Axis Communications 231D+/232D+ Security Camera User Manual

AXIS 231D+/232D+
Network Dome Camera
User’s Manual
About This Document
Japan - This is a class A product based on the standard of the
Voluntary Control Council for Interference from Information
Technology Equipment (VCCI). If this is used near a radio or
television receiver in a domestic environment, it may cause
radio interference. Install and use the equipment according to
the instruction manual.
This manual is intended for administrators and users of the
AXIS 231D+/232D+ Network Dome Camera, and is
applicable for software release 4.40. It includes instructions
for using and managing the AXIS 231D+/232D+ on your
network. Previous experience of networking will be of use
when installing and using this product. Some knowledge of
UNIX or Linux-based systems would also be beneficial, for
developing shell scripts and applications. Later versions of
this document will be posted to the Axis Website, as
required. See also the product’s online help, available via
the Web-based interface.
Australia - This electronic device meets the requirements of
the Radio communications (Electromagnetic Compatibility)
Standard 1998 AS/NZS 3548. Warning! This is a Class A
product. In a domestic environment this product may cause
radio interference, in which case the user may be required to
take adequate measures.
Intellectual Property Rights
Axis AB has intellectual property rights relating to
technology embodied in the product described in this
document. In particular, and without limitation, these
intellectual property rights may include one or more of the
patents listed at and one
or more additional patents or pending patent applications
in the US and other countries.
This product includes software developed by the OpenSSL
Project for use in the OpenSSL Toolkit:
Legal Considerations
Camera surveillance can be prohibited by laws that vary
from country to country. Check the laws in your local
region before using this product for surveillance purposes.
This product includes one (1) MPEG-4 decoder license. To
purchase further licenses, contact your reseller.
Electromagnetic Compatibility (EMC)
This equipment generates, uses and can radiate radio
frequency energy and, if not installed and used in
accordance with the instructions, may cause harmful
interference to radio communications. However, there is no
guarantee that interference will not occur in a particular
If this equipment does cause harmful interference to radio
or television reception, which can be determined by turning
the equipment off and on, the user is encouraged to try to
correct the interference by one or more of the following
measures: Re-orient or relocate the receiving antenna.
Increase the separation between the equipment and
receiver. Connect the equipment to an outlet on a different
circuit to the receiver. Consult your dealer or an
experienced radio/TV technician for help. Shielded (STP)
network cables must be used with this unit to ensure
compliance with EMC standards.
USA - This equipment has been tested and found to
comply with the limits for a Class A computing device
pursuant to Subpart B of Part 15 of FCC rules, which are
designed to provide reasonable protection against such
interference when operated in a commercial environment.
Operation of this equipment in a residential area is likely to
cause interference, in which case the user at his/her own
expense will be required to take whatever measures may be
required to correct the interference.
Canada - This Class A digital apparatus complies with
Canadian ICES-003.
Europe -
This digital equipment fulfills the
requirements for radiated emission according to limit A of
EN55022/1998, and the requirements for immunity
according to EN55024/1998 residential, commercial, and
light industry. Warning! This is a Class A product. In a
domestic environment this product may cause radio
interference, in which case the user may be required to take
adequate measures.
Name> Quick User’s Guide
Every care has been taken in the preparation of this manual;
Please inform your local Axis office of any inaccuracies or
omissions. Axis Communications AB cannot be held responsible
for any technical or typographical errors and reserves the right
to make changes to the product and manuals without prior
notice. Axis Communications AB makes no warranty of any
kind with regard to the material contained within this
document, including, but not limited to, the implied warranties
of merchantability and fitness for a particular purpose. Axis
Communications AB shall not be liable nor responsible for
incidental or consequential damages in connection with the
furnishing, performance or use of this material.
Trademark Acknowledgments
Acrobat, Adobe, Boa, Ethernet, IBM, Internet Explorer, Linux,
Macintosh, Microsoft, Mozilla, Netscape Navigator, UNIX,
Windows, WWW are registered trademarks of the respective
holders. Java and all Java-based trademarks and logos are
trademarks or registered trademarks of Sun Microsystems, Inc.
in the United States and other countries. UPnP is a certification
mark of the UPnPTM Implementers Corporation. Axis
Communications AB is independent of Sun Microsystems Inc.
This product complies with both the European RoHS
directive, 2002/95/EC, and the Chinese RoHS regulations,
WEEE Directive
The European Union has enacted a Directive 2002/96/EC
on Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment (WEEE
Directive). This directive is applicable in the European
Union member states.
The WEEE marking on this product (see right) or its
documentation indicates that the product must not be
disposed of together with household waste. To prevent possible
harm to human health and/or the environment, the product must
be disposed of in an approved and environmentally safe recycling
process. For further information on how to dispose of this product
correctly, contact the product supplier, or the local authority
responsible for waste disposal in your area.
Business users should contact the product supplier for
information on how to dispose of this product correctly. This
product should not be mixed with other commercial waste.
Axis Customer Services
Should you require any technical assistance, please contact
your Axis reseller. If your questions cannot be answered
immediately, your reseller will forward your queries through
the appropriate channels to ensure a rapid response. If you are
connected to the Internet, you can:
• download user documentation and firmware updates
• find answers to resolved problems in the FAQ database.
Search by product, category, or phrases
• report problems to Axis support staff by logging in to your
private support area
• visit the Axis Support Web at
Safety Notice - Battery Replacement
The AXIS 231D+/232D+ uses a 3.0V CR2032 Lithium
battery as the power supply for its internal real-time clock
(RTC). This battery will, under normal conditions, last for
a minimum of 5 years. Low battery power affects the
operation of the RTC, causing it to reset at every
power-up. A log message will appear when battery
replacement is required.
The battery should not be replaced unless required!
If the battery does need replacing, please observe the
following points:
• Danger of Explosion if battery is incorrectly replaced
• Replace only with the same or equivalent battery,
as recommended by the manufacturer.
• Dispose of used batteries according to the
manufacturer's instructions.
AXIS 231D+/232D+ Network Dome Camera User’s
Manual, Revision 2.1
Date: May 2007
Part No: 28868r3
Copyright© Axis Communications AB, 2007
AXIS 231D+/232D+
Table of contents
AXIS 231D+/232D+ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
AXIS 232D+. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
Hardware Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
Using the Network Dome Camera . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
Accessing the AXIS 231D+/232D+ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
Video Streams . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
Stream Types. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
MPEG-4 protocols and communication methods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
Other methods of accessing the video stream . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
Other MPEG-4 clients . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
Configuring the Network Dome Camera. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
Accessing the Setup Tools . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
Overview of the Setup Tools . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
Video & Image Settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
Overlay Image Settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
Advanced Camera Settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
MPEG-4 Settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
Live View Config . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
Layout . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
HTML Examples. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
External Video. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
Sequence Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
Pan Tilt Zoom Controls. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
Dome Configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
Preset Positions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
Guard Tour. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
Advanced. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
Control Queue. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
Event Configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
Event Servers. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
Event Types . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
Motion detection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34
Port Status . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
System Options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36
Security . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36
AXIS 231D+/232D+
Date & Time . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40
Network - Basic TCP/IP Settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41
Network - Advanced TCP/IP Settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42
SOCKS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44
Network - QoS (Quality of service) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45
SMTP (email) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45
Network - SNMP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46
UPnP™ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46
RTP (Multicast)/ MPEG-4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46
Network - Bonjour . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46
Ports & devices - I/O Ports. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46
Maintenance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47
Support . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47
Advanced. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48
About. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48
Resetting to Factory Default Settings. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48
Using the Control Button. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49
Connection Module . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50
Troubleshooting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52
Checking the Firmware . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52
Updating the Firmware . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52
Emergency Recovery Procedure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53
Support . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53
Symptoms, Possible Causes and Remedial Actions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54
Technical Specifications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56
General performance considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59
Optimizing your system . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59
Frame rates - Motion JPEG . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60
Frame rates - MPEG-4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60
Bandwidth. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60
Glossary of Terms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62
Index . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69
AXIS 231D+/232D+ - Description
AXIS 231D+/232D+
Ideal for demanding surveillance and remote monitoring applications, the AXIS
231D+/232D+ Network Dome Camera features precise pan/tilt/zoom control, superior
quality Motion JPEG and MPEG-4 video, advanced event management functionality, 4
alarm inputs/4 alarm outputs (for e.g. door sensors, alarm bells), 50 preset positions,
sequence modes and guard tours. With security features such as HTTPS and IP address
filtering, the AXIS AXIS 231D+/232D+ is perfect for professional security installations.
Up to 20 viewers can access the camera simultaneously when using Motion JPEG and
MPEG-4 unicast. Video can be viewed in 5 resolutions (up to 4CIF), image compression is
The AXIS 231D+/232D+ has a built-in Web server, providing full access to all features
through the use of a standard web browser. The built-in scripting tool allows basic
applications to be created, providing basic surveillance solutions. For advanced
functionality, the Network Dome Camera can be integrated via the use of AXIS HTTP API.
For more information, refer to
Axis products are supported by the industry's largest base of application software for
managing and recording video, and integrating alarm and access control systems.
AXIS 232D+
The AXIS 232D+ Network Dome Camera is a day and night camera with an IR cut filter
which enables the camera to capture color video in light conditions down to 0.3 lux, and
black and white video in conditions down to 0.005 lux. The IR-cut filter can be
automatically enabled/disabled according to the current light conditions or manually
enabled/disabled from the internal web pages.
AXIS 231D+/232D+ - Description
Hardware Description
Connection module
Control button
Mounting slot for
fixing screw
Network connector
with Network and
Power Indicators
Serial number S/N
Network Connector- After completion of the startup and self test routines, the Network
and Power Indicators on the network connector flashes as follows:
Flashes for network activity
Normal operation
Flashes green/amber during upgrade and when connecting to
AXIS Internet Dynamic DNS Service
Detail - network connector:
Control Button - Press this button to restore the factory default settings, as described in
Resetting to Factory Default Settings, on page 48. The Serial Number (S/N) is located on
the label on the unit.
Network Connector - The AXIS 231D+/232D+ connects to the network via a standard
RJ45 connector. Supporting NWAY, the AXIS 231D+/232D+ detects the speed of the local
network segment (10BaseT/100BaseTX Ethernet).
Connection Module - The connection module
provides the physical interface to 4 transistor
outputs, 4 digital inputs and is the connection
point for AC power. See Connection Module, on
page 50.
For instructions on how to install the AXIS
231D+/232D+, please refer to the Installation
Guide which is supplied with the product in
printed format or in PDF format from the Axis
Web site at
4 outputs
4 inputs
AC Power
Connection module connector
AXIS 231D+/232D+ - Using the Network Dome Camera
Using the Network Dome Camera
This document includes instructions for using and managing the AXIS 231D+/232D+.
Instructions on how to install the AXIS 231D+/232D+ on your network are provided in the
AXIS 231D+/232D+ Installation guide which is available on the Axis Web site. The AXIS
231D+/232D+ can be used with most standard operating systems and supports Microsoft
Internet Explorer 6.x or later, Netscape 7.x or later and Mozilla 1.4 or later.
Accessing the AXIS 231D+/232D+
1. Start a Web browser (Internet Explorer, Mozilla, Netscape Navigator).
2. Enter the IP address or host name
of the AXIS 231D+/232D+ in the
Location/Address field of your
Web browser.
3. Enter the user name and password set by the administrator.
4. A video image is displayed in your Web browser.
Note: • To be able to view streaming video in Microsoft Internet Explorer, you must set your Web browser to allow
ActiveX controls. If your working environment restricts the use of additional software components, you can
configure the AXIS 231D+/232D+ to use a Java applet for updating images. Please refer to the online help
files for more information.
• User functions in the AXIS 231D+/232D+ may have been customized to meet the specific requirements of
the application. Consequently, many of the examples and functions in this section may differ from those
displayed in your Live View page.
AXIS 231D+/232D+ - Using the Network Dome Camera
If the AXIS 231D+/232D+ has been customized, the buttons and other items described
below will be displayed accordingly on the Live View page. The following provides an
overview of each button:
The Video Format drop-down list allows the video format on the Live
View page to be temporarily changed.
The Output buttons control an output directly from the Live View page. These
buttons are configured under Setup > Live View Config > Layout.
Pulse - click this button to activate the port for a defined period of time, e.g. to
switch on a light for 20 seconds.
Active/Inactive - click these buttons to manually start and stop a connected
device, e.g. switch a light on/off.
These buttons start/stop the Sequence Mode. This mode is created in Setup >
Live View Config > Sequence mode and automatically displays the view from
preset positions at set intervals.
The Action buttons trigger an action directly from the Live View page. These
buttons are configured under Setup > Live View Config > Layout. Click these
buttons to manually start and stop events.
Use the Snapshot button to capture a snapshot of the image currently being
displayed in the window. Right-click on the image to save it in JPEG format
on your computer.
