Datasheet | ARM VERSION 1.2 Computer Hardware User Manual

ARM Developer Suite
®
Version 1.2
Assembler Guide
Copyright © 2000, 2001 ARM Limited. All rights reserved.
ARM DUI 0068B
ARM Developer Suite
Assembler Guide
Copyright © 2000, 2001 ARM Limited. All rights reserved.
Release Information
The following changes have been made to this book.
Change History
Date
Issue
Change
November 2000
A
Release 1.1
November 2001
B
Release 1.2
Proprietary Notice
Words and logos marked with ® or ™ are registered trademarks or trademarks owned by ARM Limited. Other
brands and names mentioned herein may be the trademarks of their respective owners.
Neither the whole nor any part of the information contained in, or the product described in, this document
may be adapted or reproduced in any material form except with the prior written permission of the copyright
holder.
The product described in this document is subject to continuous developments and improvements. All
particulars of the product and its use contained in this document are given by ARM in good faith. However,
all warranties implied or expressed, including but not limited to implied warranties of merchantability, or
fitness for purpose, are excluded.
This document is intended only to assist the reader in the use of the product. ARM Limited shall not be liable
for any loss or damage arising from the use of any information in this document, or any error or omission in
such information, or any incorrect use of the product.
ii
Copyright © 2000, 2001 ARM Limited. All rights reserved.
ARM DUI 0068B
Contents
ARM Developer Suite Assembler Guide
Preface
About this book .............................................................................................. vi
Feedback ....................................................................................................... ix
Chapter 1
Introduction
1.1
Chapter 2
Writing ARM and Thumb Assembly Language
2.1
2.2
2.3
2.4
2.5
2.6
2.7
2.8
2.9
2.10
2.11
Chapter 3
Introduction ................................................................................................. 2-2
Overview of the ARM architecture .............................................................. 2-3
Structure of assembly language modules ................................................. 2-12
Using the C preprocessor ......................................................................... 2-19
Conditional execution ................................................................................ 2-20
Loading constants into registers ............................................................... 2-25
Loading addresses into registers .............................................................. 2-30
Load and store multiple register instructions ............................................. 2-39
Using macros ............................................................................................ 2-48
Describing data structures with MAP and FIELD directives ...................... 2-51
Using frame directives ............................................................................... 2-66
Assembler Reference
3.1
ARM DUI 0068B
About the ARM Developer Suite assemblers .............................................. 1-2
Command syntax ........................................................................................ 3-2
Copyright © 2000, 2001 ARM Limited. All rights reserved.
iii
Contents
3.2
3.3
3.4
3.5
3.6
Chapter 4
ARM Instruction Reference
4.1
4.2
4.3
4.4
4.5
4.6
4.7
4.8
4.9
Chapter 5
Thumb
Thumb
Thumb
Thumb
Thumb
Thumb
memory access instructions ........................................................... 5-4
arithmetic instructions ................................................................... 5-15
general data processing instructions ............................................ 5-22
branch instructions ....................................................................... 5-31
software interrupt and breakpoint instructions .............................. 5-37
pseudo-instructions ...................................................................... 5-39
Vector Floating-point Programming
6.1
6.2
6.3
6.4
6.5
6.6
6.7
6.8
6.9
Chapter 7
Conditional execution ................................................................................. 4-4
ARM memory access instructions .............................................................. 4-6
ARM general data processing instructions ............................................... 4-23
ARM multiply instructions ......................................................................... 4-39
ARM saturating arithmetic instructions ..................................................... 4-55
ARM branch instructions .......................................................................... 4-57
ARM coprocessor instructions .................................................................. 4-62
Miscellaneous ARM instructions ............................................................... 4-71
ARM pseudo-instructions ......................................................................... 4-78
Thumb Instruction Reference
5.1
5.2
5.3
5.4
5.5
5.6
Chapter 6
Format of source lines ................................................................................ 3-8
Predefined register and coprocessor names .............................................. 3-9
Built-in variables ....................................................................................... 3-10
Symbols .................................................................................................... 3-12
Expressions, literals, and operators ......................................................... 3-18
The vector floating-point coprocessor ........................................................ 6-4
Floating-point registers ............................................................................... 6-5
Vector and scalar operations ...................................................................... 6-7
VFP and condition codes ............................................................................ 6-8
VFP system registers ............................................................................... 6-10
Flush-to-zero mode .................................................................................. 6-13
VFP instructions ....................................................................................... 6-15
VFP pseudo-instruction ............................................................................ 6-38
VFP directives and vector notation ........................................................... 6-40
Directives Reference
7.1
7.2
7.3
7.4
7.5
7.6
7.7
Alphabetical list of directives ...................................................................... 7-2
Symbol definition directives ........................................................................ 7-3
Data definition directives .......................................................................... 7-13
Assembly control directives ...................................................................... 7-26
Frame description directives ..................................................................... 7-33
Reporting directives .................................................................................. 7-44
Miscellaneous directives ........................................................................... 7-49
Glossary
iv
Copyright © 2000, 2001 ARM Limited. All rights reserved.
ARM DUI 0068B
Preface
This preface introduces the documentation for the ARM Developer Suite (ADS)
assemblers and assembly language. It contains the following sections:
•
About this book on page vi
•
Feedback on page ix.
ARM DUI 0068B
Copyright © 2000, 2001 ARM Limited. All rights reserved.
v
Preface
About this book
This book provides tutorial and reference information for the ADS assemblers (armasm,
the free-standing assembler, and inline assemblers in the C and C++ compilers). It
describes the command-line options to the assembler, the pseudo-instructions and
directives available to assembly language programmers, and the ARM, Thumb®, and
Vector Floating-point (VFP) instruction sets.
Intended audience
This book is written for all developers who are producing applications using ADS. It
assumes that you are an experienced software developer and that you are familiar with
the ARM development tools as described in ADS Getting Started.
Using this book
This book is organized into the following chapters:
Chapter 1 Introduction
Read this chapter for an introduction to the ADS version 1.2 assemblers
and assembly language.
Chapter 2 Writing ARM and Thumb Assembly Language
Read this chapter for tutorial information to help you use the ARM
assemblers and assembly language.
Chapter 3 Assembler Reference
Read this chapter for reference material about the syntax and structure of
the language provided by the ARM assemblers.
Chapter 4 ARM Instruction Reference
Read this chapter for reference material on the ARM instruction set.
Chapter 5 Thumb Instruction Reference
Read this chapter for reference material on the Thumb instruction set.
Chapter 6 Vector Floating-point Programming
Read this chapter for reference material on the VFP instruction set, and
other VFP-specific assembly language information.
Chapter 7 Directives Reference
Read this chapter for reference material on the assembler directives
available in the ARM assembler, armasm.
vi
Copyright © 2000, 2001 ARM Limited. All rights reserved.
ARM DUI 0068B
Preface
Typographical conventions
The following typographical conventions are used in this book:
monospace
Denotes text that can be entered at the keyboard, such as commands, file
and program names, and source code.
monospace
Denotes a permitted abbreviation for a command or option. The
underlined text can be entered instead of the full command or option
name.
monospace italic
Denotes arguments to commands and functions where the argument is to
be replaced by a specific value.
monospace bold
Denotes language keywords when used outside example code.
italic
Highlights important notes, introduces special terminology, denotes
internal cross-references, and citations.
bold
Highlights interface elements, such as menu names. Also used for
emphasis in descriptive lists, where appropriate, and for ARM processor
signal names.
Further reading
This section lists publications from both ARM Limited and third parties that provide
additional information on developing code for the ARM family of processors.
ARM periodically provides updates and corrections to its documentation. See
http://www.arm.com for current errata sheets and addenda.
See also the ARM Frequently Asked Questions list at:
http://www.arm.com/DevSupp/Sales+Support/faq.html
ARM publications
This book contains reference information that is specific to development tools supplied
with ADS. Other publications included in the suite are:
ARM DUI 0068B
•
ADS Installation and License Management Guide (ARM DUI 0139)
•
Getting Started (ARM DUI 0064)
•
ADS Compilers and Libraries Guide (ARM DUI 0067)
Copyright © 2000, 2001 ARM Limited. All rights reserved.
vii
Preface
•
ADS Linker and Utilities Guide (ARM DUI 0151)
•
CodeWarrior IDE Guide (ARM DUI 0065)
•
AXD and armsd Debuggers Guide (ARM DUI 0066)
•
ADS Debug Target Guide (ARM DUI 0058)
•
ADS Developer Guide (ARM DUI 0056)
•
ARM Applications Library Programmer’s Guide (ARM DUI 0081).
The following additional documentation is provided with the ARM Developer Suite:
•
ARM Architecture Reference Manual (ARM DDI 0100). This is supplied in
DynaText format as part of the online books, and in PDF format in
install_directory\PDF\ARM-DDI0100B_armarm.pdf.
•
ARM ELF specification (SWS ESPC 0003). This is supplied in PDF format in
install_directory\PDF\specs\ARMELF.pdf.
•
TIS DWARF 2 specification. This is supplied in PDF format in
install_directory\PDF\specs\TIS-DWARF2.pdf.
•
ARM/Thumb Procedure Call Specification (SWS ESPC 0002). This is supplied in
PDF format in install_directory\PDF\specs\ATPCS.pdf.
In addition, refer to the following documentation for specific information relating to
ARM products:
•
ARM Reference Peripheral Specification (ARM DDI 0062)
•
the ARM datasheet or technical reference manual for your hardware device.
Other publications
The following book gives general information about the ARM architecture:
•
viii
ARM System-on-chip Architecture, Furber, S., (2nd Edition, 2000). Addison
Wesley Longman, Harlow, England. ISBN 0-201-67519-6.
Copyright © 2000, 2001 ARM Limited. All rights reserved.
ARM DUI 0068B
Preface
Feedback
ARM Limited welcomes feedback on both ADS and the documentation.
Feedback on the ARM Developer Suite
If you have any problems with ADS, please contact your supplier. To help them provide
a rapid and useful response, please give:
•
your name and company
•
the serial number of the product
•
details of the release you are using
•
details of the platform you are running on, such as the hardware platform,
operating system type and version
•
a small standalone sample of code that reproduces the problem
•
a clear explanation of what you expected to happen, and what actually happened
•
the commands you used, including any command-line options
•
sample output illustrating the problem
•
the version string of the tools, including the version number and build numbers.
Feedback on this book
If you have any problems with this book, please send email to errata@arm.com giving:
•
the document title
•
the document number
•
the page number(s) to which your comments apply
•
a concise explanation of the problem.
General suggestions for additions and improvements are also welcome.
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Copyright © 2000, 2001 ARM Limited. All rights reserved.
ix
Preface
x
Copyright © 2000, 2001 ARM Limited. All rights reserved.
ARM DUI 0068B
Chapter 1
Introduction
This chapter introduces the assemblers provided with ARM Developer Suite (ADS)
version 1.2. It contains the following sections:
•
About the ARM Developer Suite assemblers on page 1-2.
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Copyright © 2000, 2001 ARM Limited. All rights reserved.
1-1
Introduction
1.1
About the ARM Developer Suite assemblers
ARM Developer Suite (ADS) has:
•
a freestanding assembler, armasm
•
an optimizing inline assembler built into the C and C++ compilers.
The language that these assemblers take as input is basically the same. However, there
are limitations on what features of the language you can use in the inline assemblers.
Refer to the Mixing C, C++, and Assembly Language chapter in ADS Developer Guide
for further information on the inline assemblers.
The remainder of this book relates mainly to armasm.
1-2
Copyright © 2000, 2001 ARM Limited. All rights reserved.
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Chapter 2
Writing ARM and Thumb Assembly Language
This chapter provides an introduction to the general principles of writing ARM and
Thumb assembly language. It contains the following sections:
•
Introduction on page 2-2
•
Overview of the ARM architecture on page 2-3
•
Structure of assembly language modules on page 2-12
•
Using the C preprocessor on page 2-19
•
Conditional execution on page 2-20
•
Loading constants into registers on page 2-25
•
Loading addresses into registers on page 2-30
•
Load and store multiple register instructions on page 2-39
•
Using macros on page 2-48
•
Describing data structures with MAP and FIELD directives on page 2-51
•
Using frame directives on page 2-66.
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Copyright © 2000, 2001 ARM Limited. All rights reserved.
2-1
Writing ARM and Thumb Assembly Language
2.1
Introduction
This chapter gives a basic, practical understanding of how to write ARM and Thumb
assembly language modules. It also gives information on the facilities provided by the
ARM assembler (armasm).
This chapter does not provide a detailed description of the ARM, Thumb, or VFP
instruction sets. This information can be found in Chapter 4 ARM Instruction
Reference, Chapter 5 Thumb Instruction Reference, and Chapter 6 Vector
Floating-point Programming. Further information can be found in ARM Architecture
Reference Manual.
2.1.1
Code examples
There are a number of code examples in this chapter. Many of them are supplied in the
examples\asm directory of the ADS.
Follow these steps to build, link, and execute an assembly language file:
1.
Type armasm -g filename.s at the command prompt to assemble the file and
generate debug tables.
2.
Type armlink filename.o -o filename to link the object file and generate an ELF
executable image.
3.
Type armsd filename to load the image file into the debugger.
4.
Type go at the armsd: prompt to execute it.
5.
Type quit at the armsd: prompt to return to the command line.
To see how the assembler converts the source code, enter:
fromelf -text/c filename.o
or run the module in AXD with interleaving on.
See:
2-2
•
AXD and armsd Debuggers Guide for details on armsd, and AXD.
•
ADS Linker and Utilities Guide for details on armlink and fromelf.
Copyright © 2000, 2001 ARM Limited. All rights reserved.
ARM DUI 0068B
Writing ARM and Thumb Assembly Language
2.2
Overview of the ARM architecture
This section gives a brief overview of the ARM architecture.
ARM processors are typical of RISC processors in that they implement a load/store
architecture. Only load and store instructions can access memory. Data processing
instructions operate on register contents only.
2.2.1
Architecture versions
The information and examples in this book assume that you are using a processor that
implements ARM architecture v3 or above. See ARM Architecture Reference Manual
for details of the various architecture versions.
All these processors have a 32-bit addressing range.
2.2.2
ARM and Thumb state
ARM architecture versions v4T and above define a 16-bit instruction set called the
Thumb instruction set. The functionality of the Thumb instruction set is a subset of the
functionality of the 32-bit ARM instruction set. Refer to Thumb instruction set overview
on page 2-9 for more information.
A processor that is executing Thumb instructions is operating in Thumb state. A
processor that is executing ARM instructions is operating in ARM state.
A processor in ARM state cannot execute Thumb instructions, and a processor in
Thumb state cannot execute ARM instructions. You must ensure that the processor
never receives instructions of the wrong instruction set for the current state.
Each instruction set includes instructions to change processor state.
You must also switch the assembler mode to produce the correct opcodes using CODE16
and CODE32 directives. Refer to CODE16 and CODE32 on page 7-54 for details.
ARM processors always start executing code in ARM state.
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2-3
Writing ARM and Thumb Assembly Language
2.2.3
Processor mode
ARM processors support up to seven processor modes, depending on the architecture
version. These are:
•
User
•
FIQ - Fast Interrupt Request
•
IRQ - Interrupt Request
•
Supervisor
•
Abort
•
Undefined
•
System (ARM architecture v4 and above).
All modes except User mode are referred to as privileged modes.
Applications that require task protection usually execute in User mode. Some
embedded applications might run entirely in Supervisor or System modes.
Modes other than User mode are entered to service exceptions, or to access privileged
resources. Refer to the Handling Processor Exceptions chapter in ADS Developer
Guide, and ARM Architecture Reference Manual for more information.
2.2.4
Registers
ARM processors have 37 registers. The registers are arranged in partially overlapping
banks. There is a different register bank for each processor mode. The banked registers
give rapid context switching for dealing with processor exceptions and privileged
operations. Refer to ARM Architecture Reference Manual for a detailed description of
how registers are banked.
The following registers are available in ARM architecture v3 and above:
•
30 general-purpose, 32-bit registers
•
The program counter (pc) on page 2-5
•
The Current Program Status Register (CPSR) on page 2-5
•
Five Saved Program Status Registers (SPSRs) on page 2-5.
30 general-purpose, 32-bit registers
Fifteen general-purpose registers are visible at any one time, depending on the current
processor mode, as r0, r1, ... ,r13, r14.
By convention, r13 is used as a stack pointer (sp) in ARM assembly language. The C
and C++ compilers always use r13 as the stack pointer.
2-4
Copyright © 2000, 2001 ARM Limited. All rights reserved.
ARM DUI 0068B
Writing ARM and Thumb Assembly Language
In User mode, r14 is used as a link register (lr) to store the return address when a
subroutine call is made. It can also be used as a general-purpose register if the return
address is stored on the stack.
In the exception handling modes, r14 holds the return address for the exception, or a
subroutine return address if subroutine calls are executed within an exception. r14 can
be used as a general-purpose register if the return address is stored on the stack.
The program counter (pc)
The program counter is accessed as r15 (or pc). It is incremented by one word (four
bytes) for each instruction in ARM state, or by two bytes in Thumb state. Branch
instructions load the destination address into the program counter. You can also load the
program counter directly using data operation instructions. For example, to return from
a subroutine, you can copy the link register into the program counter using:
MOV
pc,lr
During execution, r15 does not contain the address of the currently executing
instruction. The address of the currently executing instruction is typically pc–8 for
ARM, or pc–4 for Thumb.
The Current Program Status Register (CPSR)
The CPSR holds:
•
copies of the Arithmetic Logic Unit (ALU) status flags
•
the current processor mode
•
interrupt disable flags.
The ALU status flags in the CPSR are used to determine whether conditional
instructions are executed or not. Refer to Conditional execution on page 2-20 for more
information.
On Thumb-capable processors, the CPSR also holds the current processor state (ARM
or Thumb).
On ARM architecture v5TE, the CPSR also holds the Q flag (see The ALU status flags
on page 2-20).
Five Saved Program Status Registers (SPSRs)
The SPSRs are used to store the CPSR when an exception is taken. One SPSR is
accessible in each of the exception-handling modes. User mode and System mode do
not have an SPSR because they are not exception handling modes. Refer to the
Handling Processor Exceptions chapter in ADS Developer Guide for more information.
ARM DUI 0068B
Copyright © 2000, 2001 ARM Limited. All rights reserved.
2-5
Writing ARM and Thumb Assembly Language
2.2.5
ARM instruction set overview
All ARM instructions are 32 bits long. Instructions are stored word-aligned, so the least
significant two bits of instruction addresses are always zero in ARM state. Some
instructions use the least significant bit to determine whether the code being branched
to is Thumb code or ARM code.
See Chapter 4 ARM Instruction Reference for detailed information on the syntax of the
ARM instruction set.
ARM instructions can be classified into a number of functional groups:
•
Branch instructions
•
Data processing instructions
•
Single register load and store instructions on page 2-7
•
Multiple register load and store instructions on page 2-7
•
Status register access instructions on page 2-7
•
Semaphore instructions on page 2-7
•
Coprocessor instructions on page 2-7.
Branch instructions
These instructions are used to:
•
branch backwards to form loops
•
branch forward in conditional structures
•
branch to subroutines
•
change the processor from ARM state to Thumb state.
Data processing instructions
These instructions operate on the general-purpose registers. They can perform
operations such as addition, subtraction, or bitwise logic on the contents of two registers
and place the result in a third register. They can also operate on the value in a single
register, or on a value in a register and a constant supplied within the instruction (an
immediate value).
Long multiply instructions (unavailable in some architectures) give a 64-bit result in
two registers.
2-6
Copyright © 2000, 2001 ARM Limited. All rights reserved.
ARM DUI 0068B
Writing ARM and Thumb Assembly Language
Single register load and store instructions
These instructions load or store the value of a single register from or to memory. They
can load or store a 32-bit word or an 8-bit unsigned byte. In ARM architecture v4 and
above they can also load or store a 16-bit unsigned halfword, or load and sign extend a
16-bit halfword or an 8-bit byte.
Multiple register load and store instructions
These instructions load or store any subset of the general-purpose registers from or to
memory. Refer to Load and store multiple register instructions on page 2-39 for a
detailed description of these instructions.
Status register access instructions
These instructions move the contents of the CPSR or an SPSR to or from a
general-purpose register.
Semaphore instructions
These instructions load and alter a memory semaphore.
Coprocessor instructions
These instructions support a general way to extend the ARM architecture.
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2-7
Writing ARM and Thumb Assembly Language
2.2.6
ARM instruction capabilities
The following general points apply to ARM instructions:
•
Conditional execution
•
Register access
•
Access to the inline barrel shifter.
Conditional execution
Almost all ARM instructions can be executed conditionally on the value of the ALU
status flags in the CPSR. You do not need to use branches to skip conditional
instructions, although it can be better to do so when a series of instructions depend on
the same condition.
You can specify whether a data processing instruction sets the state of these flags or not.
You can use the flags set by one instruction to control execution of other instructions
even if there are many instructions in between.
Refer to Conditional execution on page 2-20 for a detailed description.
Register access
In ARM state, all instructions can access r0 to r14, and most also allow access to r15
(pc). The MRS and MSR instructions can move the contents of the CPSR and SPSRs to a
general-purpose register, where they can be manipulated by normal data processing
operations. Refer to MRS on page 4-73 and MSR on page 4-74 for more information.
Access to the inline barrel shifter
The ARM arithmetic logic unit has a 32-bit barrel shifter that is capable of shift and
rotate operations. The second operand to all ARM data-processing and single register
data-transfer instructions can be shifted, before the data-processing or data-transfer is
executed, as part of the instruction. This supports, but is not limited to:
•
scaled addressing
•
multiplication by a constant
•
constructing constants.
Refer to Loading constants into registers on page 2-25 for more information on using
the barrel-shifter to generate constants.
2-8
Copyright © 2000, 2001 ARM Limited. All rights reserved.
ARM DUI 0068B
Writing ARM and Thumb Assembly Language
2.2.7
Thumb instruction set overview
The functionality of the Thumb instruction set is almost exactly a subset of the
functionality of the ARM instruction set. The instruction set is optimized for production
by a C or C++ compiler.
All Thumb instructions are 16 bits long and are stored halfword-aligned in memory.
Because of this, the least significant bit of the address of an instruction is always zero
in Thumb state. Some instructions use the least significant bit to determine whether the
code being branched to is Thumb code or ARM code.
All Thumb data processing instructions:
•
operate on full 32-bit values in registers
•
use full 32-bit addresses for data access and for instruction fetches.
Refer to Chapter 5 Thumb Instruction Reference for detailed information on the syntax
of the Thumb instruction set, and how Thumb instructions differ from their ARM
counterparts.
2.2.8
Thumb instruction capabilities
The following general points apply to Thumb instructions:
•
Conditional execution
•
Register access
•
Access to the barrel shifter on page 2-10.
Conditional execution
The conditional branch instruction is the only Thumb instruction that can be executed
conditionally on the value of the ALU status flags in the CPSR. All data processing
instructions update these flags, except when one or more high registers are specified as
operands to the MOV or ADD instructions. In these cases the flags cannot be updated.
You cannot have any data processing instructions between an instruction that sets a
condition and a conditional branch that depends on it. Use a conditional branch over any
instruction that you wish to be conditional.
Register access
In Thumb state, most instructions can access only r0 to r7. These are referred to as the
low registers.
Registers r8 to r15 are limited access registers. In Thumb state these are referred to as
high registers. They can be used, for example, as fast temporary storage.
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2-9
Writing ARM and Thumb Assembly Language
Refer to Chapter 5 Thumb Instruction Reference for a complete list of the Thumb data
processing instructions that can access the high registers.
Access to the barrel shifter
In Thumb state you can use the barrel shifter only in a separate operation, using an LSL,
LSR, ASR, or ROR instruction.
2.2.9
Differences between Thumb and ARM instruction sets
The general differences between the Thumb instruction set and the ARM instruction set
are dealt with under the following headings:
•
Branch instructions
•
Data processing instructions
•
Single register load and store instructions on page 2-11
•
Multiple register load and store instructions on page 2-11.
There are no Thumb coprocessor instructions, no Thumb semaphore instructions, and
no Thumb instructions to access the CPSR or SPSR.
Branch instructions
These instructions are used to:
•
branch backwards to form loops
•
branch forward in conditional structures
•
branch to subroutines
•
change the processor from Thumb state to ARM state.
Program-relative branches, particularly conditional branches, are more limited in range
than in ARM code, and branches to subroutines can only be unconditional.
Data processing instructions
These operate on the general-purpose registers. In many cases, the result of the
operation must be put in one of the operand registers, not in a third register. There are
fewer data processing operations available than in ARM state. They have limited access
to registers r8 to r15.
The ALU status flags in the CPSR are always updated by these instructions except when
MOV or ADD instructions access registers r8 to r15. Thumb data processing instructions
that access registers r8 to r15 cannot update the flags.
2-10
Copyright © 2000, 2001 ARM Limited. All rights reserved.
ARM DUI 0068B
Writing ARM and Thumb Assembly Language
Single register load and store instructions
These instructions load or store the value of a single low register from or to memory. In
Thumb state they can only access registers r0 to r7.
Multiple register load and store instructions
LDM and STM load from memory and store to memory any subset of the registers in the
range r0 to r7.
PUSH and POP instructions implement a full descending stack using the stack pointer (r13)
as the base. In addition to transferring r0 to r7, PUSH can store the link register and POP
can load the program counter.
ARM DUI 0068B
Copyright © 2000, 2001 ARM Limited. All rights reserved.
2-11
Writing ARM and Thumb Assembly Language
2.3
Structure of assembly language modules
Assembly language is the language that the ARM assembler (armasm) parses and
assembles to produce object code. This can be:
•
ARM assembly language
•
Thumb assembly language
•
a mixture of both.
2.3.1
Layout of assembly language source files
The general form of source lines in assembly language is:
{label} {instruction|directive|pseudo-instruction} {;comment}
Note
Instructions, pseudo-instructions, and directives must be preceded by white space, such
as a space or a tab, even if there is no label.
All three sections of the source line are optional. You can use blank lines to make your
code more readable.
Case rules
Instruction mnemonics, directives, and symbolic register names can be written in
uppercase or lowercase, but not mixed.
Line length
To make source files easier to read, a long line of source can be split onto several lines
by placing a backslash character ( \ ) at the end of the line. The backslash must not be
followed by any other characters (including spaces and tabs). The backslash/end-of-line
sequence is treated by the assembler as white space.
Note
Do not use the backslash/end-of-line sequence within quoted strings.
The exact limit on the length of lines, including any extensions using backslashes,
depends on the contents of the line, but is generally between 128 and 255 characters.
2-12
Copyright © 2000, 2001 ARM Limited. All rights reserved.
ARM DUI 0068B
Writing ARM and Thumb Assembly Language
Labels
Labels are symbols that represent addresses. The address given by a label is calculated
during assembly.
The assembler calculates the address of a label relative to the origin of the section where
the label is defined. A reference to a label within the same section can use the program
counter plus or minus an offset. This is called program-relative addressing.
Labels can be defined in a map. See Describing data structures with MAP and FIELD
directives on page 2-51. You can place the origin of the map in a specified register at
runtime, and references to the label use the specified register plus an offset. This is
called register-relative addressing.
Addresses of labels in other sections are calculated at link time, when the linker has
allocated specific locations in memory for each section.
Local labels
Local labels are a subclass of label. A local label begins with a number in the range
0-99. Unlike other labels, a local label can be defined many times. Local labels are
useful when you are generating labels with a macro. When the assembler finds a
reference to a local label, it links it to a nearby instance of the local label.
The scope of local labels is limited by the AREA directive. You can use the ROUT directive
to limit the scope more tightly.
Refer to the Local labels on page 3-16 for details of:
•
the syntax of local label declarations
•
how the assembler associates references to local labels with their labels.
Comments
The first semicolon on a line marks the beginning of a comment, except where the
semicolon appears inside a string constant. The end of the line is the end of the
comment. A comment alone is a valid line. All comments are ignored by the assembler.
ARM DUI 0068B
Copyright © 2000, 2001 ARM Limited. All rights reserved.
2-13
Writing ARM and Thumb Assembly Language
Constants
Constants can be numeric, boolean, character or string:
Numbers
Numeric constants are accepted in three forms:
•
Decimal, for example, 123
•
Hexadecimal, for example, 0x7B
•
n_xxx where:
n
is a base between 2 and 9
xxx
is a number in that base.
Boolean
The Boolean constants TRUE and FALSE must be written as {TRUE} and
{FALSE}.
Characters Character constants consist of opening and closing single quotes,
enclosing either a single character or an escaped character, using the
standard C escape characters.
Strings
2-14
Strings consist of opening and closing double quotes, enclosing
characters and spaces. If double quotes or dollar signs are used within a
string as literal text characters, they must be represented by a pair of the
appropriate character. For example, you must use $$ if you require a
single $ in the string. The standard C escape sequences can be used within
string constants.
Copyright © 2000, 2001 ARM Limited. All rights reserved.
ARM DUI 0068B
Writing ARM and Thumb Assembly Language
2.3.2
An example ARM assembly language module
Example 2-1 illustrates some of the core constituents of an assembly language module.
The example is written in ARM assembly language. It is supplied as armex.s in the
examples\asm subdirectory of ADS. Refer to Code examples on page 2-2 for instructions
on how to assemble, link, and execute the example.
The constituent parts of this example are described in more detail in the following
sections.
Example 2-1
AREA
ENTRY
ARMex, CODE, READONLY
; Name this block of code ARMex
; Mark first instruction to execute
MOV
MOV
ADD
r0, #10
r1, #3
r0, r0, r1
; Set up parameters
MOV
LDR
SWI
r0, #0x18
r1, =0x20026
0x123456
; angel_SWIreason_ReportException
; ADP_Stopped_ApplicationExit
; ARM semihosting SWI
start
; r0 = r0 + r1
stop
END
; Mark end of file
ELF sections and the AREA directive
ELF sections are independent, named, indivisible sequences of code or data. A single
code section is the minimum required to produce an application.
The output of an assembly or compilation can include:
•
One or more code sections. These are usually read-only sections.
•
One or more data sections. These are usually read-write sections. They may be
zero initialized (ZI).
The linker places each section in a program image according to section placement rules.
Sections that are adjacent in source files are not necessarily adjacent in the application
image. Refer to the Linker chapter in ADS Linker and Utilities Guide for more
information on how the linker places sections.
ARM DUI 0068B
Copyright © 2000, 2001 ARM Limited. All rights reserved.
2-15
Writing ARM and Thumb Assembly Language
In an ARM assembly language source file, the start of a section is marked by the AREA
directive. This directive names the section and sets its attributes. The attributes are
placed after the name, separated by commas. Refer to AREA on page 7-52 for a detailed
description of the syntax of the AREA directive.
You can choose any name for your sections. However, names starting with any
nonalphabetic character must be enclosed in bars, or an AREA name missing error is
generated. For example: |1_DataArea|.
Example 2-1 on page 2-15 defines a single section called ARMex that contains code and
is marked as being READONLY.
The ENTRY directive
The ENTRY directive marks the first instruction to be executed. In applications containing
C code, an entry point is also contained within the C library initialization code.
Initialization code and exception handlers also contain entry points.
Application execution
The application code in Example 2-1 on page 2-15 begins executing at the label start,
where it loads the decimal values 10 and 3 into registers r0 and r1. These registers are
added together and the result placed in r0.
Application termination
After executing the main code, the application terminates by returning control to the
debugger. This is done using the ARM semihosting SWI (0x123456 by default), with
the following parameters:
•
r0 equal to angel_SWIreason_ReportException (0x18)
•
r1 equal to ADP_Stopped_ApplicationExit (0x20026).
Refer to the Semihosting SWIs chapter in ADS Debug Target Guide for additional
information.
The END directive
This directive instructs the assembler to stop processing this source file. Every assembly
language source module must finish with an END directive on a line by itself.
2-16
Copyright © 2000, 2001 ARM Limited. All rights reserved.
ARM DUI 0068B
Writing ARM and Thumb Assembly Language
2.3.3
Calling subroutines
To call subroutines, use a branch and link instruction. The syntax is:
BL
destination
where destination is usually the label on the first instruction of the subroutine.
destination can also be a program-relative or register-relative expression. Refer to B
and BL on page 4-58 for further information.
The BL instruction:
•
places the return address in the link register (lr)
•
sets pc to the address of the subroutine.
After the subroutine code is executed you can use a MOV pc,lr instruction to return. By
convention, registers r0 to r3 are used to pass parameters to subroutines, and to pass
results back to the callers.
Note
Calls between separately assembled or compiled modules must comply with the
restrictions and conventions defined by the procedure call standard. Refer to the Using
the Procedure Call Standard in ADS Developer Guide for more information.
Example 2-2 shows a subroutine that adds the values of its two parameters and returns
a result in r0. It is supplied as subrout.s in the examples\asm subdirectory of ADS. Refer
to Code examples on page 2-2 for instructions on how to assemble, link, and execute the
example.
Example 2-2
AREA
start
stop
doadd
ENTRY
MOV
MOV
BL
MOV
LDR
SWI
ADD
MOV
END
ARM DUI 0068B
subrout, CODE, READONLY
; Name this block of code
; Mark first instruction to execute
r0, #10
; Set up parameters
r1, #3
doadd
; Call subroutine
r0, #0x18
; angel_SWIreason_ReportException
r1, =0x20026
; ADP_Stopped_ApplicationExit
0x123456
; ARM semihosting SWI
r0, r0, r1
pc, lr
; Subroutine code
; Return from subroutine
; Mark end of file
Copyright © 2000, 2001 ARM Limited. All rights reserved.
2-17
Writing ARM and Thumb Assembly Language
2.3.4
An example Thumb assembly language module
Example 2-3 illustrates some of the core constituents of a Thumb assembly language
module. It is based on subrout.s. It is supplied as thumbsub.s in the examples\asm
subdirectory of the ADS. Refer to Code examples on page 2-2 for instructions on how
to assemble, link, and execute the example.
Example 2-3
header
AREA ThumbSub, CODE, READONLY
ENTRY
CODE32
ADR
r0, start + 1
BX
r0
CODE16
;
;
;
;
;
;
;
Name this block of code
Mark first instruction to execute
Subsequent instructions are ARM
Processor starts in ARM state,
so small ARM code header used
to call Thumb main program
Subsequent instructions are Thumb
start
MOV
MOV
BL
r0, #10
r1, #3
doadd
; Set up parameters
MOV
LDR
SWI
r0, #0x18
r1, =0x20026
0xAB
; angel_SWIreason_ReportException
; ADP_Stopped_ApplicationExit
; Thumb semihosting SWI
ADD
MOV
END
r0, r0, r1
pc, lr
; Subroutine code
; Return from subroutine
; Mark end of file
; Call subroutine
stop
doadd
CODE32 and CODE16 directives
These directives instruct the assembler to assemble subsequent instructions as ARM
(CODE32) or Thumb (CODE16) instructions. They do not assemble to an instruction to
change the processor state at runtime. They only change the assembler state.
The ARM assembler, armasm, starts in ARM mode by default. You can use the -16 option
in the command line if you want it to start in Thumb mode.
BX instruction
This instruction is a branch that can change processor state at runtime. The least
significant bit of the target address specifies whether it is an ARM instruction (clear) or
a Thumb instruction (set). In this example, this bit is set in the ADR pseudo-instruction.
2-18
Copyright © 2000, 2001 ARM Limited. All rights reserved.
ARM DUI 0068B
Writing ARM and Thumb Assembly Language
2.4
Using the C preprocessor
You can include the C preprocessor command #include in your assembly language
source file. If you do this, you must preprocess the file using the C preprocessor, before
using armasm to assemble it. See ADS Compilers and Libraries Guide.
armasm correctly interprets #line commands in the resulting file. It can generate error
messages and debug_line tables using the information in the #line commands.
Example 2-4 shows the commands you write to preprocess and assemble a file,
sourcefile.s. In this example, the preprocessor outputs a file called preprocessed.s, and
armasm assembles preprocessed.s.
Example 2-4 Preprocessing an assembly language source file
armcpp -E < sourcefile.s > preprocessedfile.s
armasm preprocessedfile.s
ARM DUI 0068B
Copyright © 2000, 2001 ARM Limited. All rights reserved.
2-19
Writing ARM and Thumb Assembly Language
2.5
Conditional execution
In ARM state, each data processing instruction has an option to update ALU status flags
in the Current Program Status Register (CPSR) according to the result of the operation.
Add an S suffix to an ARM data processing instruction to make it update the ALU status
flags in the CPSR.
Do not use the S suffix with CMP, CMN, TST, or TEQ. These comparison instructions always
update the flags. This is their only effect.
In Thumb state, there is no option. All data processing instructions update the ALU
status flags in the CPSR, except when one or more high registers are used in MOV and ADD
instructions. MOV and ADD cannot update the status flags in these cases.
Almost every ARM instruction can be executed conditionally on the state of the ALU
status flags in the CPSR. Refer to Table 2-1 on page 2-21 for a list of the suffixes to add
to instructions to make them conditional.
In ARM state, you can:
•
update the ALU status flags in the CPSR on the result of a data operation
•
execute several other data operations without updating the flags
•
execute following instructions or not, according to the state of the flags updated
in the first operation.
In Thumb state, most data operations always update the flags, and conditional execution
can only be achieved using the conditional branch instruction (B). The suffixes for this
instruction are the same as in ARM state. No other instruction can be conditional.
2.5.1
The ALU status flags
The CPSR contains the following ALU status flags:
N
Set when the result of the operation was Negative.
Z
Set when the result of the operation was Zero.
C
Set when the operation resulted in a Carry.
V
Set when the operation caused oVerflow.
Q
ARM architecture v5E only. Sticky flag (see The Q flag on page 4-5).
A carry occurs if the result of an addition is greater than or equal to 232, if the result of
a subtraction is positive, or as the result of an inline barrel shifter operation in a move
or logical instruction.
Overflow occurs if the result of an add, subtract, or compare is greater than or equal to
231, or less than –231.
2-20
Copyright © 2000, 2001 ARM Limited. All rights reserved.
ARM DUI 0068B
Writing ARM and Thumb Assembly Language
2.5.2
Execution conditions
The relation of condition code suffixes to the N, Z, C and V flags is shown in Table 2-1.
Table 2-1 Condition code suffixes
Suffix
Flags
Meaning
EQ
Z set
Equal
NE
Z clear
Not equal
CS/HS
C set
Higher or same (unsigned >= )
CC/LO
C clear
Lower (unsigned < )
MI
N set
Negative
PL
N clear
Positive or zero
VS
V set
Overflow
VC
V clear
No overflow
HI
C set and Z clear
Higher (unsigned > )
LS
C clear or Z set
Lower or same (unsigned <= )
GE
N and V the same
Signed >=
LT
N and V differ
Signed <
GT
Z clear, N and V the same
Signed >
LE
Z set, N and V differ
Signed <=
AL
Any
Always. This suffix is normally omitted.
Examples
ARM DUI 0068B
ADD
r0, r1, r2
; r0 = r1 + r2, don't update flags
ADDS
r0, r1, r2
; r0 = r1 + r2, and update flags
ADDCSS
r0, r1, r2
; If C flag set then r0 = r1 + r2, and update flags
CMP
r0, r1
; update flags based on r0-r1.
Copyright © 2000, 2001 ARM Limited. All rights reserved.
2-21
Writing ARM and Thumb Assembly Language
2.5.3
Using conditional execution in ARM state
You can use conditional execution of ARM instructions to reduce the number of branch
instructions in your code. This improves code density.
Branch instructions are also expensive in processor cycles. On ARM processors without
branch prediction hardware, it typically takes three processor cycles to refill the
processor pipeline each time a branch is taken.
Some ARM processors, for example ARM10™ and StrongARM®, have branch
prediction hardware. In systems using these processors, the pipeline only needs to be
flushed and refilled when there is a misprediction.
2.5.4
Example of the use of conditional execution
This example uses two implementations of Euclid’s Greatest Common Divisor (gcd)
algorithm. It demonstrates how you can use conditional execution to improve code
density and execution speed. The detailed analysis of execution speed only applies to
an ARM7™ processor. The code density calculations apply to all ARM processors.
In C the algorithm can be expressed as:
int gcd(int a, int b)
{
while (a != b) do
{
if (a > b)
a = a - b;
else
b = b - a;
}
return a;
}
You can implement the gcd function with conditional execution of branches only, in the
following way:
gcd
CMP
BEQ
BLT
SUB
B
r0, r1
end
less
r0, r0, r1
gcd
SUB
B
r1, r1, r0
gcd
less
end
2-22
Copyright © 2000, 2001 ARM Limited. All rights reserved.
ARM DUI 0068B
Writing ARM and Thumb Assembly Language
Because of the number of branches, the code is seven instructions long. Every time a
branch is taken, the processor must refill the pipeline and continue from the new
location. The other instructions and non-executed branches use a single cycle each.
By using the conditional execution feature of the ARM instruction set, you can
implement the gcd function in only four instructions:
gcd
CMP
SUBGT
SUBLT
BNE
r0, r1
r0, r0, r1
r1, r1, r0
gcd
In addition to improving code size, this code executes faster in most cases. Table 2-2
and Table 2-3 on page 2-24 show the number of cycles used by each implementation for
the case where r0 equals 1 and r1 equals 2. In this case, replacing branches with
conditional execution of all instructions saves three cycles.
The conditional version of the code executes in the same number of cycles for any case
where r0 equals r1. In all other cases, the conditional version of the code executes in
fewer cycles.
Table 2-2 Conditional branches only
r0: a
r1: b
Instruction
Cycles (ARM7)
1
2
CMP r0, r1
1
1
2
BEQ end
1 (not executed)
1
2
BLT less
3
1
2
SUB r1, r1, r0
1
1
2
B gcd
3
1
1
CMP r0, r1
1
1
1
BEQ end
3
Total = 13
ARM DUI 0068B
Copyright © 2000, 2001 ARM Limited. All rights reserved.
2-23
Writing ARM and Thumb Assembly Language
Table 2-3 All instructions conditional
r0: a
r1: b
Instruction
Cycles (ARM7)
1
2
CMP r0, r1
1
1
2
SUBGT r0,r0,r1
1 (not executed)
1
1
SUBLT r1,r1,r0
1
1
1
BNE gcd
3
1
1
CMP r0,r1
1
1
1
SUBGT r0,r0,r1
1 (not executed)
1
1
SUBLT r1,r1,r0
1 (not executed)
1
1
BNE gcd
1 (not executed)
Total = 10
Converting to Thumb
Because B is the only Thumb instruction that can be executed conditionally, the gcd
algorithm must be written with conditional branches in Thumb code.
Like the ARM conditional branch implementation, the Thumb code requires seven
instructions. However, because Thumb instructions are only 16 bits long, the overall
code size is 14 bytes, compared to 16 bytes for the smaller ARM implementation.
In addition, on a system using 16-bit memory the Thumb version runs faster than the
second ARM implementation because only one memory access is required for each
Thumb instruction, whereas each ARM instruction requires two fetches.
Branch prediction and caches
To optimize code for execution speed you need detailed knowledge of the instruction
timings, branch prediction logic, and cache behavior of your target system. Refer to
ARM Architecture Reference Manual and the technical reference manuals for individual
processors for full information.
2-24
Copyright © 2000, 2001 ARM Limited. All rights reserved.
ARM DUI 0068B
Writing ARM and Thumb Assembly Language
2.6
Loading constants into registers
You cannot load an arbitrary 32-bit immediate constant into a register in a single
instruction without performing a data load from memory. This is because ARM
instructions are only 32 bits long.
Thumb instructions have a similar limitation.
You can load any 32-bit value into a register with a data load, but there are more direct
and efficient ways to load many commonly-used constants. You can also include many
commonly-used constants directly as operands within data-processing instructions,
without a separate load operation at all.
The following sections describe:
•
how to use the MOV and MVN instructions to load a range of immediate values, see
Direct loading with MOV and MVN on page 2-26
•
how to use the LDR pseudo-instruction to load any 32-bit constant, see Loading
with LDR Rd, =const on page 2-27
•
how to load floating-point constants, see Loading floating-point constants on
page 2-29.
ARM DUI 0068B
Copyright © 2000, 2001 ARM Limited. All rights reserved.
2-25
Writing ARM and Thumb Assembly Language
2.6.1
Direct loading with MOV and MVN
In ARM state, you can use the MOV and MVN instructions to load a range of 8-bit constant
values directly into a register:
•
MOV can load any 8-bit constant value, giving a range of 0x0 to 0xFF (0-255).
It can also rotate these values by any even number. Table 2-4 shows the range of
values that this provides.
•
MVN can load the bitwise complement of these values. The numerical values are
-(n+1), where n are the values given in Table 2-4.
You do not need to calculate the necessary rotation. The assembler performs the
calculation for you.
You do not need to decide whether to use MOV or MVN. The assembler uses whichever is
appropriate. This is useful if the value is an assembly-time variable.
If you write an instruction with a constant that cannot be constructed, the assembler
reports the error:
Immediate n out of range for this operation.
The range of values shown in Table 2-4 can also be used as one of the operands in
data-processing operations. You cannot use their bitwise complements as operands, and
you cannot use them as operands in multiplication operations.
Table 2-4 ARM-state immediate constants
Rotate
Binary
Decimal
Step
Hexadecimal
No rotate
000000000000000000000000xxxxxxxx
0-255
1
0-0xFF
Right, 30 bits
0000000000000000000000xxxxxxxx00
0-1020
4
0-0x3FC
Right, 28 bits
00000000000000000000xxxxxxxx0000
0-4080
16
0-0xFF0
Right, 26 bits
000000000000000000xxxxxxxx000000
0-16320
64
0-0x3FC0
...
...
...
...
Right, 8 bits
xxxxxxxx000000000000000000000000
0-255 x 224
224
0-0xFF000000
Right, 6 bits
xxxxxx000000000000000000000000xx
-
-
-
Right, 4 bits
xxxx000000000000000000000000xxxx
-
-
-
Right, 2 bits
xx000000000000000000000000xxxxxx
-
-
-
2-26
Copyright © 2000, 2001 ARM Limited. All rights reserved.
ARM DUI 0068B
Writing ARM and Thumb Assembly Language
Direct loading with MOV in Thumb state
In Thumb state you can use the MOV instruction to load constants in the range 0-255. You
cannot generate constants outside this range because:
•
The Thumb MOV instruction does not provide inline access to the barrel shifter.
Constants cannot be right-rotated as they can in ARM state.
•
The Thumb MVN instruction can act only on registers and not on constant values.
Bitwise complements cannot be directly loaded as they can in ARM state.
If you attempt to use a MOV instruction with a value outside the range 0-255, the
assembler reports the error:
Immediate n out of range for this operation.
2.6.2
Loading with LDR Rd, =const
The LDR Rd,=const pseudo-instruction can construct any 32-bit numeric constant in a
single instruction. Use this pseudo-instruction to generate constants that are out of range
of the MOV and MVN instructions.
The LDR pseudo-instruction generates the most efficient code for a specific constant:
•
If the constant can be constructed with a MOV or MVN instruction, the assembler
generates the appropriate instruction.
•
If the constant cannot be constructed with a MOV or MVN instruction, the assembler:
—
places the value in a literal pool (a portion of memory embedded in the code
to hold constant values)
—
generates an LDR instruction with a program-relative address that reads the
constant from the literal pool.
For example:
LDR
rn, [pc, #offset to literal pool]
; load register n with one word
; from the address [pc + offset]
You must ensure that there is a literal pool within range of the LDR instruction
generated by the assembler. Refer to Placing literal pools on page 2-28 for more
information.
Refer to LDR ARM pseudo-instruction on page 4-82 for a description of the syntax of
the LDR pseudo-instruction.
ARM DUI 0068B
Copyright © 2000, 2001 ARM Limited. All rights reserved.
2-27
Writing ARM and Thumb Assembly Language
Placing literal pools
The assembler places a literal pool at the end of each section. These are defined by the
AREA directive at the start of the following section, or by the END directive at the end of
the assembly. The END directive at the end of an included file does not signal the end of
a section.
In large sections the default literal pool can be out of range of one or more LDR
instructions. The offset from the pc to the constant must be:
•
less than 4KB in ARM state, but can be in either direction
•
forward and less than 1KB in Thumb state.
When an LDR Rd,=const pseudo-instruction requires the constant to be placed in a literal
pool, the assembler:
•
Checks if the constant is available and addressable in any previous literal pools.
If so, it addresses the existing constant.
•
Attempts to place the constant in the next literal pool if it is not already available.
If the next literal pool is out of range, the assembler generates an error message. In this
case you must use the LTORG directive to place an additional literal pool in the code. Place
the LTORG directive after the failed LDR pseudo-instruction, and within 4KB (ARM) or
1KB (Thumb). Refer to LTORG on page 7-14 for a detailed description.
You must place literal pools where the processor does not attempt to execute them as
instructions. Place them after unconditional branch instructions, or after the return
instruction at the end of a subroutine.
Example 2-5 shows how this works in practice. It is supplied as loadcon.s in the
examples\asm subdirectory of the ADS. The instructions listed as comments are the
ARM instructions that are generated by the assembler. Refer to Code examples on
page 2-2 for instructions on how to assemble, link, and execute the example.
Example 2-5
start
stop
AREA
ENTRY
BL
BL
MOV
LDR
SWI
Loadcon, CODE, READONLY
LDR
LDR
r0, =42
r1, =0x55555555
func1
func2
r0, #0x18
r1, =0x20026
0x123456
;
;
;
;
;
;
Mark first instruction to execute
Branch to first subroutine
Branch to second subroutine
angel_SWIreason_ReportException
ADP_Stopped_ApplicationExit
ARM semihosting SWI
func1
2-28
; => MOV R0, #42
; => LDR R1, [PC, #offset to
; Literal Pool 1]
Copyright © 2000, 2001 ARM Limited. All rights reserved.
ARM DUI 0068B
Writing ARM and Thumb Assembly Language
LDR
MOV
LTORG
r2, =0xFFFFFFFF
pc, lr
LDR
r3, =0x55555555
; => MVN R2, #0
; Literal Pool 1 contains
; literal Ox55555555
func2
; LDR r4, =0x66666666
MOV
LargeTable
SPACE
=> LDR R3, [PC, #offset to
Literal Pool 1]
If this is uncommented it
fails, because Literal Pool 2
is out of reach
;
;
;
;
Starting at the current location,
clears a 4200 byte area of memory
to zero
Literal Pool 2 is empty
pc, lr
4200
END
2.6.3
;
;
;
;
;
Loading floating-point constants
You can load any single-precision or double-precision floating-point constant in a single
instruction, using the FLD pseudo-instructions.
Refer to FLD pseudo-instruction on page 6-38 for details.
