Apple Mac OS X Server Network Card User Manual

Mac OS X Server
Command-Line Administration
For Version 10.4 or Later
Second Edition
K Apple Computer, Inc.
© 2006 Apple Computer, Inc. All rights reserved.
The owner or authorized user of a valid copy of
Mac OS X Server software may reproduce this
publication for the purpose of learning to use such
software. No part of this publication may be reproduced
or transmitted for commercial purposes, such as selling
copies of this publication or for providing paid-for
support services.
Every effort has been made to ensure that the
information in this manual is accurate. Apple Computer,
Inc., is not responsible for printing or clerical errors.
Apple
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www.apple.com
The Apple logo is a trademark of Apple Computer, Inc.,
registered in the U.S. and other countries. Use of the
“keyboard” Apple logo (Option-Shift-K) for commercial
purposes without the prior written consent of Apple
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Apple, the Apple logo, AppleShare, AppleTalk, Mac,
Macintosh, QuickTime, Xgrid, and Xserve are trademarks
of Apple Computer, Inc., registered in the U.S. and other
countries. Finder is a trademark of Apple Computer, Inc.
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regard to the performance or use of these products.
019-0635/2-15-2006
1
Contents
Preface
15
16
16
16
16
16
17
17
18
18
About This Guide
Using This Guide
Understanding Notation Conventions
Summary
Commands and Other Terminal Text
Command Parameters and Options
Default Settings
Commands Requiring Root Privileges
Getting Documentation Updates
Getting Additional Information
Chapter 1
21
21
22
23
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24
25
26
26
26
26
26
27
27
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28
Executing Commands
Opening Terminal
Specifying Files and Folders
Modifying Flow Control
Redirecting Input and Output
Using Environment Variables
Executing Commands and Running Tools
Correcting Typing Errors
Repeating Commands
Including Paths Using Drag and Drop
Searching for Text Within a File
Commands Requiring Root Privileges
Terminating Commands
Scheduling Tasks
Sending Commands to a Remote Computer
Viewing Command Information
Chapter 2
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31
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32
33
Connecting to Remote Computers
Understanding Secure Shell
How SSH Works
Password-Less Logins Using SSH Keys
Updating SSH Key Fingerprints
3
4
34
34
35
35
36
What is an SSH Man-in-the-Middle Attack?
Controlling Access to SSH Service
Connecting to a Remote Computer
Using SSH
Using Telnet
Chapter 3
37
37
38
39
39
40
40
40
41
43
43
47
47
48
48
48
49
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50
51
Installing Server Software and Finishing Basic Setup
Installing Server Software
Locating Computers for Installation
Specifying the Target Computer Volume
Preparing the Target Volume for a Clean Installation
Installing from Multiple CDs
Restarting After Installation
Automating Server Setup
Creating a Configuration File
Working with an Encrypted Configuration File
Customizing a Configuration File
Storing a Configuration File in an Accessible Location
Configuring the Server Remotely from the Command Line
Changing Server Settings
Using the serversetup Tool
Using the serveradmin Tool
General and Network Preferences
Viewing, Validating, and Setting the Software Serial Number
Updating Server Software
Moving a Server
Chapter 4
53
53
53
54
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54
55
Restarting or Shutting Down a Computer
Restarting a Computer
Automatic Restart
Changing a Remote Computer’s Startup Disk
Shutting Down a Computer
Manipulating Open Firmware NVRAM Variables
Monitoring and Restarting Critical Services
Chapter 5
57
57
57
58
58
58
58
59
Setting General System Preferences
Viewing or Changing the Computer Name
Viewing or Changing the Date and Time
Viewing or Changing the System Date
Viewing or Changing the System Time
Viewing or Changing the System Time Zone
Viewing or Changing Network Time Server Usage
Viewing or Changing the Energy Saver Settings
Contents
Chapter 6
59
59
60
60
61
61
61
61
62
Viewing or Changing Sleep Settings
Viewing or Changing Automatic Restart Settings
Changing the Power Management Settings
Viewing or Changing the Startup Disk Settings
Viewing or Changing the Sharing Settings
Viewing or Changing Remote Login Settings
Viewing or Changing Apple Event Response
Viewing or Changing the International Settings
Viewing and Changing the Login Settings
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Setting Network Preferences
Configuring Network Interfaces
Managing Network Interface Information
Viewing Port Names and Hardware Addresses
Viewing or Changing MTU Values
Viewing or Changing Media Settings
Managing Network Port Configurations
Creating or Deleting Port Configurations
Activating Port Configurations
Changing Configuration Precedence
Managing TCP/IP Settings
Changing a Server’s IP Address
Viewing or Changing IP Address, Subnet Mask, or Router Address
Viewing or Changing DNS Servers
Enabling TCP/IP
Working with VLANs
IEEE 802.3ad Ethernet Link Aggregation
Managing AppleTalk Settings
Managing SNMP Settings
Installing SNMP
Starting SNMP
Configuring SNMP
Collecting SNMP Information from the Host
Managing Proxy Settings
Viewing or Changing FTP Proxy Settings
Viewing or Changing Web Proxy Settings
Viewing or Changing Secure Web Proxy Settings
Viewing or Changing Streaming Proxy Settings
Viewing or Changing Gopher Proxy Settings
Viewing or Changing SOCKS Firewall Proxy Settings
Viewing or Changing Proxy Bypass Domains
Managing AirPort Settings
Managing the Computer, Host, and Bonjour Names
Contents
5
6
79
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81
Computer Name
Hostname
Bonjour Name
Managing Preference Files and the Configuration Daemon
Changing Network Locations
Chapter 7
83
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94
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95
Working with Disks and Volumes
Understanding Disks, Partitions, and the File System
Mounting and Unmounting Volumes
Mounting Volumes
Unmounting Volumes
Displaying Disk Information
Monitoring Disk Space
Reclaiming Disk Space Using Log-Rolling Scripts
Erasing, Modifying, Verifying, and Repairing Disks
Partitioning and Formatting Disks
Partitioning a Disk
Labeling a Disk
Formatting a Disk
Checking for Disk Problems
Managing Disk Journaling
Checking to See If Journaling is Enabled
Enabling Journaling for an Existing Volume
Enabling Journaling When You Erase a Disk
Disabling Journaling
Understanding Spotlight Technology
Enabling and Disabling Spotlight
Performing Spotlight Searches
Controlling Spotlight Indexing
Managing RAID Volumes
Imaging and Cloning Volumes Using ASR
Chapter 8
97
97
98
98
99
100
100
103
103
104
106
Working with Users and Groups
Understanding Accounts
Administering and Creating Accounts
Creating a Local Administrator User Account for a Server
Creating a Domain Administrator User Account
Checking a User’s Administrator Privileges
Creating a Nonadministrator User Account
Retreiving a User’s GUID
Removing a User Account
Revoking a User’s Right to Access His or Her Account
Checking a Server User’s Name, UID, or Password
Contents
Chapter 9
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113
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118
119
120
123
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124
125
126
126
126
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128
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Modifying a User Account
Creating a Mobile User Account
Managing Home Folders
Administering Group Accounts
Creating a Group Account
Removing a Group Account
Adding a User to a Group
Removing a User from a Group
Creating and Deleting Nested Group
Editing Group Records
Creating a Group Folder
Viewing the Workgroup a User Selects at Login
Importing Users and Groups
Creating a Character-Delimited User Import File
Setting Permissions
Viewing Permissions
Setting the umask for Individual Users
Changing Permissions
Changing the Owner
Changing the Group
Securing System Accounts
Securing Initial System Accounts
Securing the Root Account
Restricting Use of the sudo Tool
Securing Single-User Boot
Setting Password Policy
Finding User Account Information
133
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136
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137
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140
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142
Working with File Services
Managing Share Points
Listing Share Points
Creating a Share Point
Modifying a Share Point
Disabling a Share Point
Managing the AFP Service
Starting and Stopping AFP Service
Checking AFP Service Status
Viewing AFP Settings
Changing AFP Settings
List of AFP Settings
List of AFP serveradmin Commands
Listing Connected Users
Sending a Message to AFP Users
Contents
7
Chapter 10
8
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156
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Disconnecting AFP Users
Canceling a User Disconnect
Listing AFP Service Statistics
Viewing AFP Log Files
Managing the NFS Service
Starting and Stopping NFS Service
Checking NFS Service Status
Viewing NFS Service Settings
Changing NFS Service Settings
Managing the FTP Service
Starting FTP Service
Stopping FTP Service
Checking FTP Service Status
Viewing FTP Service Settings
Changing FTP Service Settings
List of FTP Service Settings
List of FTP serveradmin Commands
Viewing the FTP Transfer Log
Checking for Connected FTP Users
Managing the SMB/CIFS Service
Starting and Stopping SMB/CIFS Service
Checking SMB/CIFS Service Status
Viewing SMB/CIFS Service Settings
Changing SMB/CIFS Service Settings
List of SMB/CIFS Service Settings
List of SMB/CIFS serveradmin Commands
Listing SMB/CIFS Users
Disconnecting SMB/CIFS Users
Listing SMB/CIFS Service Statistics
Updating Share Point Information
Viewing SMB/CIFS Service Logs
Managing ACLs
Using chmod to Modify ACLs
161
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163
163
163
166
167
Working with the Print Service
Understanding the Print Process
Performing Print Service Tasks
Starting and Stopping Print Service
Checking the Status of Print Service
Viewing Print Service Settings
Changing Print Service Settings
Managing the Print Service
Listing Queues
Contents
167
167
168
169
169
Pausing a Queue
Listing Jobs and Job Information
Holding a Job
Viewing Print Service Log Files
Viewing Cover Pages
Chapter 11
171
171
171
172
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175
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176
176
177
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Working with NetBoot Service and System Images
Understanding the NetBoot Service
Starting and Stopping NetBoot Service
Checking NetBoot Service Status
Viewing NetBoot Settings
Changing NetBoot Settings
Changing General Netboot Service Settings
Storage Record Array
Filters Record Array
Image Record Array
Port Record Array
Working with System Images
Updating an Image
Booting from an Image
Using hdiutil to Work with System Images
Using asr to Restore System Images
Imaging Multiple Clients Using Multicast asr
Choosing a Boot Device Using systemsetup
Chapter 12
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179
180
180
181
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181
181
181
182
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195
196
197
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198
Working with the Mail Service
Understanding the Mail Service
Postfix Agent
Cyrus
Mailman
Managing the Mail Service
Starting and Stopping Mail Service
Checking the Status of Mail Service
Viewing Mail Service Settings
Changing Mail Service Settings
Mail Service Settings
Mail serveradmin Commands
Listing Mail Service Statistics
Viewing the Mail Service Logs
Backing Up the Mail Files
Reconstructing the Mail Database
Setting Up SSL for Mail Service
Generating a CSR and Creating a Keychain
Contents
9
10
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201
202
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203
Obtaining an SSL Certificate
Importing an SSL Certificate into the Keychain
Accessing the Server Certificates
Creating a Password File
Configuring Mailboxes
Enabling Sieve Scripting
Enabling Sieve Support
Chapter 13
207
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208
208
208
208
209
209
209
210
210
210
210
212
213
214
214
214
215
Working with Web Technologies
Understanding Web Technology
Managing the Web Service
Starting and Stopping Web Service
Checking Web Service Status
Viewing Web Settings
Changing Web Settings
serveradmin and Apache Settings
Changing Settings Using serveradmin
Web serveradmin Commands
Listing Hosted Sites
Viewing Service Logs
Viewing Service Statistics
Example Script for Adding a Website
Tuning the Server Performance
Working with Application Servers and Java
Apache Tomcat
JBoss Server
MySQL Database
Chapter 14
217
217
218
218
218
218
219
219
220
222
223
224
224
225
225
Working with Network Services
Managing Network Services
Managing the DHCP Service
Starting and Stopping DHCP Service
Checking the Status of DHCP Service
Viewing DHCP Service Settings
Changing DHCP Service Settings
DHCP Service Settings
DHCP Subnet Settings Array
Adding a DHCP Subnet
Adding a DHCP Static Map
List of DHCP serveradmin Commands
Viewing the DHCP Service Log
Managing the DNS Service
Starting and Stopping the DNS Service
Contents
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Checking the Status of DNS Service
Viewing DNS Service Settings
Changing DNS Service Settings
DNS Service Settings
List of DNS serveradmin Commands
Viewing the DNS Service Log
Listing DNS Service Statistics
Configuring IP Forwarding
Managing the Firewall Service
Firewall Startup
Starting and Stopping Firewall Service
Checking the Status of Firewall Service
Viewing Firewall Service Settings
Changing Firewall Service Settings
Firewall Service Settings
Defining Firewall Rules
ipfilter Rules Array
Firewall serveradmin Commands
Viewing Firewall Service Log
Using Firewall Service to Simulate Network Activity
Managing the NAT Service
Starting and Stopping NAT Service
Checking the Status of NAT Service
Viewing NAT Service Settings
Changing NAT Service Settings
NAT Service Settings
NAT serveradmin Commands
Port Mapping
Viewing the NAT Service Log
Managing the VPN Service
Starting and Stopping VPN Service
Checking the Status of VPN Service
Viewing VPN Service Settings
Changing VPN Service Settings
List of VPN Service Settings
List of VPN serveradmin Commands
Viewing the VPN Service Log
Site-to-Site VPN
Configuring Site-to-Site VPN
Adding a VPN Keyagent User
Setting Up IP Failover
IP Failover Prerequisites
IP Failover Operation
Contents
11
12
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248
248
Enabling IP Failover
Configuring IP Failover
Enabling PPP Dial-In
Restoring the Default Configuration for Server Services
Chapter 15
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258
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264
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265
Working with Open Directory
Understanding Open Directory
Using General Directory Tools
Testing Your Open Directory Configuration
Modifying a Directory Domain
Testing Open Directory Plug-ins
Registering URLs with SLP
Changing Open Directory Service Settings
Managing OpenLDAP
Configuring LDAP
Configuring slapd and slurpd Daemons
Idle Rebinding Options
Searching the LDAP Server
Using LDIF Files
Additional Information About LDAP
Managing NetInfo
Configuring NetInfo
Managing Open Directory Passwords
Open Directory Password Server
Kerberos and Apple Single Sign-On
Using Directory Service Tools
Operating on Directory Service Directory Domains
Finding Network Information
Manipulating a Single Named Group Record
Adding or Removing LDAP Server Configurations
Configuring the Active Directory Plug-In
Chapter 16
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Working with QuickTime Streaming Server
Understanding QuickTime Streaming Server
Performing QTSS Service Tasks
Starting and Stopping the QTSS Service
Checking QTSS Service Status
Viewing QTSS Settings
Changing QTSS Settings
QTSS Settings
Managing QTSS
Listing Current Connections
Viewing QTSS Service Statistics
Contents
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Viewing Service Logs
Forcing QTSS to Reread its Preferences
Preparing Older Home Folders for User Streaming
Configuring Streaming Security
Resetting the Streaming Server Admin User Name and Password
Controlling Access to Streamed Media
Creating an Access File
Accessing Protected Media
Adding User Accounts and Passwords
Adding or Deleting Groups
Making Changes to the User or Group File
Manipulating QuickTime and MP4 Movies
Creating Reference Movies
Chapter 17
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283
Configuring System Logging
Logging System Events
Configuring the Log File
Configuring Your System Logging
Local Logging
Remote Logging
Appendix
285
PCI RAID Card Command Reference
Glossary
289
Index
299
Contents
13
14
Contents
Preface
About This Guide
This guide describes Mac OS X Servers command-line
interface tools and commands, including the syntax, purpose,
and parameters, as well as examples of usage and any output
that they generate.
This guide is written for system administrators familiar with administering and
managing servers, storage, and networks.
Beneath the interface of Mac OS X is a core operating system commonly known as
Darwin. Darwin integrates a number of technologies, most importantly Mach 3.0,
operating-system services based on Berkeley Software Distribution (BSD) release 4.4
high-performance networking facilities, and support for multiple integrated file
systems.
Darwin maintains most of the functionality of 4.4BSD commands. While some
commands are modified to function differently, most of the commands are either kept
as is, or their functionality has been extended to support Apple-specific technologies.
This guide focuses on commands developed by Apple to allow administrators to
perform funtions available in the graphical interface from the command line. The guide
also highlights BSD commands that have been modified or extended to support Applespecific functionality. Finally, the guide describes important commands commonly
used by UNIX system administrators.
Note: Because Apple frequently releases new versions and updates to its software,
images shown in this book may be different from what you see on your screen.
15
Using This Guide
This guide describes commands that perform functions used to configure and manage
Mac OS X computers. Chapters in this guide describe sets of commands that work for
specific aspects of the operating system.
Use this guide to:
 Learn which commands are available for specific tasks
 Learn how the commands work, and how to execute them
 Review examples of command usage
Understanding Notation Conventions
The following conventions are used throughout this book.
Summary
Notation
Indicates
monospaced font
A command or other text typed in a Terminal window
$
A shell prompt
[text_in_brackets]
An optional parameter
(one|other)
Alternative parameters (enter one or the other)
italicized
A parameter you must replace with a value
[...]
A parameter that may be repeated
<angle brackets>
A displayed value that depends on your server configuration
Commands and Other Terminal Text
Commands or command parameters that you might enter, along with other text that
normally appears in a Terminal window, are shown in this font. For example:
You can use the doit command to get things done.
When a command is shown on a line by itself in this manual, it is preceded by a dollar
sign and a space that represent the shell prompt. For example:
$ doit
To use this command, enter it without the dollar sign and the space in a Terminal
window, and then press the Return key. (Terminal is found in /Applications/Utilities).
Command Parameters and Options
Most commands require one or more parameters to specify command options or the
item to which the command is applied.
16
Preface About This Guide
Parameters You Must Enter as Shown
If you must enter a parameter as shown, it appears following the command in the
same font. For example:
$ doit -w later -t 12:30
To use the command in this example, enter the entire line as shown (without the $ and
space).
Parameter Values You Provide
If you must provide a value, its placeholder is italicized and has a name that indicates
what you need to provide. For example:
$ doit -w later -t hh:mm
In this example, you replace hh with the hour and mm with the minute, as shown in the
previous example.
Optional Parameters
If a parameter is not required, it appears in square brackets. For example:
$ doit [-w later]
To use the command in this example, enter either doit or doit
might vary, but the command will be performed either way.
-w later. The
result
Alternative Parameters
If you must enter one of a number of parameters, they’re separated by a vertical line
and grouped within parentheses (|). For example:
$ doit -w (now|later)
To perform this command, enter either doit
-w now
or doit
-w later.
Default Settings
Descriptions of server settings usually include the default value for each setting. When
this default value depends on your configuration (such as the name or IP address of
your server), it’s enclosed in angle brackets.
For example, the default value for the IMAP mail server is the host name of your server.
This is indicated by mail:imap:servername = "<hostname>".
Commands Requiring Root Privileges
Throughout this manual, commands that require root privileges begin with sudo. See
“Commands Requiring Root Privileges” on page 26.
Preface About This Guide
17
Getting Documentation Updates
Periodically, Apple posts revised guides and solution papers. To download the latest
guides and solution papers in PDF format, go to the Mac OS X Server documentation
webpage: www.apple.com/server/documentation.
Getting Additional Information
For more information, consult these resources:
Read Me documents—Important updates and special information. Look for them on the
server discs.
Man pages (developer.apple.com/documentation/Darwin/Reference/ManPages/)—The
Apple Developer Connection (ADC) Reference Library contains man pages for many
BSD and POSIX functions and applications included with Mac OS X.
Mac OS X Server website (www.apple.com/macosx/server/)—Gateway to extensive
product and technology information.
AppleCare Service & Support website (www.apple.com/support/)—Access to hundreds of
articles from Apple’s support organization.
Apple customer training (train.apple.com)—Instructor-led and self-paced courses for
honing your server administration skills.
Apple discussion groups (discussions.info.apple.com)—A way to share questions,
knowledge, and advice with other administrators.
Apple mailing list folder (www.lists.apple.com)—Subscribe to mailing lists so you can
communicate with other administrators using email.
The public source website (developer.apple.com/darwin/)—Access to Darwin source
code, developer information, and FAQs.
Mac OS X Server suite documentation (www.apple.com/server/documentation/)—The
Mac OS X Server documentation includes a suite of guides that explain the available
services and provide instructions for configuring, managing, and troubleshooting those
services.
18
This guide ...
tells you how to:
Mac OS X Server Getting Started
for Version 10.4 or Later
Install Mac OS X Server and set it up for the first time.
Mac OS X Server Upgrading and
Migrating to Version 10.4 or Later
Use data and service settings that are currently being used on
earlier versions of the server.
Mac OS X Server User
Management for Version 10.4 or
Later
Create and manage users, groups, and computer lists. Set up
managed preferences for Mac OS X clients.
Preface About This Guide
This guide ...
tells you how to:
Mac OS X Server File Services
Administration for Version 10.4 or
Later
Share selected server volumes or folders among server clients
using these protocols: AFP, NFS, FTP, and SMB/CIFS.
Mac OS X Server Print Service
Administration for Version 10.4 or
Later
Host shared printers and manage their associated queues and print
jobs.
Mac OS X Server System Imaging
and Software Update
Administration for Version 10.4 or
Later
Use NetBoot and Network Install to create disk images from which
Macintosh computers can start up over the network. Set up a
software update server for updating client computers over the
network.
Mac OS X Server Mail Service
Administration for Version 10.4 or
Later
Set up, configure, and administer mail services on the server.
Mac OS X Server Web
Technologies Administration for
Version 10.4 or Later
Set up and manage a web server, including WebDAV, WebMail, and
web modules.
Mac OS X Server Network Services Set up, configure, and administer DHCP, DNS, VPN, NTP, IP firewall,
Administration for Version 10.4 or and NAT services on the server.
Later
Mac OS X Server Open Directory
Administration for Version 10.4 or
Later
Manage directory and authentication services.
Mac OS X Server QuickTime
Streaming Server Administration
for Version 10.4 or Later
Set up and manage QuickTime streaming services.
Mac OS X Server Windows
Services Administration for
Version 10.4 or Later
Set up and manage services including PDC, BDC, file, and print for
Windows computer users.
Mac OS X Server Migrating from
Windows NT for Version 10.4 or
Later
Move accounts, shared folders, and services from Windows NT
servers to Mac OS X Server.
Mac OS X Server Java Application
Server Administration For Version
10.4 or Later
Configure and administer a JBoss application server on Mac OS X
Server.
Mac OS X Server Command-Line
Administration for Version 10.4 or
Later
Use commands and configuration files to perform server
administration tasks in a UNIX command shell.
Mac OS X Server Collaboration
Services Administration for
Version 10.4 or Later
Set up and manage weblog, chat, and other services that facilitate
interactions among users.
Mac OS X Server High Availability
Administration for Version 10.4 or
Later
Manage IP failover, link aggregation, load balancing, and other
hardware and software configurations to ensure high availability of
Mac OS X Server services.
Preface About This Guide
19
This guide ...
tells you how to:
Mac OS X Server Xgrid
Administration for Version 10.4 or
Later
Manage computational Xserve clusters using the Xgrid application.
Mac OS X Server
Interpret terms used for server and storage products.
Glossary: Includes Terminology for
Mac OS X Server, Xserve, Xserve
RAID, and Xsan
20
Preface About This Guide
1
Executing Commands
1
In this chapter you will find out how to execute commands
and view online information about commands and tools.
A command-line interface is a way for you to manipulate your computer in situations
where a graphical approach is not available. The Terminal application is the Mac OS X
gateway to the BSD command-line interface (UNIX shell command prompt). Each
window in Terminal contains a complete execution context, called a shell, that is
separate from all other execution contexts. The shell itself is an interactive
programming language interpreter, with a specialized syntax for executing commands
and writing structured programs, called shell scripts.
Different shells feature slightly different capabilities and programming syntax. Although
you can use any shell of your choice, the examples in this book assume that you are
using bash, the standard Mac OS X shell.
Opening Terminal
To enter shell commands or run server command-line tools, you need access to a UNIX
shell prompt. Both Mac OS X and Mac OS X Server include Terminal, an application you
can use to start a UNIX shell command-line session on the local server or on a remote
server.
To open Terminal, click the Terminal icon in the dock or double-click the application
icon in the Finder (located in /Applications/Utilities/).
Terminal presents a prompt when it is ready to accept a command. The prompt you see
depends on your Terminal and shell preferences, but often includes the name of the
host you’re logged in to, your current working folder, your user name, and a prompt
symbol.
21
For example, if you’re using the default bash shell and the prompt displays as:
server1:~ anne$
Where you are logged in to a computer named “server1” as the user named “anne,” and
your current folder is anne’s home folder (~).
Throughout this manual, wherever a command is shown as you might enter it, the
prompt is abbreviated as $.
Specifying Files and Folders
Most commands operate on files and folders, the locations of which are identified
by paths. The folder names that make up a path are separated by slash characters.
For example, the path to the Terminal application is
/Applications/Utilities/Terminal.app.
Some of the standard shortcuts used to represent specific folders in the computer are
shown in the following table. Because they are relative to the current folder, these
shortcuts eliminate the need to enter full paths in many situations.
Path string
Description
.
A single period represents the current folder. This value is often used as a shortcut to
eliminate the need to enter in a full path. For example, the string “./Test.c” represents
the Test.c file in the current folder.
..
Two periods represents the parent folder of the current folder. This string is used
for navigating up one level from the current folder through the folder hierarchy.
For example, the string “../Test” represents a sibling folder (named Test) of the current
folder.
~
The tilde character represents the home folder of the user currently logged in.
In Mac OS X, this folder resides either in the local /Users folder or on a network server.
For example, to specify the Documents folder of the current user, you would specify ~/
Documents.
File and folder names traditionally include only letters, numbers, a period, or the
underscore character. Most other characters, including space characters, should be
avoided. Although some Mac OS X file systems permit the use of these other
characters, including spaces, you may have to add single or double quotation marks
around any pathnames that contain them. For individual characters, you can also
“escape” the character—that is, put a backslash character immediately before the
character in your string. For example, the pathname My Disk would become either
“My Disk” or My\ Disk.
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Chapter 1 Executing Commands
Modifying Flow Control
Many commands are capable of receiving text input from the user and printing text
out to the console. They do so using standard pipes, which are created by the shell and
passed to the command automatically.
The standard pipes include:
 stdin—The standard input pipe is the means through which data enters a
command. By default, this is data entered by the user from the command-line
interface. You can also redirect the output from files or other commands to stdin.
 stdout—The standard output pipe is where the command output is sent. By default,
command output is sent back to the command line. You can also redirect the output
from the command to other commands and tools.
 stderr—The standard error pipe is where error messages are sent. By default, errors
are displayed on the command line like standard output.
Redirecting Input and Output
From the command line, you may redirect input and output from a command to a file
or another command. Redirecting output lets you capture the results of running the
command and store it in a file for later use. Similarly, providing an input file lets you
provide a command with preset input data, instead of having to enter that data.
Redirect
Description
>
Use the greater-than character to redirect command output to a file.
<
Use the less-than character to use the contents of a file as input to the command.
>>
Use a double greater-than to append output from a command to a file.
In addition to using file redirection, you can also redirect the output of one command
to the input of another using the vertical bar character, or pipe. You can combine
commands in this manner to implement more sophisticated versions of the same
commands. For example, the command man bash | grep “commands” passes the
formatted contents of the bash man page to the grep tool, which searches those
contents for any lines containing the word “commands.” The result is a listing of only
those lines with the specified text, instead of the entire man page.
See the bash man page for more information about redirection.
Chapter 1 Executing Commands
23
Using Environment Variables
Some commands require the use of environment variables for their execution.
Environment variables are variables inherited by all commands executed in the shell’s
context. The shell itself uses environment variables to store information, such as the
name of the current user, the name of the host computer, and the paths to any
commands. You can also create environment variables and use them to control the
behavior of your command without modifying the command itself. For example, you
might use an environment variable to tell your command to print debug information to
the console.
To set the value of an environment variable, you use the appropriate shell command to
associate a variable name with a value. For example, to set the variable PATH to the
value /bin:/sbin:/user/bin:/user/sbin:/system/Library/, you would enter the
following command in a Terminal window:
$ PATH=/bin:/sbin:/user/bin:/user/sbin:/system/Library/ export PATH
This will modify the environment variable PATH with the value assigned. To view all of
the environment variables, enter the following:
$ env
When you launch an application from a shell, the application inherits much of the
shell’s environment, including any exported environment variables. This form of
inheritance can be a useful way to configure the application dynamically. For example,
your application can check for the presence (or value) of an environment variable and
change its behavior accordingly. Different shells support different semantics for
exporting environment variables, so see the man page for your preferred shell for
further information.
Although child processes of a shell inherit the environment of that shell, shells are
separate execution contexts that do not share environment information with one
another. Thus, variables you set in one Terminal window are not set in other Terminal
windows. Once you close a Terminal window, any variables you set in that window are
gone. If you want the value of a variable to persist between sessions and in all Terminal
windows, you must set it in a shell startup script.
Another way to set environment variables in Mac OS X is with a special property list in
your home folder. At login, the computer looks for the ~/.MacOSX/environment.plist
file. If the file is present, the computer registers the environment variables in the
property-list file.
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Chapter 1 Executing Commands
Executing Commands and Running Tools
To execute a command in the shell, you must enter the complete pathname of the
tool’s executable file, followed by any arguments, and then press the Return key. If a
command is located in one of the shell’s known folders, you can omit any path
information and just enter the command name. The list of known folders is stored in
the shell’s PATH environment variable and includes the folders containing most of the
command-line tools.
For example, to run the ls command in the current user’s home folder, you could
simply enter it at the command line and press the Return key.
host:~ anne$ ls
To run a command in the current user’s home folder, you would precede it with the
folder specifier. For example, to run MyCommandLineProg, you would use something
like the following:
host:~ anne$ ./MyCommandLineProg
To launch a tool package, you can either use the open command (open MyProg.app) or
launch the tool by typing the pathname of the executable file inside the package,
usually something like ./MyProg.app/Contents/MacOS/MyProg.
When entering commands, if you get the message command
spelling.
not found, check
your
server:/ anne$ serversetup -getAllPort
serversetup: Command not found.
If the error recurs, the command you’re trying to run might not be in your default
search path. You can add the path before the command name, for example:
server:/ anne$ /System/Library/ServerSetup/serversetup -getAllPort
1
Built-in Ethernet
or change your working folder to the folder that contains the tool. For example:
server:/ anne$ cd /System/Library/ServerSetup
server:/System/Library/ServerSetup anne$ ./serversetup -getAllPort
1
Built-in Ethernet
or
server:/System/Library/ServerSetup anne$ cd /
server:/ anne$ PATH="$PATH:/System/Library/ServerSetup"
server:/ anne$ serversetup -getAllPort
1
Built-in Ethernet
Chapter 1 Executing Commands
25
Correcting Typing Errors
To correct a typing error before you press Return to execute the command, press Left
Arrow or Right Arrow to skip over parts of the command you don’t want to change,
press the Delete key to remove characters, enter regular characters to insert them, and
finally press Return to execute the command.
To ignore what you have entered and start again, press Control–U.
Repeating Commands
To repeat a command, press Up Arrow until you see the command, make any
modifications, and then press Return.
Including Paths Using Drag and Drop
To include a fully qualified filename or folder path in a command, you can drag and
drop the folder or file from a Finder window into the Terminal window.
Searching for Text Within a File
To locate a unique string within a file, use the grep tool. The grep tool searches the
named input files for lines containing a match to the given pattern. By default, grep
prints the matching lines.
To search for a unique string in a file:
$ grep sunshine filename
where filename is the name of the file you wish to search through and sunshine is the
unique string.
Commands Requiring Root Privileges
Many commands used to manage a server must be executed by the root user. If you
get a message such as permission denied, the command probably requires root
privileges.
To execute a single command as the root user, begin the command with sudo (short for
super user do). For example:
$ sudo serveradmin list
You’re prompted for the root password if you haven’t used sudo recently. The root user
password is set to the administrator user password when you install Mac OS X Server.
To switch to the root user so you don’t have to repeatedly enter sudo, use the su
command:
$su root
You’re prompted for the root user password and then are logged in as the root user
until you log out or use the su command to switch to another user.
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Chapter 1 Executing Commands
Important: As the root user, you have sufficient privileges to do things that can cause
your server to stop working properly. Don’t execute commands as the root user unless
you know what you’re doing. Logging in as an administrator user and using sudo
selectively might prevent you from making unintended changes.
Terminating Commands
To terminate the currently running command, enter Control-C. This keyboard shortcut
sends an abort signal to the command. In most cases this causes the command to
terminate, although commands may install signal handlers to trap this signal and
respond differently.
Scheduling Tasks
You can create scheduled tasks using the cron tool. cron is a daemon that executes
scheduled commands from a crontab file. The cron tool searches the /var/cron/tabs
folder for crontab files that are named after accounts in /etc/passwd, and loads the files
into memory. cron also searches for crontab files in the /etc/crontab folder, which are in
a different format. cron then cycles every minute, examining all stored crontab files and
checking each command to see if it should be run in the current minute.
When commands execute, any output is mailed to the owner of the crontab file or to
the user named in the MAILTO environment variable in the crontab file, if such exists.
When a crontab file has been modified, cron needs to be restarted. crontab is the
program used to install, deinstall, or list the tables used to drive the cron daemon.
Each user can have their own crontab file.
To configure your crontab file, use the crontab
crontab file.
-e
command. This displays an empty
An example of a configured crontab file:
SHELL=/bin/sh
PATH=/bin:/sbin:/usr/bin:/usr/sbin
HOME=/var/log
#min
30
50
15
45
hour
18
23
10
8
mday
*
*
*
*
month
*
*
*
*
wday
1-5
0
6
1
command
/usr/local/vscanx
/usr/local/vscanx
/usr/local/vscanx
/usr/local/vscanx
folder-name
--summary folder-name
--load /usr/local/conf1 /uz
--f /usr/local/biglist
Listed below is an explanation of the crontab structure shown above.
The following crontab entry schedules a scan operation to run and produce a summary
at 18:30 every day, Monday through Friday:
30 18 * * 1-5 /usr/local/vscanx folder-name
Chapter 1 Executing Commands
27
The following crontab entry schedules a scan operation to run and produce a summary
at 23:50 every Sunday:
50 23 * * 0 /usr/local/vscanx --summary folder-name
The following crontab entry schedules a scan operation to run on the uz folder at 10:15
a.m. every Saturday in accordance with options specified in a configuration file conf1:
15 10 * * 6 /usr/local/vscanx --load /usr/local/conf1 /uz
The following crontab entry schedules a scan operation to run at 8:45 a.m. every
Monday on the files specified in the file biglist:
45 8 * * 1 /usr/local/vscanx --f /usr/local/biglist
Sending Commands to a Remote Computer
You must connect to a remote computer before you can execute commands on it.
You can send commands to a remote computer using:
 Secure Shell (SSH), a tool for logging in to a remote computer and for executing
commands on a remote computer.
 Telnet, a tool for communicating with another computer using the TELNET protocol.
See Chapter 2, “Connecting to Remote Computers,” on page 31 for information about
sending commands to remote computers.
Viewing Command Information
Most command-line documentation comes in the form of man pages. These are
formatted pages that provide reference information for shell commands, tools, and
high-level concepts. You can also access command information using the help
command, and sometimes information is displayed if you enter the command without
any parameters or options.
To access a man page:
$ man command
where command is the topic you want to find information about. The man page contains
detailed information about the command, its options, parameters, and proper use. For
help using the man command, enter:
$ man man
If the man pages are so long that they do not fit on your screen, you can use the more
or less command to automatically paginate the file. This allows you to view the file
faster by loading full screens of the man page at a time, rather than the entire file.
$ man serveradmin | less
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Chapter 1 Executing Commands
When you use more or less, an information bar appears at the bottom of the screen.
When you see the bar, you can press the Space bar to go to the next page, the B key to
go back a page, or the Return key to scroll the file forward one line at a time. When you
get to the end of a file, more will return you to the prompt and less will wait for you
to press the Q key to quit.
Several third-party Mac OS X applications are available for viewing formatted man
pages in scrollable windows. You can find one by choosing Mac OS X Software from the
Apple menu, and then seraching for “man page.”
Note: Not all commands and tools have man pages. For a list of available man pages,
look in /usr/share/man.
To access command help, enter the command followed by the -help, -h, --help,
or help parameter:
$ hdiutil help
$ dig -h
$ diff --help
To view a pop-up list of options and parameters you can use with the command,
enter the command without any options or parameters:
$ sudo serveradmin
Note: Not all techniques work for all commands, and some commands don’t have
onscreen help.
Chapter 1 Executing Commands
29
30
Chapter 1 Executing Commands
2
Connecting to Remote Computers
2
In this chapter you will find commands you can use to
connect to remote computers.
Connecting to remote computers helps you manage and configure resources
efficiently. This chapter covers using SSH and Telnet to connect to remote computers.
Understanding Secure Shell
Secure Shell (SSH) lets you send secure, encrypted commands to a computer remotely,
as if you were sitting at the computer. You use the ssh tool in Terminal to open a
command-line connection to a remote computer. While the connection is open,
commands you enter are performed on the remote computer.
Note: You can use any application that supports SSH to connect to a computer running
Mac OS X or Mac OS X Server.
How SSH Works
SSH works by setting up encrypted tunnels using public and private keys. Here is a
description of an SSH session:
 The local and remote computers exchange their public keys. If the local computer
has never encountered a given public key before, both SSH and a web browser will
prompt you whether to accept the unknown key.
 The two computers use the public keys to negotiate a session key that is used to
encrypt all subsequent session data.
 The remote computer attempts to authenticate the local computer using RSA or DSA
certificates. If this is not possible, the local computer is prompted for a standard username/password combination. See “Password-Less Logins Using SSH Keys” on
page 32 for information about setting up certificate authentication.
 After successful authentication, the session begins. Either a remote shell, a secure file
transfer, a remote command, or so on, is begun through the encrypted tunnel.
31
You should be aware of the following SSH tools:
 sshd—Daemon that acts as a server to all other commands
 ssh—Primary user tool: remote shell, remote command, and port-forwarding
sessions
 scp—Secure copy, a tool for automated file transfers
 sftp—Secure FTP, a replacement for FTP
Password-Less Logins Using SSH Keys
The standard method of SSH authentication is supplying login credentials in the form
of a user name and password. Identity key pair authentication enables you to log in to
the server without having to supply a password. This process works by:
 Generating a private and public key associated with a user name to establish that
user’s authenticity. When you attempt to log in as that user, the user name is sent to
the remote computer.
 The remote computer looks in the user’s .ssh/ folder for the user’s public key. This
folder is created after using SSH the first time.
 A challenge is then sent to the user based on his or her public key.
 The user verifies his or her identity by using the private portion of the key pair to
decode the challenge.
 Once decoded, the user is logged in without the need for a password. This is
especially useful when automating remote scripts.
To generate the identity key pair, use the following command on the local computer:
$ ssh-keygen -t dsa
When prompted, enter a filename in which to save the keys in the user’s folder. Then
enter a password followed by password verification (empty for no password). For
example:
Generating public/private dsa key pair.
Enter file in which to save the key (/Users/anne/.ssh/id_dsa): frog
Enter passphrase (empty for no passphrase):
Enter same passphrase again:
Your identification has been saved in frog.
Your public key has been saved in frog.pub.
The key fingerprint is:
4a:5c:6e:9f:3e:35:8b:e5:c9:5a:ac:00:e6:b8:d7:96 annejohnson1@mac.com
This creates two files. Your identification or private key is saved in one file (frog in our
example) and your public key is saved in the other (frog.pub in our example). The key
fingerprint, which is derived cryptographically from the public key value, is also
displayed. This secures the public key, making it computationally infeasible for
duplication.
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Chapter 2 Connecting to Remote Computers
Copy the resultant public file, which contains the local computer’s public key to the
user’s home folder in .ssh/ on the remote computer. The next time you log in to the
remote computer from the local computer you won’t need to enter a password.
Note: If you are using an Open Directory user account and have already logged in
using the account, you do not have to supply a pasword for SSH login. On Mac OS X
Server computers, SSH uses Kerberos for single sign-on authentication with any user
account that has an Open Directory password (Kerberos must be running on the Open
Directory server). See the Open Directory administration guide for more information.
Updating SSH Key Fingerprints
The first time you connect to a remote computer using SSH, the local computer
prompts for permission to add the remote computer’s fingerprint (or encrypted public
key) to a list of known remote computers. You might see a message like this:
The authenticity of host "server1.example.com" can’t be established.
RSA key fingerprint is a8:0d:27:63:74:f1:ad:bd:6a:e4:0d:a3:47:a8:f7.
Are you sure you want to continue connecting (yes/no)?
The first time you connect, you have no way of knowing whether this is the correct
host key. Most people respond “yes.” The host key is then inserted into the ~/.ssh/
known_hosts file so it can be compared against in later sessions. Be sure this is the
correct key before accepting it. If at all possible, provide your users with the encryption
key either through FTP, email, or a download from the web, so they can be sure of the
identity of the server.
If you later see a warning message about a man-in-the-middle attack when you try to
connect, it might be because the key on the remote computer no longer matches the
key stored on the local computer. This can happen if you:
 Change your SSH configuration on either the local or remote computer.
 Perform a clean installation of the server software on the computer you are
attempting to log in to using SSH.
 Start up from a Mac OS X Server CD on the computer you are attempting to log in to
using SSH.
 Are attempting to SSH in to a computer that has the same IP address as a computer
that you previously used SSH with on another network.
To connect again, delete the entries corresponding to the remote computer (which can
be stored by both name and IP address) in the file ~/.ssh/known_hosts.
Chapter 2 Connecting to Remote Computers
33
What is an SSH Man-in-the-Middle Attack?
An attacker may be able to get access to your network and compromise proper
routing information, such that packets intended for a remote computer are instead
routed to the attacker who impersonates the remote computer to the local computer
and the local computer to the remote computer. Here’s a typical scenario: A user
connects to the remote computer using SSH. By means of spoofing techniques, the
attacker poses as the remote computer and receives the information from the local
computer. The attacker then relays the information to the intended remote computer,
receives a response, and then relays the remote computer’s response to the local
computer. Throughout the process, the attacker is privy to all the information that goes
back and forth, and can modify it.
A sign that may indicate a man-in-the-middle attack is the following message when
connecting to the remote computer using SSH.
@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@
@
WARNING: REMOTE HOST IDENTIFICATION HAS CHANGED!
@
@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@
Protect against this type of attack by verifying that the host key sent back is the correct
host key for the computer you are trying to reach. Be watchful for the warning
message, and alert your users to its meaning.
Important: Removing an entry from the known_hosts file bypasses a security
mechanism that would help you avoid imposters and man-in-the-middle attacks.
Be sure you understand why the key on the remote computer has changed before you
delete its entry from the known_hosts file.
Controlling Access to SSH Service
You can use Server Admin to control which users can open a command-line
connection using the ssh tool in Terminal. Users with administrator privileges are
always allowed to open a connection using SSH. The ssh tool uses the SSH service.
For information about controlling access to the SSH service, see the Open Directory
administration guide.
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Chapter 2 Connecting to Remote Computers
Connecting to a Remote Computer
You can connect to a remote computer using SSH (secure) or Telnet (non-secure).
Using SSH
Use the ssh tool to create a secure shell connection to a remote computer.
To access a remote computer using ssh:
1 Open Terminal.
2 Enter the following command to log in to the remote computer, and then press Return:
$ ssh -l username server
where username is the name of an administrator user on the remote computer and
server is the name or IP address of the remote computer. For example:
$ ssh -l anne 10.0.1.2
3 If this is the first time you’ve connected to the remote computer, you’re prompted to
continue connecting after the remote computer’s RSA fingerprint is displayed. Enter
yes and press Return.
4 When prompted, enter the user’s password (the user’s password on the remote
computer) and press Return.
The command prompt changes to show that you’re now connected to the remote
computer. In the case of the previous example, the prompt might look like:
10.0.1.2:~ anne$
5 To send a command to the remote computer, enter the command and press Return.
To close a remote connection, enter logout and press Return.
To authenticate and send a command using a single line, append the command you
want to execute to the basic ssh tool. For example, to delete a file:
$ ssh -l anne server1.example.com rm /Users/anne/Documents/report
or
$ ssh -l anne@server1.example.com "rm /Users/anne/Documents/report"
You’re prompted for the user’s password.
Chapter 2 Connecting to Remote Computers
35
Using Telnet
Use the telnet tool to create a Telnet connection to a remote computer. Because it isn’t
as secure as SSH, Telnet access is disabled by default.
To enable Telnet access:
$ service telnet start
To disable Telnet access:
$ service telnet stop
You are strongly advised not to enable Telnet. When you log in using Telnet, your
login information, user name, and password are passed along the Internet in clear text.
In fact, your entire Telnet session is also passed along the Internet in clear text.
Any person on the network running tcpdump, ethereal, or similar applications can
effortlessly sniff the network and take possession of your user name and password.
If you run something as root during your Telnet session, your root user account will be
compromised as well.
To access a remote computer using
telnet:
$ telnet -l username server
where username is the name of an administrator user on the remote computer and
server is the name or IP address of the remote computer. For example:
$ telnet -l anne 10.0.1.2
Once connected, the remote computer will prompt for a login name, and then the
password. Depending on the type of computer you are accessing, you may see a
message of the form:
TERM = (vt100)
Press Enter to accept this default setting. You may see a series of messages on the
screen, followed by the remote computer’s prompt. You are now completely logged in.
When you are finished working, log out from the remote computer by typing logout or
exit at the remote computer’s prompt. The telnet client will automatically exit when
you log out from the remote computer.
See the telnet man page for more information.
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Chapter 2 Connecting to Remote Computers
3
Installing Server Software and
Finishing Basic Setup
3
In this chapter you will find commands you can use to install,
set up, and update Mac OS X Server software on local or
remote computers.
Some computers come with Mac OS X Server software already installed. However,
you might want to upgrade from a previous version, change a computer configuration,
automate software installation, or completely refresh your server environment. This
chapter covers the commands needed to perform a variety of software setup and
installation tasks.
Installing Server Software
You can use the /usr/sbin/installer tool to install Mac OS X Server or other software
on a computer. You can use the installer tool locally or remotely. The installer tool
requires at least two arguments: the installation package, and the destination of the
installation package. For a standard installation, your target would be the root drive.
Here is an example installation command:
$ installer -pkg OSInstall.mpkg -target /
Other useful options include:
 lang—The operating system package requires that you choose a language. This flag
allows you to do so from the command line. The argument is a two-character ISO
language code. For English, it’s en.
 verbose—Prints out the details of the installation. It’s useful for monitoring progress.
See the installer man page for detailed information.
To use installer to install Mac OS X Server software:
1 Start the target computer from the first installation CD or the installation DVD.
The procedure you use depends on the target computer hardware.
If the target computer has a keyboard and an optical drive, insert the first installation
disc into the optical drive. Then hold down the C key on the keyboard while restarting
the computer.
37
If the target computer is an Xserve with a built-in optical drive, start the computer
using the first installation disc by following the instructions for starting from a system
disc in the Xserve User’s Guide.
If the target computer is an Xserve with no built-in optical drive, you can start it in
target disk mode and insert the installation disc into the optical drive on your
administrator computer. You can also use an external FireWire optical drive or an
optical drive from another Xserve system to start the computer from the installation
disc. Instructions for using target disk mode and external optical drives are in the Quick
Start guide or Xserve User’s Guide that came with your Xserve system.
2 If you’re installing on a local computer, when Installer opens choose Utilities > Open
Terminal to open the Terminal application.
If you’re installing on a remote computer, from Terminal on an administrator computer
or from a UNIX workstation, establish an SSH session as the root user with the target
computer, substituting the target computer’s actual IP address for <ip address>:
$ ssh root@<ip address>
If you don’t know the IP address, you can use the sa_srchr tool to identify computers
on the local subnet on which you can install server software:
$ /System/Library/Serversetup/sa_srchr 224.0.0.1
mycomputer.example.com#PowerMac4,4#<ip address>#<mac address>#Mac OS X
Server 10.4#RDY4PkgInstall#2.0#512
You can also use Server Assistant to generate information for computers on the local
subnet. Open Server Assistant, select “Install software on a remote computer,” and click
Continue to access the Destination pane and generate a list of computers awaiting
installation.
3 When prompted for a password, enter the first eight digits of the computer’s built-in
hardware serial number. To find a computer’s serial number, look for a label on the
computer. If the target computer had been set up as a server, you’ll also find the
hardware serial number in /System/Library/ServerSetup/SerialNumber.
If you’re installing on an older computer that has no built-in hardware serial number,
use 12345678 for the password.
Locating Computers for Installation
If you are installing software on a remote computer from Terminal, you will first want to
establish an SSH session as the root user with the remote computer. To do so, you need
the remote computer’s IP address and serial number. You can find the serial number on
a label on the computer. Enter the serial number as the password when establishing
the SSH session. If you are installing on an older computer that has no built-in
hardware serial number, use 12345678 for the password. You can use the sa_srchr tool
to identify the IP address of each computer that’s ready for installation on your subnet.
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Chapter 3 Installing Server Software and Finishing Basic Setup
Note: To locate computers, you must have booted the computer from the installation
CD.
To list computers on the local network:
$ /System/Library/ServerSetup/sa_srchr 224.0.0.1
The sa_srchr tool uses the broadcast address 224.0.0.1 to request a response (via
sa_rspndr) from all computers ready for installation or setup. The response from a
ready computer would come from sa_rspndr running on a computer started up from
the Mac OS X Server installation CD. The computer will respond with output similar to
the following:
localhost#unknown#<ip address>#<mac address>#Mac OS X Server
10.3#RDY4PkgInstall#2.0#512
where <ip_address> is the working IP address and <mac address> is the unique MAC
address of the network interface on a computer that is ready for installation.
Specifying the Target Computer Volume
Use the installer tool to specify the target computer volume onto which you want to
install the server software.
To list volumes available for server software:
$ /usr/sbin/installer -volinfo -pkg /System/Installation/Packages/
OSInstall.mpkg
To choose a network installation image you’ve created and mounted:
$ /usr/sbin/installer -volinfo -pkg /Volumes/ServerNetworkImage10.4/System/
Installation/Packages/OSInstall.mpkg
The list displayed reflects your particular environment, but here’s an example showing
three available volumes:
/Volumes/Mount 01
/Volumes/Mount1
/Volumes/Mount02
Preparing the Target Volume for a Clean Installation
If the target volume has Mac OS X Server version 10.3 or version 10.2.8 installed, when
you run installer, it will upgrade the server to version 10.4 and preserve user files.
If you’re not upgrading but performing a clean installation, back up the user files you
want to preserve, then use diskutil to erase the volume, format it, and enable
journaling:
$ /usr/sbin/diskutil eraseVolume HFS+ "Mount 01" "/Volumes/Mount 01"
$ /usr/sbin/diskutil enableJournal "/Volumes/Mount 01"
Chapter 3 Installing Server Software and Finishing Basic Setup
39
You can also use diskutil to partition the volume and to set up mirroring. For more
information, see the diskutil man page or Chapter 7, “Working with Disks and
Volumes,” on page 83.
Important: Don’t store data on the hard disk partition where the operating system is
installed. If you must store additional software or data on the system partition, consider
mirroring the drive. With this approach, you won’t risk losing data if you need to
reinstall or upgrade system software.
Installing from Multiple CDs
If you’re using CDs for server installation, use the sa_srchr tool to install the remaining
software from the remaining installation CDs. Server Assistant opens automatically
when installation is complete.
1 To use the next installation disc, use the sa_srchr command to locate the computer
that’s waiting. For <ip address>, specify the address you used in step 2:
$ /System/Library/Serversetup/sa_srchr <ip address>
2 When the sa_srchr response includes the string “#InstallInProgress”, insert the next
installation disc:
$ mycomputer.example.com#PowerMac4,4#<ip address>#<mac address> #Mac OS X
Server 10.4#InstallInProgress#2.0#2080
Restarting After Installation
When installation from the disc is complete, restart the computer. Enter:
$ /sbin/reboot
or
$ /sbin/shutdown -r
Automating Server Setup
Normally when you install Mac OS X Server on a computer and restart, Server Assistant
opens and prompts you for the basic information necessary to get the server up and
running. This includes the user name and password of the administrator, the TCP/IP
configuration information for the computer’s network interfaces, and how the
computer uses directory services. You can automate this initial setup task by providing
a configuration file that contains these settings.
Servers that have previously had Mac OS X Server version 10.4 installed automatically
detect the presence of the saved setup information and use it to complete initial server
setup without user interaction.
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Chapter 3 Installing Server Software and Finishing Basic Setup
You can define generic setup data that can be used to set up any computer.
For example, you might want to define generic setup data for a computer that’s on
order, or to configure 50 Xserve computers you want to be identically configured.
You can also save setup data that’s specifically tailored for a particular computer.
Important: When you perform an upgrade installation, saved setup data is used and
overwrites existing server settings. If you do not want saved server setup data to be
used after an upgrade, rename the saved setup configuration file.
Creating a Configuration File
An easy way to prepare configuration files to automate the setup of a group of
computers is to start with a file saved using Server Assistant. You can save the file as
the last step when you use Server Assistant to set up the first computer, or you can run
Server Assistant later to create the file. You can then use that configuration file as a
template for creating configuration files for other computers. You can edit the file
directly, or write scripts to create customized configuration files for any number of
computers that use similar hardware.
Note: If you intend to create a generic configuration file because you want to use the
file to set up more than one computer, don’t specify network names (computer name
and local hostname), and make sure that each network interface (port) is set to be
configured using DHCP or using BootP.
To save a configuration file during server setup:
1 In the final pane of Server Assistant, after you review the settings, click Save As.
2 In the dialog that appears, choose Configuration File next to “Save As” and click OK.
 If encryption is not required, don’t select “Save in Encrypted Format.”
 To encrypt the file, select “Save in Encrypted Format” and then enter and verify a
passphrase. You must supply the passphrase before an encrypted setup file can be
used by a target computer.
3 Navigate to the location where you want to save the configuration file, name the file
using one of the following options, and click Save; when searching for setup files,
target computers search for names in the order listed:
 MAC-address-of-server.plist (include any leading zeros but omit colons)—For example,
0030654dbcef.plist.
 IP-address-of-server.plist—For example, 10.0.0.4.plist.
 partial-DNS-name-of-server.plist—For example, myserver.plist.
 built-in-hardware-serial-number-of-server.plist (first 8 characters only)—For example,
ABCD1234.plist.
 fully-qualified-DNS-name-of-server.plist—For example, myserver.example.com.plist.
Chapter 3 Installing Server Software and Finishing Basic Setup
41
 partial-IP-address-of-server.plist—For example, 10.0.plist (matches 10.0.0.4 and
10.0.1.2).
 generic.plist—A file that any server will recognize, used to set up servers that need
the same setup values.
Server Assistant uses the file to set up the computer with the matching address, name,
or serial number. If Server Assistant cannot find a file named for a particular computer,
it will use the file named generic.plist.
To create a configuration file at any time after initial setup:
1 Open Server Assistant (located in /Applications/Server/).
2 In the Welcome pane, select “Save setup information in a file or folder record” and click
Continue.
3 Enter settings in the remaining panes, then, after you review the settings in the final
pane, click Save As.