Click the Ctrl panel button to access the following buttons:
Auto focus: Automatically adjusts the image focus.
Auto iris: Automatically adjusts the amount of light reaching
the image sensor for best image results.
Backlight comp: Enabling backlight compensation makes the
subject clearer if the image background is too bright, or if the
subject is too dark.
IR cut filter (AXIS 232D+ only) - when set to off, the camera
will be able to “see” infrared light, e.g. at night, thus making
the image clearer. The image is shown in black & white when
the IR cut filter is off. Set to Auto to automatically turn the
filter off when the available visible light falls below the minimum requirement.
Note: There are different buttons in the Control Panel depending on the web browser you are using, but the
descriptions and functionality are the same.
10 AXIS 231D+/232D+ - Using the Network Dome Camera
The AMC viewer toolbar (AXIS Media Control) is available from Microsoft Internet
Explorer only and displays the following buttons:
The Play/Stop buttons start and stop the live video stream.
The Snapshot button takes a snapshot of the currently displayed image. The
Snapshot function and the target directory for saving snapshots can be configured
from AMC (AXIS Media Control), which is available from the Windows Control
Panel (Internet Explorer only).
Click the View Full Screen button and the video image will fill the entire screen
area. No other windows will be visible. Press Esc (Escape) on the computer
keyboard to cancel full screen view.
The record button is used to record the current video stream. The location where
the image file is saved can be specified using the AMC control panel. To enable
recording, Select Live View Config > Viewer Settings > Enable recording button.
Click the Set emulated joystick mode button and click in the image to move the
camera in the desired direction
Click the Center button and the camera view will center on the position that was
clicked. The location to move to has a definite position, e.g. 'position x,y.
Area Zoom
This allows you to draw a box over a desired area to zoom into. To activate, click the
Center button described in the AMC viewer toolbar or in other Internet browsers choose
PTZ > Center. Using your mouse click in the image and while holding down the left mouse
button draw a square over the area you would like to zoom into.
Pan/Tilt/Zoom Controls
The Live View page also displays the Pan/Tilt/Zoom controls. The administrator
can enable/disable the control for specified users under System Options >
Security > Users > User List.
AXIS 231D+/232D+ - Using the Network Dome Camera
Pan/Tilt/Zoom Control Queue
The time the user is in control of the PTZ settings is limited and a queue of users has been
set up. Use the buttons to request or release control of the Pan/Tilt/Zoom controllers.
The Pan/Tilt/Zoom Control Queue is set up by the administrator under:
Dome Configuration > Advanced > PTZ Control Queue. For more information on using
Pan/Tilt/Zoom controls, please see page 25.
AXIS 295 Video Surveillance Joystick
The AXIS 295 is a USB device that gives responsive and accurate control of the pan, tilt,
zoom functionality. On installation, the joystick is automatically detected by AXIS Media
Control where the 12 buttons can be programmed for a customized video surveillance
system. For more information, please visit the Axis Website at
12 AXIS 231D+/232D+ - Video Streams
Video Streams
The AXIS 231D+/232D+ provides several different image and video stream formats. The
type to use depends on your requirements and on the properties of your network.
The Live View page in the AXIS 231D+/232D+ provides access to Motion JPEG and
MPEG-4 video streams, as well as to single JPEG images. Other applications and clients
can also access these video streams/images directly, without going via the Live View page.
Stream Types
Motion JPEG
This format uses standard JPEG still images in the video stream. These images are then
displayed and updated at a rate sufficient to create a stream that shows constantly updated
The Motion JPEG stream uses considerable amounts of bandwidth, but also provides
excellent image quality and access to each and every individual image contained in the
Note also that multiple clients accessing Motion JPEG streams can use different image
This is a video compression standard that makes good use of bandwidth, and which can
provide high quality video streams at less than 1 Mbit/s.
• MPEG-4 is licensed technology. The AXIS 231D+/232D+ includes one viewing client license. Installing
additional unlicensed copies of the viewing client is prohibited. To purchase additional licenses, contact
your Axis reseller.
• All clients viewing the MPEG-4 stream must use the same image settings.
The MPEG-4 standard provides scope for a large range of different coding tools for use by
various applications in different situations, and the AXIS 231D+/232D+ provides certain
subsets of these tools. These are represented as Video object types, which are selected for
use with different viewing clients. The supported video object types are:
• Simple - sets the coding type to H.263, as used by e.g. QuickTime™.
• Advanced Simple - sets the coding type to MPEG-4 Part 2, as used by AMC (AXIS
Media Control)
When using MPEG-4 it is also possible to control the bit rate, which in turn allows the
amount of bandwidth usage to be controlled. CBR (constant bit rate) is used to achieve a
specific bit rate by varying the quality of the MPEG-4 stream. When using VBR (variable
bit rate), the quality of the video stream is kept as constant as possible, at the cost of a
varying bit rate.
AXIS 231D+/232D+ - Video Streams
MPEG-4 protocols and communication methods
To deliver live streaming video over IP networks, various combinations of transport
protocols and broadcast methods are employed.
• RTP (Realtime Transport Protocol) is a protocol that allows programs to manage the
real-time transmission of multimedia data, via unicast or multicast.
• RTSP (Real Time Streaming Protocol) serves as a control protocol, to negotiate which
transport protocol to use for the stream. RTSP is thus used by a viewing client to start a
unicast session, see below.
• UDP (User Datagram Protocol) is a communications protocol that offers limited service
for exchanging data in a network that uses the Internet Protocol (IP). UDP is an alternative to the Transmission Control Protocol (TCP). The advantage of UDP is that it is not
required to deliver all data and may drop network packets when there is e.g. network
congestion. This is suitable for live video, as there is no point in re-transmitting old
information that will not be displayed anyway.
• Unicasting is communication between a single sender and a single receiver over a network. This means that the video stream goes independently to each user, and each user
gets their own stream. A benefit of unicasting is that if one stream fails, it only affects
one user.
• Multicast is bandwidth-conserving technology that reduces bandwidth usage by simultaneously delivering a single stream of information to multiple network recipients. This
technology is used primarily on delimited networks (intranets), as each user needs an
uninterrupted data flow and should not rely on network routers.
14 AXIS 231D+/232D+ - Video Streams
How to stream MPEG-4
Deciding on the combination of protocols and methods to use depends on your viewing
requirements, and on the properties of your network.
This method (actually RTP over UDP and RTSP over TCP) should be your first
consideration for live video, especially when it is important to always have an up-to-date
video stream, even if some images do get dropped. This can be configured as multicast or
Multicasting provides the most efficient usage of bandwidth, especially when there are
large numbers of clients viewing simultaneously. Note however, that a multicast broadcast
cannot pass a network router unless the router is configured to allow this. It is thus not
possible to multicast over e.g. the Internet.
Unicasting should be used for video-on-demand broadcasting. However, if more and more
unicast clients connect simultaneously, the server will at some point become overloaded.
There is also a maximum of 20 simultaneous viewers to be considered.
This unicast method is RTP tunneled over RTSP. This can be used to exploit the fact that it
is relatively simple to configure firewalls to allow RTSP traffic.
These two methods can also be used to traverse firewalls. Firewalls are commonly
configured to allow the HTTP protocol, thus allowing RTP to be tunneled.
AXIS 231D+/232D+ - Video Streams
The AXIS Media Control
The recommended method of accessing live video (MPEG-4 and/or Motion JPEG) from the
AXIS 231D+/232D+ is to use the AXIS Media Control (AMC) in Microsoft Internet Explorer
in Windows. This ActiveX component is automatically installed on first use, after which it
can be configured by opening the AMC Control Panel applet from the Windows Control
Panel. Alternatively, right-click the video image in Internet Explorer.
Other methods of accessing the video stream
Video/images from the AXIS 231D+/232D+ can also be accessed in the following ways:
• If supported by the client, the AXIS 231D+/232D+ can use Motion JPEG server push to
display video. This option maintains an open HTTP connection to the browser and sends
data as and when required, for as long as required.
• As single JPEG images in a browser. Enter e.g. the path:
• Windows Media Player. This requires AMC and the MPEG-4 decoder to be installed. The
paths that can be used are listed below, in the order of preference.
• Unicast via RTP: axrtpu://<ip>/mpeg4/media.amp
• Unicast via RTSP: axrtsp://<ip>/mpeg4/media.amp
• Unicast via RTSP, tunneled via HTTP: axrtsphttp://<ip>/mpeg4/media.amp
• Unicast via RTSP, tunneled via HTTPS: axrtsphttps://<ip>/mpeg4/media.amp
• Multicast: axrtpm://<ip>/mpeg4/media.amp
Other MPEG-4 clients
Although it may be possible to use other clients to view the MPEG-4 stream, this is not
guaranteed by Axis. For some other clients, e.g. QuickTime™ the Video Object Type must be
set to Simple. It may also be necessary to adjust the advanced MPEG-4 settings.To assess
the video stream from e.g. QuickTime™ the following path can be used:
This path is for all supported methods, and the client will negotiate with the network
camera to determine exactly which transport protocol to use.
Notes: <ip> = IP address
16 AXIS 231D+/232D+ - Configuring the Network Dome Camera
Configuring the Network Dome Camera
This section describes how to configure the AXIS 231D+/232D+ and is intended for the
product administrator who has unrestricted access to all Setup tools and Operator who
has access to Video & Image, Live View Config and Event Configuration. See the section
on Security, on page 36 for more information on user access control.
The AXIS 231D+/232D+ is configured under Setup from a standard browser.
Accessing the Setup Tools
Follow the instructions below to access the Setup Tools from a Web browser.
1. Start the Web browser and enter
the IP address or domain name
of the AXIS 231D+/232D+ in
the location/address field.
2. The Live View page is now displayed. Click Setup to display the Setup configuration
Overview of the Setup Tools
Setup Configuration
AXIS 231D+/232D+ - Configuring the Network Dome Camera
Video & Image Settings
The following descriptions offer examples of the available features in the AXIS
231D+/232D+. For details of each setting, please refer to the online help files which are
to access the help files.
available from each page. Click
Image Settings
To optimize the video images according to your requirements, modify the following
settings under Image Appearance. Each setting is described in the online help files
All configuration of images and overlays will affect the performance of the network
camera, depending on the usage and the available bandwidth.
• High resolution generates larger files
• Lower compression improves image quality, but generates larger files
• Black & White uses less bandwidth than Color
• Rotating the image 90 or 270 degrees will lower the maximum frame rate
See also the specifications for frame rates and bandwidth in General performance
considerations, on page 59.
18 AXIS 231D+/232D+ - Configuring the Network Dome Camera
Overlay Settings
Use these settings to include an image
as an overlay, and/or the date and
time, along with text of your own.
Text overlays are all included on one
line at the top or bottom of the video
image. Image overlays can be placed
anywhere in the video image.
Date &
To upload an overlay image, see
Example: If there is information in a monitored
area that you do not wish to disclose,
you can mask it out by placing an
overlay image on top. Setting the
overlay image anywhere in the video
image using coordinates allows precision detail masking.
Video Stream
The Maximum video stream time can be set as Unlimited, or a maximum stream time per
session in seconds, minutes or hours can be defined. When the set time has expired, a new
stream can be started by refreshing the page in the Web browser. Note that the maximum
video stream time does not apply to clients connecting via multicast.
To avoid bandwidth problems on the network, the frame rate allowed to each viewer can
also be limited. Select either Unlimited or define a maximum frame rate per viewer.
For a preview of the image and overlay settings before saving, click Test. When you are
satisfied with the settings, click Save.
Please use the online help files
for more information.
AXIS 231D+/232D+ - Configuring the Network Dome Camera
Overlay Image Settings
An overlay image is an image included in the video image. This might, for example, be
your own company logo. Follow these instructions to upload and use an overlay image:
1. Go to Setup > Video & Image > Overlay Image.
2. To upload the file (a logo or image) to the AXIS 231D+/232D+, click the Browse
button and locate it on your computer or server.
3. Click the Upload button and follow the on-screen instructions.
4. The image is now available in the Use overlay image drop-down list.
5. Click Save.
6. Go to Setup > Video & Image and modify the parameters under Overlay Settings.
Overlay image requirements
Image Formats
Overlay image limitations
Image Size
Windows 24-bit BMP (full color) The height and width of the overlay •
image in pixels must be exactly
divisible by 4.
If the image overlay and text overlay are larger
than the video image, no overlay will be displayed. When also using a text overlay, this
will occupy 16 pixels in height and as many in
width as the video image.
If the overlay is initially positioned so that
part of it is outside the video image, it will be
relocated so that it appears over the video
image, i.e. the entire image is always displayed.
The maximum overlay image size supported by
the AXIS 231D+/232D+ is the same as the
maximum image resolution. See Technical
Specifications, on page 46.