ARM DUI 0068B
Copyright © 2000, 2001 ARM Limited. All rights reserved.
2-29
Writing ARM and Thumb Assembly Language
2.7
Loading addresses into registers
It is often necessary to load an address into a register. You might need to load the address
of a variable, a string constant, or the start location of a jump table.
Addresses are normally expressed as offsets from the current pc or other register.
This section describes two methods for loading an address into a register:
•
load the register directly, see Direct loading with ADR and ADRL.
•
load the address from a literal pool, see Loading addresses with LDR Rd, = label
on page 2-35.
2.7.1
Direct loading with ADR and ADRL
The ADR and ADRL pseudo-instructions enable you to generate an address, within a certain
range, without performing a data load. ADR and ADRL accept either of the following:
•
A program-relative expression, which is a label with an optional offset, where the
address of the label is relative to the current pc.
•
A register-relative expression, which is a label with an optional offset, where the
address of the label is relative to an address held in a specified general-purpose
register. Refer to Describing data structures with MAP and FIELD directives on
page 2-51 for information on specifying register-relative expressions.
The assembler converts an ADR rn,label pseudo-instruction by generating:
•
a single ADD or SUB instruction that loads the address, if it is in range
•
an error message if the address cannot be reached in a single instruction.
The offset range is ±255 bytes for an offset to a non word-aligned address, and ±1020
bytes (255 words) for an offset to a word-aligned address. (For Thumb, the address must
be word aligned, and the offset must be positive.)
The assembler converts an ADRL rn,label pseudo-instruction by generating:
•
two data-processing instructions that load the address, if it is in range
•
an error message if the address cannot be constructed in two instructions.
The range of an ADRL pseudo-instruction is ±64KB for a non word-aligned address and
±256KB for a word-aligned address. (There is no ADRL pseudo-instruction for Thumb.)
ADRL assembles to two instructions, if successful. The assembler generates two
instructions even if the address could be loaded in a single instruction.
Refer to Loading addresses with LDR Rd, = label on page 2-35 for information on
loading addresses that are outside the range of the ADRL pseudo-instruction.
2-30
Copyright © 2000, 2001 ARM Limited. All rights reserved.
ARM DUI 0068B
Writing ARM and Thumb Assembly Language
Note
The label used with ADR or ADRL must be within the same code section. The assembler
faults references to labels that are out of range in the same section. The linker faults
references to labels that are out of range in other code sections.
In Thumb state, ADR can generate word-aligned addresses only.
ADRL is not available in Thumb code. Use it only in ARM code.
Example 2-6 shows the type of code generated by the assembler when assembling ADR
and ADRL pseudo-instructions. It is supplied as adrlabel.s in the examples\asm
subdirectory of the ADS. Refer to Code examples on page 2-2 for instructions on how
to assemble, link, and execute the example.
The instructions listed in the comments are the ARM instructions generated by the
assembler.
Example 2-6
AREA
ENTRY
adrlabel, CODE,READONLY
BL
MOV
LDR
SWI
LTORG
ADR
ADR
; ADR
func
r0, #0x18
r1, =0x20026
0x123456
ADRL
r2, DataArea+4300
MOV
SPACE
pc, lr
8000
; Mark first instruction to execute
Start
stop
func
DataArea
r0, Start
r1, DataArea
r2, DataArea+4300
;
;
;
;
;
;
;
;
;
;
;
;
;
;
;
;
Branch to subroutine
angel_SWIreason_ReportException
ADP_Stopped_ApplicationExit
ARM semihosting SWI
Create a literal pool
=> SUB r0, PC, #offset to Start
=> ADD r1, PC, #offset to DataArea
This would fail because the offset
cannot be expressed by operand2
of an ADD
=> ADD r2, PC, #offset1
ADD r2, r2, #offset2
Return
Starting at the current location,
clears a 8000 byte area of memory
to zero
END
ARM DUI 0068B
Copyright © 2000, 2001 ARM Limited. All rights reserved.
2-31
Writing ARM and Thumb Assembly Language
Implementing a jump table with ADR
Example 2-7 on page 2-33 shows ARM code that implements a jump table. It is
supplied as jump.s in the examples\asm subdirectory of ADS. Refer to Code examples on
page 2-2 for instructions on how to assemble, link, and execute the example.
The ADR pseudo-instruction loads the address of the jump table.
In the example, the function arithfunc takes three arguments and returns a result in r0.
The first argument determines which operation is carried out on the second and third
arguments:
argument1=0
Result = argument2 + argument3.
argument1=1
Result = argument2 – argument3.
The jump table is implemented with the following instructions and assembler
directives:
2-32
EQU
Is an assembler directive. It is used to give a value to a symbol. In this
example it assigns the value 2 to num. When num is used elsewhere in the
code, the value 2 is substituted. Using EQU in this way is similar to using
#define to define a constant in C.
DCD
Declares one or more words of store. In this example each DCD stores the
address of a routine that handles a particular clause of the jump table.
LDR
The LDR pc,[r3,r0,LSL#2] instruction loads the address of the required
clause of the jump table into the pc. It:
•
multiplies the clause number in r0 by 4 to give a word offset
•
adds the result to the address of the jump table
•
loads the contents of the combined address into the program
counter.
Copyright © 2000, 2001 ARM Limited. All rights reserved.
ARM DUI 0068B
Writing ARM and Thumb Assembly Language
Example 2-7 ARM code jump table
num
AREA
CODE32
EQU
ENTRY
Jump, CODE, READONLY
2
start
MOV
MOV
MOV
BL
stop
MOV
LDR
SWI
arithfunc
CMP
MOVHS
ADR
LDR
JumpTable
DCD
DCD
r0, #0
r1, #3
r2, #2
arithfunc
r0, #0x18
r1, =0x20026
0x123456
DoAdd
r0,
pc,
r0,
pc,
DoSub
ADD
MOV
SUB
MOV
END
ARM DUI 0068B
r0,
pc,
r3,
pc,
#num
lr
JumpTable
[r3,r0,LSL#2]
;
;
;
;
;
;
Name this block of code
Following code is ARM code
Number of entries in jump table
Mark first instruction to execute
First instruction to call
Set up the three parameters
;
;
;
;
;
;
;
;
;
Call the function
angel_SWIreason_ReportException
ADP_Stopped_ApplicationExit
ARM semihosting SWI
Label the function
Treat function code as unsigned integer
If code is >= num then simply return
Load address of jump table
Jump to the appropriate routine
;
;
;
;
;
Operation 0
Return
Operation 1
Return
Mark the end of this file
DoAdd
DoSub
r1, r2
lr
r1, r2
lr
Copyright © 2000, 2001 ARM Limited. All rights reserved.
2-33
Writing ARM and Thumb Assembly Language
Converting to Thumb
Example 2-8 shows the implementation of the jump table converted to Thumb code.
Most of the Thumb version is the same as the ARM code. The differences are
commented in the Thumb version.
In Thumb state, you cannot:
•
increment the base register of LDR and STR instructions
•
load a value into the pc using an LDR instruction
•
do an inline shift of a value held in a register.
Example 2-8 Thumb code jump table
num
AREA
CODE16
EQU
ENTRY
Jump, CODE, READONLY
; Following code is Thumb code
2
start
MOV
MOV
MOV
BL
stop
MOV
LDR
SWI
arithfunc
CMP
BHS
ADR
LSL
LDR
MOV
ALIGN
JumpTable
DCD
DCD
DoAdd
exit
DoSub
2-34
ADD
MOV
SUB
MOV
END
r0, #0
r1, #3
r2, #2
arithfunc
r0, #0x18
r1, =0x20026
0xAB
; Thumb semihosting SWI
r0, #num
exit
r3, JumpTable
r0, r0, #2
r0, [r3,r0]
pc, r0
; MOV pc, lr cannot be conditional
; 3 instructions needed to replace
; LDR pc, [r3,r0,LSL#2]
; Ensure that the table is aligned on a
; 4-byte boundary
DoAdd
DoSub
r0,
pc,
r0,
pc,
r1, r2
lr
r1, r2
lr
Copyright © 2000, 2001 ARM Limited. All rights reserved.
ARM DUI 0068B
Writing ARM and Thumb Assembly Language
2.7.2
Loading addresses with LDR Rd, = label
The LDR Rd,= pseudo-instruction can load any 32-bit constant into a register. See
Loading with LDR Rd, =const on page 2-27. It also accepts program-relative
expressions such as labels, and labels with offsets.
The assembler converts an LDR r0,=label pseudo-instruction by:
•
Placing the address of label in a literal pool (a portion of memory embedded in
the code to hold constant values).
•
Generating a program-relative LDR instruction that reads the address from the
literal pool, for example:
LDR
rn [pc, #offset to literal pool]
; load register n with one word
; from the address [pc + offset]
You must ensure that there is a literal pool within range. Refer to Placing literal
pools on page 2-28 for more information.
Unlike the ADR and ADRL pseudo-instructions, you can use LDR with labels that are outside
the current section. If the label is outside the current section, the assembler places a
relocation directive in the object code when the source file is assembled. The relocation
directive instructs the linker to resolve the address at link time. The address remains
valid wherever the linker places the section containing the LDR and the literal pool.
Example 2-9 shows how this works. It is supplied as ldrlabel.s in the examples\asm
subdirectory of the ADS. Refer to Code examples on page 2-2 for instructions on how
to assemble, link, and execute the example.
The instructions listed in the comments are the ARM instructions that are generated by
the assembler.
Example 2-9
AREA
ENTRY
LDRlabel, CODE,READONLY
BL
BL
MOV
LDR
SWI
func1
func2
r0, #0x18
r1, =0x20026
0x123456
;
;
;
;
;
LDR
r0, =start
; => LDR R0,[PC, #offset into
; Mark first instruction to execute
start
stop
Branch to first subroutine
Branch to second subroutine
angel_SWIreason_ReportException
ADP_Stopped_ApplicationExit
ARM semihosting SWI
func1
ARM DUI 0068B
Copyright © 2000, 2001 ARM Limited. All rights reserved.
2-35
Writing ARM and Thumb Assembly Language
LDR
r1, =Darea + 12
LDR
r2, =Darea + 6000
MOV
LTORG
pc,lr
LDR
r3, =Darea + 6000
; LDR
r4, =Darea + 6004
MOV
SPACE
pc, lr
8000
;
;
;
;
;
;
;
Literal Pool 1]
=> LDR R1,[PC, #offset into
Literal Pool 1]
=> LDR R2, [PC, #offset into
Literal Pool 1]
Return
Literal Pool 1
;
;
;
;
;
;
;
;
;
;
;
=> LDR r3, [PC, #offset into
Literal Pool 1]
(sharing with previous literal)
If uncommented produces an error
as Literal Pool 2 is out of range
Return
Starting at the current location,
clears a 8000 byte area of memory
to zero
Literal Pool 2 is out of range of
the LDR instructions above
func2
Darea
END
2-36
Copyright © 2000, 2001 ARM Limited. All rights reserved.
ARM DUI 0068B
Writing ARM and Thumb Assembly Language
An LDR Rd, =label example: string copying
Example 2-10 shows an ARM code routine that overwrites one string with another
string. It uses the LDR pseudo-instruction to load the addresses of the two strings from a
data section. The following are particularly significant:
DCB
The DCB directive defines one or more bytes of store. In addition to integer
values, DCB accepts quoted strings. Each character of the string is placed
in a consecutive byte. Refer to DCB on page 7-18 for more information.
LDR/STR
The LDR and STR instructions use post-indexed addressing to update their
address registers. For example, the instruction:
LDRB
r2,[r1],#1
loads r2 with the contents of the address pointed to by r1 and then
increments r1 by 1.
Example 2-10 String copy
start
stop
AREA
ENTRY
LDR
LDR
BL
MOV
LDR
SWI
StrCopy, CODE, READONLY
r1, =srcstr
r0, =dststr
strcopy
r0, #0x18
r1, =0x20026
0x123456
;
;
;
;
;
;
;
Mark first instruction to execute
Pointer to first string
Pointer to second string
Call subroutine to do copy
angel_SWIreason_ReportException
ADP_Stopped_ApplicationExit
ARM semihosting SWI
LDRB
STRB
CMP
BNE
MOV
r2, [r1],#1
r2, [r0],#1
r2, #0
strcopy
pc,lr
;
;
;
;
;
Load byte and update address
Store byte and update address
Check for zero terminator
Keep going if not
Return
AREA
DCB
DCB
END
Strings, DATA, READWRITE
"First string - source",0
"Second string - destination",0
strcopy
srcstr
dststr
ARM DUI 0068B
Copyright © 2000, 2001 ARM Limited. All rights reserved.
2-37
Writing ARM and Thumb Assembly Language
Converting to Thumb
There is no post-indexed addressing mode for Thumb LDR and STR instructions. Because
of this, you must use an ADD instruction to increment the address register after the LDR
and STR instructions. For example:
LDRB
ADD
2-38
r2, [r1]
r1, #1
; load register 2
; increment the address in
; register 1.
Copyright © 2000, 2001 ARM Limited. All rights reserved.
ARM DUI 0068B
Writing ARM and Thumb Assembly Language
2.8
Load and store multiple register instructions
The ARM and Thumb instruction sets include instructions that load and store multiple
registers to and from memory.
Multiple register transfer instructions provide an efficient way of moving the contents
of several registers to and from memory. They are most often used for block copy and
for stack operations at subroutine entry and exit. The advantages of using a multiple
register transfer instruction instead of a series of single data transfer instructions
include:
•
Smaller code size.
•
A single instruction fetch overhead, rather than many instruction fetches.
•
On uncached ARM processors, the first word of data transferred by a load or store
multiple is always a nonsequential memory cycle, but all subsequent words
transferred can be sequential memory cycles. Sequential memory cycles are faster
in most systems.
Note
The lowest numbered register is transferred to or from the lowest memory address
accessed, and the highest numbered register to or from the highest address accessed.
The order of the registers in the register list in the instructions makes no difference.
Use the -checkreglist assembler command line option to check that registers in register
lists are specified in increasing order. Refer to Command syntax on page 3-2 for further
information.
ARM DUI 0068B
Copyright © 2000, 2001 ARM Limited. All rights reserved.
2-39
Writing ARM and Thumb Assembly Language
2.8.1
ARM LDM and STM instructions
The load (or store) multiple instruction loads (stores) any subset of the 16
general-purpose registers from (to) memory, using a single instruction.
Syntax
The syntax of the LDM instructions is:
LDM{cond}address-mode Rn{!},reg-list{^}
where:
is an optional condition code. Refer to Conditional execution on
page 2-20 for more information.
cond
address-mode
specifies the addressing mode of the instruction. Refer to LDM and STM
addressing modes on page 2-41 for details.
Rn
is the base register for the load operation. The address stored in this
register is the starting address for the load operation. Do not specify r15
(pc) as the base register.
specifies base register write back. If this is specified, the address in the
base register is updated after the transfer. It is decremented or
incremented by one word for each register in the register list.
!
register-list
is a comma-delimited list of symbolic register names and register ranges
enclosed in braces. There must be at least one register in the list. Register
ranges are specified with a dash. For example:
{r0,r1,r4-r6,pc}
Do not specify writeback if the base register Rn is in register-list.
^
You must not use this option in User or System mode. For details of its
use in privileged modes, see the Handling Processor Exceptions chapter
in ADS Developer Guide and LDM and STM on page 4-18.
The syntax of the STM instruction corresponds exactly, except for some details in the
effect of the ^ option.
2-40
Copyright © 2000, 2001 ARM Limited. All rights reserved.
ARM DUI 0068B
Writing ARM and Thumb Assembly Language
Usage
See Implementing stacks with LDM and STM on page 2-42 and Block copy with LDM
and STM on page 2-44.
2.8.2
LDM and STM addressing modes
There are four different addressing modes. The base register can be incremented or
decremented by one word for each register in the operation, and the increment or
decrement can occur before or after the operation. The suffixes for these options are:
IA
Increment after.
IB
Increment before.
DA
Decrement after.
DB
Decrement before.
There are alternative addressing mode suffixes that are easier to use for stack operations.
See Implementing stacks with LDM and STM on page 2-42.
ARM DUI 0068B
Copyright © 2000, 2001 ARM Limited. All rights reserved.
2-41
Writing ARM and Thumb Assembly Language
2.8.3
Implementing stacks with LDM and STM
The load and store multiple instructions can update the base register. For stack
operations, the base register is usually the stack pointer, r13. This means that you can
use load and store multiple instructions to implement push and pop operations for any
number of registers in a single instruction.
The load and store multiple instructions can be used with several types of stack:
Descending or ascending
The stack grows downwards, starting with a high address and progressing
to a lower one (a descending stack), or upwards, starting from a low
address and progressing to a higher address (an ascending stack).
Full or empty
The stack pointer can either point to the last item in the stack (a full
stack), or the next free space on the stack (an empty stack).
To make it easier for the programmer, stack-oriented suffixes can be used instead of the
increment or decrement and before or after suffixes. Refer to Table 2-5 for a list of
stack-oriented suffixes.
Table 2-5 Suffixes for load and store multiple instructions
Stack type
Push
Pop
Full descending
STMFD (STMDB)
LDMFD (LDMIA)
Full ascending
STMFA (STMIB)
LDMFA (LDMDA)
Empty descending
STMED (STMDA)
LDMED (LDMIB)
Empty ascending
STMEA (STMIA)
LDMEA (LDMDB)
For example:
STMFD
LDMFD
r13!, {r0-r5}
r13!, {r0-r5}
; Push onto a Full Descending Stack
; Pop from a Full Descending Stack.
Note
The ARM-Thumb Procedure Call Standard (ATPCS), and ARM and Thumb C and C++
compilers always use a full descending stack.
2-42
Copyright © 2000, 2001 ARM Limited. All rights reserved.
ARM DUI 0068B
Writing ARM and Thumb Assembly Language
Stacking registers for nested subroutines
Stack operations are very useful at subroutine entry and exit. At the start of a subroutine,
any working registers required can be stored on the stack, and at exit they can be popped
off again.
In addition, if the link register is pushed onto the stack at entry, additional subroutine
calls can safely be made without causing the return address to be lost. If you do this, you
can also return from a subroutine by popping the pc off the stack at exit, instead of
popping lr and then moving that value into the pc. For example:
subroutine
STMFD
; code
BL
; code
LDMFD
sp!, {r5-r7,lr} ; Push work registers and lr
somewhere_else
sp!, {r5-r7,pc} ; Pop work registers and pc
Note
Use this with care in mixed ARM and Thumb systems. In ARM architecture v4T
systems, you cannot change state by popping directly into the program counter.
In ARM architecture v5T and above, you can change state in this way.
See the Interworking ARM and Thumb chapter in ADS Developer Guide for further
information on mixing ARM and Thumb.
ARM DUI 0068B
Copyright © 2000, 2001 ARM Limited. All rights reserved.
2-43
Writing ARM and Thumb Assembly Language
2.8.4
Block copy with LDM and STM
Example 2-11 is an ARM code routine that copies a set of words from a source location
to a destination by copying a single word at a time. It is supplied as word.s in the
examples\asm subdirectory of the ADS. Refer to Code examples on page 2-2 for
instructions on how to assemble, link, and execute the example.
Example 2-11 Block copy
num
AREA
EQU
ENTRY
Word, CODE, READONLY
20
; name this block of code
; set number of words to be copied
; mark the first instruction to call
LDR
LDR
MOV
LDR
STR
SUBS
BNE
MOV
LDR
SWI
r0, =src
r1, =dst
r2, #num
r3, [r0], #4
r3, [r1], #4
r2, r2, #1
wordcopy
r0, #0x18
r1, =0x20026
0x123456
;
;
;
;
;
;
;
;
;
;
AREA
DCD
DCD
END
BlockData, DATA, READWRITE
1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,1,2,3,4
0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0
start
wordcopy
stop
src
dst
r0 = pointer to source block
r1 = pointer to destination block
r2 = number of words to copy
load a word from the source and
store it to the destination
decrement the counter
... copy more
angel_SWIreason_ReportException
ADP_Stopped_ApplicationExit
ARM semihosting SWI
This module can be made more efficient by using LDM and STM for as much of the copying
as possible. Eight is a sensible number of words to transfer at a time, given the number
of registers that the ARM has. The number of eight-word multiples in the block to be
copied can be found (if r2 = number of words to be copied) using:
MOVS
r3, r2, LSR #3
; number of eight word multiples
This value can be used to control the number of iterations through a loop that copies
eight words per iteration. When there are less than eight words left, the number of words
left can be found (assuming that r2 has not been corrupted) using:
ANDS
r2, r2, #7
Example 2-12 on page 2-45 lists the block copy module rewritten to use LDM and STM for
copying.
2-44
Copyright © 2000, 2001 ARM Limited. All rights reserved.
ARM DUI 0068B
Writing ARM and Thumb Assembly Language
Example 2-12
num
AREA
EQU
ENTRY
Block, CODE, READONLY
20
; name this block of code
; set number of words to be copied
; mark the first instruction to call
LDR
LDR
MOV
MOV
MOVS
BEQ
STMFD
LDMIA
STMIA
SUBS
BNE
LDMFD
r0, =src
r1, =dst
r2, #num
sp, #0x400
r3,r2, LSR #3
copywords
sp!, {r4-r11}
r0!, {r4-r11}
r1!, {r4-r11}
r3, r3, #1
octcopy
sp!, {r4-r11}
ANDS
BEQ
LDR
STR
SUBS
BNE
MOV
LDR
SWI
r2, r2, #7
stop
r3, [r0], #4
r3, [r1], #4
r2, r2, #1
wordcopy
r0, #0x18
r1, =0x20026
0x123456
;
;
;
;
;
;
;
;
;
;
;
;
;
;
;
;
;
;
;
;
;
;
AREA
DCD
DCD
END
BlockData, DATA, READWRITE
1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,1,2,3,4
0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0
start
blockcopy
octcopy
copywords
wordcopy
stop
src
dst
ARM DUI 0068B
r0 = pointer to source block
r1 = pointer to destination block
r2 = number of words to copy
Set up stack pointer (r13)
Number of eight word multiples
Less than eight words to move?
Save some working registers
Load 8 words from the source
and put them at the destination
Decrement the counter
... copy more
Don't need these now - restore
originals
Number of odd words to copy
No words left to copy?
Load a word from the source and
store it to the destination
Decrement the counter
... copy more
angel_SWIreason_ReportException
ADP_Stopped_ApplicationExit
ARM semihosting SWI
Copyright © 2000, 2001 ARM Limited. All rights reserved.
2-45
Writing ARM and Thumb Assembly Language
2.8.5
Thumb LDM and STM instructions
The Thumb instruction set contains two pairs of multiple-register transfer instructions:
•
LDM and STM for block memory transfers
•
PUSH and POP for stack operations.
LDM and STM
These instructions can be used to load or store any subset of the low registers from or
to memory. The base register is always updated at the end of the multiple register
transfer instruction. You must specify the ! character. The only valid suffix for these
instructions is IA.
Examples of these instructions are:
LDMIA
STMIA
r1!, {r0,r2-r7}
r4!, {r0-r3}
PUSH and POP
These instructions can be used to push any subset of the low registers and (optionally)
the link register onto the stack, and to pop any subset of the low registers and
(optionally) the pc off the stack. The base address of the stack is held in r13. Examples
of these instructions are:
PUSH
POP
PUSH
POP
{r0-r3}
{r0-r3}
{r4-r7,lr}
{r4-r7,pc}
The optional addition of the lr or pc to the register list provides support for subroutine
entry and exit.
The stack is always full descending.
Thumb-state block copy example
The block copy example, Example 2-11 on page 2-44, can be converted into Thumb
instructions (see Example 2-13 on page 2-47).
Because the Thumb LDM and STM instructions can access only the low registers, the
number of words copied per iteration is reduced from eight to four. In addition, the LDM
and STM instructions can be used to carry out the single word at a time copy, because they
update the base pointer after each access. If LDR and STR were used for this, separate ADD
instructions would be required to update each base pointer.
2-46
Copyright © 2000, 2001 ARM Limited. All rights reserved.
ARM DUI 0068B
Writing ARM and Thumb Assembly Language
Example 2-13
num
AREA
EQU
ENTRY
Tblock, CODE, READONLY
20
MOV
ADR
BX
sp, #0x400
r0, start + 1
r0
header
CODE16
;
;
;
;
;
;
;
;
;
Name this block of code
Set number of words to be copied
Mark first instruction to execute
The first instruction to call
Set up stack pointer (r13)
Processor starts in ARM state,
so small ARM code header used
to call Thumb main program
Subsequent instructions are Thumb
start
LDR
LDR
MOV
blockcopy
LSR
BEQ
PUSH
quadcopy
LDMIA
STMIA
SUB
BNE
POP
copywords
MOV
AND
BEQ
wordcopy
LDMIA
STMIA
SUB
BNE
stop
MOV
LDR
SWI
src
dst
AREA
DCD
DCD
END
ARM DUI 0068B
r0, =src
r1, =dst
r2, #num
; r0 =pointer to source block
; r1 =pointer to destination block
; r2 =number of words to copy
r3,r2, #2
copywords
{r4-r7}
; Number of four word multiples
; Less than four words to move?
; Save some working registers
r0!, {r4-r7}
r1!, {r4-r7}
r3, #1
quadcopy
{r4-r7}
;
;
;
;
;
r3, #3
r2, r3
stop
; Bottom two bits represent number
; ...of odd words left to copy
; No words left to copy?
r0!, {r3}
r1!, {r3}
r2, #1
wordcopy
r0, #0x18
r1, =0x20026
0xAB
;
;
;
;
;
;
;
Load 4 words from the source
and put them at the destination
Decrement the counter
... copy more
Don't need these now-restore originals
load a word from the source and
store it to the destination
Decrement the counter
... copy more
angel_SWIreason_ReportException
ADP_Stopped_ApplicationExit
Thumb semihosting SWI
BlockData, DATA, READWRITE
1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,1,2,3,4
0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0
Copyright © 2000, 2001 ARM Limited. All rights reserved.
2-47
Writing ARM and Thumb Assembly Language
2.9
Using macros
A macro definition is a block of code enclosed between MACRO and MEND directives. It
defines a name that can be used instead of repeating the whole block of code. This has
two main uses:
•
to make it easier to follow the logic of the source code, by replacing a block of
code with a single, meaningful name
•
to avoid repeating a block of code several times.
Refer to MACRO and MEND on page 7-27 for more details.
2.9.1
Test-and-branch macro example
A test-and-branch operation requires two ARM instructions to implement.
You can define a macro definition such as this:
$label
$label
MACRO
TestAndBranch
CMP
B$cc
MEND
$dest, $reg, $cc
$reg, #0
$dest
The line after the MACRO directive is the macro prototype statement. The macro prototype
statement defines the name (TestAndBranch) you use to invoke the macro. It also defines
parameters ($label, $dest, $reg, and $cc). You must give values to the parameters when
you invoke the macro. The assembler substitutes the values you give into the code.
This macro can be invoked as follows:
test
TestAndBranch
...
...
NonZero, r0, NE
NonZero
After substitution this becomes:
test
CMP
BNE
...
...
r0, #0
NonZero
NonZero
2-48
Copyright © 2000, 2001 ARM Limited. All rights reserved.
ARM DUI 0068B
Writing ARM and Thumb Assembly Language
2.9.2
Unsigned integer division macro example
Example 2-14 shows a macro that performs an unsigned integer division. It takes four
parameters:
$Bot
The register that holds the divisor.
$Top
The register that holds the dividend before the instructions are executed.
After the instructions are executed, it holds the remainder.
$Div
The register where the quotient of the division is placed. It can be NULL
("") if only the remainder is required.
$Temp
A temporary register used during the calculation.
Example 2-14
$Lab
MACRO
DivMod $Div,$Top,$Bot,$Temp
ASSERT $Top <> $Bot
ASSERT $Top <> $Temp
ASSERT $Bot <> $Temp
IF
"$Div" <> ""
ASSERT $Div <> $Top
ASSERT $Div <> $Bot
ASSERT $Div <> $Temp
ENDIF
; Produce an error message if the
; registers supplied are
; not all different
; These three only matter if $Div
; is not null ("")
;
$Lab
90
91
ARM DUI 0068B
MOV
CMP
MOVLS
CMP
BLS
IF
MOV
ENDIF
CMP
SUBCS
IF
ADC
ENDIF
MOV
CMP
BHS
MEND
$Temp, $Bot
$Temp, $Top, LSR #1
$Temp, $Temp, LSL #1
$Temp, $Top, LSR #1
%b90
"$Div" <> ""
$Div, #0
; Put divisor in $Temp
; double it until
; 2 * $Temp > $Top
$Top, $Temp
$Top, $Top,$Temp
"$Div" <> ""
$Div, $Div, $Div
;
;
;
;
$Temp, $Temp, LSR #1
$Temp, $Bot
%b91
; Halve $Temp,
; and loop until
; less than divisor
; The b means search backwards
; Omit next instruction if $Div is null
; Initialize quotient
Can we subtract $Temp?
If we can, do so
Omit next instruction if $Div is null
Double $Div
Copyright © 2000, 2001 ARM Limited. All rights reserved.
2-49
Writing ARM and Thumb Assembly Language
The macro checks that no two parameters use the same register. It also optimizes the
code produced if only the remainder is required.
To avoid multiple definitions of labels if DivMod is used more than once in the assembler
source, the macro uses local labels (90, 91). Refer to Local labels on page 2-13 for more
information.
Example 2-15 shows the code that this macro produces if it is invoked as follows:
ratio
DivMod
r0,r5,r4,r2
Example 2-15
ASSERT
ASSERT
ASSERT
ASSERT
ASSERT
ASSERT
r5
r5
r4
r0
r0
r0
<>
<>
<>
<>
<>
<>
r4
r2
r2
r5
r4
r2
;
;
;
;
;
;
MOV
CMP
MOVLS
CMP
BLS
MOV
CMP
SUBCS
ADC
r2, r4
r2, r5,
r2, r2,
r2, r5,
%b90
r0, #0
r5, r2
r5, r5,
r0, r0,
MOV
CMP
BHS
r2, r2, LSR #1
r2, r4
%b91
Produce an error if the
registers supplied are
not all different
These three only matter if $Div
is not null ("")
ratio
90
91
2-50
LSR #1
LSL #1
LSR #1
r2
r0
; Put divisor in $Temp
; double it until
; 2 * r2 > r5
;
;
;
;
;
The b means search backwards
Initialize quotient
Can we subtract r2?
If we can, do so
Double r0
; Halve r2,
; and loop until
; less than divisor
Copyright © 2000, 2001 ARM Limited. All rights reserved.
ARM DUI 0068B
Writing ARM and Thumb Assembly Language
2.10
Describing data structures with MAP and FIELD directives
You can use the MAP and FIELD directives to describe data structures. These directives are
always used together.
Data structures defined using MAP and FIELD:
•
are easily maintainable
•
can be used to describe multiple instances of the same structure
•
make it easy to access data efficiently.
The MAP directive specifies the base address of the data structure. Refer to MAP on
page 7-15 for further information.
The FIELD directive specifies the amount of memory required for a data item, and can
give the data item a label. It is repeated for each data item in the structure. Refer to
FIELD on page 7-16 for further information.
Note
No space in memory is allocated when a map is defined. Use define constant directives
(for example, DCD) to allocate space in memory.
ARM DUI 0068B
Copyright © 2000, 2001 ARM Limited. All rights reserved.
2-51
Writing ARM and Thumb Assembly Language
2.10.1
Relative maps
To access data more than 4KB away from the current instruction, you can use a
register-relative instruction, such as:
LDR
r4,[r9,#offset]
offset is limited to 4096, so r9 must already contain a value within 4KB of the address
of the data.
Example 2-16
consta
constb
x
y
string
MAP
FIELD
FIELD
FIELD
FIELD
FIELD
0
4
4
8
8
256
;
;
;
;
;
consta
constb
x uses
y uses
string
uses four bytes, located at offset 0
uses four bytes, located at offset 4
eight bytes, located at offset 8
eight bytes, located at offset 16
is up to 256 bytes long, starting at offset 24
Using the map in Example 2-16, you can access the data structure using the following
instructions:
MOV
LDR
r9,#4096
r4,[r9,#constb]
The labels are relative to the start of the data structure. The register used to hold the start
address of the map (r9 in this case) is called the base register.
There are likely to be many LDR or STR instructions accessing data in this data structure.
This map does not contain the location of the data structure. The location of the
structure is determined by the value loaded into the base register at runtime.
The same map can be used to describe many instances of the data structure. These can
be located anywhere in memory.
There are restrictions on what addresses can be loaded into a register using the MOV
instruction. Refer to Loading addresses into registers on page 2-30 for details of how to
load arbitrary addresses.
Note
r9 is the static base register (sb) in the ARM-Thumb Procedure Call Standard. Refer to
the Using the Procedure Call Standard chapter in ADS Developer Guide for further
information.
2-52
Copyright © 2000, 2001 ARM Limited. All rights reserved.
ARM DUI 0068B
Writing ARM and Thumb Assembly Language
2.10.2
Register-based maps
In many cases, you can use the same register as the base register every time you access
a data structure. You can include the name of the register in the base address of the map.
Example 2-17 shows such a register-based map. The labels defined in the map include
the register.
Example 2-17
consta
constb
x
y
string
MAP
FIELD
FIELD
FIELD
FIELD
FIELD
0,r9
4
4
8
8
256
;
;
;
;
;
consta
constb
x uses
y uses
string
uses four bytes, located at offset 0 (from r9)
uses four bytes, located at offset 4
eight bytes, located at offset 8
eight bytes, located at offset 16
is up to 256 bytes long, starting at offset 24
Using the map in Example 2-17, you can access the data structure wherever it is:
ADR
LDR
r9,datastart
r4,constb
; => LDR r4,[r9,#4]
constb contains the offset of the data item from the start of the data structure, and also
includes the base register. In this case the base register is r9, defined in the MAP directive.
ARM DUI 0068B
Copyright © 2000, 2001 ARM Limited. All rights reserved.
2-53
Writing ARM and Thumb Assembly Language
2.10.3
Program-relative maps
You can use the program counter (r15) as the base register for a map. In this case, each
STM or LDM instruction must be within 4KB of the data item it addresses, because the
offset is limited to 4KB. The data structure must be in the same section as the
instructions, because otherwise there is no guarantee that the data items will be within
range after linking.
Example 2-18 shows a program fragment with such a map. It includes a directive which
allocates space in memory for the data structure, and an instruction which accesses it.
Example 2-18
datastruc
280
datastruc
4
4
8
8
256
; reserves 280 bytes of memory for datastruc
consta
constb
x
y
string
SPACE
MAP
FIELD
FIELD
FIELD
FIELD
FIELD
code
LDR
r2,constb
; => LDR r2,[pc,offset]
In this case, there is no need to load the base register before loading the data as the
program counter already holds the correct address. (This is not actually the same as the
address of the LDR instruction, because of pipelining in the processor. However, the
assembler takes care of this for you.)
2-54
Copyright © 2000, 2001 ARM Limited. All rights reserved.
ARM DUI 0068B
Writing ARM and Thumb Assembly Language
2.10.4
Finding the end of the allocated data
You can use the FIELD directive with an operand of 0 to label a location within a
structure. The location is labeled, but the location counter is not incremented.
The size of the data structure defined in Example 2-19 depends on the values of
MaxStrLen and ArrayLen. If these values are too large, the structure overruns the end of
available memory.
Example 2-19 uses:
•
an EQU directive to define the end of available memory
•
a FIELD directive with an operand of 0 to label the end of the data structure.
An ASSERT directive checks that the end of the data structure does not overrun the
available memory.
Example 2-19
StartOfData
EndOfData
Integer
Integer2
String
Array
BitMask
EndOfUsedData
ARM DUI 0068B
EQU
EQU
MAP
FIELD
FIELD
FIELD
FIELD
FIELD
FIELD
ASSERT
0x1000
0x2000
StartOfData
4
4
MaxStrLen
ArrayLen*8
4
0
EndOfUsedData <= EndOfData
Copyright © 2000, 2001 ARM Limited. All rights reserved.
2-55
Writing ARM and Thumb Assembly Language
2.10.5
Forcing correct alignment
You are likely to have problems if you include some character variables in the data
structure, as in Example 2-20. This is because a lot of words are misaligned.
Example 2-20
StartOfData
EndOfData
Char
Char2
Char3
Integer
Integer2
String
Array
BitMask
EndOfUsedData
EQU
EQU
MAP
FIELD
FIELD
FIELD
FIELD
FIELD
FIELD
FIELD
FIELD
FIELD
ASSERT
0x1000
0x2000
StartOfData
1
1
1
4
; alignment = 3
4
MaxStrLen
ArrayLen*8
4
0
EndOfUsedData <= EndOfData
You cannot use the ALIGN directive, because the ALIGN directive aligns the current
location within memory. MAP and FIELD directives do not allocate any memory for the
structures they define.
You could insert a dummy FIELD 1 after Char3 FIELD 1. However, this makes
maintenance difficult if you change the number of character variables. You must
recalculate the right amount of padding each time.
Example 2-21 on page 2-57 shows a better way of adjusting the padding. The example
uses a FIELD directive with a 0 operand to label the end of the character data. A second
FIELD directive inserts the correct amount of padding based on the value of the label. An
:AND: operator is used to calculate the correct value.
The (-EndOfChars):AND:3 expression calculates the correct amount of padding:
0
3
2
1
if
if
if
if
EndOfChars
EndOfChars
EndOfChars
EndOfChars
is
is
is
is
0
1
2
3
mod
mod
mod
mod
4;
4;
4;
4.
This automatically adjusts the amount of padding used whenever character variables are
added or removed.
2-56
Copyright © 2000, 2001 ARM Limited. All rights reserved.
ARM DUI 0068B
Writing ARM and Thumb Assembly Language
Example 2-21
StartOfData
EndOfData
Char
Char2
Char3
EndOfChars
Padding
Integer
Integer2
String
Array
BitMask
EndOfUsedData
ARM DUI 0068B
EQU
EQU
MAP
FIELD
FIELD
FIELD
FIELD
FIELD
FIELD
FIELD
FIELD
FIELD
FIELD
FIELD
ASSERT
0x1000
0x2000
StartOfData
1
1
1
0
(-EndOfChars):AND:3
4
4
MaxStrLen
ArrayLen*8
4
0
EndOfUsedData <= EndOfData
Copyright © 2000, 2001 ARM Limited. All rights reserved.
2-57
Writing ARM and Thumb Assembly Language
2.10.6
Using register-based MAP and FIELD directives
Register-based MAP and FIELD directives define register-based symbols. There are two
main uses for register-based symbols:
•
defining structures similar to C structures
•
gaining faster access to memory sections described by non register-based MAP and
FIELD directives.
Defining register-based symbols
Register-based symbols can be very useful, but you must be careful when using them.
As a general rule, use them only in the following ways:
•
As the location for a load or store instruction to load from or store to. If Location
is a register-based symbol based on the register Rb and with numeric offset, the
assembler automatically translates, for example, LDR Rn,Location into LDR
Rn,[Rb,#offset].
In an ADR or ADRL instruction, ADR Rn,Location is converted by the assembler into
ADD Rn,Rb,#offset .
•
Adding an ordinary numeric expression to a register-based symbol to get another
register-based symbol.
•
Subtracting an ordinary numeric expression from a register-based symbol to get
another register-based symbol.
•
Subtracting a register-based symbol from another register-based symbol to get an
ordinary numeric expression. Do not do this unless the two register-based
symbols are based on the same register. Otherwise, you have a combination of
two registers and a numeric value. This results in an assembler error.
•
As the operand of a :BASE: or :INDEX: operator. These operators are mainly of
use in macros.
Other uses usually result in assembler error messages. For example, if you write LDR
Rn,=Location, where Location is register-based, you are asking the assembler to load Rn
from a memory location that always has the current value of the register Rb plus offset
in it. It cannot do this, because there is no such memory location.
Similarly, if you write ADD Rd,Rn,#expression, and expression is register-based, you are
asking for a single ADD instruction that adds both the base register of the expression and
its offset to Rn. Again, the assembler cannot do this. You must use two ADD instructions
to perform these two additions.
2-58
Copyright © 2000, 2001 ARM Limited. All rights reserved.
ARM DUI 0068B
Writing ARM and Thumb Assembly Language
Setting up a C-type structure
There are two stages to using structures in C:
1.
Declaring the fields that the structure contains.
2.
Generating the structure in memory and using it.
For example, the following typedef statement defines a point structure that contains
three float fields named x, y and z, but it does not allocate any memory. The second
statement allocates three structures of type Point in memory, named origin, oldloc, and
newloc:
typedef struct Point
{
float x,y,z;
} Point;
Point origin,oldloc,newloc;
The following assembly language code is equivalent to the typedef statement above:
PointBase
Point_x
Point_y
Point_z
RN
MAP
FIELD
FIELD
FIELD
r11
0,PointBase
4
4
4
The following assembly language code allocates space in memory. This is equivalent to
the last line of C code:
origin
oldloc
newloc
SPACE
SPACE
SPACE
12
12
12
You must load the base address of the data structure into the base register before you
can use the labels defined in the map. For example:
LDR
MOV
STR
MOV
STR
MOV
STR
PointBase,=origin
r0,#0
r0,Point_x
r0,#2
r0,Point_y
r0,#3
r0,Point_z
is equivalent to the C code:
origin.x = 0;
origin.y = 2;
origin.z = 3;
ARM DUI 0068B
Copyright © 2000, 2001 ARM Limited. All rights reserved.
2-59
Writing ARM and Thumb Assembly Language
Making faster access possible
To gain faster access to a section of memory:
1.
Describe the memory section as a structure.
2.
Use a register to address the structure.
For example, consider the definitions in Example 2-22.
Example 2-22
StartOfData
EndOfData
Integer
String
Array
BitMask
EndOfUsedData
EQU
EQU
MAP
FIELD
FIELD
FIELD
FIELD
FIELD
ASSERT
0x1000
0x2000
StartOfData
4
MaxStrLen
ArrayLen*8
4
0
EndOfUsedData <= EndOfData
If you want the equivalent of the C code:
Integer = 1;
String = "";
BitMask = 0xA000000A;
With the definitions from Example 2-22, the assembly language code can be as shown
in Example 2-23.
Example 2-23
MOV
LDR
STR
MOV
LDR
STRB
MOV
LDR
STRB
r0,#1
r1,=Integer
r0,[r1]
r0,#0
r1,=String
r0,[r1]
r0,#0xA000000A
r1,=BitMask
r0,[r1]
Example 2-23 uses LDR pseudo-instructions. Refer to Loading with LDR Rd, =const on
page 2-27 for an explanation of these.
2-60
Copyright © 2000, 2001 ARM Limited. All rights reserved.
ARM DUI 0068B
Writing ARM and Thumb Assembly Language
Example 2-23 on page 2-60 contains separate LDR pseudo-instructions to load the
address of each of the data items. Each LDR pseudo-instruction is converted to a separate
instruction by the assembler. However, it is possible to access the entire data section
with a single LDR pseudo-instruction. Example 2-24 shows how to do this. Both speed
and code size are improved.
Example 2-24
AREA
EQU
EQU
RN
MAP
StartOfUsedData FIELD
Integer
FIELD
String
FIELD
Array
FIELD
BitMask
FIELD
EndOfUsedData
FIELD
UsedDataLen
EQU
ASSERT
StartOfData
EndOfData
DataAreaBase
AREA
LDR
MOV
STR
MOV
STRB
MOV
STRB
data, DATA
0x1000
0x2000
r11
0,DataAreaBase
0
4
MaxStrLen
ArrayLen*8
4
0
EndOfUsedData - StartOfUsedData
UsedDataLen <= (EndOfData - StartOfData)
code, CODE
DataAreaBase,=StartOfData
r0,#1
r0,Integer
r0,#0
r0,String
r0,#0xA000000A
r0,BitMask
Note
In this example, the MAP directive is:
MAP 0, DataAreaBase
not:
MAP StartOfData,DataAreaBase
The MAP and FIELD directives give the position of the data relative to the DataAreaBase
register, not the absolute position. The LDR DataAreaBase,=StartOfData statement
provides the absolute position of the entire data section.
ARM DUI 0068B
Copyright © 2000, 2001 ARM Limited. All rights reserved.
2-61
Writing ARM and Thumb Assembly Language
If you use the same technique for a section of memory containing memory-mapped I/O
(or whose absolute addresses must not change for other reasons), you must take care to
keep the code maintainable.
One method is to add comments to the code warning maintainers to take care when
modifying the definitions. A better method is to use definitions of the absolute addresses
to control the register-based definitions.
Using MAP offset,reg followed by label FIELD 0 makes label into a register-based
symbol with register part reg and numeric part offset. Example 2-25 shows this.
Example 2-25
StartOfIOArea
SendFlag_Abs
SendData_Abs
RcvFlag_Abs
RcvData_Abs
IOAreaBase
SendFlag
SendData
RcvFlag
RcvData
EQU
EQU
EQU
EQU
EQU
RN
MAP
FIELD
MAP
FIELD
MAP
FIELD
MAP
FIELD
0x1000000
0x1000000
0x1000004
0x1000008
0x100000C
r11
(SendFlag_Abs-StartOfIOArea),IOAreaBase
0
(SendData_Abs-StartOfIOArea),IOAreaBase
0
(RcvFlag_Abs-StartOfIOArea),IOAreaBase
0
(RcvData_Abs-StartOfIOArea),IOAreaBase
0
Load the base address with LDR IOAreaBase,=StartOfIOArea. This allows the individual
locations to be accessed with statements like LDR R0,RcvFlag and STR R4,SendData.
2-62
Copyright © 2000, 2001 ARM Limited. All rights reserved.
ARM DUI 0068B
Writing ARM and Thumb Assembly Language
2.10.7
Using two register-based structures
Sometimes you need to operate on two structures of the same type at the same time. For
example, if you want the equivalent of the pseudo-code:
newloc.x = oldloc.x + (value in r0);
newloc.y = oldloc.y + (value in r1);
newloc.z = oldloc.z + (value in r2);
The base register needs to point alternately to the oldloc structure and to the newloc one.
Repeatedly changing the base register would be inefficient. Instead, use a
non register-based map, and set up two pointers in two different registers as in
Example 2-26.
Example 2-26
Pointx
Pointy
Pointz
MAP
FIELD
FIELD
FIELD
0
4
4
4
;
;
;
;
Non-register based relative map used twice, for
old and new data at oldloc and newloc
oldloc and newloc are labels for
memory allocated in other sections
; code
ADR
ADR
LDR
ADD
STR
LDR
ADD
STR
LDR
ADD
STR
ARM DUI 0068B
r8,oldloc
r9,newloc
r3,[r8,Pointx]
r3,r3,r0
r3,[r9,Pointx]
r3,[r8,Pointy]
r3,r3,r1
r3,[r9,Pointy]
r3,[r8,Pointz]
r3,r3,r2
r3,[r9,Pointz]
; load from oldloc (r8)
; store to newloc (r9)
Copyright © 2000, 2001 ARM Limited. All rights reserved.
2-63
Writing ARM and Thumb Assembly Language
2.10.8
Avoiding problems with MAP and FIELD directives
Using MAP and FIELD directives can help you to produce maintainable data structures.
However, this is only true if the order the elements are placed in memory is not
important to either the programmer or the program.
You can have problems if you load or store multiple elements of a structure in a single
instruction. These problems arise in operations such as:
•
loading several single-byte elements into one register
•
using a store multiple or load multiple instruction (STM and LDM) to store or load
multiple words from or to multiple registers.
These operations require the data elements in the structure to be contiguous in memory,
and to be in a specific order. If the order of the elements is changed, or a new element
is added, the program is broken in a way that cannot be detected by the assembler.
There are several methods for avoiding problems such as this.
Example 2-27 shows a sample structure.
Example 2-27
MiscBase
MiscStart
Misc_a
Misc_b
Misc_c
Misc_d
MiscEndOfChars
MiscPadding
Misc_I
Misc_J
Misc_K
Misc_data
MiscEnd
MiscLen
RN
MAP
FIELD
FIELD
FIELD
FIELD
FIELD
FIELD
FIELD
FIELD
FIELD
FIELD
FIELD
FIELD
EQU
r10
0,MiscBase
0
1
1
1
1
0
(-:INDEX:MiscEndOfChars) :AND: 3
4
4
4
4*20
0
MiscEnd-MiscStart
There is no problem in using LDM and STM instructions for accessing single data elements
that are larger than a word (for example, arrays). An example of this is the 20-word
element Misc_data. It could be accessed as follows:
ArrayBase
2-64
RN
ADR
LDMIA
R9
ArrayBase, MiscBase
ArrayBase, {R0-R5}
Copyright © 2000, 2001 ARM Limited. All rights reserved.
ARM DUI 0068B
Writing ARM and Thumb Assembly Language
Example 2-27 on page 2-64 loads the first six items in the array Misc_data. The array is
a single element and therefore covers contiguous memory locations. No one is likely to
want to split it into separate arrays in the future.
However, for loading Misc_I, Misc_J, and Misc_K into registers r0, r1, and r2 the
following code works, but might cause problems in the future:
ArrayBase
RN r9
ADR
LDMIA
ArrayBase, Misc_I
ArrayBase, {r0-r2}
Problems arise if the order of Misc_I, Misc_J, and Misc_K is changed, or if a new element
Misc_New is added in the middle. Either of these small changes breaks the code.
If these elements are accessed separately elsewhere, you must not amalgamate them
into a single array element. In this case, you must amend the code. The first remedy is
to comment the structure to prevent changes affecting this section:
Misc_I
Misc_J
Misc_K
FIELD
FIELD
FIELD
4
4
4
;
;
;
==} Do not split/reorder
} these 3 elements, STM
==} and LDM instructions used.
If the code is strongly commented, no deliberate changes are likely to be made that
affect the workings of the program. Unfortunately, mistakes can occur. A second
method of catching these problems is to add ASSERT directives just before the STM and LDM
instructions to check that the labels are consecutive and in the correct order:
ArrayBase
ASSERT
RN
R9
; Check that the structure elements
; are correctly ordered for LDM
(((Misc_J-Misc_I) = 4) :LAND: ((Misc_K-Misc_J) = 4))
ADR
ArrayBase, Misc_I
LDMIA
ArrayBase, {r0-r2}
This ASSERT directive stops assembly at this point if the structure is not in the correct
order to be loaded with an LDM. Remember that the element with the lowest address is
always loaded from, or stored to, the lowest numbered register.
ARM DUI 0068B
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2-65
Writing ARM and Thumb Assembly Language
2.11
Using frame directives
You must use frame directives to describe the way that your code uses the stack if you
want to be able to do either of the following:
•
debug your application using stack unwinding
•
use either flat or call-graph profiling.