4 In the dialog that appears, choose Configuration File next to “Save As” and click OK.
 If encryption is not required, don’t select “Save in Encrypted Format.”
 To encrypt the file, select “Save in Encrypted Format” then enter and verify a
passphrase. You must supply the passphrase before an encrypted setup file can be
used by a target computer.
5 Navigate to the location where you want to save the configuration file, name the file
using one of the following options, and click Save; when searching for setup files,
target computers search for names in the order listed here:
 MAC-address-of-server.plist (include any leading zeros but omit colons)—For example,
0030654dbcef.plist.
 IP-address-of-server.plist—For example, 10.0.0.4.plist.
 partial-DNS-name-of-server.plist—For example, myserver.plist.
 built-in-hardware-serial-number-of-server.plist (first 8 characters only)—For example,
ABCD1234.plist.
 fully-qualified-DNS-name-of-server.plist—For example, myserver.example.com.plist.
 partial-IP-address-of-server.plist—For example, 10.0.plist (matches 10.0.0.4 and
10.0.1.2).
 generic.plist—A file that any computer will recognize, used to set up computers that
need the same setup values.
Server Assistant uses the file to set up the computer with the matching address, name,
or serial number. If Server Assistant cannot find a file named for a particular computer,
it will use the file named generic.plist.
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Chapter 3 Installing Server Software and Finishing Basic Setup
Working with an Encrypted Configuration File
If the setup data in the configuration file is encrypted, make the passphrase available to
the target computer or computers. You can supply the passphrase interactively using
Server Assistant, or you can provide it in a text file.
To provide a passphrase in a file:
1 Create a new text file and enter the passphrase for the saved setup file on the first line.
2 Save the file using one of the following names. Target computers search for names in
the order listed here:
 MAC-address-of-server.pass (include any leading zeros but omit colons)—For example,
0030654dbcef.pass.
 IP-address-of-server.pass—For example, 10.0.0.4.pass.
 partial-DNS-name-of-server.pass—For example, myserver.pass.
 built-in-hardware-serial-number-of-server.pass (first 8 characters only)—For example,
ABCD1234.pass.
 fully-qualified-DNS-name-of-server.pass—For example, myserver.example.com.pass.
 partial-IP-address-of-server.pass—For example, 10.0.pass (matches 10.0.0.4 and
10.0.1.2).
 generic.pass—A file that any computer will recognize.
3 Put the passphrase file on a volume mounted locally on the target computer in
/Volumes/*/Auto Server Setup/<pass-phrase-file>, where * is any device mounted
under /Volumes.
To provide a passphrase interactively:
1 Use Server Assistant on an administrator computer that can connect to the target
computer.
2 In the Welcome or Destination pane, choose File > Supply Passphrase.
3 In the dialog box, enter the target computer’s IP address, password, and the
passphrase. Click Send.
Customizing a Configuration File
After you create a configuration file, you can modify it directly using a text editor,
or write a script to automatically generate custom configuration files for a group of
computers.
The file uses XML format to encode the setup information. The name of an XML key
indicates the setup parameter it contains.
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43
The following example shows the basic structure and contents of a configuration file
for a computer with the following configuration:
 An administrator user named “Administrator” (short name “admin”) with a user ID of
501 and the password “secret”
 A computer name and host name of “server1.example.com”
 A single Ethernet network interface set to get its address from DHCP
 No server services set to start automatically
Note: Angle brackets used in XML format do not have the same usage as angle
brackets used in Mac OS X Server commands.
Sample Configuration File
<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
<!DOCTYPE plist PUBLIC "-//Apple Computer//DTD PLIST 1.0//EN"
"http://www.apple.com/DTDs/PropertyList-1.0.dtd">
<plist version="1.0">
<dict>
<key>AdminUser</key>
<dict>
<key>exists</key>
<false/>
<key>name</key>
<string>admin</string>
<key>password</key>
<string>secret</string>
<key>realname</key>
<string>Administrator</string>
<key>uid</key>
<string>501</string>
</dict>
<key>ComputerName</key>
<string>server1.example.com</string>
<key>DS</key>
<dict>
<key>DSClientInfo</key>
<string>2 - NetInfo client - broadcast dhcp static -192.168.42.250
network</string>
<key>DSClientType</key>
<string>2</string>
<key>DSType</key>
<string>2 - directory client</string>
</dict>
<key>HostName</key>
<string>server1.example.com</string>
<key>InstallLanguage</key>
<string>English</string>
<key>Keyboard</key>
<dict>
<key>DefaultFormat</key>
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Chapter 3 Installing Server Software and Finishing Basic Setup
<string>0</string>
<key>DefaultScript</key>
<string>0</string>
<key>ResID</key>
<integer>0</integer>
<key>ResName</key>
<string>U.S.</string>
<key>ScriptID</key>
<integer>0</integer>
</dict>
<key>NetworkInterfaces</key>
<array>
<dict>
<key>ActiveAT</key>
<true/>
<key>ActiveTCPIP</key>
<true/>
<key>DNSDomains</key>
<array>
<string>example.com</string>
</array>
<key>DNSServers</key>
<array>
<string>192.168.100.10</string>
</array>
<key>DeviceName</key>
<string>en0</string>
<key>EthernetAddress</key>
<string>00:0a:93:bc:6d:1a</string>
<key>PortName</key>
<string>Built-in Ethernet</string>
<key>Settings</key>
<dict>
<key>DHCPClientID</key>
<string></string>
<key>Type</key>
<string>DHCP Configuration</string>
</dict>
</dict>
</array>
<key>PrimaryLanguage</key>
<string>English</string>
<key>Bonjour</key>
<dict>
<key>BonjourEnabled</key>
<true/>
<key>BonjourName</key>
<string>beasbe3</string>
</dict>
<key>SerialNumber</key>
<string>XSVR-123-456-A-BCD-7EF-GHI-89J-1KL-MNO-2</string>
Chapter 3 Installing Server Software and Finishing Basic Setup
45
<key>ServiceNTP</key>
<dict>
<key>HostNTP</key>
<false/>
<key>HostNTPServer</key>
<string>Local</string>
<key>UseNTP</key>
<false/>
</dict>
<key>ServicesAutoStart</key>
<dict>
<key>ARD</key>
<false/>
<key>Apache</key>
<false/>
<key>FTP</key>
<false/>
<key>File</key>
<false/>
<key>IChat</key>
<false/>
<key>Mail</key>
<false/>
<key>NetBoot</key>
<false/>
<key>QTSS</key>
<false/>
<key>SMB</key>
<false/>
<key>SWUPD</key>
<false/>
<key>WebDAV</key>
<false/>
<key>Weblog</key>
<false/>
<key>XgridA</key>
<false/>
<key>XgridC</key>
<false/>
</dict>
<key>TimeZone</key>
<string>US/Pacific</string>
<key>VersionNumber</key>
<integer>2</integer>
</dict>
</plist>
Note: The actual contents of a configuration file depend on the hardware configuration
of the computer on which it’s created, so you should customize a configuration file
created on a computer similar to those you plan to set up.
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Chapter 3 Installing Server Software and Finishing Basic Setup
Storing a Configuration File in an Accessible Location
Server Assistant looks for configuration files in the following location:
/Volumes/vol/Auto Server Setup/
where vol is any device volume mounted in /Volumes.
Devices you can use to provide configuration files include:
 A partition on one of the computer’s hard disks
 An iPod
 An optical (CD or DVD) drive
 A USB or FireWire drive
 Any other portable storage device that mounts in the /Volumes folder
Configuring the Server Remotely from the Command Line
It’s possible to configure the server remotely from the command line. Performing this
task requires the following tools:
 dscl—Directory service command line is a general purpose tool that allows you to
create, read, and manage directory service data. If invoked without any commands,
dscl runs interactively, reading commands from standard input. See Chapter 8,
“Working with Users and Groups,” for more information about the usage of this
command.
 systemsetup—Use systemsetup to set a number of system-wide preferences. If you
were going through Server Assistant, you would have to select the proper keyboard
and time zone. The systemsetup tool can configure both these preferences, and
more. See Chapter 5, “Setting General System Preferences,” for mor information on
the usage of this command.
 networksetup—Anything that you can configure in the Network pane of System
Preferences can also be configured using networksetup. See Chapter 6, “Setting
Network Preferences,” for more information about the usage of this command.
See the man pages related to these tools for more information. The man pages for
systemsetup and networksetup are only available on Mac OS X Server.
Chapter 3 Installing Server Software and Finishing Basic Setup
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Changing Server Settings
After initial setup, you can use a variety of commands to view or change Mac OS X
Server configuration settings and services.
Using the serversetup Tool
The serversetup tool is located in /System/Library/ServerSetup. To run it, you can enter
the full path:
$ /System/Library/ServerSetup/serversetup -getAllPort
If you want to use the tool to perform several commands, you can change your
working folder and enter a shorter command:
$ cd /System/Library/ServerSetup
$ ./serversetup -getAllPort
$ ./serversetup -getDefaultInfo
Or, add the folder to your search path for this session and enter an even shorter
command:
$ PATH="$PATH:/System/Library/ServerSetup"
$ serversetup -getAllPort
To permanently add the folder to your search path, add the path to the file
/etc/profile.
Using the serveradmin Tool
The serveradmin tool is used for administering service-related tasks. Some services
need to be restarted after you change certain settings. If you make a change using a
service’s writeSettings tool that requires you to restart the service, the output from
the command includes the setting <svc>:needsRecycleOrRestart with a value of yes.
Important: The needsRecycleOrRestart setting is displayed only if you use the
serveradmin svc:command = writeSettings command to change settings. You won’t
see it if you use the serveradmin settings command.
Other chapters in this guide have information about using the serveradmin tool to
administer specific services.
Notes on Communication Security and the servermgrd Tool
When you run the serveradmin tool, you’re communicating with a local or remote
servermgrd process.
 servermgrd uses SSL for encryption and client authentication, but not for user
authentication. User authentication uses Open Directory services.
 servermgrd uses a self-signed (test) SSL certificate installed by default, located in
/etc/servermgrd/ssl.crt/. You can replace this with an actual certificate. You can use
the Certificate Manager in Server Admin to create and manage certificates. See the
mail service administration guide for more information.
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Chapter 3 Installing Server Software and Finishing Basic Setup
 The default certificate format for SSLeay/OpenSSL is PEM. PEM format can contain
private keys (RSA and DSA), public keys (RSA and DSA), and (x509) certificates. It
stores data in Base64-encoded DER format with ASCII header and footer lines which
makes it suitable for text-made transfers between computers. For some tools, you
need the certificate in plain DER format. You can convert a PEM file (cert.pem) into
the corresponding DER file (cert.der) with the following command:
$ openssl x509 -in cert.pem -out cert.der -outform DER
Â
checks the validity of the SSL certificate only if the “Require valid digital
signature” option is selected in Server Admin preferences. This option uses an SSL
certificate installed on a remote server to ensure that the remote server is a valid
server. If this option is enabled, the certificate must be valid and not expired, or
Server Admin will refuse to connect. Before enabling this option, use the instructions
in the Mail Service administration guide for generating a Certificate Signing Request
(CSR), obtaining an SSL certificate from an issuing authority, and installing the
certificate on each remote server. Instead of placing files in /etc/httpd/, place them in
/etc/servermgrd/. You can also generate a self-signed certificate and install it on the
remote server.
 The servermgrd SSL encryption options can be changed at any time by editing the
com.apple.servermgrd.plist configuration file located in /Library/Preferences/.
Your SSL certificate (ssl.crt/server.crt) and keyfile (ssl.key/server.key) are located in /
private/etc/servermgrd/.
servermgrd
General and Network Preferences
See the following for information about changing general system preferences and
network settings:
 Chapter 5, “Setting General System Preferences,” on page 57
 Chapter 6, “Setting Network Preferences,” on page 63
Viewing, Validating, and Setting the Software Serial Number
You can use the serversetup tool to view or set the server’s software serial number or
to validate a server software serial number. The serversetup tool is located in /System/
Library/ServerSetup.
To display the server’s software serial number:
$ sudo serversetup -getServerSerialNumber
To set the server software serial number:
$ sudo serversetup -setserverSerialNumber serialnumber watermarkinformation
where serialnumber is a valid Mac OS X Server software serial number, as found on the
software packaging that comes with the software.
Chapter 3 Installing Server Software and Finishing Basic Setup
49
To validate a server software serial number:
$ sudo serversetup -verifyServerSerialNumber serialnumber
watermarkinformation
Displays 0 if the serial number is valid, or 1 if the serial number is invalid.
Serial numbers generated for the server can be generated with watermarks so that
they can be tracked to a specific company, group, or individual. If a serial number has
watermarking strings associated with it, then it is necessary to supply the watermark
information when setting or validating the serial number.
To check whether a serial number is site licensed:
$ sudo serversetup -issitelicensedserialnumber
Updating Server Software
You can use the softwareupdate tool to check for and install software updates over the
Internet from Apple’s website.
To check for available updates:
$ sudo softwareupdate --list
The output will be similar to the following:
Software Update Tool
Copyright 2002-2005 Apple
Software Update found the following new or updated software:
- WebObjects5.3.1ServerUpdate-5.3.1
WebObjects5.3.1 Server Update (5.3.1), 29110K [recommmended] [restart]
* J2SE50Release3-3.0
**PRERELEASE** J2SE 5.0 Release 3 (8M318) (3.0), 44020K [recommmended]
- AirPort-1.0
AirPort Update 2005-001 (1.0), 1440K [restart]
To install an update:
$ sudo softwareupdate --install update-version
Parameter
Description
update-version
The hyphenated product version string that appears in the list of
updates when you use the --list option.
Some updates require that you agree to a license agreement. To work around this in an
automated command-line environment, execute the following command before
running softwareupdate:
$ command_line_install=1 export command_line_install
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Chapter 3 Installing Server Software and Finishing Basic Setup
This creates an environment variable named command_line_install that automates
the update responses. See the softwareupdate man page for more information about
the command.
Moving a Server
Try to place a server in its final network location (subnet) before setting it up for the
first time. If you’re concerned about unauthorized or premature access, you can set up
a firewall to protect the server while you’re finishing its configuration.
If you must move a server after initial setup, you need to change settings that are
sensitive to network location before the server can be used. For example, the server’s IP
address and host name—stored in both folders and configuration files that reside on
the server—must be updated.
When you move a server, consider these guidelines:
 Minimize the time the server is in its temporary location so the information you need
to change is limited.
 Don’t configure services that depend on network settings until the server is in its
final location. Such services include Open Directory replication, Apache settings
(such as virtual hosts), DHCP, and other network infrastructure settings on which
other computers depend.
 Wait to import final user accounts. Limit accounts to test accounts so you minimize
the user-specific network information (such as home folder location) that will need to
change after the move.
 After you move the server, use the changeip tool to change IP addresses, host names,
and other data stored in Open Directory, NetInfo, and LDAP folders on the server.
See “Changing a Server’s IP Address” on page 66. You may need to manually adjust
some network configurations, such as the local DNS database, after using the tool.
 Reconfigure the search policy of computers (such as user computers and DHCP
servers) that have been configured to use the server in its original location.
For information about configuring a computer’s search policy, see the Open
Directory administration guide.
Chapter 3 Installing Server Software and Finishing Basic Setup
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Chapter 3 Installing Server Software and Finishing Basic Setup
4
Restarting or Shutting Down a
Computer
4
In this chapter you will find commands you can use to shut
down or restart a local or remote computer.
Computers often must be shut down or restarted, whether locally or remotely, when
installing new tools or making computer repairs. This chapter covers the commands
needed to shut down or restart a local or remote computer.
Restarting a Computer
You can use the reboot or shutdown -r command to restart a computer at a specific
time. See the relevant man pages for more information.
To restart the local computer:
$ shutdown -r now
To restart a remote computer immediately:
$ ssh -l root computer shutdown -r now
To restart a remote computer at a specific time:
$ ssh -l root computer shutdown -r hhmm
Parameter
Description
computer
The IP address or DNS name of the computer.
hhmm
The hour and minute when the computer restarts.
Automatic Restart
You can also use the systemsetup tool to set up the computer to start automatically
after a power failure or system freeze. See “Viewing or Changing Automatic Restart
Settings” on page 59.
53
Changing a Remote Computer’s Startup Disk
You can change a remote computer’s startup disk using SSH.
To change the startup disk:
Log in to the remote computer using SSH and enter:
$ bless -folder "/Volumes/disk/System/Library/CoreServices" -setBoot
Parameter
Description
disk
The name of the disk that contains the desired startup volume.
For information about using SSH to log in to a remote computer, see “Sending
Commands to a Remote Computer” on page 28.
Shutting Down a Computer
You can use the shutdown tool to shut down a computer at a specific time. See the
shutdown man page for more information.
To shut down a remote computer immediately:
$ ssh -l root computer shutdown -h now
To shut down the local computer in 30 minutes:
$ shutdown -h +30
Parameter
Description
computer
The IP address or DNS name of the computer.
Manipulating Open Firmware NVRAM Variables
You can use the nvram tool to manipulate Open Firmware NVRAM variables. If you
modify a value with nvram, the value is saved only if the computer cleanly restarts or
shuts down. See the nvram man page for more information.
To view the different NVRAM variables:
$ nvram -p
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Chapter 4 Restarting or Shutting Down a Computer
Monitoring and Restarting Critical Services
In earloier versions of Mac OS X, a daemon called watchdog monitored critical services
and restarted them if they failed or quit unexpectedly after a computer restarted.
The watchdog daemon relied on the configuration file watchdog.conf, located in /etc.
In Mac OS X Server version 10.4, watchdog has been replaced by launchd. The launchd
daemon manages other daemons, both for the computer as a whole and for individual
users. You can configure the launchd daemon to launch other daemons on demand,
based on criteria specified in their respective XML property lists.
During system startup, launchd is the first process invoked by the kernel to run and set
up the rest of the computer. In Mac OS X Server, it is preferable to have your daemon
started by launchd.
Note: Some system administrators need to modify the boot process to insert a script or
implement a change in the default system configuration. System administrators are
encouraged to work with launchd to implement whatever changes they require, and
avoid modifying rc or creating a SystemStarter Startup Item. The rc command script
may be phased out in the future.
The configuration files are located in the following folders:
Folder
Usage
/System/Library/LaunchAgents
Configuration for the system
/System/Library/LaunchDaemons
Configuration for the daemons
~/Library/LaunchAgents
Configuration per user
Chapter 4 Restarting or Shutting Down a Computer
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Chapter 4 Restarting or Shutting Down a Computer
5
Setting General System
Preferences
5
In this chapter you will find commands you can use to set
system preferences, usually set using the System Preferences
graphical application.
You can use Mac OS X Server to manage the work environment of Mac OS X users by
defining preferences. Preferences are settings that customize and control a user’s
computer experience.
Viewing or Changing the Computer Name
You can use the systemsetup tool to view or change a computer name (the name used
to browse for AFP share points on the server), which would otherwise be set using the
Sharing pane of System Preferences.
To display the computer name:
$ sudo systemsetup -getcomputername
or
$ sudo networksetup -getcomputername
To change the computer name:
$ sudo systemsetup -setcomputername computername
or
$ sudo networksetup -setcomputername computername
Viewing or Changing the Date and Time
You can use the systemsetup or serversetup tool to view or change:
 A computer’s system date or time
 A computer’s time zone
 Whether a server uses a network time server
These settings can also be changed using the Date & Time pane of System Preferences.
57
Viewing or Changing the System Date
To view the current system date:
$ sudo systemsetup -getdate
or
$ serversetup -getDate
To set the current system date:
$ sudo systemsetup -setdate mm:dd:yy
or
$ sudo serversetup -setDate mm/dd/yy
Viewing or Changing the System Time
To view the current system time:
$ sudo systemsetup -gettime
or
$ serversetup -getTime
To change the current system time:
$ sudo systemsetup -settime hh:mm:ss
or
$ sudo serversetup -setTime hh:mm:ss
Viewing or Changing the System Time Zone
To view the current time zone:
$ sudo systemsetup -gettimezone
or
$ serversetup -getTimeZone
To view the available time zones:
$ sudo systemsetup -listtimezones
To change the system time zone:
$ sudo systemsetup -settimezone timezone
or
$ sudo serversetup -setTimeZone timezone
Viewing or Changing Network Time Server Usage
To see if a network time server is being used:
$ sudo systemsetup -getusingnetworktime
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Chapter 5 Setting General System Preferences
To enable or disable use of a network time server:
$ sudo systemsetup -setusingnetworktime (on|off)
To view the current network time server:
$ sudo systemsetup -getnetworktimeserver
To specify a network time server:
$ sudo systemsetup -setnetworktimeserver timeserver
Viewing or Changing the Energy Saver Settings
You can use the systemsetup tool to view or change a server’s energy saver settings.
These can also be changed using the Energy Saver pane of System Preferences.
Viewing or Changing Sleep Settings
To view the idle time before sleep:
$ sudo systemsetup -getsleep
To set the idle time before sleep:
$ sudo systemsetup -setsleep minutes
To see if the system is set to wake for modem activity:
$ sudo systemsetup -getwakeonmodem
To set the system to wake for modem activity:
$ sudo systemsetup -setwakeonmodem (on|off)
To see if the system is set to wake for network access:
$ sudo systemsetup -getwakeonnetworkaccess
To set the system to wake for network access:
$ sudo systemsetup -setwakeonnetworkaccess (on|off)
Viewing or Changing Automatic Restart Settings
To see if the system is set to restart after a power failure:
$ sudo systemsetup -getrestartpowerfailure
To set the system to restart after a power failure:
$ sudo systemsetup -setrestartpowerfailure (on|off)
To see how long the system waits to restart after a power failure:
$ sudo systemsetup -getWaitForStartupAfterPowerFailure
To set how long the system waits to restart after a power failure:
$ sudo systemsetup -setWaitForStartupAfterPowerFailure seconds
Parameter
Description
seconds
Must be a multiple of 30 seconds.
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To see if the system is set to restart after a system freeze:
$ sudo systemsetup -getrestartfreeze
To set the system to restart after a system freeze:
$ sudo systemsetup -setrestartfreeze (on|off)
Changing the Power Management Settings
You can use the pmset tool to change a variety of power management settings,
including:
 Display dim timer
 Disk spindown timer
 System sleep timer
 Wake on network activity
 Wake on modem activity
 Restart after power failure
 Dynamic processor speed change
 Reduce processor speed
 Sleep computer on power button press
You can configure different settings for the different power modes using pmset.
There are four flags you can use: -a, -b, -c, and -u. -b applies the settings to battery
operation, -c to charger (wall power), -u to UPS, and -a to all.
To set disk spindown timer for all modes of operation:
$ sudo pmset -u spindown minutes
Parameter
Description
minutes
Must be a multiple of 30 seconds.
To display the current settings:
$ sudo pmset -g command
See the pmset man page for more information.
Viewing or Changing the Startup Disk Settings
You can use the systemsetup tool to view or change a computer’s startup disk. This can
also be set using the Startup Disk pane of System Preferences.
To view the current startup disk:
$ sudo systemsetup -getstartupdisk
To view the available startup disks:
$ sudo systemsetup -liststartupdisks
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Chapter 5 Setting General System Preferences
To change the current startup disk:
$ sudo systemsetup -setstartupdisk path
Viewing or Changing the Sharing Settings
You can use the systemsetup tool to view or change Sharing settings. These can also be
set using the Sharing pane of System Preferences.
Viewing or Changing Remote Login Settings
You can use SSH to log in to a remote server if remote login is enabled.
To see if the system is set to allow remote login:
$ sudo systemsetup -getremotelogin
To enable or disable remote login:
$ sudo systemsetup -setremotelogin (on|off)
or
$ serversetup -enableSSH
Telnet access is disabled by default because it isn’t as secure as SSH. You can, however,
enable Telnet access. See “Using Telnet” on page 36.
Viewing or Changing Apple Event Response
To see if the system is set to respond to remote events:
$ sudo systemsetup -getremoteappleevents
To set the server to respond to remote events:
$ sudo systemsetup -setremoteappleevents (on|off)
Viewing or Changing the International Settings
You can use the serversetup tool to view or change language settings. These can also
be set using the International pane of System Preferences.
To view the current primary language:
$ serversetup -getPrimaryLanguage
To view the installed primary language:
$ serversetup -getInstallLanguage
To change the installation language:
$ sudo serversetup -setInstallLanguage language
To view the script setting:
$ serversetup -getPrimaryScriptCode
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Viewing and Changing the Login Settings
You can enable or disable the Restart and Shutdown buttons that appear in the login
dialog.
To disable or enable the Restart and Shutdown buttons in the login dialog:
$ sudo serversetup -setDisableRestartShutdown (0|1)
0
disables the buttons and 1 enables the buttons.
To view the current setting:
$ serversetup -getDisableRestartShutdown
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6
Setting Network Preferences
6
In this chapter you will find commands you can use to
change the network settings on a server.
Mac OS X Server provides command-line control to manage servers in a mixedplatform environment and to configure, deploy, and manage powerful network
services. These tools make it easy to configure and maintain core network services,
while providing the advanced features and functionality required by experienced IT
professionals.
Configuring Network Interfaces
Mac OS X Server includes ifconfig, the standard UNIX tool for configuring networks.
Both ifconfig and networksetup make system calls to change the interface
configuration. However, ifconfig and networksetup do not communicate with each
other. ifconfig changes the network interface settings.
Warning: If you use ifconfig, your computer will be out of sync and will revert back
to the contents of preferences.plist after a restart.
You can still use ifconfig to view the entire interface configuration. This is particularly
beneficial when your computer is using an autonegotiated Ethernet connection.
It’s best to rely on networksetup and serversetup for your manual configuration. You
are encouraged to view the man pages of both commands to see all the available
configuration options.
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Managing Network Interface Information
This section describes commands you address to a specific hardware device (for
example, en0) or port (for example, Built-in Ethernet).
If you prefer to work with network port configurations following the approach used in
the Network preferences pane of System Preferences, see the commands in “Managing
Network Port Configurations” on page 65.
Viewing Port Names and Hardware Addresses
To list all port names:
$ serversetup -getAllPort
To list all port names with their Ethernet (MAC) addresses:
$ sudo networksetup -listallhardwareports
To list hardware port information by port configuration:
$ sudo networksetup -listallnetworkservices
An asterisk (*) in the results marks an inactive configuration.
To view the default (en0) Ethernet (MAC) address of the server:
$ serversetup -getMacAddress
To view the Ethernet (MAC) address of a particular port:
$ sudo networksetup -getmacaddress (devicename|"portname")
To scan for new hardware ports:
$ sudo networksetup -detectnewhardware
This command checks the computer for new network hardware and creates a default
configuration for each new port.
Viewing or Changing MTU Values
All data that is transmitted over a network travels in data packets. The size of the data
packets is called maximum transmission units (MTU), which if too large or too small will
affect performance. You can use the networksetup tool to change the MTU size for a
port.
To view the MTU value for a hardware port:
$ sudo networksetup -getMTU (devicename|"portname")
To list valid MTU values for a hardware port:
$ sudo networksetup -listvalidMTUrange (devicename|"portname")
To change the MTU value for a hardware port:
$ sudo networksetup -setMTU (devicename|"portname")
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Chapter 6 Setting Network Preferences
Viewing or Changing Media Settings
To view the media settings for a port:
$ sudo networksetup -getMedia (devicename|"portname")
To list valid media settings for a port:
$ sudo networksetup -listValidMedia (devicename|"portname")
To change the media settings for a port:
$ sudo networksetup -setMedia (devicename|"portname") subtype [option1]
[option2] [...]
Managing Network Port Configurations
Network port configurations are sets of network preferences that can be assigned to a
particular network interface and then enabled or disabled. The Network pane of
System Preferences stores and displays network settings as port configurations.
Creating or Deleting Port Configurations
To list an existing port configuration:
$ sudo networksetup -listallnetworkservices
To create a port configuration:
$ sudo networksetup -createnetworkservice configuration hardwareport
To duplicate a port configuration:
$ sudo networksetup -duplicatenetworkservice configuration newconfig
To rename a port configuration:
$ sudo networksetup -renamenetworkservice configuration newname
To delete a port configuration:
$ sudo networksetup -removenetworkservice configuration
Activating Port Configurations
To see if a port configuration is on:
$ sudo networksetup -getnetworkserviceenabled configuration
To enable or disable a port configuration:
$ sudo networksetup -setnetworkserviceenabled configuration (on|off)
Changing Configuration Precedence
To list the configuration order:
$ sudo networksetup -listnetworkserviceorder
The configurations are listed in the order that they’re tried when a network connection
is established. An asterisk (*) marks an inactive configuration.
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To change the order of the port configurations:
$ sudo networksetup -ordernetworkservices config1 config2 [config3] [...]
Managing TCP/IP Settings
TCP/IP is a set of layered protocols that allow shared applications between computers
on a high-speed network. You can use the following commands to change the TCP/IP
settings of a server.
Changing a Server’s IP Address
Changing a server’s IP address isn’t as simple as changing the TCP/IP settings. Address
information is set throughout the system when you set up the server. To make sure
that all the necessary changes are made, use the changeip tool.
is a python script that runs tools out of the /usr/libexec/changeip folder.
There are currently three tools available: changeip_ds, changeip_jabber, and
changeip_mail.
changeip
The changeip_ds tool updates the following local configuration files:
 /Library/Preferences/DirectoryService/DSLDAPv3PlugInConfig.plist
 /etc/openldap/slapd_macosxserver.conf
 /etc/hostconfig (if there is a static hostname)
 /etc/smb.conf
The changeip_ds tool also updates the following records in the local NetInfo directory
domain, as well as a parent directory domain, if specified:
 AuthAuthority and HomeDirectory in user records
 Addresses and hostname in machine records
 Addresses and hostname in computer records
 Mount paths and addresses in mount records
 Addresses in LDAP and Password Server config records
The changeip_jabber tool updates the jabber configuration using serveradmin.
The changeip_mail tool updates the mailman, postfix and imap configurations using
serveradmin.
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Chapter 6 Setting Network Preferences
To change a server’s IP address:
1 Run the changeip tool:
$ changeip [(directory|-)] old-ip new-ip [old-hostname new-hostname]
Parameter
Description
directory
If the server is an Open Directory master or replica, or is connected
to a folder system, you must include the path to the folder domain
(folder directory domain). For a standalone server, enter “-” instead.
old-ip
The current IP address.
new-ip
The new IP address.
old-hostname
(optional) The current DNS host name of the server.
new-hostname
(optional) The new DNS host name of the server.
See the changeip man page for more information and examples.
2 Use the networksetup or serversetup tool (or the Network pane of System Preferences)
to change the server’s IP address in its network settings.
3 Restart the server.
To change the IP address of a computer hosting an LDAP master:
$ changeip /LDAPv3/127.0.0.1 192.0.0.12 192.0.1.10 oldhost newhost
It might still be necessary to change the configuration of computers pointing to this
master.
To change the IP address of a standalone server:
$ changeip - 192.0.0.12 192.0.1.10 oldhost newhost
To change the IP address of a server bound to a parent NetInfo directory domain:
$ changeip /NetInfo/root/netinfonode 192.0.0.12 192.0.1.10 oldhost newhost
To change the IP address of a server bound to a parent NetInfo directory domain,
where the old and new IP addresses map to the same name:
$ changeip /NetInfo/root/netinfonode 192.0.0.12 192.0.1.10
Viewing or Changing IP Address, Subnet Mask, or Router Address
You can use the serversetup and networksetup tools to change a computer’s TCP/IP
settings.
Important: Changing a computer’s IP address isn’t as simple as changing the TCP/IP
settings. You must first run the changeip tool to make sure necessary changes are
made throughout the system. See “Changing a Server’s IP Address” on page 66.
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67
To list TCP/IP settings for a configuration:
$ sudo networksetup -getinfo "configuration"
For example, for Built-In Ethernet, the computer responds with the following output:
$ networksetup -getinfo "Built-In Ethernet"
Manual Configuration
IP Address: 192.168.10.12
Subnet mask: 255.255.0.0
Router: 192.18.10.1
Ethernet Address: 1a:2b:3c:4d:5e:6f
To view TCP/IP settings for port en0:
$ serversetup -getDefaultinfo (devicename|"portname")
To view TCP/IP settings for a particular port or device:
$ serversetup -getInfo (devicename|"portname")
To change TCP/IP settings for a particular port or device:
$ sudo serversetup -setInfo (devicename|"portname") ipaddress subnetmask
router
To set manual TCP/IP information for a configuration:
$ sudo networksetup -setmanual "configuration" ipaddress subnetmask router
To validate an IP address:
$ serversetup -isValidIPAddress ipaddress
Displays 0 if the address is valid, 1 if it isn’t.
To validate a subnet mask:
$ serversetup -isValidSubnetMask subnetmask
To set a configuration to use DHCP:
$ sudo networksetup -setdhcp "configuration" [clientID]
To set a configuration to use DHCP with a manual IP address:
$ sudo networksetup -setmanualwithdhcprouter "configuration" ipaddress
To set a configuration to use BootP:
$ sudo networksetup -setbootp "configuration"
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Chapter 6 Setting Network Preferences
Viewing or Changing DNS Servers
You can use the serversetup tool to view and modify the Domain Name Server (DNS)
settings.
To view the DNS servers for port en0:
$ serversetup -getDefaultDNSServer (devicename|"portname")
To change the DNS servers for port en0:
$ sudo serversetup -setDefaultDNSServer (devicename|"portname") server1
[server2] [...]
To view the DNS servers for a particular port or device:
$ serversetup -getDNSServer (devicename|"portname")
To change the DNS servers for a particular port or device:
$ sudo serversetup -setDNSServer (devicename|"portname") server1 [server2]
[...]
To list the DNS servers for a configuration:
$ sudo networksetup -getdnsservers "configuration"
To view the DNS search domains for port en0:
$ serversetup -getDefaultDNSDomain (devicename|"portname")
To change the DNS search domains for port en0:
$ sudo serversetup -setDefaultDNSDomain (devicename|"portname") domain1
[domain2] [...]
To view the DNS search domains for a particular port or device:
$ serversetup -getDNSDomain (devicename|"portname")
To change the DNS search domains for a particular port or device:
$ sudo serversetup -setDNSDomain (devicename|"portname") domain1 [domain2]
[...]
To list the DNS search domains for a configuration:
$ sudo networksetup -getsearchdomains "configuration"
To set the DNS servers for a configuration:
$ sudo networksetup -setdnsservers "configuration" dns1 [dns2] [...]
To set the search domains for a configuration:
$ sudo networksetup -setsearchdomains "configuration" domain1 [domain2]
[...]
To validate a DNS server:
$ serversetup -verifyDNSServer server1 [server2] [...]
To validate DNS search domains:
$ serversetup -verifyDNSDomain domain1 [domain2] [...]
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Enabling TCP/IP
Use the serversetup tool to enable or disable TCP/IP on a computer.
To enable TCP/IP on a particular port:
$ serversetup -EnableTCPIP [(devicename|"portname")]
If you don’t provide an interface, en0 is assumed.
To disable TCP/IP on a particular port:
$ serversetup -DisableTCPIP [(devicename|"portname")]
If you don’t provide an interface, en0 is assumed.
Working with VLANs
A virtual local area network (VLAN) connects devices that may be on separate physical
LANs to perform and communicate as if they were on the same physical LAN. Use the
networksetup tool to configure and modify a VLAN.
To create a VLAN:
$ networksetup -createVLAN name parentdevice tag
To delete a VLAN:
$ networksetup -deleteVLAN name parentdevice tag
To list available VLANs:
$ networksetup -listVLANs
To list the devices that support VLANs:
$ networksetup -listdevicesthatsupportVLAN
IEEE 802.3ad Ethernet Link Aggregation
Apple introduced the implementation of the IEEE 802.3ad Ethernet Link Aggregation
standard as part of the ifconfig tool. IEEE 802.3ad is a standard for bonding or
aggregating multiple Ethernet ports into one virtual interface. The aggregated ports
appear as a single IP address internally to your computer and tools and externally to
other clients on the Internet. Any tool or server that relies on your IP address will
continue to work seamlessly without any modifications. The advantage of aggregation
is that the virtual interface provides increased bandwidth by merging the bandwidth of
the individual ports. The TCP connection load is then balanced across the ports. In
addition to load balancing, IEEE 802.3ad provides automatic failover in the event any
port or cable fails. All traffic that was being routed over the failed port is automatically
rerouted to use one of the remaining ports. This failover is completely transparent to
the software using the connection. This feature provides increased bandwidth and
automatic failover for the server environment.
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Chapter 6 Setting Network Preferences
Configuring a Network Interface
You can configure a network interface for TCP/IP using ifconfig. This tool is used to
bring the interface up or down and set the interface IP address and subnet mask.
To add an Ethernet interface to a bond virtual device (pseudo device):
$ ifconfig bond_interface_name bondev physical_interface
The bond_interface_name is the name of the pseudo device and the
physical_interface is the actual Ethernet interface you want to associate with the
pseudo device, for example, en0. If this is the first physical interface to be associated
with the bond interface, the bond interface inherits the Ethernet address from the
physical interface. Physical interfaces that are added to the bond have their Ethernet
address reprogrammed so that all members of the bond have the same Ethernet
address. If the physical interface is subsequently removed from the bond, a new
Ethernet address is chosen from the remaining interfaces, and all interfaces are
reprogrammed with the new Ethernet address. If no remaining interfaces exist, the
bond interface’s Ethernet address is cleared.
To remove an Ethernet interface from a bond virtual device (pseudo device):
$ ifconfig bond_interface_name -bondev physical_interface
The link status of the bond interface depends on the state of link aggregation.
If no active partner is detected, the link status will remain inactive. To monitor the
IEEE 802.3ad Link Aggregation state, use the -b option.
See the ifconfig man page for more information.
Configuring Ethernet Link Aggregation
You can also use networksetup to configure Ethernet Link Aggregation. The following
commands are supported.
To display if the device can be added to a bond:
$ sudo networksetup -isBondSupported device
To create a bond and add devices to it:
$ sudo networksetup
-createBond name [device1] [device2] [...]
To delete a bond:
$ sudo networksetup
-deleteBond bond
To add a device to a bond:
$ sudo networksetup -addDeviceToBond device bond
To remove a device from a bond:
$ sudo networksetup -removeDeviceFromBond device bond
To list available bonds:
$ sudo networksetup -listBonds
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To display a bond status:
$ sudo networksetup -showBondStatus bond
Managing AppleTalk Settings
AppleTalk is a suite of protocols developed to implement file sharing, mail service, and
printing between Apple computers. Use the serversetup tool to enable or disable
AppleTalk.
To enable AppleTalk on a particular port:
$ serversetup -EnableAT [(devicename|"portname")]
If you don’t provide an interface, en0 is assumed.
To disable AppleTalk on a particular port:
$ serversetup -DisableAT [(devicename|"portname")]
If you don’t provide an interface, en0 is assumed.
To enable AppleTalk on en0:
$ serversetup -EnableDefaultAT
To disable AppleTalk on en0:
$ serversetup -DisableDefaultAT
To make AppleTalk active or inactive for a configuration:
$ sudo networksetup -setappletalk "configuration" (on|off)
To check AppleTalk state on en0:
$ serversetup -getDefaultATActive
To see if AppleTalk is active for a configuration:
$ sudo networksetup -getappletalk
Managing SNMP Settings
Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP) is a set of standard protocols used to
manage and monitor multiplatform computer network devices. SNMP uses a manager/
agent design.
SNMP relies on a manager/agent design where the agent provides the interface
between the manager and the physical device being managed. SNMP uses five basic
messages (GET, GET-NEXT, GET-RESPONSE, SET, and TRAP) to communicate between
the manager and the agent.
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Chapter 6 Setting Network Preferences
Installing SNMP
To use SNMP for monitoring or data collection, an SNMP agent (snmpd) must be
running on the monitored Mac OS X Server host computer. Mac OS X Server version
10.1.5 or later includes a version of SNMP (UCD-SNMP v. 4.2.3 or later).
If you do not have the file /usr/sbin/snmpd, then SNMP is not installed. Mac OS X
Server version 10.1.4 or earlier require that SNMP be built and installed. Mac OS X Server
v10.1.5 or later Admin CDs include the SNMP package on the CD used to install UCDSNMP 4.2.3 on these older systems. If you do not have access to the CD, you may
download current SNMP source from the NET-SNMP Project Home Page (www.netsnmp.org/).
Warning: Once SNMP is active, anyone with a route to the SNMP host will be able to
collect SNMP data from it. To learn more, consult the various SNMP information
sources listed below.
The default configuration of snmpd uses privileged port 161. For this reason and others,
it must be executed by root or by using setuid. You should only use setuid as root if
you understand the ramifications. If you do not, seek assistance or additional
information. There are flags available for snmpd that will change the UID and GID of the
process after it starts. See the snmpd man page for more information.
Starting SNMP
To start SNMP you have three options:
 Click the checkbox to enable SNMP in the Server Admin application. This modifies
the hostconfig file for you.
 Modify the hostconfig file to start SNMP automatically at system startup.
 Start the SNMP agent manually.
To start SNMP on Mac OS X Server version 10.4 or later by modifying the hostconfig
file:
1 Open the /etc/hostconfig file.
2 Locate the line:
SPOTLIGHT=-YES-
3 Immediately above it, add this line:
SNMPSERVER=-YES-
4 Save the file.
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To start SNMP on Mac OS X 10.4 client computers by modifying the hostconfig file:
Mac OS X 10.4 client systems already have the SNMPSERVER:=-NO- line in their
hostconfig file by default.
1 Open the /etc/hostconfig file.
2 Locate the line:
SNMPSERVER=-NO-
3 Change NO to YES.
4 Save the file.
Note: Systems running Mac OS X Server version 10.3 or earlier will need to have the
line added.
Changing the SNMPSERVER line in the hostconfig file, causes snmpd to be executed
during system startup, with no options, as dictated by the /System/Library/
StartupItems/SNMP/SNMP file. For further instruction on editing configuration files,
including important precautionary statements, see technical document 106619, “Mac
OS X Server: How to Edit Configuration Files”.
To start the snmp agent manually:
$ /usr/sbin/snmpd
Configuring SNMP
The configuration (conf ) file for snmpd is typically in the /usr/share/snmp/ folder, and is
named snmpd.conf or snmpd.local.conf. If you have an environment variable
SNMPCONF, snmpd will read any files named snmpd.conf and snmpd.local.conf in these
folders. The SNMP agent can be started with a -c flag to indicate other conf files. See
the snmpd man page for more information about which conf files can be used.
Configuration files can be created and installed more easily using the included script
/usr/bin/snmpconf. As root, use this script with the -i flag to install the file in the
/usr/share/snmp/ folder. Otherwise, the default location for the file to be written is the
user's home directory (~/). Only root has write permission for /usr/share/snmp/.
Because snmpd reads its conf files at startup, changes to the conf files require that the
process be stopped and restarted. To do this, you must identify the process id.
To identify the process id:
$ ps aux |grep snmpd
To stop snmpd :
$ kill <pid>
Once snmpd is stopped, you can customize the snmpd.conf file as needed.
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Chapter 6 Setting Network Preferences
To customize the data provided by snmpd, you may add an snmpd.conf file using
/usr/bin/snmpconf:
$ sudo /usr/bin/snmpconf -i
You will then see a series of text menus. Make these choices in this order:
1 Select File: 1 (snmpd.conf )
2 Select section: 5 (System Information Setup)
3 Select section: 1 (The [typically physical] location of the system)
4 The location of the system: type text string here—such as server_room
5 Select section: f (finish)
6 Select section: f (finish)
7 Select File: q (quit)
This creates an snmpd.conf file with a creation date of today.
To view the snmp.conf file:
$ ls -l /usr/share/snmpd.conf
Once the configuration file is created, restart the snmpd process.
To start snmpd, execute this as root:
$ sudo /usr/sbin/snmpd
Collecting SNMP Information from the Host
To get the SNMP information you just added, execute this command from a host that
has the SNMP tools installed, where hostname is replaced with the actual name of the
target host:
$ snmpget -v 1 -c public hostname system.sysLocation.0
You should see the location you provided. In this example, you would see:
system.sysLocation.0 = server_room
The other options in the menu you were working in are:
$ snmpget -v 1 -c hostname public system.sysContact.0
$ snmpget -v 1 -c hostname public system.sysServices.0
The final .0 indicates you are looking for the index object. The word public is the name
of the SNMP community, which you did not alter. If you need information about either
of these, or explanations of SNMP syntax, there are tutorials available at
www.netsnmp.sourceforge.net.
Another way to retrieve SNMP information is by retrieving a subtree of management
values using the snmpwalk tool.
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To gather SNMP information in bulk:
$ sudo snmpwalk -v 1 -c public localhost
This will list multiple entries of SNMP data similar to the following output, where
system name and location are defined in the snmp.conf file.
SNMPv2-MIB::sysName.0
-
system name
SNMPv2-MIB::sysLocation.0 - system location
SNMPv2-MIB::sysUpTime.0 - time in 1/100ths of a second since the last system
start
To retrieve specific SNMP management values, use the snmpget tool as shown in the
following examples.
To view the system name:
$ snmpget -v 1 -c public localhost system.sysName.0
SNMPv2-MIB::sysName.0 = STRING: xlabxs06.apple.com
To view the system location:
$ snmpget -v 1 -c public localhost system.sysLocation.0
SNMPv2-MIB::sysLocation.0 = STRING: "server_room"
To view the system uptime:
$ snmpget -v 1 -c public localhost system.sysUptime.0
SNMPv2-MIB::sysUpTime.0 = Timeticks: (72239) 0:12:02.39
For a list of snmp man pages, enter the following:
$ man -k snmp
Managing Proxy Settings
The proxy server is a component of Mac OS X Server that functions as a relay between
a client and the server. This proxy server protects the network from unauthorized users
and allows for a more secure environment. Use the networksetup tool to view or
change the proxy settings.
Viewing or Changing FTP Proxy Settings
To view the FTP proxy information for a configuration:
$ sudo networksetup -getftpproxy "configuration"
To set the FTP proxy information for a configuration:
$ sudo networksetup -setftpproxy "configuration" domain portnumber
To view the FTP passive setting for a configuration:
$ sudo networksetup -getpassiveftp "configuration"
To enable or disable FTP passive mode for a configuration:
$ sudo networksetup -setpassiveftp "configuration" (on|off)
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Chapter 6 Setting Network Preferences
To enable or disable the FTP proxy for a configuration:
$ sudo networksetup -setftpproxystate "configuration" (on|off)
Viewing or Changing Web Proxy Settings
To view the web proxy information for a configuration:
$ sudo networksetup -getwebproxy "configuration"
To set the web proxy information for a configuration:
$ sudo networksetup -setwebproxy "configuration" domain portnumber
To enable or disable the web proxy for a configuration:
$ sudo networksetup -setwebproxystate "configuration" (on|off)
Viewing or Changing Secure Web Proxy Settings
To view the secure web proxy information for a configuration:
$ sudo networksetup -getsecurewebproxy "configuration"
To set the secure web proxy information for a configuration:
$ sudo networksetup -setsecurewebproxy "configuration" domain portnumber
To enable or disable the secure web proxy for a configuration:
$ sudo networksetup -setsecurewebproxystate "configuration" (on|off)
Viewing or Changing Streaming Proxy Settings
To view the streaming proxy information for a configuration:
$ sudo networksetup -getstreamingproxy "configuration"
To set the streaming proxy information for a configuration:
$ sudo networksetup -setstreamingproxy "configuration" domain portnumber
To enable or disable the streaming proxy for a configuration:
$ sudo networksetup -setstreamingproxystate "configuration" (on|off)
Viewing or Changing Gopher Proxy Settings
To view the gopher proxy information for a configuration:
$ sudo networksetup -getgopherproxy "configuration"
To set the gopher proxy information for a configuration:
$ sudo networksetup -setgopherproxy "configuration" domain portnumber
To enable or disable the gopher proxy for a configuration:
$ sudo networksetup -setgopherproxystate "configuration" (on|off)
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77
Viewing or Changing SOCKS Firewall Proxy Settings
To view the SOCKS firewall proxy information for a configuration:
$ sudo networksetup -getsocksfirewallproxy "configuration"
To set the SOCKS firewall proxy information for a configuration:
$ sudo networksetup -setsocksfirewallproxy "configuration" domain portnumber
To enable or disable the SOCKS firewall proxy for a configuration:
$ sudo networksetup -setsocksfirewallproxystate "configuration" (on|off)
Viewing or Changing Proxy Bypass Domains
To list the proxy bypass domains for a configuration:
$ sudo networksetup -getproxybypassdomains "configuration"
To set the proxy bypass domains for a configuration:
$ sudo networksetup -setproxybypassdomains "configuration" [domain1] domain2
[...]
Managing AirPort Settings
AirPort uses wireless local area network (WLAN) technology to provide wireless
communication between computers. Use the networksetup tool to view or change the
AirPort settings.
To see if AirPort power is on or off:
$ sudo networksetup -getairportpower
To turn AirPort power on or off:
$ sudo networksetup -setairportpower (on|off)
To display the name of the current AirPort network:
$ sudo networksetup -getairportnetwork
To join an AirPort network:
$ sudo networksetup -setairportnetwork network [password]
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Chapter 6 Setting Network Preferences
Managing the Computer, Host, and Bonjour Names
These names are used by networking applications to identify a computer.
Computer Name
The computer name is the local name of a computer. This name is typically assigned to
the computer when the operating system is installed. Use the serversetup tool to view
or modify the computer name.
To display the computer name:
$ sudo systemsetup -getcomputername
or
$ sudo networksetup -getcomputername
or
$ serversetup -getComputername
To change the computer name:
$ sudo systemsetup -setcomputername computername
or
$ sudo networksetup -setcomputername computername
or
$ sudo serversetup -setComputername computername
To validate a computer name:
$ serversetup -verifyComputername computername
Hostname
The host name is a unique name that corresponds to a unique hardware MAC address.
It is the name that the network uses to identify a device attached to the network. Use
the serversetup tool to view or modify the host name.
To display the server’s local host name:
$ serversetup -getHostname
To change the server’s local host name:
$ sudo serversetup -setHostname hostname
Note: You can also set and get the host name using snmpd and scutil tools.
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Bonjour Name
Bonjour, also known as zero-configuration networking, enables automatic discovery of
computers, devices, and services on IP networks. Bonjour uses industry-standard IP
protocols to allow devices to automatically discover each other without the need to
enter IP addresses or configure DNS servers. Specifically, Bonjour enables automatic IP
address assignment without a DHCP server, name-to-address translation without a DNS
server, and service discovery without a directory server. Use the serversetup tool to
view or change the Bonjour name.
To display the server’s Bonjour name:
$ serversetup -getBonjourname
To change the server’s Bonjour name:
$ sudo serversetup -setBonjourname bonjourname
The command displays 0 if the name was changed.
Note: If you use Server Admin to connect to a server using its Bonjour name, then to
change the server’s Bonjour name, you will need to reconnect to the server the next
time you open the Server Admin application.
Managing Preference Files and the Configuration Daemon
The various sets of configuration information that a user creates at different locations,
whether in System Preferences or through the command line, are stored in the
preference.plist file located in /Library/Preferences/SystemConfiguration/.
Network configuration is handled by configd, the configuration daemon. configd
reads the network configuration and stores it with the current state of the computer’s
networking information. This storage is in the form of key-value pairs. The key is a
description of what is being stored, and the value is the actual value of the information
being stored. You can view the values stored by configd at run time, and monitor them
using the scutil tool. This can be especially valuable when you are trying to debug
your network configuration from the command line.
Invoked with no options, scutil provides a command-line interface to the data that is
maintained by configd. For a list of commands you can use with scutil, enter help at
the scutil prompt.
To start a scutil session (interactive mode), perform the following:
$ scutil
> open
This opens a session with configd. Once the session is open, you can list all of the keys
in data store for configd:
> list
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Chapter 6 Setting Network Preferences
Each item on the list is a piece of information stored by configd, sorted by type. Setup
indicates information that has been read from a configuration file. State indicates
information that represents the actual state of the computer. File indicates stored
information as of the last time the configuration file was updated.
Using scutil, you can view data in the keys. First you must get the data, and then you
can show the data. For example:
> get State:/Network/Interface/en0/IPv4
> d.show
stores the information from the get command in a local dictionary variable
called d. You can also watch or monitor a variable, such that if its state changes, scutil
will alert you. To quit the scutil session, enter quit at the prompt.
scutil
> quit
You can also manage system configuration parameters from within scutil using the
--get and --set options. These provide a means of reporting and updating a select
group of persistent system preferences, including ComputerName, LocalHostName, or
HostName.
To set the hostname of a system:
$ sudo scutil --set HostName mycomputer.mac.com
Parameter
Description
mycomputer.mac.com
This is the new hostname value you wish to set.
To get the hostname of a system:
$ scutil --get HostName
mycomputer.mac.com
See the scutil man page for more information or enter help at the scutil prompt.
Changing Network Locations
A network location contains all of the network configuration settings for a specific
network, such as Ethernet, AirPort, FireWire, or Bluetooth. Each location has a separate
set of network settings.
Mobile users who switch between networks have multiple locations set up on their
computer and may need to switch between locations quickly. scselect allows you to
access these configuration sets or locations.
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81
To view the current locations:
$ scselect
The computer will respond with output similar to the following:
Defined sets include: (* == current set)
* 0
(Automatic)
1
(AirPort)
2
(Home Office)
To change the location, enter the number of the location listed that you want to
switch to:
$ scselect 1
In this example, the network location will switch to AirPort.
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7
Working with Disks and Volumes
7
In this chapter you will find commands that are used to
initialize and test disks and volumes.
Computers use disks and partitions to store and organize data. This chapter covers the
commands that are used to manage, configure, initialize, and test disks and volumes.
Understanding Disks, Partitions, and the File System
Like UNIX, Mac OS X uses special files called device files, located in /dev, to keep track
of the devices (disks, keyboards, monitors, network connections, and so on) attached to
the computer. Device files for a disk are named /dev/diskn, where n is the number of
the disk. For example, a computer with one drive would have a device file called /dev/
disk0. If the computer has a second drive, the computer creates a second device file
called /dev/disk1, and so on. Each drive that is divided into multiple partitions has a
device file for each partition. The first partition on disk 0 would be called /dev/disk0s1,
the second partition would be /dev/disk0s2, and so on.
Although Mac OS X Server assigns a device name to each device, the files on a
particular device are not accessed in this way. A virtual file system is created where all
files on all devices appear to exist under a single hierarchy. This sets one root folder and
every file exisiting on the computer is under that folder. This is known as the
Hierarchical File System (HFS+). The root folder can exist anywhere on a network as a
shared resource.
Mounting and Unmounting Volumes
To gain access to files on a different device, you must first mount the device.
This process informs the operating system where in the folder tree you would like
those files to appear. The folder given to the operating system is the mount point.
Different volumes on a computer may have different file systems.
83
Mounting Volumes
You can use the mount tool with parameters appropriate to the type of file system you
want to mount, or use one of these file-system–specific mount commands:
 mount_afp for Apple File Protocol (AppleShare) volumes
 mount_cd9660 for ISO 9660 volumes
 mount_cddafs for CD Digital Audio format (CDDA) volumes
 mount_hfs for Apple Hierarchical File System (HFS) volumes
 mount_msdos for PC MS-DOS volumes
 mount_nfs for Network File System (NFS) volumes
 mount_smbfs for Server Message Block (SMB/CIFS) volumes
 mount_udf for Universal Disk Format (UDF) volumes
 mount_webdav for Web-based Distributed Authoring and Versioning (WebDAV)
volumes
prepares and grafts a special device or the remote node (rhost:path) on to the
file system tree at the point node. See the related man pages for more information.
mount
To view a list of currently mounted file systems:
$ sudo mount
To mount a network folder:
$ mount /dev/
mount
returns the value 0 if the mount succeeded.