Windows 4-bit BMP (16 colors)
Advanced Camera Settings
To optimize the lighting settings according to your requirements, modify the following
settings under Lighting Conditions:
• White balance - the white balancing system in the AXIS 231D+/232D+ can
automatically detect white in the image and intelligently use this as a reference
for other colors.
• Exposure control - this setting is used to adapt to the amount/type of light being
• IR cut filter (AXIS 232D+ only)- when the IR cut filter is set to OFF, the camera
will be able to ‘see’ infrared light, e.g. at night, thus making the image clearer.
The image is shown in black & white when the IR cut filter is off.
20 AXIS 231D+/232D+ - Configuring the Network Dome Camera
Note that if the AXIS 232D+ is set to Auto, it will automatically switch between
IR cut filter ON and OFF, according to the current lighting conditions. This is only
possible when the iris is set to Auto Iris, and the exposure control is set to
• Backlight compensation - this setting is used to make the subject appear clearer,
e.g. against a bright background.
Image Settings
• Auto focus enabled (default setting).
• Sensitivity - sets the speed of the auto focus. High is used when focusing on
objects that move frequently. Low improves the stability of the focus.
Note: In certain situations, the white balancing system will not operate effectively. Problems may occur if the
image contains no white color at all, or if the dominant color is not white. In these circumstances, the
white balance may incorrectly be based on another visible color in the image, and colors may become distorted. A pale background picture with reddish or blue foreground objects is very symptomatic of this condition. In such cases it is recommended that a fixed white balance setting is selected.
Please use the online help files
for more information.
MPEG-4 Settings
Tools for adjusting the MPEG-4 settings and for controlling the video bit rate.
The MPEG-4 standard provides many different coding tools for various applications in
different situations. As most MPEG-4 clients do not support all of these tools, it is usual to
instead define and use subsets for different clients or groups of clients. These settings allow
you to define the type of viewing client to use.
Adjusting the maximum bit rate and setting it to variable or constant is a good way of
controlling the bandwidth used by the MPEG-4 video stream.
For more information on these advanced settings, please see the online help files
AXIS 231D+/232D+ - Live View Config
Live View Config
These are the tools for deciding the layout
of the Live View page.
The layout can be set in 3 ways:
• Use Axis look - the layout is
• Use custom settings - modify the
default page with your own colors,
images etc. Click the Configure button
and see the following page.
• Own Home Page - Upload and use your
own custom made page as the default
web page. Click the Configure button
and see the following page.
The other settings on this page concern
which other features to include, e.g.
buttons and links. See page 22 for more
Customizing the default page
The appearance of the default AXIS
231D+/232D+ Live View page can be
customized to suit your own
requirements, or you can upload and
use your own home page. To upload
your own files, click the
Upload/Remove button and see the
description below.
Upload Own Web Files
Your own web files, background
picture, color etc. must first be
uploaded to the AXIS 231D+/232D+
in order to be available for selection
in the Custom Settings setup dialog.
Once uploaded, the files are shown in
the drop-down list.
Note that the setup address is:
http://<ip address>/operator/basic.shtml
22 AXIS 231D+/232D+ - Live View Config
1.Enter the path to the file, e.g. a file located on your workstation or click the
Browse button.
2.Select the user level for the uploaded file. Setting the user access level means that
you have complete control over which pages can be viewed by which users.
3.When the path is shown correctly in the text field, click the Upload button.
All uploaded files are shown in the list in the lower section of the page. To remove a file,
check the box provided next to it and then click the Remove button.
• To use your uploaded file, click the radio button and select the file from the drop-down
list by Own:
• To use an external file located somewhere other than in the AXIS 231D+/232D+, click
the radio button and enter the URL by External:
Own Home Page
To use a previously uploaded web page as the default page, check the checkbox, select the
page from the drop-down list and click OK.
User Defined Links
User defined links can be CGI links or web links.
Once configured, the link(s) will appear on the Live
View page.
To set up a web link, select the Use as web link
radio button, enter a descriptive name and enter the
URL in the provided field. Click Save and the link
will appear on the Live View page.
User defined CGI links can be used to issue HTTP
API requests, e.g. PTZ commands.
1. Check Show Custom Link 1
2. Enter a descriptive name, e.g. CAM START.
User Defined Links
3. Select the Use as cgi link radio button and enter
the cgi link in the field:,-30
4. Check Show Custom Link 2.
5. Enter a descriptive name, e.g. CAM STOP.
6. Select the Use as cgi link radio button and enter the cgi link in the field:,0
7. These links will appear in the web interface and can be used to control the AXIS
AXIS 231D+/232D+ - Live View Config
For more information on the Axis HTTP API, see the Support / Developer pages on the Axis
Web site at
Please use the online help files
for more information.
For more information on the Axis HTTP API, see the Support / Developer pages on the Axis
Web site at See also the section on PTZ, on page 25.
Action Buttons
These buttons can be used to manually trigger and stop an event from the Live View page.
The snapshot button allows you to take a snapshot of the video stream and save it to a
Output Buttons
These buttons are used to control the outputs on the AXIS 231D+/232D+ and thus the
equipment connected to them, e.g. to switch a light on or off:
• The Pulse button activates the port for a defined period
• Active/Inactive displays 2 buttons, one for each action (on/off)
Default Video Format
Select the default video format to use on the Live View page. Checking the box for Show
video format selection displays a drop-down list on the Live View page allowing you to
temporarily change the format.
When using MPEG-4 as the video format, the default viewer is AXIS Media Control with
Internet Explorer.
Note: It is also possible to view Motion JPEG when MPEG-4 is chosen as default and vice versa.
Default Viewer
From the drop-down lists, select the default method for viewing video images for your
browser. The camera will attempt to show the video images in the selected video format
and viewer. If this is not possible, the camera will override the settings and select the best
available combination.
Internet Explorer
Other browsers
Recommended viewer in Windows Internet Explorer (MPEG-4 /Motion JPEG).
MPEG-4 only.
Java applet
A slower imaging alternative to AMC. Requires one of the following installed on the client:
• JVM (J2SE) 1.4.2 or higher
• JRE (J2SE) 5.0 or higher
Still image
Displays still images only. Hit the Refresh button in your browser to view a new image.
Server Push
Recommended viewer for other browsers (Motion JPEG).
MPEG-4 only.
Java applet
A slower imaging alternative to Server Push (Motion JPEG only).
Still image
Displays still images only. Hit the Refresh button in your browser to view a new image.
24 AXIS 231D+/232D+ - Live View Config
Viewer Settings
Checking the Show viewer toolbar box displays the AMC toolbar under the video stream.
By checking the Enable MPEG-4 decoder installation box, it is also possible for the
Administrator to enable or disable the installation of the MPEG-4 decoder. This is used to
prevent the installation of unlicensed copies. Further decoder licenses can be purchased
from your Axis dealer.
Check the Show crosshair in PTZ joystick mode checkbox to indicate the center of the
image when viewing the video stream in PTZ joystick mode.
Check Use PTZ joystick mode as default to set PTZ mode to joystick.
Check Enable recording button to start an MPEG-4 recording directly from the Live View
HTML Examples
You can add live video from your AXIS 231D+/232D+ to your own web site. The video
server can send Motion-JPEG or MPEG-4 images to up to 20 simultaneous connections,
although an administrator can restrict this to fewer. This does not affect or include the
number of multicast viewers.
Enter the Image Type, Image size and other settings to suit your web page and click
External Video
An external video source is a source originating from some other Axis device on the
network. The images from these sources can be displayed just as if they were produced by
the AXIS 231D+/232D+.
The External Video Source list shows all of the external video sources currently
configured. The information displayed is the source's name and the path to the video
stream. Up to 20 external video sources can be configured.
Working with External Video Sources
1. To add a new video source, click the Add button. This opens the External Video
Source Setup dialog, which is used to make all the necessary settings.
2. To modify an existing video source, select it and click the Modify button.
3. To delete an external video source, select it and click the Remove button.
AXIS 231D+/232D+ - Live View Config
Sequence Mode
Sequence Mode is a configuration that automatically displays the view from multiple,
previously defined Preset Positions (see Dome Configuration, on page 28 and the online
This is useful for e.g. security personnel viewing a surveillance system that constantly
rotates through the selected preset positions, in the listed order, or randomly.
To set up sequence mode, simply select the desired preset positions and enter the number
of seconds or minutes to display each position for. Each position can be displayed for up to
59 minutes.
Note: The Sequence mode is only active as long the browser is open.
Pan Tilt Zoom Controls
The controls available for Pan Tilt Zoom (PTZ) are displayed on the Live View page by
default. The administrator can enable/disable the controls for specified users.
Source /
Preset positions
Tilt bar
26 AXIS 231D+/232D+ - Live View Config
PTZ controls
the Pan bar - moves the camera to the right and left
the Tilt bar - tips the camera up and down
the Zoom bar - zooms the view in and out
the Focus bar - adjusts the focus
the Iris bar - adjusts the brightness of the image
Clicking on the bars themselves or on the arrows at the end of the bars will move the
camera to a new position.
Each position on the bar (see right) represents a
defined position in the camera’s range of movement,
with the center of the bar representing the point midway between the two extremes of
Clicking a position directly on the bar moves the camera directly to the new position in
one smooth movement. Clicking on the arrows at the ends of a bar causes a stepped,
incremental change.
The PTZ device can also be controlled using click-in-image movement, which can also be
of relative or absolute type.
Absolute click-in-image movement means that the camera view will center on the absolute
position that was clicked.
Relative click-in-image movement means that by clicking and holding the mouse button
down in the image, the PTZ device moves the camera in that direction, relative to the
center of the image. The further from the center the image is clicked, the greater the
You can also use Area Zoom to draw a box over a desired area to zoom in on. Using your
mouse click in the image where you want the center of the area you are are going to zoom
in on, and while holding down the left mouse button draw a square over the size of area
you would like to zoom in on.
Focus and Iris Controls
The Focus and Iris (image brightness) can be adjusted manually by using the control bars,
or they can be set for automatic adjustment, by clicking the Auto Iris and Auto Focus
AXIS 231D+/232D+ - Live View Config
Preset Positions
These presets are selected from the drop-down Source list on the Live View page and will
move and/or zoom the camera to a pre-defined position, i.e. to cover an area of particular
interest. Events can also be configured to go to preset positions when triggered. For
information on setting up preset positions, please see Dome Configuration, on page 28 and
the online help.
PTZ Control Queue
This indicates that PTZ queueing has been enabled. This means that the time the user is in
control of the PTZ device is limited and that a user queue has been set up. Use the buttons
to request or release control of the PTZ controls. For information on how to set up the
control queue, please see PTZ Control Queue on page 29 and the online help.
Using CGI links to control PTZ devices
User-defined CGI links on the Live View page can be used to issue HTTP API requests, e.g.
PTZ commands. These links are configured in the Live View Layout settings, see page 22.
28 AXIS 231D+/232D+ - Dome Configuration
Dome Configuration
Preset Positions
A preset position is a pre-defined camera view than can be used to quickly move the
camera to a specific location.
From Preset Position Setup, use the Pan, Tilt and Zoom (PTZ) controls to steer the camera
to the required position. When satisfied with the camera's position, enter a descriptive
name. The camera position, iris and focus settings are then saved as a preset position.
The position can be assumed at any
time, by selecting the preset's name
from the Preset positions drop-down
list. Preset positions can be selected in
Live View, from events, in Sequence
mode and in the Guard Tour.
One position can be set as the Home
position, which is readily accessible by
clicking on the Home button in both the
Preset Position Setup window. The
position's name will have Home (H)
added, e.g. Office Entrance Home (H).
Guard Tour
A guard tour moves between chosen Preset Positions, one-by-one, in a pre-determined
order or randomly, and for configurable time periods. Unlike the Sequence Mode, which is
a viewing application under Live View Config (see Live View Config, on page 21), the
guard tour sequence will keep running after the user has logged off or closed the browser.
Once the preset position has been set, and added to the guard tour, the following settings
can be made:
Set a pause between runs
Add and remove postions
View Time in seconds or minutes
Move Speed - sets the speed of the Pan/Tilt movements to the preset position
View Order (or Random)
AXIS 231D+/232D+ - Dome Configuration
Define the pan, tilt, zoom and focus limits for the AXIS 231D+/232D+. Movements to the
left and right, up and down can be restricted to narrow the area under surveillance. The
near focus limit can be set to avoid focusing on objects too close to the camera.
Notes: Once a limit has been saved, this position can not be exceeded by the AXIS 231D+/232D+ unless the values have been reset and saved to a greater value first (i.e. reset the default values of the mechanical restrictions).
Continuous zoom or focus movements may not always honour the limits.
Move speed sets the speed of the camera's Pan/Tilt movements. The default setting is
maximum speed.
Ctrl Panel
Use the Ctrl Panel to configure shortcut command buttons.
The calibration page gives instructions for calibration of the AXIS 231D+/232D+.
