PDF page size is smaller than standard printer paper. In the Print dialog or
Page Setup dialog, try changing Scale to 115% (155% for Getting Started, which has CDsize pages).
Preface About This Guide
17
Getting Documentation Updates
Periodically, Apple posts revised help pages and new editions of guides. Some revised
help pages update the latest editions of the guides.
 To view new onscreen help topics for a server application, make sure your server or
administrator computer is connected to the Internet and click “Latest help topics” or
“Staying current” in the main help page for the application.
 To download the latest guides in PDF format, go to the Mac OS X Server
documentation website:
www.apple.com/server/documentation
Getting Additional Information
For more information, consult these resources:
 Read Me documents—important updates and special information. Look for them on
the server discs.
 Mac OS X Server website (www.apple.com/server/macosx)—gateway to extensive
product and technology information.
 Mac OS X Server Support website (www.apple.com/support/macosxserver)—access to
hundreds of articles from Apple’s support organization.
 Apple Discussions website (discussions.apple.com)—a way to share questions,
knowledge, and advice with other administrators.
 Apple Mailing Lists website (www.lists.apple.com)—subscribe to mailing lists so you
can communicate with other administrators using email.
18
Preface About This Guide
1
User Management Overview
1
This chapter introduces user management concepts and
describes the applications used to manage accounts and
privileges.
User management encompasses everything from setting up accounts for network
access and creating home folders, to fine-tuning the user experience by managing
preferences and settings for users, groups, computers and computer groups. Mac OS X
Server provides tools for accomplishing these tasks and more.
Tools for User Management
User management tools and technologies in Mac OS X Server include Workgroup
Manager, Server Admin, NetBoot, and NetInstall.
Workgroup Manager
Workgroup Manager is a powerful tool that delivers features for comprehensive
management of Macintosh clients.
You can use Workgroup Manager on a computer with Mac OS X or Mac OS X Server
installed.
Workgroup Manager provides a centralized method of managing Mac OS X computers,
controlling access to software and removable media, and providing a consistent,
personalized experience for users at different levels, whether they’re beginners in a
classroom or advanced users in an office.
You use Workgroup Manager to create user accounts and set up groups to provide
convenient access to resources. You can:
 Use account settings and managed preferences to achieve the level of administrative
control you need, while making the user experience more efficient
 Manage Finder, login, media access, and print settings
 Control access to computers and restrict the applications allowed to run on them
19
Using Workgroup Manager with Mac OS X Server services, you can:
 Customize the work environments of network users by organizing their desktop
resources and personal files
 Enable services that require user accounts, such as mail, file sharing, iChat service,
and web service
 Share system resources, such as printers and computers, maximizing their availability
and ensuring that disk space and printer usage remains equitably shared
To get started with Workgroup Manager, see Chapter 3, “Getting Started with
Workgroup Manager.”
Server Admin
The Server Admin application provides access to various tools and services that play a
role in server management.
After installing the Mac OS X Server software, use Server Admin to set up directory
services and establish your network. Then use Workgroup Manager to create and
manage accounts. After that, use Server Admin to set up additional services to provide
mail service, host websites, share printers, and create share points (which allow users to
share folders and files).
For information about how to use the many services managed through Server Admin,
see the service administration guides. The following table lists common server
administration tasks and includes the location of related documentation.
To
See this document
Assign permissions to folders and files in a
share point
File Services Administration
Share printers among users
Print Service Administration
Set up websites or WebDAV support on the
server
Web Technologies Administration
Provide email service for users
Mail Service Administration
Broadcast multimedia from the server in real
time
QuickTime Streaming Server Administration
Provide identical operating system and
applications folders for client computers
System Imaging and Software Update Administration
Install applications across a network
System Imaging and Software Update Administration
Share information among multiple Mac OS X
Server systems or Mac OS X computers
Open Directory Administration
For a complete list of Mac OS X Server documentation, see “Mac OS X Server
Administration Guides” on page 16.
20
Chapter 1 User Management Overview
Server Preferences
If you use the standard or workgroup configuration of Mac OS X Server, you can use
Server Preferences to configure key features of collaboration and file services. Its
streamlined approach allows novice system administrators to quickly configure a server
without requiring much technical knowledge.
You can also use Server Preferences to configure user and group accounts (such as
setting passwords, enabling services, and assigning group membership). However, you
can’t use Server Preferences to manage preferences.
For more information, see Getting Started and Server Preferences Help.
NetBoot
Mac OS X computers can start up from a network-based NetBoot image, providing
quick and easy configuration of department, classroom, and individual systems, as well
as web and application servers, throughout a network.
When you update a NetBoot image, all computers using NetBoot have instant access to
the new configuration. To customize the computer setup for different groups of clients,
you can set up multiple NetBoot images. These features provide quick setup and a
customized user experience.
NetBoot simplifies administration and reduces the support normally associated with
large-scale deployments of network-based Macintosh computers. It’s ideal for an
organization with client computers that are identically configured. For example,
NetBoot can be a powerful solution for a data center that needs multiple, identically
configured web and application servers.
With NetBoot, you can quickly configure and update client computers by updating a
NetBoot image stored on the server. NetBoot images contain the operating system and
application folders for all clients on the server, so that changes made on the server are
reflected on the clients when they restart. Systems that are compromised or otherwise
altered can be instantly restored by restarting them.
You use System Image Utility to create and modify NetBoot images, and then use
NetBoot to deploy NetBoot images.
For more information about these tools, or about installing an operating system over a
network, see System Imaging and Software Update Administration.
NetInstall
NetInstall is a centralized software installation service that lets you use installation
images to selectively and automatically install, restore, or upgrade network-based
Macintosh systems. Those images can contain the latest version of Mac OS X, a
software update, site-licensed or custom applications, or configuration scripts.
Chapter 1 User Management Overview
21
You can use NetInstall to upgrade operating systems, install software updates and
custom software packages, or re-image desktop and portable computers. You can
create custom installation packages for various departments in an organization, such as
marketing, engineering, and sales.
Using NetInstall, it’s not necessary to use CDs or DVDs to configure a computer. All
installation files and packages reside on the server.
Use NetInstall to run pre- and post-installation scripts to perform system commands
before or after the installation of a software package or system image.
To create NetInstall packages, use System Image Utility or PackageMaker. Then use
NetBoot to deploy NetInstall packages. For more information about using these tools
with NetInstall, see System Imaging and Software Update Administration.
Command-Line Tools
Mac OS X Server v10.5 includes several client-management command-line tools. For
example, the dscl tool allows you to view and edit account settings and manage
preferences, while the mcxquery tool reports the managed preferences that are
effective for a particular user.
Use the mcxquery tool to review how combined and overridden managed preferences
interact at the user, group, computer, or computer group level. The tool also
determines which directory domain stores those managed preference settings.
For more information about client-management command-line tools, see CommandLine Administration.
Accounts
To manage accounts, you use an administrator account. With an administrator account,
you can set up and manage the following account types:
 User accounts
 Group accounts
 Computer accounts
 Computer groups
When creating a user account, you must specify a user name and password, which is
needed to prove the user’s identity. You can also specify a user identification number
(user ID), which is useful for folder and file permissions. Other user account information
is used by various services to determine what the user is authorized to do and to
personalize the user’s environment.
In addition to the accounts you create, Mac OS X Server also has predefined user and
group accounts, some of which are reserved for use by Mac OS X.
22
Chapter 1 User Management Overview
Administrator Accounts
Users with server administration or directory domain administration privileges are
known as administrators. An administrator can be a server administrator, domain
administrator, or both.
Server administrator privileges determine whether a user can change the settings of a
particular server.
Domain administrator privileges determine the extent to which an administrator can
change account settings for users, groups, computers, and computer groups in the
directory domain.
Server Administration
Server administration privileges determine the functions available to a user when
logged in to a particular Mac OS X Server. For example, a server administrator can use
Directory Utility to make changes to a server’s search policy.
When you assign server administration privileges to a user, the user is added to the
“admin” group in the server’s local directory domain. Many Mac OS X applications—
such as Server Admin, Directory Utility, and System Preferences—use the admin group
to determine whether a particular user can perform certain administrative activities
with the application.
Local Mac OS X Computer Administration
Any user who belongs to the admin group in the local directory domain of any
Mac OS X computer has administrator privileges on that computer.
Limited Administration
You can control the extent to which a limited administrator can use Workgroup
Manager to change account data stored in a domain. For example, you can set up
directory domain privileges so your network administrator can add and remove user
accounts, but allow limited administrators to change the information for particular
users. Or, you can designate multiple limited administrators to manage different
groups.
For more information, see “Giving a User Limited Administrative Capabilities” on
page 70.
Directory Domain Administration
When you create a directory domain in Mac OS X Server, a domain administrator
account is created and added to the admin group in the domain. If you plan to connect
your directory domain to other directory domains, make sure you choose a unique
name and user ID for each domain.
Chapter 1 User Management Overview
23
When you assign full directory domain administration privileges to a user, the user is
added to the “admin” group in the directory domain. This does not grant the user local
admin privileges on the servers hosting this directory domain or on any other servers
or clients bound to this directory domain.
Each directory domain has a domain administrator account, and a domain
administrator can create additional domain administrators in the same domain. Any
user with a user account in a directory domain can be made a directory domain
administrator (an administrator of that domain).
For more information, see “Giving a User Full Administrative Capabilities” on page 72.
User Accounts
Depending on how you set up server and user accounts, you can use Mac OS X Server
to support users who log in using Mac OS X computers, Windows computers, or UNIX
computers.
Most users have an individual account used to authenticate them and control their
access to services. When you want to personalize a user’s environment, you define user,
group, computer, or computer group preferences for that user.
The term managed client or managed user refers to a user who has administratorcontrolled preferences associated with his or her account. Managed client is also used
to refer to computers or computer groups that have preferences defined for them.
To learn more about how to set up user accounts, see Chapter 4, “Setting Up User
Accounts.” To specify the preferences for user accounts, see Chapter 10, “Managing
Preferences.”
Guest Account
You can provide services for users who can’t be authenticated because they don’t have
a valid user name or password. These users are known as guest users. If your computers
run Mac OS X v10.5 or later, you can enable a guest account, which is specifically
designed for guest users.
The guest account allows anonymous access to a computer. The guest account has a
local home folder that has its contents erased when the user logs in or out of the guest
account.
The guest account is best used for common-access computers, such as those in a
library or open lab where you may not need to log user access and where the user
maintains his or her files separate from the local computer.
24
Chapter 1 User Management Overview
For some services, like Apple Filing Protocol (AFP), you can let guest users access files.
Instead of authenticating with a name and a password, a guest user connects as a
guest, not as a registered user. Guests are restricted to files and folders with
permissions set to Everyone.
Group Accounts
To ease user administration, you can create group accounts. A group is a collection of
users who have similar needs. For example, you can add all English teachers to one
group and allow that group to access certain files or folders on a volume.
Groups simplify the administration of shared resources. Instead of granting access to
various resources for each user who needs access, you can add users to a group and
then grant access to everyone in the group.
Use group account settings to control user access to folders and files. For more
information, see “Folder and File Access by Other Users” on page 28.
A group can be a member of another group. A group that contains another group is
called a parent group. The group contained in the parent group is called a hierarchical
group. Hierarchical groups are useful for inheriting access permissions and managed
preferences.
To learn more about how to set up group accounts, see Chapter 5, “Setting Up Group
Accounts.” To specify preferences for group accounts, see Chapter 10, “Managing
Preferences.”
Workgroups
When you define preferences for a group, it becomes a workgroup. A workgroup lets
you manage the work environment of group members.
Workgroup preferences are stored in the group account. For a description of
workgroup preferences, see Chapter 10, “Managing Preferences.”
Group Folders
When you define a group, you can also specify a folder for storing files that you want
group members to share. The location of the folder is stored in the group account.
You can give users permission to write to a group folder, or to change group folder
attributes in the Finder.
Computer Accounts
Computer accounts allow you to identify and manage individual computers.
To create a computer account, you need the computer’s Ethernet ID. When creating the
account, you can also associate it with an IP address. After creating the account, you
can manage its preferences or add it to a computer group.
Chapter 1 User Management Overview
25
For more information about setting up computer accounts, see Chapter 6, “Setting Up
Computers and Computer Groups.” To specify preferences for Mac OS X computer
accounts, see Chapter 10, “Managing Preferences.”
Guest Computers
Most computers on your network should have a computer account. If an unknown
computer (one that doesn’t have a computer account) connects to your network and
attempts to access services, that computer is treated as a guest. Settings chosen for the
Guest Computer account apply to unknown guest computers.
Computer Groups
A computer group is composed of one or more computer accounts or computer
groups. By combining these into a single computer group, you can apply the same
managed preferences to all its members.
To learn more about how to set up computer groups for Mac OS X client computers,
see Chapter 6, “Setting Up Computers and Computer Groups.” To specify preferences
for Mac OS X computer groups, see Chapter 10, “Managing Preferences.”
The User Experience
After you create an account for a user, the user can access server resources according
to the permissions you set.
The user experience depends on the type of user, permissions set, type of client
computer in use (such as Windows or UNIX), whether the user is a member of a group,
and whether preference management is implemented at the user, group, or computer
level.
For more information about the Mac OS X user experience, see Chapter 9, “Client
Management Overview.” Basic information about authentication, identity validation,
and information-access control is given in the following sections.
Authentication and Identity Validation
Before a user can log in or connect to a Mac OS X computer, he or she must enter a
name and password associated with a user account accessible by the computer.
A Mac OS X computer can access user accounts that are stored in a directory domain of
the computer’s search policy:
 A directory domain stores information about users and resources. It is like a database
that a computer accesses to retrieve configuration information.
 A search policy is a list of directory domains that the computer searches when it
needs configuration information, starting with the local directory domain on the
user’s computer.
26
Chapter 1 User Management Overview
The following illustration shows a user logging in to an account in a directory domain
in the computer’s search policy.
Log in to
Mac OS X
Directory domains
in search policy
After login, the user can connect to a remote server to access its services (if the user’s
account is located in the server’s search policy).
Connect to
Mac OS X Server
Directory domains
in search policy
If Mac OS X finds a user account containing the name entered by the user, it attempts
to validate the password associated with the account. If the password is validated, the
user is authenticated and the login or connection process is completed.
Mac OS X Server validates passwords using Kerberos, Open Directory Password Server,
shadow passwords, and crypt passwords.
For more information about types of directory domains and instructions for
configuring search policies, see Open Directory Administration. This guide also discusses
authentication methods and provides instructions for setting up user authentication
options.
Information Access Control
To control access to information, a universal ID called a globally unique identifier (GUID)
provides user and group identity for access control list (ACL) permissions.
An ACL is a list of access control entries (ACEs), each specifying the permissions to be
granted or denied to a group or user, and how these permissions are propagated
throughout a folder hierarchy. The GUID also associates a user with group and
hierarchical group memberships.
Chapter 1 User Management Overview
27
Prior to Mac OS X v10.4, Mac OS X used user ID and POSIX permissions to track folder
and file permissions. In Mac OS X, folders or files include POSIX permissions for entities
such as:
 Owner
 Group
 Everyone else
Because GUIDs are 128-bit values, duplicate GUIDs are extremely unlikely. Unlike ACL
permissions, POSIX permissions can cause file-ownership and group-membership
issues when multiple users have identical short names or user IDs. When using GUIDs,
users with the same short name or user ID can have different ACL permissions.
The introduction of GUIDs does not change or remove POSIX permissions, so it does
not affect the interoperability of Mac OS X with legacy UNIX systems or other operating
systems.
Folder and File Owner Access
When a folder or file is created, the file system stores the user ID of the user who
created the file or folder as its owner. By default, when a user with that user ID accesses
the folder or file, he or she can read and write to it. Also, any process started by the
user who creates the file or folder can read and write to any files associated with that
same user ID.
If you change a user ID, the user may not be able to modify or access files and folders
he or she created. Likewise, if the user logs in as a user whose user ID is different from
the user ID he or she used to create the files and folders, the user no longer has owner
permissions for those files and folders.
Folder and File Access by Other Users
The use of GUIDs in conjuction with ACLs determines the files that users and groups
can access. Also, the user ID, in conjunction with a group ID, is used to control access.
Every user belongs to a primary group. The primary group ID for a user is stored in the
user’s account. When a user accesses a folder or file and the user isn’t the owner, the file
system checks the file’s group permissions, and the following occurs:
 If the user’s primary group ID matches the ID of the group associated with the file,
the user inherits group permissions.
 If the user’s primary group ID doesn’t match the file’s group ID, Mac OS X searches for
the group account that has permission to access the file. When the group is found, all
members of that group and subsequent hierarchical groups are given permission to
that file.
 If neither of these cases apply, the user’s access permissions default to the generic
“everyone.”
28
Chapter 1 User Management Overview
ACLs and POSIX Permissions
Every file and folder has POSIX permissions. Unless an administrator assigns ACL
permissions, POSIX permissions continue to define user access. If you assign ACL
permissions, they take precedence over standard POSIX permissions.
If a file has ACL permissions, but none apply to the user, the POSIX permissions
determine user access. If a file has multiple ACEs that apply to a user, the first
applicable ACE takes precedence, and subsequent ACEs are ignored.
For more information about ACL and POSIX permissions, see File Services Administration.
SIDs and Windows Interoperability
Mac OS X computers work seamlessly with Windows computers because Mac OS X
assigns a security identifier (SID) to a process or file when it assigns a GUID to the
process or file. A SID is a Windows identifier that has similar functionality to a GUID on
a Mac OS X computer.
When Windows users access share points using Server Message Block (SMB), they
transfer SIDs, not GUIDs. When Mac OS X Server receives SIDs, it retrieves the user
accounts with the corresponding GUIDs.
Windows servers use Active Directory as their directory domain. If a user account is
moved to a different Active Directory domain, it receives a new SID but not a new
GUID. The user still has access permissions assigned to old SIDs because Active
Directory keeps track of SID history in user accounts.
Chapter 1 User Management Overview
29
30
Chapter 1 User Management Overview
2
Getting Started with
User Management
2
This chapter provides information about planning and setting
up a user management environment.
To create an effective user management environment, you must carefully plan your
network. Then, when deploying the network, you must systematically and methodically
set up your network resources.
Setup Overview
This section provides an overview of user management setup tasks, including the
sequence of stages an administrator follows to create a managed environment. Not all
steps are necessary in every case.
For a more comprehensive approach to planning, security, server setup, installation and
deployment, management, and monitoring, see Server Administration.
Step 1: Before you begin, do some planning
Analyze your users’ needs to determine which directory service configuration and
home folder setup is the most suitable. For more information, see “Planning Strategies
for User Management” on page 34.
Step 2: Set up the server infrastructure
Before deploying client computers, make sure one or more computers with Mac OS X
Server installed is set up for hosting accounts and share points. New servers come with
Mac OS X Server software preinstalled.
Set up the server so it hosts or provides access to shared directory domains. Shared
directory domains (also called shared directories) contain user, group, and computer
information you want multiple computers to access. Users whose accounts reside in a
shared directory are referred to as network users.
There are different kinds of shared directories. You can use Workgroup Manager to add
or modify accounts that reside in read/write directory domains such as an Open
Directory domain or the local directory domain.
31
Make sure that read-only directory domains (such as LDAPv2, read-only LDAPv3, or BSD
flat files) are configured to support Mac OS X Server and that they provide necessary
account data. To make the directory compatible, you must add, modify, and reorganize
directory information.
Mac OS X offers various options for authenticating users (including Windows users)
whose accounts are stored in directory domains on Mac OS X Server. In addition,
Mac OS X accesses accounts in existing directories on your network, such as an Active
Directory hosted on a Windows server.
To make resources visible throughout the network so users can access them from
different computers, use file services. Important network-visible resources include
network home folders, group folders, and other shared folders.
If some users use Windows computers, you can configure the server to provide them
with file services, domain login, and home folders.
The following administration guides describe infrastructure setup in detail:
 For installation requirements and guidelines, see Getting Started.
 For information about advanced installation and setup of server software, see Server
Administration.
 For information about directory services and authentication, see Open Directory
Administration.
 For information about how to set up file services, see File Services Administration.
Step 3: Set up an administrator computer
Because servers are usually kept in a secure, locked location, administrators typically
conduct user management tasks remotely from a Mac OS X computer. Such a
computer is referred to as an administrator computer.
Before you can use an administrator computer to create and manage accounts in a
shared directory, you must have a user account in the shared directory and you must
be a domain administrator. A domain administrator can use Workgroup Manager to
add and change accounts in an Open Directory domain or another read/write directory
domain.
To set up an administrator computer and create domain administrator accounts, see
Chapter 3, “Getting Started with Workgroup Manager.”
Step 4: Set up a home folder share point
Home folders for accounts stored in shared directories can reside in a network share
point accessible by the user’s computer.
You can set up network home folders so they can be accessed using either AFP or NFS,
or you can set up home folders for exclusive use by Windows users using SMB.
32
Chapter 2 Getting Started with User Management
For information about setting up home folders using AFP, NFS, or SMB, see Chapter 7,
“Setting Up Home Folders.”
Step 5: Create user accounts and home folders
You can use Workgroup Manager to create user accounts in directories that reside on
Mac OS X Server or in other read/write directory domains. The following sections
contain instructions for creating accounts and folders:
 To create user accounts, see Chapter 4, “Setting Up User Accounts.”
 To create mobile user accounts, see Chapter 8, “Managing Portable Computers.”
 To set up home folders, see Chapter 7, “Setting Up Home Folders.”
Step 6: Set up client computers
Mac OS X Server supports users of Mac OS X, Windows, and UNIX client computers.
For Mac OS X computers, configure the search policy of the computers so it locates
shared directory domains. For instructions, see Open Directory Administration.
For setup instructions for mobile Mac OS X computers that use AirPort to communicate
with Mac OS X Server, see Designing AirPort Extreme Networks at
http://www.apple.com/support/manuals/airport/.
You can join Windows workstations to the Mac OS X Server primary domain controller
(PDC), which is similar to the way you configure Windows workstations to join a
Windows NT server domain.
If you have more than a few Macintosh client computers to set up, consider using
NetInstall to create a system image that automates client computer setup.
For instructions, see System Imaging and Software Update Administration.
To prevent unauthorized access to client computers, secure them from local and
network threats. For information, see Mac OS X Security Configuration.
Step 7: Define user account preferences
You manage the work environment of Macintosh users whose accounts reside in a
shared domain by defining user account preferences. For information about Mac OS X
user preferences, see Chapter 9, “Client Management Overview,” and Chapter 10,
“Managing Preferences.”
Step 8: Create group accounts and group folders
Use Workgroup Manager to create group accounts in directories that reside on
Mac OS X Server and in other read/write directory domains.
You can create group folders to distribute documents and organize group member
applications. You can also set up ACLs and other access privileges to restrict a group’s
access to folders or files:
Chapter 2 Getting Started with User Management
33
 For information about how to work with Mac OS X group accounts and group
folders, see Chapter 5, “Setting Up Group Accounts.”
 For information about how to add a group folder to the dock to make it more
accessible to users, see Chapter 10, “Managing Preferences.”
 For information about setting up ACLs, see File Services Administration.
Step 9: Define group account preferences
You can manage preferences for a group account. A group account with managed
preferences is called a workgroup. For information about Mac OS X workgroups, see
Chapter 9, “Client Management Overview,” and Chapter 10, “Managing Preferences.”
Step 10: Define computer accounts, computer groups, and preferences
Use computer accounts or computer groups to manage Macintosh client computers.
 For information about creating Mac OS X computer accounts or computer groups,
see Chapter 6, “Setting Up Computers and Computer Groups.”
 For information about computer group preferences, see Chapter 9, “Client
Management Overview,” and Chapter 10, “Managing Preferences.”
Step 11: Perform ongoing account maintenance
As users come and go, and the requirements for your servers change, you must update
account information:
 For information about how to use Workgroup Manager to display accounts,
see Chapter 3, “Getting Started with Workgroup Manager.”
 For information about how to perform common tasks such as creating accounts,
disabling accounts, adding and removing users from groups, and deleting accounts,
see Chapter 4 through Chapter 6.
 For solutions to common problems, see Chapter 11, “Solving Problems.”
Planning Strategies for User Management
The following are planning activities to undertake before you implement user
management.
Analyzing Your Environment
Your environment defines your user management settings, including:
 Size and distribution of your network
 Number of users who access your network
 Type of computers used (Mac OS X or Windows)
 How client computers are used
 Which computers are mobile
 Which users should have administrator privileges
 Which users should have access to particular computers
34
Chapter 2 Getting Started with User Management
 What services and resources users need (such as mail or access to data storage)
 How to divide users into groups (for example, by class topic or job function)
 How to group computers (such as all computers in a public lab)
Identifying Directory Services Requirements
Identify the directories where you’ll store user and group accounts, computers, and
computer groups:
 Set up an Open Directory master and replicas to host a Lightweight Directory Access
Protocol (LDAP) directory for storing other user accounts, group accounts,
computers, and computer groups on your network. For information about password
handling options, see Open Directory Administration.
 If you have an earlier version of an Apple server, you might be able to migrate
existing records. For available options, see Updating and Migrating.
 If you have an LDAP or Active Directory server set up, you might be able to use
existing account records. For details about accessing existing directories, see Open
Directory Administration.
For information about working with Open Directory groups and computer groups,
see Chapter 5, “Setting Up Group Accounts,” and Chapter 6, “Setting Up Computers
and Computer Groups.”
Note: If all domains are not finalized when you’re ready to start adding user and group
accounts, add the accounts to any directory domain that exists on your server (the local
directory domain is always available). You can move users and groups to another
directory domain later by using your server’s export and import functions.
Passwords are not retained when exporting and importing account information. For
more information, see the appendix, “Importing and Exporting Account Information.”
Determining Server and Storage Requirements
When planning for server needs, you must first acquire the following information:
 The number of concurrently connected computers, which affects network traffic and
server response times
 The number of user accounts, which affects the amount of storage space required to
store user files
Directory services, including authentication and user management, require one Open
Directory master or replica for every 1000 computers, regardless of the number of total
user accounts. For example, if you have 400 computers and 2000 users, you need one
Open Directory master for authentication and account management. If you have 1800
computers and 2500 users, you need one Open Directory master and one Open
Directory replica.
Chapter 2 Getting Started with User Management
35
If you use network home folders, they require one dedicated home folder server for
every 150 concurrent connections. If you use mobile accounts with portable home
directories, you need one dedicated home folder server for every 300 concurrent
connections.
For example, if you have 400 computers and 2000 users on network home folders, you
need three dedicated home folders servers. If those users are deployed with portable
home folders, you need two dedicated home folder servers.
If you have 1800 computers and 2500 users, you should have 12 dedicated home folder
servers for network home folders and 6 dedicated servers for portable home
directories.
Group folders require one server for every 450 concurrent connections. For example, if
you have 400 computers, you need one group folder server. For 1800 computers, you
need four group folder servers.
Storage requirements vary because users have varying storage needs. Some users may
store very few files in their home folders, while other users fill theirs. A simple guideline
is to start with 1 gigabyte (GB) of storage per user account, but allow for expansion.
Don’t establish disk quotas or other space restrictions unless you have closely
examined your users' storage needs. For example, 2000 user accounts might only need
2 terabytes (TB) of storage over the course of several years. However, if you give that
same 2000 users their own computers with 60 GB drives, they could use as much as 120
TB of storage. In this case, every user fills his or her own drive, and portable home
directory syncing mirrors files from his or her local home folder to the network file
server.
Choosing a Home Folder Structure
When deploying computers, one of the most crucial decisions is choosing how and
where to host home folders.
There are three types of home folders: a local home folder, a network home folder, and
a portable home directory. These home folders are typically tied, respectively, to local,
network, and mobile accounts.
When considering your home folder structure, keep the following in mind:
 Users with local accounts typically have local home folders.
When users save files in local home folders, the files are stored locally. To save the
files over the network, users must connect to the network and upload the file.
Using local home folders provides the least amount of control over a user’s managed
preferences, and is also not inherently tied to a network account.
 Users with network accounts typically have network home folders.
36
Chapter 2 Getting Started with User Management
When users save files in network home folders, the files are stored on the server.
Additionally, when users access home folders, even for common tasks like caching
webpages, the users’ computers must retrieve these files from the server.
Using network home folders provides complete control over a user’s managed
preferences. When users are not connected to the network, they can’t access their
accounts or home folders.
 Users with mobile accounts have both local and network home folders, which
combine to form portable home directories.
When users save files, the files are stored in a local home folder. The portable home
directory is a synced subset of a user’s local and network home folders. You can
configure which folders to sync and how frequently to sync them.
Mobile accounts also cache authentication information and managed preferences. If
you sync key folders, a user can work on and off the network, and experience a
seamless work environment.
If you choose not to sync portable home directories, mobile accounts are then very
similar to local accounts, except that mobile accounts have managed preferences.
 Users with mobile accounts who access their accounts on computers running
Mac OS X v10.5 or later can use portable home directories with an external drive.
When users connect external drives to a computer (including computers off of the
network), they can still access their accounts. These types of mobile accounts are
called external accounts.
An external account stores its local home folder on the external drive and doesn’t
create a local home folder on the computer it’s accessed from.
Except for the location of the local home folder, external accounts are treated like
mobile accounts, with the same kinds of syncing, cached authentication, and
managed preference benefits.
Note: If a user’s mobile account is hosted in an Active Directory domain, the mobile
account does not have a portable home directory. However, it does have a local home
folder and a network home folder, and caches authentication.
Mobile accounts and external accounts are described in detail in Chapter 8,
“Managing Portable Computers.”
Devising a Home Folder Distribution Strategy
Determine which users need home folders and identify the computers where you want
these home folders to reside. For performance reasons, avoid using network home
folders over network connections slower than 100 megabits per second (Mbit/s).
Chapter 2 Getting Started with User Management
37
A user’s network home folder doesn’t need to be stored on the same server as the
directory containing the user’s account. In fact, distributing directory domains and
home folders across multiple servers can help balance your network load. This scenario
is described in “Distributing Home Folders Across Multiple Servers” on page 115.
You may want to store home folders for users with last names beginning with A
through F on one computer, G through J on another, and so on. Or, you may want to
store home folders on a Mac OS X Server computer but store user and group accounts
on an LDAP or Active Directory server.
Before creating users, pick a distribution strategy. If your distribution strategy fails while
using it, you can move home folders, but doing so can require changing a large
number of user records.
When determining the access protocol to use for home folders, AFP offers the greatest
level of security. If you are hosting home folders on UNIX servers that do not support
AFP, you may want to use NFS. If you are hosting home folders on Windows servers,
you may want to use SMB.
For more information about how to use these protocols for home folders, see “About
Home Folders” on page 113.
Identifying Groups
Identify users with similar requirements and consider assigning them to groups.
See Chapter 5, “Setting Up Group Accounts.”
Determining Administrator Requirements
With Mac OS X v10.5, you don’t need to give full domain administrator privileges to all
users who need only some administrative control. Instead, you can give them limited
administrative privileges.
Decide which users will have full administrative control over accounts and which users
will perform only a few administrative duties.
The domain administrator has the greatest amount of control over other user accounts
and privileges. The domain administrator can create user accounts, group accounts,
computer accounts, and computer groups, and can assign settings, privileges, and
managed preferences for them. He or she can also create other server administrator
accounts, or give specific users (for example, teachers or technical staff ) administrator
privileges in certain directory domains.
Limited administrators can perform common administrative tasks for specified users
and groups. They can manage user preferences, edit managed preferences, edit user
information, and edit group membership. Giving users limited administrative privileges
helps them to be more self-sufficient, without putting your organization at risk.
38
Chapter 2 Getting Started with User Management
For example, you might want to give student lab assistants the ability to manage user
passwords for a small group of students, while giving teachers the ability to manage
user passwords, edit user information, and edit group information for all of their
classes.
Because users can be given limited administrator privileges, consider which users
require domain administrator privileges. A well-planned hierarchy of administrators and
users with special administrator privileges helps you distribute system administration
tasks and makes workflow and network management more efficient.
When you use Server Assistant to configure your server, specify a password for the
owner/administrator. This password also becomes the root password for your server.
Only a few server administrators need to know the root password, but sometimes it’s
necessary when using command-line tools (such as CreateGroupFolder).
Administrators who don’t need root access can use Workgroup Manager to create an
administrator user with a password different from the root password.
Use the root password with caution and store it in a secure location. The root user has
full access to the system, including system files. If necessary, you can use Workgroup
Manager to change the root password.
Chapter 2 Getting Started with User Management
39
40
Chapter 2 Getting Started with User Management
3
Getting Started with
Workgroup Manager
3
This chapter provides instructions for setting up Workgroup
Manager and using its core features.
Workgroup Manager is the primary application for managing client computers. You can
use Workgroup Manager to create accounts and manage preferences.
Configuring the Administrator’s Computer and Account
To use Workgroup Manager, you must first install the Mac OS X Server administration
tools. Before you can manage client computers, you must configure a computer for use
as an administrator computer and create a domain administrator account.
Setting Up an Administrator Computer
When you install Workgroup Manager and other administration tools on a remote
administrator computer, you do not need to physically access the server. Instead, use
this administrator computer to connect to the server and perform administrative tasks
remotely.
The computer should have Mac OS X v10.5 or later, at least 512 MB of RAM, and
1 GB of unused disk space.
For more about server and storage requirements, see “Determining Server and Storage
Requirements” on page 35.
To create and modify accounts, you must also have a domain administrator account.
To set up an administrator computer:
1 Insert the Administration Tools disc and then start the installer,
ServerAdministrationSoftware.mpkg, located in the /Installers folder.
Make sure the server administration tools you install are the same version as the
Mac OS X Server software installed on your servers. If you use older server
administration tools with a newer server version, the tools can cause errors and corrupt
data.
2 Follow the onscreen instructions.
41
3 If you are managing preferences that use specific paths to find files (such as Dock
preferences), make sure the administrator computer has the same file system structure
as each managed client computer.
This means that folder names, volumes, the location of applications, and so on should
be the same.
Creating a Domain Administrator Account
Before creating and editing accounts in a shared directory, you need a domain
administrator account in the directory. A domain administrator can use Workgroup
Manager to add and change accounts residing in an Open Directory domain, the local
directory domain, or another read/write directory domain.
To create a domain administrator account:
1 On the administrator computer, open Workgroup Manager and then authenticate as
the administrator user created during server setup.
2 Access the shared directory by clicking the globe icon and choose the directory
domain.
If you’re not authenticated, click the lock and enter the name and password of a
directory domain administrator.
3 Click New User, click Basic, and then provide basic information for the administrator.
4 Click Privileges and from the “Administration capabilities” pop-up menu choose Full.
5 Click Save.
From the Command Line
You can also create a domain administrator account using the dscl and pwpolicy
commands in Terminal. For more information, see the users and groups chapter of
Command-Line Administration.
Using Workgroup Manager
After installing the Mac OS X Server software and setting up a domain administrator
account, you can access and use Workgroup Manager for user management.
This section provides an introduction to Workgroup Manager.
Using Mac OS X Server v10.5 to Administer Earlier Versions of
Mac OS X
Servers running Mac OS X Server v10.3 or v10.4 can be administered using v10.5 server
administration tools. You can use Workgroup Manager on a computer running
Mac OS X Server v10.5 to manage Mac OS X clients running Mac OS X v10.3.9 or later.
42
Chapter 3 Getting Started with Workgroup Manager
Connecting and Authenticating to Directory Domains in Workgroup
Manager
When you install your server or set up an administrator computer, Workgroup Manager
is installed in /Applications/Server/. Use the Finder to open the application, or click its
icon in the Dock or in the toolbar of the Server Admin application.
You can view a directory domain without authenticating by choosing Server >
View Directories in Workgroup Manager. Initially, you have read-only access to
information displayed in Workgroup Manager. To make changes in a directory, you
must authenticate using a domain administrator account. This approach is most useful
when you’re administering different servers and working with different directory
domains.
To connect and authenticate to directory domains:
1 Open Workgroup Manager and when the Workgroup Manager Connect window
appears click Browse, or enter the IP address or DNS name for a server that connects to
directory domains.
2 Enter the user name and password for a domain administrator and click Connect.
3 To change directory domains while connected to a server, click the globe icon (see
below) to select a domain, then authenticate as a domain administrator by clicking the
lock icon.
Click the globe icon to select a
directory domain
Click the lock to
authenticate
4 To connect to a different server, choose Server > Connect.
Chapter 3 Getting Started with Workgroup Manager
43
Major Workgroup Manager Tasks
After login, the Accounts pane appears (see below), showing a list of user accounts.
Initially, the user accounts listed are those stored in the last directory domain of the
server’s search policy.
Computers
button
Computer
Groups button
Currently
selected domain
Click the lock to
authenticate
Groups button
Click the globe icon to
select a directory domain
Users button
Type here to search or
filter the list below
Accounts list
Here is how to get started with the primary Workgroup Manager tasks:
 To specify the directory that stores accounts you want to work with, click the globe
icon.
 To work with accounts in different directories at the same time or to work with
different views of accounts in a particular directory, open multiple Workgroup
Manager windows by clicking the New Window icon in the toolbar or by choosing
Server > New Workgroup Manager Window.
 To administer accounts in the selected directory, click the Accounts icon in the
toolbar; then click the Users, Groups, Computers, or Computer Groups button on the
left side of the window to list the accounts that exist in the directories you are
working with.
 To filter the displayed account list, use the pop-up search menu above the accounts
list.
 To work with managed preferences, select an account (or several accounts) and then
click the Preferences icon in the toolbar.
 To import or export user and group accounts, choose Server > Import or Server >
Export.
44
Chapter 3 Getting Started with Workgroup Manager
 To view onscreen help, use the Help menu. The Help menu gives you access to help
for administration tasks available through Workgroup Manager, as well as other
Mac OS X Server topics.
 To open Server Admin so you can monitor and work with services on a server, click
the Server Admin icon in the Workgroup Manager toolbar.
For information about Server Admin, see Server Administration.
Modifying Workgroup Manager Preferences
You can change Workgroup Manager preferences to customize how records are
displayed and to enable the Inspector, which is an advanced directory domain editor.
Workgroup Manager includes the following preferences.
Preference
Description
Resolve DNS names when
possible
(Default: on) Disabling this preference causes Workgroup Manager
to stop resolving DNS names when writing data. If you’re having
DNS issues, disabling this can help mitigate the effect of those DNS
issues (but you should fix those issues).
Show “All Records” tab and
inspector
(Default: off ) Enabling this preference enables the Inspector. The
Inspector allows you to see and edit directory data not otherwise
visible in Workgroup Manager. For more information, see Open
Directory Administration.
Limit search results to requested (Default: off ) When you don’t enter anything in the search field, by
records
default, Workgroup Manager lists all user records in the selected
directory domain.
Disabling this preference requires you to enter “*” (without quotes)
to list all records, which can expedite working with large directory
domains in Workgroup Manager (because Workgroup Manager
doesn’t automatically list all records).
List a maximum of # records
(Default: off ) Enabling this preference limits the maximum number
of search results to a number you specify.
Enabling this preference and setting a reasonable maximum
number can improve Workgroup Manager performance. However,
setting the number too low can cause you to overlook the total
number of matches.
To set Workgroup Manager preferences:
1 In Workgroup Manager, choose Workgroup Manager > Preferences.
2 Select the preferences you want to change.
3 To reset the warning messages you’ve marked as “Don’t show again,” click “Reset ‘Don’t
show again’ messages.”
4 Click OK.
Chapter 3 Getting Started with Workgroup Manager
45
Finding and Listing Accounts
Workgroup Manager provides several methods for finding and listing user accounts,
group accounts, computer accounts, and computer groups.
Working with Account Lists in Workgroup Manager
In Workgroup Manager, user accounts, group accounts, computer accounts, and
computer groups are listed on the left side of the Workgroup Manager window.
The following settings influence the contents and appearance of the list:
 Workgroup Manager preferences control the maximum number of records shown
and whether you want to enable the Inspector (which allows you to view or edit raw
directory data). To set up Workgroup Manager preferences, choose Workgroup
Manager > Preferences.
 The list reflects the directory you’ve chosen from the globe icon. If you connect to
the directory server, the accounts in the parent directory domain are listed. If you do
not connect to the directory server, local accounts are listed.
The listed domains are the local directory domain, all directory domains in the
server’s search policy, and all available directory domains (domains the server is
configured to access, even if not in the search policy). For instructions on configuring
a server to access directory domains, see Open Directory Administration.
After you choose directory domains, all accounts residing in those domains are listed.
 You can list users, groups, computers or computer groups by clicking the Users,
Groups, Computers, or Computer Groups buttons above the search filter.
 To sort a list, click a column heading. An arrow shows the sort order (ascending or
descending), which you can reverse by clicking the column heading again.
 You can search for specific items in the list by typing in the field above the accounts
list. To choose the search criteria, use the Search (magnifying glass) pop-up menu.
To work with accounts, select them. Settings for the selected accounts appear in the
pane to the right of the list. Available settings vary, depending on which pane you’re
viewing.
Listing Accounts in the Local Directory Domain
When you list accounts in the local directory domain, you list all local accounts. These
local accounts can only be accessed by users of the local computer or server, not by
users of client computers.
Services and programs running on a server can access the server’s local directory
domain. Programs running on a client computer, such as the client computer’s login
window, can’t access the server’s local directory domain.
If a server hosts file services, users with accounts from the server’s local directory
domain can authenticate with the file services.
46
Chapter 3 Getting Started with Workgroup Manager
User accounts from the server’s local directory domain can’t be used to authenticate in
the login window on client computers, because the login window is a process running
on the client computer.
To list accounts in a server’s local directory domain:
1 In Workgroup Manager, connect to the server hosting the domain; then click the globe
icon and choose Local.
For servers running Mac OS X Server v10.5 or later, the local directory domain is listed
as /Local/Default.
2 Choose from the following:
Â
Â
Â
Â
To view user accounts, click the Users button.
To view group accounts, click the Groups button.
To view computer accounts, click the Computers button.
To view computer groups, click the Computer Groups button.
3 To work with a particular account, select it.
Changing account settings or preferences requires server administrator privileges, so
you may need to click the lock to authenticate.
Listing Accounts in Search Policy Directory Domains
A computer’s search policy specifies which directory domains Open Directory can
access. The search policy also specifies the order in which Open Directory accesses
directory domains. By listing accounts in a search policy, you list the accounts on all
directory domains in the search policy.
You can’t edit accounts when listing accounts in a search policy.
For more information about how to set up search policies, see Open Directory
Administration.
To list accounts in search policy domains of the server you’re working with:
1 In Workgroup Manager, connect to a server that has a search policy containing the
directory domains of interest.
2 Click the globe icon and choose Search Policy.
3 Choose from the following:
Â
Â
Â
Â
To view user accounts, click the Users button.
To view group accounts, click the Groups button.
To view computer accounts, click the Computers button.
To view computer groups, click the Computer Groups button.
Chapter 3 Getting Started with Workgroup Manager
47
Listing Accounts in Available Directory Domains
Using Workgroup Manager, you can list user accounts, group accounts, computer
accounts, and computer groups residing in any available directory domain accessible
from the server you’re connected to.
Available directory domains are not the same as directory domains in a search policy.
A search policy consists of the directory domains a server searches routinely when it
needs to retrieve accounts. However, the same server might be configured to access
directory domains that haven’t been added to its search policy.
To learn how to configure access to directory domains, see Open Directory
Administration.
To list accounts in a directory domain accessible from a server:
1 In Workgroup Manager, connect to a server where you can access the directory
domains.
2 Click the globe icon and then choose the domain where the user’s account resides.
If the directory domain is not listed, add it to the pop-up menu by choosing Other. In
the dialog that appears, select the domain and then click OK.
3 Choose from the following:
Â
Â
Â
Â
To view user accounts, click the Users button.
To view group accounts, click the Groups button.
To view computer accounts, click the Computers button.
To view computer groups, click the Computer Groups button.
4 To work with a particular account, select it.
Changing the account requires domain administrator privileges, so you might need to
click the lock to authenticate.
Refreshing Account Lists
If more than one administrator makes changes to directory domains, make sure you’re
viewing the current list of user accounts, group accounts, computer accounts, and
computer groups by refreshing the lists.
To refresh account lists, click Refresh in the toolbar. Alternatively, click the globe icon
and then choose the directory domain you’re working in from the pop-up menu.
Finding Specific Accounts in a List
After you’ve displayed a list of accounts in Workgroup Manager, you can filter the list to
find particular users or groups.
You can choose from several filters:
 Name Contains
48
Chapter 3 Getting Started with Workgroup Manager
Â
Â
Â
Â
Â
Â
Â
Â
Name Starts With
Name Ends With
Name Is
ID Is
ID Is Greater Than
ID Is Less Than
Comment Contains
Keyword Contains
To filter items in the list of accounts:
1 After listing accounts, click the Users, Groups, Computers, or Computer Groups button.
2 Click the Search (magnifying glass) pop-up menu, choose an option to describe what
you want to find, and then type search terms in the search field.
The original list is replaced by items that satisfy your search criteria. If you enter a user
name, both full and short user names are searched. If you enter a group name, short
group names are searched.
3 When the domains you’re working with contain thousands of accounts, choose
Workgroup Manager > Preferences and do the following:
To do this
Do this
Avoid listing accounts until a filter is
specified
Select “Limit search results to requested records.”
List all accounts in the selected directory
domain
Type “*” (without quotes) in the search field.
Specify the maximum number of
accounts to list
Select “List a maximum of n records,” and then enter a
number no greater than 32,767.
Using Advanced Search
Use the Search button in the toolbar to locate specific users or groups by searching
several fields relevant to them. You can then batch-edit these search results. For more
information about batch editing, see “Editing Multiple Accounts Simultaneously” on
page 51.
You can search across several fields:
 Record Name
 Real Name
 User ID
 Comment
 Keyword
 Group ID
Chapter 3 Getting Started with Workgroup Manager
49
There are several field options:
 Is less than
 Is greater than
 Is
 Contains
To locate users or groups in the Accounts or Preferences panes:
1 In the Workgroup Manager toolbar, click Search.
You can also click the Search (magnifying glass) button in the search field above the
accounts list and then choose Advanced Search.
2 Choose a field to search, a field option, and then enter the text you want to search.
3 Click the Add (+) button to add search criteria.
4 Save, rename, or delete a preset by using the Search Presets pop-up menu.
5 After you define your search, click Search Now.
After receiving search results, you can clear the search to revert to your default display
or edit the search to refine it further. While editing the search, you can save the search
as a preset for later use.
Sorting Users and Groups
After displaying a list of accounts in Workgroup Manager, click a column heading to
sort entries using the values in that column. Click the heading again to reverse the sort
order.
Shortcuts for Working with Accounts
Workgroup Manager provides shortcuts for applying the same settings to new or
existing accounts. You can also import user and group account information from a file.
Using Presets
You can select settings for a user account, group account, or computer group, and save
them as presets. Presets work like templates, allowing you to apply predefined settings
to a new account. Using presets, you can easily set up multiple accounts with similar
settings.
You can only use presets during account creation. You can’t use a preset to modify an
existing account. You can use presets when creating accounts manually, or when
importing them from a file.
If you change a preset after it has been used to create an account, accounts already
created using the preset are not updated to reflect those changes.
50
Chapter 3 Getting Started with Workgroup Manager
For more information about how to create presets, see “Creating a Preset for User
Accounts” on page 61.
Editing Multiple Accounts Simultaneously
You can edit settings (if they don’t need to be unique) for multiple user accounts,
group accounts, or computer groups at the same time. Simultaneously editing multiple
accounts is referred to as batch editing.
There are two ways to simultaneously edit accounts: select several accounts in the
accounts list, or use the batch edit feature in the Advanced Search dialog.
Unlike when you select several accounts, the batch edit feature allows you to preview
and edit search results before applying changes, and you can view changes and errors
after applying more changes.
There are several ways to select multiple accounts:
 To select a range of accounts, hold down the Shift key while clicking.
 To select accounts individually, hold down the Command key while clicking.
 To deselect accounts, choose Edit > Select All and then Command-click individual
accounts.
Although you can simultaneously edit most account settings for multiple users, some
settings must be made for individual users. For example, you can’t assign the same
name, short name, or user ID to multiple users. Workgroup Manager disables fields
where you must provide unique values.
If a setting is not the same for two or more accounts, you may see a mixed-state slider,
radio button, checkbox, text field, pop-up menu, or list:
Interface element
Mixed-state appearance
Sliders, radio buttons, and
checkboxes
A dash, which indicates that the setting is not the same for all
selected accounts
Text fields
Either the term “Varies” or “...” appears in the text field
Pop-up menu
The term “--Varies--” appears in the pop-up menu
Lists
The term “Data Varies” appears in the list
The mixed-state interface element also appears when you do the following:
 Edit managed preferences that were originally set in Mac OS X v10.4 or earlier
 Change a preference in the preference editor that corresponds to an interface
element
If you choose a new setting for a mixed-state setting, every account has the new
setting.
Chapter 3 Getting Started with Workgroup Manager
51
For example, suppose you select three group accounts that each have different settings
for the Dock size. When you look at the Dock Display preference pane for these
accounts, the Dock Size slider is centered and has a dash on it. If you change the
position of the Dock Size slider to Large, all selected accounts then have a large-size
Dock.
To batch-edit accounts that match specific criteria:
1 In Workgroup Manager, select Accounts or Preferences.
2 Click the globe icon below the toolbar and choose the directory domain that contains
the accounts you want to edit.
3 To authenticate, click the lock and enter the name and password of a directory domain
administrator.
4 In the toolbar, click Search.
You can also click the magnifier in the search field above the accounts list and then
choose Advanced Search.
5 To enter search criteria, choose the field to search and the field option, enter the text
you want to search, and then click the Add (+) button to add additional search criteria.
6 Select “Perform a batch edit on the search results.”
7 To create a list of accounts affected when you save batch edits, select “Preview and edit
search results before applying changes.”
8 To create a list of accounts and changes made to each of those accounts after saving
batch edits, select “Display postview of changes or errors.”
9 Click Continue.
10 Change account information or preference settings, and then click Apply Now.
If a field is disabled, you can’t edit the field while multiple user accounts are selected.
11 If you selected “Preview and edit search results before applying changes,” a dialog
appears listing all accounts affected by the batch edit. To remove an account, select the
account, and then click Remove Item. When the dialog lists only the accounts you want
to edit, click Apply.
If you perform more batch edits using the same query, the removed account returns to
this list.
12 If you selected “Display postview of changes errors,” a dialog appears listing the batchedit results, including the changed records and fields. To save a text log of the batchedit results, click Save. Click OK.
13 To stop batch editing, click Clear.
52
Chapter 3 Getting Started with Workgroup Manager
Importing and Exporting Account Information
You can use XML or character-delimited text files to import and export user and group
account information. Importing information can make it easier to set up many
accounts quickly. Exporting information to a file is useful for record-keeping. To back up
account information with passwords intact, archive the directory.
For more information, see the appendix, “Importing and Exporting
Account Information.”
Chapter 3 Getting Started with Workgroup Manager
53
54
Chapter 3 Getting Started with Workgroup Manager
4
Setting Up User Accounts
4
This chapter tells you how to set up, edit, and manage user
accounts.
User accounts give users unique identities on your network and allow you to manage
those users.
You can use Workgroup Manager to view, create, edit, and delete user accounts.
To view user accounts in Workgroup Manager, click the Users button above the
accounts list.
About User Accounts
A user account stores data that Mac OS X Server uses to validate a user’s identity and
provide services to the user.