Unmounting Volumes
You can use the umount tool to unmount a volume. umount removes a special device or
the remote node (rhost:path) from the file system tree at the point node.
To unmount a volume:
$ umount
returns the value 0 if the umount succeeded. See the umount man page for
more information.
umount
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Displaying Disk Information
The df tool located in /bin is designed to display free disk space. In addition, df is a
useful way to find out what your current disk partitions are, how much space each one
takes up, which block each partition starts on, which device file is associated with each
partition, and where each partition is mounted.
To display disk information:
$ df
The computer will respond with output similar to the following:
Filesystem
512-blocks
Used
Avail Capacity
/dev/disk0s3
156039264 26138984 129388280
17%
devfs
193
193
0
100%
fdesc
2
2
0
100%
<volfs>
1024
1024
0
100%
automount -nsl [170]
0
0
0
100%
automount -fstab [174]
0
0
0
100%
Servers
automount -static [174]
0
0
0
100%
static
Mounted on
/
/dev
/dev
/.vol
/Network
/automount/
/automount/
The -l option restricts reporting to local drives only. The -k option displays sizes in
kilobyte format.
Each line in the output refers to a different partition. The first column tells you the
device file associated with that partition. The second column displays the capacity of
the partition followed by used and available space on the volume. The last column tells
you where the partition is mounted.
Monitoring Disk Space
You can monitor the amount of free space on disks and take predefined actions when
thresholds are exceeded. When you need more vigilant monitoring of disk space than
the log rolling scripts provide, you can use the diskspacemonitor tool. It lets you
monitor disk space and take action more frequently than once a day when disk space is
critically low, and gives you the opportunity to provide your own action scripts.
diskspacemonitor is disabled by default.
To enable diskspacemonitor:
$ sudo diskspacemonitor on.
You may be prompted for your password. See the diskspacemonitor man page for
more information.
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When enabled, diskspacemonitor uses information in a configuration file to determine
when to execute alert and recovery scripts for reclaiming disk space:
 The configuration file is /etc/diskspacemonitor/diskspacemonitor.conf. It lets you
specify how often you want to monitor disk space, and specify thresholds to use for
determining when to take the actions in the scripts. By default, disks are checked
every 10 minutes, an alert script is executed when disks are 75% full, and a recovery
script is executed when disks are 85% full. To edit the configuration file, log in to the
server as an administrator and use a text editor to open the file. See the comments in
the file for additional information.
 By default, two predefined action scripts are executed when the thresholds are
reached.
The default alert script is /etc/diskspacemonitor/action/alert. It runs in accord with
instructions in the configuration file /etc/diskspacemonitor/alert.conf. It sends email
to recipients you specify.
The default recovery script is /etc/diskspacemonitor/action/recover. It runs in accord
with instructions in the configuration file /etc/diskspacemonitor/recover.conf.
See the comments in the script and configuration files for more information about
these files.
 If you want to provide your own alert and recovery scripts, put your alert script in
/etc/diskspacemonitor/action/alert.local and your recovery script in /etc/
diskspacemonitor/action/recovery.local. Your scripts will be executed before the
default scripts when the thresholds are reached.
To configure the scripts on a server from a remote Mac OS X computer, open a Terminal
window and log in to the remote computer using SSH.
Reclaiming Disk Space Using Log-Rolling Scripts
Three predefined scripts are executed automatically, in order to reclaim space used on
your server for log files generated by:
 Apple file service
 Windows service
 Web service
 Web performance cache
 Mail service
 Print service
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The scripts use values in the following configuration files to determine whether and
how to reclaim space:
 The script /etc/periodic/daily/600.daily.server runs daily. Its configuration file is
/etc/diskspacemonitor/daily.server.conf.
 The script /etc/periodic/weekly/600.weekly.server is intended to run weekly, but is
currently empty. Its configuration file is /etc/diskspacemonitor/weekly.server.conf.
 The script /etc/periodic/monthly/600.monthly.server is intended to run monthly, but
is currently empty. Its configuration file is /etc/diskspacemonitor/monthly.server.conf.
As configured, the scripts specify actions that complement the log file management
performed by the services listed above, so don’t modify them. All you need to do is log
in as an administrator and use a text editor to define thresholds in the configuration
files that determine when the actions are taken. For example:
 The number of megabytes a log file must contain before its space is reclaimed.
 The number of days since a log file’s last modification that need to pass before its
space is reclaimed.
Specify one or both thresholds. The actions are taken when either threshold is
exceeded.
There are several additional parameters you can specify. See comments in the
configuration files for information about all the parameters and how to set them.
The scripts ignore all log files except those for which at least one threshold is present
in the configuration file.
To configure the scripts on a server from a remote Mac OS X computer, open a Terminal
window and log in to the remote server using SSH. Then, open a text editor and edit
the scripts.
You can also use the diskspacemonitor tool to reclaim disk space.
Erasing, Modifying, Verifying, and Repairing Disks
You can use diskutil to erase, modify, verify, and repair disks. This command provides
functionality that overlaps with the functionality of pdisk, newfs_hfs, and disktool. For
example, you can use both diskutil and pdisk to partition a disk. However, unlike
pdisk, which lets you partition tables at their most basic level by setting the exact base
address and partition length in blocks, diskutil lets you partition a disk automatically
by calculating the base address and the partition length in blocks based on the
partition size you specify.
The diskutil tool allows you to perform the following actions on a disk:
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87
To list the disks currently known and available on the computer:
$ diskutil list
If your system is an Xserve computer, you can use this command to determine which
drive is in which bay.
To get mount info about a partition:
$ diskutil info diskvol
Parameter
Description
diskvol
Device name (for example, disk0s9) for the partition.
This command tells you the device file that corresponds to the mounted partition
(or device name) you specify.
To mount a drive:
$ diskutil mountDisk diskvol
Parameter
Description
diskvol
Device name.
To erase and repartition a disk:
$ diskutil partitionDisk disk numberOfPartitions part1Format part1Name
part1Size
Parameter
Description
disk
Device name (such as disk0).
numberOfPartitions
part1Format
HFS+ or UFS.
part1Name
part1Size
Can be either bytes (such as 98187445B), kilobytes (such as
810240K), megabytes (such as 4024M), gigabytes (such as 4G), or
terabytes (such as 1T).
Because HFS+ is case preserving but not case sensitive, there may be times when you
would want to set the file system to be case sensitive. You can use the diskutil tool to
format a drive for case-sensitive HFS+.
Note: Volumes you format as case-sensitive HFS+ are also journaled.
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To format a Mac OS Extended volume as case-sensitive HFS+:
$ sudo diskutil eraseVolume "Case-sensitive HFS+" newvolname volume
Parameter
Description
newvolname
The name given to the reformatted, case-sensitive volume.
volume
The path to the existing volume to be reformatted.
For example: /Volumes/HFSPlus
See the diskutil man page for more options and information about repairing and
modifying disks.
Partitioning and Formatting Disks
Disk partitions are subsdivisions of a disk to which you apply operating-system–specific
formatting.
Partitioning a Disk
You can use pdisk, located in /usr/sbin, to edit the disk partition table. You can
initialize the disk, create partitions, and delete partitions. The pdisk tool is
menu-driven, which means that once it is launched, you are prompted to enter a pdisk
command. You can find the commands by typing ? at the pdisk prompt. The following
are some of the more useful commands:
Command
Description
L
Lists the partition maps of all the drives. pdisk lists all the
partitions for a disk—even the unmountable partitions, such as the
partition containing the partition map.
e
Edits the partition map of the named device. To edit a partition
map, you have to use the raw device file as the argument.
Once you start editing a device, the pdisk options change. Enter ? at the pdisk prompt
to see the editing commands. The following are some of the more important ones:
Command
Description
p
Prints the partition map for the current device.
i
Initializes the partition map for the current device.
C
Creates a new partition. There are two partition types, Apple_HFS
and Apple_UFS.
w
Writes the modifications to the partition map on-disk. Before that,
all edits and modifications are only in memory and not yet
implemented.
pdisk does not support the Intel/DOS partitioning scheme supported by fdisk. See the
fdisk
man page for more information about DOS partitions.
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After a partition has been created on a device, the partition needs to be formatted
before the computer will be able to store data on the device. Formatting a disk
partition creates the volume and sets the file system.
Labeling a Disk
Once a disk is formatted, it needs to be labeled. The disklabel tool manipulates “Apple
Label” partition metadata. ”Apple Label” partitions allow for a disk device to have a
consistent name, ownership, and permissions across reboots, even though it uses a
dynamic pseudo file system for /dev.
The “Apple Label” partition uses a set of metadata (as a plist) in a reserved area of the
partition. This metadata describes the owner, name, and so forth.
To create a disk label for a device with 1 MB of metadata area, owned by anne, with
a device name of fred, and be writable by anne:
$ disklabel -create /dev/rdisk1s1 -msize=1M owner-uid=anne dev-devname=anne
name=anne owner-mode=0644
The following example prints out the key-value pairs from the previous example:
$ disklabel -properties /dev/rdisk1s1
See the disklabel man page for more information about creating disk labels.
Formatting a Disk
You can use newfs, located in /sbin, to create a new volume. newfs builds a file system
on the specified special device, basing its defaults on the information in the disk label.
There are many parameters you can set when formatting disks, such as block and
clump size, b-tree attribute, and catalog node sizes. Extreme care should be taken to
ensure a successful format when modifying the settings beyond the default. Before
running newfs, the disk must be labeled using the disklabel tool.
To fomat a disk:
$ newfs
See the newfs man page for options in detail.
To format a disk to HFS+, you would need to use the newfs_hfs tool located in /sbin:
$ newfs_hfs
See the newfs_hfs man page for more information.
Checking for Disk Problems
You can use the diskutil or fsck tool (fsck_hfs for HFS volumes) to check the physical
condition and file system integrity of a volume. See the related man pages for more
information.
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Managing Disk Journaling
A robust file system journaling feature is available to enhance the availability and fault
tolerance of servers and server-attached storage devices. Journaling protects the
integrity of the Mac OS Extended (HFS+) file system in the event of an unplanned
shutdown or power failure, and maximizes uptime by expediting repairs to the affected
volumes when the computer restarts.
Checking to See If Journaling is Enabled
You can use the mount tool to see if journaling is enabled on a volume.
To see if journaling is enabled:
$ mount
Look for journaled in the attributes in parentheses following a volume. For example:
/dev/disk0s9 on / (local, journaled)
Enabling Journaling for an Existing Volume
You can use the diskutil tool to enable journaling on a volume without affecting
existing files on the volume.
Important: Always check the volume for disk errors using the fsck_hfs tool before you
enable journaling.
To enable journaling:
$ diskutil enableJournal volume
Parameter
Description
volume
The volume name or device name of the volume.
The following example shows journaling being enabled on the exisiting volume /dev/
disk0s10.
$ mount
/dev/disk0s9 on / (local, journaled)
/dev/disk0s10 on /Volumes/OS 9.2.2 (local)
$ sudo fsck_hfs /dev/disk0s10/
** /dev/rdisk0s10
** Checking HFS plus volume.
** Checking extents overflow file.
** Checking Catalog file.
** Checking Catalog hierarchy.
** Checking volume bitmap.
** Checking volume information.
** The volume OS 9.2.2 appears to be OK.
$ diskutil enableJournal /dev/disk0s10
Allocated 8192K for journal file.
Journaling has been enabled on /dev/disk0s10
$ mount
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91
/dev/disk0s9 on / (local, journaled)
/dev/disk0s10 on /Volumes/OS 9.2.2 (local, journaled)
Enabling Journaling When You Erase a Disk
You can use the newfs_hfs tool to set up and enable journaling when you erase a disk.
To enable journaling when erasing a disk:
$ newfs_hfs -J -v volname device
Parameter
Description
volname
The name you want the new disk volume to have.
device
The device name of the disk.
Disabling Journaling
To disable journaling:
$ diskutil disableJournal volume
Parameter
Description
volume
The volume name or device name of the volume.
Understanding Spotlight Technology
Spotlight is a desktop search technology that combines metadata-indexing with
content-indexing that’s optimized for Mac OS X. Whenever a file is added, moved,
deleted, or modified, the file system notifies the Spotlight engine. The Spotlight engine
then updates its index, known as the Spotlight store. The Spotlight engine then
updates all of the applications using Spotlight, and changes are reflected dynamically
to the user.
The Spotlight store retains information that is extracted into two seperate indexes, one
for metadata and the other for content. Each index is created on a per-volume basis,
which means each disk or partition carries its own set of indexes for the information
about that volume.
Enabling and Disabling Spotlight
By default, the value of the spotlight parameter in the /etc/hostconfig file is set to -YESwhich means Spotlight is enabled on your Mac OS X Server computer.
To disable Spotlight on your server:
1 Open the /etc/hostconfig file for editing as root using your favorite editor. For example:
$ sudo pico /etc/hostconfig
2 Change the value of the spotlight parameter to -NO-.
You can also set the value of the spotlight parameter to -NO- as follows:
$ sudo /System/Library/ServerSetup/serversetup -setAutoStartSpotlight 0
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3 Restart your server.
To enable Spotlight on your server:
1 Open /etc/hostconfig for editing as root.
2 Change the value of the spotlight parameter to -YES-.
You can also set the value of the SPOTLIGHT parameter to -YES- as follows:
$ sudo /System/Library/ServerSetup/serversetup -setAutoStartSpotlight 1
3 Restart your server.
Performing Spotlight Searches
Mac OS X provides the ability to view the metadata of a file and perform Spotlight
searches from the command line.
To view a file’s Spotlight metadata, use the mdls tool. This tool, which is similar to the ls
tool, lists all of the metadata attributes for a specific file.
To view the metadata of a file:
$ mdls filename
The computer will respond with something similar to the following output:
<filename> ------------kMDItemAttributeChangeDate
kMDItemFSContentChangeDate
kMDItemFSCreationDate
kMDItemFSCreatorCode
kMDItemFSFinderFlags
kMDItemFSInvisible
kMDItemFSIsExtensionHidden
kMDItemFSLabel
kMDItemFSName
kMDItemFSNodeCount
kMDItemFSOwnerGroupID
kMDItemFSOwnerUserID
kMDItemFSSize
kMDItemFSTypeCode
kMDItemID
kMDItemLastUsedDate
kMDItemUsedDates
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
1970-01-01 00:43:07 -0600
2005-10-03 22:04:19 -0500
2005-10-03 22:04:19 -0500
0
16384
1
0
0
"filename"
0
0
0
4330232
0
634516
2005-10-03 21:04:19 -0500
(2005-10-03 21:04:19 -0500)
To perform a Spotlight search, use the mdfind tool:
$ mdfind “kMDItemAcquisitionModel ==’Canon Powershot S45’”
/Users/anne/Documents/vacation1.jpg
/Users/anne/Documents/vacation2.jpg
/Users/anne/Documents/vacation3.jpg
/Users/anne/Documents/vacation4.jpg
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Controlling Spotlight Indexing
By default, indexing of volumes in Mac OS X Server is disabled. However, you can use
the mdutil tool to enable or disable indexing on any volume.
To enable indexing on a volume:
Run the mdutil tool as root and set the indexing status to on.
$ sudo mdutil -i on volume
To disable indexing on a volume:
Run the mdutil tool as root and set the indexing status to off.
$ sudo mdutil -i off volume
See the mdutil man page for more information.
Managing RAID Volumes
In addition to standard drive management options, diskutil has the ability to manage
software RAID volumes.
To create a RAID set:
$ diskutil createRAID type setName volType disks
Parameter
Description
type
Mirror or stripe.
setName
Name of the new RAID volume.
volType
HFS, HFS+, UFS, or BootableHFS.
disks
List of device names for members of the RAID set.
To get a list of of disks available to add to a RAID set:
$ diskutil list
Similarly, you can remove a RAID set with the diskutil
destroyRAID
To view a list of available RAID sets:
$ diskutil checkRAID device
Parameter
Description
device
Device file.
To create an unpaired mirrored RAID from a single file system disk:
$ diskutil enableRAID mirror device
94
Parameter
Description
mirror
Name of the mirror RAID set.
device
Device file.
Chapter 7 Working with Disks and Volumes
command.
To repair a failed mirror:
$ diskutil repairMirror device slicenumber fromDisk toDisk
Parameter
Description
device
Device file.
slicenumber
Specifies the slice number to replace.
fromDisk
Specifies the mirror source.
toDisk
Specifies the repaired mirror destination.
Note: Xsan RAID volumes have their own set of commands, which are described in an
appendix of the Xsan administrators guide. See the appendix for informatian about the
megaraid tool, used for managing a PCI RAID card.
Imaging and Cloning Volumes Using ASR
You can use Apple Software Restore (ASR) to copy a disk image onto a volume or to
prepare existing disk images with checksum information for faster copies. ASR can
perform file copies, in which individual files are restored to a volume unless an identical
file is already there, and block copies, which restore entire disk images. The asr tool
doesn’t create the disk images. You can use hdiutil to create disk images from
volumes or folders.
You must run ASR as root. You cannot use ASR on read or write disk images.
To image a boot volume:
1 Install and configure Mac OS X on the volume.
2 Restart from a different volume.
3 Make sure the volume you’re imaging has permissions enabled. Use the following to
verify permissions:
$ diskutil verifyPermissions [mount point|disk identifier|device node]
4 Use hditutil to make a read-write disk image of the volume. See “To create an image
from a folder:” on page 177.
5 Mount the disk image.
6 Remove cache files, host-specific preferences, and virtual memory files. See the asr
man page for examples of what files to remove.
7 Unmount the volume and convert the read-write image to a read-only compressed
image.
$ hdiutil convert -format UDZO pathtoimage -o compressedimage
8 Prepare the image for duplication by adding checksum information:
$ sudo asr -imagescan compressedimage
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To restore a volume from an image:
$ sudo asr -source compressedimage -target targetvolume -erase
See the asr man page for command syntax, limitations, and image preparation
instructions.
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8
Working with Users and Groups
8
In this chapter you will find commands you can use to set up
and manage user and group accounts.
With Mac OS X Server, you can quickly create and administer accounts for users and
groups. There are several command-line tools that facilitate working with the directory
domains that hold these accounts.
Understanding Accounts
There are three kinds of accounts you can set up with Workgroup Manager: user
accounts, group accounts, and computer lists. When you define a user’s account, you
specify the information needed to prove the user’s identity: user name, password, and
user identification number (user ID). Other information in a user’s account is needed by
various services—to determine what the user is authorized to do and perhaps to
personalize the user’s environment. Along with accounts you create, Mac OS X Server
has some predefined user and group accounts, some of which are reserved for use by
Mac OS X.
Most users have an individual account used to authenticate them and control their
access to services. When you want to personalize a user’s environment, you define user,
group, or computer preferences for that user. The term managed client or managed
user designates a user who has administrator-controlled preferences associated with
his or her account. When a managed user logs in, the preferences that take effect are a
combination of the user’s preferences and preferences set up for any workgroup or
computer list he or she belongs to.
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Administering and Creating Accounts
A user account stores data that Mac OS X Server needs to validate the user’s identity
and provide services for the user. This section provides an overview of user accounts.
User accounts, as well as group accounts and computer lists, can be stored in any Open
Directory domain accessible from any Mac OS X computer. A directory domain can
reside on a Mac OS X computer (for example, the LDAP folder of an Open Directory
master, a NetInfo domain, or other read/write directory domain) or it can reside on a
non-Apple server (for example, a non-Apple LDAP or Active Directory server). This
section describes how to administer user accounts stored in various kinds of directory
domains.
Creating a Local Administrator User Account for a Server
Users with server or directory domain administration privileges are known as
administrators. An administrator can be a server administrator, domain administrator, or
both. Server administrator privileges determine whether a user can view info about or
change the settings of a particular server. Domain administrator privileges determine
the extent to which the user can view or change the account settings for users, groups,
and computer lists in the directory domain.
You can use the serversetup tool to create local administrator users for a server. The
serversetup tool is located in /System/Library/ServerSetup/ and it is not in the local
path, so you have to provide the path to it. You also have to run it as root.
To create nonadministrator users, see “Creating a Nonadministrator User Account” on
page 100. To create administrator users in a network directory domain, see “Creating a
Domain Administrator User Account” on page 99.
To create a local administrator user account:
$ sudo /System/Library/ServerSetup/serversetup -createUser fullname
shortname password
The name, short name, and password must be entered in the order shown. If the full
name includes spaces, enter it in quotes.
The command displays a 0 if successful, or a 1 if the full name or short name is already
in use.
To create an local administrator user with a specific UID:
$ sudo /System/Library/ServerSetup/serversetup -createUserWithID fullname
shortname password uid
The name, short name, password, and UID must be entered in the order shown. If the
full name includes spaces, enter it in quotes.
The command displays a 0 if successful, or a 1 if the full name, short name, or UID is
already in use or if the UID you specified is less than 100.
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To create an local administrator user with a specific UID and home folder:
$ sudo /System/Library/ServerSetup/serversetup -createUserWithIDIP fullname
shortname password uid homedirpath
The name, short name, password, and UID must be entered in the order shown. If the
full name includes spaces, enter it in quotes.
The command displays a 0 if successful, or a 1 if the full name, short name, or UID is
already in use or if the UID you specified is less than 100.
Creating a Domain Administrator User Account
In order to create a domain administrator user account for a networked directory, you
need to already have a domain administrator user account.
Before starting, you should already have a nonadministrator user account that you
want to give domain administrator privileges to. For instructions on creating
nonadministrator user accounts, see “Creating a Nonadministrator User Account” on
page 100.
To create a domain administrator user account:
1 Start the dscl tool in interactive mode, specifying the computer you are using as the
source of directory service data. Use the dscl tool to create a domain administrator
user account.
$ dscl localhost
>
In interactive mode, the dscl tool displays the current folder in the directory domain
(not the current folder in the file system) and a “>” character as a prompt.
2 Once connected to the directory, choose the directory domain. Change the current
folder to LDAPv3/ipaddress/Groups.
> cd LDAPv3/ipaddress/Groups
Replace ipaddress with the IP address of your directory server. If using a NetInfo
directory domain, enter cd /NetInfo/root/Groups at the prompt.
3 Create an administrator user.
>append admin Member adminusername
This command creates an administrator user, but it doesn’t add the GUID (globally
unique identifier) of the administrator user to the group account.
4 Add the administrator user to the group.
> append admin GroupMembers guid
Replace guid with the globally unique identifier.
5 Quit the dscl tool.
>quit
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To find the GUID of the administrator user:
> cd /Users/
> read adminusername GeneratedUID
Checking a User’s Administrator Privileges
Use the serversetup tool to verify the administrator privileges of a specific user.
To see if a user is a server administrator:
$ sudo /System/Library/ServerSetup/serversetup -isAdministrator shortname
The command displays a 0 if the user is an administrator, or a 1 if the user is not an
administrator.
Creating a Nonadministrator User Account
You can create new user accounts by using dscl and other tools. When you create a
user account from the command line, you must also set values for basic attributes of
the user account, such as the short name, long name, user ID, and home folder
location.
To create a nonadministrator user account:
1 Identify an unused user ID. Each user on a server must have a unique user ID. Use the
dscl tool to display lists of assigned user IDs and group IDs.
$ dscl /LDAPv3/ipaddress -list /Users UniqueID| awk '{print $2}' | sort -n
Replace /LDAPv3/ipaddress with the location of your directory domain (the way it is
displayed in the search path in Directory Access). If you connect to a NetInfo domain,
replace UniqueID with uid.
After you enter the command, the dscl tool displays a list of assigned user ID numbers,
similar to the following output. These user IDs are for computer accounts that are
included with Mac OS X Server:
-2
0
1
99
25
26
27
70
71
75
76
77
78
79
501
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Chapter 8 Working with Users and Groups
Important: Pick a user ID that isn’t on either list and that is greater than 501. 501 is the
user ID of the local administrator user that gets created when you install Mac OS X
Server.
2 Start the dscl tool in interactive mode, specifying the computer you are using as the
source of directory service data. Use the dscl tool to create a nonadministrator user
account.
$ dscl localhost
>
In interactive mode, the dscl tool displays the current folder in the directory domain
(not the current folder in the file system) and a “>” character as a prompt.
3 Change the current folder to /LDAPv3/ipaddress/Users by entering the path at the
prompt:
> cd /LDAPv3/ipaddress/Users
Replace ipaddress with the IP address of your directory server. If using a NetInfo
directory domain, enter cd /NetInfo/root/Users at the prompt.
4 Authenticate as an administrator by entering the following command, replacing
adminusername with your administrator user name, and entering your administrator
password when prompted:
> auth adminusername
5 Create a new user account, replacing ajohnson with the new user account’s short name
and specifying the path to the new user’s home folder in /Users/:
> create ajohnson HomeDirectory “<home_dir><url>afp://sp.apple.com/Users
</url><path>ajohnson</path></home_dir>”
> create ajohnson NFSHomeDirectory /Network/Servers/sp.apple.com/Users/
ajohnson
Replace sp.apple.com with your home folder server’s location.
6 Specify the new user’s default UNIX shell:
> create ajohnson UserShell /bin/bash
7 Specify the user ID, replacing 1234 with the new user’s ID:
> create ajohnson UniqueID 1234
8 Specify the long name for the new user account, replacing Anne Johnson with the
actual long name:
> create ajohnson RealName "Anne Johnson"
9 Review the settings of your new user account by entering the following command,
replacing ajohnson with the new user account’s short name as before:
> read ajohnson
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dscl
displays the settings for your new user account, similar to the following output:
apple-generateduid:1B2A3456-E7C8-9EC1-2345-678D912E3456
cn: anne johnson
gidNumber: 99
HomeDirectory: /LDAPv3/ipaddress/Users/ajohnson
loginShell: /bin/bash
objectClass: inetOrgPerson posixAccount shadowAccount apple-user extensible
object organizationalPerson top person
sn: ajohnson
uid: ajohnson
uidNumber: 1234
AppleMetaNodeLocation: /LDAPv3/ipaddress
GeneratedUID:1B2A3456-E7C8-9EC1-2345-678D912E3456
LastName: johnson
NFSHomeDirectory: /LDAPv3/ipaddress/Users/ajohnson
PasswordPlus:********
PrimaryGroupID: 99
RealName: Anne Johnson
RecordName: ajohnson anne
RecordType: dsRecTypeStandard:Users
UniqueID: 1234
UserShell: /bin/bash
10 Assign a password to the account by entering the following command, replacing
ajohnson with the new account’s short name:
> passwd ajohnson
You will be prompted to enter a password.
11 Quit dscl by entering:
> quit
The dscl tool displays Goodbye, and then the standard shell prompt appears.
12 Use the ssh tool to connect to the server where you are hosting all of the home folders:
$ ssh -l username server
where username is the name of an administrator user on the remote server and server is
the name or IP address of the server.
13 Create the home folder for the new user. Use the -s option if you are using a network
directory domain or the -c option if you are using a local directory domain.
$ sudo createhomedir -s -u ajohnson
To create a group account for the new user, see “Creating a Group Account” on
page 111 before doing this step.
The new user account is now complete and can be used for login. See the dscl man
page for more information.
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Retreiving a User’s GUID
When a user account is created, the computer generates a 128-bit integer called a
globally unique identifier (GUID). This is stored in the LDAP directory. The GUID is used
for permissions and for associating users with group memberships. In command-line
tools, you might see a GUID referred to as a GeneratedUID.
To retrieve a user’s GUID:
1 Start the dscl tool in interactive mode, specifying the computer you are using as the
source of directory service data:
$ dscl localhost
>
2 Change the current folder to /LDAPv3/ipaddress/Users by entering the path at the
prompt:
> cd /LDAPv3/ipaddress/Users
Replace ipaddress with the IP address of your directory server. If using a NetInfo
directory domain, enter cd /NetInfo/root/Users at the prompt.
3 Authenticate as an administrator by entering the following command, replacing
adminusername with an administrator’s user name, and entering an administrator’s
password when prompted:
> auth adminusername
4 Review the GUID for a particular user.
> read username GeneratedUID
5 Quit dscl by entering:
> quit
Removing a User Account
You can remove a user account by using the dscl tool. This does not remove the user’s
home folder and the data that may be stored there. You can use the Finder to drag the
deleted user’s home folder to the Trash.
To delete a user account:
1 Start the dscl tool in interactive mode, specifying the computer you are using as the
source of directory service data:
$ dscl localhost
>
2 Change the current folder to /LDAPv3/ipaddress/Users by entering the path at the
prompt:
> cd /LDAPv3/ipaddress/Users
Replace ipaddress with the IP address of your directory server. If using a NetInfo
directory domain, enter cd /NetInfo/ipaddress/Users at the prompt.
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3 Authenticate as an administrator by entering the following command, replacing
adminusername with an administrator’s user name, and entering that administrator’s
password when prompted:
> auth adminusername
4 Delete the user account by entering the following command, replacing ajohnson with
the user account’s short name:
> delete ajohnson
5 Quit dscl by entering:
> quit
A user account usually has a matching group of the same name. See “Removing a
Group Account” on page 112, for information about deleting this group.
Revoking a User’s Right to Access His or Her Account
There are times when it is necessary to revoke a user’s ability to access the computer.
This involves preventing the user from logging in and then terminating all of the user’s
processes. This can be done by forcing the user to log out and then killing any
remaining processes, or by just killing all of the user’s processes.
To prevent a user from logging in:
1 Start the dscl tool in interactive mode, specifying the computer you are using as the
source of directory service data:
$ dscl localhost
>
2 Change the current folder to /LDAPv3/ipaddress/Users by entering the path at the
prompt:
> cd /LDAPv3/ipaddress/Users
Replace ipaddress with the IP address of your directory server. If using a NetInfo
directory domain, enter cd /NetInfo/root/Users at the prompt.
3 Authenticate as an administrator by entering the following command, replacing
adminusername with your administrator user name, and entering your administrator
password when prompted:
> auth adminusername
4 Quit dscl by entering:
> quit
5 Disable the user account by entering the following command:
$ pwpolicy -a diradmin -u ajohnson -setpolicy “isDisabled=1”
Replace ajohnson with the short name of the user account and replace diradmin with
the short name of your domain administrator account.
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To terminate all of a user’s processes:
After disabling the user account, you need to kill all of the user’s active processes that
are currently running on the directory server.
Warning: Unconditionally killing all of a user’s processes will cause the user to lose
any unsaved data.
1 Make all processes clean up and exit by entering the following command, replacing
ajohnson with the user name:
$ sudo killall -TERM -u ajohnson
2 Wait a few seconds to allow the previous command to execute. To terminate all user
processes unconditionally, enter the following command, replacing ajohnson with the
user name:
$ sudo killall -9 -u ajohnson
Refer to the killall man page for more information about terminating processes.
To reenable a user account that is disabled:
1 Start the dscl tool in interactive mode, specifying the computer you are using as the
source of directory service data:
$ dscl localhost
>
2 Change the current folder to /LDAPv3/ipaddress/Users by entering the path at the
prompt:
> cd /LDAPv3/ipaddress/Users
Replace ipaddress with the IP address of your directory server. If using a NetInfo
directory domain, enter cd /NetInfo/root/Users at the prompt.
3 Authenticate as an administrator by entering the following command, replacing
adminusername with your administrator user name, and entering your administrator
password when prompted:
> auth adminusername
4 Quit dscl by entering:
> quit
5 Enable the user account by entering the following command. Replace ajohnson with
the short name of the user account and replace diradmin with the short name of your
domain administrator account.
$ pwpolicy -a diradmin -u ajohnson -setpolicy “isDisabled=0”
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Checking a Server User’s Name, UID, or Password
You can use the following commands to check the name, UID, or password of a user in
the server’s local directory domain.
Note: These tasks apply only to the local directory domain on the server.
To see if a full name is already in use:
$ sudo /System/Library/ServerSetup/serversetup -verifyRealName "longname"
The command displays a 1 if the name is already in use, or a 0 if it isn’t.
To see if a short name is already in use:
$ sudo /System/Library/ServerSetup/serversetup -verifyName shortname
The command displays a 1 if the name is already in use, or a 0 if it isn’t.
To see if a UID is already in use:
$ sudo /System/Library/ServerSetup/serversetup -verifyUID uid
The command displays a 1 if the UID is already in use, or a 0 if it isn’t.
To test a user’s password:
$ sudo /System/Library/ServerSetup/serversetup -verifyNamePassword shortname
password
The command displays a 1 if the password is good, or a 0 if it isn’t.
To view the names associated with a UID:
$ sudo /System/Library/ServerSetup/serversetup -getNamesByID uid
If you don’t receive a response, the UID is not valid.
To get the default UNIX short name for a user long name:
$ sudo /System/Library/ServerSetup/serversetup -getUNIXName "longname"
Note: Mac OS X Server provides the net tool, which is essentially a clone of the
Windows net command. The net tool enables administrators to perform advanced
customization of the PDC and mapping domain privileges to UNIX groups. See the
man page for more information.
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net
Modifying a User Account
You can change the value of an attribute in a user account by using dscl.
There are many attributes that can be set for users. The following table describes some
of the user account attributes you can modify using dscl:
Attribute
Description
apple-generateduid
User id generated by the system.
cn
User’s common name.
homeDirectory
Location of the user’s Home Folder.
loginShell
User’sTerminal shell.
sn
User’s sir name.
LastName
User’s last name.
NFSHomeDirectory
Location of the user’s Home Folder.
PasswordPlus
User’s password.
PrimaryGroupID
User’s primary group ID.
RealName
User’s name.
UserShell
User’sTerminal shell.
To change a user account attribute to a new value:
1 Start the dscl tool in interactive mode, specifying the computer you are using as the
source of directory service data:
$ dscl localhost
>
2 Change the current folder to /LDAPv3/ipaddress/Users by entering the path at the
prompt:
> cd /LDAPv3/ipaddress/Users
Replace ipaddress with the IP address of your directory server. If using a NetInfo
directory domain, enter cd /NetInfo/root/Users at the prompt.
3 Authenticate as an administrator by entering the following command, replacing
adminusername with your administrator user name, and entering your administrator
password when prompted:
> auth adminusername
4 Set the user attribute to the desired value by entering the following command,
replacing ajohnson with the user account’s short name, attribute with the name of the
attribute whose value you wish to change, and newvalue with the value:
> create ajohnson attribute newvalue
5 Quit dscl by entering:
> quit
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Creating a Mobile User Account
Mobile accounts are network accounts that have been set up to be accessible even
when the user is not connected to the server where the account resides. The mobile
account user is provided with a local home folder on the computer the user is logged
in to. This functionality reduces network traffic and improves overall performance.
You can use the MCXCacher tool to create a mobile account from the command line.
MCXCacher performs the pre-login checks and refreshes cache if required. This tool will
only work if the client is bound to a network directory system containing the target
user record.
Important: Creating a mobile user account is a client-only operation. These commands
must be either performed on the client computer or while connected through SSH to a
client computer.
To create a mobile account:
1 Use the MCXCacher to create a mobile account on the current computer.
$ sudo /System/Library/CoreServices/mcxd.app/Contents/Resources/
MCXCacher -U ajohnson
Where ajohnson is the short name of a user in the parent folder and /Users/ajohnson
is the Home Folder.
2 Run the passwd command to change passwords.
$ passwd ajohnson
Then enter verify passwords. You can also set the password by logging in while
connected to the network.
3 Create a standard home folder for a user with a mobile account.
$ sudo createhomedir -u ajohnson -c -l
When a mobile account is enabled, it appears in the login window and in the Accounts
pane of System Preferences with the label Mobile. You can alsol select the user in
Workgroup Manager and click Preferences > Mobility. If “synchronize account for offline
use” is checked, the account is mobile.
The MCXCacher tool does not have a man page. This tool, located in the /System/
Library/CoreServices/mcxd.app/Contents/Resources/ folder, performs the pre-login
checks and refreshes cache if necessary. The following examples describe other options
for MCXCacher tool.
To create (or overwrites an existing) mobile account on the current machine:
Enter the following, replacing usershortname with the user’s short name and homepath
with the location of the user’s Home Folder.
$ sudo /System/Library/CoreServices/mcxd.app/Contents/Resources/
MCXCacher -U usershortname [-h homepath]
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Chapter 8 Working with Users and Groups
To perform the post–login checks and refreshes caches and caches the current user’s
mcx_settings:
Enter the following, replacing usershortname with the user’s short name.
$ sudo /System/Library/CoreServices/mcxd.app/Contents/Resources/
MCXCacher -U usershortname
To flush the cache:
$ sudo /System/Library/CoreServices/mcxd.app/Contents/Resources/
MCXCacher -f
To dirty the cache so that it will be refreshed at the next login:
$ sudo /System/Library/CoreServices/mcxd.app/Contents/Resources/
MCXCacher -d
Managing Home Folders
A home folder is a folder where a user’s files and preferences are stored. Other users
can see a user’s home folder and read files in its Public folder, but they can’t (by default)
access anything else in that folder. This is true only for other users whose home folders
reside on the same server or share point.
When you create a user account in a directory domain on the network, you specify the
location of the user’s home folder on the network. The location is stored in the user
account and used by various services, including the login window and Mac OS X
managed client services.
Creating a User’s Home Folder
Normally, you can create a user’s home folder by clicking the Create Home Now button
on the Homes pane of Workgroup Manager. You can also create home folders using the
createhomedir tool. Otherwise, Mac OS X Server creates the user’s home folder when
the user logs in for the first time.
You can use createhomedir to create:
 A home folder for a particular user (-u option)
 Home folders for all users in a directory domain (-l or -n option)
 Home folders for all users in all domains in the folder search path (-a option)
See the createhomedir man page for more information.
In all cases, the home folders are created on the server where you run the tool.
To create a home folder for a particular user:
$ sudo createhomedir -u uid
In addition to the uid, you can also use the user’s short name.
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To create a home folder for users in the local domain:
$ sudo createhomedir [(-a|-l|-n domain)] -u uid
You can also create a user’s home folder using the serversetup tool.
To create a home folder for a particular user:
$ sudo /System/Library/ServerSetup/serversetup -createHomedir uid
The command displays a 1 if the user ID you specify doesn’t exist.
Mounting a User’s Home Folder
You can use mnthome to mount a user’s home folder. The mnthome tool unmounts the
AFP (AppleShare) home folder that was automounted as guest, and remounts it with
the correct privileges by logging into the AFP server using the current user name and
password.
To mount a user’s shared home directory on an AFP server:
$ mnthome -p password
See the mnthome man page for more information.
Administering Group Accounts
A group is simply a collection of users who have similar needs. For example, you can
add all users with a particular task to one group and give the group permission to
access certain files or folders on a volume.
Groups simplify the administration of shared resources. Instead of granting access to
various resources to each individual who needs them, you can add the users to a group
and then grant access to the group. Information in group accounts is used to help
control user access to folders and files. Individual users may belong to multiple groups,
depending on their access needs.
A group can be nested within another group. A group that contains another group is
called a parent group, and the group that is contained is called a nested group. Nested
groups are useful for inheriting access permissions at login time.
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Creating a Group Account
You can create a new group account by using dscl and other tools. When you create a
group account via the command line, you must also set values for basic attributes of a
group account, such as short name and group ID.
To add a group account:
1 Identify an unused group ID by entering the following command to display a list of
assigned group IDs.
$ dscl /LDAPv3/ipaddress -list /Groups PrimaryGroupID | awk '{print $2}' |
sort -n
Replace ipaddress with the location of your directory domain (the way it is displayed
in the search path in Directory Access). If you connect to a NetInfo domain, use:
$ dscl /NetInfo/root -list /Groups gid | awk ‘{print $2}’ | sort -n.
After you enter the command, the dscl tool displays a list of assigned IDs similar to the
following output:
-2
0
1
99
25
26
27
70
71
76
77
78
79
501
Important: Pick an ID that isn’t on either list, and that is greater than 501.
2 Start the dscl tool in interactive mode, specifying the computer you are using as the
source of directory service data:
$ dscl localhost
>
3 Change the current folder to /LDAPv3/ipaddress/Groups by entering the path at the
prompt:
> cd /LDAPv3/ipaddress/Groups
Replace ipaddress with the IP address of your directory server. If using a NetInfo
directory domain, enter cd /NetInfo/root/Groups at the prompt.
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4 Authenticate as an administrator by entering the following command, replacing
adminusername with your administrator user name, and entering your administrator
password when prompted:
> auth adminusername
5 Create a new group, replacing officegroup with the new group account’s short name
and specify the group ID, replacing 600 with the primary group ID.
> create officegroup PrimaryGroupID 600
6 Review the settings of your new group by entering the following command, replacing
officegroup with the new group account’s short name.
> read officegroup
dscl
displays the settings for your new group account, similar to the following output:
apple-generateduid:4B3A5678-E9C1-2EC3-4567-891D234E5678
cn: officegroup
gidNumber: 600
objectClass: posixGroup apple-group extensibleObject top
AppleMetaNodeLocation: /LDAPv3/ipaddress
GeneratedUID:4B3A5678-E9C1-2EC3-4567-891D234E5678
PasswordPlus:********
PrimaryGroupID: 600
RecordName: officegroup
RecordType: dsRecTypeStandard:Groups
7 Quit the dscl tool.
>quit
See the dscl man page for more information about using the dscl command-line tool.
Removing a Group Account
You can remove group accounts by using the dscl tool.
To remove a group account:
1 Start the dscl tool in interactive mode, specifying the computer you are using as the
source of directory service data:
$ dscl localhost
>
2 Change the current folder to /LDAPv3/ipaddress/Groups by entering the path at the
prompt:
> cd /LDAPv3/ipaddress/Groups
Replace ipaddress with the IP address of your directory server. If using a NetInfo
directory domain, enter cd /NetInfo/root/Groups at the prompt.
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3 Authenticate as an administrator by entering the following command, replacing
adminusername with your administrator user name, and entering your administrator
password when prompted:
> auth adminusername
4 Remove the group by entering the following command, replacing officegroup with the
group account’s short name:
> delete officegroup
5 Quit dscl by entering:
> quit
Adding a User to a Group
You can add users to a group using the dscl tool.
To add a user to a group:
1 Start the dscl tool in interactive mode, specifying the computer you are using as the
source of directory service data:
$ dscl localhost
>
2 Change the current folder to /LDAPv3/ipaddress/Groups by entering the path at the
prompt:
> cd /LDAPv3/ipaddress/Groups
Replace ipaddress with the IP address of your directory server. If using a NetInfo
directory domain, enter cd /NetInfo/root/Users at the prompt.
3 Authenticate as an administrator by entering the following command, replacing
adminusername with your administrator user name, and entering your administrator
password when prompted:
> auth adminusername
4 Add the user to the group by entering the following command, replacing ajohnson
with the short name of the user account and officegroup with the short name of the
group account:
> append admin Member adminusername
This creates an administrator user, but it does not add the GUID (globally unique
identifier) of the administrator user to the group account. This may cause security and
compatibility issues.
5 Add the administrator user to the admin group.
> append admin GroupMembers guid
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6 Review the new settings of the group by entering the following command, replacing
officegroup with the group account’s short name:
> read officegroup
dscl
displays the settings for the group account, similar to the following output:
apple-generateduid:4B3A5678-E9C1-2EC3-4567-891D234E5678
cn: officegroup
gidNumber: 600
MemberUid: mchen ajohnson bmiller
objectClass: posixGroup apple-group extensibleObject top
AppleMetaNodeLocation: /LDAPv3/ipaddress
GeneratedUID:4B3A5678-E9C1-2EC3-4567-891D234E5678
GroupMembers:2B3A4567-E8C9-9EC2-3456-789D123E4567 1B2A3456-E7C8-9EC1-2345678D912E3456 8B9A1234-E5C6-7EC8-9123-456D78E9123
GroupMembership: mchen ajohnson bmiller
Member: mchen ajohnson bmiller
PasswordPlus:********
PrimaryGroupID: 600
RecordName: officegroup
RecordType: dsRecTypeStandard:Groups
7 Quit dscl by entering:
> quit
To find the guid of the administrator user:
> cd /Users/
> read adminusername GeneratedUID
Removing a User from a Group
You can remove users from a group by using the dscl tool.
To remove a user from a group:
1 Start the dscl tool in interactive mode, specifying the computer you are using as the
source of directory service data:
$ dscl localhost
>
2 Change the current folder to /LDAPv3/ipaddress/Groups by entering the path at the
prompt:
> cd /LDAPv3/ipaddress/Groups
Replace ipaddress with the IP address of your directory server. If using a NetInfo
directory domain, enter cd /NetInfo/root/Groups at the prompt.
3 Authenticate as an administrator by entering the following command, replacing
adminusername with your administrator user name, and entering your administrator
password when prompted:
> auth adminusername
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4 View the current members of the group by entering the following (replacing
officegroup with the group account’s short name):
> read officegroup
displays the settings for the group account, similar to the following output where
the group named officegroup has users mchen, ajohnson, and bmiller as members:
dscl
apple-generateduid:4B3A5678-E9C1-2EC3-4567-891D234E5678
cn: officegroup
gidNumber: 600
MemberUid: mchen ajohnson bmiller
objectClass: posixGroup apple-group extensibleObject top
AppleMetaNodeLocation: /LDAPv3/ipaddress
GeneratedUID:4B3A5678-E9C1-2EC3-4567-891D234E5678
GroupMembers:2B3A4567-E8C9-9EC2-3456-789D123E4567 1B2A3456-E7C8-9EC1-2345678D912E3456 8B9A1234-E5C6-7EC8-9123-456D78E9123
GroupMembership: mchen ajohnson bmiller
Member: mchen ajohnson bmiller
PasswordPlus:********
PrimaryGroupID: 600
RecordName: officegroup
RecordType: dsRecTypeStandard:Groups
5 Remove the user by entering the following command, replacing ajohnson with the
short name of the user account, ajguid with ajohnson’s GUID, and officegroup with the
short name of the group account:
> delete officegroup GroupMembership ajohnson
> delete officegroup GroupMembership ajguid
6 Review the new settings of the group:
> read officegroup
dscl displays the settings for the group, showing that the user you removed is no
longer a group member, similar to the following output:
apple-generateduid:4B3A5678-E9C1-2EC3-4567-891D234E5678
cn: officegroup
gidNumber: 600
MemberUid: mchen bmiller
objectClass: posixGroup apple-group extensibleObject top
AppleMetaNodeLocation: /LDAPv3/ipaddress
GeneratedUID:4B3A5678-E9C1-2EC3-4567-891D234E5678
GroupMembers:2B3A4567-E8C9-9EC2-3456-789D123E4567 8B9A1234-E5C6-7EC8-9123456D78E9123
GroupMembership: mchen bmiller
Member: mchen bmiller
PasswordPlus:********
PrimaryGroupID: 600
RecordName: officegroup
RecordType: dsRecTypeStandard:Groups
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7 Quit dscl by entering:
> quit
Creating and Deleting Nested Group
Nested groups allow for one group (child) to be a member of a second group (parent),
thus inheriting the permissions and attributes of the parent group. All members of a
nested group will become child members of the parent group as well.
You can create a nested group by using the dseditgroup tool with the -a option,
which adds the group record to the parent group.
To create a nested group:
$ dseditgroup -o edit [-a childgroup] [-t group] [-u username] [-P password]
[-n /LDAPv3/ipaddess] parentgroup
Parameter
Description
childgroup
The name of the child group you are adding to the parent group.
username
The short name of a user with LDAP directory service access.
password
The user password.
ipaddress
The IP address of your directory server.
parentgroup
The name of the parent group that the child group is being
added to.
To verify a nested group:
1 Start the dscl tool in interactive mode, specifying the computer you are using as the
source of directory service data:
$ dscl localhost
>
2 Change the current folder to /LDAPv3/ipaddress/Groups by entering the path at the
prompt:
> cd /LDAPv3/ipaddress/Groups
Replace ipaddress with the IP address of your directory server. If using a NetInfo
directory domain, enter cd /NetInfo/root/Groups at the prompt.
3 Authenticate as an administrator by entering the following command, replacing
adminusername with your administrator user name, and entering your administrator
password when prompted:
> auth adminusername
4 View the current members of the group by entering (replacing parentgroup with the
group account’s short name):
> read parentgroup
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dscl displays the settings for the group account, similar to the following output where
the group named parentgroup is shown as nested:
apple-generateduid:4B3A5678-E9C1-2EC3-4567-891D234E5678
apple-group-nestedgroup:1A2B3456-C7D8-9EF1-2345-678G912H3456
cn: parentgroup
gidNumber: 700
objectClass: posixGroup apple-group extensibleObject top
AppleMetaNodeLocation: /LDAPv3/ipaddress
GeneratedUID:4B3A5678-E9C1-2EC3-4567-891D234E5678
NestedGroups:1A2B3456-C7D8-9EF1-2345-678G912H3456
PasswordPlus:********
PrimaryGroupID: 700
RecordName: parentgroup
RecordType: dsRecTypeStandard:Groups
Once a nested group is established, it can be split apart or unnested by using the
dseditgroup tool with the -d option which deletes the group record but leaves the
group intact.
To unnest a group:
$ dseditgroup -o edit [-d childgroup] [-t group] [-u username] [-P password]
[-n /LDAPv3/ipaddess] parentgroup
Parameter
Description
childgroup
The name of the child group you are adding to the parent group.
group
The type of account you are changing. In this case group.
username
The short name of a user with LDAP directory service access.
password
The user password.
ipaddress
The IP address of your directory server.
parentgroup
The name of the parent group that the child group is being added
to.
Editing Group Records
You can use dsEditGroup to add, remove, or edit group records in the local directory
service.
To display the information about a particular group:
$ dseditgroup officegroup
To delete a group:
$ dseditgroup -o delete -n /LDAPv3/ipaddress -u diradmin groupname
Replace ipaddress with the IP address of the DNS name of the LDAPv3 server, diradmin
with the name of the directory administrator, and groupname with the name of the
group you want to delete.
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This will prompt you for your diradmin password, which is much more secure than
putting the password in the command you are sending.
See the dseditgroup man page for more information.
Creating a Group Folder
A group folder facilitates the sharing of files between members of a group. Once you
set up a group folder in Workgroup Manager you need to use the CreateGroupFolder
tool to create the actual group folder. Group folders should be created on the server
that hosts the group folders.
To create a group folder:
$ sudo /usr/bin/CreateGroupFolder
See the CreateGroupFolder man page for more information.
Viewing the Workgroup a User Selects at Login
When you define preferences for a group, it is known as a workgroup. A workgroup
provides you with a way to manage the working environment of group members. Any
preferences you define for a Mac OS X workgroup are stored in the group account.
When a user selects a workgroup at login, a property list (plist) file stores the short
name of the selected workgroup in its “workgroup” key.
Important: Viewing the workgroup a user selects at login must be performed on the
client computer.
To view the workgroup a user selects at login, from the client computer:
1 Connect to the client computer using an account with administrator privileges.
$ ssh admin@computer.name
Replace admin with the short name of the client computer’s administrator and
computer.name with the IP address or the DNS name of the client computer.
2 Convert the binary com.apple.MCX.plist file to XML format.
$ sudo plutil -convert xml1 /Library/Managed Preferences/shortname/
com.apple.MCX.plist
Replace shortname with the short name of the logged-in client account.
3 View the key “workgroup” in /Library/Managed Preferences/shortname/
com.apple.MCX.plist file.
$ cat /Library/Managed Preferences/shortname/com.apple.MCX.plist
Replace shortname with the short name of the logged-in client account.
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Importing Users and Groups
You can use dsimport to import user and group accounts. into a folder. The dsimport
tool permits logging at three levels with the -l switch. You can use the dsimport tool
to import any number of records from a flexible text–delimited file. See the dsimport
man page for more information.
See the Open Directory administration guide for a list of record types and attributes.
This guide also describes how to edit permitted attributes for each record type for use
in an LDAP folder.
The dsimport tool is located in /usr/bin/.
See “Creating a Character-Delimited User Import File” on page 120 for information
about the formats of the files you can import.
$ dsimport (-g|-s|-p) file path (O|M|I|A) -u user -p password [options]
Parameter
Description
-g|-s|-p
You must specify one of these to indicate the type of file you’re
importing:
-g for a character-delimited file
-s for an XML file exported from Users & Groups in Mac OS X
Server version 10.1.x
-p for an XML file exported from AppleShare IP version 6.x
file
The path of the file to import.
path
The path to the Open Directory directory domain where the
records will be added.
O|M|I|A
Specifies how user data is handled if a record for an imported user
already exists in the folder:
O: Overwrite the matching record.
M: Merge the records. Empty attributes in the folder and assume
values from the imported record.
I: Ignore imported record and leave existing record unchanged.
A: Append data from import record to existing record.
user
The name of the folder administrator.
password
The password of the folder administrator.
options
Additional command options. To see available options, execute the
dsimport command with no parameters.
To import users and groups:
1 Create a file containing the accounts to import, and place it in a location accessible
from the importing server.
You can export this file from an earlier version of Mac OS X Server or AppleShare IP 6.3,
or create your own character-delimited file. See “Creating a Character-Delimited User
Import File” on page 120.
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Open Directory supports up to 200,000 records. For a local NetInfo directory, make sure
the file contains no more than 10,000 records.
2 Log in as the administrator of the directory domain you want to import accounts into.
3 Use the dsimport tool to import users and groups. For example, to import a file
generated by Workgroup Manager named ”sample” and export it into the LDAPv3
directory located at 192.168.2.2, use the following command:
$ dsimport -g sample /LDAPv3/192.168.2.2 -O -u diradmin
Replace diradmin with the short name of the directory administrator. When two records
match, the import file will overwrite the matching record.
4 To create home folders for imported users, use createhomedir . See “Creating a User’s
Home Folder” on page 109.
Creating a Character-Delimited User Import File
You can create a character-delimited file by using Workgroup Manager or dsimport to
export accounts in the LDAP directory of an Open Directory master or a NetInfo
domain into a file. You can also create a character-delimited file by hand, using a script,
or by using a database or spreadsheet application.
The first record in the file, the record description, describes the format of each account
record in the file. There are three options for the record description:
 Write a full record description
 Use the shorthand StandardUserRecord
 Use the shorthand StandardGroupRecord
The other records in the file describe user or group accounts, encoded in the format
described by the record description. Any line of a character-delimited file that begins
with # is ignored during importing.
Writing a Record Description
The record description specifies the fields in each record in the character-delimited file,
specifies the delimiting characters, and specifies the escape character that precedes
special characters in a record.