Control Queue
The administrator can set up a queue for the PTZ controllers. Once set up, the PTZ Control
Queue buttons will appear on the Live View page offering one viewer exclusive control for
a limited amount of time. Other users will be placed in the queue. For an overview of Pan
Tilt Zoom controls, see page 25.
PTZ Control Queue on Live View page
Please use the online help files
for more information.
30 AXIS 231D+/232D+ - Event Configuration
Event Configuration
This section describes how to configure the AXIS 231D+/232D+ for event handling. The
AXIS 231D+/232D+ can be configured to perform certain actions when certain types of
events occur.
Event Servers
Event Servers are used, e.g. for receiving uploaded image files and/or notification
messages. To set up Event server connections in your AXIS 231D+/232D+, go to Setup >
Event Configuration > Event Servers and enter the required information according to the
selected server type.
Server type
Requires information
• used for uploading saved images
• IP/Hostname
• Descriptive name of your choice
• User Name and Password (to FTP server)
HTTP Server
• used for notification messages
• used for uploading saved images
• Descriptive name of your choice
• User Name and Password (to HTTP server)
TCP Server
• used for notification messages
• IP/Hostname
• Descriptive name of your choice
• Port number e.g. port 80
FTP Server
For details on each setting, please refer to the online help files
from each web page.
which are available
When the setup is complete, the connection can be tested by clicking the Test button (the
connection test will take approximately 10 seconds).
AXIS 231D+/232D+ - Event Configuration
Event Types
An Event Type is a set of parameters
describing how and when the
Network Dome Camera is to perform
certain actions.
Example: If a door is opened, and an event
has been configured to act on this, the Network
Dome Camera can e.g. record and save video
images to an FTP server or send a notification
email to a pre-configured email address with a
pre-configured message. Video images can be
sent as an attachment with the email.
Triggered Event
A Triggered event is activated from, e.g:
a switch (doorbell) connected to an input port on the Network Dome Camera
PTZ preset position
built-in motion detection
a manually activated action e.g. from a manual trigger button in the web
• on restart (reboot) after e.g. power loss
How to set up a triggered event
This example describes how to set the Network Dome Camera to upload images when the
main door is opened:
1. Click Add triggered on the Event types page.
2. Enter a descriptive name for the event, e.g. Main door.
3. Set the priority - High, Normal or Low (see online help files).
4. Set the Respond to Trigger... parameters when the event is to be active,
e.g. only after office hours
5. Select the trigger alternative from the Triggered by... drop-down list, e.g. an Input
port with a connected sensor if the door is opened.
6. Set the When Triggered... parameters i.e. set what the Network Dome Camera is to
do if the main door is opened e.g. upload images to an FTP server.
7. Click OK to save the Event in the Event Types list.
Please use the online help files
for descriptions of each available option.
32 AXIS 231D+/232D+ - Event Configuration
Pre-trigger and Post-trigger buffers
This function is very useful when checking to see what happened immediately before and
after a trigger, e.g. 10 seonds before and after a door has been opened.
Go to Event Types > Add Triggered... >
When Triggered... and check the Upload
images checkbox to expand the web page
with the available options.
Buffer size - up to 9 MB buffer. The
maximum length of time of the
pre-/post-buffer depends on the image
size and selected frame rate.
Include pre-trigger buffer - images
stored internally in the server from the
time immediately preceding the trigger.
Check the box to enable the pre-trigger
buffer, enter the desired length of time
and specify the required image frequency.
Include post-trigger buffer - contains images from the time immediately after the trigger.
Configure as for pre-trigger.
Notes: If the pre- or post-buffer is too large for the internal memory, the frame rate will be reduced and individual images may be missing. If this occurs, an entry will be created in the unit's log file.
Pre-trigger and Post-trigger buffers will be lost if the connection to the event server fails.
Continue image upload (unbuffered) - enable the upload of images for a fixed length of
time. Specify the length of time for the uploaded recording, in seconds, minutes or hours,
or for as long as the trigger is active. Finally, set the desired image frequency to the
maximum (the maximum available) or to a specified frame rate. The frame rate will be the
best possible, but might not be as high as specified, especially if uploading via a slow
AXIS 231D+/232D+ - Event Configuration
Scheduled Event
A Scheduled event can be activated at pre-set times, in a repeating pattern on selected
How to set up a scheduled event
This example describes how to set the Network Dome Camera to send an email notification
with saved images from at a set time:
1. Click Add scheduled on the Event types page.
2. Enter a descriptive name for the
event, e.g. Scheduled email.
3. Set the priority (High, Normal or
4. Set the Activation Time parameters
(24h clock) when the event is to be
active, e.g. start on Fridays at 18.00
with a duration of 62 hours.
5. Set the When Activated... parameters
i.e. set what the Network Dome
Camera is to do at the specified time
e.g. send uploaded images to an
email address.
6. Click OK to save the Event in the Event Types list.
Please use the online help files
for descriptions of each available option.
34 AXIS 231D+/232D+ - Event Configuration
Motion detection
In the Motion Detection menu, you can configure the video source(s) for motion detection.
The motion detection feature is used to generate an alarm whenever movement occurs (or
stops) in the image. The AXIS 231D+/232D+ can use a maximum of 10 Include/Exclude
• Include windows target specific areas within the image
• Exclude windows are areas to be ignored within the Include window
Once configured, the motion detection windows will appear in a list when motion
detection is selected to trigger an event. See How to set up a triggered event above.
Note: Using the motion detection feature may decrease overall performance in the video server.
How to configure Motion Detection
This example describes how to configure motion detection:
1. Click Motion Detection in the Event Configuration menu.
2. Click the Configure Included Windows radio button.
3. Click New.
4. Enter a descriptive name of your choice under Windows name.
5. Adjust the size (drag the bottom right-hand corner) and position (click on the text
at the top and drag to the desired position).
AXIS 231D+/232D+ - Event Configuration
6. Adjust the Object size, History and Sensitivity profile sliders (see table below for
details). Any detected motion within an active window is then indicated by red
peaks in the Activity window (the active window has a red frame).
7. Click Save.
If there are parts of the Include window that you wish to exclude, click the
Configure Excluded Windows radio button and perform steps 1-6 above.
Click Save.
Please use the online help
for descriptions of each available option.
Object Size
Only very large objects
trigger motion detection
An object that appears in the region will
trigger the motion detection for a long
Ordinary colored objects against ordinary
backgrounds will trigger the motion
Even very small objects
trigger motion detection
An object that appears in the region will
trigger motion detection for only a very
short period
Only very bright objects against a dark
background will trigger motion detection
Medium to High
Medium to High
Default values Low
Avoid triggering on small objects in the image by selecting a high size level.
To trigger motion detection as long as there is activity in the area, select a high history level.
To only detect flashing light, low sensitivity can be selected. In other cases, a high sensitivity level is
Port Status
Under Event Configuration > Port Status there is a list that shows the status for the
connected inputs and outputs of the AXIS 231D+/232D+ for the benefit of the Operator
who cannot access the System Options section.
Example: If the Normal state for a push button (e.g. doorbell) connected to an input is set to Open circuit - as
long as the button is not pushed, the state is inactive. If the push button is pushed, the state of the input
changes to active.
36 AXIS 231D+/232D+ - System Options
System Options
User access control is enabled by default, the administrator sets the root password on first
access. Other users are authorized with user names and passwords, or the administrator can
choose to allow anonymous viewer login to the Live View page, as described below:
The user list displays the authorized users and access levels:
Provides the lowest level of access, which only allows the user access to the Live View page.
An Operator can view the Live View page, create and modify event types and adjust certain other
settings. The Operator does not have access to the Systems Options configuration pages.
An administrator has unrestricted access to the Setup Tools and can determine the registration of all
other users.
User Settings - check the corresponding checkboxes to enable:
• Anonymous viewer login - allows any viewer direct access to the Live View
• Anonymous PTZ control login - allows any viewer access to the Pan/Tilt/Zoom
controllers on the Live View page.
IP Address Filtering
Enable IP Address Filtering- To allow or deny access to the AXIS 231D+/232D+ Network
Camera check the box Enable IP address filtering. Once enabled, the IP addresses in the
list will be allowed or denied access according to the choice made in the drop-down list
Allow/Deny the following IP addresses.
The administrator can add up to 256 IP address entries to the list (a single entry can
contain multiple IP addresses). The users from these IP addresses need to be specified in the
user list with the appropriate access rights. This is done from Setup > System Options >
Security > Users.
To prevent unauthorized sources from including the video stream from the AXIS
231D+/232D+ into external Web pages, check the Referrals checkbox and enter the IP
address or Host name of the computer that hosts the Web pages with the included video
stream. Several IP addresses/host names can be defined and are separated by semicolons(;)
AXIS 231D+/232D+ - System Options
• If the referrals feature is enabled and you wish to also allow normal access to the Live View page, the
product's own IP address or host name must be added to the list of allowed referrers.
• Restricting referrers has no effect on an MPEG-4 video stream. To restrict an MPEG-4 stream, IP address
filtering must be enabled.
• Restricting referrers is of greatest value when not using IP address filtering. If IP address filtering is used,
then the allowed referrers are automatically restricted to those allowed IP addresses.
For greater security, the AXIS 231D+/232D+ can be configured to use HTTPS (Hypertext
Transfer Protocol over SSL (Secure Socket Layer)). That is, all communication that would
otherwise go via HTTP will instead go via an encrypted HTTPS connection.
Certificate - to use HTTPS for communication with the AXIS 231D+/232D+, a Certificate
must be created using one of the following methods:
• A self-signed certificate can be created in the network camera, but this does not guarantee the same level of security as an official certificate.
• An official certificate issued by a CA (Certificate Authority). A CA issues and manages
security credentials and public keys for message encryption.
1. Click either Create self-signed certificate or Create Certificate Request and enter
the required information in the provided fields.
2. Click OK.
3. Create self-signed certificate generates and installs a certificate which will be
displayed under Installed Certificate.
Create Certificate Request generates a PEM formatted request which you copy and
send to a CA for signing. When the signed certificate is returned, click Install signed
certificate... to install the certificate in the AXIS 231D+/232D+.
4. Set the HTTPS Connection Policy for the administrator, Operator and Viewer to
enable HTTPS connection (set to HTTP by default)
Please refer to the home page of your preferred CA for information on where to send the
request etc. For more information, please refer to the online help files
802.1X - Network Admission Control
IEEE 802.1X is an IEEE standard for port-based Network Admission Control. It provides
authentication to devices attached to a network port (wired or wireless), establishing a
point-to-point connection, or, if authentication fails, preventing access on that port.
802.1X is based on EAP (Extensible Authentication Protocol).
In a 802.1X enabled network switch, clients equipped with the correct software can be
authenticated and allowed or denied network access at the Ethernet level.
38 AXIS 231D+/232D+ - System Options
Clients and servers in an 802.1X network may need to authenticate each other by some
means. In the Axis implementation this is done with the help of digital certificates
provided by a Certification Authority. These are then validated by a third-party entity,
such as a RADIUS server, examples of which are Free Radius and Microsoft Internet
Authentication Service.
To perform the authentication, the RADIUS server uses various EAP methods/protocols, of
which there are many. The one used in the Axis implementation is EAP-TLS
(EAP-Transport Layer Security).
The AXIS network video device presents its certificate to the network switch, which in turn
forwards this to the RADIUS server. The RADIUS server validates or rejects the certificate
and responds to the switch, and sends its own certificate to the client for validation. The
switch then allows or denies network access accordingly, on a preconfigured port.
AXIS 231D+/232D+ - System Options
The authentication process
Axis video device
Q: Certificate OK?
Q: Certificate OK?
Authority (CA)
Protected network
1. A CA server provides the required signed certificates.
2. The Axis video device requests access to the protected network at the network switch.
The switch forwards the video device’s CA certificate to the RADIUS server, which then
replies to the switch.
3. The switch forwards the RADIUS server’s CA certificate to the video device, which
also replies to the switch.
4. The switch keeps track of all responses to the validation requests. If all certificates are
validated, the Axis video device is allowed access to the protected network via a
preconfigured port.
RADIUS (Remote Authentication Dial In User Service) is an AAA (Authentication,
Authorization and Accounting) protocol for applications such as network access or IP
mobility. It is intended to work in both local and roaming situations.
CA servers
In cryptography, a Certification Authority (CA) is an entity that provides signed digital
certificates for use by other parties, and thus acts a trusted third party.
There are many commercial CA’s that charge for their services. Institutions and
governments may have their own CA, and there are free CA’s available.
40 AXIS 231D+/232D+ - System Options
Date & Time
Current Server Time - displays the current date and time (24h clock). The time can be
displayed in 12h clock format in the Overlay Images (see below).
New Server Time - Select your time zone from the drop-down list and check the daylight
saving time changes, if desired.
From the Time Mode section, select the preferred method to use for setting the time:
• Synchronize with computer time - sets the time from the clock on your computer.