Where User Accounts Are Stored
User accounts, group accounts, computer accounts, and computer groups are stored in
a directory domain, available to any Mac OS X computer. A directory domain can reside
on a Mac OS X computer (for example, an Open Directory domain or other read/write
directory domain), or it can reside on a non-Apple server (for example, a non-Apple
LDAP or Active Directory server).
For Windows file service and other services, you can store user accounts in any
directory domain accessible from the server that needs to authenticate users for a
service.
If the user account is used for Windows domain login from a Windows computer, you
must store it in the LDAP directory of the Mac OS X Server that is the primary domain
controller (PDC), or in a copy of the LDAP directory on a backup domain controller
(BDC).
55
A Windows user account that is not stored in the PDC server’s LDAP directory can be
used to access other services. For example, Mac OS X Server can authenticate users
with accounts in the server’s local directory domain for the server’s Windows file
service.
Mac OS X Server also authenticates users with accounts on other directory systems,
such as an Open Directory master on another Mac OS X Server system, or Active
Directory on a Windows server.
For complete information about the different kinds of directory domains, see Open
Directory Administration.
Predefined User Accounts
The following table describes user accounts that are created when you install Mac OS X
Server (unless otherwise indicated). For a complete list, open Workgroup Manager and
choose View > Show System Users and Groups.
56
Predefined user name
Short name User ID
Use
MySQL Server
mysql
74
The user that the MySQL database server uses for
its processes that handle requests.
sshd Privilege
separation
sshd
75
The user for the sshd child processes that process
network data.
System Administrator
root
0
A user with no protections or restrictions.
System Services
daemon
1
A legacy UNIX user.
Unknown User
unknown
99
A user with no login or password. When files or
volumes have no real owner, they are assigned
unknown as their owner.
Unprivileged User
nobody
-2
This user was originally created so system services
didn’t need to run as System Administrator. Now
service-specific users such as World Wide Web
Server are often used for this purpose.
World Wide Web Server
www
70
The nonprivileged user that Apache uses for its
processes that handle requests.
Chapter 4 Setting Up User Accounts
Administering User Accounts
You can view, create, edit, and delete user accounts stored in various kinds of directory
domains.
Creating User Accounts
To create a user account in a directory domain, you must have administrator privileges
for the domain.
To create user accounts in an LDAPv3 directory on a non-Apple server, use Directory
Utility to map the LDAPv3 directory attributes to Open Directory user and group
attributes. For more information about user account elements that may need to be
mapped, see “Understanding What You Can Import and Export” on page 251.
To create users in an Active Directory domain, use Active Directory administration tools
on a Windows computer. You can’t use Workgroup Manager to create user accounts,
group accounts, computer accounts, or computer groups in a standard Active Directory
domain. If you extend the schema of the Active Directory domain, you can create
computer groups in Active Directory.
To create user accounts for Windows users, create them on a Mac OS X Server PDC,
which creates them in the server’s LDAP directory. Windows users with accounts on the
PDC server can log in to the Windows domain from a Windows workstation. These user
accounts can be used to authenticate to Windows file service and other services, and to
Mac OS X computers on the network.
You can create user accounts in the Mac OS X Server PDC LDAP directory but not in a
BDC read-only LDAP directory. If you have a BDC, the PDC server replicates the new
accounts to the BDC.
If you create user accounts in a server’s local directory domain, you can only
authenticate for services provided by that server. You can’t use these accounts to log in
to a Mac OS X client computer or to perform Windows domain login. However,
Windows users can authenticate with Windows file service, mail service, and other
platform-neutral services.
For instructions on mapping LDAPv3 attributes or connecting to Active Directory, see
Open Directory Administration.
To create a user account:
1 In Workgroup Manager, click Accounts.
2 Make sure the directory services of the Mac OS X Server computer you’re using are
configured to access the directory domain.
For instructions, see Open Directory Administration.
Chapter 4 Setting Up User Accounts
57
3 Click the globe icon and then choose the domain where you want the user’s account to
reside.
For Mac OS X Server v10.5 or later, Local and /Local/Default refer to the local directory
domain.
4 To authenticate, click the lock and enter the name and password of a directory domain
administrator.
5 Choose Server > New User or click New User in the toolbar.
6 In the panes provided, specify settings for the user.
For details, see “Working with Basic Settings” on page 63 through “Working with
Windows Settings” on page 85.
You can also use a preset or an imported file to create a user account. For details, see
“Using Presets to Create Accounts” on page 62 and “Using Workgroup Manager to
Import Accounts” on page 253.
From the Command Line
You can also create user accounts using the dscl command in Terminal. For more
information, see the users and groups chapter of Command-Line Administration.
Editing User Account Information
You can use Workgroup Manager to change a user account that resides in an Open
Directory domain, the local directory domain, or other read/write directory domain.
You can modify accounts in an Open Directory domain if you’re authorized to
administer the directory domain. You don’t need server administrator privileges but
your user ID must have limited or full administrative privileges (which are set in the
Privileges pane of Accounts in Workgroup Manager). For more information, see
“Working with Privileges” on page 70.
To make changes to a user account:
1 In Workgroup Manager, click Accounts.
2 Make sure that the directory services of the Mac OS X Server computer you’re using are
configured to access the desired directory domain.
For instructions, see Open Directory Administration.
3 Click the globe icon and then choose the domain where the user’s account resides.
If the directory domain is not listed, add it to the pop-up menu by choosing Other. In
the dialog that appears, select the domain and then click OK.
4 To authenticate, click the lock and enter the name and password of a directory domain
administrator.
5 Click the Users button and select the user account.
6 In the panes provided, edit settings for the user account.
58
Chapter 4 Setting Up User Accounts
For details, see “Working with Basic Settings” on page 63 through “Working with
Windows Settings” on page 85.
From the Command Line
You can also edit user account information using the dscl command in Terminal. For
more information, see the users and groups chapter of Command-Line Administration.
Working with Read-Only User Accounts
Use Workgroup Manager to review information about user accounts stored in read-only
directory domains. Read-only directory domains include LDAPv2 domains, LDAPv3
domains not configured for write access, and BSD configuration files.
To work with a read-only user account:
1 In Workgroup Manager, click Accounts.
2 Make sure that the directory services of the Mac OS X Server computer you’re using are
configured to access the directory domain where the account resides.
For information about using Directory Utility to configure server connections, see Open
Directory Administration. For information about the user account elements that need to
be mapped, see the appendix, “Importing and Exporting Account Information.”
3 Click the globe icon and choose the directory domain where the user’s account resides.
4 Review the user’s account settings using the panes provided.
For details, see “Working with Basic Settings” on page 63 through “Working with
Windows Settings” on page 85.
Working with Guest Users
You can set up some services to support guest users, who are not authenticated
because they don’t have a valid user name or password. You don’t need to create a user
account to support guest users.
The following services can be set up to support guest access:
 Apple file service. See File Services Administration.
 FTP service. See File Services Administration.
 Web service. See Web Technologies Administration.
 Windows services. See Open Directory Administration.
Users who connect to a server anonymously are restricted to files, folders, and websites
with permissions set to Everyone.
Another kind of guest user account is a managed user account that you can configure
for easy setup of public or kiosk computers. For more about these kinds of user
accounts, see Chapter 10, “Managing Preferences.”
Chapter 4 Setting Up User Accounts
59
Working with Windows User Accounts
Use Workgroup Manager to change passwords, password policies, and other settings in
Windows user accounts.
The user accounts can reside in a server’s local directory domain, a Mac OS X Server
PDC LDAP directory, or another directory system that allows read-write access (not
read-only access) such as an Open Directory master LDAP directory or Active Directory
on a Windows server.
You can change the user account settings in the Mac OS X Server PDC LDAP directory,
but not in a BDC read-only LDAP directory. If you have a BDC, the PDC server replicates
the changes to the BDC.
Deleting a User Account
You can use Workgroup Manager to delete a user account stored in an Open Directory
domain, the local directory domain, or from any other read/write directory domain.
WARNING: You cannot undo this action.
Deleting a user account also deletes all of the user’s mail.
To delete a user account using Workgroup Manager:
1 In Workgroup Manager, click Accounts.
2 Select the user account you want to delete.
3 To authenticate, click the lock and enter the name and password of a directory domain
administrator.
4 Choose Server > Delete Selected User or click the Delete icon in the toolbar.
From the Command Line
You can also delete a user account using the dscl command in Terminal. For more
information, see the users and groups chapter of Command-Line Administration.
Disabling a User Account
To disable a user account, you can:
 Deselect the “User can access account” option in the Basic pane in Workgroup
Manager.
 Delete the account.
 Change the user’s password to an unknown value.
 Set password options to disable login. This applies to user accounts with the
password type Open Directory or Shadow Password.
60
Chapter 4 Setting Up User Accounts
From the Command Line
You can also disable a user account using the dscl and pwpolicy commands in
Terminal. For more information, see the users and groups chapter of Command-Line
Administration.
Working with Presets
Presets are templates used to define attributes that apply to new user, group, or
computer group accounts.
Creating a Preset for User Accounts
You can create presets to use when creating user accounts in a directory domain.
Presets are stored in the directory domain you’re currently viewing. If you change
directory domains, the presets you created in the other directory domain are not
available.
To create a preset for user accounts:
1 In Workgroup Manager, click Accounts.
2 Click the globe icon and then choose the domain where the user’s account resides.
3 To authenticate, click the lock and enter the name and password of a directory domain
administrator.
4 To create a preset using data in an existing user account, open the account; to create a
preset from scratch, create a user account.
5 If you’re basing the preset on an existing account, fill in the fields with values you want
new user accounts to inherit and then delete values you don’t want to specify in
advance.
The following attributes can be defined in a user-account preset: simultaneous login,
default shell, comment, primary group ID, group membership list, home folder settings,
disk quota, mail settings, and print settings.
6 Click Preferences.
7 Configure settings you want the preset to define, and then click Accounts.
After configuring preference settings for a preset, you return to the Accounts settings
to save the preset.
8 From the Presets pop-up menu, choose Save Preset, enter a name for the preset, and
click OK.
The preset is saved to the current directory domain.
Chapter 4 Setting Up User Accounts
61
Using Presets to Create Accounts
Presets provide a quick way to apply settings to a new account. After applying the
preset, you can continue to modify settings for the new account, if necessary.
You can use presets with user, group, and computer group accounts.
Presets are stored in the directory domain you’re viewing. If you change directory
domains, the presets you created in the other directory domain are not available.
When importing accounts, you can apply a preset to the imported account. For more
information, see “Using Workgroup Manager to Import Accounts” on page 253.
To create an account using a preset:
1 In Workgroup Manager, click Accounts.
2 Click the globe icon and then choose the directory domain where you want the new
account to reside.
Make sure the directory domain you choose contains the preset you want to use.
3 To authenticate, click the lock and then enter the name and password of a directory
domain administrator.
4 Click the Users, Groups, or Computer Groups button.
5 From the Presets pop-up menu, choose a preset.
6 To create accounts, click New User, New Group, or New Computer Group.
7 Add or update attribute values.
Renaming Presets
You can name presets to help remind you of template settings or to identify the type of
user account, group account, or computer group that the preset is best suited for.
To rename a preset:
1 In Workgroup Manager, click Accounts.
2 Click the globe icon and then choose the directory domain that has the preset you
want to rename.
3 To authenticate, click the lock and enter the name and password of a directory domain
administrator.
4 From the Presets pop-up menu, choose Rename Preset.
5 Choose a preset from the “Rename preset” pop-up menu, enter a name, and then click
OK.
Editing Presets
When you change a preset, existing accounts that were created with it are not updated
to reflect the changes.
62
Chapter 4 Setting Up User Accounts
You edit a preset by using it to create an account, changing fields defined by the
preset, and then saving the preset.
To edit a preset:
1 In Workgroup Manager, click Accounts.
2 Click the globe icon and then choose the directory domain with the preset you want to
edit.
3 To authenticate, click the lock and enter the name and password of a directory domain
administrator.
4 Click the Users, Groups, or Computer Groups button.
5 From the Presets pop-up menu, choose a preset.
6 Click New User, New Group, or New Computer Group to create accounts.
7 Change account settings that you want to save to the preset.
8 After completing your changes, choose Save Preset from the Presets pop-up menu,
enter the name of the preset you want to change, click OK, and then click Replace.
Deleting a Preset
If you no longer need a particular preset, you can delete it.
To delete a preset:
1 In Workgroup Manager, click Accounts.
2 Click the globe icon and then choose the directory domain with the preset you want to
delete.
3 To authenticate, click the lock and enter the name and password of a directory domain
administrator.
4 From the Presets pop-up menu, choose Delete Preset.
5 Select the preset you want to delete and click Delete.
Working with Basic Settings
Basic settings are a collection of attributes that must be defined for all users.
In Workgroup Manager, use the user account’s Basic pane to work with basic settings.
Modifying User Names
The user name is the long name for a user, such as Mei Chen or Dr. Anne Johnson. (In
addition to the long name, sometimes the user name is referred to as the full name or
the real name.) Users can log in using the user name or a short name associated with
their accounts.
Chapter 4 Setting Up User Accounts
63
A user name can contain no more than 255 bytes. Because long user names support
various character sets, the maximum number of characters for long user names ranges
from 255 Roman characters to as few as 63 characters in character sets where
characters occupy up to 4 bytes.
Use Workgroup Manager to edit the user name of an account stored in an Open
Directory domain, the local directory domain, or other read/write directory domain.
You can also use Workgroup Manager to review the user name in any directory domain
accessible from the server you’re using.
To work with the user name using Workgroup Manager:
1 In Workgroup Manager, click Accounts.
2 Select the user account you want to work with.
To select the account, click the globe icon, choose the directory domain where the
account resides, and then select the user account in the accounts list.
3 To authenticate, click the lock and enter the name and password of a directory domain
administrator.
4 In the Name field (in the Basic pane), review or edit the user name.
Initially, the value of the user name is “Untitled #,” where # is the sequential number
generated after the last generated number for an existing untitled user.
Avoid assigning the same name to more than one user. Workgroup Manager doesn’t let
you assign the same name to different users in any domain or in a domain in the
search policy. However, it can’t detect whether duplicates exist in other domains.
Modifying Short Names
A short name is an abbreviated name for a user, such as “mchen” or “annejohnson.”
Users can log in using a short name or the user name associated with his or her
accounts. The short name is used by Mac OS X for home folders.
When Mac OS X creates a user’s local or network AFP home folder, it names the
directory after the user’s short name. For more information about home folders, see
Chapter 7, “Setting Up Home Folders.”
You can have as many as 16 short names associated with a user account. For example,
you might want to use multiple short names as aliases for mail accounts. The first short
name is the name used for home folders and legacy group membership lists. Don’t
reassign that name after you save the user account.
A short user name can contain as many as 255 Roman characters. However, for clients
using Mac OS X v10.1.5 and earlier, the first short user name must be eight characters or
fewer.
64
Chapter 4 Setting Up User Accounts
For the first short user name, use only these characters (subsequent short names can
contain any Roman character):
 a through z
 A through Z
 0 through 9
 _ (underscore)
 - (hyphen)
Typically, short names contain eight or fewer characters.
Initially, the value of the first short name is “untitled_#,” where # is the sequential
number generated after the last generated number for an existing untitled user.
Avoid assigning the same name to more than one user. Workgroup Manager doesn’t let
you assign the same name to different users in a domain or in a domain search policy.
However, it can’t detect whether duplicates exist in other domains.
After the user’s account is saved you can’t change the first short name but you can
change any of the other short names.
Use Workgroup Manager to edit the short name of an account stored in an Open
Directory domain, the local directory domain, or other read/write directory domain.
You can also use Workgroup Manager to review the short name in any directory
domain accessible from the server you’re using.
To work with a user short name using Workgroup Manager:
1 In Workgroup Manager, click Accounts.
2 Select the user account you want to work with.
To select the account, click the globe icon, choose the directory domain where the
account resides, and then select the user account.
3 To authenticate, click the lock and enter the name and password of a directory domain
administrator.
4 Click Basic, then in the Short Names field review or edit the short names:
To do this
Do this
Change a short name
Double-click the short name and then replace it.
Add a short name
Double-click the blank entry at the bottom of the short name list
and then enter a short name.
Choosing Stable Short Names
When you create a user account, assign the account a short name that won’t be
changed. After creating the account, you can’t use the Basic pane of Workgroup
Manager to change a user’s first short name.
Chapter 4 Setting Up User Accounts
65
To change a user’s first short name, create a new account for the user in the same
directory domain that contains the new first short name and retain all other account
information (user ID, primary group, home folder, and so on). Make sure you use the
same GUID for the new account. Then disable the login for the old user account.
After you disable the old login, the user can log in using the changed name but will
have the same access to files and other network resources as before and will belong to
the same groups.
For more information, see “Working with GUIDs” on page 87, and “Disabling a User
Account” on page 60.
Avoiding Duplicate Names
A user’s short name is used by the login window. This means that having multiple users
with the same short name causes a conflict. Although you can’t create multiple users
with the same short name in the Basic pane of Workgroup Manager, it’s still possible to
create multiple users with the same short name when you use command-line tools or
the Inspector.
If multiple user accounts have the same long user name on a Mac OS X computer, the
login window displays a list of users to choose from.
If two users have the same first short user name, the login window only recognizes and
authenticates the first matching user account it finds in the sequence of directory
domains specified by the computer’s search policy, as set in Directory Utility.
If a local user and a network user have the same first short user name, the local user
always takes precedence, preventing the network user from logging in to the
computer.
In groups created using Mac OS X versions earlier than 10.4, group membership is
determined by the user’s first short name and group ID (GID). If multiple users have the
same first short name, then they have the same group memberships.
Groups created using Mac OS X Server v10.4 or later determine group membership
using a GUID and a combination of the user’s short name and GID. For information
about GUIDs, see “Working with GUIDs” on page 87.
If you don’t upgrade legacy groups, the groups still determine membership by only the
user’s first short name and GID. For instructions on upgrading legacy groups, see
“Upgrading Legacy Groups” on page 94.
To ensure that users have the correct legacy group membership, do not use duplicate
user short names.
66
Chapter 4 Setting Up User Accounts
Modifying User IDs
A user ID is a number that uniquely identifies a user. Mac OS X computers use the
user ID to track a user’s folder and file ownership.
When a user creates a folder or file, the user ID is stored as the ID of the user who
created the folder or file. This user ID has read and write permissions to the folder or file
by default.
The user ID should be a unique string of digits from 500 through 2,147,483,647. It is risky
to assign the same user ID to different users, because two users with the same user ID
have identical directory and file permissions.
User IDs between 0 and 100 are reserved for system use and should not be deleted or
modified except to change the password of the root user. Accounts with user IDs
below 100 aren’t listed in the login window.
In general, after user IDs are assigned and users start creating files and folders, you
shouldn’t change user IDs. However, one possible scenario where you might need to
change a user ID is when merging users that were created on different servers onto a
new server or cluster of servers. The same user ID might still be associated with a
different user on the previous server.
When you create a user account in a shared directory domain, Workgroup Manager
assigns a user ID. The value assigned is an unused user ID (1025 or greater) in the
server’s search policy. (Users created using the Accounts pane of System Preferences
are assigned user IDs starting at 501.)
You can use Workgroup Manager to edit the user ID of an account stored in an Open
Directory domain or in the local directory domain. You can also use Workgroup
Manager to review the user ID in any directory domain accessible from the server
you’re using.
To change a user ID in Workgroup Manager:
1 In Workgroup Manager, click Accounts.
2 Select the user account you want to work with.
To select an account, click the globe icon above the accounts list, choose the directory
domain where the user’s account resides, and then select the user.
3 To authenticate, click the lock and enter the name and password of a directory domain
administrator.
4 In the Basic pane, specify a value in the User ID field.
Chapter 4 Setting Up User Accounts
67
Make sure the value is unique for all directory domains set in the search policy of
computers that the user logs in to. Workgroup Manager warns you if you change the
value to another user ID in the same directory domain. You can quickly find all existing
user IDs by choosing View > “Show System Users and Groups,” and then clicking the
UID column header in the accounts list to sort the accounts by user ID.
Assigning a Password to a User
When you create a user account, you must assign a password to the user. You can reset
the user’s password by replacing the password field with a new password.
For information about choosing secure passwords, see Mac OS X Security Configuration.
When you export user accounts using Workgroup Manager, password information isn’t
exported. If you want to set passwords, you can modify the export file before you
import it, or you can set passwords after importing. You can also manually create a
text-delimited import file and include passwords in it.
For more information about importing user accounts, see “Understanding What You
Can Import and Export” on page 251.
To assign a password:
1 In Workgroup Manager, click Accounts.
2 Select the user account you want to work with.
To select an account, click the globe icon above the accounts list, choose the directory
domain where the user’s account resides, and then select the user.
3 To authenticate, click the lock and enter the name and password of a directory domain
administrator.
4 In the Basic pane, enter a password in the Password field, enter it again in the Verify
field, and then click Save.
Assigning Administrator Privileges for a Server
A user who has server administrator privileges controls most of the server’s
configuration settings and can use applications (such as Server Admin) that require a
user to be a member of the server’s administrator group.
You can use Workgroup Manager to assign server administrator privileges to a user
with an account stored in an Open Directory domain. You can also use Workgroup
Manager to review the server administrator privileges in any directory domain
accessible from the server you’re using.
To set server administrator privileges in Workgroup Manager:
1 Log in to Workgroup Manager by specifying the name or IP address of the server you
want to grant administrator privileges for.
2 Click Accounts.
68
Chapter 4 Setting Up User Accounts
3 Click the globe icon and choose Local.
4 Click the lock and enter the name and password of a local administrator.
5 Click the globe icon and choose the directory domain where the user’s account resides.
6 Click the lock and enter the name and password of a directory domain administrator.
7 To grant server administrator privileges, in the Basic pane, select “User can administer
this server.”
From the Command Line
You can also set server administrator privileges using the dscl command in Terminal.
For more information, see the users and groups chapter of Command-Line
Administration.
Choosing a User’s Login Picture
You can change a user’s login picture using Workgroup Manager. This picture
represents the user in the login window, in the Directory application, and in group web
services, and is the default buddy icon for the user in iChat.
Although you can use an image file of any size, you should use an image that is 64 x 64
pixels in size. If you use a larger image, resize and crop it in Workgroup Manager.
To change a user’s login picture:
1 In Workgroup Manager, click Accounts.
2 Select the user account you want to work with.
To select an account, click the globe icon above the accounts list, choose the directory
domain where the user’s account resides, and then select the user.
3 To authenticate, click the lock and enter the name and password of a directory domain
administrator.
4 In the Basic pane, click the picture area in the top right and then choose Edit Picture to
open the User Picture window.
5 In the User Picture window, click Choose, select an image file, and then click Open.
As an alternative, you can drag an image file from the Finder or Safari and drop it into
the picture area in Workgroup Manager, or in the main area of the User Picture window.
If you have iSight, you can click the camera button to take a snapshot.
6 Use the slider to zoom in and out of your picture and drag your picture around so the
focal point is in the center square, and then click Set.
The user’s picture is the image in the center square.
7 Click Save.
Chapter 4 Setting Up User Accounts
69
Working with Privileges
You can give a user account full or limited control over domain administration. When
giving limited administrative control, you can choose which users and groups the user
can administer, and what kind of control the user has over those users and groups.
You can change a user’s domain privileges for Open Directory domains. You can’t
change privileges for a local user account or an account stored in domains that are not
Open Directory.
Full and limited administrators use Workgroup Manager to administer and manage
users.
In Workgroup Manager, use the user account’s Privileges pane to set privileges.
Removing Administrative Privileges from a User
Users with no administrative privileges can use Workgroup Manager to view (but not
change) accounts in a directory domain.
You can change a user’s domain privileges for LDAPv3 directory domains. You can’t
change privileges for a local user account or an account stored in a non-LDAPv3
directory domain.
To remove a user’s administrative privileges:
1 In Workgroup Manager, click Accounts.
2 Select the user account you want to work with.
To select an account, click the globe icon above the accounts list, choose the directory
domain where the user’s account resides, and then select the user.
3 To authenticate, click the lock and enter the name and password of a directory domain
administrator.
4 In Privileges, choose None from the “Administration capabilities” pop-up menu and
click Save.
Giving a User Limited Administrative Capabilities
You can allow users who don’t need full administrative control the ability to perform
common administrative tasks by giving them limited administrative control.
For example, you might want student lab assistants to reset other students’ passwords
but not to edit the groups they belong to. Similarly, you might want school staff to edit
student user information but not their managed preferences.
When a user has limited administrative control, after authenticating in Workgroup
Manager, the Workgroup Manager interface only allows users to perform tasks assigned
to the limited administrator.
70
Chapter 4 Setting Up User Accounts
The following tasks are available to limited administrators:
Task
Description
Manage user passwords
Change a user’s password in the user account’s Basic pane. A
limited administrator can’t change a full administrator’s password.
Edit managed preferences
Change managed preference settings.
Edit user information
Edit the user account’s Info pane.
Edit group membership
Edit the user account’s Groups pane or the group account’s
Members pane.
If you give a user different administrative capabilities at several account levels, the
capabilities are merged.
For example, let’s say a user named Anne Johnson is a member of the Algebra 101
group, and the Algebra 101 group is a member of the All Classes group. You give
another user, Ravi Patel, the following administrative control:
 “Manage user passwords” rights for All Users and Groups
 “Edit managed preferences” rights for the All Classes group
 “Edit user information” rights for the Algebra 101 group
 “Edit group membership” rights for the Anne Johnson user account
Ravi Patel has all four abilities for Anne Johnson’s user account.
You can change a user’s domain privileges for LDAPv3 directory domains. You can’t
change privileges for a local user account or an account stored in a non-LDAPv3
directory domain.
To add limited administrative capabilities:
1 In Workgroup Manager, click Accounts.
2 Select the user account you want to work with.
To select an account, click the globe icon above the accounts list, choose the directory
domain where the user’s account resides, and then select the user.
3 To authenticate, click the lock and enter the name and password of a directory domain
administrator.
4 In Privileges, choose Limited from the “Administration capabilities” pop-up menu.
5 To control the level of user or group administration, click the Add (+) button and drag
users and groups from the drawer to the “User can administer” list.
6 Select a user or group from the “User can administer” list and then select the
administration capabilities you want the limited administrator to have.
To give administrative control to all users and groups, select “All Users and Groups” and
then select administrative capabilities.
7 Click Save.
Chapter 4 Setting Up User Accounts
71
Giving a User Full Administrative Capabilities
A user with full administrative capabilities is also known as a directory domain
administrator. Directory domain administrators can modify any records in the directory
domain and are the only users who can change the passwords of other directory
domain administrators.
You can change a user’s domain privileges for LDAPv3 directory domains. You can’t
change privileges for a local user account or an account stored in a non-LDAPv3
directory domain.
To change a user’s administrative privileges:
1 In Workgroup Manager, click Accounts.
2 Select the user account you want to work with.
To select an account, click the globe icon above the accounts list, choose the directory
domain where the user’s account resides, and then select the user.
3 To authenticate, click the lock and enter the name and password of a directory domain
administrator.
4 In Privileges, from the “Administration capabilities” pop-up menu, choose Full, and then
click Save.
Working with Advanced Settings
Advanced settings include login settings, keywords, password type, and searchable
comments. In Workgroup Manager, use the user account’s Advanced pane to work with
advanced settings.
Enabling a User’s Calendar
If your iCal server enables individual user calendars, you can configure user accounts to
use iCal server. When users use iCal to log into the server, they can access their
calendars.
To enable a user’s calendar:
1 In Workgroup Manager, click Accounts.
2 Select the user account you want to work with.
To select an account, click the globe icon above the accounts list, choose the directory
domain where the user’s account resides, and then select the user.
3 To authenticate, click the lock and enter the name and password of a directory domain
administrator.
4 In Advanced, select “Enable calendaring,” choose a server from the pop-up menu, and
then click Save.
72
Chapter 4 Setting Up User Accounts
Allowing a User to Log In to More Than One Computer At a Time
You can allow a managed user to log in to more than one managed computer at a
time, or you can prevent the user from doing so.
Note: Simultaneous login is not recommended for most users. You may want to reserve
simultaneous login privileges for technical staff, teachers, or other users with
administrator privileges. (If a user has a network home folder, that’s where the user’s
application preferences and documents are stored. Simultaneous login can change
these items, and many applications don’t support such changes while the applications
are open.)
You can only disable simultaneous login for users with AFP home folders.
To allow a user to log in to more than one computer at a time:
1 In Workgroup Manager, click Accounts.
2 Select the user account you want to work with.
To select the account, click the globe icon, choose the directory domain where the
account resides, and then select the user account.
3 To authenticate, click the lock and enter the name and password of a directory domain
administrator.
4 Click Advanced.
5 Select “Allow simultaneous login on managed computers.”
Choosing a Default Shell
You can change the default shell that the user uses for command-line interactions with
Mac OS X, such as /bin/tcsh or /bin/bash (the default).
The default shell is used by the Terminal application on the computer that the user is
logged in to, but Terminal has a preference that lets you override the default shell. The
default shell is used by secure shell (SSH) when the user logs in to a remote Mac OS X
computer.
Note: Terminal has a preference that allows the user to override the default shell.
To choose a default shell:
1 In Workgroup Manager, click Accounts.
2 Select the user account you want to work with.
To select the account, click the globe icon, choose the directory domain where the
account resides, and then select the user account.
3 To authenticate, click the lock and enter the name and password of a directory domain
administrator.
Chapter 4 Setting Up User Accounts
73
4 To specify the user’s default shell when logging in to a Mac OS X computer, choose a
shell from the Login Shell pop-up menu.
To specify a shell that doesn’t appear in the list, choose Custom and then enter the
path to the shell.
To ensure that a user can’t access the server remotely using the command line, choose
None.
Choosing a Password Type and Setting Password Options
For user accounts in the LDAP directory of an Open Directory server, you can set the
password type to Open Directory or Crypt Password. User accounts in the local
directory domain have a password type of Shadow Password.
When you set the password type to Shadow Password or Open Directory, you can set
several password policy options, including disabling login after a period of inactivity or
failed authentication attempts, or setting password restrictions (such as requiring that
passwords be a certain length or that they be changed at the next login).
If you set the password type to Shadow Password, you can also set security options to
control which authentication methods are used when validating the user’s password.
You can only assign the Open Directory password type if the directory administrator
account that you authenticate with also uses an Open Directory password.
Windows users must have Open Directory passwords for Windows domain login.
For a detailed explanation of password types, password policy options, and security
options, see Open Directory Administration.
To choose a user password type and set password options:
1 In Workgroup Manager, click Accounts.
2 Select the user account you want to work with.
To select the account, click the globe icon, choose the directory domain where the
account resides, and then select the user account in the accounts list.
3 To authenticate, click the lock and enter the name and password of a directory domain
administrator.
4 Click Advanced.
5 From the User Password Type pop-up menu, choose Shadow Password, Open Directory,
or Crypt Password.
When you choose a password type, a prompt might appear requiring you to enter a
password, depending on whether you entered a password in the Basic pane.
If you choose Open Directory or Shadow Password, you can set a password policy for
the selected users by clicking Options, selecting any of the options, and clicking OK.
74
Chapter 4 Setting Up User Accounts
If you choose Shadow Password, you can also select authentication methods by
clicking Security.
6 Click Save.
Creating a Master List of Keywords
You can define keywords that enable quick searching and sorting of user accounts.
Using keywords can simplify tasks such as creating groups or editing multiple user
accounts.
Before you begin adding keywords to user records, you must create a master keyword
list. The list of keywords shown in the Advanced pane for a selected user applies only
to that user.
Each directory domain has its own master keyword list. For example, if you add a
keyword to the local directory domain’s master keyword list, it isn’t available in another
directory domain unless you add it to that directory domain’s master keyword list.
To edit the master keyword list:
1 In Workgroup Manager, click Accounts.
2 Select the user account you want to work with.
To select the account, click the globe icon, choose the directory domain where the
account resides, and then select the user account in the accounts list.
3 To authenticate, click the lock and enter the name and password of a directory domain
administrator.
4 Click Advanced and choose from the following:
To do this
Do this
View the master keyword list,
Click the Edit (pencil) button. You can access and edit the master
which lists all terms available for keyword list from any selected user account.
use as keywords
Add a keyword to the master list Click the Add (+) button and enter the keyword in the text field.
Remove a keyword from the
master list and from all user and
computer accounts where it
appears
Select the keyword, select “Remove deleted keywords from users
and computers,” and then click the Remove (–) button.
Remove a keyword only from
the master list
Deselect “Remove deleted keywords from users and computers,”
select the keyword you want to remove, and then click the Remove
(–) button.
5 When you finish editing the master list, click OK.
Applying Keywords to User Accounts
You can remove a keyword from all user accounts that are tagged with that keyword.
However, you can only add keywords to one user account at a time.
Chapter 4 Setting Up User Accounts
75
To work with keywords for a user account:
1 In Workgroup Manager, click Accounts.
2 Select the user account you want to work with.
To select the account, click the globe icon, choose the directory domain where the
account resides, and then select the user account in the accounts list.
3 To authenticate, click the lock and enter the name and password of a directory domain
administrator.
4 Click Advanced and choose from the following:
To do this
Do this
Add a keyword to the selected
account
Click the Add (+) button to view the list of available keywords,
select one or more keywords in the list, and then click OK.
Remove a keyword from a
specific user account
Select the keyword you want to remove and click the Remove (–)
button.
5 When you finish adding or removing keywords for the selected user account,
click Save.
Editing Comments
You can save a comment in a user’s account to provide information you might need to
help administer a user. A comment can contain no more than 32,767 bytes.
Note: Some character sets use characters that occupy up to 4 bytes. This reduces the
total number of characters you can use.
You can use Workgroup Manager to add a comment to an account stored in an Open
Directory domain, the local directory domain, or other read/write directory domain.
You can also use Workgroup Manager to review the comment in any directory domain
accessible from the server you’re using.
To work with a comment using Workgroup Manager:
1 In Workgroup Manager, click Accounts.
2 Select the user account you want to work with.
To select the account, click the globe icon, choose the directory domain where the
account resides, and then select the user account in the accounts list.
3 To authenticate, click the lock and enter the name and password of a directory domain
administrator.
4 Click Advanced and edit or review the contents of the Comment field.
76
Chapter 4 Setting Up User Accounts
Working with Group Settings
Group settings identify the groups a user belongs to. In Workgroup Manager, use the
Group Settings pane in the user’s account to work with group settings.
For information about how to administer group accounts, see Chapter 5, “Setting Up
Group Accounts.”
Choosing a User’s Primary Group
A primary group is the fastest way to determine whether a user has group permissions
for a file. The primary group ID is used by the file system when the user accesses a file
that he or she doesn’t own. The file system checks the file’s group permissions, and if
the primary group ID of the user matches the ID of the group associated with the file,
the user inherits group access permissions.
Important: Don’t rely on primary group membership when assigning file permissions.
Although you can make a primary group a hierarchical group or a parent of hierarchical
groups, the file permissions for the primary group do not propagate. If a user’s primary
group is a hierarchical group or the parent of a hierarchical group, the user is granted
file permissions only for the primary group.
If the user does not belong to other groups, the user belongs to the primary group. If a
user selects a different workgroup at login, the user still retains access permissions from
the primary group.
The primary group ID should be a unique string of digits. By default, the primary group
ID is 20 (which identifies the group as “staff”), but you can change it. The maximum
value for a group ID is 2,147,483,647.
Use Workgroup Manager to define the primary group ID of an account stored in an
Open Directory domain, the local directory domain, or other read/write directory
domain. You can also use Workgroup Manager to review the primary group information
for any directory domain accessible from the server you’re using.
To set a primary group ID using Workgroup Manager:
1 In Workgroup Manager, click Accounts.
2 Select the user account you want to work with.
To select the account, click the globe icon, choose the directory domain where the
account resides, and then select the user account in the accounts list.
3 To authenticate, click the lock and enter the name and password of a directory domain
administrator.
4 Click Groups and then edit or review the Primary Group ID field.
Chapter 4 Setting Up User Accounts
77
Workgroup Manager displays long and short names for the group after you enter a
primary group ID (if the group exists and is accessible in the search policy of the server
you’re logged in to).
Reviewing a User’s Group Memberships
You can use Workgroup Manager to review the groups a user belongs to if the user
account resides in a directory domain accessible from the server you’re using.
You can view all groups the user belongs to and the parent groups of those groups.
To review group memberships using Workgroup Manager:
1 In Workgroup Manager, click Accounts.
2 Select the user account you want to work with.
To select the account, click the globe icon, choose the directory domain where the
account resides, and then select the user account in the accounts list.
3 To authenticate, click the lock and enter the name and password of a directory domain
administrator.
4 Click Groups.
Except for the primary group, all other groups the user belongs to are listed in the
Other Groups list.
5 To view parent groups, click Show Inherited Groups.
Parent groups are shown in italics.
Adding a User to a Group
Add a user to a group when you want multiple users to have the same file permissions,
or when you want to manage their Mac OS X preferences using workgroups or
computer groups.
For example, you can have groups for students in a classroom who are not permitted
to use a particular printer, or for the quality control team in a factory that requires
access to the internal reports of different groups.
Groups can include users and groups that are in an Open Directory domain or the local
directory domain. If you use an NFS directory, there is a 16-group limitation.
You can also add users to a group using the Members pane in the group account.
If a user is a direct member of multiple groups, he or she can choose which group to
acquire managed preferences from when logging in. You can manage Login
preferences so that preferences are combined from all workgroups accessible by the
user.
Note: There is no limit to the number of groups a user can belong to.
78
Chapter 4 Setting Up User Accounts
To add a user to a group using Workgroup Manager:
1 In Workgroup Manager, click Accounts.
2 Select the user account you want to work with.
To select the account, click the globe icon, choose the directory domain where the
account resides, and then select the user account in the accounts list.
3 To authenticate, click the lock and enter the name and password of a directory domain
administrator.
4 Click Groups and then click the Add (+) button.
This opens a drawer that lists the groups defined in the directory domain you’re
working with.
5 Select the group and then drag it to the Other Groups list in the Groups pane.
Removing a User from a Group
You can use Workgroup Manager to remove a user from a group if the user and group
accounts reside in an Open Directory domain or the local directory domain.
To remove a user from a group using Workgroup Manager:
1 In Workgroup Manager, click Accounts.
2 Select the user account you want to work with.
To select the account, click the globe icon, choose the directory domain where the
account resides, and then select the user account in the accounts list.
3 To authenticate, click the lock and enter the name and password of a directory domain
administrator.
4 Click Groups.
5 Select the groups you want to remove the user from and then click the Remove (–)
button.
You can also remove users from a group by using the Members pane of group
accounts. For more information, see “Removing Group Members” on page 100.
Working with Home Settings
Home settings describe a user’s home folder attributes. If you don’t have a share point
set up to host home folders, you must set one up. To set up share points, use Server
Admin. To set up home folders, use Workgroup Manager.
For information about setting up share points and home folders, see Chapter 7, “Setting
Up Home Folders.”
Chapter 4 Setting Up User Accounts
79
Working with Mail Settings
You can create a mail account by specifying mail settings in the user account. To use
the mail service account, the user configures a mail client to identify the user name,
password, mail service, and mail protocol you specify in the mail settings.
In Workgroup Manager, use the Mail pane in the user account to work with mail
settings.
For information about how to set up and manage Mac OS X Server mail service, see
Mail Service Administration.
Enabling Mail Service Account Options
You can use Workgroup Manager to enable mail service and set mail options for a user
account stored in an Open Directory domain or other read/write directory domain. You
can also use Workgroup Manager to review the mail settings of accounts stored in a
directory domain accessible from the server you’re using.
To work with a user’s mail account options using Workgroup Manager:
1 In Workgroup Manager, click Accounts.
2 Select the user account you want to work with.
To select the account, click the globe icon, choose the directory domain where the
account resides, and then select the user account in the accounts list.
3 To authenticate, click the lock and enter the name and password of a directory domain
administrator.
4 Click Mail.
5 To allow the user to use mail service, select Enabled.
6 In the Mail Server fields, enter a valid mail server name or address for the DNS name, or
enter the IP address of the server the user’s mail should be routed to.
Workgroup Manager doesn’t verify this information.
7 In the Mail Quota field, enter a value to specify the maximum number of megabytes for
the user’s mailbox.
A 0 (zero) or empty value means no quota is used.
When the user’s message space approaches or surpasses the mail quota you specify,
mail service displays a message prompting the user to delete unwanted messages to
free up space. The message shows quota information in megabytes (MB).
8 To identify the protocol used for the user’s mail account, select a Mail Access setting:
Post Office Protocol (POP), Internet Message Access Protocol (IMAP), or both.
9 Click Save.
80
Chapter 4 Setting Up User Accounts
Disabling a User’s Mail Service
You can use Workgroup Manager to disable mail service for users whose accounts are
stored in an Open Directory domain, the local directory domain, or other read/write
directory domain.
To disable a user’s mail service using Workgroup Manager:
1 In Workgroup Manager, click Accounts.
2 Select the user account you want to work with.
To select the account, click the globe icon, choose the directory domain where the
account resides, and then select the user account in the accounts list.
3 To authenticate, click the lock and enter the name and password of a directory domain
administrator.
4 Click Mail, select None, and then click Save.
Forwarding a User’s Mail
You can use Workgroup Manager to set up mail-forwarding for users whose accounts
are stored in an Open Directory domain or the local directory domain.
To forward a user’s mail using Workgroup Manager:
1 In Workgroup Manager, click Accounts.
2 Select the user account you want to work with.
To select the account, click the globe icon, choose the directory domain where the
account resides, and then select the user account in the accounts list.
3 To authenticate, click the lock and enter the name and password of a directory domain
administrator.
4 Click Mail, select Forward, and then enter the forwarding mail address in the Forward
To field.
Make sure you enter the correct address. Workgroup Manager doesn’t verify that the
address exists.
5 Click Save.
Working with Print Quota Settings
User print settings define the ability of a user to print to accessible Mac OS X Server
print queues.
For information about how to set up print queues, see Print Service Administration.
Chapter 4 Setting Up User Accounts
81
In Workgroup Manager, use the Print Quota pane in the user account to work with print
quota settings.
Enabling a User’s Access to All Available Print Queues
You can use Workgroup Manager to allow a user to print to all or some of the
accessible Mac OS X print queues that enforce quotas. To use Workgroup Manager to
enable access to print queues, the user’s account must be stored in an Open Directory
domain or the local directory domain.
To set a user’s print quota for all available print queues enforcing quotas:
1 In Workgroup Manager, click Accounts.
2 Select the user account you want to work with.
To select the account, click the globe icon, choose the directory domain where the
account resides, and then select the user account in the accounts list.
3 To authenticate, click the lock and enter the name and password of a directory domain
administrator.
4 In Print Quota, select “All Queues.”
5 Enter values for the maximum number of pages the user can print in a specific number
of days.
For the settings to take effect, the print service queue must enforce quotas.
6 Click Save.
Enabling a User’s Access to Specific Print Queues
You can use Workgroup Manager to allow a user to print to all or some of the
accessible Mac OS X print queues that enforce quotas. To use Workgroup Manager to
enable access to print queues, the user’s account must be stored in an Open Directory
domain or the local directory domain.
To set a user’s print quota for specific print queues enforcing quotas:
1 In Workgroup Manager, click Accounts.
2 Select the user account you want to work with.
To select the account, click the globe icon, choose the directory domain where the
account resides, and then select the user account in the accounts list.
3 To authenticate, click the lock and enter the name and password of a directory domain
administrator.
4 In Print Quota, select “Per Queue.”
5 If the print queue you want to specify is not on the Queue Name pop-up menu, click
Add, enter the queue name, and then specify the IP address or DNS name of the server
where the queue is defined in the Print Server field.
For your settings to take effect, the print service queue must enforce quotas.
82
Chapter 4 Setting Up User Accounts
6 To give the user unlimited printing rights to the queue, select “Unlimited printing”;
otherwise, select “Limit to” and specify the maximum number of pages the user can
print in a specific number of days.
7 Click Save.
Removing a Print Quota For a Queue
If you no longer require a print quota for a queue, you can use Workgroup Manager to
delete the quota for specific users.
To delete specific print quotas, you must manage print settings per queue.
To delete a user’s print quota using Workgroup Manager:
1 In Workgroup Manager, click Accounts.
2 Select the user account you want to work with.
To select the account, click the globe icon, choose the directory domain where the
account resides, and then select the user in the list.
3 To authenticate, click the lock and enter the name and password of a directory domain
administrator.
4 Click Print Quota and then select Per Queue.
5 Choose the user’s print queue that you want to delete from the Queue Name pop-up
menu.
6 Click Delete and then click Save.
Resetting a User’s Print Quota
Occasionally, a user exceeds his or her print quota and needs to print additional pages.
For example, an administrator might want to print a 200-page manual, but the print
quota is only 150 pages. Or a student may exceed his or her quota by printing several
revisions of the same essay.
You can use Workgroup Manager to reset a user’s print quota and allow the user to
continue printing.
You can also extend a user’s page limit without resetting the quota time period by
changing the number of pages allowed for the user. In this way, the time period for the
quota remains the same and is not reset, but the number of pages the user can print
during that period is adjusted for both the current and future print quota periods.
To restart a user’s print quota using Workgroup Manager:
1 In Workgroup Manager, click Accounts.
2 Select the user account you want to work with.
To select the account, click the globe icon, choose the directory domain where the
account resides, and then select the user account in the accounts list.
Chapter 4 Setting Up User Accounts
83
3 To authenticate, click the lock and enter the name and password of a directory domain
administrator.
4 Click Print Quota.
5 If you’re managing All Queues, click Restart Print Quota.
6 If you’re managing Per Queue, choose a print queue from the Queue Name pop-up
menu and then click Restart Print Quota.
7 To increase or decrease a user’s page limit, enter a new number in the “Limit to ___
pages” field.
8 Click Save.
Disabling a User’s Access to Print Queues That Enforce Quotas
You can use Workgroup Manager to prevent a user from printing to any accessible
Mac OS X print queues that enforce quotas.
To use Workgroup Manager to disable access to print queues, the user’s account must
be stored in an Open Directory domain or the local directory domain.
To disable a user’s access to print queues enforcing quotas:
1 In Workgroup Manager, click Accounts.
2 Select the user account you want to work with.
To select the account, click the globe icon, choose the directory domain where the
account resides, and then select the user account in the accounts list.
3 To authenticate, click the lock and enter the name and password of a directory domain
administrator.
4 Click Print Quota and then select None.
Working with Info Settings
If a user’s account resides in an LDAPv3 directory domain, it can contain information
imported from Address Book.
Attributes that are tracked in the Info pane include:
 Name
 Address
 Phone number
 Email address
 Chat names
 Homepage URL
 Weblog URL
84
Chapter 4 Setting Up User Accounts
Other users can view the information in this pane when they view the user account in
Workgroup Manager and Directory.
To change a user’s info:
1 In Workgroup Manager, click Accounts.
2 Select the user account you want to work with.
To select the account, click the globe icon, choose the directory domain where the
account resides, and then select the user account in the accounts list.
3 To authenticate, click the lock and enter the name and password of a directory domain
administrator.
4 Click Info, enter or change values, and when you finish, click Save.
Working with Windows Settings
Windows users have settings for a Windows home folder, a roaming user profile, and a
Windows login script. You can change these settings in the Windows pane of
Workgroup Manager.
You can change user account settings in the Mac OS X Server PDC LDAP directory but
not in a BDC read-only LDAP directory. If you have a BDC, the PDC server replicates
changes to the BDC.
Changing a Windows User’s Profile Location
You can change where a Windows user’s profile settings are stored. The profile includes
the user’s My Documents folder, favorites (web browser bookmarks), preference
settings (such as backgrounds and event sounds), and more.
User profiles are stored in /Users/Profiles/ on the PDC server. This is an SMB share point,
although it is not shown as a share point in Workgroup Manager.
You can designate a different location for a user profile, which can be a share point on
the PDC server or a Windows domain member server. The share point must be
configured to use SMB.
User profiles can be located in a share point or in a folder in a share point. The share
point or folder used for user profiles must have the proper access privileges.
Set the owner to “root” and give the owner Read & Write permission. Set the group to
the user’s primary group (which is normally “staff”) and give the group Read & Write
permission. Set the permission for everyone else to None.
For instructions, see “Setting Up an SMB Share Point” on page 119.
Instead of storing a roaming profile in a share point on a server, you can designate the
location of a local profile stored on the Windows computer.
Chapter 4 Setting Up User Accounts
85
To change the Windows roaming profile location for a user account:
1 In Workgroup Manager, click Accounts.
2 Open the user account whose profile location you want to change.
To open a user account in the PDC, click the globe icon and choose the PDC server’s
LDAP directory.
3 To authenticate, click the lock and enter the name and password of a directory domain
administrator.
4 Click Windows and enter the new profile location in the User Profile Path field.
 To use the default share point for user profiles, leave this field blank.
 For a roaming profile stored in a different share point, enter the location of the share
point using the universal naming convention (UNC) format:
\\servername\sharename\usershortname
For servername, substitute the NetBIOS name of the PDC server or a Windows
domain member server where the share point is located.
To view the server’s NetBIOS name, open Server Admin, select SMB in the Servers list,
click Settings, click General, and then look at the Computer Name field.
For sharename, substitute the name of the share point.
For usershortname, substitute the first short name of the user account you’re
configuring.
 For a local profile stored on the Windows computer, enter the drive letter and folder
path in UNC format as in the following example:
C:\Documents and Settings\juan
5 Click Save.
Changing a Windows User’s Login Script Location
You can use Workgroup Manager to change the folder location of a user’s Windows
login script in the /etc/netlogon/ folder on the PDC server.
To change the Windows login script location for a user account:
1 In Workgroup Manager, click Accounts.
2 Open the user account whose Windows login script location you want to change.
To open a user account in the PDC, click the globe icon and choose the PDC server’s
LDAP directory.
3 To authenticate, click the lock and enter the name and password of a directory domain
administrator.
4 Click Windows and enter the new login script location in the Login Script field.
86
Chapter 4 Setting Up User Accounts
Enter the relative path to a login script in /etc/netlogon/ on the PDC server. For
example, if an administrator places a script named setup.bat in /etc/netlogon/, the
Login Script field should contain “setup.bat.”
5 Click Save.
Changing a Windows User’s Home Folder Drive Letter
You can use Workgroup Manager to change the Windows drive letter that a user’s
home folder is mapped to.
To change the Windows home folder drive letter for a user account:
1 In Workgroup Manager, click Accounts.
2 Open the user account whose Windows home folder drive letter you want to change.
To open a user account in the PDC, click the globe icon and choose the PDC server’s
LDAP directory.
3 To authenticate, click the lock and enter the name and password of a directory domain
administrator.
4 Click Windows and choose a drive letter from the Hard Drive pop-up menu.
The default drive letter is H. Windows uses the drive letter to identify the mounted
home folder.
5 Click Save.
Changing a Windows User’s Home Folder Location
You can change where a Windows user’s network home folder is stored. By default, the
network home folder is the same for Windows as it is for Mac OS X, and its location is
specified in the Home pane.
For more information, see “Setting Up a Home Folder for a Windows User” on page 127.
Working with GUIDs
Although you can view and modify most user account attributes using the Accounts
pane in Workgroup Manager, you must use the Inspector to view and modify GUIDs.
Viewing GUIDs
GUIDs are stored in the directory domain and are not immediately visible in Workgroup
Manager. To view GUIDs, you must first enable the Inspector in Workgroup Manager.
For instructions on using the Inspector, see Open Directory Administration.
WARNING: Although the Inspector allows you to edit GUIDs, it is not recommended.