Encode the record description using the following elements in the order specified,
separating them with a space:
 End-of-record indicator (in hex notation)
 Escape character (in hex notation)
 Field separator (in hex notation)
 Value separator (in hex notation)
 Type of accounts in the file (dsRecTypeStandard:Users or
dsRecTypeStandard:Groups)
 Number of attributes in each account record
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 List of attributes
For user accounts, the list of attributes must include the following, although you can
omit UID and PrimaryGroupID if you specify a starting UID and a default primary group
ID when you import the file:
 RecordName (the user’s short name)
 Password
 UniqueID (the UID)
 PrimaryGroupID
 RealName (the user’s full name)
In addition, you can include:
 UserShell (the default shell)
 NFSHomeDirectory (the path to the user’s home folder)
 Other user data types, described in the Open Directory administration guide
For group accounts, the list of attributes must include:
 RecordName (the group name)
 PrimaryGroupID (the group ID)
 GroupMembership
The following is an example of a record description:
0x0A 0x5C 0x3A 0x2C dsRecTypeStandard:Users 7
RecordName Password UniqueID PrimaryGroupID
RealName NFSHomeDirectory UserShell
The following is an example of a record encoded using the previous description:
anne:Adl47E$:408:20:A. Johnsons, M.D.:/Network/Servers/somemac/Homes/anne:/
bin/csh
The record consists of values, delimited by colons. Use a double-colon (::) to indicate
that a value is missing.
The following is another example, which shows a record description and user records
for users whose passwords are to be validated using the Password Server. The record
description should include a field named dsAttrTypeStandard:AuthMethod, and the
value of this field for each record should be dsAuthMethodStandard:dsAuthClearText:
0x0A 0x5C 0x3A 0x2C dsRecTypeStandard:Users 8
dsAttrTypeStandard:RecordName dsAttrTypeStandard:AuthMethod
dsAttrTypeStandard:Password dsAttrTypeStandard:UniqueID
dsAttrTypeStandard:PrimaryGroupID dsAttrTypeStandard:Comment
dsAttrTypeStandard:RealName dsAttrTypeStandard:UserShell
skater:dsAuthMethodStandard\:dsAuthClearText:pword1:374:11:comment:
Tony Hawk:/bin/csh
mattm:dsAuthMethodStandard\:dsAuthClearText:pword2:453:161::
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Matt Mitchell:/bin/tcsh
As these examples illustrate, you can use the prefix dsAttrTypeStandard: when
referring to an attribute, or you can omit the prefix. When you use Workgroup Manager
to export character-delimited files, it uses the prefix in the generated file.
When importing user passwords, you can insert the following in the list of attributes to
set the user’s password type to Open Directory:
dsAttrTypeStandard:AuthMethod
The method for setting an imported user’s password type to Open Directory requires
that the imported data actually have a password value. If the password value is missing
for a user, then the corresponding user record will be created with a password type of
Crypt or Shadow Password.
Then, insert the following in the formatted record (in this example, the user ‘s password
is “password”):
dsAuthMethodStandard\:dsAuthClearText:password
Note: In this example, the colon (:) is the field separator. Because there is a colon in the
description for this attribute, the escape character must be used to indicate that the
colon should not be treated as a delimiter. The backslash (\) is the escape character in
this example. If the field separator is anything other than the colon, the escape
character is not needed.
Using the StandardUserRecord Shorthand
When the first record in a character-delimited import file contains StandardUserRecord,
the following record description is assumed:
0x0A 0x5C 0x3A 0x2C dsRecTypeStandard:Users 7
RecordName Password UniqueID PrimaryGroupID
RealName NFSHomeDirectory UserShell
An example user account looks like this:
anne:Adl47E$:408:20:A. Johnson, M.D.:/Network/Servers/somemac/Homes/anne:/
bin/csh
Using the StandardGroupRecord Shorthand
When the first record in a character-delimited import file contains
StandardGroupRecord, the following record description is assumed:
0x0A 0x5C 0x3A 0x2C dsRecTypeStandard:Groups 4
RecordName Password PrimaryGroupID GroupMembership
The following is an example of a record encoded using the description:
students:Ad147:88:johnson,miller,clark,chen,wong
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Setting Permissions
To control access to your information, Mac OS X automatically sets permissions for
disks, folders, and files. You can only change permissions to items that you own.
Be sure that the default permissions are appropriate. For most purposes, files should be
accessible to the other members of your group. If you have private or confidential
information, the default permissions of the files may allow others to see it. To prevent
others from accessing personal information, create a folder and set its permissions to
“owner.” Then place your confidential files into it. No other users will be allowed into
the folder.
Mac OS X provides distinct permissions for three types of users:
 The “owner” of the item, who is usually the person who created the item
 Any member of the group assigned to the item by Mac OS X
 Any other user with access to the computer
There are four levels of permission:
 Read & Write allows a user to open the item to see its contents and change it.
 Read Only allows a user to open the item to see its contents, but not change or copy
the contents.
 Write Only makes a folder into a drop box. Users can copy items to the drop box, but
cannot open the drop box to see its contents. Only the owner of the drop box can
open it to access items.
 No Access blocks all access to the item so that users can’t open the item, change its
contents, or copy its contents.
Viewing Permissions
Each security group is assigned a code that controls that group’s permissions:
 r (read) allows the user to see the item but not make changes.
 w (write) allows the user to see and make changes to the item.
 x (execute) allows the user to run scripts or programs.
 - (access) means access is turned off.
To view permissions for files and folders, enter the ls -l command. For each file or
folder listed, you see the permissions, owner and group name, and file or folder name.
Some examples of permission settings:
 The following file (-) displays read, write, and executable permissions for owner (rwx),
group (rwx) and all others (rwx):
-rwxrwxrwx
 The following file (-) displays read, write, and executable permissions for owner (rwx),
and group (rwx), but no permissions for others (---):
-rwxrwx---
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 The following file (-) displays read, write, and executable permissions for owner (rwx),
but no permissions for group (---) or others (---):
-rwx------
 The following file (-) displays read and write, but no executable permissions for
owner (rw-), group (rw-), and others (rw-):
-rw-rw-rw-
 The following file (-) displays read, write, and executable permissions for owner (rwx),
but only read and executable for group (r-x) and others (r-x):
-rwxr-xr-x
 The following file (-) displays read, write, and executable permissions for owner (rwx),
but only read for group (r--) and others (r--):
-rwxr--r--
See the ls man page for more information about viewing permissions.
Setting the umask for Individual Users
The global umask setting determines the permissions of new files and folders created
by a local user.
$ sudo defaults write -g NSUmask -int value
Use one of the following values to set the permission level:
Value
Permission Level
63 (octal equivalent 077)
Only the user can read newly created files.
23 (octal equivalent 027)
User and members of the user’s default group can read newly
created files.
18 (octal equivalent 022)
All users can read newly created files.
The default umask setting, 022, removes group and world write permissions, but allows
group and world read permissions. With a umask setting of 027, files and folders
created by a user will not be readable by every other user on the computer, but will still
be readable by members of his assigned group. The owner of the file or folder can still
make it accessible to others by changing the permissions in the Finder’s Get Info
window or by using the chmod tool.
To set the NSUmask settings for all local users to octal 027 (decimal equivalent 23):
$ sudo defaults write /Library/Preferences/.GlobalPreferences NSUmask 23
Note: The path above refers to the .GlobalPreferences defaults domain, not to the file
.GlobalPreferences.plist, which might accidentally be filled in while using the shell
autocomplete feature.
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This command affects the permissions on files and folders created by programs that
respect the Mac OS X NSUmask settings. Programs should follow the value set for
NSUmask, but there is no guarantee that they will. Also, users can override their own
NSUmask setting at any time. The changes to the umask settings take effect at next
login.
Warning: Setting permissions to group, or all, will allow any private, or confidential
information in these folders to be visible to others. To prevent private files being
accessed, the user should create a folder and restrict the permissions.
Changing Permissions
Use the chmod tool to change permissions for an item.
$ chmod securitygroup changetype permission fileorfolder
Parameter
Description
securitygroup
The person or group whose permission you are changing. Can be
any of the following:
 u - user
 g - group
 o - other
 all - all
changetype
Type of change. Whether you are adding or subtracting the
permission:
 “+” - add permission
 “-” - subtract permission
permission
The permission you are changing:
 r - read
 w - write
 x - execute
fileorfolder
The name of the file or folder to change.
To remove write access permission for group and others from the file myfile:
$ chmod go-w myfile
To add read and write access permission for group and others to files myfile1 and
myfile2:
$ chmod go+rw myfile1 myfile2
To add read, write, and execute permission for everyone to myfile1:
$ chmod ugo+rwx myfile1
See the chmod man page for more information.
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Changing the Owner
Use the chown tool to change the owner of a file or folder.
$ chown username fileorfolder
Parameter
Description
username
The user who will become the owner of the file.
fileorfolder
The name of the file or folder to change.
To change the owner of file1 to the user jdoe:
$ chown jdoe file1
See the chown man page for more information.
Changing the Group
Use the chgrp tool to change the group of a file or folder.
$ chgrp groupname fileorfolder
Parameter
Description
groupname
The group that will become associated with the file or folder.
fileorfolder
The name of the file or folder to change.
To change the group of file1 and file2 to the group ateam:
$ chgrp ateam file1 file2
See the chgrp man page for more information.
Securing System Accounts
Security is very important when setting up and administering system accounts. The
following sections cover security settings for user accounts.
Securing Initial System Accounts
Two accounts on the computer require attention before any further configuration is
done. First, the permissions on the home folder of the initial administrator account
should be changed. Second, any necessary modifications to the root account should be
performed. To secure initial system accounts, the permissions on the home folder of
the initial administrator account should be changed to allow only administrator access.
The permissions on the home folder of the just-created administrator account allow
any user who logs in to the computer to browse its contents.
To change permissions on the administrator’s home folder:
$ chmod 700 /Users/adminname
where adminname is the name of the account. The 700 permission setting allows only
the administrator to read and browse files in his home folder.
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Securing the Root Account
Mac OS X Server includes a root account like other UNIX-based systems. Initially, its
password is set to that of the first administrator account. Direct root login should not
be allowed, because the logs cannot identify which administrator logged in. Instead,
accounts with administrator privileges should be used for login, and then the sudo tool
used to perform actions as root.
The computer uses a file called /etc/sudoers to determine which users have the
authority to use the sudo program, and this file initially specifies that all accounts with
administrator privileges may use sudo.
To disable root login:
1 Start the dscl tool in interactive mode, specifying the computer you are using as the
source of directory service data:
$ dscl localhost
>
2 Change the current folder to /NetInfo/root/Users by entering the path at the prompt:
> cd /NetInfo/root/Users
3 Authenticate as an administrator by entering the following command, replacing
adminusername with your administrator user name, and entering your administrator
password when prompted:
> auth adminusername
4 The following commands disable the root login by removing the
AuthenticationAuthority property and its value, and modifying the root password
property.
> delete root AuthenticationAuthority ;ShadowHash;
> delete root AuthenticationAuthority
Any user with administrative privileges can reenable root login by entering
passwd root in a Terminal window.
Restricting Use of the sudo Tool
The list of administrators allowed to use the sudo tool should be limited to only those
administrators who require the ability to run commands as root.
To change the /etc/sudoers file:
1 Edit the /etc/sudoers file using the visudo tool, which allows for safe editing of the file.
The command must be run as root:
$ sudo visudo
2 Enter the root password when prompted.
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Note: There is a timeout value associated with the sudo tool. This value indicates the
number of minutes until the sudo tool prompts for a password again. The default value
is 5, which means that after issuing the sudo command and entering the correct
password, additional sudo commands can be entered for 5 minutes without reentering the password. This value is set in the /etc/sudoers file. See the sudo and
sudoers man pages for more information.
3 In the Defaults specification section of the file, add the following line:
Defaults timestamp_timeout=0
4 Restrict which administrators are allowed to run the sudo tool by removing the line that
begins with %admin, and adding the following entry for each user, substituting the
user’s short name for the word user:
user ALL=(ALL) ALL
Doing this will mean that any time a new administrator is added to a system, that
administrator must be added to the /etc/sudoers file as described above if that
administrator requires the ability to use the sudo tool.
5 Save and quit visudo.
See the vi and
visudo
man pages for more information.
Securing Single-User Boot
On Apple computers running Mac OS X, Open Firmware is the software executed
immediately after the computer is powered on. This boot firmware is analogous to the
BIOS on an x86-based PC. To prevent users from obtaining root access by booting into
single user mode or booting from other disks, the Open Firmware settings should be
altered. For desktop computers, the Open Firmware security mode should be set to
command. To configure the Open Firmware settings, use the nvram tool.
To set the variable security mode, enter the following command:
$ nvram security-mode=“command”
In command mode, the computer will boot from the boot device specified in the
computer’s boot device variable and disallow users from providing any boot
arguments.
To test that the computer has been put into command mode as recommended:
1 Close all applications and choose Restart from the Apple menu.
2 A confirmation window will pop up. Restart the computer by clicking the Restart
button.
3 Hold down the key combination Command-S while the computer boots.
4 If the command mode has been set correctly, the computer will display the Mac OS X
login window. Normally, holding down the Command-S key combination while starting
up would cause the computer to start up in single-user mode.
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5 If the computer did start up in single-user mode, restart the computer by issuing the
command reboot. Then repeat the previous steps for putting the computer into
command mode. Open Firmware protection can be violated if the user has physical
access to the computer; If the user changes the physical memory configuration of the
computer and then resets the PRAM 3 times (holding down Option-P-R during boot),
the Open Firmware password will be disabled.
To set the Open Firmware password for increased security:
1 Boot the computer while holding Command-Option-O-F (all four keys at the same
time) to enter the Open Firmware command prompt.
2 At the prompt, enter the command:
> password
3 Enter and verify the password to be used as the Open Firmware password.
This password is limited to eight characters. A strong password should be chosen;
in this instance, a computer-generated random password would be a good choice.
This password should be written down, and secured in the same location as the Master
FileVault password. This password will not be needed except for situations where the
computer must be booted from an alternate disk, such as if the startup disk fails or its
file system is in need of repair.
4 To restart the computer and enable the settings, enter the command:
> reset-all
5 The computer should restart and display the login window.
Note: An Open Firmware password provides some protection, although it can be reset
if a user has physical access to the computer and can change the physical memory
configuration of the computer.
Setting Password Policy
Us the pwpolicy tool to adjust the password policies of your users. This tool can be
used to view or set global password policies that force users to change passwords, limit
the number and type of characters in a password, the length of time before passwords
can be reused, and when passwords must be changed.
For secure passwords, you should require every password to have a minimum of 5
characters. You may use a higher number of characters if a more secure password is
desired. It is also a good idea to have users change passwords frequently.
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To change a user’s password:
$ pwpolicy -n /LDAPv3/ipaddress -a adminusername -u usertochange
-setpassword newpassword
Parameter
Description
ipaddress
Location of the LDAP directory.
adminusername
User name of an administrator.
usertochange
User name of the user whose password is changing.
newpassword
The password the user is changing to.
To view the global password policy:
$ pwpolicy -getglobalpolicy
To set the minimum password length to 5 characters:
$ pwpolicy -n /LDAPv3/ipaddress -a adminusername -setglobalpolicy
“minChars=5”
Parameter
Description
ipaddress
Location of the LDAP directory.
adminusername
User name of an administrator.
minChars
Minimum number of characters in the password.
To set a more secure global password policy:
$ pwpolicy -n /LDAPv3/ipaddress -a adminusername -setglobalpolicy
"minChars=6 usingHistory=4 requiresNumeric=1
maxMinutesUntilChangePassword=43200"
This sets the global password policy for all users requiring:
 the password to have a minimum of six characters
 the users cannot reuse a password from the previous four passwords
 the password must contain at least one number
 the password must be changed every thirty days
Parameter
Description
ipaddress
Location of the LDAP directory.
adminusername
User name of an administrator.
minChars
Minimum number of characters in the password.
usingHistory
Sets the number of previous passwords that the user is not allowed
to reuse.
requiresNumeric
Number of numeric characters that must be in the password.
maxMinutesUntilChangePas Number of minutes until a password must be changed.
sword
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To set the password policy of an individual user to change their password:
$ pwpolicy -n /LDAPv3/ldap.apple.com -a adminusername -p adminpassword
-u usertochange -setpolicy "newPasswordRequired=1"
Parameter
Description
ldap.apple.com
Location of the LDAP directory.
adminusername
User name of an administrator.
adminpassword
The administrator password (omit this to prompt for the password)
usertochange
User name of the user whose password is changing.
newPasswordRequired
Set to 1 to prompt the user to enter a new password.
See the pwpolicy man page for more information.
Finding User Account Information
The lookupd daemon acts as an information broker and cache. It is called by various
routines in the system framework to find information about user accounts, groups,
printers, email aliases and distribution lists, computer names, Internet addresses, and
several other kinds of information. You can use it interactively to find out user account
information.
To query for a user by name:
$ lookupd -d
> userWithName: admin
To see a list of all the different commands that run with lookupd:
$ lookupd -d
>?
To get a description of a specific command that you can run with lookupd:
Access the help prompt and enter the command name.
$ lookupd -d
>help
help> [command]
See the lookupd man page for more information.
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Chapter 8 Working with Users and Groups
9
Working with File Services
9
In this chapter you will find commands you can use to create
share points and manage file services.
Mac OS X Server allows you to set up central network storage that is accessible to
clients throughout your organization. Using native protocols, it delivers file services to
heterogeneous clients on your network: Apple Filing Protocol (AFP) for Mac, Network
File System (NFS) for UNIX and Linux, Server Message Block/Common Internet File
System (SMB/CIFS) for Windows, as well as WebDAV and FTP for Internet clients. This
chapter covers the commands that are used to configure and manage these file
services.
Managing Share Points
A share point is a folder, hard disk, hard disk partition, CD, or DVD that users can access
over the network to share information. Users with access privileges, which are assigned,
view share points as mounted volumes.
Mac OS X Server supports Microsoft Windows file sharing of any defined share point,
not just Shared and Public folders in a user’s home folder. It also supports Windows
Internet Naming Service (WINS), which allows Windows clients across multiple subnets
to perform name/address resolution.
You can use the sharing tool to list, create, and modify share points. See the sharing
man page for more information.
133
Listing Share Points
To list existing share points:
$ sharing -l
In the resulting list, there’s a section of properties similar to the following for each share
point defined on the server (1 = yes, true, or enabled; 0 = false, no, or disabled).
name:
path:
afp:
}
ftp:
}
smb:
Share1
/Volumes/100GB
{
name:
Share1
shared: 1
guest access:
inherit perms:
0
0
{
name:
Share1
shared: 1
guest access:
1
{
name:
Share1
shared: 1
guest access:
inherit perms:
oplocks:
strict locking:
directory mask:
create mask:
1
0
0
0
493
420 }
Creating a Share Point
To create a share point:
$ sharing -a path [-n customname] [-A afpname] [-F ftpname]
[-S smbname] [-s shareflags] [-g guestflags] [-i inheritflags]
[-c creationmask] [-d directorymask] [-o oplockflag]
[-t strictlockingflag]
134
Parameter
Description
path
The full path to the folder you want to share.
customname
The name of the share point. If you don’t specify this custom name,
it’s set to the name of the folder, the last name in path.
afpname
The share point name shown to and used by AFP clients. This name
is separate from the share point name.
ftpname
The share point name shown to and used by FTP clients.
smbname
The share point name shown to and used by SMB/CIFS clients.
shareflags
A three-digit binary number indicating which protocols are used to
share the folder. The digits represent, from left to right, AFP, FTP,
and SMB/CIFS. 1=shared, 0=not shared.
Chapter 9 Working with File Services
Parameter
Description
guestflags
A group of three flags indicating which protocols allow guest
access. The flags are written as a three-digit binary number with
the digits representing, from left to right, AFP, FTP, and SMB/CIFS.
1=guests allowed, 0=guests not allowed.
inheritflags
A group of two flags indicating whether new items in AFP or SMB/
CIFS share points inherit the ownership and access permissions of
the parent folder. The flags are written as a two-digit binary
number with the digits representing, from left to right, AFP and
SMB/CIFS. 1=inherit, 0=don’t inherit.
creationmask
The SMB/CIFS creation mask. Default=0644.
directorymask
The SMB/CIFS folder mask. Default=0755.
oplockflag
Specifies whether opportunistic locking is allowed for an SMB/CIFS
share point. 1=enable oplocks, 0=disable oplocks. For more
information about oplocks, see the file services administration
guide.
strictlockingflag
Specifies whether strict locking is used on an SMB/CIFS share point.
1=enable strict locking, 0=disable. For more information about
strict locking, see the file services administration guide.
To create a share point that uses AFP, FTP, and SMB/CIFS protocols:
Enter the following command, replacing 100GB with the name of the volume
containing the share point and Archive with the actual share point name:
$ sharing -a /Volumes/100GB/Archive
To create a share point that appears differently for different users:
Enter the following command, replacing 100GB with the name of the volume
containing the share point and Windows with the actual share point name so that it
appears as WinDocs for server management purposes, and Documents for SMB/CIFS
file service users:
$ sharing -a /Volumes/100GB/Windows\ Docs -n WinDocs -S Documents -s 001
-o 1
This share point is shared using only the SMB/CIFS protocol with oplocks enabled.
Modifying a Share Point
To change share point settings:
$ sharing -e sharepointname [-n customname] [-A afpname] [-F ftpname] [-S
smbname] [-s shareflags] [-g guestflags] [-i inheritflags]
[-c creationmask] [-d directorymask] [-o oplockflag]
[-t strictlockingflag]
Parameter
Description
sharepointname
The current name of the share point.
Other parameters
See the parameter descriptions under “Creating a Share Point” on
page 134.
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Disabling a Share Point
To disable a share point:
$ sharing -r sharepointname
Parameter
Description
sharepointname
The current name of the share point.
Managing the AFP Service
Apple Filing Protocol (AFP) allows any Mac OS X computer to access shared folders on
the server. Mac OS X Server uses Bonjour to provide automatic discovery of AFP file
services, and shared disks don’t unmount after extended periods of inactivity.
Starting and Stopping AFP Service
To start AFP service:
$ sudo serveradmin start afp
To stop AFP service:
$ sudo serveradmin stop afp
Checking AFP Service Status
To see if AFP service is running:
$ sudo serveradmin status afp
To see complete AFP status:
$ sudo serveradmin fullstatus afp
Viewing AFP Settings
To list all AFP service settings:
$ sudo serveradmin settings afp
To list a particular setting:
$ sudo serveradmin settings afp setting
Parameter
Description
setting
Any of the AFP service settings. For a complete list of settings,
enter $ sudo serveradmin settings afp
or see “List of AFP Settings” on page 137.
To list a group of settings:
You can list a group of settings that have part of their names in common by typing
only as much of the name as you want, stopping at a colon (:), and typing an asterisk
(*) as a wildcard for the remaining parts of the name. For example:
$ sudo serveradmin settings afp:loggingAttributes:*
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Chapter 9 Working with File Services
Changing AFP Settings
You can change AFP service settings using the serveradmin tool.
To change a setting:
$ sudo serveradmin settings afp:setting = value
Parameter
Description
setting
An AFP service setting. To see a list of available settings, enter
$ sudo serveradmin settings afp
or see “List of AFP Settings” on page 137.
value
An appropriate value for the setting. Enclose text strings in double
quotes (for example: "text string").
To change several settings:
$ sudo serveradmin settings
afp:setting = value
afp:setting = value
afp:setting = value
[...]
Control-D
List of AFP Settings
The following table lists AFP settings as they appear using serveradmin.
Parameter (afp:)
Description
activityLog
Turn activity logging on or off.
Default = no
activityLogPath
Location of the activity log file.
Default = /Library/Logs/AppleFileService/
AppleFileServiceAccess.log
activityLogSize
Rollover size (in kilobytes) for the activity log. Used only if
activityLogTime isn’t specified.
Default = 1000
activityLogTime
Rollover time (in days) for the activity log.
Default = 7
admin31GetsSp
Set to yes to force administrator users on Mac OS X to see share
points instead of all volumes.
Default = yes
adminGetsSp
Set to yes to force administrator users on Mac OS 9 to see share
points instead of all volumes.
Default = no
afpServerEncoding
Encoding used with Mac OS 9 clients.
Default = 0
afpTCPPort
TCP port used by AFP on server.
Default = 548
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Parameter (afp:)
Description
allowRootLogin
Allow user to log in as root.
Default = no
attemptAdminAuth
Allow an administrator user to masquerade as another user.
Default = yes
authenticationMode
Authentication mode. Can be:
standard
kerberos
standard_and_kerberos
Default = "standard_and_kerberos"
autoRestart
Whether the AFP service should restart automatically when
abnormally terminated.
Default = yes
clientSleepOnOff
Allow client computers to sleep.
Default = yes
clientSleepTime
Time (in hours) that clients are allowed to sleep.
Default = 24
createHomeDir
Create home folders.
Default = yes
errorLogPath
The location of the error log.
Default = /Library/Logs/AppleFileService/
AppleFileServiceError.log
138
errorLogSize
Rollover size (in kilobytes) for the error log. Used only if
errorLogTime isn’t specified.
Default = 1000
errorLogTime
Rollover time (in days) for the error log.
Default = 0
guestAccess
Allow guest users access to the server.
Default = yes
idleDisconnectFlag:
adminUsers
Enforce idle disconnect for administrator users.
Default = yes
idleDisconnectFlag:
guestUsers
Enforce idle disconnect for guest users.
Default = yes
idleDisconnectFlag:
registeredUsers
Enforce idle disconnect for registered users.
Default = yes
idleDisconnectFlag:
usersWithOpenFiles
Enforce idle disconnect for users with open files.
Default = yes
idleDisconnectMsg
The idle disconnect message.
Default = ""
idleDisconnectOnOff
Enable idle disconnect.
Default = no
Chapter 9 Working with File Services
Parameter (afp:)
Description
idleDisconnectTime
Idle time (in minutes) allowed before disconnect.
Default = 10
kerberosPrincipal
Kerberos server principal name.
Default ="afpserver"
loggingAttributes:
logCreateDir
Record folder creations in the activity log.
Default = yes
loggingAttributes:
logCreateFile
Record file creations in the activity log.
Default = yes
loggingAttributes:
logDelete
Record file deletions in the activity log.
Default = yes
loggingAttributes:
logLogin
Record user logins in the activity log.
Default = yes
loggingAttributes:
logLogout
Log user logouts in the activity log.
Default = yes
loggingAttributes:
logOpenFork
Log file opens in the activity log.
Default = yes
loginGreeting
The login greeting message.
Default = ""
loginGreetingTime
The last time the login greeting was set or updated.
maxConnections
Maximum number of simultaneous user sessions allowed by the
server.
Default = -1 (unlimited)
maxGuests
Maximum number of simultaneous guest users allowed.
Default = -1 (unlimited)
maxThreads
Maximum number of AFP threads. (Must be specified at startup.)
Default = 40
noNetworkUsers
Indication to client that all users are users on the server.
Default = no
permissionsModel
How permissions are enforced. Can be set to:
classic_permissions
unix_with_classic_admin_permissions
unix_permissions
Default = "classic_permissions"
recon1SrvrKeyTTLHrs
Time-to-live (in hours) for the server key used to generate
reconnect tokens.
Default = 168
recon1TokenTTLMins
Time-to-live (in minutes) for a reconnect token.
Default = 10080
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Parameter (afp:)
Description
reconnectFlag
Allow reconnect options. Can be set to:
none
all
no_admin_kills
Default = "all"
reconnectTTLInMin
Time-to-live (in minutes) for a disconnected session waiting
reconnection.
Default = 1440
registerAppleTalk
Advertise the server using AppleTalk NBP.
Default = yes
registerNSL
Advertise the server using Bonjour.
Default = yes
sendGreetingOnce
Send the login greeting only once.
Default = no
shutdownThreshold
Don’t modify. Internal use only.
specialAdminPrivs
Grant administrator users root user read/write privileges.
Default = no
SSHTunnel
Allow SSH tunneling.
Default = yes
TCPQuantum
TCP message quantum.
Default = 262144
tickleTime
Frequency of tickles sent to client.
Default = 30
updateHomeDirQuota
Enforce quotas on the user’s volume.
Default = yes
useAppleTalk
Don’t modify. Internal use only.
List of AFP serveradmin Commands
In addition to the standard start, stop, status, and settings commands, you can use
serveradmin to execute the following service-specific AFP commands. See the
examples in the following sections for details on how to use these commands.
140
Command (afp:command=)
Description
cancelDisconnect
Cancel a pending user disconnect. See “Canceling a User
Disconnect” on page 143.
disconnectUsers
Disconnect AFP users. See “Disconnecting AFP Users” on page 142.
getConnectedUsers
List settings for connected users. See “Listing Connected Users” on
this page.
getHistory
View a periodic record of file data throughput or number of user
connections. See “Listing AFP Service Statistics” on page 144.
getLogPaths
Display the locations of the AFP service activity and error logs.
Chapter 9 Working with File Services
Command (afp:command=)
Description
sendMessage
Send a text message to connected AFP users. See “Sending a
Message to AFP Users” on page 142.
syncSharePoints
Update share point information after changing settings.
writeSettings
Equivalent to the standard serveradmin settings command,
but also returns a setting indicating whether the service needs to
be restarted. See “Using the serveradmin Tool” on page 48.
Listing Connected Users
You can use the getConnectedUsers command with the serveradmin tool to retrieve
information about connected AFP users. In particular, you can use this command to
retrieve the session IDs you need to disconnect or send messages to users.
To list connected users:
$ sudo serveradmin command afp:command = getConnectedUsers
The computer will respond with the following array of settings displayed for each
connected user:
afp:usersArray:_array_index:i:disconnectID = <disconnectID>
afp:usersArray:_array_index:i:flags = <flags>
afp:usersArray:_array_index:i:ipAddress = <ipAddress>
afp:usersArray:_array_index:i:lastUseElapsedTime = <lastUseElapsed>
afp:usersArray:_array_index:i:loginElapsedTime = <loginElapsedTime>
afp:usersArray:_array_index:i:minsToDisconnect = <minsToDisconnect>
afp:usersArray:_array_index:i:name = <name>
afp:usersArray:_array_index:i:serviceType = <serviceType>
afp:usersArray:_array_index:i:sessionID = <sessionID>
afp:usersArray:_array_index:i:sessionType = <sessionType>
afp:usersArray:_array_index:i:state = <state>
Value returned by getConnectedUsers
(afp:usersArray:_array_index:<n>:)
Description
<disconnectID>
An integer that identifies this particular
disconnect. This will appear once a disconnect has
been issued.
<flags>
Indicates the type of user.
1-session belongs to the administrator
2-session belongs to a guest
4-session is sleeping
<ipAddress>
The user’s IP address.
<lastUseElapsed>
Time since the command was last run.
<login-elapsed-time>
The elapsed time since the user connected.
<minsToDisconnect>
The number of minutes between the time the
command is issued and the user is disconnected
<name>
The user’s name.
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Value returned by getConnectedUsers
(afp:usersArray:_array_index:<n>:)
Description
<serviceType>
The share point the user is accessing.
<sessionID>
An integer that identifies the user session.
<state>
State of the service.
Sending a Message to AFP Users
You can use the sendMessage command with the serveradmin tool to send a text
message to connected AFP users. Users are specified by session ID.
To send a message:
$ sudo serveradmin command
afp:command = sendMessage
afp:message = "message-text"
afp:sessionIDsArray:_array_index:0 = sessionid1
afp:sessionIDsArray:_array_index:1 = sessionid2
afp:sessionIDsArray:_array_index:2 = sessionid3
[...]
Control-D
Parameter
Description
message-text
The message that appears on client computers.
sessionidn
The session ID of a user you want to receive the message. To list the
session IDs of connected users, use the getConnectedUsers
command. See “Listing Connected Users” on page 141.
Disconnecting AFP Users
You can use the disconnectUsers command with the serveradmin tool to disconnect
AFP users. Users are specified by session ID. You can specify a delay time before
disconnect and a warning message.
To disconnect users:
$ sudo serveradmin command
afp:command = disconnectUsers
afp:message = "message-text"
afp:minutes = minutes-until
afp:sessionIDsArray:_array_index:0 = sessionid1
afp:sessionIDsArray:_array_index:1 = sessionid2
afp:sessionIDsArray:_array_index:2 = sessionid3
[...]
Control-D
142
Parameter
Description
message-text
The text of a message that appears on client computers in the
disconnect announcement dialog.
Chapter 9 Working with File Services
Parameter
Description
minutes-until
The number of minutes between the time the command is
executed and the users are disconnected.
sessionidn
The session ID of a user you want to disconnect. To list the session
IDs of connected users, use the getConnectedUsers command.
See “Listing Connected Users” on page 141.
The computer will repond with the following output:
afp:command = "disconnectUsers"
afp:messageSent = "<message>"
afp:timeStamp = "<time>"
afp:timerID = <disconnectID>
<user listing>
afp:status = <status>
Value
Description
<message>
The message sent to users in the disconnect announcement dialog.
<time>
The time when the command was executed.
<disconnectID>
An integer that identifies this particular disconnect. You can use
this ID with the cancelDisconnect command to cancel the
disconnect.
<user listing>
A standard array of user settings for each user scheduled for
disconnect. For a description of these settings, see “Listing
Connected Users” on page 141.
<status>
A command status code.
0 = command successful.
Canceling a User Disconnect
You can use the cancelDisconnect command with the serveradmin tool to cancel a
disconnectUsers command. Users receive an announcement that they’re no longer
scheduled to be disconnected.
To cancel a user disconnect:
$ sudo serveradmin command
afp:command = cancelDisconnect
afp:timerID = timerID
Control-D
Parameter
Description
timerID
The integer value of the afp:timerID parameter output when
you executed the disconnectUsers command.
You can also find this number by listing any user scheduled to be
disconnected and looking at the value of the disconnectID
setting for the user.
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The computer will respond with the following output:
afp:command = "cancelDisconnect"
afp:timeStamp = "<time>"
afp:status = <status>
Value
Description
<time>
The time at which the command was executed.
<status>
A command status code:
0 = command successful
Listing AFP Service Statistics
You can use the serveradmin getHistory command to display a log of periodic
samples of the number of connections and the data throughput. Samples are taken
once each minute.
To list service statistic samples:
$ sudo serveradmin command
afp:command = getHistory
afp:variant = statistic
afp:timeScale = scale
Control-D
Parameter
Description
statistic
The value you want to display.
Valid values:
v1 = number of connected users (average during sampling period)
v2 = throughput (bytes/sec)
scale
The length of time in seconds, ending with the current time, for
which you want to see samples. For example, to see 30 minutes of
data, you would specify afp:timeScale = 1800.
The computer will respond with the following output:
afp:nbSamples = <samples>
afp:samplesArray:_array_index:0:vn = <sample>
afp:samplesArray:_array_index:0:t = <time>
afp:samplesArray:_array_index:1:vn = <sample>
afp:samplesArray:_array_index:1:t = <time>
[...]
afp:samplesArray:_array_index:i:vn = <sample>
afp:samplesArray:_array_index:i:t = <time>
afp:vnLegend = "<legend>"
afp:currentServerTime = <servertime>
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Value displayed by
getHistory
Description
<samples>
The total number of samples listed.
<legend>
A textual description of the selected statistic.
"CONNECTIONS" for v1
"THROUGHPUT" for v2
<sample>
The numerical value of the sample.
For connections (v1), this is integer average number of users.
For throughput, (v2), this is integer bytes per second.
<time>
The time at which the sample was measured. A standard UNIX time
(number of seconds since Sep 1, 1970). Samples are taken every 60
seconds.
Viewing AFP Log Files
You can use tail or any other file listing tool to view the contents of the AFP service
logs.
To view the latest entries in a log:
$ tail log-file
You can use the getLogPaths command with the serveradmin tool to see where the
current AFP error and activity logs are located.
To display the log paths:
$ sudo serveradmin command afp:command = getLogPaths
The computer will respond with the following output:
afp:accesslog = <access-log>
afp:errorlog = <error-log>
Value
Description
<access-log>
The location of the AFP service access log. Default = /Library/
Logs/AppleFileService/
AppleFileServiceAccess.log
<error-log>
The location of the AFP service error log. Default = /Library/
Logs/AppleFileService/
AppleFileServiceError.log
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Managing the NFS Service
Network File System (NFS) is a file service used to provide file sharing to UNIX and
Linux systems. With NFS, Mac OS X Server can host data for UNIX application servers
and provide integration with enterprise UNIX storage devices. Support for NFS file
locking prevents overwriting files while others are accessing them.
NFS service can be used to mount NFS volumes and reshare them over AFP with
Mac OS X and Mac OS 9 clients. This allows client computers to access NFS volumes
using the secure authentication and service discovery provided by AFP service.
Starting and Stopping NFS Service
NFS service is started automatically when a share point is exported using NFS. The NFS
daemons that satisfy client requests continue to run until there are no more NFS
exports and the server is restarted.
Checking NFS Service Status
To see if NFS service and related processes are running:
$ sudo serveradmin status nfs
To see complete NFS status:
$ sudo serveradmin fullstatus nfs
Viewing NFS Service Settings
To list all NFS service settings:
$ sudo serveradmin settings nfs
To list a particular setting:
$ sudo serveradmin settings nfs:setting
Changing NFS Service Settings
Use the following parameters with the serveradmin tool to change settings for the NFS
service.
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Parameter (nfs:)
Description
nbDaemons
To reduce the number of daemons, you must restart the server
after changing this value.
Default = 6
useTCP
You must restart the server after changing this value.
Default = yes
useUDP
You must restart the server after changing this value.
Default = yes
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Managing the FTP Service
Mac OS X Server features a robust File Transfer Protocol (FTP) file service for Internet file
sharing from any platform. The FTP protocol provides the broadest compatibility across
platforms, making it ideal for anonymous downloads or sharing files that are too large
to be sent over email. Mac OS X Server improves the security of FTP service with
Kerberos authentication. It also supports automatic resumption of disconnected FTP
file transfers.
Starting FTP Service
To start FTP service:
$ sudo serveradmin start ftp
Stopping FTP Service
To stop FTP service:
$ sudo serveradmin stop ftp
Checking FTP Service Status
To see if FTP service is running:
$ sudo serveradmin status ftp
To see complete FTP status:
$ sudo serveradmin fullstatus ftp
Viewing FTP Service Settings
To list all FTP service settings:
$ sudo serveradmin settings ftp
To list a particular setting:
$ sudo serveradmin settings ftp:setting
To list a group of settings:
You can list a group of settings that have part of their names in common by typing
only as much of the name as you want, stopping at a colon (:), and typing an asterisk
(*) as a wildcard for the remaining parts of the name. For example:
$ sudo serveradmin settings ftp:logCommands:*
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Changing FTP Service Settings
You can change FTP service settings using the serveradmin tool.
To change a setting:
$ sudo serveradmin settings ftp:setting = value
Parameter
Description
setting
An FTP service setting. To see a list of available settings, enter
$ sudo serveradmin settings ftp
or see “List of FTP Service Settings” on this page.
value
An appropriate value for the setting.
To change several settings:
$ sudo serveradmin settings
ftp:setting = value
ftp:setting = value
ftp:setting = value
[...]
Control-D
List of FTP Service Settings
Use the following parameters with the serveradmin tool to change settings for the FTP
service.
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Parameter (ftp:)
Description
administratorEmailAddress
Sets the administrator email address.
Default = "user@hostname"
anonymous-root
Sets the anonymous root directory.
Default = "/Library/FTPServer/FTPRoot"
anonymousAccessPermitted
To allow anonymous access to the FTP change the
default setting to yes.
Default = no
authLevel
Sets the authentication method. “KERBEROS” and
“ANY METHOD” are the other possible values.
Default = "STANDARD"
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Parameter (ftp:)
Description
bannerMessage
Displays a banner message that appears when
prompted to log in to the FTP. Customize to your
own preferences.
Default =
"----------------------------------This is the "Banner" message for the
Mac OS X Server's FTP server process.
FTP clients will receive this message
immediately before being prompted for a
name and password.
PLEASE NOTE: Some FTP clients may
exhibit problems if you make this file
too long.
-------------------------------------"
chrootType
Default = "STANDARD"
enableMacBinAndDmgAutoConversion
Default = yes
ftpRoot
The directory in which the FTP content is stored.
Default = "/Library/FTPServer/FTPRoot"
logCommands:anonymous
Default = no
logCommands:guest
Default = no
logCommands:real
Default = no
loginFailuresPermitted
Default = 3
logSecurity:anonymous
Default = no
logSecurity:guest
Default = no
logSecurity:real
Default = no
logToSyslog
Default = no
logTransfers:anonymous:inbound
Default = yes
logTransfers:anonymous:outbound
Default = yes
logTransfers:guest:inbound
Default = no
logTransfers:guest:outbound
Default = no
logTransfers:real:inbound
Default = yes
logTransfers:real:outbound
Default = yes
maxAnonymousUsers
Default = 50
maxRealUsers
Default = 50
showBannerMessage
Default = yes
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Parameter (ftp:)
Description
showWelcomeMessage
Default = yes
welcomeMessage
Displays a welcome message that appears after you
log in to the FTP. Customize to your own
preferences. Default =
"------------------------------------This is the "Welcome" message for the
Mac OS X Server's FTP server process.
FTP clients will receive this message
right after a successful log in.
-------------------------------------"
List of FTP serveradmin Commands
You can use the following commands with the serveradmin tool to manage FTP
service. See the examples in the following sections for details on how to use these
commands.
Command (ftp:command=)
Description
getConnectedUsers
List connected users. See “Checking for Connected FTP Users” on
page 150.
getLogPaths
Show location of the FTP transfer log file. See “Viewing the FTP
Transfer Log” on page 150.
writeSettings
Equivalent to the standard serveradmin settings command,
but also returns a setting indicating whether the service needs to
be restarted. See “Using the serveradmin Tool” on page 48.
Viewing the FTP Transfer Log
You can use tail or any other file-listing tool to view the contents of the FTP transfer
log.
To view the latest entries in the transfer log:
$ tail log-file
By default the log-file is located in /Library/Logs/FTP.transfer.log. You can use the
serveradmin getLogPaths command to see where the current transfer log is located.
To display the log path:
$ sudo serveradmin command ftp:command = getLogPaths
Checking for Connected FTP Users
To see how many FTP users are connected:
$ ftpcount
or
$ sudo serveradmin command ftp:command = getConnectedUsers
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Managing the SMB/CIFS Service
Mac OS X Server offers integration of Samba 3, a popular open-source project that
delivers high-performance SMB/CIFS file and print services and Microsoft Windows NT
domain services for Microsoft Windows clients. Support for native service discovery
protocols means that Mac OS X Server computers appear in the My Network Places
window (Windows XP and 2000) or the Network Neighborhood window (Windows 95,
98, or ME) just like a Windows server. This enables Windows clients to browse folders
and share files without having to install additional software.
Starting and Stopping SMB/CIFS Service
To start SMB/CIFS service:
$ sudo serveradmin start smb
To stop SMB/CIFS service:
$ sudo serveradmin stop smb
Checking SMB/CIFS Service Status
To see if SMB/CIFS service is running:
$ sudo serveradmin status smb
To see complete SMB/CIFS status:
$ sudo serveradmin fullstatus smb
Viewing SMB/CIFS Service Settings
To list all SMB/CIFS service settings:
$ sudo serveradmin settings smb
To list a particular setting:
$ sudo serveradmin settings smb:setting
Parameter
Description
setting
An SMB/CIFS service setting. To see a list of available settings, enter
$ sudo serveradmin settings smb
or see “List of SMB/CIFS Service Settings” on page 152.
To list a group of settings:
You can list a group of settings that have part of their names in common by typing
only as much of the name as you want, stopping at a colon (:), and typing an asterisk
(*) as a wildcard for the remaining parts of the name. For example:
$ sudo serveradmin settings smb:adminCommands:*
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Changing SMB/CIFS Service Settings
You can change SMB/CIFS service settings using the serveradmin tool.
To change a setting:
$ sudo serveradmin settings smb:setting = value
Parameter
Description
setting
An SMB/CIFS service setting. To see a list of available settings, enter
$ sudo serveradmin settings smb
or see “List of SMB/CIFS Service Settings” on page 152.
value
An appropriate value for the setting. For a list of values that
correspond to GUI controls in the Server Admin application, see
“List of SMB/CIFS Service Settings” on page 152.
To change several settings:
$ sudo serveradmin settings
smb:setting = value
smb:setting = value
smb:setting = value
[...]
Control-D
List of SMB/CIFS Service Settings
Use the following parameters with the serveradmin tool to change settings for the
SMB/CIFS service.
Parameter (smb:)
Description
adminCommands:homes
Whether home folders are mounted automatically when
Windows users log in so you don’t have to set up individual
share points for each user. Can be set to:
yes | no
This corresponds to the “Enable virtual share points” checkbox
in the Advanced pane of Window service settings in the Server
Admin application.
adminCommands:serverRole
The authentication role played by the server. Can be set to:
"standalone"
"domainmember"
"primarydomaincontroller"
"backupdomaincontroller"
This corresponds to the Role pop-up menu in the General
pane of Windows service settings in the Server Admin
application.
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Parameter (smb:)
Description
domain master
Whether the server is providing Windows domain master
browser service. Can be set to:
yes | no
This corresponds to the Domain Master Browser checkbox in
the Advanced pane of Window service settings in the Server
Admin application.
dos charset
The code page being used. Can be set to:
CP437 (Latin US)
CP737 (Greek)
CP775 (Baltic)
CP850 (Latin1)
CP852 (Latin2)
CP861 (Icelandic)
CP866 (Cyrillic)
CP932 (Japanese SJIS)
CP936 (Simplified Chinese)
CP949 (Korean Hangul)
CP950 (Traditional Chinese)
CP1251 (Windows Cyrillic)
This corresponds to the Code Page pop-up menu on the
Advanced pane of Windows service settings in the Server
Admin application.
local master
Whether the server is providing Windows workgroup master
browser service. Can be set to:
yes | no
This corresponds to the Workgroup Master Browser checkbox
in the Advanced pane of Window service settings in the Server
Admin application.
log level
The amount of detail written to the service logs. Can be set to:
0 (Low: errors and warnings only)
1 (Medium: service start and stop, authentication failures,
browser name registrations, and errors and warnings)
2 (High: service start and stop, authentication failures,
browser name registration events, log file access, and errors
and warnings)
This corresponds to the Log Detail pop-up menu in the
Logging pane of Window service settings in the Server Admin
application.
map to guest
Whether guest access is allowed. Can be set to:
"Never" (No guest access)
"Bad User" (Allow guest access)
This corresponds to the “Allow Guest access” checkbox in the
Access pane of Window service settings in the Server Admin
application.
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154
Parameter (smb:)
Description
max smbd processes
The maximum allowed number of smbd server processes. Each
connection uses its own smbd process, so this is the same as
specifying the maximum number of SMB/CIFS connections.
0 means unlimited.
This corresponds to the “maximum” client connections field in
the Access pane of the Windows service settings in the Server
Admin application.
netbios name
The server’s NetBIOS name. Can be set to a maximum of 15
bytes of UTF-8 characters.
This corresponds to the Computer Name field in the General
pane of the Windows service settings in the Server Admin
application.
server string
Text that helps identify the server in the network browsers of
client computers. Can be set to a maximum of 15 bytes of
UTF-8 characters.
This corresponds to the Description field in the General pane
of the Windows service settings in the Server Admin
application.
wins support
Whether the server provides WINS support. Can be set to:
yes | no
This corresponds to the WINS Registration Off and Enable
WINS server options in the Advanced pane of the Windows
service settings in the Server Admin application.
wins server
The name of the WINS server used by the server.
This corresponds to the WINS Registration “Register with WINS
server “ option and field in the Advanced pane of the Windows
service settings in the Server Admin application.
workgroup
The server’s workgroup. Can be set to a maximum of 15 bytes
of UTF-8 characters.
This corresponds to the Workgroup field in the General pane of
the Windows service settings in the Server Admin application.
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List of SMB/CIFS serveradmin Commands
You can use these commands with the serveradmin tool to manage SMB/CIFS service.
See the examples in the following sections for details on how to use these commands.
Command (smb:command=)
Description
disconnectUsers
Disconnect SMB/CIFS users. See “Disconnecting SMB/CIFS Users”
on page 156.
getConnectedUsers
List users currently connected to an SMB/CIFS service. See “Listing
SMB/CIFS Users” on page 155.
getHistory
List connection statistics. See “Listing SMB/CIFS Service Statistics”
on page 156.
getLogPaths
Show location of service log files. See “Viewing SMB/CIFS Service
Logs” on page 157.
syncPrefs
Update the service to recognize changes in share points. See
“Updating Share Point Information” on page 157.
writeSettings
Equivalent to the standard serveradmin settings command,
but also returns a setting indicating whether the service needs to
be restarted. See “Using the serveradmin Tool” on page 48.
Listing SMB/CIFS Users
You can use the serveradmin getConnectedUsers command to retrieve information
about connected SMB/CIFS users. For example, you can use this command to retrieve
the session IDs you need in order to disconnect users.
To list connected users:
$ sudo serveradmin command smb:command = getConnectedUsers
The computer will respond with the folowing array of settings displayed for each
connected user:
smb:usersArray:_array_index:i:loginElapsedTime = <login-elapsed-time>
smb:usersArray:_array_index:i:service = <service>
smb:usersArray:_array_index:i:connectAt = <connect-time>
smb:usersArray:_array_index:i:name = "<name>"
smb:usersArray:_array_index:i:ipAddress = "<ip-address>"
smb:usersArray:_array_index:i:sessionID = <sessionID>
Value returned by getConnectedUsers
(smb:usersArray:_array_index:<n>:)
Description
<login-elapsed-time>
The elapsed time since the user connected.
<service>
The share point the user is accessing.
<connect-time>
The date and time the user connected to the
server.
<name>
The user’s name.
<ip-address>
The user’s IP address.
<sessionID>
An integer that identifies the user session.
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Disconnecting SMB/CIFS Users
You can use the serveradmin disconnectUsers command to disconnect SMB/CIFS
users. Users are specified by session ID.
To disconnect users:
$ sudo serveradmin command
smb:command = disconnectUsers
smb:sessionIDsArray:_array_index:0 = sessionid1
smb:sessionIDsArray:_array_index:1 = sessionid2
smb:sessionIDsArray:_array_index:2 = sessionid3
[...]
Control-D
Parameter
Description
sessionidn
The session ID of a user you want to disconnect. To list the session
IDs of connected users, use the getConnectedUsers command.
See “Listing SMB/CIFS Users” on page 155.
The computer will respond with the following output:
smb:command = "disconnectUsers"
smb:status = <status>
Value
Description
<status>
A command status code.
0 = command successful
Listing SMB/CIFS Service Statistics
You can use the smbstatus command to display a list of the number of SMB/CIFS
connections.
To list SMB/CIFS connections:
$ sudo smbstatus
The computer responds with the following output:
Samba version 3.0.10
PID
Username
Group
Machine
--------------------------------------------------------------------8287
ajohnson
officegroup
mycomputer
(123.123.12.12)
Service
pid
machine
Connected at
--------------------------------------------------------------------IPC$
8287
mycomputer
Fri Jan 13 06:06:15 2006
No Locked Files
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Updating Share Point Information
After you make a change to an SMB/CIFS share point using the sharing tool, you need
to update the SMB/CIFS service information.
To update SMB/CIFS share point information:
$ sudo serveradmin command smb:command = syncPrefs
Viewing SMB/CIFS Service Logs
You can use tail or any other file-listing tool to view the contents of the SMB/CIFS
service logs.
To view the latest entries in a log:
$ tail log-file
You can use the serveradmin getLogPaths command to see where the current SMB/
CIFS logs are located.
To display the log paths:
$ sudo serveradmin command smb:command = getLogPaths
The computer will respond with the following output:
smb:fileServiceLog = <smb-log>
smb:nameServiceLog = <name-log>
Value
Description
<smb-log>
The location of the SMB service log.
Default = /var/log/samba/log.smbd
<name-log>
The location of the name service log.
Default = /var/log/samba/log.nmbd
Managing ACLs
For greater flexibility in configuring and managing file permissions, Mac OS X Server
implements access control lists (ACL). An ACL is a list of access control entries (ACEs),
each specifying the permissions to be granted or denied to a group or user, and how
these permissions are propagated throughout a folder hierarchy. ACLs in Mac OS X
Server let you set file and folder access permissions for multiple users and groups, in
addition to the standard POSIX permissions. This makes it easy to set up collaborative
environments with smooth file sharing and uninterrupted workflows, without
compromising security. Mac OS X Server has implemented file system ACLs that are
fully compatible with Microsoft Windows Server 2003 and Windows XP.
For more about ACLs and how they compare to POSIX permissions, review the
Overview chapter of the file services administration guide.
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Using chmod to Modify ACLs
Using chmod, you can add and delete ACEs for a file or a folder. Here are a few of the
parameters to be used with ACLs:
Parameter
Description
+a
Adds an entry to the ACL
+ai
Adds an inherited entry
-a
Removes an entry from the ACL
The following are some of the common permissions you can assign to files:
Permission
Description
delete
Grants permission to delete the item
readattr
Read an object’s basic attributes
read
Read the object
write
Write to the object
writeattr
Write an object’s basic attributes
readextattr
Read extended attributes
writeextattr
Write extended attributes
readsecurity
Read an object’s extended security information (ACL)
writesecurity
Write an object’s security information (ACL)
chown
Change an object’s ownership
The following are the permissions applicable to folders:
Permission
Description
list
List entries
add_file
Add a file
add_sudirectory
Add a subfolder
delete_child
Delete an object
To grant a user write permission for a file:
Enter the following command, replacing user1 with the name of the user you are
granting permission to and file1 with the name of the file:
$ chmod +a "user1 allow write" file1
To deny a guest read permission for a file:
Enter the following command, replacing file1 with the name of the file:
$ chmod +a "guest deny read" file1
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To view the ACL of a file:
Enter the following command, replacing file1 with the name of the file:
$ ls -le file1
The output should look like the following:
-rw-r--r--+ 1 juser wheel
owner: juser
1: guest deny read
2: user1 allow write
0 Apr 28 14:06 file1
See the chmod man page for more information.
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10
Working with the Print Service
10
In this chapter you will find commands you can use to
configure and manage the print service.
The print service in Mac OS X Server lets you share network and direct-connect
printers among clients on your network. The print service also includes support for
managing print queues, monitoring print jobs, extensive logging, and using print
quotas. This chapter covers the commands needed to view, modify, or change the print
service settings.
Understanding the Print Process
Apple’s printing infrastructure is built on the Common UNIX Printing System (CUPS).
CUPS uses open standards, such as Internet Printing Protocol (IPP) and PostScript
Printer Description (PPD) files. Tools derived from the old LPD and LP systems are fully
integrated with the printing system. You can add a print queue with Printer Setup
Utility or from the command line, and print to it from either a Mac OS X application or
the command line. CUPS allows Mac OS X to support all the printers that other UNIX
systems support.
The CUPS daemon is /usr/sbin/cupsd. Mac OS X applications and tools communicate
with the daemon using IPP. IPP uses UDP and HTTP for transport over IP. Some
configuration files that affect the behavior of cupsd reside in /etc/cups. When you make
a change to printer sharing or to the printer list using Mac OS X applications or tools,
you modify cupsd.conf or printers.conf, respectively.
To prepare files for printing, cupsd invokes other tools called filters and backends.
These reside in subfolders of /usr/libexec/cups/.
CUPS has its own URL, 127.0.0.1:631, which you can access with a web browser. The URL
is independent of the Apache web server, so you do not need to enable web sharing to
use it. You can find the CUPS documentation at www.cups.org.
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CUPS includes both the System V (lp) and Berkeley (lpr) printing commands. CUPS
supports many different file formats, including PostScript and image files, so you can
print most files directly from the command line.