Refer to Frame description directives on page 7-33 for details of these directives.
The assembler uses these directives to insert DWARF2 debug frame information into
the object file in ELF format that it produces. This information is required by the
debuggers for stack unwinding and for profiling. Refer to the Using the Procedure Call
Standard chapter in ADS Developer Guide for further information about stack
unwinding.
Frame directives do not affect the code produced by armasm.
2-66
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ARM DUI 0068B
Chapter 3
Assembler Reference
This chapter provides general reference material on the ARM assemblers. It contains
the following sections:
•
Command syntax on page 3-2
•
Format of source lines on page 3-8
•
Predefined register and coprocessor names on page 3-9
•
Built-in variables on page 3-10
•
Symbols on page 3-12
•
Expressions, literals, and operators on page 3-18.
This chapter does not explain how to write ARM assembly language. See Chapter 2
Writing ARM and Thumb Assembly Language for tutorial information.
It also does not describe the instructions, directives, or pseudo-instructions. See the
separate chapters for reference information on these.
ARM DUI 0068B
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3-1
Assembler Reference
3.1
Command syntax
This section relates only to armasm. The inline assemblers are part of the C and C++
compilers, and have no command syntax of their own.
The armasm command line is case-insensitive, except in filenames, and where specified.
Invoke the ARM assembler using this command:
armasm [-16|-32] [-apcs [none|[/qualifier[/qualifier[...]]]]]
[-bigend|-littleend] [-checkreglist] [-cpu cpu] [-depend dependfile|-m|-md]
[-errors errorfile] [-fpu name] [-g] [-help] [-i dir [,dir]…] [-keep] [-list
[listingfile] [options]] [-maxcache n] [-memaccess attributes] [-nocache]
[-noesc] [-noregs] [-nowarn] [-o filename] [-predefine "directive"] [-split_ldm]
[-unsafe] [-via file] inputfile
where:
-16
instructs the assembler to interpret instructions as Thumb instructions.
This is equivalent to a CODE16 directive at the head of the source file.
-32
instructs the assembler to interpret instructions as ARM instructions.
This is the default.
-apcs [none|[/qualifier[/qualifier[...]]]]
specifies whether you are using the ARM/Thumb Procedure Call
Standard (ATPCS). It can also specify some attributes of code sections.
See ADS Developer Guide for more information about the ATPCS.
/none
specifies that inputfile does not use ATPCS. ATPCS registers
are not set up. Qualifiers are not allowed.
Note
ATPCS qualifiers do not affect the code produced by the assembler. They
are an assertion by the programmer that the code in inputfile complies
with a particular variant of ATPCS. They cause attributes to be set in the
object file produced by the assembler. The linker uses these attributes to
check compatibility of files, and to select appropriate library variants.
Values for qualifier are:
3-2
/interwork
specifies that the code in inputfile is suitable for
ARM/Thumb interworking. See ADS Developer
Guide for information on interworking.
/nointerwork
specifies that the code in inputfile is not suitable
for ARM/Thumb interworking. This is the default.
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Assembler Reference
/ropi
specifies that the content of inputfile is read-only
position-independent. The default is /noropi.
/pic
is a synonym for /ropi.
/nopic
is a synonym for /noropi.
/rwpi
specifies that the content of inputfile is read-write
position-independent. The default is /norwpi.
/pid
is a synonym for /rwpi.
/nopid
is a synonym for /norwpi.
/swstackcheck
specifies that the code in inputfile carries out
software stack-limit checking.
/noswstackcheck
specifies that the code in inputfile does not carry
out software stack-limit checking. This is the
default.
/swstna
specifies that the code in inputfile is compatible
both with code which carries out stack-limit
checking, and with code that does not carry out
stack-limit checking.
-bigend
instructs the assembler to assemble code suitable for a big-endian ARM.
The default is -littleend.
-littleend
instructs the assembler to assemble code suitable for a little-endian ARM.
-checkreglist
instructs the assembler to check RLIST, LDM, and STM register lists to ensure
that all registers are provided in increasing register number order. A
warning is given if registers are not listed in order.
-cpu cpu
sets the target CPU. Some instructions produce either errors or warnings
if assembled for the wrong target CPU (see also the -unsafe assembler
option). Valid values for cpu are architecture names such as 3, 4T, or 5TE,
or part numbers such as ARM7TDMI®. See ARM Architecture Reference
Manual for information about the architectures. The default is
ARM7TDMI.
-depend dependfile
instructs the assembler to save source file dependency lists to dependfile.
These are suitable for use with make utilities.
-m
ARM DUI 0068B
instructs the assembler to write source file dependency lists to stdout.
Copyright © 2000, 2001 ARM Limited. All rights reserved.
3-3
Assembler Reference
instructs the assembler to write source file dependency lists to
inputfile.d.
-md
-errors errorfile
instructs the assembler to output error messages to errorfile.
-fpu name
this option selects the target floating-point unit (FPU) architecture. If you
specify this option it overrides any implicit FPU set by the -cpu option.
Floating-point instructions produce either errors or warnings if
assembled for the wrong target FPU.
The assembler sets a build attribute corresponding to name in the object
file. The linker determines compatibility between object files, and
selection of libraries, accordingly.
The assembler sets a build attribute corresponding to name in the object
file. The linker determines compatibility between object files, and
selection of libraries, accordingly.
Valid options are:
none
Selects no floating-point option. This makes your assembled
object file compatible with any other object file.
vfp
This is a synonym for -fpu vfpv1.
vfpv1
Selects hardware vector floating-point unit conforming to
architecture VFPv1.
vfpv2
Selects hardware vector floating-point unit conforming to
architecture VFPv2.
fpa
Selects hardware Floating Point Accelerator.
softvfp+vfp
Selects hardware Vector Floating Point unit.
To armasm, this is identical to -fpu vfpv1. See the C and C++
Compilers chapter in ADS Compilers and Libraries Guide for
details of the effect on software library selection at link time.
-g
softvfp
Selects software floating-point library (FPLib) with
pure-endian doubles. This is the default if no -fpu option is
specified.
softfpa
Selects software floating-point library with mixed-endian
doubles.
instructs the assembler to generate DWARF2 debug tables. For
backwards compatibility, the following command line option is
permitted, but not required:
-dwarf2
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Assembler Reference
instructs the assembler to display a summary of the assembler
command-line options.
-help
-i dir [,dir]…
adds directories to the source file search path so that arguments to GET,
INCLUDE, or INCBIN directives do not need to be fully qualified (see GET or
INCLUDE on page 7-61).
instructs the assembler to keep local labels in the symbol table of the
object file, for use by the debugger (see KEEP on page 7-64).
-keep
-list [listingfile] [options]
instructs the assembler to output a detailed listing of the assembly
language produced by the assembler to listingfile. If - is given as
listingfile, listing is sent to stdout. If no listingfile is given, listing is
sent to inputfile.lst.
Use the following command-line options to control the behavior of -list:
-noterse turns the terse flag off. When this option is on, lines skipped
due to conditional assembly do not appear in the listing. If the
terse option is off, these lines do appear in the listing. The
default is on.
-maxcache
-width
sets the listing page width. The default is 79 characters.
-length
sets the listing page length. Length zero means an unpaged
listing. The default is 66 lines.
-xref
instructs the assembler to list cross-referencing information on
symbols, including where they were defined and where they
were used, both inside and outside macros. The default is off.
n
sets the maximum source cache size to n. The default is 8MB.
-memaccess attributes
Specifies memory access attributes of the target memory system. The
default is to allow aligned loads and saves of bytes, halfwords and words.
attributes modify the default. They can be any one of the following:
ARM DUI 0068B
+L41
Allow unaligned LDRs.
-L22
Disallow halfword loads.
-S22
Disallow halfword stores.
-L22-S22
Disallow halfword loads and stores.
Copyright © 2000, 2001 ARM Limited. All rights reserved.
3-5
Assembler Reference
-nocache
turns off source caching. By default the assembler caches source files on
the first pass and reads them from memory on the second pass.
-noesc
instructs the assembler to ignore C-style escaped special characters, such
as \n and \t.
-noregs
instructs the assembler not to predefine register names. See Predefined
register and coprocessor names on page 3-9 for a list of predefined
register names.
-nowarn
turns off warning messages.
-o filename
names the output object file. If this option is not specified, the assembler
uses the second command-line argument that is not a valid command-line
option as the name of the output file. If there is no such argument, the
assembler creates an object filename of the form inputfilename.o.
-predefine "directive"
instructs the assembler to pre-execute one of the SET directives. You must
enclose directive in quotes. See SETA, SETL, and SETS on page 7-7.
The assembler executes a corresponding GBLL, GBLS, or GBLA directive to
define the variable before setting its value.
The variable name is case-sensitive.
Note
The command line interface of your system might require you to enter
special character combinations, such as \”, to include strings in
directive. Alternatively, you can use -via file to include a -predefine
argument. The command line interface does not alter arguments from
-via files.
-split_ldm
This option instructs the assembler to fault LDM and STM instructions if the
maximum number of registers transferred exceeds:
•
five, for all STMs, and for LDMs that do not load the PC
•
four, for LDMs that load the PC.
Avoiding large multiple register transfers can reduce interrupt latency on
ARM systems that:
3-6
•
do not have a cache or a write buffer (for example, a cacheless
ARM7TDMI)
•
use zero wait-state, 32-bit memory.
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ARM DUI 0068B
Assembler Reference
Note
Avoiding large multiple register transfers increases code size and
decreases performance slightly.
Avoiding large multiple register transfers has no significant benefit for
cached systems or processors with a write buffer.
Avoiding large multiple register transfers also has no benefit for systems
without zero wait-state memory, or for systems with slow peripheral
devices. Interrupt latency in such systems is determined by the number of
cycles required for the slowest memory or peripheral access. This is
typically much greater than the latency introduced by multiple register
transfers.
ARM DUI 0068B
-unsafe
allows assembly of a file containing instructions that are not available on
the specified architecture and processor. It changes corresponding error
messages to warning messages. It also suppresses warnings about
operator precedence (see Binary operators on page 3-28).
-via file
instructs the assembler to open file and read in command-line arguments
to the assembler. For further information see the Via File Syntax appendix
in ADS Compilers and Libraries Guide.
inputfile
specifies the input file for the assembler. Input files must be ARM or
Thumb assembly language source files.
Copyright © 2000, 2001 ARM Limited. All rights reserved.
3-7
Assembler Reference
3.2
Format of source lines
The general form of source lines in an ARM assembly language module is:
{symbol} {instruction|directive|pseudo-instruction} {;comment}
All three sections of the source line are optional.
Instructions cannot start in the first column. They must be preceded by white space even
if there is no preceding symbol.
You can write directives in all upper case, as in this manual. Alternatively, you can write
directives in all lower case. You must not write a directive in mixed upper and lower
case.
You can use blank lines to make your code more readable.
symbol is usually a label (see Labels on page 3-15). In instructions and
pseudo-instructions it is always a label. In some directives it is a symbol for a variable
or a constant. The description of the directive makes this clear in each case.
symbol must begin in the first column and cannot contain any whitespace character such
as a space or a tab (see Symbol naming rules on page 3-12).
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3.3
Predefined register and coprocessor names
All register and coprocessor names are case-sensitive.
3.3.1
Predeclared register names
The following register names are predeclared:
r0-r15 and R0-R15
•
•
a1-a4 (argument, result, or scratch registers, synonyms for r0 to r3)
•
v1-v8 (variable registers, r4 to r11)
•
sb and SB (static base, r9)
•
sl and SL (stack limit, r10)
•
fp and FP (frame pointer, r11)
•
ip and IP (intra-procedure-call scratch register, r12)
•
sp and SP (stack pointer, r13)
•
lr and LR (link register, r14)
•
pc and PC (program counter, r15).
3.3.2
Predeclared program status register names
The following program status register names are predeclared:
cpsr and CPSR (current program status register)
•
•
spsr and SPSR (saved program status register).
3.3.3
Predeclared floating-point register names
The following floating-point register names are predeclared:
f0-f7 and F0-F7 (FPA registers)
•
•
s0-s31 and S0-S31 (VFP single-precision registers)
•
d0-d15 and D0-D15 (VFP double-precision registers).
3.3.4
Predeclared coprocessor names
The following coprocessor names and coprocessor register names are predeclared:
p0-p15 (coprocessors 0-15)
•
•
c0-c15 (coprocessor registers 0-15).
ARM DUI 0068B
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3.4
Built-in variables
Table 3-1 lists the built-in variables defined by the ARM assembler.
Table 3-1 Built-in variables
{PC} or .
Address of current instruction.
{VAR} or @
Current value of the storage area location counter.
{TRUE}
Logical constant true.
{FALSE}
Logical constant false.
{OPT}
Value of the currently-set listing option. The OPT directive can be used to save the current listing
option, force a change in it, or restore its original value.
{CONFIG}
Has the value 32 if the assembler is assembling ARM code, or 16 if it is assembling Thumb code.
{ENDIAN}
Has the value big if the assembler is in big-endian mode, or little if it is in little-endian mode.
{CODESIZE}
Is a synonym for {CONFIG}.
{CPU}
Holds the name of the selected cpu. The default is ARM7TDMI. If an architecture was specified in
the command line -cpu option, {CPU} holds the value "Generic ARM".
{FPU}
Holds the name of the selected fpu. The default is SoftVFP.
{ARCHITECTURE}
Holds the name of the selected ARM architecture.
{PCSTOREOFFSET}
Is the offset between the address of the STR pc,[...] or STM Rb,{..., pc} instruction and the
value of pc stored out. This varies depending on the CPU or architecture specified.
{ARMASM_VERSION}
Holds an integer that increases with each version. See also Determining the armasm version at
assembly time on page 3-11
|ads$version|
Has the same value as {ARMASM_VERSION}.
{INTER}
Has the value True if /inter is set. The default is False.
{ROPI}
Has the value True if /ropi is set. The default is False.
{RWPI}
Has the value True if /rwpi is set. The default is False.
{SWST}
Has the value True if /swst is set. The default is False.
{NOSWST}
Has the value True if /noswst is set. The default is False.
Built-in variables cannot be set using the SETA, SETL, or SETS directives. They can be used
in expressions or conditions, for example:
IF {ARCHITECTURE} = "4T"
3-10
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Assembler Reference
|ads$version| must be all lower case. The other built-in variables can be upper-case,
lower-case, or mixed.
3.4.1
Determining the armasm version at assembly time
The built-in variable {ARMASM$VERSION} can be used to distinguish between versions of
armasm from ADS1.0 onwards. However, previous versions of armasm did not have this
built-in variable.
If you need to build both ADS and SDT versions of your code, you can test for the
built-in variable |ads$version|. Use code similar to the following:
IF :DEF: |ads$version|
; code for ADS
ELSE
; code for SDT
ENDIF
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3.5
Symbols
You can use symbols to represent variables, addresses, and numeric constants. Symbols
representing addresses are also called labels. See:
•
Variables on page 3-13
•
Numeric constants on page 3-13
•
Labels on page 3-15
•
Local labels on page 3-16.
3.5.1
Symbol naming rules
The following general rules apply to symbol names:
•
You can use uppercase letters, lowercase letters, numeric characters, or the
underscore character in symbol names.
•
Do not use numeric characters for the first character of symbol names, except in
local labels (see Local labels on page 3-16).
•
Symbol names are case-sensitive.
•
All characters in the symbol name are significant.
•
Symbol names must be unique within their scope.
•
Symbols must not use built-in variable names or predefined symbol names (see
Predefined register and coprocessor names on page 3-9 and Built-in variables on
page 3-10).
•
Symbols must not use the same name as instruction mnemonics or directives. If
you use the same name as an instruction mnemonic or directive, use double bars
to delimit the symbol name. For example:
||ASSERT||
The bars are not part of the symbol.
If you need to use a wider range of characters in symbols, for example, when working
with compilers, use single bars to delimit the symbol name. For example:
|.text|
The bars are not part of the symbol. You cannot use bars, semicolons, or newlines within
the bars.
3-12
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3.5.2
Variables
The value of a variable can be changed as assembly proceeds. Variables are of three
types:
•
numeric
•
logical
•
string.
The type of a variable cannot be changed.
The range of possible values of a numeric variable is the same as the range of possible
values of a numeric constant or numeric expression (see Numeric constants and
Numeric expressions on page 3-20).
The possible values of a logical variable are {TRUE} or {FALSE} (see Logical expressions
on page 3-23).
The range of possible values of a string variable is the same as the range of values of a
string expression (see String expressions on page 3-19).
Use the GBLA, GBLL, GBLS, LCLA, LCLL, and LCLS directives to declare symbols representing
variables, and assign values to them using the SETA, SETL, and SETS directives. See:
•
GBLA, GBLL, and GBLS on page 7-4
•
LCLA, LCLL, and LCLS on page 7-6
•
SETA, SETL, and SETS on page 7-7.
3.5.3
Numeric constants
Numeric constants are 32-bit integers. You can set them using unsigned numbers in the
range 0 to 2 32 – 1, or signed numbers in the range –231 to 231 – 1. However, the
assembler makes no distinction between –n and 2 32 – n. Relational operators such as >=
use the unsigned interpretation. This means that 0 > –1 is {FALSE}.
Use the EQU directive to define constants (see EQU on page 7-57). You cannot change
the value of a numeric constant after you define it.
See also Numeric expressions on page 3-20 and Numeric literals on page 3-21.
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Assembler Reference
3.5.4
Assembly time substitution of variables
You can use a string variable for a whole line of assembly language, or any part of a line.
Use the variable with a $ prefix in the places where the value is to be substituted for the
variable. The dollar character instructs the assembler to substitute the string into the
source code line before checking the syntax of the line.
Numeric and logical variables can also be substituted. The current value of the variable
is converted to a hexadecimal string (or T or F for logical variables) before substitution.
Use a dot to mark the end of the variable name if the following character would be
permissible in a symbol name (see Symbol naming rules on page 3-12). You must set
the contents of the variable before you can use it.
If you need a $ that you do not want to be substituted, use $$. This is converted to a single
$.
You can include a variable with a $ prefix in a string. Substitution occurs in the same
way as anywhere else.
Substitution does not occur within vertical bars, except that vertical bars within double
quotes do not affect substitution.
Examples
; straightforward substitution
GBLS
add4ff
;
add4ff SETS
"ADD r4,r4,#0xFF"
$add4ff.00
; this produces
ADD r4,r4,#0xFF00
; set up add4ff
; invoke add4ff
; elaborate substitution
GBLS
s1
GBLS
s2
GBLS
fixup
GBLA
count
;
count
SETA
14
s1
SETS
"a$$b$count" ; s1 now has value a$b0000000E
s2
SETS
"abc"
fixup
SETS
"|xy$s2.z|" ; fixup now has value |xyabcz|
|C$$code|
MOV
r4,#16
; but the label here is C$$code
3-14
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ARM DUI 0068B
Assembler Reference
3.5.5
Labels
Labels are symbols representing the addresses in memory of instructions or data. They
can be program-relative, register-relative, or absolute.
Program-relative labels
These represent the program counter, plus or minus a numeric constant. Use them as
targets for branch instructions, or to access small items of data embedded in code
sections. You can define program-relative labels using a label on an instruction or on
one of the data definition directives. See:
•
DCB on page 7-18
•
DCD and DCDU on page 7-19
•
DCFD and DCFDU on page 7-21
•
DCFS and DCFSU on page 7-22
•
DCI on page 7-23
•
DCQ and DCQU on page 7-24
•
DCW and DCWU on page 7-25.
Register-relative labels
These represent a named register plus a numeric constant. They are most often used to
access data in data sections. You can define them with a storage map. You can use the
EQU directive to define additional register-relative labels, based on labels defined in
storage maps. See:
•
MAP on page 7-15
•
SPACE on page 7-17
•
DCDO on page 7-20
•
EQU on page 7-57.
Absolute addresses
These are numeric constants. They are integers in the range 0 to 232–1. They address the
memory directly.
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Assembler Reference
3.5.6
Local labels
A local label is a number in the range 0-99, optionally followed by a name. The same
number can be used for more than one local label in an ELF section.
Local labels are typically used for loops and conditional code within a routine, or for
small subroutines that are only used locally. They are particularly useful in macros (see
MACRO and MEND on page 7-27).
Use the ROUT directive to limit the scope of local labels (see ROUT on page 7-68). A
reference to a local label refers to a matching label within the same scope. If there is no
matching label within the scope in either direction, the assembler generates an error
message and the assembly fails.
You can use the same number for more than one local label even within the same scope.
By default, the assembler links a local label reference to:
•
the most recent local label of the same number, if there is one within the scope
•
the next following local label of the same number, if there is not a preceding one
within the scope.
Use the optional parameters to modify this search pattern if required.
Syntax
The syntax of a local label is:
n{routname}
The syntax of a reference to a local label is:
%{F|B}{A|T}n{routname}
where:
n
routname
%
F
B
A
T
is the number of the local label.
is the name of the current scope.
introduces the reference.
instructs the assembler to search forwards only.
instructs the assembler to search backwards only.
instructs the assembler to search all macro levels.
instructs the assembler to look at this macro level only.
If neither F or B is specified, the assembler searches backwards first, then forwards.
If neither A or T is specified, the assembler searches all macros from the current level to
the top level, but does not search lower level macros.
3-16
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Assembler Reference
If routname is specified in either a label or a reference to a label, the assembler checks it
against the name of the nearest preceding ROUT directive. If it does not match, the
assembler generates an error message and the assembly fails.
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Assembler Reference
3.6
Expressions, literals, and operators
This section contains the following subsections:
•
String expressions on page 3-19
•
String literals on page 3-19
•
Numeric expressions on page 3-20
•
Numeric literals on page 3-21
•
Floating-point literals on page 3-22
•
Register-relative and program-relative expressions on page 3-23
•
Logical expressions on page 3-23
•
Logical literals on page 3-23
•
Operator precedence on page 3-24
•
Unary operators on page 3-26
•
Binary operators on page 3-28.
3-18
Copyright © 2000, 2001 ARM Limited. All rights reserved.
ARM DUI 0068B
Assembler Reference
3.6.1
String expressions
String expressions consist of combinations of string literals, string variables, string
manipulation operators, and parentheses. See:
•
String literals
•
Variables on page 3-13
•
Unary operators on page 3-26
•
String manipulation operators on page 3-28
•
SETA, SETL, and SETS on page 7-7.
Characters that cannot be placed in string literals can be placed in string expressions
using the :CHR: unary operator. Any ASCII character from 0 to 255 is allowed.
The value of a string expression cannot exceed 512 characters in length. It can be of zero
length.
Example
improb
3.6.2
SETS
"literal":CC:(strvar2:LEFT:4)
; sets the variable improb to the value "literal"
; with the left-most four characters of the
; contents of string variable strvar2 appended
String literals
String literals consist of a series of characters contained between double quote
characters. The length of a string literal is restricted by the length of the input line (see
Format of source lines on page 3-8).
To include a double quote character or a dollar character in a string, use two of the
character.
C string escape sequences are also allowed, unless -noesc is specified (see Command
syntax on page 3-2).
Examples
abc
def
ARM DUI 0068B
SETS
SETS
"this string contains only one "" double quote"
"this string contains only one $$ dollar symbol"
Copyright © 2000, 2001 ARM Limited. All rights reserved.
3-19
Assembler Reference
3.6.3
Numeric expressions
Numeric expressions consist of combinations of numeric constants, numeric variables,
ordinary numeric literals, binary operators, and parentheses. See:
•
Numeric constants on page 3-13
•
Variables on page 3-13
•
Numeric literals on page 3-21
•
Binary operators on page 3-28
•
SETA, SETL, and SETS on page 7-7.
Numeric expressions can contain register-relative or program-relative expressions if the
overall expression evaluates to a value that does not include a register or the program
counter.
Numeric expressions evaluate to 32-bit integers. You can interpret them as unsigned
numbers in the range 0 to 232 – 1, or signed numbers in the range –231 to 231 – 1.
However, the assembler makes no distinction between –n and 232 – n. Relational
operators such as >= use the unsigned interpretation. This means that 0 > –1 is {FALSE}.
Example
a
3-20
SETA
MOV
256*256
r1,#(a*22)
; 256*256 is a numeric expression
; (a*22) is a numeric expression
Copyright © 2000, 2001 ARM Limited. All rights reserved.
ARM DUI 0068B
Assembler Reference
3.6.4
Numeric literals
Numeric literals can take any of the following forms:
•
decimal-digits
0xhexadecimal-digits
&hexadecimal-digits
•
n_base-n-digits
'character'
where
decimal-digits
is a sequence of characters using only the digits 0 to 9.
hexadecimal-digits is a sequence of characters using only the digits 0 to 9 and the
letters A to F or a to f.
n_
is a single digit between 2 and 9 inclusive, followed by an
underscore character.
base-n-digits
is a sequence of characters using only the digits 0 to (n – 1)
character
is any single character except a single quote. Use \' if you require
a single quote. In this case the value of the numeric literal is the
numeric code of the character.
You must not use any other characters. The sequence of characters must evaluate to an
integer in the range 0 to 2 32 – 1 (except in DCQ and DCQU directives, where the range is 0
to 264 – 1).
Examples
a
addr
c3
ARM DUI 0068B
SETA
DCD
LDR
DCD
SETA
DCQ
LDR
ADD
34906
0xA10E
r4,=&1000000F
2_11001010
8_74007
0x0123456789abcdef
r1,='A'
r3,r2,#'\''
; pseudo-instruction loading 65 into r1
; add 39 to contents of r2, result to r3
Copyright © 2000, 2001 ARM Limited. All rights reserved.
3-21
Assembler Reference
3.6.5
Floating-point literals
Floating-point literals can take any of the following forms:
{-}digits E{-}digits
{-}{digits}.digits{E{-}digits}
0xhexdigits
&hexdigits
digits
are sequences of characters using only the digits 0 to 9. You can write E
in uppercase or lowercase. These forms correspond to normal
floating-point notation.
hexdigits
are sequences of characters using only the digits 0 to 9 and the letters
A to F or a to f. These forms correspond to the internal representation of
the numbers in the computer. Use these forms to enter infinities and
NaNs, or if you want to be sure of the exact bit patterns you are using.
The range for single-precision floating point values is:
•
maximum 3.40282347e+38
•
minimum 1.17549435e–38.
The range for double-precision floating point values is:
•
maximum 1.79769313486231571e+308
•
minimum 2.22507385850720138e–308.
Examples
DCFD
DCFS
DCFD
LDFS
LDFD
3-22
1E308,-4E-100
1.0
3.725e15
0x7FC00000
&FFF0000000000000
; Quiet NaN
; Minus infinity
Copyright © 2000, 2001 ARM Limited. All rights reserved.
ARM DUI 0068B
Assembler Reference
3.6.6
Register-relative and program-relative expressions
A register-relative expression evaluates to a named register plus or minus a numeric
constant (see MAP on page 7-15).
A program-relative expression evaluates to the program counter (pc), plus or minus a
numeric constant. It is normally a label combined with a numeric expression.
Example
data
3.6.7
LDR
r4,=data+4*n
; code
MOV
pc,lr
DCD
value0
; n-1 DCD directives
DCD
valuen
; more DCD directives
; n is an assembly-time variable
; data+4*n points here
Logical expressions
Logical expressions consist of combinations of logical literals ({TRUE} or {FALSE}),
logical variables, Boolean operators, relations, and parentheses (see Boolean operators
on page 3-31).
Relations consist of combinations of variables, literals, constants, or expressions with
appropriate relational operators (see Relational operators on page 3-30).
3.6.8
Logical literals
There are only two logical literals:
•
{TRUE}
•
{FALSE}.
ARM DUI 0068B
Copyright © 2000, 2001 ARM Limited. All rights reserved.
3-23
Assembler Reference
3.6.9
Operator precedence
The assembler includes an extensive set of operators for use in expressions. Many of the
operators resemble their counterparts in high-level languages such as C (see Unary
operators on page 3-26 and Binary operators on page 3-28).
There is a strict order of precedence in their evaluation:
1.
Expressions in parentheses are evaluated first.
2.
Operators are applied in precedence order.
3.
Adjacent unary operators are evaluated from right to left.
4.
Binary operators of equal precedence are evaluated from left to right.
Note
The order of precedence is not exactly the same as in C.
For example, (1 + 2 :SHR; 3) evaluates as (1 + (2 :SHR: 3)) = 1 in armasm. The
equivalent expression in C evaluates as ((1 + 2) >> 3) = 0.
You are recommended to use brackets to make the precedence explicit.
Table 3-2 shows the order of precedence of operators in armasm, and a comparison with
the order in C.
If your code contains an expression which would parse differently in C, armasm normally
gives a warning:
A1466W: Operator precedence means that expression would evaluate differently in C
The warning is not given if you use the -unsafe command line option.
Table 3-2 Operator precedence in armasm
3-24
armasm precedence
equivalent C operators
unary operators
unary operators
* / :MOD:
* / %
string manipulation
n/a
:SHL: :SHR: :ROR: :ROL:
<< >>
Copyright © 2000, 2001 ARM Limited. All rights reserved.
ARM DUI 0068B
Assembler Reference
Table 3-2 Operator precedence in armasm
armasm precedence
equivalent C operators
+ - :AND: :OR: :EOR:
+ - & |
= > >= < <= /= <>
== > >= < <= !=
:LAND: :LOR: :LEOR:
&& ||
Table 3-3 Operator precedence in C
C precedence
unary operators
* / %
+ - (as binary operators)
<< >>
< <= > >=
== !=
&
^
|
&&
||
The highest precedence operators are at the top of the list.
The highest precedence operators are evaluated first.
Operators of equal precedence are evaluated from left to right.
ARM DUI 0068B
Copyright © 2000, 2001 ARM Limited. All rights reserved.
3-25
Assembler Reference
3.6.10
Unary operators
Unary operators have the highest precedence and are evaluated first. A unary operator
precedes its operand. Adjacent operators are evaluated from right to left.
Table 3-4 lists the unary operators.
Table 3-4 Unary operators
Operator
Usage
Description
?
?A
Number of bytes of executable code generated by line defining symbol A.
BASE
:BASE:A
If A is a pc-relative or register-relative expression, BASE returns the number
of its register component
BASE is most useful in macros.
INDEX
:INDEX:A
If A is a register-relative expression, INDEX returns the offset from that base
register.
INDEX is most useful in macros.
+ and -
+A
-A
Unary plus. Unary minus. + and – can act on numeric and program-relative
expressions.
LEN
:LEN:A
Length of string A.
CHR
:CHR:A
One-character string, ASCII code A.
STR
:STR:A
Hexadecimal string of A.
STR returns an eight-digit hexadecimal string corresponding to a numeric
expression, or the string "T" or "F" if used on a logical expression.
NOT
:NOT:A
Bitwise complement of A.
LNOT
:LNOT:A
Logical complement of A.
DEF
:DEF:A
{TRUE} if A is defined, otherwise { FALSE}.
SB_OFFSET_19_12
:SB_OFFSET_19_12: label
Bits[19:12] of (label – sb). See Example of use of :SB_OFFSET_19_12:
and :SB_OFFSET_11_ 0 on page 3-27
SB_OFFSET_11_0
:SB_OFFSET_11_0: label
Least-significant 12 bytes of (label – sb).
3-26
Copyright © 2000, 2001 ARM Limited. All rights reserved.
ARM DUI 0068B
Assembler Reference
Example of use of :SB_OFFSET_19_12: and :SB_OFFSET_11_ 0
MyIndex EQU 0
AREA area1, CODE
LDR IP, [SB, #0]
LDR IP, [IP, #MyIndex]
ADD IP, IP, # :SB_OFFSET_19_12: label
LDR PC, [IP, # :SB_OFFSET_11_0: label]
AREA area2, DATA
label
IMPORT FunctionAddress
DCD FunctionAddress
END
These operators can only be used in ADD and LDR instructions. They can only be used in
the way shown.
ARM DUI 0068B
Copyright © 2000, 2001 ARM Limited. All rights reserved.
3-27
Assembler Reference
3.6.11
Binary operators
Binary operators are written between the pair of subexpressions they operate on.
Binary operators have lower precedence than unary operators. Binary operators appear
in this section in order of precedence.
Note
The order of precedence is not the same as in C, see Operator precedence on page 3-24.
Multiplicative operators
Multiplicative operators have the highest precedence of all binary operators. They act
only on numeric expressions.
Table 3-5 shows the multiplicative operators.
Table 3-5 Multiplicative operators
Operator
Usage
Explanation
*
A*B
Multiply
/
A/B
Divide
MOD
A:MOD:B
A modulo B
String manipulation operators
Table 3-6 shows the string manipulation operators.
In the two slicing operators LEFT and RIGHT:
•
A must be a string
•
B must be a numeric expression.
In CC, A and B must both be strings.
Table 3-6 String manipulation operators
3-28
Operator
Usage
Explanation
LEFT
A:LEFT:B
The left-most B characters of A
RIGHT
A:RIGHT:B
The right-most B characters of A
CC
A:CC:B
B concatenated onto the end of A
Copyright © 2000, 2001 ARM Limited. All rights reserved.
ARM DUI 0068B
Assembler Reference
Shift operators
Shift operators act on numeric expressions, shifting or rotating the first operand by the
amount specified by the second.
Table 3-7 shows the shift operators.
Table 3-7 Shift operators
Operator
Usage
Explanation
ROL
A:ROL:B
Rotate A left by B bits
ROR
A:ROR:B
Rotate A right by B bits
SHL
A:SHL:B
Shift A left by B bits
SHR
A:SHR:B
Shift A right by B bits
Note
SHR is a logical shift and does not propagate the sign bit.
Addition, subtraction, and logical operators
Addition and subtraction operators act on numeric expressions.
Logical operators act on numeric expressions. The operation is performed bitwise, that
is, independently on each bit of the operands to produce the result.
Table 3-8 shows addition, subtraction, and logical operators.
Table 3-8 Addition, subtraction, and logical operators
ARM DUI 0068B
Operator
Usage
Explanation
+
A+B
Add A to B
-
A-B
Subtract B from A
AND
A:AND:B
Bitwise AND of A and B
OR
A:OR:B
Bitwise OR of A and B
EOR
A:EOR:B
Bitwise Exclusive OR of A and B
Copyright © 2000, 2001 ARM Limited. All rights reserved.
3-29
Assembler Reference
Relational operators
Table 3-9 shows the relational operators. These act on two operands of the same type to
produce a logical value.
The operands can be one of:
•
numeric
•
program-relative
•
register-relative
•
strings.
Strings are sorted using ASCII ordering. String A is less than string B if it is a leading
substring of string B, or if the left-most character in which the two strings differ is less
in string A than in string B.
Arithmetic values are unsigned, so the value of 0>-1 is {FALSE}.
Table 3-9 Relational operators
3-30
Operator
Usage
Explanation
=
A=B
A equal to B
>
A>B
A greater than B
>=
A>=B
A greater than or equal to B
<
A<B
A less than B
<=
A<=B
A less than or equal to B
/=
A/=B
A not equal to B
<>
A<>B
A not equal to B
Copyright © 2000, 2001 ARM Limited. All rights reserved.
ARM DUI 0068B
Assembler Reference
Boolean operators
These are the operators with the lowest precedence. They perform the standard logical
operations on their operands.
In all three cases both A and B must be expressions that evaluate to either {TRUE} or
{FALSE}.
Table 3-10 shows the Boolean operators.
Table 3-10 Boolean operators
ARM DUI 0068B
Operator
Usage
Explanation
LAND
A:LAND:B
Logical AND of A and B
LOR
A:LOR:B
Logical OR of A and B
LEOR
A:LEOR:B
Logical Exclusive OR of A and B
Copyright © 2000, 2001 ARM Limited. All rights reserved.
3-31
Assembler Reference
3-32
Copyright © 2000, 2001 ARM Limited. All rights reserved.
ARM DUI 0068B
Chapter 4
ARM Instruction Reference
This chapter describes the ARM instructions that are supported by the ARM assembler.
It contains the following sections:
•
Conditional execution on page 4-4
•
ARM memory access instructions on page 4-6
•
ARM general data processing instructions on page 4-23
•
ARM multiply instructions on page 4-39
•
ARM saturating arithmetic instructions on page 4-55
•
ARM branch instructions on page 4-57
•
ARM coprocessor instructions on page 4-62
•
Miscellaneous ARM instructions on page 4-71
•
ARM pseudo-instructions on page 4-78.
See to Table 4-1 on page 4-2 to locate individual instructions. Pseudo-instructions are
listed on page 4-78.
ARM DUI 0068B
Copyright © 2000, 2001 ARM Limited. All rights reserved.
4-1
ARM Instruction Reference
Table 4-1 Location of ARM instructions
Mnemonic
Brief description
Page
Architecturea
ADC, ADD
Add with carry, Add
page 4-27
All
AND
Logical AND
page 4-30
All
B
Branch
page 4-58
All
BIC
Bit clear
page 4-30
All
BKPT
Breakpoint
page 4-76
5
BL
Branch with link
page 4-58
All
BLX
Branch, link and exchange
page 4-60
5Tb
BX
Branch and exchange
page 4-59
4Tb
CDP, CDP2
Coprocessor data operation
page 4-63
2, 5
CLZ
Count leading zeroes
page 4-38
5
CMN, CMP
Compare negative, Compare
page 4-34
All
EOR
Exclusive OR
page 4-30
All
LDC, LDC2
Load coprocessor
page 4-67
2, 5
LDM
Load multiple registers
page 4-18
All
LDR
Load register
page 4-6
All
MAR
Move from registers to 40-bit accumulator
page 4-77
XScalec
MCR, MCR2, MCRR
Move from register(s) to coprocessor
page 4-64
2, 5, 5Ed
MIA, MIAPH, MIAxy
Multiply with internal 40-bit accumulate
page 4-53
XScale
MLA
Multiply accumulate
page 4-40
2
MOV
Move
page 4-32
All
MRA
Move from 40-bit accumulator to registers
page 4-77
XScale
MRC, MRC2
Move from coprocessor to register
page 4-65
2, 5
MRRC
Move from coprocessor to 2 registers
page 4-66
5Ed
MRS
Move from PSR to register
page 4-73
3
MSR
Move from register to PSR
page 4-74
3
4-2
Copyright © 2000, 2001 ARM Limited. All rights reserved.
ARM DUI 0068B
ARM Instruction Reference
Table 4-1 Location of ARM instructions (continued)
Mnemonic
Brief description
Page
Architecturea
MUL
Multiply
page 4-40
2
MVN
Move not
page 4-32
All
ORR
Logical OR
page 4-30
All
PLD
Cache preload
page 4-20
5Ed
QADD, QDADD, QDSUB, QSUB
Saturating arithmetic
page 4-55
5ExPe
RSB, RSC, SBC
Reverse sub, Reverse sub with carry, Sub with carry
page 4-27
All
SMLAL
Signed multiply-accumulate (64 <= 32 x 32 + 64)
page 4-42
Mf
SMLALxy
Signed multiply-accumulate (64 <= 16 x 16 + 64)
page 4-51
5ExPe
SMLAWy
Signed multiply-accumulate (32 <= 32 x 16 + 32)
page 4-49
5ExPe
SMLAxy
Signed multiply-accumulate (32 <= 16 x 16 + 32)
page 4-46
5ExPe
SMULL
Signed multiply (64 <= 32 x 32)
page 4-42
Mf
SMULWy
Signed multiply (32 <= 32 x 16)
page 4-48
5ExPe
SMULxy
Signed multiply (32 <= 16 x 16)
page 4-44
5ExPe
STC, STC2
Store coprocessor
page 4-67
2, 5ExPe
STM
Store multiple registers
page 4-18
All
STR
Store register
page 4-6
All
SUB
Subtract
page 4-27
All
SWI
Software interrupt
page 4-72
All
SWP
Swap registers and memory
page 4-22
3
TEQ, TST
Test equivalence, Test
page 4-36
All
UMLAL, UMULL
Unsigned MLA, MUL (64 <= 32 x 32 (+ 64))
page 4-42
Mf
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
f.
n : available in ARM architecture version n and above
nT : available in T variants of ARM architecture version n and above
XScale: XScale coprocessor instructions
nE : available in E variants of ARM architecture version n and above, except ExP variants
nE : available in all E variants of ARM architecture version n and above, including ExP variants
M : available in ARM architecture version 3M, and 4 and above, except xM versions
ARM DUI 0068B
Copyright © 2000, 2001 ARM Limited. All rights reserved.
4-3
ARM Instruction Reference
4.1
Conditional execution
Almost all ARM instructions can include an optional condition code. This is shown in
syntax descriptions as {cond}. An instruction with a condition code is only executed if
the condition code flags in the CPSR meet the specified condition. The condition codes
that you can use are shown in Table 4-2.
Table 4-2 ARM condition codes
Suffix
Flags
Meaning
EQ
Z set
Equal
NE
Z clear
Not equal
CS/HS
C set
Higher or same (unsigned >= )
CC/LO
C clear
Lower (unsigned < )
MI
N set
Negative
PL
N clear
Positive or zero
VS
V set
Overflow
VC
V clear
No overflow
HI
C set and Z clear
Higher (unsigned <= )
LS
C clear or Z set
Lower or same (unsigned <= )
GE
N and V the same
Signed >=
LT
N and V different
Signed <
GT
Z clear, and N and V the same
Signed >
LE
Z set, or N and V different
Signed <=
AL
Any
Always (usually omitted)
Almost all ARM data processing instructions can optionally update the condition code
flags according to the result. To make an instruction update the flags, include the S suffix
as shown in the syntax description for the instruction.
Some instructions (CMP, CMN, TST and TEQ) do not require the S suffix. Their only function
is to update the flags. They always update the flags.
Flags are preserved until updated. A conditional instruction which is not executed has
no effect on the flags.
4-4
Copyright © 2000, 2001 ARM Limited. All rights reserved.
ARM DUI 0068B
ARM Instruction Reference
Some instructions update a subset of the flags. The other flags are unchanged by these
instructions. Details are specified in the descriptions of the instructions.
You can execute an instruction conditionally, based upon the flags set in another
instruction, either:
•
immediately after the instruction which updated the flags
•
after any number of intervening instructions that have not updated the flags.
For further information, see Conditional execution on page 2-20.
4.1.1
The Q flag
The Q flag only exists in E variants of ARM architecture v5 and above. It is used to
detect saturation in special saturating arithmetic instructions (see QADD, QSUB,
QDADD, and QDSUB on page 4-55), or overflow in certain multiply instructions (see
SMLAxy on page 4-46 and SMLAWy on page 4-49).
The Q flag is a sticky flag. Although these instructions can set the flag, they cannot clear
it. You can execute a series of such instructions, and then test the flag to find out whether
saturation or overflow occurred at any point in the series, without needing to check the
flag after each instruction.
To clear the Q flag, use an MSR instruction (see MSR on page 4-74).
The state of the Q flag cannot be tested directly by the condition codes. To read the state
of the Q flag, use an MRS instruction (see MRS on page 4-73).
ARM DUI 0068B
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4-5
ARM Instruction Reference
4.2
ARM memory access instructions
This section contains the following subsections:
•
LDR and STR, words and unsigned bytes on page 4-7
Load register and store register, 32-bit word or 8-bit unsigned byte.
•
LDR and STR, halfwords and signed bytes on page 4-12
Load register, signed 8-bit bytes and signed and unsigned 16-bit halfwords.
Store register, 16-bit halfwords.
•
LDR and STR, doublewords on page 4-15
Load two consecutive registers and store two consecutive registers.
•
LDM and STM on page 4-18
Load and store multiple registers.
•
PLD on page 4-20
Cache preload.
•
SWP on page 4-22
Swap data between registers and memory.
There is also an LDR pseudo-instruction (see LDR ARM pseudo-instruction on
page 4-82). This pseudo-instruction sometimes assembles to an LDR instruction, and
sometimes to a MOV or MVN instruction.
4-6
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ARM DUI 0068B
ARM Instruction Reference
4.2.1
LDR and STR, words and unsigned bytes
Load register and store register, 32-bit word or 8-bit unsigned byte. Byte loads are
zero-extended to 32 bits.
Syntax
Both LDR and STR have four possible forms:
•
zero offset
•
pre-indexed offset
•
program-relative
•
post-indexed offset.
The syntax of the four forms, in the same order, are:
op{cond}{B}{T} Rd, [Rn]
op{cond}{B} Rd, [Rn, FlexOffset]{!}
op{cond}{B} Rd, label
op{cond}{B}{T} Rd, [Rn], FlexOffset
where:
op
is either LDR (Load Register) or STR (Store Register).
cond
is an optional condition code (see Conditional execution on page 4-4).
B
is an optional suffix. If B is present, the least significant byte of Rd is
transferred. If op is LDR, the other bytes of Rd are cleared.
Otherwise, a 32-bit word is transferred.
T
is an optional suffix. If T is present, the memory system treats the access
as though the processor was in User mode, even if it is in a privileged
mode (see Processor mode on page 2-4). T has no effect in User mode.
You cannot use T with a pre-indexed offset.
Rd
is the ARM register to load or save.
Rn
is the register on which the memory address is based.
Rn must not be the same as Rd, if the instruction:
•
•
•
ARM DUI 0068B
is pre-indexed with writeback (the ! suffix)
is post-indexed
uses the T suffix.
Copyright © 2000, 2001 ARM Limited. All rights reserved.
4-7
ARM Instruction Reference
FlexOffset
is a flexible offset applied to the value in Rn (see Flexible offset syntax on
page 4-9).
label
is a program-relative expression. See Register-relative and
program-relative expressions on page 3-23 for more information.
label must be within ±4KB of the current instruction.
is an optional suffix. If ! is present, the address including the offset is
written back into Rn. You cannot use the ! suffix if Rn is r15.
!
Zero offset
The value in Rn is used as the address for the transfer.
Pre-indexed offset
The offset is applied to the value in Rn before the data transfer takes place. The result is
used as the memory address for the transfer. If the ! suffix is used, the result is written
back into Rn. Rn must not be r15 if the !suffix is used.
Program-relative
This is an alternative version of the pre-indexed form. The assembler calculates the
offset from the PC for you, and generates a pre-indexed instruction with the PC as Rn.
You cannot use the ! suffix.
Post-indexed offset
The value in Rn is used as the memory address for the transfer. The offset is applied to
the value in Rn after the data transfer takes place. The result is written back into Rn. Rn
must not be r15.
4-8
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ARM DUI 0068B
ARM Instruction Reference
Flexible offset syntax
Both pre-indexed and post-indexed offsets can be either of the following:
#expr
{-}Rm{, shift}
where:
-
is an optional minus sign. If - is present, the offset is subtracted from Rn.
Otherwise, the offset is added to Rn.
expr
is an expression evaluating to an integer in the range –4095 to +4095.
This is often a numeric constant (see examples below).
Rm
is a register containing a value to be used as the offset. Rm must not be r15.
shift
is an optional shift to be applied to Rm. It can be any one of:
ASR n
arithmetic shift right n bits. 1 ≤ n ≤ 32.
LSL n
logical shift left n bits. 0 ≤ n ≤ 31.
LSR n
logical shift right n bits. 1 ≤ n ≤ 32.
ROR n
RRX
ARM DUI 0068B
rotate right n bits. 1 ≤ n ≤ 31.
rotate right one bit, with extend.
Copyright © 2000, 2001 ARM Limited. All rights reserved.
4-9
ARM Instruction Reference
Address alignment for word transfers
In most circumstances, you must ensure that addresses for 32-bit transfers are 32-bit
word-aligned.
If your system has a system coprocessor (cp15), you can enable alignment checking.
Non word-aligned 32-bit transfers cause an alignment exception if alignment checking
is enabled.
If your system does not have a system coprocessor (cp15), or alignment checking is
disabled:
•
For STR, the specified address is rounded down to a multiple of four.
•
For LDR:
1.
The specified address is rounded down to a multiple of four.
2.
Four bytes of data are loaded from the resulting address.
3.
The loaded data is rotated right by one, two or three bytes according to bits
[1:0] of the address.
For a little-endian memory system, this causes the addressed byte to occupy the
least significant byte of the register.
For a big-endian memory system, it causes the addressed byte to occupy:
—
bits[31:24] if bit[0] of the address is 0
—
bits[15:8] if bit[0] of the address is 1.
Loading to r15
A load to r15 (the program counter) causes a branch to the instruction at the address
loaded.
Bits[1:0] of the value loaded:
•
are ignored in ARM architecture v3 and below
•
must be zero in ARM architecture v4.
In ARM architecture v5 and above:
•
bits[1:0] of a value loaded to r15 must not have the value 0b10
•
if bit[0] of a value loaded to r15 is set, the processor changes to Thumb state.
You cannot use the B or T suffixes when loading to r15.
4-10
Copyright © 2000, 2001 ARM Limited. All rights reserved.
ARM DUI 0068B
ARM Instruction Reference
Saving from r15
In general, avoid saving from r15 if possible.
If you do save from r15, the value saved is the address of the current instruction, plus
an implementation-defined constant. The constant is always the same for a particular
processor.
If your assembled code might be used on different processors, you can find out what the
constant is at runtime using code like the following:
SUB
STR
LDR
SUB
R1,
PC,
R0,
R0,
PC, #4
[R0]
[R0]
R0, R1
;
;
;
;
R1 = address of following STR instruction
Store address of STR instruction + offset,
then reload it
Calculate the offset as the difference
If your code is to be assembled for a particular processor, the value of the constant is
available in armasm as {PCSTOREOFFSET}.
Architectures
These instructions are available in all versions of the ARM architecture.
In T variants of ARM architecture v5 and above, a load to r15 causes a change to
executing Thumb instructions if bit[0] of the value loaded is set.
Examples
LDR
r8,[r10]
; loads r8 from the address in r10.
LDRNE
r2,[r5,#960]!
; (conditionally) loads r2 from a word
; 960 bytes above the address in r5, and
; increments r5 by 960.
STR
r2,[r9,#consta-struc]
STRB
r0,[r3,-r8,ASR #2]
;
;
;
;
STR
r5,[r7],#-8
; stores a word from r5 to the address
; in r7, and then decrements r7 by 8.
LDR
r0,localdata
; loads a word located at label localdata
ARM DUI 0068B
; consta-struc is an expression evaluating
; to a constant in the range 0-4095.
stores the least significant byte from
r0 to a byte at an address equal to
contents(r3) minus contents(r8)/4.
r3 and r8 are not altered.
Copyright © 2000, 2001 ARM Limited. All rights reserved.
4-11
ARM Instruction Reference
4.2.2
LDR and STR, halfwords and signed bytes
Load register, signed 8-bit bytes and signed and unsigned 16-bit halfwords.