Doing so destroys existing group memberships and file permissions for that user ID.
Chapter 4 Setting Up User Accounts
87
To view a user or group GUID:
1 In Workgroup Manager, click Accounts.
2 Make sure the directory services of the Mac OS X Server computer you’re using are
configured to access the directory domain.
3 Click the globe icon and then choose the domain where the account resides.
4 To authenticate, click the lock and enter the name and password of a directory domain
administrator.
5 Click the Users, Groups, Computers, or Computer Groups button and select the
account.
You can only view GUIDs for individual accounts.
6 Click the Inspector button under the lock on the far right.
If there is no Inspector button, make sure the Inspector is enabled by choosing
Workgroup Manager > Preferences, and then select “Show ‘All Records’ tab and
inspector.”
7 Select the GeneratedUID field and then click Edit.
8 Click Cancel to make sure you do not change the GUID.
From the Command Line
You can also view a user or group GUID using the dscl command in Terminal. For more
information, see the users and groups chapter of Command-Line Administration.
88
Chapter 4 Setting Up User Accounts
5
Setting Up Group Accounts
5
This chapter tells you how to set up, edit, and manage group
accounts.
A group account offers a simple way to manage a collection of users with similar needs.
You can also create group folders, which provide an easy way for group members to
share files with each other.
You can use Workgroup Manager to view, create, edit, and delete group accounts.
To view group accounts in Workgroup Manager, click the Groups button above the
accounts list.
About Group Accounts
A group account stores the identities of users who belong to the group, as well as
information that lets you customize the working environment for members of the
group. When you define preferences for a group, the group is known as a workgroup.
A primary group is the user’s default group. Primary groups can expedite the validation
performed by the Mac OS X file system when a user accesses a file.
How Group Accounts Track Membership
Mac OS X Server uses GUIDs and a combination of the user’s short name and GID to
determine group membership. Before Mac OS X v10.4, group membership was based
only on a combination of the user’s short name and GID.
You can now have groups composed of users with all versions of Mac OS X. When you
use Workgroup Manager on Mac OS X Server v10.5 to add a member to a group, you
add both the user’s short name and GUID, which ensures backward compatibility.
89
Where Group Accounts Are Stored
Group accounts can be stored in any Open Directory domain. A directory domain can
reside on a Mac OS X computer (for example, an Open Directory domain) or it can
reside on a non-Apple server (for example, an LDAP or Active Directory server).
Workgroup Manager can work with accounts stored in any of these directory domains.
Group accounts must be stored in a directory domain accessible from the server that
needs them:
 For services provided by a Mac OS X Server PDC or Windows domain member server,
group accounts can be stored in the PDC LDAP directory.
 For services provided by an Active Directory domain member, group accounts can be
stored in the Active Directory domain.
 For services provided by a Windows standalone server, group accounts can be stored
in the server’s local directory domain.
 If a server is configured to access multiple directory domains, group accounts can be
stored in any of them.
For more information about the different kinds of Open Directory domains, see Open
Directory Administration.
Predefined Group Accounts
The following table describes most group accounts that are created when you install
Mac OS X Server. For a complete list, open Workgroup Manager and choose View >
Show System Users and Groups.
90
Predefined
group name
Group ID
Use
admin
80
A group that users with administrator privileges belong to.
bin
7
A group that owns all binary files.
daemon
1
A group used by system services.
dialer
68
A group for controlling access to modems on a server.
kmem
2
A legacy group used to control access to reading kernel memory.
mail
6
A group historically used for access to local UNIX mail.
_mysql
74
A group that the MySQL database server uses for its processes that
handle requests.
network
69
A group that has no specific meaning.
nobody
-2
A group used by system services.
nogroup
-1
A group used by system services.
operator
5
A group that has no specific meaning.
smmsp
25
A group used by sendmail.
sshd
75
A group used for the sshd child processes that process network
data.
Chapter 5 Setting Up Group Accounts
Predefined
group name
Group ID
Use
staff
20
A default group that UNIX users are traditionally placed.
sys
3
A group that has no specific meaning.
tty
4
A group that owns special files such as the device file associated
with an SSH or telnet user.
_unknown
99
A group used when the system doesn’t know about the hard drive.
utmp
45
A group that controls who can update the system’s list of logged-in
users.
_uucp
66
A group used to control access to UUCP spool files.
wheel
0
A group (in addition to the admin group) that users with
administrator privileges belong to. Membership is required for
using the su command.
_www
70
A nonprivileged group that Apache uses for its processes that
handle requests.
Administering Group Accounts
Workgroup Manager lets you administer group accounts stored in multiple directory
domains.
Creating Group Accounts
To create a group account in a directory domain, you must have domain administrator
privileges.
You can also create group accounts on a non-Apple LDAPv3 server if the server is
configured for write access.
To create a group account:
1 In Workgroup Manager, click Accounts.
2 Make sure the directory services of the Mac OS X Server computer you’re using are
configured to access the directory domain.
For information about using Directory Utility to configure an LDAP connection, see
Open Directory Administration. For information about the group account elements that
may need to be mapped, see the appendix, “Importing and Exporting
Account Information.”
3 Click the globe icon and choose the domain where you want the group account to
reside.
4 To authenticate, click the lock and enter the name and password of a directory domain
administrator.
5 Click the Groups button.
6 Click New Group and then specify settings for the group in the panes provided.
Chapter 5 Setting Up Group Accounts
91
You can also use a preset or an import file to create a group. For details, see “Creating a
Preset for Group Accounts,” and the appendix, “Importing and Exporting
Account Information.”
From the Command Line
You can also create a group account using the dseditgroup command in Terminal. For
more information, see the users and groups chapter of Command-Line Administration.
Creating a Preset for Group Accounts
You can use presets to apply predetermined settings to a new group account.
Presets are stored in the directory domain that you’re viewing. If you change directory
domains, the presets you created in the other directory domain are not available.
For instructions on renaming, editing, or deleting group presets, see “Renaming
Presets” on page 62, “Editing Presets” on page 62, and “Deleting a Preset” on page 63.
To create a preset for group accounts:
1 In Workgroup Manager, click Accounts.
2 Make sure the server is configured to access the Mac OS X directory domain or nonApple LDAPv3 domain where the preset is used to create accounts.
3 To create a preset using data in an existing group account, open the account; to create
a preset from scratch, create a group account.
4 Fill in the fields with values you want new groups to inherit and delete values you don’t
want to specify in advance.
5 Click Preferences, configure settings that you want the preset to define, and then click
Accounts.
After configuring preference settings for a preset, you must return to the Accounts
settings to save the preset.
6 From the Presets pop-up menu, choose Save Preset, enter a name for the preset, and
then click OK.
Editing Group Account Information
You can use Workgroup Manager to change a group account that resides in an Open
Directory domain, the local directory domain, or other read/write directory domain.
To make changes to a group account:
1 In Workgroup Manager, click Accounts.
2 Make sure the directory services of the Mac OS X Server computer you’re using are
configured to access the directory domain.
For instructions, see Open Directory Administration.
3 Click the globe icon and choose the domain where the group account resides.
92
Chapter 5 Setting Up Group Accounts
4 To authenticate, click the lock and enter the name and password of a directory domain
administrator.
5 Click the Groups button and select the group you want to work with.
6 Edit settings for the group in the panes provided.
For details, see “Working with Basic Settings for Groups” on page 95, “Working with
Member Settings for Groups” on page 99, and “Working with Group Folder Settings” on
page 100.
From the Command Line
You can also edit a group account using the dseditgroup command in Terminal. For
more information, see the users and groups chapter of Command-Line Administration.
Creating Hierarchical Groups
A hierarchical group is a group that is a member of another group, known as a parent
group.
For computers with Mac OS X v10.5 or later, hierarchical groups inherit managed
preferences. Members of a hierarchical group have combined preferences managed by
their chosen workgroup and by parent groups. They can also inherit preferences from
parent groups.
For computers with Mac OS X v10.4 or later, the access permissions of a parent group
are inherited. For example, if you set a parent group’s ACL permissions so the parent
group can’t write to a folder, the ACL permissions are propogated so that hierarchical
groups also can’t write to that folder.
Groups created using Mac OS X Server v10.3 and v10.4 must be upgraded to become
parent or child hierarchical groups and use hierarchical preference management. If you
don’t upgrade groups created using Mac OS X Server v10.3, you can’t use hierarchical
groups. If you don’t upgrade groups created using Mac OS X Server v10.4, you can’t use
hierarchical preference management with those groups. For more information, see
“Upgrading Legacy Groups” on page 94.
To create a hierarchical group:
1 In Workgroup Manager, click Accounts.
2 Make sure that the directory services of the Mac OS X Server computer you’re using are
configured to access the desired directory domain.
For instructions, see Open Directory Administration.
3 Click the globe icon and choose the domain where you want the hierarchical group to
reside.
4 To authenticate, click the lock and enter the name and password of a directory domain
administrator.
Chapter 5 Setting Up Group Accounts
93
5 To create a group, click the Groups button.
6 In the Members pane, click the Add (+) button to open a drawer that lists the users and
groups defined in the directory domain you’re working with.
Make sure the group account resides in a directory domain specified in the search
policy of computers the user logs in to.
The drawer lists user and group accounts. Click the Groups button in the drawer to list
group accounts.
7 Drag the group from the drawer to the Members list.
All members of the hierarchical group also become members of the parent group.
8 Click Save.
From the Command Line
You can also create a hierarchical group account using the dseditgroup command in
Terminal. For more information, see the users and groups chapter of Command-Line
Administration.
Upgrading Legacy Groups
When you upgrade from Mac OS X Server v10.3 or earlier, or when you import groups
created using Workgroup Manager v10.3 or earlier, existing groups can’t use
hierarchical preference management unless you first convert them.
Upgrading legacy groups does not negatively affect group members with client
computers running previous versions of Mac OS X.
To convert a legacy group to an upgraded group account:
1 In Workgroup Manager, click Accounts.
2 Make sure that the directory services of the Mac OS X Server computer you’re using are
configured to access the directory domain.
For instructions, see Open Directory Administration.
3 Click the globe icon and choose the domain where the group account resides.
4 To authenticate, click the lock and enter the name and password of a directory domain
administrator.
5 Click the Groups button and select the legacy group you want to upgrade.
6 In the Members pane, click the Upgrade Legacy Group button and then click Save.
Working with Read-Only Groups
You can use Workgroup Manager to review information for group accounts stored in
read-only directory domains. Read-only directory domains include LDAPv2 domains,
LDAPv3 domains not configured for write access, NIS domains, and BSD configuration
files.
94
Chapter 5 Setting Up Group Accounts
To work with read-only groups:
1 In Workgroup Manager, click Accounts.
2 Make sure that the directory services of the Mac OS X Server computer you’re using are
configured to access the directory domain where the account resides.
For information about using Directory Utility to configure server connections, see Open
Directory Administration. For information about the group account elements that need
to be mapped, see the appendix, “Importing and Exporting Account Information.”
3 Click the globe icon and then choose the directory domain where the group account
resides.
4 Use the panes provided to review the group account settings.
Deleting a Group
You can use Workgroup Manager to delete a group account stored in an Open
Directory domain, the local directory domain, or other read/write directory domain.
WARNING: You cannot undo this action.
To delete a group using Workgroup Manager:
1 In Workgroup Manager, click Accounts.
2 Select the group account you want to delete.
To select the account, click the globe icon, choose the directory domain where the
account resides, click the Groups button, and then select the group.
3 To authenticate, click the lock and enter the name and password of a directory domain
administrator.
4 Choose Server > Delete Selected Group or click the Delete icon in the toolbar.
From the Command Line
You can also delete a group account using the dseditgroup command in Terminal. For
more information, see the users and groups chapter of Command-Line Administration.
Working with Basic Settings for Groups
Basic settings for groups include name, ID, picture path, comments, and whether the
group uses web services.
Naming a Group
A group has two names: a long name and a short name.
 A long group name (for example, English Department Students) is used for display
purposes and contains no more than 255 bytes.
Chapter 5 Setting Up Group Accounts
95
Because long group names support various character sets, the number of characters
for long group names can range from 255 Roman characters to as few as 63
characters (for character sets in which characters occupy up to 4 bytes).
 A short group name contains as many as 255 Roman characters. However, for clients
using Mac OS X v10.1.5 or earlier, the short group name must be eight characters or
less. Use only the following characters in a short group name:
 a through z
 A through Z
 0 through 9
 _ (underscore)
The short name (typically eight or less characters) may be used by Mac OS X to find
group members’ user IDs when determining whether a user can access a file as a
result of his or her group membership.
For more information about group membership, see “How Group Accounts Track
Membership” on page 89.
If a group has a mailing list enabled, the short name is also used in the group’s
mailing list address (shortname@hostname.com).
For more information about enabling a group’s mailing list, see “Enabling a Group’s
Web Services” on page 98.
You can use Workgroup Manager to edit the long or short names of a group account
stored in an Open Directory domain, the local directory domain, or other read/write
directory domain. You can also use Workgroup Manager to review the names in any
directory domain accessible from the server you’re using.
To work with group names using Workgroup Manager:
1 In Workgroup Manager, click Accounts.
2 Select the group account you want to work with.
To select an account, click the globe icon, choose the directory domain where the
account resides, click the Groups button, and select the group.
3 To authenticate, click the lock and enter the name and password of a directory domain
administrator.
4 Click Basic, then in the Name field (or the “Short name” field) review or edit the names
and then click Save.
Before saving a new name, Workgroup Manager checks to ensure that the name is
unique.
Defining a Group ID
A group ID is a string of ASCII digits that uniquely identifies the group. The maximum
value is 2,147,483,647.
96
Chapter 5 Setting Up Group Accounts
You can use Workgroup Manager to edit the ID for a group account stored in an Open
Directory domain or the local domain, or to review the group ID in any directory
domain accessible from the server you’re using. The group ID is associated with group
privileges and permissions.
To work with a group ID using Workgroup Manager:
1 In Workgroup Manager, click Accounts.
2 Select the group account you want to work with.
To select an account, click the globe icon, choose the directory domain where the
account resides, click the Groups button, and then select the group.
3 To authenticate, click the lock and enter the name and password of a directory domain
administrator.
4 Click Basic, then in the Group ID field review or edit the ID and click Save.
Before saving a group ID, Workgroup Manager checks to ensure that it is unique in the
directory domain you’re using.
Choosing a Group’s Login Picture
You can quickly change a group’s login picture in Workgroup Manager. This picture
represents the group in the workgroup chooser of the login window.
Although you can use an image file of any size, you should use an image that is 64 x 64
pixels in size. If you use a larger image, it is centered and resized to 64 x 64.
Group pictures are stored as a path to an image file, not as the file itself. This path must
be accessible by the computers used by the group. For example, if you enter a path to
an image file on the desktop, the image file must be located on the desktop of all
computers used by the group. To avoid copying image files to all computers, store
image files on a server.
To choose a group’s login picture:
1 In Workgroup Manager, click Accounts.
2 Select the group account you want to work with.
To select an account, click the globe icon, choose the directory domain where the
account resides, click the Groups button, and select the group.
3 To authenticate, click the lock and enter the name and password of a directory domain
administrator.
4 In the Basic pane, drag a picture to the picture area in the top right.
When you drag a picture to the picture area, the Picture Path field is updated with the
new location of the picture. You can also change the picture by editing this path.
5 Click Save.
Chapter 5 Setting Up Group Accounts
97
Enabling a Group’s Web Services
Mac OS X Server v10.5 includes Groups, a feature that allows groups to easily create a
collaborative website. This website uses calendar, wiki, and blog technology to
streamline group communication. You can also set up a mailing list so that mail sent to
the list is sent to all group members and are archived on the group website.
You can only enable the web calendar and mailing list archive if you first enable the
wiki and blog service.
You can choose who views or edits the website:
 “Group members only” includes all members of the group
 “Some group members” (only available for editing) includes group members who are
given editing privileges
 “Authenticated users” includes anyone who can authenticate with your organization’s
directory
 “Anyone” allows everyone, without requiring authentication
You can provide different levels of website access to different subsets of users. For
example, you can set up an intranet site where everyone in your organization can view
the site (allow “Entire directory” to view services), but only group members can edit it
(allow “Group members” to edit services).
When setting up levels of website access, the users who can edit the website are a
subset of the users who can view it. For example, you can’t let anyone edit the site and
allow only group members to view it.
When you create a group, the URL of the group website and the mailing list email
address is based on the short name of the group (shortname@hostname.com). If you
change the group’s name after creating it, the URL and mailing list email address do
not change.
The administrator computer’s search policy must include the server that hosts web
services.
To enable a group’s web services:
1 In Workgroup Manager, click Accounts.
2 Select the group account you want to work with.
To select an account, click the globe icon, choose the directory domain where the
account resides, click the Groups button, and select the group.
3 To authenticate, click the lock and enter the name and password of a directory domain
administrator.
4 Choose a server from the “Enable the following services for this group on” pop-up
menu.
98
Chapter 5 Setting Up Group Accounts
5 Select the services you want to enable.
You can only select services that are not disabled by your web server.
6 Choose who can view the group website by using the “can view these services” pop-up
menu.
This option applies to viewing the wiki, blog, calendar, and mailing list archive.
7 Choose who can edit the group website by using the “can write to these services” popup menu.
This option applies to editing the wiki, blog, and calendar.
8 Click Save.
Working with Member Settings for Groups
In Workgroup Manager, use the Members pane for a group to view, add, or remove
group members.
When a user name in the Members list appears in italics, the group is the user’s primary
group.
Adding Users or Groups to a Group
When you want multiple users or groups to have the same file permissions, or when
you want to apply the same management settings to all users or groups, add the users
or groups to a group.
After assigning a user to a primary group, you don’t need to add the user to that group.
However, you must specifically add users to other groups.
You can use Workgroup Manager to add a user to a group if the user and group
accounts are in an Open Directory domain or the local directory domain. Although
some group information doesn’t apply to Windows users, you can also add Windows
users to groups you create.
Mac OS X Server v10.5 and later supports hierarchical groups—groups composed of
nested groups. By managing preferences for a parent group, child groups also receive
these managed preferences. For more information, see “Understanding Hierarchical
Preference Management” on page 159.
To add a user to a group using Workgroup Manager:
1 In Workgroup Manager, click Accounts.
2 Select the group account you want to work with.
To select an account, click the globe icon, choose the directory domain where the
account resides, click the Groups button, and then select the group.
Chapter 5 Setting Up Group Accounts
99
3 To authenticate, click the lock and enter the name and password of a directory domain
administrator.
4 In the Members pane, click the Add (+) button to open a drawer that lists the users and
groups defined in the directory domain you’re working with.
Make sure the group account resides in a directory domain specified in the search
policy of computers that the user logs in to.
5 Select the user account, drag the user into the list, and then click Save.
From the Command Line
You can add a user to a group using the dseditgroup command in Terminal. For more
information, see the users and groups chapter of Command-Line Administration.
Removing Group Members
You can use Workgroup Manager to remove group members if the group account and
its members reside in an Open Directory domain or the local directory domain.
You can’t remove a user’s primary group.
To remove group members:
1 In Workgroup Manager, click Accounts.
2 Select the group account you want to work with.
To select an account, click the globe icon, choose the directory domain where the
account resides, click the Groups button, and then select the group.
3 To authenticate, click the lock and enter the name and password of a directory domain
administrator.
4 In the Members pane, select the members you want to remove from the group, click
the Remove (–) button, and then click Save.
From the Command Line
You can also remove users from a group using the dseditgroup command in Terminal.
For more information, see the users and groups chapter of Command-Line
Administration.
Working with Group Folder Settings
A group folder offers a way to organize and distribute documents and applications to
group members, and gives group members a way to share files with each other.
Group folders are not directly linked to workgroup management, but access and
workflow management can be improved by combining the use of group folders with
managed preferences for workgroups.
100
Chapter 5 Setting Up Group Accounts
For example, to set a multimedia lab computer specifically for a movie-editing class,
you could set Dock preferences for the movie-editing workgroup to display only iMovie
and the group folder. Because the group folder is in the Dock, it provides an easily
accessible location for students to store and retrieve files.
Group folders aren’t automatically mounted on Windows workstations when group
members log in to the Windows domain. If the group folder’s share point is shared
using SMB, a Windows user can go to My Network Places (or Network Neighborhood)
and access the contents of the group folder.
Specifying No Group Folder
You can use Workgroup Manager to change a group account with a group folder to
one that has no group folder. By default, a new group has no group folder.
To specify no group folder:
1 In Workgroup Manager, click Accounts.
2 Select the group account you want to work with.
To select an account, click the globe icon, choose the directory domain where the
account resides, click the Groups button, and then select the group.
3 To authenticate, click the lock and enter the name and password of a directory domain
administrator.
4 Click the Groups button and select a group.
5 Click Group Folder; then in the list, select (None) and click Save.
Creating a Group Folder
You can create a group folder for a group in any existing share point, or you can create
the group folder in the /Groups folder (a predefined share point).
In Workgroup Manager, you can also create group folders that don’t reside immediately
below a share point. For example, you can organize group folders into several
subfolders under a share point that you define. If Groups is the share point, you can
place group folders for students in /Groups/StudentGroups and group folders for
teachers in /Groups/TeacherGroups. The full path to a group folder for second-grade
students might be /Groups/StudentGroups/SecondGrade.
Group folders are hosted on share points. For instructions about creating share points,
see “Setting Up a Share Point” on page 116.
After setting up a group folder, you can automate a group member’s access to the
group folder when the user logs in by:
 Setting up Dock preferences to make the group folder visible in the Dock.
For instructions, see “Providing Easy Access to Group Folders” on page 175.
Chapter 5 Setting Up Group Accounts
101
 Setting up login preferences so that users can click Computer in the Finder to see the
group folder share point and the group folders in it. For instructions, see “Providing
Easy Access to the Group Share Point” on page 199.
When setting up these preferences, make sure the group is defined in a shared domain
in the search policy of the group member’s computer. For instructions on setting a
computer’s search policy, see Open Directory Administration.
If you don’t automate group folder access, group members can access the group folder
using the “Connect to Server” command in the Go menu in the Finder to navigate to
the server where the group folder resides.
To set up a group folder in the /Groups folder or in another existing share point:
1 In Workgroup Manager, click Accounts.
2 Select the group account you want to work with.
To select an account, connect to the server where the account resides, click the globe
icon, choose the directory domain where the group account is stored, click the Groups
button, and then select the group.
3 To authenticate, click the lock and enter the name and password of a directory domain
administrator.
4 Click Group Folder.
5 To add a share point to the list, click the Add (+) button and enter the requested
information.
In the URL field, enter the full URL to the share point where you want the group folder
to reside.
For example, to identify an AFP share point named “SchoolGroups” on a server whose
DNS name is “myserver.example.com,” enter
afp://myserver.example.com/SchoolGroups.
If you are not using DNS, replace the DNS name of the server hosting the group folder
with the server’s IP address: afp://192.168.2.1/SchoolGroups.
In the Path field, enter the path from the share point to the group folder, including the
group folder but excluding the share point. Do not put a slash at the beginning or at
the end of the path.
For example, if the share point is SchoolGroups and the full path to the group folder is
SchoolGroups/StudentGroups/SecondGrade, enter StudentGroups/SecondGrade in the
Path field.
Note: Configuring a group folder share point with a network mount record does not
cause the group folder to mount when a group member logs in. You can provide easy
access to a group folder by managing Dock or login preferences for the group.
102
Chapter 5 Setting Up Group Accounts
6 In the Owner Name fields, enter the short name and long name of the user you want to
assign as the owner of the group folder so the user can act as group folder
administrator.
To choose an owner from a list of users in the current directory domain, click the
Browse (...) button. Click the globe icon in the drawer to choose a different directory
domain.
The group folder owner is given read/write access to the group folder.
7 Click Save.
8 To create the folder, use the ssh tool to connect to the server hosting the share point
and then enter the CreateGroupFolder command in Terminal.
You must be the root user to use the command. For more information about ssh, enter
man ssh in Terminal to view the man page. For more information about
CreateGroupFolder, enter man CreateGroupFolder in Terminal to view the man page.
The group folder is named using the short name of the group it is associated with.
From the Command Line
You can also create a group folder using the sudo /usr/bin/CreateGroupFolder
command and assign it using the dseditgroup command in Terminal. For more
information, see the users and groups chapter of Command-Line Administration.
Designating a Group Folder for Use by Multiple Groups
To permit a group folder to be accessed by multiple groups, identify the folder for each
group separately.
Usually, a single group has read/write permissions for a group folder. To allow multiple
groups to access the same group folder, use Server Admin to add an ACE for every
group to the group folder’s ACL.
For more information about using Server Admin to apply ACL permissions to folders,
see File Services Administration.
To configure more than one group to use the same group folder:
1 In Workgroup Manager, click Accounts.
2 Select the first group account that will use the folder.
To select an account, connect to the server where the account resides, click the globe
icon, choose the directory domain where the group account is stored, click the Groups
button, and then select the group.
3 Click Group Folder, select the folder you want the group to use, and then click Save.
4 In Server Admin, add an ACE entry that gives the group read/write permissions for the
group folder.
5 Repeat this process for each group that you want to use the same group folder.
Chapter 5 Setting Up Group Accounts
103
104
Chapter 5 Setting Up Group Accounts
6
Setting Up Computers and
Computer Groups
6
This chapter tells you how to set up and manage individual
computers and groups of computers.
To manage an individual computer, you must create a computer account. To manage a
group of computers, you must create a computer group composed of computer
accounts or of other computer groups.
Use Workgroup Manager to view, create, edit, and delete computers and computer
groups.
To view computers in Workgroup Manager, click the Computers button above the
accounts list. To view computer groups in Workgroup Manager, click the Computer
Groups button above the accounts list.
About Computer Accounts
A computer account stores data that allows Mac OS X Server to identify and manage
individual computers. To create computer groups, you must first create computer
accounts for each individual computer.
Before setting up a computer, you need the computer’s name and address. You usually
use the computer name specified in a computer’s Sharing preferences, or you can use a
descriptive name that you find more suitable.
A computer’s address must be the Ethernet address, which is unique to each computer.
(A computer’s Ethernet address, or Ethernet ID, is also known as its MAC address.) When
you browse for a computer, Workgroup Manager enters the computer’s name and
Ethernet address for you. A client computer uses this data to find preference
information when a user logs in.
For Windows computers, you must know the NetBIOS name of each Windows client
computer. This name is entered in the name field. You don’t need to know the Ethernet
address of Windows client computers.
105
When a computer starts up, Mac OS X tries to match the computer’s Ethernet address
with a computer account. If a matching computer account is found, the computer uses
the managed preferences for that computer account and the computer groups it
belongs to. If no matching computer account is found, the computer uses the
managed preferences for the Guest Computer account.
Creating Computer Accounts
To create a computer account in a directory domain, you must have administrator
privileges and the computer’s Ethernet ID.
When you enter the Ethernet ID, it must be entered correctly so the DHCP server can
find the computer. It must follow these rules:
 It must be entered using hexadecimal numbers. Hexadecimal numbers include digits
0–9 and letters a–f.
 Bytes must be separated by colons. Bytes are comprised of two hexadecimal
numbers.
 All bytes with a single hexadecimal number should have a leading zero. For example,
the following Ethernet ID is invalid because the single hexadecimal numbers do not
have leading zeros:
7:8:9:a:b:c
However, the following Ethernet ID is valid because the hexadecimal numbers have
leading zeros:
07:08:09:0a:0b:0c
 The letters a–f must be entered in lower case.
To create a computer account:
1 In Workgroup Manager, click Accounts.
2 Click the globe icon and choose the directory domain where you want to store the
computer account.
3 To authenticate, click the lock and enter the name and password of a directory domain
administrator.
4 Click the Computers button.
5 Choose Server > New Computer (or click New Computer in the toolbar) and then enter
long and short names for the computer.
6 Click General.
7 To add a comment, in the Comment field, enter a comment.
Comments and keywords make it easier to search for the computer.
8 To associate keywords with the computer, click the Add (+) button next to the
keywords list.
106
Chapter 6 Setting Up Computers and Computer Groups
If keywords that you want to associate aren’t listed in the master keyword list, click Edit
Keywords, click the Add (+) button, enter a name for the keyword, and click OK.
Select the keywords you want to associate with the computer and click OK.
9 Click Network, enter the Ethernet ID for the computer and its IP address (if the
computer receives a static IP), and then click Save.
The Ethernet ID is required to identify the computer.
Working with Guest Computers
If an unknown computer (one that doesn’t have a computer account) connects to your
network and attempts to access services, that computer is treated as a guest computer.
Settings for the guest computer account apply to these unknown computers.
To apply specific management settings to a computer, don’t use the guest computer
account to manage it. Create a computer account for it.
Note: You can’t change the name of a guest computer. Because the Guest Computer
account is associated with all unknown computers, you can’t enter network settings to
identify the computer.
To set up the guest computer account:
1 In Workgroup Manager, click Accounts.
2 Click the globe icon and choose the directory domain that contains the guest
computer account.
3 To authenticate, click the lock and enter the name and password of a directory domain
administrator.
4 Click the Computers button (on the left).
5 Choose Server > Create Guest Computer.
6 Select the Guest Computer account.
7 Click General, enter a comment or add keywords, and then click Save.
Working with Windows Computers
Every Windows computer that joins the Windows domain of a Mac OS X Server primary
doman controller (PDC) must have a computer account, which identifies the Windows
computer by its NetBIOS name.
The computer account for a Windows computer also contains information for
authenticating the computer as a trusted workstation in the Windows domain.
Mac OS X Server creates this information in the form of a UID and a GID.
You can add Windows computer accounts to computer groups, but Windows
computers don’t receive managed preferences.
Chapter 6 Setting Up Computers and Computer Groups
107
Important: Don’t create computer accounts for Windows 2000 or Windows XP
computers. If you do so, they may not be usable for domain login. Instead, use the
Windows software on these computers to join them to the Windows domain. For
information, see Open Directory Administration.
About Computer Groups
A computer group comprises computers with the same preference settings. You can
use Workgroup Manager create and modify computer groups.
To edit computer groups or computer group preferences, you must have domain
administrator privileges. For instructions on assigning administrator privileges for a
directory domain, see “Giving a User Full Administrative Capabilities” on page 72.
Differences Between Computer Groups and Computer Lists
Computer groups are a new concept to Mac OS X Server v10.5. Before Mac OS X Server
v10.5, computer lists were used to manage computers. Computer lists and computer
groups function similarly. By managing a computer list or a computer group, you are
managing all individual computers within them.
There are two major differences between computer groups and computer lists:
 Computer groups allow you to include other computer groups. You can then
manage hierarchical groups by managing the parent computer group.
 A computer can be a member of multiple computer groups. However, a computer
can only be a member of a single computer list.
Ideally, all members of a computer group are either computers running Mac OS X v10.5
or later, or other computer groups. Computer groups that include computers running
Mac OS X v10.4 or earlier act like any other computer group of computers running
Mac OS X v10.5 or later—that is, computers can belong to multiple computer groups,
and you can form hierarchical groups.
The computer group acts like a computer list for computers running earlier versions of
Mac OS X. Computers can only belong to one list, and nesting the computer group has
no effect on the computer.
Administering Computer Groups
You can use Workgroup Manager to administer computer groups stored in various
directory domains.
Creating a Computer Group
When you create a computer group, keep in mind the following:
108
Chapter 6 Setting Up Computers and Computer Groups
 A computer group is a group of computers that have the same preference settings
and are available to the same users and groups.
 You can add up to 2000 computers to a computer group.
You can create hierarchical groups to manage computers with Mac OS X v10.5 or later.
Hierarchical groups inherit managed preferences. Computers in a hierarchical group
have combined preferences managed by their computer group and by parent
computer groups. They can also inherit preferences from parent computer groups.
To set up a computer group:
1 In Workgroup Manager, click Accounts.
2 Click the globe icon and choose the directory domain where you want to store the
computer group.
3 To authenticate, click the lock and enter the name and password of a directory domain
administrator.
4 Click the Computer Groups button (on the left).
5 To use a preset, choose one from the Presets pop-up menu.
6 Choose Server > New Computer Group (or click New Computer Group in the toolbar),
and then enter a name for the computer group.
7 Click Basic.
8 Optionally, add a comment.
Comments are useful for providing information about a computer’s location,
configuration (for example, a computer set up for individuals with special needs), or
attached peripherals. You could also use the comment for identification information,
such as the computer’s model or serial number.
9 Click Members, click the Add (+) button, and then drag computers or computer groups
listed in the drawer to add them to the computer group.
You can also click the Browse (...) button, select a computer, and click Add.
10 Click Save.
After setting up a computer group, you can manage preferences for it. For more
information about using managed preferences, see “Customizing the User Experience”
on page 149, and Chapter 10, “Managing Preferences.”
Creating a Preset for Computer Groups
You can select settings for a computer group and save them as a preset. Presets work
like templates, allowing you to apply preselected settings and information to new
computer groups.
Chapter 6 Setting Up Computers and Computer Groups
109
Using presets, you can easily set up multiple computer groups that use similar settings.
However, you can only use presets when creating a computer group. You can’t use a
preset to change a computer group.
To set up a preset for computer groups:
1 In Workgroup Manager, click Accounts.
2 Click the globe icon and choose the directory domain where you want to create a
computer group using presets.
3 To authenticate, click the lock and enter the name and password of a directory domain
administrator.
4 Click the Computer Groups button (on the left).
5 Create a computer group by clicking New Computer Group or by selecting an existing
computer group (on the left).
6 Fill in the information in the Basic and Members panes.
7 From the Presets pop-up menu, choose Save Preset.
After creating a preset, you can change its settings, change its name, or delete it:
To do this
Do this
Change the preset’s settings
Create a computer group based on the preset and change the
computer group settings. Save the preset using the same name as
the old preset.
When you change a preset, existing accounts that were created
with it are not updated to reflect the changes.
Change the name of a preset
Choose Rename Preset from the Presets pop-up menu, choose the
preset, enter a new name, and then click OK.
Delete a preset
Choose Delete Preset from the Presets pop-up menu, select the
preset, and then click Delete.
Using a Computer Group Preset
When you create a computer group, you can choose any preset from the Presets popup menu to apply initial settings. You can further modify computer group settings
before you save the list.
When you save the computer group, you can’t use the Preset menu again for that list
(for example, you can’t apply a different preset to the group).
To use a preset for computer groups:
1 In Workgroup Manager, click Accounts.
2 Click the globe icon and choose the directory domain where you want to store the
computer group.
3 To authenticate, click the lock and enter the name and password of a directory domain
administrator.
110
Chapter 6 Setting Up Computers and Computer Groups
4 Click the Computer Groups button (on the left) and then click Basic.
5 From the Presets pop-up menu, choose a preset.
6 Choose Server > New Computer Group (or click New Computer Group in the toolbar).
7 Add or update settings as needed and then click Save.
Adding Computers or Computer Groups to a Computer Group
You can easily add computers and computer groups to an existing computer group
using Workgroup Manager.
Hierarchical computer groups are supported in Mac OS X Server v10.5 or later. If you
add computer groups containing client computers running Mac OS X v10.4 or earlier,
those clients don’t receive managed preferences from parent computer groups.
To add computers or computer groups to a computer group:
1 In Workgroup Manager, click Accounts.
2 Select the computer group.
To select the computer group, click the globe icon, choose the directory domain that
contains the computer group, click the Computer Groups button, and then select the
computer group.
3 To authenticate, click the lock and enter the name and password of a directory domain
administrator.
4 Click Members, click the Add (+) button, and then drag computers or computer groups
from the drawer to the list.
You can also click the Browse (...) button, select a computer, and then click Add.
Continue adding computers and computer groups until the list is complete.
5 Click Save.
Removing Computers and Computer Groups from a Computer Group
If you remove a computer from a computer group, you can still manage it by managing
its computer account or by adding it to another computer group.
To remove a computer or computer groups from a computer group:
1 In Workgroup Manager, click Accounts.
2 Select the computer group the computer belongs to.
To select the computer group, click the globe icon, choose the directory domain that
contains the computer group you want to modify, click the Computer Groups button,
and then select the list.
3 To authenticate, click the lock and enter the name and password of a directory domain
administrator.
4 In the Members pane, select one or more computers or computer groups.
Chapter 6 Setting Up Computers and Computer Groups
111
5 Click the Remove (–) button and then click Save.
Deleting a Computer Group
If you no longer need a computer group, you can use Workgroup Manager to delete it.
WARNING: You cannot undo this action.
To delete a computer group:
1 In Workgroup Manager, click Accounts.
2 Select the computer group.
To select the computer group, click the globe icon, choose the directory domain that
contains the computer group you want to delete, click the Computer Groups button,
and then select the list.
3 To authenticate, click the lock and enter the name and password of a directory domain
administrator.
4 Choose Server > Delete Selected Computer Group, or click Delete in the toolbar and
then click Delete.
Upgrading Computer Lists to Computer Groups
Computer lists are groups of computers created in Mac OS X Server v10.4 or earlier.
Computer lists can only include computers, not other computer lists. Computer groups
can include computers and hierarchical computer groups. You can hierarchically
manage preferences for computer groups.
Computer groups can include computers running earlier versions of Mac OS X. These
computers don't receive hierarchical preference management.
To upgrade computer lists to computer groups:
1 In Workgroup Manager, click Accounts, click the Computer Groups button, and then
select a computer list.
2 In the Basic pane, click Upgrade Computer List to Group.
112
Chapter 6 Setting Up Computers and Computer Groups
7
Setting Up Home Folders
7
This chapter provides guidelines for setting up and managing
home folders.
Mac OS X uses the home folder—a folder for a user’s personal use—to store the user’s
application preferences and personal files, like documents and music.
To set up share points that host home folders, you can use Server Admin. After setting
up share points, you can then use Workgroup Manager to set up home folders on the
share points.
About Home Folders
You can set up Mac OS X home folders so they can be accessed by Apple Filing
Protocol (AFP) or Network File System (NFS).
To set up a home folder for a user in Workgroup Manager, use the Home pane when
viewing a user’s account.
You can also import user home folder settings from a file. For an explanation of how to
work with import files, see the appendix, “Importing and Exporting
Account Information.”
A user’s home folder doesn’t need to be stored on the same server as the directory
domain containing the user’s account. In fact, distributing directory domains and home
folders across various servers can help balance the workload. For more information, see
“Distributing Home Folders Across Multiple Servers” on page 115.
113
The home folder you designate in the Home pane can be used when logging in from a
Windows workstation or a Mac OS X computer. This can be helpful for a user whose
account resides on a server that is a Windows primary domain controller (PDC).
WARNING: If the absolute path from the client to the network home folder on the
server contains spaces or more than 89 characters, some types of clients won’t
connect. For example, a client using automount with an LDAP-based AFP home folder
might not be able to access its home folder. The “/” character is considered a
character.
There are additional limitations on the maximum path length, depending on the
version of Mac OS X used by clients. For more information, see the Apple Service &
Support website article, “Avoid spaces and long names in network home directory
name, path,” at docs.info.apple.com/article.html?artnum=107695.
Hosting Home Folders for Mac OS X Clients
To host home folders for Mac OS X clients, use AFP or NFS. If you are hosting only
Mac OS X clients, use AFP. If you are hosting Mac OS X and UNIX clients, use NFS.
The preferred protocol is AFP because it provides authentication-level access security.
A user must log in with a valid name and password to access files.
NFS file access is based not on user authentication, but on the user ID and the client IP
address, so it is generally less secure than AFP. Use NFS only if you need to provide
home folders for a large number of users who use UNIX workstations.
Hosting Home Folders for Other Clients
To host home folders for Windows clients, use SMB. To optimally handle both Mac OS X
and Windows clients, you could use both AFP (for Mac OS X clients) and SMB (for
Windows clients).
SMB is a protocol used by Windows to access share points. You can set up a share point
for SMB access only, so that Windows users have a network location for files that can’t
be used on other platforms. Like AFP, SMB also requires authentication with a valid
name and password to access files.
In addition to having home folders, Windows users also have roaming profiles. With
roaming profiles, each user has the same profile when he or she logs in to the domain
from any Windows workstation on the network.
A roaming profile stores a Windows user’s preference settings (screensaver, colors,
backgrounds, event sounds, and so on), favorites, My Documents folder, and more, in a
share point on a Mac OS X Server. By default, a user’s roaming profile is stored in a
predetermined folder on the PDC, and backup domain controllers (BDCs) have an upto-date copy of this folder.
114
Chapter 7 Setting Up Home Folders
The default share point for Windows home folders is the same as the share point for
Mac OS X home folders. The default share point for user profiles is the /Users/Profiles/
folder on the PDC and BDC servers. (This SMB share point is not shown in Workgroup
Manager.) You can set up alternate SMB share points for home folders and user profiles
on the PDC server or on domain member servers.
Distributing Home Folders Across Multiple Servers
The following illustration shows one Mac OS X Server computer storing user accounts,
and two other Mac OS X Server computers storing AFP home folders.
Mac OS X Server
User accounts
Home folders A through M
Home folders N through Z
When a user logs in, he or she is authenticated using an account stored in a shared
directory domain on the accounts server. The location of the user’s home folder (stored
in the account) is used to mount the home folder, which resides on one of the two
home folder servers.
Here are the steps you could use to set up this scenario for AFP home folders:
Step 1: Create a shared domain for user accounts on the accounts server
Create a shared LDAP directory domain by setting up an Open Directory master, as
described in Open Directory Administration.
Step 2: Set up an automountable share point for home folders on each home
folder server
For information about how to set up automountable share points, see “Setting Up an
Automountable AFP Share Point for Home Folders” on page 117.
Chapter 7 Setting Up Home Folders
115
Step 3: Create the user accounts in the shared domain on the accounts server
For information about specifying which share point is used for a user’s home folder, see
“Administering Home Folders” on page 121.
Step 4: Set up the directory services of the client computers so their search policy
includes the shared directory domain on the accounts server
For information about configuring search policies, see Open Directory Administration.
When a user restarts his or her computer and logs in using the account in the shared
domain, the home folder is created automatically (if it hasn’t already been created) on
the appropriate server, and is visible on the user’s computer.
Administering Share Points
A share point is a hard disk (or hard disk partition), disc media, or folder that contains
files you want users to share. You can use share points to host home folders.
Setting Up a Share Point
You can use Server Admin to set up share points and then use the share points to host
local home folders. Or you can mount the share point so it hosts network home folders.
To set up a share point:
1 Open Server Admin and connect to the server where you want to host the share point.
To connect to the server, choose Server > Connect, enter the server address in the
Address field, and then authenticate as a server administrator.
If you’re already connected, you’ll see Disconnect (instead of Connect) in the Server
menu.
2 Select the server and click File Sharing.
3 Click Volumes, then display folders within volumes by clicking Browse.
4 Select the volume or folder that will become a share point.
To create a folder, select a parent folder or volume and click New Folder, enter the
name of the folder, and click Create.
5 In Permissions, select entries in the list, click the Edit (pencil) button to change their
name or permissions, and change the settings as follows:
UNIX Class
Name
Permission
Owner (single silhouette)
admin
Read and Write
Group (several silhouettes)
admin
Read
Others (globe)
Others
Read
6 Click Share and then click Save.
116
Chapter 7 Setting Up Home Folders
Setting Up an Automountable AFP Share Point for Home Folders
You can use Server Admin to set up an AFP share point for home folders.
Home folders for user accounts stored in shared directory domains (such as an Open
Directory domain) can reside in any AFP share point that the user’s computer can
access. This share point must be automountable—that is, it must have a network
mount record in the directory domain where the user account resides.
Using an automountable share point ensures that the home folder appears in
/Network/Servers when the user logs in to a Mac OS X computer configured to access
the shared domain.
Users can access home folders on any automountable share point with guest access
enabled.
To set up an automountable AFP share point for home folders:
1 If you do not have a share point to host home folders, create one.
For instructions, see “Setting Up a Share Point” on page 116.
2 Open Server Admin and connect to the server that hosts the share point.
To connect to the server, choose Server > Connect, enter the server address in the
Address field, and authenticate as a server administrator.
If you’re already connected, you’ll see Disconnect (instead of Connect) in the Server
menu.
3 To view a list of available services, use the disclosure triangle next to your server.
If Server Admin doesn’t list the AFP service, click the Add (+) button, choose Add
Service, select AFP, and then click Save.
4 Select the AFP service and click Settings.
5 In Access, select “Enable Guest access” and click Save; then if AFP is not running, click
Start AFP.
For more information about administering AFP service, see File Services Administration.
6 Select the server and click File Sharing.
7 Click Share Points and then select the share point.
8 In Share Point, select Enable Automount.
When you select Enable Automount, a configuration dialog appears. If it doesn’t, click
Edit.
9 Choose your directory domain from the Directory pop-up menu, choose AFP from the
Protocol pop-up menu, select “Use for User home folders,” and click OK.
10 In the dialog that appears, authenticate as the directory administrator and then click
OK.
Chapter 7 Setting Up Home Folders
117
11 Click Protocol Options.
12 In AFP, select “Share this item using AFP” and “Allow AFP guest access.”
When you enable guest access, it is enabled for all home folders in the share point.
By default, in home folders guests can only access /Public and /Sites folders. When a
guest browses the home folder server, they can see who has home folders on that
server but are restricted to opening guest-access-enabled folders.
Guests can also use ~user-short-name/Public to access a user’s /Public folder.
13 To prevent SMB access to the share point, in SMB, deselect “Share this item using SMB.”
14 To prevent FTP access to the share point, in FTP, deselect “Share this item using FTP.”
15 To prevent NFS access to the share point, in NFS, deselect “Export this item and its
contents to.”
16 Click OK to close the Protocol Options dialog and then click Save.
From the Command Line
You can also set up a share point using the sharing command in Terminal. For more
information, see the file services chapter of Command-Line Administration.
Setting Up an Automountable NFS Share Point for Home Folders
Although AFP is the preferred protocol for accessing home folders (because of the
security it offers), you can use Server Admin to set up a network NFS share point for
home folders.
NFS share points can be used for home folders of users defined in shared directory
domains, such as an Open Directory domain or an Active Directory domain.
The NFS share point must be automountable—that is, it must have a network mount
record in the directory domain where the user account resides.
An automountable share point ensures that the computer can locate the NFS share
point and home folder. It also makes the share point’s server visible in
/Network/Servers when the user logs in to a Mac OS X computer configured to access
the shared domain.
To set up an automountable NFS share point for home folders:
1 If you do not have a share point to host home folders, create one.
For instructions, see “Setting Up a Share Point” on page 116.
2 Open Server Admin and connect to the server that hosts the share point.
To connect to the server, choose Server > Connect, enter the server address in the
Address field, and then authenticate as a server administrator.
If you’re already connected, you’ll see Disconnect (instead of Connect) in the Server
menu.
118
Chapter 7 Setting Up Home Folders
3 To view a list of available services, use the disclosure triangle next to your server.
If Server Admin doesn’t list the NFS service, click the Add (+) button, choose Add
Service, select NFS, and then click Save.
4 Select the NFS service, then if NFS is not running, click Start NFS.
For more information about administering NFS service, see File Services Administration.
5 Select the server and click File Sharing.
6 Click Share Points and then select the share point.
7 In Share Point, select Enable Automount and then click Edit.
8 Choose your directory domain from the Directory pop-up menu, choose NFS from the
Protocol pop-up menu, select “Use for User home folders,” and click OK.
9 In the dialog that appears, authenticate as the directory administrator and then click
OK.
10 Click Protocol Options.
11 In NFS, select “Export this item and its contents to” and choose Client List.
12 Add client computers that you want to have access to the share point.
Click the Add (+) button and enter the IP address or host name of a client you want to
add to the computer group.
Click the Remove (–) button to remove the selected computer from the list.
13 In the Mapping pop-up menu, choose “Root to Nobody.”
14 In the Minimum Security pop-up menu, choose the minimum level of authentication
security required with the computers.
If your computers can’t authenticate with this level of security, they can’t use NFS share
points.
15 To prevent AFP access to the share point, in AFP, deselect “Share this item using AFP.”
16 To prevent SMB access to the share point, in SMB, deselect “Share this item using SMB.”
17 To prevent FTP access to the share point, in FTP, deselect “Share this item using FTP.”
18 Click OK to close the Protocol Options dialog and then click Save.
From the Command Line
You can also set up a share point using the sharing command in Terminal. For more
information, see the file services chapter of Command-Line Administration.
Setting Up an SMB Share Point
You can use Server Admin to:
 Enable or disable access to a share point that uses SMB
 Change the share point name that SMB clients see
 Choose whether guest access and opportunistic locking is allowed
Chapter 7 Setting Up Home Folders
119
 Set the default permissions for new files and folders in the share point
SMB share points can’t be used for Mac OS X home folders, but can be used for
Windows home folders.
Note: Don’t use a slash (/) in the name of a folder or volume you plan to share. Users
trying to access the share point might have trouble seeing it.
To create an SMB share point and set permissions:
1 If you do not have a share point to host home folders, create one.
For instructions, see “Setting Up a Share Point” on page 116.
2 Open Server Admin and connect to the server that hosts the share point.
To connect to the server, choose Server > Connect, enter the server address in the
Address field, and authenticate as a server administrator.
If you’re already connected, you’ll see Disconnect (instead of Connect) in the Server
menu.
3 To view a list of available services, use the disclosure triangle next to your server.
If Server Admin doesn’t list the SMB service, click the Add (+) button, choose Add
Service, select SMB, and then click Save.
4 Select the SMB service.
5 In General, select Standalone Server from the Role pop-up menu.
6 In Access, select “Allow Guest access.”
7 Click Save and then click Start SMB.
If SMB is already running, the Start SMB button is replaced by the Stop SMB button.
8 Select the server and click File Sharing.
9 Select the share point.
10 In Share Point, click Protocol Options.
11 In SMB, select “Share this item using SMB.”
12 To allow unregistered users access to the share point, select “Allow SMB guest access.”
For greater security, don’t select this item.
13 To change the name that clients see when they browse for and connect to the share
point using SMB, enter a new name in the “Custom SMB name” field.
Changing the custom SMB name doesn’t affect the name of the share point itself, only
the name that SMB clients see.
14 Select the type of locking for this share point:
 To allow clients to use opportunistic file locking, select “Enable oplocks.”
120
Chapter 7 Setting Up Home Folders
Important: Do not enable oplocks for a share point that’s using a protocol other than
SMB.
For more information on oplocks, see File Services Administration.
 To set standard locks on server files, select “Enable strict locking.”
Note: For servers earlier than Mac OS X Server v10.2.4, opportunistic locking is always
on and strict locking is always off. Avoid using Workgroup Manager from Mac OS X
Server v10.3 or later to view locking settings for earlier servers. It can display incorrect
information about the settings.
15 Choose a method for assigning default UNIX access permissions for new files and
folders in the share point:
 To set new items to adopt permissions of the enclosing item, select “Inherit
permissions from parent.”
 To assign specific permissions, select “Assign as follows” and use the Owner, Group,
and Everyone pop-up menus.
16 To prevent AFP access to the share point, in AFP, deselect “Share this item using AFP.”
17 To prevent NFS access to the share point, in NFS, deselect “Export this item and its
contents to.”
18 To prevent FTP access to the share point, in FTP, deselect “Share this item using FTP.”
19 Click OK to close the Protocol Options dialog and then click Save.
From the Command Line
You can also set up a share point using the sharing command in Terminal. For more
information, see the file services chapter of Command-Line Administration.
Administering Home Folders
You can use Workgroup Manager to assign a home folder location to user accounts. To
assign a home folder location, you must create a share point. For instructions on
creating share points, see “Setting Up a Share Point” on page 116.