• Synchronize with NTP Server - the network camera will obtain the time from an NTP
server every 60 minutes. Specify the NTP server's IP address or host name.
Note: Note that if using a host name for the NTP server, a DNS server must be configured under TCP/IP settings.
See Network > Advanced TCP/IP Settings below.
• Set manually - this option allows you to manually set the time and date.
Date & Time Format Used in Images - specify the formats for the date and time (12h or
24h) displayed in the Live View video streams.
Use the predefined formats or use your own custom date and time formats. See Advanced
File Naming & Date/Time Formats in the help files
for information on how to create
your own file formats.
AXIS 231D+/232D+ - System Options
Network - Basic TCP/IP Settings
IP Address Configuration
Your Axis network camera supports both IP version 4 and IP version 6. Both versions may
be enabled simultaneously, and at least one version must always be enabled.
When using IPv4, the IP address can be set automatically via DHCP, or a static IP address
can be set manually.
If IPv6 is enabled, your camera will receive an IP address according to the configuration in
the network router.
There are also options for setting up notification of changes in the IP address, and for
using the AXIS Internet Dynamic DNS Service. For more information on setting the IP
address, please see the online help.
• DHCP is a protocol for automatic IP address assignment on a network. IP address assignment via DHCP may
lead to the situation where the IP address changes and you lose contact with the camera. Configure the
options for notification of IP address change (under Services) to receive notification from the camera when
the IP address changes.
• Alternatively, if your DHCP server can update a DNS server, you can access the AXIS 231D+/232D+ by host
name which is always the same, regardless of the IP address.
Enable ARP/Ping setting of IP Address - The IP address for the AXIS 231D+/232D+ can
be set using the ARP/Ping method, which associates the unit's MAC address with an IP
Options for notification of IP address change - If the IP address for the video server
changes, e.g. automatically by DHCP, you can choose to be notified of the change. Click
Settings... and enter the required information.
AXIS Internet Dynamic DNS Service - The AXIS Internet Dynamic DNS Service can
provide your Axis product with its own URL (web address), which can then be used to
access it over the Internet. The product can be unregistered from the service at any time. To
do this click Settings... and follow the instructions. For more information, please refer to
the online help.
42 AXIS 231D+/232D+ - System Options
Network - Advanced TCP/IP Settings
DNS Configuration
DNS (Domain Name Service) provides the translation of host names to IP addresses on
your network.
Obtain DNS server address via DHCP - automatically use the DNS server settings provided
by the DHCP server. Click the View button to see the current settings.
Use the following DNS server address - enter the desired DNS server by specifying the
Domain name - enter the domain(s) to search for the host name used by the AXIS
231D+/232D+. Multiple domains can be separated by semicolons (;). The host name is
always the first part of a Fully Qualified Domain Name, e.g. myserver is the host name in
the Fully Qualified Domain Name where is
the Domain name.
DNS servers - enter the IP addresses of the primary and secondary DNS servers.
NTP Configuration
The AXIS 231D+/232D+ can obtain the correct time from an NTP server. The address for
the NTP server can either be obtained via the DHCP server, or it can be entered manually.
Host Name Configuration
The AXIS 231D+/232D+ can be accessed using a host name, instead of an IP address. The
host name is usually the same as the assigned DNS Name. It is always the first part of a
Fully Qualified Domain Name and is always one word, with no period. For example,
myserver is the host name in the Fully Qualified Domain Name
The enable dynamic DNS updates allows you to alias a dynamic IP address to a static host
name, allowing your computer to be more easily accessed from various locations on the
Internet. Outside users can always access your server using the associated DNS name
regardless of the WAN IP. The DNS server used by the user and/or the DNS server
responsible for the domain in use must support RFC2136 and allow updates from the AXIS
The TTL (Time To Live) value determines how long (in seconds) the reply from the DNS
server should be remembered when checking that the domain name for the registered IP
address is still valid. For more information, please see the online help
Link-Local Address
This is enabled by default and assigns the AXIS 231D+/232D+ an additional IP address for
use with UPnP™. The AXIS 231D+/232D+ can have both a Link-Local IP and a
static/DHCP-supplied IP address at the same time - these will not affect each other.
AXIS 231D+/232D+ - System Options
The default HTTP port number (80) can be changed to any port within the range
1024-65535. This is useful for e.g. simple port mapping.
The default HTTPS port number (443) can be changed to any port within the range
1024-65535. HTTPS is used to provide encrypted web browsing.
NAT Traversal
A broadband router allows devices on a private network (LAN) to share a single connection
to the Internet. This is done by forwarding network traffic from the private network to the
“outside” i.e. the Internet. Security on the private network (LAN) is increased since most
broadband routers are pre-configured to stop any attempts to access the private network
(LAN) from the public network/Internet.
Use NAT traversal when your AXIS 231D+/232D+ is located on an intranet (LAN) and you
wish to make it available from the other (WAN) side of a NAT router. With NAT traversal
properly configured, all HTTP traffic to an external HTTP port in the NAT router will be
forwarded to the camera.
LAN (intranet)
WAN (internet)
Notes: • For NAT traversal to work, this must also be supported by the broadband router.
• The broadband router has many different names: “NAT router”, “Network router“, Internet Gateway”,
“Broadband sharing device” or “Home firewall” but the essential purpose of the device is the same.
Enable/Disable - When enabled, the AXIS 231D+/232D+ will attempt to configure port
mapping in a NAT router on your network, using UPnP™. Note that UPnP™ must be
enabled in the camera (see System Options > Network > UPnP).
Use manually selected NAT router - Select this option to manually select a NAT router
and enter the IP address for the router in the field provided.
If a router is not manually specified, the AXIS 231D+/232D+ will automatically search for
NAT routers on your network. If more than one router is found, the default router will be
44 AXIS 231D+/232D+ - System Options
Alternative HTTP port - Select this option to manually define an external HTTP port. Enter
the port number in the field provided. If no port is entered here a port number will
automatically be selected when NAT traversal is enabled.
Notes: • An alternative HTTP port can be used/be active even if NAT traversal is disabled. This is useful if e.g. your
NAT router does not support UPnP and you need to manually configure port forwarding in the NAT router.
• If you attempt to manually enter a port that is already in use, another available port will automatically be
• When the port is selected automatically it will be displayed in this field. This can be changed by entering a
new port number and clicking Save.
The RTSP protocol allows a connecting client to start an MPEG-4 stream. Enter the RTSP
port number to use. The default setting is 554.
The FTP server running in the AXIS 231D+/232D+ enables the upload of e.g. new
firmware, user applications, etc. Check the box to enable the service.
Network Traffic
The default setting is Auto-negotiate which means that the correct speed is automatically
selected. If necessary, you can set the connection speed by selecting it from the drop-down
Maximum bandwidth - Specify, in Mbit/s or kbit/s, the maximum bandwidth that the
network camera is allowed to use on your network. This is a useful function when
connecting your network camera to busy or heavily loaded networks. The default setting is
Note: When using MPEG-4 as the video format, remember that setting a maximum bandwidth value here may
create problems for individual video streams if the maximum value is less than the sum of the bit rates set
for the video streams.
For more information, please see the online help
SOCKS is a networking proxy protocol. The AXIS 231D+/232D+ can be configured to use a
SOCKS server to reach networks on the other side of a firewall/proxy server. This
functionality is useful if the AXIS 231D+/232D+ is located on a local network behind a
firewall, but notifications, uploads, alarms, etc., need to be sent to a destination outside the
local network (e.g. to the Internet).
AXIS 231D+/232D+ - System Options
Network - QoS (Quality of service)
Quality of Service (QoS) provides the means to guarantee a certain level of a specified
resource to selected traffic on a network. Quality can be defined as e.g. a maintained level
of bandwidth, low latency, no packet losses, etc. The main benefits of a QoS-aware
network can be summarized as:
• The ability to prioritize traffic and thus allow critical flows to be served before
flows with lesser priority.
• Greater reliability in the network, thanks to the control of the amount of bandwidth an application may use, and thus control over bandwidth races between
The QoS in Axis network video products marks the data packets for various types of
network traffic originating from the product. This makes it possible for network routers
and switches to e.g. reserve a fixed amount of bandwidth for these types of traffic. The
following types of traffic are marked:
live video
live audio
event/alarm traffic
management network traffic.
QoS Settings
For each type of network traffic supported by your Axis network video product, enter a
DSCP (Differentiated Services Codepoint) value. This value is used to mark the traffic’s IP
header. When the marked traffic reaches a network router or switch, the DSCP value in the
IP header tells the router or switch which type of treatment to apply to this type of traffic,
for example, how much bandwidth to reserve for it.
Note that DSCP values can be entered in decimal or hex form, but saved values are always
shown in decimal.
For more infomation on Quality of Service, please see the Axis support web at
SMTP (email)
(Simple Mail Transfer Protocol) Enter the host names or addresses for your primary and
secondary mail servers in the fields provided to enable event and error email messages
from the AXIS 231D+/232D+ to predefined addresses, via SMTP.
46 AXIS 231D+/232D+ - System Options
Network - SNMP
The Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP) allows remote management of network
devices. Depending on the level of security required, select the version of SNMP to use. The
three levels of security are:
• SNMP V1 - includes no security.
• SNMP V2c - uses very simple security. The community name can be specified as a password for read or read/write access to all supported SNMP objects. The community is the
the group of network devices using SNMP.
• SNMP V3 - provides encryption and secure passwords. HTTPS must be enabled.
(Universal Plug and Play) The AXIS 231D+/232D+ includes support for UPnP™ in Windows
ME and Windows XP. UPnP™ is enabled by default.
Note: UPnP must be installed on your workstation. To do this, open the Control Panel from the Start Menu and
select Add/Remove Programs. Select Add/Remove Windows Components and open the Networking Services section. Click Details and then select UPnP as the service to add. Refer to the Windows help files for
more information.
RTP (Multicast)/ MPEG-4
These settings are for the IP addresses, port numbers, and Time-To-Live values to use for
media streams in the MPEG-4 format.
Port Range - The RTP Port range defines the range of ports from which the video/audio
ports are automatically selected. This feature is useful if the AXIS 231D+/232D+ is
connected to a NAT router with manually configured port mapping.
Multicast - Only IP addresses within certain ranges can be used for multicasting. The
AXIS 231D+/232D+ has been pre-configured with addresses from these ranges, and does
not normally need to be reconfigured.
For more information, please see the online help.
Network - Bonjour
Your Axis network camera includes support for Bonjour. When enabled, the camera is
automatically detected by operating systems and clients that support this protocol.
Ports & devices - I/O Ports
The pinout, interface support and the control and monitoring functions are described in
the section on the Connection Module, on page 50.
AXIS 231D+/232D+ - System Options
• Restart - The unit is restarted without changing any of the settings. Use this method if
the unit is not behaving as expected.
• Restore - The unit is restarted and most current settings are reset to factory default values. The settings that will not be reset are as follows:
• the boot protocol (DHCP or static)
• the static IP address
• the default router
• the subnet mask
• the system time
• Default - The default button should be used with caution. Pressing this will return all of
the network camera's settings to the factory default values (including the IP address).
Dome Status - Click the Test button to check the camera and dome mechanics for errors.
Contact Axis Customer Services if you receive an error message as the result of this test.
Upgrade Server - See Support, on page 47.
Backup - To take a backup of all of the parameters, and any user-defined scripts, click this
button. If necessary, it is then possible to return to a previous configuration if settings are
changed and there is unexpected behavior.
Restore - click the Browse button to locate the saved backup file (see above) and then click
the Restore button. The settings will be restored to the previous configuration.
Note: Backup and Restore can only be used on the same unit running the same firmware. This feature is not
intended for multi-configurations or for firmware upgrades.
Support Overview
The support overview page provides valuable information on troubleshooting and contact
information, should you require technical assistance.
System Overview
The System Overview page gives a quick look over the camera’s status and settings.
Information that can be found here includes the camera’s Firmware version, IP address,
Security, Optional Network Services, Event Settings, Image settings and Recent log
items. Many of the captions are also links to the proper Setup page to conveniently
make adjustments in the camera’s settings.
Logs & Reports
When contacting Axis support, please be sure to provide a valid Server Report with your
48 AXIS 231D+/232D+ - System Options
View Information - The Logs report and the Parameter List also provide valuable
information for troubleshooting and when contacting Axis’ support service.
Log Level for Log Files - from the drop-down list, select the level of information to be
added to the Log file
Log Level for Email - from the drop-down list, select the level of information to send as
email and enter the destination email address.
Scripting is an advanced function that provides the possibility to customize and use
scripts. This function is a very powerful tool.
Improper use may cause unexpected behavior or even cause loss of contact with the
unit. If a script does cause problems, reset the unit to its factory default settings. A
backup file may be of use to return the unit to its latest configuration).
Axis strongly recommends that you do not use this function unless you fully
understand the consequences. Note that Axis support does not provide assistance for
problems with customized scripts.