Store register, 16-bit halfwords.
Signed loads are sign-extended to 32 bits. Unsigned halfword loads are zero-extended
to 32 bits.
Syntax
These instructions have four possible forms:
•
zero offset
•
pre-indexed offset
•
program-relative
•
post-indexed offset.
The syntax of the four forms, in the same order, are:
op{cond}type Rd, [Rn]
op{cond}type Rd, [Rn, Offset]{!}
op{cond}type Rd, label
op{cond}type Rd, [Rn], Offset
where:
op
is either LDR or STR.
cond
is an optional condition code (see Conditional execution on page 4-4).
type
must be one of:
SH
for Signed Halfword (LDR only)
H
for unsigned Halfword
SB
for Signed Byte (LDR only).
Rd
is the ARM register to load or save.
Rn
is the register on which the memory address is based.
Rn must not be the same as Rd, if the instruction is either:
•
•
4-12
pre-indexed with writeback
post-indexed.
Copyright © 2000, 2001 ARM Limited. All rights reserved.
ARM DUI 0068B
ARM Instruction Reference
label
is a program-relative expression. See Register-relative and
program-relative expressions on page 3-23 for more information. label
must be within ±255 bytes of the current instruction.
Offset
is an offset applied to the value in Rn (see Offset syntax).
!
is an optional suffix. If ! is present, the address including the offset is
written back into Rn. You cannot use the ! suffix if Rn is r15.
Zero offset
The value in Rn is used as the address for the transfer.
Pre-indexed offset
The offset is applied to the value in Rn before the transfer takes place. The result is used
as the memory address for the transfer. If the ! suffix is used, the result is written back
into Rn.
Program-relative
This is an alternative version of the pre-indexed form. The assembler calculates the
offset from the PC for you, and generates a pre-indexed instruction with the PC as Rn.
You cannot use the ! suffix.
Post-indexed offset
The value in Rn is used as the memory address for the transfer. The offset is applied to
the value in Rn after the transfer takes place. The result is written back into Rn.
Offset syntax
Both pre-indexed and post-indexed offsets can be either of the following:
#expr
{-}Rm
where:
ARM DUI 0068B
-
is an optional minus sign. If - is present, the offset is subtracted from Rn.
Otherwise, the offset is added to Rn.
expr
is an expression evaluating to an integer in the range –255 to +255. This
is often a numeric constant (see examples below).
Copyright © 2000, 2001 ARM Limited. All rights reserved.
4-13
ARM Instruction Reference
is a register containing a value to be used as the offset.
Rm
The offset syntax is the same for LDR and STR, doublewords on page 4-15.
Address alignment for halfword transfers
The address must be even for halfword transfers.
If your system has a system coprocessor (cp15), you can enable alignment checking.
Non halfword-aligned 16-bit transfers cause an alignment exception if alignment
checking is enabled.
If your system does not have a system coprocessor (cp15), or alignment checking is
disabled:
•
a non halfword-aligned 16-bit load corrupts Rd
•
a non halfword-aligned 16-bit save corrupts two bytes at [address] and
[address–1].
Loading to r15
You cannot load halfwords or bytes to r15.
Architectures
These instructions are available in ARM architecture v4 and above.
Examples
LDREQSH r11,[r6]
; (conditionally) loads r11 with a 16-bit halfword
; from the address in r6. Sign extends to 32 bits.
LDRH
r1,[r0,#22]
; load r1 with a 16 bit halfword from 22 bytes
; above the address in r0. Zero extend to 32 bits.
STRH
r4,[r0,r1]!
; store the least significant halfword from r4
; to two bytes at an address equal to contents(r0)
; plus contents(r1). Write address back into r0.
LDRSB
r6,constf
; load a byte located at label constf. Sign extend.
Incorrect example
LDRSB
4-14
r1,[r6],r3,LSL#4
; This format is only available for word and
; unsigned byte transfers.
Copyright © 2000, 2001 ARM Limited. All rights reserved.
ARM DUI 0068B
ARM Instruction Reference
4.2.3
LDR and STR, doublewords
Load two consecutive registers and store two consecutive registers, 64-bit doubleword.
Syntax
These instructions have four possible forms:
•
zero offset
•
pre-indexed offset
•
program-relative
•
post-indexed offset.
The syntax of the four forms are, in the same order:
op{cond}D Rd, [Rn]
op{cond}D Rd, [Rn, Offset]{!}
op{cond}D Rd, label
op{cond}D Rd, [Rn], Offset
where:
op
is either LDR or STR.
cond
is an optional condition code (see Conditional execution on page 4-4).
Rd
is one of the ARM registers to load or save. The other one is R(d+1). Rd
must be an even numbered register, and not r14.
Rn
is the register on which the memory address is based.
Rn must not be the same as Rd or R(d+1), unless the instruction is either:
•
•
zero offset
pre-indexed without writeback.
Offset
is an offset applied to the value in Rn (see Offset syntax on page 4-16).
label
is a program-relative expression. See Register-relative and
program-relative expressions on page 3-23 for more information.
label must be within ±252 bytes of the current instruction.
!
ARM DUI 0068B
is an optional suffix. If ! is present, the final address including the offset
is written back into Rn.
Copyright © 2000, 2001 ARM Limited. All rights reserved.
4-15
ARM Instruction Reference
Zero offset
The value in Rn is used as the address for the transfer.
Pre-indexed offset
The offset is applied to the value in Rn before the transfers take place. The result is used
as the memory address for the transfers. If the ! suffix is used, the address is written
back into Rn.
Program-relative
This is an alternative version of the pre-indexed form. The assembler calculates the
offset from the PC for you, and generates a pre-indexed instruction with the PC as Rn.
You cannot use the ! suffix.
Post-indexed offset
The value in Rn is used as the memory address for the transfer. The offset is applied to
the value in Rn after the transfer takes place. The result is written back into Rn.
Offset syntax
Both pre-indexed and post-indexed offsets can be either of the following:
#expr
{-}Rm
where:
-
is an optional minus sign. If - is present, the offset is subtracted from Rn.
Otherwise, the offset is added to Rn.
expr
is an expression evaluating to an integer in the range –255 to +255. This
is often a numeric constant (see examples below).
Rm
is a register containing a value to be used as the offset. For loads, Rm must
not be the same as Rd or R(d+1).
This is the same offset syntax as for LDR and STR, halfwords and signed bytes on
page 4-12.
Address alignment
The address must be a multiple of eight for doubleword transfers.
4-16
Copyright © 2000, 2001 ARM Limited. All rights reserved.
ARM DUI 0068B
ARM Instruction Reference
If your system has a system coprocessor, you can enable alignment checking. Non
doubleword-aligned 64-bit transfers cause an alignment exception if alignment
checking is enabled.
Architectures
These instructions are available in E variants of ARM architecture v5 and above.
Examples
LDRD
LDRMID
STRD
STRD
LDREQD
r6,[r11]
r4,[r7],r2
r4,[r9,#24]
r0,[r9,-r2]!
r8,abc4
Incorrect examples
LDRD
STRD
STRD
ARM DUI 0068B
r1,[r6]
r14,[r9,#36]
r2,[r3],r6
; Rd must be even.
; Rd must not be r14.
; Rn must not be Rd or R(d+1).
Copyright © 2000, 2001 ARM Limited. All rights reserved.
4-17
ARM Instruction Reference
4.2.4
LDM and STM
Load and store multiple registers. Any combination of registers r0 to r15 can be
transferred.
Syntax
op{cond}mode Rn{!}, reglist{^}
where:
4-18
op
is either LDM or STM.
cond
is an optional condition code (see Conditional execution on page 4-4).
mode
is any one of the following:
IA
increment address after each transfer
IB
increment address before each transfer
DA
decrement address after each transfer
DB
decrement address before each transfer
FD
full descending stack
ED
empty descending stack
FA
full ascending stack
EA
empty ascending stack.
Rn
is the base register, the ARM register containing the initial address for the
transfer. Rn must not be r15.
!
is an optional suffix. If ! is present, the final address is written back into
Rn.
reglist
is a list of registers to be loaded or stored, enclosed in braces. It can
contain register ranges. It must be comma separated if it contains more
than one register or register range (see Examples on page 4-19).
^
is an optional suffix. You must not use it in User mode or System mode.
It has two purposes:
•
If op is LDM and reglist contains the pc (r15), in addition to the
normal multiple register transfer, the SPSR is copied into the CPSR.
This is for returning from exception handlers. Use this only from
exception modes.
•
Otherwise, data is transferred into or out of the User mode registers
instead of the current mode registers.
Copyright © 2000, 2001 ARM Limited. All rights reserved.
ARM DUI 0068B
ARM Instruction Reference
Non word-aligned addresses
These instructions ignore bits [1:0] of the address. (On a system with a system
coprocessor, if alignment checking is enabled, nonzero values in these bits cause an
alignment exception.)
Loading to r15
A load to r15 (the program counter) causes a branch to the instruction at the address
loaded. In T variants of ARM architecture v5 and above, a load to r15 causes a change
to executing Thumb instructions if bit 0 of the value loaded is set.
Loading or storing the base register, with writeback
If Rn is in reglist, and writeback is specified with the ! suffix:
•
if op is STM and Rn is the lowest-numbered register in reglist, the initial value of
Rn is stored
•
otherwise, the loaded or stored value of Rn is unpredictable.
Architectures
These instructions are available in all versions of the ARM architecture.
In T variants of ARM architecture v5 and above, a load to r15 causes a change to
executing Thumb instructions if bit 0 of the value loaded is set.
Examples
LDMIA
STMDB
STMFD
LDMFD
r8,{r0,r2,r9}
r1!,{r3-r6,r11,r12}
r13!,{r0,r4-r7,LR} ;
;
r13!,{r0,r4-r7,PC} ;
;
Push registers including the
stack pointer
Pop the same registers and
return from subroutine
Incorrect examples
STMIA
LDMDA
ARM DUI 0068B
r5!,{r5,r4,r9} ; value stored for r5 unpredictable
r2, {}
; must be at least one register in list
Copyright © 2000, 2001 ARM Limited. All rights reserved.
4-19
ARM Instruction Reference
4.2.5
PLD
Cache preload.
Syntax
PLD [Rn{, FlexOffset}]
where:
Rn
is the register on which the memory address is based.
FlexOffset
is an optional flexible offset applied to the value in Rn.
FlexOffset can be either of the following:
#expr
{-}Rm{, shift}
where:
-
is an optional minus sign. If - is present, the offset is subtracted
from Rn. Otherwise, the offset is added to Rn.
expr
is an expression evaluating to an integer in the range –4095 to
+4095. This is often a numeric constant.
Rm
is a register containing a value to be used as the offset.
shift
is an optional shift to be applied to Rm. It can be any one of:
ASR n
arithmetic shift right n bits. 1 ≤ n ≤ 32.
LSL n
logical shift left n bits. 0 ≤ n ≤ 31.
LSR n
logical shift right n bits. 1 ≤ n ≤ 32.
ROR n
RRX
rotate right n bits. 1 ≤ n ≤ 31.
rotate right one bit, with extend.
This is the same offset syntax as for LDR and STR, words and unsigned
bytes on page 4-7.
4-20
Copyright © 2000, 2001 ARM Limited. All rights reserved.
ARM DUI 0068B
ARM Instruction Reference
Usage
Use PLD to hint to the memory system that there is likely to be a load from the specified
address within the next few instructions. The memory system can use this to speed up
later memory accesses.
Alignment
There are no alignment restrictions on the address. If a system control coprocessor
(cp15) is present then it will not generate an alignment exception for any PLD instruction.
Architectures
This instruction is available in E variants of ARM architecture v5 and above.
Examples
PLD
PLD
PLD
PLD
[r2]
[r15,#280]
[r9,#-2481]
[r0,#av*4] ; av * 4 must evaluate, at assembly time, to
; an integer in the range -4095 to +4095
PLD [r0,r2]
PLD [r5,r8,LSL 2]
ARM DUI 0068B
Copyright © 2000, 2001 ARM Limited. All rights reserved.
4-21
ARM Instruction Reference
4.2.6
SWP
Swap data between registers and memory.
Use SWP to implement semaphores.
Syntax
SWP{cond}{B} Rd, Rm, [Rn]
where:
cond
is an optional condition code (see Conditional execution on page 4-4).
B
is an optional suffix. If B is present, a byte is swapped. Otherwise, a 32-bit
word is swapped.
Rd
is an ARM register. Data from memory is loaded into Rd.
Rm
is an ARM register. The contents of Rm is saved to memory.
Rm can be the same register as Rd. In this case, the contents of the register
is swapped with the contents of the memory location.
Rn
is an ARM register. The contents of Rn specify the address in memory
with which data is to be swapped. Rn must be a different register from
both Rd and Rm.
Non word-aligned addresses
Non word-aligned addresses are handled in exactly the same way as an LDR and an STR
instruction (see Address alignment for word transfers on page 4-10).
Architectures
These instructions are available in ARM architecture versions 2a and 3 and above.
4-22
Copyright © 2000, 2001 ARM Limited. All rights reserved.
ARM DUI 0068B
ARM Instruction Reference
4.3
ARM general data processing instructions
This section contains the following subsections:
•
Flexible second operand on page 4-24
•
ADD, SUB, RSB, ADC, SBC, and RSC on page 4-27
Add, subtract, and reverse subtract, each with or without carry
•
AND, ORR, EOR, and BIC on page 4-30
Logical AND, OR, Exclusive OR and Bit Clear
•
MOV and MVN on page 4-32
Move and Move Not
•
CMP and CMN on page 4-34
Compare and Compare Negative
•
TST and TEQ on page 4-36
Test and Test Equivalence
•
CLZ on page 4-38
Count Leading Zeroes.
ARM DUI 0068B
Copyright © 2000, 2001 ARM Limited. All rights reserved.
4-23
ARM Instruction Reference
4.3.1
Flexible second operand
Most ARM general data processing instructions have a flexible second operand. This is
shown as Operand2 in the descriptions of the syntax of each instruction.
Syntax
Operand2 has two possible forms:
#immed_8r
Rm{, shift}
where:
immed_8r
is an expression evaluating to a numeric constant. The constant must
correspond to an 8-bit pattern rotated by an even number of bits within a
32-bit word (but see Instruction substitution on page 4-26).
Rm
is the ARM register holding the data for the second operand. The bit
pattern in the register can be shifted or rotated in various ways.
shift
is an optional shift to be applied to Rm. It can be any one of:
ASR n
arithmetic shift right n bits. 1 ≤ n ≤ 32.
LSL n
logical shift left n bits. 0 ≤ n ≤ 31.
LSR n
logical shift right n bits. 1 ≤ n ≤ 32.
ROR n
RRX
type Rs
rotate right n bits. 1 ≤ n ≤ 31.
rotate right one bit, with extend.
where:
type
is one of ASR, LSL, LSR, ROR.
Rs
is an ARM register supplying the shift amount.
Only the least significant byte is used.
Note
The result of the shift operation is used as Operand2 in the instruction, but
Rm itself is not altered.
4-24
Copyright © 2000, 2001 ARM Limited. All rights reserved.
ARM DUI 0068B
ARM Instruction Reference
ASR
Arithmetic shift right by n bits divides the value contained in Rm by 2n, if the contents
are regarded as a two’s complement signed integer. The original bit[31] is copied into
the left-hand n bits of the register.
LSR and LSL
Logical shift right by n bits divides the value contained in Rm by 2n, if the contents are
regarded as an unsigned integer. The left-hand n bits of the register are set to 0.
Logical shift left by n bits multiplies the value contained in Rm by 2n, if the contents are
regarded as an unsigned integer. Overflow may occur without warning. The right-hand
n bits of the register are set to 0.
ROR
Rotate right by n bits moves the right-hand n bits of the register into the left-hand n bits
of the result. At the same time, all other bits are moved right by n bits (see Figure 4-1).
Carry
Flag
31
1 0
...
Figure 4-1 ROR
RRX
Rotate right with extend shifts the contents of Rm right by one bit. The carry flag is
copied into bit[31] of Rm (see Figure 4-2 on page 4-26).
The old value of bit[0] of Rm is shifted out to the carry flag if the S suffix is specified (see
The carry flag on page 4-26).
ARM DUI 0068B
Copyright © 2000, 2001 ARM Limited. All rights reserved.
4-25
ARM Instruction Reference
31 30
1 0
...
Carry
Flag
...
Figure 4-2 RRX
The carry flag
The carry flag is updated to the last bit shifted out of Rm, if the instruction is any one of
the following:
•
MOV, MVN, AND, ORR, EOR or BIC, if you use the S suffix
•
TEQ or TST, for which no S suffix is required.
Instruction substitution
Certain pairs of instructions (ADD and SUB, ADC and SBC, AND and BIC, MOV and MVN, CMP and
CMN) are equivalent except for the negation or logical inversion of immed_8r.
If a value of immed_8r cannot be expressed as a rotated 8-bit pattern, but its logical
inverse or negation could be, the assembler substitutes the other instruction of the pair
and inverts or negates immed_8r.
Be aware of this when comparing disassembly listings with source code.
Examples
ADD
AND
SUB
MOVS
r3,r7,#1020
r0,r5,r2
r11,r12,r3,ASR #5
r4,r4, LSR #32
;
;
;
;
immed_8r. 1020 is 0xFF rotated right by 30 bits.
r2 contains the data for Operand2.
Operand2 is the contents of r3 divided by 32.
Updates the C flag to r4 bit 31. Clears r4 to 0.
Incorrect examples
ADD
SUB
MOVS
4-26
r3,r7,#1023
r11,r12,r3,LSL #32
r4,r4,RRX #3
;
;
;
;
1023 (0x3FF) is not a rotated 8-bit pattern.
#32 is out of range for LSL.
Do not specify a shift amount for RRX. RRX is
always a one-bit shift.
Copyright © 2000, 2001 ARM Limited. All rights reserved.
ARM DUI 0068B
ARM Instruction Reference
4.3.2
ADD, SUB, RSB, ADC, SBC, and RSC
Add, subtract, and reverse subtract, each with or without carry.
Syntax
op{cond}{S} Rd, Rn, Operand2
where:
op
is one of ADD, SUB, RSB, ADC, SBC, or RSC.
cond
is an optional condition code (see Conditional execution on page 4-4).
S
is an optional suffix. If S is specified, the condition code flags are updated
on the result of the operation (see Conditional execution on page 4-4).
Rd
is the ARM register for the result.
Rn
is the ARM register holding the first operand.
Operand2
is a flexible second operand. See Flexible second operand on page 4-24
for details of the options.
Usage
The ADD instruction adds the values in Rn and Operand2.
The SUB instruction subtracts the value of Operand2 from the value in Rn.
The RSB (Reverse SuBtract) instruction subtracts the value in Rn from the value of
Operand2. This is useful because of the wide range of options for Operand2.
ADC, SBC, and RSC are used to synthesize multiword arithmetic (see Multiword arithmetic
examples on page 4-28).
The ADC (ADd with Carry) instruction adds the values in Rn and Operand2, together with
the carry flag.
The SBC (SuBtract with Carry) instruction subtracts the value of Operand2 from the value
in Rn. If the carry flag is clear, the result is reduced by one.
The RSC (Reverse Subtract with Carry) instruction subtracts the value in Rn from the
value of Operand2. If the carry flag is clear, the result is reduced by one.
In certain circumstances, the assembler can substitute one instruction for another. Be
aware of this when reading disassembly listings. See Instruction substitution on
page 4-26 for details.
ARM DUI 0068B
Copyright © 2000, 2001 ARM Limited. All rights reserved.
4-27
ARM Instruction Reference
Condition flags
If S is specified, these instructions update the N, Z, C and V flags according to the result.
Use of r15
If you use r15 as Rn, the value used is the address of the instruction plus 8.
If you use r15 as Rd:
•
Execution branches to the address corresponding to the result.
•
If you use the S suffix, the SPSR of the current mode is copied to the CPSR. You
can use this to return from exceptions (see the Handling Processor Exceptions
chapter in ADS Developer Guide).
Caution
Do not use the S suffix when using r15 as Rd in User mode or System mode. The effect
of such an instruction is unpredictable, but the assembler cannot warn you at assembly
time.
You cannot use r15 for Rd or any operand in any data processing instruction that has a
register-controlled shift (see Flexible second operand on page 4-24).
Architectures
These instructions are available in all versions of the ARM architecture.
Examples
ADD
SUBS
RSB
ADCHI
RSCLES
r2,r1,r3
r8,r6,#240
r4,r4,#1280
r11,r0,r3
;
;
;
;
r0,r5,r0,LSL r4 ;
sets the flags on the result
subtracts contents of r4 from 1280
only executed if C flag set and Z
flag clear
conditional, flags set
Incorrect example
RSCLES
r0,r15,r0,LSL r4
; r15 not allowed with register
; controlled shift
Multiword arithmetic examples
These two instructions add a 64-bit integer contained in r2 and r3 to another 64-bit
integer contained in r0 and r1, and place the result in r4 and r5.
4-28
Copyright © 2000, 2001 ARM Limited. All rights reserved.
ARM DUI 0068B
ARM Instruction Reference
ADDS
ADC
r4,r0,r2
r5,r1,r3
; adding the least significant words
; adding the most significant words
These instructions subtract one 96-bit integer from another:
SUBS
SBCS
SBC
r3,r6,r9
r4,r7,r10
r5,r8,r11
For clarity, the above examples use consecutive registers for multiword values. There is
no requirement to do this. The following, for example, is perfectly valid:
SUBS
SBCS
SBC
ARM DUI 0068B
r6,r6,r9
r9,r2,r1
r2,r8,r11
Copyright © 2000, 2001 ARM Limited. All rights reserved.
4-29
ARM Instruction Reference
4.3.3
AND, ORR, EOR, and BIC
Logical AND, OR, Exclusive OR and Bit Clear.
Syntax
op{cond}{S} Rd, Rn, Operand2
where:
op
is one of AND, ORR, EOR, or BIC.
cond
is an optional condition code (see Conditional execution on page 4-4).
S
is an optional suffix. If S is specified, the condition code flags are updated
on the result of the operation (see Conditional execution on page 4-4).
Rd
is the ARM register for the result.
Rn
is the ARM register holding the first operand.
Operand2
is a flexible second operand. See Flexible second operand on page 4-24
for details of the options.
Usage
The AND, EOR, and ORR instructions perform bitwise AND, Exclusive OR, and OR
operations on the values in Rn and Operand2.
The BIC (BIt Clear) instruction performs an AND operation on the bits in Rn with the
complements of the corresponding bits in the value of Operand2.
In certain circumstances, the assembler can substitute BIC for AND, or AND for BIC. Be
aware of this when reading disassembly listings. See Instruction substitution on
page 4-26 for details.
Condition flags
If S is specified, these instructions:
4-30
•
update the N and Z flags according to the result
•
can update the C flag during the calculation of Operand2 (see Flexible second
operand on page 4-24)
•
do not affect the V flag.
Copyright © 2000, 2001 ARM Limited. All rights reserved.
ARM DUI 0068B
ARM Instruction Reference
Use of r15
If you use r15 as Rn, the value used is the address of the instruction plus 8.
If you use r15 as Rd:
•
Execution branches to the address corresponding to the result.
•
If you use the S suffix, the SPSR of the current mode is copied to the CPSR. You
can use this to return from exceptions (see the Handling Processor Exceptions
chapter in ADS Developer Guide).
Caution
Do not use the S suffix when using r15 as Rd in User mode or System mode. The effect
of such an instruction is unpredictable, but the assembler cannot warn you at assembly
time.
You cannot use r15 for Rd or any operand in any data processing instruction that has a
register-controlled shift (see Flexible second operand on page 4-24).
Architectures
These instructions are available in all versions of the ARM architecture.
Examples
AND
ORREQ
EORS
BICNES
r9,r2,#0xFF00
r2,r0,r5
r0,r0,r3,ROR r6
r8,r10,r0,RRX
Incorrect example
EORS
ARM DUI 0068B
r0,r15,r3,ROR r6
; r15 not allowed with register
; controlled shift
Copyright © 2000, 2001 ARM Limited. All rights reserved.
4-31
ARM Instruction Reference
4.3.4
MOV and MVN
Move and Move Not.
Syntax
MOV{cond}{S} Rd, Operand2
MVN{cond}{S} Rd, Operand2
where:
cond
is an optional condition code (see Conditional execution on page 4-4).
S
is an optional suffix. If S is specified, the condition code flags are updated
on the result of the operation (see Conditional execution on page 4-4).
Rd
is the ARM register for the result.
Operand2
is a flexible second operand. See Flexible second operand on page 4-24
for details of the options.
Usage
The MOV instruction copies the value of Operand2 into Rd.
The MVN instruction takes the value of Operand2, performs a bitwise logical NOT
operation on the value, and places the result into Rd.
In certain circumstances, the assembler can substitute MVN for MOV, or MOV for MVN. Be
aware of this when reading disassembly listings. See Instruction substitution on
page 4-26 for details.
Condition flags
If S is specified, these instructions:
4-32
•
update the N and Z flags according to the result
•
can update the C flag during the calculation of Operand2 (see Flexible second
operand on page 4-24)
•
do not affect the V flag.
Copyright © 2000, 2001 ARM Limited. All rights reserved.
ARM DUI 0068B
ARM Instruction Reference
Use of r15
If you use r15 as Rn, the value used is the address of the instruction plus 8.
If you use r15 as Rd:
•
Execution branches to the address corresponding to the result.
•
If you use the S suffix, the SPSR of the current mode is copied to the CPSR. You
can use this to return from exceptions (see the Handling Processor Exceptions
chapter in ADS Developer Guide).
Caution
Do not use the S suffix when using r15 as Rd in User mode or System mode. The effect
of such an instruction is unpredictable, but the assembler cannot warn you at assembly
time.
You cannot use r15 for Rd or any operand in any data processing instruction that has a
register-controlled shift (see Flexible second operand on page 4-24).
Architectures
These instructions are available in all versions of the ARM architecture.
Examples
MOV
MVNNE
MOVS
r5,r2
r11,#0xF000000B
r0,r0,ASR r3
Incorrect examples
MVN
ARM DUI 0068B
r15,r3,ASR r0
; r15 not allowed with register
; controlled shift
Copyright © 2000, 2001 ARM Limited. All rights reserved.
4-33
ARM Instruction Reference
4.3.5
CMP and CMN
Compare and Compare Negative.
Syntax
CMP{cond} Rn, Operand2
CMN{cond} Rn, Operand2
where:
cond
is an optional condition code (see Conditional execution on page 4-4).
Rn
is the ARM register holding the first operand.
Operand2
is a flexible second operand. See Flexible second operand on page 4-24
for details of the options.
Usage
These instructions compare the value in a register with Operand2. They update the
condition flags on the result, but do not place the result in any register.
The CMP instruction subtracts the value of Operand2 from the value in Rn. This is the same
as a SUBS instruction, except that the result is discarded.
The CMN instruction adds the value of Operand2 to the value in Rn. This is the same as an
ADDS instruction, except that the result is discarded.
In certain circumstances, the assembler can substitute CMN for CMP, or CMP for CMN. Be
aware of this when reading disassembly listings. See Instruction substitution on
page 4-26 for details.
Condition flags
These instructions update the N, Z, C and V flags according to the result.
Use of r15
If you use r15 as Rn, the value used is the address of the instruction plus 8.
You cannot use r15 for any operand in any data processing instruction that has a
register-controlled shift (see Flexible second operand on page 4-24).
4-34
Copyright © 2000, 2001 ARM Limited. All rights reserved.
ARM DUI 0068B
ARM Instruction Reference
Architectures
These instructions are available in all versions of the ARM architecture.
Examples
CMP
CMN
CMPGT
r2,r9
r0,#6400
r13,r7,LSL #2
Incorrect example
CMP
ARM DUI 0068B
r2,r15,ASR r0
; r15 not allowed with register
; controlled shift
Copyright © 2000, 2001 ARM Limited. All rights reserved.
4-35
ARM Instruction Reference
4.3.6
TST and TEQ
Test and Test Equivalence.
Syntax
TST{cond} Rn, Operand2
TEQ{cond} Rn, Operand2
where:
cond
is an optional condition code (see Conditional execution on page 4-4).
Rn
is the ARM register holding the first operand.
Operand2
is a flexible second operand. See Flexible second operand on page 4-24
for details of the options.
Usage
These instructions test the value in a register against Operand2. They update the
condition flags on the result, but do not place the result in any register.
The TST instruction performs a bitwise AND operation on the value in Rn and the value
of Operand2. This is the same as a ANDS instruction, except that the result is discarded.
The TEQ instruction performs a bitwise Exclusive OR operation on the value in Rn and
the value of Operand2. This is the same as a EORS instruction, except that the result is
discarded.
Condition flags
These instructions:
•
update the N and Z flags according to the result
•
can update the C flag during the calculation of Operand2 (see Flexible second
operand on page 4-24)
•
do not affect the V flag.
Use of r15
If you use r15 as Rn, the value used is the address of the instruction plus 8.
You cannot use r15 for any operand in any data processing instruction that has a
register-controlled shift (see Flexible second operand on page 4-24).
4-36
Copyright © 2000, 2001 ARM Limited. All rights reserved.
ARM DUI 0068B
ARM Instruction Reference
Architectures
These instructions are available in all versions of the ARM architecture.
Examples
TST
TEQEQ
TSTNE
r0,#0x3F8
r10,r9
r1,r5,ASR r1
Incorrect example
TEQ
ARM DUI 0068B
r15,r1,ROR r0
; r15 not allowed with register
; controlled shift
Copyright © 2000, 2001 ARM Limited. All rights reserved.
4-37
ARM Instruction Reference
4.3.7
CLZ
Count Leading Zeroes.
Syntax
CLZ{cond} Rd, Rm
where:
cond
is an optional condition code (see Conditional execution on page 4-4).
Rd
is the ARM register for the result. Rd must not be r15.
Rm
is the operand register.
Usage
The CLZ instruction counts the number of leading zeroes in the value in Rm and returns
the result in Rd. The result value is 32 if no bits are set in the source register, and zero if
bit 31 is set.
Condition flags
This instruction does not affect the flags.
Architectures
This instruction is available in ARM architecture versions 5 and above.
Examples
CLZ
CLZNE
4-38
r4,r9
r2,r3
Copyright © 2000, 2001 ARM Limited. All rights reserved.
ARM DUI 0068B
ARM Instruction Reference
4.4
ARM multiply instructions
This section contains the following subsections:
•
MUL and MLA on page 4-40
Multiply and multiply-accumulate (32-bit by 32-bit, bottom 32-bit result).
•
UMULL, UMLAL, SMULL and SMLAL on page 4-42
Unsigned and signed long multiply and multiply accumulate (32-bit by 32-bit,
64-bit accumulate or result).
•
SMULxy on page 4-44
Signed multiply (16-bit by 16-bit, 32-bit result).
•
SMLAxy on page 4-46
Signed multiply-accumulate (16-bit by 16-bit, 32-bit accumulate).
•
SMULWy on page 4-48
Signed multiply (32-bit by 16-bit, top 32-bit result).
•
SMLAWy on page 4-49
Signed multiply-accumulate (32-bit by 16-bit, top 32-bit accumulate).
•
SMLALxy on page 4-51
Signed multiply-accumulate (16-bit by 16-bit, 64-bit accumulate).
•
MIA, MIAPH, and MIAxy on page 4-53
XScale coprocessor 0 instructions.
Multiply with internal accumulate (32-bit by 32-bit, 40-bit accumulate).
Multiply with internal accumulate, packed halfwords (16-bit by 16-bit twice,
40-bit accumulate).
Multiply with internal accumulate (16-bit by 16-bit, 40-bit accumulate).
ARM DUI 0068B
Copyright © 2000, 2001 ARM Limited. All rights reserved.
4-39
ARM Instruction Reference
4.4.1
MUL and MLA
Multiply and multiply-accumulate (32-bit by 32-bit, bottom 32-bit result).
Syntax
MUL{cond}{S} Rd, Rm, Rs
MLA{cond}{S} Rd, Rm, Rs, Rn
where:
cond
is an optional condition code (see Conditional execution on page 4-4).
S
is an optional suffix. If S is specified, the condition code flags are updated
on the result of the operation (see Conditional execution on page 4-4).
Rd
is the ARM register for the result.
Rm, Rs, Rn
are ARM registers holding the operands.
r15 cannot be used for any of Rd, Rm, Rs, or Rn.
Rd cannot be the same as Rm.
Usage
The MUL instruction multiplies the values from Rm and Rs, and places the least significant
32 bits of the result in Rd.
The MLA instruction multiplies the values from Rm and Rs, adds the value from Rn, and
places the least significant 32 bits of the result in Rd.
Condition flags
If S is specified, these instructions:
•
update the N and Z flags according to the result
•
do not affect the V flag
•
corrupt the C flag in ARM architecture v4 and earlier
•
do not affect the C flag in ARM architecture v5 and later.
Architectures
These instructions are available in ARM architecture v2 and above.
4-40
Copyright © 2000, 2001 ARM Limited. All rights reserved.
ARM DUI 0068B
ARM Instruction Reference
Examples
MUL
MLA
MULS
MULLT
MLAVCS
r10,r2,r5
r10,r2,r1,r5
r0,r2,r2
r2,r3,r2
r8,r6,r3,r8
Incorrect examples
MUL
MLA
ARM DUI 0068B
r15,r0,r3
r1,r1,r6
; use of r15 not allowed
; Rd cannot be the same as Rm
Copyright © 2000, 2001 ARM Limited. All rights reserved.
4-41
ARM Instruction Reference
4.4.2
UMULL, UMLAL, SMULL and SMLAL
Unsigned and signed long multiply and multiply accumulate (32-bit by 32-bit, 64-bit
accumulate or result).
Syntax
Op{cond}{S} RdLo, RdHi, Rm, Rs
where:
Op
is one of UMULL, UMLAL, SMULL, or SMLAL.
cond
is an optional condition code (see Conditional execution on page 4-4).
S
is an optional suffix. If S is specified, the condition code flags are updated
on the result of the operation (see Conditional execution on page 4-4).
RdLo, RdHi
are ARM registers for the result. For UMLAL and SMLAL they also hold the
accumulating value.
Rm, Rs
are ARM registers holding the operands.
r15 cannot be used for any of RdHi, RdLo, Rm, or Rs.
RdLo, RdHi, and Rm must all be different registers.
Usage
The UMULL instruction interprets the values from Rm and Rs as unsigned integers. It
multiplies these integers and places the least significant 32 bits of the result in RdLo, and
the most significant 32 bits of the result in RdHi.
The UMLAL instruction interprets the values from Rm and Rs as unsigned integers. It
multiplies these integers, and adds the 64-bit result to the 64-bit unsigned integer
contained in RdHi and RdLo.
The SMULL instruction interprets the values from Rm and Rs as two’s complement signed
integers. It multiplies these integers and places the least significant 32 bits of the result
in RdLo, and the most significant 32 bits of the result in RdHi.
The SMLAL instruction interprets the values from Rm and Rs as two’s complement signed
integers. It multiplies these integers, and adds the 64-bit result to the 64-bit signed
integer contained in RdHi and RdLo.
4-42
Copyright © 2000, 2001 ARM Limited. All rights reserved.
ARM DUI 0068B
ARM Instruction Reference
Condition flags
If S is specified, these instructions:
•
update the N and Z flags according to the result
•
corrupt the C and V flags in ARM architecture v4 and earlier
•
do not affect the C or V flags in ARM architecture v5 and later.
Architectures
These instructions are available in ARM architecture v3M, and ARM architecture v4
and above except xM variants.
Examples
UMULL
UMLALS
SMLALLES
SMULLNE
r0,r4,r5,r6
r4,r5,r3,r8
r8,r9,r7,r6
r0,r1,r9,r0 ; Rs can be the same as other
; registers
Incorrect examples
UMULL
SMULLLE
ARM DUI 0068B
r1,r15,r10,r2
r0,r1,r0,r5
; use of r15 not allowed
; RdLo, RdHi and Rm must all be
; different registers
Copyright © 2000, 2001 ARM Limited. All rights reserved.
4-43
ARM Instruction Reference
4.4.3
SMULxy
Signed multiply (16-bit by 16-bit, 32-bit result).
Syntax
SMUL<x><y>{cond} Rd, Rm, Rs
where:
<x>
is either B or T. B means use the bottom end (bits [15:0]) of Rm, T means
use the top end (bits [31:16]) of Rm.
<y>
is either B or T. B means use the bottom end (bits [15:0]) of Rs, T means
use the top end (bits [31:16]) of Rs.
cond
is an optional condition code (see Conditional execution on page 4-4).
Rd
is the ARM register for the result.
Rm, Rs
are the ARM registers holding the values to be multiplied.
r15 cannot be used for any of Rd, Rm, or Rs.
Any combination of Rd, Rm, and Rs can use the same registers.
Usage
The SMULxy instruction multiplies the 16-bit signed integers from the selected halves of
Rm and Rs, and places the 32-bit result in Rd.
Condition flags
This instruction does not affect any flags.
Architectures
This instruction is available in all E variants of ARM architecture v5 and above.
Example
SMULTBEQ
4-44
r8,r7,r9
Copyright © 2000, 2001 ARM Limited. All rights reserved.
ARM DUI 0068B
ARM Instruction Reference
Incorrect examples
SMULBT
SMULTTS
ARM DUI 0068B
r15,r2,r0
r0,r6,r2
; use of r15 not allowed
; use of S suffix not allowed
Copyright © 2000, 2001 ARM Limited. All rights reserved.
4-45
ARM Instruction Reference
4.4.4
SMLAxy
Signed multiply-accumulate (16-bit by 16-bit, 32-bit accumulate).
Syntax
SMLA<x><y>{cond} Rd, Rm, Rs, Rn
where:
<x>
is either B or T. B means use the bottom end (bits [15:0]) of Rm, T means
use the top end (bits [31:16]) of Rm.
<y>
is either B or T. B means use the bottom end (bits [15:0]) of Rs, T means
use the top end (bits [31:16]) of Rs.
cond
is an optional condition code (see Conditional execution on page 4-4).
Rd
is the ARM register for the result.
Rm, Rs
are the ARM registers holding the values to be multiplied.
Rn
is the ARM register holding the value to be added.
r15 cannot be used for any of Rd, Rm, Rs, or Rn.
Any combination of Rd, Rm, Rs, and Rn can use the same registers.
Usage
The SMLAxy instruction multiplies the 16-bit signed integers from the selected halves of
Rm and Rs, adds the 32-bit result to the 32-bit value in Rn, and places the result in Rd.
Condition flags
This instruction does not affect the N, Z, C, or V flags.
If overflow occurs in the accumulation, it sets the Q flag. To read the state of the Q flag,
use an MRS instruction (see MRS on page 4-73).
Note
This instruction never clears the Q flag. To clear the Q flag, use an MSR instruction (see
MSR on page 4-74).
4-46
Copyright © 2000, 2001 ARM Limited. All rights reserved.
ARM DUI 0068B
ARM Instruction Reference
Architectures
This instruction is available in all E variants of ARM architecture v5 and above.
Examples
SMLATT
SMLABBNE
SMLABT
r8,r1,r0,r8
r0,r2,r1,r10
r0,r0,r3,r5
Incorrect examples
SMLATB
SMLATTS
ARM DUI 0068B
r0,r7,r8,r15
r0,r6,r2
; use of r15 not allowed
; use of S suffix not allowed
Copyright © 2000, 2001 ARM Limited. All rights reserved.
4-47
ARM Instruction Reference
4.4.5
SMULWy
Signed multiply (32-bit by 16-bit, top 32-bit result).
Syntax
SMULW<y>{cond} Rd, Rm, Rs
where:
<y>
is either B or T. B means use the bottom end (bits [15:0]) of Rs, T means
use the top end (bits [31:16]) of Rs.
cond
is an optional condition code (see Conditional execution on page 4-4).
Rd
is the ARM register for the result.
Rm, Rs
are the ARM registers holding the operands.
r15 cannot be used for any of Rd, Rm, or Rs.
Any combination of Rd, Rm, and Rs can use the same registers.
Usage
The SMULWy instruction multiplies the signed integer from the selected half of Rs by the
signed integer from Rm, and places the upper 32-bits of the 48-bit result in Rd.
Condition flags
This instruction does not affect any flags.
Architectures
This instruction is available in all E variants of ARM architecture v5 and above.
Examples
SMULWB
SMULWTVS
r2,r4,r7
r0,r0,r9
Incorrect examples
SMULWT
SMULWBS
4-48
r15,r9,r3
r0,r4,r5
; use of r15 not allowed
; use of S suffix not allowed
Copyright © 2000, 2001 ARM Limited. All rights reserved.
ARM DUI 0068B
ARM Instruction Reference
4.4.6
SMLAWy
Signed multiply-accumulate (32-bit by 16-bit, top 32-bit accumulate).
Syntax
SMLAW<y>{cond} Rd, Rm, Rs, Rn
where:
<y>
is either B or T. B means use the bottom end (bits [15:0]) of Rs, T means
use the top end (bits [31:16]) of Rs.
cond
is an optional condition code (see Conditional execution on page 4-4).
Rd
is the ARM register for the result.
Rm, Rs
are the ARM registers holding the values to be multiplied.
Rn
is the ARM register holding the value to be added.
r15 cannot be used for any of Rd, Rm, Rs, or Rn.
Any combination of Rd, Rm, Rs, and Rn can use the same registers.
Usage
The SMLAWy instruction multiplies the signed integer from the selected half of Rs by the
signed integer from Rm, adds the 32-bit result to the 32-bit value in Rn, and places the
result in Rd.
Condition flags
This instruction does not affect the N, Z, C or V flags.
If overflow occurs in the accumulation, it sets the Q flag. To read the state of the Q flag,
use an MRS instruction (see MRS on page 4-73).
Note
This instruction never clears the Q flag. To clear the Q flag, use an MSR instruction (see
MSR on page 4-74).
ARM DUI 0068B
Copyright © 2000, 2001 ARM Limited. All rights reserved.
4-49
ARM Instruction Reference
Architectures
This instruction is available in all E variants of ARM architecture v5 and above.
Examples
SMLAWB
SMLAWTVS
r2,r4,r7,r1
r0,r0,r9,r2
Incorrect examples
SMLAWT
SMLAWBS
4-50
r15,r9,r3,r1
r0,r4,r5,r1
; use of r15 not allowed
; use of S suffix not allowed
Copyright © 2000, 2001 ARM Limited. All rights reserved.
ARM DUI 0068B
ARM Instruction Reference
4.4.7
SMLALxy
Signed multiply-accumulate (16-bit by 16-bit, 64-bit accumulate).
Syntax
SMLAL<x><y>{cond} RdLo, RdHi, Rm, Rs
where:
<x>
is either B or T. B means use the bottom end (bits [15:0]) of Rm, T means
use the top end (bits [31:16]) of Rm.
<y>
is either B or T. B means use the bottom end (bits [15:0]) of Rs, T means
use the top end (bits [31:16]) of Rs.
cond
is an optional condition code (see Conditional execution on page 4-4).
RdHi, RdLo
are the ARM registers for the result. They also hold the add-in value.
Rm, Rs
are the ARM registers holding the values to be multiplied.
r15 cannot be used for any of RdHi, RdLo, Rm, or Rs.
Any combination of RdHi, RdLo, Rm, or Rs can use the same registers.
Usage
The SMLALxy instruction multiplies the signed integer from the selected half of Rs by the
signed integer from the selected half of Rm, and adds the 32-bit result to the 64-bit value
in RdHi and RdLo.
Condition flags
This instruction does not affect any flags.
Note
This instruction cannot raise an exception. If overflow occurs on this instruction, the
result wraps round without any warning.
Architectures
This instruction is available in all E variants of ARM architecture v5 and above.
ARM DUI 0068B
Copyright © 2000, 2001 ARM Limited. All rights reserved.
4-51
ARM Instruction Reference
Examples
SMLALTB
SMLALBTVS
r2,r3,r7,r1
r0,r1,r9,r2
Incorrect examples
SMLALTT
SMLALBBS
4-52
r8,r9,r3,r15
r0,r1,r5,r2
; use of r15 not allowed
; use of S suffix not allowed
Copyright © 2000, 2001 ARM Limited. All rights reserved.
ARM DUI 0068B
ARM Instruction Reference
4.4.8
MIA, MIAPH, and MIAxy
XScale coprocessor 0 instructions.
Multiply with internal accumulate (32-bit by 32-bit, 40-bit accumulate).
Multiply with internal accumulate, packed halfwords (16-bit by 16-bit twice, 40-bit
accumulate).
Multiply with internal accumulate (16-bit by 16-bit, 40-bit accumulate).
Syntax
MIA{cond} Acc, Rm, Rs
MIAPH{cond} Acc, Rm, Rs
MIA<x><y>{cond} Acc, Rm, Rs
where:
cond
is an optional condition code (see Conditional execution on page 4-4).
Acc
is the internal accumulator. The standard name is accx, where x is an
integer in the range 0-n. The value of n depends on the processor. It is 0
in current processors.
Rm, Rs
are the ARM registers holding the values to be multiplied.
<x>
is either B or T. B means use the bottom end (bits [15:0]) of Rm, T means
use the top end (bits [31:16]) of Rm.
<y>
is either B or T. B means use the bottom end (bits [15:0]) of Rs, T means
use the top end (bits [31:16]) of Rs.
r15 cannot be used for either Rm or Rs.
Usage
The MIA instruction multiplies the signed integers from Rs and Rm, and adds the result to
the 40-bit value in Acc.
The MIAPH instruction multiplies the signed integers from the lower halves of Rs and Rm,
multiplies the signed integers from the upper halves of Rs and Rm, and adds the two 32-bit
results to the 40-bit value in Acc.
ARM DUI 0068B
Copyright © 2000, 2001 ARM Limited. All rights reserved.
4-53
ARM Instruction Reference
The MIAxy instruction multiplies the signed integer from the selected half of Rs by the
signed integer from the selected half of Rm, and adds the 32-bit result to the 40-bit value
in Acc.
Condition flags
These instructions do not affect any flags.
Note
These instructions cannot raise an exception. If overflow occurs on these instructions,
the result wraps round without any warning.
Architectures
These instructions are only available in XScale.
Examples
MIA
MIALE
MIAPH
MIAPHNE
MIABB
MIABT
MIATB
MIATT
MIABTGT
4-54
acc0,r5,r0
acc0,r1,r9
acc0,r0,r7
acc0,r11,r10
acc0,r8,r9
acc0,r8,r8
acc0,r5,r3
acc0,r0,r6
acc0,r2,r5
Copyright © 2000, 2001 ARM Limited. All rights reserved.
ARM DUI 0068B
ARM Instruction Reference
4.5
ARM saturating arithmetic instructions
These operations are saturating (SAT). This means that if overflow occurs:
•
the Q flag is set
•
if the full result would be less than –231, the result returned is –231
•
if the full result would be greater than 231–1, the result returned is 231–1.
The Q flag can also be set by two other instructions (see SMLAxy on page 4-46 and
SMLAWy on page 4-49), but these instructions do not saturate.
4.5.1
QADD, QSUB, QDADD, and QDSUB
Saturating Add, Saturating Subtract, Saturating Double and Add, Saturating Double
and Subtract.
Syntax
op{cond} Rd, Rm, Rn
where:
op
is one of QADD, QSUB, QDADD, or QDSUB.
cond
is an optional condition code (see Conditional execution on page 4-4).
Rd
is the ARM register for the result.
Rm, Rn
are the ARM registers holding the operands.
r15 cannot be used for any of Rd, Rm, or Rn.
Usage
The QADD instruction adds the values in Rm and Rn.
The QSUB instruction subtracts the value in Rn from the value in Rm.
The QDADD instruction calculates SAT(Rm + SAT(Rn * 2)). Saturation can occur on the
doubling operation, on the addition, or on both. If saturation occurs on the doubling but
not on the addition, the Q flag is set but the final result is unsaturated.
The QDSUB instruction calculates SAT(Rm - SAT(Rn * 2)). Saturation can occur on the
doubling operation, on the subtraction, or on both. If saturation occurs on the doubling
but not on the subtraction, the Q flag is set but the final result is unsaturated.
ARM DUI 0068B
Copyright © 2000, 2001 ARM Limited. All rights reserved.
4-55
ARM Instruction Reference
Note
All values are treated as two’s complement signed integers by these instructions.
Condition flags
These instructions do not affect the N, Z, C, and V flags. If saturation occurs, they set
the Q flag. To read the state of the Q flag, use an MRS instruction (see MRS on page 4-73).
Note
These instructions never clear the Q flag, even if saturation does not occur. To clear the
Q flag, use an MSR instruction (see MSR on page 4-74).
Architectures
These instructions are available in E variants of ARM architecture v5 and above.
Examples
QADD
r0,r1,r9
QDSUBLT r9,r0,r1
Examples
QSUBS
QDADD
4-56
r3,r4,r2
r11,r15,r0
; use of S suffix not allowed
; use of r15 not allowed
Copyright © 2000, 2001 ARM Limited. All rights reserved.
ARM DUI 0068B
ARM Instruction Reference
4.6
ARM branch instructions
This section contains the following subsections:
•
B and BL on page 4-58
Branch, and Branch with Link
•
BX on page 4-59
Branch and exchange instruction set.
•
BLX on page 4-60
Branch with Link and exchange instruction set.
ARM DUI 0068B
Copyright © 2000, 2001 ARM Limited. All rights reserved.
4-57
ARM Instruction Reference
4.6.1
B and BL
Branch, and Branch with Link.
Syntax
B{cond} label
BL{cond} label
where:
cond
is an optional condition code (see Conditional execution on page 4-4).
label
is a program-relative expression. See Register-relative and
program-relative expressions on page 3-23 for more information.
Usage
The B instruction causes a branch to label.
The BL instruction copies the address of the next instruction into r14 (lr, the link
register), and causes a branch to label.
Machine-level B and BL instructions have a range of ±32Mb from the address of the
current instruction. However, you can use these instructions even if label is out of
range. Often you do not know where label is placed by the linker. When necessary, the
ARM linker adds code to allow longer branches (see The ARM linker chapter in ADS
Linker and Utilities Guide). The added code is called a veneer.
Architectures
These instructions are available in all versions of the ARM architecture.
Examples
B
BLE
BL
BLLT
4-58
loopA
ng+8
subC
rtX
Copyright © 2000, 2001 ARM Limited. All rights reserved.
ARM DUI 0068B
ARM Instruction Reference
4.6.2
BX
Branch, and optionally exchange instruction set.
Syntax
BX{cond} Rm
where:
cond
is an optional condition code (see Conditional execution on page 4-4).
Rm
is an ARM register containing the address to branch to.