Specifying No Home Folder
You can use Workgroup Manager to change a user account that has a home folder to
one that has none. By default, new users have no home folder. When users do not have
home folders, they can’t save files locally.
Important: Portable home directories require that you specify a network home folder.
To define no home folder:
1 In Workgroup Manager, click Accounts.
2 Open the directory domain where the user account resides and authenticate as an
administrator of the domain.
Chapter 7 Setting Up Home Folders
121
To open a directory domain, click the globe icon and choose from the pop-up menu. To
authenticate, click the lock.
3 Click the Users button and select one or more user accounts.
4 Click Home and select (None) from the list.
5 Click Save.
Creating a Home Folder for a Local User
You can use Workgroup Manager to define home folders for users whose accounts are
stored in a server’s local directory domain.
You might want to use local user accounts on standalone servers (servers not
accessible through a network) and for administrator accounts on a server. These
accounts are meant to be used by those logging in to the server locally. They are not
meant to be used by network users.
Home folders for local users should reside in share points on the server where the
users’ accounts reside. These share points do not need to be automountable (that is,
they do not require a network mount record).
A home folder has the same name as the user’s first short name.
To create a home folder for a local user:
1 If you don’t already have a share point, create one.
For instructions, see “Setting Up a Share Point” on page 116.
2 In Workgroup Manager, click Accounts and select the user account you want to work
with.
To select a local user account, click the globe icon, choose the local directory domain,
click the Users button, and then select the user account in the accounts list.
3 Click the lock and authenticate as an administrator of the local directory domain.
4 Click Home to set up the selected user’s home folder.
5 If the folder you want to use is a share point, select it.
The list displays all share points on the server you are connected to.
6 If the folder isn’t a share point, click the Add (+) button; then, in the dialog, enter the
path to the folder in the Full Path field (leave the other two fields blank) and click OK.
For example, if you want to use the local /Users folder, enter:
/Users/usershortname
Replace usershortname with the short name of the user.
Don’t use a terminating slash.
7 Optionally, enter a disk quota and specify megabytes (MB) or gigabytes (GB).
122
Chapter 7 Setting Up Home Folders
8 Click Create Home Now and then click Save.
If you do not click Create Home Now before clicking Save, the home folder is created
the next time the user logs in remotely. However, only certain clients can connect to
servers hosting share points in the local domain.
For instructions on setting up a share point for Mac OS X clients, see “Creating a
Network Home Folder” on page 123.
From the Command Line
You can also create a home folder for a local user using the createhomedir command
in Terminal. For more information, see the users and groups chapter of Command-Line
Administration.
Creating a Network Home Folder
In Workgroup Manager, you can set up a network home folder for a user account
stored in a shared directory domain.
A user’s network home folder can reside in any AFP or NFS share point that the user’s
computer can access.
The share point must be automountable—that is, it must have a network mount record
in the directory domain. An automountable share point ensures that the client
computer can locate the share point and the home folder. It also makes the share
point’s server visible in /Network/Servers when the user logs in to a Mac OS X
computer configured to access the shared domain.
You can use Workgroup Manager to create a network home folder for a user whose
account is stored in an Open Directory domain or another read/write directory domain
accessible from the server you are using. You can also use Workgroup Manager to
review home folder information in any accessible read-only directory domain.
To create a network home folder for AFP or NFS share points:
1 Make sure that the share point exists on the server where you want the home folder to
reside and that the share point has a network mount record configured for home
folders.
For instructions, see “Setting Up an Automountable AFP Share Point for Home Folders”
on page 117, or “Setting Up an Automountable NFS Share Point for Home Folders” on
page 118.
2 In Workgroup Manager, click Accounts and select the user account you want to work
with.
To select an account, connect to the server where the account resides, click the globe
icon, choose the directory domain where the user account is stored, click the Users
button, and then select the user account in the accounts list.
Chapter 7 Setting Up Home Folders
123
3 To authenticate, click the lock and enter the name and password of a directory domain
administrator.
4 Click Home; then in the share points list select the share point you want to use.
The list displays all automountable network-visible share points in the search policy of
the server you are connected to, as well as custom home folder locations in the
directory domain.
If the share point you want to select is not listed, try clicking Refresh. If the share point
still does not appear, it might not be automountable. Set up the share point to have a
network mount record configured for home folders as described in step 1, or create a
custom home folder location as described in “Creating a Custom Location for Home
Folders” on page 124.
5 Optionally, enter a disk quota and specify megabytes (MB) or gigabytes (GB).
6 Click Create Home Now and then click Save.
For AFP share points, if you do not click Create Home Now before clicking Save, the
home folder is created the next time the user logs in remotely. For NFS share points,
you are required to click Create Home Now before clicking Save.
The home folder has the same name as the user’s first short name.
7 If the home folder is in a new NFS share point, make sure the user restarts his or her
computer so the share point is visible.
When the user logs in using SSH to obtain command-line access to the server, the
user’s home folder is mounted.
From the Command Line
You can also create a network home folder using the createhomedir command in
Terminal. For more information, see the users and groups chapter of Command-Line
Administration.
Creating a Custom Location for Home Folders
The user’s home folder does not need to reside in the share point folder. For example,
you can organize home folder locations by creating several subfolders in a share point.
If /Homes is the share point folder, you can place teacher home folders in
/Homes/Teachers and student home folders in /Homes/Students.
You can use Workgroup Manager to define a custom location for the home folder of a
user whose account is stored in a server’s local directory domain or in a shared
directory domain. Shared directory domains can be an Open Directory domain, or
another read/write directory domain, and must be accessible from the server that you
are using.
To create a custom location for home folders, your share point must be configured
correctly.
124
Chapter 7 Setting Up Home Folders
The share point for a local user account’s home folder should reside in an AFP share
point on the server where the user account resides. This share point does not need to
be automountable—that is, it does not require a network mount record in the
directory domain.
The share point for the home folder of a user account in a shared directory domain can
reside in any share point that the user’s computer can access. This share point must be
automountable. Additionally, any NFS share point used for home folders must also be
automountable.
For instructions, see “Setting Up an Automountable AFP Share Point for Home Folders”
on page 117, or “Setting Up an Automountable NFS Share Point for Home Folders” on
page 118.
Important: The following procedure requires Mac OS X Server v10.4.3 or later.
To create a custom home folder using Workgroup Manager:
1 Make sure the share point exists and is configured correctly.
2 To have the home folder to reside beneath a folder under the share point, use
Workgroup Manager or the Finder to create all folders in the path between the share
point and where the home folder resides.
3 In Workgroup Manager, click Accounts and then select the user account you want to
work with.
To select an account, connect to the server where the account resides, click the globe
icon, choose the directory domain where the user account is stored, click the Users
button, and then select the user account.
4 To authenticate, click the lock and enter the name and password of a directory domain
administrator.
5 Click Home.
6 Click the Add (+) button to add a custom home folder location or select a location and
click the Duplicate (copy icon) button to copy an existing location.
7 In the Mac OS X Server/Share Point URL field, enter the full URL to an existing
automountable AFP share point where you want the home folder to reside or leave this
field blank for an NFS share point.
For example, if the AFP share point is /Homes and you are using DNS, you might
enter afp://server.example.com/Homes. If you are not using DNS, replace the DNS
name of the server hosting the home folder with the server’s IP address:
afp://192.168.2.1/Homes. Don’t put a slash (/) at the end of the URL.
8 In the Path to Home Folder field, enter the path from the AFP share point to the home
folder, including the home folder but excluding the share point.
For an NFS share point, leave this field blank.
Chapter 7 Setting Up Home Folders
125
For example, to create a home folder for a user named Smith, in a custom location of
/Homes/Teachers/SecondGrade/, enter “Teachers/SecondGrade/Smith.” Make sure the
custom location folder exists.
Do not put a slash (/) at the beginning or the end of the path.
9 In the Full Path field, enter the full path to the home folder, including the home folder
itself, in this format:
[/Network/Servers/servers-host-name/][Volumes/[drive/]volume/]share-point/path
The entries in brackets ([ ]) are optional. Include them only if they apply to the share
point location. If the share point is for local user accounts, do not include /Network/
Servers/servers-host-name.
Replace the following elements:
Element
Do this
servers-host-name
Replace this with the AFP server’s host name.
drive
If the share point is stored on a server with multiple storage
devices, replace this with the name of the storage device.
volume
If the share point is stored on a server with multiple volumes,
replace this with the name of the volume storing the share point.
share-point
Replace this with the name of the share point.
path
Replace this with the path you entered in the previous step.
Use an initial slash (/) but no terminating slash.
For example, the following is a Full Path entry for a custom home folder for local users:
/Homes/Teachers/SecondGrade/Smith
The following is a Home entry for a custom home folder in the Hard-Drive volume
stored in a server located at server.example.com:
/Network/Servers/server.example.com/Volumes/Hard-Drive/Homes/Teachers/
SecondGrade/Smith
If you used a volume named HomeFolders in an external drive named external-HD as a
location for a custom home folder, the Full Path entry looks like this:
/Network/Servers/server.example.com/Volumes/external-HD/HomeFolders/Homes/
Teachers/SecondGrade/Smith
10 Click OK.
11 Optionally, enter a disk quota and specify megabytes (MB) or gigabytes (GB).
12 Click Create Home Now and then click Save.
If you do not click Create Home Now before clicking Save, the home folder is created
the next time the user logs in to a client computer.
126
Chapter 7 Setting Up Home Folders
Note: Home folders are created the first time a user logs in only on share points served
through an AFP or SMB server. NFS home folders must be created manually.
Setting Up a Home Folder for a Windows User
Using Workgroup Manager, you can set up a network home folder that will be
mounted when a Windows user logs in to a Windows domain. Normally, the same
network home folder is also mounted if the user logs in on a Mac OS X computer. You
can also set up separate home folders if you prefer.
You can create a home folder in any existing share point, or you can create the home
folder in the /Users folder—a predefined share point.
To create a home folder in a new share point, create the share point first. The share
point for a Windows home folder must be on a Windows domain member server or the
PDC server and use the SMB protocol.
For instructions, see “Setting Up an SMB Share Point” on page 119.
If the share point will be used for Mac OS X home folders, it must also use AFP or NFS
and have a network mount record configured for home folders.
Set the Windows home folder for a user account in the Mac OS X Server PDC LDAP
directory. If you have a BDC, the PDC server replicates changes to it.
To set up a home folder in an existing share point:
1 In Workgroup Manager, open the user account where you want to set up a home
folder.
To open an account, click Accounts, click the globe icon below the toolbar, and then
open the PDC LDAP directory.
To edit home folder information, click the lock to authenticate as an LDAP directory
domain administrator and then select the user in the user list.
2 If you want to use the same network home folder for Windows as for Mac OS X, click
Home, specify the share point to use, and then do the following:
 In the share points list, select /Users or the share point you want to use and then
click Create Home Now.
If you want to select /Users but it isn’t listed, click the Add (+) button and then in the
Full Path field, enter:
/Users/usershortname
Replace usershortname with the first short name of the user account you’re
configuring.
Chapter 7 Setting Up Home Folders
127
 Optionally, enter a disk quota for the user’s home folder and specify megabytes (MB)
or gigabytes (GB).
Important: This quota also applies to the user’s roaming profile if it’s on the same
volume as the home folder. Make sure the quota is adequate for both folders for an
entire work session. A user’s profile folder includes the My Documents folder and the
Internet Explorer cache, which often use considerable disk space. For more
information, see “Setting Disk Quotas for Windows Users to Avoid Data Loss” on
page 130.
3 Click Windows and enter the home folder location in the Path field:
 To use the same home folder for Windows login and Mac OS X login, leave Path
blank. You can also specify this home folder by entering a UNC path that doesn’t
include a share point:
\\servername\usershortname.
Replace servername with the NetBIOS name of the PDC server or a Windows domain
member server where the share point is located. You can see the server’s NetBIOS
name by opening Server Admin and clicking SMB in the Servers list. Then click
Settings, click General, and look at the Computer Name field.
Replace usershortname with the first short name of the user account you’re
configuring.
 To specify a different SMB share point, enter a UNC path that includes the share
point:
\\servername\sharename\usershortname
Replace sharename with the name of the share point.
4 From the Hard Drive pop-up menu, choose a drive letter.
The default drive letter is H. Windows uses the drive letter to identify the mounted
home directory.
5 Click Save.
6 If the Path field isn’t blank, make sure the specified share point contains a folder for the
user’s home folder.
The folder’s name must match the user’s first short name and the user must have read
and write permission for the folder.
If the Path field is blank, the home directory share point doesn’t need to contain a
home folder for the user. In this case, Mac OS X Server creates a home folder in the
share point specified in the Home pane.
128
Chapter 7 Setting Up Home Folders
Setting Disk Quotas
You can limit the disk space users have available to store files in the volume where their
home folders reside.
This quota applies to all files that the user stores in the volume where his or her home
folder resides, including all files stored in the user’s drop box. Therefore, when a user
places files in another user’s drop box, it can affect the other user’s disk quota or have
other effects, such as:
 When you copy a file to a user’s AFP drop box, the owner of the drop box becomes
the owner of the file.
 In NFS, when you copy a file to another folder, you remain the owner and the copy
operation reduces your disk quota on a particular partition.
WARNING: If you set a disk quota on a user with a mobile account, the quota only
affects the user’s network home folder. There are no quota restrictions on the user’s
local home folder. Setting the quota too low can cause sync issues and data loss. For
example, if you set a 250 MB quota and the user uses 500 MB on his or her local home
folder, the mobile account doesn’t sync entirely. The home folders sync until the 250
MB quota is met, and unsynced files remain local. When the user logs in to another
computer and syncs, only 250 MB of data syncs from the network home folder.
To set up a home folder share point disk quota using Workgroup Manager:
1 In Workgroup Manager, click Accounts.
2 Select the user account you want to work with.
To select an account, connect to the server where the account resides, click the globe
icon, choose the directory domain where the user account is stored, click the Users
button, and then select the user account.
3 To authenticate, click the lock and enter the name and password of a directory domain
administrator.
4 Click Home, specify the disk quota using the Disk Quota field and the adjacent pop-up
menu, and then click Save.
5 Make sure disk quotas are enabled for the volume where the share point resides.
6 In Server Admin, select the server hosting home folders and then click File Sharing.
7 Click Volumes and then select the volume that stores home folders.
8 Click Quotas, select “Enable quotas on this volume,” and then click Save.
Chapter 7 Setting Up Home Folders
129
Setting Disk Quotas for Windows Users to Avoid Data Loss
A disk quota that applies to a Windows user’s roaming profile folder must be large
enough to cover the user’s expected data storage needs for a work session.
A Mac OS X Server PDC enforces quotas on a roaming profile folder only at the end of a
work session when the user logs out and the Windows computer copies the local
profile to the roaming profile on the server.
If the copied local profile exceeds the quota, the roaming profile won’t be updated
with changes affecting the local profile since the user logged in.
If enforcing a user’s disk quota prevents an update of the user’s roaming profile, and
the user later logs in using a different Windows computer, Windows could load and
apply the outdated roaming user profile from the server.
The server can’t enforce the quota incrementally on the roaming profile folder because
the Windows computer updates only the local profile during a work session. (The
server enforces a quota incrementally on changes to the home folder.)
A roaming profile folder is subject to the same disk quota as the home directory if both
are on the same volume. A user’s profile directory is not subject to a disk quota if it’s on
a different volume from the user’s home directory or the home directory is not subject
to a disk quota.
Because a quota that covers the roaming profile directory also covers the home
directory, make sure the quota is adequate for an entire work session and the user’s
home folder. A user’s profile folder includes the My Documents folder and the Internet
Explorer cache, which often uses a considerable amount of disk space.
The recommended minimum quotas are:
 10 MB for a user who logs in only from Windows workstations
 20 MB for a user who logs in from Windows and Mac OS X computers
Using Presets to Choose Default Home Folders
You can define default home folder settings to use for new users by using a preset to
predefine them. For information about defining and using presets, see “Using Presets
to Create Accounts” on page 62.
Moving Home Folders
To move a home folder, create a new home folder, copy the contents of the old home
folder into the new home folder, and then delete the old home folder.
Deleting Home Folders
When you delete a user account, the associated home folder is not deleted. The
administrator must delete the home folder manually by moving it to Trash.
130
Chapter 7 Setting Up Home Folders
8
Managing Portable Computers
8
This chapter provides information about tools available to
manage portable computers.
Mac OS X Server allows you to create and manage mobile accounts for users of
portable computers.
About Mobile Accounts
If your organization uses portable computers, assign mobile accounts to users. This
allows you to manage their preferences and control their level of access to local and
network resources. These mobile accounts, which are designed for portable computers,
provide many advantages over local or network accounts.
A mobile account includes both a network home folder and a local home folder.
Having these two types of home folders allows users to take advantage of features
available for both local and network accounts. You can sync specific folders in these
two home folders, creating a portable home directory.
Syncing ensures that users access their most recently updated files when they connect
to the network. If a user modifies files on different computers, when he or she connects
to the network and syncs, his or her computer retrieves the most recently synced file.
Mobile accounts also cache authentication information and managed preferences.
A user’s authentication information is maintained on the directory server but is cached
on the local computer. With cached authentication information, a user can log in using
the same user name and password, even if he or she is not connected to the network.
For example, if a student has a mobile account, the student’s login name, password,
and preferences defined for the user account, workgroups, and computer are the same
at school and at home. If you change these items, the local versions are updated when
the user logs in at school.
131
About Portable Home Directories
A portable home directory is a synced subset of a user’s local and network home
folders. You can configure which folders to sync and how often to sync them. Users can
also initiate syncing. By syncing key folders, a user can work on or off the network and
experience the same work environment.
Because the user has a local home folder that only syncs periodically or at login and
logout, the mobile account reduces network traffic, expediting server connections for
users who need to access the server.
The computer locally caches temporary files. This improves network and individual
computer performance because the user’s computer locally caches files like webpages.
In Mac OS X v10.3, mobile accounts did not sync local and network home folders.
Before the introduction of syncing, portable home directories did not exist. When you
manage computers with Mac OS X v10.3, you can still assign users mobile accounts, but
they do not have synced home folders.
Because GUIDs for the local user account on the user’s computer and in the network
user account on an Open Directory server are the same, file permissions are the same
whether the user logs in using the local user account (while disconnected from the
network) or the network user account.
You can assign mobile accounts to users with accounts stored in an Active Directory
domain. To manage sync settings for these mobile accounts, extend the Active
Directory schema to accept and map Open Directory attributes.
There are two ways to create mobile accounts:
 Use Workgroup Manager to enable syncing of user accounts
 Allow network users to create mobile accounts themselves
For instructions on using Workgroup Manager to enable syncing, see “Creating a
Mobile Account” on page 202.
Users with network accounts who have administrative access to their computers can
create mobile accounts, which also creates a portable home directory. You can manage
their sync settings in the Rules panes of Mobility preferences.
To prevent users from creating mobile accounts, you can choose not to show Accounts
in their System Preferences. For instructions on denying access to specific System
Preferences, see “Managing Access to System Preferences” on page 224.
You can also manage Mobility preferences so that they can’t create mobile accounts.
For instructions on managing Mobility preferences, see “Preventing the Creation of a
Mobile Account” on page 203.
132
Chapter 8 Managing Portable Computers
Logging In to Mobile Accounts
If a user has created a portable home directory, logging in to a mobile account is
similar to logging in to a local account. First, the user selects his or her account and
then enters the correct password to complete the login. If the account is not displayed,
the user must enter a login name and password. If you enabled login and logout
syncing, the user’s folders sync and the user’s desktop appears.
If the user does not have a mobile account with a portable home directory, there are a
few different steps required after authentication. One of two things occur, depending
on mobile account creation settings:
 If you deselected “Require confirmation before creating mobile account,” the
computer creates the mobile account.
 If you selected “Require confirmation before creating mobile account,” the user sees
a confirmation dialog that allows him or her to create a portable home directory,
delay it, or not create a portable home directory and disable the dialog until the user
holds down the Option key during login.
You can allow the user to choose which volume stores the user’s local home folder in
Mobility options. Before the mobile account is created, the user must choose where to
store the local home folder.
Mobile accounts remain on the computer even when the user logs out or disconnects
from the network. Even when disconnected, the user can still log in to that account.
Note: The mobile account’s local home folder is deleted if you set account expiry
settings and the account goes unused or if a local administrator deletes it. When the
local home folder is deleted, the mobile account user can’t log in away from the
network.
The login window lists the mobile account based on the following:
 Login window settings
 The version of Mac OS X installed on your computers
 Whether the mobile account has a local home folder on the computer
For more information, see “Changing the Appearance of the Login Window” on
page 189.
An external account is a special type of mobile account that is different from typical
mobile accounts in the way users log in. For more information, see the next section.
Chapter 8 Managing Portable Computers
133
Resolving Sync Conflicts
When a user’s files and folders sync, a sync conflict can occur if a file in the user’s local
home folder and the network home folder have two versions of a file and it is not clear
which one should be saved. Sync conflicts usually occur when a mobile account user
changes files on one or more computers.
When sync conflicts occur, a dialog appears that allows the user to choose which
version of a file to sync. The user can keep the files in the local or network home folder
or keep both files.
The user can reset the sync history by pressing and holding the Shift and Option keys
while logging in. When the sync information is reset and a sync conflict occurs, the
sync conflict dialog reappears, asking which version of a file should be synced.
About External Accounts
An external account is a mobile account that has its local home folder stored on a
volume in an external drive. The portable home directory is created from the local
home folder stored on that external drive and the user’s network home folder.
When the user connects an external drive containing his or her local home folder, the
user can log in and use his or her account in the same way as if he or she had a mobile
account with a local home folder on the computer. If the login window displays
accounts in a list, the user can select his or her account, or if it has a name and
password field, the user can enter his or her name and password.
External accounts require Mac OS X v10.5 or later and an external or ejectable volume
that is formatted as Mac OS X Extended format (HFS Plus).
If the external account is stored on a portable computer, the user must start target disk
mode on the portable computer before connecting it to the client computer. When the
portable computer is in target disk mode, all mobile accounts stored on it become
external accounts.
After the user logs in, Mac OS X only shows the external account that the user logged
in with. When the user views the account list in Accounts System Preferences, the user
sees his or her external account but doesn’t see other external accounts.
Similarly, the fast user switching menu displays all accounts with local home folders on
the client computer. If the user chooses Login Window from the fast user switching
menu, all external accounts are shown in the fast user switching login window.
Because their home folder is stored on an external volume, external account users can
use File Sharing only when the external volume is present.
134
Chapter 8 Managing Portable Computers
All mobile accounts on Mac OS X v10.5 or later (including external accounts) can use
FileVault to encrypt the contents of the local home folder. For more information, see
“Enabling FileVault for Mobile Accounts” on page 205.
For information about creating external accounts, see “Creating External Accounts” on
page 208.
Logging In to External Accounts
If a user has a local home folder on an external drive and he or she connects it to a
computer that allows the external account, logging in to an external account is like
logging into a mobile account.
If there isn’t a local home folder on the external drive, or the external account isn’t
allowed, the user must take a few additional steps before he or she can log in with the
external account. If the user has a local home folder on the computer, the user can’t
create a local home folder on an external drive.
If the user doesn’t have a local home folder on an external drive, the location setting in
mobile account creation options might give the user the choice of where to store the
local home folder:
 If you set the location to “user chooses,” a window appears allowing the user to
choose where to store the local home folder. You can limit the choices to store on
the computer or on an external drive, or you can choose both. If the user chooses an
external drive, a local home folder is created on the external drive.
 If you set the location to “at path” and enter the path to the external drive, the user
doesn’t choose a location.
For more information about setting up mobile account creation options, see “Creating
External Accounts” on page 208.
After a local home folder is created on the external drive, if the computer is connected
to the directory server that holds the mobile account, the user is allowed to log in. If it’s
not connected to the directory server, Mac OS X checks to see if the external account is
allowed or denied access to the computer.
If an external account isn’t permanently allowed or denied access to a computer, a
dialog appears asking if the external account should be allowed or denied access to
the computer. To allow access, the user must authenticate as the local computer
administrator.
If the external account is allowed access, the user logs in. If the user is denied access,
the user is returned to the login window.
The local administrator can permanently allow or deny access to the computer. If a user
is permanently denied access, he or she can hold down the Option key while logging
in to redisplay the dialog.
Chapter 8 Managing Portable Computers
135
Considerations and Strategies for Deploying Mobile Accounts
Before you deploy mobile accounts, carefully weigh the advantages and disadvantages
of using mobile accounts and strategize how you will configure them.
When you properly configure mobile accounts, you can create a work environment
where users effortlessly access their latest files from several locations, keep their
managed preferences while offline, and retrieve file backups if they lose or damage
their computers, all while requiring less network traffic than network accounts.
If improperly configured, mobile accounts can overload the server, force users to wait
for long periods of time to log in or log out, and potentially cripple client computers by
using all available hard disk space.
Advantages of Using Mobile Accounts
Mobile accounts have several advantages over using local or network accounts:
 Applications locally cache temporary files.
 Mobile accounts create less network traffic than network accounts.
 You can manage individual mobile accounts.
 Users can access their accounts and files when disconnected from the network.
 Users can recover data if their computers or external drives are lost or damaged.
Applications locally cache temporary files
When mobile account users run applications, those applications cache temporary files
on the local computer. When external account users run applications, those
applications cache temporary files on the external drive. When network account users
run applications, instead of caching, the applications transfer temporary files over the
network.
Because mobile accounts are not repeatedly transferring temporary files, they tend to
be faster than other account types and also offer improved application stability. Some
applications don’t work with network home folders and temporary files that are not
cached locally. Using mobile accounts, these applications run as if the user had a local
account.
Mobile accounts create less network traffic than network accounts
When network account users save files, they transfer the files over the network. When
they open files, they also transfer files over the network. With a mobile account, files are
stored locally (on the client computer or in an external drive) and are only transferred
during syncing.
Syncing only transfers files if the modification time of a local or network file is different
than the last time the files synced.
136
Chapter 8 Managing Portable Computers
Mobile accounts cache temporary files locally, improving network and individual
computer performance. Locally caching files like webpages helps reduce network
traffic.
You can also reduce network traffic by carefully planning user sync settings. For
information about how to plan sync settings, see “Strategies for Syncing Content” on
page 139.
You can manage individual mobile accounts
Like network accounts, you can use Workgroup Manager to manage preferences and
set account attributes for individual mobile accounts.
You can manage users with local accounts only if you add a computer to a computer
group. This allows you to set management preferences affecting all local accounts for
that computer but it doesn’t let you manage individual local accounts. To manage
specific local accounts, you must log in to the local computers individually or use Apple
Remote Desktop.
Users can access their accounts and files when disconnected from the network
Mobile accounts have two key features that allow users to access their accounts and
files when disconnected from the network: cached authentication and portable home
directories.
When mobile account users disconnect from the network using cached authentication,
they can log in to the mobile account using the local home folder stored on the
portable computer or on an external drive using the same login name and password
they used when the computer or external drive was last connected.
By contrast, network account users can’t access their accounts when they disconnect
from the network. If you change the password for a user remotely, the next time the
user connects to the network, he or she must use the new password to authenticate.
For information about portable home directories, see “About Portable Home
Directories” on page 132.
Users can recover data if their computers or external drives are lost or damaged
If a user with a mobile account loses or damages his or her portable computer or
external drive and logs in using a new computer, the server restores all previously
synced files during the next sync.
Considerations for Using Mobile Accounts
Although mobile accounts provide many advantages over local and network accounts,
they also have a few specific configuration needs that, if ignored, can create problems
for network administrators.
Chapter 8 Managing Portable Computers
137
Consider the following:
 Improperly set sync settings can cause long delays during login and logout and can
create inconsistent home folders.
 If multiple users create a mobile account on the same computer, it could cause
excessive proliferation of home folders.
 Mobile accounts can’t restore deleted files through syncing.
 You can’t create mobile accounts when connected to a network through a virtual
private network (VPN) connection.
Improperly set sync settings can cause long delays during login and logout and can
create inconsistent home folders
If you only sync large files at login and logout, this could significantly increase the
amount of time it takes for users to log in and out. If users make changes to large files,
they must wait for the files to sync before they can finish logging in or logging out.
If a number of users are making changes to large files and are simultaneously logging
in to a wireless network with limited bandwidth, they can overload the network,
further delaying their login.
If you do not sync key folders, this can create inconsistent home folders and confuse
your users.
For example, as a school administrator, let’s say you decide to only sync a student’s ~/
Documents folder. This means that if students don’t save their homework in the ~/
Documents folder, their homework isn’t synced. When the students log in on another
computer, they can’t access their homework. Also, if homework saved in
~/Documents references pictures in ~/Pictures, the references might not work because
the ~/Pictures folder is not synced.
If multiple users create a mobile account on the same computer, it could cause
excessive proliferation of home folders
If you have a shared-access computer like a kiosk or lab computer, every time a user
creates his or her mobile account, a local home folder is created. If unmanaged, this
could completely fill the computer’s available hard disk space.
If you set account expiry settings for a mobile account, you can automatically delete
the local home folder after a set period of inactivity. If you don’t want to automatically
delete the home folder, consider using network or generic local accounts, both of
which prevent the user from creating local home folders.
If you set up a guest account, the contents of its local home folder are deleted when
the user logs out.
138
Chapter 8 Managing Portable Computers
Mobile accounts can’t restore deleted files through syncing
Although mobile accounts keep user files stored in two locations—in local and
network home folders—they do not eliminate the need for a formal backup system.
When you configure the user’s portable home directory, you choose a subset of their
folders to sync. This syncing affects files that are new, modified, or deleted since the last
sync.
If users save files in locations that are not synced, the files remain local. If users delete
files and then sync, those files are removed from local and network home folders.
Unlike some formal backup solutions, users can’t retrieve older versions of files, such as
versions saved prior to the last sync.
You can’t create mobile accounts when connected to a network through a virtual
private network (VPN) connection
You must create mobile accounts while being directly connected to the network. After
enabling a mobile account, you can then use VPN to connect to the network and sync
your mobile account.
Strategies for Syncing Content
Administrators can enable and configure syncing through Workgroup Manager, and
users can configure syncing through Accounts preferences. Each method of creating
mobile accounts has different sync capabilities:
 When you create mobile accounts through Workgroup Manager, you can sync any
folder in the user’s home folder.
 When a user creates a mobile account through the Accounts System Preferences, he
or she can only sync top-level folders like ~/Desktop or ~/Documents.
A background sync occurs at a frequency set by you, or when the user manually syncs.
By default, when you enable background syncing, it occurs every 20 minutes.
If a file in one home folder has been modified and the file in the other home folder has
not, the newer file overwrites the older file. If both files have been modified since the
last sync, the user is prompted to choose which file to keep.
Do not use background syncing with folders containing files accessed by multiple
computers. There are several scenarios where this could cause users to load older,
unsynced files:
 The user saves a file on one computer and loads the same file on another computer.
If that file was not synced to the server since its last save, the user loads an outdated
version of the file located on the server.
 The file might not exist on the server because it was not synced. If the file was not
synced from the server before loading, the user either does not see the file or loads
an outdated local version.
Chapter 8 Managing Portable Computers
139
 The user uses the same mobile account to log in to two computers simultaneously.
This might create sync issues with the two computers, causing the computers to
display error messages.
Login and logout syncing should be carefully managed because a user’s login and
logout is delayed while files are syncing. If a user has a slow network connection or is
syncing many files or large files, the user must wait for syncing to complete before
using the system.
If you want to sync parts of a user’s ~/Library folder, you must use login and logout
syncing. Syncing the ~/Library folder retains users’ bookmarks and application
preferences.
Consider syncing smaller files (such as preference files) at login and logout, while
syncing larger files (such as movies) in the background. This reduces login and logout
times because only preference files sync, and movies sync throughout a user’s session
(instead of while the user is trying to log out). You can further reduce network traffic by
choosing not to sync the movies folder, requiring users to access the movies folder
locally.
By balancing login and logout syncing with background syncing, you can reduce the
time required for logging in and logging out, while retaining consistent, synced home
folders.
Setting Up Mobile Accounts for Use on Portable Computers
When distributing portable computers, you face challenges that don’t apply when
deploying stationary computers.
For example, to ensure your portable computers remain managed while off the
network, you must give users mobile accounts and prevent them from creating their
own local accounts, or from changing settings to bypass management.
Configuring Portable Computers
When you distribute portable computers to users, you must configure those computers
to prevent users from circumventing your management scheme.
To set up portable computers for use on your network:
1 Install the operating system, applications, and utilities.
Most computers come with Mac OS X installed. However, to install a newer version,
make sure the computer meets the minimum requirements for installing the operating
system, applications, and utilities.
2 Create local accounts on Mac OS X computers.
140
Chapter 8 Managing Portable Computers
Create at least one local administrator account and create local user accounts as
needed. Make sure the users’ local account names are not easily confused with the
users’ network names.
By creating an administrator account, you are preventing the user from having
administrator access unless you specify it for that user. Administrator access allows the
user to override many managed settings.
3 Set up computers and computer groups on your server.
Use Workgroup Manager to create computer accounts for portable computers and
then add them to a computer group and enforce preference management for all users
of those computers.
Computer group management does not always affect external accounts because
external accounts can be used on computers that aren’t connected to the network.
Allow the creation of mobile accounts for specific computers or computer groups
rather than for specific users or groups. Doing so limits the creation of portable home
directories only to specific computers. This way you can ensure that users who use
several computers do not create portable home directories on each of those
computers.
For more information about creating computer groups, see Chapter 6, “Setting Up
Computers and Computer Groups.” For instructions about creating mobile accounts,
see “Creating a Mobile Account” on page 202.
Managing Mobile Clients Without Using Mobile Accounts
There are several situations in which you should not use mobile accounts for portable
computer users. This section describes those situations and provides alternatives to
using mobile accounts that allow you to manage portable computers.
Unknown Mac OS X Portable Computers
If a computer is connected to your network but is not in a computer group, it is
considered to be an unknown or guest computer. If you can identify the unknown
computer by its Ethernet ID, you can create a computer account for it so that it’s no
longer a guest computer.
You can use the guest computer account to manage guest computers on your
network. This allows you to manage Mac OS X portable computers joining your
directory domain. If guest computer users log in using network or mobile accounts,
their user and group managed preferences and account settings apply.
For more information about how managed preferences interact when applied to users,
groups, computers, and computer groups, see “Understanding Managed Preference
Interactions” on page 156.
Chapter 8 Managing Portable Computers
141
For more information about setting up a guest computer account for Mac OS X users,
see “Working with Guest Computers” on page 107.
Using Mac OS X Portable Computers with One Primary Local User
You can also distribute portable computers with only local accounts and not assign
mobile or network accounts to users. This may reduce or eliminate the burden of
maintaining dedicated directory domain servers and servers that store home folders.
Even with local accounts, you can still manage users’ computers when they use your
network by adding their computers to a computer group.
When distributing portable computers, you can still retain control over the computer
when the user logs in with a local account while off the network. To restrict a user from
full use of the computer, do not assign him or her local administrator privileges.
You can also set parental controls to further control the computer while off the
network. For more information about how to set parental controls, see Mac Help.
To restrict users from full access to a computer, create a local administrator account and
a local user account on the computer. Give the user the login information for the local
user account but not the local administrator account. Only administrator accounts
allow users to install software and save or delete files outside of the home folder.
If you make a user the local administrator of a computer, you can deny him or her the
ability to turn off your computer management. However, in many cases, the local
administrator can still override management settings.
If local users want to share files with other users over the network, they can enable File
Sharing in the Sharing pane of System Preferences and then use their ~/Public folder to
share. Similarly, local users can connect to the computers of other users who have File
Sharing enabled.
If users also have network accounts, you might prefer that they log in through their
local accounts to reduce network traffic. They can connect to their network accounts
through the “Connect to Server” command in the Finder Go menu.
Using Mac OS X Portable Computers with Multiple Users
Although mobile accounts are best suited for portable computers, there are a few
situations in which using local accounts provides advantages over using mobile
accounts.
For example, a school’s wireless mobile lab might consist of 20 to 30 MacBooks, an
instructor’s computer, an AirPort Extreme Base Station, and a printer, all located on a
mobile cart. Because all of these computers are on a mobile cart, the school could use
this lab for multiple classrooms throughout the campus.
142
Chapter 8 Managing Portable Computers
When using a wireless mobile lab, it is very difficult to control who uses specific
computers. Unlike personal portable computers (where you know who uses which
computer), or with stationary computers (where you can assign seating charts), it is
hard to consistently use a distribution scheme for a wireless mobile lab. You could use
stickers to label the computers and control distribution, but teachers would still need
to monitor distribution to ensure students don’t take the wrong computer.
When users create a portable home directory, they create a local home folder on the
computer using some of the computer’s hard disk space. If several dozen users create
local home folders on a computer, you could run out of hard disk space for their files.
You might have to set strict account expiry settings, depending on the amount of hard
disk space on the computers and how many users use them.
Another consideration when using a wireless mobile lab is that the total network
throughput is much more limited than a wired lab. If users have network accounts, any
time they open or save files it requires using the network, possibly slowing the network
connections of other users.
Although mobile accounts help alleviate these issues, frequent syncing can also slow
the network. Creating mobile accounts without synced folders efficiently utilizes the
network. However, users must still copy and store files in their network home folders if
they want to access their files from other computers.
To manage your cart’s MacBooks, you might create generic local user accounts on each
computer.
For example, you could create identical generic local user accounts on each computer
(such as all accounts could have “Math” as the user name and “student” as the
password), and then create different generic local accounts for each class (such as an
account for a history class, one for a biology class, and so on). Each account has a local
home folder but does not have administrator privileges.
To perform maintenance tasks and upgrades, install software, and administer local user
accounts, you would use a separate local administrator account on each computer to
allow server administrators (or other individuals).
If a generic configuration works for all users of a computer, instead of creating several
generic local accounts, enable the guest account. To use the guest account, your
computers must run Mac OS X v10.5 or later. The guest account is a local account that
doesn’t require a password and can’t be logged into remotely. When a guest user logs
out, all information and files in the guest account’s home folder are deleted.
After creating local user accounts or enabling the guest account, you could then add
each computer to a computer group and manage preferences for the computer or
computer group.
Chapter 8 Managing Portable Computers
143
Because multiple users can store items in the local home folder for a generic account,
you might want to periodically clean out that folder as part of your maintenance
routine.
You might also recommend that students save files to a network drop box to ensure
their files are not deleted, and to allow them to access those files regardless of who
uses the computer next.
Instead of using local accounts, you could use external accounts, which would give
your users individual accounts (with separate home folders). For external accounts,
each student needs an external drive. This eliminates the need for hard-disk-space
management on the portable computers, and you don’t have to set strict account
expiry settings. This also allows you to manage at the level of users, groups, computers,
or computer groups.
The biggest issue with using external accounts for a mobile lab cart scenario is syncover-wireless. If you don’t carefully set sync settings, the mobile accounts could sync
very large files and overload the wireless network.
Securing Mobile Clients
There are several security considerations for mobile clients that do not exist for
stationary clients. These considerations are relevant because of the mobility of the
users’ computers. When they are off your network, you can no longer monitor the
actions of malicious users, nor can you control the network environment that your
users join.
You can use FileVault to secure the local home folder of a mobile account. If an intruder
accesses the computer storing the local home folder while the user isn’t logged in, the
intruder can’t access the contents of the local home folder. For more information, see
“Enabling FileVault for Mobile Accounts” on page 205.
Consider taking additional steps to improve your network security and client computer
security. For information, see Mac OS X Security Configuration and Mac OS X Server
Security Configuration.
Optimizing the File Server for Mobile Accounts
In Server Admin, you can enable an option called “Server Side File Tracking for Mobile
Home Sync,” which reduces the strain on a file server that occurs when mobile
accounts sync.
When mobile accounts sync, the user’s computer scans every folder in the local home
folder and compares them with all folders in the network home folder. This scanning is
unnecessary when only a few folders change and require syncing.
144
Chapter 8 Managing Portable Computers
If you enable the option, a server daemon updates the database of changed files. The
user’s computer scans only the folders in the local home folder that have been
modified since the last time the database was updated.
To enable the option, TCP port 2336 must be open on your file server’s firewall.
To optimize the file server for mobile accounts:
1 In Server Admin, click the disclosure triangle for the server hosting network home
folders for mobile accounts.
2 If Firewall isn’t listed, select the server, click Settings, click Services, select Firewall, and
then click Save.
3 Select Firewall, click Settings, and then click Services.
4 Choose the address range for your users’ computers from the “Edit Services for” pop-up
menu.
5 Select “Allow only traffic from ‘ipaddress’ to any of these ports,” select the Allow
checkbox for Mobile Account Sync (port 2336), and then click Save.
6 Select the server, click Settings, and then click General.
7 Select “Server Side File Tracking for Mobile Home Sync” and then click Save.
Chapter 8 Managing Portable Computers
145
146
Chapter 8 Managing Portable Computers
9
Client Management Overview
9
This chapter provides an introduction to Mac OS X client
management.
Client management is the centralized administration of your users’ computer
experience, as shown in the following illustration. It’s usually implemented by:
 Managing access to network printers and to server-resident home folders, group
folders, and other folders.
 Customizing the computer work environment of users, groups, and computers by
defining preferences for user accounts, group accounts, computers, and computer
groups.
Computers
and desktops
Printers and
volumes
Client management
Users and
groups
Applications,
folders, and files
This chapter introduces each of these client management topics as they apply to users
of Mac OS X computers.
147
Using Network-Visible Resources
Mac OS X Server lets you make various resources visible throughout your network so
users can access them from different computers and various locations.
There are several key network-visible resources:
 Network home folders. A home folder, often referred to as a home directory or simply
home, is a place for each Mac OS X user to keep personal files. A user with a record in
a shared Open Directory domain may have a home folder that resides on the
network, often on the same server where the user account resides.
A home folder contains several folders—such as Desktop, Documents, and Public—
to help organize information. After logging in, users access their network home
folders by clicking the Home icon in the Finder.
 Group folders. When you set up a group account for network users, you can
associate a group folder with the group. A group folder is a place for group members
to exchange information electronically. By default, it contains three folders—
Documents, Library, and Public. The Public folder contains a Drop Box folder, which
allows users to easily share their files.
By residing on the server for easy access throughout the network, a group folder can
be shown in the Dock for access from wherever a user wants to work on group
activities.
 Other shared folders. You can set up other folders on the server to provide users
access to applications, handouts, announcements, schedules, and other files.
 NetBoot and NetInstall images. You can use NetBoot images and NetInstall images
on the server to simplify the setup of network users’ computers.
A user’s computer can start up from a NetBoot image stored on the server. You can
use the same computer for a science lab booting from one image and for a French
lab booting from a different image. Each time a lab computer restarts, the system
reflects the original condition of the selected boot image, regardless of what the
previous student may have done on the computer.
A NetInstall image installs preconfigured software on users’ computers, making it easy
to remotely deploy the operating system, additional applications, and even custom
computer settings, without user interaction.
148
Chapter 9 Client Management Overview
Customizing the User Experience
You manage a network user’s work environment by defining preferences—settings that
customize and control the user’s computer experience.
There are two panes in Workgroup Manager Preferences: Overview and Details. To
manage predefined system preferences, use the Overview pane. To manage
preferences for any application or utility that has a preference manifest, use the Details
pane.
The Overview pane is identical for users and groups, but additional items (Energy Saver
and Time Machine) appear for computers and computer groups.
Many factors, including user responsibilities and security issues, determine what
computer work environment is most suitable for a user. In some cases, setting up
informal usage guidelines may be sufficient. In other cases, tightly controlling the
computer experience may be necessary, with each setting defined and each
application controlled. The preferences you define should use Mac OS X capabilities
that best support your user and your business requirements.
The Power of Preferences
Many preferences, such as Dock and Finder preferences, customize the appearance of
the desktop. For example, you can set up Dock and Finder preferences so the user’s
work environment is simplified by including only essential applications and key folders
in the Dock.
Other preferences manage what users can access and control. For example, you can set
up Media Access preferences to prevent users from burning CDs and DVDs or making
changes to a computer’s internal disk.
The following table summarizes how preferences affect the appearance of the desktop,
and the activities a user can perform.
This preference
Tailors the work Limits access
environment
and control
%
Applications
By letting you manage
Applications a user can open
Classic
%
Classic environment startup
Dock
%
Appearance and contents of the Dock
Energy Saver
%
Startup, shutdown, wake, sleep, and
performance settings
Finder
%
Login
%
Appearance of desktop icons and Finder
elements
Login experience
%
Media Access
Mobility
%
%
Chapter 9 Client Management Overview
Ability to use recordable media
Creation of mobile accounts
149
This preference
Tailors the work Limits access
environment
and control
Network
%
By letting you manage
%
Proxy settings for accessing servers through
a firewall
Parental Controls
%
Web access and time limits on computer
use
Printing
%
Printers a user can use, and page footer
settings
Software Update
%
Server to use for updates
%
System
Preferences
System preferences that are enabled on the
user’s computer
Time Machine
%
Which volumes are backed up and how
long the backup files are retained
Universal Access
%
Hardware settings for users with special
visual, auditory, or other needs
Designing the Login Experience
An example of the power of preference management is the ability to shape and control
the user’s login experience. You can set up Login preferences for computers and
computer groups to control the appearance of the login window.
The following table provides example configurations of the login window and login
options to suit your environment.
150
Environment
Desired effect
Key login settings
Kiosk
The computer should
always be logged in as a
local or guest account.
Users can also log in with
their personal accounts
(either externally or by
using network accounts).
Â
Â
Â
Â
Â
Â
Â
Â
Show “Other”
Don’t show Restart or Shut Down buttons
Don’t show password hint
Enable automatic login
Don’t enable >console login
Don’t log out inactive users
Enable external accounts
Enable guest account
Educational lab
Users should be able to
select their account from a
list.
People without accounts
shouldn’t be able to shut
down or restart the
computer.
Inactive users should be
automatically logged out.
Â
Â
Â
Â
Â
Â
Â
Message: “Welcome to the Math Lab.”
Show mobile accounts and network users
Don’t show Restart or Shut Down buttons
Don’t show password hint
Don’t enable automatic login
Log out inactive users
Enable external accounts
Chapter 9 Client Management Overview
Environment
Desired effect
Key login settings
Corporate workstation
Users must enter their
name and password to log
in.
Users should be able to
work without being
logged out.
Except for primary users,
no one can log in unless
they have a network or
local account.
 Message: “If you have issues, contact the
IT help desk at ...”
 Show name and password text fields
 Show Restart and Shut Down buttons
 Don’t show password hint
 Don’t enable automatic login
 Don’t log out inactive users
 Don’t enable external accounts
 Don’t enable guest account
High security
The computer should be
as secure as possible,
restricting who can use
the computer and how
they log in.
Â
Â
Â
Â
Â
Â
Â
Â
Â
Â
Message: “Unauthorized use prohibited”
Show name and password text fields
Don’t show Restart or Shut Down buttons
Don’t show password hint
Don’t enable automatic login
Don’t enable >console login
Don’t enable fast user switching
Log out inactive users
Don’t enable external accounts
Don’t enable guest account
Choosing a Workgroup
In addition to customizing the login window, you can manage login preferences that
affect whether users choose workgroups.
If you don’t manage login access preferences, after the user authenticates, a list of
available workgroups appears (depending on computer settings and if the user
belongs to more than one workgroup).
Network account users choose from workgroups in their directory domain but local
users access their workgroups from their local directory domain.
It’s possible for a user to belong to a group that doesn’t appear in the list. The login
screen lists only workgroups that are allowed access by the computer group.
Local administrators also have the option not to choose a workgroup and disable
preference management.
Users can select “Remember my choice,” which bypasses the workgroup chooser in
future logins and selects a workgroup for the user. Users can still change their
workgroup by holding down the Option key while their password is validated.
If the computer or the computer group it’s associated with supports local-only users, all
workgroups that are given access to the computer by the computer group are listed
after a local user logs in. The user can select from any of these.
Chapter 9 Client Management Overview
151
Any preferences associated with the user, the chosen workgroup, parent workgroups,
and the computer being used, take effect upon login.
If you manage login access preferences, you can customize the workgroup choosing
process. For example, you could:
 Ensure that the workgroup chooser is always shown (by selecting “Always show
workgroup dialog during login,” and in login options, deselecting “Local
administrators may refresh or disable management”).
 Bypass the workgroup chooser and combine settings from all available workgroups
(by selecting “Combine available workgroup settings”).
 Prevent parent group preferences from taking effect (by selecting “Ignore workgroup
nesting”).
For more information, see “Customizing the Workgroups Displayed at Login” on
page 193.
Working with Synced Homes
After choosing a workgroup, users with local or network accounts are logged in. If the
user has a mobile account, he or she might be prompted to create a synced home,
depending on the user’s mobility settings and whether he or she already has a mobile
account.
After the user creates a synced home, he or she might be prompted to choose where
to store the home. The user can choose a volume on the local computer, or an external
volume, such as external hard drive. If you choose the location for the user (by setting it
to the startup volume or a specific path), the user won’t need to choose where to
create the home.
Like the login preferences set in Workgroup Manager, mobility preferences also affect
how users log in and what dialogs are shown, and they dictate the kinds of decisions
the user must make when they log in. By managing preferences, you choose what
features are available and whether they’re automatically enabled or the user must
enable them.
Login and mobility preference management is an example of how preference
management allows you to precisely sculpt the user experience.
Improving Workflow
You can use preference management to improve workflow by limiting the number of
applications and folders that are displayed. You can also make applications and folders
more accessible by putting them in the Dock and creating multiple workgroups
(groups with managed preferences), each of which has a Dock that is customized to
show only the applications used by users in the group.
152
Chapter 9 Client Management Overview
Applications can be stored locally on a computer’s hard disk or on a server in a share
point. If applications are stored locally, users can find them in the Applications folder.
If applications are stored in a share point and you don’t add the share point as a login
item, the user must connect to the server by choosing Go > Connect to Server in the
Finder to locate and use applications.
Applications can also be made available through an automounted share point as the
/Network/Applications mount record.
To make specific applications easy to find, you can use Dock Items preferences to place
an alias for the My Applications folder in the user’s Dock. The My Applications folder
contains aliases for applications.
However, adding the My Applications folder might extend the login time for managed
users because Mac OS X must search available disks to build the applications list for
every login.
For instructions on creating aliases to My Applications and other folders in a user’s
Dock, see “Adding Items to a User’s Dock” on page 176.
You can manage user access to local applications by creating lists of approved
applications in the Applications preferences. To set up a list of approved applications,
see “Allowing Legacy Users to Open Specific Applications and Folders” on page 168.
This list determines what users find in the My Applications folder located in the Dock.
To prevent users from opening a Finder window to easily browse to other applications,
use Simple Finder. For more information about using Simple Finder, see “Setting Up
Simple Finder” on page 182.
If you created a group folder, you can set up quick access to the folder when a user
logs in to the workgroup associated with the folder. Users can use this group folder to
facilitate file sharing between group members.
For instructions on creating an alias for the group folder, see “Providing Easy Access to
Group Folders” on page 175. To provide access to the group volume, which contains the
/Public folder and a drop box for the group, see “Providing Easy Access to the Group
Share Point” on page 199.
Chapter 9 Client Management Overview
153
154
Chapter 9 Client Management Overview
10
Managing Preferences
10
This chapter provides information about managing
preferences for users, workgroups, computers, and computer
groups.
By managing preferences for users, workgroups, computers, and computer groups, you
can customize the user’s experience and restrict user access to only the applications
and network resources you choose.
To manage preferences, use the Preferences pane in Workgroup Manager.