For more information, please visit the Developer pages at
Plain Config - this function is for the advanced user with experience of Axis network
camera configuration. All parameters can be set and modified from this page. Help is
available from the standard help pages.
Third Party Software Licenses - click View licenses for a list of the licensed software used
in the AXIS 231D+/232D+ Network Dome Camera.
Resetting to Factory Default Settings
To reset the AXIS 231D+/232D+ to the original default settings, go to the System Options
> Maintenance web page (described in Maintenance, on page 47) or use the control button
on the AXIS 231D+/232D+ as described below:
AXIS 231D+/232D+ - System Options
Using the Control Button
Follow the instructions below to reset the AXIS 231D+/232D+ to factory default settings
using the Control Button.
1. Switch off the AXIS 231D+/232D+
by disconnecting the power.
2. Press and hold the Control button
while you reconnect the power.
3. Keep the Control button pressed
until the Power Indicator flashes
amber (this may take up to 15
4. Release the Control button.
Control button
Power Indicator
Network Indicator
5. When the Power Indicator changes
to green (may take up to 1 minute), the process is complete and the AXIS
231D+/232D+ has been reset.
50 AXIS 231D+/232D+ - Connection Module
Connection Module
This section describes the pinout provided by the Connection module consisting of:
• 4 transistor outputs
• 4 digital inputs
• power and GND (ground)
24V AC Power
4 transistor outputs
4 digital inputs
(see table below)
The inputs/outputs are used in applications for, e.g. event triggering, time lapse recording,
alarm notification via email, picture storage to FTP locations.
• Input - e.g. a doorbell. If the doorbell is pressed, the state changes, and the input
will be active (shown under Event Configuration > Port Status).
• Output - e.g. an alarm device that can be activated from Output buttons from the
Live View page or as an action to an Event Type. The output will show as active
(under Event Configuration > Port Status), if the alarm device is activated.
Connection Module Pinout
not used
not used
not used
Transistor Output 4
See below
not used
Digital Input 4
See below
not used
Transistor Output 3
See below
not used
Digital Input 3
See below
not used
Transistor Output 2
See below
Transistor Output 1
See below
24 VAC
24 VAC
Digital Input 2
See below
24 VAC
24 VAC
Digital Input 1
See below
Digital Input (1-4)- connect to GND to activate or leave floating (unconnected) to deactivate
Transistor Output (1-4)- Max. load 100mA, max. voltage 24V DC. An open-collector NPN transistor with
the emitter connected to pin 2 (GND). If used with an external relay, a diode must be connected in parallel
with the load for protection against any voltage transients.
1. Loosen the corresponding screw on top of the pin (see the table above to determine
which pin to use).
2. Push the cable into the connector and secure it by fastening the screw.
AXIS 231D+/232D+ - Connection Module
Schematic Diagram - AXIS 231D+/232D+ I/O connectors and power
e.g. doorbell
IN 1 o
IN 2 o
IN 3 o
IN 4 o
OUT 2 o
OUT 4 o
Note: Unmarked I/O connectors on the connection module can not be used.
52 AXIS 231D+/232D+ - Troubleshooting
Checking the Firmware
One of your first actions when troubleshooting a problem should be to check the currently
installed firmware version. The latest version may contain a correction that fixes your
particular problem. See the support section at for
information on the latest available firmware version. The current software version in your
AXIS 231D+/232D+ is available from the product Web pages under Setup > Basic
Updating the Firmware
The firmware is software that determines the functionality of the AXIS 231D+/232D+.
When you upgrade to the latest available firmware from the Axis Web site, your Axis
product will receive the latest available functionality. Always read the upgrade instructions
and release notes available with each new release, before upgrading the firmware.
New firmware can be uploaded to the AXIS 231D+/232D+ over the network.
Note: Preconfigured and customized settings will be retained for use when the new firmware is running (providing that the features are available in the new firmware) although this is not guaranteed by Axis Communications.
1. Save the firmware file to your computer. The latest version of the AXIS
231D+/232D+ firmware is available free of charge from the Axis Web site at or from your local distributor.
2. Go to Setup > System Options > Maintenance in the AXIS 231D+/232D+ Web
3. In the Upgrade Server section and browse to the desired firmware file on your
computer. Click Upgrade.
Notes: After starting the process, you should always wait at least 20 minutes before restarting the AXIS
231D+/232D+, even if you suspect the procedure has failed.
Your dealer reserves the right to charge for any repair attributable to faulty updating by the user.
AXIS 231D+/232D+ - Troubleshooting
Emergency Recovery Procedure
If power or the network connection to the AXIS 231D+/232D+ is lost during the upgrade,
the process will fail and the unit will become unresponsive. A flashing red Network LED
indicates a failed upgrade. To recover the unit, follow the steps below. The serial number is
found on the label on the product casing.
1. Unix/Linux - From the command line, type the following:
arp -s <IP address of AXIS 231D+/232D+> <Serial number> temp
ping -s 408 <IP address of AXIS 231D+/232D+>
Windows - From a command/DOS prompt, type the following:
arp -s <IP address of AXIS 231D+/232D+> <Serial number>
ping -l 408 -t <IP address of AXIS 231D+/232D+>
Note: the ping -l command is the lower-case letter (L)
2. If the unit does not reply within a few seconds, restart it and wait for a reply. Press
CTRL+C to stop Ping.
3. Open a browser and type in the AXIS 231D+/232D+’s IP address. In the page that
appears, use the Browse button to select the upgrade file to use, e.g. axis231d.bin or
axis232d.bin. Then click the Load button to restart the upgrade process.
4. After the upgrade has completed (1-10 minutes), the unit will automatically restart and
show a steady green on the Power LED and flashing green or amber on the Network
5. Reinstall the AXIS 231D+/232D+.
If the emergency recovery procedure does not get the AXIS 231D+/232D+ up and running
again, please contact Axis support at
If you contact Axis Customer Services, please help us help you resolve your problems
expediently by providing a server report, log file and a brief description of the problem.
Server Report - go to Setup > System Options > Support Overview. The server report
contains important information about the server and its software, as well as a list of the
current parameters.
Log file - go to Setup > System Options > Logs & Reports. The Log file records events
within the unit since the last restart of the system and can prove a useful diagnostic tool
for troubleshooting.
54 AXIS 231D+/232D+ - Troubleshooting
Symptoms, Possible Causes and Remedial Actions
Problems setting the IP address
Using ARP Ping
The IP address must be set within two minutes after the power has been applied to the AXIS
231D+/232D+, restart the server and try again. Also, make sure the ping length is set to 408.
See the ARP ping description in the Installation Guide.
The AXIS 231D+/232D+ is
located on a different subnet.
If the IP address intended for the AXIS 231D+/232D+ and the IP address of your computer are
located on different subnets, you will not be able to set the IP address. Contact your network
administrator for an IP address on the same subnet as the computer you are performing the
installation from.
The IP address is being used by
another device
Disconnect the power from the AXIS 231D+/232D+.
Run the Ping command (in a Command/DOS window, type ping and the IP address of the unit).
If you receive: Reply from <IP address>: bytes = 32; time = 10 ms..... - this means that the IP
address may already be in use by another device on your network. You must obtain a new IP
address and reinstall the unit.
If you receive: Request timed out - this means that the IP address is available for use with your
AXIS 231D+/232D+. In this case, check all cabling and reinstall the unit.
The AXIS 231D+/232D+ cannot be accessed from a Web browser
Cannot log in.
If the AXIS 231D+/232D+ has been configured to use HTTPS, check that the protocol in the URL
used to access the unit is correct. You may need to type this in manually (i.e. http or https) in
the browser’s address field.
The IP address has been changed 1) Move the AXIS 231D+/232D+ to an isolated network or to one with no DHCP or BOOTP
server. Set the IP address again, using AXIS IP Utility or the ARP Ping command.
2) Access the unit and disable BOOTP and DHCP in the TCP/IP settings. Return the unit to the
main network. The unit now has a fixed IP address that will not change.
3) As an alternative to 2), if dynamic IP address via DHCP or BOOTP is required, select the
required service and then configure IP address change notification from the network settings.
Return the unit to the main network. The unit will now have a dynamic IP address, but will
notify you if the address changes.
Cannot access web page
Empty the temporary cache of your web browser.
Other networking problems
Test the network cable by connecting it to another network device, then Ping that device from
your workstation. See instructions above.
Cannot send notifications, uploads, alarms, etc, to a destination outside the local network
Firewall protection
The AXIS 231D+/232D+ can be configured to use a SOCKS server to reach networks on the
other side of a firewall/proxy server. See SOCKS, on page 44 for more information.
Your AXIS 231D+/232D+ is accessible locally, but not externally
Firewall protection
Check the Internet firewall with your system administrator.
Default routers required
Check if you need to configure the default router settings, and check the subnet mask.
The Internet site is too heavily
Use a script running on your web server to relay images from the AXIS 231D+/232D+ to the
The Power indicator is not constantly lit
Faulty power supply
Verify that you are using the correct power supply.
A firmware upgrade has been
A rescue firmware is running in the product. First, set the IP address using AXIS IP utility or ARP
interrupted or the firmware has and Ping,
in some other way been damThen, from a Web browser, access the unit and upgrade the latest firmware to the product, see
Updating the Firmware, on page 52.
No images are displayed in the Web interface
Problem with AMC
(Internet Explorer only)
To enable the updating of images in Microsoft Internet Explorer, set your Web browser to allow
ActiveX controls. Also, make sure that AXIS Media Control (AMC) component is installed on
your workstation.
AXIS 231D+/232D+ - Troubleshooting
Installation of additional ActiveX Configure yourAXIS 231D+/232D+ to use a Java applet for updating the images under
component restricted or prohib- Live View Config > Layout > Default Viewer for Internet Explorer. See help files for more
Video Image Problems
Image too dark or too light.
See the help files on Video & Image Settings
Problems uploading own files
There is only limited space available for the upload of your own files. Try deleting one or more
existing files, to free up space.
Missing images in uploads
This can occur when trying to use a larger image buffer than is actually available. Try lowering
the frame rate or the upload period.
Slow image update
Configuring, e.g. pre-buffers, hi-res images, high frame rate etc will reduce the performance of
the AXIS 231D+/232D+.
Slow performance
Slow performance may be caused by e.g. heavy network traffic, many users with access to unit,
low performing client, use of features such as Event handling., Image rotation, and applications
such as an antivirus program.
Bad snapshot images
Display incorrectly configured on In Display Properties, configure your display to show at least 65000 colors, i.e. at least 16-bit.
your workstation
Using only 16 or 256 colors on your display will produce dithering artifacts in the image.
Problems with the MPEG-4 format
Lower frame rate than expected. Check with the administrator that there is enough bandwidth available. Check also the settings
for bit rate control, in the Video & Image > Advanced > MPEG-4 settings. Using an inappropriate video object type can also affect the frame rate. See the online help for more information.
Check in the AMC control panel applet (MPEG-4 tab) that video processing is not set to Decode
only I frames.
Lower the image resolution.
Reduce the number of applications running on the client computer.
No MPEG-4 displayed in the
Check that the correct network interface is selected in the AMC control panel applet (network
Check that the relevant MPEG-4 connection methods are enabled in the AMC control panel
applet (network tab).
In the AMC control applet, select the MPEG-4 tab and click the button Set to default MPEG-4
No multicast MPEG-4 displayed Check with your network administrator that the multicast addresses used by the
AXIS 231D+/232D+ are valid for your network.
in the client.
Check with your network administrator to see if there is a firewall preventing viewing.
Multicast MPEG-4 only accessi- Check if your ISP and router support multicasting, or if the router settings between the client
ble by local clients.
and the server need to be configured. The TTL (Time To Live) value may need to be increased.
Poor rendering of MPEG-4
Color depth set incorrectly on clients. Set to 16-bit or 32-bit color.
Unexpected PTZ behavior
Problem with hardware
Go to System Options > Maintenance > Dome Status and click Test to test the camera and
dome mechanics for errors. Contact Axis Customer Services if you receive an error message as
the result of this test.