Bit 0 of Rm is not used as part of the address.
If bit 0 of Rm is set, the instruction sets the T flag in the CPSR, and the
code at the destination is interpreted as Thumb code.
If bit 0 of Rm is clear, bit 1 must not be set.
Usage
The BX instruction causes a branch to the address held in Rm, and changes instruction set
to Thumb if bit 0 of Rm is set.
Architectures
This instruction is available in all T variants of the ARM architecture, and ARM
architecture v5 and above.
Examples
BX
BXVS
ARM DUI 0068B
r7
r0
Copyright © 2000, 2001 ARM Limited. All rights reserved.
4-59
ARM Instruction Reference
4.6.3
BLX
Branch with Link, and optionally exchange instruction set. This instruction has two
alternative forms:
•
an unconditional branch with link to a program-relative address
•
a conditional branch with link to an absolute address held in a register.
Syntax
BLX{cond} Rm
BLX label
where:
cond
is an optional condition code (see Conditional execution on page 4-4).
Rm
is an ARM register containing the address to branch to.
Bit 0 of Rm is not used as part of the address.
If bit 0 of Rm is set, the instruction sets the T flag in the CPSR, and the
code at the destination is interpreted as Thumb code.
If bit 0 of Rm is clear, bit 1 must not be set.
label
is a program-relative expression. See Register-relative and
program-relative expressions on page 3-23 for more information.
Note
BLX label cannot be conditional. BLX label always causes a change to Thumb state.
Usage
The BLX instruction:
•
copies the address of the next instruction into r14 (lr, the link register)
•
causes a branch to label, or to the address held in Rm
•
changes instruction set to Thumb if either:
— bit 0 of Rm is set
— the BLX label form is used.
The machine-level BLX label instruction cannot branch to an address outside ±32Mb of
the current instruction. When necessary, the ARM linker adds code to allow longer
branches (see The ARM linker chapter in ADS Linker and Utilities Guide). The added
code is called a veneer.
4-60
Copyright © 2000, 2001 ARM Limited. All rights reserved.
ARM DUI 0068B
ARM Instruction Reference
Architectures
This instruction is available in all T variants of ARM architecture v5 and above.
Examples
BLX
BLXNE
BLX
r2
r0
thumbsub
Incorrect example
BLXMI
ARM DUI 0068B
thumbsub
; BLX label cannot be conditional
Copyright © 2000, 2001 ARM Limited. All rights reserved.
4-61
ARM Instruction Reference
4.7
ARM coprocessor instructions
This section does not describe Vector Floating-point instructions (see Chapter 6 Vector
Floating-point Programming).
It contains the following sections:
•
CDP, CDP2 on page 4-63
Coprocessor data operations
•
MCR, MCR2, MCRR on page 4-64
Move to coprocessor from ARM registers, possibly with coprocessor operations
•
MRC, MRC2 on page 4-65
Move to ARM register from coprocessor, possibly with coprocessor operations
•
MRRC on page 4-66
Move to two ARM registers from coprocessor, possibly with coprocessor
operations
•
LDC, STC on page 4-67
Transfer data between memory and coprocessor.
4-62
Copyright © 2000, 2001 ARM Limited. All rights reserved.
ARM DUI 0068B
ARM Instruction Reference
4.7.1
CDP, CDP2
Coprocessor data operations.
Syntax
CDP{cond} coproc, opcode1, CRd, CRn, CRm{, opcode2}
CDP2 coproc, opcode1, CRd, CRn, CRm{, opcode2}
where:
cond
is an optional condition code (see Conditional execution on
page 4-4).
coproc
is the name of the coprocessor the instruction is for. The standard
name is pn, where n is an integer in the range 0-15.
opcode1
is a coprocessor-specific opcode.
CRd, CRn, CRm
are coprocessor registers.
opcode2
is an optional coprocessor-specific opcode.
Usage
The use of these instructions depends on the coprocessor. See the coprocessor
documentation for details.
Note
CDP2 is always unconditional.
Architectures
CDP is available in ARM architecture versions 2 and above.
CDP2 is available in ARM architecture versions 5 and above.
ARM DUI 0068B
Copyright © 2000, 2001 ARM Limited. All rights reserved.
4-63
ARM Instruction Reference
4.7.2
MCR, MCR2, MCRR
Move to coprocessor from ARM registers. Depending on the coprocessor, you might be
able to specify various operations in addition.
Syntax
MCR{cond} coproc, opcode1, Rd, CRn, CRm{, opcode2}
MCR2 coproc, opcode1, Rd, CRn, CRm{, opcode2}
MCRR{cond} coproc, opcode1, Rd, Rn, CRm
where:
cond
is an optional condition code (see Conditional execution on page 4-4).
coproc
is the name of the coprocessor the instruction is for. The standard name
is pn, where n is an integer in the range 0-15.
opcode1
is a coprocessor-specific opcode.
Rd, Rn
are ARM source registers. They must not be r15.
CRn, CRm
are coprocessor registers.
opcode2
is an optional coprocessor-specific opcode.
Usage
The use of these instructions depends on the coprocessor. See the coprocessor
documentation for details.
Note
MCR2 is always unconditional.
Architectures
MCR is available in ARM architecture versions 2 and above.
MCR2 is available in ARM architecture versions 5 and above.
MCRR is available in E variants of ARM architecture v5 and above, excluding xP variants.
4-64
Copyright © 2000, 2001 ARM Limited. All rights reserved.
ARM DUI 0068B
ARM Instruction Reference
4.7.3
MRC, MRC2
Move to ARM register from coprocessor. Depending on the coprocessor, you might be
able to specify various operations in addition.
Syntax
MRC{cond} coproc, opcode1, Rd, CRn, CRm{, opcode2}
MRC2 coproc, opcode1, Rd, CRn, CRm{, opcode2}
where:
cond
is an optional condition code (see Conditional execution on page 4-4).
coproc
is the name of the coprocessor the instruction is for. The standard name
is pn, where n is an integer in the range 0-15.
opcode1
is a coprocessor-specific opcode.
Rd
is the ARM destination register. If Rd is r15, only the flags field is
affected.
CRn, CRm
are coprocessor registers.
opcode2
is an optional coprocessor-specific opcode.
Usage
The use of these instructions depends on the coprocessor. See the coprocessor
documentation for details.
Note
MRC2 is always unconditional.
Architectures
MRC is available in ARM architecture versions 2 and above.
MRC2 is available in ARM architecture versions 5 and above.
ARM DUI 0068B
Copyright © 2000, 2001 ARM Limited. All rights reserved.
4-65
ARM Instruction Reference
4.7.4
MRRC
Move to two ARM registers from coprocessor. Depending on the coprocessor, you
might be able to specify various operations in addition.
Syntax
MRRC{cond} coproc, opcode, Rd, Rn, CRm
where:
cond
is an optional condition code (see Conditional execution on page 4-4).
coproc
is the name of the coprocessor the instruction is for. The standard name
is pn, where n is an integer in the range 0-15.
opcode
is a coprocessor-specific opcode.
Rd, Rn
are ARM destination registers. You cannot use r15 for Rd or Rn.
CRm
is the coprocessor source register.
Usage
The use of this instruction depends on the coprocessor. See the coprocessor
documentation for details.
Architectures
MRRC is available in E variants of ARM architecture v5 and above, excluding xP variants.
4-66
Copyright © 2000, 2001 ARM Limited. All rights reserved.
ARM DUI 0068B
ARM Instruction Reference
4.7.5
LDC, STC
Transfer data between memory and coprocessor.
Syntax
These instructions have three possible forms:
•
zero offset
•
pre-indexed offset
•
post-indexed offset.
The syntax of the three forms, in the same order, are:
op{cond}{L} coproc, CRd, [Rn]
op{cond}{L} coproc, CRd, [Rn, #{-}offset]{!}
op{cond}{L} coproc, CRd, [Rn], #{-}offset
where:
op
is either LDC or STC.
cond
is an optional condition code (see Conditional execution on page 4-4).
L
is an optional suffix specifying a long transfer.
coproc
is the name of the coprocessor the instruction is for. The standard name
is pn, where n is an integer in the range 0-15.
CRd
is the coprocessor register to load or save.
Rn
is the register on which the memory address is based. If r15 is specified,
the value used is the address of the current instruction plus eight.
-
is an optional minus sign. If - is present, the offset is subtracted from Rn.
Otherwise, the offset is added to Rn.
offset
is an expression evaluating to a multiple of 4, in the range 0-1020.
!
is an optional suffix. If ! is present, the address including the offset is
written back into Rn.
Usage
The use of this instruction depends on the coprocessor. See the coprocessor
documentation for details.
ARM DUI 0068B
Copyright © 2000, 2001 ARM Limited. All rights reserved.
4-67
ARM Instruction Reference
Architectures
LDC and STC are available in ARM architecture versions 2 and above.
4-68
Copyright © 2000, 2001 ARM Limited. All rights reserved.
ARM DUI 0068B
ARM Instruction Reference
4.7.6
LDC2, STC2
Transfer data between memory and coprocessor, alternative instructions.
Syntax
These instructions have three possible forms:
•
zero offset
•
pre-indexed offset
•
post-indexed offset.
The syntax of the three forms, in the same order, are:
op coproc, CRd, [Rn]
op coproc, CRd, [Rn, #{-}offset]{!}
op coproc, CRd, [Rn], #{-}offset
where:
op
is either LDC2 or STC2.
coproc
is the name of the coprocessor the instruction is for. The standard name
is pn, where n is an integer in the range 0-15.
CRd
is the coprocessor register to load or save.
Rn
is the register on which the memory address is based. If r15 is specified,
the value used is the address of the current instruction plus eight.
-
is an optional minus sign. If - is present, the offset is subtracted from Rn.
Otherwise, the offset is added to Rn.
offset
is an expression evaluating to a multiple of 4, in the range 0-1020.
!
is an optional suffix. If ! is present, the address including the offset is
written back into Rn.
Usage
The use of this instruction depends on the coprocessor. See the coprocessor
documentation for details.
Note
LDC2 and STC2 are always unconditional.
ARM DUI 0068B
Copyright © 2000, 2001 ARM Limited. All rights reserved.
4-69
ARM Instruction Reference
Architectures
LDC2 and STC2 are available in ARM architecture versions 5 and above.
4-70
Copyright © 2000, 2001 ARM Limited. All rights reserved.
ARM DUI 0068B
ARM Instruction Reference
4.8
Miscellaneous ARM instructions
This section contains the following subsections:
•
SWI on page 4-72
Software interrupt
•
MRS on page 4-73
Move the contents of the CPSR or SPSR to a general-purpose register
•
MSR on page 4-74
Load specified fields of the CPSR or SPSR with an immediate constant, or from
the contents of a general-purpose register
•
BKPT on page 4-76
Breakpoint
•
MAR, MRA on page 4-77
XScale coprocessor 0 instructions.
Transfer between two general-purpose registers and a 40-bit internal accumulator.
ARM DUI 0068B
Copyright © 2000, 2001 ARM Limited. All rights reserved.
4-71
ARM Instruction Reference
4.8.1
SWI
Software interrupt.
Syntax
SWI{cond} immed_24
where:
cond
is an optional condition code (see Conditional execution on page 4-4).
immed_24
is an expression evaluating to an integer in the range 0-224–1 (a 24-bit
integer).
Usage
The SWI instruction causes a SWI exception. This means that the processor mode
changes to Supervisor, the CPSR is saved to the Supervisor mode SPSR, and execution
branches to the SWI vector (see the Handling Processor Exceptions chapter in ADS
Developer Guide).
Condition flags
This instruction does not affect the flags.
Architectures
This instruction is available in all versions of the ARM architecture.
Example
SWI 0x123456
4-72
Copyright © 2000, 2001 ARM Limited. All rights reserved.
ARM DUI 0068B
ARM Instruction Reference
4.8.2
MRS
Move the contents of the CPSR or SPSR to a general-purpose register.
Syntax
MRS{cond} Rd, psr
where:
is an optional condition code (see Conditional execution on page 4-4).
is the destination register. Rd must not be r15.
is either CPSR or SPSR.
cond
Rd
psr
Usage
Use MRS in combination with MSR as part of a read-modify-write sequence for
updating a PSR, for example to change processor mode, or to clear the Q flag.
Caution
You must not attempt to access the SPSR when the processor is in User or System mode.
This is your responsibility. The assembler cannot warn you about this as it does not
know what processor mode code will be executed in.
Condition flags
This instruction does not affect the flags.
Architectures
This instruction is available in ARM architecture versions 3 and above.
Example
MSR r3, SPSR
ARM DUI 0068B
Copyright © 2000, 2001 ARM Limited. All rights reserved.
4-73
ARM Instruction Reference
4.8.3
MSR
Load specified fields of the CPSR or SPSR with an immediate constant, or from the
contents of a general-purpose register.
Syntax
MSR{cond} <psr>_<fields>, #immed_8r
MSR{cond} <psr>_<fields>, Rm
where:
is an optional condition code (see Conditional execution on page 4-4).
cond
<psr>
is either CPSR or SPSR.
<fields>
specifies the field or fields to be moved. <fields> can be one or more of:
c
control field mask byte (PSR[7:0])
x
extension field mask byte (PSR[15:8])
s
status field mask byte (PSR[23:16)
f
flags field mask byte (PSR[31:24]).
immed_8r
is an expression evaluating to a numeric constant. The constant must
correspond to an 8-bit pattern rotated by an even number of bits within a
32-bit word.
Rm
is the source register.
Usage
See MRS on page 4-73.
Condition flags
This instruction updates the flags explicitly if the f field is specified.
Architectures
This instruction is available in ARM architecture versions 3 and above.
4-74
Copyright © 2000, 2001 ARM Limited. All rights reserved.
ARM DUI 0068B
ARM Instruction Reference
Example
MSR CPSR_f, r5
ARM DUI 0068B
Copyright © 2000, 2001 ARM Limited. All rights reserved.
4-75
ARM Instruction Reference
4.8.4
BKPT
Breakpoint.
Syntax
BKPT immed_16
where:
immed_16
is an expression evaluating to an integer in the range 0-65535 (a 16-bit
integer). immed_16 is ignored by ARM hardware, but can be used by a
debugger to store additional information about the breakpoint.
Usage
The BKPT instruction causes the processor to enter Debug mode. Debug tools can use this
to investigate system state when the instruction at a particular address is reached.
Architectures
This instruction is available in ARM architecture versions 5 and above.
Examples
BKPT
BKPT
4-76
0xF02C
640
Copyright © 2000, 2001 ARM Limited. All rights reserved.
ARM DUI 0068B
ARM Instruction Reference
4.8.5
MAR, MRA
XScale coprocessor 0 instructions.
Transfer between two general-purpose registers and a 40-bit internal accumulator.
Syntax
MAR{cond} Acc, RdLo, RdHi
MRA{cond} RdLo, RdHi, Acc
where:
cond
is an optional condition code (see Conditional execution on page 4-4).
Acc
is the internal accumulator. The standard name is accx, where x is an
integer in the range 0-n. The value of n depends on the processor. It is 0
for current processors.
RdLo, RdHi
are general-purpose registers.
Usage
The MAR instruction copies the contents of RdLo to bits[31:0] of Acc, and the least
significant byte of RdHi to bits[39:32] of Acc.
The MRA instruction:
•
copies bits[31:0] of Acc to RdLo
•
copies bits[39:32] of Acc to RdHi
•
sign extends the value by copying bit[39] of Acc to bits[31:8] of RdHi.
Architectures
These instructions are only available in XScale.
Examples
MAR
MRA
MARNE
MRAGT
ARM DUI 0068B
acc0,r0,r1
r4,r5,acc0
acc0,r9,r2
r4,r8,acc0
Copyright © 2000, 2001 ARM Limited. All rights reserved.
4-77
ARM Instruction Reference
4.9
ARM pseudo-instructions
The ARM assembler supports a number of pseudo-instructions that are translated into
the appropriate combination of ARM or Thumb instructions at assembly time.
The pseudo-instructions available in ARM state are described in the following sections:
•
ADR ARM pseudo-instruction on page 4-79
Load a program-relative or register-relative address (short range)
•
ADRL ARM pseudo-instruction on page 4-80
Load a program-relative or register-relative address into a register (medium
range)
•
LDR ARM pseudo-instruction on page 4-82
Load a register with a 32-bit constant value or an address (unlimited range)
•
NOP ARM pseudo-instruction on page 4-84
NOP generates the preferred ARM no-operation code.
4-78
Copyright © 2000, 2001 ARM Limited. All rights reserved.
ARM DUI 0068B
ARM Instruction Reference
4.9.1
ADR ARM pseudo-instruction
Load a program-relative or register-relative address into a register.
Syntax
ADR{cond} register,expr
where:
cond
is an optional condition code.
register
is the register to load.
expr
is a program-relative or register-relative expression that evaluates to:
•
a non word-aligned address within ±255 bytes
•
a word-aligned address within ±1020 bytes.
More distant addresses can be used if the alignment is 16 bytes or more.
The address can be either before or after the address of the instruction or
the base register (see Register-relative and program-relative expressions
on page 3-23).
Note
For program-relative expressions, the given range is relative to a point
two words after the address of the current instruction.
Usage
ADR always assembles to one instruction. The assembler attempts to produce a single ADD
or SUB instruction to load the address. If the address cannot be constructed in a single
instruction, an error is generated and the assembly fails.
ADR produces position-independent code, because the address is program-relative or
register-relative.
Use the ADRL pseudo-instruction to assemble a wider range of effective addresses.
If expr is program-relative, it must evaluate to an address in the same code section as the
ADR pseudo-instruction.
Example
start
ARM DUI 0068B
MOV
ADR
r0,#10
r4,start
; => SUB r4,pc,#0xc
Copyright © 2000, 2001 ARM Limited. All rights reserved.
4-79
ARM Instruction Reference
4.9.2
ADRL ARM pseudo-instruction
Load a program-relative or register-relative address into a register. It is similar to the ADR
pseudo-instruction. ADRL can load a wider range of addresses than ADR because it
generates two data processing instructions.
Note
ADRL is not available when assembling Thumb instructions. Use it only in ARM code.
Syntax
ADR{cond}L register,expr
where:
cond
is an optional condition code.
register
is the register to load.
expr
is a program-relative or register-relative expression that evaluates to:
•
a non word-aligned address within 64KB
•
a word-aligned address within 256KB.
More distant addresses can be used if the alignment is 16 bytes or more.
The address can be either before or after the address of the instruction or
the base register (see Register-relative and program-relative expressions
on page 3-23).
Note
For program-relative expressions, the given range is relative to a point
two words after the address of the current instruction.
Usage
ADRL always assembles to two instructions. Even if the address can be reached in a single
instruction, a second, redundant instruction is produced.
If the assembler cannot construct the address in two instructions, it generates an error
message and the assembly fails. See LDR ARM pseudo-instruction on page 4-82 for
information on loading a wider range of addresses (see also Loading constants into
registers on page 2-25).
ADRL produces position-independent code, because the address is program-relative or
register-relative.
4-80
Copyright © 2000, 2001 ARM Limited. All rights reserved.
ARM DUI 0068B
ARM Instruction Reference
If expr is program-relative, it must evaluate to an address in the same code section as the
ADRL pseudo-instruction. Otherwise, it might be out of range after linking.
Example
start
ARM DUI 0068B
MOV
ADRL
r0,#10
r4,start + 60000
; => ADD r4,pc,#0xe800
;
ADD r4,r4,#0x254
Copyright © 2000, 2001 ARM Limited. All rights reserved.
4-81
ARM Instruction Reference
4.9.3
LDR ARM pseudo-instruction
Load a register with either:
•
a 32-bit constant value
•
an address.
Note
This section describes the LDR pseudo-instruction only. See ARM memory access
instructions on page 4-6 for information on the LDR instruction.
Syntax
LDR{cond} register,=[expr | label-expr]
where:
cond
is an optional condition code.
register
is the register to be loaded.
expr
evaluates to a numeric constant:
label-expr
•
the assembler generates a MOV or MVN instruction, if the value of expr
is within range
•
if the value of expr is not within range of a MOV or MVN instruction,
the assembler places the constant in a literal pool and generates a
program-relative LDR instruction that reads the constant from the
literal pool.
is a program-relative or external expression. The assembler places the
value of label-expr in a literal pool and generates a program-relative LDR
instruction that loads the value from the literal pool.
If label-expr is an external expression, or is not contained in the current
section, the assembler places a linker relocation directive in the object
file. The linker generates the address at link time.
4-82
Copyright © 2000, 2001 ARM Limited. All rights reserved.
ARM DUI 0068B
ARM Instruction Reference
Usage
The LDR pseudo-instruction is used for two main purposes:
•
To generate literal constants when an immediate value cannot be moved into a
register because it is out of range of the MOV and MVN instructions
•
To load a program-relative or external address into a register. The address remains
valid regardless of where the linker places the ELF section containing the LDR.
Note
An address loaded in this way is fixed at link time, so the code is not
position-independent.
The offset from the PC to the value in the literal pool must be less than 4KB. You are
responsible for ensuring that there is a literal pool within range. See LTORG on
page 7-14 for more information.
See Loading constants into registers on page 2-25 for a more detailed explanation of
how to use LDR, and for more information on MOV and MVN.
Example
ARM DUI 0068B
LDR
r3,=0xff0
LDR
r1,=0xfff
LDR
r2,=place
;
;
;
;
;
;
;
;
;
;
;
loads 0xff0 into r3
=> MOV r3,#0xff0
loads 0xfff into r1
=> LDR r1,[pc,offset_to_litpool]
...
litpool DCD 0xfff
loads the address of
place into r2
=> LDR r2,[pc,offset_to_litpool]
...
litpool DCD place
Copyright © 2000, 2001 ARM Limited. All rights reserved.
4-83
ARM Instruction Reference
4.9.4
NOP ARM pseudo-instruction
NOP generates the preferred ARM no-operation code.
The following instruction might be used, but this is not guaranteed:
MOV r0, r0
Syntax
NOP
Usage
NOP cannot be used conditionally. Not executing a no-operation is the same as executing
it, so conditional execution is not required.
ALU status flags are unaltered by NOP.
4-84
Copyright © 2000, 2001 ARM Limited. All rights reserved.
ARM DUI 0068B
Chapter 5
Thumb Instruction Reference
This chapter describes the Thumb instructions that are provided by the ARM assembler
and the inline assemblers in the ARM C and C++ compilers. It contains the following
sections:
•
Thumb memory access instructions on page 5-4
•
Thumb arithmetic instructions on page 5-15
•
Thumb general data processing instructions on page 5-22
•
Thumb branch instructions on page 5-31
•
Thumb software interrupt and breakpoint instructions on page 5-37
•
Thumb pseudo-instructions on page 5-39.
See Table 5-1 on page 5-2 to locate individual directives or pseudo-instructions.
ARM DUI 0068B
Copyright © 2000, 2001 ARM Limited. All rights reserved.
5-1
Thumb Instruction Reference
Table 5-1 Location of Thumb instructions and pseudo-instructions
Instruction mnemonic
Brief description
Page
Architecturea
ADC
Add with carry
page 5-21
4T
ADD
Add
page 5-15
4T
ADR
Load address (pseudo-instruction)
page 5-40
-
AND
Logical AND
page 5-23
4T
ASR
Arithmetic shift right
page 5-24
4T
B
Branch
page 5-32
4T
BIC
Bit clear
page 5-23
4T
BKPT
Breakpoint
page 5-38
5T
BL
Branch with link
page 5-34
4T
BLX
Branch with link and exchange instruction sets
page 5-36
5T
BX
Branch and exchange instruction sets
page 5-35
4T
CMN, CMP
Compare negative, Compare
page 5-26
4T
EOR
Logical exclusive OR
page 5-23
4T
LDMIA
Load multiple registers, increment after
page 5-13
4T
LDR
Load register, immediate offset
page 5-5
4T
LDR
Load register, register offset
page 5-7
4T
LDR
Load register, pc or sp relative
page 5-9
4T
LDR
Load register (pseudo-instruction)
page 5-41
-
LSL, LSR
Logical shift left, Logical shift right
page 5-24
4T
MOV
Move
page 5-28
4T
MUL
Multiply
page 5-21
4T
MVN, NEG
Move NOT, Negate
page 5-28
4T
NOP
No operation (pseudo-instruction)
page 5-43
-
ORR
Logical OR
page 5-23
4T
POP, PUSH
Pop registers from stack, Push registers onto stack
page 5-11
4T
5-2
Copyright © 2000, 2001 ARM Limited. All rights reserved.
ARM DUI 0068B
Thumb Instruction Reference
Table 5-1 Location of Thumb instructions and pseudo-instructions (continued)
Instruction mnemonic
Brief description
Page
Architecturea
ROR
Rotate right
page 5-24
4T
SBC
Subtract with carry
page 5-21
4T
STMIA
Store multiple registers, increment after
page 5-13
4T
STR
Store register, immediate offset
page 5-5
4T
STR
Store register, register offset
page 5-7
4T
STR
Store register, pc or sp relative
page 5-9
4T
SUB
Subtract
page 5-15
4T
SWI
Software interrupt
page 5-37
4T
TST
Test bits
page 5-30
4T
a. nT : available in T variants of ARM architecture version n and above
ARM DUI 0068B
Copyright © 2000, 2001 ARM Limited. All rights reserved.
5-3
Thumb Instruction Reference
5.1
Thumb memory access instructions
This section contains the following subsections:
•
LDR and STR, immediate offset on page 5-5
Load Register and Store Register. Address in memory specified as an immediate
offset from a value in a register.
•
LDR and STR, register offset on page 5-7
Load Register and Store Register. Address in memory specified as a
register-based offset from a value in a register.
•
LDR and STR, pc or sp relative on page 5-9
Load Register and Store Register. Address in memory specified as an immediate
offset from a value in the pc or the sp.
•
PUSH and POP on page 5-11
Push low registers, and optionally the LR, onto the stack.
Pop low registers, and optionally the pc, off the stack.
•
LDMIA and STMIA on page 5-13
Load and store multiple registers.
5-4
Copyright © 2000, 2001 ARM Limited. All rights reserved.
ARM DUI 0068B
Thumb Instruction Reference
5.1.1
LDR and STR, immediate offset
Load Register and Store Register. Address in memory specified as an immediate offset
from a value in a register.
Syntax
op Rd, [Rn, #immed_5x4]
opH Rd, [Rn, #immed_5x2]
opB Rd, [Rn, #immed_5x1]
where:
is either:
op
LDR
STR
Load register
Store register.
H
is a parameter specifying an unsigned halfword transfer.
B
is a parameter specifying an unsigned byte transfer.
Rd
is the register to be loaded or stored. Rd must be in the range r0-r7.
Rn
is the register containing the base address. Rn must be in the range r0-r7.
immed_5xN
is the offset. It is an expression evaluating (at assembly time) to a multiple
of N in the range 0-31N.
Usage
STR instructions store a word, halfword, or byte to memory.
LDR instructions load a word, halfword, or byte from memory.
The address is found by adding the offset to the base address from Rn.
Immediate offset halfword and byte loads are unsigned. The data is loaded into the least
significant word or byte of Rd, and the rest of Rd is filled with zeroes.
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5-5
Thumb Instruction Reference
Address alignment for word and halfword transfers
The address must be divisible by 4 for word transfers, and by 2 for halfword transfers.
If your system has a system coprocessor (cp15), you can enable alignment checking.
Non-aligned transfers cause an alignment exception if alignment checking is enabled.
If your system does not have a system coprocessor (cp15), or alignment checking is
disabled:
•
A non-aligned load corrupts Rd.
•
A non-aligned save corrupts two or four bytes in memory. The corrupted location
in memory is [address AND NOT 0x1] for halfword saves, and [address AND
NOT 0x3] for word saves.
Architectures
These instructions are available in all T variants of the ARM architecture.
Examples
LDR
STRB
STRH
LDRB
r3,[r5,#0]
r0,[r3,#31]
r7,[r3,#16]
r2,[r4,#label-{PC}]
Incorrect examples
5-6
LDR
r13,[r5,#40]
; high registers not allowed
STRB
r0,[r3,#32]
; 32 is out of range for byte transfers
STRH
r7,[r3,#15]
; offsets for halfword transfers must be even
LDRH
r6,[r0,#-6]
; negative offsets not supported
Copyright © 2000, 2001 ARM Limited. All rights reserved.
ARM DUI 0068B
Thumb Instruction Reference
5.1.2
LDR and STR, register offset
Load Register and Store Register. Address in memory specified as a register-based
offset from a value in a register.
Syntax
op Rd, [Rn, Rm]
where:
is one of the following:
LDR
Load register, 4-byte word
STR
Store register, 4-byte word
LDRH
Load register, 2-byte unsigned halfword
LDRSH
Load register, 2-byte signed halfword
STRH
Store register, 2-byte halfword
LDRB
Load register, unsigned byte
LDRSB
Load register, signed byte
STRB
Store register, byte.
op
Note
There is no distinction between signed and unsigned store instructions.
Rd
is the register to be loaded or stored. Rd must be in the range r0-r7.
Rn
is the register containing the base address. Rn must be in the range r0-r7.
Rm
is the register containing the offset. Rm must be in the range r0-r7.
Usage
STR instructions store a word, halfword, or byte from Rd to memory.
LDR instructions load a word, halfword, or byte from memory to Rd.
The address is found by adding the offset to the base address from Rn.
Register offset halfword and byte loads can be signed or unsigned. The data is loaded
into the least significant word or byte of Rd, and the rest of Rd is filled with zeroes for an
unsigned load, or with copies of the sign bit for a signed load.
ARM DUI 0068B
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5-7
Thumb Instruction Reference
Address alignment for word and halfword transfers
The address must be divisible by 4 for word transfers, and by 2 for halfword transfers.
If your system has a system coprocessor (cp15), you can enable alignment checking.
Non-aligned transfers cause an alignment exception if alignment checking is enabled.
If your system does not have a system coprocessor (cp15), or alignment checking is
disabled:
•
A non-aligned load corrupts Rd.
•
A non-aligned save corrupts memory. The corrupted location in memory is the
halfword at [address AND NOT 0x1] for halfword saves, and the word at [address
AND NOT b11] for word saves.
Architectures
These instructions are available in all T variants of the ARM architecture.
Examples
LDR
LDRSH
STRB
r2,[r1,r5]
r0,[r0,r6]
r1,[r7,r0]
Incorrect examples
LDR
STRSH
5-8
r13,[r5,r3]
r7,[r3,r1]
; high registers not allowed
; no signed store instruction
Copyright © 2000, 2001 ARM Limited. All rights reserved.
ARM DUI 0068B
Thumb Instruction Reference
5.1.3
LDR and STR, pc or sp relative
Load Register and Store Register. Address in memory specified as an immediate offset
from a value in the pc or the sp.
Note
There is no pc-relative STR instruction.
Syntax
LDR Rd, [pc, #immed_8x4]
LDR Rd, label
LDR Rd, [sp, #immed_8x4]
STR Rd, [sp, #immed_8x4]
where:
Rd
is the register to be loaded or stored. Rd must be in the range r0 to r7.
immed_8x4
is the offset. It is an expression evaluating (at assembly time) to a multiple
of 4 in the range 0 to 1020.
label
is a program-relative expression. See Register-relative and
program-relative expressions on page 3-23 for more information.
label must be after the current instruction, and within 1KB of it.
Usage
STR instructions store a word to memory.
LDR instructions load a word from memory.
The address is found by adding the offset to the base address from pc or sp. Bit[1] of the
pc is ignored. This ensures that the address is word-aligned.
Address alignment for word and halfword transfers
The address must be a multiple of 4.
If your system has a system coprocessor (cp15), you can enable alignment checking.
Non-aligned transfers cause an alignment exception if alignment checking is enabled.
ARM DUI 0068B
Copyright © 2000, 2001 ARM Limited. All rights reserved.
5-9
Thumb Instruction Reference
If your system does not have a system coprocessor (cp15), or alignment checking is
disabled:
•
A non-aligned load corrupts Rd.
•
A non-aligned save corrupts four bytes in memory. The corrupted location in
memory is [address AND NOT b11].
Architectures
These instructions are available in all T variants of the ARM architecture.
Examples
LDR
LDR
LDR
STR
r2,[pc,#1016]
r5,localdata
r0,[sp,#920]
r1,[sp,#20]
Incorrect examples
5-10
LDR
r13,[pc,#8]
; Rd must be in range r0-r7
STR
r7,[pc,#64]
; there is no pc-relative STR instruction
STRH
r0,[sp,#16]
; there are no pc- or sp-relative
; halfword or byte transfers
LDR
r2,[pc,#81]
; immediate must be a multiple of four
LDR
r1,[pc,#-24]
; immediate must not be negative
STR
r1,[sp,#1024] ; maximum immediate value is 1020
Copyright © 2000, 2001 ARM Limited. All rights reserved.
ARM DUI 0068B
Thumb Instruction Reference
5.1.4
PUSH and POP
Push low registers, and optionally the lr, onto the stack.
Pop low registers, and optionally the pc, off the stack.
Syntax
PUSH {reglist}
POP {reglist}
PUSH {reglist, lr}
POP {reglist, pc}
where:
reglist
is a comma-separated list of low registers or low-register ranges.
Note
The braces in the syntax description are part of the instruction format.
They do not indicate that the register list is optional.
There must be at least one register in the list.
Usage
Thumb stacks are full, descending stacks. The stack grows downwards, and the sp
points to the last entry on the stack.
Registers are stored on the stack in numerical order, with the lowest numbered register
at the lowest address.
ARM DUI 0068B
Copyright © 2000, 2001 ARM Limited. All rights reserved.
5-11
Thumb Instruction Reference
POP {reglist, pc}
This instruction causes a branch to the address popped off the stack into the pc. This is
usually a return from a subroutine, where the lr was pushed onto the stack at the start of
the subroutine.
In ARM architecture version 5T and above:
•
if bits[1:0] of the value loaded to the pc are b00, the processor changes to ARM
state
•
bits[1:0] must not have the value b10.
In ARM architecture version 4T and earlier, bits[1:0] of the value loaded to the pc are
ignored, so POP cannot be used to change state.
Condition flags
These instructions do not affect the flags.
Architectures
These instructions are available in all T variants of the ARM architecture.
Examples
PUSH
PUSH
PUSH
POP
POP
{r0,r3,r5}
{r1,r4-r7}
{r0,LR}
{r2,r5}
{r0-r7,pc}
; pushes r1, r4, r5, r6, and r7
; pop and return from subroutine
Incorrect examples
PUSH
PUSH
PUSH
POP
5-12
{r3,r5-r8}
{}
{r1-r4,pc}
{r1-r4,LR}
;
;
;
;
high registers not allowed
must be at least one register in list
cannot push the pc
cannot pop the LR
Copyright © 2000, 2001 ARM Limited. All rights reserved.
ARM DUI 0068B
Thumb Instruction Reference
5.1.5
LDMIA and STMIA
Load and store multiple registers.
Syntax
op Rn!, {reglist}
where:
is either:
op
LDMIA
STMIA
Load multiple, increment after
Store multiple, increment after.
Rn
is the register containing the base address. Rn must be in the range r0-r7.
reglist
is a comma-separated list of low registers or low-register ranges.
Note
The braces in the syntax description are part of the instruction format.
They do not indicate that the register list is optional.
There must be at least one register in the list.
Usage
Registers are loaded stored and in numerical order, with the lowest numbered register
at the address initially in Rn.
The value in Rn is incremented by 4 times the number of registers in reglist.
If Rn is in reglist:
•
for an LDMIA instruction, the final value of Rn is the value loaded, not the
incremented address
•
for an STMIA instruction, the value stored for Rn is:
—
the initial value of Rn if Rn is the lowest-numbered register in reglist
—
unpredictable otherwise.
Architectures
These instructions are available in all T variants of the ARM architecture.
ARM DUI 0068B
Copyright © 2000, 2001 ARM Limited. All rights reserved.
5-13
Thumb Instruction Reference
Examples
LDMIA
LDMIA
STMIA
STMIA
r3!,
r5!,
r0!,
r3!,
{r0,r4}
{r0-r7}
{r6,r7}
{r3,r5,r7}
Incorrect examples
5-14
LDMIA
r3!,{r0,r9} ; high registers not allowed
STMIA
r5!, {}
STMIA
r5!,{r1-r6} ; value stored from r5 is unpredictable
; must be at least one register
; in list
Copyright © 2000, 2001 ARM Limited. All rights reserved.
ARM DUI 0068B
Thumb Instruction Reference
5.2
Thumb arithmetic instructions
This section contains the following subsections:
•
ADD and SUB, low registers on page 5-16
Add and subtract.
•
ADD, high or low registers on page 5-18
Add values in registers, one or both of them in the range r8 to r15.
•
ADD and SUB, sp on page 5-19
Increment or decrement sp by an immediate constant.
•
ADD, pc or sp relative on page 5-20
Add an immediate constant to the value from sp or pc, and place the result into a
low register.
•
ADC, SBC, and MUL on page 5-21
Add with carry, Subtract with carry, and Multiply.
ARM DUI 0068B
Copyright © 2000, 2001 ARM Limited. All rights reserved.
5-15
Thumb Instruction Reference
5.2.1
ADD and SUB, low registers
Add and subtract. There are three forms of these instructions that operate on low
registers. You can:
•
add or subtract the contents of two registers, and place the result in a third register
•
add a small integer to, or subtract it from, the value in a register, and place the
result in a different register
•
add a larger integer to, or subtract it from, the value in a register, and return the
result to the same register.
Syntax
op Rd, Rn, Rm
op Rd, Rn, #expr3
op Rd, #expr8
where:
op
is either ADD or SUB.
Rd
is the destination register. It is also used for the first operand in op
Rd,#expr8 instructions.
Rn
is a register containing the first operand.
Rm
is a register containing the second operand.
expr3
is an expression evaluating (at assembly time) to an integer in the range
–7 to +7.
expr8
is an expression evaluating (at assembly time) to an integer in the range
–255 to +255.
Usage
op Rd,Rn,Rm performs an Rn + Rm or an Rn – Rm operation, and places the result in Rd.
op Rd,Rn,#expr3 performs an Rn + expr3 or an Rn – expr3 operation, and places the result
in Rd.
op Rd,#expr8 performs an Rd + expr8 or an Rd – expr8 operation, and places the result in
Rd.
5-16
Copyright © 2000, 2001 ARM Limited. All rights reserved.
ARM DUI 0068B
Thumb Instruction Reference
Note
An ADD instruction with a negative value for expr3 or expr8 assembles to the
corresponding SUB instruction with a positive constant. A SUB instruction with a negative
value for expr3 or expr8 assembles to the corresponding ADD instruction with a positive
constant.
Be aware of this when looking at disassembly listings.
Restrictions
Rd, Rn, and Rm must all be low registers (that is, in the range r0 to r7).
Condition flags
These instructions update the N, Z, C, and V flags.
Architectures
These instructions are available in all T variants of the ARM architecture.
Examples
ADD
SUB
ADD
ADD
r3,r1,r5
r0,r4,#5
r7,#201
r1,vc+4
; vc + 4 must evaluate at assembly time to
; an integer in the range -255 to +255
Incorrect examples
ADD r9,r2,r6
SUB r4,r5,#201
SUB r3,#-99
ARM DUI 0068B
; high registers not allowed
; immediate value out of range
; negative immediate values not allowed
Copyright © 2000, 2001 ARM Limited. All rights reserved.
5-17
Thumb Instruction Reference
5.2.2
ADD, high or low registers
Add values in registers, returning the result to the first operand register.
Syntax
ADD Rd, Rm
where:
Rd
is the destination register. It is also used for the first operand.
Rm
is a register containing the second operand.
Usage
This instruction adds the values in Rd and Rm, and places the result in Rd.
Note
An ADD Rd,Rm instruction where both Rd and Rm are low registers assembles to an ADD
Rd,Rd,Rm instruction (see ADD and SUB, low registers on page 5-16).
Be aware of this when looking at disassembly listings.
Condition flags
The N, Z, C, and V condition flags are:
•
updated if both Rd and Rm are low registers
•
unaffected otherwise.
Architectures
This instruction is available in all T variants of the ARM architecture.
Examples
ADD
ADD
ADD
ADD
5-18
r12,r4
r10,r11
r0,r8
r2,r4
; equivalent to ADD r2,r2,r4. Does affect flags.
Copyright © 2000, 2001 ARM Limited. All rights reserved.
ARM DUI 0068B
Thumb Instruction Reference
5.2.3
ADD and SUB, sp
Increment or decrement sp by an immediate constant.
Syntax
ADD sp, #expr
SUB sp, #expr
where:
is an expression that evaluates (at assembly time) to a multiple of 4 in the
range –508 to +508.
expr
Usage
This instruction adds the value of expr to the value from Rp, and places the result in Rd.
Note
An ADD instruction with a negative value for expr assembles to the corresponding SUB
instruction with a positive constant. A SUB instruction with a negative value for expr
assembles to the corresponding ADD instruction with a positive constant.
Be aware of this when looking at disassembly listings.
Condition flags
This instruction does not affect the flags.
Architectures
This instruction is available in all T variants of the ARM architecture.
Examples
ADD sp,#312
SUB sp,#96
SUB sp,#abc+8
ARM DUI 0068B
; abc + 8 must evaluate at assembly time to
; a multiple of 4 in the range –508 to +508
Copyright © 2000, 2001 ARM Limited. All rights reserved.
5-19
Thumb Instruction Reference
5.2.4
ADD, pc or sp relative
Add an immediate constant to the value from sp or pc, and place the result into a low
register.
Syntax
ADD Rd, Rp, #expr
where:
Rd
is the destination register. Rd must be in the range r0-r7.
Rp
is either sp or pc.
expr
is an expression that evaluates (at assembly time) to a multiple of 4 in the
range 0-1020.
Usage
This instruction adds the value of expr to the value from Rp, and places the result in Rd.
Note
If Rp is the pc, the value used is:
(the address of the current instruction + 4) AND &FFFFFFFC.
Condition flags
This instruction does not affect the flags.
Architectures
This instruction is available in all T variants of the ARM architecture.
Examples
ADD r6,sp,#64
ADD r2,pc,#980
ADD r0,pc,#lit-{PC} ; lit - {PC} must evaluate, at assembly
; time, to a multiple of 4 in the range
; 0 to 1020
5-20
Copyright © 2000, 2001 ARM Limited. All rights reserved.
ARM DUI 0068B
Thumb Instruction Reference
5.2.5
ADC, SBC, and MUL
Add with carry, Subtract with carry, and Multiply.
Syntax
op Rd, Rm
where:
op
is one of ADC, SBC, or MUL.
Rd
is the destination register. It also contains the first operand.
Rm
is a register containing the second operand.
Usage
ADC adds the values in Rd and Rm, together with the carry flag, and places the result in Rd.
Use this to synthesize multiword addition.
SBC subtracts the value in Rm from the value in Rd, taking account of the carry flag, and
places the result in Rd. Use this to synthesize multiword subtraction.
MUL multiplies the values in Rd and Rm, and places the result in Rd.
Restrictions
Rd, and Rm, must be low registers (that is, in the range r0 to r7).
Condition flags
ADC and SBC update the N, Z, C, and V flags.
MUL updates the N and Z flags.
In ARM architecture version 4 and earlier, MUL corrupts the C and V flags. In ARM
architecture version 5 and later, MUL has no effect on the C and V flags.
Architectures
These instructions are available in all T variants of the ARM architecture.
Example
ADC r2,r4
ARM DUI 0068B
Copyright © 2000, 2001 ARM Limited. All rights reserved.
5-21
Thumb Instruction Reference
5.3
Thumb general data processing instructions
This section contains the following subsections:
•
AND, ORR, EOR, and BIC on page 5-23
Bitwise logical operations.
•
ASR, LSL, LSR, and ROR on page 5-24
Shift and rotate operations.
•
CMP and CMN on page 5-26
Compare and Compare Negative.
•
MOV, MVN, and NEG on page 5-28
Move, Move NOT, and Negate.
•
TST on page 5-30
Test bits.
5-22
Copyright © 2000, 2001 ARM Limited. All rights reserved.
ARM DUI 0068B
Thumb Instruction Reference
5.3.1
AND, ORR, EOR, and BIC
Bitwise logical operations.
Syntax
op Rd, Rm
where:
op
is one of AND, ORR, EOR, or BIC.
Rd
is the destination register. It also contains the first operand. Rd must be in
the range r0-r7.
Rm
is the register containing the second operand. Rm must be in the range
r0-r7.
Usage
These instructions perform a bitwise logical operation on the contents of Rd and Rm, and
place the result in Rd. The operations are as follows:
•
the AND instruction performs a logical AND operation
•
the ORR instruction performs a logical OR operation
•
the EOR instruction performs a logical Exclusive OR operation
•
the BIC instruction performs an Rd AND NOT Rm operation.
Condition flags
These instructions update the N and Z flags according to the result. The C and V flags
are not affected.
Architectures
These instructions are available in all T variants of the ARM architecture.
Example
AND r2,r4
ARM DUI 0068B
Copyright © 2000, 2001 ARM Limited. All rights reserved.
5-23
Thumb Instruction Reference
5.3.2
ASR, LSL, LSR, and ROR
Shift and rotate operations. These instructions can use a value contained in a register, or
an immediate shift value.
Syntax
op Rd, Rs
op Rd, Rm, #expr
where:
op
is one of:
ASR
Arithmetic Shift Right. Register contents are treated as two’s
complement signed integers. The sign bit is copied into
vacated bits.
LSL
Logical Shift Left. Vacated bits are cleared.
LSR
Logical Shift Right. Vacated bits are cleared.
ROR
Rotate Right. Bits moved out of the right-hand end of the
register are rotated back into the left-hand end.
Note
ROR can only be used with a register-controlled shift.
5-24
Rd
is the destination register. It is also the source register for
register-controlled shifts. Rd must be in the range r0-r7.
Rs
is the register containing the shift value for register-controlled shifts. Rm
must be in the range r0-r7.
Rm
is the source register for immediate shifts. Rm must be in the range r0-r7.
expr
is the immediate shift value. It is an expression evaluating (at assembly
time) to an integer in the range:
•
0-31 if op is LSL
•
1-32 otherwise.
Copyright © 2000, 2001 ARM Limited. All rights reserved.
ARM DUI 0068B
Thumb Instruction Reference
Register-controlled shift
These instructions take the value from Rd, apply the shift to it, and place the result back
into Rd.
Only the least significant byte of Rs is used for the shift value.
For all these instructions except ROR:
•
if the shift is 32, Rd is cleared, and the last bit shifted out remains in the C flag
•
if the shift is greater than 32, Rd and the C flag are cleared.
Immediate shift
These instructions take the value from Rm, apply the shift to it, and place the result into
Rd.
Condition flags
These instructions update the N and Z flags according to the result. The V flag is not
affected.
The C flag:
•
is unaffected if the shift value is zero
•
otherwise, contains the last bit shifted out of the source register.
Architectures
These instructions are available in all T variants of the ARM architecture.
Examples
ASR r3,r5
LSR r0,r2,#6
LSR r5,r5,av
LSL r0,r4,#0
; av must evaluate, at assembly time, to an
; integer in the range 1-32.
; same as MOV r0,r4 except that C and V
; flags are not affected
Incorrect examples
ROR
LSL
LSL
ASR
ARM DUI 0068B
r2,r7,#3
r9,r1
r0,r7,#32
r0,r7,#0
;
;
;
;
ROR cannot use immediate shift value
high registers not allowed
immediate shift out of range
immediate shift out of range
Copyright © 2000, 2001 ARM Limited. All rights reserved.
5-25
Thumb Instruction Reference
5.3.3
CMP and CMN
Compare and Compare Negative.
Syntax
CMP Rn, #expr
CMP Rn, Rm
CMN Rn, Rm
where:
Rn
is the register containing the first operand.
expr
is an expression that evaluates (at assembly time) to an integer in the
range 0-255.
Rm
is a register containing the second operand.
Usage
These instructions update the condition flags, but do not place a result in a register.
The CMP instruction subtracts the value of expr, or the value in Rm, from the value in Rn.
The CMN instruction adds the values in Rm and Rn.
Restrictions
In CMP Rn,#expr, and CMN instructions, Rn and Rm must be in the range r0 to r7.
In CMP Rn,Rm instructions, Rn and Rm can be any register r0 to r15.
Condition flags
These instructions update the N, Z, C, and V flags according to the result.
Architectures
These instructions are available in all T variants of the architecture.
5-26
Copyright © 2000, 2001 ARM Limited. All rights reserved.
ARM DUI 0068B
Thumb Instruction Reference
Examples
CMP r2,#255
CMP r7,r12
CMN r1,r5
; high register IS allowed with CMP Rn,Rm
Incorrect examples
CMP r2,#508
CMP r9,#24
CMN r0,r10
ARM DUI 0068B
; immediate value out of range
; high register not allowed with #expr
; high register not allowed with CMN
Copyright © 2000, 2001 ARM Limited. All rights reserved.
5-27
Thumb Instruction Reference
5.3.4
MOV, MVN, and NEG
Move, Move NOT, and Negate.
Syntax
MOV Rd, #expr
MOV Rd, Rm
MVN Rd, Rm
NEG Rd, Rm
where:
Rd
is the destination register.
expr
is an expression that evaluates (at assembly time) to an integer in the
range 0-255.
Rm
is the source register.
Usage
The MOV instruction places #expr, or the value from Rm, in Rd.
The MVN instruction takes the value in Rm, performs a bitwise logical NOT operation on
the value, and places the result in Rd.
The NEG instruction takes the value in Rm, multiplies it by –1, and places the result in Rd.
Restrictions
In MOV Rd,#expr, MVN, and NEG instructions, Rd and Rm must be in the range r0 to r7.
In MOV Rd, Rm instructions, Rd and Rm can be any register r0 to r15, but see Condition flags
on page 5-29.
5-28
Copyright © 2000, 2001 ARM Limited. All rights reserved.
ARM DUI 0068B
Thumb Instruction Reference
Condition flags
MOV Rd,#expr and MVN instructions update the N and Z flags. They have no effect on the
C or V flags.
NEG instructions update the N, Z, C, and V flags.
MOV Rd, Rm behaves as follows:
•
•
if either Rd or Rm is a high register (r8-r15), the flags are unaffected
if both Rd and Rm are low registers (r0-r7), the N and Z flags are updated, and C
and V flags are cleared.
Note
You can use LSL, with a shift of zero, to move between low registers without
clearing the C and V flags (see ASR, LSL, LSR, and ROR on page 5-24).
Architectures
These instructions are available in all T variants of the ARM architecture.