The CUPS log files, located in /var/log/cups, include the following:
 access_log, which contains all HTTP requests processed by CUPS server
 error_log, which contains messages from the scheduler (errors, warnings, and so on)
 page_log, which contains a summary of each page sent to a printer
You can use the lpadmin tool, or the CUPS web interface, to add a print queue.
When you add a printer or create a printer pool, you create a CUPS print queue. A PPD
file, which defines the attributes of that queue, is placed in /etc/cups/ppd/. The name
of the PPD file corresponds with the name of the queue (either the name of a printer or
the name of a class). CUPS uses PPD files for non-PostScript printers as well.
The PPD file is copied from another folder on your computer. The standard CUPS
location for PPD files is /usr/share/cups/model and its subfolders. The standard location
is in the following folders: /Library/Printers/PPDs/Contents/Resources/ and /System/
Library/Printers/PPDs/Contents/Resources/. The lpadmin tool can use only PPD files in
/usr/share/cups/model and its subfolders.
When you initiate a print job, you generate a CUPS spool file and an IPP attributes file
in /var/spool/cups. The lp or lpr tool generates an IPP attributes file and spool file.
The spool file is a copy of the original document, so its format is the same as that of the
original file. If the tools do not support a file’s format, you get an error message.
Once the file is copied to /var/spool/cups, cupsd begins the process of preparing the
file for printing.
For more information about CUPS and tools specific to CUPS, review the
documentation available at: www.cups.org/documentation.php. You can also see the
man pages for the following CUPS commands: accept, backend, cancel, disable,
enable, filter, lp, lpadmin, lpinfo, lpoptions, lpq, lpr, lpstat, and reject.
Performing Print Service Tasks
Use the serveradmin tool in conjunction with commands that interact with CUPS to
perform print service tasks.
Starting and Stopping Print Service
To start print service:
$ sudo serveradmin start print
To stop print service:
$ sudo serveradmin stop print
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Checking the Status of Print Service
To see summary status of print service:
$ sudo serveradmin status print
To see detailed status of print service:
$ sudo serveradmin fullstatus print
Viewing Print Service Settings
To list print service configuration settings:
$ sudo serveradmin settings print
To list a particular setting:
$ sudo serveradmin settings print:setting
To list a group of settings:
You can list a group of settings that have part of their names in common by typing
only as much of the name as you want, stopping at a colon (:), and typing an asterisk
(*) as a wildcard for the remaining parts of the name. For example, to see all settings
for a particular print queue:
$ sudo serveradmin settings print:queuesArray:_array_id:queue-id:*
Parameter
Description
queue-id
CUPS queue ID (for example, <id> or _192_216_3_45).
Changing Print Service Settings
To change a setting:
$ sudo serveradmin settings print:setting = value
Parameter
Description
setting
A print service setting. To see a list of available settings, enter
$ sudo serveradmin settings print
or see “Print Service Settings” on page 164.
value
An appropriate value for the setting.
To change several settings:
$ sudo serveradmin settings
print:setting = value
print:setting = value
print:setting = value
[...]
Control-D
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Print Service Settings
Use the following parameters with the serveradmin tool to change settings for the
print service.
Parameter (print:)
Description
serverLogArchiveEnable
Default = no; yes enforces log size limits
<queue arrays>
See “Queue Data Array” on page 165
serverLogArchiveSizeMB
Default = 1; maximum log size Range = 1–512 MB
logLevel
Default = info; for details, see CUPS doc
logLevelNames
Read-only list of valid log level names
defaultLprQueue
Queue-ID of selected default LPR-shared queue
lprQueues
Read-only list of available LPR-shared queues
useRemoteQueues
Default = yes; no = supress inclusion of remote queues
in queue list
maxClients
Default = 500
maxClientsPerHost
Default = 100
The log size limits apply to all CUPS logs:
 /var/log/cups/error_log (CUPS general message log )
 /var/log/cups/access_log (CUPS access log)
 /var/log/cups/error_log (CUPS page log)
As well as the following log files:
 /Library/Logs/PrintService/PrintService.admin.log (Server Admin Print log: logs all
Print administrative actions issued from Server Admin)
 /Library/Logs/atprintd/<queue-id>.spool.log (AppleTalk spool logs: 1 per shared
AppleTalk queue)
The log level option filters the number of messages written to the following logs:
 /var/log/cups/error_log
 /Library/Logs/PrintService/PrintService.admin.log
 /Library/Logs/atprintd/<queue-id>.spool.log
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Chapter 10 Working with the Print Service
Queue Data Array
Print service settings include an array of values for each existing print queue. The array
is a set of parameters that define values for each queue. The array of sharing services
has been expanded to include IPP. This is the same service as Mac OS X version 10.3
printer sharing, now integrated with Mac OS X Server version 10.4.
Many of the following parameters are CUPS parameters. You can get more details
about the CUPS parameters in the CUPS documentation.
<id>
is a CUPS queue ID (for example, <id> or _192_216_3_45).
Parameter (print:)
Description
queuesArray:_array_id:<id>:qu
otasEnforced
Default = no; yes = enforce quota limits for queue.
queuesArray:_array_id:<id>:sh
aringList:_array_index:0:serv
ice
Service name for Internet Printing Protocol (CUPS).
queuesArray:_array_id:<id>:sh
aringList:_array_index:1:serv
ice
Default = "LPR"; service name for UNIX Line Printer.
queuesArray:_array_id:<id>:sh
aringList:_array_index:2:serv
ice
Default = "SMB"; service name for Windows SMB/CIFS.
queuesArray:_array_id:<id>:sh
aringList:_array_index:3:serv
ice
Default = "AppleTalk"; service name for AppleTalk.
queuesArray:_array_id:<id>:sh
areable
Cannot be changed.
Default = yes.
queuesArray:_array_id:<id>:pr
interName
Cannot be changed using serveradmin.
Default = "<printer-name>"
queuesArray:_array_id:<id>:pr
interURI
Format depends on type of printer.
Cannot be changed using serveradmin.
Default = <uri>; CUPS printer device info.
queuesArray:_array_id:<id>:re
gisterRendezvous
Default = yes; yes = advertise printer over multicast DNS.
queuesArray:_array_id:<id>:pr
interKind
CUPS queue identifier.
Cannot be changed using serveradmin.
queuesArray:_array_id:<id>:sh
aringName
Name used to advertise queue on network.
queuesArray:_array_id:<id>:de
faultCoverPage
Name of assigned cover page.
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The following is an example of a queue array parameter block:
print:queuesArray:_array_id:my_printer:quotasEnforced = no
print:queuesArray:_array_id:my_printer:sharingList:_array_index:0:service =
"LPR"
print:queuesArray:_array_id:my_printer:sharingList:_array_index:0:sharingEna
ble = no
print:queuesArray:_array_id:my_printer:sharingList:_array_index:1:service =
"SMB"
print:queuesArray:_array_id:my_printer:sharingList:_array_index:1:sharingEna
ble = no
print:queuesArray:_array_id:my_printer:sharingList:_array_index:2:service =
"AppleTalk"
print:queuesArray:_array_id:my_printer:sharingList:_array_index:2:sharingEna
ble = no
print:queuesArray:_array_id:my_printer:shareable = yes
print:queuesArray:_array_id:my_printer:printerName = "Room 3 Printer"
print:queuesArray:_array_id:my_printer:printerURI = "pap://*/
Room%203%20Printer/LaserWriter"
print:queuesArray:_array_id:my_printer:registerRendezvous = yes
print:queuesArray:_array_id:my_printer:printerKind = "Lexmark_Optra_E310"
print:queuesArray:_array_id:my_printer:sharingName = "Room 3 Printer"
Note: In the example above, “my_printer” refers to the CUPS queue id.
Managing the Print Service
Use the serveradmin tool in conjunction with the following commands that interact
with CUPS to modify and manage the print service.
166
Command (print:command=)
Description
getJobs
List information about the jobs waiting in a queue. The name
required for this command is the *sharing* name given to the
queue by the administrator as previously described. See “Listing
Jobs and Job Information” on page 167.
getLogPaths
Finding the locations of the print service and job logs. See
“Viewing Print Service Log Files” on page 169.
getQueues
List print service queues. See “Listing Queues” on page 167.
setJobState
Hold or release a job. The name required for this command is the
*sharing* name given to the queue by the administrator as
previously described. See “Holding a Job” on page 168.
setQueueState
Pauses or release a queue. The queue name required for this
command is the *sharing* name given to the queue by the
administrator, not the original printer name or the CUPS queue
identifier. See “Pausing a Queue” on this page.
writeSettings
Equivalent to the standard serveradmin settings command,
but also returns a setting indicating whether the service needs to
be restarted. See “Using the serveradmin Tool” on page 48.
Chapter 10 Working with the Print Service
Listing Queues
You can use the serveradmin getQueues command to list print service queues.
$ sudo serveradmin command print:command = getQueues
Pausing a Queue
You can use the serveradmin setQueueState command to pause or release a queue.
To pause a queue:
$ sudo serveradmin command
print:command = setQueueState
print:state = PAUSED
print:namesArray:_array_index:0 = queue
Control-D
Parameter
Description
queue
The name of the queue. To find the name of the queue, use the
getQueues command and look for the value of the printer
setting. See “Listing Queues” on page 167.
To release the queue:
$ sudo serveradmin command
print:command = setQueueState
print:state = RESUMED
print:namesArray:_array_index:0 = queue
Control-D
Listing Jobs and Job Information
You can use the serveradmin getJobs command to list information about print jobs.
$ sudo serveradmin command
print:command = getJobs
print:maxDisplayJobs = jobs
print:queueNamesArray:_array_index:0 = queue
Control-D
Parameter
Description
jobs
The maximum number of jobs to list.
queue
The name of the queue. To find the name of the queue, use the
getQueues command and look for the value of the printer
setting. See “Listing Queues” on page 167.
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For each job, the command lists:
 Document name
 Document size
 Job ID
 Submitting user
 Submitting host
 Job name
 Job state
 Job priority
Holding a Job
You can use the serveradmin setJobState command to hold or release a job.
To hold a job:
$ sudo serveradmin command
print:command = setJobState
print:status = HOLD
print:jobsArray:_array_index:0:printer = queue
print:jobsArray:_array_index:0:idsArray:_array_index:0 = jobid
Control-D
Parameter
Description
queue
The name of the queue. To find the name of the queue, use the
getQueues command and look for the value of the printer
setting. See “Listing Queues” on page 167.
jobid
The ID of the job. To find the ID of the job, use the getJobs
command and look for the value of the jobId setting. See “Listing
Jobs and Job Information” on page 167.
To release the job for printing, change its state to PENDING.
To release the job:
$ sudo serveradmin command
print:command = setJobState
print:status = PENDING
print:jobsArray:_array_index:0:printer = queue
print:jobsArray:_array_index:0:idsArray:_array_index:0 = jobid
Control-D
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Chapter 10 Working with the Print Service
Viewing Print Service Log Files
You can use tail or any other file-listing tool to view the contents of the print service
logs.
To view the latest entries in a log:
$ tail log-file
The following are the log files for the Print Service:
 /var/log/cups/error_log (CUPS general message log)
 /var/log/cups/access_log (CUPS access log)
 /var/log/cups/page_log (CUPS page log)
 /Library/Logs/PrintService/PrintService.admin.log (Server Admin Print log: logs all
Print administrative actions issued from Server Admin)
 /Library/Logs/atprintd/<queue-id>.spool.log (AppleTalk spool logs—1 per shared
AppleTalk queue)
You can use the serveradmin getLogPaths command to see where the current logs are
located.
To display the log paths:
$ sudo serveradmin command print:command = getLogPaths
The computer responds with the following output:
print:logPathsArray:_array_index:0:name
print:logPathsArray:_array_index:0:path
PrintService_admin.log"
print:logPathsArray:_array_index:1:name
print:logPathsArray:_array_index:1:path
print:logPathsArray:_array_index:2:name
print:logPathsArray:_array_index:2:path
print:logPathsArray:_array_index:3:name
print:logPathsArray:_array_index:3:path
= "Print Service Admin log"
= "/Library/Logs/PrintService/
=
=
=
=
=
=
"CUPS: error_log"
"/var/log/cups/error_log"
"CUPS: access_log"
"/var/log/cups/access_log"
"CUPS: page_log"
"/var/log/cups/page_log"
Viewing Cover Pages
To obtain a list of available cover pages:
$ sudo serveradmin settings print:coverPageNames
This returns a read-only list of permitted values for this setting. The value “none” is not
listed as a cover page name, but is used to disable the cover page feature for the
selected print queue.
Chapter 10 Working with the Print Service
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Chapter 10 Working with the Print Service
11
Working with NetBoot Service
and System Images
11
In this chapter you will find commands you can use to
configure and manage the NetBoot Service and system
images.
NetBoot is used to host a standard operating system and application configuration on
all of the clients in a network from the server.This chapter describes the commands
used to configure and manage the NetBoot service.
Understanding the NetBoot Service
The NetBoot service in Mac OS X Server enables multiple Mac computers to boot from
a single server-based disk image, instead of from their internal hard drive. This allows
you to create a standard configuration and use it on all of the desktop computers on a
network—or host multiple images customized for different workgroups.
You can also create server configurations and run all of your servers from one image.
Updating the disk image on the NetBoot server updates all of these computers
automatically the next time they restart. In addition, you can copy a directory server
configuration to all clients using the same system image.
Starting and Stopping NetBoot Service
To start NetBoot service:
$ sudo serveradmin start netboot
If you get the following response:
$ netboot:state = "STOPPED"
$ netboot:status = 5000
you have not yet enabled NetBoot on any network port.
To stop NetBoot service:
$ sudo serveradmin stop netboot
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Checking NetBoot Service Status
To see if NetBoot service is running:
$ sudo serveradmin status netboot
To see complete NetBoot status:
$ sudo serveradmin fullstatus netboot
Viewing NetBoot Settings
To list all NetBoot service settings:
$ sudo serveradmin settings netboot
Changing NetBoot Settings
You can change NetBoot service settings using the serveradmin tool.
To change a NetBoot setting:
$ sudo serveradmin settings netboot:setting = value
Parameter
Description
setting
A NetBoot service setting. To see a list of available settings, enter
$ sudo serveradmin settings netboot
or see “Changing General Netboot Service Settings” on this page.
value
An appropriate value for the setting.
To change several settings:
$ sudo serveradmin settings
netboot:setting = value
netboot:setting = value
netboot:setting = value
[...]
Control-D
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Chapter 11 Working with NetBoot Service and System Images
Changing General Netboot Service Settings
NetBoot allows client computers to start up from an operating system image stored on
your server. Use the following parameters with the serveradmin tool to change settings
for the NetBoot service.
Parameter (netboot:)
Description
filterEnabled
Specifies whether client filtering is enabled.
Default = "no"
netBootStorageRecordsArray...
An array of values for each server volume used to store
boot or installation images. For a description, see
“Storage Record Array” on page 173.
netBootFiltersRecordsArray...
An array of values for each computer explicitly allowed
or disallowed access to images. For a description, see
“Filters Record Array” on page 174.
netBootImagesRecordsArray...
An array of values for each boot or installation image
stored on the server. For a description, see “Image
Record Array” on page 174.
netBootPortsRecordsArray...
An array of values for each server network port used to
deliver boot or installation images. For a description,
see “Port Record Array” on page 175.
Storage Record Array
A volume parameter array.
Parameter (netboot:)
Description
netBootStorageRecordsArray:_array_index:<n>:
sharepoint
First parameter in an array
describing a volume available to
serve images.
Default = "no"
netBootStorageRecordsArray:_array_index:<n>:
clients
Default = "no"
netBootStorageRecordsArray:_array_index:<n>:
ignorePrivs
Default = "false"
netBootStorageRecordsArray:_array_index:<n>:
volType
Default = <voltype>
Example: "hfs"
netBootStorageRecordsArray:_array_index:<n>:
path
Default = "/"
netBootStorageRecordsArray:_array_index:<n>:
volName
Default = <name>
netBootStorageRecordsArray:_array_index:<n>:
volIcon
Default = <icon>
netBootStorageRecordsArray:_array_index:<n>:
okToDeleteClients
Default = "yes"
netBootStorageRecordsArray:_array_index:<n>:
okToDeleteSharepoint
Default = "yes"
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Filters Record Array
An array of the following values appears in the NetBoot service settings for each
computer explicitly allowed or denied access to images stored on the server.
Parameter (netboot:)
Description
netBootFiltersRecordsArray:
_array_index:<n>:hostName
The host name of the filtered computer, if
available.
netBootFiltersRecordsArray:
_array_index:<n>:filterType
Whether the specified computer is allowed or
denied access. Options:
"allow"
"deny"
netBootFiltersRecordsArray:
_array_index:<n>:hardwareAddress
The Ethernet hardware (MAC) address of the
filtered computer.
Image Record Array
An array of the following values appears in the NetBoot service settings for each image
stored on the server.
Parameter (netboot:)
Description
netBootImagesRecordsArray:
_array_index:<n>:Name
Name of the image as it appears in the Startup
Disk control panel (Mac OS 9) or Preferences
pane (Mac OS X).
netBootImagesRecordsArray:
_array_index:<n>:IsDefault
yes specifies this image file as the default boot
image on the subnet.
netBootImagesRecordsArray:
_array_index:<n>:RootPath
The path to the .dmg file.
netBootImagesRecordsArray:
_array_index:<n>:isEdited
netBootImagesRecordsArray:
_array_index:<n>:BootFile
Name of boot ROM file: booter.
netBootImagesRecordsArray:
_array_index:<n>:Description
Arbitrary text describing the image.
netBootImagesRecordsArray:
_array_index:<n>:SupportsDiskless
yes directs the NetBoot server to allocate space
for the shadow files needed by diskless clients.
netBootImagesRecordsArray:
_array_index:<n>:Type
NFS or HTTP.
netBootImagesRecordsArray:
_array_index:<n>:pathToImage
The path to the parameter list file in the .nbi
folder on the server describing the image.
netBootImagesRecordsArray:
_array_index:<n>:Index
server.
1–4095 indicates a local image unique to the
4096–65535 is a duplicate, identical image
stored on multiple servers for load balancing.
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Chapter 11 Working with NetBoot Service and System Images
Parameter (netboot:)
Description
netBootImagesRecordsArray:
_array_index:<n>:IsEnabled
Sets whether the image is available to NetBoot
(or Network Image) clients.
netBootImagesRecordsArray:
_array_index:<n>:IsInstall
yes specifies a network installation image;
no specifies a NetBoot image.
Port Record Array
An array of the following items is included in the NetBoot service settings for each
network port on the server set to deliver images.
Parameter (netboot:)
Description
netBootPortsRecordsArray:_array_index:<m>:
isEnabledAtIndex
First parameter in an array
describing a network interface
available for responding to
netboot requests.
Default = "no"
netBootPortsRecordsArray:_array_index:<m>:
nameAtIndex
Default = "<devname>"
Example: "Built-in
Ethernet"
netBootPortsRecordsArray:_array_index:<m>:
deviceAtIndex
Default = "<dev>"
Example: "en0"
Enabling NetBoot 1.0 for Older NetBoot Clients
If you want older computers, such as tray-loading iMac or Power Macintosh G3 (Blue
and White), to use NetBoot, you need to enable NetBoot 1.0. You may do so by using
the nicl tool.
To enable NetBoot:
$ sudo nicl . create /config/dhcp old_netboot_enabled port_list
$ sudo killall bootpd
Parameter
Description
port_list
List of ports you want to enable for NetBoot 1.0, formatted
like: en0 en1 en2.
Note: NetBoot 1.0 and 2.0 can run on the same network interface simultaneously.
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Working with System Images
A boot image is a file that looks and acts like a mountable disk or volume. NetBoot
boot images contain the system software needed to act as a startup disk for client
computers across the network. An installation image is a special boot image that boots
the client long enough to install software from the image, after which the client can
start up from its own hard disk. Both boot images and installation images are special
kinds of disk images. Disk images are files that behave just like disk volumes.
You can set up multiple boot or installation images to suit the needs of different
groups of clients or to provide several copies of the same image to distribute the client
startup load. Using NetBoot with Mac OS X client management services, you can
provide a personalized work environment for each client computer user.
Updating an Image
You can use the installer tool to update a package from the command line, the same
way you would install new packages on your default installation volume.
To update an image:
$ installer -pkg pkg.mpkg -target image_path
Booting from an Image
You can set the nvram environment variables to boot from an image. You can do so
using the nvram tool, or by booting into open firmware mode.
To boot from an image:
1 Boot into open firmware by clicking (command-option-o-f ) as you boot.
2 At the prompt, enter the following:
> setenv boot-file enet:YourServerIPAddress,NetBoot\NetBootsSP*\<name of
.nbi folder>\mach.macosx
> setenv boot-args rp=nfs: YourServerIPAddress:/private/tftpboot/NetBoot/
NetBootSP*:<name of .nbi folder>/<Name of image>.dmg
> setenv boot-device enet: YourServerIPAddress,NetBoot\NetBootSP*\<name of
.nbi folder>\booter
> mac-boot
Using hdiutil to Work with System Images
You can use the hdiutil tool to manipulate disk images. This tool is used to perform
many functions, such as creating, compressing, mounting, unmouting, and resizing
images. You can also display image information and burn images onto CDs. See the
hdiutil man page for information about how to manipulate disk images.
The following examples provide some basic hdiutil tool functions:
To verify an image against its internal checksum:
$ hdiutil verify myimage.img
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Chapter 11 Working with NetBoot Service and System Images
To split an image into three segments:
$ hdiutil segment -segmentSize 10m -o /tmp/aseg 30m.dmg
This creates three separate files: aseg.dmg, aseg.002.dmgpart, and aseg.003.dmgpart.
To convert an image to a CD-R export image with a .toast extention:
$ hdiutil convert master.dmg -format UDTO -o master
To burn an image onto the CD drive:
$ hdiutil burn myImage.dmg
To create an image from a folder:
$ hdiutil create -srcfolder mydir mydir.dmg
Using asr to Restore System Images
The asr tool can efficiently copy disk images onto volumes. asr can also accurately
clone volumes.
To clone a volume:
$ sudo asr -source /Volumes/Classic -target /Volumes/install
To restore an system image onto a volume:
$ sudo asr -source compressedimage -target <targetvol> -erase
Note: The target drive will be erased.
Imaging Multiple Clients Using Multicast asr
You can enable a multicast image server using Mac OS X Server. Multicast asr can
restore multiple clients simultaneously from one looping multicast of an asr disk image.
Each client can start receiving the restore image at any time during a multicast of the
image, and the client continues receiving the first part of the next multicast until the
client has received the complete restore image. The server multicasts only one copy of
the restore image at a time, and all clients receive this copy.
If the server finishes multicasting the restore image and a client is still requesting the
image, the server multicasts the image again. Thus, using multicast asr to stream
images to multiple clients doesn’t congest the network nearly as much as Network
Install with multiple clients. Use the asr tool with the -server flag and a correctly built
image and plist to enable the image server.
To start up a multicast server for a specified image:
$ asr -source <compressedimage> -server <configuration.plist>
where the specified image used the parameters in the configuration.plist file. The
image will not start multicasting on the network until a client attempts to start a
restore. The server will continue to multicast the image until the process is terminated.
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To configure a client to receive a multicast stream:
$ sudo asr -source asr://<hostname> -target <targetvol> -erase
The client will receive the multicast stream from <hostname> and save it to a client.
Add -erase to overwrite any existing image. Passing -erase with -target indicates any
existing image should be overwritten when doing a multicast.
Choosing a Boot Device Using systemsetup
You can use the systemsetup tool to choose your boot device. When setting the
startup disk, you simply have to know the full path to core services. For example,
to boot from “Disk 2,” which is now mounted in /Volumes, you would enter:
$ systemsetup -setstartupdisk /Volumes/Disk\ 2/System/Library/CoreServices
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Chapter 11 Working with NetBoot Service and System Images
12
Working with the Mail Service
12
In this chapter you will find commands you can use to
manage the mail service.
Mac OS X Server provides a full complement of tools for setting up and managing
email service for your users. You can use the commands described in this chapter to
control the individual components that make up the mail service.
Understanding the Mail Service
The Mail service in Mac OS X Server consists of three components, all based on open
standards with full support for Internet mail protocols:
 Postfix, the SMTP mail transfer agent
 Cyrus, which supports IMAP and POP
 Mailman, which provides mailing list management features
Postfix Agent
Mac OS X Server uses Postfix as its SMTP mail transfer agent. Postfix is easy to
administer. Its basic configuration can be managed through Server Admin, and
therefore, it does not rely on editing the configuration file /etc/postfix/main.cf.
Postfix uses multiple layers of defense to protect the server computer against intruders.
There is no direct path from the network to the security-sensitive local delivery tools.
Postfix does not trust the contents of its own queue files, or the contents of its own IPC
messages. Postfix filters sender-provided information before exporting it via
environment variables. Nearly every Postfix application can run with fixed low
privileges and no ability to change ID, run as root, or run as any other user.
Postfix uses the configuration file main.cf in /etc/postfix. Whenever Server Admin
modifies Postfix settings, it overwrites the main.cf file. If you want to make a manual
change to the configuration file of Postfix, be aware that Server Admin will overwrite
your changes the next time you use it to modify the mail service configuration.
179
The spool files for Postfix are located in /var/spool/postfix and the log file is /var/log/
mail.log. See www.postfix.org for more information about postfix.
Cyrus
Cyrus was developed at Carnegie Mellon University with the purpose of creating a
highly scalable enterprise mail system for use in small- to large-enterprise
environments. The Cyrus technologies can scale from independent use in small
departments to a system centrally managed in a large enterprise.
Each message is stored as a separate file in a mail folder for each user. The mailbox
database is stored in parts of the file system that are private to the Cyrus IMAP system.
This design gives the server advantages in efficiency, scalability, and administration. All
user access to mail is through software using the IMAP or POP3 protocol.
Cyrus uses the configuration file /etc/imapd.conf. Server Admin uses the defaults file
/etc/imapd.conf.default. Cyrus logs its events in /etc/mailaccess.log. The Cyrus database
is located in /var/imap/ and the user folders are located in /var/spool/imap/.
In brief, Cyrus works as follows: The Cyrus deliver application will receive mail from the
Postfix delivery agent, update the mailboxes database located at /var/imap/
mailboxes.db, and store the mail in the users spool files located at /var/spool/imap/
username/folder. The user will then be able to use the IMAP or POP protocol to retrieve
messages.
See asg.web.cmu.edu/cyrus/ for more information about Cyrus.
Mailman
Mailman is a Mailing List service with support for built-in archiving, automatic bounce
processing, content filtering, digest delivery, spam filters, and other features. Mailman
provides a customizable web page for each mailing list. Users can subscribe and
unsubscribe themselves, as well as change list preferences. List and site administrators
can use the web interface for common tasks such as account management, approvals,
moderation, and list configuration. The web interface requires that you have the
Apache web server running. You can access it at www.yourdomain.com/mailman/
listinfo.
Mailman receives mail from the local postfix process by configuring alias maps.
Messages destined for a mail list are piped by the local process to Mailman processes.
The mapping is provided in /var/mailman/data/aliases.
You can find more information about configuring and administering mail lists using
Mailman at www.list.org and at /Library/Documentation/Services/mailman.
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Managing the Mail Service
Mac OS X Server ships with some powerful tools to help administer you mail service.
The following sections describe basic mail service functions.
Starting and Stopping Mail Service
To start mail service:
$ sudo serveradmin start mail
To stop mail service:
$ sudo serveradmin stop mail
Checking the Status of Mail Service
To see summary status of mail service:
$ sudo serveradmin status mail
To see detailed status of mail service:
$ sudo serveradmin fullstatus mail
Viewing Mail Service Settings
To list mail service configuration settings:
$ sudo serveradmin settings mail
To list a particular setting:
$ sudo serveradmin settings mail:setting
To list a group of settings:
You can list a group of settings that have part of their names in common by typing
only as much of the name as you want, stopping at a colon (:), and typing an asterisk
(*) as a wildcard for the remaining parts of the name. For example:
$ sudo serveradmin settings mail:imap:*
Changing Mail Service Settings
You can use serveradmin to modify your server’s mail configuration. However, if you
want to work with the mail service from the command line, you’ll probably find it more
straightforward to work directly with the underlying Postfix and Cyrus agents.
For more information about these agents:
 See www.postfix.org for information about Postfix.
 See asg.web.cmu.edu/cyrus for information about Cyrus IMAP/POP.
Chapter 12 Working with the Mail Service
181
Mail Service Settings
Use the following parameters with the serveradmin tool to change settings for the mail
service.
Parameter (mail:)
Description
postfix:message_size_limit
Default = 10240000
postfix:readme_directory
Default = no
postfix:double_bounce_sender
Default = "double-bounce"
postfix:default_recipient_limit
Default = 10000
postfix:local_destination_recipient_limit
Default = 1
postfix:queue_minfree
Default = 0
postfix:show_user_unknown_table_name
Default = yes
postfix:default_process_limit
Default = 100
postfix:export_environment
Default = "TZ MAIL_CONFIG"
postfix:smtp_line_length_limit
Default = 990
postfix:smtp_rcpt_timeout
Default = "300s"
postfix:masquerade_domains
Default = ""
postfix:soft_bounce
Default = no
postfix:pickup_service_name
Default = "pickup"
postfix:config_directory
Default = "/etc/postfix"
postfix:smtpd_soft_error_limit
Default = 10
postfix:undisclosed_recipients_header
Default = "To: undisclosedrecipients:;"
postfix:lmtp_lhlo_timeout
Default = "300s"
postfix:smtpd_recipient_restrictions
Default =
"permit_mynetworks,reject_u
nauth_destination"
182
postfix:unknown_local_recipient_reject_code
Default = 450
postfix:error_notice_recipient
Default = "postmaster"
postfix:smtpd_sasl_local_domain
Default = no
postfix:strict_mime_encoding_domain
Default = no
postfix:unknown_relay_recipient_reject_code
Default = 550
postfix:disable_vrfy_command
Default = no
postfix:unknown_virtual_mailbox_reject_code
Default = 550
postfix:fast_flush_refresh_time
Default = "12h"
postfix:prepend_delivered_header
Default = "command, file,
forward"
postfix:defer_service_name
Default = "defer"
postfix:sendmail_path
Default = "/usr/sbin/sendmail"
Chapter 12 Working with the Mail Service
Parameter (mail:)
Description
postfix:lmtp_sasl_password_maps
Default = no
postfix:smtp_sasl_password_maps
Default = no
postfix:qmgr_clog_warn_time
Default = "300s"
postfix:smtp_sasl_auth_enable
Default = no
postfix:smtp_skip_4xx_greeting
Default = yes
postfix:smtp_skip_5xx_greeting
Default = yes
postfix:stale_lock_time
Default = "500s"
postfix:strict_8bitmime_body
Default = no
postfix:disable_mime_input_processing
Default = no
postfix:smtpd_hard_error_limit
Default = 20
postfix:empty_address_recipient
Default = "MAILER-DAEMON"
postfix:forward_expansion_filter
Default = "1234567890!@%_=+:,./
abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyzA
BCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ"
postfix:smtpd_expansion_filter
Default = "\t\40!"#$%&'()*+,./
0123456789:;<=>?@ABCDEFGHIJ
KLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ[\\]^_`abcd
efghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz{|}~"
postfix:relayhost
Default = ""
postfix:defer_code
Default = 450
postfix:lmtp_rset_timeout
Default = "300s"
postfix:always_bcc
Default = ""
postfix:proxy_interfaces
Default = ""
postfix:maps_rbl_reject_code
Default = 554
postfix:line_length_limit
Default = 2048
postfix:mailbox_transport
Default = 0
postfix:deliver_lock_delay
Default = "1s"
postfix:best_mx_transport
Default = 0
postfix:notify_classes
Default = "resource,software"
postfix:mailbox_command
Default = ""
postfix:mydomain
Default = <domain>
postfix:mailbox_size_limit
Default = 51200000
postfix:default_verp_delimiters
Default = "+="
postfix:resolve_dequoted_address
Default = yes
postfix:cleanup_service_name
Default = "cleanup"
postfix:header_address_token_limit
Default = 10240
Chapter 12 Working with the Mail Service
183
Parameter (mail:)
Description
postfix:lmtp_connect_timeout
Default = "0s"
postfix:strict_7bit_headers
Default = no
postfix:unknown_hostname_reject_code
Default = 450
postfix:virtual_alias_domains
Default =
"$virtual_alias_maps"
postfix:lmtp_sasl_auth_enable
Default = no
postfix:queue_directory
Default = "/private/var/
spool/postfix"
postfix:sample_directory
Default = "/usr/share/doc/
postfix/examples"
postfix:fallback_relay
Default = 0
postfix:smtpd_use_pw_server
Default = "yes"
postfix:smtpd_sasl_auth_enable
Default = no
postfix:mail_owner
Default = "postfix"
postfix:command_time_limit
Default = "1000s"
postfix:verp_delimiter_filter
Default = "-=+"
postfix:qmqpd_authorized_clients
Default = 0
postfix:virtual_mailbox_base
Default = ""
postfix:permit_mx_backup_networks
Default = ""
postfix:queue_run_delay
Default = "1000s"
postfix:virtual_mailbox_domains
Default =
"$virtual_mailbox_maps"
postfix:local_destination_concurrency_limit
Default = 2
postfix:daemon_timeout
Default = "18000s"
postfix:local_transport
Default = "local:$myhostname"
postfix:smtpd_helo_restrictions
Default = no
postfix:fork_delay
Default = "1s"
postfix:disable_mime_output_conversion
Default = no
postfix:mynetworks:_array_index:0
Default = "127.0.0.1/32"
postfix:smtp_never_send_ehlo
Default = no
postfix:lmtp_cache_connection
Default = yes
postfix:local_recipient_maps
Default =
"proxy:unix:passwd.byname
$alias_maps"
184
postfix:smtpd_timeout
Default = "300s"
postfix:require_home_directory
Default = no
postfix:smtpd_error_sleep_time
Default = "1s"
postfix:helpful_warnings
Default = yes
Chapter 12 Working with the Mail Service
Parameter (mail:)
Description
postfix:mail_spool_directory
Default = "/var/mail"
postfix:mailbox_delivery_lock
Default = "flock"
postfix:disable_dns_lookups
Default = no
postfix:mailbox_command_maps
Default = ""
postfix:default_destination_concurrency
_limit
Default = 20
postfix:2bounce_notice_recipient
Default = "postmaster"
postfix:virtual_alias_maps
Default = "$virtual_maps"
postfix:mailq_path
Default = "/usr/bin/mailq"
postfix:recipient_delimiter
Default = no
postfix:masquerade_exceptions
Default = ""
postfix:delay_notice_recipient
Default = "postmaster"
postfix:smtp_helo_name
Default = "$myhostname"
postfix:flush_service_name
Default = "flush"
postfix:service_throttle_time
Default = "60s"
postfix:import_environment
Default = "MAIL_CONFIG
MAIL_DEBUG MAIL_LOGTAG TZ
XAUTHORITY DISPLAY"
postfix:sun_mailtool_compatibility
Default = no
postfix:authorized_verp_clients
Default = "$mynetworks"
postfix:debug_peer_list
Default = ""
postfix:mime_boundary_length_limit
Default = 2048
postfix:initial_destination_concurrency
Default = 5
postfix:parent_domain_matches_subdomains
Default =
"debug_peer_list,fast_flush
_domains,mynetworks,permit_
mx_backup_networks,qmqpd_au
thorized_clients,relay_doma
ins,smtpd_access_maps"
postfix:setgid_group
Default = "postdrop"
postfix:mime_header_checks
Default = "$header_checks"
postfix:smtpd_etrn_restrictions
Default = ""
postfix:relay_transport
Default = "relay"
postfix:inet_interfaces
Default = "localhost"
postfix:smtpd_sender_restrictions
Default = ""
postfix:delay_warning_time
Default = "0h"
postfix:alias_maps
Default = "hash:/etc/aliases"
postfix:sender_canonical_maps
Default = ""
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186
Parameter (mail:)
Description
postfix:trigger_timeout
Default = "10s"
postfix:newaliases_path
Default = "/usr/bin/
newaliases"
postfix:default_rbl_reply
Default = "$rbl_code Service
unavailable; $rbl_class
[$rbl_what] blocked using
$rbl_domain${rbl_reason?;
$rbl_reason}"
postfix:alias_database
Default = "hash:/etc/aliases"
postfix:qmgr_message_recipient_limit
Default = 20000
postfix:extract_recipient_limit
Default = 10240
postfix:header_checks
Default = 0
postfix:syslog_facility
Default = "mail"
postfix:luser_relay
Default = ""
postfix:maps_rbl_domains:_array_index:0
Default = ""
postfix:deliver_lock_attempts
Default = 20
postfix:smtpd_data_restrictions
Default = ""
postfix:smtpd_pw_server_security_options:
_array_index:0
Default = "none"
postfix:ipc_idle
Default = "100s"
postfix:mail_version
Default = "2.0.7"
postfix:transport_retry_time
Default = "60s"
postfix:virtual_mailbox_limit
Default = 51200000
postfix:smtpd_noop_commands
Default = 0
postfix:mail_release_date
Default = "20030319"
postfix:append_at_myorigin
Default = yes
postfix:body_checks_size_limit
Default = 51200
postfix:qmgr_message_active_limit
Default = 20000
postfix:mail_name
Default = "Postfix"
postfix:masquerade_classes
Default = "envelope_sender,
header_sender,
header_recipient"
postfix:allow_min_user
Default = no
postfix:smtp_randomize_addresses
Default = yes
postfix:alternate_config_directories
Default = no
postfix:allow_percent_hack
Default = yes
postfix:process_id_directory
Default = "pid"
postfix:strict_rfc821_envelopes
Default = no
Chapter 12 Working with the Mail Service
Parameter (mail:)
Description
postfix:fallback_transport
Default = 0
postfix:owner_request_special
Default = yes
postfix:default_transport
Default = "smtp"
postfix:biff
Default = yes
postfix:relay_domains_reject_code
Default = 554
postfix:smtpd_delay_reject
Default = yes
postfix:lmtp_quit_timeout
Default = "300s"
postfix:lmtp_mail_timeout
Default = "300s"
postfix:fast_flush_purge_time
Default = "7d"
postfix:disable_verp_bounces
Default = no
postfix:lmtp_skip_quit_response
Default = no
postfix:daemon_directory
Default = "/usr/libexec/
postfix"
postfix:default_destination_recipient_limit
Default = 50
postfix:smtp_skip_quit_response
Default = yes
postfix:smtpd_recipient_limit
Default = 1000
postfix:virtual_gid_maps
Default = ""
postfix:duplicate_filter_limit
Default = 1000
postfix:rbl_reply_maps
Default = ""
postfix:relay_recipient_maps
Default = 0
postfix:syslog_name
Default = "postfix"
postfix:queue_service_name
Default = "qmgr"
postfix:transport_maps
Default = ""
postfix:smtp_destination_concurrency_limit
Default =
"$default_destination_concu
rrency_limit"
postfix:virtual_mailbox_lock
Default = "fcntl"
postfix:qmgr_fudge_factor
Default = 100
postfix:ipc_timeout
Default = "3600s"
postfix:default_delivery_slot_discount
Default = 50
postfix:relocated_maps
Default = ""
postfix:max_use
Default = 100
postfix:default_delivery_slot_cost
Default = 5
postfix:default_privs
Default = "nobody"
postfix:smtp_bind_address
Default = no
postfix:nested_header_checks
Default = "$header_checks"
postfix:canonical_maps
Default = no
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Parameter (mail:)
Description
postfix:debug_peer_level
Default = 2
postfix:in_flow_delay
Default = "1s"
postfix:smtpd_junk_command_limit
Default = 100
postfix:program_directory
Default = "/usr/libexec/
postfix"
postfix:smtp_quit_timeout
Default = "300s"
postfix:smtp_mail_timeout
Default = "300s"
postfix:minimal_backoff_time
Default = "1000s"
postfix:queue_file_attribute_count_limit
Default = 100
postfix:body_checks
Default = no
postfix:smtpd_client_restrictions:
_array_index:0
Default = ""
postfix:mydestination:_array_index:0
Default = "$myhostname"
postfix:mydestination:_array_index:1
Default =
"localhost.$mydomain"
188
postfix:error_service_name
Default = "error"
postfix:smtpd_sasl_security_options:
_array_index:0
Default = "noanonymous"
postfix:smtpd_null_access_lookup_key
Default = "<>"
postfix:virtual_uid_maps
Default = ""
postfix:smtpd_history_flush_threshold
Default = 100
postfix:smtp_pix_workaround_threshold_time
Default = "500s"
postfix:showq_service_name
Default = "showq"
postfix:smtp_pix_workaround_delay_time
Default = "10s"
postfix:lmtp_sasl_security_options
Default = "noplaintext,
noanonymous"
postfix:bounce_size_limit
Default = 50000
postfix:qmqpd_timeout
Default = "300s"
postfix:allow_mail_to_files
Default = "alias,forward"
postfix:relay_domains
Default = "$mydestination"
postfix:smtpd_banner
Default = "$myhostname ESMTP
$mail_name"
postfix:smtpd_helo_required
Default = no
postfix:berkeley_db_read_buffer_size
Default = 131072
postfix:swap_bangpath
Default = yes
postfix:maximal_queue_lifetime
Default = "5d"
postfix:ignore_mx_lookup_error
Default = no
postfix:mynetworks_style
Default = "host"
Chapter 12 Working with the Mail Service
Parameter (mail:)
Description
postfix:myhostname
Default = "<hostname>"
postfix:default_minimum_delivery_slots
Default = 3
postfix:recipient_canonical_maps
Default = no
postfix:hash_queue_depth
Default = 1
postfix:hash_queue_names:_array_index:0
Default = "incoming"
postfix:hash_queue_names:_array_index:1
Default = "active"
postfix:hash_queue_names:_array_index:2
Default = "deferred"
postfix:hash_queue_names:_array_index:3
Default = "bounce"
postfix:hash_queue_names:_array_index:4
Default = "defer"
postfix:hash_queue_names:_array_index:5
Default = "flush"
postfix:hash_queue_names:_array_index:6
Default = "hold"
postfix:lmtp_tcp_port
Default = 24
postfix:local_command_shell
Default = 0
postfix:allow_mail_to_commands
Default = "alias,forward"
postfix:non_fqdn_reject_code
Default = 504
postfix:maximal_backoff_time
Default = "4000s"
postfix:smtp_always_send_ehlo
Default = yes
postfix:proxy_read_maps
Default =
"$local_recipient_maps
$mydestination
$virtual_alias_maps
$virtual_alias_domains
$virtual_mailbox_maps
$virtual_mailbox_domains
$relay_recipient_maps
$relay_domains
$canonical_maps
$sender_canonical_maps
$recipient_canonical_maps
$relocated_maps
$transport_maps
$mynetworks"
postfix:propagate_unmatched_extensions
Default = "canonical, virtual"
postfix:smtp_destination_recipient_limit
Default =
"$default_destination_
recipient_limit"
postfix:smtpd_restriction_classes
Default = ""
postfix:mime_nesting_limit
Default = 100
postfix:virtual_mailbox_maps
Default = ""
postfix:bounce_service_name
Default = "bounce"
postfix:header_size_limit
Default = 102400
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190
Parameter (mail:)
Description
postfix:strict_8bitmime
Default = no
postfix:virtual_transport
Default = "virtual"
postfix:berkeley_db_create_buffer_size
Default = 16777216
postfix:broken_sasl_auth_clients
Default = no
postfix:home_mailbox
Default = no
postfix:content_filter
Default = ""
postfix:forward_path
Default = "$home/
.forward${recipient_delimit
er}${extension},$home/
.forward"
postfix:qmqpd_error_delay
Default = "1s"
postfix:manpage_directory
Default = "/usr/share/man"
postfix:hopcount_limit
Default = 50
postfix:unknown_virtual_alias_reject_code
Default = 550
postfix:smtpd_sender_login_maps
Default = ""
postfix:rewrite_service_name
Default = "rewrite"
postfix:unknown_address_reject_code
Default = 450
postfix:append_dot_mydomain
Default = yes
postfix:command_expansion_filter
Default = "1234567890!@%_=+:,./
abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyzA
BCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ"
postfix:default_extra_recipient_limit
Default = 1000
postfix:lmtp_data_done_timeout
Default = "600s"
postfix:myorigin
Default = "$myhostname"
postfix:lmtp_data_init_timeout
Default = "120s"
postfix:lmtp_data_xfer_timeout
Default = "180s"
postfix:smtp_data_done_timeout
Default = "600s"
postfix:smtp_data_init_timeout
Default = "120s"
postfix:smtp_data_xfer_timeout
Default = "180s"
postfix:default_delivery_slot_loan
Default = 3
postfix:reject_code
Default = 554
postfix:command_directory
Default = "/usr/sbin"
postfix:lmtp_rcpt_timeout
Default = "300s"
postfix:smtp_sasl_security_options
Default = "noplaintext,
noanonymous"
postfix:access_map_reject_code
Default = 554
postfix:smtp_helo_timeout
Default = "300s"
Chapter 12 Working with the Mail Service
Parameter (mail:)
Description
postfix:bounce_notice_recipient
Default = "postmaster"
postfix:smtp_connect_timeout
Default = "30s"
postfix:fault_injection_code
Default = 0
postfix:unknown_client_reject_code
Default = 450
postfix:virtual_minimum_uid
Default = 100
postfix:fast_flush_domains
Default = "$relay_domains"
postfix:default_database_type
Default = "hash"
postfix:dont_remove
Default = 0
postfix:expand_owner_alias
Default = no
postfix:max_idle
Default = "100s"
postfix:defer_transports
Default = ""
postfix:qmgr_message_recipient_minimum
Default = 10
postfix:invalid_hostname_reject_code
Default = 501
postfix:fork_attempts
Default = 5
postfix:allow_untrusted_routing
Default = no
imap:tls_cipher_list:_array_index:0
Default = "DEFAULT"
imap:umask
Default = "077"
imap:tls_ca_path
Default = ""
imap:pop_auth_gssapi
Default = yes
imap:sasl_minimum_layer
Default = 0
imap:tls_cert_file
Default = ""
imap:poptimeout
Default = 10
imap:tls_sieve_require_cert
Default = no
imap:mupdate_server
Default = ""
imap:timeout
Default = 30
imap:quotawarn
Default = 90
imap:enable_pop
Default = no
imap:mupdate_retry_delay
Default = 20
imap:tls_session_timeout
Default = 1440
imap:postmaster
Default = "postmaster"
imap:defaultacl
Default = "anyone lrs"
imap:tls_lmtp_key_file
Default = ""
imap:newsprefix
Default = ""
imap:userprefix
Default = "Other Users"
imap:deleteright
Default = "c"
imap:allowplaintext
Default = yes
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192
Parameter (mail:)
Description
imap:pop_auth_clear
Default = no
imap:imapidresponse
Default = yes
imap:sasl_auto_transition
Default = no
imap:mupdate_port
Default = ""
imap:admins:_array_index:0
Default = "cyrus"
imap:plaintextloginpause
Default = 0
imap:popexpiretime
Default = 0
imap:pop_auth_any
Default = no
imap:sieve_maxscriptsize
Default = 32
imap:hashimapspool
Default = no
imap:tls_lmtp_cert_file
Default = ""
imap:tls_sieve_key_file
Default = ""
imap:sievedir
Default = "/usr/sieve"
imap:debug_command
Default = ""
imap:popminpoll
Default = 0
imap:tls_lmtp_require_cert
Default = no
imap:tls_ca_file
Default = ""
imap:sasl_pwcheck_method
Default = "auxprop"
imap:postuser
Default = ""
imap:sieve_maxscripts
Default = 5
imap:defaultpartition
Default = "default"
imap:altnamespace
Default = yes
imap:max_imap_connections
Default = 100
imap:tls_imap_cert_file
Default = ""
imap:sieveusehomedir
Default = no
imap:reject8bit
Default = no
imap:tls_sieve_cert_file
Default = ""
imap:imapidlepoll
Default = 60
imap:srvtab
Default = "/etc/srvtab"
imap:imap_auth_login
Default = no
imap:tls_pop3_cert_file
Default = ""
imap:tls_pop3_require_cert
Default = no
imap:lmtp_overquota_perm_failure
Default = no
imap:tls_imap_key_file
Default = ""
imap:enable_imap
Default = no
imap:tls_require_cert
Default = no
Chapter 12 Working with the Mail Service
Parameter (mail:)
Description
imap:autocreatequota
Default = 0
imap:allowanonymouslogin
Default = no
imap:pop_auth_apop
Default = yes
imap:partition-default
Default =
"/var/spool/imap"
imap:imap_auth_cram_md5
Default = no
imap:mupdate_password
Default = ""
imap:idlesocket
Default = "/var/imap/socket/
idle"
imap:allowallsubscribe
Default = no
imap:singleinstancestore
Default = yes
imap:unixhierarchysep
Default = "yes"
imap:mupdate_realm
Default = ""
imap:sharedprefix
Default = "Shared Folders"
imap:tls_key_file
Default = ""
imap:lmtpsocket
Default = "/var/imap/socket/
lmtp"
imap:configdirectory
Default = "/var/imap"
imap:sasl_maximum_layer
Default = 256
imap:sendmail
Default = "/usr/sbin/sendmail"
imap:loginuseacl
Default = no
imap:mupdate_username
Default = ""
imap:imap_auth_plain
Default = no
imap:imap_auth_any
Default = no
imap:duplicatesuppression
Default = yes
imap:notifysocket
Default = "/var/imap/socket/
notify"
imap:tls_imap_require_cert
Default = no
imap:imap_auth_clear
Default = yes
imap:tls_pop3_key_file
Default = ""
imap:proxyd_allow_status_referral
Default = no
imap:servername
Default = "<hostname>"
imap:logtimestamps
Default = no
imap:imap_auth_gssapi
Default = no
imap:mupdate_authname
Default = ""
mailman:enable_mailman
Default = no
Chapter 12 Working with the Mail Service
193
Mail serveradmin Commands
You can use the following commands with the serveradmin tool to manage mail
service.
Command (mail:command=)
Description
getHistory
View a periodic record of file data throughput or number of user
connections. See “Listing Mail Service Statistics” on this page.
getLogPaths
Display the locations of the Mail service logs. See “Viewing the Mail
Service Logs” on page 195.
writeSettings
Equivalent to the standard serveradmin settings command,
but also returns a setting indicating whether the service needs to
be restarted. See “Using the serveradmin Tool” on page 48.
Listing Mail Service Statistics
You can use the serveradmin getHistory command to display a log of periodic
samples of the number of user connections and the data throughput. Samples are
taken once each minute.
To list samples:
$ sudo serveradmin command
mail:command = getHistory
mail:variant = statistic
mail:timeScale = scale
Control-D
Parameter
Description
statistic
The value you want to display.
Valid values:
v1—Number of connected users (average during sampling period)
v2—Data throughput (bytes/sec)
scale
The length of time in seconds, ending with the current time, for
which you want to see samples. For example, to see 24 hours of
data, you would specify mail:timeScale = 86400.
The computer responds with the following output:
mail:nbSamples = <samples>
mail:v2Legend = "throughput"
mail:samplesArray:_array_index:0:vn = <sample>
mail:samplesArray:_array_index:0:t = <time>
mail:samplesArray:_array_index:1:vn = <sample>
mail:samplesArray:_array_index:1:t = <time>
[...]
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Chapter 12 Working with the Mail Service
mail:samplesArray:_array_index:i:vn = <sample>
mail:samplesArray:_array_index:i:t = <time>
mail:v1Legend = "connections"
afp:currentServerTime = <servertime>
Value displayed by
getHistory
Description
<samples>
The total number of samples listed.
<sample>
The numerical value of the sample.
For connections (v1), this is integer average number of users.
For throughput, (v2), this is integer bytes per second.
<time>
The time at which the sample was measured. A standard UNIX time
(number of seconds since Sep 1, 1970). Samples are taken every 60
seconds.
Viewing the Mail Service Logs
You can use tail or any other file-listing tool to view the contents of the mail service
logs.
To view the latest entries in a log:
$ tail log-file
You can use the serveradmin getLogPaths command to see where the mail service logs
are located.
To display the log locations:
$ sudo serveradmin command mail:command = getLogPaths
The computer responds with the following output:
mail:Server Log = <server-log>
mail:Lists qrunner = <lists-log>
mail:Lists post = <postings-log>
mail:Lists smtp = <delivery-log>
mail:Lists subscribe = <subscriptions-log>
mail:SMTP Log = <smtp-log>
mail:POP Log = <pop-log>
mail:Lists error = <listerrors-log>
mail:IMAP Log = <imap-log>
mail:Lists smtp-failure = <failures-log>
Value
Description
<server-log>
The location of the server log.
Default = srvr.log
<lists-log>
The location of the Mailing Lists log.
Default = /private/var/mailman/logs/qrunner
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Value
Description
<postings-log>
The location of the Mailing Lists Postings log.
Default = /private/var/mailman/logs/post
<delivery-log>
The location of the Mailing Lists Delivery log.
Default = /private/var/mailman/logs/smtp
<subscriptions-log>
The location of the Mailing Lists Subscriptions log.
Default = /private/var/mailman/logs/subscribe
<smtp-log>
The location of the server log.
Default = smtp.log
<pop-log>
The location of the server log.
Default = pop3.log
<listerrors-log>
The location of the Mailing Lists Error log.
Default = /private/var/mailman/logs/error
<imap-log>
The location of the server log.
Default = imap.log
<failures-log>
The location of the Mailing Lists Delivery Failures log.
Default = /private/var/mailman/logs/smtp-failure
Backing Up the Mail Files
When talking about mail-related backup, IMAP mailboxes are the first thing that come
to mind. Aside from the IMAP folders, you might want to back up the configuration files
for both Cyrus and Postfix. The value of backing up the configuration files is clear: it
will save you time should you have to reconfigure your server after it powers down
unexpectedly. The Server Admin tearoff sheets include configuration information and
can thus be backed up instead of the separate configuration files, unless you have
manually modified the configuration files to include additional configuration not
available through Server Admin.
Postfix spool files act as temporary storage and are constantly changing. Backing up
and restoring these files may lead to double delivery of emails to the users.
To back up the mail database, you need to stop the mail service first. You then copy the
following files and folders onto a backup destination:
 Cyrus database (/var/imap)
 IMAP folders (/var/spool/imap)
 Cyrus configuration file (/etc/imapd.conf )
 Postfix configuration file (/etc/postfix/main.cf )
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The largest database is the mailbox folders. Each mailbox folder contains the following
files:
 Message files—There is one file per message. The file name of each message is the
message’s UID followed by a period. The UID is a unique ID that is given to each
message.
 cyrus.header—This file contains a magic number and variable-length information
about the mailbox.
 cyrus.index—This file contains fixed-length information about the mailbox and each
message in the mailbox.
 cyrus.cache—This file contains variable-length information about each message in
the mailbox.
 cyrus.seen—This file contains variable-length state information about each reader of
the mailbox.
Reconstructing the Mail Database
The reconstruct tool can be used to recover from corruption in mailbox folders.