For an overview of how to use managed preferences to customize the user experience,
see “The Power of Preferences” on page 149, and “Designing the Login Experience” on
page 150.
Using Workgroup Manager to Manage Preferences
Workgroup Manager allows you to set and lock certain system settings for users on the
network. You can set initial preferences and allow users to change them later or you
can keep preferences under administrative control at all times (you can also leave
preference settings unmanaged).
Workgroup Manager provides control over most major system and application
preferences, as well as various settings for users, groups, computers, and computer
groups. The preference editor controls the remainder of the applications that may
require management.
These preference panes allow you to manage the following settings:
Preference pane
What you can manage
Applications
Applications and Dashboard widgets available to users, and if Front
Row is enabled. For more information, see “Managing Access to
Applications” on page 164.
Classic
Classic startup settings, sleep settings, and the availability of Classic
items such as Control Panels. For more information, see “Managing
Classic Preferences” on page 169.
155
Preference pane
What you can manage
Dock
Dock location, behavior, and items. For more information, see
“Managing Dock Preferences” on page 174.
Energy Saver
Performance options for Mac OS X client and server computers,
battery usage for portable computers, and sleep or wake options.
For more information, see “Managing Energy Saver Preferences” on
page 177.
Finder
Finder behavior, desktop appearance and items, and availability of
Finder menu commands. For more information, see “Managing
Finder Preferences” on page 182.
Login
Login window appearance, mounted volumes, access control,
scripts and items that automatically open. For more information,
see “Managing Login Preferences” on page 189.
Media Access
Settings for optical discs, internal and external disks, and disk
images. For more information, see “Managing Media Access
Preferences” on page 200.
Mobility
Creation of mobile accounts at login and mobile account options.
For more information, see “Managing Mobility Preferences” on
page 202.
Network
Configuration of specific proxy servers and settings for hosts and
domains to bypass and disabling Internet Sharing, AirPort, and
Bluetooth.® For more information, see “Managing Network
Preferences” on page 213.
Parental Controls
Filter content or limit client computer usage. For more information,
see “Managing Parental Controls Preferences” on page 217.
Printing
Available printers, printer access, and page footers. For more
information, see “Managing Printing Preferences” on page 220.
Software Update
Specific server to use for software update service. For more
information, see “Managing Software Update Preferences” on
page 224.
System Preferences
System preferences available to users. For more information, see
“Managing Access to System Preferences” on page 224.
Time Machine
Time Machine settings like backup server location, and coverage.
For more information, see “Managing Time Machine Preferences”
on page 225.
Universal Access
Settings to control mouse and keyboard behavior, enhance display
settings, and adjust sound or speech for users with special needs.
For more information, see “Managing Universal Access Preferences”
on page 227.
Understanding Managed Preference Interactions
You can define preferences for user accounts, group accounts, computers, and
computer groups that are set up in a shared directory domain.
156
Chapter 10 Managing Preferences
A user whose account has defined preferences is referred to as a managed user. An
individual computer, or a computer that is a member of a computer group with
defined preferences, is called a managed computer. A group with defined preferences is
called a workgroup.
Energy Saver, Time Machine, and Login preferences can be defined only for computers
and computer groups, but other preferences can be defined for users, workgroups,
computers, and computer groups.
There are three types of managed-preference interactions:
 Printing, Login, Applications, System Preferences, and some Dock preferences
(involving items that appear in the Dock) are considered combined.
For example, if you define Printing preferences for users and computers, a user’s
printer list includes printers set up for both the user and the computer used.
 Other preferences defined at more than one level can be overridden at login.
The illustration below shows how managed-preferences that override interact when
the same preferences are set at multiple levels:
User Preferences
Computer Preferences
Computer Group Preferences
Group Preferences
When preferences that override conflict, user preferences override computer,
computer group, and group preferences. Computer preferences override computer
group and group preferences. Computer group preferences override group
preferences.
For example, let’s say you have different managed Dock preferences for users,
workgroups, computers, and computer groups. The Dock preferences for the user
take precedence, overriding and nullifying Dock preferences set for computers,
computer groups, or workgroups. If you do not manage Dock preferences for the
user, the computer and computer group Dock preferences override and nullify group
Dock preferences.
An example of when preferences that override might be useful is in a school
environment where you want to prevent students from using recording devices
attached to a school computer, except for students who serve as lab assistants.
Chapter 10 Managing Preferences
157
You could set up Media Access preferences for workgroups or computer groups to
limit all students’ access but override these restrictions for lab assistants using Media
Access settings at their user account level. You could also designate a specific
computer for media recording by overriding the restrictions at the computer level.
 Inherited preferences are preferences set at only one level.
In some cases, you may find it easier and more useful to set certain preferences at
only one level.
For example, you could set printer preferences only for computer groups, set
application preferences only for workgroups, and set Dock preferences only for users.
In this example, no overriding or combining occurs, and the user inherits the
preferences without competition.
The illustration below shows how managed preferences interact when the same
preferences are set at multiple levels.
Combined Overridden
Inherited
User
Computer
Computer
Group
Group
Resulting
Relationship
Most of the time you’ll use workgroup-level and computer-group-level preferences:
 Workgroup preferences are most useful if you want to customize the work
environment (such as application visibility) for specific groups of users or if you want
to use group folders.
For example, a student may belong to a group called “Class of 2011” for administrative
purposes and to a workgroup called “Students” to limit application choices and
provide a group shared folder for turning in homework. Another workgroup may be
“Teacher Prep,” used to provide faculty members with access to folders and
applications for their use only.
 Computer-group-level preferences are useful when you want to manage preferences
for users regardless of group associations. At the computer-group level, you might
want to limit access to System Preferences, manage Energy Saver and Time Machine
preferences, list particular users in the login window, and prevent the saving of files
and applications to recordable discs.
158
Chapter 10 Managing Preferences
Computer group preferences also offer a way to manage the preferences of users
who don’t have a network account but who can log in to a Mac OS X computer using
a local account. (The local account, defined using the Accounts pane of System
Preferences, resides on the user’s computer.)
To manage local accounts, set up a computer group that supports local-only
accounts. Preferences associated with the computer group and with any workgroup
a user selects during login take effect.
Understanding Hierarchical Preference Management
Mac OS X Server v10.5 or later includes managed hierarchical groups—groups
composed of nested groups, and computer groups composed of nested computer
groups. By managing preferences for a parent group or computer group, child or
computer groups also receive these managed preferences.
Child preferences take precedence and can override parent preferences. For example,
Dock settings set for a child override Dock settings set for a parent.
Combined preferences come from the child and parent. For example, if you make a
printer available for a parent group and a different printer available to a child group, a
user who belongs to the child group can access both printers.
Be careful when creating situations where a child has several parents. If you don’t
manage an overriding preference for a child, but you have conflicting overriding
preferences for several of the child’s parents, it is hard to predict which parent’s
preference takes precedence.
Combined preferences work even when children have several parents. The preferences
of all parents combine with the child’s preferences.
Don’t make a child a parent of one of its parents. When you create a loop—where a
child is its own grandparent—you introduce unpredictable behavior.
Setting the Permanence of Management
When you define preferences, you can manage them Always or Once. They are set to
Never by default:
 Always causes the preferences to remain in effect until you change them on the
server. When properly designed, a Mac OS X application that conforms to standard
preference conventions does not allow a user to modify preferences set to Always.
You can use Always to ensure users can’t add or remove Dock items.
Some applications might allow the user to change the Always managed preference,
but the next time the user logs back in, the preference reverts to the managed
setting.
Chapter 10 Managing Preferences
159
 Once is available for some preferences. You can create default preferences, which
users can then modify and keep the modifications. These preferences are effectively
unmanaged.
For example, you could set up a group of computers to display the Dock in a certain
way the first time users log in. A user can change these preferences (you’ve set to
Once) and the selected changes always apply to that user.
In the Overview Preference panes, you can set the following preferences to Once:
Dock, Finder (Preferences and Views), Login (Login Items), Mobility (Login & Logout
Sync and Background Sync panes of Rules), and Universal Access. For all other
preferences, you must choose Always or Never.
 Never lets a user control his or her preferences. However, some preference settings,
such as Accounts and Date & Time, require a local administrator’s name and
password before changes can be made.
Never also means that the preferences are not managed at this account level but
may be managed at a different account level. For example, even if you set the Dock
preference to Never for a user, the Dock preference could still be managed at the
group or computer level.
Note: When using the preference editor (the Details view in the Preferences pane), you
can set preferences to Often. Often settings are similar to Once settings, but are
reapplied at every login. This management setting is useful for training environments.
Users can customize their preferences to suit their needs during a session without any
risk of affecting a future user’s work experience. Some applications only respond to
preference management set to Often.
Caching Preferences
Preferences are cached on Mac OS X computers so they remain in effect even when the
computer is off the network. With Mac OS X v10.5 and later, the preferences cache is
automatically managed:
 Computer preferences and preferences for any workgroups that can use the
computer are cached.
 User preferences are always cached for users who have mobile accounts.
When a computer is off the network, only users with local accounts or network users
with mobile accounts on that computer can log in.
Preference Management Basics
In Workgroup Manager, information about users, groups, computers, and computer
groups is integrated with directory services. After you set up the accounts, you can
manage preferences for them.
160
Chapter 10 Managing Preferences
Managing preferences means you can control settings for certain system preferences in
addition to controlling user access to system preferences, applications, printers, and
removable media.
Information about settings and preferences in user, group, or computer records is
stored in a directory domain accessible to Workgroup Manager, such as an Open
Directory domain.
Preferences are stored in a record, which is either a user, group, or computer record.
During login, the managed client combines them into a management list that is
applied to the user experience.
After user accounts, group accounts, computer accounts, and computer groups are
created, you can manage preferences for them using the Preferences pane in
Workgroup Manager.
To manage preferences for Mac OS X clients, make sure that each user you want to
manage has a network home folder or a local home folder on the server.
For information about how to set up home folders for users, see Chapter 7, “Setting Up
Home Folders.”
Note: When you manage preferences for a user, group, or computer, an arrow icon
appears next to the managed preference in the Preferences pane to indicate that you’re
managing that preference. You can select multiple users, groups, or computers to
review managed preferences. If the arrow icon is dimmed, it means managed
preference settings are mixed for the selected items.
Managing User Preferences
You can manage preferences for users as needed. However, if you have large numbers
of users, it may be more efficient to manage most preferences by group and computer.
You might want to manage preferences at the user level only for specific individuals,
such as directory domain administrators, teachers, or technical staff.
Consider which preferences you want to leave under user control. For example, if you
aren’t concerned about where a user places the Dock, you might want to set Dock
Display management to Never or Once.
To manage user preferences:
1 In Workgroup Manager, click Preferences.
2 Make sure the correct directory is selected and you are authenticated.
To switch directories, click the globe icon. If you are not authenticated, click the lock
and enter the name and password of a directory domain administrator.
3 Click the Users button and select one or more user accounts from the list.
4 Click the icon for the preference you want to manage.
Chapter 10 Managing Preferences
161
5 In each Preference pane, select a Manage option.
In Media Access, the management setting applies to all preferences rather than to
individual panes.
6 Select preference settings or fill in information you want to use.
Some management settings are not available for some preferences, and some
preferences are not available for some types of accounts.
7 When you finish, click Apply Now.
Managing Group Preferences
Group preferences are shared among all users in the group. Setting some preferences
only for groups instead of for each user can save time, especially when you have large
numbers of managed users.
Because users can select a workgroup at login, they can choose a group with managed
settings appropriate to the current task, location, or environment. It can be more
efficient to set preferences once for a single group instead of setting preferences for
each member of the group.
To manage group preferences:
1 In Workgroup Manager, click Preferences.
2 Make sure the correct directory is selected and you are authenticated.
To switch directories, click the globe icon. If you are not authenticated, click the lock
and enter the name and password of a directory domain administrator.
3 Click the Groups button and select one or more group accounts from the list.
4 Click the icon for the preference you want to manage.
5 In each preference pane, select a Manage option.
In Media Access, the management setting applies to all preferences rather than to
individual panes.
6 Select preference settings or fill in information you want to use.
Some management settings are not available for some preferences, and some
preferences are not available for some types of accounts.
7 Click Apply Now.
Managing Computer Preferences
Computer preferences are preferences set for individual computers.
Energy Saver and Time Machine preferences can be managed for computers and
computer groups, but not for users or groups.
To manage computer preferences:
1 In Workgroup Manager, click Preferences.
162
Chapter 10 Managing Preferences
2 Make sure the correct directory is selected and you are authenticated.
To switch directories, click the globe icon. If you are not authenticated, click the lock
and enter the name and password of a directory domain administrator.
3 Click the Computers button and select one or more computers.
4 Click the icon for the preference you want to manage.
5 In each preference pane, select a Manage option.
In Media Access, the management setting applies to all preferences rather than to
individual panes.
6 Select preference settings or fill in information you want to use.
Some management settings are not available for some preferences, and some
preferences are not available for some types of accounts.
7 Click Apply Now.
Managing Computer Group Preferences
Computer preferences are shared among all computers in a computer group. In some
cases, it is more useful to manage preferences for computers rather than users or
groups.
Energy Saver and Time Machine preferences can be managed for computers and
computer groups, but not for users or groups.
To manage computer group preferences:
1 In Workgroup Manager, click Preferences.
2 Make sure the correct directory is selected and you are authenticated.
To switch directories, click the globe icon. If you are not authenticated, click the lock
and enter the name and password of a directory domain administrator.
3 Click the Computer Groups button and select one or more computer groups.
4 Click the icon for the preference you want to manage.
5 In each preference pane, select a Manage option.
In Media Access, the management setting applies to all preferences rather than to
individual panes.
6 Select preference settings or fill in information you want to use.
Some management settings are not available for some preferences, and some
preferences are not available for some types of accounts.
7 Click Apply Now.
Disabling Management for Specific Preferences
After you set managed preferences for an account, you can turn off management for
specific preference panes by changing the management setting to Never.
Chapter 10 Managing Preferences
163
You can use the Once setting to create default settings. These are settings that, when
saved, take effect the next time users log in. Users can then modify their settings and
save their modified settings for future use.
To selectively disable preference management:
1 In Workgroup Manager, click Preferences.
2 Make sure the correct directory is selected and you are authenticated.
To switch directories, click the globe icon. If you are not authenticated, click the lock
and enter the name and password of a directory domain administrator.
3 Select one or more users, groups, computers, or computer groups.
4 Click the icon for a preference that is being managed.
5 In the pane with the preferences you no longer want to manage, select Never.
In Media Access, the management setting applies to all preferences rather than to
individual panes.
6 Click Apply Now.
Setting the management setting to Never disables management for the current level in
the users, computers, or groups hierarchy. Preferences can still be managed at a
different level.
When you change the preference management settings, the new settings apply to all
items in the active preference pane. To disable all management for an individual
preference (for example, Dock), make sure the management setting is set to Never in
each pane of that preference.
Managing Access to Applications
Use Applications preferences to allow or restrict user access to applications.
Computers identify applications using one of two methods: digital signatures (used in
Mac OS X v10.5 or later), and bundle IDs (used in Mac OS X v10.4 or earlier, but can be
used in Mac OS X v10.5 or later).
Digital signatures are much more secure because clever users can manipulate bundle
IDs. Workgroup Manager supports the use of both methods.
Use the Applications pane to work with digital signatures. Use the Legacy pane to work
with bundle IDs.
Application restrictions depend on which pane you’re managing and the version of
Mac OS X run by client computers:
 If you manage the Applications pane and your users run Mac OS X v10.5 or later,
Applications settings take effect and Legacy settings are ignored.
164
Chapter 10 Managing Preferences
 If you don’t manage the Applications pane, Legacy settings take effect for any
version of Mac OS X.
 If your users run Mac OS X v10.4 or earlier, only Legacy settings take effect.
You can also use settings in Applications preferences to allow only specific widgets in
Dashboard or to disable Front Row.
The table below describes what the settings in each Applications pane can do.
Applications preference pane
What you can control
Applications
Access to specific applications and paths to applications using
digital signatures (for users of Mac OS X v10.5 or later)
Widgets
List of allowed Dashboard widgets for users of Mac OS X v10.5
Front Row
Whether Front Row is allowed
Legacy
Access to specific applications and paths to applications using
bundle IDs (primarily for users of Mac OS X v10.4 or earlier)
Controlling User Access to Specific Applications and Folders
You can use Workgroup Manager to prevent users from launching unapproved
applications or applications located in unapproved folders.
In Mac OS X v10.4 or earlier, applications were identified by their bundle IDs. If your
users have Mac OS X v10.5 or later installed, you can use digital signatures to identify
applications. Digital signatures are much more difficult to circumvent than a bundle ID.
Workgroup Manager can sign applications that aren’t already signed. When signing an
application, you can embed a signature or you can store a detached signature separate
from the application.
Embedding a signature has several performance benefits over a detached signature,
but with signature embedding you must make sure every computer has the same
signed application. For applications that are run from a CD, DVD, or other read-only
media, you must use detached signatures.
Workgroup Manager uses the following icons to denote the kind of signature
associated with an application.
Icon
Indicates the application has this type of signature
(no icon)
Embedded signature
Detached signature
No signature
Chapter 10 Managing Preferences
165
Applications that include helper applications are denoted by a disclosure triangle.
When you click the disclosure triangle, you’ll see a list of helper applications. By default,
these helper applications are allowed to open.
You can disable individual helper applications, but the application may behave
erratically if it requires the helper applications.
To allow or prevent users from launching an application, add the application or
application path to one of three lists:
 Always allow these applications. Add applications that should always be allowed,
regardless of their inclusion in other lists. You can sign applications added to this list.
Don’t add unsigned applications to this list because they allow users to disguise
unapproved applications as approved applications.
 Disallow applications within these folders. Add applications and folders containing
applications you want to prevent users from opening. All applications in the
subfolders of a disallowed folder are also disallowed. Disallowing a folder within an
application package can cause the application to behave erratically or fail to load.
 Allow applications within these folders. Add applications and folders containing
applications you want to allow. All applications in the subfolders of an allowed folder
are also allowed. Unlike applications in the “Always allow these applications” list,
applications listed here are not allowed if they or their paths are listed in the
“Disallow applications within these folders” list.
If an application or its folder doesn’t appear in these lists, the user can’t open the
application.
Note: Some applications don’t fully support signatures. To make sure a signed
application is properly restricted, make a copy of the application, sign it, and move it to
a location in the “Disallow applications within these folders” list (when you try to open
the application on a managed computer, it should open because the signature is valid).
Next, void the signed application’s signature by copying a file into its application
package. Now when you try to open the application on a managed computer, it should
not open because the signature is void and the application is in a disallowed folder.
To allow users to open specific applications and folders:
1 In Workgroup Manager, click Preferences.
2 Make sure the correct directory is selected and you are authenticated.
To switch directories, click the globe icon. If you are not authenticated, click the lock
and enter the name and password of a directory domain administrator.
3 Select one or more users, groups, computers, or computer groups.
4 Click Applications and then click the Applications tab.
5 Set the management setting to Always.
166
Chapter 10 Managing Preferences
6 Select “Restrict which applications are allowed to launch.”
7 Click the Applications tab (within the Applications pane), click the Add (+) button,
choose an application you want to always allow, and then click Add.
When you allow an application, you also allow all helper applications included with
that application. You can deselect helper applications to disallow them.
8 If you’re asked to sign the application, click Sign; if you’re asked to authenticate,
authenticate as a local administrator.
To add the application to the list as an unsigned application, click Don’t Sign.
When you sign the application, Workgroup Manager tries to embed the signature. If
you don’t have write access to the application, Workgroup Manager creates a detached
signature.
9 Click the Folders tab, click the Add (+) button next to “Disallow applications within
these folders,” and then choose folders containing applications you want to prevent
users from launching.
10 Click the Add (+) button next to the “Allow applications within these folders” field and
choose folders containing applications you want to allow.
Disallowing folders takes precedence over allowing them. If you allow a folder that is a
subfolder of a disallowed folder, the subfolder is still disallowed.
11 Click Apply Now.
Allowing Specific Dashboard Widgets
If your users have Mac OS X v10.5 or later installed, you can prevent them from opening
unapproved Dashboard widgets by creating a list of approved widgets (which can
include widgets included with Mac OS X and third-party widgets). To approve thirdparty widgets, you must be able to access them from your server.
To allow specific Dashboard widgets:
1 In Workgroup Manager, click Preferences.
2 Make sure the correct directory is selected and you are authenticated.
To switch directories, click the globe icon. If you are not authenticated, click the lock
and enter the name and password of a directory domain administrator.
3 Select one or more users, groups, computers, or computer groups.
4 Click Applications and then click Widgets.
5 Set the management setting to Always.
6 Select “Allow only the following Dashboard widgets to run.”
7 To allow specific widgets, click the Add (+) button, select the widget’s .wdgt file, and
then click Add.
The widgets included with Mac OS X are in /Library/Widgets.
Chapter 10 Managing Preferences
167
8 To prevent users from opening specific widgets, select the widget and click the
Remove (–) button.
9 Click Apply Now.
Disabling Front Row
With Workgroup Manager, you can disable Front Row.
To disable Front Row:
1 In Workgroup Manager, click Preferences.
2 Make sure the correct directory is selected and you are authenticated.
To switch directories, click the globe icon. If you are not authenticated, click the lock
and enter the name and password of a directory domain administrator.
3 Select one or more users, groups, computers, or computer groups.
4 Click Applications and then click Front Row.
5 Set the management setting to Always.
6 Deselect Allow Front Row.
7 Click Apply Now.
Allowing Legacy Users to Open Specific Applications and Folders
To control user access to applications in Mac OS X v10.4 or earlier, you either:
 Provide access to a set of “approved” applications that users can open
 Prevent users from opening a set of “unapproved” applications
You can also set additional options to further control user access to applications.
When users have access to local volumes, they can access applications on the
computer’s local hard disk. If you don’t want to allow this, you can disable local volume
access.
Applications use helper applications for tasks they can’t complete independently. For
example, if a user tries to open a web link in a mail message, the mail application might
need to open a web browser to display the webpage.
Disallowing helper applications improves security because an application can
designate any other application as a helper application. However, you may want to
include common helper applications in the approved applications list. This avoids
problems such as users being unable to open and view mail content or attached files.
Occasionally, applications or the operating system might require the use of UNIX tools,
such as QuickTime Image Converter. These tools can’t be accessed directly, and
generally operate in the background without the user’s knowledge. If you disallow
access to UNIX tools, some applications may not work.
168
Chapter 10 Managing Preferences
Allowing UNIX tools enhances application compatibility and efficient operation, but
may decrease security.
If you don’t manage Applications settings for computers running Mac OS X v10.5 or
later, Legacy settings are used.
To set up a list of accessible applications:
1 In Workgroup Manager, click Preferences.
2 Make sure the correct directory is selected and you are authenticated.
To switch directories, click the globe icon. If you are not authenticated, click the lock
and enter the name and password of a directory domain administrator.
3 Select one or more users, groups, computers, or computer groups.
4 Click Applications and then click Legacy.
5 Set the management setting to Always.
6 Select “User can only open these applications” or “User can open all applications except
these.”
7 Add items to and remove items from the list.
To select multiple items, hold down the Command key.
8 To allow access to applications stored on the user’s local hard disk, select “User can also
open all applications on local volumes.”
9 To allow helper applications, select “Allow approved applications to launch nonapproved applications.”
10 To allow use of UNIX tools, select “Allow UNIX tools to run.”
11 Click Apply Now.
Managing Classic Preferences
You use Classic Preferences to set Classic startup options, assign a Classic System
Folder, set sleep options for the Classic environment, and make specific Apple menu
items available to users.
The Classic System Folder is a Mac OS 9 System Folder that contains the Mac OS 9
operating system. When users run Classic applications, they are running Mac OS 9 from
the Classic System Folder.
Classic can be run on Mac OS X v10.4 or earlier.
Chapter 10 Managing Preferences
169
The table below describes what settings in each Classic pane can do.
Classic preference pane
What you can control
Startup
Which folder is the Classic System Folder and what occurs when
Classic starts
Advanced
Items in the Apple menu, Classic sleep settings, and the user’s
ability to turn off extensions or rebuild the Classic desktop file
during startup
Selecting Classic Startup Options
Workgroup Manager provides a number of ways to control how and when the Classic
environment starts.
If users often work with applications that run in Classic, it is convenient to have Classic
start up immediately when a user logs in. If users rarely need Classic, you can have
Classic start only when a user opens a Classic application or a document that requires
such an application.
You can also choose to display an alert when Classic starts, giving users the option to
cancel Classic startup.
To work with various startup options for Classic:
1 In Workgroup Manager, click Preferences.
2 Make sure the correct directory is selected and you are authenticated.
To switch directories, click the globe icon. If you are not authenticated, click the lock
and enter the name and password of a directory domain administrator.
3 Select one or more users, groups, computers, or computer groups.
4 Click Classic and then click Startup.
5 Set the management setting to Always.
6 To start Classic immediately when a user logs in, select “Start up Classic at login.”
When Classic starts up at login, the startup window is hidden and the user can’t cancel
Classic startup.
If users rarely use Classic, you can deselect this option and Classic starts up when a user
opens a document or an application that requires it. In this case, the Classic startup
window is visible to users and they can cancel Classic startup.
7 To show an alert dialog only when Classic starts after a user attempts to open a Classic
application or document, select “Warn at Classic startup.”
If users manually start Classic, or Classic automatically starts up at login, the warning is
not shown.
Users can allow Classic startup to continue or they can cancel the process. If you don’t
want to allow users to interrupt Classic startup, deselect this option.
170
Chapter 10 Managing Preferences
8 Click Apply Now.
Choosing a Classic System Folder
In most cases, there is only one Mac OS 9 System Folder on a computer, and it is on the
Mac OS X startup disk. In this case, you don’t need to specify a Classic System Folder.
If a computer has multiple Mac OS 9 System Folders on the startup disk and you
haven’t set a specific path to one folder, users receive an error message and can’t use
Classic.
If there is more than one Mac OS 9 System Folder on a computer’s startup disk, or if
you want to use a Mac OS 9 System Folder on a different disk, enforce the use of a
specific folder when Classic is in use. It is important if you specify a path to the folder’s
location that all clients have the Mac OS 9 System Folder in the same relative location
on their hard disks.
If multiple Mac OS 9 System Folders are available and you don’t enforce settings in the
Startup pane of the Classic preference, users can choose from among available
Mac OS 9 System Folders (if they have access to the Classic pane of System
Preferences).
To choose a specific Classic System Folder:
1 In Workgroup Manager, click Preferences.
2 Make sure the correct directory is selected and you are authenticated.
To switch directories, click the globe icon. If you are not authenticated, click the lock
and enter the name and password of a directory domain administrator.
3 Select one or more users, groups, computers, or computer groups.
4 Click Classic and then click Startup.
5 Set the management setting to Always.
6 In the “Use this System Folder when Classic starts” field, enter the path to the Classic
System Folder (for example, /Volumes/VolumeName/System Folder/), or click Choose
and then browse to the folder you want.
Make sure the path to the Classic System Folder on the client computer is the same as
the path to the Classic System Folder on the administrator computer.
7 Click Apply Now.
Allowing Special Actions During Restart
If managed users have access to the Classic pane of System Preferences, they can click
the Start/Restart button in the Classic pane to start or restart Classic.
Chapter 10 Managing Preferences
171
You can allow users to perform special actions, such as turning off extensions, starting
or restarting Classic, or rebuilding the Classic desktop file, from the Advanced pane of
Classic system preferences. You might want to allow this for specific users, such as
members of your technical staff.
To allow special actions during restart:
1 In Workgroup Manager, click Preferences.
2 Make sure the correct directory is selected and you are authenticated.
To switch directories, click the globe icon. If you are not authenticated, click the lock
and enter the name and password of a directory domain administrator.
3 Select one or more users, groups, computers, or computer groups.
4 Click Classic and then click Advanced.
5 Set the management setting to Always.
6 Select “Allow special startup modes.”
7 To allow users to rebuild the Classic desktop file, select “Allow user to rebuild Desktop.”
Deselecting this option disables the Rebuild Desktop button in the Advanced pane of
Classic system preferences.
8 Click Apply Now.
Controlling Access to Classic Apple Menu Items
Classic managed preference options allow you to control access to certain items in the
Classic Apple menu, including Mac OS 9 control panels, the Chooser and Network
Browser, and other Apple menu items. You can show or hide all, some, or none of these
items in the Apple menu.
If an item is hidden, users can’t access that item from the Apple menu. However, there
may be alternative methods of access, such as starting the Chooser by navigating to it
in the Mac OS 9 System Folder.
If you want to further limit user access to these items, you can use the Applications
preferences in Workgroup Manager to specify which applications a user can or can’t
open. For more information, see “Managing Access to Applications” on page 164.
Note: Disallowing access to the Chooser can affect what happens when a user
attempts to print from Classic (if printer management is also enforced). If users can’t
access the Chooser, they can’t set up new printers or switch between types of printers
(such as PostScript and non-PostScript printers).
To hide or show items in the Apple menu:
1 In Workgroup Manager, click Preferences.
2 Make sure the correct directory is selected and you are authenticated.
172
Chapter 10 Managing Preferences
To switch directories, click the globe icon. If you are not authenticated, click the lock
and enter the name and password of a directory domain administrator.
3 Select one or more users, groups, computers, or computer groups.
4 Click Classic.
5 Click Advanced and then set the management setting to Always.
6 To remove the Chooser and Network Browser from the Apple menu, select “Hide
Chooser and Network Browser.”
Deselect this option to show Chooser and Network Browser.
7 To remove Control Panels from the Apple menu, select Hide Control Panels.
Deselect this option to show Control Panels.
8 To hide remaining Apple menu items, select “Hide other Apple Menu Items.”
This group includes items such as Calculator, Key Caps, and Recent Applications.
Deselect this option to show these Apple menu items.
9 Click Apply Now.
Adjusting Classic Sleep Settings
When no Classic applications are open, Classic enters sleep mode to reduce the use of
system resources. You can adjust the amount of time Classic waits before going to
sleep after a user quits the last Classic application. If Classic is in sleep mode, opening a
Classic application might take a little longer.
In some circumstances, you might need to use applications that operate in the
background without the user’s interaction or knowledge. If a background application is
in use when Classic enters sleep mode, that application suspends its activity. If you
want to keep the application running, you can set the Classic sleep setting to Never.
To adjust Classic sleep settings:
1 In Workgroup Manager, click Preferences.
2 Make sure the correct directory is selected and you are authenticated.
To switch directories, click the globe icon. If you are not authenticated, click the lock
and enter the name and password of a directory domain administrator.
3 Select one or more users, groups, computers, or computer groups.
4 Click Classic.
5 Click Advanced and then set the management setting to Always.
6 Drag the slider to set the length of time Classic waits before going to sleep.
If you don’t want Classic to go to sleep at all, drag the slider to Never.
7 Click Apply Now.
Chapter 10 Managing Preferences
173
Maintaining Consistent User Preferences for Classic
Ordinarily, Classic looks for a user’s Mac OS 9 preferences data in the Mac OS 9 System
Folder. If a user has more than one computer, or if multiple users work on the same
computer, make sure Classic uses preferences from the Home folder in ~/Library/
Classic/ so that preferences remain consistent for each user.
If you choose not to use preferences in the user’s Home folder, a user’s Mac OS 9 data is
stored in the Mac OS 9 System Folder and is not kept separate from other user data. In
this case, users share preferences and changes made by the last user are in effect when
the next user logs in.
To choose where Classic user preferences are stored:
1 In Workgroup Manager, click Preferences.
2 Make sure the correct directory is selected and you are authenticated.
To switch directories, click the globe icon. If you are not authenticated, click the lock
and enter the name and password of a directory domain administrator.
3 Select one or more users, groups, computers, or computer groups.
4 Click Classic.
5 Click Advanced and then set the management setting to Always.
6 To maintain consistent Classic preferences, select “Use preferences from home folder.”
Deselect this option to use the local Mac OS 9 System Folder for all Classic user
preferences.
7 Click Apply Now.
Managing Dock Preferences
Dock settings allow you to adjust the behavior of the user’s Dock and specify what
items appear in it.
The table below describes what settings in each Dock pane can do.
Dock preference pane
What you can control
Dock Items
Items and their position in a user’s Dock
Dock Display
The Dock’s position and behavior
Controlling the User’s Dock
Dock settings allow you to adjust the position of the Dock on the desktop and change
the Dock’s size. You can also control animated Dock behaviors.
To set how the Dock looks and behaves:
1 In Workgroup Manager, click Preferences.
2 Make sure the correct directory is selected and you are authenticated.
174
Chapter 10 Managing Preferences
To switch directories, click the globe icon. If you are not authenticated, click the lock
and enter the name and password of a directory domain administrator.
3 Select one or more users, groups, computers, or computer groups.
4 Click Dock and then click Dock Display.
5 Set the management setting to Once or Always.
6 Drag the Dock Size slider to make the Dock smaller or larger.
7 If you want items in the Dock to be magnified when a user moves the pointer over
them, select Magnification and then adjust the slider.
Magnification is useful if you have many items in the Dock.
8 From the “Position on screen” radio buttons, select whether to place the Dock on the
left, right, or bottom of the desktop.
9 From the “Minimize using” pop-up menu, choose a minimizing effect.
10 If you don’t want to use animated icons in the Dock when an application opens,
deselect “Animate opening applications.”
11 If you don’t want the Dock to be visible all the time, select “Automatically hide and
show the Dock.”
When the user moves the pointer to the edge of the screen where the Dock is located,
the Dock appears.
12 Click Apply Now.
Providing Easy Access to Group Folders
After you have set up a group volume, you can make it easy for users to locate the
group folder by placing an alias in the user’s Dock. The group folder contains the
group’s Library folder, Documents folder, and Public folder (including a drop box). If you
need help setting up a group share point, see “Creating a Group Folder” on page 101.
If the group folder is not available when the user clicks the group folder icon, the user
must enter a user name and password to connect to the server and open the directory.
Note: This preference setting applies only to groups. You can’t manage this setting for
users or computers.
To add a Dock item for a group folder:
1 If you haven’t set up a group share point, do so before proceeding.
2 In Workgroup Manager, click Preferences.
3 Make sure the correct directory is selected and you are authenticated.
To switch directories, click the globe icon. If you are not authenticated, click the lock
and enter the name and password of a directory domain administrator.
4 Click the Groups button and select one or more group accounts from the list.
Chapter 10 Managing Preferences
175
5 Click Dock and then click Dock Items.
6 Set the management setting to Once or Always.
If you select Once, the group folder icon appears in the user’s Dock initially, but the
user can remove it.
7 Select “Add group folder.”
8 Click Apply Now.
If you change the location of the group share point, update the Dock item for the
group in Workgroup Manager.
Adding Items to a User’s Dock
You can add applications, folders, or documents to a user’s Dock for easy access.
Make sure you use consistent paths for items you add in the Dock. This is especially
important if you add items in nonstandard locations (for example, putting an
application in another folder besides /Applications). If the Dock item can’t be found, a
question mark replaces the item in the user’s Dock.
To add items to a user’s Dock:
1 In Workgroup Manager, click Preferences.
2 Make sure the correct directory is selected and you are authenticated.
To switch directories, click the globe icon. If you are not authenticated, click the lock
and enter the name and password of a directory domain administrator.
3 Select one or more users, groups, computers, or computer groups.
4 Click Dock and then click Dock Items.
5 Set the management setting to Once or Always.
If you select Once, the user can add and remove Dock items. If you select Always, the
user can’t remove items from the Dock.
6 To add individual applications, folders, and documents to the Dock, click the Add (+)
button to browse and select the item you want.
To remove a Dock item, select it and then click the Remove (–) button.
You can rearrange Dock items in the list by dragging them into the order in which you
want them to appear. Applications are always grouped at one end, while folders and
files are grouped at the other. User-added items are located after your listed
applications.
7 To add the My Applications folder, select My Applications.
176
Chapter 10 Managing Preferences
The My Applications folder contains aliases for approved applications listed in the
Applications preference pane. If you do not manage the Applications preference,
available applications are shown. If you enable Simple Finder, you should display the
My Applications folder.
8 To add the Documents folder, select Documents.
The Documents folder is located in the user’s home folder.
9 To add the Network Home folder, select Network Home.
The Network Home folder is the network home folder for users with network accounts.
For users of mobile accounts, selecting Network Home adds the user’s network home
folder (not the user’s local home folder) to the Dock.
10 To replace the user’s current Dock with your selected items, deselect “Merge with user’s
Dock.”
11 After you finish adding Dock items, click Apply Now.
Preventing Users from Adding or Deleting Dock Items
Ordinarily, users can add items to their own Docks, but you can prevent this. Users can’t
remove items you add to the Dock when Always (“Manage these settings”) is selected.
To prevent users from adding items to their Docks:
1 In Workgroup Manager, click Preferences.
2 Make sure the correct directory is selected and you are authenticated.
To switch directories, click the globe icon. If you are not authenticated, click the lock
and enter the name and password of a directory domain administrator.
3 Select one or more users, groups, computers, or computer groups.
4 Click Dock and then click Dock Items.
5 Set the management setting to Always.
6 Deselect “Merge with user’s Dock.”
7 Click Apply Now.
Managing Energy Saver Preferences
Energy Saver preference settings help you save energy and battery power by managing
wake, sleep, and restart timing for servers and client computers.
You can configure Energy Saver preferences for desktop and portable computers.
Desktop and portable computers differ in that portable computers can run on battery
power.
Chapter 10 Managing Preferences
177
The table below summarizes what you can control with settings in each Energy Saver
pane.
Energy Saver preference pane
What you can control
Desktop
Sleep timing for the computer, display, hard disks, and wake and
restart options for Mac OS X and Mac OS X Server
Portable
Processor performance setting, sleep timing similar to Desktop, and
wake and restart options for adapter and battery power sources
Battery Menu
Display of the battery status indicator
Schedule
Regular schedules for startup or shutdown
Using Sleep and Wake Settings for Desktop Computers
Putting a computer to sleep saves energy because it turns off the display and stops the
hard disk from running. Waking up from sleep is faster than starting up your computer.
You can use the Energy Saver preference settings to put computers to sleep after a
specified period of inactivity. Other settings enable you to wake or restart the
computer when certain events happen.
To set sleep and wake settings:
1 In Workgroup Manager, click Preferences.
2 Make sure the correct directory is selected and you are authenticated.
To switch directories, click the globe icon. If you are not authenticated, click the lock
and enter the name and password of a directory domain administrator.
3 Select one or more computers or computer groups.
4 Click Energy Saver and then click Desktop.
5 From the OS pop-up menu, choose Mac OS X or Mac OS X Server and set the
management setting to Always.
6 To adjust sleep settings, choose Sleep from the Settings pop-up menu and do the
following:
To do this
Do this
Set the length of time the
Move the “Put the computer to sleep when it is inactive for” slider.
desktop computer waits to enter The computer does not enter sleep mode if the slider is set to
sleep mode
Never. The default setting for Mac OS X is 10 minutes. The default
setting for Mac OS X Server is Never.
178
Use a different time interval for
the computer’s display
Select “Put the display to sleep when the computer is inactive for”
and move the slider. The interval can’t be longer than the
computer’s sleep setting. The default setting for Mac OS X is five
minutes. The default setting for Mac OS X Server is 30 minutes.
Put the hard disks to sleep
during periods of inactivity
Select “Put the hard disk(s) to sleep when possible.”
Chapter 10 Managing Preferences
7 To set wake and restart settings, choose Options from the Settings pop-up menu and
do the following:
To do this
Do this
Wake the computer when the
modem is activated
Select “Wake when the modem detects a ring.”
Wake the computer when an
administrator attempts remote
access
Select “Wake for Ethernet network administrator access.”
Alllow users to press the power (For client computers with Mac OS X v10.3 or later) Select “Allow
button (without holding it down power button to sleep the computer.”
for a prolonged period) to put
the computer in sleep mode
Make sure the computer restarts Select “Restart automatically after a power failure.” Deselect this
if the power fails
option to disable automatic restart.
8 Click Apply Now.
To manually wake up a sleeping computer or display, the user can click the mouse or
press a key on the keyboard.
Setting Energy Saver Settings for Portable Computers
You can use Energy Saver Portable settings to vary sleep and wake responses, in
addition to processor performance settings, depending upon what power source a
portable computer is using (either an adapter or a battery). You can also set the
computer to restart if power suddenly fails.
To manage portable computer settings:
1 In Workgroup Manager, click Preferences.
2 Make sure the correct directory is selected and you are authenticated.
To switch directories, click the globe icon. If you are not authenticated, click the lock
and enter the name and password of a directory domain administrator.
3 Select one or more computers or computer groups.
4 Click Energy Saver and then click Portable.
5 From the Power Source pop-up menu, choose Adapter or Battery and set the
management setting to Always.
Chapter 10 Managing Preferences
179
6 To adjust sleep settings, choose Sleep from the Settings pop-up menu and do the
following:
To do this
Do this
Set the length of time the
Move the “Put the computer to sleep when it is inactive for” slider.
desktop computer waits to enter The computer does not enter sleep mode if the slider is set to
sleep mode
Never. The default setting for adapter power supplies is 10 minutes.
The default setting for battery power supplies is five minutes.
Use a different time interval for
the computer’s display
Select “Put the display to sleep when the computer is inactive for”
and move the slider. The interval can’t be longer than the
computer’s sleep setting. The default setting for battery and
adapter power supplies is five minutes.
Put the hard disks to sleep
during periods of inactivity
Select “Put the hard disk(s) to sleep when possible.”
7 To set wake and restart settings, choose Options from the Settings pop-up menu and
do the following:
To do this
Do this
Wake the computer when the
modem is activated
Select “Wake when the modem detects a ring.”
Wake the computer when an
administrator attempts remote
access
Select “Wake for Ethernet network administrator access.”
Make sure the computer restarts Select “Restart automatically after a power failure.” Deselect this
if the power fails
option to disable automatic restart.
Choose the level of processor
performance
In the Processor Performance pop-up menu, select Highest,
Automatic, or Reduced. For computers using an adapter, the
recommended setting is Highest. For computers using a battery,
the recommended setting is Automatic.
8 Click Apply Now.
To manually wake up a sleeping computer or display, users can click the mouse or press
a key on the keyboard.
Displaying Battery Status to Users
Portable computers use a battery as a direct power source while disconnected from
external power or as a backup power source while connected to external power.
When battery power is too low for the computer to function, the computer puts itself
to sleep to conserve energy. When a user reconnects the computer to a functional
power source (for example, by inserting a fresh battery or connecting a power adapter),
the user can wake the computer and begin working again.
180
Chapter 10 Managing Preferences
Users should be encouraged to monitor battery status when not connected to external
power and use a power adapter when possible to maintain a fully charged battery.
To show battery status in the menu bar:
1 In Workgroup Manager, click Preferences.
2 Make sure the correct directory is selected and you are authenticated.
To switch directories, click the globe icon. If you are not authenticated, click the lock
and enter the name and password of a directory domain administrator.
3 Select one or more computers or computer groups.
4 Click Energy Saver and then click Battery Menu.
5 Set the management setting to Always.
6 To display the battery status, select “Show battery status in the menu bar”; to disable
the battery status, deselect this option.
7 Click Apply Now.
Scheduling Automatic Startup, Shutdown, or Sleep
You can schedule when computers start up, shut down, or sleep at specific times on
specific days of the week. Scheduling shutdown or sleep can help you conserve energy
during predictable times of user inactivity, such as after business hours, on weekends,
or after a class is finished. Scheduling startup automatically allows you to conveniently
prepare a lab or classroom for immediate use.
To schedule automatic actions:
1 In Workgroup Manager, click Preferences.
2 Make sure the correct directory is selected and you are authenticated.
To switch directories, click the globe icon. If you are not authenticated, click the lock
and enter the name and password of a directory domain administrator.
3 Select one or more computers or computer groups.
4 Click Energy Saver and then click Schedule.
5 From the OS pop-up menu, choose Mac OS X or Mac OS X Server and set the
management setting to Always.
6 To schedule automatic startup, select “Start up the computer,” choose a day or range of
days (Weekdays, Weekends, or Every Day) from the pop-up menu, and then enter a
time in the time field.
To disable scheduled startup, deselect this option.
7 To schedule automatic sleep or shutdown, select the checkbox, choose Sleep or Shut
Down from the pop-up menu, choose a day or range of days (Weekdays, Weekends, or
Every Day) from the pop-up menu, and then enter a time in the time field.
To disable scheduled sleep or shutdown, deselect this option.
Chapter 10 Managing Preferences
181
8 Click Apply Now.
Managing Finder Preferences
You can control various aspects of Finder menus and windows, which can help improve
or control workflow.
For example, you can simplify the user experience by enabling Simple Finder. You can
also prevent users from writing to or ejecting disks.
The table below summarizes what you can do with each Finder preference pane.
Finder preference pane
What you can control
Preferences
Finder window behavior, Simple Finder, whether open items
appear on the desktop, filename extension visibility, and the Empty
Trash warning.
Commands
Whether commands in Finder menus and the Apple menu are
available to users. These allow users to perform tasks such as
connecting to servers or restarting the computer.
Views
Allow you to adjust the arrangement and appearance of items on a
user’s desktop, in Finder windows, and in the top-level folder of the
computer.
Setting Up Simple Finder
You can select the normal Finder or Simple Finder as the user environment:
 The normal Finder looks and acts like the standard Mac OS X desktop.
 Simple Finder removes the ability to use a Finder window to access applications or
modify files. This limits users’ access to only what is in the Dock.
If you enable Simple Finder, users can’t mount network volumes, create folders, or
delete files.
In addition to using Workgroup Manager, you can use System Preferences to set up
Simple Finder on a local computer. When you use Workgroup Manager to apply the
Simple Finder environment and the feature is not in use on the local computer, only
the client’s Finder is affected. Dock and Application access settings must be managed
separately.
You can set up Simple Finder on the local computer and use the application and Dock
management features in Workgroup Manager to add Dock items and application
access.
Important: Don’t turn on Simple Finder for users who run Mac OS X v10.2 through
v10.2.8 and log in to a workgroup with its own group folder. These users can’t use
applications because Simple Finder prevents access to the group folder.
182
Chapter 10 Managing Preferences
To turn on Simple Finder:
1 In Workgroup Manager, click Preferences.
2 Make sure the correct directory is selected and you are authenticated.
To switch directories, click the globe icon. If you are not authenticated, click the lock
and enter the name and password of a directory domain administrator.
3 Select one or more users, groups, computers, or computer groups.
4 Click Finder, click the Preferences tab, and then select a management setting.
If you select Always, choose “Use normal Finder” or “Use Simple Finder.”
If you select Once, the account uses only the normal Finder.
5 Click Apply Now.
Keeping Disks and Servers from Appearing on the User’s Desktop
Normally when a user inserts an external disk, that disk’s icon appears on the desktop.
Icons for local hard disks or disk partitions and mounted server volumes are also visible.
If you don’t want users to see these items on the desktop, you can hide them.
Disks and servers still appear in the top-level folder when a user clicks the Computer
icon in a Finder window’s toolbar.
To hide disk and server icons on the desktop:
1 In Workgroup Manager, click Preferences.
2 Make sure the correct directory is selected and you are authenticated.
To switch directories, click the globe icon. If you are not authenticated, click the lock
and enter the name and password of a directory domain administrator.
3 Select one or more users, groups, computers, or computer groups.
4 Click Finder, click the Preferences tab, and then select a management setting.
5 Under “Show these items on the Desktop,” deselect the items you want to hide.
6 Click Apply Now.
Controlling the Behavior of Finder Windows
You can select which folder appears when a user opens a new Finder window. You can
also define how contents are displayed when a user opens folders.
To set Finder window preferences:
1 In Workgroup Manager, click Preferences.
2 Make sure the correct directory is selected and you are authenticated.
To switch directories, click the globe icon. If you are not authenticated, click the lock
and enter the name and password of a directory domain administrator.
3 Select one or more users, groups, computers, or computer groups.
Chapter 10 Managing Preferences
183
4 Click Finder, click the Preferences tab, and then select a management setting.
5 Under “New Finder window shows,” choose the default folder for the Finder window.
Select Home to show items in the user’s home folder.
Select Computer to show the top-level folder, which includes local disks and mounted
volumes.
6 To display folder contents in a separate window when a user opens a folder, select
“Always open folders in a new window.”
Normally, Mac OS X users can browse through a series of folders using a single Finder
window.
7 To maintain a consistent view across windows, select “Always open windows in column
view.”
8 Click Apply Now.
Hiding the Alert Message When a User Empties the Trash
Normally, a warning appears when a user empties the Trash. If you don’t want users to
see this message, you can turn it off.
To hide the Trash warning message:
1 In Workgroup Manager, click Preferences.
2 Make sure the correct directory is selected and you are authenticated.
To switch directories, click the globe icon. If you are not authenticated, click the lock
and enter the name and password of a directory domain administrator.
3 Select one or more users, groups, computers, or computer groups.
4 Click Finder, click the Preferences tab, and then select a management setting.
5 Deselect “Show warning before emptying the Trash.”
6 Click Apply Now.
Making Filename Extensions Visible
A filename extension usually appears at the end of a filename (for example, .txt or .jpg).
Applications use the filename extension to identify the file type.
To make filename extensions visible:
1 In Workgroup Manager, click Preferences.
2 Make sure the correct directory is selected and you are authenticated.
To switch directories, click the globe icon. If you are not authenticated, click the lock
and enter the name and password of a directory domain administrator.
3 Select one or more users, groups, computers, or computer groups.
4 Click Finder, click the Preferences tab, and then select a management setting.
184
Chapter 10 Managing Preferences
5 Select “Always show file extensions.”
6 Click Apply Now.
Controlling User Access to Remote Servers
Users can connect to a remote server by choosing the “Connect to Server” command in
the Finder Go menu and providing the server’s name or IP address. If you don’t want
users to access this menu item, you can hide the command.
To hide the “Connect to Server” command:
1 In Workgroup Manager, click Preferences.
2 Make sure the correct directory is selected and you are authenticated.
To switch directories, click the globe icon. If you are not authenticated, click the lock
and enter the name and password of a directory domain administrator.
3 Select one or more users, groups, computers, or computer groups.
4 Click Finder, click Commands, and then set the management setting to Always.
5 Deselect “Connect to Server.”
6 Click Apply Now.
Controlling User Access to an iDisk
If users want to connect to an iDisk, they can choose the “Go to iDisk” command in the
Finder Go menu. If you don’t want users to access this menu item, you can hide the
command.
To hide the “Go to iDisk” command:
1 In Workgroup Manager, click Preferences.
2 Make sure the correct directory is selected and you are authenticated.
To switch directories, click the globe icon. If you are not authenticated, click the lock
and enter the name and password of a directory domain administrator.
3 Select one or more users, groups, computers, or computer groups.
4 Click Finder, click Commands, and then set the management setting to Always.
5 Deselect “Go to iDisk.”
6 Click Apply Now.
Preventing Users from Ejecting Discs
If you don’t want users to be able to eject discs (for example, CDs, DVDs, floppy disks,
or FireWire drives), you can hide the Eject command in the Finder File menu.
To hide the Eject command:
1 In Workgroup Manager, click Preferences.
2 Make sure the correct directory is selected and you are authenticated.
Chapter 10 Managing Preferences
185
To switch directories, click the globe icon. If you are not authenticated, click the lock
and enter the name and password of a directory domain administrator.
3 Select one or more users, groups, computers, or computer groups.
4 Click Finder, click Commands, and then set the management setting to Always.
5 Deselect Eject.
6 Click Apply Now.
Hiding the Burn Disc Command in the Finder
On computers with appropriate hardware, users can burn discs (write information to
recordable CDs or DVDs). If you don’t want users to have this ability, you can hide the
Burn Disc command in the Finder File menu.