Examples
MOV
MOV
MVN
NEG
r3,#0
r0,r12
r7,r1
r2,r2
; does not update flags
Incorrect examples
MOV
MOV
MVN
NEG
ARM DUI 0068B
r2,#256
r8,#3
r8,r2
r0,#3
;
;
;
;
immediate value out of range
cannot move immediate to high register
high registers not allowed with MVN or NEG
immediate value not allowed with MVN or NEG
Copyright © 2000, 2001 ARM Limited. All rights reserved.
5-29
Thumb Instruction Reference
5.3.5
TST
Test bits.
Syntax
TST Rn, Rm
where:
Rn
is the register containing the first operand.
Rm
is the register containing the second operand.
Usage
This instruction performs a bitwise logical AND operation on the values in Rm and Rn. It
updates the condition flags, but does not place a result in a register.
Restrictions
Rn and Rm must be in the range r0-r7.
Condition flags
This instruction updates the N and Z flags according to the result. The C and V flags are
unaffected.
Architectures
This instruction is available in all T variants of the ARM architecture.
Example
TST r2,r4
5-30
Copyright © 2000, 2001 ARM Limited. All rights reserved.
ARM DUI 0068B
Thumb Instruction Reference
5.4
Thumb branch instructions
This section contains the following subsections:
•
B on page 5-32
Branch.
•
BL on page 5-34
Branch with Link.
•
BX on page 5-35
Branch and exchange instruction set.
•
BLX on page 5-36
Branch with Link and exchange instruction set.
ARM DUI 0068B
Copyright © 2000, 2001 ARM Limited. All rights reserved.
5-31
Thumb Instruction Reference
5.4.1
B
Branch. This is the only instruction in the Thumb instruction set that can be conditional.
Syntax
B{cond} label
where:
cond
is an optional condition code (see Table 5-2 on page 5-33).
label
is a program-relative expression. This is usually a label within the same
piece of code. See Register-relative and program-relative expressions on
page 3-23 for more information.
label must be within:
•
–252 to +258 bytes of the current instruction, if cond is used
•
±2KB if the instruction is unconditional.
Usage
The B instruction causes a branch to label, if cond is satisfied, or if cond is not used.
Note
label must be within the specified limits. The ARM linker cannot add code to generate
longer branches.
Architectures
This instruction is available in all T variants of the ARM architecture.
Examples
B
dloop
BEQ sectB
5-32
Copyright © 2000, 2001 ARM Limited. All rights reserved.
ARM DUI 0068B
Thumb Instruction Reference
Table 5-2 Condition codes for Thumb B instruction
ARM DUI 0068B
Suffix
Flags
Meaning
EQ
Z set
Equal
NE
Z clear
Not equal
CS/HS
C set
Higher or same (unsigned >= )
CC/LO
C clear
Lower (unsigned < )
MI
N set
Negative
PL
N clear
Positive or zero
VS
V set
Overflow
VC
V clear
No overflow
HI
C set and Z clear
Higher (unsigned <= )
LS
C clear or Z set
Lower or same (unsigned <= )
GE
N and V the same
Signed >=
LT
N and V different
Signed <
GT
Z clear, and N and V the same
Signed >
LE
Z set, or N and V different
Signed <=
Copyright © 2000, 2001 ARM Limited. All rights reserved.
5-33
Thumb Instruction Reference
5.4.2
BL
Long branch with Link.
Syntax
BL label
where:
is a program-relative expression. See Register-relative and
program-relative expressions on page 3-23 for more information.
label
Usage
The BL instruction copies the address of the next instruction into r14 (lr, the link
register), and causes a branch to label.
The machine-level instruction cannot branch to an address outside ±4Mb of the current
instruction. When necessary, the ARM linker inserts code (a veneer) to allow longer
branches (see The ARM linker chapter in ADS Linker and Utilities Guide).
Architectures
This instruction is available in all T variants of the ARM architecture.
Example
BL
5-34
extract
Copyright © 2000, 2001 ARM Limited. All rights reserved.
ARM DUI 0068B
Thumb Instruction Reference
5.4.3
BX
Branch, and optionally exchange instruction set.
Syntax
BX Rm
where:
is an ARM register containing the address to branch to.
Rm
Bit 0 of Rm is not used as part of the address.
If bit 0 of Rm is clear:
•
bit 1 must also be clear
•
the instruction clears the T flag in the CPSR, and the code at the
destination is interpreted as ARM code.
Usage
The BX instruction causes a branch to the address held in Rm, and changes instruction set
to Thumb if bit 0 of Rm is set.
Architectures
This instruction is available in all T variants of the ARM architecture.
Examples
BX
ARM DUI 0068B
r5
Copyright © 2000, 2001 ARM Limited. All rights reserved.
5-35
Thumb Instruction Reference
5.4.4
BLX
Branch with Link, and optionally exchange instruction set.
Syntax
BLX Rm
BLX label
where:
is an ARM register containing the address to branch to.
Rm
Bit 0 of Rm is not used as part of the address. If bit 0 of Rm is clear:
label
•
Bit 1 must also be clear.
•
The instruction clears the T flag in the CPSR. Code at the
destination is interpreted as ARM code.
is a program-relative expression. See Register-relative and
program-relative expressions on page 3-23 for more information.
BLX label always causes a change to ARM state.
Usage
The BLX instruction:
•
copies the address of the next instruction into r14 (lr, the link register)
•
causes a branch to label, or to the address held in Rm
•
changes instruction set to ARM if either:
— bit 0 of Rm is clear
— the BLX label form is used.
The machine-level instruction cannot branch to an address outside ±4Mb of the current
instruction. When necessary, the ARM linker inserts code (a veneer) to allow longer
branches (see The ARM linker chapter in ADS Linker and Utilities Guide).
Architectures
This instruction is available in all T variants of ARM architecture version 5 and above.
Examples
BLX r6
BLX armsub
5-36
Copyright © 2000, 2001 ARM Limited. All rights reserved.
ARM DUI 0068B
Thumb Instruction Reference
5.5
Thumb software interrupt and breakpoint instructions
This section contains the following subsections:
•
SWI
•
BKPT on page 5-38.
5.5.1
SWI
Software interrupt.
Syntax
SWI immed_8
where:
immed_8
is a numeric expression evaluating to an integer in the range 0-255.
Usage
The SWI instruction causes a SWI exception. This means that the processor state changes
to ARM, the processor mode changes to Supervisor, the CPSR is saved to the
Supervisor Mode SPSR, and execution branches to the SWI vector (see the Handling
Processor Exceptions chapter in ADS Developer Guide).
immed_8 is ignored by the processor. However, it is present in bits[7:0] of the instruction
opcode. It can be retrieved by the exception handler to determine what service is being
requested.
Condition flags
This instruction does not affect the flags.
Architectures
This instruction is available in all T variants of the ARM architecture.
Example
SWI 12
ARM DUI 0068B
Copyright © 2000, 2001 ARM Limited. All rights reserved.
5-37
Thumb Instruction Reference
5.5.2
BKPT
Breakpoint.
Syntax
BKPT immed_8
where:
immed_8
is an expression evaluating to an integer in the range 0-255.
Usage
The BKPT instruction causes the processor to enter Debug mode. Debug tools can use this
to investigate system state when the instruction at a particular address is reached.
immed_8 is ignored by the processor. However, it is present in bits[7:0] of the instruction
opcode. It can be used by a debugger to store additional information about the
breakpoint.
Architectures
This instruction is available in T variants of ARM architecture version 5 and above.
Examples
BKPT
BKPT
5-38
67
2_10110
Copyright © 2000, 2001 ARM Limited. All rights reserved.
ARM DUI 0068B
Thumb Instruction Reference
5.6
Thumb pseudo-instructions
The ARM assembler supports a number of Thumb pseudo-instructions that are
translated into the appropriate Thumb instructions at assembly time.
The pseudo-instructions that are available in Thumb state are in the following sections:
•
ADR Thumb pseudo-instruction on page 5-40
•
LDR Thumb pseudo-instruction on page 5-41
•
NOP Thumb pseudo-instruction on page 5-43.
ARM DUI 0068B
Copyright © 2000, 2001 ARM Limited. All rights reserved.
5-39
Thumb Instruction Reference
5.6.1
ADR Thumb pseudo-instruction
The ADR pseudo-instruction loads a program-relative address into a register.
Syntax
ADR register, expr
where:
register
is the register to load.
expr
is a program-relative expression. The offset must be positive and less than
1KB. expr must be defined locally, it cannot be imported.
Usage
In Thumb state, ADR can generate word-aligned addresses only. Use the ALIGN directive
to ensure that expr is aligned (see ALIGN on page 7-50).
expr must evaluate to an address in the same code section as the ADR pseudo-instruction.
There is no guarantee that the address will be within range after linking if it resides in
another ELF section.
Example
txampl
5-40
ADR
; code
ALIGN
DCW
r4,txampl
; => ADD r4,pc,#nn
0,0,0,0
Copyright © 2000, 2001 ARM Limited. All rights reserved.
ARM DUI 0068B
Thumb Instruction Reference
5.6.2
LDR Thumb pseudo-instruction
The LDR pseudo-instruction loads a low register with either:
•
a 32-bit constant value
•
an address.
Note
This section describes the LDR pseudo-instruction only. See Thumb memory access
instructions on page 5-4 for information on the LDR instruction.
Syntax
LDR register, =[expr | label-exp]
where:
register
is the register to be loaded. LDR can access the low registers (r0-r7) only.
expr
evaluates to a numeric constant:
label-exp
•
if the value of expr is within range of a MOV instruction, the
assembler generates the instruction
•
if the value of expr is not within range of a MOV instruction, the
assembler places the constant in a literal pool and generates a
program-relative LDR instruction that reads the constant from the
literal pool.
is a program-relative or external expression. The assembler places the
value of label-exp in a literal pool and generates a program-relative LDR
instruction that loads the value from the literal pool.
If label-exp is an external expression, or is not contained in the current
section, the assembler places a linker relocation directive in the object
file. The linker ensures that the correct address is generated at link time.
The offset from the pc to the value in the literal pool must be positive and less than 1KB.
You are responsible for ensuring that there is a literal pool within range. See LTORG on
page 7-14 for more information.
Usage
The LDR pseudo-instruction is used for two main purposes:
•
ARM DUI 0068B
To generate literal constants when an immediate value cannot be moved into a
register because it is out of range of the MOV instruction.
Copyright © 2000, 2001 ARM Limited. All rights reserved.
5-41
Thumb Instruction Reference
•
To load a program-relative or external address into a register. The address remains
valid regardless of where the linker places the ELF section containing the LDR.
Example
5-42
LDR
r1, =0xfff
; loads 0xfff into r1
LDR
r2, =labelname
; loads the address of labelname into r2
Copyright © 2000, 2001 ARM Limited. All rights reserved.
ARM DUI 0068B
Thumb Instruction Reference
5.6.3
NOP Thumb pseudo-instruction
NOP generates the preferred Thumb no-operation instruction.
The following instruction might be used, but this is not guaranteed:
MOV r8,r8
Syntax
The syntax for NOP is:
NOP
Condition flags
ALU status flags are unaltered by NOP.
ARM DUI 0068B
Copyright © 2000, 2001 ARM Limited. All rights reserved.
5-43
Thumb Instruction Reference
5-44
Copyright © 2000, 2001 ARM Limited. All rights reserved.
ARM DUI 0068B
Chapter 6
Vector Floating-point Programming
This chapter provides reference information about programming the Vector
Floating-point coprocessor in Assembly language. It contains the following sections:
•
The vector floating-point coprocessor on page 6-4
•
Floating-point registers on page 6-5
•
Vector and scalar operations on page 6-7
•
VFP and condition codes on page 6-8
•
VFP system registers on page 6-10
•
Flush-to-zero mode on page 6-13
•
VFP instructions on page 6-15
•
VFP pseudo-instruction on page 6-38
•
VFP directives and vector notation on page 6-40.
See Table 6-1 on page 6-2 for locations of descriptions of individual instructions.
ARM DUI 0068B
Copyright © 2000, 2001 ARM Limited. All rights reserved.
6-1
Vector Floating-point Programming
Table 6-1 Location of descriptions of VFP instructions
6-2
Mnemonic
Brief description
Page
Operation
Architecture
FABS
Absolute value
page 6-16
Vector
All
FADD
Add
page 6-18
Vector
All
FCMP
Compare
page 6-19
Scalar
All
FCPY
Copy
page 6-16
Vector
All
FCVTDS
Convert single-precision to double-precision
page 6-20
Scalar
All
FCVTSD
Convert double-precision to single-precision
page 6-21
Scalar
All
FDIV
Divide
page 6-22
Vector
All
FLD
Load (see also FLD pseudo-instruction on page 6-38)
page 6-23
Scalar
All
FLDM
Load multiple
page 6-25
-
All
FMAC
Multiply-accumulate
page 6-27
Scalar
All
FMDHR, FMDLR
Transfer from one ARM register to half of
double-precision
page 6-30
Scalar
All
FMDRR
Transfer from two ARM registers to double-precision
page 6-29
Scalar
VFPv2
FMRDH, FMRDL
Transfer from half of double-precision to ARM register
page 6-30
Scalar
All
FMRRD
Transfer from double-precision to two ARM registers
page 6-29
Scalar
VFPv2
FMRRS
Transfer between two ARM registers and two
single-precision
page 6-32
Scalar
VFPv2
FMRS
Transfer from single-precision to ARM register
page 6-31
Scalar
All
FMRX
Transfer from VFP system register to ARM register
page 6-33
-
All
FMSC
Multiply-subtract
page 6-27
Vector
All
FMSR
Transfer from ARM register to single-precision
page 6-31
Scalar
All
FMSRR
Transfer between two ARM registers and two
single-precision
page 6-32
Scalar
VFPv2
FMSTAT
Transfer VFP status flags to ARM CPSR status flags
page 6-33
-
All
FMUL
Multiply
page 6-34
Vector
All
FMXR
Transfer from ARM register to VFP system register
page 6-33
-
All
Copyright © 2000, 2001 ARM Limited. All rights reserved.
ARM DUI 0068B
Vector Floating-point Programming
Table 6-1 Location of descriptions of VFP instructions (continued)
Mnemonic
Brief description
Page
Operation
Architecture
FNEG
Negate
page 6-16
Vector
All
FNMAC
Negate-multiply-accumulate
page 6-27
Vector
All
FNMSC
Negate-multiply-subtract
page 6-27
Vector
All
FNMUL
Negate-multiply
page 6-34
Vector
All
FSITO
Convert signed integer to floating-point
page 6-35
Scalar
All
FSQRT
Square Root
page 6-36
Vector
All
FST
Store
page 6-23
Scalar
All
FSTM
Store multiple
page 6-25
-
All
FSUB
Subtract
page 6-18
Vector
All
FTOSI, FTOUI
Convert floating-point to signed or unsigned integer
page 6-37
Scalar
All
FUITO
Convert unsigned integer to floating-point
page 6-35
Scalar
All
ARM DUI 0068B
Copyright © 2000, 2001 ARM Limited. All rights reserved.
6-3
Vector Floating-point Programming
6.1
The vector floating-point coprocessor
The Vector Floating-Point (VFP) coprocessor, together with associated support code,
provides single-precision and double-precision floating-point arithmetic, as defined by
ANSI/IEEE Std. 754-1985 IEEE Standard for Binary Floating-Point Arithmetic. This
document is referred to as the IEEE 754 standard in this chapter. There is a summary of
the standard in the floating-point chapter in ADS Compilers and Libraries Guide.
Short vectors of up to eight single-precision or four double-precision numbers are
handled particularly efficiently. Most arithmetic instructions can be used on these
vectors, allowing single-instruction, multiple-data (SIMD) parallelism. In addition, the
floating-point load and store instructions have multiple register forms, allowing vectors
to be transferred to and from memory efficiently.
For further details of the vector floating-point coprocessor, see ARM Architecture
Reference Manual.
6.1.1
VFP architectures
There are two versions of the VFP architecture. VFPv2 has all the instructions that
VFPv1 has, and four additional instructions.
The additional instructions allow you to transfer two 32-bit words between ARM
registers and VFP registers with one instruction.
6-4
Copyright © 2000, 2001 ARM Limited. All rights reserved.
ARM DUI 0068B
Vector Floating-point Programming
6.2
Floating-point registers
The Vector Floating-point coprocessor has 32 single-precision registers, s0 to s31. Each
register can contain either a single-precision floating-point value, or a 32-bit integer.
These 32 registers are also treated as 16 double-precision registers, d0 to d15. dn
occupies the same hardware as s(2n) and s(2n+1).
You can use:
•
some registers for single-precision values at the same time as you are using others
for double-precision values
•
the same registers for single-precision values and double-precision values at
different times.
Do not attempt to use corresponding single-precision and double-precision registers at
the same time. No damage is caused but the results are meaningless.
6.2.1
Register banks
The VFP registers are arranged as four banks of:
•
eight single-precision registers, s0 to s7, s8 to s15, s16 to s23, and s24 to s31
•
four double-precision registers, d0 to d3, d4 to d7, d8 to d11, and d12 to d15
•
any combination of single-precision and double-precision registers.
See Figure 6-1 for further clarification.
s0 s1 s2 s3 s4 s5 s6 s7 s8
d0
d1
d2
Bank 0
d3
d4
...
s15 s16
...
...
d7
...
Bank 1
d8
s23 s24
d11
Bank 2
d12
...
...
s31
d15
Bank 3
Figure 6-1 VFP register banks
ARM DUI 0068B
Copyright © 2000, 2001 ARM Limited. All rights reserved.
6-5
Vector Floating-point Programming
6.2.2
Vectors
A vector can use up to eight single-precision registers, or four double-precision
registers, from the same bank. The number of registers used by a vector is controlled by
the LEN bits in the FPSCR (see FPSCR, the floating-point status and control register on
page 6-10).
A vector can start from any register. The first register used by a vector is specified in the
register fields in the individual instructions.
Vector wrap-around
If the vector extends beyond the end of a bank, it wraps around to the beginning of the
same bank, for example:
•
a vector of length 6 starting at s5 is {s5, s6, s7, s0, s1, s2}
•
a vector of length 3 starting at s15 is {s15, s8, s9}
•
a vector of length 4 starting at s22 is {s22, s23, s16, s17}
•
a vector of length 2 starting at d7 is {d7, d4}
•
a vector of length 3 starting at d10 is {d10, d11, d8}.
A vector cannot contain registers from more than one bank.
Vector stride
Vectors can occupy consecutive registers, as in the examples above, or they can occupy
alternate registers. This is controlled by the STRIDE bits in the FPSCR (see FPSCR, the
floating-point status and control register on page 6-10). For example:
•
a vector of length 3, stride 2, starting at s1, is {s1, s3, s5}
•
a vector of length 4, stride 2, starting at s6, is {s6, s0, s2, s4}
•
a vector of length 2, stride 2, starting at d1, is {d1, d3}.
Restriction on vector length
A vector cannot use the same register twice. Allowing for vector wrap-around, this
means that you cannot have:
•
a single-precision vector with length > 4 and stride = 2
•
a double-precision vector with length > 4 and stride = 1
•
a double-precision vector with length > 2 and stride = 2.
6-6
Copyright © 2000, 2001 ARM Limited. All rights reserved.
ARM DUI 0068B
Vector Floating-point Programming
6.3
Vector and scalar operations
You can use VFP arithmetic instructions to operate:
•
on scalars
•
on vectors
•
on scalars and vectors together.
Use the LEN bits in the FPSCR to control the length of vectors (see FPSCR, the
floating-point status and control register on page 6-10).
When LEN is 1 all operations are scalar.
6.3.1
Control of scalar, vector and mixed operations
When LEN is greater than 1, the behavior of arithmetic operations depends on which
register bank the destination and operand registers are in (see Register banks on
page 6-5).
The behavior of instructions of the following general forms:
Op
Op
Fd,Fn,Fm
Fd,Fm
is as follows:
•
If Fd is in the first bank of registers, s0 to s7 or d0 to d3, the operation is scalar.
•
If the Fm is in the first bank of registers, but Fd is not, the operation is mixed.
•
If neither Fd nor Fm are in the first bank of registers, the operation is vector.
Scalar operations
Op acts on the value in Fm, and the value in Fn if present. The result is placed in Fd.
Vector operations
Op acts on the values in the vector starting at Fm, together with the values in the vector
starting at Fn if present. The results are placed in the vector starting at Fd.
Mixed scalar and vector operations
For single-operand instructions, Op acts on the single value in Fm. LEN copies of the result
are placed in the vector starting at Fd.
For multiple-operand instructions, Op acts on the single value in Fm, together with the
values in the vector starting at Fn. The results are placed in the vector starting at Fd.
ARM DUI 0068B
Copyright © 2000, 2001 ARM Limited. All rights reserved.
6-7
Vector Floating-point Programming
6.4
VFP and condition codes
You can use a condition code to control the execution of any VFP instruction. The
instruction is executed conditionally, according to the status flags in the CPSR, in
exactly the same way as almost all other ARM instructions.
The only VFP instruction that can be used to update the status flags is FCMP. It does not
update the flags in the CPSR directly, but updates a separate set of flags in the FPSCR
(see FPSCR, the floating-point status and control register on page 6-10).
Note
To use these flags to control conditional instructions, including conditional VFP
instructions, you must first copy them into the CPSR using an FMSTAT instruction (see
FMRX, FMXR, and FMSTAT on page 6-33).
Following an FCMP instruction, the precise meanings of the flags are different from their
meanings following an ARM data-processing instruction. This is because:
•
floating-point values are never unsigned, so the unsigned conditions are not
needed
•
Not-a-Number (NaN) values have no ordering relationship with numbers or with
each other, so additional conditions are needed to allow for unordered results.
The meanings of the condition code mnemonics are shown in Table 6-2.
Table 6-2 Condition codes
6-8
Mnemonic
Meaning after ARM data processing instruction
Meaning after VFP FCMP instruction
EQ
Equal
Equal
NE
Not equal
Not equal, or unordered
CS / HS
Carry set / Unsigned higher or same
Greater than or equal, or unordered
CC / LO
Carry clear / Unsigned lower
Less than
MI
Negative
Less than
PL
Positive or zero
Greater than or equal, or unordered
VS
Overflow
Unordered (at least one NaN operand)
VC
No overflow
Not unordered
Copyright © 2000, 2001 ARM Limited. All rights reserved.
ARM DUI 0068B
Vector Floating-point Programming
Table 6-2 Condition codes (continued)
Mnemonic
Meaning after ARM data processing instruction
Meaning after VFP FCMP instruction
HI
Unsigned higher
Greater than, or unordered
LS
Unsigned lower or same
Less than or equal
GE
Signed greater than or equal
Greater than or equal
LT
Signed less than
Less than, or unordered
GT
Signed greater than
Greater than
LE
Signed less than or equal
Less than or equal, or unordered
AL
Always (normally omitted)
Always (normally omitted)
Note
The type of the instruction that last updated the flags in the CPSR determines the
meaning of condition codes.
ARM DUI 0068B
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6-9
Vector Floating-point Programming
6.5
VFP system registers
Three VFP system registers are accessible to you in all implementations of VFP:
•
FPSCR, the floating-point status and control register
•
FPEXC, the floating-point exception register on page 6-12
•
FPSID, the floating-point system ID register on page 6-12.
A particular implementation of VFP can have additional registers (see the technical
reference manual for the VFP coprocessor you are using).
6.5.1
FPSCR, the floating-point status and control register
The FPSCR contains all the user-level VFP status and control bits:
bits[31:28]
are the N, Z, C, and V flags. These are the VFP status flags. They cannot
be used to control conditional execution until they have been copied into
the status flags in the CPSR (see VFP and condition codes on page 6-8).
bit[24]
is the flush-to-zero mode control bit:
0
flush-to-zero mode is disabled.
1
flush-to-zero mode is enabled.
Flush-to-zero mode can allow greater performance, depending on your
hardware and software, at the expense of loss of range (see Flush-to-zero
mode on page 6-13).
Note
Flush-to-zero mode must not be used when IEEE 754 compatibility is a
requirement.
bits[23:22]
bits[21:20]
control rounding mode as follows:
0b00
Round to Nearest (RN) mode
0b01
Round towards Plus infinity (RP) mode
0b10
Round towards Minus infinity (RM) mode
0b11
Round towards Zero (RZ) mode.
STRIDE is the distance between successive values in a vector (see Vectors
on page 6-6). Stride is controlled as follows:
6-10
0b00
stride = 1
0b11
stride = 2.
Copyright © 2000, 2001 ARM Limited. All rights reserved.
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Vector Floating-point Programming
bits[18:16]
LEN is the number of registers used by each vector (see Vectors on
page 6-6). It is 1 + the value of bits[18:16]:
0b000
LEN = 1
.
.
0b111
bits[12:8]
LEN = 8.
are the exception trap enable bits:
IXE
inexact exception enable
UFE
underflow exception enable
OFE
overflow exception enable
DZE
division by zero exception enable
IOE
invalid operation exception enable.
This Guide does not cover the use of floating-point exception trapping.
For information see the technical reference manual for the VFP
coprocessor you are using.
bits[4:0]
are the cumulative exception bits:
IXC
inexact exception
UFC
underflow exception
OFC
overflow exception
DZC
division by zero exception
IOC
invalid operation exception.
Cumulative exception bits are set when the corresponding exception
occurs. They remain set until you clear them by writing directly to the
FPSCR.
all other bits are unused in the basic VFP specification. They can be used in particular
implementations (see the technical reference manual for the VFP
coprocessor you are using). Do not modify these bits except in
accordance with any use in a particular implementation.
To alter some bits without affecting other bits, use a read-modify-write procedure (see
Modifying individual bits of a VFP system register on page 6-12).
ARM DUI 0068B
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6-11
Vector Floating-point Programming
6.5.2
FPEXC, the floating-point exception register
You can only access the FPEXC in privileged modes. It contains the following bits:
bit[31]
is the EX bit. You can read it in all VFP implementations. In some
implementations you might also be able to write to it.
If the value is 0, the only significant state in the VFP system is the
contents of the general purpose registers plus FPSCR and FPEXC.
If the value is 1, you need implementation-specific information to save
state (see the technical reference manual for the VFP coprocessor you are
using).
bit[30]
is the EN bit. You can read and write it in all VFP implementations.
If the value is 1, the VFP coprocessor is enabled and operates normally.
If the value is 0, the VFP coprocessor is disabled. When the coprocessor
is disabled, you can read or write the FPSID or FPEXC registers, but other
VFP instructions are treated as undefined instructions.
bits[29:0]
might be used by particular implementations of VFP. You can use all the
VFP functions described in this chapter without accessing these bits.
You must not alter these bits except in accordance with their use in a
particular implementation (see the technical reference manual for the
VFP coprocessor you are using).
To alter some bits without affecting other bits, use a read-modify-write procedure (see
Modifying individual bits of a VFP system register).
6.5.3
FPSID, the floating-point system ID register
The FPSID is a read-only register. You can read it to find out which implementation of
the VFP architecture your program is running on.
6.5.4
Modifying individual bits of a VFP system register
To alter some bits of a VFP system register without affecting other bits, use a
read-modify-write procedure similar to the following example:
FMRX
BIC
ORR
FMXR
r10,FPSCR
r10,r10,#0x00370000
r10,r10,#0x00030000
FPSCR,r10
;
;
;
;
copy FPSCR into r10
clears STRIDE and LEN
sets STRIDE = 1, LEN = 4
copy r10 back into FPSCR
See FMRX, FMXR, and FMSTAT on page 6-33.
6-12
Copyright © 2000, 2001 ARM Limited. All rights reserved.
ARM DUI 0068B
Vector Floating-point Programming
6.6
Flush-to-zero mode
Some implementations of VFP use support code to handle denormalized numbers. The
performance of such systems, in calculations involving denormalized numbers, is much
less than it is in normal calculations.
Flush-to-zero mode replaces denormalized numbers with +0. This does not comply with
IEEE 754 arithmetic, but in some circumstances can improve performance
considerably.
6.6.1
When to use flush-to-zero mode
You should select flush-to-zero mode if all the following are true:
•
IEEE 754 compliance is not a requirement for your system
•
the algorithms you are using are such that they sometimes generate denormalized
numbers
•
your system uses support code to handle denormalized numbers
•
the algorithms you are using do not depend for their accuracy on the preservation
of denormalized numbers
•
the algorithms you are using do not generate frequent exceptions as a result of
replacing denormalized numbers with +0.
You can change between flush-to-zero and normal mode at any time, if different parts
of your code have different requirements. Numbers already in registers are not affected
by changing mode.
6.6.2
The effects of using flush-to-zero mode
With certain exceptions (see Operations not affected by flush-to-zero mode on
page 6-14), flush-to-zero mode has the following effects on floating-point operations:
•
A denormalized number is treated as +0 when used as an input to a floating point
operation. The source register is not altered.
•
If the result of a single-precision floating-point operation, before rounding, is in
the range –2–126 to +2–126, it is replaced by +0.
•
If the result of a double-precision floating-point operation, before rounding, is in
the range –2–1022 to +2–1022, it is replaced by +0.
An inexact exception occurs whenever a denormalized number is used as an operand,
or a result is flushed to zero. Underflow exceptions do not occur in flush-to-zero mode.
ARM DUI 0068B
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6-13
Vector Floating-point Programming
6.6.3
Operations not affected by flush-to-zero mode
The following operations can be carried out on denormalized numbers even in
flush-to-zero mode, without flushing the results to zero:
6-14
•
Copy, absolute value, and negate (see FABS, FCPY, and FNEG on page 6-16)
•
Load and store (see FLD and FST on page 6-23)
•
Load multiple and store multiple (see FLDM and FSTM on page 6-25)
•
Transfer between floating-point registers and ARM general-purpose registers
(see FMDRR and FMRRD on page 6-29 and FMRRS and FMSRR on page 6-32).
Copyright © 2000, 2001 ARM Limited. All rights reserved.
ARM DUI 0068B
Vector Floating-point Programming
6.7
VFP instructions
This section contains the following subsections:
•
FABS, FCPY, and FNEG on page 6-16
Floating-point absolute value, copy, and negate.
•
FADD and FSUB on page 6-18
Floating-point add and subtract.
•
FCMP on page 6-19
Floating-point compare.
•
FCVTDS on page 6-20
Convert single-precision floating-point to double-precision.
•
FCVTSD on page 6-21
Convert double-precision floating-point to single-precision.
•
FDIV on page 6-22
Floating-point divide.
•
FLD and FST on page 6-23
Floating-point load and store.
•
FLDM and FSTM on page 6-25
Floating-point load multiple and store multiple.
•
FMAC, FNMAC, FMSC, and FNMSC on page 6-27
Floating-point multiply accumulate instructions.
•
FMDRR and FMRRD on page 6-29
Transfer contents between ARM registers and a double-precision floating-point
register.
•
FMRRS and FMSRR on page 6-32
Transfer contents between a single-precision floating-point register and an ARM
register.
•
FMRX, FMXR, and FMSTAT on page 6-33
Transfer contents between an ARM register and a VFP system register.
•
FMUL and FNMUL on page 6-34
Floating-point multiply and negate-multiply.
•
FSITO and FUITO on page 6-35
Convert signed integer to floating-point and unsigned integer to floating-point.
•
FSQRT on page 6-36
Floating-point square root.
•
FTOSI and FTOUI on page 6-37
Convert floating-point to signed integer and floating-point to unsigned integer.
ARM DUI 0068B
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6-15
Vector Floating-point Programming
6.7.1
FABS, FCPY, and FNEG
Floating-point copy, absolute value, and negate.
These instructions can be scalar, vector, or mixed (see Vector and scalar operations on
page 6-7).
Syntax
<op><precision>{cond} Fd, Fm
where:
<op>
must be one of FCPY, FABS, or FNEG.
<precision>
must be either S for single-precision, or D for double-precision.
cond
is an optional condition code (see VFP and condition codes on
page 6-8).
Fd
is the VFP register for the result.
Fm
is the VFP register holding the operand.
The precision of Fd and Fm must match the precision specified in <precision>.
Usage
The FCPY instruction copies the contents ofFm into Fd.
The FABS instruction takes the contents of Fm, clears the sign bit, and places the result in
Fd. This gives the absolute value.
The FNEG instruction takes the contents of Fm, changes the sign bit, and places the result
in Fd. This gives the negation of the value.
If the operand is a NaN, the sign bit is determined in each case as above, but no
exception is produced.
Exceptions
None of these instructions can produce any exceptions.
6-16
Copyright © 2000, 2001 ARM Limited. All rights reserved.
ARM DUI 0068B
Vector Floating-point Programming
Examples
FABSD
d3, d5
FNEGSMI s15, s15
ARM DUI 0068B
Copyright © 2000, 2001 ARM Limited. All rights reserved.
6-17
Vector Floating-point Programming
6.7.2
FADD and FSUB
Floating-point add and subtract.
FADD and FSUB can be scalar, vector, or mixed (see Vector and scalar operations on
page 6-7).
Syntax
FADD<precision>{cond} Fd, Fn, Fm
FSUB<precision>{cond} Fd, Fn, Fm
where:
<precision>
must be either S for single-precision, or D for double-precision.
cond
is an optional condition code (see VFP and condition codes on page 6-8).
Fd
is the VFP register for the result.
Fn
is the VFP register holding the first operand.
Fm
is the VFP register holding the second operand.
The precision of Fd, Fn and Fm must match the precision specified in <precision>.
Usage
The FADD instruction adds the values in Fn and Fm and places the result in Fd.
The FSUB instruction subtracts the value in Fm from the value in Fn and places the result
in Fd.
Exceptions
FADD and FSUB instructions can produce Invalid Operation, Overflow, or Inexact
exceptions.
Examples
FSUBSEQ
FADDDGT
FSUBD
6-18
s2, s4, s17
d4, d0, d12
d0, d0, d12
Copyright © 2000, 2001 ARM Limited. All rights reserved.
ARM DUI 0068B
Vector Floating-point Programming
6.7.3
FCMP
Floating-point compare.
FCMP is always scalar.
Syntax
FCMP{E}<precision>{cond} Fd, Fm
FCMP{E}Z<precision>{cond} Fd
where:
E
is an optional parameter. If E is present, an exception is raised if either
operand is any kind of NaN. Otherwise, an exception is raised only if
either operand is a signalling NaN.
Z
is a parameter specifying comparison with zero.
<precision>
must be either S for single-precision, or D for double-precision.
cond
is an optional condition code (see VFP and condition codes on page 6-8).
Fd
is the VFP register holding the first operand.
Fm
is the VFP register holding the second operand. Omit Fm for a compare
with zero instruction.
The precision of Fd and Fm must match the precision specified in <precision>.
Usage
The FCMP instruction subtracts the value in Fm from the value in Fd and sets the VFP
condition flags on the result (see VFP and condition codes on page 6-8).
Exceptions
FCMP instructions can produce Invalid Operation exceptions.
Examples
FCMPS
FCMPEDNE
FCMPZSEQ
ARM DUI 0068B
s3, s0
d5, d13
s2
Copyright © 2000, 2001 ARM Limited. All rights reserved.
6-19
Vector Floating-point Programming
6.7.4
FCVTDS
Convert single-precision floating-point to double-precision.
FCVTDS is always scalar.
Syntax
FCVTDS{cond} Dd, Sm
where:
cond
is an optional condition code (see VFP and condition codes on page 6-8).
Dd
is a double-precision VFP register for the result.
Sm
is a single-precision VFP register holding the operand.
Usage
The FCVTDS instruction converts the single-precision value in Sm to double-precision and
places the result in Dd.
Exceptions
FCVTDS instructions can produce Invalid Operation exceptions.
Examples
FCVTDS
FCVTDSGT
6-20
d5, s7
d0, s4
Copyright © 2000, 2001 ARM Limited. All rights reserved.
ARM DUI 0068B
Vector Floating-point Programming
6.7.5
FCVTSD
Convert double-precision floating-point to single-precision.
FCVTSD is always scalar.
Syntax
FCVTSD{cond} Sd, Dm
where:
cond
is an optional condition code (see VFP and condition codes on page 6-8).
Sd
is a single-precision VFP register for the result.
Dm
is a double-precision VFP register holding the operand.
Usage
The FCVTSD instruction converts the double-precision value in Dm to single-precision and
places the result in Sd.
Exceptions
FCVTSD instructions can produce Invalid Operation, Overflow, Underflow, or Inexact
exceptions.
Examples
FCVTSD
FCVTSDMI
ARM DUI 0068B
s3, d14
s0, d1
Copyright © 2000, 2001 ARM Limited. All rights reserved.
6-21
Vector Floating-point Programming
6.7.6
FDIV
Floating-point divide. FDIV can be scalar, vector, or mixed (see Vector and scalar
operations on page 6-7).
Syntax
FDIV<precision>{cond} Fd, Fn, Fm
where:
<precision>
must be either S for single-precision, or D for double-precision.
cond
is an optional condition code (see VFP and condition codes on page 6-8).
Fd
is the VFP register for the result.
Fn
is the VFP register holding the first operand.
Fm
is the VFP register holding the second operand.
The precision of Fd, Fn and Fm must match the precision specified in <precision>.
Usage
The FDIV instruction divides the value in Fn by the value in Fm and places the result in Fd.
Exceptions
FDIV operations can produce Division by Zero, Invalid Operation, Overflow, Underflow,
or Inexact exceptions.
Examples
FDIVS
FDIVSNE
FDIVD
6-22
s8, s0, s12
s2, s27, s28
d10, d2, d10
Copyright © 2000, 2001 ARM Limited. All rights reserved.
ARM DUI 0068B
Vector Floating-point Programming
6.7.7
FLD and FST
Floating-point load and store.
Syntax
FLD<precision>{cond} Fd, [Rn{, #offset}]
FST<precision>{cond} Fd, [Rn{, #offset}]
FLD<precision>{cond} Fd, label
FST<precision>{cond} Fd, label
where:
<precision>
must be either S for single-precision, or D for double-precision.
cond
is an optional condition code (see VFP and condition codes on page 6-8).
Fd
is the VFP register to be loaded or saved. The precision of Fd must match
the precision specified in <precision>.
Rn
is the ARM register holding the base address for the transfer.
offset
is an optional numeric expression. It must evaluate to a numeric constant
at assembly time. The value must be a multiple of 4, and lie in the range
–1020 to +1020. The value is added to the base address to form the
address used for the transfer.
label
is a program-relative expression. See Register-relative and
program-relative expressions on page 3-23 for more information.
label must be within ±1KB of the current instruction.
Usage
The FLD instruction loads a floating-point register from memory. The FST instruction
saves the contents of a floating-point register to memory.
One word is transferred if <precision> is S. Two words are transferred if <precision> is
D.
There is also an FLD pseudo-instruction (see FLD pseudo-instruction on page 6-38).
Examples
FLDD
ARM DUI 0068B
d5, [r7, #-12]
Copyright © 2000, 2001 ARM Limited. All rights reserved.
6-23
Vector Floating-point Programming
FLDSNE
FSTS
FLDD
FLDS
6-24
s3,
s2,
d2,
s9,
[r2, #72+count]
[r5]
[r15, #addr-{PC}]
fpconst
Copyright © 2000, 2001 ARM Limited. All rights reserved.
ARM DUI 0068B
Vector Floating-point Programming
6.7.8
FLDM and FSTM
Floating-point load multiple and store multiple.
Syntax
FLDM<addressmode><precision>{cond} Rn,{!} VFPregisters
FSTM<addressmode><precision>{cond} Rn,{!} VFPregisters
where:
<addressmode>
must be one of:
IA
meaning Increment address After each transfer.
DB
meaning Decrement address Before each transfer.
EA
meaning Empty Ascending stack operation. This is the
same as DB for loads, and the same as IA for saves.
FD
meaning Full Descending stack operation. This is the
same as IA for loads, and the same as DB for saves.
<precision>
must be one of:
S
for single-precision
D
for double-precision
X
for unspecified precision.
cond
is an optional condition code (see VFP and condition codes on
page 6-8).
Rn
is the ARM register holding the base address for the transfer.
!
is optional. ! specifies that the updated base address must be
written back to Rn.
Note
If ! is not specified, <addressmode> must be IA.
VFPregisters
ARM DUI 0068B
is a list of consecutive floating-point registers enclosed in braces,
{ and }. The list can be comma-separated, or in range format.
There must be at least one register in the list.
Copyright © 2000, 2001 ARM Limited. All rights reserved.
6-25
Vector Floating-point Programming
Usage
The FLDM instruction loads several consecutive floating-point registers from memory.
The FSTM instruction saves the contents of several consecutive floating-point registers to
memory.
If <precision> is specified as D, VFPregisters must be a list of double-precision registers,
and two words are transferred for each register in the list.
If <precision> is specified as S, VFPregisters must be a list of single-precision registers,
and one word is transferred for each register in the list.
Unspecified precision
If <precision> is specified as X, VFPregisters must be specified as double-precision
registers. However, any or all of the specified double-precision registers can actually
contain two single-precision values or integers.
The number of words transferred might be 2n or (2n + 1), where n is the number of
double-precision registers in the list. This is implementation dependent. However, if
writeback is specified, Rn is always adjusted by (2n + 1) words.
You must only use unspecified-precision loads and saves in matched pairs, to save and
restore data. The format of the saved data is implementation-dependent.
Examples
FLDMIAS r2, {s1-s5}
FSTMFDD r13!, {d3-d6}
FSTMIAS r0!, {s31}
The following instructions are equivalent:
FLDMIAS r7, {s3-s7}
FLDMIAS r7, {s3,s4,s5,s6,s7}
The following instructions must always be used as a matching pair:
FSTMFDX r13!, {d0-d3}
FLDMFDX r13!, {d0-d3}
The following instruction is illegal, as the registers in the list are not consecutive:
FLDMIAD r13!, {d0,d2,d3}
6-26
Copyright © 2000, 2001 ARM Limited. All rights reserved.
ARM DUI 0068B
Vector Floating-point Programming
6.7.9
FMAC, FNMAC, FMSC, and FNMSC
Floating-point multiply-accumulate, negate-multiply-accumulate, multiply-subtract
and negate-multiply-subtract. These instructions can be scalar, vector, or mixed (see
Vector and scalar operations on page 6-7).
Syntax
<op><precision>{cond} Fd, Fn, Fm
where:
<op>
must be one of FMAC, FNMAC, FMSC, or FNMSC.
<precision>
must be either S for single-precision, or D for double-precision.
cond
is an optional condition code (see VFP and condition codes on page 6-8).
Fd
is the VFP register for the result.
Fn
is the VFP register holding the first operand.
Fm
is the VFP register holding the second operand.
The precision of Fd, Fn and Fm must match the precision specified in <precision>.
Usage
The FMAC instruction calculates Fd + Fn * Fm and places the result in Fd.
The FNMAC instruction calculates Fd – Fn * Fm and places the result in Fd.
The FMSC instruction calculates –Fd + Fn * Fm and places the result in Fd.
The FNMSC instruction calculates –Fd – Fn * Fm and places the result in Fd.
Exceptions
These operations can produce Invalid Operation, Overflow, Underflow, or Inexact
exceptions.
Examples
FMACD
FMACS
ARM DUI 0068B
d8, d0, d8
s20, s24, s28
Copyright © 2000, 2001 ARM Limited. All rights reserved.
6-27
Vector Floating-point Programming
FNMSCSLE
6-28
s6, s0, s26
Copyright © 2000, 2001 ARM Limited. All rights reserved.
ARM DUI 0068B
Vector Floating-point Programming
6.7.10
FMDRR and FMRRD
Transfer contents between two ARM registers and a double-precision floating-point
register.
Syntax
FMDRR{cond} Dn, Rd, Rn
FMRRD{cond} Rd, Rn, Dn
where:
cond
is an optional condition code (see VFP and condition codes on page 6-8).
Dn
is the VFP double-precision register.
Rd, Rn
are ARM registers. Do not use r15.
Usage
FMDRR Dn, Rd, Rn transfers the contents of Rd into the low half of Dn, and the contents of
Rn into the high half of Dn.
FMRRD Rd, Rn, Dn transfers the contents of the low half of Dn into Rd, and the contents of
the high half of Dn into Rn.
Exceptions
These instructions do not produce any exceptions.
Architectures
These instructions are available in VFPv2 and above.
Examples
FMDRR
d5, r3, r4
FMRRDPL r12, r2, d2
ARM DUI 0068B
Copyright © 2000, 2001 ARM Limited. All rights reserved.
6-29
Vector Floating-point Programming
6.7.11
FMDHR, FMDLR, FMRDH, and FMRDL
Transfer contents between an ARM register and a half of a double-precision
floating-point register.
Syntax
FMDHR{cond} Dn, Rd
FMDLR{cond} Dn, Rd
FMRDH{cond} Rd, Dn
FMRDL{cond} Rd, Dn
where:
cond
is an optional condition code (see VFP and condition codes on page 6-8).
Dn
is the VFP double-precision register.
Rd
is the ARM register. Rd must not be r15.
Usage
These instructions are used together as matched pairs:
•
Use FMDHR with FMDLR
FMDHR
copy the contents of Rd into the high half of Dn
FMDLR
copy the contents of Rd into the low half of Dn
•
Use FMRDH with FMRDL
FMRDH
copy the contents of the high half of Dn into Rd
FMRDL
copy the contents of the low half of Dn into Rd.
Exceptions
These instructions do not produce any exceptions.
Examples
FMDHR
FMDLR
FMRDH
FMRDL
FMDLRPL
6-30
d5,
d5,
r5,
r9,
d2,
r3
r12
d3
d3
r1
Copyright © 2000, 2001 ARM Limited. All rights reserved.
ARM DUI 0068B
Vector Floating-point Programming
6.7.12
FMRS and FMSR
Transfer contents between a single-precision floating-point register and an ARM
register.
Syntax
FMRS{cond} Rd, Sn
FMSR{cond} Sn, Rd
where:
cond
is an optional condition code (see VFP and condition codes on page 6-8).
Sn
is the VFP single-precision register.
Rd
is the ARM register. Rd must not be r15.
Usage
The FMRS instruction transfers the contents of Sn into Rd.
The FMSR instruction transfers the contents of Rd into Sn.
Exceptions
These instructions do not produce any exceptions.
Examples
FMRS
FMSRNE
ARM DUI 0068B
r2, s0
s30, r5
Copyright © 2000, 2001 ARM Limited. All rights reserved.
6-31
Vector Floating-point Programming
6.7.13
FMRRS and FMSRR
Transfer contents between two single-precision floating-point registers and two ARM
registers.
Syntax
FMRRS{cond} Rd, Rn, {Sn,Sm}
FMSRR{cond} {Sn,Sm}, Rd, Rn
where:
cond
is an optional condition code (see VFP and condition codes on page 6-8).
Sn, Sm
are two consecutive VFP single-precision registers.
Rd, Rn
are the ARM registers. Do not use r15.
Usage
The FMRRS instruction transfers the contents of Sn into Rd, and the contents of Sm into Rn.
The FMSRR instruction transfers the contents of Rd into Sn, and the contents of Rn into Sm.
Exceptions
These instructions do not produce any exceptions.
Architectures
These instructions are available in VFPv2 and above.
Examples
FMRRS
FMSRRNE
r2, r3, {s0,s1}
{s27,s28}, r5, r2
Incorrect examples
FMRRS
FMSRR
6-32
r2, r3, {s2,s4}
{s5,s6}, r15, r0
; VFP registers must be consecutive
; you must not use r15
Copyright © 2000, 2001 ARM Limited. All rights reserved.
ARM DUI 0068B
Vector Floating-point Programming
6.7.14
FMRX, FMXR, and FMSTAT
Transfer contents between an ARM register and a VFP system register.
Syntax
FMRX{cond} Rd, VFPsysreg
FMXR{cond} VFPsysreg, Rd
FMSTAT{cond}
where:
cond
is an optional condition code (see VFP and condition codes on page 6-8).
VFPsysreg
is the VFP system register, usually FPSCR, FPSID, or FPEXC (see
Floating-point registers on page 6-5).
Rd
is the ARM register.
Usage
The FMRX instruction transfers the contents of VFPsysreg into Rd.
The FMXR instruction transfers the contents of Rd into VFPsysreg.
The FMSTAT instruction is a synonym for FMRX r15, FPSCR. It transfers the floating-point
condition flags to the corresponding flags in the ARM CPSR (see VFP and condition
codes on page 6-8).
Note
These instructions stall the ARM until all current VFP operations complete.
Exceptions
These instructions do not produce any exceptions.
Examples
FMSTAT
FMSTATNE
FMXR
FMRX
ARM DUI 0068B
FPSCR, r2
r3, FPSID
Copyright © 2000, 2001 ARM Limited. All rights reserved.
6-33
Vector Floating-point Programming
6.7.15
FMUL and FNMUL
Floating-point multiply and negate-multiply. FMUL and FNMUL can be scalar, vector, or
mixed (see Vector and scalar operations on page 6-7).
Syntax
FMUL<precision>{cond} Fd, Fn, Fm
FNMUL<precision>{cond} Fd, Fn, Fm
where:
<precision>
must be either S for single-precision, or D for double-precision.
cond
is an optional condition code (see VFP and condition codes on page 6-8).
Fd
is the VFP register for the result.
Fn
is the VFP register holding the first operand.
Fm
is the VFP register holding the second operand.
The precision of Fd, Fn and Fm must match the precision specified in <precision>.
Usage
The FMUL instruction multiplies the values in Fn and Fm and places the result in Fd.
The FNMUL instruction multiplies the values in Fn and Fm and places the negation of the
result in Fd.
Exceptions
FMUL and FNMUL operations can produce Invalid Operation, Overflow, Underflow, or
Inexact exceptions.
Examples
FNMULS
FMULDLT
6-34
s10, s10, s14
d0, d7, d8
Copyright © 2000, 2001 ARM Limited. All rights reserved.
ARM DUI 0068B
Vector Floating-point Programming
6.7.16
FSITO and FUITO
Convert signed integer to floating-point and unsigned integer to floating-point.
FSITO and FUITO are always scalar.
Syntax
FSITO<precision>{cond} Fd, Sm
FUITO<precision>{cond} Fd, Sm
where:
<precision>
must be either S for single-precision, or D for double-precision.
cond
is an optional condition code (see VFP and condition codes on page 6-8).
Fd
is a VFP register for the result. The precision of Fd must match the
precision specified in <precision>.
Sm
is a single-precision VFP register holding the integer operand.
Usage
The FSITO instruction converts the signed integer value in Sm to floating-point and places
the result in Fd.
The FUITO instruction converts the unsigned integer value in Sm to floating-point and
places the result in Fd.
Exceptions
FSITOS and FUITOS instructions can produce Inexact exceptions.
FSITOD and FUITOD instructions do not produce any exceptions.