If reconstruct can find existing header and index files, it attempts to preserve any
data in them that can’t be derived from the message files. reconstruct attempts to
preserve a mail database state that includes the flag names, flag state, and internal
date. All other information is derived from the message files. An administrator may
recover from a damaged disk by restoring message files from a backup and then
running reconstruct to regenerate what it can of the other files.
The mailboxes file, /var/imap/mailboxes.db, is the most critical file in the entire Cyrus
IMAP system. It contains a sorted list of each mailbox on the server, along with the
mailboxes quota root and Access Control List (ACL). To reconstruct a corrupted mailbox
file, run the reconstruct -m command. The reconstruct tool, when invoked with the
-m switch, scavenges and corrects whatever data it can find in the existing mailboxes
file. It then scans all partitions listed in the imapd.conf file for additional mailbox folders
to put in the mailboxes file.
The cyrus.header file in each mailbox folder stores a redundant copy of the mailbox
ACL, to be used as a backup when rebuilding the mailboxes file.
Read the documentation pages at asg.web.cmu.edu/cyrus/download/imapd/
overview.html for more information about the Cyrus backup.
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Setting Up SSL for Mail Service
Mail service requires some configuration to provide Secure Sockets Layer (SSL)
connections automatically. The basic steps are as follows:
 Generate a Certificate Signing Request (CSR) and create a keychain.
 Obtain an SSL certificate from an issuing authority.
 Import the SSL certificate into the keychain.
 Create a password file.
Generating a CSR and Creating a Keychain
To begin configuring mail service for SSL connections, you generate a CSR and create a
keychain by using the certtool tool. A CSR is a file that provides information needed
to issue an SSL certificate.
1 Log in to the server as root.
2 In the Terminal application, enter the following two commands:
$ cd /private/var/root/Library/Keychains/
$ /usr/bin/certtool r csr.txt k=certkc c
This use of the certtool tool begins an interactive process that generates a CSR in the
file csr.txt and creates a keychain named certkc.
3 In the New Keychain Passphrase dialog that appears, enter a password for the keychain
you’re creating, enter the password a second time to verify it, and click OK.
Remember this password, because later you must supply it again.
4 When “Enter key and certificate label:” appears in the Terminal window, enter a oneword key, a blank space, and a one-word certificate label, and then press Return.
For example, you could enter your organization’s name as the key and mailservice as
the certificate label.
5 Enter r when prompted to select a key algorithm, and then press Return.
Please specify parameters for the key pair you will generate.
r
RSA
d
DSA
f
FEE
Select key algorithm by letter:
6 Enter a key size at the next prompt, and then press Return.
Valid key sizes for RSA are 512..2048; default is 512
Enter key size in bits or CR for default:
Larger key sizes are more secure, but require more processing time on your server. Key
sizes smaller than 1024 aren’t accepted by some certificate-issuing authorities.
7 Enter y when prompted to confirm the algorithm and key size, and then press Return.
You have selected algorithm RSA, key size (size entered above) bits.
OK (y/anything)?
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8 Enter b when prompted to specify how this certificate will be used, and then press
Return.
Enter cert/key usage (s=signing, b=signing AND encrypting):
9 Enter s when prompted to select a signature algorithm, and then press Return.
...Generating key pair...
Please specify the algorithm with which your certificate will be signed.
5
RSA with MD5
s
RSA with SHA1
Select signature algorithm by letter:
10 Enter y when asked to confirm the selected algorithm, and then press Return.
You have selected algorithm RSA with SHA1.
OK (y/anything)?
11 Enter a phrase or some random text when prompted to enter a challenge string, and
then press Return.
...creating CSR...
Enter challenge string:
12 Enter the correct information at the next five prompts, which request the various
components of the certificate’s Relative Distinguished Name (RDN). Press Return after
each entry.
For Common Name, enter the server's DNS name, such as server.example.com.
For Country, enter the country in which your organization is located.
For Organization, enter the organization to which your domain name is
registered.
For Organizational Unit, enter something similar to a department name.
For State/Province, enter the full name of your state or province.
13 Enter y when asked to confirm the information you entered, and then press Return.
Is this OK (y/anything)?
When you see a message about writing to csr.txt, you have successfully generated a
CSR and created the keychain that mail service needs for SSL connections.
Wrote (n) bytes of CSR to csr.txt
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Obtaining an SSL Certificate
After generating a CSR and a keychain, you continue configuring mail service for
automatic SSL connections by purchasing an SSL certificate from a certificate authority
such as Verisign or Thawte. You can do this by completing a form on the certificate
authority’s website. When prompted for your CSR, open the csr.txt file using a text
editor, such as TextEdit. Then, copy and paste the contents of the file into the
appropriate field on the certificate authority’s website. The websites for these certificate
authorities are at:
 www.verisign.com
 www.thawte.com
When you receive your certificate, save it in a text file named sslcert.txt. You can save
this file with the TextEdit application. Make sure that the file is plain text, not rich text,
and that it contains only the certificate text.
Importing an SSL Certificate into the Keychain
To import an SSL certificate into a keychain, use the certtool tool. This continues the
configuration of mail service for automatic SSL connections.
To import an SSL certificate into the keychain:
1 Log in to the server as root.
2 Open the Terminal application.
3 Go to the folder where the saved certificate file is located.
For example: Enter cd /private/var/root/Desktop and press Return if the certificate
file is saved on the desktop of the root user.
4 Enter the following command, and then press Return:
$ certtool i sslcert.txt k=certkc
Using certtool this way imports a certificate from the file named sslcert.txt into the
keychain named certkc.
A message on screen confirms that the certificate was successfully imported.
...certificate successfully imported.
Accessing the Server Certificates
Server Admin keeps a centralized store of your server’s certificates for ease of use and
management. You can use certadmin to access this information from the command
line. certadmin manipulates the list of certificates stored in the System keychain.
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To list the certificates stored in the System keychain:
$ certadmin list
By default, certadmin will print the “Common Name” field of each certificate separated
by newlines. Adding the option -x or --xml will print the certificate list to screen as an
xml property list (plist).
To export the given certificate to OpenSSL:
$ certadmin export
See the certadmin man page for more information.
Creating a Password File
To create a password file, use TextEdit, and then change the privileges of the file using
the Terminal application. This file contains the password you specified when you
created the keychain. Mail service will automatically use the password file to unlock the
keychain that contains the SSL certificate. The mail service is now configured for
automatic SSL connections.
To create a password file:
1 Log in to the server as root.
2 In TextEdit, create a new file and enter the password exactly as you entered it when you
created the keychain.
Don’t press Return after typing the password.
3 Make the file plain text by choosing Make Plain Text from the Format menu.
4 Save the file, naming it cerkc.pass.
5 Move the file to the root keychain folder. The path is /private/var/root/Library/
Keychains/.
To see the root keychain folder in the Finder, choose Go to Folder from the Go menu,
then enter /private/var/root/Library/Keychains/, and then click Go.
6 In the Terminal application, change the access privileges to the password file so only
root can read and write to this file.
Do this by typing the following two commands, pressing Return after each one:
cd /private/var/root/Library/Keychains/
chmod 600 certkc.pass
Mac OS X Server mail service can now use SSL for secure IMAP connections.
7 Log out as root.
Note: If the mail service is running, you need to stop it and start it again to make it
recognize the new certificate keychain.
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Configuring Mailboxes
The mail service keeps track of incoming email messages with a small database
(BerkeleyDB 4.2.52), but the database doesn’t contain the messages themselves. The
mail service stores each message as a separate file in a mail folder for each user. This is
the user’s mailbox.
Incoming mail is stored on the startup disk in the /var/spool/imap/user/username
folder. Cyrus puts a database index file in the folder of user messages. You can change
the location of any or all of the mail folders and database indexes to another folder,
disk, or disk partition. Cyrus mail storage can also be split across multiple partitions.
This can be done to scale mail services, or to facilitate data backup.
The cyradm tool is included with Mac OS X Server. It is an administration shell for Cyrus,
the IMAP mail service package, and communicates with the Cyrus::IMAP::Admin Perl
module. cyradm can be used to create, delete, or rename mailboxes, as well as set ACLs
for mailboxes (for email clients that support them).
Things to note:
 cyradm is a limited shell. It supports shell-style redirection, but does not understand
pipes.
 cyradm can be used interactively or be scripted, but Perl scripting with
Cyrus::IMAP::Admin is more flexible.
 All spaces in file or folder names must be escaped with a backslash (\), just as you
would in a shell.
See the cyradm man page for a complete list of commands.
Enabling Sieve Scripting
Mac OS X Server supports Sieve scripting for mail processing. Sieve is an Internet
standard mail filtering language for server-side filtering. Sieve scripts interact with
incoming mail before final delivery.
The Sieve acts much like the rules in various email programs, to sort or process mail
based on user-defined criteria. In fact, some email clients use Sieve for client-side email
processing. Sieve can provide such functions as vacation notifications, message sorting,
and mail forwarding, among other things.
Sieve scripts are kept for each user on the mail server in the /usr/sieve/<first letter of
username>/<user> folder.
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The folder is owned by the mail service, so users normally don’t have access to it and
can’t put their scripts there for mail processing. For security purposes, users and
administrators upload their scripts to a Sieve process (timsieved) which transports the
scripts to the mail process for use. There are various ways of getting the scripts to
timsieved, such as Perl shell scripts (“sieveshell”), web mail plug-ins (“avelsieve”), and
even some email clients.
Enabling Sieve Support
In order for Sieve to function, you must enable its communications port. Sieve has the
vacation extension added by default. All scripts must be placed in the central script
repository at /usr/sieve/, and Sieve scripts cannot be used to process mail for email
aliases set up in Workgroup Manager; you must use Postfix-style aliases.
To enable Sieve support:
1 Add the following entry to the services file in /etc/, using a text editor.
sieve 2000/tcp #Sieve mail filtering
2 Reload the mail service.
Sample Sieve Scripts
The following scripts are examples of some common scripts that a user might want to
use.
Vacation Notification Script
#-------# This is a sample script for vacation rules.
# Read the comments following the pound/hash to find out
# what the script is doing.
#--------#
# Make sure the vacation extension is used.
require "vacation";
# Define the script as a vacation script
vacation
# Send the vacation response to any given sender only once every seven days
no matter how many messages are sent from him.
:days 7
#For every message sent to these addresses
:addresses ["bob@example.com", "robert.fakeuser@server.com"]
# Make a message with the following subject
:subject "Out of Office Reply"
# And make the body of the message the following
"I’m out of the office and will return on December 31. I won’t be able to
replay until 6 months after that. Love, Bob.";
# End of Script
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Self-Defined Forwarding Script
#-------# This is a sample script to illustrate how Sieve could be used
# to let users handle their own mail forwarding needs.
# Read the comments following the pound/hash to find out what the
# script is doing.
#--------#
# No need to add any extension. 'redirect' is built-in.
# Redirect all my incoming mail to the listed address
redirect "my-other-address@example.com";
# But keep a copy of it on the IMAP server keep;
# End of script
Basic Sort and Anti-Junk Mail Filter Script
#-------# This is a sample script to show discarding and filing.
# Read the comments following the pound/hash to find out
# what the script is doing
#--------#
# Make sure filing and rejection are enabled
require "fileinto";
#
# If it's from my mom...
if header ["From"] :contains ["Mom"]{
# send it to my home email account
redirect "home-address@example.com";
}
#
# If the subject line has a certain keyword...
else if header "Subject" :contains "daffodil" {
# forward it to the postmaster
forward "postmaster@server.edu";
}
#
# If the junk mail filter has marked this as junk...
else if header :contains ["X-Spam-Flag"] ["YES"]{
# throw it out
discard;
}
#
# If the junk mail filter thinks this is probably junk
else if header :contains ["X-Spam-Level"] ["***"]{
# put it in my junkmail box for me to check
fileinto "INBOX.JunkMail";
}
#
# for all other cases...
else {
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# put it in my inbox
fileinto "INBOX";
}
# End of script
Sieve Scripting Resources
Sieve’s complete syntax, commands, and arguments are found in IETF RFC 3028 located
on the Web at www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc3028.txt?number=3028. Other information about
Sieve and a sample script archive can be found at www.cyrusoft.com/sieve.
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13
Working with Web Technologies
13
In this chapter you will find commands you can use to
configure and manage web services and web components of
your server.
Web technologies in Mac OS X Server consist of several components that provide a
flexible and scalable server environment. This chapter covers the commands that are
used to configure and manage these web technologies.
Understanding Web Technology
Apple’s web services are based primarily on Apache. Apache is one of the most popular
and versatile web servers, and is a community-based, open-source project. Apple has
extended Apache in a number of ways to implement Mac OS X–specific features.
Mac OS X Server includes two versions of the Apache HTTP Server:
 Version 1.3—This is the officially supported version on Mac OS X Server. It is a welltested, stable, and reliable software package that has been used worldwide for many
years. In this chapter, references to the Apache server refer to this version.
 Version 2.0—An evaluation version that includes several new features, including
multithreading and an improved API for plug-in modules. However, the API changes
make many third-party modules incompatible with this version.
The locations of Apache 1.3 files on Mac OS X Server are slightly different from the
default Apache installation. The following table identifies the major folders.
Files
Location
Application binaries
/usr/sbin
CGI applications
/Library/WebServer/CGI-Executables
Configuration files
/etc/httpd/conf
Default documents
/Library/WebServer/Documents
Log files
/var/log/httpd
Loadable modules
/usr/libexec/httpd
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Apache web server version 2.0 files are in the /opt/apache2 folder.
The main configuration file for the Apache web server is /etc/httpd/httpd.conf.
The Apache web server (httpd) reads this file during startup. In addition, Mac OS X
Server maintains a configuration file for each website it hosts. Mac OS X Server stores
the website-specific configuration files in the /etc/httpd/sites folder.
To change settings that aren’t in Server Admin, such as the maximum number of
requests that an httpd child can process before it dies, edit the httpd.conf file directly.
Each section of the httpd.conf file contains detailed instructions for how to safely edit
its options.
Important: Do not modify the httpd.conf file manually when the Web Settings pane of
Server Admin is open, to avoid misconfiguring your web services. For more information
about apache, see www.apache.org.
Managing the Web Service
Web service in Mac OS X Server is based on Apache, an open-source HTTP web server.
A web server responds to requests for HTML web pages stored on your site. The
following sections describe some basic web service functions.
Starting and Stopping Web Service
To start Web service:
$ sudo serveradmin start web
To stop Web service:
$ sudo serveradmin stop web
Checking Web Service Status
To see if Web service is running:
$ sudo serveradmin status web
To see complete Web service status:
$ sudo serveradmin fullstatus web
Viewing Web Settings
You can use serveradmin to view your server’s web service configuration. However, if
you want to work with the web service from the command line, you’ll probably find it
more straightforward to work directly with the underlying Apache web server.
To list all Web service settings:
$ sudo serveradmin settings web
To list a particular setting:
$ sudo serveradmin settings web:setting
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To list a group of settings:
You can list a group of settings that have part of their names in common by typing
only as much of the name as you want, stopping at a colon (:), and typing an asterisk
(*) as a wildcard for the remaining parts of the name. For example:
$ sudo serveradmin settings web:IFModule:_array_id:mod_alias.c:*
Changing Web Settings
You can use serveradmin to modify your server’s web service configuration. However, if
you want to work with the web service from the command line, you’ll probably find it
more straightforward to work directly with the underlying Apache web server.
serveradmin and Apache Settings
The parameters are written differently in the Apache configuration file than they are in
serveradmin. For example, this block of Apache configuration parameters:
<IfModule mod_macbinary_apple.c>
MacBinary On
MacBinaryBlock html shtml perl pl cgi jsp php phps asp scpt
MacBinaryBlock htaccess
</IfModule>
appears as this block of configuration paramters in serveradmin:
web:IfModule:_array_id:mod_macbinary_apple.c:MacBinary = yes
web:IfModule:_array_id:mod_macbinary_apple.c:MacBinaryBlock:_array_index:0 =
"html shtml perl pl cgi jsp php phps asp scpt"
web:IfModule:_array_id:mod_macbinary_apple.c:MacBinaryBlock:_array_index:1 =
"htaccess".
Changing Settings Using serveradmin
You can change web service settings using the serveradmin tool.
To change a setting:
$ sudo serveradmin settings web:setting = value
Parameter
Description
setting
A Web service setting. To see a list of available settings, enter
$ sudo serveradmin settings web.
value
An appropriate value for the setting.
To change several settings:
$ sudo serveradmin settings
web:setting = value
web:setting = value
web:setting = value
[...]
Control-D
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Web serveradmin Commands
You can use the following commands with the serveradmin tool to manage web
service.
Command
(web:command=)
Description
getHistory
View Web service statistics. See “Viewing Service Statistics” on
page 210.
getLogPaths
Finding the access and error logs for each hosted site. See “Viewing
Service Logs” on this page.
getSites
Listing existing sites. See “Listing Hosted Sites” on this page.
Listing Hosted Sites
You can use the serveradmin getSites command to display a list of the sites hosted by
the server, along with basic settings and status.
To list sites:
$ sudo serveradmin command web:command = getSites
You can also list the sites using Apache, with the following command:
$ httpd -S
Viewing Service Logs
You can use tail or any other file listing tool to view the contents of web service
access and error logs for each site hosted by the server.
To view the latest entries in a log:
$ tail log-file
You can use the serveradmin getLogPaths command to see where the current error
and activity logs for each site are located.
To display the log paths:
$ sudo serveradmin command web:command = getLogPaths
Viewing Service Statistics
You can use the serveradmin getHistory command to display a log of periodic
samples of the number of requests, cache performance, and data throughput. Samples
are taken once each minute.
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To list samples:
$ sudo serveradmin command
web:command = getHistory
web:variant = statistic
web:timeScale = scale
Control-D
Parameter
Description
statistic
The value you want to display. Valid values:
v1—Number of requests per second
v2—Throughput (bytes/sec)
v3—Cache requests per second
v4—Cache throughput (bytes/sec)
scale
The length of time in seconds, ending with the current time, for
which you want to see samples. For example, to see 30 minutes of
data, you would specify qtss:timeScale = 1800.
The computer responds with the following output:
web:nbSamples = <samples>
web:samplesArray:_array_index:0:vn = <sample>
web:samplesArray:_array_index:0:t = <time>
web:samplesArray:_array_index:1:vn = <sample>
web:samplesArray:_array_index:1:t = <time>
[...]
web:samplesArray:_array_index:i:vn = <sample>
web:samplesArray:_array_index:i:t = <time>
web:vnLegend = "<legend>"
web:currentServerTime = <servertime>
Value displayed by
getHistory
Description
<samples>
The total number of samples listed.
<legend>
A textual description of the selected statistic.
"REQUESTS_PER_SECOND" for v1
"THROUGHPUT" for v2
"CACHE_REQUESTS_PER_SECOND" for v3
"CACHE_THROUGHPUT" for v4
<sample>
The numerical value of the sample.
<time>
The time at which the sample was measured. A standard UNIX time
(number of seconds since Sep 1, 1970). Samples are taken every 60
seconds.
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Example Script for Adding a Website
The following script shows how you can use serveradmin to add a website to the
server’s web service configuration. The script uses two files:
 addsite—The script you run. It accepts values for the site’s IP address, port number,
server name, and root folder, and uses sed to substitute these values in the addsite.in
file. This is then sent to serveradmin.
 addsite.in—Contains the settings (with placeholders for values you provide when
you run addsite) used to create the website.
The addsite File
sed -es#_ipaddr#$1#g -es#_port#$2#g -es#_servername#$3#g
-es#_docroot#$4#g ./addsite.in | /usr/sbin/serveradmin --set -i
The addsite.in File
web:Sites:_array_id:_ipaddr\:_port__servername = create
web:Sites:_array_id:_ipaddr\:_port__servername:Listen:_array_index:0 =
"_ipaddr:_port"
web:Sites:_array_id:_ipaddr\:_port__servername:ServerName = _servername
web:Sites:_array_id:_ipaddr\:_port__servername:ServerAdmin =
admin@_servername
web:Sites:_array_id:_ipaddr\:_port__servername:DirectoryIndex:_array_index:0
= "index.html"
web:Sites:_array_id:_ipaddr\:_port__servername:DirectoryIndex:_array_index:1
= "index.php"
web:Sites:_array_id:_ipaddr\:_port__servername:WebMail = yes
web:Sites:_array_id:_ipaddr\:_port__servername:CustomLog:_array_index:0:
Format = "%{User-agent}i"
web:Sites:_array_id:_ipaddr\:_port__servername:CustomLog:_array_index:0:
enabled = yes
web:Sites:_array_id:_ipaddr\:_port__servername:CustomLog:_array_index:0:
ArchiveInterval = 0
web:Sites:_array_id:_ipaddr\:_port__servername:CustomLog:_array_index:0:
Path = "/private/var/log/httpd/access_log"
web:Sites:_array_id:_ipaddr\:_port__servername:CustomLog:_array_index:0:
Archive = yes
web:Sites:_array_id:_ipaddr\:_port__servername:Directory:_array_id:
/Library/WebServer/Documents:Options:Indexes = yes
web:Sites:_array_id:_ipaddr\:_port__servername:Directory:_array_id:
/Library/WebServer/Documents:Options:ExecCGI = no
web:Sites:_array_id:_ipaddr\:_port__servername:Directory:_array_id:
/Library/WebServer/Documents:AuthName = "Test Site"
web:Sites:_array_id:_ipaddr\:_port__servername:ErrorLog:ArchiveInterval = 0
web:Sites:_array_id:_ipaddr\:_port__servername:ErrorLog:Path = "/private/
var/log/httpd/error_log"
web:Sites:_array_id:_ipaddr\:_port__servername:ErrorLog:Archive = no
web:Sites:_array_id:_ipaddr\:_port__servername:Include:_array_index:0 = "/
etc/httpd/httpd_squirrelmail.conf"
web:Sites:_array_id:_ipaddr\:_port__servername:enabled = yes
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web:Sites:_array_id:_ipaddr\:_port__servername:ErrorDocument:_array_index:0:
StatusCode = 404
web:Sites:_array_id:_ipaddr\:_port__servername:ErrorDocument:_array_index:0:
Document = "/nwesite_notfound.html"
web:Sites:_array_id:_ipaddr\:_port__servername:LogLevel = "warn"
web:Sites:_array_id:_ipaddr\:_port__servername:IfModule:_array_id:mod_ssl.c:
SSLEngine = no
web:Sites:_array_id:_ipaddr\:_port__servername:IfModule:_array_id:mod_ssl.c:
SSLPassPhrase = ""
web:Sites:_array_id:_ipaddr\:_port__servername:IfModule:_array_id:mod_ssl.c:
SSLLog = "/private/var/log/httpd/ssl_engine_log"
web:Sites:_array_id:_ipaddr\:_port__servername:DocumentRoot = "_docroot"
web:Sites:_array_id:_ipaddr\:_port__servername
To run the script:
$ addsite ipaddress port name root
Parameter
Description
ipaddress
The IP address for the site.
port
The port number to be used to for HTTP access to the site.
name
The name of the site.
root
The root folder for the site’s files and subfolders.
If you get the message command not found when you try to run the script, precede the
command with the full path to the script file. For example:
/users/admin/documents/addsite 10.0.0.2 80 corpsite /users/webmaster/sites/
corpsite
Or, use cd to change to the folder that contains the file and precede the command with
./. For example:
$ cd /users/admin/documents
$ ./addsite 10.0.0.2 80 corpsite /users/webmaster/sites/corpsite
Tuning the Server Performance
When trying to analyze the server’s performance, keep in mind that a lot of factors can
affect performance: CGI scripts growing too large, database queries exhausting your
computer’s resources, too much network traffic, and so on.
Apache provides a basic benchmarking tool, ab. You can use ab to simulate hits to your
web server and thus get an idea of how long it takes your website to respond, as well
as other valuable statistics. The following command will simulate 1000 requests to the
specified URL with the user name and password provided.
$ ab -n 1000 -c 1 -A user:password www.student number.example.com/
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Working with Application Servers and Java
With the built-in JBoss application server and full support for JSPs, Java Servlets and
SOAP, Mac OS X Server provides a complete solution for hosting Java 2 Platform
Enterprise Edition (J2EE) applications. It also features powerful deployment tools that
simplify configuration of application resources and EJB components. Mac OS X Server
includes several Jave application server components, including:
 Apache Tomcat
 Java virtual machine (J2SE)
 JBoss Server (EJB)
 MySQL
 WebObjects
 Apache Axis
For more information about Java and J2EE, visit java.sun.com/j2ee/overview.html.
Apache Tomcat
Mac OS X Server comes with Apache Tomcat, the open source servlet container
developed by Sun Microsystems. Tomcat runs as part of the Java process.
To start Apache Tomcat:
$ /Library/Tomcat/bin./startup.sh start
Note: If you start Tomcat manually, it will not be reflected in the Server Admin
application. Additionally, it will not be monitored by the launchd process.
Tomcat uses port 9006 by default. Tomcat comes with several example servlets. You can
access these servlets at localhost:9006/examples/servlets/. The example servlets reside
in /Library/Tomcat/webapps/examples/servlets/WEB-INF. To deploy your own servlets,
place them in /Library/Tomcat/webapps/WEB-INF.
Tomcat’s configuration information is located in /Library/Tomcat/conf/. For more
information about Tomcat, see jakarta.apache.org/tomcat.
JBoss Server
Mac OS X Server includes JBoss, an open source application server and Enterprise
JavaBeans (EJB) container. JBoss runs as part of the Java process.
Server Admin stores configuration information inside the conf folder that corresponds
to the selected configuration option. For example, if you choose the default option
(deploy-standalone), JBoss uses the configuration information located in /Library/
JBoss/3.2/server/deploy-standalone/.
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To start JBoss, enter the following:
/Library/JBoss/3.2/bin/run.sh -c deploy-standalone
When you use this command, the system updates the Application Server pane of
Server Admin to reflect the status of JBoss. Sometimes, however, you might need to
click Refresh to show the configuration changes.
You can monitor the JBoss logs by reading the logs in /Library/Logs/JBoss/.
To stop JBoss, enter the following:
/Library/JBoss/3.2/bin/shutdown.sh
You can also stop JBoss by terminating the running run.sh command. JBoss uses
Tomcat as its default web server and servlet container.
MySQL Database
Mac OS X Server includes MySQL, a popular open source database that you can use
with web applications. This database is well suited for common web-related tasks, such
as content management and implementing web features, such as discussion boards
and guestbooks.
Before you can start MySQL for the first time, you need to install default files needed for
MySQL to run. For instructions, refer to the web technologies administration guide.
Mac OS X Server stores the files of the preinstalled MySQL version in the file system,
with executables in /usr/sbin and /usr/bin, man pages in /usr/share/man, and other
parts in /usr/share/mysql. In addition, the MySQL configuration file resides in /etc/
my.conf and the MySQL database in /var/mysql. By default the configuration file
doesn’t exist, so the default configuration is applied. You can find sample MySQL
configuration files in /usr/share/mysql/.
To have MySQL run every time the computer restarts, add the following line to the
/etc/hostconfig file:
MYSQL=-YES
There is no Server Admin support for the MySQL database management system, but
there is an application called MySQL Manager which provides a graphical way to install
the default database, set a root password, set the network option, and start and stop
the mysqld daemon. All these actions can also be performed from the command line.
To install the default database:
$ sudo /usr/bin/mysql_install_db --user=mysql -u mysql
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To set the root password:
$ sudo /usr/bin/mysqladmin shutdown
$ sudo /usr/bin/mysqld_safe --skip-grant-tables --skip-networking &
$ sudo /usr/bin/mysqladmin -u root flush-privileges password new-password
When you set up MySQL service for the first time, make sure to set up a password for
the MySQL root user to protect your server from unauthorized access.
To create a database:
$ mysqladmin -u root password "password"
> create database mydatabase
To set the network option:
Edit /etc/mysqlManager.plist and set the string value of the allowNetwork key to either
"yes" or "no".
To start mysqld:
1 Edit /etc/hostconfig and set MySQL to -YES-.
2 Start mysqld.
$ SystemStarter start MySQL
To stop mysqld (and clear flag in /etc/hostconfig so it does not start upon reboot):
1 Edit /etc/hostconfig and set MySQL to -NO-.
2 Stop mysqld.
$ sudo SystemStarter stop MySQL
The MySQL startup item launches the mysqld daemon with arguments extracted from
the configuration file /etc/mysqlManager.plist. It uses the Apple-provided
mysqld_manager_options tool to do this.
The following are useful tools distributed with MySQL. Each has its own man page:
 mysql_install_db—Installs the default MySQL database
 mysqladmin—Administers the MySQL database
 mysqld_safe—The mysqld parent (watchdog) process
 mysql—The MySQL database text-based client
For more information about setting up and configuring MySQL, see www.mysql.org.
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14
Working with Network Services
14
In this chapter you will find commands you can use to
configure and manage DHCP, DNS, Firewall, NAT, and VPN
services in Mac OS X Server.
Mac OS X Server network services add administrative and managerial capabilities to
basic networking protocols. This chapter describes the commands used to configure
and manage network services.
Managing Network Services
Mac OS X Server uses the xinetd process to manage many of its UNIX network services,
such as FTP, finger, and so on. xinetd listens for requests on certain TCP/IP sockets.
xinetd is a secure replacement for inetd. However, because xinetd does not handle
RPC services very well, both inetd and xinetd are included with Mac OS X. xinetd does
the same things as inetd, with the added security benefits of access control based on
source address, destination address, and time, extensive logging, efficient containment
of denial-of-service attacks, and the ability to bind services to specific interfaces.
The configuration files for xinetd provide a mapping of services to the executable that
should be run to service a request for a given service. For example, if you enable FTP
file sharing, the ftpd process is not started immediately. Instead, the configuration file
is updated to reflect that xinetd should listen for ftp requests, and when it receives
one, it should launch ftpd to service the request. When the first ftp request comes in
to the computer, xinetd receives the request, and then launches ftpd to handle it.
In this way, xinetd can keep the number of services running on a particular computer
lower by launching only those that are requested by a client.
217
and xinetd each have their own configuration files. inetd uses one file,
map a given service to its executable. All standard services that inetd
handles are already listed in the file. xinetd, on the other hand, uses a different
configuration file for each service it provides. In the /etc/xinetd.d folder, there are
configuration files for each of the services that xinetd handles. If you were to enable
ftp sharing, Mac OS X will modify the configuration file /etc/xinetd.d/ftp. For more
information about xinetd, see www.xinetd.org.
inetd
inetd.conf, to
Managing the DHCP Service
Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) service lets you administer and distribute
IP addresses and other configuration information to client computers from your server.
When you configure the DHCP server, you assign a block of IP addresses that can be
made available to clients. Each time a client computer configured to use DHCP starts
up, it looks for a DHCP server on your network. If a DHCP server is found, the client
computer requests an IP address. The DHCP server checks for an available IP address
and sends it to the client computer along with a “lease period” (the length of time the
client computer can use the address) and configuration information.
Starting and Stopping DHCP Service
To start DHCP service:
$ sudo serveradmin start dhcp
To stop DHCP service:
$ sudo serveradmin stop dhcp
Checking the Status of DHCP Service
To see summary status of DHCP service:
$ sudo serveradmin status dhcp
To see detailed status of DHCP service:
$ sudo serveradmin fullstatus dhcp
Viewing DHCP Service Settings
To list DHCP service configuration settings:
$ sudo serveradmin settings dhcp
To list a particular setting:
$ sudo serveradmin settings dhcp:setting
To list a group of settings:
You can list a group of settings that have part of their names in common by typing
only as much of the name as you want, stopping at a colon (:), and typing an asterisk
(*) as a wildcard for the remaining parts of the name. For example:
$ sudo serveradmin settings dhcp:subnets:*
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Changing DHCP Service Settings
To see a list of available service settings:
$ sudo serveradmin settings dhcp
Also see “DHCP Service Settings” on this page and “DHCP Subnet Settings Array” on
page 220.
To change a single DHCP setting:
$ sudo serveradmin settings dhcp:setting = value
Parameter
Description
setting
A DHCP service setting. See table below.
value
An appropriate value for the setting.
To change several DHCP settings at once:
$ sudo serveradmin settings
dhcp:setting = value
dhcp:setting = value
dhcp:setting = value
[...]
Control-D
DHCP Service Settings
Use the following parameters with the serveradmin tool to change settings for the
DHCP service.
Parameter (dhcp:)
logging_level
Description
"LOW"|"MEDIUM"|"HIGH"
Default = "MEDIUM"
Corresponds to the Log Detail Level pop-up menu
in the Logging pane of DHCP service settings in
the Server Admin application.
subnet_status
subnet_defaults:logVerbosity
Default = 0
"LOW"|"MEDIUM"|"HIGH"
Default = "MEDIUM"
subnet_defaults:logVerbosityList:_ar
ray_index:n
Available values for the logVerbosity setting.
Default = "LOW," "MEDIUM," and "HIGH"
subnet_defaults:WINS_node_type
Default = "NOT_SET"
subnet_defaults:routers
Default = empty_dictionary
subnet_defaults:selected_port_key
Default = en0
subnet_defaults:selected_port_key_li
st:_array_index:n
An array of available ports.
subnet_defaults:dhcp_domain_name
Default = The last portion of the server’s host
name, for example, example.com.
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Parameter (dhcp:)
Description
subnet_defaults:dhcp_domain_name_ser
ver:_array_index:n
Default = The DNS server addresses provided
during server setup, as listed in the Network pane
of the server’s System Preferences.
subnets:_array_id:<subnetID>...
An array of settings for a particular subnet.
<subnetID> is a unique identifier for each subnet.
See “DHCP Subnet Settings Array” on this page.
DHCP Subnet Settings Array
An array of the settings listed in the following table is included in the DHCP service
settings for each subnet you define. You can add a subnet to the DHCP configuration
by using serveradmin to add an array of these settings.
About Subnet IDs
In an actual list of settings, <subnetID> is replaced with a unique ID code for the
subnet. The IDs generated by the server are just random numbers. The only
requirement for the ID is that it be unique among the subnets defined on the server.
Subnet Parameter
220
subnets:_array_id:<subnetID>:
Description
descriptive_name
A textual description of the subnet.
Corresponds to the Subnet Name field in the General
pane of the subnet settings in the Server Admin
application.
dhcp_domain_name
The default domain for DNS searches, for example,
example.com.
Corresponds to the Default Domain field in the DNS
pane of the subnet settings in the Server Admin
application.
dhcp_domain_name_server:
_array_index:n
The primary WINS server to be used by clients.
Corresponds to the Name Servers field in the DNS pane
of the subnet settings in the Server Admin application.
dhcp_enabled
Whether DHCP is enabled for this subnet.
Corresponds to the Enable checkbox in the list of
subnets in the Subnets pane of the DHCP settings in the
Server Admin application.
dhcp_ldap_url:
_array_index:n
The URL of the LDAP folder to be used by clients.
Corresponds to the Lease URL field in the LDAP pane of
the subnet settings in the Server Admin application.
dhcp_router
The IPv4 address of the subnet’s router.
Corresponds to the Router field in the General pane of
the subnet settings in the Server Admin application.
Chapter 14 Working with Network Services
Subnet Parameter
subnets:_array_id:<subnetID>:
Description
lease_time_secs
Lease time in seconds.
Default = "3600"
Corresponds to the Lease Time pop-up menu and field in
the General pane of the subnet settings in the Server
Admin application.
net_address
The IPv4 network address for the subnet.
net_mask
The subnet mask for the subnet.
Corresponds to the Subnet Mask field in the General
pane of the subnet settings in the Server Admin
application.
net_range_end
The highest available IPv4 address for the subnet.
Corresponds to the Ending IP Address field in the
General pane of the subnet settings in the Server Admin
application.
net_range_start
The lowest available IPv4 address for the subnet.
Corresponds to the Starting IP Address field in the
General pane of the subnet settings in the Server Admin
application.
selected_port_name
The network port for the subnet.
Corresponds to the Network Interface pop-up menu in
the General pane of the subnet settings in the Server
Admin application.
WINS_NBDD_server
The NetBIOS Datagram Distribution Server IPv4 address.
Corresponds to the NBDD Server field in the WINS pane
of the subnet settings in the Server Admin application.
WINS_node_type
The WINS node type. Can be set to:
"" (not set; default)
BROADCAST_B_NODE
PEER_P_NODE
MIXED_M_NODE
HYBRID-H-NODE
Corresponds to the NBT Node Type field in the WINS
pane of the subnet settings in the Server Admin
application.
WINS_primary_server
Chapter 14 Working with Network Services
The primary WINS server to be used by clients.
Corresponds to the WINS/NBNS Primary Server field in
the WINS pane of the subnet settings in the Server
Admin application.
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Subnet Parameter
subnets:_array_id:<subnetID>:
Description
WINS_scope_id
A domain name such as apple.com.
Default = ""
Corresponds to the NetBIOS Scope ID field in the WINS
pane of the subnet settings in the Server Admin
application.
WINS_secondary_server
The secondary WINS server to be used by clients.
Corresponds to the WINS/NBNS Secondary Server field in
the WINS pane of the subnet settings in the Server
Admin application.
Adding a DHCP Subnet
You may already have a subnet for each port you enabled when you installed and set
up the server. You can use the serveradmin settings command to check for subnets
that the server set up for you (see “Viewing DHCP Service Settings” on page 218).
You can use the serveradmin settings command to add other subnets to your DHCP
configuration.
Note: Be sure to include the special first setting (ending with = create). This is how you
tell serveradmin to create the necessary settings array with the specified subnet ID.
To add a subnet:
$ sudo serveradmin settings
dhcp:subnets:_array_id:subnetID = create
dhcp:subnets:_array_id:subnetID:WINS_NBDD_server = nbdd-server
dhcp:subnets:_array_id:subnetID:WINS_node_type = node-type
dhcp:subnets:_array_id:subnetID:net_range_start = start-address
dhcp:subnets:_array_id:subnetID:WINS_scope_id = scope-ID
dhcp:subnets:_array_id:subnetID:dhcp_router = router
dhcp:subnets:_array_id:subnetID:net_address = net-address
dhcp:subnets:_array_id:subnetID:net_range_end = end-address
dhcp:subnets:_array_id:subnetID:lease_time_secs = lease-time
dhcp:subnets:_array_id:subnetID:dhcp_ldap_url:_array_index:0 = ldap-server
dhcp:subnets:_array_id:subnetID:WINS_secondary_server = wins-server-2
dhcp:subnets:_array_id:subnetID:descriptive_name = description
dhcp:subnets:_array_id:subnetID:WINS_primary_server = wins-server-1
dhcp:subnets:_array_id:subnetID:dhcp_domain_name = domain
dhcp:subnets:_array_id:subnetID:dhcp_enabled = (yes|no)
dhcp:subnets:_array_id:subnetID:dhcp_domain_name_server:_array_index:0 =
dns-server-1
dhcp:subnets:_array_id:subnetID:dhcp_domain_name_server:_array_index:1 =
dns-server-2
dhcp:subnets:_array_id:subnetID:net_mask = mask
dhcp:subnets:_array_id:subnetID:selected_port_name = port
Control-D
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Parameter
Description
subnetID
A unique number that identifies the subnet. Can be any number
not already assigned to another subnet defined on the server. Can
include embedded hyphens (-).
dns-server-n
To specify additional DNS servers, add additional
dhcp_name_server settings, incrementing _array_index:n for
each additional value.
Other parameters
The standard subnet settings described under “DHCP Subnet
Settings Array” on page 220.
Adding a DHCP Static Map
A static DHCP map allows you to map a specific IP address to a computer based on the
Ethernet (MAC) address. You can use the serveradmin tool to add a static map to the
DHCP configuration.
To add a static map:
$ sudo serveradmin settings
dhcp:static_maps:_array_id:host name:mapID:static map parameter
Static Map Parameter
Description
ip_address
IP address of host
name
Host’s DNS name
en_address
Host’s Ethernet address
About Static Map IDs
In an actual list of settings, <mapID> is replaced with a unique ID code for the map
entry. The IDs generated by the server are just random numbers. The only requirement
for this ID is that it be unique among the static maps defined on the server. The mapID
parameter is used by the administrative software; it is ignored by the bootpd process
that actually provides the DHCP service.
Note: Be sure to include the special first setting (ending with = create). This is how
you tell serveradmin to create the necessary settings array with the specified map ID.
Also note that the static map for a host is identified with the host name, followed by a
slash, followed by a unique ID.
You can use the serveradmin settings command to add maps to your DHCP
configuration.
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To create a static map:
$ sudo serveradmin settings
dhcp:static_maps:_array_id:examplehost/9681BABD-3329-402E-A7AB-F0C3608E231D
= create
dhcp:static_maps:_array_id:examplehost/9681BABD-3329-402E-A7ABF0C3608E231D:ip_address = "1.2.3.4"
dhcp:static_maps:_array_id:examplehost/9681BABD-3329-402E-A7ABF0C3608E231D:name = "examplehost"
dhcp:static_maps:_array_id:examplehost/9681BABD-3329-402E-A7ABF0C3608E231D:en_address = "00:30:a1:a2:a1:23"
Control-D
The static map entries are stored in the local NetInfo database in the computers record,
so they can also be manipulated with NetInfo tools, such as nidump. (See the nidump
man page for details.) For example, the static map created by the servreadmin tool
above could be viewed as follows:
$ nidump -r /machines .
{
"name" = ( "machines" );
CHILDREN = (
...
{
"name" = ( "examplehost" );
"en_address" = ( "00:30:a1:a2:a1:23" );
"ip_address" = ( "1.2.3.4" );
"uuid" = ( "9681BABD-3329-402E-A7AB-F0C3608E231D" );
}
...
)
}
List of DHCP serveradmin Commands
You can use the following command with the serveradmin tool to manage DHCP
service.
Command
(dhcp:command=)
Description
getLogPaths
Determine the location of the DHCP service logs.
Viewing the DHCP Service Log
You can use tail or any other file listing tool to view the contents of the DHCP service
log.
To view the latest entries in a log:
$ tail log-file
You can use the serveradmin getLogPaths command to see where the current DHCP
log is located.
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To display the log path:
$ sudo serveradmin command dhcp:command = getLogPaths
The computer will respond with the following output:
dhcp:systemLog = <system-log>
Value
Description
<system-log>
The location of the DNS service log.
Default = /var/logs/system.log
Managing the DNS Service
The Domain Name System (DNS) is a distributed database that maps IP addresses to
domain names so your clients can find the resources by name rather than by numerical
address. A DNS server keeps a list of domain names and the IP addresses associated
with each name.
Starting and Stopping the DNS Service
To start DNS service:
$ sudo serveradmin start dns
To stop DNS service:
$ sudo serveradmin stop dns
Checking the Status of DNS Service
To see summary status of DNS service:
$ sudo serveradmin status dns
To see detailed status of DNS service:
$ sudo serveradmin fullstatus dns
Viewing DNS Service Settings
To list DNS service configuration settings:
$ sudo serveradmin settings dns
To list a particular setting:
$ sudo serveradmin settings dns:setting
To list a group of settings:
Enter only as much of the name as you want, stopping at a colon (:), then enter an
asterisk (*) as a wildcard for the remaining parts of the name. For example:
$ sudo serveradmin settings dns:zone:_array_id:localhost:*
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Changing DNS Service Settings
You can use serveradmin to modify your server’s DNS configuration. However, you’ll
probably find it more straightforward to work directly with DNS and BIND using the
standard tools and techniques described in the many books on the subject. (See, for
example, DNS and BIND by Paul Albitz and Cricket Liu.)
DNS Service Settings
To list the settings, see “Viewing DNS Service Settings” on this page.
List of DNS serveradmin Commands
Command (dns:command=)
Description
getLogPaths
Find the location of the DNS service log. See “Viewing the DNS
Service Log” on this page.
getStatistics
Retrieve DNS service statistics. See “Listing DNS Service Statistics”
on this page.
Viewing the DNS Service Log
You can use tail or any other file listing tool to view the contents of the DNS service
log.
To view the latest entries in a log:
$ tail log-file
You can use the serveradmin getLogPaths command to see where the current DNS log
is located. The default is /Library/Logs/named.log.
To display the log path:
$ sudo serveradmin command dns:command = getLogPaths
Listing DNS Service Statistics
You can use the serveradmin getStatistics command to display a summary of
current DNS service workload.
To list statistics:
$ sudo serveradmin command dns:command = getStatistics
The computer will respond with output similar to the following:
dns:queriesArray:_array_index:0:name = "NS_QUERIES"
dns:queriesArray:_array_index:0:value = -1
dns:queriesArray:_array_index:1:name = "A_QUERIES"
dns:queriesArray:_array_index:1:value = -1
dns:queriesArray:_array_index:2:name = "CNAME_QUERIES"
dns:queriesArray:_array_index:2:value = -1
dns:queriesArray:_array_index:3:name = "PTR_QUERIES"
dns:queriesArray:_array_index:3:value = -1
dns:queriesArray:_array_index:4:name = "MX_QUERIES"
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dns:queriesArray:_array_index:4:value = -1
dns:queriesArray:_array_index:5:name = "SOA_QUERIES"
dns:queriesArray:_array_index:5:value = -1
dns:queriesArray:_array_index:6:name = "TXT_QUERIES"
dns:queriesArray:_array_index:6:value = -1
dns:nxdomain = 0
dns:nxrrset = 0
dns:reloadedTime = ""
dns:success = 0
dns:failure = 0
dns:recursion = 0
dns:startedTime = "2003-09-10 11:24:03 -0700"
dns:referral = 0
Configuring IP Forwarding
You can configure Mac OS X Server to provide routing services by configuring the
network interfaces properly and enabling IP forwarding. A server providing routing
services requires at least two interfaces, one to connect to the internal network and
one to connect to the public network. Each of these interfaces needs to be configured
correctly to allow it to route network data.
After the interfaces are configured to allow the server computer to communicate on
the two networks, you need to enable the computer to forward traffic between the two
networks. IP forwarding is enabled by using the sysctl tool to set the
net.inet.forwarding kernel variable to 1 as follows:
$ sysctl -w net.inet.forwarding=1
This change takes place immediately, but is not persistent once you reboot the
computer. To enable IP forwarding once Mac OS X Server restarts, you must set the
IPFORWARDING flag in the /etc/hostconfig file to -YES- to enable IP forwarding during
the startup process.
Managing the Firewall Service
Mac OS X Server uses the reliable open source IPFW2 software for its firewall service. To
protect your network applications, the firewall service scans incoming IP packets and
rejects or accepts them based on the set of filters you create. You can restrict access to
any IP service running on the server, and you can customize filters for all incoming
clients or for a range of client IP addresses .
The firewall service relies on the ipfw tool included with Mac OS X Server. The ipfw tool
is a content filter that uses rules to decide which packets to allow and which to deny.
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Firewall Startup
Although the firewall is treated as a service by the Server Admin application, it is not
implemented by a running process like other services. It is simply a set of behaviors in
the kernel, controlled by the ipfw and sysctl tools. To start and stop the firewall, the
Server Admin application sets a switch using the sysctl tool. When the computer
starts, a startup item named IPFilter checks the /etc/hostconfig file for the “IPFILTER”
flag. If it is set, the sysctl tool is used to enable the firewall:
$ sysctl -w net.inet.ip.fw.enable=1
Otherwise, it disables the firewall:
$ sysctl -w net.inet.ip.fw.enable=0
Note that the rules loaded in the firewall remain there regardless of this setting. It’s just
that they are ignored when the firewall is disabled.
Starting and Stopping Firewall Service
To start Firewall service:
$ sudo serveradmin start ipfilter
To stop Firewall service:
$ sudo serveradmin stop ipfilter
Checking the Status of Firewall Service
To see summary status of Firewall service:
$ sudo serveradmin status ipfilter
To see detailed status of Firewall service, including rules:
$ sudo serveradmin fullstatus ipfilter
Viewing Firewall Service Settings
To list Firewall service configuration settings:
$ sudo serveradmin settings ipfilter
To list a particular setting:
$ sudo serveradmin settings ipfilter:setting
To list a group of settings:
Enter only as much of the name as you want, stopping at a colon (:), then enter an
asterisk (*) as a wildcard for the remaining parts of the name. For example:
$ sudo serveradmin settings ipfilter:ipAddressGroups:*
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Changing Firewall Service Settings
To change a setting:
$ sudo serveradmin settings ipfilter:setting = value
Parameter
Description
setting
An ipfilter service setting.
See “Firewall Service Settings” on page 229.
value
An appropriate value for the setting.
To change several settings:
$ sudo serveradmin
ipfilter:setting =
ipfilter:setting =
ipfilter:setting =
[...]
Control-D
settings
value
value
value
Firewall Service Settings
Use the following parameters with the serveradmin tool to change settings for the
ipfilter service.
Parameter (ipfilter:)
Description
ipAddressGroupsWithRules:
_array_id:<group>...
An array of settings describing the services allowed for
specific IP address groups. See “ipfilter Groups with Rules
Array” on page 230.
rules:_array_id:<rule>:...
Arrays of rule settings, one array per defined rule. See
“ipfilter Rules Array” on page 233.
logAllDenied
Specifies whether to log all denials.
Default = no
ipAddressGroups:_array_id:
n:address
The address of a defined IP address group, the first
element of an array that defines an IP address group.
ipAddressGroups:_array_id:
n:name
The name of a defined IP address group, the second
element of an array that defines an IP address group.
logAllAllowed
Whether to log access allowed by rules.
Default = no
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ipfilter Groups with Rules Array
An array of the following settings is included in the ipfilter settings for each defined
IP address group. These arrays aren’t part of a standard ipfw configuration, but are
created by the Server Admin application to implement the IP Address groups in the
General pane of the Firewall service settings. In an actual list of settings, <group> is
replaced with an IP address group.
Parameter (ipfilter:)
Description
ipAddressGroupsWithRules:
_array_id:<group>:rules
An array of rules for the group.
ipAddressGroupsWithRules:
_array_id:<group>:addresses
The group’s address.
ipAddressGroupsWithRules:
_array_id:<group>:name
The group’s name.
ipAddressGroupsWithRules:
_array_id:<group>:readOnly
Whether the group is set for read-only.
Defining Firewall Rules
You can use serveradmin to set up firewall rules for your server. However, a simpler
method is to add your rules to a configuration file used by the firewall service.
By modifying the file, you’ll be able to define your rules using standard rule syntax
instead of creating a specialized array to store the rule’s components.
Adding Rules by Modifying ipfw.conf
An ipfw configuration, or ruleset, is made of a list of rules numbered from 1 to 65535.
The file in which you can define your rules is /etc/ipfilter/ipfw.conf. The firewall service
reads this file, but doesn’t modify it. Its contents are annotated and include
commented-out rules you can use as models. Its default contents are listed below.
Packets are passed to ipfw from a number of different places in the protocol stack
(depending on the source and destination of the packet, it is possible that ipfw is
invoked multiple times on the same packet). The packet passed to the firewall is
compared against each of the rules in the firewall ruleset. When a match is found, the
action corresponding to the matching rule is performed.
Important: Misconfiguring the firewall can put your computer in an unusable state,
possibly shutting down network services and requiring console access to regain control
of it.
can be configured with a variety of commands. See the ipfw man page for more
information.
ipfw
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The unmodified ipfw.conf file:
# ipfw.conf.default - Installed by Apple, never modified by Server Admin app
#
# ipfw.conf - The servermgrd process (the back end of Server Admin app)
# creates this from ipfw.conf.default if it's absent, but does not modify
# it.
#
# Administrators can place custom ipfw rules in ipfw.conf.
#
# Whenever a change is made to the ipfw rules by the Server Admin
# application and saved:
#
1. All ipfw rules are flushed
#
2. The rules defined by the Server Admin app (stored as plists)
#
are exported to /etc/ipfilter/ipfw.conf.apple and loaded into the
#
firewall via ipfw.
#
3. The rules in /etc/ipfilter/ipfw.conf are loaded into the firewall
#
via ipfw.
# Note that the rules loaded into the firewall are not applied unless the
# firewall is enabled.
#
# The rules resulting from the Server Admin app's IPFirewall and NAT panels
# are numbered:
#
10 - from the NAT Service - this is the NAT divert rule, present only
#
when he NAT service is started via the Server Admin app.
#
1000 - from the "Advanced" panel - the modifiable rules, ordered by
#
their relative position in the drag-sortable rule list
#
12300 - from the "General" panel - "allow"" rules that punch specific
#
holes in the firewall for specific services
#
63200 - from the "Advanced" panel - the non-modifiable rules at the
#
bottom of the panel's rule list
#
# Refer to the man page for ipfw(8) for more information.
#
# The following default rules are already added by default:
#
#add 01000 allow all from any to any via lo0
#add 01010 deny all from any to 127.0.0.0/8
#add 01020 deny ip from 224.0.0.0/4 to any in
#add 01030 deny tcp from any to 224.0.0.0/4 in
#add 12300 ("allow" rules from the "General" panel)
#...
#add 65534 deny ip from any to any
To add an entry which denies all TCP packets from cracker.evil.org to the Telnet port
of my.host.org from being forwarded by the host:
$ ipfw add deny tcp from cracker.evil.org to my.host.org telnet
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To disallow any connection from the entire cracker.evil.org network to my host:
1 Ping cracker.evil.org to determine its IP address.
$ ping cracker.evil.org
PING cracker.evil.org (123.45.67.10): 56 data
64 bytes from 123.45.67.10: icmp_seq=0 ttl=52
64 bytes from 123.45.67.10: icmp_seq=1 ttl=52
64 bytes from 123.45.67.10: icmp_seq=2 ttl=52
64 bytes from 123.45.67.10: icmp_seq=3 ttl=52
64 bytes from 123.45.67.10: icmp_seq=4 ttl=52
types
time=24.953
time=19.406
time=18.871
time=29.776
time=26.209
ms
ms
ms
ms
ms
2 Deny access to a range of IP addresses associated with cracker.evil.org.
$ ipfw add deny ip from 123.45.67.0/24 to my.host.org
Adding Rules Using serveradmin
If you prefer not to work with the ipfw.conf file, you can use the serveradmin settings
command to add firewall rules to your configuration.
Note: Be sure to include the special first setting (ending with = create). This is how you
tell serveradmin to create the necessary rule array with the specified rule number.
To add a rule:
$ sudo serveradmin settings
ipfilter:rules:_array_id:rule = create
ipfilter:rules:_array_id:rule:source = source
ipfilter:rules:_array_id:rule:protocol = protocol
ipfilter:rules:_array_id:rule:destination = destination
ipfilter:rules:_array_id:rule:action = action
ipfilter:rules:_array_id:rule:enableLocked = (yes|no)
ipfilter:rules:_array_id:rule:enabled = (yes|no)
ipfilter:rules:_array_id:rule:log = (yes|no)
ipfilter:rules:_array_id:rule:readOnly = (yes|no)
ipfilter:rules:_array_id:rule:source-port = port
Control-D
Parameter
Description
rule
A unique rule number.
Other parameters
The standard rule settings described under “ipfilter Rules Array” on
page 233.
An example of this would be similar to the following:
$ sudo serveradmin settings
ipfilter:rules:_array_id:1111 = create
ipfilter:rules:_array_id:1111:source = "10.10.41.60"
ipfilter:rules:_array_id:1111:protocol = "udp"
ipfilter:rules:_array_id:1111:destination = "any via en0"
ipfilter:rules:_array_id:1111:action = "allow"
ipfilter:rules:_array_id:1111:enableLocked = yes
ipfilter:rules:_array_id:1111:enabled = yes
ipfilter:rules:_array_id:1111:log = no
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ipfilter:rules:_array_id:1111:readOnly = yes
ipfilter:rules:_array_id:1111:source-port = ""
Control-D
ipfilter Rules Array
An array of the following settings is included in the ipfilter settings for each defined
firewall rule. In an actual list of settings, <rule> is replaced with a rule number. You can
add a rule by using serveradmin to create such an array in the firewall settings (see
“Adding Rules Using serveradmin” on page 232).