To prevent users from using or burning recordable CDs or DVDs, use settings in the
Media Access panes. For more information, see “Managing Media Access Preferences”
on page 200.
Only computers with a CD-RW drive, Combo Drive, or SuperDrive can burn CDs. The
Burn Disc command works only with CD-R, CD-RW, or DVD-R discs. Only a SuperDrive
can burn DVD-R discs.
To hide the Burn Disc command:
1 In Workgroup Manager, click Preferences.
2 Make sure the correct directory is selected and you are authenticated.
To switch directories, click the globe icon. If you are not authenticated, click the lock
and enter the name and password of a directory domain administrator.
3 Select one or more users, groups, computers, or computer groups.
4 Click Finder, click Commands, and then set the management setting to Always.
5 Deselect “Burn Disc.”
6 Click Apply Now.
Controlling User Access to Folders
Users can open a specific folder by choosing the “Go to Folder” command in the Finder
Go menu and providing the folder’s pathname. If you don’t want users to have this
ability, you can hide the command.
To hide the “Go to Folder” command:
1 In Workgroup Manager, click Preferences.
2 Make sure the correct directory is selected and you are authenticated.
To switch directories, click the globe icon. If you are not authenticated, click the lock
and enter the name and password of a directory domain administrator.
3 Select one or more users, groups, computers, or computer groups.
186
Chapter 10 Managing Preferences
4 Click Finder, click Commands, and then set the management setting to Always.
5 Deselect “Go to Folder.”
6 Click Apply Now.
Removing Restart and Shut Down from the Apple Menu
If you don’t want to allow users to restart or shut down the computer they’re using, you
can remove the Restart and Shut Down commands from the Apple menu.
To hide the Restart and Shut Down commands:
1 In Workgroup Manager, click Preferences.
2 Make sure the correct directory is selected and you are authenticated.
To switch directories, click the globe icon. If you are not authenticated, click the lock
and enter the name and password of a directory domain administrator.
3 Select one or more users, groups, computers, or computer groups.
4 Click Finder, click Commands, and then set the management setting to Always.
5 Deselect Restart and Shut Down.
6 Click Apply Now.
As an additional preventive measure, you can remove the Restart and Shut Down
buttons from the login window by using settings in Login preferences. For instructions,
see “Changing the Appearance of the Login Window” on page 189.
Adjusting the Appearance and Arrangement of Desktop Items
Items on a user’s desktop appear as icons. You can control the size of desktop icons and
how they’re arranged.
To set preferences for the desktop view:
1 In Workgroup Manager, click Preferences.
2 Make sure the correct directory is selected and you are authenticated.
To switch directories, click the globe icon. If you are not authenticated, click the lock
and enter the name and password of a directory domain administrator.
3 Select one or more users, groups, computers, or computer groups.
4 Click Finder, click Views, and then select a management setting.
The management setting applies to options in all three views.
5 Click Desktop View and then drag the Icon Size slider to adjust the icon size.
6 To keep items aligned in rows and columns, select “Snap to grid.”
7 To arrange items by criteria such as name or type (for example, all folders grouped
together), select “Keep arranged by” and then choose a method from the pop-up
menu.
Chapter 10 Managing Preferences
187
8 Click Apply Now.
Adjusting the Appearance of Finder Window Contents
Items in Finder windows can be viewed in a list or as icons. You can control aspects of
how these items look, as well as whether to show the toolbar in a Finder window.
Default View settings control the overall appearance of all Finder windows. Computer
View settings control the view for the top-level computer folder, showing hard disks
and disk partitions, external hard drives, mounted volumes, and removable media (such
as CDs or DVDs).
To set preferences for Default and Computer Views:
1 In Workgroup Manager, click Preferences.
2 Make sure the correct directory is selected and you are authenticated.
To switch directories, click the globe icon. If you are not authenticated, click the lock
and enter the name and password of a directory domain administrator.
3 Select one or more users, groups, computers, or computer groups.
4 Click Finder, click Views, and then set the management setting to Once or Always.
This setting applies to options in all three views.
5 Click Default View or Computer View.
Available settings are similar for both views.
6 Drag the Icon Size slider to adjust the icon size.
7 To keep icons aligned in rows and columns, select “Snap to grid.”
Arranging icons in a grid prevents icons from overlapping.
8 To sort icons, select “Keep arranged by” and then choose a method from the pop-up
menu.
You can arrange items by name, creation or modification date, size, or kind (for
example, all folders grouped together).
9 Adjust List View settings.
If you select “Use relative dates,” an item’s creation or modification date is displayed as
Today instead of 3/24/05.
If you select “Calculate folder sizes,” the computer calculates the total size of each folder
shown in a Finder window. This can take some time if a folder is very large.
10 Select a size for icons in a list.
11 Click Apply Now.
188
Chapter 10 Managing Preferences
Managing Login Preferences
Use Login preferences to set options for user login, to provide password hints, and to
control the user’s ability to restart and shut down the computer from the login
window. You can also mount a group volume or set applications to open when a user
logs in.
The table below summarizes what you can do with settings in each Login pane.
Login preference pane
What you can control
Window
For computers and computer groups only: The appearance of the
login window such as the heading, message, which users are listed
if the “List of users” is specified, and the ability to restart or shut
down
Options
For computers and computer groups only: Login window options
like enabling password hints, automatic login, console, fast user
switching, inactivity log out, disabling of management, setting the
computer name to match the computer record, external account
login
Access
For computers and computer groups only: Who can log in, if local
users can use workgroup settings, and the combination and
selection of workgroups
Scripts
For computers and computer groups only: Specify a script to run
during login or logout and whether to execute or disable the client
computer’s own LoginHook or LogoutHook scripts
Items
Access to the group volume, which applications open
automatically for the user; and if users can add or remove login
items
Scripts, Login Window, and Options can be managed for computers only, not for users
or groups.
Changing the Appearance of the Login Window
You can easily change the appearance of a computer’s login window. These settings
include the login window’s heading message, which users are listed and how, and the
display of the restart and shut down buttons. These settings apply only to computers
and computer groups.
When you display a list of users, you can choose which types of users to list. The effect
of these settings depend on the version of Mac OS X installed on client computers.
List setting
Mac OS X version Effect
Show local users
10.4
Lists local accounts and mobile accounts with
a local home folder
Show local users
10.5
Lists local accounts
Show mobile accounts
10.4
N/A
Chapter 10 Managing Preferences
189
List setting
Mac OS X version Effect
Show mobile accounts
10.5
Lists mobile accounts with a local home folder
and external accounts
Show network users
10.4 and 10.5
Lists network accounts and mobile accounts
without a local home folder
Show computer administrators
10.4 and 10.5
Lists local system administrators
Show “Other...”
10.4 and 10.5
Displays name and password text fields,
allowing the user to authenticate with a local
or network-based account
The directory administrator account is considered a network account, and is therefore
hidden when you don’t show network users. Another way to hide this account would
be to set the directory administrator account’s user ID to below 100. For more
information, see “Modifying User IDs” on page 67.
You can customize the login window to suit your needs.
For example, to test a computer’s ability to access the directory domain you could
change the heading to Directory status and display a list of network users.
Or, to prevent unauthorized access, you could create a warning message, display the
name and password fields (forcing intruders to know a user’s name and password), and
disable showing the Restart and Shut Down buttons (to help prevent intruders from
bypassing the login window).
To change the appearance of the Login Window:
1 In Workgroup Manager, click Preferences.
2 Make sure the correct directory is selected and you are authenticated.
To switch directories, click the globe icon. If you are not authenticated, click the lock
and enter the name and password of a directory domain administrator.
3 Select one or more computers or computer groups.
4 Click Login and then click Window.
5 Set the management setting to Always.
6 To change the default heading, choose a heading from the Heading pop-up menu.
Users can view other headings by clicking the heading in the login window.
7 To display a message below the login window’s heading, enter a message in Message.
8 To require the user to enter his or her user name and password, select “Name and
password text fields.”
9 To allow a user to select his or her name from a list, select “List of users able to use
these computers.”
10 Select categories of users you want to display in the list.
190
Chapter 10 Managing Preferences
To ensure that a type of user doesn’t show up in the list, deselect the corresponding
setting.
To display mobile accounts on client computers with Mac OS X v10.5 or later, select
“Show mobile accounts.”
To display mobile accounts on client computers with Mac OS X v10.4 installed, select
“Show local users.”
To allow unlisted users to log in, select “Show Other.”
11 To allow the user to restart the computer, select “Show Restart button.”
If the user has physical access to the computer, he or she can still restart the computer.
12 To allow the user to shut down the computer, select “Show Shut Down button.”
If the user has physical access to the computer, he or she can still shut down the
computer.
You might also want to remove the Restart and Shut Down commands from the Finder.
For more information, see “Managing Finder Preferences” on page 182.
13 Click Apply Now.
Configuring Miscellaneous Login Options
You can configure the following login options that don’t change the appearance of the
login window but affect how users log in.
Option
What this does when enabled
Show password hint when
needed and available
If the user supplied a password hint and he or she enters an
incorrect password three times, the password hint appears.
Enable automatic login
If the computer’s local settings enable Automatic Login, the login
window is bypassed when the computer starts up.
Enable >console login
Users can log in using the Darwin console (command-line
interface). To log in to the console, the user enters “>console” and
no password in the login window. This allows the user to bypass
management.
Enable Fast User Switching
With Fast User Switching, more than one account is available at the
same time on a single computer.
The list of current active (authenticated) accounts appears in a
menu on the right side of the Finder menu bar, allowing you to
switch to a different account by choosing it.
A user must authenticate to switch to his or her account, but the
previous user does not need to log out first.
Log out users after # minutes of
activity
If a client computer has Mac OS X v10.3 or later, when the set time
interval has passed, the user is logged out and returned to the
login window.
Local administrators may refresh When local administrators log in, they have the option not to
or disable management
choose a workgroup and to disable preference management.
Chapter 10 Managing Preferences
191
Option
What this does when enabled
Set computer name to
computer record name
For computers with Mac OS X v10.5 or later: You can set the computer
name. This name affects the client computer’s Bonjour name, which
other computers on the local subnet use to access the client
computer.
The new Bonjour name is name-#.local where name is the
computer record name you specify and # uniquely identifies the
computer if there are several computers with the same Bonjour
name.
Enable external accounts
For computers with Mac OS X v10.5 or later: Users can log in using
external accounts. If the login window displays a list of user names,
the external account is listed as a mobile account.
If the login window displays a name and password field, the user
must enter the external account name and password.
Enable guest account
For computers with Mac OS X v10.5 or later: Users can log in using
the guest account. The guest account allows anyone to access the
computer without requiring a password.
To manage guest users, manage the computers or computer
groups with enabled guest accounts.
To configure miscellaneous login options:
1 In Workgroup Manager, click Preferences.
2 Make sure the correct directory is selected and you are authenticated.
To switch directories, click the globe icon. If you are not authenticated, click the lock
and enter the name and password of a directory domain administrator.
3 Select one or more computers or computer groups.
4 Click Login and then click Options.
5 Set the management setting to Always.
6 Select the options you want to enable and click Apply Now.
Choosing Who Can Log In
Workgroup Manager gives you control over who is allowed to access computers. You
can choose which network users are allowed to log in and whether local users can log
in.
Denying access supersedes allowing access. If you allow computer access to a group of
network users, you can deny access to specific members of the group. However, if you
deny computer access to a group, you can’t allow computer access to specific members
of that group.
If you don’t list users or groups to allow or deny access to, all network users can log in.
If you add users or groups to the list, only the users and groups that are explicitly
allowed access can log in.
192
Chapter 10 Managing Preferences
Note: A user with an administrator account in a client computer’s local directory
domain can always log in.
To choose who can log in:
1 In Workgroup Manager, click Preferences.
2 Make sure the correct directory is selected and you are authenticated.
To switch directories, click the globe icon. If you are not authenticated, click the lock
and enter the name and password of a directory domain administrator.
3 Select one or more computers or computer groups.
4 Click Login, click Access, and then set the management setting to Always.
5 To control access for all network users, click the Add Network Users (gear) button.
If you allow access for the Network Users group, you can prevent access for specific
users or groups. All other network users and groups are allowed access.
If you deny access for the Network Users group, all network users and groups are
denied access even if they are specifically allowed access in the list.
6 To control access for specific users or groups, click the Add (+) button and then drag
user or group accounts from the drawer to the list.
To switch the drawer’s display of user accounts to group accounts or vice-versa, click
the Users or Groups button at the top of the drawer.
7 To allow or deny access to a user or group in the Access Control List, choose Allow or
Deny from the Access pop-up menu for that user or group.
8 To allow local users to access the computer, select “Local-only users may login.”
9 Click Apply Now.
Customizing the Workgroups Displayed at Login
You can change settings that affect how workgroup preferences and other settings
impact a user’s experience. For example, you can require local users to choose a
workgroup.
This makes the user’s environment the same as if he or she was a member of the
workgroup. Or, you can configure how to handle situations where multiple workgroups
are available for a user.
Chapter 10 Managing Preferences
193
The following access options control workgroup settings at login.
Option
What this does when enabled
Local-only users use available
workgroup settings
For computers with Mac OS X v10.4 or later: Local users must choose
a workgroup when logging in. The user can choose from all
workgroups that can access the computer. The user’s environment
is the same as if he or she was a member of the workgroup.
Ignore workgroup nesting
For computers with Mac OS X v10.5 or later: The user can choose
whether to use managed preferences from a parent group or its
child group. Only the preferences of the chosen group apply.
When disabled, the preferences of parent and child groups apply.
Combine available workgroup
settings
For computers with Mac OS X v10.5 or later: The user’s preferences
are based on the combination of preferences from all user’s
workgroups. For local users, all workgroups that can access the
computer are combined.
When enabled, the user can’t select the workgroup to use.
When disabled, the user can select which workgroup to use. If the
user selects a parent or child group, the preferences of both apply.
Always show workgroup dialog
during login
For computers with Mac OS X v10.5 or later: The dialog displaying all
available workgroups appears even when there are no workgroups
available.
To customize the workgroups displayed at login:
1 In Workgroup Manager, click Preferences.
2 Make sure the correct directory is selected and you are authenticated.
To switch directories, click the globe icon. If you are not authenticated, click the lock
and enter the name and password of a directory domain administrator.
3 Select one or more computers or computer groups.
4 Click Login, click Access, and then set the management setting to Always.
5 Select the workgroup settings to enable them.
6 When you finish enabling workgroup settings, click Apply Now.
Enabling the Use of Login and Logout Scripts
You can use login scripts to perform a set of actions when a user logs in or logs out.
Because login or logout scripts run as root, they are very powerful. Test your scripts to
make sure they don’t negatively impact system settings or damage user files.
You can add a login script to a computer in two ways:
 Add a LoginHook script to a specific computer
 Apply a login script to a computer or computer group using Workgroup Manager
194
Chapter 10 Managing Preferences
When enabling the use of login and logout scripts, you can set a trust value for the
client. Trust values determine the required level of authentication before a client trusts
a server enough to run its scripts. Most trust values directly correlate to LDAP security
policy settings that are configured in Directory Utility.
The trust value of DHCP doesn’t correlate to a security policy. Instead, it correlates to
whether Directory Utility is configured to use a DHCP-supplied LDAP server. The trust
value of Authenticated requires that you set up trusted binding to an LDAP directory.
For more information about how to use Directory Utility to enable LDAP security
policies, using DHCP-supplied LDAP, or setting up trusted binding, see Open Directory
Administration.
The following table lists valid trust values and describes their requirements. The table is
arranged in order of increasing trust, where the last entry requires the highest level of
trust.
Trust value name
Requirements
Anonymous
The client trusts any directory domain server.
DHCP
In Directory Utility, select “Add DHCP-supplied LDAP servers to
automatic search policies.”
Encryption
In Directory Utility, select “Encrypt all packets (requires SSL or
Kerberos).”
Authenticated
Set up trusted binding between the client computer and the LDAP
directory.
PartialTrust
In Directory Utility, select “Digitally sign all packets (requires
Kerberos).” Most Active Directory nodes support PartialTrust but
not FullTrust.
FullTrust
In Directory Utility, select “Block man-in-the-middle attacks
(requires Kerberos)” and “Digitally sign all packets (requires
Kerberos).”
To set the minimum required trust level, set the MCXScriptTrust client setting:
 If the client’s MCXScriptTrust setting is a level of trust equal to or less than the trust
value, the client trusts the server and runs its login and logout scripts.
 If the client’s MCXScriptTrust setting is a level of trust more than the trust value, the
client doesn’t trust the server and doesn’t run its scripts.
The default trust value is FullTrust.
To enable the use of login or logout scripts:
1 Log in to the user’s computer locally or use Apple Remote Desktop.
2 Open the Sharing pane of System Preferences.
3 Click the lock to authenticate, and enter the name of a local or domain administrator.
Chapter 10 Managing Preferences
195
4 Click Edit.
5 If the local host name contains special nonalphabetic or non-numeric characters such
as spaces, dashes, and underscores, remove the special characters and then click OK.
For example, change local host names like “Anne-Johnson’s-Computer” to
“AnneJohnsonsComputer.”
6 Optionally, determine the trust level by entering the following command in Terminal:
dscl localhost -read /LDAPv3/www.apple.com
dsAttrTypeStandard:TrustInformation
Replace www.apple.com with the address of your LDAP directory. Running this
command displays a line similar to the following:
TrustInformation: Authenticated FullTrust
In this example, the current trust level is FullTrust. The trust level is also Authenticated.
When two trust levels are listed, the higher trust level takes precedence.
7 Set the “EnableMCXLoginScripts” key in ~root/Library/Preferences/
com.apple.loginwindow.plist to TRUE by entering the following command in Terminal:
sudo defaults write com.apple.loginwindow EnableMCXLoginScripts -bool TRUE
8 To change the trust value from FullTrust, set the “MCXScriptTrust” key in ~root/Library/
Preferences/com.apple.loginwindow.plist to a valid trust value.
For example, enter the following command in Terminal:
sudo defaults write com.apple.loginwindow MCXScriptTrust -string
PartialTrust
This command sets the trust value to PartialTrust. To set other trust values, replace
PartialTrust with other trust values. If you enter an invalid trust value, the trust value is
reset to FullTrust.
When you enable login and logout scripts or change the trust value, add login and
logout scripts in Workgroup Manager. For more information about how to use
Workgroup Manager to add login and logout scripts, see “Choosing a Login or Logout
Script.”
Choosing a Login or Logout Script
You can only run login and logout scripts on computers or computer groups. Before
adding scripts, you must enable them using login and logout scripts. If you change the
trust level for client computers running Mac OS X v10.4, re-add your scripts.
For instructions on enabling login and logout scripts on clients and for more
information about trust levels, see “Enabling the Use of Login and Logout Scripts” on
page 194.
If you run login or logout scripts for computers and computer groups, the script for the
computer is run first, followed by the script for the computer group, starting with
hierarchical groups and ending with parent groups.
196
Chapter 10 Managing Preferences
You can’t run scripts that are larger than 30 KB.
To choose login or logout scripts:
1 In Workgroup Manager, click Preferences.
2 Make sure the correct directory is selected and you are authenticated.
To switch directories, click the globe icon. If you are not authenticated, click the lock
and enter the name and password of a directory domain administrator.
3 Select one or more computers or computer groups.
4 Click Login and then click Scripts.
5 Set the management setting to Always.
6 Select Login Script or Log-Out Script, then in the dialog that appears, locate your script
and click Open.
7 Click Apply Now.
Automatically Opening Items After a User Logs In
You can simplify the user experience by setting frequently used items such as
applications, folders, or server connections to open when the user logs in. You can also
hide the items to help prevent screen clutter while still making the items easily
accessible.
Items open in the order they appear in Login Items preferences (you specify the order).
The last item opened becomes the active application. For example, if you specify three
items to open (and none are hidden), the user sees the menu bar for the last item
opened. If an application has open windows, the windows may overlap windows from
other applications.
A user can stop login items from opening by holding down the Shift key during login
until the Finder appears on the desktop. You can turn off this feature.
To set an item to open automatically:
1 In Workgroup Manager, click Preferences.
2 Make sure the correct directory is selected and you are authenticated.
To switch directories, click the globe icon. If you are not authenticated, click the lock
and enter the name and password of a directory domain administrator.
3 Select one or more users, groups, computers, or computer groups.
4 Click Login and then click Items.
5 Select a management setting.
6 To add an item to the list, click the Add (+) button, select the application, folder, or
server you want to automatically open, and then click Add.
7 For any item you don’t want the user to see right away, select its Hide checkbox.
Chapter 10 Managing Preferences
197
The application remains open but its windows and menu bar remain hidden until the
user activates the application (for example, by clicking its icon in the Dock).
8 To automatically connect the user to a server, select the server and then select “Mount
share point with user’s name and password.”
The server must use the same directory domain as the one the user logs in to.
9 If you don’t want users to have the ability to add and remove items, deselect “User may
add and remove additional items.”
This option is available only if Login Items preferences are always managed. If you only
manage Login Items preferences Once, a user can remove any items added to the login
list.
Users can’t remove items added to the login items list but they can remove items
they’ve added themselves.
10 To prevent users from stopping applications that open automatically at login, deselect
“User may press Shift to keep items from opening.”
This option is available only if Login Items preferences are always managed.
11 If you select Once, you can click “Merge with user’s items.”
This produces two results, depending on whether the user has items in their login list.
If the user has items listed in their login list, either by the user adding them or by
having items previously added through preference management, merging only opens
login items that appear on the user’s list and on your list.
If the user’s login list does not include items, all managed login items appear.
If you do not select “Merge with user’s items,” all login items on either list open.
12 Click Apply Now.
Providing Access to a User’s Network Home Folder
This setting is used primarily for mobile accounts on computers using Mac OS X v10.3
through Mac OS X v10.3.9. When a user logs in while connected to the network, the
share point with the user’s original home folder (on the server) is mounted on the
desktop.
Don’t provide access to a user’s network home folder to users with mobile accounts on
Mac OS X v10.4 or later. Mac OS X v10.4 and later include portable home directories,
which provide a synced subset of the user’s local and network home folders.
If a user modifies files in the local and network home folders, when the two home
folders sync, the newer modifications take precedence, which could surprise and
confuse the user. Additionally, users could be confused by having multiple folders titled
with their user names and similarly named folders like Documents, Music, and others.
198
Chapter 10 Managing Preferences
To automatically mount the Network Home:
1 In Workgroup Manager, click Preferences.
2 Make sure the correct directory is selected and you are authenticated.
To switch directories, click the globe icon. If you are not authenticated, click the lock
and enter the name and password of a directory domain administrator.
3 Select a mobile user account in the account list.
4 Click Login and then click Items.
5 Select a management setting.
6 Select “Add network home share point.”
7 Click Apply Now.
Providing Easy Access to the Group Share Point
After you set up a group share point, you can make it easy for users to locate group
folders by automatically connecting to the share point at login.
The connection to the group share point uses the user name and password given at
login.
When you manage Finder preferences, you can choose to not show connected servers,
which removes the group volume icon from the desktop.
If you change the location of the group share point, update the login item for the
group in Workgroup Manager.
For information about setting up a group share point, see “Creating a Group Folder” on
page 101.
Note: This preference setting applies only to groups. You can’t manage this setting for
users or computers.
To add a login item for the group share point:
1 If you haven’t set up a group share point and group folder, do so.
2 In Workgroup Manager, click Preferences.
3 Make sure the correct directory is selected and you are authenticated.
To switch directories, click the globe icon. If you are not authenticated, click the lock
and enter the name and password of a directory domain administrator.
4 Click the Groups button and select one or more group accounts from the list.
5 Click Login and then click Items.
6 Set the management setting to Always.
7 Select “Add group share point.”
8 Select the newly added group share point item.
Chapter 10 Managing Preferences
199
If you don’t want the group share point to appear in the Dock, select the Hide
checkbox.
9 Make sure “Mount share point with user’s name and password” is selected.
10 Click Apply Now.
Managing Media Access Preferences
Media Access preferences let you control settings for and access to CDs, DVDs, the local
hard disk, and external disks (for example, floppy disks and FireWire drives).
The table below describes what you can do with the settings in each Media Access
pane.
Media Access preference pane
What you can control
Disc Media
Settings for CDs, DVDs, and recordable discs (for example, CD-R,
CD-RW, or DVD-R). Computers without appropriate hardware are
not affected by these settings.
Other Media
Internal hard disks and external disks (other than CDs or DVDs).
Controlling Access to CDs, DVDs, and Recordable Discs
You can control whether users can play or record CDs or DVDs. However, you can’t
deny access to specific discs or to specific items on a disc.
If a computer has a recordable disc drive, you can control a user’s ability to burn
discs—that is, to write information on a recordable disc such as a CD-R, CD-RW, or
DVD-R. Users can burn CDs on computers with a CD-RW drive, Combo Drive, or
SuperDrive. Users can burn DVDs only on computers with a SuperDrive.
To control access to disc media:
1 In Workgroup Manager, click Preferences.
2 Make sure the correct directory is selected and you are authenticated.
To switch directories, click the globe icon. If you are not authenticated, click the lock
and enter the name and password of a directory domain administrator.
3 Select one or more users, groups, computers, or computer groups.
4 Click Media Access and then set the management setting to Always.
This setting applies to all Media Access preference options.
5 Click Disc Media and select the desired options.
If you select Require Authentication, the user must authenticate as a local administrator
to use the disc media.
Before you can select Require Authentication, you must first select Allow.
6 Click Apply Now.
200
Chapter 10 Managing Preferences
Controlling Access to Hard Drives, Disks, and Disk Images
You can control access to internal or external disk drives such as floppy disk drives, Zip
drives, and FireWire drives. You can also control access to disk images (files with the
.dmg extension).
If you disallow external disks, external disks are not displayed in the Finder. If you
disallow disk images, the images are visible in the Finder but users can’t open them.
To restrict access to internal and external disks:
1 In Workgroup Manager, click Preferences.
2 Make sure the correct directory is selected and you are authenticated.
To switch directories, click the globe icon. If you are not authenticated, click the lock
and enter the name and password of a directory domain administrator.
3 Select one or more users, groups, computers, or computer groups.
4 Click Media Access.
5 Set the management setting to Always.
This setting applies to all Media Access preference options.
6 Click Other Media and select desired options.
If you select Require Authentication, the user must authenticate as a local administrator
to use the disc media.
If you select Read-Only, users can view the contents of a disk but can’t change it or save
files on it.
Before you can select Require Authentication or Read-Only, you must first select Allow.
7 Click Apply Now.
Ejecting Removable Media Automatically When a User Logs Out
If you allow users to access CDs, DVDs, or external disks such as Zip disks or FireWire
drives on shared computers, you can automatically eject removable media when a user
logs out.
To automatically eject removable media:
1 In Workgroup Manager, click Preferences.
2 Make sure the correct directory is selected and you are authenticated.
To switch directories, click the globe icon. If you are not authenticated, click the lock
and enter the name and password of a directory domain administrator.
3 Select one or more users, groups, computers, or computer groups.
4 Click Media Access.
5 Set the management setting to Always.
This setting applies to all Media Access preference options.
Chapter 10 Managing Preferences
201
6 In Disc Media or Other Media, select “Eject all removable media at logout.”
7 Click Apply Now.
Managing Mobility Preferences
You can automatically create mobile accounts for users during their next login.
If your computers have Mac OS X v10.5 or later, you can also encrypt the contents of
the mobile account’s portable home directory, restrict its size, choose its location, or set
an expiration date on the account.
The table below describes what you can do with the settings in each Mobility pane.
Mobility preference pane
What you can control
Account Creation
Whether to create mobile accounts when users log in and whether
to encrypt contents of the portable home directory, restrict its size,
or choose a different location for it
Account Expiry
Whether to delete mobile accounts and how soon to do so after
the user’s next login
Rules
The folders you want to sync at login and logout (or in the
background) and how frequently to sync folders in the background
For planning information and other considerations for mobile accounts, see Chapter 8,
“Managing Portable Computers.”
Creating a Mobile Account
You can use Workgroup Manager to create a mobile account when a user logs in. If you
don’t enable the creation of mobile accounts, the user logs in using a network account.
When you enable mobile accounts, a local home folder is created for the user at first
login.
When the user’s local home folder is created, it’s based on a template stored on the
local computer. The user’s network home folder is based on a template stored on the
server hosting home folders.
When you modify these templates, you change the user’s default home folder structure
and content, and you can modify the ~/Library folder, allowing you to set default
bookmarks and application preferences.
You can choose whether local and network home folders initially sync, in which case
the network home folder replaces the local home folder.
You must authenticate as root to change the template stored in
/System/Library/User Template/language.lproj. Replace language with the language
used on the client computer, such as “English.”
202
Chapter 10 Managing Preferences
Note: When a mobile account is enabled, it appears in the login window and in the
Accounts pane of System Preferences with the label Mobile. When the account is
selected in the Accounts pane, some settings may appear dimmed.
To create a mobile account using Workgroup Manager:
1 In Workgroup Manager, click Preferences.
2 Make sure the correct directory is selected and you are authenticated.
To switch directories, click the globe icon. If you are not authenticated, click the lock
and enter the name and password of a directory domain administrator.
3 Select a user account, group account, computer, or computer group.
When users log in to a workgroup with mobile-account creation enabled, they are
given individual mobile accounts. Similarly, if you enable mobile accounts for a
computer or a computer group, when users log in using the computer or a computer
in the computer group, users are given individual mobile accounts for that computer.
4 Click Mobility, click Account Creation, and then click Creation.
5 Set the management setting to Always.
6 Select “Create mobile account when user logs in to network account.”
7 If you want the user to decide whether to enable a mobile account at login, select
“Require confirmation before creating mobile account.”
If this option is selected, the user sees a confirmation when logging in. The user can
click Create Now to create a local home folder and enable the mobile account, click
Don’t Create to log in as a network user without enabling the mobile account, or click
Cancel Login to return to the login window.
If you select “Show ‘Don’t ask me again’ checkbox,” the dialog allows the user to
prevent the display of the dialog on that computer. If the user selects “Don’t ask me
again” and then clicks “Don’t Create,” he or she isn’t asked to create a mobile account
on that computer. The user can hold down the Option key during login to redisplay the
dialog.
8 To initially sync local and network homes so that the network home folder replaces the
local home folder, choose “Create home with default sync settings.” To create the local
home folder without syncing, choose “Create home with syncing off.”
9 Click Apply Now.
Changes are applied to a mobile account the next time the computer connects to the
network.
Preventing the Creation of a Mobile Account
To prevent the creation of mobile accounts, manage Mobility preferences.
Chapter 10 Managing Preferences
203
After a user creates a mobile account, the local home folder for that account stays on
the computer until it’s deleted. You can delete the local home folders to save disk
space, or you can set an expiration period on the mobile account so the local home
folders are deleted when the account expires.
For instructions, see “Manually Removing Mobile Accounts from Computers” on
page 204, and “Setting Expiration Periods for Mobile Accounts” on page 209.
To prevent the creation of mobile accounts:
1 In Workgroup Manager, click Preferences.
2 Make sure the correct directory is selected and you are authenticated.
To switch directories, click the globe icon. If you are not authenticated, click the lock
and enter the name and password of a directory domain administrator.
3 Select one or more users, groups, computers, or computer groups.
4 Click Mobility, click Account Creation, and then click Creation.
5 Set the management setting to Always.
6 Deselect “Create mobile account when user logs in to network account.”
7 Click Apply Now.
Manually Removing Mobile Accounts from Computers
If a user no longer requires a mobile account, you can delete the account. When you
delete the account, you can also delete or archive the user’s local home folder.
To delete a mobile account, you must log in to the computer using an account other
than the mobile account. You must also know the name and password of an
administrator account on the computer.
If you want to use Workgroup Manager to remove the mobile account remotely, you
can set a null expiration period for the account. By doing so, you remove the mobile
account from all computers. For more information, see “Setting Expiration Periods for
Mobile Accounts” on page 209.
To remove a mobile account:
1 On the client computer, log in using a different account from the one you’re removing
the mobile account of.
2 Open System Preferences.
3 Click Accounts and then click the lock and authenticate as the local administrator.
4 To list all accounts, click the Other Accounts disclosure triangle and then select the
mobile account you want to remove.
The mobile account should have the word “Mobile” listed.
5 Click the Delete (–) button.
204
Chapter 10 Managing Preferences
6 Choose one of the following home folder options and then click OK.
Option
Effect
Save the home folder in a disk
image
Removes a user account from the local directory domain but
preserves the local home folder in /Users/username.dmg, where
username is the short name of the deleted user.
Do not change the home folder
Removes a user account from the local directory domain but
preserves the local home folder in /Users as “username (Deleted),”
where username is the short name of the deleted user.
Delete the home folder
Removes a user account from the local directory domain and
permanently deletes the user’s home folders.
Enabling FileVault for Mobile Accounts
If your users have computers with Mac OS X v10.5 or later installed, you can use
FileVault to encrypt the local home folders for their mobile accounts.
FileVault encrypts the user’s local home folder using the Advanced Encryption Standard
with 128-bit keys (AES-128). The home folder content is safe even if the user’s computer
is stolen or if an intruder attempts to use the computer while the user is not logged in.
The user’s login password is used to decrypt and give the user access to his or her
FileVault-protected account. If the user forgets the login password and a computer
administrator has set a master password, the administrator can use the master
password to unlock all local accounts.
You can choose whether to require master passwords when enabling FileVault
protection for mobile accounts:
 If you don’t require a master password and there is no master password, local
computer administrators can’t unlock the account.
 If you require a master password and there is no master password, the user can’t
enable a mobile account.
 If you select “Require confirmation before creating mobile account,” the user can log
in with a network account. Network accounts don’t have local home folders
(preventing intruders from accessing home folder content).
If you enable FileVault, you can restrict the size of the local home folder. When you set
a network home disk quota (in the Home pane of a user account), it limits the amount
of space available for the user’s network home folder.
By restricting the size of the local home folder, you prevent the user’s local home folder
from using more space than is available in the user’s network home folder. This ensures
that the home folders can sync without requiring more space than is available in the
network home folder.
Chapter 10 Managing Preferences
205
Additionally, if you make the maximum size of the local home folder smaller than the
network home disk quota, you can provide more flexibility for handling files with sync
conflicts.
If a mobile account is protected with FileVault, the user must be logged in to share files
using File Sharing.
To enable FileVault for mobile accounts:
1 In Workgroup Manager, click Preferences.
2 Make sure the correct directory is selected and you are authenticated.
To switch directories, click the globe icon. If you are not authenticated, click the lock
and enter the name and password of a directory domain administrator.
3 Select one or more users, groups, computers, or computer groups.
4 Click Mobility, click Account Creation, and then click Creation.
5 Set the management setting to Always.
6 Select “Create mobile account when user logs in to network account.”
This option must be selected to enable a mobile account for the selected account.
7 To allow the user to choose not to create a local home folder (so that instead of a
mobile account, the user logs in with a network account), select “Require confirmation
before creating mobile account.”
If you require a master password but the user logs in to computers without master
passwords set, selecting this allows the user to log in with a network account.
8 Click Options.
9 Select “Encrypt contents with FileVault,” then select “Use master password, if available”
or “Require computer master password.”
If you select “Use master password, if available,” the mobile account uses FileVault
regardless of whether there is a master password already set.
If you select “Require computer master password” and there is no master password set,
the user might be able to log in with a network account, depending on whether you
selected “Require confirmation before creating mobile account” in the Creation pane.
10 To restrict the size of the local home folder, select “Restrict size” and select “to fixed size”
or “to percentage of network home quota”; then enter a value that is less than the size
of your network home folder’s disk quota.
If you didn’t set a disk quota, select “to fixed size.”
For more information about setting a disk quota, see “Creating a Network Home
Folder” on page 123.
11 Click Apply Now.
206
Chapter 10 Managing Preferences
Selecting the Location of a Mobile Account
You can select the location of a mobile account’s local home folder or you can let the
user select the location. If you select the location, choose from one of the following.
Home folder location
Description
on startup volume
The local home folder is located on the startup volume in /Users/.
This is the default location where the local home folders of mobile
accounts on computers with Mac OS X v10.4 and earlier are stored.
at path
The local home folder is located at the path you specify.
You can specify a different volume by entering /Volumes/
DriveName/Folder/, where DriveName is the name of the volume,
and Folder is the folder in the volume.
If you don’t specify a volume, the location is on the startup volume.
user chooses
When users with mobile accounts log in, a window appears that
allows them to choose a location for the local home folder. After
they choose a location, the window only appears when a mobile
account is being created.
You can choose which types of volumes the user is allowed to
choose from:
 “any volume” includes volumes on internal or external hard disks
 “any internal volume” includes volumes on internal hard disks
 “any external volume” includes volumes on external hard disks
If you choose a location at a specific path, make sure that the folder has the following
permissions.
Type
Name
Privilege
Owner
system
Read & Write
Group
admin
Read only
Others
Others
Read only
If you choose a location that doesn’t exist on the user’s computer, it is created when
the user logs in.
When a location is chosen on an external disk, you create an external account. For
more information, see “Creating External Accounts” on page 208.
To select the location of a mobile account:
1 In Workgroup Manager, click Preferences.
2 Make sure the correct directory is selected and you are authenticated.
To switch directories, click the globe icon. If you are not authenticated, click the lock
and enter the name and password of a directory domain administrator.
3 Select one or more users, groups, computers, or computer groups.
Chapter 10 Managing Preferences
207
4 Click Mobility, click Account Creation, click Creation, and then set the management
setting to Always.
5 Select “Create mobile account when user logs in to network account.”
This option must be selected to enable a mobile account for the selected account.
6 Click Options and then set the management setting to Always.
7 Select a “Home folder location” option.
If you select “at path,” enter the path to a folder on an external drive in the format
/Volumes/DriveName/Folder, replacing DriveName with the name of the external drive
and Folder with a folder on the external drive. If you don’t specify a volume, the
location is on the startup volume.
If you select “user chooses,” choose a type of volume from the pop-up menu to allow
the user to store his or her local home folder on that type of volume.
8 Click Apply Now.
Creating External Accounts
An external account is a mobile account where the local home folder is stored on an
external drive, allowing the user access to his or her account on any computer with
Mac OS X v10.5 or later.
The user’s local home folder is stored entirely on the external drive and leaves no
remnants on computers. External accounts also save hard disk space on the computer,
which is especially important if you don’t set an account expiration or if many users
create mobile accounts with local home folders on the same computer.
You can choose one of three ways to determine the location of the external account.
All of these ways can be used to set up external accounts:
 If you set the location to “on startup volume,” the mobile account doesn’t
immediately become an external account. After creating the local home folder, if the
user starts target disk mode on the computer and connects it to a client computer,
the mobile account then becomes an external account.
 If you set the location to “at path,” you can enter the path for the mobile account’s
local home folder. If you enter a path for an external drive, a local home folder is
created on the external drive after the user logs in.
 If you set the location to “user chooses volume,” when the user logs in, a window
appears allowing the user to choose whether to store the local home folder on the
computer or on an external drive. If the user chooses an external drive, a local home
folder is created on the external drive.
To create an external account:
1 In Workgroup Manager, click Preferences.
2 Make sure the correct directory is selected and you are authenticated.
208
Chapter 10 Managing Preferences
To switch directories, click the globe icon. If you are not authenticated, click the lock
and enter the name and password of a directory domain administrator.
3 Select one or more users, groups, computers, or computer groups.
4 Click Mobility, click Account Creation, click Creation, and then set the management
setting to Always.
5 Select “Create mobile account when user logs in to network account.”
This option must be selected to enable a mobile account for the selected account.
6 Click Options and then set the management setting to Always.
7 For the home folder location, select either “at path” or “user selects volume.”
If you select “at path,” enter the path to a folder on an external drive in the format
/Volumes/DriveName/Folders, replacing DriveName with the name of the external drive
and Folders with a folder on the external drive.
If you select “user selects volume,” choose “any external volume” or “any volume” from
the pop-up menu. After authenticating at the login window, the user is prompted to
choose a location.
If you select “any volume”, the user can choose either on the local hard disk or on the
external hard disk. If the user chooses the external hard disk, the local home folder is
stored in /Users/ShortName, where ShortName is the user’s short name.
8 Click Apply Now.
Setting Expiration Periods for Mobile Accounts
When a user enables a mobile account, Mac OS X usually creates a local home folder on
the computer he or she is using. If that user enables mobile accounts on several
computers, each of those computers has a local home folder for the user. If the user
doesn’t use those computers, the local home folders are unused and waste disk space.
When you set an expiration period on a mobile account, the mobile account and its
local home folder are deleted after a period of inactivity.
You can also set an expiration period of 0 to delete the mobile account and its local
home folder as soon as possible. Depending on the account type you’re managing, “as
soon as possible” refers to two different events:
 For users and groups, the mobile account and its local home folder are deleted after
the user logs out.
 For computers and computer groups, the mobile account and its local home folder
are deleted the next time the login window appears. This doesn’t include when the
login window appears while using fast user switching.
Expiry settings do not affect external accounts.
Chapter 10 Managing Preferences
209
To set an expiration period:
1 In Workgroup Manager, click Preferences.
2 Make sure the correct directory is selected and you are authenticated.
To switch directories, click the globe icon. If you are not authenticated, click the lock
and enter the name and password of a directory domain administrator.
3 Select one or more users, groups, computers, or computer groups.
4 Click Mobility and then click Account Expiry.
5 Set the management setting to Always.
6 Select “Delete mobile accounts” and enter a number of hours, days, or weeks.
7 To wait until after the user’s mobile account syncs to delete the local home folder,
select “Delete only after successful sync.”
8 Click Apply Now.
Choosing Folders to Sync at Login and Logout, or in the Background
You can use Workgroup Manager to choose which folders to sync at login and logout,
or in the background for users with mobile accounts. You can also choose not to sync
specific folders.
You should carefully manage login and logout syncing because a user’s login and
logout is delayed while files are syncing. Using background syncing can also cause
users to load outdated files from the network, especially when syncing is set to occur at
long intervals. Also, you can’t sync ~/Library in the background.
For considerations when choosing folders to sync and how to sync them, see
“Strategies for Syncing Content” on page 139.
To choose folders to sync at login and logout, or in the background:
1 In Workgroup Manager, click Preferences.
2 Make sure the correct directory is selected and you are authenticated.
To switch directories, click the globe icon. If you are not authenticated, click the lock
and enter the name and password of a directory domain administrator.
3 Select one or more users, groups, computers, or computer groups.
4 Click Mobility, click Rules, and then click Login & Logout Sync or Background Sync.
5 Select a management setting.
6 Select “Sync at login and logout” or “Sync in the background” (depending on which
pane you’re in).
7 To add folders, click the Add (+) button for the “Sync at login and logout” and “Sync in
the background” lists and then enter the path to the folder that you want to sync.
210
Chapter 10 Managing Preferences
Precede the folder with ~/ to denote the location of the synced folder in the user’s
home folder. For example, to sync the user’s Documents folder, enter ~/Documents.
8 Alternatively, click the Browse (...) button for the “Sync at login and logout” and “Sync in
the background” lists to browse to a folder.
Because you are browsing the computer currently running Workgroup Manager, you
might choose a folder that is not located in the user’s account. If you choose a folder
that doesn’t exist in the user’s account, no files are synced.
9 To choose not to sync specific files or folders, use the Add (+) button or Browse (...)
button to add items to the “Skip items that match any of the following” list.
To filter for specific items, click the Match field entry for any list item. This allows you to
further specify your search.
10 To add synced folders to the folders that the user selects for syncing, select “Merge with
user’s settings.”
If you sync the same folder in Workgroup Manager as the user chooses in the Accounts
pane of System Preferences, merging will cause the Workgroup Manager sync settings
to take precedence. If you do not select “Merge with user’s settings,” the folders that
you sync will replace those chosen by the user.
When used with the Once setting, merging with the user’s settings is useful for adding
folders without disrupting the folders the user has set to sync.
11 Click Apply Now.
Stopping Files from Syncing for a Mobile Account
To stop a mobile account from syncing files, you must manage its login and logout and
background sync rules. If you leave them unmanaged, the user’s current sync settings
remain in effect and the user can choose his or her own sync settings in the Accounts
pane of System Preferences.
To stop files from syncing:
1 In Workgroup Manager, click Preferences.
2 Make sure the correct directory is selected and you are authenticated.
To switch directories, click the globe icon. If you are not authenticated, click the lock
and enter the name and password of a directory domain administrator.
3 Select one or more users, groups, computers, or computer groups.
4 Click Mobility and then click Rules.
5 Click Login & Logout Sync and then set the management setting to Always.
6 Deselect “Sync at login and logout.”
7 Click Background Sync and then set the management setting to Always.
8 Deselect “Sync in the background.”
Chapter 10 Managing Preferences
211
9 Click Apply Now.
Setting the Background Sync Frequency
You can change the frequency of syncing for background folders. By default,
background folders sync every 20 minutes. You can set frequencies from 5 minutes to 8
hours.
If you set the frequency to a long interval, you run a higher risk of users loading older,
outdated files. If users save files and log off before the background files sync, when
they load the same file on another computer, they might get either an older synced file
or no file at all.
To set the frequency for syncing background folders:
1 In Workgroup Manager, click Preferences.
2 Make sure the correct directory is selected and you are authenticated.
To switch directories, click the globe icon. If you are not authenticated, click the lock
and enter the name and password of a directory domain administrator.
3 Select one or more users, groups, computers, or computer groups.
4 Click Mobility, click Rules, and then click Background Sync.
Make sure Once or Always is selected and that there are items configured to sync in the
background.
5 Click Options and then set the management setting to Always.
6 Click Every and drag the slider to set the frequency for background folder sync.
If you want background folders to sync only when users choose to sync, click Manually.
The default frequency is 20 minutes. The frequency you set also affects folders that
users configure to sync automatically.
7 Click Apply Now.
Showing Mobile Account Status in the User’s Menu Bar
If your mobile account users run Mac OS X v10.5 or later, you can add a mobile account
status menu to their menu bar. This status menu allows the user to do the following:
 View when he or she last synced
 Initiate a sync
 Change their home sync preferences
Home sync preferences correspond to Mobility preferences in Workgroup Manager. If
you manage particular Mobility preferences, users can’t change those preferences.
Home sync preferences includes the following settings:
 Setting the home folder location
 Enabling FileVault
212
Chapter 10 Managing Preferences
Â
Â
Â
Â
Enabling background, login, and logout sync
Selecting what is synced
Setting the sync frequency
Enabling the mobile account status menu
If you disable the mobile account status menu, the user can still configure his or her
mobile account in the Accounts pane of System Preferences.
To show mobile account status in the user’s menu bar:
1 In Workgroup Manager, click Preferences.
2 Make sure the correct directory is selected and you are authenticated.
To switch directories, click the globe icon. If you are not authenticated, click the lock
and enter the name and password of a directory domain administrator.
3 Select one or more users, groups, computers, or computer groups.
4 Click Mobility, click Rules, and then click Options.
5 Set the management setting to Always.
6 Select “Show status in menu bar.”
7 Click Apply Now.
Managing Network Preferences
Use Network preferences to select and configure proxy servers that can be used by
users and groups. You can bypass proxy settings for specific hosts and domains. This
has the advantage of providing a customized browsing experience for managed users
and groups.
You can also disable Internet Sharing, AirPort, or Bluetooth. Disabling these can
improve security by removing avenues for attack.
The table below describes what settings in each Network pane can do.
Network preference pane
What you can control
Proxies
Access to proxy servers, the ability to bypass proxy settings, and
use of passive FTP mode
Sharing & Interfaces
Availability of Internet Sharing from the computer, and use of
AirPort or Bluetooth
Configuring Proxy Servers by Port
You can configure specific types of proxies for a user or group to access and specify the
port. The types of proxy servers that are individually modifiable are FTP, Web (HTTP),
Secure Web (HTTPS), Streaming (RTSP), SOCKS, Gopher, and Automatic Proxy
Configuration.
Chapter 10 Managing Preferences
213
You must assign a single server for every type of proxy server (for example, you can’t
have multiple FTP proxy servers).
To configure proxy servers for a user or a group:
1 In Workgroup Manager, click Preferences.
2 Make sure the correct directory is selected and you are authenticated.
To switch directories, click the globe icon. If you are not authenticated, click the lock
and enter the name and password of a directory domain administrator.
3 Select one or more users, groups, computers, or computer groups.
4 Click Network and then click Proxies.
5 Set the management setting to Always.
6 Select the specific type of proxy you want to configure (FTP, Web, and so on).
7 Specify a URL and a port using the form proxyserver.apple.com:8080.
8 Click Apply Now.
Allowing Users to Bypass Proxy Servers for Specific Domains
When managing Network preferences for users, you can allow them to bypass proxy
settings for specific hosts or domains. Bypassing the proxy server lets users connect
directly to specified addresses.
You must set up a proxy server before you can bypass it. For instructions, see
“Configuring Proxy Servers by Port” on page 213.
To choose the domains that users can access directly:
1 In Workgroup Manager, click Preferences.
2 Make sure the correct directory is selected and you are authenticated.
To switch directories, click the globe icon. If you are not authenticated, click the lock
and enter the name and password of a directory domain administrator.
3 Select one or more users, groups, computers, or computer groups.
4 Click Network and then click Proxies.
5 Set the management setting to Always.
6 In the “Bypass proxy settings for these Hosts & Domains” field, enter the addresses of
the hosts and domains that you want users to be able to connect to directly.
To enter multiple address, separate the subnet masks with new lines, spaces,
semicolons, or commas.
There are several ways to enter addresses:
 A subdomain or fully qualified domain name (FQDN) of a target server, such as
server1.apple.com or store.apple.com.
 The specific IP address of a server, such as 192.168.2.1.
214
Chapter 10 Managing Preferences
 A domain name, such as apple.com. This bypasses apple.com but not subdomains
such as store.apple.com.
 An entire website including all subdomains, such as *.apple.com.
 A subnet in Classless Inter-Domain Routing (CIDR) notation. For example, to add a
subnet of 192.168.2.x, you would name that view 192.168.2.0/24. For a detailed
description of subnet masks and CIDR notation, see Network Services Administration.
7 Click Apply Now.
Enabling Passive FTP Mode
When managing Network preferences, you can require passive FTP mode. Passive FTP
mode causes the FTP server to open a connection to the computer on a dynamically
determined port. This can be more convenient for computers but it requires that port
filters are properly configured on the FTP server.
To enable passive FTP mode:
1 In Workgroup Manager, click Preferences.
2 Make sure the correct directory is selected and you are authenticated.
To switch directories, click the globe icon. If you are not authenticated, click the lock
and enter the name and password of a directory domain administrator.
3 Select one or more users, groups, computers, or computer groups.
4 Click Network and then click Proxies.
5 Set the management setting to Always.
6 Select Use Passive FTP Mode (PASV).
7 Click Apply Now.
Disabling Internet Sharing
Although Internet Sharing is a convenient way for computers to share Internet access,
turning it on can disrupt your network (because it can cause conflicts with DHCP and
NAT services).
To reenable Internet Sharing, you must log in to the computer locally and enable it in
the Sharing pane of System Preferences.
To disable Internet Sharing:
1 In Workgroup Manager, click Preferences.
2 Make sure the correct directory is selected and you are authenticated.
To switch directories, click the globe icon. If you are not authenticated, click the lock
and enter the name and password of a directory domain administrator.