Examples
FUITOD
FSITOD
FSITOSNE
ARM DUI 0068B
d3, s31 ; unsigned integer to double-precision
d5, s16 ; signed integer to double-precision
s2, s2 ; signed integer to single-precision
Copyright © 2000, 2001 ARM Limited. All rights reserved.
6-35
Vector Floating-point Programming
6.7.17
FSQRT
Floating-point square root instruction. This instruction can be scalar, vector, or mixed
(see Vector and scalar operations on page 6-7).
Syntax
FSQRT<precision>{cond} Fd, Fm
where:
<precision>
must be either S for single-precision, or D for double-precision.
cond
is an optional condition code (see VFP and condition codes on page 6-8).
Fd
is the VFP register for the result.
Fm
is the VFP register holding the operand.
The precision of Fd and Fm must match the precision specified in <precision>.
Usage
The FSQRT instruction calculates the square root of the value of the contents of Fm and
places the result in Fd.
Exceptions
FSQRT operations can produce Invalid Operation or Inexact exceptions.
Examples
FSQRTS
FSQRTD
FSQRTSNE
6-36
s4, s28
d14, d6
s15, s13
Copyright © 2000, 2001 ARM Limited. All rights reserved.
ARM DUI 0068B
Vector Floating-point Programming
6.7.18
FTOSI and FTOUI
Convert floating-point to signed integer and floating-point to unsigned integer.
FTOSI and FTOUI are always scalar.
Syntax
FTOSI{Z}<precision>{cond} Sd, Fm
FTOUI{Z}<precision>{cond} Sd, Fm
where:
is an optional parameter specifying rounding towards zero. If specified,
this overrides the rounding mode currently specified in the FPSCR. The
FPSCR is not altered.
Z
<precision>
must be either S for single-precision, or D for double-precision.
cond
is an optional condition code (see VFP and condition codes on page 6-8).
Sd
is a single-precision VFP register for the integer result.
Fm
is a VFP register holding the operand. The precision of Fm must match the
precision specified in <precision>.
Usage
The FTOSI instruction converts the floating-point value in Fm to a signed integer and
places the result in Sd.
The FTOUI instruction converts the floating-point value in Fm to an unsigned integer and
places the result in Sd.
Exceptions
FTOSI and FTOUI instructions can produce Invalid Operation or Inexact exceptions.
Examples
FTOSID
FTOUID
FTOSIZS
ARM DUI 0068B
s10, d2
s3, d1
s3, s31
Copyright © 2000, 2001 ARM Limited. All rights reserved.
6-37
Vector Floating-point Programming
6.8
VFP pseudo-instruction
There is one VFP pseudo-instruction.
6.8.1
FLD pseudo-instruction
The FLD pseudo-instruction loads a VFP floating-point register with a single-precision
or double-precision floating-point constant.
Note
You can use FLD only if the command line option -fpu is set to vfp or softvfp+vfp.
This section describes the FLD pseudo-instruction only. See FLD and FST on page 6-23
for information on the FLD instruction.
Syntax
FLD<precision>{cond} fp-register,=fp-literal
where:
<precision>
can be S for single-precision, or D for double-precision.
cond
is an optional condition code.
fp-register
is the floating-point register to be loaded.
fp-literal
is a single-precision or double-precision floating-point literal (see
Floating-point literals on page 3-22).
Usage
The assembler places the constant in a literal pool and generates a program-relative FLD
instruction to read the constant from the literal pool. One word in the literal pool is used
to store a single-precision constant. Two words are used to store a double-precision
constant.
The offset from pc to the constant must be less than 1KB. You are responsible for
ensuring that there is a literal pool within range. See LTORG on page 7-14 for more
information.
6-38
Copyright © 2000, 2001 ARM Limited. All rights reserved.
ARM DUI 0068B
Vector Floating-point Programming
Examples
FLDD
FLDS
ARM DUI 0068B
d1,=3.12E106
s31,=3.12E-16
; loads 3.12E106 into d1
; loads 3.12E-16 into s31
Copyright © 2000, 2001 ARM Limited. All rights reserved.
6-39
Vector Floating-point Programming
6.9
VFP directives and vector notation
This section applies only to armasm. The inline assemblers in the C and C++ compilers
do not accept these directives or vector notation.
You can make assertions about VFP vector lengths and strides in your code, and have
them checked by the assembler. See:
•
VFPASSERT SCALAR on page 6-41
•
VFPASSERT VECTOR on page 6-42.
If you use VFPASSERT directives, you must specify vector details in all VFP data
processing instructions. The vector notation is described below. If you do not use
VFPASSERT directives you must not use this vector notation.
In VFP data processing instructions, specify vectors of VFP registers using angle
brackets:
sn is a single-precision scalar register n
sn <> is a single-precision vector whose length and stride are given by the current vector
length and stride, starting at register n
sn <L> is a single-precision vector of length L, stride 1, starting at register n
sn <L:S> is a single-precision vector of length L, stride S, starting at register n
dn is a double-precision scalar register n
dn <> is a double-precision vector whose length and stride are given by the current vector
length and stride, starting at register n
dn <L> is a double-precision vector of length L, stride 1, starting at register n
dn <L:S> is a double-precision vector of length L, stride S, starting at register n.
You can use this vector notation with names defined using the DN and SN directives (see
DN and SN on page 7-11).
You must not use this vector notation in the DN and SN directives themselves.
6-40
Copyright © 2000, 2001 ARM Limited. All rights reserved.
ARM DUI 0068B
Vector Floating-point Programming
6.9.1
VFPASSERT SCALAR
The VFPASSERT SCALAR directive informs the assembler that following VFP instructions
are in scalar mode.
Syntax
VFPASSERT SCALAR
Usage
Use the VFPASSERT SCALAR directive to mark the end of any block of code where the VFP
mode is VECTOR.
Place the VFPASSERT SCALAR directive immediately after the instruction where the change
occurs. This is usually an FMXR instruction, but might be a BL instruction.
If a function expects the VFP to be in vector mode on exit, place a VFPASSERT SCALAR
directive immediately after the last instruction. Such a function would not be ATPCS
conformant. See the Using the Procedure Call Standard chapter in ADS Developer
Guide for further information.
See also:
•
VFP directives and vector notation on page 6-40
•
VFPASSERT VECTOR on page 6-42.
Note
This directive does not generate any code. It is only an assertion by the programmer. The
assembler produces error messages if any such assertions are inconsistent with each
other, or with any vector notation in VFP data processing instructions.
The assembler faults vector notation in VFP data processing instructions following a
VFPASSERT SCALAR directive, even if the vector length is 1.
Example
VFPASSERT
faddd
fadds
fabss
ARM DUI 0068B
SCALAR
d4, d4, d0
s4<3>, s0, s8<3>
s24<1>, s28<1>
;
;
;
;
;
scalar mode
okay
ERROR, vector in scalar mode
ERROR, vector in scalar mode
(even though length==1)
Copyright © 2000, 2001 ARM Limited. All rights reserved.
6-41
Vector Floating-point Programming
6.9.2
VFPASSERT VECTOR
The VFPASSERT VECTOR directive informs the assembler that following VFP instructions
are in vector mode. It can also specify the length and stride of the vectors.
Syntax
VFPASSERT VECTOR[<[n[:s]]>]
where:
n
is the vector length, 1-8.
s
is the vector stride, 1-2.
Usage
Use the VFPASSERT VECTOR directive to mark the start of a block of instructions where the
VFP mode is VECTOR, and to mark changes in the length or stride of vectors.
Place the VFPASSERT VECTOR directive immediately after the instruction where the change
occurs. This is usually an FMXR instruction, but might be a BL instruction.
If a function expects the VFP to be in vector mode on entry, place a VFPASSERT VECTOR
directive immediately before the first instruction. Such a function would not be ATPCS
conformant. See the Using the Procedure Call Standard chapter in ADS Developer
Guide for further information.
See:
•
VFP directives and vector notation on page 6-40
•
VFPASSERT SCALAR on page 6-41.
Note
This directive does not generate any code. It is only an assertion by the programmer. The
assembler produces error messages if any such assertions are inconsistent with each
other, or with any vector notation in VFP data processing instructions.
6-42
Copyright © 2000, 2001 ARM Limited. All rights reserved.
ARM DUI 0068B
Vector Floating-point Programming
Example
FMRX
BIC
ORR
FMXR
r10,FPSCR
r10,r10,#0x00370000
r10,r10,#0x00020000
FPSCR,r10
VFPASSERT VECTOR
faddd d4, d4, d0
fadds s16<3>, s0, s8<3>
fabss s24<1>, s28<1>
; set length = 3, stride = 1
FMRX
BIC
ORR
FMXR
;
;
;
;
r10,FPSCR
r10,r10,#0x00370000
r10,r10,#0x00030000
FPSCR,r10
; set length = 4, stride = 1
VFPASSERT VECTOR<4>
fadds s24<4>, s0, s8<4>
fabss s24<2>, s24<2>
FMRX
BIC
ORR
FMXR
; assert vector mode, length 4, stride 1
; okay
; ERROR, wrong length
r10,FPSCR
r10,r10,#0x00370000
r10,r10,#0x00130000
FPSCR,r10
VFPASSERT VECTOR<4:2>
fadds s8<4>, s0, s16<4>
fabss s16<4:2>, s28<4:2>
fadds s8<>, s2, s16<>
ARM DUI 0068B
assert vector mode, unspecified length and stride
ERROR, scalar in vector mode
okay
wrong length, but not faulted (unspecified)
; set length = 4, stride = 2
;
;
;
;
;
;
assert vector mode, length 4, stride 2
ERROR, wrong stride
okay
okay (s8 and s16 both have
length 4 and stride 2.
s2 is scalar.)
Copyright © 2000, 2001 ARM Limited. All rights reserved.
6-43
Vector Floating-point Programming
6-44
Copyright © 2000, 2001 ARM Limited. All rights reserved.
ARM DUI 0068B
Chapter 7
Directives Reference
This chapter describes the directives that are provided by the ARM assembler, armasm.
It contains the following sections:
•
Alphabetical list of directives on page 7-2
•
Symbol definition directives on page 7-3
•
Data definition directives on page 7-13
Allocate memory, define data structures, set initial contents of memory.
•
Assembly control directives on page 7-26
Conditional assembly, looping, inclusions, and macros.
•
Frame description directives on page 7-33
•
Reporting directives on page 7-44
•
Miscellaneous directives on page 7-49.
Note
None of these directives are available in the inline assemblers in the ARM C and C++
compilers.
ARM DUI 0068B
Copyright © 2000, 2001 ARM Limited. All rights reserved.
7-1
Directives Reference
7.1
Alphabetical list of directives
Table 7-1 Location of descriptions of directives
ALIGN on page 7-50
EXPORT or GLOBAL on page 7-58
INCLUDE on page 7-63
AREA on page 7-52
EXPORTAS on page 7-59
INFO on page 7-45
ASSERT on page 7-44
EXTERN on page 7-60
KEEP on page 7-64
CN on page 7-9
FIELD on page 7-16
LCLA, LCLL, and LCLS on
page 7-6
CODE16 and CODE32 on
page 7-54
FN on page 7-12
LTORG on page 7-14
CP on page 7-10
FRAME ADDRESS on page 7-34
MACRO and MEND on page 7-27
DATA on page 7-25
FRAME POP on page 7-35
MAP on page 7-15
DCB on page 7-18
FRAME PUSH on page 7-36
MEXIT on page 7-29
DCD and DCDU on page 7-19
FRAME REGISTER on page 7-37
NOFP on page 7-65
DCDO on page 7-20
FRAME RESTORE on page 7-38
OPT on page 7-46
DCFD and DCFDU on page 7-21
FRAME SAVE on page 7-39
REQUIRE on page 7-65
DCFS and DCFSU on page 7-22
FRAME STATE REMEMBER on
page 7-40
RLIST on page 7-8
DCI on page 7-23
FRAME STATE RESTORE on page 7-41
RN on page 7-67
DCQ and DCQU on page 7-24
FUNCTION or PROC on page 7-42
ROUT on page 7-68
DCW and DCWU on page 7-25
GBLA, GBLL, and GBLS on page 7-4
SETA, SETL, and SETS on page 7-7
DN and SN on page 7-11
GET or INCLUDE on page 7-61
DN and SN on page 7-11
END on page 7-55
GLOBAL on page 7-62
SPACE on page 7-17
ENDFUNC or ENDP on page 7-43
IF, ELSE, and ENDIF on page 7-30
TTL and SUBT on page 7-48
ENTRY on page 7-56
IMPORT on page 7-62
WHILE and WEND on page 7-32
EQU on page 7-57
INCBIN on page 7-63
7-2
Copyright © 2000, 2001 ARM Limited. All rights reserved.
ARM DUI 0068B
Directives Reference
7.2
Symbol definition directives
This section describes the following directives:
•
GBLA, GBLL, and GBLS on page 7-4
Declare a global arithmetic, logical, or string variable.
•
LCLA, LCLL, and LCLS on page 7-6
Declare a local arithmetic, logical, or string variable.
•
SETA, SETL, and SETS on page 7-7
Set the value of an arithmetic, logical, or string variable.
•
RLIST on page 7-8
Define a name for a set of general-purpose registers.
•
CN on page 7-9
Define a coprocessor register name.
•
CP on page 7-10
Define a coprocessor name.
•
DN and SN on page 7-11
Define a double-precision or single-precision VFP register name.
•
FN on page 7-12
Define an FPA register name.
ARM DUI 0068B
Copyright © 2000, 2001 ARM Limited. All rights reserved.
7-3
Directives Reference
7.2.1
GBLA, GBLL, and GBLS
The GBLA directive declares a global arithmetic variable, and initializes its value to 0.
The GBLL directive declares a global logical variable, and initializes its value to {FALSE}.
The GBLS directive declares a global string variable and initializes its value to a null
string, "".
Syntax
<gblx> variable
where:
<gblx>
is one of GBLA, GBLL, or GBLS.
variable
is the name of the variable. variable must be unique amongst symbols
within a source file.
Usage
Using one of these directives for a variable that is already defined re-initializes the
variable to the same values given above.
The scope of the variable is limited to the source file that contains it.
Set the value of the variable with a SETA, SETL, or SETS directive (see SETA, SETL, and
SETS on page 7-7).
See LCLA, LCLL, and LCLS on page 7-6 for information on declaring local variables.
Global variables can also be set with the -predefine assembler command-line option.
See Command syntax on page 3-2 for more information.
7-4
Copyright © 2000, 2001 ARM Limited. All rights reserved.
ARM DUI 0068B
Directives Reference
Examples
Example 7-1 declares a variable objectsize, sets the value of objectsize to 0xFF, and
then uses it later in a SPACE directive.
Example 7-1
objectsize
GBLA
SETA
.
.
.
SPACE
objectsize
0xFF
; declare the variable name
; set its value
; other code
objectsize
; quote the variable
Example 7-2 shows how to declare and set a variable when you invoke armasm. Use this
when you need to set the value of a variable at assembly time. -pd is a synonym for
-predefine.
Example 7-2
armasm -pd "objectsize SETA 0xFF" -o objectfile sourcefile
ARM DUI 0068B
Copyright © 2000, 2001 ARM Limited. All rights reserved.
7-5
Directives Reference
7.2.2
LCLA, LCLL, and LCLS
The LCLA directive declares a local arithmetic variable, and initializes its value to 0.
The LCLL directive declares a local logical variable, and initializes its value to {FALSE}.
The LCLS directive declares a local string variable, and initializes its value to a null
string, "".
Syntax
<lclx> variable
where:
<lclx>
is one of LCLA, LCLL, or LCLS.
is the name of the variable. variable must be unique within the macro that
contains it.
variable
Usage
Using one of these directives for a variable that is already defined re-initializes the
variable to the same values given above.
The scope of the variable is limited to a particular instantiation of the macro that
contains it (see MACRO and MEND on page 7-27).
Set the value of the variable with a SETA, SETL, or SETS directive (see SETA, SETL, and
SETS on page 7-7).
See GBLA, GBLL, and GBLS on page 7-4 for information on declaring global variables.
Example
$label
err
$label
7-6
MACRO
message $a
LCLS
err
SETS
; code
INFO
MEND
"error no: "
;
;
;
;
;
Declare a macro
Macro prototype line
Declare local string
variable err.
Set value of err
0, "err":CC::STR:$a
; Use string
Copyright © 2000, 2001 ARM Limited. All rights reserved.
ARM DUI 0068B
Directives Reference
7.2.3
SETA, SETL, and SETS
The SETA directive sets the value of a local or global arithmetic variable.
The SETL directive sets the value of a local or global logical variable.
The SETS directive sets the value of a local or global string variable.
Syntax
variable <setx> expr
where:
<setx>
is one of SETA, SETL, or SETS.
variable
is the name of a variable declared by a GBLA, GBLL, GBLS, LCLA, LCLL, or LCLS
directive.
expr
is an expression, which is:
•
numeric, for SETA (see Numeric expressions on page 3-20)
•
logical, for SETL (see Logical expressions on page 3-23)
•
string, for SETS (see String expressions on page 3-19).
Usage
You must declare variable using a global or local declaration directive before using one
of these directives. See GBLA, GBLL, and GBLS on page 7-4 and LCLA, LCLL, and
LCLS on page 7-6 for more information.
You can also predefine variable names on the command line. See Command syntax on
page 3-2 for more information.
Examples
ARM DUI 0068B
VersionNumber
GBLA
SETA
VersionNumber
21
Debug
GBLL
SETL
Debug
{TRUE}
VersionString
GBLS
SETS
VersionString
"Version 1.0"
Copyright © 2000, 2001 ARM Limited. All rights reserved.
7-7
Directives Reference
7.2.4
RLIST
The RLIST (register list) directive gives a name to a set of general-purpose registers.
Syntax
name RLIST {list-of-registers}
where:
is the name to be given to the set of registers. name cannot be the same as
any of the predefined names listed in Predefined register and coprocessor
names on page 3-9.
name
list-of-registers
is a comma-delimited list of register names and/or register ranges. The
register list must be enclosed in braces.
Usage
Use RLIST to give a name to a set of registers to be transferred by the LDM or STM
instructions.
LDM and STM always put the lowest physical register numbers at the lowest address in
memory, regardless of the order they are supplied to the LDM or STM instruction. If you
have defined your own symbolic register names it can be less apparent that a register list
is not in increasing register order.
Use the -checkreglist assembler option to ensure that the registers in a register list are
supplied in increasing register order. If registers are not supplied in increasing register
order, a warning is issued.
Example
Context RLIST
7-8
{r0-r6,r8,r10-r12,r15}
Copyright © 2000, 2001 ARM Limited. All rights reserved.
ARM DUI 0068B
Directives Reference
7.2.5
CN
The CN directive defines a name for a coprocessor register.
Syntax
name CN expr
where:
name
is the name to be defined for the coprocessor register. name cannot be the
same as any of the predefined names listed in Predefined register and
coprocessor names on page 3-9.
expr
evaluates to a coprocessor register number from 0 to 15.
Usage
Use CN to allocate convenient names to registers, to help you remember what you use
each register for.
Note
Avoid conflicting uses of the same register under different names.
The names c0 to c15 are predefined.
Example
power
ARM DUI 0068B
CN
6
; defines power as a symbol for
; coprocessor register 6
Copyright © 2000, 2001 ARM Limited. All rights reserved.
7-9
Directives Reference
7.2.6
CP
The CP directive defines a name for a specified coprocessor. The coprocessor number
must be within the range 0 to 15.
Syntax
name CP expr
where:
name
is the name to be assigned to the coprocessor. name cannot be the same as
any of the predefined names listed in Predefined register and coprocessor
names on page 3-9.
expr
evaluates to a coprocessor number from 0 to 15.
Usage
Use CP to allocate convenient names to coprocessors, to help you to remember what you
use each one for.
Note
Avoid conflicting uses of the same coprocessor under different names.
The names p0 to p15 are predefined for coprocessors 0 to 15.
Example
dmu
7-10
CP
6
; defines dmu as a symbol for
; coprocessor 6
Copyright © 2000, 2001 ARM Limited. All rights reserved.
ARM DUI 0068B
Directives Reference
7.2.7
DN and SN
The DN directive defines a name for a specified double-precision VFP register. The
names d0-d15 and D0-D15 are predefined.
The SN directive defines a name for a specified single-precision VFP register. The names
s0-s31 and S0-S31 are predefined.
Syntax
name DN expr
name SN expr
where:
name
is the name to be assigned to the VFP register. name cannot be the same as
any of the predefined names listed in Predefined register and coprocessor
names on page 3-9.
expr
evaluates to a double-precision VFP register number from 0 to 15, or a
single-precision VFP register number from 0 to 31 as appropriate.
Usage
Use DN or SN to allocate convenient names to VFP registers, to help you to remember
what you use each one for.
Note
Avoid conflicting uses of the same register under different names.
You cannot specify a vector length in a DN or SN directive (see VFP directives and vector
notation on page 6-40).
Examples
ARM DUI 0068B
energy
DN
6
; defines energy as a symbol for
; VFP double-precision register 6
mass
SN
16
; defines mass as a symbol for
; VFP single-precision register 16
Copyright © 2000, 2001 ARM Limited. All rights reserved.
7-11
Directives Reference
7.2.8
FN
The FN directive defines a name for a specified FPA floating-point register. The names
f0-f7 and F0-F7 are predefined.
Syntax
name FN expr
where:
name
is the name to be assigned to the floating-point register. name cannot be
the same as any of the predefined names listed in Predefined register and
coprocessor names on page 3-9.
expr
evaluates to a floating-point register number from 0 to 7.
Usage
Use FN to allocate convenient names to FPA floating-point registers, to help you to
remember what you use each one for.
Note
Avoid conflicting uses of the same register under different names.
Example
energy
7-12
FN
6
; defines energy as a symbol for
; floating-point register 6
Copyright © 2000, 2001 ARM Limited. All rights reserved.
ARM DUI 0068B
Directives Reference
7.3
Data definition directives
This section describes the following directives:
•
LTORG on page 7-14
Set an origin for a literal pool.
•
MAP on page 7-15
Set the origin of a storage map.
•
FIELD on page 7-16
Define a field within a storage map.
•
SPACE on page 7-17
Allocate a zeroed block of memory.
•
DCB on page 7-18
Allocate bytes of memory, and specify the initial contents.
•
DCD and DCDU on page 7-19
Allocate words of memory, and specify the initial contents.
•
DCDO on page 7-20
Allocate words of memory, and specify the initial contents as offsets from the
static base register.
•
DCFD and DCFDU on page 7-21
Allocate double-words of memory, and specify the initial contents as
double-precision floating-point numbers.
•
DCFS and DCFSU on page 7-22
Allocate words of memory, and specify the initial contents as single-precision
floating-point numbers.
•
DCI on page 7-23
Allocate words of memory, and specify the initial contents. Mark the location as
code not data.
•
DCQ and DCQU on page 7-24
Allocate double-words of memory, and specify the initial contents as 64-bit
integers.
•
DCW and DCWU on page 7-25
Allocate half-words of memory, and specify the initial contents.
•
DATA on page 7-25
Mark data within a code section. Obsolete, for backwards compatibility only.
ARM DUI 0068B
Copyright © 2000, 2001 ARM Limited. All rights reserved.
7-13
Directives Reference
7.3.1
LTORG
The LTORG directive instructs the assembler to assemble the current literal pool
immediately.
Syntax
LTORG
Usage
The assembler assembles the current literal pool at the end of every code section. The
end of a code section is determined by the AREA directive at the beginning of the
following section, or the end of the assembly.
These default literal pools can sometimes be out of range of some LDR, LDFD, and LDFS
pseudo-instructions. See LDR ARM pseudo-instruction on page 4-82 and LDR Thumb
pseudo-instruction on page 5-41 for more information. Use LTORG to ensure that a literal
pool is assembled within range. Large programs can require several literal pools.
Place LTORG directives after unconditional branches or subroutine return instructions so
that the processor does not attempt to execute the constants as instructions.
The assembler word-aligns data in literal pools.
Example
start
AREA
BL
Example, CODE, READONLY
func1
func1
; function body
; code
LDR
; code
MOV
LTORG
data
SPACE
END
7-14
r1,=0x55555555
; => LDR R1, [pc, #offset to Literal Pool 1]
pc,lr
; end function
; Literal Pool 1 contains literal &55555555.
4200
; Clears 4200 bytes of memory,
; starting at current location.
; Default literal pool is empty.
Copyright © 2000, 2001 ARM Limited. All rights reserved.
ARM DUI 0068B
Directives Reference
7.3.2
MAP
The MAP directive sets the origin of a storage map to a specified address. The
storage-map location counter, {VAR}, is set to the same address. ^ is a synonym for MAP.
Syntax
MAP expr{,base-register}
where:
is a numeric or program-relative expression:
expr
•
If base-register is not specified, expr evaluates to the address
where the storage map starts. The storage map location counter is
set to this address.
•
If expr is program-relative, you must have defined the label before
you use it in the map. The map requires the definition of the label
during the first pass of the assembler.
base-register
specifies a register. If base-register is specified, the address where the
storage map starts is the sum of expr, and the value in base-register at
runtime.
Usage
Use the MAP directive in combination with the FIELD directive to describe a storage map.
Specify base-register to define register-relative labels. The base register becomes
implicit in all labels defined by following FIELD directives, until the next MAP directive.
The register-relative labels can be used in load and store instructions. See FIELD on
page 7-16 for an example.
The MAP directive can be used any number of times to define multiple storage maps.
The {VAR} counter is set to zero before the first MAP directive is used.
Examples
MAP
MAP
ARM DUI 0068B
0,r9
0xff,r9
Copyright © 2000, 2001 ARM Limited. All rights reserved.
7-15
Directives Reference
7.3.3
FIELD
The FIELD directive describes space within a storage map that has been defined using the
MAP directive. # is a synonym for FIELD.
Syntax
{label} FIELD expr
where:
label
is an optional label. If specified, label is assigned the value of the storage
location counter, {VAR}. The storage location counter is then incremented
by the value of expr.
expr
is an expression that evaluates to the number of bytes to increment the
storage counter.
Usage
If a storage map is set by a MAP directive that specifies a base-register, the base register
is implicit in all labels defined by following FIELD directives, until the next MAP directive.
These register-relative labels can be quoted in load and store instructions (see MAP on
page 7-15).
Note
You must be careful when using MAP, FIELD, and register-relative labels. See Describing
data structures with MAP and FIELD directives on page 2-51 for more information.
Example
The following example shows how register-relative labels are defined using the MAP and
FIELD directives.
MAP
FIELD
Lab FIELD
LDR
7-16
0,r9
4
4
r0,Lab
;
;
;
;
;
set {VAR} to the address stored in r9
increment {VAR} by 4 bytes
set Lab to the address [r9 + 4]
and then increment {VAR} by 4 bytes
equivalent to LDR r0,[r9,#4]
Copyright © 2000, 2001 ARM Limited. All rights reserved.
ARM DUI 0068B
Directives Reference
7.3.4
SPACE
The SPACE directive reserves a zeroed block of memory. % is a synonym for SPACE.
Syntax
{label} SPACE expr
where:
evaluates to the number of zeroed bytes to reserve (see Numeric
expressions on page 3-20).
expr
Usage
You must use a DATA directive if you use SPACE to define labeled data within Thumb code.
See DATA on page 7-25 for more information.
Use the ALIGN directive to align any code following a SPACE directive. See ALIGN on
page 7-50 for more information.
See also:
•
DCB on page 7-18
•
DCD and DCDU on page 7-19
•
DCDO on page 7-20
•
DCW and DCWU on page 7-25.
Example
data1
ARM DUI 0068B
AREA
SPACE
MyData, DATA, READWRITE
255
; defines 255 bytes of zeroed store
Copyright © 2000, 2001 ARM Limited. All rights reserved.
7-17
Directives Reference
7.3.5
DCB
The DCB directive allocates one or more bytes of memory, and defines the initial runtime
contents of the memory. = is a synonym for DCB.
Syntax
{label} DCB expr{,expr}...
where:
is either:
•
A numeric expression that evaluates to an integer in the range –128
to 255 (see Numeric expressions on page 3-20).
•
A quoted string. The characters of the string are loaded into
consecutive bytes of store.
expr
Usage
If DCB is followed by an instruction, use an ALIGN directive to ensure that the instruction
is aligned. See ALIGN on page 7-50 for more information.
See also:
•
DCD and DCDU on page 7-19
•
DCQ and DCQU on page 7-24
•
DCW and DCWU on page 7-25
•
SPACE on page 7-17.
Example
Unlike C strings, ARM assembler strings are not null-terminated. You can construct a
null-terminated C string using DCB as follows:
C_string
7-18
DCB
"C_string",0
Copyright © 2000, 2001 ARM Limited. All rights reserved.
ARM DUI 0068B
Directives Reference
7.3.6
DCD and DCDU
The DCD directive allocates one or more words of memory, aligned on 4-byte boundaries,
and defines the initial runtime contents of the memory.
& is a synonym for DCD.
DCDU is the same, except that the memory alignment is arbitrary.
Syntax
{label} DCD{U} expr{,expr}
where:
is either:
•
a numeric expression (see Numeric expressions on page 3-20).
•
a program-relative expression.
expr
Usage
DCD inserts up to 3 bytes of padding before the first defined word, if necessary, to achieve
4-byte alignment.
Use DCDU if you do not require alignment.
See also:
•
DCB on page 7-18
•
DCW and DCWU on page 7-25
•
DCQ and DCQU on page 7-24
•
SPACE on page 7-17.
Examples
ARM DUI 0068B
data1
DCD
1,5,20
; Defines 3 words containing
; decimal values 1, 5, and 20
data2
DCD
mem06 + 4
; Defines 1 word containing 4 +
; the address of the label mem06
data3
AREA
DCB
DCDU
MyData, DATA, READWRITE
255
; Now misaligned ...
1,5,20
; Defines 3 words containing
; 1, 5 and 20, not word aligned
Copyright © 2000, 2001 ARM Limited. All rights reserved.
7-19
Directives Reference
7.3.7
DCDO
The DCDO directive allocates one or more words of memory, aligned on 4-byte
boundaries, and defines the initial runtime contents of the memory as an offset from the
static base register, sb (r9).
Syntax
{label} DCDO expr{,expr}...
where:
is a register-relative expression or label. The base register must be sb.
expr
Usage
Use DCDO to allocate space in memory for static base register relative relocatable
addresses.
Example
IMPORT
DCDO
7-20
externsym
externsym
; 32-bit word relocated by offset of
; externsym from base of SB section.
Copyright © 2000, 2001 ARM Limited. All rights reserved.
ARM DUI 0068B
Directives Reference
7.3.8
DCFD and DCFDU
The DCFD directive allocates memory for word-aligned double-precision floating-point
numbers, and defines the initial runtime contents of the memory. Double-precision
numbers occupy two words and must be word aligned to be used in arithmetic
operations.
DCDFU is the same, except that the memory alignment is arbitrary.
Syntax
{label} DCFD{U} fpliteral{,fpliteral}...
where:
fpliteral
is a double-precision floating-point literal (see Floating-point literals on
page 3-22).
Usage
The assembler inserts up to three bytes of padding before the first defined number, if
necessary, to achieve 4-byte alignment.
Use DCFDU if you do not require alignment.
The word order used when converting fpliteral to internal form is controlled by the
floating-point architecture selected. You cannot use DCFD or DCFDU if you select the -fpu
none option.
The range for double-precision numbers is:
•
maximum 1.79769313486231571e+308
•
minimum 2.22507385850720138e–308.
See also DCFS and DCFSU on page 7-22.
Examples
DCFD
DCFDU
ARM DUI 0068B
1E308,-4E-100
10000,-.1,3.1E26
Copyright © 2000, 2001 ARM Limited. All rights reserved.
7-21
Directives Reference
7.3.9
DCFS and DCFSU
The DCFS directive allocates memory for word-aligned single-precision floating-point
numbers, and defines the initial runtime contents of the memory. Single-precision
numbers occupy one word and must be word aligned to be used in arithmetic operations.
DCDSU is the same, except that the memory alignment is arbitrary.
Syntax
{label} DCFS{U} fpliteral{,fpliteral}...
where:
fpliteral
is a single-precision floating-point literal (see Floating-point literals on
page 3-22).
Usage
DCFS inserts up to three bytes of padding before the first defined number, if necessary to
achieve 4-byte alignment.
Use DCFSU if you do not require alignment.
The range for single-precision values is:
•
maximum 3.40282347e+38
•
minimum 1.17549435e–38.
See also DCFD and DCFDU on page 7-21.
Example
DCFS
DCFSU
7-22
1E3,-4E-9
1.0,-.1,3.1E6
Copyright © 2000, 2001 ARM Limited. All rights reserved.
ARM DUI 0068B
Directives Reference
7.3.10
DCI
In ARM code, the DCI directive allocates one or more words of memory, aligned on
4-byte boundaries, and defines the initial runtime contents of the memory.
In Thumb code, the DCI directive allocates one or more halfwords of memory, aligned
on 2-byte boundaries, and defines the initial runtime contents of the memory.
Syntax
{label} DCI expr{,expr}
where:
is a numeric expression (see Numeric expressions on page 3-20).
expr
Usage
The DCI directive is very like the DCD or DCW directives, but the location is marked as code
instead of data. Use DCI when writing macros for new instructions not supported by the
version of the assembler you are using.
In ARM code, DCI inserts up to three bytes of padding before the first defined word, if
necessary, to achieve 4-byte alignment. In Thumb code, DCI inserts an initial byte of
padding, if necessary, to achieve 2-byte alignment.
See also DCD and DCDU on page 7-19 and DCW and DCWU on page 7-25.
Example
MACRO
newinst
DCI
MEND
ARM DUI 0068B
; this macro translates newinstr Rd,Rm
; to the appropriate machine code
$Rd,$Rm
0xe16f0f10 :OR: ($Rd:SHL:12) :OR: $Rm
Copyright © 2000, 2001 ARM Limited. All rights reserved.
7-23
Directives Reference
7.3.11
DCQ and DCQU
The DCQ directive allocates one or more 8-byte blocks of memory, aligned on 4-byte
boundaries, and defines the initial runtime contents of the memory.
DCQU is the same, except that the memory alignment is arbitrary.
Syntax
{label} DCQ{U} {-}literal{,{-}literal}...
where:
is a 64-bit numeric literal (see Numeric literals on page 3-21).
literal
The range of numbers allowed is 0 to 264 – 1.
In addition to the characters normally allowed in a numeric literal, you
can prefix literal with a minus sign. In this case, the range of numbers
allowed is –263 to –1.
The result of specifying -n is the same as the result of specifying 264 – n.
Usage
DCQ inserts up to 3 bytes of padding before the first defined 8-byte block, if necessary,
to achieve 4-byte alignment.
Use DCQU if you do not require alignment.
See also:
•
DCB on page 7-18
•
DCD and DCDU on page 7-19
•
DCW and DCWU on page 7-25
•
SPACE on page 7-17.
Example
data
7-24
AREA
DCQ
DCQU
MiscData, DATA, READWRITE
-225,2_101
; 2_101 means binary 101.
number+4
; number must already be defined.
Copyright © 2000, 2001 ARM Limited. All rights reserved.
ARM DUI 0068B
Directives Reference
7.3.12
DCW and DCWU
The DCW directive allocates one or more halfwords of memory, aligned on 2-byte
boundaries, and defines the initial runtime contents of the memory.
DCWU is the same, except that the memory alignment is arbitrary.
Syntax
{label} DCW expr{,expr}...
where:
is a numeric expression that evaluates to an integer in the range –32768
to 65535 (see Numeric expressions on page 3-20).
expr
Usage
DCW inserts a byte of padding before the first defined halfword if necessary to achieve
2-byte alignment.
Use DCWU if you do not require alignment.
See also:
•
DCB on page 7-18
•
DCD and DCDU on page 7-19
•
DCQ and DCQU on page 7-24
•
SPACE on page 7-17.
Example
data
7.3.13
DCW
-225,2*number
DCWU
number+4
; number must already be defined
DATA
The DATA directive is no longer needed. It is ignored by the assembler.
ARM DUI 0068B
Copyright © 2000, 2001 ARM Limited. All rights reserved.
7-25
Directives Reference
7.4
Assembly control directives
This section describes the following directives:
•
MACRO and MEND on page 7-27
•
MEXIT on page 7-29
•
IF, ELSE, and ENDIF on page 7-30
•
WHILE and WEND on page 7-32.
7.4.1
Nesting directives
The following structures can be nested to a total depth of 256:
•
MACRO definitions
•
WHILE...WEND loops
•
IF...ELSE...ENDIF conditional structures
•
INCLUDE file inclusions.
The limit applies to all structures taken together, however they are nested. The limit is
not 256 of each type of structure.
7-26
Copyright © 2000, 2001 ARM Limited. All rights reserved.
ARM DUI 0068B
Directives Reference
7.4.2
MACRO and MEND
The MACRO directive marks the start of the definition of a macro. Macro expansion
terminates at the MEND directive. See Using macros on page 2-48 for further information.
Syntax
Two directives are used to define a macro. The syntax is:
{$label}
MACRO
macroname {$parameter{,$parameter}...}
; code
MEND
where:
$label
is a parameter that is substituted with a symbol given when the
macro is invoked. The symbol is usually a label.
macroname
is the name of the macro. It must not begin with an instruction or
directive name.
$parameter
is a parameter that is substituted when the macro is invoked. A
default value for a parameter can be set using this format:
$parameter="default value"
Double quotes must be used if there are any spaces within, or at
either end of, the default value.
Usage
If you start any WHILE...WEND loops or IF...ENDIF conditions within a macro, they must
be closed before the MEND directive is reached. See MEXIT on page 7-29 if you need to
allow an early exit from a macro, for example from within a loop.
Within the macro body, parameters such as $label, $parameter can be used in the same
way as other variables (see Assembly time substitution of variables on page 3-14). They
are given new values each time the macro is invoked. Parameters must begin with $ to
distinguish them from ordinary symbols. Any number of parameters can be used.
$label is optional. It is useful if the macro defines internal labels. It is treated as a
parameter to the macro. It does not necessarily represent the first instruction in the
macro expansion. The macro defines the locations of any labels.
ARM DUI 0068B
Copyright © 2000, 2001 ARM Limited. All rights reserved.
7-27
Directives Reference
Use | as the argument to use the default value of a parameter. An empty string is used
if the argument is omitted.
In a macro that uses several internal labels, it is useful to define each internal label as
the base label with a different suffix.
Use a dot between a parameter and following text, or a following parameter, if a space
is not required in the expansion. Do not use a dot between preceding text and a
parameter.
Macros define the scope of local variables (see LCLA, LCLL, and LCLS on page 7-6).
Macros can be nested (see Nesting directives on page 7-26).
Examples
; macro definition
$label
$label.loop1
$label.loop2
MACRO
xmac
; code
; code
; code
BGE
; code
BL
BGT
; code
ADR
; code
MEND
; start macro definition
$p1,$p2
$label.loop1
$p1
$label.loop2
$p2
; end macro definition
; macro invocation
abc
abcloop1
abcloop2
7-28
xmac
; code
; code
; code
BGE
; code
BL
BGT
; code
ADR
; code
subr1,de
abcloop1
;
;
;
;
;
invoke macro
this is what is
is produced when
the xmac macro is
expanded
subr1
abcloop2
de
Copyright © 2000, 2001 ARM Limited. All rights reserved.
ARM DUI 0068B
Directives Reference
Using a macro to produce assembly-time diagnostics:
MACRO
diagnose
INFO
MEND
$param1="default"
0,"$param1"
;
;
;
;
Macro definition
This macro produces
assembly-time diagnostics
(on second assembly pass)
; macro expansion
diagnose
diagnose "hello"
diagnose |
7.4.3
; Prints blank line at assembly-time
; Prints "hello" at assembly-time
; Prints "default" at assembly-time
MEXIT
The MEXIT directive is used to exit a macro definition before the end.
Usage
Use MEXIT when you need an exit from within the body of a macro. Any unclosed
WHILE...WEND loops or IF...ENDIF conditions within the body of the macro are closed by
the assembler before the macro is exited.
See also MACRO and MEND on page 7-27.
Example
$abc
ARM DUI 0068B
MACRO
macro
abc
$param1,$param2
; code
WHILE condition1
; code
IF condition2
; code
MEXIT
ELSE
; code
ENDIF
WEND
; code
MEND
Copyright © 2000, 2001 ARM Limited. All rights reserved.
7-29
Directives Reference
7.4.4
IF, ELSE, and ENDIF
The IF directive introduces a condition that is used to decide whether to assemble a
sequence of instructions and/or directives. [ is a synonym for IF.
The ELSE directive marks the beginning of a sequence of instructions and/or directives
that you want to be assembled if the preceding condition fails. | is a synonym for ELSE.
The ENDIF directive marks the end of a sequence of instructions and/or directives that
you want to be conditionally assembled. ] is a synonym for ENDIF.
Syntax
IF logical-expression
...
{ELSE
...}
ENDIF
where:
logical-expression is an expression that evaluates to either {TRUE} or {FALSE}.
See Relational operators on page 3-30.
Usage
Use IF with ENDIF, and optionally with ELSE, for sequences of instructions and/or
directives that are only to be assembled or acted on under a specified condition.
IF...ENDIF conditions can be nested (see Nesting directives on page 7-26).
7-30
Copyright © 2000, 2001 ARM Limited. All rights reserved.
ARM DUI 0068B
Directives Reference
Examples
Example 7-3 assembles the first set of instructions if NEWVERSION is defined, or the
alternative set otherwise.
Example 7-3 Assembly conditional on a variable being defined
IF :DEF:NEWVERSION
; first set of instructions/directives
ELSE
; alternative set of instructions/directives
ENDIF
Invoking armasm as follows defines NEWVERSION, so the first set of instructions and
directives are assembled:
armasm -PD "NEWVERSION SETL {TRUE}" test.s
Invoking armasm as follows leaves NEWVERSION undefined, so the second set of
instructions and directives are assembled:
armasm test.s
Example 7-4 assembles the first set of instructions if NEWVERSION has the value {TRUE},
or the alternative set otherwise.
Example 7-4 Assembly conditional on a variable being defined
IF NEWVERSION = {TRUE}
; first set of instructions/directives
ELSE
; alternative set of instructions/directives
ENDIF
Invoking armasm as follows causes the first set of instructions and directives to be
assembled:
armasm -PD "NEWVERSION SETL {TRUE}" test.s
Invoking armasm as follows causes the second set of instructions and directives to be
assembled:
armasm -PD "NEWVERSION SETL {FALSE}" test.s
ARM DUI 0068B
Copyright © 2000, 2001 ARM Limited. All rights reserved.
7-31
Directives Reference
7.4.5
WHILE and WEND
The WHILE directive starts a sequence of instructions or directives that are to be
assembled repeatedly. The sequence is terminated with a WEND directive.
Syntax
WHILE logical-expression
code
WEND
where:
logical-expression
is an expression that can evaluate to either {TRUE} or {FALSE} (see Logical
expressions on page 3-23).
Usage
Use the WHILE directive, together with the WEND directive, to assemble a sequence of
instructions a number of times. The number of repetitions can be zero.
You can use IF...ENDIF conditions within WHILE...WEND loops.
WHILE...WEND loops can be nested (see Nesting directives on page 7-26).
Example
count
count
7-32
SETA
1
WHILE
count <= 4
SETA
count+1
; code
; code
WEND
;
;
;
;
;
you are not restricted to
such simple conditions
In this case,
this code will be
repeated four times
Copyright © 2000, 2001 ARM Limited. All rights reserved.
ARM DUI 0068B
Directives Reference
7.5
Frame description directives
This section describes the following directives:
•
FRAME ADDRESS on page 7-34
•
FRAME POP on page 7-35
•
FRAME PUSH on page 7-36
•
FRAME REGISTER on page 7-37
•
FRAME RESTORE on page 7-38
•
FRAME SAVE on page 7-39
•
FRAME STATE REMEMBER on page 7-40
•
FRAME STATE RESTORE on page 7-41
•
FUNCTION or PROC on page 7-42
•
ENDFUNC or ENDP on page 7-43.
Correct use of these directives:
•
helps you to avoid errors in function construction, particularly when you are
modifying existing code
•
allows the assembler to alert you to errors in function construction
•
enables backtracing of function calls during debugging
•
allows the debugger to profile assembler functions.
If you require profiling of assembler functions, but do not need frame description
directives for other purposes:
•
you must use the FUNCTION and ENDFUNC, or PROC and ENDP, directives
•
you can omit the other FRAME directives
•
you only need to use the FUNCTION and ENDFUNC directives for the functions you
want to profile.
In DWARF 2, the canonical frame address is an address on the stack specifying where
the call frame of an interrupted function is located.
ARM DUI 0068B
Copyright © 2000, 2001 ARM Limited. All rights reserved.
7-33
Directives Reference
7.5.1
FRAME ADDRESS
The FRAME ADDRESS directive describes how to calculate the canonical frame address for
following instructions. You can only use it in functions with FUNCTION and ENDFUNC or
PROC and ENDP directives.
Syntax
FRAME ADDRESS reg[,offset]
where:
reg
is the register on which the canonical frame address is to be based. This
is sp unless the function uses a separate frame pointer.
offset
is the offset of the canonical frame address from reg. If offset is zero, you
can omit it.
Usage
Use FRAME ADDRESS if your code alters which register the canonical frame address is
based on, or if it alters the offset of the canonical frame address from the register. You
must use FRAME ADDRESS immediately after the instruction which changes the calculation
of the canonical frame address.
Note
If your code uses a single instruction to save registers and alter the stack pointer, you
can use FRAME PUSH instead of using both FRAME ADDRESS and FRAME SAVE (see FRAME
PUSH on page 7-36).
If your code uses a single instruction to load registers and alter the stack pointer, you
can use FRAME POP instead of using both FRAME ADDRESS and FRAME RESTORE (see FRAME
POP on page 7-35).
Example
_fn
7-34
FUNCTION
; CFA (Canonical Frame Address) is value
; of sp on entry to function
STMFD
sp!, {r4,fp,ip,lr,pc}
FRAME PUSH {r4,fp,ip,lr,pc}
SUB
sp,sp,#4
; CFA offset now changed
FRAME ADDRESS sp,24
; - so we correct it
ADD
fp,sp,#20
FRAME ADDRESS fp,4
; New base register
; code using fp to base call-frame on, instead of sp
Copyright © 2000, 2001 ARM Limited. All rights reserved.
ARM DUI 0068B
Directives Reference
7.5.2
FRAME POP
Use the FRAME POP directive to inform the assembler when the callee reloads registers.
You can only use it within functions with FUNCTION and ENDFUNC or PROC and ENDP
directives.
You need not do this after the last instruction in a function.
Syntax
There are two alternative syntaxes for FRAME POP:
FRAME POP {reglist}
FRAME POP n
where:
reglist
is a list of registers restored to the values they had on entry to the function.
There must be at least one register in the list.
n
is the number of bytes that the stack pointer moves.
Usage
FRAME POP is equivalent to a FRAME ADDRESS and a FRAME RESTORE directive. You can use it
when a single instruction loads registers and alters the stack pointer.
You must use FRAME POP immediately after the instruction it refers to.
The assembler calculates the new offset for the canonical frame address. It assumes that:
•
each ARM register popped occupied 4 bytes on the stack
•
each FPA floating-point register popped occupied 12 bytes on the stack
•
each VFP single-precision register popped occupied 4 bytes on the stack, plus an
extra 4-byte word for each list.
See FRAME ADDRESS on page 7-34 and FRAME RESTORE on page 7-38.
ARM DUI 0068B
Copyright © 2000, 2001 ARM Limited. All rights reserved.
7-35
Directives Reference
7.5.3
FRAME PUSH
Use the FRAME PUSH directive to inform the assembler when the callee saves registers,
normally at function entry. You can only use it within functions with FUNCTION and
ENDFUNC or PROC and ENDP directives.
Syntax
There are two alternative syntaxes for FRAME PUSH:
FRAME PUSH {reglist}
FRAME PUSH n
where:
reglist
is a list of registers stored consecutively below the canonical frame
address. There must be at least one register in the list.
n
is the number of bytes that the stack pointer moves.
Usage
FRAME PUSH is equivalent to a FRAME ADDRESS and a FRAME SAVE directive. You can use it
when a single instruction saves registers and alters the stack pointer.
You must use FRAME PUSH immediately after the instruction it refers to.
The assembler calculates the new offset for the canonical frame address. It assumes that:
•
each ARM register pushed occupies 4 bytes on the stack
•
each FPA floating-point register pushed occupies 12 bytes on the stack
•
each VFP single-precision register pushed occupies 4 bytes on the stack, plus an
extra 4-byte word for each list.
See FRAME ADDRESS on page 7-34 and FRAME SAVE on page 7-39.
7-36
Copyright © 2000, 2001 ARM Limited. All rights reserved.
ARM DUI 0068B
Directives Reference
Example
p
7.5.4
PROC ; Canonical frame address is sp + 0
EXPORT p
STMFD
sp!,{r4-r6,lr}
; sp has moved relative to the canonical frame address,
; and registers r4, r5, r6 and lr are now on the stack
FRAME PUSH {r4-r6,lr}
; Equivalent to:
; FRAME ADDRESS
sp,16
; 16 bytes in {r4-r6,lr}
; FRAME SAVE
{r4-r6,lr},-16
FRAME REGISTER
Use the FRAME REGISTER directive to maintain a record of the locations of function
arguments held in registers. You can only use it within functions with FUNCTION and
ENDFUNC or PROC and ENDP directives.
Syntax
FRAME REGISTER reg1,reg2
where:
reg1
is the register that held the argument on entry to the function.
reg2
is the register in which the value is preserved.
Usage
Use the FRAME REGISTER directive when you use a register to preserve an argument that
was held in a different register on entry to a function.
ARM DUI 0068B
Copyright © 2000, 2001 ARM Limited. All rights reserved.
7-37
Directives Reference
7.5.5
FRAME RESTORE
Use the FRAME RESTORE directive to inform the assembler that the contents of specified
registers have been restored to the values they had on entry to the function. You can only
use it within functions with FUNCTION and ENDFUNC or PROC and ENDP directives.
Syntax
FRAME RESTORE {reglist}
where:
reglist
is a list of registers whose contents have been restored. There must be at
least one register in the list.
Usage
Use FRAME RESTORE immediately after the callee reloads registers from the stack. You
need not do this after the last instruction in a function.
reglist can contain integer registers or floating-point registers, but not both.
Note
If your code uses a single instruction to load registers and alter the stack pointer, you
can use FRAME POP instead of using both FRAME RESTORE and FRAME ADDRESS (see FRAME
POP on page 7-35).
7-38
Copyright © 2000, 2001 ARM Limited. All rights reserved.