Parameter (ipfilter:)
Description
rules:_array_id:<rule>:
source
The source of traffic governed by the rule.
rules:_array_id:<rule>:
protocol
The protocol for traffic governed by the rule.
rules:_array_id:<rule>:
destination
The destination of traffic governed by the rule.
rules:_array_id:<rule>:
action
The action to be taken.
rules:_array_id:<rule>:
enabled
Whether the rule is enabled.
rules:_array_id:<rule>:
log
Whether activation of the rule is logged.
rules:_array_id:<rule>:
readOnly
Whether read-only is set.
rules:_array_id:<rule>:
source-port
The source port of traffic governed by the rule.
Firewall serveradmin Commands
You can use the following commands with the serveradmin tool to manage the firewall
service.
Command
(ipfilter:command=)
Description
getLogPaths
Find the current location of the log used by the service.
Default = /var/log/system.log
getStandardServices
Retrieve a list of the standard services as they appear on the
General pane of the Firewall service settings in the Server Admin
application.
writeSettings
Equivalent to the standard serveradmin settings command,
but also returns a setting indicating whether the service needs to
be restarted. See “Using the serveradmin Tool” on page 48.
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Viewing Firewall Service Log
You can use tail or any other file listing tool to view the contents of the ipfilter
service log.
To view the latest entries in the log:
$ tail log-file
You can use the serveradmin getLogPaths command to see where the current
ipfilter service log is located.
To display the log path:
$ sudo serveradmin command ipfilter:command = getLogPaths
The computer will respond with output similar to the following:
ipfilter:systemLog = <system-log>
Value
Description
<system-log>
The location of the ipfilter service log.
Default = /var/log/ipfw.log
Using Firewall Service to Simulate Network Activity
You can use the Firewall service in Mac OS X service in conjunction with Dummynet, a
general-purpose network load simulator. For more information about Dummynet, see
ai3.asti.dost.gov.ph/sat/dummynet.html. Also see the ipfw man page.
Managing the NAT Service
Network Address Translation (NAT) is sometimes referred to as IP masquerading. NAT is
used to allow multiple computers access to the Internet with only one assigned public
or external IP address. NAT allows you to create a private network that accesses the
Internet through a NAT router or gateway.
The NAT router takes all the traffic from your private network and remembers which
internal address made the request. When the NAT router receives the response to the
request, it forwards it to the originating computer. Traffic that originates from the
Internet does not reach any of the computers behind the NAT router unless Port
forwarding is enabled.
Note: The Firewall service must be configured and running to have NAT service. The
NAT service divert rule is run through ipfw.
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Starting and Stopping NAT Service
To start NAT service:
$ sudo serveradmin start nat
To stop NAT service:
$ sudo serveradmin stop nat
Checking the Status of NAT Service
To see summary status of NAT service:
$ sudo serveradmin status nat
To see detailed status of NAT service:
$ sudo serveradmin fullstatus nat
Viewing NAT Service Settings
To list NAT service configuration settings:
$ sudo serveradmin settings nat
To list a particular setting:
$ sudo serveradmin settings nat:setting
Changing NAT Service Settings
To change a setting:
$ sudo serveradmin settings nat:setting = value
Parameter
Description
setting
A NAT service setting. To see a list of available settings, enter
$ sudo serveradmin settings nat
or see “NAT Service Settings” on page 236.
value
An appropriate value for the setting.
To change several settings:
$ sudo serveradmin settings
nat:setting = value
nat:setting = value
nat:setting = value
[...]
Control-D
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NAT Service Settings
Use the following parameters with the serveradmin tool to change settings for NAT
service.
Parameter (nat:)
deny_incoming
Description
yes|no
Default = no.
log_denied
yes|no
Default = no.
clamp_mss
yes|no
Default = yes
reverse
yes|no
Default = no
log
yes|no
Default = yes
proxy_only
yes|no
Default = no
dynamic
yes|no
Default = yes
use_sockets
yes|no
Default = yes
interface
unregistered_only
The network port.
Default = "en0"
yes|no
Default = no
same_ports
yes|no
Default = yes
NAT serveradmin Commands
You can use the following commands with the serveradmin tool to manage NAT
service.
Command
(nat:command=)
236
Description
getLogPaths
Find the current location of the log used by the NAT service. See
“Viewing the NAT Service Log” on this page.
updateNATRuleInIpfw
Update the firewall rules defined in the ipfilter service to reflect
changes in the NAT settings.
writeSettings
Equivalent to the standard serveradmin settings command,
but also returns a setting indicating whether the service needs to
be restarted. See “Using the serveradmin Tool” on page 48.
Chapter 14 Working with Network Services
Port Mapping
You can configure port mapping by adding a redirect_port directive to the
configuration file passed to the natd process. You can accomplish this by editing the
plist version of the configuration file /etc/nat/natd.plist. This file is in turn processed by
the serveradmin tool, and used to create the configuration file /etc/nat/
natd.conf.apple, which is passed to the natd process. See the natd man page for details
about configuring natd.
Note: Don’t edit the /etc/nat/natd.conf.apple file directly, since it is regenerated every
time the serveradmin start nat command is executed.
To configure NAT to use the port mapping rule redirect_port tcp 1.2.3.4:80 80,
you would add the following lines to /etc/nat/natd.plist, inside the configuration
dictionary:
<key>redirect_port</key>
<array>
<dict>
<key>proto</key>
<string>tcp</string>
<key>targetIP</key>
<string>1.2.3.4</string>
<key>targetPortRange</key>
<string>80</string>
<key>aliasPortRange</key>
<string>80</string>
</dict>
</array>
You can then confirm those settings using the serveradmin tool:
$ sudo serveradmin settings nat
...
nat:redirect_port:_array_index:0:proto = "tcp"
nat:redirect_port:_array_index:0:targetPortRange = "80"
nat:redirect_port:_array_index:0:aliasPortRange = "80"
nat:redirect_port:_array_index:0:targetIP = "1.2.3.4"
Control-D
Viewing the NAT Service Log
You can use tail or any other file listing tool to view the contents of the NAT service
log.
To view the latest entries in the log:
$ tail log-file
You can use the serveradmin getLogPaths command to see where the current NAT
service log is located.
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To display the log path:
$ sudo serveradmin command nat:command = getLogPaths
The computer will respond with the following output:
nat:natLog = <nat-log>
Value
Description
<nat-log>
The location of the NAT service log.
Default = /var/log/alias.log
Managing the VPN Service
Virtual Private Network (VPN) is two or more computers or networks (nodes) connected
by a private link of encrypted data. This link simulates a local connection, as if the
remote computer were attached to the local area network (LAN).
VPNs allow users at home or away from the LAN to securely connect to it using any
network connection, such as the Internet. From the user’s perspective, the VPN
connection appears as a dedicated private link.
Starting and Stopping VPN Service
To start VPN service:
$ sudo serveradmin start vpn
To stop VPN service:
$ sudo serveradmin stop vpn
Checking the Status of VPN Service
To see summary status of VPN service:
$ sudo serveradmin status vpn
To see detailed status of VPN service:
$ sudo serveradmin fullstatus vpn
Viewing VPN Service Settings
To list VPN service configuration settings:
$ sudo serveradmin settings vpn
To list a particular setting:
$ sudo serveradmin settings vpn:setting
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Changing VPN Service Settings
To change a setting:
$ sudo serveradmin settings vpn:setting = value
Parameter
Description
setting
A VPN service setting. To see a list of available settings, enter
$ sudo serveradmin settings vpn
or see “List of VPN Service Settings” on page 239.
value
An appropriate value for the setting.
To change several settings:
$ sudo serveradmin settings
vpn:setting = value
vpn:setting = value
vpn:setting = value
[...]
Control-D
List of VPN Service Settings
Use the following parameters with the serveradmin tool to change settings for VPN
service.
Parameter (vpn:Servers:)
Description
com.<name>.ppp.l2tp:
Server:VerboseLogging
Default = 1
com.<name>.ppp.l2tp:
Server:MaximumSessions
Default = 128
com.<name>.ppp.l2tp:
Server:LogFile
Default = "/var/log/ppp/vpnd.log"
com.<name>.ppp.l2tp:
IPSec:IPSecSharedSecretEncryption
Default = "Keychain"
com.<name>.ppp.l2tp:
IPSec:SharedSecret
Default = "com.apple.ppp.l2tp"
com.<name>.ppp.l2tp:
IPSec:LocalIdentifier
Default = ""
com.<name>.ppp.l2tp:
IPSec:LocalCertificate
Default = ""
com.<name>.ppp.l2tp:
IPSec:AuthenticationMethod
Default = "SharedSecret"
com.<name>.ppp.l2tp:
IPSec:IdentifierVerification
Default = "None"
com.<name>.ppp.l2tp:
IPSec:RemoteIdentifier
Default = ""
com.<name>.ppp.l2tp:
L2TP:Transport
Default = "IPSec"
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240
Parameter (vpn:Servers:)
Description
com.<name>.ppp.l2tp:
IPv4:DestAddressRanges
Default = _empty_array
com.<name>.ppp.l2tp:
IPv4:OfferedRouteMasks
Default = _empty_array
com.<name>.ppp.l2tp:
IPv4:OfferedRouteAddresses
Default = _empty_array
com.<name>.ppp.l2tp:
IPv4:OfferedRouteTypes
Default = _empty_array
com.<name>.ppp.l2tp:
IPv4:ConfigMethod
Default = "Manual"
com.<name>.ppp.l2tp:
DNS:OfferedSearchDomains
Default = _empty_array
com.<name>.ppp.l2tp:
DNS:OfferedServerAddresses
Default = _empty_array
com.<name>.ppp.l2tp:
Interface:SubType
Default = "L2TP"
com.<name>.ppp.l2tp:
Interface:Type
Default = "PPP"
com.<name>.ppp.l2tp:
PPP:LCPEchoFailure
Default = 5
com.<name>.ppp.l2tp:
PPP:ACSPEnabled
Default = 1
com.<name>.ppp.l2tp:
PPP:VerboseLogging
Default = 1
com.<name>.ppp.l2tp:
PPP:AuthenticatorACLPlugins
Default = DSACL
com.<name>.ppp.l2tp:
PPP:AuthenticatorEAPPlugins
Default = EAP-KRB
com.<name>.ppp.l2tp:
PPP:AuthenticatorPlugins:
_array_index:n
Default = "DSAuth"
com.<name>.ppp.l2tp:
PPP:LCPEchoInterval
Default = 60
com.<name>.ppp.l2tp:
PPP:LCPEchoEnabled
Default = 1
com.<name>.ppp.l2tp:
PPP:IPCPCompressionVJ
Default = 0
com.<name>.ppp.l2tp:
PPP:AuthenticatorProtocol:
_array_index:n
Default = "MSCHAP2"
com.<name>.ppp.l2tp:
PPP:LogFile
Default = "/var/log/ppp/vpnd.log"
Chapter 14 Working with Network Services
Parameter (vpn:Servers:)
Description
com.<name>.ppp.pptp:
Server:VerboseLogging
Default = 1
com.<name>.ppp.pptp:
Server:MaximumSessions
Default = 128
com.<name>.ppp.pptp:
Server:LogFile
Default = "/var/log/ppp/vpnd.log"
com.<name>.ppp.pptp:
IPv4:DestAddressRanges
Default = _empty_array
com.<name>.ppp.pptp:
IPv4:OfferedRouteMasks
Default = _empty_array
com.<name>.ppp.pptp:
IPv4:OfferedRouteAddresses
Default = _empty_array
com.<name>.ppp.pptp:
IPv4:OfferedRouteTypes
Default = _empty_array
com.<name>.ppp.pptp:
IPv4:ConfigMethod
Default = "Manual"
com.<name>.ppp.pptp:
DNS:OfferedSearchDomains
Default = _empty_array
com.<name>.ppp.pptp:
DNS:OfferedServerAddresses
Default = _empty_array
com.<name>.ppp.pptp:
Interface:SubType
Default = "PPTP"
com.<name>.ppp.pptp:
Interface:Type
Default = "PPP"
com.<name>.ppp.pptp:
PPP:CCPProtocols:_array_index:n
Default = "MPPE"
com.<name>.ppp.pptp:
PPP:LCPEchoFailure
Default = 5
com.<name>.ppp.pptp:
PPP:MPPEKeySize128
Default = 1
com.<name>.ppp.pptp:
PPP:ACSPEnabled
Default = 1
com.<name>.ppp.pptp:
PPP:AuthenticatorACLPlugins
Default = DSACL
com.<name>.ppp.pptp:
PPP:AuthenticatorEAPPlugins
Default = EAP-RSA
com.<name>.ppp.pptp:
PPP:VerboseLogging
Default = 1
com.<name>.ppp.pptp:
PPP:AuthenticatorPlugins:
_array_index:n
Default = "DSAuth"
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Parameter (vpn:Servers:)
Description
com.<name>.ppp.pptp:
PPP:MPPEKeySize40
Default = 0
com.<name>.ppp.pptp:
PPP:LCPEchoInterval
Default = 60
com.<name>.ppp.pptp:
PPP:LCPEchoEnabled
Default = 1
com.<name>.ppp.pptp:
PPP:CCPEnabled
Default = 1
com.<name>.ppp.pptp:
PPP:IPCPCompressionVJ
Default = 0
com.<name>.ppp.pptp:
PPP:AuthenticatorProtocol:
_array_index:n
Default = "MSCHAP2"
com.<name>.ppp.pptp:
PPP:LogFile
Default = "/var/log/ppp/vpnd.log"
List of VPN serveradmin Commands
You can use the following commands with the serveradmin tool to manage VPN
service.
Command
(vpn:command=)
Description
getLogPaths
Find the current location of the VPN service log. See “Viewing the
VPN Service Log” on this page.
writeSettings
Equivalent to the standard serveradmin settings command, but
also returns a setting indicating whether the service needs to be
restarted. See “Using the serveradmin Tool” on page 48.
Viewing the VPN Service Log
You can use tail or any other file listing tool to view the contents of the VPN service
log.
To view the latest entries in the log:
$ tail log-file
You can use the serveradmin getLogPaths command to see where the current VPN
service log is located.
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To display the log path:
$ sudo serveradmin command vpn:command = getLogPaths
The computer will respond with the following output:
vpn:vpnLog = <vpn-log>
Value
Description
<vpn-log>
The location of the VPN service log.
Default = /var/log/vpnd.log
Site-to-Site VPN
Site-to-site VPN is implemented by the daemon vpnd, which is in turn a wrapper
around the racoon daemon and the setkey tool. The racoon daemon negotiates and
configures a set of parameters of IPsec. setkey manipulates Security Association
Database (SAD) entries as well as Security Policy Database (SPD) entries in the kernel.
See the racoon and setkey man pages for more information. racoon also has a
webpage: www.kames.com/racoon. You might also find the ipsec man page helpful in
getting more information.
Apple provides an interactive s2svpnadmin tool, located in /usr/sbin/, that enables you
to configure and set up site-to-site VPN. The s2svpnadmin tool accesses configuration
information for the Client Server VPN application in Server Admin. Note that
s2svpnadmin does not start the VPN service. You have to start the VPN service
separately from Server Admin.
The s2svpnadmin tool can list currently configured site-to-site VPN servers, display their
configuration details, add a new configuration, and delete an existing configuration.
This tool can be used to configure only a local VPN server, not a remote one. To set up a
site-to-site server successfully, you need to configure the two VPN gateway servers at
the two sites independently.
s2svpnadmin
must be run as root.
Configuring Site-to-Site VPN
To configure a site-to-site VPN, run s2svpnadmin as root and choose the “Configure a
new site-to-site server” option. You will need to provide the following information:
 A configuration name used to identify the server. This string should not have any
spaces in it.
 The external gateway address of the local site.
 The external gateway address of the remote site.
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 The form of IPSec security to use (certificate or shared-secret). Before choosing
certificate-based authentication, ensure that at least one certificate is currently
installed on the server. s2svpnadmin will display a list of currently installed certificates
and prompt the user to choose one of these. Certificates can be created, self-signed,
and installed using the Server Admin application. If a shared secret is desired, ensure
that the same shared secret is configured on the VPN server at the other site.
 One or more policies consisting of local and remote subnet addresses. A policy is
made of a local network and a remote network. A network is specified by a network
address and the number of prefix bits that must be masked in an IPv4 address to
determine the network address it corresponds to. Ensure that a compatible policy is
configured on both VPN servers.
If an invalid entry is made, s2svpnadmin will force you to start all over again.
Note: s2svpnadmin will ask if the server needs to be enabled. By default, it is enabled.
Currently, s2svpnadmin does not support editing a configuration, so if the server is not
enabled, the configuration will need to be deleted and recreated and enabled at a later
time; alternatively, you can edit the configuration file directly. The configuration file is a
plist file located in /Library/Preferences/SystemConfiguration/
com.apple.RemoteAccessServers.plist.
Adding a VPN Keyagent User
To enable the PPTP protocol in your VPN server, you must add a keyagent user in the
LDAP folder that hosts your users. If you have more than one folder with VPN users, you
must add a keyagent in each of the folders.
The vpnaddkeyagentuser tool lets you add the required VPN PPTP keyagent user to a
folder. The tool will prompt you for the administrator user name and password of the
folder. It will then set up the keyagent user. This step is necessary to be able to proceed
with the configuration of the VPN PPTP server.
Note: You must run the vpnaddkeyagentuser command on the computer running the
VPN service.
To add the keyagent user to the OpenLDAP master on your local computer:
$ sudo vpnaddkeyagentuser /LDAPv3/127.0.0.1
If your OpenLDAP master is not running on the local computer, replace 127.0.0.1 with
the IP address of the OpenLDAP master. vpnaddkeyagentuser must be run as root. If no
argument is specified, the keyagent user is added to the local netinfo directory domain.
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Setting Up IP Failover
IP failover allows a secondary server to acquire the IP address of a primary server if the
primary server ceases to function. Once the primary server returns to normal operation,
the secondary server relinquishes the IP address. This allows your website to remain
available on the network even if the primary server temporarily goes offline.
Note: IP failover only allows a secondary server to acquire a primary server’s IP address.
You need additional software tools, such as rsync, to provide capabilities such as
mirroring the primary server’s data on the secondary server. See the rsync man page
for more information.
IP Failover Prerequisites
IP failover isn’t a complete solution; it is one tool you can use to increase your server’s
availability to your clients. To use IP failover, you need to set up the following hardware
and software.
Hardware Requirements
IP failover requires the following hardware setup:
 Primary server
 Secondary server
 Public network (the servers must be on same subnet)
 Private network between the servers (requires an additional network interface card)
Note: Because IP failover uses broadcast messages, both servers must have IP
addresses on the same subnet of the public network. Both servers must also have IP
addresses on the same subnet of the private network.
Software Requirements
IP failover requires the following software setup:
 Unique IP addresses for each network interface (public and private)
 Software to mirror primary server data to the secondary server
 Scripts to control failover behavior on the secondary server
IP Failover Operation
When IP failover is active, the primary server periodically broadcasts a brief message
confirming normal operation on both the public and private networks. This message is
monitored by the secondary server.
 If the broadcast is interrupted on both public and private networks, the secondary
server initiates the failover process.
 If status messages are interrupted on only one network, the secondary server sends
email notification of a network anomaly, but doesn’t acquire the primary server’s IP
address.
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Email notification is sent when the secondary server detects a failover condition or a
network anomaly, and when the IP address is relinquished back to the primary server.
Enabling IP Failover
You enable IP failover by adding command lines to the file /etc/hostconfig on the
primary and the secondary server. Be sure to enter these lines exactly as shown with
regard to spaces and punctuation marks.
To enable IP failover:
1 On the primary server, add the following line to /etc/hostconfig:
FAILOVER_BCAST_IPS="10.0.0.255 100.0.255.255"
Substitute the broadcast addresses used on your server for the public and private
networks. This tells the server to send broadcast messages over relevant network
interfaces, indicating that the server at those IP addresses is functioning.
2 Restart the primary server so that your changes can take effect.
3 Disconnect the primary server from both the public and private networks.
4 On the secondary server, add the following lines to /etc/hostconfig:
FAILOVER_PEER_IP="10.0.0.1"
FAILOVER_PEER_IP_PAIRS="en0:100.0.0.10"
FAILOVER_EMAIL_RECIPIENT="admin@example.com"
In the first line, substitute the IP address of the primary server on the private network.
In the second line, enter the local network interface that should adopt the primary
server’s public IP address, then a colon, and then the primary server’s public IP address.
In the third line, enter the email address for notification messages regarding the
primary server status. If this line is omitted, email notifications are sent to the root
account on the local computer.
5 Restart the secondary server so your changes can take effect and allow the secondary
server to acquire the primary’s public IP address.
Important: Before you enable IP failover, verify on both servers that the port used for
the public network is at the top of the Network Port Configurations list in the Network
pane of System Preferences. Also verify that the port used for the private network
contains no DNS configuration information.
6 Reconnect the primary server to the private network, wait 15 seconds, and then
reconnect the primary server to the public network.
7 Verify that the secondary server relinquishes the primary server’s public IP address.
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Configuring IP Failover
You configure failover behavior using scripts. The scripts must be executable (for
example, shell scripts, Perl, compiled C code, or executable AppleScripts). You place
these scripts in /Library/IPFailover/IP_address on the secondary server.
You need to create a folder named with the public IP address of the primary server to
contain the failover scripts for that server. For example, /Library/IPFailover/100.0.0.10.
Notification Only
You can use a script named Test located in the failover scripts folder to control
whether, in the event of a failover condition, the secondary server acquires the primary
server’s IP address, or simply sends an email notification. If no script exists, or if the
script returns a zero result, then the secondary server acquires the primary’s IP address.
If the script returns a nonzero result, then the secondary server skips IP address
acquisition and only sends email notification of the failover condition. The Test script is
run to determine whether the IP address should be acquired and to determine if the IP
address should be relinquished when the primary server returns to service.
A simple way to set up this notification-only mode is to copy the script located at
/usr/bin/false to the folder named with your primary server IP address, and then
change the name of the script to Test. This script always returns a nonzero result.
Using the Test script, you can configure the primary server to monitor the secondary
server and send email notification if the secondary server becomes unavailable.
Pre and Post Scripts
You can configure the failover process with scripts that can run before acquiring the
primary IP address (pre acquisition), after acquiring the IP address (post acquisition),
before relinquishing the primary IP address (pre relinquish), and after relinquishing the
IP address back to the primary server (post relinquish). These scripts reside in the
/Library/IPFailover/IP_address folder on the secondary server. The scripts use these four
prefixes:
 PreAcq—Run before acquiring the IP address from the primary server
 PostAcq—Run after acquiring the IP address from the primary server
 PreRel—Run before relinquishing the IP address back to the primary server
 PostRel—Run after relinquishing the IP address back to the primary server
Important: Always be sure that the primary server is up and functioning normally
before you activate IP failover on the secondary server. If the primary server isn’t
sending broadcast messages, the secondary server will initiate the failover process and
acquire the primary’s public IP address.
You may have more than one script at each stage. The scripts in each prefix group are
run in the order in which their file names appear in a folder listing using the ls tool.
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For example, your secondary server may perform other services on the network, such
as running a statistical analysis application and distributed image processing software.
A pre acquisition script quits the running applications to free up the CPU for the Web
server. A post acquisition script starts the Web server. Once the primary server is up
and running again, a pre relinquish script quits the Web server, and a post relinquish
script starts the image processing and statistical analysis applications. The sequence of
scripted events might look like this:
<Failover condition detected>
Test (if present)
PreAcq10.StopDIP
PreAcq20.StopSA
PreAcq30.CleanupTmp
<Acquire IP address>
PostAcq10.StartTimer
PostAcq20.StartApache
<Primary server returns to service>
PreRel10.StopApache
PreRel20.StopTimer
<Relinquish IP address>
PostRel10.StartSA
PostRel20.StartDIP
PostRel30.MailTimerResultsToAdmin
Enabling PPP Dial-In
You can use the pppd daemon to set up Point-to-Point Protocol (PPP) dial-in service. See
the pppd man page for more information.
The “Examples” section of the man page shows an example of setting up dial-in service.
Restoring the Default Configuration for Server Services
When you use applications such as Server Admin to configure a Mac OS X Server
service, your settings are stored in places such as a configuration file (.conf ), a
preference list (.plist), an XML file, or the NetInfo database. In certain cases, you might
want to reset a service back to its default settings, which can be done by simply
renaming or deleting a service’s configuration file. Mac OS X Server will then create a
fresh default copy of the file.
To restore the NAT service to its default configuration:
Rename or delete the natd.plist file located in the /etc/nat/ folder.
To restore the Firewall service to its default configuration:
Rename or delete the ip_address_groups.plist, standard_services.plist, and ipfw.conf
files located in the /etc/ipfilter/ folder.
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To restore the DHCP service to its default configuration:
1 Remove the subnet configuration from the /config/dhcp folder in the local NetInfo
database by using the nicl tool:
$ sudo nicl . -delete /config/dhcp
2 Remove the static Ethernet / IP Address static maps from the /machines folder in the
local NetInfo database. The easiest way to do this is to delete the folder:
$ sudo nicl . -delete /machines
3 Re-create the two default records:
$ sudo nicl . -create /machines/localhost
$ sudo nicl . -append /machines/localhost ip_address 127.0.0.1
$ sudo nicl . -append /machines/localhost serves ./local
$ sudo nicl . -create /machines/broadcasthost
$ sudo nicl . -append /machines/broadcasthost ip_address 255.255.255.255
$ sudo nicl . -append /machines/broadcasthost serves ../network
To restore the QTSS Publisher service to its default configuration:
Rename or delete these three files:
 /Library/Application Support/Apple/QTSS Publisher/Links.plist
 /Library/Application Support/Apple/QTSS Publisher/Poster Images.plist
 /Library/Caches/com.apple.qtsspublisher.plist
The libraries and templates reside in the/Library/Application Support/Apple/QTSS
Publisher/* folder. The content varies, based on what’s been uploaded:
To restore the QTSS service to its default configuration:
Rename or delete these two files:
 /Library/QuickTimeStreaming/Config/streamingserver.xml
 /Library/QuickTimeStreaming/Config/relayconfig.xml
You may also rename or delete the qtusers and qtgroups files, which should then be
recreated using qtpasswd.
 /Library/QuickTimeStreaming/Config/qtusers
 /Library/QuickTimeStreaming/Config/qtgroups
To restore the DNS service to its default configuration:
1 Remove the files for each forward zone, named similar to my.domain.com.zone from
the /etc/named.conf /var/named/* folder.
2 Remove the separate files for each reverse zone, named similar to db.10.1.0 from the
/etc/named.conf/var/named/* folder.
3 Do not remove the localhost.zone, named.ca, or named.local files.
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To restore the VPN service to its default configuration:
Rename the com.apple.RemoteAccessServers.plist file located in the
/Library/Preferences/SystemConfiguration/ folder.
To restore the SERVERMGR_MAIL service to it’s default configuration:
Rename these two files:
 /etc/MailServicesOther.plist
 /var/mailman/data/listinfo.plist
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15
Working with Open Directory
15
In this chapter you will find commands used to configure and
manage the Open Directory service.
Open Directory is the standards-based directory and network authentication services
architecture used by Mac OS X and Mac OS X Server. In Mac OS X Server, Open
Directory relies on open source technologies such as OpenLDAP and Kerberos to
provide directory and authentication services, but Open Directory does much more.
It supports conventional authentication methods in addition to Kerberos. Open
Directory also integrates with other directory services including Microsoft Active
Directory, Novell eDirectory, and other standards-based LDAP directory services. This
chapter discusses the tools and commands used when working with Open Directory.
Understanding Open Directory
Mac OS X Server relies on the Lightweight Directory Access Protocol (LDAP) to provide
access to directory service data. LDAP is provided on Mac OS X Server by OpenLDAP, a
best-of-breed open source LDAP service. Apple has made very few changes to the
stock distribution of OpenLDAP. For most functions, you should be able to treat LDAP
on Mac OS X Server as a standard OpenLDAP distribution.
In addition to Open Directory, a wide variety of third-party directory services use LDAP
for identification. This allows Mac OS X to interoperate easily with these systems.
This chapter includes descriptions of tools for working with LDAP, NetInfo, and the
Open Directory Password Server.
Using General Directory Tools
This section describes how to test Open Directory configurations, modify Open
Directory directory domains, and test Open Directory plug-ins.
Testing Your Open Directory Configuration
You can use the dscl tool to test your directory services configuration. See the dscl
man page for more information.
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Modifying a Directory Domain
You can use the dscl tool to create, modify, or delete directory information in a
directory domain.
Testing Open Directory Plug-ins
You can use the dsperfmonitor tool to check the performance of the protocol-specific
plug-ins used by Open Directory. It can list the API calls being made to plug-ins, how
long the plug-ins take to reply, and recent API call errors. See the dsperfmonitor man
page for more information.
Directory services API support is provided by the DirectoryService daemon. See the
man page for more information.
DirectoryService
See the DirectoryServiceAttributes man page for information about the data types
used by directory services.
Finally, for information about the internals of Open Directory and its plug-ins, including
source code you can examine or adopt, follow the Open Directory link at
www.apple.com/darwin/.
Registering URLs with SLP
You can use the slp_reg tool to register service URLs using the Service Location
Protocol (SLP). See the slp_reg man page for more information.
SLP registration is handled by the SLP daemon slpd. See the slpd man page for more
information.
Changing Open Directory Service Settings
Use the following parameters with the serveradmin tool to change settings for the
Open Directory service. Be sure to add dirserv: to the beginning of any parameter
you use.
To see the role that the server is playing in the directory hierarchy:
$ sudo serveradmin settings dirserv:LDAPServerType
Parameter (dirserv:)
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Description
replicationUnits
Default = "days"
replicaLastUpdate
Default = ""
LDAPDataBasePath
Default = ""
replicationPeriod
Default = 4
LDAPSearchBase
Default = ""
Chapter 15 Working with Open Directory
Parameter (dirserv:)
Description
passwordOptionsString
Default = "usingHistory=0 usingExpirationDate=0
usingHardExpirationDate=0 requiresAlpha=0
requiresNumeric=0 expirationDateGMT=12/31/69
hardExpireDateGMT=12/31/69
maxMinutesUntilChangePassword=0
maxMinutesUntilDisabled=0 maxMinutesOfNonUse=0
maxFailedLoginAttempts=0 minChars=0 maxChars=0
passwordCannotBeName=0"
NetInfoRunStatus
Default = ""
LDAPSSLCertificatePath
Default = ""
masterServer
Default = ""
LDAPServerType
Default = "standalone"
NetInfoDomain
Default = ""
replicationWhen
Default = "periodic"
useSSL
Default = "YES"
LDAPDefaultPrefix
Default = "dc=<domain>,dc=com"
LDAPTimeoutUnits
Default = "minutes"
LDAPServerBackend
Default = "BerkeleyDB"
Managing OpenLDAP
Open Directory uses OpenLDAP, the open source implementation of LDAP, to provide
directory services for mixed-platform environments. A common language for directory
access lets you consolidate information from different platforms and define a single
name space for all network resources. Whether you have Mac, Windows, or Linux
computers on your network, you can set up and manage a single directory eliminating
the need to maintain a separate directory or separate user records for each platform.
Configuring LDAP
The OpenLDAP server daemon is slapd, located in /usr/libexec/. slapd is launched
automatically by the LDAP startup item. The primary configuration files for OpenLDAP
are kept in /etc/openldap/. There you will find the slapd.conf file, which contain basic
configuration information. Most of the configuration for Open Directory is stored in the
slapd_macosxserver.conf file. An include statement in the slapd.conf file includes
slapd_macosxserver.conf.
Although the directives in these files can be modified using the administration
applications, it’s advisable that you not modify these directives. Instead, use your own
configuration file by adding an include directive for it in the slapd.conf file.
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The slapd_macosx.conf file contains an entry for the root user of the LDAP database,
the directive rootdn. This root user is not the same as the root user in the local NetInfo
database, but rather it is a user who has total control over all data inside the LDAP
database—access controls do not apply to the root user.
An example value for rootdn is uid=root,cn=users,dc=example,dc=com.
An administrator user on the computer can edit the slapd_macosxserver.conf file to
add a new password hash, or plain-text password, to the file, at which point that
administrator user would be able to administrator the LDAP database. This is especially
useful when your LDAP database has become damaged or the passwords have been
lost or forgotten.
Configuring slapd and slurpd Daemons
You can use the slapconfig tool to configure the slapd and slurpd LDAP daemons
and related search policies. See the slapconfig man page for more information.
Standard Distribution Tools
Two types of tools come with OpenLDAP:
 Tools that operate directly on the LDAP databases—These tools begin with slap.
 Tools that go through the LDAP protocol—These tools begin with ldap.
The slap tools must be run directly on the computer hosting the LDAP database.
You should shut down the LDAP service when using the slap tools, or else your
database may become out of sync.
These tools are included in the standard OpenLDAP distribution.
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Tool
Used to
/usr/bin/ldapadd
Add entries to the LDAP directory.
/usr/bin/ldapcompare
Compare a directory entry’s actual attributes with known
attributes.
/usr/bin/ldapdelete
Delete entries from the LDAP directory.
/usr/bin/ldapmodify
Change an entry’s attributes.
/usr/bin/ldapmodrdn
Change an entry’s relative distinguished name (RDN).
/usr/bin/ldappasswd
Set the password for an LDAP user.
Apple recommends using passwd instead of ldappasswd. See the
passwd man page for more information.
/usr/bin/ldapsearch
Search the LDAP directory. See the usage note under “Searching
the LDAP Server” on page 255.
/usr/bin/ldapwhoami
Obtain the primary authorization identity associated with a user.
/usr/sbin/slapadd
Add entries to the LDAP directory.
/usr/sbin/slapcat
Export LDAP Directory Interchange Format files.
Chapter 15 Working with Open Directory
Tool
Used to
/usr/sbin/slapindex
Regenerate directory indexes.
/usr/sbin/slappasswd
Generate user password. hashes.
Idle Rebinding Options
The following two LDAPv3 plug-in parameters are documented in the Open Directory
administration guide. The parameters are used in the file /library/preferences/
directoryservice/DSLDAPv3PlugInConfig.plist.
Delay Rebind
This parameter specifies how long the LDAP plug-in waits before attempting to
reconnect to a server that fails to respond. You can increase this value to prevent
continuous reconnection attempts.
<key>Delay Rebind Try in seconds<\key>
<integer>n<\integer>
You can find this parameter in the DSLDAPv3PlugInConfig.plist file near
<key>OpenClose Timeout in seconds<\key>. If not, you can add it there.
Idle Timeout
This parameter specifies how long the LDAP plug-in will sit idle before disconnecting
from the server. You can adjust this value to reduce overloading of the server’s
connections from remote clients.
<key>Idle Timeout in minutes<\key>
<integer>n<\integer>
If this parameter doesn’t already exist in the DSLDAPv3PlugInConfig.plist file, you can
add it near <key>OpenClose Timeout in seconds<\key>.
Searching the LDAP Server
The ldapsearch tool connects to an LDAP server, authenticates, finds entries, and
returns attributes of the entries found.
To query the LDAP server for all the user’s information:
Enter the following command, replacing the example search base (cn=users,
dc=example, dc=com) with an actual search base:
$ ldapsearch -H ldap://127.0.0.1 -b cn=users,dc=example,dc=com
By default, ldapsearch tries to connect to the LDAP server using the Simple
Authentication and Security Layer (SASL) method. If the server doesn’t support this
method, you see this error message:
ldap_sasl_interactive_bind_s: No such attribute (16)
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To avoid this error, include the -x option when you enter the command. For example:
$ ldapsearch -h 192.168.100.1 -b "dc=example,dc=com" -x
The -x option forces ldapsearch to use simple authentication instead of SASL.
The -x option also works on the other LDAP tools.
can also be used for debugging issues with LDAP, independent of the
directory services LDAPv3 plug-in.
ldapsearch
For example, you can read the root directory server entry (DSE) like this: -LLL omits
some output, -x means no SASL, -h specifies the hostname, -b specifies the search
base and -s specifies the type of search:
$ ldapsearch -LLL -x -h ldap.psu.edu -b "" -s base
dn:
namingcontexts: CN=SCHEMA
namingcontexts: CN=LOCALHOST
namingcontexts: CN=PWDPOLICY
namingcontexts: DC=PSU,DC=EDU
subschemasubentry: cn=schema
supportedextension: 1.3.18.0.2.12.1
supportedextension: 1.3.18.0.2.12.3
supportedextension: 1.3.18.0.2.12.5
supportedextension: 1.3.18.0.2.12.6
supportedextension: 1.3.18.0.2.12.15
supportedextension: 1.3.18.0.2.12.16
supportedextension: 1.3.18.0.2.12.17
supportedextension: 1.3.18.0.2.12.19
supportedextension: 1.3.18.0.2.12.24
supportedextension: 1.3.18.0.2.12.22
supportedextension: 1.3.18.0.2.12.20
supportedextension: 1.3.18.0.2.12.28
supportedextension: 1.3.18.0.2.12.30
supportedextension: 1.3.18.0.2.12.26
supportedcontrol: 2.16.840.1.113730.3.4.2
supportedcontrol: 1.3.18.0.2.10.5
supportedcontrol: 1.2.840.113556.1.4.473
supportedcontrol: 1.2.840.113556.1.4.319
supportedcontrol: 1.3.6.1.4.1.42.2.27.8.5.1
supportedcontrol: 1.2.840.113556.1.4.805
supportedcontrol: 1.3.18.0.2.10.15
supportedcontrol: 1.3.18.0.2.10.18
security: none
port: 389
supportedsaslmechanisms: CRAM-MD5
supportedldapversion: 2
supportedldapversion: 3
ibmdirectoryversion: 5.1
ibm-ldapservicename: tr17n01.aset.psu.edu
ibm-adminid: CN=MANAGER,DC=PSU,DC=EDU
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ibm-serverId: 71d3fb40-c90a-1028-9ef7-8e62f6ed25ed
ibm-supportedacimechanisms: 1.3.18.0.2.26.3
ibm-supportedacimechanisms: 1.3.18.0.2.26.2
vendorname: International Business Machines (IBM)
vendorversion: 5.1
ibm-sslciphers: N/A
ibm-supportedcapabilities: 1.3.18.0.2.32.1
ibm-supportedcapabilities: 1.3.18.0.2.32.2
ibm-supportedcapabilities: 1.3.18.0.2.32.3
ibm-supportedcapabilities: 1.3.18.0.2.32.4
ibm-supportedcapabilities: 1.3.18.0.2.32.5
ibm-supportedcapabilities: 1.3.18.0.2.32.6
ibm-enabledcapabilities: 1.3.18.0.2.32.1
ibm-enabledcapabilities: 1.3.18.0.2.32.2
ibm-enabledcapabilities: 1.3.18.0.2.32.3
ibm-enabledcapabilities: 1.3.18.0.2.32.4
ibm-enabledcapabilities: 1.3.18.0.2.32.5
ibm-enabledcapabilities: 1.3.18.0.2.32.6
ibm-slapdisconfigurationmode: FALSE
If the server is an OpenLDAP server, you will need to either specify + for all operational
attributes or specify the particular attributes of interest:
$ ldapsearch -LLL -x -h xtra.apple.com -b "" -s base +
dn:
structuralObjectClass: OpenLDAProotDSE
namingContexts: dc=apple,dc=com
supportedControl: 2.16.840.1.113730.3.4.18
supportedControl: 2.16.840.1.113730.3.4.2
supportedControl: 1.3.6.1.4.1.4203.1.10.1
supportedControl: 1.2.840.113556.1.4.1413
supportedControl: 1.2.840.113556.1.4.1339
supportedControl: 1.2.840.113556.1.4.319
supportedControl: 1.2.826.0.1.334810.2.3
supportedExtension: 1.3.6.1.4.1.1466.20037
supportedExtension: 1.3.6.1.4.1.4203.1.11.1
supportedExtension: 1.3.6.1.4.1.4203.1.11.3
supportedFeatures: 1.3.6.1.4.1.4203.1.5.1
supportedFeatures: 1.3.6.1.4.1.4203.1.5.2
supportedFeatures: 1.3.6.1.4.1.4203.1.5.3
supportedFeatures: 1.3.6.1.4.1.4203.1.5.4
supportedFeatures: 1.3.6.1.4.1.4203.1.5.5
supportedLDAPVersion: 3
supportedSASLMechanisms: CRAM-MD5
supportedSASLMechanisms: GSSAPI
subschemaSubentry: cn=Subschema
Usually the namingContexts value is the first thing you want to determine.
$ ldapsearch -LLL -x -h xtra.apple.com -b "" -s base namingContexts
dn:
namingContexts: dc=apple,dc=com
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After you get that, you can search for a record with a command like this:
$ ldapsearch -LLL -x -h xtra.apple.com -b "dc=apple,dc=com"
uid=ajohnson uid cn
dn: uid=ajohnson,cn=users,dc=apple,dc=com
uid: ajohnson
cn: Anne Johnson
Using LDIF Files
Lightweight Directory Interchange Format (LDIF) is a file format used to represent LDAP
entries in text form. LDAP tools such as ldappadd, ldapmodify, and ldapsearch read and
write LDIF files.
Here is an example of an LDIF file containing three entries. Multiple entries within the
same LDIF file are separated by blank lines.
dn: cn=Mei Chen,dc=example,dc=com
cn: Mei Chen
cn: M Chen
objectclass: person
description:< file:///tmp/babs
sn: Chen
dn: cn=Anne Johnson,dc=example,dc=com
cn: Anne Johnsone
cn: A Johnson
objectclass: person
sn: Johnson
dn: cn=Tom Clark,dc=example,dc=com
cn: Tom Clark
cn: T Clark
objectclass: person
sn: Clark
Warning: Many of the LDAP tools will modify or add entries to the LDAP directory.
Changing raw data in a directory can have unexpected and undesirable
consequences. You could inadvertently incapacitate users or computers, or you could
unintentionally authorize users to access more resources.
To load an LDIF file into the LDAP directory, use the ldapadd tool as follows:
Replace the appleserver.example.com with the location of the LDAP directory and
myusers.ldif with the name of your LDIF file:
$ ldapadd -H ldap://appleserver.example.com -f myusers.ldif
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Additional Information About LDAP
The LDAP server in Mac OS X Server is based on OpenLDAP. Additional information
about OpenLDAP, including an administrator’s guide, is available at www.openldap.org.
Warning: Apple doesn’t support the OpenLDAP administrator’s guide, so you should
carefully test all procedures documented in it before using them on an Open
Directory server that’s in service.
Managing NetInfo
NetInfo is the built-in Mac OS X directory service used for the local directory domain on
every Mac OS X Server and Mac OS X computer. NetInfo stores information about users
and resources and makes it available to Mac OS X processes that want to use it.
Note: NetInfo may not be supported in future releases. Administrators should use dscl
and other tools that work on LDAP or NetInfo whenever possible.
Configuring NetInfo
You can use the following tools to manage the NetInfo directory. For more information
about a particular tool, see the related man page.
Tool
Used to
NeST
Configure a NetInfo directory domain. There can actually be more
than one NetInfo directory domain on an upgraded server, and
NeST can also be used on a client computer’s NetInfo directory
domain.
nicl
Create, view, and modify entries in the NetInfo directory.
nidomain
Creates and destroys NetInfo directories. Tells you which domains
are served from which directories by servers running on a
particular computer.
nifind
Search the NetInfo directory for a particular entry.
nigrep
Search the NetInfo directory for all instances of a string you specify.
nidump
Export NetInfo data to text or flat files.
niload
Import flat files into the NetInfo directory.
nireport
Print tables of NetInfo directory entries.
niutil
Reads from a NetInfo directory and writes to one.
In addition, you can use the NeST tool to get and set authentication methods used by
Open Directory Password Server, as described in “Enabling or Disabling Authentication
Methods” on page 260.
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Managing Open Directory Passwords
When a user’s account has a password type of Open Directory, the user can be
authenticated by Kerberos or the Open Directory Password Server. Kerberos is a
network authentication system that uses credentials issued by a trusted server.
The Open Directory Password Server supports the traditional password authentication
methods that some network services or users’ client applications require. Services can
be configured to not allow Kerberos, in which case they use Password Server for user
accounts with Open Directory passwords.
Neither Kerberos nor the Open Directory Password Server stores the password in the
user’s account. Both Kerberos and the Open Directory Password Server store passwords
in secure databases apart from the directory domain and never allow passwords to be
read. Passwords can only be set and verified.
Open Directory Password Server
Password Server uses the standard Simple Authentication and Security Layer (SASL)
technology to negotiate an authentication method between a client and a service.
It supports multiple authentication methods including APOP, CRAM-MD5, DHX, DigestMD5, MS-CHAPv2, NTLMv1 and NTLMv2, LAN Manager, and WebDAV-Digest.
Open Directory also provides authentication services using shadow passwords, which
support the same authentication methods as Password Server.
You can use the mkpassdb tool to create, modify, or back up the password database
used by the Server Password Server. See the mkpassdb man page for more information.
Viewing or Changing Password Policies
You can use the pwpolicy tool to view or change the authentication policies used by
the Mac OS X Server Password Server. See the pwpolicy man page for more
information.
Enabling or Disabling Authentication Methods
All password authentication methods supported by the Open Directory Password
Server are initially enabled. You can disable and enable the Open Directory Password
Server authentication methods by using the NeST tool.
To see a list of available methods:
$ NeST -getprotocols
To disable or enable a method:
$ NeST -setprotocols protocol (on|off)
Replace protocol with any of the protocol names listed by NeST -getprotocols
(for example, SMB-LAN-MANAGER). For information about the available methods, see the
Open Directory administration guide.
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Kerberos and Apple Single Sign-On
Built into Open Directory is a robust authentication server that uses MIT’s Kerberos Key
Distribution Center (KDC)—providing strong authentication with support for secure
single sign-on. That means users need authenticate only once, with a single user name
and password pair, for access to a broad range of Kerberized network services.
The following tools are available for setting up your Kerberos and Apple single sign-on
environment. For more information about a tool, see the related man page.
Tool (in usr/sbin/)
Description
kdcsetup
Creates necessary setup files and adds krb5kdc and kadmind
servers for the Apple Open Directory KDC.
sso_util
Sets up, interrogates, and tears down the Kerberos configuration
within the Apple single sign-on environment.
kerberosautoconfig
Creates the edu.mit.Kerberos file based on the Open Directory
KerberosClient record.
Backing Up the Kerberos Database
kdb5_util is a tool for maintaining the Kerberos database. The kdb5_util tool is useful
for dumping the principal database to text to get a reliable backup. Keep in mind that
the data in question is extremely sensitive—creating a copy of it, by definition,
decreases your overall security. These backups should be subject to the same security
precautions as the other KDC files.
Note: Do not back up the KDC while the krb5kdc process is running.
To dump the KDC’s database:
Replace /path/to/secure/backup with the path to the location you are backing up the
database to.
$ sudo kdb5_util dump > /path/to/secure/backup
To load KDC data from a dumped file:
Replace /path/to/secure/backup with the path to the location of your backup
database.
$ sudo kdb5_util load /path/to/secure/backup
can be used to create and delete Kerberos databases and to manage the
location of the stash file used to encrypt the database as well.
kdb5_util
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Principal Management
Mac OS X Server uses MIT’s Kerberos administration architecture for principal
management. The Kerberos administration daemon kadmind is responsible for making
changes to the Kerberos database. Aside from Open Directory, kadmind is largely
manipulated by kadmin and kadmin.local . Generally in Mac OS X, Apple applications
are responsible for telling kadmin what to do, and hence, manual modifications are
rarely needed.
The configuration files for kadmin and krb5kdc are located in /var/db/krb5kdc. The
kadm5.acl file is a list of Kerberos principals that have various administrative privileges.
The database named principal.kadm5 is the kadmind process’ policy database. It is
located in /var/db/krb5kdc. While principals and their keys are stored in /var/db/
krb5kdc/principal, policies, which can be applied to principals, are stored in
principal.kadm5.
Principal.kadm5.lock is a lock file used by kadmind. It is unlike most lock files though, as
kadmind will not write to either the policy or principal database unless it exists.
The kadmin tool, located in /usr/sbin, is the native MIT administrative client to kadmind.
kadmin reads the Kerberos configuration file, edu.mit.kerberos, to discover the network
location of the kadmind server.
Unlike kadmin, kadmin.local cannot be run remotely, nor is it bound by the access
controls of kadmind. Instead, it is a brute force tool that is always run as root, with full
administrative privileges over the kadmind and KDC databases. Both kadmin and
kadmin.local can be run interactively or in query mode (using the -q flag).
The following examples show some basic kadmin tool uses.
To add a principal:
Replace student1 with the new principal that you are adding to the database.
$ sudo kadmin.local -q "add_principal student1"
To add a service principal:
Replace afpserver/server.example.com with the new service principal that you are
adding to the database.
$ sudo kadmin.local -q "add_principal afpserver/server.example.com"
To delete a principal:
Replace student1 with the principal that you are deleting from the database.
$ sudo kadmin.local -q "delete_principal student1"
To list all principals:
$ sudo kadmin.local -q list_principals
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Using kadmin to kerberize a service
kadmin can be used to kerberize additional services, depending on your specific
configuration requirements. While Mac OS X Server kerberizes many services for you,
you can use Kerberos command-line tools to kerberize additional services with Open
Directory Kerberos.
A kerberized service needs to know its principal name. The service type for most
services is compiled into the binary. Often the server administrator can assume that its
server’s principal name is serviceType/fqdn@REALM. For example, the service principal
for the afp server on the host “server.example.com” in the realm “EXAMPLE.COM” is
afpserver/server.example.com@EXAMPLE. However, the service type is service-specific
and the primary place to get the info is from the service documentation.
To kerberize a service (from a terminal running on that host):
1 Use kadmin to create the service principal.
$ sudo kadmin -p admin_principal -q “addprinc -randkey service-principal”
2 Import the principal key into the keytab file.
$ sudo kadmin -p admin_principal -q “ktadd service-principal”
3 Configure the service to use the new principal. This step is service-specific. Make sure
to check the service documentation for how to perform this step.
Using Directory Service Tools
The following are miscellaneous directory service tools that you can use to configure
directory services and to troubleshoot any problems.
Operating on Directory Service Directory Domains
dscl is a general-purpose tool for operating on directory domains. Its commands allow
one to create, read, and manage directory data. If invoked without any commands,
dscl runs in an interactive mode, reading commands from standard input.
The following examples show some basic dscl tool uses:
To verify that you are able to access an LDAPv3 directory:
$ dscl localhost
> cd /LDAPv3/directory.example.com/Users
> ls
You should see a list of the server’s network user accounts
See the dscl man page for more information.
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Finding Network Information
The lookupd daemon acts as an information broker and cache. It is called by various
routines in the System framework to find information about user accounts, groups,
printers, email aliases and distribution lists, computer names, Internet addresses, and
several other kinds of information. lookupd also has a channel to query Open Directory,
allowing access to data from LDAP and other directory services.
To look up a user by name:
$ lookupd -q user -a name anne
This returns the user records that have a short name of “anne.”
To run lookupd in interactive mode:
$ lookupd -d
>?
Typing ? at the lookupd interactive promt (>) displays all the possible commands for
lookupd.
To list the attributes of a user:
> userWithName: anne
See the lookupd man page for more information.
Manipulating a Single Named Group Record
allows manipulation of a single named group record on either the default
local directory domain or the specified directory domain. The following examples show
some uses for dseditgroup.
dseditgroup
To display the attributes of a group in the local directory domain:
$ dseditgroup -o read groupname
To create a group in a specified domain:
$ dseditgroup -o create -n /LDAPv3/ldap.example.com -u myusername -P
mypassword -r "Group Name" -c "comment" -s 1234 -k "some keyword"
groupname
To delete a group from a specified domain:
$ dseditgroup -o delete -n /LDAPv3/ldap.example.com -u myusername -P
mypassword groupname
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Parameter
Description
myuser
User name authenticated with administrator user
mypassword
User password
Group Name
Real name to add or replace
comment
Comment or add or replace
1234
Time to livein seconds to add or replace
Chapter 15 Working with Open Directory
Parameter
Description
some keyword
Keyword to add
groupname
Group name
See the dseditgroup man page for more information.
Adding or Removing LDAP Server Configurations
dsconfigldap
allows you to add or remove LDAP server configurations in directory
services.
To add an LDAP server:
$ dsconfigldap -v -a myldap.example.com
To remove an LDAP server:
$ dsconfigldap -v -r myldap.example.com
Configuring the Active Directory Plug-In
allows you to configure the Active Directory plug-in from the commandline. dsconfigad has the same functionality for configuring the Active Directory plug-in
as the Directory Access application.
dsconfigad
To add a computer to a directory:
$ dsconfigad -a computerid -u “administrator” -ou
"CN=Computers,OU=Engineering,DC=ads,DC=demo,DC=com" -domain
domain.ads.apple.com
Parameter
Description
computerid
Add the computer ID to the specified domain.
administrator
User name of a network account that has administrator privileges.
CN=Computers,OU=Engineer The LDAP domain name of the container used for adding the
ing,DC=ads,DC=demo,DC=co computer. If this is not specified, it will default to the container.
m
domain
Fully-qualified domain name of the domain to be used when
adding the computer to the directory.
See the dsconfigad man page for more information.
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16
Working with QuickTime
Streaming Server
16
In this chapter you will find commands you can use to
configure and manage the QuickTime Streaming Server
service.
Streaming is the delivery of media, such as movies and live presentations, over a
network in real time. A streaming server sends the media to a client computer, which
plays the media as it is delivered. With streaming, no files are downloaded to the
viewer’s hard disk. This chapter describes the commands used to configure and
manage the QuickTime Streaming Server.
Understanding QuickTime Streaming Server
Mac OS X Server version 10.4 includes the latest version of the popular QuickTime
Streaming Server, providing a complete solution for streaming live and on-demand
media to audiences everywhere. Mac OS X Server makes it easy and affordable to
enhance and extend the reach of your communications with rich video and audio
content.
QuickTime is one of the most versatile, cost-effective platforms for creating, playing,
and streaming digital media over the Internet. It supports all the latest digital media
standards, including H.264, AAC, MP3, MPEG-4, and 3GPP, so your content can be
played anywhere using standards-compliant media players.
Performing QTSS Service Tasks
You can use the serveradmin tool to start QTSS service, or you can use the
quicktimestreamingserver tool to specify additional service parameters when you
start the service.