For additional assistance, please contact your reseller or check the product’s support pages
on the Axis Website at
56 AXIS 231D+/232D+ - Technical Specifications
Technical Specifications
• AXIS 231D+ 50 Hz/PAL
• AXIS 231D+ 60 Hz/NTSC
• AXIS 232D+ 50 Hz/PAL (Automatic day/night)
• AXIS 232D+ 60 Hz/NTSC (Automatic day/night)
Image sensor
• 1/4” Sony EXview HAD CCD
• F1.4-3.0
• f=4.1 mm wide to 73.8 mm tele
• autofocus
• Focus range: 35 mm (wide) or 800 mm (tele) to infinity
Angle of view
• 2.8º - 48º Horizontal
• 18x optical, 12x digital
Minimum illumination
• Color: 0.3 lux at 30IRE
• B/W: 0.005 lux at 30IRE (Only AXIS 232D+)
Pan Range
• 360º endless
Tilt Range
• 0º - 90º
Max speed
• Pan 360º/s
• Tilt 360º/s
Video compression
• Motion JPEG
• MPEG-4 Part 2 (ISO/IEC 14496-2), Profiles: ASP and SP
• 4CIF, 2CIF Expanded, 2CIF, CIF, QCIF
• Maximum 768x576 (PAL) 704x480 (NTSC)
• Minimum 176x144 (PAL) 160x120 (NTSC)
Frame rate (NTSC/PAL)
• Motion JPEG: Up to 30/25 fps in all resolutions
• MPEG-4: Up to 25/21 fps at 4CIF/2CIFExp
Up to 30/25 fps at 2CIF/CIF/QCIF
Video streaming
• Simultaneous Motion JPEG and MPEG-4
• Controllable frame rate and bandwidth
• Constant and variable bit rate (MPEG-4)
Image settings
• Compression levels: 11 (Motion JPEG)/23 (MPEG-4)
• Configurable brightness, sharpness, white balance, exposure control, and
backlight compensation
• Overlay capabilities: time, date, text, custom logo or image
• De-interlacing (4CIF resolution)
PTZ control
• 50 preset positions
• Guard tour
• Control queue
• Supports Windows compatible joysticks
Shutter time
• 1 sec to 1/10.000 sec
• Multiple user access levels with password protection
• IP address filtering
• HTTPS encryption
• IEEE 802.1X authentication
AXIS 231D+/232D+ - Technical Specifications
Alarm and event
• Events triggered by video motion detection, PTZ preset position, external inputs, or
according to a schedule
• Image upload over FTP,email and HTTP
• Notification over TCP, email, HTTP, and external outputs
• Pre- and post alarm buffer of 9 MB per channel
• Ethernet 10BaseT/100BaseTX, RJ-45
• 4 alarm inputs
• 4 outputs
Processors and memory
• CPU: ETRAX 100LX 32bit
• Video processing and compression: ARTPEC-2
• Memory: 32 MB RAM, 8 MB Flash
• Battery backed up real-time clock
• 19 - 28 VAC, max 25 VA
• 24 - 40 VDC, max 20 W
Operating conditions
• 5 - 50 ºC (41 – 122 ºF)
• Humidity 20 - 80% RH (non-condensing)
Installation, management
and maintenance
• AXIS Camera Management tool on CD and web-based configuration
• Configuration of backup and restore
• Firmware upgrades over HTTP or FTP, firmware available at
Video access from Web
• Camera live view
• Video recording to file (ASF)
• Sequence tour for up to 20 PTZ presets or Axis video sources
• Customizable HTML pages
Minimum Web browsing
• Pentium III CPU 500 MHz or higher, or equivalent AMD,128 MB RAM, AGP
graphics card 32 MB RAM, Direct Draw
• Windows XP, 2000, DirectX 9.0 or later Internet Explorer 6.x or later
• For other operating systems and browsers see
System integration
• Open API for software integration available at
• including AXIS VAPIX API
• AXIS Media Control SDK
• event trigger data in video stream
• PTZ control with Windows compatible Joystick
• Quality of Service (QoS) Layer 3, DiffServ Model
• Embedded operating system: Linux
Supported protocols
More information on protocol usage available at
*This product includes software developed by the Open SSL Project for use in the
Open SSL Tool kit (
58 AXIS 231D+/232D+ - Technical Specifications
Included accessories
• Power supply: 24 V AC, 1.5 A
• Hard ceiling mounting bracket
• Drop ceiling mounting bracket
• Transparent bubble
• CD with intallation tool, software,
• User manual, MPEG-4 licenses (1 encoder, 1 decorder)
• MPEG-4 decoder (Windows)
• Quick installation guide
• Connection module for power and alarm in/out
Video management
software (not incl.)
• AXIS Camera Station - Surveillance application for viewing, recording and
archiving up to 25 cameras
• See for more software applications via
Accessories (not incl.)
• Housings for adverse indoor/outdoor environments
• Smoked bubble
• Outdoor IP66 rated power supply AXIS PS24
• IR Illumination (Only AXIS 232D+)
• AXIS 295 Video Surveillance Joystick
• AXIS 292 Network Video Decoder
• MPEG-4 Decoder multi-user license pack
• EN 55022 Class A,
• EN 61000-3-2,
• EN 61000-3-3,
• EN 55024,
• FCC Part 15 Subpart B Class A,
• ICES-003 Class A,
• VCCI Class A,
• C-tick AS/NZS CISPR 22 Class A,
• EN 60065
• Power supply: EN 60950, UL, CSA
Dimensions and weight
• 225 x 144 x 144 mm (8.9” x 5.7” x 5.7”)
• 1.8 kg (4.0 lbs) excluding power supply
AXIS 231D+/232D+ - Technical Specifications
General performance considerations
When setting up your system, it is important to consider how various settings and
situations will affect performance. Some factors affect the amount of bandwidth (the bit
rate) required, others can affect the frame rate, and some will affect both. If the load on the
CPU reaches its maximum, this will also affect the frame rate.
The following factors are among the most important to consider:
• High image resolutions and/or lower compression levels result in larger images.
Bandwidth affected.
• Access by large numbers of Motion JPEG and/or unicast MPEG-4 clients. Bandwidth affected.
• Simultaneous viewing of different streams (resolution, compression, etc.) by different clients. Frame rate and bandwidth affected.
• Accessing both Motion JPEG and MPEG-4 video streams simultaneously. Frame
rate and bandwidth affected.
• Heavy usage of event settings affects the CPU load. Frame rate affected.
• Heavy network utilization due to poor infrastructure. Bandwidth affected.
• Viewing on poorly performing client PC’s lowers perceived performance. Frame
rate affected.
Optimizing your system
To see the bandwidth and frame rate currently required by the video stream, the AXIS
231D+/232D+ provides a tool that can be used to display these values directly in the video
To do this, special format strings are added as part
of a text overlay. Simply add #r (average frame
rate in fps) and/or #b (average bandwidth in Kbps)
bandwidth in Kbps) to the overlay.
For detailed instructions, please see the online help
for Video & Image > Overlay Settings, and the
help for File Naming & Date/Time Formats.
• The figures displayed here are the values as delivered by the server. If other restrictions are
currently in force, (e.g. bandwidth limitation) these values might not correspond to those
actually received by the client.
• For Motion JPEG, these values will only be accurate as long as no frame rate limit has been specified.
60 AXIS 231D+/232D+ - Technical Specifications
Frame rates - Motion JPEG
The following test results show the frame rates in frames/second (fps) for Motion JPEG
streams from the AXIS 231D+/232D+, using a compression level of 50%. Note that these
values are guidelines only - actual values may vary.
fps (NTSC/PAL)
2CIF expanded
Frame rates - MPEG-4
The following test results show the frame rates in frames/second (fps) for MPEG-4 streams
from the AXIS 231D+/232D+. Note that these values are guidelines only - actual values
may vary.
The MPEG-4 test conditions:
• Compression level = 50%
• Video Object Type = Advanced Simple
• GOV structure = IP*
fps (NTSC)
fps (PAL)
2CIF expanded
*Note that setting the GOV structure to use “I-frames only” will increase the frame rate.
As there are many factors affecting bandwidth, it is very difficult to predict the required
amounts. The settings that affect bandwidth are:
the image resolution
the image compression
the frame rate
the MPEG-4 object type
the MPEG-4 GOV structure
AXIS 231D+/232D+ - Technical Specifications
There are also factors in the monitored scene that will affect the bandwidth. These are:
• the amount of motion
• the image’s complexity
• the lighting conditions.
For MPEG-4, if there is only limited bandwidth available, and if this is more important
than the image quality, using a constant bit rate (CBR) is recommended. Use a variable bit
rate (VBR) if the image quality needs to be maintained at a higher level. If supported on the
network, consider also using MPEG-4 multicasting, as the bandwidth consumption will be
much lower.
62 AXIS 231D+/232D+ - Glossary of Terms
Glossary of Terms
ActiveX - A standard that enables software components to
interact with one another in a networked environment,
regardless of the language(s) used to create them. Web
browsers may come into contact with ActiveX controls,
ActiveX documents, and ActiveX scripts. ActiveX controls
are often downloaded and installed automatically as
AF (Autofocus) - A system by which the camera lens
automatically focuses on a selected part of the subject.
Angle - The field of view, relative to a standard lens in a
35mm still camera, expressed in degrees, e.g. 30°. For
practical purposes, this is the area that a lens can cover,
where the angle of view is determined by the focal length of
the lens. A wide-angle lens has a short focal length and
covers a wider angle of view than standard or telephoto
lenses, which have longer focal lengths.
ARP (Address Resolution Protocol) - This protocol is used
to associate an IP address to a hardware MAC address. A
request is broadcast on the local network to discover the
MAC address for an IP address.
ARTPEC (Axis Real Time Picture Encoder) - A chip
designed by Axis for image compression. ARTPEC supports
a range of CCD and CMOS sensors, built-in functionality for
sharpening, backlight compensation, noise reduction and
white balance, support for multiple Motion-JPEG streams,
support for MPEG-4 part 2, up to 30 frames/second from 4
simultaneous video sources and real-time compression of up
to 45 Megapixels/second.
ASIC (Application Specific Integrated Circuit) - A circuit
designed for a specific application, as opposed to a general
purpose circuit, such as a microprocessor.
Aspect ratio - A ratio of width to height in images. A
common aspect ratio used for television screens and
computer monitors is 4:3. High-definition television (HDTV)
uses an aspect ratio of 9:16.
Autoiris (or DC-Iris) - This special type of iris is electrically
controlled by the camera, to automatically regulate the
amount of light allowed to enter.
AVI (Audio Video Interleave) - A video format that
supports simultaneous playback of audio and video.
Bitmap - A bitmap is a data file representing a rectangular
grid of pixels. It defines a display space and color for each
pixel (or "bit") in the display space. This type of image is
known as a "raster graphic." GIF's and JPEG's are examples
of image file types that contain bitmaps.
Because a bitmap uses this fixed raster method, it cannot
easily be rescaled without losing definition. Conversely, a
vector graphic image uses geometrical shapes to represent
the image, and can thus be quickly rescaled.
Bit rate - The bit rate (in kbit/s or Mbit/s) is often referred
to as speed, but actually defines the number of bits/time
unit and not distance/time unit.
Bluetooth - Bluetooth is an open standard for wireless
transmission of voice and data between mobile devices (PCs,
handheld computers, telephones and printers).
Bonjour - Also known as zero-configuration networking,
Bonjour enables devices to automatically discover each
other on a network, without having to enter IP addresses or
configure DNS servers. Bonjour is a trademark of Apple
Computer, Inc.
Broadband - In network engineering terms, this describes
transmission methods where two or more signals share the
same carrier. In more popular terminology, broadband is
taken to mean high-speed data transmission.
CCD (Charged Coupled Device) - This light-sensitive image
device used in many digital cameras is a large integrated
circuit that contains hundreds of thousands of photo-sites
(pixels) that convert light energy into electronic signals. Its
size is measured diagonally and can be 1/4”, 1/3", 1/2" or
CGI (Common Gateway Interface) - A specification for
communication between a web server and other (CGI)
programs. For example, a HTML page that contains a form
might use a CGI program to process the form data once it is
CIF (Common Intermediate Format) - CIF refers to the
analog video resolutions 352x288 pixels (PAL) and 352x240
pixels (NTSC). See also Resolution.
Client/Server - Client/server describes the relationship
between two computer programs in which one program, the
client, makes a service request from another program, the
server, which fulfils the request. Typically, multiple client
programs share the services of a common server program. A
web browser is a client program that requests services (the
sending of web pages or files) from a web server.
CMOS (Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor) - A
CMOS is a widely used type of semiconductor that uses both
negative and positive circuits. Since only one of the circuit
types is on at any given time, CMOS chips require less
power than chips using just one type of transistor. CMOS
image sensors also allow processing circuits to be included
on the same chip, an advantage not possible with CCD
sensors, which are also much more expensive to produce.
Codec - In communications engineering, a codec is usually
a coder/decoder. Codecs are used in integrated circuits or
chips that convert e.g. analog video and audio signals into a
digital format for transmission. The codec also converts
received digital signals back into analog format. A codec
uses analog-to-digital conversion and digital-to-analog
conversion in the same chip.
Codec can also mean compression/decompression, in which
case it is generally taken to mean an algorithm or computer
program for reducing the size of large files and programs.
AXIS 231D+/232D+ - Glossary of Terms
Compression - See Image Compression.
Contrast - Defines the degree of difference between the
lightest and darkest parts of an image or video stream.
DC-Iris - This special type of iris is electrically controlled
by the camera, to automatically regulate the amount of light
allowed to enter.
DHCP (Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol) - DHCP is a
protocol that lets network administrators automate and
centrally manage the assignment of Internet Protocol (IP)
addresses to network devices in a network.