ARM DUI 0068B
Directives Reference
7.5.6
FRAME SAVE
The FRAME SAVE directive describes the location of saved register contents relative to the
canonical frame address. You can only use it within functions with FUNCTION and ENDFUNC
or PROC and ENDP directives.
Syntax
FRAME SAVE {reglist}, offset
where:
reglist
is a list of registers stored consecutively starting at offset from the
canonical frame address. There must be at least one register in the list.
Usage
Use FRAME SAVE immediately after the callee stores registers onto the stack.
reglist can include registers which are not required for backtracing. The assembler
determines which registers it needs to record in the DWARF call frame information.
Note
If your code uses a single instruction to save registers and alter the stack pointer, you
can use FRAME PUSH instead of using both FRAME SAVE and FRAME ADDRESS (see FRAME
PUSH on page 7-36).
ARM DUI 0068B
Copyright © 2000, 2001 ARM Limited. All rights reserved.
7-39
Directives Reference
7.5.7
FRAME STATE REMEMBER
The FRAME STATE REMEMBER directive saves the current information on how to calculate
the canonical frame address and locations of saved register values. You can only use it
within functions with FUNCTION and ENDFUNC or PROC and ENDP directives.
Syntax
FRAME STATE REMEMBER
Usage
During an inline exit sequence the information about calculation of canonical frame
address and locations of saved register values can change. After the exit sequence
another branch can continue using the same information as before. Use FRAME STATE
REMEMBER to preserve this information, and FRAME STATE RESTORE to restore it.
These directives can be nested. Each FRAME STATE RESTORE directive must have a
corresponding FRAME STATE REMEMBER directive. See:
•
FRAME STATE RESTORE on page 7-41
•
FUNCTION or PROC on page 7-42.
Example
exitB
7-40
; function code
FRAME STATE REMEMBER
; save frame state before in-line exit sequence
LDMFD
sp!,{r4-r6,pc}
; no need to FRAME POP here, as control has
; transferred out of the function
FRAME STATE RESTORE
; end of exit sequence, so restore state
; code for exitB
LDMFD
sp!,{r4-r6,pc}
ENDP
Copyright © 2000, 2001 ARM Limited. All rights reserved.
ARM DUI 0068B
Directives Reference
7.5.8
FRAME STATE RESTORE
The FRAME STATE RESTORE directive restores information about how to calculate the
canonical frame address and locations of saved register values. You can only use it
within functions with FUNCTION and ENDFUNC or PROC and ENDP directives.
Syntax
FRAME STATE RESTORE
Usage
See:
•
FRAME STATE REMEMBER on page 7-40
•
FUNCTION or PROC on page 7-42.
ARM DUI 0068B
Copyright © 2000, 2001 ARM Limited. All rights reserved.
7-41
Directives Reference
7.5.9
FUNCTION or PROC
The FUNCTION directive marks the start of an ATPCS-conforming function. PROC is a
synonym for FUNCTION.
Syntax
label FUNCTION
Usage
Use FUNCTION to mark the start of functions. The assembler uses FUNCTION to identify the
start of a function when producing DWARF call frame information for ELF.
FUNCTION sets the canonical frame address to be sp, and the frame state stack to be empty.
Each FUNCTION directive must have a matching ENDFUNC directive. You must not nest
FUNCTION/ENDFUNC pairs, and they must not contain PROC or ENDP directives.
See also FRAME ADDRESS on page 7-34 to FRAME STATE RESTORE on page 7-41.
Example
dadd
7-42
FUNCTION
EXPORT dadd
STMFD
sp!,{r4-r6,lr}
FRAME PUSH {r4-r6,lr}
; subroutine body
LDMFD
sp!,{r4-r6,pc}
ENDFUNC
Copyright © 2000, 2001 ARM Limited. All rights reserved.
ARM DUI 0068B
Directives Reference
7.5.10
ENDFUNC or ENDP
The ENDFUNC directive marks the end of an ATPCS-conforming function (see
FUNCTION or PROC on page 7-42). ENDP is a synonym for ENDFUNC.
ARM DUI 0068B
Copyright © 2000, 2001 ARM Limited. All rights reserved.
7-43
Directives Reference
7.6
Reporting directives
This section describes the following directives:
•
ASSERT
generates an error message if an assertion is false during assembly.
•
INFO on page 7-45
generates diagnostic information during assembly.
•
OPT on page 7-46
sets listing options.
•
TTL and SUBT on page 7-48
insert titles and subtitles in listings.
7.6.1
ASSERT
The ASSERT directive generates an error message during the second pass of the assembly
if a given assertion is false.
Syntax
ASSERT logical-expression
where:
logical-expression
is an assertion that can evaluate to either {TRUE} or {FALSE}.
Usage
Use ASSERT to ensure that any necessary condition is met during assembly.
If the assertion is false an error message is generated and assembly fails.
See also INFO on page 7-45.
Example
ASSERT
7-44
label1 <= label2
;
;
;
;
Tests if the address
represented by label1
is <= the address
represented by label2.
Copyright © 2000, 2001 ARM Limited. All rights reserved.
ARM DUI 0068B
Directives Reference
7.6.2
INFO
The INFO directive supports diagnostic generation on either pass of the assembly.
! is very similar to INFO, but has less detailed reporting.
Syntax
INFO numeric-expression, string-expression
where:
numeric-expression
is a numeric expression that is evaluated during assembly. If the
expression evaluates to zero:
•
no action is taken during pass one
•
string-expression is printed during pass two.
If the expression does not evaluate to zero, string-expression is printed
as an error message and the assembly fails.
string-expression
is an expression that evaluates to a string.
Usage
INFO provides a flexible means for creating custom error messages. See Numeric
expressions on page 3-20 and String expressions on page 3-19 for additional
information on numeric and string expressions.
See also ASSERT on page 7-44.
Examples
INFO
0, "Version 1.0"
IF endofdata <= label1
INFO
4, "Data overrun at label1"
ENDIF
ARM DUI 0068B
Copyright © 2000, 2001 ARM Limited. All rights reserved.
7-45
Directives Reference
7.6.3
OPT
The OPT directive sets listing options from within the source code.
Syntax
OPT n
where:
is the OPT directive setting. Table 7-2 lists valid settings.
n
Table 7-2 OPT directive settings
OPT n
Effect
1
Turns on normal listing.
2
Turns off normal listing.
4
Page throw. Issues an immediate form feed and starts a new page.
8
Resets the line number counter to zero.
16
Turns on listing for SET, GBL and LCL directives.
32
Turns off listing for SET, GBL and LCL directives.
64
Turns on listing of macro expansions.
128
Turns off listing of macro expansions.
256
Turns on listing of macro invocations.
512
Turns off listing of macro invocations.
1024
Turns on the first pass listing.
2048
Turns off the first pass listing.
4096
Turns on listing of conditional directives.
8192
Turns off listing of conditional directives.
16384
Turns on listing of MEND directives.
32768
Turns off listing of MEND directives.
Usage
Specify the -list assembler option to turn on listing.
7-46
Copyright © 2000, 2001 ARM Limited. All rights reserved.
ARM DUI 0068B
Directives Reference
By default the -list option produces a normal listing that includes variable
declarations, macro expansions, call-conditioned directives, and MEND directives. The
listing is produced on the second pass only. Use the OPT directive to modify the default
listing options from within your code. See Command syntax on page 3-2 for
information on the -list option.
You can use OPT to format code listings. For example, you can specify a new page before
functions and sections.
Example
start
func1
ARM DUI 0068B
AREA
; code
; code
BL
; code
OPT 4
; code
Example, CODE, READONLY
func1
; places a page break before func1
Copyright © 2000, 2001 ARM Limited. All rights reserved.
7-47
Directives Reference
7.6.4
TTL and SUBT
The TTL directive inserts a title at the start of each page of a listing file. The title is
printed on each page until a new TTL directive is issued.
The SUBT directive places a subtitle on the pages of a listing file. The subtitle is printed
on each page until a new SUBT directive is issued.
Syntax
TTL title
SUBT subtitle
where:
title
is the title
subtitle
is the subtitle.
Usage
Use the TTL directive to place a title at the top of the pages of a listing file. If you want
the title to appear on the first page, the TTL directive must be on the first line of the source
file.
Use additional TTL directives to change the title. Each new TTL directive takes effect from
the top of the next page.
Use SUBT to place a subtitle at the top of the pages of a listing file. Subtitles appear in
the line below the titles. If you want the subtitle to appear on the first page, the SUBT
directive must be on the first line of the source file.
Use additional SUBT directives to change subtitles. Each new SUBT directive takes effect
from the top of the next page.
Example
7-48
TTL
First Title
SUBT
First Subtitle
;
;
;
;
;
;
places a title on the first
and subsequent pages of a
listing file.
places a subtitle on the
second and subsequent pages
of a listing file.
Copyright © 2000, 2001 ARM Limited. All rights reserved.
ARM DUI 0068B
Directives Reference
7.7
Miscellaneous directives
This section describes the following directives:
•
ALIGN on page 7-50
•
AREA on page 7-52
•
CODE16 and CODE32 on page 7-54
•
END on page 7-55
•
ENTRY on page 7-56
•
EQU on page 7-57
•
EXPORT or GLOBAL on page 7-58
•
EXTERN on page 7-60
•
GET or INCLUDE on page 7-61
•
GLOBAL on page 7-62
•
IMPORT on page 7-62
•
INCBIN on page 7-63
•
INCLUDE on page 7-63
•
KEEP on page 7-64
•
NOFP on page 7-65
•
REQUIRE on page 7-65
•
REQUIRE8 and PRESERVE8 on page 7-66
•
RN on page 7-67
•
ROUT on page 7-68.
ARM DUI 0068B
Copyright © 2000, 2001 ARM Limited. All rights reserved.
7-49
Directives Reference
7.7.1
ALIGN
The ALIGN directive aligns the current location to a specified boundary by padding with
zeroes.
Syntax
ALIGN {expr{,offset}}
where:
expr
is a numeric expression evaluating to any power of 2 from 20 to 231.
offset
can be any numeric expression.
The current location is aligned to the next address of the form:
offset + n * expr
If expr is not specified, ALIGN sets the current location to the next word (four byte)
boundary.
Usage
Use ALIGN to ensure that your data and code is aligned to appropriate boundaries. This
is typically required in the following circumstances:
•
The ADR Thumb pseudo-instruction can only load addresses that are word aligned,
but a label within Thumb code might not be word aligned. Use ALIGN 4 to ensure
4-byte alignment of an address within Thumb code.
•
Use ALIGN to take advantage of caches on some ARM processors. For example,
the ARM940T has a cache with 16-byte lines. Use ALIGN 16 to align function
entries on 16-byte boundaries and maximize the efficiency of the cache.
•
LDRD and STRD double-word data transfers must be 8-byte aligned. Use ALIGN 8
before memory allocation directives such as DCQ (see Data definition directives on
page 7-13) if the data is to be accessed using LDRD or STRD.
•
A label on a line by itself can be arbitrarily aligned. Following ARM code is
word-aligned (Thumb code is half-word aligned). The label therefore does not
address the code correctly. Use ALIGN 4 (or ALIGN 2 for Thumb) before the label.
Alignment is relative to the start of the ELF section where the routine is located. The
section must be aligned to the same, or coarser, boundaries. The ALIGN attribute on the
AREA directive is specified differently (see AREA on page 7-52 and Examples on
page 7-51).
7-50
Copyright © 2000, 2001 ARM Limited. All rights reserved.
ARM DUI 0068B
Directives Reference
Examples
rout1
rout2
AREA
; code
; code
MOV
ALIGN
; code
cacheable, CODE, ALIGN=3
; aligned on 8-byte boundary
AREA
DCB
ALIGN
DCB
OffsetExample, CODE
1
; This example places the two
4,3
; bytes in the first and fourth
1
; bytes of the same word.
pc,lr
8
; aligned only on 4-byte boundary
; now aligned on 8-byte boundary
AREA
Example, CODE, READONLY
LDR
r6,=label1
; code
MOV
pc,lr
label1 DCB
1
; pc now misaligned
ALIGN
; ensures that subroutine1 addresses
subroutine1
; the following instruction.
MOV r5,#0x5
start
ARM DUI 0068B
Copyright © 2000, 2001 ARM Limited. All rights reserved.
7-51
Directives Reference
7.7.2
AREA
The AREA directive instructs the assembler to assemble a new code or data section.
Sections are independent, named, indivisible chunks of code or data that are
manipulated by the linker. See ELF sections and the AREA directive on page 2-15 for
more information.
Syntax
AREA sectionname{,attr}{,attr}...
where:
sectionname
is the name that the section is to be given.
You can choose any name for your sections. However, names starting
with a digit must be enclosed in bars or a missing section name error is
generated. For example, |1_DataArea|.
Certain names are conventional. For example, |.text| is used for code
sections produced by the C compiler, or for code sections otherwise
associated with the C library.
attr
are one or more comma-delimited section attributes. Valid attributes are:
ALIGN=expression
By default, ELF sections are aligned on a 4-byte boundary.
expression can have any integer value from 0 to 31. The
section is aligned on a 2expression-byte boundary. For example,
if expression is 10, the section is aligned on a 1KB boundary.
This is not the same as the way that the ALIGN directive is
specified. See ALIGN on page 7-50.
Note
Do not use ALIGN=0 or ALIGN=1 for code sections.
ASSOC=section
section specifies an associated ELF section. sectionnamemust
be included in any link that includes section
7-52
CODE
Contains machine instructions. READONLY is the default.
COMDEF
Is a common section definition. This ELF section can contain
code or data. It must be identical to any other section of the
same name in other source files.
Copyright © 2000, 2001 ARM Limited. All rights reserved.
ARM DUI 0068B
Directives Reference
Identical ELF sections with the same name are overlaid in the
same section of memory by the linker. If any are different, the
linker generates a warning and does not overlay the sections.
See the Linker chapter in ADS Linker and Utilities Guide.
COMMON
Is a common data section. You must not define any code or
data in it. It is initialized to zeroes by the linker. All common
sections with the same name are overlaid in the same section
of memory by the linker. They do not all need to be the same
size. The linker allocates as much space as is required by the
largest common section of each name.
DATA
Contains data, not instructions. READWRITE is the default.
NOINIT
Indicates that the data section is uninitialized, or initialized to
zero. It contains only space reservation directives SPACE or DCB,
DCD, DCDU, DCQ, DCQU, DCW, or DCWU with initialized values of zero.
You can decide at link time whether an AREA is uninitialized or
zero-initialized (see the Linker chapter in ADS Linker and
Utilities Guide).
READONLY Indicates that this section should not be written to. This is the
default for Code areas.
READWRITE Indicates that this section can be read from and written to. This
is the default for Data areas.
Usage
Use the AREA directive to subdivide your source file into ELF sections. You can use the
same name in more than one AREA directive. All areas with the same name are placed in
the same ELF section.
You should normally use separate ELF sections for code and data. Large programs can
usually be conveniently divided into several code sections. Large independent data sets
are also usually best placed in separate sections.
The scope of local labels is defined by AREA directives, optionally subdivided by ROUT
directives (see Local labels on page 3-16 and ROUT on page 7-68).
There must be at least one AREA directive for an assembly.
Example
The following example defines a read-only code section named Example.
AREA
ARM DUI 0068B
Example,CODE,READONLY
; code
; An example code section.
Copyright © 2000, 2001 ARM Limited. All rights reserved.
7-53
Directives Reference
7.7.3
CODE16 and CODE32
The CODE16 directive instructs the assembler to interpret subsequent instructions as
16-bit Thumb instructions. If necessary, it also inserts a byte of padding to align to the
next halfword boundary.
The CODE32 directive instructs the assembler to interpret subsequent instructions as
32-bit ARM instructions. If necessary, it also inserts up to three bytes of padding to
align to the next word boundary.
Syntax
CODE16
CODE32
Usage
In files that contain a mixture of ARM and Thumb code:
•
Use CODE16 when changing from ARM state to Thumb state. CODE16 must precede
any Thumb code.
•
Use CODE32 when changing from Thumb state to ARM state. CODE32 must precede
any ARM code.
CODE16 and CODE32 do not assemble to instructions that change the state. They only
instruct the assembler to assemble Thumb or ARM instructions as appropriate, and
insert padding if necessary.
Example
This example shows how CODE16 can be used to branch from ARM to Thumb
instructions.
AREA
CODE32
ChangeState, CODE, READONLY
LDR
r0,=start+1
BX
r0
;
;
;
;
This section starts in ARM state
Load the address and set the
least significant bit
Branch and exchange instruction sets
; Not necessarily in same section
start
7-54
CODE16
MOV
r1,#10
; Following instructions are Thumb
; Thumb instructions
Copyright © 2000, 2001 ARM Limited. All rights reserved.
ARM DUI 0068B
Directives Reference
7.7.4
END
The END directive informs the assembler that it has reached the end of a source file.
Syntax
END
Usage
Every assembly language source file must end with END on a line by itself.
If the source file has been included in a parent file by a GET directive, the assembler
returns to the parent file and continues assembly at the first line following the GET
directive. See GET or INCLUDE on page 7-61 for more information.
If END is reached in the top-level source file during the first pass without any errors, the
second pass begins.
If END is reached in the top-level source file during the second pass, the assembler
finishes the assembly and writes the appropriate output.
ARM DUI 0068B
Copyright © 2000, 2001 ARM Limited. All rights reserved.
7-55
Directives Reference
7.7.5
ENTRY
The ENTRY directive declares an entry point to a program.
Syntax
ENTRY
Usage
You must specify at least one ENTRY point for a program. If no ENTRY exists, a warning is
generated at link time.
You must not use more than one ENTRY directive in a single source file. Not every source
file has to have an ENTRY directive. If more than one ENTRY exists in a single source file,
an error message is generated at assembly time.
Example
AREA
ENTRY
7-56
ARMex, CODE, READONLY
; Entry point for the application
Copyright © 2000, 2001 ARM Limited. All rights reserved.
ARM DUI 0068B
Directives Reference
7.7.6
EQU
The EQU directive gives a symbolic name to a numeric constant, a register-relative value
or a program-relative value. * is a synonym for EQU.
Syntax
name EQU expr{, type}
where:
name
is the symbolic name to assign to the value.
expr
is a register-relative address, a program-relative address, an absolute
address, or a 32-bit integer constant.
type
is optional. type can be any one of:
•
CODE16
•
CODE32
•
DATA
You can use type only if expr is an absolute address. If name is exported,
the name entry in the symbol table in the object file will be marked as
CODE16, CODE32, or DATA, according to type. This can be used by the linker.
Usage
Use EQU to define constants. This is similar to the use of #define to define a constant in C.
See KEEP on page 7-64 and EXPORT or GLOBAL on page 7-58 for information on
exporting symbols.
Examples
ARM DUI 0068B
abc EQU 2
; assigns the value 2 to the symbol abc.
xyz EQU label+8
; assigns the address (label+8) to the
; symbol xyz.
fiq EQU 0x1C, CODE32
; assigns the absolute address 0x1C to
; the symbol fiq, and marks it as code
Copyright © 2000, 2001 ARM Limited. All rights reserved.
7-57
Directives Reference
7.7.7
EXPORT or GLOBAL
The EXPORT directive declares a symbol that can be used by the linker to resolve symbol
references in separate object and library files. GLOBAL is a synonym for EXPORT.
Syntax
EXPORT {symbol}{[WEAK]}
where:
symbol
is the symbol name to export. The symbol name is case-sensitive. If
symbol is omitted, all symbols are exported.
[WEAK]
means that this instance of symbol should only be imported into other
sources if no other source exports an alternative instance. If [WEAK] is used
without symbol, all exported symbols are weak.
Usage
Use EXPORT to give code in other files access to symbols in the current file.
Use the [WEAK] attribute to inform the linker that a different instance of symbol takes
precedence over this one, if a different one is available from another source.
See also IMPORT on page 7-62.
Example
AREA
EXPORT
DoAdd
7-58
ADD
Example,CODE,READONLY
DoAdd
; Export the function name
; to be used by external
; modules.
r0,r0,r1
Copyright © 2000, 2001 ARM Limited. All rights reserved.
ARM DUI 0068B
Directives Reference
7.7.8
EXPORTAS
The EXPORTAS directive allows you to export a symbol to the object file, corresponding
to a different symbol in the source file.
Syntax
EXPORTAS symbol1, symbol2
where:
symbol1
is the symbol name in the source file. symbol1 must have been defined
already. It can be any symbol, including an area name, a label, or a
constant.
symbol2
is the symbol name you want to appear in the object file.
The symbol names are case-sensitive.
Usage
Use EXPORTAS to change a symbol in the object file without having to change every
instance in the source file.
See also EXPORT or GLOBAL on page 7-58.
Examples
AREA data1, DATA
AREA data2, DATA
EXPORTAS data2, data1
one EQU 2
EXPORTAS one, two
EXPORT one
ARM DUI 0068B
;;
;;
;;
;;
starts a new area data1
starts a new area data2
the section symbol referred to as data2 will
appear in the object file string table as data1.
;; the symbol 'two' will appear in the object
;; file's symbol table with the value 2.
Copyright © 2000, 2001 ARM Limited. All rights reserved.
7-59
Directives Reference
7.7.9
EXTERN
The EXTERN directive provides the assembler with a name that is not defined in the
current assembly.
EXTERN is very similar to IMPORT, except that the name is not imported if no reference to
it is found in the current assembly (see IMPORT on page 7-62, and EXPORT or
GLOBAL on page 7-58).
Syntax
EXTERN symbol{[WEAK]}
where:
symbol
is a symbol name defined in a separately assembled source file, object
file, or library. The symbol name is case-sensitive.
[WEAK]
prevents the linker generating an error message if the symbol is not
defined elsewhere. It also prevents the linker searching libraries that are
not already included.
Usage
The name is resolved at link time to a symbol defined in a separate object file. The
symbol is treated as a program address. If [WEAK] is not specified, the linker generates
an error if no corresponding symbol is found at link time.
If [WEAK] is specified and no corresponding symbol is found at link time:
•
If the reference is the destination of a B or BL instruction, the value of the symbol
is taken as the address of the following instruction. This makes the B or BL
instruction effectively a NOP.
•
Otherwise, the value of the symbol is taken as zero.
Example
This example tests to see if the C++ library has been linked, and branches conditionally
on the result.
AREA
EXTERN
LDR
CMP
BEQ
7-60
Example, CODE, READONLY
__CPP_INITIALIZE[WEAK] ;
;
r0,__CPP_INITIALIZE
;
r0,#0
;
nocplusplus
;
If C++ library linked, gets the address of
__CPP_INITIALIZE function.
If not linked, address is zeroed.
Test if zero.
Branch on the result.
Copyright © 2000, 2001 ARM Limited. All rights reserved.
ARM DUI 0068B
Directives Reference
7.7.10
GET or INCLUDE
The GET directive includes a file within the file being assembled. The included file is
assembled at the location of the GET directive. INCLUDE is a synonym for GET.
Syntax
GET filename
where:
filename
is the name of the file to be included in the assembly. The assembler
accepts pathnames in either UNIX or MS-DOS format.
Usage
GET is useful for including macro definitions, EQUs, and storage maps in an assembly.
When assembly of the included file is complete, assembly continues at the line
following the GET directive.
By default the assembler searches the current place for included files. The current place
is the directory where the calling file is located. Use the -i assembler command-line
option to add directories to the search path. File names and directory names containing
spaces must not be enclosed in double quotes ( " " ).
The included file can contain additional GET directives to include other files (see
Nesting directives on page 7-26).
If the included file is in a different directory from the current place, this becomes the
current place until the end of the included file. The previous current place is then
restored.
GET cannot be used to include object files (see INCBIN on page 7-63).
Example
AREA
GET
GET
GET
ARM DUI 0068B
Example, CODE, READONLY
file1.s
; includes file1 if it exists
; in the current place.
c:\project\file2.s
; includes file2
c:\Program files\file3.s ; space is allowed
Copyright © 2000, 2001 ARM Limited. All rights reserved.
7-61
Directives Reference
7.7.11
GLOBAL
See EXPORT or GLOBAL on page 7-58.
7.7.12
IMPORT
The IMPORT directive provides the assembler with a name that is not defined in the
current assembly.
IMPORT is very similar to EXTERN, except that the name is imported whether or not it is
referred to in the current assembly (see EXTERN on page 7-60, and EXPORT or
GLOBAL on page 7-58).
Syntax
IMPORT symbol{[WEAK]}
where:
symbol
is a symbol name defined in a separately assembled source file, object
file, or library. The symbol name is case-sensitive.
WEAK
prevents the linker generating an error message if the symbol is not
defined elsewhere. It also prevents the linker searching libraries that are
not already included.
Usage
The name is resolved at link time to a symbol defined in a separate object file. The
symbol is treated as a program address. If [WEAK] is not specified, the linker generates
an error if no corresponding symbol is found at link time.
If [WEAK] is specified and no corresponding symbol is found at link time:
•
If the reference is the destination of a B or BL instruction, the value of the symbol
is taken as the address of the following instruction. This makes the B or BL
instruction effectively a NOP.
•
Otherwise, the value of the symbol is taken as zero.
To avoid trying to access symbols that are not found at link time, use code like the
example in EXTERN on page 7-60.
7-62
Copyright © 2000, 2001 ARM Limited. All rights reserved.
ARM DUI 0068B
Directives Reference
7.7.13
INCBIN
The INCBIN directive includes a file within the file being assembled. The file is included
as it is, without being assembled.
Syntax
INCBIN filename
where:
is the name of the file to be included in the assembly. The assembler
accepts pathnames in either UNIX or MS-DOS format.
filename
Usage
You can use INCBIN to include executable files, literals, or any arbitrary data. The
contents of the file are added to the current ELF section, byte for byte, without being
interpreted in any way. Assembly continues at the line following the INCBIN directive.
By default the assembler searches the current place for included files. The current place
is the directory where the calling file is located. Use the -i assembler command-line
option to add directories to the search path. File names and directory names containing
spaces must not be enclosed in double quotes ( " " ).
Example
AREA
INCBIN
INCBIN
7.7.14
Example, CODE, READONLY
file1.dat
;
;
;
c:\project\file2.txt
;
includes file1 if it
exists in the
current place.
includes file2
INCLUDE
See GET or INCLUDE on page 7-61
ARM DUI 0068B
Copyright © 2000, 2001 ARM Limited. All rights reserved.
7-63
Directives Reference
7.7.15
KEEP
The KEEP directive instructs the assembler to retain local symbols in the symbol table in
the object file.
Syntax
KEEP {symbol}
where:
is the name of the local symbol to keep. If symbol is not specified, all local
symbols are kept except register-relative symbols.
symbol
Usage
By default, the only symbols that the assembler describes in its output object file are:
•
exported symbols
•
symbols that are relocated against.
Use KEEP to preserve local symbols that can be used to help debugging. Kept symbols
appear in the ARM debuggers and in linker map files.
KEEP cannot preserve register-relative symbols (see MAP on page 7-15).
Example
label
7-64
ADC
KEEP
ADD
r2,r3,r4
label
r2,r2,r5
; makes label available to debuggers
Copyright © 2000, 2001 ARM Limited. All rights reserved.
ARM DUI 0068B
Directives Reference
7.7.16
NOFP
The NOFP directive disallows floating-point instructions in an assembly language source
file.
Syntax
NOFP
Usage
Use NOFP to ensure that no floating-point instructions are used in situations where there
is no support for floating-point instructions either in software or in target hardware.
If a floating-point instruction occurs after the NOFP directive, an Unknown opcode error is
generated and the assembly fails.
If a NOFP directive occurs after a floating-point instruction, the assembler generates the
error:
Too late to ban floating point instructions
and the assembly fails.
7.7.17
REQUIRE
The REQUIRE directive specifies a dependency between sections.
Syntax
REQUIRE label
where:
label
is the name of the required label.
Usage
Use REQUIRE to ensure that a related section is included, even if it is not directly called.
If the section containing the REQUIRE directive is included in a link, the linker also
includes the section containing the definition of the specified label.
ARM DUI 0068B
Copyright © 2000, 2001 ARM Limited. All rights reserved.
7-65
Directives Reference
7.7.18
REQUIRE8 and PRESERVE8
The REQUIRE8 directive specifies that the current file requires 8-byte alignment of the
stack.
The PRESERVE8 directive specifies that the current file preserves 8-byte alignment of the
stack.
Syntax
REQUIRE8
PRESERVE8
Usage
LDRD and STRD instructions (double-word transfers) only work correctly if the address
they access is 8-byte aligned.
If your code includes LDRD or STRD transfers to or from the stack, use REQUIRE8 to instruct
the linker to ensure that your code is only called from objects that preserve 8-byte
alignment of the stack.
If your code preserves 8-byte alignment of the stack, use PRESERVE8 to inform the linker.
The linker ensures that any code that requires 8-byte alignment of the stack is only
called, directly or indirectly, by code that preserves 8-byte alignment of the stack.
7-66
Copyright © 2000, 2001 ARM Limited. All rights reserved.
ARM DUI 0068B
Directives Reference
7.7.19
RN
The RN directive defines a register name for a specified register.
Syntax
name RN expr
where:
name
is the name to be assigned to the register. name cannot be the same as any
of the predefined names listed in Predefined register and coprocessor
names on page 3-9.
expr
evaluates to a register number from 0 to 15.
Usage
Use RN to allocate convenient names to registers, to help you to remember what you use
each register for. Be careful to avoid conflicting uses of the same register under different
names.
Examples
ARM DUI 0068B
regname
RN
11
; defines regname for register 11
sqr4
RN
r6
; defines sqr4 for register 6
Copyright © 2000, 2001 ARM Limited. All rights reserved.
7-67
Directives Reference
7.7.20
ROUT
The ROUT directive marks the boundaries of the scope of local labels (see Local labels
on page 3-16).
Syntax
{name} ROUT
where:
is the name to be assigned to the scope.
name
Usage
Use the ROUT directive to limit the scope of local labels. This makes it easier for you to
avoid referring to a wrong label by accident. The scope of local labels is the whole area
if there are no ROUT directives in it (see AREA on page 7-52).
Use the name option to ensure that each reference is to the correct local label. If the name
of a label or a reference to a label does not match the preceding ROUT directive, the
assembler generates an error message and the assembly fails.
Example
routineA
3routineA
4routineA
otherstuff
7-68
; code
ROUT
; code
; code
; code
BEQ
; code
BGE
; code
; code
; code
ROUT
; ROUT is not necessarily a routine
; this label is checked
%4routineA
%3
; this reference is checked
; refers to 3 above, but not checked
; this label is checked
; start of next scope
Copyright © 2000, 2001 ARM Limited. All rights reserved.
ARM DUI 0068B
Glossary
ADS
See ARM Developer Suite.
ANSI
American National Standards Institute. An organization that specifies standards for,
among other things, computer software.
Angel™
Angel is a program that enables you to develop and debug applications running on
ARM-based hardware. Angel can debug applications running in either ARM state or
Thumb state.
Architecture
The term used to identify a group of processors that have similar characteristics.
ARM Developer Suite
A suite of applications, together with supporting documentation and examples, that
enable you to write and debug applications for the ARM family of RISC processors.
ARM eXtended Debugger
The ARM eXtended Debugger (AXD) is the latest debugger software from ARM that
enables you to make use of a debug agent in order to examine and control the execution
of software running on a debug target. AXD is supplied in both Windows and UNIX
versions.
armsd
ARM DUI 0068B
The ARM Symbolic Debugger (armsd) is an interactive source-level debugger
providing high-level debugging support for languages such as C, and low-level support
for assembly language. It is a command-line debugger that runs on all supported
platforms.
Copyright © 2000, 2001 ARM Limited. All rights reserved.
Glossary-1
Glossary
ATPCS
ARM and Thumb Procedure Call Standard defines how registers and the stack will be
used for subroutine calls.
AXD
See ARM eXtended Debugger.
Big-endian
Memory organization where the least significant byte of a word is at a higher address
than the most significant byte.
Byte
A unit of memory storage consisting of eight bits.
Canonical Frame Address
In DWARF 2, this is an address on the stack specifying where the call frame of an
interrupted function is located.
CFA
See Canonical Frame Address.
Coprocessor
An additional processor which is used for certain operations. Usually used for
floating-point math calculations, signal processing, or memory management.
CPSR
See Current Processor Status Register.
Current place
In compiler terminology, the directory which contains files to be included in the
compilation process.
Current Processor Status Register
CPSR. A register containing the current state of control bits and flags.
See also Saved Processor Status Register.
Debugger
An application that monitors and controls the execution of a second application. Usually
used to find errors in the application program flow.
Double-word
A 64-bit unit of information. Contents are taken as being an unsigned integer unless
otherwise stated.
DWARF
Debug With Arbitrary Record Format
ELF
Executable Linkable Format
Global variables
Variables that are accessible to all code in the application.
See also Local variables
Halfword
A 16-bit unit of information. Contents are taken as being an unsigned integer unless
otherwise stated.
Image
An executable file which has been loaded onto a processor for execution.
A binary execution file loaded onto a processor and given a thread of execution. An
image can have multiple threads. An image is related to the processor on which its
default thread runs.
Glossary-2
Copyright © 2000, 2001 ARM Limited. All rights reserved.
ARM DUI 0068B
Glossary
Interrupt
A change in the normal processing sequence of an application caused by, for example,
an external signal.
Interworking
Producing an application that uses both ARM and Thumb code.
Library
A collection of assembler or compiler output objects grouped together into a single
repository.
Linker
Software which produces a single image from one or more source assembler or
compiler output objects.
Little-endian
Memory organization where the least significant byte of a word is at a lower address
than the most significant byte.
Local variable
A variable that is only accessible to the subroutine that created it.
See also Global variables
PIC
Position Independent Code.
See also ROPI.
PID
Position Independent Data or the ARM Platform-Independent Development card.
See also RWPI.
PSR
See Processor Status Register
Processor Status Register
A register containing various control bits and flags.
See also Current Processor Status Register
See also Saved Processor Status Register.
Read Only Position Independent
Code and read-only data addresses can be changed at run-time.
Read Write Position Independent
Read/write data addresses can be changed at run-time.
ROPI
See Read Only Position Independent.
RWPI
See Read Write Position Independent.
Saved Processor Status Register
SPSR. A register that holds a copy of what was in the Current Processor Status Register
before the most recent exception. Each exception mode has its own SPSR.
ARM DUI 0068B
Copyright © 2000, 2001 ARM Limited. All rights reserved.
Glossary-3
Glossary
Scope
The accessibility of a function or variable at a particular point in the application code.
Symbols which have global scope are always accessible. Symbols with local or private
scope are only accessible to code in the same subroutine or object.
Section
A block of software code or data for an Image.
Semihosting
A mechanism whereby the target communicates I/O requests made in the application
code to the host system, rather attempting to support the I/O itself.
Software Interrupt
An instruction that causes the processor to call a programer-specified subroutine. Used
by ARM to handle semihosting.
SPSR
See Saved Processor Status Register.
Stack
The portion of computer memory that is used to record the address of code that calls a
subroutine. The stack can also be used for parameters and temporary variables.
SWI
See Software Interrupt.
Target
The actual target processor, (real or simulated), on which the target application is
running.
The fundamental object in any debugging session. The basis of the debugging system.
The environment in which the target software will run. It is essentially a collection of
real or simulated processors.
Vector Floating Point
A standard for floating-point coprocessors where several data values can be processed
by a single instruction.
Veneer
A small block of code used with subroutine calls when there is a requirement to change
processor state or branch to an address that cannot be reached in the current processor
state.
VFP
See Vector Floating Point.
Word
A 32-bit unit of information. Contents are taken as being an unsigned integer unless
otherwise stated.
Zero Initialized
R/W memory used to hold variables that do not have an initial value. The memory is
normally set to zero on reset.
ZI
See Zero Initialized.
Glossary-4
Copyright © 2000, 2001 ARM Limited. All rights reserved.
ARM DUI 0068B
Index
The items in this index are listed in alphabetical order, with symbols and numerics appearing at the end. The
references given are to page numbers.
A
Absolute addresses 3-15
ADD instruction 2-58
Addresses
loading into registers 2-30
ADR
ARM pseudo-instruction 4-78, 4-79
Thumb pseudo-instruction 5-40
ADR pseudo-instruction 2-30, 2-58
ADR Thumb pseudo-instruction 2-30
ADRL pseudo-instruction 2-30, 2-58
ALIGN directive 2-56, 7-50
Alignment 2-56
ALU status flags 2-20
:AND: operator 2-56
AREA directive 2-13, 2-15, 7-52
AREA directive (literal pools) 2-28
armsd
command syntax 3-2
Assembly language
absolute addresses 3-15
alignment 2-56
ARM DUI 0068B
base register 2-52
binary operators 3-28
block copy 2-44
Boolean constants 2-14
built-in variables 3-10
case rules 2-12
character constants 2-14
code size 2-61
comments 2-13
condition code suffixes 2-21
conditional execution 2-20
constants 2-14
coprocessor names 3-9
data structures 2-51
defining macros 7-27
ELF sections 2-15
entry point 2-16, 7-56
examples 2-2, 2-15, 2-17, 2-22,
2-28, 2-31, 2-35, 2-37, 2-44,
2-61, 2-63
examples, Thumb 2-18, 2-24, 2-38,
2-46
execution speed 2-61
floating-point literals 3-22
format of source lines 3-8
global variables 7-4, 7-7
immediate constants, ARM 2-26
jump tables 2-32
labels 2-13, 3-15
line format 2-12
line length 2-12
literal pools 2-28
loading addresses 2-30
loading constants 2-25
local labels 2-13, 3-16
logical
expressions 3-23
variables 3-13
logical literals 3-23
macros 2-48
maintenance 2-56
maps 2-51
multiple register transfers 2-39
multiplicative operators 3-28
nesting subroutines 2-43
numeric constants 2-14, 3-13
Copyright © 2000, 2001 ARM Limited. All rights reserved.
Index-1
Index
numeric expressions 3-20
numeric literals 3-21
numeric variables 3-13
operator precedence 3-24, 3-25
padding 2-56
pc 2-5, 2-40, 2-43, 2-46, 3-10, 3-15,
3-23
program counter 2-5, 3-10, 3-15,
3-23
program-relative 2-13
expressions 3-23
program-relative labels 3-15
program-relative maps 2-54
register names 3-9
register-based
maps 2-53
register-relative
expressions 3-23
labels 3-15
register-relative address 2-13
relational operators 3-30
relative maps 2-52
shift operators 3-29
speed 2-61
stacks 2-42
string
expressions 3-19
manipulation 3-28
variables 3-13
string constants 2-14
string literals 3-19
subroutines 2-17
symbol naming rules 3-12
symbols 2-58, 3-12
Thumb block copy 2-46
unary operators 3-26
variable substitution 3-14
variables 3-13
built-in 3-10
global 7-4, 7-7
local 7-6, 7-7
VFP directives and notation 6-40
ASSERT directive 2-55, 2-65, 7-44
B
B instruction, Thumb 2-20
Barrel shifter 2-8, 2-20
Index-2
Barrel shifter, Thumb 2-10
:BASE: operator 2-58, 3-26
Base register 2-52
Binary operators, assembly 3-28
BL instruction 2-17
BL instruction, Thumb 2-20
Block copy, assembly language 2-44
Block copy, Thumb 2-46
Boolean constants, assembly language
2-14
Branch instructions 2-6
Branch instructions, Thumb 2-10
BX instruction 2-18
C
Case rules, assembly language 2-12
Character constants, assembly language
2-14
:CHR: operator 3-26
CN directive 7-9
Code size 2-22, 2-61
CODE16 directive 2-18, 3-2, 7-54
CODE32 directive 2-18, 7-54
Command syntax
armsd 3-2
Comments
assembly language 2-13
Condition code suffixes 2-21
Conditional execution, assembly 2-20,
2-22
Conditional execution, Thumb 2-9,
2-10
Constants, assembly 2-14
Coprocessor names, assembly 3-9
CP directive 7-10
CPSR 2-5, 2-20
Current Program Status Register 2-5
D
DATA directive 7-25
Data maps, assembly 2-51
Data processing instructions 2-6
Data processing instructions, Thumb
2-10
Data structure, assembly 2-51
DCB directive 7-18
DCD directive 7-19
DCDU directive 7-20
DCFD directive 7-21
DCFS directive 7-22
DCI directive 7-23
DCQ directive 7-24
DCW directive 7-25
directive 7-30
Directives, assembly language
ALIGN 2-56, 7-50
AREA 2-13, 2-15, 7-52
AREA (literal pools) 2-28
ASSERT 2-55, 2-65, 7-44
CN 7-9
CODE16 2-18, 3-2, 7-54
CODE32 2-18, 7-54
CP 7-10
DATA 7-25
DCB 7-18
DCD 7-19
DCDU 7-20
DCFD 7-21
DCFS 7-22
DCI 7-23
DCQ 7-24
DCW 7-25
DN 7-11
ELSE 7-30
END 2-16, 7-55
END (literal pools) 2-28
ENDFUNC 7-43
ENDIF 7-30
ENTRY 2-16, 7-56
EQU 3-13, 7-57
EXPORT 7-58, 7-59
EXTERN 7-60
FIELD 7-16
FN 7-12
FRAME ADDRESS 7-34
FRAME POP 7-35
FRAME PUSH 7-36
FRAME REGISTER 7-37
FRAME RESTORE 7-38
FRAME SAVE 7-39
FRAME STATE REMEMBER
7-40
FRAME STATE RESTORE 7-41
FUNCTION 7-42
Copyright © 2000, 2001 ARM Limited. All rights reserved.
ARM DUI 0068B
Index
GBLA 3-6, 3-13, 7-4, 7-46
GBLL 3-6, 3-13, 7-4, 7-46
GBLS 3-6, 3-13, 7-4, 7-46
GET 3-5, 7-61
GLOBAL 7-58, 7-59
IF 7-29, 7-30, 7-32
IMPORT 7-62
INCBIN 7-63
INCLUDE 3-5, 7-61
INFO 7-45
KEEP 7-64
LCLA 3-13, 7-6, 7-46
LCLL 3-13, 7-46
LCLS 3-13, 7-46
LTORG 7-14
MACRO 2-48, 7-27
MAP 2-51, 7-15
MEND 7-27, 7-46
MEXIT 7-29
nesting 7-26
NOFP 7-65
OPT 3-10, 7-46
REQUIRE 7-65, 7-66
RLIST 3-3, 7-8
RN 7-67
ROUT 2-13, 3-16, 3-17, 7-68
SETA 3-6, 3-10, 3-13, 7-7, 7-46
SETL 3-6, 3-10, 3-13, 7-7, 7-46
SETS 3-6, 3-10, 3-13, 7-7, 7-46
SN 7-11
SPACE 7-17
SUBT 7-48
TTL 7-48
VFPASSERT SCALAR 6-41
VFPASSERT VECTOR 6-42
WEND 7-32
WHILE 7-29, 7-32
! 7-45
# 7-16
% 7-17
& 7-19
* 7-57
= 7-18
] 7-30
^ 7-15
| 7-30
DN directive 7-11
ARM DUI 0068B
E
I
ELSE directive 7-30
END directive 2-16, 7-55
END directive (literal pools) 2-28
ENDFUNC directive 7-43
ENDIF directive 7-30
ENTRY directive 2-16, 7-56
Entry point
assembly 7-56
Entry point, assembly 2-16
EQU directive 3-13, 7-57
Execution speed 2-22, 2-61
EXPORT directive 7-58, 7-59
EXTERN directive 7-60
IF directive 7-29, 7-30, 7-32
Immediate constants, ARM 2-26
IMPORT directive 7-62
INCBIN directive 7-63
INCLUDE directive 3-5, 7-61
:INDEX: operator 2-58, 3-26
INFO directive 7-45
Instruction set
ARM 2-6
Thumb 2-9
Instructions, assembly language
ADD 2-58
BL 2-17
BX 2-18
LDM 2-39, 2-54, 3-3, 7-8
LDM, Thumb 2-46
MOV 2-25, 2-26, 2-52
MRS 2-8
MSR 2-8
MVN 2-25, 2-26
POP, Thumb 2-46
PUSH, Thumb 2-46
STM 2-39, 2-54, 3-3, 7-8
STM, Thumb 2-46
Invoke 3-2
F
FIELD directive 7-16
floating-point literals, assembly 3-22
FN directive 7-12
FRAME ADDRESS directive 7-34
FRAME POP directive 7-35
FRAME PUSH directive 7-36
FRAME REGISTER directive 7-37
FRAME RESTORE directive 7-38
FRAME SAVE directive 7-39
FRAME STATE REMEMBER
directive 7-40
FRAME STATE RESTORE directive
7-41
FUNCTION directive 7-42
G
GBLA directive 3-6, 3-13, 7-4, 7-46
GBLL directive 3-6, 3-13, 7-4, 7-46
GBLS directive 3-6, 3-13, 7-4, 7-46
GET directive 3-5, 7-61
GLOBAL directive 7-58, 7-59
H
Halfwords
in load and store instructions 2-7
J
Jump tables, assembly language 2-32
K
KEEP directive 7-64
L
Labels, assembly 3-15
Labels, assembly language 2-13
Labels, local, assembly 3-16
LCLA directive 3-13, 7-6, 7-46
LCLL directive 3-13, 7-46
LCLS directive 3-13, 7-46
LDFD pseudo-instruction 6-38, 7-14
LDFS pseudo-instruction 7-14
Copyright © 2000, 2001 ARM Limited. All rights reserved.
Index-3
Index
LDM instruction 2-39, 2-54, 3-3, 7-8
Thumb 2-46
LDR
pseudo-instruction 2-25, 2-27, 2-35,
4-82
Thumb pseudo-instruction 5-41
LDR pseudo-instruction 7-14
:LEFT: operator 3-28
:LEN: operator 3-26
Line format, assembly language 2-12
Line length, assembly language 2-12
Link register 2-5, 2-17
Linking
assembly language labels 2-13
Literal pools, assembly language 2-28
Loading constants, assembly language
2-25
Local
labels, assembly 3-16
variables, assembly 7-6, 7-7
Local labels, assembly language 2-13
Logical
expressions, assembly 3-23
variable, assembly 3-13
Logical literals, assembly 3-23
LTORG directive 7-14
Nesting directives 7-26
Nesting subroutines, assembly language
2-43
NOFP directive 7-65
NOP pseudo-instruction 4-78, 4-84
NOP Thumb pseudo-instruction 5-43
Numeric constants, assembly 3-13
Numeric constants, assembly language
2-14
Numeric expressions, assembly 3-20
numeric literals, assembly 3-21
Numeric variable, assembly 3-13
O
Operator precedence, assembly 3-24,
3-25
Operators, assembly language
:BASE: 2-58
:INDEX: 2-58
:AND: 2-56
OPT directive 3-10, 7-46
P
M
MACRO directive 2-48, 7-27
MAP directive 2-51, 7-15
Maps, assembly language
program-relative 2-54
register-based 2-53
relative 2-52
MEND directive 7-27, 7-46
MEXIT directive 7-29
MOV instruction 2-25, 2-26, 2-52
MRS instruction 2-8
MSR instruction 2-8
Multiple register transfers 2-39
Multiplicative operators, assembly
3-28
MVN instruction 2-25, 2-26
Index-4
N
Padding 2-56
Parameters, assembly macros 2-48
pc, assembly 3-10, 3-15, 3-23
pc, assembly language 2-5, 2-40, 2-43,
2-46
POP instruction, Thumb 2-46
Processor modes 2-4
Program counter, assembly 3-10, 3-15,
3-23
program counter, assembly language
2-5
Program counter, Thumb 2-11
Program-relative
expressions 3-23
labels 3-15
Program-relative address 2-13
Program-relative maps 2-54
Prototype statement 2-48
Pseudo-instructions, assembly language
ADR 2-30, 2-58, 4-78, 4-79
ADR (Thumb) 2-30, 5-40
ADRL 2-30, 2-58
LDFD 6-38, 7-14
LDFS 7-14
LDR 2-25, 2-27, 2-35, 4-82, 7-14
LDR (literal pools) 2-28
LDR (Thumb) 5-41
NOP 4-78, 4-84
NOP (Thumb) 5-43
PUSH instruction, Thumb 2-46
R
Register
names, assembly 3-9
Register access, Thumb 2-9
Register banks 2-4
Register-based
symbols 2-58
Register-based maps 2-53
Register-relative
expressions 3-23
Register-relative address 2-13
Register-relative labels 3-15
Registers 2-4
Relational operators, assembly 3-30
Relative maps 2-52
REQUIRE directive 7-65, 7-66
:RIGHT: operator 3-28
RLIST directive 3-3, 7-8
RN directive 7-67
ROUT directive 2-13, 3-16, 3-17, 7-68
S
Scope, assembly language 2-13
SETA directive 3-6, 3-10, 3-13, 7-7,
7-46
SETL directive 3-6, 3-10, 3-13, 7-7,
7-46
SETS directive 3-6, 3-10, 3-13, 7-7,
7-46
Shift operators, assembly 3-29
SN directive 7-11
SPACE directive 7-17
Stack pointer 2-4
Stacks, assembly language 2-42
Copyright © 2000, 2001 ARM Limited. All rights reserved.
ARM DUI 0068B
Index
Status flags 2-20
STM instruction 2-39, 2-54, 3-3, 7-8
Thumb 2-46
:STR: operator 3-26
String
expressions, assembly 3-19
manipulation, assembly 3-28
variable, assembly 3-13
String constants, assembly language
2-14
String literals, assembly 3-19
Subroutines, assembly language 2-17
SUBT directive 7-48
Symbols
assembly language 3-12
assembly language, Naming rules
3-12
Symbols, register-based 2-58
W
WEAK symbol 7-60, 7-62
WEND directive 7-32
WHILE directive 7-29, 7-32
Symbols
! directive 7-45
# directive 7-16
% directive 7-17
& directive 7-19
* directive 7-57
= directive 7-18
^ directive 7-15
| directive 7-30
T
Thumb
BX instruction 2-18
conditional execution 2-20
direct loading 2-27
example assembly language 2-18
instruction set 2-9
LDM and STM instructions 2-46
popping pc 2-43
TTL directive 7-48
U
Unary operators, assembly 3-26
V
Variables, assembly 3-13
built-in 3-10
global 7-4, 7-7
local 7-6, 7-7
substitution 3-14
VFP directives and notation 6-40
VFPASSERT SCALAR directive 6-41
VFPASSERT VECTOR directive 6-42
ARM DUI 0068B
Copyright © 2000, 2001 ARM Limited. All rights reserved.
Index-5
Index
Index-6
Copyright © 2000, 2001 ARM Limited. All rights reserved.
ARM DUI 0068B
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