267
Starting and Stopping the QTSS Service
To start QTSS service:
$ sudo serveradmin start qtss
or
$ sudo quicktimestreamingserver
To see a list of quicktimestreamingserver tool options:
$ sudo quicktimestreamingserver -h
To stop QTSS service:
$ sudo serveradmin stop qtss
Checking QTSS Service Status
To see if QTSS service is running:
$ sudo serveradmin status qtss
To see complete QTSS status:
$ sudo serveradmin fullstatus qtss
Viewing QTSS Settings
To list all QTSS service settings:
$ sudo serveradmin settings qtss
To list a particular setting:
$ sudo serveradmin settings qtss:setting
To list a group of settings:
You can list a group of settings that have part of their names in common by typing
only as much of the name as you want, stopping at a colon (:), and typing an asterisk
(*) as a wildcard for the remaining parts of the name. For example:
$ sudo serveradmin settings qtss:modules:_array_id:QTSSAdminModule:*
Changing QTSS Settings
You can change QTSS service settings by using the serveradmin tool or by editing the
QTSS parameter list file directly.
To change a setting:
$ sudo serveradmin settings qtss:setting = value
Parameter
Description
setting
A QTSS service setting. To see a list of available settings, enter:
$ sudo serveradmin settings qtss
or see “QTSS Settings” on page 269.
value
268
An appropriate value for the setting.
Chapter 16 Working with QuickTime Streaming Server
To change several settings:
$ sudo serveradmin settings
qtss:setting = value
qtss:setting = value
qtss:setting = value
[...]
Control-D
QTSS Settings
Use the following parameters with the serveradmin tool to change settings for the
QTSS service.
Descriptions of Settings
To see descriptions of most QTSS settings, you can look in the
streamingserver.xml-sample file located in /Library/QuickTimeStreaming/Config/.
Look for XML module and pref names that match the last two segments of the
parameter name.
For example, to see a description of
modules:_array_id:QTSSFileModule:record_movie_file_sdp
Look in the sample file for:
<MODULE NAME="QTSSFileModule">...
<PREF NAME="record_movie_file_sdp".
Parameter (qtss:)
Description
broadcaster:password
Default = ""
broadcaster:username
Default = ""
modules:_array_id:QTSSAccessLogModule:
request_logfile_dir
Default = "/Library/QuickTime
modules:_array_id:QTSSAccessLogModule:
request_logfile_interval
Default = 7
modules:_array_id:QTSSAccessLogModule:
request_logfile_name
Default = "StreamingServer"
modules:_array_id:QTSSAccessLogModule:
request_logfile_size
Default = 10240000
modules:_array_id:QTSSAccessLogModule:
request_logging
Default = yes
modules:_array_id:QTSSAccessLogModule:
request_logtime_in_gmt
Default = yes
modules:_array_id:QTSSAccessModule:
modAccess_groupsfilepath
Default = "/Library/Quick
modules:_array_id:QTSSAccessModule:
modAccess_qtaccessfilename
Default = "qtaccess"
Chapter 16 Working with QuickTime Streaming Server
Streaming/Logs/"
TimeStreaming/Config/
qtgroups"
269
270
Parameter (qtss:)
Description
modules:_array_id:QTSSAccessModule:
modAccess_usersfilepath
Default = "/Library/Quick
modules:_array_id:QTSSAdminModule:
AdministratorGroup
Default = "admin"
modules:_array_id:QTSSAdminModule:
Authenticate
Default = yes
modules:_array_id:QTSSAdminModule:
enable_remote_admin
Default = yes
modules:_array_id:QTSSAdminModule:
IPAccessList
Default = "127.0.0.*"
modules:_array_id:QTSSAdminModule:
LocalAccessOnly
Default = yes
modules:_array_id:QTSSFileModule:
add_seconds_to_client_buffer_delay
Default = 0
modules:_array_id:QTSSFileModule:
admin_email
Default = ""
modules:_array_id:QTSSFileModule:
record_movie_file_sdp
Default = no
modules:_array_id:QTSSHomeDirectoryModule:
enabled
Default = no
modules:_array_id:QTSSHomeDirectoryModule:
movies_directory
Default = "/Sites/Streaming"
modules:_array_id:QTSSMP3StreamingModule:
mp3_broadcast_buffer_size
Default = 8192
modules:_array_id:QTSSMP3StreamingModule:
mp3_broadcast_password
Default = ""
modules:_array_id:QTSSMP3StreamingModule:
mp3_max_flow_control_time
Default = 10000
modules:_array_id:QTSSMP3StreamingModule:
mp3_request_logfile_dir
Default = "/Library/QuickTime
modules:_array_id:QTSSMP3StreamingModule:
mp3_request_logfile_interval
Default = 7
modules:_array_id:QTSSMP3StreamingModule:
mp3_request_logfile_name
Default = "mp3_access"
modules:_array_id:QTSSMP3StreamingModule:
mp3_request_logfile_size
Default = 10240000
modules:_array_id:QTSSMP3StreamingModule:
mp3_request_logging
Default = yes
modules:_array_id:QTSSMP3StreamingModule:
mp3_request_logtime_in_gmt
Default = yes
Chapter 16 Working with QuickTime Streaming Server
TimeStreaming/Config/
qtusers"
Streaming/Logs/"
Parameter (qtss:)
Description
modules:_array_id:QTSSMP3StreamingModule:
mp3_streaming_enabled
Default = yes
modules:_array_id:QTSSReflectorModule:
allow_broadcasts
Default = yes
modules:_array_id:QTSSReflectorModule:
allow_non_sdp_urls
Default = yes
modules:_array_id:QTSSReflectorModule:
BroadcasterGroup
Default = "broadcaster"
modules:_array_id:QTSSReflectorModule:
broadcast_dir_list
Default = ""
modules:_array_id:QTSSReflectorModule:
disable_overbuffering
Default = no
modules:_array_id:QTSSReflectorModule:
enable_broadcast_announce
Default = yes
modules:_array_id:QTSSReflectorModule:
enable_broadcast_push
Default = yes
modules:_array_id:QTSSReflectorModule:
ip_allow_list
Default = "127.0.0.*"
modules:_array_id:QTSSReflectorModule:
kill_clients_when_broadcast_stops
Default = no
modules:_array_id:QTSSReflectorModule:
minimum_static_sdp_port
Default = 20000
modules:_array_id:QTSSReflectorModule:
timeout_broadcaster_session_secs
Default = 20
modules:_array_id:QTSSRelayModule:
relay_prefs_file
Default = "/Library/Quick
TimeStreaming/Config/
relayconfig.xml"
server:authentication_scheme
Default = "digest"
server:auto_restart
Default = yes
server:default_authorization_realm
Default = "Streaming Server"
server:do_report_http_connection_ip_address
Default = no
server:error_logfile_dir
Default = "/Library/Quick
TimeStreaming/Logs/"
server:error_logfile_name
Default = "Error"
server:error_logfile_size
Default = 256000
server:error_logfile_verbosity
Default = 2
server:error_logging
Default = yes
server:force_logs_close_on_write
Default = no
server:maximum_bandwidth
Default = 102400
server:maximum_connections
Default = 1000
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Parameter (qtss:)
Description
server:module_folder
Default = "/Library/Quick
TimeStreaming/Modules/"
server:movie_folder
Default = "/Library/Quick
TimeStreaming/Movies/"
server:pid_file
Default = "/var/run/Quick
TimeStreamingServer.pid"
server:reliable_udp
Default = yes
server:reliable_udp_dirs
Default = "/"
server:run_group_name
Default = "qtss"
server:run_num_threads
Default = 0
server:run_user_name
Default = "qtss"
web_admin:enabled
Default = no
web_admin:password
Default = ""
web_admin:username
Default = ""
Managing QTSS
You can use the following commands with the serveradmin tool to manage the QTSS
service.
Command
(qtss:command=)
Description
getConnections
List current QTSS connections. See “Listing Current Connections”
on this page.
getHistory
View service statistics. See “Viewing QTSS Service Statistics” on
page 273.
getLogPaths
Find the current location of the service logs. See “Viewing Service
Logs” on page 274.
Listing Current Connections
You can use the serveradmin getConnectedUsers command to retrieve information
about QTSS connections.
To list connected users:
$ sudo serveradmin command qtss:command = getConnectedUsers
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Viewing QTSS Service Statistics
You can use the serveradmin getHistory command to display a log of periodic
samples of the number of connections and the data throughput. Samples are taken
once each minute.
To list samples:
$ sudo serveradmin command
qtss:command = getHistory
qtss:variant = statistic
qtss:timeScale = scale
Control-D
Parameter
Description
statistic
The value you want to display.
Valid values:
v1—Number of connected users (average during sampling period)
v2—Throughput (bytes/sec)
scale
The length of time in seconds, ending with the current time, for
which you want to see samples. For example, to see 30 minutes of
data, you would specify qtss:timeScale = 1800.
The computer will respond with the following output:
qtss:nbSamples = <samples>
qtss:samplesArray:_array_index:0:vn = <sample>
qtss:samplesArray:_array_index:0:t = <time>
qtss:samplesArray:_array_index:1:vn = <sample>
qtss:samplesArray:_array_index:1:t = <time>
[...]
qtss:samplesArray:_array_index:i:vn = <sample>
qtss:samplesArray:_array_index:i:t = <time>
qtss:vnLegend = "<legend>"
qtss:currentServerTime = <servertime>
Value displayed by
getHistory
Description
<samples>
The total number of samples listed.
<legend>
A textual description of the selected statistic.
"CONNECTIONS" for v1
"THROUGHPUT" for v2
<sample>
The numerical value of the sample.
For connections (v1), this is integer average number of
connections.
For throughput, (v2), this is integer bytes per second.
<time>
The time at which the sample was measured. A standard UNIX time
(number of seconds since Sep 1, 1970). Samples are taken every 60
seconds.
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Viewing Service Logs
You can use tail or any other file listing tool to view the contents of the QTSS service
logs.
To view the latest entries in a log:
$ tail log-file
You can use the serveradmin getLogPaths command to see where the current QTSS
error and activity logs are located.
To display the log paths:
$ sudo serveradmin command qtss:command = getLogPaths
The computer will respond with the following output:
qtss:accessLog = <access-log>
qtss:errorLog = <error-log>
Value
Description
<access-log>
The location of the QTSS service access log.
Default = /Library/QuickTimeStreaming/Logs/
StreamingServer.log
<error-log>
The location of the QTSS service error log.
Default = /Library/QuickTimeStreaming/Logs/
Error.log
Forcing QTSS to Reread its Preferences
You can force QTSS to reread its preferences without restarting the server. You must log
in as root to perform this task.
To force QTSS to reread its preferences:
1 List the QTSS processes:
$ ps -ax | grep QuickTimeStreamingServer
You should see a list similar to the following:
949
??
Ss
0:00.00 /usr/sbin/QuickTimeStreamingServer
950
??
S
0:00.13 /usr/sbin/QuickTimeStreamingServer
S+
0:00.00 grep QuickTimeStreamingServer
965 std
2 Find the larger of the two process IDs (PIDs) for the QuickTimeStreamingServer
processes (in this case, 950).
3 Send a HUP signal to this process:
$ kill -HUP 950
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Preparing Older Home Folders for User Streaming
If you want to enable QTSS home folder streaming for home folders created using an
earlier version of Mac OS X Server (before version 10.3), you need to set up the
necessary streaming media folder in each user’s home folder. You can use the
createuserstreamingdir tool to set up the needed Sites/Streaming/ folder.
To set up Sites/Streaming/ in older home folders:
$ createuserstreamingdir user
Parameter
Description
user
The user in whose home folder the Sites/Streaming/ folder is
created.
Configuring Streaming Security
A certain level of security is inherent in real-time streaming, since content is delivered
only as the client needs it and no files remain afterward. But other security issues
usually need to be addressed. Aspects of streaming security covered in this section
include:
 Setting up password protection for content
 Configuring qtaccess to limit access to the media folder
Resetting the Streaming Server Admin User Name and Password
If you forget the Streaming Server Admin user name and password, you can reset them.
To reset the user name and password:
1 Log in to the server computer as root, open a Terminal window, and enter the
following:
$ qtpasswd someUserName
where someUserName is a name of your choice.
2 Follow the prompts by entering the administrator user name and a password you want
to assign to the user someUserName.
3 Using a text editor, modify the /Library/QuickTimeStreaming/Config/qtgroups file.
For Windows, modify the c:\Program Files\Darwin Streaming Server\qtgroups file.
For other supported platforms, modify the /etc/streaming/qtgroups file. Modify the
file so that the user name you just created or modified is included in the group Admin,
as follows:
admin: someUserName
4 Save the file as ordinary text (not as .rtf or any other file format).
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Controlling Access to Streamed Media
You can set up authentication to control client access to streamed media files.
Two schemes of authentication are supported: basic and digest. By default, the server
uses the more secure digest authentication.
You can also control playlist access and administrator access to your streaming server.
Authentication does not control access to media streamed from a relay server.
The administrator of the relay server must set up authentication for relayed media.
The ability to manage user access is built into the streaming server, so it is always
enabled.
For access control to work, an access file must be present in the folder you selected as
your media folder. If an access file is not present in the streaming server media folder,
all clients are allowed access to the media in the folder.
To set up access control:
1 Use the qtpasswd tool to create new user accounts with passwords.
2 Create an access file and place it in the media folder that you want to protect.
3 If you want to disable authentication for a media folder, remove the access file
(called qtaccess) or rename it (for example, qtaccess.disabled).
Creating an Access File
An access file is a text file called qtaccess that contains information about users and
groups that are authorized to view media in the folder in which the access file is stored.
The folder you use to store streamed media can contain other folders, and each folder
can have its own access file. When a user tries to view a media file, the server checks for
an access file to see whether the user is authorized to view the media. The server looks
first in the folder where the media file is located. If an access file is not found, it looks in
the enclosing folder. The first access file that’s found is used to determine whether the
user is authorized to view the media file. The access file for the streaming server works
like the Apache web server access file.
You can create an access file with any text editor. The filename must be qtaccess and
the file can contain some or all of the following information:
AuthName message
AuthUserFile user filename
AuthGroupFile group filename
require user username1 username2
require group groupname1 groupname2
require valid-user
require any-user
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Terms not in angle brackets are keywords. Anything in angle brackets is information
you supply. Save the access file as plain text (not as .rtf or any other file format).
Parameter
Description
message
Text your users see when the login window appears. It’s optional. If
your message contains any white space (such as a space character
between terms), make sure you enclose the entire message in
quotation marks.
user filename
The path and filename of the user file.
 For Mac OS X, the default is /Library/QuickTimeStreaming/Config/
qtusers.
 For Windows, it is c:\Program Files\Darwin Streaming
Server\qtusers.
 For other supported platforms, it is: /etc/streaming/qtusers.
group filename
The path and filename of the group file.
 For Mac OS X, the default is /Library/QuickTimeStreaming/Config/
qtgroups.
 For Windows, it is c:\Program Files\Darwin Streaming
Server\qtgroups.
 For other supported platforms, it is /etc/streaming/qtgroups.
A group file is optional. If you have many users, it may be easier to
set up one or more groups, and then enter the group names, than
to list each user.
username
A user who is authorized to log in and view the media file. The
user’s name must be in the user file you specified. You can also
specify valid-user, which designates any valid user.
groupname
A group whose members are authorized to log in and view the
media file. The group and its members must be listed in the group
file you specified.
You can use these additional user tags:
 valid-user is any user defined in the qtusers file. The statement require validuser specifies that any authenticated user in the qtusers file can have access to the
media files. If this tag is used, the server will prompt users for an appropriate user
name and password.
 any-user allows any user to view media without providing a name or password.
You can also add the keyword AuthScheme with the values basic or digest to a
qtaccess file. This overrides the global authentication setting on a folderfolder-byfolder basis.
If you make changes to the default qtaccess access file, be aware that making any
changes to broadcast user settings in Streaming Server Admin will modify the default
qtaccess file at the root level of the Movies folder. Any modifications you made prior to
this will not be preserved.
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Accessing Protected Media
Users must have QuickTime 5 or later to access a media file for which digest
authentication is enabled. If your streaming server is set up to use basic authentication,
users need QuickTime 4.1 or later. Users must enter their user names and passwords to
view the media file. Users who try to access a media file with an earlier version of
QuickTime will see the error message 401: Unauthorized.
Adding User Accounts and Passwords
You can add a user account and password if you log in to the server computer.
To add a user account:
1 Enter the following:
$ sudo qtpasswd -f user filename user-name
2 Enter a password for the user and reenter it when prompted.
Adding or Deleting Groups
You can edit the /Library/QuickTimeStreaming/Config/qtgroups file with any text editor
as long as it follows this format:
groupname: user-name1 user-name2 user-name3
For Windows, the path is c:\Program Files\Darwin Streaming Server\qtgroups. For other
supported platforms, it is /etc/streaming/qtgroups.
To add or delete a group, edit the group file you set up.
Making Changes to the User or Group File
You can make changes to the user or group file if you log in to the server computer.
To delete a user from a user or group file:
1 Log in to the server computer as administrator, and use a text editor to open the user
or group file.
2 Delete the user name and encrypted passwords line from the user file.
3 Delete the user name from the group file.
To change a user password:
1 Enter the following:
$ sudo qtpasswd user-name
2 Enter a new password for the user. The password you enter replaces the password in
the file.
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Manipulating QuickTime and MP4 Movies
You can use the qtmedia tool to manipulate QuickTime and MP4 movies. You can add
hint tracks, prepare for “fast-start,” and edit annotations. For more information, run the
qtmedia tool to display the command-line options.
Creating Reference Movies
You can use the qtref tool to create reference movies that can be used to embed
QuickTime content in Web pages. You can use the following options with qtref.
Parameter
Description
-r
Create QuickTime Atom ref movie with extension .qtl
-t
Create XML text ref movie with extension .qtl
-a
Create alternate data rate movie with extension .qtl
For more information about using qtref, enter the command without any arguments
to display usage information.
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17
Configuring System Logging
17
In this chapter you will find commands you can use to
configure and manage system logging.
Logging System Events
Logs are text files that form a record of what has occurred on the system, much like a
journal.
Configuring the Log File
Log files are maintained in the /Library/Logs/ and /var/log/ folders. Some commonly
monitored log files include console.log and system.log. Applications may have their
own log files located in different folders. Console.log is located in /Library/Logs/
Console/uid, where uid is the user ID. The console.log file contains recent console
activity. System.log is located in /var/log/ and contains all system activity, including
console log information.
Configuring Your System Logging
The configuration file for the system logging daemon, syslogd, is /etc/syslog.conf.
Each line within /etc/syslog.conf consists of text containing three types of data:
 Facility: categories of log messages. The standard facilities include mail, news, user,
and kern (kernel).
 Priority: urgency of the message. In order from least to most critical, they are: debug,
info, notice, warning, err, crit, alert, and emerg. The priority of the log message is
set by the application sending it, not by syslogd.
 Action: specifies what to do with a log message of a specific facility and priority.
Messages can be sent to files, named pipes, devices, or to a remote host.
The following example line specifies that for any log messages in the category mail,
with a priority of emerg or higher, the message will be written to the /var/log/mail.log
file:
mail.emerg /var/log/mail.log
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The facility and priority are separated by a single period, and these are separated from
the action by one or more tabs. Wildcards (“*”) may also be used in the configuration
file. The following example line logs all messages of any facility or priority to the file
/var/log/all.log:
*.* /var/log/all.log
See the syslog.conf man page for information about the configuration of this file.
Local Logging
The default configuration in /etc/syslog.conf is appropriate for a Mac OS X Server
system if a remote log server is not available. The computer is set to rotate log files
using a cron job at the time intervals specified in the file /etc/crontab. Rotation entails
compressing the current log file, incrementing the integer in the filename of
compressed log files, and creating a new log file for new messages. For example, the
following files were created in the /var/log/ folder:
system.log
system.log.0.gz
system.log.1.gz
system.log.2.gz
system.log.3.gz
system.log.4.gz
The log files are rotated by a cron job, and the rotation will only occur if the computer
is on when the job is scheduled. By default, the log rotation tasks are scheduled for
very early in the morning (for example, 4:30 a.m. on Saturday) in order to be as
unobtrusive as possible. If the computer will not be on at this time, adjust the settings
in /etc/crontab.
For example, the following line shows the default for running the weekly log rotation
script, which is configured for 4:15 a.m. on the last day of the week, Saturday (Sunday is
0). An asterisk denotes “any,” so a line of all asterisks would execute every minute.
DayOf DayOf
#Minute Hour Month Month Week User Command
15 4 * * 6 root periodic weekly
The following line would change the time to 12:15 p.m. on Tuesday, when the computer
is much more likely to be on:
DayOf DayOf
#Minute Hour Month Month Week User Command
15 12 * * 2 root periodic weekly
See the crontab man page for more information about editing the /etc/crontab file.
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Remote Logging
Using remote logging in addition to local logging is strongly recommended for any
server system, because local logs can easily be altered if the system is compromised.
Several security issues must also be considered when making the decision to use
remote logging. First, the syslog process sends log messages as clear text, which could
expose sensitive information. Second, too many log messages may fill storage space on
the logging system, making further logging impossible. Third, log files can indicate
suspicious activity only if a baseline of normal activity has been established, and if they
are regularly monitored for such activity. If these security issues outweigh the security
benefit of remote logging for the network being configured, then remote logging
should not be used.
Configuring Remote Logging on a Client Computer
To configure a client computer for remote logging, you must alter the syslog.conf
configuration file. The following instructions assume that a remote log server has been
configured on the network.
To enable remote logging on a client computer:
1 Open the /etc/syslog.conf file as root.
2 Add the following line to the top of the file, replacing your.log.server with the name or
IP address of the log server. Make sure to keep all other lines intact:
*.* @your.log.server
3 Exit, saving changes.
4 Send a hangup signal to syslogd to make it reload the configuration file:
$ sudo killall - HUP syslogd
Configuring Remote Logging on a Server
The remote logging software included with Mac OS X Server is the syslog daemon
syslogd. This service accepts and stores log messages from other systems on the
network. In the event that another system is compromised, its local logs can be altered,
so the log server may contain the only accurate system records. Remote logging should
only be enabled across a trusted internal network or VPN. By default, Mac OS X Server
performs only local logging and will not act as a log server.
Configuring Mac OS X Server to act as a remote log server involves changing the
syslogd command-line arguments. Enabling remote logging services requires removal
of the -s tag from the syslogd tool, which allows any host to send traffic via UDP to
the logging computer, which can present security risks. In order to better control what
hosts are allowed to send logging message traffic, the -a option should be used to
ensure that log messages from only certain IP addresses are accepted. The -a option
may be used multiple times to specify additional hosts. The -a option should be
followed with an address in the following format:
-a ipaddress/masklen[:service]
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283
This format is the IPv4 address with a mask bit length. Optionally, the service can be a
name or number of the UDP port the source packet must belong to. When using the
-a option, do not omit the masklen portion, as the default masklen may be very small
and the corresponding matching addresses could, therefore, be almost anything.
The default [:service] is syslog, which should not need to be changed. For example,
match a subnet of 255 hosts as follows:
-a 192.168.1.0/24
or match a single host like this:
-a 192.168.1.23/32
It is also possible to specify host names or domain names instead of IP addresses,
but this is not recommended.
To configure Mac OS X Server as a log server that accepts log messages from other
systems on the network:
1 Open /etc/rc and locate the following line:
/usr/sbin/syslogd -s -m 0
2 Replacing the IP address after -a with your network information, change the line to:
/usr/sbin/syslogd -n -a 192.168.1.0/24
The -n option disables DNS lookups.
3 Insert this command as the next to last line of the file, right before the “exit 0” line:
killall -HUP syslogd #re-load configuration
exit 0
contains features not documented in its man page. A more recent man page
that fully describes its features is available at www.freebsd.org/cgi/
man.cgi?query=syslogd.
syslogd
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Appendix
PCI RAID Card Command
Reference
In this appendix you will find information about the megaraid
command, used for managing a PCI RAID Card.
The megaraid tool uses are described in the following table, along with parameter
explanations.
megaraid -alarm -on | -off | -silence
Turns the alarm on, off, or to silence. When the alarm is set to silence, it turns off for the current failure,
but will turn on again for the next failure.
megaraid -changepolicy ld [-writecache enable | disable] [-readahead on |
off | adaptive] [-iopolicy direct | cached] [-log file]
Changes the policy of an existing logical drive. The parameter ld is the logical drive ID. This option
applies to all RAID levels; however, the policies apply only to individual logical drives.
megaraid -changestate pd -online | -fail [-log file]
Changes the state of an existing physical drive to online or fail.
megaraid -chkcon ld -start | -stop | -status [-log file]
Starts, stops, or checks the status (percentage of progress) of a consistency check for a particular
logical drive. The parameter ld is the logical drive ID.
megaraid -create auto [-numld n] [-log file]
Automatically destroys all current configured logical drives and creates a RAID level based on the
physical drive or drives present. It can create from 1 to 40 logical drives, depending on the number of
logical drives (numld n) parameter. By default numld is 1.
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megaraid -create R0 | R1 | R5 -drive { 0 1 2 3} [-stripesize n]
[-size x] [-writecache enable | disable] [-readahead on | off | adaptive]
[-iopolicy direct | cached] [-log file]
Creates a logical drive and adds it to the existing configuration. The RAID level and participating
physical drives’ parameters are required. All other parameters are optional. If size is not specified,
the remaining size of the array will automatically be used. If the stripesize and iopolicy
parameters are not specified, the default values are used. The stripesize parameter is in kilobytes,
and valid stripe sizes are 16, 32, 64, and 128 kilobytes. The size parameter is in megabytes.
You cannot create a logical drive smaller than100 MB. After you create a logical drive, you can change
the cache policy using the changepolicy command.
Default values are as follows:
 stripesize: 64K
 writecache: disabled
 readcache: off
 iopolicy: direct
megaraid -destroyconfig [-yes] [-log file]
Clears the configuration. If you don’t specify the yes parameter, the computer prompts for
confirmation before clearing the configuration.
megaraid -flash flashFileName [-log file]
Flashes new firmware from the flash file to the adapter. The new firmware becomes operational only
after the computer is restarted.
megaraid -initialize ld -start | -stop | -status [-log file]
Initializes, starts, stops, or displays the status (percentage of progress) of a particular logical drive.
The parameter ld is the logical drive ID.
megaraid -rebuild pd -start | -stop | -status [-log file]
Rebuilds, starts, stops, or displays the status of a particular physical drive. The parameter pd is the
physical drive ID.
megaraid -showadapter [-log file]
Displays information about the adapter, including product identification, battery status, number of
logical drives created, cache size, and more.
megaraid -showconfig [ld] [-log file]
Displays the RAID configuration of the computer, including logical drive ID, RAID level, size, status,
and participating physical drives. The logical drive status can be failed, degraded, or optimal.
You cannot access a failed logical drive or recover data from it. You can access all data on a degraded
logical drive (without a failure) even if all the attached physical drives are not in good condition.
A degraded logical drive state does not apply to RAID 0, because RAID 0 is not a redundant array.
A logical drive reported to be in the optimal state is in perfect condition.
megaraid -showdevices [-log file]
Displays all drives connected to the PCI RAID Card. The command displays drive ID, identification, size,
status, and any SMART alerts. The status of a drive is reported as online, failed, ready, hotspare,
or not responding.
megaraid -spare pd -create | -delete [-log file]
Creates or deletes a global hot spare. You can create hot spares from a pool of ready drives.
After deletion, a hot spare drive becomes a ready drive. The parameter pd is the physical drive ID.
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PCI RAID Card Command Reference
Note: See the megaraid man page for more information. You can also use all megaraid
commands with a [-log file] parameter, which logs all the displayed information
with date and time in the file you specify.
Appendix
PCI RAID Card Command Reference
287
288
Appendix
PCI RAID Card Command Reference
Glossary
Glossary
This glossary defines terms and spells out abbreviations you may encounter while
working with online help or the various reference manuals for Mac OS X Server.
References to terms defined elsewhere in the glossary appear in italics.
administrator A user with server or directory domain administration privileges.
Administrators are always members of the predefined “admin” group.
AFP Apple Filing Protocol. A client/server protocol used by Apple file service on
Macintosh-compatible computers to share files and network services. AFP uses TCP/IP
and other protocols to communicate between computers on a network.
BIND Berkeley Internet Name Domain. The program included with Mac OS X Server
that implements DNS. The program is also called the name daemon, or named, when
the application is running.
boot ROM Low-level instructions used by a computer in the first stages of starting up.
BSD Berkeley System Distribution. A version of UNIX on which Mac OS X software is
based.
canonical name The “real” name of a server when you’ve given it a “nickname” or alias.
For example, mail.apple.com might have a canonical name of MailSrv473.apple.com.
CGI Common Gateway Interface. A script or program that adds dynamic functions to a
website. A CGI sends information back and forth between a website and an application
that provides a service for the site.
child A computer that gets configuration information from the shared directory
domain of a parent.
computer account See computer list.
computer list A list of computers that have the same preference settings and are
available to the same users and groups.
289
DHCP Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol. A protocol used to dynamically distribute
IP addresses to client computers. Each time a client computer starts up, the protocol
looks for a DHCP server and then requests an IP address from the DHCP server it finds.
The DHCP server checks for an available IP address and sends it to the client computer
along with a lease period—the length of time the client computer may use the
address.
directory domain A specialized database that stores authoritative information about
users and network resources; the information is needed by system software and
applications. The database is optimized to handle many requests for information and to
find and retrieve information quickly. Also called a directory node or simply a directory.
directory domain hierarchy A way of organizing local and shared directory domains.
A hierarchy has an inverted tree structure, with a root domain at the top and local
domains at the bottom.
directory node See directory domain.
directory services Services that provide system software and applications with
uniform access to directory domains and other sources of information about users and
resources.
disk image A file that, when opened, creates an icon on a Mac OS desktop that looks
and acts like an actual disk or volume. Using NetBoot, client computers can start up
over the network from a server-based disk image that contains system software.
Disk image files have a filename extension of either .img or .dmg. The two image
formats are similar and are represented with the same icon in the Finder. The .dmg
format cannot be used on computers running Mac OS 9.
DNS Domain Name System. A distributed database that maps IP addresses to domain
names. A DNS server, also known as a name server, keeps a list of names and the IP
addresses associated with each name.
dynamic IP address An IP address that’s assigned for a limited period of time or until
the client computer no longer needs it.
everyone Any user who can log in to a file server: a registered user or guest, an
anonymous FTP user, or a website visitor.
filter A “screening” method used to control access to a server. A filter is made up of an
IP address and a subnet mask, and sometimes a port number and access type. The IP
address and the subnet mask together determine the range of IP addresses to which
the filter applies.
firewall Software that protects the network applications running on your server. IP
firewall service, which is part of Mac OS X Server software, scans incoming IP packets
and rejects or accepts these packets based on a set of filters you create.
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Glossary
FTP File Transfer Protocol. A protocol that allows computers to transfer files over a
network. FTP clients using any operating system that supports FTP can connect to a file
server and download files, depending on their access privileges. Most Internet browsers
and a number of freeware applications can be used to access an FTP server.
full name See long name.
group A collection of users who have similar needs. Groups simplify the administration
of shared resources.
group folder A folder that organizes documents and applications of special interest to
group members and allows group members to pass information back and forth among
themselves.
guest computer An unknown computer that isn’t included in a computer list on your
server.
guest user A user who can log in to your server without a user name or password.
home folder A folder for a user’s personal use. Mac OS X also uses the home folder,
for example, to store system preferences and managed user settings for Mac OS X
users.
HTML Hypertext Markup Language. The set of symbols or codes inserted in a file to be
displayed on a World Wide Web browser page. The markup tells the web browser how
to display a webpage’s words and images for the user.
HTTP Hypertext Transfer Protocol. The client/server protocol for the World Wide Web.
The HTTP protocol provides a way for a web browser to access a web server and
request hypermedia documents created using HTML.
ICMP Internet Control Message Protocol. A message control and error-reporting
protocol used between host servers and gateways. For example, some Internet
software applications use ICMP to send a packet on a round trip between two hosts to
determine round-trip times and discover problems on the network.
idle user A user who is connected to the server but hasn’t used the server volume for a
period of time.
IMAP Internet Message Access Protocol. A client-server mail protocol that allows users
to store their mail on the mail server rather than download it to the local computer.
Mail remains on the server until the user deletes it.
IP Internet Protocol. Also known as IPv4. A method used with Transmission Control
Protocol (TCP) to send data between computers over a local network or the Internet.
IP delivers packets of data, while TCP keeps track of data packets.
Glossary
291
IP subnet A portion of an IP network, which may be a physically independent network
segment, that shares a network address with other portions of the network and is
identified by a subnet number.
ISP Internet service provider. A business that sells Internet access and often provides
web hosting for ecommerce applications as well as mail services.
Kerberos A secure network authentication system. Kerberos uses tickets, which are
issued for a specific user, service, and period of time. Once a user is authenticated, it’s
possible to access additional services without retyping a password (this is called single
sign-on) for services that have been configured to take Kerberos tickets. Mac OS X
Server uses Kerberos v5.
Kerberos realm The authentication domain comprising the users and services that are
registered with the same Kerberos server. The registered services and users trust the
Kerberos server to verify each other’s identities.
LDAP Lightweight Directory Access Protocol. A standard client-server protocol for
accessing a directory domain.
lease period A limited period of time during which IP addresses are assigned. By using
short leases, DHCP can reassign IP addresses on networks that have more computers
than available IP addresses.
load balancing The process of distributing client computers’ requests for network
services across multiple servers to optimize performance.
local domain A directory domain that can be accessed only by the computer on which
it resides.
local home folder A home folder that resides on disk on the computer a user is logged
in to. It’s accessible only by logging directly into the computer where it resides unless
you log in to the computer using SSH.
local hostname A name that designates a computer on a local subnet. It can be used
without a global DNS system to resolve names to IP addresses. It consists of lowercase
letters, numbers, or hyphens (except as the last characters), and ends with “.local” (for
example, bills-computer.local). Although the name is derived by default from the
computer name, a user can specify this name in the Network pane of System
Preferences. It can be changed easily, and can be used anywhere a DNS name or fully
qualified domain name is used. It can only resolve on the same subnet as the computer
using it.
long name The long form of a user or group name. See also user name.
LPR Line Printer Remote. A standard protocol for printing over TCP/IP.
292
Glossary
mail host The computer that provides your mail service.
managed client A user, group, or computer whose access privileges and/or
preferences are under administrative control.
managed network The items managed clients are allowed to “see” when they click the
Network icon in a Finder window. Administrators control this setting using Workgroup
Manager. Also called a “network view.”
managed preferences System or application preferences that are under administrative
control. Workgroup Manager allows administrators to control settings for certain
system preferences for Mac OS X managed clients.
MIME Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions. An Internet standard for specifying how a
web browser handles a file with certain characteristics. A file’s suffix describes its type.
You determine how the server responds when it receives files with certain suffixes.
Each suffix and its associated response make up a MIME type mapping.
MTA Mail Transfer Agent. A mail service that sends outgoing mail, receives incoming
mail for local recipients, and forwards incoming mail of nonlocal recipients to other
MTAs.
multicast DNS A protocol developed by Apple for automatic discovery of computers,
devices, and services on IP networks. Called “Bonjour” (previously “Rendezvous”) by
Apple, this proposed Internet standard protocol is sometimes referred to as “ZeroConf”
or “multicast DNS.” For more information, visit www.apple.com or www.zeroconf.org.
To see how this protocol is used in Mac OS X Server, see local hostname.
multihoming The ability to support multiple network connections. When more than
one connection is available, Mac OS X selects the best connection according to the
order specified in Network preferences.
MX record Mail exchange record. An entry in a DNS table that specifies which
computer manages mail for an Internet domain. When a mail server has mail to
deliver to an Internet domain, the mail server requests the MX record for the domain.
The server sends the mail to the computer specified in the MX record.
name server A server on a network that keeps a list of names and the IP addresses
associated with each name. See also DNS, WINS.
NetBIOS Network Basic Input/Output System. An application that allows applications
on different computers to communicate within a local area network.
NetBoot server A Mac OS X server on which you’ve installed NetBoot software and
have configured to allow clients to start up from disk images on the server.
NetInfo One of the Apple protocols for accessing a directory domain.
Glossary
293
NFS Network File System. A client/server protocol that uses Internet Protocol (IP) to
allow remote users to access files as though they were local. NFS exports shared
volumes to computers according to IP address, rather than user name and password.
nfsd daemon An NFS server process that runs continuously behind the scenes and
processes read and write requests from clients. The more daemons that are available,
the more concurrent clients can be served.
Open Directory The Apple directory services architecture, which can access
authoritative information about users and network resources from directory domains
that use LDAP, NetInfo, or Active Directory protocols; BSD configuration files; and
network services.
Open Directory master A server that provides LDAP directory service, Kerberos
authentication service, and Open Directory Password Server.
open relay A server that receives and automatically forwards mail to another server.
Junk mail senders exploit open relay servers to avoid having their own mail servers
blacklisted as sources of junk mail.
ORBS Open Relay Behavior-modification System. An Internet service that blacklists
mail servers known to be or suspected of being open relays for senders of junk mail.
ORBS servers are also known as “black-hole” servers.
owner The owner of an item can set Read & Write, Read only, or No Access permissions
for Owner; Group; and Others. The owner also can assign ownership of an item to
another user, and Group privileges to another group. By default the owner has Read &
Write permissions.
parent A computer whose shared directory domain provides configuration
information to another computer.
PHP PHP Hypertext Preprocessor (originally Personal Home Page). A scripting
language embedded in HTML that’s used to create dynamic webpages.
POP Post Office Protocol. A protocol for retrieving incoming mail. After a user retrieves
POP mail, it’s stored on the user’s computer and is usually deleted automatically from
the mail server.
predefined accounts User accounts that are created automatically when you install
Mac OS X. Some group accounts are also predefined.
preferences cache A storage place for computer preferences and preferences for
groups associated with that computer. Cached preferences help you manage local user
accounts on portable computers.
294
Glossary
presets Initial default attributes you specify for new accounts you create using
Workgroup Manager. You can use presets only during account creation.
primary group A user’s default group. The file system uses the ID of the primary group
when a user accesses a file he or she doesn’t own.
primary group ID A unique number that identifies a primary group.
print queue An orderly waiting area where print jobs wait until a printer is available.
The print service in Mac OS X Server uses print queues on the server to facilitate
management.
privileges The right to access restricted areas of a system or perform certain tasks
(such as management tasks) in the system.
proxy server A server that sits between a client application, such as a web browser,
and a real server. The proxy server intercepts all requests to the real server to see if it
can fulfill the requests itself. If not, it forwards the request to the real server.
QTSS QuickTime Streaming Server. A technology that lets you deliver media over the
Internet in real time.
realm General term with multiple applications. See WebDAV realm, Kerberos realm.
relay In QuickTime Streaming Server, a relay receives an incoming stream and then
forwards that stream to one or more streaming servers. Relays can reduce Internet
bandwidth consumption and are useful for broadcasts with numerous viewers in
different locations. In Internet mail terms, a relay is a mail SMTP server that sends
incoming mail to another SMTP server, but not to its final destination.
relay point See open relay.
RTP Real-Time Transport Protocol. An end-to-end network-transport protocol suitable
for applications transmitting real-time data (such as audio, video, or simulation data)
over multicast or unicast network services.
RTSP Real-Time Streaming Protocol. An application-level protocol for controlling the
delivery of data with real-time properties. RTSP provides an extensible framework to
enable controlled, on-demand delivery of real-time data, such as audio and video.
Sources of data can include both live data feeds and stored clips.
scope A group of services. A scope can be a logical grouping of computers, such as all
computers used by the production department, or a physical grouping, such as all
computers located on the first floor. You can define a scope as part or all of your
network.
Glossary
295
SDP Session Description Protocol. A text file used with QuickTime Streaming Server
that provides information about the format, timing, and authorship of a live streaming
broadcast and gives the user’s computer instructions for tuning in.
search path See search policy.
search policy A list of directory domains searched by a Mac OS X computer when it
needs configuration information; also the order in which domains are searched.
Sometimes called a search path.
shadow image A file created by the NetBoot daemon process for each NetBooted
client where applications running on the client can write temporary data.
share point A folder, hard disk (or hard disk partition), or CD that’s accessible over the
network. A share point is the point of access at the top level of a group of shared items.
Share points can be shared using AFP, Windows SMB, NFS (an “export”), or FTP
protocols.
short name An abbreviated name for a user. The short name is used by Mac OS X for
home folders, authentication, and email addresses.
Simplified Finder A user environment featuring panels and large icons that provide
novice users with an easy-to-navigate interface. Mounted volumes or media to which
users are allowed access appear on panels instead of on the standard desktop.
SLP DA Service Location Protocol Directory Agent. A protocol that registers services
available on a network and gives users easy access to them. When a service is added to
the network, the service uses SLP to register itself on the network. SLP/DA uses a
centralized repository for registered network services.
SMB/CIFS Server Message Block/Common Internet File System. A protocol that allows
client computers to access files and network services. It can be used over TCP/IP, the
Internet, and other network protocols. Windows services use SMB/CIFS to provide
access to servers, printers, and other network resources.
SMTP Simple Mail Transfer Protocol. A protocol used to send and transfer mail.
Its ability to queue incoming messages is limited, so SMTP usually is used only to send
mail, and POP or IMAP is used to receive mail.
SNMP Simple Network Management Protocol. A set of standard protocols used to
manage and monitor multiplatform computer network devices.
spam Unsolicited email; junk mail.
SSL Secure Sockets Layer. An Internet protocol that allows you to send encrypted,
authenticated information across the Internet. More recent versions of SSL are known
as Transport Level Security (TLS).
296
Glossary
static IP address An IP address that’s assigned to a computer or device once and is
never changed.
subnet A grouping on the same network of client computers that are organized by
location (different floors of a building, for example) or by usage (all eighth-grade
students, for example). The use of subnets simplifies administration. See also IP subnet.
system-less client A computer that doesn’t have an operating system installed on its
local hard disk. System-less computers can start up from a disk image on a NetBoot
server.
TCP Transmission Control Protocol. A method used along with the Internet Protocol
(IP) to send data in the form of message units between computers over the Internet.
IP takes care of handling the actual delivery of the data, and TCP takes care of keeping
track of the individual units of data (called packets) into which a message is divided for
efficient routing through the Internet.
Tomcat The official reference implementation for Java Servlet 2.2 and JavaServer Pages
1.1, two complementary technologies developed under the Java Community Process.
TTL Time-to-live. The specified length of time that DNS information is stored in a
cache. When a domain name-IP address pair has been cached longer than the TTL
value, the entry is deleted from the name server’s cache (but not from the primary DNS
server).
UDP User Datagram Protocol. A communications method that uses the Internet
Protocol (IP) to send a data unit (called a datagram) from one computer to another in a
network. Network applications that have very small data units to exchange may use
UDP rather than TCP.
UID User ID. A number that uniquely identifies a user within a file system. Mac OS X
computers use the UID to keep track of a user’s folder and file ownership.
Unicode A standard that assigns a unique number to every character, regardless of
language or the operating system used to display the language.
URL Uniform Resource Locator. The address of a computer, file, or resource that can be
accessed on a local network or the Internet. The URL is made up of the name of the
protocol needed to access the resource, a domain name that identifies a specific
computer on the Internet, and a hierarchical description of a file location on the
computer.
user name The long name for a user, sometimes referred to as the user’s “real” name.
See also short name.
user profile The set of personal desktop and preference settings that Windows saves
for a user and applies each time the user logs in.
Glossary
297
virtual user An alternate email address (short name) for a user. Similar to an alias, but
it involves creating another user account.
VPN Virtual Private Network. A network that uses encryption and other technologies
to provide secure communications over a public network, typically the Internet. VPNs
are generally cheaper than real private networks using private lines but rely on having
the same encryption system at both ends. The encryption may be performed by
firewall software or by routers.
WebDAV Web-based Distributed Authoring and Versioning. A live authoring
environment that allows client users to check out webpages, make changes, and then
check the pages back in while a site is running.
WebDAV realm A region of a website, usually a folder or directory, that’s defined to
provide access for WebDAV users and groups.
wildcard A range of possible values for any segment of an IP address.
WINS Windows Internet Naming Service. A name resolution service used by Windows
computers to match client names with IP addresses. A WINS server can be located on
the local network or externally on the Internet.
workgroup A set of users for whom you define preferences and privileges as a group.
Any preferences you define for a group are stored in the group account.
298
Glossary
Index
Index
A
C
ab tool 213
access 36
accounts 97
administrator 98
group 110
mobile user 108
modifying user 107
removing users 103
securing 126
ACL (access control list) 157
addsite script 212
AFP (Apple Filing Protocol)
canceling user disconnect 143
changing service settings 137
checking service status 136
disconnecting users 142
listing connected users 141
sending user message 142
service settings 137
starting service 136
stopping service 136
viewing service logs 145
viewing service settings 136
viewing service statistics 144
AirPort settings 78
Apache Tomcat 214
Apache web server 207, 209
performance tuning 213
Apple Filing Protocol. See AFP
AppleTalk settings 72
asr tool 95
restoring images 177
case-sensitive file system 88
certadmin tool 200
certificate file 198–200
certificates
managing 200
purchasing 200
certtool tool 198, 200
changeip tool 67
chgrp tool 126
chmod tool
ACL 158
changing permissions 125
chown tool 126
command editing shortcuts 26
command not found message 25
computer name 57, 79
configd daemon 80
configuration file, server
creating 41
example 44
naming 41, 42
saving 41
connections
AFP 141
FTP 150
QTSS 272
SMB 155
createhomedir tool 109
cron tool 27
CSR (Certificate Signing Request) 198–200
CUPS (Common UNIX Printing System)
logs 164
lp 162
lpr 162
Cyrus 180
B
Backup
mail files 196
bless tool 54
Bonjour name 80
boot device, choosing 178
BootP
setting server to use 68
D
date, viewing or changing 57, 58
defaults tool 124
delay rebinding options, LDAP 255
df tool 85
299
DHCP (Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol)
adding a subnet 222
changing service settings 219
checking service status 218
service settings 219
set server to use 68
starting service 218
static map 223
stopping service 218
viewing service logs 224
viewing service settings 218
dial-in service, PPP 248
DirectoryServiceAttributes 252
DirectoryService daemon 252
disk journaling 91
disklabel tool 90
diskspacemonitor tool 85
diskutil tool 87
DNS (Domain Name System)
changing servers 69
changing service settings 226
checking service status 225
service settings 226
starting service 225
stopping service 225
viewing service logs 226
viewing service settings 225
viewing service statistics 226
Domain Name System. See DNS
dscl tool 47, 100, 251, 263
dsconfigad tool 265
dsconfigldap tool 265
dseditgroup tool 117, 264
dsimport tool 119–120
dsperfmonitor tool 252
Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol. See DHCP
E
energy saver settings 59
environment variables 24
env tool 24
error messages
command not found 25
executing commands 25
F
file system, case-sensitive 88
File Transfer Protocol. See FTP
fingerprint, RSA 33
Firewall service. See IPFilter service
fsck_hfs tool 90
fsck tool 91
FTP (File Transfer Protocol)
changing service settings 148
checking connections 150
300
Index
checking service status 147
service settings 148
starting service 147
stopping service 147
viewing service logs 150
viewing service settings 147
FTP proxy settings 76
G
Gopher proxy settings 77
grep tool 26
group
accounts 110
adding and removing user 113
creating 111
creating group folder 118
editing records 117
removing 113
H
hdiutil tool 95
image management 176
home folder, creating 109
host name 79
hup signal 274
I
ifconfig tool 63
link aggregation 71
image
booting from 176
updating 176
installer tool 37, 176
installing software 37
IP address
changing server’s address 66
validating 68
IP failover 245–248
ipfilter service
changing settings 229
checking status 228
configuration file 230
defining rules 230
settings 229
starting 228
stopping 228
viewing logs 234
viewing settings 228
IP forwarding 227
ipfw.conf file 230
ipfw tool 232
J
JBoss 214
journaling 91
K
kadmind daemon 262
kadmin tool 262
kdb5_util tool 261
kdcsetup tool 261
Kerberos 261
backing up 261
principal management 262
tools and utilities 261
kerberosautoconfig tool 261
keychain 198
killall tool 105, 283
kill tool 74, 274
known_hosts file 33
krb5kdc tool 262
L
launchd daemon 55
LDAP (Lightweight Directory Access Protocol) 253
and SASL 255
configuration file 255
delay rebinding options 255
idle timeout parameter 255
ldapsearch tool 255
parameter list 255
rebinding parameter 255
tools and utilities 254
ldapadd tool 254, 258
ldapcompare tool 254
ldapdelete tool 254
ldapmodify tool 254
ldapmodrdn tool 254
ldappasswd tool 254
ldapsearch tool 254, 255
ldapwhoami tool 254
log files
AFP service 145
DHCP service 224
DNS service 226
Firewall service 234
FTP service 150
IPFilter service 234
Mail service 195
NAT service 237
Print service 169
QTSS 274
reclaiming space 86
SMB/CIFS service 157
VPN service 242
Web service 210
logging
local logging 282
remote logging 283
system events 281
login, enabling remote 61
Index
lookupd daemon 131, 264
lpr tool 162
lp tool 162
M
MAC address 64
Mail backup 196
Mailman 180
Mail service
changing settings 181
checking status 181
reconstructing 197
settings 182
SSL 198
starting 181
stopping 181
viewing logs 195
viewing settings 181
viewing statistics 194
man pages
viewing 28
man tool 28
mdfind tool 93
mdls tool 93
mdutil tool 94
megaraid tool 285
mkpassdb tool 260
mount tool 84, 91
MySQL 215
N
NAT (Network Address Translation)
changing service settings 235
checking service status 235
port mapping 237
service settings 236
starting service 235
stopping service 235
viewing service logs 237
viewing service settings 235
NeST tool 259, 260
NetBoot service
changing settings 172
checking status 172
enabling NetBoot 1.0 175
filters record array 174
general settings 173
image record array 174
port record array 175
starting 171
stopping 171
storage record array 173
viewing settings 172
NetInfo tools and utilities 259
Network Address Translation. See NAT
301
Network File System. See NFS
network interface, settings 64
network port
configurations 65
settings 64
networksetup tool 47, 57, 64
network time server 57, 58
newfs tool 90
NFS (Network File System)
changing service settings 146
checking service status 146
starting and stopping service 146
viewing service settings 146
nicl tool 249, 259
nidump tool 259
nifind tool 259
nigrep tool 259
niload tool 259
nireport tool 259
nvram tool 54
booting from an image 176
O
Open Directory
data types 252
modifying a node 252
NetInfo 259
settings 252
SLP 252
testing configuration 251
testing plug-ins 252
Open firmware
booting from an image 176
Opening 21
P
passwd tool 102
password server 260
pdisk tool 89
pico tool 92
plug-ins, Open Directory 252
pmset tool 60
Point-to-Point Protocol. See PPP
Postfix agent 179
power failure
automatic restart 59
power management 60
PPP (Point-to-Point Protocol)
enabling dial-in service 248
pppd daemon 248
Print service
changing settings 163
checking status 163
holding jobs 168
302
Index
listing jobs 167
listing queues 167
pausing queues 167
queue data array 165
settings 164
starting 162
stopping 162
viewing logs 169
viewing settings 163
proxy settings
FTP 76
Gopher 77
SOCKS firewall 78
streaming 77
web 77
ps tool 74
listing QTSS processes 274
pwpolicy tool 130, 260
Q
qtmedia tool 279
qtpasswd tool 275
qtref tool 279
QTSS (QuickTime Streaming Server)
access control 276
changing settings 268
checking status 268
commands for managing 267
listing connections 272
logs 274
security 275
settings 269
starting 267
statistics 273
stopping 268
viewing settings 268
QuickTime Streaming Server. See QTSS
R
racoon daemon 243
RAID 94
rebinding options, LDAP 255
reconstruct tool 197
remote login, enabling 61
restart
automatic 59
checking if required 48
server 53
root privileges
sudo tool 26
su tool 26
RSA fingerprint 33
rsync tool 245
running tools 25
S
s2svpnadmin tool 243
sa_srchr tool 39
SASL
used by ldapsearch 255
scheduling tasks 27
scp tool 32
scripts
adding a website 212
scselect tool 82
scutil tool 80
Secure Shell (SSH) 31
man-in-the-middle attack 34
using 35
Secure Sockets Layer. See SSL
serial number, server software 49
server configuration file
example 44
naming 41, 42
saving 41
Server Message Block. See SMB/CIFS
servermgrd daemon 48
server setup
automating 40
moving server 51
remote 47
updating software 50
serversetup tool 64
usage notes 48
Service Location Protocol. See SLP
setkey tool 243
setting permissions 123
sftp tool 32
share points
creating 134
listing 134
updating SMB/CIFS service after change 157
sharing tool 134
shortcuts
typing commands 26
shutdown tool 54
restarting a server 53
Sieve scripting 202
Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP) 72
Single Sign-On 261
slapadd tool 254
slapcat tool 254
slapconfig tool 254
slapd daemon 254
slapindex tool 255
slappasswd tool 255
sleep settings 59
SLP (Service Location Protocol)
registering URLs 252
slp_reg tool 252
Index
slurpd daemon 254
SMB/CIFS service
changing service settings 152
checking service status 151
disconnecting users 156
listing service users 155
service settings 152
starting service 151
stopping service 151
viewing service logs 157
viewing service settings 151
viewing service statistics 156
snmpd agent 73
configuring 74
snmpget tool 76
snmpwalk tool 76
SOCKS firewall proxy settings 78
softwareupdate tool 50
Spotlight
enabling and disabling 92
sshd daemon 32
ssh-keygen tool 32
ssh tool 31, 35
SSL (Secure Sockets Layer) 48
using with Mail service 198
sso_util tool 261
startup disk 60
statistics
AFP 144
DNS 226
Mail service 194
QTSS 273
SMB/CIFS 156
Web service 210
streaming proxy settings 77
subnet mask
validating 68
sudo tool 26
su tool 26
sysctl tool 227
syslogd daemon 283
systemsetup tool 47, 57, 61
T
tail tool
viewing AFP service logs 145
viewing DHCP service logs 224
viewing DNS service logs 226
viewing FTP service logs 150
viewing IPFilter service logs 234
viewing Mail service logs 195
viewing NAT service logs 237
viewing Print service logs 169
viewing QTSS service logs 274
viewing SMB/CIFS service logs 157
303
viewing VPN service logs 242
viewing Web service logs 210
TCP/IP settings 66, 68
telnet tool 36
Terminal application 21
terminating commands 27
throughput. See statistics
time, viewing or changing 57, 58
time server 57, 58
time zone 57, 58
tools for remote configuration
dscl 47
networksetup 47
systemsetup 47
U
umount tool 84
user
administrator 98
nonadministrator 100
users
checking admin privileges 100
checking name, UID, or password 106
creating administrators 98
creating home folder 109
importing 119–122
V
Viewing 234
viewing command information 28
Virtual Private Network. See VPN
visudo tool 127
VLAN (Virtual Local Area Network) 70
volumes, mounting and unmounting 84
304
Index
VPN (Virtual Private Network)
changing service settings 239
checking service status 238
keyagent user 244
service settings 239
site-to-site 243
starting service 238
stopping service 238
viewing service logs 242
viewing service settings 238
vpnaddkeyagentuser tool 244
vpnd daemon 243
W
web proxy settings 77
Web service
changing settings 209
checking status 208
listing sites 210
script to add site 212
starting 208
stopping 208
viewing logs 210
viewing settings 208
viewing statistics 210
websites
script for adding 212
Windows service. See SMB/CIFS service
wireless local area network (WLAN). See AirPort
settings
X
xinetd daemon 217