3 Select one or more computers or computer groups.
4 Click Network and then click Sharing & Interfaces.
Chapter 10 Managing Preferences
215
5 Set the management setting to Always.
6 Select Disable Internet Sharing.
7 Click Apply Now.
Disabling AirPort
If you disable AirPort, it is disabled the next time a computer retrieves managed
preferences. If the computer had active AirPort connections, they are immediately
disconnected.
To reenable AirPort, you must log in to the computer locally and enable it in the
Network pane of System Preferences.
To disable AirPort:
1 In Workgroup Manager, click Preferences.
2 Make sure the correct directory is selected and you are authenticated.
To switch directories, click the globe icon. If you are not authenticated, click the lock
and enter the name and password of a directory domain administrator.
3 Select one or more computers or computer groups.
4 Click Network and then click Sharing & Interfaces.
5 Set the management setting to Always.
6 Select Disable AirPort.
7 Click Apply Now.
Disabling Bluetooth
Before disabling Bluetooth, make sure your computers don’t rely on Bluetooth-enabled
input devices like keyboards and mice.
To reenable Bluetooth, you must log in to the computer locally and enable it in the
Network pane of System Preferences.
To disable Bluetooth:
1 In Workgroup Manager, click Preferences.
2 Make sure the correct directory is selected and you are authenticated.
To switch directories, click the globe icon. If you are not authenticated, click the lock
and enter the name and password of a directory domain administrator.
3 Select one or more computers or computer groups.
4 Click Network and then click Sharing & Interfaces.
5 Set the management setting to Always.
6 Select Disable Bluetooth.
7 Click Apply Now.
216
Chapter 10 Managing Preferences
Managing Parental Controls Preferences
Parental Controls preferences allow you to hide profanity in Dictionary, limit access to
websites, or set time limits or other contraints on computer usage. To manage Parental
Controls preferences, computers must have Mac OS X v10.5 or later.
The table below describes what settings in each Parental Controls pane can do.
Parental Controls
preference pane
What you can control
Content Filtering
Whether profanity is allowed in Dictionary, and limitations on
which websites users can view
Time Limits
How long and when users can log in to their accounts
Hiding Profanity in Dictionary
You can hide profane terms from the Dictionary application included with Mac OS X
v10.5 or later. When you hide profane terms, entirely profane terms are removed from
search results. If you search for a profane term that has an alternate nonprofane
definition, Dictionary only displays the nonprofane definition.
To hide profanity in Dictionary:
1 In Workgroup Manager, click Preferences.
2 Make sure the correct directory is selected and you are authenticated.
To switch directories, click the globe icon. If you are not authenticated, click the lock
and enter the name and password of a directory domain administrator.
3 Select one or more users, groups, computers, or computer groups.
4 Click Parental Controls and then click Content Filtering.
5 Set the management setting to Always.
6 Select “Hide profanity in Dictionary.”
7 Click Apply Now.
Preventing Access to Adult Websites
You can use Workgroup Manager to help prevent users from visiting adult websites.
You can also block access to specific websites while allowing users to access other
websites. You can allow or deny access to specific subfolders in the same website.
Instead of preventing access to specific websites, you can allow access only to specific
websites. For more information, see “Allowing Access Only to Specific Websites” on
page 218.
To prevent access to specific websites:
1 In Workgroup Manager, click Preferences.
2 Make sure the correct directory is selected and you are authenticated.
Chapter 10 Managing Preferences
217
To switch directories, click the globe icon. If you are not authenticated, click the lock
and enter the name and password of a directory domain administrator.
3 Select one or more users, groups, computers, or computer groups.
4 Click Parental Controls and then click Content Filtering.
5 Set the management setting to Always.
6 Select “Limit access to websites by” and choose “trying to limit access to adult
websites.”
7 To allow access to specific sites, click the Add (+) button next to the “Always allow sites
at these URLs” list and then enter the URL of the site you want to allow.
8 To block access to specific sites, click the Add (+) button next to the “Never allow sites
at these URLs” list and then enter the URL of the site you want to block.
To allow or block a site, including all content stored in its subfolders, enter the highest
level URL of the site.
For example, allowing http://www.example.com/ lets the user view all pages in
www.example.com. However, blocking http://www.example.com/banned/ prevents the
user from viewing content stored in www.example.com/banned/, including all
subfolders in /banned/ (but allows the user to view pages in www.example.com that
are not in /banned/).
9 Click Apply Now.
Allowing Access Only to Specific Websites
You can use Workgroup Manager to allow access only to specific websites on
computers with Mac OS X v10.5 or later.
If the user tries to visit a website that he or she is not allowed to access, the web
browser loads a webpage that lists all sites the user is allowed to access.
To help direct users to allowed sites, the user’s bookmarks are replaced by the websites
you allow access to. The bookmarks created by allowing access to websites are called
managed bookmarks.
If the user syncs bookmarks with .Mac, the first time the user syncs he or she is asked if
.Mac should merge or replace its bookmarks with the managed bookmarks. If the user
merges bookmarks, the .Mac bookmarks will include the original .Mac bookmarks and
the managed bookmarks. If the user replaces bookmarks, the .Mac bookmarks will
include only the managed bookmarks.
You can also use Workgroup Manager to block specific websites instead of blocking all
websites. For more information, see “Preventing Access to Adult Websites” on page 217.
To allow access only to specific websites:
1 In Workgroup Manager, click Preferences.
218
Chapter 10 Managing Preferences
2 Make sure the correct directory is selected and you are authenticated.
To switch directories, click the globe icon. If you are not authenticated, click the lock
and enter the name and password of a directory domain administrator.
3 Select one or more users, groups, computers, or computer groups.
4 Click Parental Controls and then click Content Filtering.
5 Set the management setting to Always.
6 Select “Limit access to websites by” and choose “allowing access to the following
websites only.”
7 Use one of the following methods to add websites that you want to allow access to:
 In Safari, open the site and then drag the icon from the address bar (of Safari) to the
list.
 In Safari, choose Bookmarks > Show All Bookmarks, then drag icons from the
bookmark list to the list in Workgroup Manager.
 If you have a .webloc file of the website you want to allow access to, drag the file into
the list.
 If you don’t have a .webloc file of the website you want to allow access to, click the
Add (+) button and enter the URL of the website you want to allow.
In the “Web site title” field, name the website. In the Address field, enter the highest
level URL of the site.
For example, allowing http://www.example.com/ lets the user view all pages in
www.example.com. Allowing http://www.example.com/allowed/ lets the user view
content stored in www.example.com/allowed/, including all subfolders in /allowed/,
but not folders located outside of /allowed/.
8 To create folders to organize websites, click the New Folder (folder) button, then
double-click the folder to rename it.
To add URLs within a folder, open the folder’s disclosure triangle, select the folder, and
then click the Add (+) button.
To create a subfolder, open a folder’s disclosure triangle, select the folder, and then click
the New Folder (folder) button.
9 To change the name or URL of a website, double-click the website entry; then, to
rename a folder, double-click the folder entry.
10 To rearrange websites or folders, drag the websites or folders within the list.
11 Click Apply Now.
Setting Time Limits and Curfews on Computer Usage
You can use Workgroup Manager to set time limits and curfews for computer usage on
computers with Mac OS X v10.5 or later.
Chapter 10 Managing Preferences
219
If you set a time limit for computer usage, users who meet their daily time limits can’t
log in until the next day when their quota is reset. You can set different time limits for
weekdays (Monday through Friday) and weekends (Saturday and Sunday). The time
limit can range from 30 minutes to 8 hours.
If you set a curfew, users can’t log in during the days and times you specify. If a user is
logged in when their curfew starts, the user is immediately logged out. You can set
different times for weekdays (denying access Sunday nights through Thursday nights)
and weekends (Friday and Saturday nights).
To set time limits and curfews:
1 In Workgroup Manager, click Preferences.
2 Make sure the correct directory is selected and you are authenticated.
To switch directories, click the globe icon. If you are not authenticated, click the lock
and enter the name and password of a directory domain administrator.
3 Select one or more users, groups, computers, or computer groups.
4 Click Parental Controls and then click Time Limits.
5 Set the management setting to Always and then select “Enforce limits.”
6 To set time limits, click Allowances, then under Weekdays or Weekends select “Limit
computer use to” and drag the slider to amount of time you want to limit use.
7 To set curfews, click Curfews, select “Sunday through Thursday” or “Friday and
Saturday,” and then enter the range of time when you want to prevent computer
access.
You can highlight the time and replace it with a new time, or you can highlight the
time and click the up or down buttons next to the time.
8 Click Apply Now.
Managing Printing Preferences
Use Printing preferences to create printer lists and manage access to printers.
The table below describes what the printing settings do.
220
Printing preference pane
What you can control
Printers
Available printers, the user’s ability to add printers or access a
printer, and the default printer
Footer
Customization of the page footer
Chapter 10 Managing Preferences
Making Printers Available to Users
To give users access to printers, you must first set up a printer list. Then you can allow
specific users or groups to use printers in that list. You can also make printers available
to computers.
A user’s list of printers is a combination of printers available to the user, the group
selected at login, and the computer used.
To create a printer list for users:
1 In Workgroup Manager, click Preferences.
2 Make sure the correct directory is selected and you are authenticated.
To switch directories, click the globe icon. If you are not authenticated, click the lock
and enter the name and password of a directory domain administrator.
3 Select one or more users, groups, computers, or computer groups.
4 Click Printing and then click Printers.
5 Set the management setting to Always.
6 Click Printer List.
The Available Printers list is created from the list of available network printers in Print &
Fax System Preferences.
7 Select a printer in the Available Printers list and then click “Add to List” to make that
printer available in the user’s printer list.
If the printer you want doesn’t appear in the Available Printers list, click Open Printer
Setup and add the printer to the Printer & Fax printer list.
8 Click Apply Now.
Preventing Users from Modifying the Printer List
If your users run Mac OS X v10.5 or later, they must authenticate as local administrators
to change the list of printers.
If your users run Mac OS X v10.4 or earlier, you can manage preferences so users must
authenticate as local administrators to change the list of printers.
To restrict access to the printer list:
1 In Workgroup Manager, click Preferences.
2 Make sure the correct directory is selected and you are authenticated.
To switch directories, click the globe icon. If you are not authenticated, click the lock
and enter the name and password of a directory domain administrator.
3 Select one or more users, groups, computers, or computer groups.
4 Click Printing and then click Printers.
5 Set the management setting to Always.
Chapter 10 Managing Preferences
221
6 Click Printer List.
7 Deselect “Allow user to modify the printer list.”
8 Click Apply Now.
Restricting Access to Printers Connected to a Computer
In some situations, you might want only certain users to print to a printer connected
directly to their computer.
For example, if you have a computer in a classroom with a printer attached, you can
reserve that printer for teachers by making the teacher an administrator and requiring
an administrator’s user name and password to access the printer.
To restrict access to a printer connected to a specific computer:
1 In Workgroup Manager, click Preferences.
2 Make sure the correct directory is selected and you are authenticated.
To switch directories, click the globe icon. If you are not authenticated, click the lock
and enter the name and password of a directory domain administrator.
3 Select one or more users, groups, computers, or computer groups.
4 Click Printing and then click Printers.
5 Set the management setting to Always.
6 Click Printer List.
7 If it’s a network printer you want the client computer to have access to, select the
printer and then click “Add to List.”
8 If you don’t want users to access local printers, deselect “Allow printers that connect
directly to the user’s computer.”
9 To require an administrator password to use the printer, select “Require an
administrator password.”
10 Click Apply Now.
Setting a Default Printer
After you set up a printer list, you can specify a printer as the default printer. When a
user tries to print a document, this printer is the preferred selection in an application’s
print dialog.
To set the default printer:
1 In Workgroup Manager, click Preferences.
2 Make sure the correct directory is selected and you are authenticated.
To switch directories, click the globe icon. If you are not authenticated, click the lock
and enter the name and password of a directory domain administrator.
3 Select one or more users, groups, computers, or computer groups.
222
Chapter 10 Managing Preferences
4 Click Printing and then click Printers.
5 Set the management setting to Always.
6 Click Access.
7 Select a printer listed in User’s Printer List and then click Make Default.
8 Click Apply Now.
Restricting Access to Printers
You can require an administrator user name and password to print to specific printers.
To restrict access to a specific printer:
1 In Workgroup Manager, click Preferences.
2 Make sure the correct directory is selected and you are authenticated.
To switch directories, click the globe icon. If you are not authenticated, click the lock
and enter the name and password of a directory domain administrator.
3 Select one or more users, groups, computers, or computer groups.
4 Click Printing and then click Printers.
5 Set the management setting to Always.
6 Click Access, select a printer listed in User’s Printer List, and then select “Require an
administrator password.”
7 Click Apply Now.
Adding a Page Footer to All Printouts
Adding page footers to all printouts can help users identify their printouts from other
users printouts. This is especially useful in educational environments where students
might print identical or nearly identical assignments.
The footer appears at the bottom left of the page. It overlays existing printed content. If
your printouts have footers or very small margins, the managed footer might become
garbled.
The footer includes the user’s long name and the date and time when the user sent the
print job. The date and time is based on the user’s computer’s date and time, not the
server’s.
The footer can also include the Ethernet ID of the computer that sent the print job.
For example, here’s a footer for a user named Anne Johnson:
Anne Johnson Saturday March 3, 2007 5:59:01 PM PT 00:11:22:33:44:55
To add a footer to all printouts:
1 In Workgroup Manager, click Preferences.
2 Make sure the correct directory is selected and you are authenticated.
Chapter 10 Managing Preferences
223
To switch directories, click the globe icon. If you are not authenticated, click the lock
and enter the name and password of a directory domain administrator.
3 Select one or more users, groups, computers, or computer groups.
4 Click Printing and then click Footer.
5 Set the management setting to Always.
6 Select “Print page footer (user name and date).”
7 To print the Ethernet ID, select “Include MAC address.”
8 Choose a font for the footer from the Font name pop-up menu.
You can choose from Helvetica, Courier, Lucida Grande, and Times.
9 Enter a font size for the footer.
There is no font size limit for the footer. However, 7 is the default (and recommended)
size.
10 Click Apply Now.
Managing Software Update Preferences
With Mac OS X Server, you can create your own Software Update server to control
updates that are applied to specific users or groups. This is helpful because it reduces
external network traffic while also providing more control to server administrators.
By configuring the Software Update server, server administrators can choose which
updates to provide.
To manage access to Software Update servers:
1 In Workgroup Manager, click Preferences.
2 Make sure the correct directory is selected and you are authenticated.
To switch directories, click the globe icon. If you are not authenticated, click the lock
and enter the name and password of a directory domain administrator.
3 Select one or more users, groups, computers, or computer groups.
4 Click Software Update.
5 Set the management setting to Always.
6 Specify a URL in the form http://someserver.apple.com:8088/index.sucatalog.
7 Click Apply Now.
Managing Access to System Preferences
You can specify which preferences to show in System Preferences.
224
Chapter 10 Managing Preferences
If a user can see a particular preference, it does not mean the user can modify that
preference. Some preferences, such as Startup Disk preferences, require an
administrator name and password before a user can modify its settings.
The preferences that appear in Workgroup Manager are those installed on the
computer you’re currently using. If your administrator computer is missing preferences
that you want to disable on client computers, install the applications related to those
preferences or use Workgroup Manager on a computer that includes those preferences.
To manage access to System Preferences:
1 In Workgroup Manager, click Preferences.
2 Make sure the correct directory is selected and you are authenticated.
To switch directories, click the globe icon. If you are not authenticated, click the lock
and enter the name and password of a directory domain administrator.
3 Select one or more users, groups, computers, or computer groups.
4 Click System Preferences.
5 Set the management setting to Always.
6 For each item you don’t want displayed in a user’s System Preferences, deselect its
Show checkbox.
To select all Show checkboxes, click Show All. To deselect all Show checkboxes, click
Show None.
7 Click Apply Now.
Managing Time Machine Preferences
Time Machine preferences let you control Time Machine, which provides a backup of
computer data to network servers. Time Machine backs up all computer data, such as
installed applications and their preferences, all local account data, and system files
(optionally). To use Time Machine, your computers must run Mac OS X v10.5 or later.
To manage Time Machine, you’ll need to run file services, such as AFP service. When
managed users log in to Mac OS X, their login name and password are used to
authenticate them with the file server.
You can back up a computer’s startup volume or all local volumes. If your users have
network accounts, their data isn’t backed up through Time Machine (because their data
is stored on a network server, not locally).
You can enable Time Machine to perform automatic hourly backups. If you don’t use
automatic backup, the user can manually back up using Time Machine.
Chapter 10 Managing Preferences
225
Time Machine is most appropriate for backing up computers with primarily local
accounts. It is also useful if users have administrative control over the computer and
can install their own applications.
You can limit the total backup storage per computer. When you limit total backup
storage for a computer group, the limit applies to each computer in it. If you limit a
computer group to 2 GB, and the computer group has five members, the computer
group can use up to 10 GB of backup storage. Backup storage is not preallocated, so
the server can run out of space before the computers reach their backup storage limit.
If a user runs out of backup storage, Time Machine stops backing up data. To make sure
Time Machine doesn’t run out of space, make the limit larger than the expected size of
the data being backed up, and don’t back up system files.
You can save space on the file server by not backing up system files. System files
include files that are created when Mac OS X is installed. If you don’t back up system
files and system files are corrupted, you must use the Mac OS X Server installation discs
to reinstall Mac OS X Server. By not backing up system files, you speed up the initial
backup but you don’t speed up subsequent backups.
To manage Time Machine preferences:
1 In Workgroup Manager, click Preferences.
2 Make sure the correct directory is selected and you are authenticated.
To switch directories, click the globe icon. If you are not authenticated, click the lock
and enter the name and password of a directory domain administrator.
3 Select one or more computers or computer groups.
4 Click Time Machine.
5 Set the management setting to Always.
6 In the “Backup server” field, enter the URL of the file server or share point that will store
Time Machine backups.
Use the form afp://www.example.com/Backups/.
Replace www.example.com/Backups/ with the URL of the file server or share point. The
location you enter must already exist.
7 To select which volumes to back up, select “Startup volume only” or “All local volumes.”
8 To back up system files, deselect “Skip system files.”
9 To use automatic backup, select “Back up automatically.”
10 To limit backup storage, select “Limit total backup storage to: # MB” and replace # with
the number of MB to limit backup storage.
11 Click Apply Now.
226
Chapter 10 Managing Preferences
Managing Universal Access Preferences
Universal Access settings can help improve the user experience for some users. For
example, if a user has difficulty using a computer or wants to work in a different way,
you can choose settings that enable the user to work more effectively.
Using Workgroup Manager, you can set up and manage Universal Access settings for
specific workgroups or computers dedicated to users with special needs.
The table below describes what the settings in each Universal Access pane can do.
Universal Access
preference pane
What you can control
Seeing
Visual display and desktop zooming
Hearing
Visual alert for users
Keyboard
How the keyboard responds to keystrokes and key combinations
Mouse
How the pointer responds, and whether users can use the numeric
keypad instead of a mouse
Options
Shortcut key combinations, the use of assistive devices, and
whether the computer reads text in the Universal Access
preference pane
Adjusting the User’s Display Settings
The Seeing settings in Universal Access preferences alter the appearance of the screen.
The user can easily zoom in or out on the desktop using keyboard shortcuts (specific
key combinations). Changing to grayscale or white-on-black display can sometimes
make it easier to read text on the screen.
Note: If display settings are managed Once, users can switch between the zoom or
color options using keyboard shortcuts. If the management setting is Always, users
can’t switch between options.
To further customize the user’s display, you can use Finder Views preferences to control
the size of icons in Finder windows, and use Dock Display preferences to enlarge or
magnify icons in the user’s Dock. For more information, see “Managing Finder
Preferences” on page 182, and “Managing Dock Preferences” on page 174.
If you plan to manage dedicated computers, you may be able to use local Display
System Preferences to change the resolution and number of colors computers use.
After setting the resolution and number of colors, you can prevent changes to the
Display System Preferences by removing Display from the list of available System
Preferences.
For more information, see “Managing Access to System Preferences” on page 224.
For more information about enabling assistive devices like screen readers, see
“Allowing Devices for Users with Special Needs” on page 231.
Chapter 10 Managing Preferences
227
To adjust screen appearance:
1 In Workgroup Manager, click Preferences.
2 Make sure the correct directory is selected and you are authenticated.
To switch directories, click the globe icon. If you are not authenticated, click the lock
and enter the name and password of a directory domain administrator.
3 Select one or more users, groups, computers, or computer groups.
4 Click Universal Access.
5 Click Seeing and then select a management setting.
6 To enable zooming, select “Turn on Zoom;” to fine-tune zoom settings, click Zoom
Options.
Use the sliders to set a maximum and minimum zoom.
To show a preview area, select “Show preview rectangle when zoomed out.”
To improve the appearance of zoomed graphics, deselect “Smooth images.”
7 To change the color scheme to white on black or grayscale, select “Switch to” and then
select “White on Black” or Grayscale.
8 Click Apply Now.
Setting a Visual Alert
If users can’t hear computer alert sounds (for example, the sound played when new
mail arrives or an error occurs), you can flash the screen as an alternative.
To set a flashing alert:
1 In Workgroup Manager, click Preferences.
2 Make sure the correct directory is selected and you are authenticated.
To switch directories, click the globe icon. If you are not authenticated, click the lock
and enter the name and password of a directory domain administrator.
3 Select one or more users, groups, computers, or computer groups.
4 Click Universal Access.
5 Click Hearing and then select a management setting.
6 Select “Flash the screen whenever an alert sound occurs.”
7 Click Apply Now.
Adjusting Keyboard Accessibility Options
If some users have difficulty pressing keys, you can use Sticky Keys or Slow Keys to help
them use the keyboard.
228
Chapter 10 Managing Preferences
Sticky Keys help users who can’t press multiple keys simultaneously. It treats a
sequence of modifier keys (Shift, Command, Option, and Control) like a key
combination. For example, to press Command-O, users can press Command and
then O.
To hold down a key with multiple keystrokes, users can press the key twice. For
example, pressing Shift twice is like using Caps Lock, except that it also presses Shift
when entering commands. So if you’ve previously pressed Shift twice, then you press
Command and then O, it’s the same as pressing Shift-Command-O (using Caps Lock
instead of pressing Shift twice is like pressing Command-O). Pressing Shift a third time
removes the Shift key from the current key combination.
If you set up Sticky Keys, you can make them more useful by enabling these options:
Option
Effect
Beep when a modifier key is set
Setting and holding a modifier key makes distinct typewriter
sounds. Removing a key from the current key combination doesn’t
create a sound.
Display pressed keys onscreen
When a modifier key is pressed, a silhouette of the modifier key is
shown onscreen. If the modifier key is only active for a single press,
its silhouette is dim. If the modifier key is in held-down mode, its
silhouette is bright.
Slow Keys help users who press keys for too long or accidentally press keys. If you
enable Slow Keys, you can set a delay when a key is accepted. If the user presses a key
for less time than the acceptance delay, the keystroke isn’t accepted.
To help users recognize when their keystrokes are accepted, enable the “Use click
sounds” option to play a sound when the user initially presses a key and a different
sound when the key is accepted.
Note: If you enable Universal Access Shortcuts, a user can press the Shift key five times
to turn Sticky Keys on or off. For more information, see “Enabling Universal Access
Shortcuts” on page 230.
To set the way the keyboard responds to keystrokes:
1 In Workgroup Manager, click Preferences.
2 Make sure the correct directory is selected and you are authenticated.
To switch directories, click the globe icon. If you are not authenticated, click the lock
and enter the name and password of a directory domain administrator.
3 Select one or more users, groups, computers, or computer groups.
4 Click Universal Access.
5 Click Keyboard and then select a management setting.
6 To activate Sticky Keys, select Sticky Keys On.
Chapter 10 Managing Preferences
229
To turn off the key-combination alert, deselect “Beep when a modifier key is set.”
To turn off onscreen display of keystrokes, deselect “Show pressed keys on screen.”
7 To activate Slow Keys, select Slow Keys On.
If you don’t want audio feedback during keystrokes, deselect “Use click key sounds.”
Move the slider to adjust the amount of delay between when a key is pressed and
when the computer accepts it.
8 Click Apply Now.
Adjusting Mouse and Pointer Responsiveness
If some users can’t use a mouse (or prefer not to), the Mouse Keys feature allows them
to use the numeric keypad instead. Keys on the numeric keypad correspond to
directions and mouse actions so the user can move the pointer and hold, release, or
click.
Note: If you enable Universal Access Shortcuts, a user can press the Option key five
times to turn Mouse Keys on or off.
If the pointer moves too quickly for some users, you can adjust how soon the pointer
begins to move and how fast it moves.
To control mouse and pointer settings:
1 In Workgroup Manager, click Preferences.
2 Make sure the correct directory is selected and you are authenticated.
To switch directories, click the globe icon. If you are not authenticated, click the lock
and enter the name and password of a directory domain administrator.
3 Select one or more users, groups, computers, or computer groups.
4 Click Universal Access.
5 Click Mouse and then select a management setting.
6 To activate Mouse Keys, select Mouse Keys On.
7 To control how long it takes for the pointer to begin moving, adjust the Initial Delay
slider.
8 To control how fast the pointer moves, adjust the Maximum Speed slider.
9 Click Apply Now.
Enabling Universal Access Shortcuts
Universal Access Shortcuts are key combinations that activate an available access
feature, such as onscreen zooming or enabling Sticky Keys.
If you choose not to allow Universal Access shortcuts, users might not be able to use
features such as Zoom or turn off activated features such as Sticky Keys.
230
Chapter 10 Managing Preferences
To allow Universal Access Shortcuts:
1 In Workgroup Manager, click Preferences.
2 Make sure the correct directory is selected and you are authenticated.
To switch directories, click the globe icon. If you are not authenticated, click the lock
and enter the name and password of a directory domain administrator.
3 Select one or more users, groups, computers, or computer groups.
4 Click Universal Access.
5 Click Options and then set the management setting to Once or Always.
6 Select Allow Universal Access Shortcuts.
7 Click Apply Now.
Allowing Devices for Users with Special Needs
You can allow managed users to turn on assistive devices, such as a text reader.
To allow assistive devices:
1 In Workgroup Manager, click Preferences.
2 Make sure the correct directory is selected and you are authenticated.
To switch directories, click the globe icon. If you are not authenticated, click the lock
and enter the name and password of a directory domain administrator.
3 Select one or more computers or computer groups.
4 Click Universal Access.
5 Click Options and set the management setting to Always.
6 Select “Enable access for assistive devices.”
7 Click Apply Now.
Using the Preference Editor with Preference Manifests
Workgroup Manager includes a preference editor, which you can use to control any
Mac OS X application or utility developed using Apple standard conventions for
handling preferences.
You can also use it to manage preferences that are not configurable in the Workgroup
Manager main preferences interface.
As with the main preferences interface, you can use the preference editor to manage
preferences for users, groups, computers, and computer groups.
Chapter 10 Managing Preferences
231
For example, in Safari you can disable JavaScript by setting the JavaScript Enabled key
to “false.” If you save this key in the Often group, the user can enable JavaScript during
their current login session but JavaScript is disabled when the user logs out and logs in
again.
Some application developers provide preference manifests. A preference manifest
simplifies modification of preferences by providing names and descriptions of keys that
are honored by an application, and tells you how to set them.
Preference manifests are similar to templates. They’re not required, so you can edit the
preference key value of an application even if it doesn’t provide a preference manifest.
For applications without preference manifests, you can import a preference file from
~/Library/Preferences, or you can import the application (its preference file is found
automatically).
Preference manifests can be stored in an application package (a file ending with
.manifest, such as com.apple.Safari.manifest, in the package’s /Contents/Resources/
folder), or they can be standalone files. If manifests exist for an application, the
preference editor loads them when you add the application to the preference editor’s
list.
When you import preferences for an application, keys and values are added based on
the application’s currently set preferences. This lets you apply your own configuration
of applications to users’ applications. You can add, remove, or edit keys, but some keys
might not be well described if the application doesn’t have a preference manifest, or if
the key you’re editing isn’t in the preference manifest.
Adding to the Preference Editor’s List
Before you can manage an application in the preference editor, you must add the
application or the application’s preference file to the preference editor’s list. The
application’s preference file is in ~/Library/Preferences/.
You can manage any application that uses Mac OS X preferences. To do this you must
set preferences for a local copy of that application stored on the administration
computer; then you can add the .plist file for the application stored in
~/Library/Preferences/ to the preference editor’s list.
You can also import application preferences when you add the application to the
preference editor’s list.
232
Chapter 10 Managing Preferences
When you use your own application preferences, you can choose the management
frequency applied to those preferences:
Frequency
Description
Once
Similar to the Once setting in the main interface. Sets a preference
but allows the user to change that preference and retain his or her
changes.
Often
Only available in the preference editor. Allows users to modify their
preferences but the preferences revert to your managed setting
every time the user begins a new session.
Always
Similar to the Always setting in the main interface. Sets a
preference and usually does not allow the user to modify the
preference.
Some applications use ByHost preferences. These preferences apply to a specific user
for a specific computer. For example, if a network user sets screen saver preferences,
they are saved as ByHost preferences. The user’s screen saver preferences are saved for
the current computer but are not applied when the user uses other computers.
If your users typically run Mac OS X v10.5 or later, it’s usually a good idea to import
preferences as ByHost preferences. If your users typically run earlier versions of
Mac OS X, don’t import preferences as ByHost preferences.
Some applications use but don’t properly respect ByHost preferences. Test your settings
with “Import as ByHost preferences” selected and deselected to see if the application
you’re managing respects ByHost preferences.
To add to the preference editor’s list:
1 In Workgroup Manager, click Preferences and then click Details.
2 Make sure the correct directory is selected and you are authenticated.
To switch directories, click the globe icon. If you are not authenticated, click the lock
and enter the name and password of a directory domain administrator.
3 Select one or more users, groups, computers, or computer groups.
4 Click the Add (+) button.
5 Select an application in /Applications, or a .plist file located in ~/Library/Preferences/.
Applications without preference manifests appear in italics.
6 If you’ve selected an application and set preferences for it, you can select “Import my
preferences for this application.”
7 Choose a management setting from the “Manage imported preferences” pop-up menu.
If you’ve selected a preference file located in ~/Library/Preferences/ByHost and you’ve
chosen Once or Often from the “Manage imported preferences” pop-up menu, you can
select “Import as ByHost preferences.”
Chapter 10 Managing Preferences
233
8 Click Add.
9 If you’re asked to replace the manifest, click Replace to replace the manifest.
Replacing the manifest changes the underlying manifest file for the application but it
doesn’t change existing managed preferences.
10 If you’re asked to replace the managed preferences, click Replace to remove existing
managed preferences and replace them with preferences from the application you’re
adding.
Editing Application Preferences with the Preference Editor
You can use the Workgroup Manager preference editor to edit and manage
application-specific preferences.
An application that follows Apple standard conventions for handling preferences will
respect the settings in a preference manifest. For applications without preference
manifests, test your settings to make sure they produce the desired results.
Before using the preference editor to manage application preferences, add the
application or its preference file to the preference editor’s list. For instructions, see
“Adding to the Preference Editor’s List” on page 232.
The preference editor divides keys by management frequency, as described below.
Frequency
Description
Once
Similar to the Once setting in the main interface. Sets a preference
but allows the user to change that preference and retain his or her
changes.
Often
Only available in the preference editor. Allows users to modify their
preferences but the preferences revert to your managed setting
when a user begins a new session.
Always
Similar to the Always setting in the main interface. Sets a
preference and usually does not allow the user to modify the
preference.
Note: Always might still allow users to modify preferences. For this reason, Often is
usually a better choice for making persistent preference changes.
Important: When you add or modify keys, always test the additions or changes to
make sure they work as expected.
To edit application preferences:
1 In Workgroup Manager, click Preferences and then click Details.
2 Make sure the correct directory is selected and you are authenticated.
To switch directories, click the globe icon. If you are not authenticated, click the lock
and enter the name and password of a directory domain administrator.
234
Chapter 10 Managing Preferences
3 Select one or more users, groups, computers, or computer groups.
4 Select an item in the list and click the Edit (pencil) button.
5 To locate the keys you want to change, click the disclosure triangles.
6 To add a key to the application’s preferences file, click the disclosure triangle for the
frequency, select the frequency, click New Key, click the New Item entry that is created,
and choose a key from the pop-up menu, or choose Edit and enter a new key.
If you don’t click the disclosure triangle and select the frequency, the New Key button is
deactivated.
7 To change the key’s current settings, click the key’s type or value.
If you change the type to a setting that is not by default enabled by the preference
manifest, the preference file editing screen indicates the mismatch with an arrow icon.
This does not prevent you from changing the key type or value.
8 Click Apply Now and then click Done.
Removing an Application’s Managed Preferences in the Preference
Editor
You can remove all managed preferences for any entry in the preference editor’s list.
If you added an application without a preference manifest, the application is also
removed from the preference editor’s list when you remove all of its managed
preferences.
This action does not delete an application’s preference manifest or the application’s
preferences file. To remove all preference manifests from Workgroup Manager, close
Workgroup Manager and delete ~/Library/Preferences/com.apple.mcx.manifests.
To disable management of an application’s preferences:
1 In Workgroup Manager, click Preferences and then click Details.
2 Make sure the correct directory is selected and you are authenticated.
To switch directories, click the globe icon. If you are not authenticated, click the lock
and enter the name and password of a directory domain administrator.
3 Select one or more users, groups, computers, or computer groups.
4 Select an entry with managed preferences.
Entries with managed preferences are noted by a cursor icon in the left column.
This can only be done one entry at a time.
5 Click the Remove (–) button and then click Remove in the confirmation dialog.
Chapter 10 Managing Preferences
235
Using the Preference Editor to Manage Core Services
You can add several important manifests by adding a single core services bundle. These
manifests allow management of many features that are unavailable through the main
preference editing interface.
For example, you can disable Bluetooth, lock iTunes parental controls, and set the
license number and registration key for all iWork ‘08 installations.
Core service manifests include:
Manifest
Examples of things you can change
Bluetooth
Enable or disable Bluetooth
Dashboard
Enable or disable Dashboard
Desktop Picture
Set the Desktop background image
Dock
Customize how the Dock looks
Home Sync
Fine-tune mobility settings, such as how to resolve conflicts
iCal
Change iCal settings such as Kerberos usage, SSL usage, and
refresh intervals
iChat
Change iChat settings such as account name and info, and SSL and
Kerberos usage
Internet Configuration
Change Internet settings such as the mail server, mail information,
default web browser, and default mail application
iTunes 7
Set iTunes 7 parental controls and enable or disable podcasts and
music sharing
iWork Registration
Set iWork ‘08 registration information
Kerberos Login
Set Kerberos name and realm
Managed Menu Extras
Add nonstandard menus to the menu bar
Mobile Account & Other Options Change mobile account settings like FileVault use, enable sync
encryption, set mobile account lifetime, and customize the mobile
account creation dialog
Quicktime Pro Key
Set QuickTime registration information
Screen Saver
Enable or disable screen saver passwords
VPN Settings
Change VPN settings such as VPN server information, login name,
and authentication type
By default, these manifests don’t show keys. You must click the disclosure triangle next
to the frequency, select the frequency, and then click New Key. When you click the
name of the new key, you’ll see all available keys for that frequency.
Some keys will only work with certain management frequencies. For example, you can
only enable “Disable Bluetooth” by adding a new key with the frequency Always.
236
Chapter 10 Managing Preferences
To add the core services bundle to the preference editor list:
1 In Workgroup Manager, click Preferences and then click Details.
2 Make sure the correct directory is selected and you are authenticated.
To switch directories, click the globe icon. If you are not authenticated, click the lock
and enter the name and password of a directory domain administrator.
3 Select one or more users, groups, computers, or computer groups.
4 Click the Add (+) button.
5 Select /System/Library/CoreServices/ManagedClient.app and click Add.
Using the Preference Editor to Manage Safari
Safari is a good example of an application that can be managed by editing its
preference manifest.
The Safari version included with Mac OS X v10.5 or later is more configurable than
previous versions of Safari. It includes more than 30 configurable preferences,
including:
 Home Page
 Default Font
 Command-Click Makes Tabs
 AutoFill Passwords
 AutoFill Credit Cards
 Java Enabled
 JavaScript Enabled
 Ask Before Submitting Insecure Forms
When you add Safari to the preference editor list, two entries are added. The
com.apple.Safari preference manifest includes most configurable preferences, while
com.apple.WebFoundation includes a configurable preference for the cookie
acceptance policy.
By default, these manifests don’t show any keys. You must click the disclosure triangle
next to the frequency, then select the frequency and click New Key. When you click the
name of the new key, you’ll see all available keys for that frequency.
To add Safari to the preference editor list:
1 In Workgroup Manager, click Preferences and then click Details.
2 Make sure the correct directory is selected and you are authenticated.
To switch directories, click the globe icon. If you are not authenticated, click the lock
and enter the name and password of a directory domain administrator.
3 Select one or more users, groups, computers, or computer groups.
Chapter 10 Managing Preferences
237
4 Click the Add (+) button, select /Applications/Safari, and then click Add.
The preference manifests included with older versions of Safari don’t have as many
configurable preferences as the Safari version included with Mac OS X v10.5 or later.
You can replace old Safari preference manifests by adding the new Safari application,
and then clicking Replace in the dialog that appears.
5 To edit Safari preferences, select Safari (with the Preference ID com.apple.Safari), click
the Edit (pencil) button, and then add keys you’d like to manage.
For more information, see “Editing Application Preferences with the Preference Editor”
on page 234.
238
Chapter 10 Managing Preferences
11
Solving Problems
11
If you encounter problems as you work with Workgroup
Manager, you may find a solution in this chapter.
If the answer to your question isn’t here, try searching Workgroup Manager Help for
new topics. You can also search the Apple Service & Support website for information
and solutions at www.apple.com/support/.
Diagnosing Common Network Issues
Before you try the solutions in this chapter, make sure your network is properly
configured.
In particular, test your Network Time Protocol (NTP), Domain Name System (DNS), and
Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) services.
For more information about NTP, DNS, or DHCP, see Network Services Administration.
Testing Your Network’s Time and Time Zones
The many technologies and services in Mac OS X Server rely on having accurate time
settings on all networked computers.
Typically, computers are connected to an NTP server that provides accurate time
settings. You should still check your networked computers’ time settings using Apple
Remote Desktop (not included with Mac OS X Server). For more information about
Apple Remote Desktop, see www.apple.com/remotedesktop.
You can send the commands in the following procedure using the ssh command. You
can also test and correct a computer’s time settings in System Preferences. Both
methods allow you to test and correct one computer at a time, but with Apple Remote
Desktop you can test and correct many computers simultaneously.
To test your network computer time and time zones using Apple Remote Desktop:
1 In Apple Remote Desktop, send the following UNIX command to all computers:
sudo systemsetup -gettimezone
239
Your computers should be on the same time zone. If they are not on the same time
zone, send the following UNIX command:
sudo systemsetup -settimezone ‘US/Pacific’
For other time zones, see the man page for systemsetup. For instructions on sending
UNIX commands through Apple Remote Desktop, see the Apple Remote Desktop
Administrator’s Guide.
2 In Apple Remote Desktop, send the following UNIX command to all computers:
sudo systemsetup -gettime
Your computers should have times within a few minutes of each other. If they have a
wide range of times, send the following UNIX command:
sudo systemsetup -settime current_time
Replace current_time with the current time in 24-hour format, using HH:MM:SS (hour,
minute, second) notation.
Testing Your DNS Service
Your DNS service should allow you to discover a server’s domain name when given an
IP address, or to retrieve an IP address when given a domain name. If your computers
can’t do these tasks, perform further analysis on your DNS service. For a detailed
description of DNS and for instructions on configuring DNS, see Network Services
Administration.
If you have Apple Remote Desktop installed, you can quickly test your entire network.
In Apple Remote Desktop, create a scanner that displays computers with IP addresses
in the range distributed by your DHCP server. If a computer is turned on, is not in sleep
mode, and is connected to your network, the computer should be in the scanner.
The scanner displays the IP address given to the computer and the computer’s host
name. Computers that are not assigned host names by the DNS service are listed
without host names. If a computer is listed and has an appropriate IP address and host
name, the computer is receiving DHCP and DNS service.
For more information about how to use scanners in Apple Remote Desktop, see the
Apple Remote Desktop Administrator’s Guide.
If you do not have Apple Remote Desktop installed, you can perform the following task
to test a single computer’s ability to receive DNS service.
To test your network’s DNS service on a single computer:
1 On a network computer that is not the server providing DNS service, open Network
Utility.
2 In the Lookup pane of Network Utility, enter the domain name of your Open Directory
master server and click Lookup.
240
Chapter 11 Solving Problems
The resulting log should have an answer section, which displays the IP address of your
Open Directory master server. If there is no answer section, or if the IP address is
incorrect, perform further analysis on your DNS service.
3 In the Lookup pane of Network Utility, enter the IP address of your Open Directory
master server and click Lookup.
The resulting log should displays the domain name of your Open Directory master
server. If the domain name is incorrect, perform further analysis on your DNS service.
Note: Instead of using Network Utility, you can use the dig tool in Terminal. Enter the
following command in Terminal:
dig name_or_address
Replace name_or_address with the domain name or the IP address of your Open
Directory master server. The resulting log should have an answer section with the
correct IP address or domain name.
Testing Your DHCP Service
Your DHCP service should be configured to supply enough IP addresses to serve your
network. If a computer does not have a valid IP address, it can’t be contacted through
your network. For a detailed description of DHCP and for instructions on configuring
DHCP, see Network Services Administration.
If you have Apple Remote Desktop installed, you can quickly test your entire network.
In Apple Remote Desktop, create a scanner that displays computers with IP addresses
in the range distributed by your DHCP server. If a computer is turned on, is not in sleep
mode, and is connected to your network, the computer should be in the scanner.
The scanner displays the IP address given to the computer, and the computer’s host
name. Computers that are not assigned host names by the DNS service are listed
without host names. If a computer is listed and has an appropriate IP address and host
name, the computer is receiving DHCP and DNS service.
For more information about how to use scanners in Apple Remote Desktop, see the
Apple Remote Desktop Administrator’s Guide.
If you do not have Apple Remote Desktop installed, you can perform the following task
to test a single computer’s ability to receive DHCP service.
To test your network’s DHCP service on a single computer:
1 In Server Admin, click the disclosure triangle to the left of the server providing DHCP
service.
This displays all of the server’s services.
2 Select DHCP and click Subnets.
The Subnets pane lists the addresses your DHCP server supplies.
Chapter 11 Solving Problems
241
3 On a client computer, open Network Utility, click Info, and then select the network
interface that connects to your network.
If the displayed IP address is not in your range of supplied addresses, the computer is
not receiving an IP address through your DHCP service.
If the IP address is 169.254.x.x, it is a self-assigned IP address. This means your computer
is not receiving DHCP service.
If the IP address is not an assigned address and is not 169.254.x.x, the computer is
receiving DHCP service from a DHCP server other than yours.
Solving Account Problems
Follow the suggestions in this section when problems arise with user and group
account administration.
If You Want to Use Earlier Versions of Workgroup Manager
If you have administrative applications and tools from Mac OS X Server v10.4 or earlier,
do not use them with Mac OS X Server v10.5 or later.
You can use Mac OS X Server v10.5 applications to administer Mac OS X Server v10.4.
If You Can’t Edit an Account Using Workgroup Manager
Editable domains include the local directory domain, Open Directory domains, and
other read/write directory domains.
Before you can edit an account using Workgroup Manager, you must first authenticate
as a domain administrator. To authenticate, click the lock near the top of the
Workgroup Manager window.
If Users Can’t See Their Names in the Login Window
When you upgrade Mac OS X and migrate users to a shared directory on the new
server, some users might not appear in the login window. The login window does not
list system users, but they can still log in by entering their user names and passwords.
The login window lists particular types of users depending on how Login preferences
are managed. For more information, see “Changing the Appearance of the Login
Window” on page 189.
If You Can’t Unlock an LDAP Directory
To make changes in a directory domain, you must authenticate with the name and
password of a directory administrator. Therefore, to edit an entry in a shared LDAPv3
directory domain, you must authenticate in Workgroup Manager with the name and
password of an administrator account in that LDAPv3 directory domain.
242
Chapter 11 Solving Problems
An administrator account in the computer’s local directory domain can’t be used to
authenticate as an administrator of a shared LDAP directory.
If You Can’t Modify a User’s Open Directory Password
To modify the password of a user whose password type is Open Directory, you must be
an administrator of the directory domain where the user’s record resides. In addition,
your user account must have a password type of Open Directory.
Setting up an Open Directory master (using Server Assistant or the Open Directory
service settings in Server Admin) creates a directory administrator account with an
Open Directory password. This account can be used to set up other user accounts as
directory domain administrators with Open Directory passwords.
If You Can‘t Change a User’s Password Type to Open Directory
To change a user’s password type to Open Directory authentication, you must be an
administrator of the directory domain where the user’s record resides. In addition, your
user account must be configured for Open Directory authentication.
When the Open Directory master was set up (using the Open Directory service settings
in Server Admin) the initial user account is a domain administrator account with an
Open Directory password. This account can be used to set up other user accounts as
domain administrators with Open Directory passwords.
If You Can’t Assign Server Administrator Privileges
To assign server administrator privileges to a user on a particular server, connect to the
server in Workgroup Manager and authenticate in the directory domain. Select the
user’s account (or create an account for the user), and then select “User can administer
this server” in the Basic pane.
If Users Can’t Log In or Authenticate
If a user can’t log in or authenticate to his or her account, a number of approaches
might be required to determine whether the source of the authentication problem is
configuration-related or due to the password. Try these techniques:
 Reset the password to a known value and then determine whether there is still a
problem. Try using a 7-bit ASCII password, which is supported by most clients.
 Make sure the password contains characters supported by the authentication
protocol. Leading, embedded, and trailing spaces, as well as special characters (such
as pressing Option-8 to form a bullet), are not supported by some protocols. For
example, leading spaces work with POP and AFP, but not IMAP.
 Make sure the user’s keyboard can generate all characters in the user’s password.
 Crypt passwords don’t support many authentication methods. To increase the
probability that a user’s client applications are supported, set the user’s password
type to Open Directory or suggest that the user try a different application.
Chapter 11 Solving Problems
243
 If the user’s account resides in a directory domain that is not available, create a user
account in a directory domain that is available.
 Make sure the client software encodes the password so it is recognized correctly. For
example, Open Directory recognizes UTF-8 encoded strings, which may not be sent
by some clients.
 Make sure the user’s current application and operating system support the user’s
password length. For example, Windows applications that use the LAN Manager
authentication method support only 14-character passwords, so a password longer
than 14 characters causes an authentication failure even though Windows service
supports longer passwords.
 If you disabled authentication methods for Open Directory or shadow passwords
(such as APOP or LAN Manager) the user’s applications can’t authenticate using the
disabled methods.
After enabling or disabling Open Directory Password Server or shadow password
authentication methods, you might need to reset the user’s password.
For information about enabling and disabling authentication methods, see Open
Directory Administration.
 For Kerberos troubleshooting tips, see “If Users Can’t Authenticate Using Single SignOn or Kerberos” on page 245.
 If a Mac OS v8.1–8.6 computer fails to authenticate for Apple file service, the
computer’s AppleShare Client software may need upgrading:
 Mac OS v8.6 computers should use AppleShare Client v3.8.8.
 Mac OS v8.1–8.5 computers should use AppleShare Client v3.8.6.
 Mac OS v8.1–8.6 computers that have file server volumes mount during startup
should use AppleShare Client v3.8.3 with DHX UAM (User Authentication Module)
installed. DHX UAM is included with the AppleShare Client v3.8.3 installation
software.
If Users Relying on a Password Server Can’t Log In
If your network has a server with Mac OS X Server v10.2, it could receive authentication
from an Open Directory Password Server hosted by another server. If the Password
Server’s computer disconnects from your network—for example, because you unplug
the cable from the computer’s Ethernet port—users whose passwords are validated
using the Password Server can’t log in because their server’s IP address isn’t accessible.
Users can log in to Mac OS X Server if you reconnect the Password Server’s computer to
the network. Alternately, while the Password Server’s computer is offline, users can log
in with user accounts whose password type is crypt or shadow password.
244
Chapter 11 Solving Problems
If Users Can’t Log In with Accounts in a Shared Directory Domain
Users can’t log in using accounts in a shared directory domain if the server hosting the
directory isn’t accessible. A server can become inaccessible due to a problem with the
network, the server software, or the server hardware.
Problems with the server hardware or software affect users trying to log in to Mac OS X
computers and users trying to log in to the Windows domain of a Mac OS X Server
primary domain controller (PDC). Network problems can affect some users but not
others, depending on where the network problem is.
Users with mobile user accounts can still log in to the Mac OS X computers they used
previously. Users affected by these problems can log in using a local user account
defined on the computer, such as the user account created during setup after installing
Mac OS X.
If Users Can’t Access Their Home Folders
Make sure users can access the share point where their home folders are located, and
make sure they can access their home folders. Users need Read access to the share
point and Read & Write access to home folders.
If Users Can’t Change Their Passwords
Users who have accounts in the server’s LDAP directory with a crypt password can’t
change passwords after logging in.
These users can change passwords if you use the Advanced pane to change their
accounts’ User Password Type setting to Open Directory. When you make this change,
you must also enter a new password. Then you should instruct users to log in using this
new password and change it in the Accounts pane of System Preferences.
If Users Can’t Authenticate Using Single Sign-On or Kerberos
There are several ways to remedy Kerberos authentication failures. You can find these
solutions, as well as a full description of how to reconfigure a server’s computer record
for single sign-on and Kerberos authentication, in Open Directory Administration.
Problems with a Primary or Backup Domain Controller
Problems with a primary domain controller (PDC) or backup domain controller (BDC)
can have several causes.
If a Windows User Can’t Log in to the Windows Domain
Verify the following:
 Make sure the user account has a password type of Open Directory.
 Make sure the workstation has joined the Windows domain of Mac OS X Server.
Chapter 11 Solving Problems
245
If a Windows User Has No Home Folder
If a user’s home folder isn’t mounted in Windows, verify the following:
 Make sure the correct home folder location is selected in the Home pane of
Workgroup Manager.
 Make sure the home folder path is correct in the Windows pane of Workgroup
Manager. It should be blank to use the home folder specified in the Home pane.
 Using Server Admin, connect to the server where the user’s home folder resides. In
the Servers list, select SMB, click Advanced, and then make sure “Enable virtual share
points” is selected.
 If the drive letter chosen for the user might be conflicting with a drive letter that’s in
use on the Windows workstation, change the drive letter setting in the Windows
pane of Workgroup Manager or the mappings of other drive letters on the
workstation.
If a Windows User’s Profile Settings Revert to Defaults
There are several reasons why a user’s profile settings may revert to default:
 If the user profile location is not blank in the Windows pane of Workgroup Manager,
the default share point for user profiles is not used. In this case, the user profile
location must specify a valid SMB share point. Make sure the user profile location
specifies an existing share point.
For more information, see “Setting Up an SMB Share Point” on page 119.
 Make sure the home folder is specified correctly in the Windows and Home panes of
Workgroup Manager. These panes should be configured in one of the following ways:
 If the home folder path in the Windows pane is blank, make sure the correct home
folder location is selected in the Home pane.
 If the home folder path is not blank in the Windows pane, make sure the home
folder path specifies a valid SMB share point.
 If the drive letter chosen for the user might be conflicting with a drive letter in use
on the Windows workstation, change the drive letter setting in the Windows pane of
Workgroup Manager or change the mappings of other drive letters on the
workstation.
If a Windows User Loses the Contents of the My Documents Folder
Verify the following:
 Make sure the correct home folder location is selected in the Home pane of
Workgroup Manager.
 Make sure the user profile path is correct in the Windows pane of Workgroup
Manager. If the user profile path is blank, the default profile folder is used. The
contents of My Documents are stored in the user profile.
246
Chapter 11 Solving Problems
 If the drive letter chosen for the user might be conflicting with a drive letter in use
on the Windows workstation, change the drive letter setting in the Windows pane of
Workgroup Manager or change the mappings of other drive letters on the
workstation.
Solving Preference Management Problems
This section describes problems you might encounter while using Workgroup Manager
to set up accounts or manage Mac OS X clients. It also provides troubleshooting tips
and possible solutions.
If your problem is not addressed here, check Workgroup Manager Help or consult the
Apple Service & Support website (www.apple.com/support/).
Testing Your Managed Client Settings
If your managed computers use Mac OS X v10.5 or later, you can view managed
settings in System Profiler on the computers.
Settings are organized by preference. For example, all managed Finder settings are
listed in com.apple.finder.
To view managed client settings in System Profiler:
1 On a client computer, open System Profiler.
2 Open the Software disclosure triangle and then choose Managed Client.
If Users Don’t See a List of Workgroups at Login
If a user with a network account doesn’t see a list of workgroups at login:
 The user may not be in a group or may be in only one group. Hold down the Option
key during login to show the list of workgroups.
 The user’s computer may not have its login preferences managed. In the Access pane
of login preferences, select “Always show workgroup dialog during login.” This
preference is only available for clients with Mac OS X v10.5 or later.
Your client computers must use Mac OS X v10.4 or later to select from workgroups. For
more information about how to set login window access settings, see “Customizing the
Workgroups Displayed at Login” on page 193.
If Users Can’t Open Files
Ordinarily, when users double-click a file in the Finder, or choose a file to open from the
File menu in Finder, an appropriate default application opens the file for them. If the
user is in a managed environment, this method might not always work.
Chapter 11 Solving Problems
247
For example, suppose the default application for viewing PDF files is Preview. A user
logs in and double-clicks a PDF file on his or her desktop. If the management settings
that apply to the user don’t provide access to Preview, the file does not open. If the
user has access to a different application that can handle PDF files, the user can open
that application first and then open the file.
To make sure commonly used applications are available to users, groups, or lists of
computers, use Workgroup Manager to add the application to the list of permitted
applications in the Applications pane of Preferences.
For more information, see “Controlling User Access to Specific Applications and Folders”
on page 165.
If Users Can’t Add Printers to a Printer List
If you manage Printing preferences, you can allow users to add printers to the list of
printers in Print & Fax System Preferences. In Printing preferences, select “Allow user to
modify the printer list.” If you don’t select this, an administrator name and password is
required to add or remove printers in Print & Fax System Preferences.
Note: When a user tries to print a document from an application, the printer the user
added does not appear in the list of available printers.
For more information, see “Preventing Users from Modifying the Printer List” on
page 221.
You can also make printers available or unavailable to specific users, groups, or lists of
computers by using the Printer List pane of Printing preferences.
For more information, see “Making Printers Available to Users” on page 221.
If Login Items Added by a User Don’t Open
In Workgroup Manager, you can use the Items pane of login preferences to specify
items that open when a user logs in. The items that open at login are a combination of
items specified for the user, the computer being used, and the group chosen at login.
If your management frequency setting is Always, when you select “User may add and
remove additional items,” a user can add additional login items. Selecting Always
removes existing items from the user’s login items list and replaces them with the
items you list. It also prevents the user from disabling the items you list.
If your management frequency setting is Once, you can select “Merge with user’s
items,” which causes one of two effects:
 If the user has items in their login list (either he or she added them or they were
added through preference management), merging only opens login items that
appear on both the user’s list and your list.
248
Chapter 11 Solving Problems
 If the user’s login list does not include any items, all managed login items will open.
If you do not select “Merge with user’s items,” all login items on either list will open.
If you select Once, a user can remove any items added to their login list.
For details about managing automatically opened items, see “Automatically Opening
Items After a User Logs In” on page 197.
If Items Placed in the Dock by a User Are Missing
In Workgroup Manager, you can use the Dock Items pane of Dock preferences to
specify items that appear in a user’s Dock. The set of items in a user’s Dock is a
combination of items specified for the user, the computer being used, and the group
chosen at login.
If you deselect “Merge with user’s Dock,” all Dock items you place will override users’
Dock items settings. Users can’t add items to their Docks if you select Always and
deselect “Merge with user’s Dock.”
If you select Always, users can’t remove items from their Docks.
For more information about how to add Dock items, see “Adding Items to a User’s
Dock” on page 176.
If a User’s Dock Has Duplicate Items
When you use Workgroup Manager to set up the same Dock item preferences for more
than one account type (user, group, computer, or computer group), a managed user’s
Dock can contain duplicate items. For example, an application icon may appear more
than once in the user’s Dock.
Duplicate applications or folders work as expected when you open them. To correct
duplicate Dock items, try removing Dock item preferences for all account types that
affect the user, then carefully configure the Dock item preferences for the account
types.
If Users See a Question Mark in the Dock
You can use Workgroup Manager to control what items a user sees in his or her Dock.
Items in the Dock are aliases to original items stored elsewhere, such as on the
computer’s hard disk or on a remote server.
If you add items to a user’s Dock that are not on the user’s hard disk or other volume
mounted on the user’s computer, the items appear as question mark icons. Clicking
these icons does not open the items.
If you add an item that is on both the server and the user’s computer, clicking the icon
opens the item on the user’s computer or mounted volume.
Chapter 11 Solving Problems
249
If Users See a Message About an Unexpected Error
When you manage Classic preferences and try to use the Extensions Manager, File
Sharing, or Software Update control panels, you might see a message that says “The
operation could not be completed. An unexpected error occurred (error code 1016).”
This message indicates that an administrator has restricted access to the item the user
attempted to use, such as an application the user is not allowed to open.
Users can’t access the control panels mentioned above when Classic preferences are
managed. Users may also see this message if you select “Hide Chooser and Network
Browser” and they attempt to use the Chooser.
The message also appears when a user tries to open an unapproved application (one
not listed in the Items pane of the Applications preference in Workgroup Manager) in
the Classic environment or in Mac OS X.
If You Can’t Manage Network Views
Mac OS X Server v10.5 doesn’t support managed network views.
To manage network views hosted on servers running Mac OS X Server v10.4, use the
Workgroup Manager included with Mac OS X Server v10.4.
250
Chapter 11 Solving Problems
Appendix
Importing and Exporting
Account Information
Use Workgroup Manager to import and export accounts, or
use the dsimport command-line tool to import accounts.
You can quickly import or export user, group, computer, and computer group accounts
using Workgroup Manager. You can also use the dsimport command-line tool to import
user and group accounts.
Understanding What You Can Import and Export
You can import all record types that are tracked in Workgroup Manager. Common
record types include users, groups, computers, and computer groups. Starting with
Mac OS X Server v10.4, you can even import partial attributes of individual records, and
combine attributes from different records.
When importing from custom files, the only attribute a record must have is a record
name.
For a list of attributes, open Terminal and enter man DirectoryServiceAttributes.
Alternately, if you have Xcode installed, you can view a list of attributes with improved
formatting and more detailed descriptions by opening:
/System/Library/Frameworks/DirectoryService.framework/Headers/DirServicesConst.h
You can’t use an import file to change the following predefined users: daemon, root,
nobody, unknown, or www. In addition, you can’t use an import file to change the
following predefined groups: admin, bin, daemon, dialer, mail, network, nobody,
nogroup, operator, staff, sys, tty unknown, utmp, uucp, wheel, or www. However, you
can add users to the wheel and admin groups.
You can use the dsimport tool to import records from a text-delimited file.
For descriptions of common record types and attributes, see Open Directory
Administration. For a more complete list of attributes, enter man
DirectoryServiceAttributes, or view the DirServicesConst.h file.
251
Limitations for Importing and Exporting Passwords
When creating or overwriting records, you must reset passwords for user accounts with
Open Directory or shadow passwords. Importing passwords generally works if the
password is a plain-text string in the import file.
Additionally, you must set the AuthMethod attribute so Workgroup Manager can
import the password. Encrypted passwords in hash format in the import file can’t be
recovered.
Passwords can’t be exported using Workgroup Manager or any other method. If you
import user accounts from an export file, remember to manually set passwords or set
default passwords to a known value.
Before exporting user accounts (or after importing them), you can set up a password
policy that requires users to change their password at first login. For instructions on
configuring password options, see “Choosing a Password Type and Setting Password
Options” on page 74.
Maintaining GUIDs When Importing from Earlier Versions of
Mac OS X Server
Globally unique identifiers (GUIDs) are used to verify user and group identity for ACL
permissions and to manage user membership in groups and hierarchical groups. When
you use Workgroup Manager or the dsimport tool to import users and groups created
on versions of Mac OS X Server earlier than v10.4, GUIDs are automatically assigned.
After upgrading or migrating your server to Mac OS X Server v10.5, back up your
accounts by exporting user and group accounts to ensure that all your accounts have
GUIDs.
If you need to restore user or group accounts in the future, the generated export file
enables you to import users and groups with their GUIDs (as well as file permissions
and group memberships) intact.
If you lose user accounts and create new accounts with the same UID, GID, and short
names as the lost accounts, the replacement accounts have new GUIDs assigned. A
user’s new GUID won’t match the previous GUID, so the user won’t retain prior ACL
permissions or group memberships.
Similarly, if you import users or groups from a file that doesn’t include the GUID
attribute, Mac OS X Server assigns new GUIDs to every imported user and group.
To make sure that GUIDs and their relationship to specific users and groups remain the
same if you need to re-import users and groups, create a new export file on Mac OS X
Server v10.5 and use this file instead of the export file created with an earlier server
version.
252
Appendix
Importing and Exporting Account Information
Archiving the Open Directory Master
Instead of exporting and importing records as a backup of directory data, you can
archive and restore the Open Directory master’s directory and authentication data.
By archiving a copy of the Open Directory master’s directory, you can later restore the
directory with passwords intact.
For more information and instructions on archiving the Open Directory master, see
Open Directory Administration.
Using Workgroup Manager to Import Accounts
You can use Workgroup Manager to import user, group, computer, and computer
group accounts into an Open Directory domain. When a file is imported, Workgroup
Manager identifies the record format.
Before trying to import accounts using Workgroup Manager, create a characterdelimited or XML file containing the accounts to import and place it in a location
accessible by the computer from which you use Workgroup Manager.
An Open Directory domain supports files with up to 200,000 records.
Important: Workgroup Manager can only import files that use UNIX line breaks. When
editing import files, use a text editor that supports UNIX line breaks.
You can also use the dsimport tool to import records from a text-delimited file. For
more information, see Command-Line Administration.
For information about how to create import files using previous versions of Mac OS X
Server, see:
 “Using XML Files Created with Mac OS X Server v10.1 or Earlier” on page 255
 “Using XML Files Created with AppleShare IP 6.3” on page 256
For information about how to create a character-delimited file by hand or by using a
database or spreadsheet application, see Command-Line Administration.
To import accounts using Workgroup Manager:
1 In Workgroup Manager, click Accounts.
2 Make sure that the directory services of the Mac OS X Server computer you’re using are
configured to access the directory domain.
For instructions, see Open Directory Administration.
3 Click the globe icon and choose the domain where you want to import accounts.
4 To authenticate, click the lock and enter the name and password of a directory domain
administrator.
5 Choose Server > Import and select an import file.
Appendix
Importing and Exporting Account Information
253
6 To indicate what to do when the short name of an account being imported matches
that of an existing account, select one of the Duplicate Handling options:
 “Overwrite existing record” overwrites any existing record in the directory domain.
 “Ignore new record” ignores an account in the import file.
 “Add to empty fields” merges data from the import file into the existing account
when the data is for an attribute that has no value.
 “Append to existing record” appends data to existing data for a particular multivalue
attribute in the existing account. Duplicates are not created. This option could be
used when importing members into an existing group.
 “Don’t check for duplicates” disables checking for duplicates, but it can cause
misconfigured records and unexpected results. Make sure there are no duplicates
before choosing this option. When you enable this option, it can decrease the time
required to import.
7 To enable presets for a user or a group, select Preset for Users or Preset for Groups and
choose presets from the two pop-up menus.
If a setting is specified in both the preset and an import file, the value in the file is used.
If a setting is specified in the preset but not in the import file, the value in the preset is
used.
For more information about how to create presets, see “Creating a Preset for User
Accounts” on page 61 and “Creating a Preset for Group Accounts” on page 92.
8 In the First User ID field, enter a user ID for new user accounts without user IDs in the
import file.
New User IDs are then sequentially assigned for other accounts without listed user IDs.
9 In the Primary Group ID field, enter the group ID to assign to new user accounts for
users that have no primary group ID in the import file.
10 Choose the level of detail for the log from the Logging Detail pop-up menu.
Every time you import, a new log is created in ~/Library/Logs/ImportExport/.
11 Click Import.
Using Workgroup Manager to Export Accounts
You can use Workgroup Manager to export user, group, computer, and computer group
accounts from an Open Directory domain into a character-delimited file that you can
import into a different LDAP directory domain.
You can also use the dsexport tool to export records to a text-delimited file. For more
information, see Command-Line Administration.
254
Appendix
Importing and Exporting Account Information
To export accounts using Workgroup Manager:
1 In Workgroup Manager, click Accounts.
2 Make sure that the directory services of the Mac OS X Server you’re using are
configured to access the desired directory domain.
For instructions, see Open Directory Administration.
3 Click the globe icon and then choose the domain where you want to import accounts.
4 To authenticate, click the lock and enter the name and password of a directory domain
administrator.
5 Select the accounts to export.
To choose multiple accounts to export, select the accounts while holding the
Command or Shift key.
6 Choose Server > Export.
7 Specify the name to assign to the export file and where you want to create it.
To browse to a location for storing the export file, click the disclosure triangle.
8 Click Export.
Using XML Files Created with Mac OS X Server v10.1 or Earlier
You can use Server Admin in Mac OS X Server v10.1 or earlier to create an export file
and import that file into an Open Directory domain using Workgroup Manager or
dsimport.
The following user account attributes are exported into the XML files. An error occurs
when you import a file with missing required attributes:
 Indication of whether user can log in
 Indication of whether user is a server administrator
 User ID (required)
 Primary group ID (required)
 Shell
 Comment
 Short name (required)
 Long name (required)
 Password format (required) and password text (required)
 Apple mail data
 ARA (Apple Remote Access—this data is ignored)
Appendix
Importing and Exporting Account Information
255
The following group account attributes might be present in the XML files:
 Group name (required)
 Group ID (required)
 One member’s short name (required)
 Other members’ short names
Using XML Files Created with AppleShare IP 6.3
You can use the Web & File Admin application on an AppleShare IP 6.3 server to create
an export file and then use Workgroup Manager or dsimport to import that file into an
Open Directory domain.
The following user account attributes are exported into the XML files. An error occurs
when you import a file with missing required attributes.
 Name (required, mapped to a long name)
 InetAlias (mapped to a short name)
 Comment
 Indication of whether user can log in
 Password format (required) and password text (required)
 Apple mail data
 Indicator for whether the user is a server administrator, password change data, and
indicator for forcing a password to change (this data is ignored)
The dsimport tool generates user IDs when you import this XML file, using the -s
parameter to determine the user ID to start with and incrementing each subsequent
imported account’s user ID by one. It generates primary group IDs using the -r
parameter.
When you import using Workgroup Manager, user IDs and primary group IDs are
generated as you indicate in the dialog provided.
The following group account attributes might be present in these XML files:
 Group name (required)
 One member’s short name (required)
 Other members’ short names
The dsimport tool generates group IDs when you import this XML file, using the -r
parameter to determine the group ID to start with, and incrementing each subsequent
imported group’s ID by one.
When you import using Workgroup Manager, group IDs are generated using the
information you provide for group IDs in the import dialog.
256
Appendix
Importing and Exporting Account Information
Glossary
Glossary
This glossary defines terms and spells out abbreviations you may encounter while
working with online help or the various reference manuals for Mac OS X Server.
References to terms defined elsewhere in the glossary appear in italics.
access control list See ACL.
ACE Access Control Entry. An entry within the ACL that controls access rights. See ACL.
ACL Access Control List. A list, maintained by a system, that defines the rights of users
and groups to access resources on the system.
Active Directory The directory and authentication service of Microsoft Windows 2000
Server, Windows Server 2003, and Windows Server 2003 R2.
administrator A user with server or directory domain administration privileges.
Administrators are always members of the predefined “admin” group.
administrator computer A Mac OS X computer onto which you’ve installed the server
administration applications from the Mac OS X Server Admin CD.
AFP Apple Filing Protocol. A client/server protocol used by Apple file service to share
files and network services. AFP uses TCP/IP and other protocols to support
communication between computers on a network.
Apple Filing Protocol See AFP.
automount To make a share point appear automatically on a client computer. See also
mount.
blog A webpage that presents chronologically ordered entries. Often used as an
electronic journal or newsletter.
BSD Berkeley Software Distribution. A version of UNIX on which Mac OS X software is
based.
child A computer that gets configuration information from the shared directory
domain of a parent.
257
computer account A computer account stores data that allows Mac OS X Server to
identify and manage an individual computer. You create a computer account for each
computer that you intend to add to a computer group. See also computer group.
computer group A set of computers and computer groups, which all receive the
managed preference settings defined for the group. New in Mac OS X Server version
10.5. See also computer list.
computer list A set of computers that all receive the managed preference settings
defined for the list, and that are all available to a particular set of users and groups. A
computer can be a member of only one computer list. Computer lists are created in
Mac OS X Server version 10.4 or earlier. See also computer group.
DHCP Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol. A protocol used to dynamically distribute
IP addresses to client computers. Each time a client computer starts up, the protocol
looks for a DHCP server and then requests an IP address from the DHCP server it finds.
The DHCP server checks for an available IP address and sends it to the client computer
along with a lease period—the length of time the client computer may use the
address.
directory domain A specialized database that stores authoritative information about
users and network resources; the information is needed by system software and
applications. The database is optimized to handle many requests for information and to
find and retrieve information quickly. Also called a directory node or simply a directory.
directory domain hierarchy A way of organizing local and shared directory domains. A
hierarchy has an inverted tree structure, with a root domain at the top and local
domains at the bottom.
directory node See directory domain.
directory services Services that provide system software and applications with
uniform access to directory domains and other sources of information about users and
resources.
disc Optical storage media, such as a CD or DVD.
disk A rewritable data storage device. See also disk drive, logical disk.
disk drive A device that contains a disk and reads and writes data to the disk.
disk image A file that, when opened, creates an icon on a Mac OS X desktop that looks
and acts like an actual disk or volume. Using NetBoot, client computers can start up
over the network from a server-based disk image that contains system software. Disk
image files have a filename extension of either .img or .dmg. The two image formats
are similar and are represented with the same icon in the Finder. The .dmg format
cannot be used on computers running Mac OS 9.
258
Glossary
DNS Domain Name System. A distributed database that maps IP addresses to domain
names. A DNS server, also known as a name server, keeps a list of names and the IP
addresses associated with each name.
drop box A shared folder with privileges that allow other users to write to, but not
read, the folder’s contents. Only the owner has full access. Drop boxes should be
created only using AFP. When a folder is shared using AFP, the ownership of an item
written to the folder is automatically transferred to the owner of the folder, thus giving
the owner of a drop box full access to and control over items put into it.
everyone Any user who can log in to a file server: a registered user or guest, an
anonymous FTP user, or a website visitor.
export In the Network File System (NFS), a way of sharing a folder with clients on a
network.
external account A mobile account whose local home folder is stored on an external
volume. When the user connects the external volume to a computer, the user can
access the external account. When the external volume is disconnected, the user can’t
access the external account.
filter A screening method to control access to a server. A filter is made up of an IP
address and a subnet mask, and sometimes a port number and access type. The IP
address and the subnet mask determine the range of IP addresses that the filter applies
to.
firewall Software that protects the network applications running on your server. IP
firewall service, which is part of Mac OS X Server software, scans incoming IP packets
and rejects or accepts these packets based on a set of filters you create.
FTP File Transfer Protocol. A protocol that allows computers to transfer files over a
network. FTP clients using any operating system that supports FTP can connect to a file
server and download files, depending on their access privileges. Most Internet browsers
and a number of freeware applications can be used to access an FTP server.
full name See long name.
globally unique identifier See GUID.
group A collection of users who have similar needs. Groups simplify the administration
of shared resources.
group folder A folder that organizes documents and applications of special interest to
group members and allows group members to pass information among themselves.
guest computer A computer that doesn’t have a computer account.
guest user A user who can log in to your server without a user name or password.
Glossary
259
GUID Globally unique identifier. A hexadecimal string that uniquely identifies a user
account, group account, or computer list. Also used to provide user and group identity
for access control list (ACL) permissions, and to associate particular users with group
and nested group memberships. GUIDs are 128-bit values, which makes the generation
of duplicate GUIDs extremely unlikely.
home directory See home folder.
home folder A folder for a user’s personal use. Mac OS X also uses the home folder to
store system preferences and managed user settings for Mac OS X users. Also known as
a home directory.
HTML Hypertext Markup Language. The set of symbols or codes inserted in a file to be
displayed on a web browser page. The markup tells the web browser how to display a
webpage’s words and images for the user.
HTTP Hypertext Transfer Protocol. The client/server protocol for the World Wide Web.
HTTP provides a way for a web browser to access a web server and request hypermedia
documents created using HTML.
idle user A user who is connected to a server but hasn’t used the server volume for a
period of time.
IP Internet Protocol. Also known as IPv4. A method used with Transmission Control
Protocol (TCP) to send data between computers over a local network or the Internet. IP
delivers data packets and TCP keeps track of data packets.
IP address A unique numeric address that identifies a computer on the Internet.
IP subnet A portion of an IP network, which may be a physically independent network
segment, that shares a network address with other portions of the network and is
identified by a subnet number.
ISP Internet service provider. A business that sells Internet access and often provides
web hosting for e-commerce applications as well as mail services.
Kerberos A secure network authentication system. Kerberos uses tickets, which are
issued for a specific user, service, and period of time. After a user is authenticated, it’s
possible to access additional services without retyping a password (called single signon) for services that have been configured to take Kerberos tickets. Mac OS X Server
uses Kerberos v5.
LDAP Lightweight Directory Access Protocol. A standard client-server protocol for
accessing a directory domain.
load balancing The process of distributing client computers’ requests for network
services across multiple servers to optimize performance.
260
Glossary
local directory domain A directory of identification, authentication, authorization, and
other administrative data that’s accessible only on the computer where it resides. The
local directory domain isn’t accessible from other computers on the network.
local domain A directory domain that can be accessed only by the computer it resides
on.
local home directory See local home folder.
local home folder A home folder that resides on disk on the computer a user is logged
in to. It’s accessible only by logging directly in to the computer where it resides, unless
you log in to the computer using SSH.
local hostname A name that designates a computer on a local subnet. It can be used
without a global DNS system to resolve names to IP addresses. It consists of lowercase
letters, numbers, or hyphens (except as the last characters), and ends with “.local” (For
example, bills-computer.local). Although the default name is derived from the
computer name, a user can specify this name in the Sharing pane of System
Preferences. It can be changed easily, and can be used anywhere a DNS name or fully
qualified domain name is used. It can only resolve on the same subnet as the computer
using it.
logical disk A storage device that appears to a user as a single disk for storing files,
even though it might actually consist of more than one physical disk drive. An Xsan
volume, for example, is a logical disk that behaves like a single disk even though it
consists of multiple storage pools that are, in turn, made up of multiple LUNs, each of
which contains multiple disk drives. See also physical disk.
long name The long form of a user or group name. See also user name.
managed client A user, group, or computer whose access privileges and/or
preferences are under administrative control.
managed preferences System or application preferences that are under administrative
control. Workgroup Manager allows administrators to control settings for certain
system preferences for Mac OS X managed clients.
mobile account An account with both a local and a network home folder. Mobile
accounts cache authentication information and managed preferences. In Mac OS X
v10.4 and later, a mobile account includes a portable home directory, which is a synced
subset of the local and network home folders.
mount (verb) To make a remote directory or volume available for access on a local
system. In Xsan, to cause an Xsan volume to appear on a client’s desktop, just like a
local disk.
Glossary
261
multicast DNS A protocol developed by Apple for automatic discovery of computers,
devices, and services on IP networks. Called Bonjour (previously Rendezvous) by Apple,
this proposed Internet standard protocol is sometimes referred to as ZeroConf or
multicast DNS. For more information, visit www.apple.com or www.zeroconf.org. To see
how this protocol is used in Mac OS X Server, see local hostname.
name server A server on a network that keeps a list of names and the IP addresses
associated with each name. See also DNS.
NetBIOS Network Basic Input/Output System. A program that allows applications on
different computers to communicate within a local area network.
NetBoot server A Mac OS X server you’ve installed NetBoot software on and have
configured to allow clients to start up from disk images on the server.
NetInfo An older Apple protocol for accessing a directory domain.
NFS Network File System. A client/server protocol that uses Internet Protocol (IP) to
allow remote users to access files as though they were local. NFS can export shared
volumes to computers based on IP address, and also supports single sign-on (SSO)
authentication through Kerberos.
NTP Network Time Protocol. A network protocol used to synchronize the clocks of
computers across a network to some time reference clock. NTP is used to ensure that
all the computers on a network are reporting the same time.
Open Directory The Apple directory services architecture, which can access
authoritative information about users and network resources from directory domains
that use LDAP, Active Directory protocols, or BSD configuration files, and network
services.
Open Directory master A server that provides LDAP directory service, Kerberos
authentication service, and Open Directory Password Server.
owner The owner of an item can change access permissions to the item. The owner
may also change the group entry to any group the owner is a member of. By default,
the owner has Read & Write permissions.
parent A computer whose shared directory domain provides configuration
information to another computer.
password An alphanumeric string used to authenticate the identity of a user or to
authorize access to files or services.
PDC Primary domain controller. In Windows networking, a domain controller that has
been designated as the primary authentication server for its domain.
physical disk An actual, mechanical disk. Compare with logical disk.
262
Glossary
POP Post Office Protocol. A protocol for retrieving incoming mail. After a user retrieves
POP mail, it’s stored on the user’s computer and is usually deleted automatically from
the mail server.
portable home directory A portable home directory provides a user with both a local
and network home folder. The contents of these two home folders, as well as the user's
directory and authentication information, can be automatically kept in sync.
POSIX Portable Operating System Interface for UNIX. A family of open system
standards based on UNIX, which allows applications to be written to a single target
environment in which they can run unchanged on a variety of systems.
predefined accounts User accounts that are created automatically when you install
Mac OS X. Some group accounts are also predefined.
preference manifest A file that describes the structure of and default values for an
application’s preferences (for example, what the various preference keys do).
Workgroup Manager’s preferences editor uses these files to make it easier for an
administrator to edit an application’s managed preferences.
preferences cache A storage place for computer preferences and preferences for
groups associated with that computer. Cached preferences help you manage local user
accounts on portable computers.
presets Default attributes you specify for accounts you create using Workgroup
Manager. You can use presets only during account creation.
primary domain controller See PDC.
primary group A user’s default group. The file system uses the ID of the primary group
when a user accesses a file he or she doesn’t own.
primary group ID A unique number that identifies a primary group.
print queue An orderly waiting area where print jobs wait until a printer is available.
The print service in Mac OS X Server uses print queues on the server to facilitate
management.
privileges The right to access restricted areas of a system or perform certain tasks
(such as management tasks) in the system.
proxy server A server that sits between a client application, such as a web browser,
and a real server. The proxy server intercepts all requests to the real server to see if it
can fulfill the requests itself. If not, it forwards the request to the real server.
Glossary
263
scope A group of services. A scope can be a logical grouping of computers, such as all
computers used by the production department, or a physical grouping, such as all
computers located on the first floor. You can define a scope as part or all of your
network.
search path See search policy.
search policy A list of directory domains searched by a Mac OS X computer when it
needs configuration information; also, the order in which domains are searched.
Sometimes called a search path.
security identifier See SID.
share point A folder, hard disk (or hard disk partition), or optical disc that’s accessible
over the network. A share point is the point of access at the top level of a group of
shared items. Share points can be shared using AFP, SMB, NFS (an export), or FTP.
short name An abbreviated name for a user. The short name is used by Mac OS X for
home folders, authentication, and email addresses.
SID Security identifier. A unique value that identifies a user, group, or computer
account in a Windows NT-compatible domain.
Simple Finder A user environment featuring panels and large icons that provide
novice users with an easy-to-navigate interface. Mounted volumes or media to which
users are allowed access appear in panels instead of on the standard desktop.
SLP DA Service Location Protocol Directory Agent. A protocol that registers services
available on a network and gives users easy access to them. When a service is added to
the network, the service uses SLP to register itself on the network. SLP DA uses a
centralized repository for registered network services.
SMB Server Message Block. A protocol that allows client computers to access files and
network services. It can be used over TCP/IP, the Internet, and other network protocols.
SMB services use SMB to provide access to servers, printers, and other network
resources.
SSL Secure Sockets Layer. An Internet protocol that allows you to send encrypted,
authenticated information across the Internet. More recent versions of SSL are known
as TLS (Transport Level Security).
subnet A grouping on the same network of client computers that are organized by
location (for example, different floors of a building) or by usage (for example, all eighthgrade students). The use of subnets simplifies administration. See also IP subnet.
264
Glossary
TCP Transmission Control Protocol. A method used with the Internet Protocol (IP) to
send data in the form of message units between computers over the Internet. IP
handles the actual delivery of the data, and TCP keeps track of the units of data (called
packets) into which a message is divided for efficient routing through the Internet.
UID User ID. A number that uniquely identifies a user within a file system. Mac OS X
computers use the UID to keep track of a user’s folder and file ownership.
URL Uniform Resource Locator. The address of a computer, file, or resource that can be
accessed on a local network or the Internet. The URL is made up of the name of the
protocol needed to access the resource, a domain name that identifies a specific
computer on the Internet, and a hierarchical description of a file location on the
computer.
user name The long name for a user, sometimes referred to as the user’s real name.
See also short name.
user profile The set of personal desktop and preference settings that Windows saves
for a user and applies each time the user logs in.
virtual user An alternate email address (short name) for a user. Similar to an alias, but
it involves creating another user account.
VPN Virtual Private Network. A network that uses encryption and other technologies
to provide secure communications over a public network, typically the Internet. VPNs
are generally cheaper than real private networks using private lines, but they rely on
having the same encryption system at both ends. The encryption may be performed by
firewall software or by routers.
weblog See blog.
wiki A website that allows users to collaboratively edit pages and easily access
previous pages using a web browser.
workgroup A set of users for whom you define preferences and privileges as a group.
Any preferences you define for a group are stored in the group account.
XML An extensible markup language, similar to HTML but more formal and more
flexible.
Glossary
265
266
Glossary
A
access
ACLs 27, 29
Apple menu 172, 187
application 149, 153, 164, 165, 168, 177
control process 27, 32
disk 183, 185, 201
file 28, 247
folder 28, 38, 153, 186, 245
group 28, 103, 153, 199
guest 117
login 192, 194, 199
media 149, 186, 200, 201, 202
mobile account 134, 135, 136
preferences 149
printing 81, 82, 83, 84, 220, 221, 222, 223
server 183, 185
share point 117, 199
user 23, 24, 70
website 98, 217, 218
Windows users 29
workgroup 193, 247
Workgroup Manager 23
See also LDAP; permissions; Universal Access
access control entries. See ACEs
access control lists. See ACLs
accessibility preferences. See Universal Access
accounts
administrator 22, 23, 42, 56, 132, 142
backing up 252
creating 57
directory domains 46, 48
editing 51, 242
lists of 46, 48, 49
overview 22
predefined 56, 90, 251
preferences 139
types 56
See also computer accounts; group accounts;
importing; mobile accounts; user accounts
ACEs (access control entries) 27, 29
ACLs (access control lists) 27, 29
Index
Index
Active Directory 29, 35, 37, 57, 132
addresses. See IP addresses
admin group 23
administrator
accounts for 22, 23, 42, 56, 132, 142
directory services 23
domain 38, 72
groups for 90, 91
mobile accounts 132
passwords for 39
privileges of 23, 38, 68, 70, 243
server 68
setup 38, 41, 42
system 56
administrator computer 32, 41, 98
adult websites, access control 217
AFP (Apple Filing Protocol) service 114, 117, 123
AirPort 216
Always setting for preferences 159
anonymous users. See guest accounts
Apple Filing Protocol service. See AFP
Apple menu, Classic 172, 187
Apple Remote Desktop 239, 241
AppleShare IP migration utility 256
applications
access control 149, 153, 164, 165, 177
legacy access 168
preference editor 231, 232, 234, 235
See also specific applications
archiving, Open Directory master 253
ARD. See Apple Remote Desktop
assistive devices 227, 228, 229, 231
attributes, types of 251
authentication
directory domains 32, 43
imported accounts 252, 253
Kerberos 245
mobile accounts 131
overview 26, 55
troubleshooting 242, 243, 245
See also login; passwords
automountable share points 117, 118, 123, 125
267
B
background synchronization 139, 212
backup
account 252
Time Machine 150, 157, 225
vs. synchronization 139
backup domain controller. See BDC
batch editing 51
batteries 177, 180
BDC (backup domain controller) 55, 57, 114, 245
Bluetooth 216
boot process. See startup
browsers, Safari 237
bundle IDs 164
Burn Disc command 186
C
calendar service. See iCal service
CDs, preferences 200
child groups 25, 159
Classic preferences
Apple menu access 172, 187
overview 149
restart options 172
sleep settings 173
startup options 170
System Folder 169, 171
user preferences location 174
client computers 21, 33
clients
customizing for 149, 150, 151, 152
management overview 147
mobile 144
network-visible resources 148
preferences overview 149
workflow improvement 152
See also group accounts; users
combined managed preferences 157, 159
command-line tools
domain name lookup 241
exporting 254
folders 103, 123
importing 251
overview 22
sharing 118
ssh access 103, 239
user accounts 42, 58, 59
comments on user accounts 76
computer accounts
creating 106
guest 26, 107
mobile 141
overview 13, 25, 105
preferences 157, 162
Windows computers 107
268
Index
Workgroup Manager layout 149
computer groups
adding to 111
creating 108, 109
deleting 112
editing 51
mobile 142
overview 13, 26, 108
preferences 157, 158, 163
presets 50, 109, 110
removing computers 111
upgrading from lists 112
vs. computer lists 108
Workgroup Manager layout 149
computer lists 108, 112
computer name 105, 192
computers
administrator 32, 41, 98
client 21, 33
guest 26, 107
hierarchical groups 109
view settings 188
See also portable computers
configuration
administrator 38, 41, 42
domains 31, 43
earlier Mac OS X versions 42
home folders 36, 37, 79
login options 191
overview 31
portable computers 140
Server Admin 20
Server Preferences 21
share points 116
users 31
controllers
BDC 55, 57, 114, 245
PDC 55, 57, 114, 245
core services bundle 236
CreateGroupFolder tool 103
createhomedir tool 123
crypt passwords 74, 244
curfews on computer use 220
D
Dashboard 165, 167
Default View settings 188
desktop view 187
Details pane 149
DHCP (Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol)
service 195, 240, 241
Dictionary, hiding profanity in 217
digital signatures 164, 165
dig tool 241
directories. See directory services; domains, directory;
folders
directory domain administrator 38, 72
directory services
Active Directory 29, 35, 37, 57, 132
administrators for 23
preferences 160
requirements 35
See also domains, directory; Open Directory
Directory Utility 195
disk images 21, 22, 148, 201
disks
access control 183, 185, 201
ejecting 185
quotas 36, 80, 128, 129, 130, 205
storage requirements 35
target disk mode 134
display settings 227
DNS (Domain Name System) service 45, 240, 241
Dock 149, 174, 175, 176, 249
documentation 18
Domain Name System. See DNS
domains, directory
Active Directory 29, 35, 37, 57, 132
administration of 23, 38, 41, 72
connections 43
control over 70
group accounts 90
guest computers 107
home folder storage 115
local 35, 46, 57, 122
login 245
mobile accounts 132
proxy server settings 213, 214
purpose of 26
read-only 59
search policies 47
security 32, 43
setup 31, 43
shared 31, 245
user accounts in 46, 47, 48, 57, 58
See also LDAP; Open Directory
drives. See disks
drop boxes 129
dscl tool 42, 58, 59
dsexport tool 254
dsimport tool 251
duplication of settings. See presets
DVDs, preferences 200
Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol. See DHCP
E
Energy Saver
desktop settings 177
management limitations 157
Index
overview 149
portable settings 177, 179, 180
scheduling computer activity 181
sleep/wake settings 177
error messages 250
See also troubleshooting
Everyone user category 28, 59
exporting
accounts 53, 254
groups 254
overview 251
passwords 252
users 254
XML files 255, 256
See also importing
eXtensible Markup Language. See XML
external accounts 134, 144, 192, 208
F
fast user switching 191
file name extensions, visibility of 184
files
accessing 28, 247
caching of 132, 136
exporting XML 255, 256
extensions for 184
importing XML 255, 256
inheritance of permissions 93
file services
AFP 114, 117, 123
FTP 215
NFS 78, 114, 118, 123
See also share points
file sharing, portable computers 142
File Transfer Protocol. See FTP
FileVault 144, 205
Finder
desktop view 187
disc burning access 186
disk access 183, 185
ejecting disks 185
file name extensions 184
folder access 186
overview 149, 182
remote server access 185
restart control 187
server access 183
shutdown control 187
Simple Finder 182
Trash alert message 184
window behavior 183, 188
finding users and groups 45, 49, 75
folders
accessing 28, 38, 153, 186, 245
client setup 114, 148
269
command-line tools 103, 123
My Applications 177
synchronization of 210, 212
System 169, 171
See also group folders; home folders
Front Row 165, 168
FTP (File Transfer Protocol) service 215
full name. See long name
G
GID (group ID) 27, 96
globally unique identifier. See GUID
group accounts
creating 91, 93
deleting 95
editing 51, 92
exporting 254
finding 90
group ID 27, 96
importing 253
login picture 97
member settings 89, 99
naming 66, 95
Open Directory 90
overview 25, 89
predefined 90, 251
presets 50, 92
read-only 94
search policies 98
web services 98
Windows 90, 99
See also groups
group folders
access control 153
definition 25, 148
preferences 175
server requirements 36
settings 100, 101, 103
share points 101, 199
Windows users 101
group ID. See GID
groups
access control 28, 103, 153, 199
adding users 78, 99
admin group 23
administrator 90, 91
finding 50
folder settings 100, 101, 103
hierarchical 25, 93, 94, 99, 109, 159
legacy 94
membership 77, 78, 79
naming 95
permissions 77, 91
preferences 157, 162
primary 28, 77, 89
270
Index
removing users 79, 100
sorting 50
See also computer groups
Groups folder 101
guest accounts
AFP access 117
creating 59
definition 24
login options 192
mobile 141
permissions 59
share point access 117
guest computers 26, 107
GUID (globally unique identifier) 27, 28, 87, 252
H
helper applications 168
hierarchical groups
computers 109
preferences management 159
users 25, 93, 94, 99
home folders
creating 122
customizing 124
default 130
deleting 130
disk quotas for 129, 130
distributing across servers 115
Dock preferences 177
hosting for clients 114
local user 36, 122
login controls 198
management of 121
mobile accounts 37, 121, 132, 133, 134, 135, 138,
152, 202, 204, 205, 207
moving 130
naming 64, 114, 128
network 36, 114, 123, 148, 198
no home folder status 121
overview 113
portable home directories 37, 132
securing 38, 144, 205
server requirements 36
setup 36, 37, 79
share points 32, 79, 115, 116, 117, 118, 120, 123,
125
synchronization 152
troubleshooting 245, 246
users 36, 37, 87, 152
Windows users 87, 114, 120, 127, 130
hosts. See servers
hybrid computer group 108
I
iCal service 72
iDisk 185
images, disk. See disk images; NetBoot; NetInstall
importing
accounts 53, 68
authentication 252, 253
command-line tools 251
groups 253
GUID maintenance 252
overview 251
passwords 68, 252
users 253
XML files 255, 256
See also exporting
Info settings 84
inheritance, file permission 93
inherited preferences 158
install images. See NetInstall
Internet sharing 215
IP addresses 241
K
Kerberos 245
keyboard preferences 229
keywords 75
L
LDAP (Lightweight Directory Access Protocol)
service
creating accounts 55, 57
domain privileges 70, 72
identifying directories 35
password types 74
troubleshooting 242
Legacy preferences 165, 168
limited administrator privileges 38, 70
local directory domain 35, 46, 57, 122
local home folder 36, 122
local mobile accounts 136, 142
login
access control 192, 194, 199
automatic 191
configuration 191
directory domain 245
frequently used items 197
group share point access 199
home folders 198
management limitations 157
mobile accounts 133, 134, 135, 140, 198, 202
passwords 27, 74
picture for user 69, 97
preferences overview 149, 150, 189
process of 26
scripts 194, 196
troubleshooting 242, 243, 248
window appearance 189
Index
workgroup access 193
Workgroup Manager 43
long name 63, 95
See also short name; user names
M
Mac OS 9 169, 171, 172, 187
See also Classic preferences
Mac OS X Server
hierarchical groups 93, 94
importing from earlier versions 255
working with earlier versions 42, 89
mail service 60, 80, 81
managed computer 157
managed preferences
Applications 149
caching 160
combined 157, 159
Dashboard 165, 167
desktop 187
disabling 164
Dock 149, 174, 175, 176
editing 51, 231, 232, 234, 235, 237
Front Row 165, 168
group folders 175
hierarchy 159
introduction 149
Legacy 165, 168
Media Access 149, 200, 201, 202
Network 150, 213, 214, 215, 217
overriding 157
overview 155
Parental Controls 150, 217, 218
permanence settings 159
Software Update 150, 224
System Preferences 150, 182, 225, 227
Time Machine 150, 157, 225
See also Classic preferences; Energy Saver; Finder;
print service; Universal Access
managed user 157
manifests, preference 232, 236
master password 205
media, streaming. See streaming media
media access control. See Ethernet ID
Media Access preferences 149, 200, 201, 202
mixed-state preference settings 51
mobile accounts
accessing 134, 135, 136
administrator 132
advantages 136
creating 202
deployment 136
directory domains 132
disadvantages 138
disk quotas 129
271
expiration periods 209
external accounts 134, 208
home folders 37, 121, 132, 133, 134, 135, 138,
152, 202, 204, 205, 207
local 136, 142
login 133, 134, 135, 140, 198, 202
overview 13, 131
portable home directories 37, 132
preferences overview 149, 152, 202
removing 204
security 131, 144, 205
setup 140
synchronization 131, 132, 136, 138, 139, 210, 212
wireless considerations 143
See also portable computers
mouse preferences 230
multiple-account editing 51
My Applications folder 177
MySQL Server account 56
N
name server 45, 240, 241
naming conventions
computer name 105, 192
group accounts 66, 95
guest computers 107
home folders 64, 114, 128
presets 62
user names 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 254
NetBios name 105
NetBoot service 21, 148
NetInstall 21, 148
Network File System. See NFS
network home folders 36, 114, 123, 148, 177, 198
networks
preferences 150, 213, 214, 215, 217
time and time zones 239
views troubleshooting 250
wired vs. wireless mobile 143
network services
DHCP 195, 240, 241
DNS 45, 240
IP addresses 241
VPN 139
network users 31, 136
Never setting for preferences 160
NFS (Network File System) 78, 114, 118, 123
nodes, directory. See domains, directory
O
Often setting for preferences 160
Once setting for preferences 160, 164
Open Directory
creating accounts 57
group accounts 90
272
Index
modifying accounts 58
passwords 74, 244
requirements 35
troubleshooting 242, 243, 244
See also Active Directory; domains, directory
Open Directory master 253
Open Directory Password Server 244
opportunistic locking (oplocks) 121
Overview pane 149
Owner user category 28
P
PackageMaker 22
Parental Controls 150, 217, 218
parent groups 25, 93, 159
passive FTP mode 215
passwords
administrator 39
assigning 68
crypt 74, 244
FileVault 205
hints 191
imported accounts 68, 252
login process 27, 74
Open Directory 74, 244
shadow 74
troubleshooting 242, 243, 244, 245
types 74
Password Server. See Open Directory Password
Server
PDC (primary domain controller) 55, 57, 114, 245
permissions
access 28, 29
administrator 23, 38, 68, 70, 243
files 93
group 77, 91
guest 59
inheritance 93
mobile accounts 207
root 39
simultaneous login 73
sshd privilege separation 56
troubleshooting 243
user 70
picture, user login 69, 97
pointer preferences 230
portable computers
directory synchronization 37
Energy Saver settings 177, 179, 180
FileVault 144, 205
guest 141
multiple local accounts 142
setup 140
See also mobile accounts
portable home directories 37, 132
ports, proxy server 213, 214
POSIX (Portable Operating System Interface) 28, 29
power settings. See Energy Saver
predefined accounts 56, 90, 251
preferences
account 139
appearance 227
assistive devices 227, 228, 229, 231
browser 237
CDs 200
computer accounts 157, 162
computer groups 157, 158, 163
directory services 160
DVDs 200
group 157, 159, 162, 175
inherited 158
keyboard 229
mail 80
manifests 232, 236
mixed-state 51
mouse 230
overview 149, 152
server 21
streaming media 149
user 149, 157, 161, 174
web 237
Workgroup Manager 45, 155, 160
workgroups 151, 158, 194
See also managed preferences
presets
computer groups 50, 109, 110
group accounts 50, 92
user accounts 50, 61, 62
primary domain controller. See PDC
primary group, user's 28, 77, 89
print service
access control 81, 82, 83, 84, 220, 221, 222, 223
default printer setting 222, 223
footers on printouts 223
overview 150, 220
printer problems 248
privileges, administrator 23, 38, 68, 70, 243
See also permissions
problems. See troubleshooting
profanity, hiding 217
protocols
AFP 114, 117, 123
DHCP 195, 240, 241
FTP 215
SMB 29, 114, 119, 127
See also LDAP
proxy server settings 213, 214
Q
quotas, disk space 36, 80, 128, 129, 130, 205
Index
R
read-only accounts 59, 94
real name. See long name
remote servers 185, 239, 241
removable media, accessing 186, 200, 202
restart, controlling 172, 187
roaming user profiles 85, 114, 128, 130
root permissions 39
S
Safari 237
screen display settings 227
searching users and groups 45, 49, 75
search policies 26, 47, 98
security
ACLs 27, 29
directory domains 32, 43
home folders 38, 144, 205
mobile clients 131, 144, 205
SID 29
See also access; authentication; passwords;
permissions
security identifier. See SID
Seeing settings 227
Server Admin 20
server administrator 23
Server Assistant 39
Server Message Block. See SMB
Server Preferences 21
servers
accessing 183, 185
connections 185
group requirements 36
home folders 36, 115
proxy 213, 214
remote 185, 239, 241
requirements 35
setup procedures. See configuration
shadow passwords 74
shared directory domain 31, 245
See also LDAP
shared files. See file sharing
share points
automountable 117, 118, 123, 125
group folders 101, 199
guest access 117
home folders 32, 79, 115, 116, 117, 118, 120, 123,
125
local users 122
mounting 117, 118
setup 116
Windows users 120
sharing tool 118
shortcuts, command 230
short name 64, 65, 66, 96, 254
273
shutdown, controlling 181, 187
SID (Security Identifier) 29
Simple Finder 182
simultaneous login privileges 73
single sign-on authentication 245
sleep settings 173, 177, 181
Slow Keys 229
SMB (Server Message Block) protocol service 29,
114, 119, 127
Software Update 150, 224
sshd privilege separation 56
ssh tool 103, 239
startup 21, 148, 170, 181
Sticky Keys 229
streaming media 149
synchronization
directories 37
home folders 152
mobile account data 131, 132, 136, 138, 139, 210,
212
System Administrator account 56
System Folder, Classic 169, 171
System Image Utility 21, 22
System Preferences 150, 182, 225, 227
System Services account 56
T
target disk mode 134
temporary files, caching of 132, 136
time and time zone settings 239
time limits on computer use 220
Time Machine 150, 157, 225
Trash alert message 184
troubleshooting
administrator privileges 243
authentication 245
BDC 245
DHCP service 241
DNS service 240
Dock items 249
editing accounts 242
error messages 250
file access 247
home folder access 245, 246
LDAP directory 242
login 242, 243, 248
network views 250
Open Directory 242, 243, 244
passwords 242, 243, 244, 245
PDC 245
printers 248
time and time zones 239
Windows user problems 245, 246
workgroup access 247
trust services 195
274
Index
U
UIDs (user IDs) 28, 56, 67, 87, 164
Universal Access
assistive devices 231
display settings 227
keyboard options 229
mouse options 230
overview 150, 227
shortcuts 230
visual alert 228
UNIX 114, 168
Unknown User account 56
Unprivileged User account 56
updating software 150, 224
upgrading, computer lists to computer groups 112
user accounts
advanced settings 72
basic settings 63
calendar settings 72
command-line tools 42, 58, 59
comments 76
creating 57
deleting 60
directory domains 46, 47, 48, 57, 58
disabling 60
editing 51, 58, 59
exporting 254
importing 53, 68, 253
keywords 75
lists 46, 48, 49
local 122
mail settings 80
organization of 26, 55
overview 22, 24
passwords 68
predefined 56, 251
preferences 139
presets 50, 61, 62
read-only 59
troubleshooting 242
types 56
user names 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 242
Windows 55, 60
See also administrator; group accounts; guest
accounts; users
user ID. See UID
user names 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 242, 254
users
access control 23, 24, 70
categories 28, 59
customizing for 149
finding 45, 49, 75
identities 28, 56, 67, 87, 164
limited admin control 38, 70
login design 150
mail service 80, 81
network 31, 136
overview 55
permissions 70
planning for 34, 35
preferences control 149, 157, 161, 174
primary group for 28, 77, 89
print service 81, 82, 83, 84, 220, 221, 222, 223
remote 185, 239, 241
searching for 45, 49, 75
setup 31
sorting 75
tools overview 19
workgroup choice 151
See also clients; groups; home folders; managed
preferences; user accounts; Windows users
V
view settings 187, 227, 250
visual preferences 228
VPN (Virtual Private Network) 139
W
wake settings 179, 180
web services
accessing 98, 217, 218
account 56
browser 237
websites, accessing 98, 217, 218
widgets in Dashboard 165, 167
window behavior 183, 188
Windows users
access control 29
accounts 55, 60
computer accounts 107
creating accounts 57
disk quotas 130
group accounts 90, 99
group folders 101
Index
home folders 87, 114, 120, 127, 130
login 86
modifying accounts 60
profile location 85
roaming profiles 85, 114, 128, 130
share points 120
troubleshooting 245, 246
wireless mobile lab 143
Workgroup Manager
access control 23
account lists 46, 48, 49
administrator setup 41, 42
batch editing 51
directory domains 43
earlier Mac OS X versions 42
exporting accounts 53, 254
importing accounts 53, 253
login 43
overview 13, 19
panes 149
preferences 45, 155, 160
presets 50
searching users 49
synchronization 139
tasks overview 44
troubleshooting 247
See also managed preferences
workgroups
access control 193, 247
definition 25, 89, 157
group folders 100
multiple 152
preferences 151, 158, 194
troubleshooting 247
See also Workgroup Manager
X
XML (eXtensible Markup Language) files 255, 256
275