DHCP uses the concept of a "lease" or amount of time that a
given IP address will be valid for a computer. The lease time
can vary, depending on how long a user is likely to require
the network connection at a particular location.
DHCP also supports static addresses for e.g. computers
running web servers, which need a permanent IP address.
DNS (Domain Name System) - DNS is used to locate and
translate Internet domain names into IP (Internet Protocol)
addresses. A domain name is a meaningful and
easy-to-remember name for an Internet address. For
example the domain name is much
easier to remember than The translation tables
for domain names are contained in Domain name servers.
Domain Server - Domains can also be used by
organizations who wish to centralize the management of
their (Windows) computers. Each user within a domain has
an account that usually allows them to log in to and use any
computer in the domain, although restrictions may also
apply. The domain server is the server that authenticates the
users on the network.
Duplex - See Full-duplex.
Ethernet - Ethernet is the most widely installed local area
network technology. An Ethernet LAN typically uses special
grades of twisted pair wires. The most commonly installed
Ethernet systems are 10BASE-T and 100BASE-T10, which
provide transmission speeds up to 10 Mbps and 100 Mbps
ETRAX (Ethernet Token Ring AXIS) - Axis' own
Factory default settings - These are the settings that
originally applied for a device when it was first delivered
from the factory. If it should become necessary to reset a
device to its factory default settings, this will, for many
devices, completely reset any settings that were changed by
the user.
Firewall - A firewall works as a barrier between networks,
e.g. between a Local Area Network and the Internet. The
firewall ensures that only authorized users are allowed to
access the one network from the other. A firewall can be
software running on a computer, or it can be a standalone
hardware device.
Focal length - Measured in millimeters, the focal length of
a camera lens determines the width of the horizontal field of
view, which in turn is measured in degrees.
FTP (File Transfer Protocol) - An application protocol that
uses the TCP/IP protocols. It is used to exchange files
between computers/devices on networks.
Frame - A frame is a complete video image. In the 2:1
interlaced scanning format of the RS-170 and CCIR formats,
a frame is made up of two separate fields of 262.5 or 312.5
lines interlaced at 60 or 50 Hz to form a complete frame,
which appears at 30 or 25 Hz. In video cameras with a
progressive scan, each frame is scanned line-by-line and not
interlaced; most are also displayed at 30 and 25 Hz.
Frame rate - The frame rate used to describe the frequency
at which a video stream is updated is measured in frames
per second (fps). A higher frame rate is advantageous when
there is movement in the video stream, as it maintains
image quality throughout.
Full-duplex - Transmission of data in two directions
simultaneously. In an audio system this would describe e.g.
a telephone systems. Half-duplex also provides
bi-directional communication, but only in one direction at a
time, as in a walkie-talkie system. See also Simplex.
Gain - Gain is the amplification factor and the extent to
which an analog amplifier boosts the strength of a signal.
Amplification factors are usually expressed in terms of
power. The decibel (dB) is the most common way of
quantifying the gain of an amplifier.
Gateway - A gateway is a point in a network that acts as an
entry point to another network. In a corporate network for
example, a computer server acting as a gateway often also
acts as a proxy server and a firewall server. A gateway is
often associated with both a router, which knows where to
direct a given packet of data that arrives at the gateway, and
a switch, which furnishes the actual path in and out of the
gateway for a given packet.
GIF (Graphics Interchange Format) - GIF is one of the
most common file formats used for images in web pages.
There are two versions of the format, 87a and 89a. Version
89a supports animations, i.e. a short sequence of images
within a single GIF file. A GIF89a can also be specified for
interlaced presentation.
GOV (Group Of VOPs) - A group of VOP's is the basic unit
of an MPEG-4 video stream. The GOV contains different
types and numbers of VOP's (I-VOP's, P-VOP's, etc.) as
determined by the GOV length and GOV structure. See also
GOV length - The GOV length determines the number of
images (VOP's) in the GOV structure. See also GOV and
GOV structure - The GOV structure describes the
composition of an MPEG-4 video stream, as regards the type
of images (I-VOP's or P-VOP's) included in the stream, and
their internal order. See also GOV and VOP.
64 AXIS 231D+/232D+ - Glossary of Terms
Half-duplex - See Full-duplex.
and forth.
HTML (Hypertext Markup Language) - HTML is the set of
"markup" symbols or codes inserted in a file intended for
display in web browser. The markup tells the browser how
to display the page's words and images for the user.
To avoid conflicts, each IP address on any given network
must be unique. An IP address can be assigned as fixed, so
that it does not change, or it can be assigned dynamically
(and automatically) by DHCP.
HTTP (Hypertext Transfer Protocol) - HTTP is the set of
rules for exchanging files (text, graphic images, sound,
video, and other multimedia files) on the web. The HTTP
protocol runs on top of the TCP/IP suite of protocols.
An IP address consists of four groups (or quads) of decimal
digits separated by periods, e.g. Different parts
of the address represent different things. Some part will
represent the network number or address, and some other
part will represent the local machine address.
Hub - A (network) hub is used to connect multiple devices
to the network. The hub transmits all data to all devices
connected to it, whereas a switch will only transmit the data
to the device it is specifically intended for.
IEEE 802.11 - A family of standards for wireless LANs. The
802.11 standard supports 1 or 2 Mbit/s transmission on the
2.4 GHz band. IEEE 802.11b specifies an 11 Mbit/s data rate
on the 2.4 GHz band, while 802.11a allows up to 54 Mbit/s
on the 5 GHz band.
Image compression - Image compression minimizes the file
size (in bytes) of an image. Two of the most common
compressed image formats are JPEG and GIF.
Interlacing - Interlaced video is video captured at 50
pictures (known as fields) per second, of which every 2
consecutive fields (at half height) are then combined into 1
frame. Interlacing was developed many years ago for the
analog TV world and is still used widely today. It provides
good results when viewing motion in standard TV pictures,
although there is always some degree of distortion in the
To view interlaced video on e.g. a computer monitor, the
video must first be de-interlaced, to produce progressive
video, which consists of complete images, one after the
other, at 25 frames per second. See also Progressive scan.
IP (Internet Protocol) - The Internet Protocol is a method
transmitting data over a network. Data to be sent is divided
into individual and completely independent "packets." Each
computer (or host) on the Internet has at least one address
that uniquely identifies it from all others, and each data
packet contains both the sender's address and the receiver's
The Internet Protocol ensures that the data packets all arrive
at the intended address. As IP is a connectionless protocol,
which means that there is no established connection
between the communication end-points, packets can be sent
via different routes and do not need to arrive at the
destination in the correct order.
Once the data packets have arrived at the correct
destination, another protocol - Transmission Control
Protocol (TCP) - puts them in the right order. See also TCP.
IP Address - An IP address is simply an address on an IP
network used by a computer/device connected to that
network. IP addresses allow all the connected
computers/devices to find each other and to pass data back
See also IP (Internet Protocol).
Infrared (IR) - Infrared radiation is radiation at a longer
wavelength than visible light, which means it cannot be
seen by the naked human eye. As infrared radiation can be
detected as heat, this can be shown on a screen or captured
by a digital camera, with hotter objects showing up brighter
against colder surroundings (e.g. a human body against a
colder background).
As color cameras can "see" infrared radiation as well as
visible light, these cameras are equipped with an IR-cut
filter, to prevent distortion of the colors the human eye can
see. To use the camera in very dark locations or at night,
this filter can be removed, to allow infrared radiation to hit
the image sensor and thus produce images.
An infrared lamp can be used for improved illumination for
night surveillance, whilst not producing any extra visible
Inputs/Outputs (I/O's) - The digital I/Os on, for example, a
network camera can be used to connect any device that can
toggle between an open and a closed circuit.
If, for example, a door switch is used as an input device,
opening the door could trigger the upload of video images
and the sending of notification messages.
An output might, for example, be used to automatically
start a siren when there is a motion detection trigger.
I-VOP - See VOP.
JPEG (Joint Photographic Experts Group) - Together with
the GIF file format, JPEG is an image file type commonly
used on the web. A JPEG image is a bitmap, and usually has
the file suffix '.jpg' or ".jpeg." When creating a JPEG image,
it is possible to configure the level of compression to use. As
the lowest compression (i.e. the highest quality) results in
the largest file, there is a trade-off between image quality
and file size.
kbit/s (kilobits per second) - A measure of the bit rate, i.e.
the rate at which bits are passing a given point. See also Bit
LAN (Local Area Network) - A LAN is a group of
computers and associated devices that typically share
common resources within a limited geographical area.
Linux - Linux is an open source operating system within
AXIS 231D+/232D+ - Glossary of Terms
the Unix family. Because of its robustness and availability,
Linux has won popularity in the open source community
and among commercial application developers.
Multicast - Bandwidth-conserving technology that reduces
bandwidth usage by simultaneously delivering a single
stream of information to multiple network recipients.
MAC address (Media Access Control address) - A MAC
address is a unique identifier associated with a piece of
networking equipment, or more specifically, its interface
with the network. For example, the network card in a
computer has its own MAC address.
Multiplexer - A multiplexer is a high-speed switch that
provides full-screen images from up to 16 analog cameras.
Multiplexers can playback everything that happened on any
one camera with no interference from the other cameras on
the system.
Manual iris - This is the opposite to an autoiris, i.e. the
camera iris must be adjusted manually to regulate the
amount of light allowed to reach the image sensor.
Network connectivity - The physical (wired or wireless)
and logical (protocol) connection of a computer network or
an individual device to a network, such as the Internet or a
Mbit/s (Megabits per second) - A measure of the bit rate,
i.e. the rate at which bits are passing a given point.
Commonly used to give the "speed" of a network. A LAN
might run at 10 or 100 Mbit/s. See also Bit rate.
Monitor - A monitor is very similar to a standard television
set, but lacks the electronics to pick up regular television
Motion JPEG - Motion JPEG is a simple
compression/decompression technique for networked video.
Latency is low and image quality is guaranteed, regardless
of movement or complexity of the image. Image quality is
controlled by adjusting the compression level, which in turn
provides control over the file size, and thereby the bit rate.
High-quality individual images from the Motion JPEG
stream are easily extracted. See also JPEG.
Megapixel - See Pixel.
MPEG (Moving Picture Experts Group) - The Moving
Picture Experts Group develops standards for digital video
and audio compression. It operates under the auspices of the
International Organization for Standardization (ISO). The
MPEG standards are an evolving series, each designed for a
different purpose.
MPEG-2 - MPEG-2 is the designation for a group of audio
and video coding standards, and is typically used to encode
audio and video for broadcast signals, including digital
satellite and Cable TV. MPEG-2, with some modifications, is
also the coding format used by standard commercial DVD
MPEG-4 - MPEG-4 is a group of audio and video coding
standards and related technology. The primary uses for the
MPEG-4 standard are web (streaming media) and CD
distribution, conversational (videophone), and broadcast
Most of the features included in MPEG-4 are left to
individual developers to decide whether to implement them
or not. This means that there are probably no complete
implementations of the entire MPEG-4 set of standards. To
deal with this, the standard includes the concept of
"profiles" and "levels", allowing a specific set of capabilities
to be defined in a manner appropriate for a subset of
NWay - NWay is a telecommunications protocol used with
Ethernet networking devices (such as router and switch) to
automatically negotiate the highest possible common
transmission speed between two devices.
NTSC (National Television System Committee) - NTSC is
the television and video standard in the United States. NTSC
delivers 525 lines at 60 half-frames/second.
OEM (Original Equipment Manufacturer) - This is a
designation for companies that manufacture equipment
which is then marketed and sold to other companies under
their own names.
PAL (Phase Alternating Line) - PAL is the dominant
television standard in Europe. PAL delivers 625 lines at 50
PEM (Privacy Enhanced Mail) - An early standard for
securing electronic mail. The PEM-format is often used for
representing an HTTPS certificate or certificate request.
Ping - Ping is a basic network program used diagnostically
to check the status of a network host or device. Ping can be
used to see if a particular network address (IP address or
host name) is occupied or not, or if the host at that address
is responding normally. Ping can be run from e.g. the
Windows Command prompt or the command line in Unix.
Pixel (Picture element) - A pixel is one of the many tiny
dots that make up a digital image. The color and intensity of
each pixel represents a tiny area of the complete image.
PoE (Power over Ethernet) - Power over Ethernet provides
power to a network device via the same cable as used for the
network connection. This is very useful for IP-Surveillance
and remote monitoring applications in places where it may
be too impractical or expensive to power the device from a
power outlet.
PPP (Point-to-Point Protocol) - A protocol that uses a
serial interface for communication between two network
devices. For example, a PC connected by a phone line to a
PPTP (Point-to-Point Tunnelling Protocol) - A protocol
(set of communication rules) that allows corporations to
extend their own corporate network through private
"tunnels" over the public Internet. In this way a corporation
66 AXIS 231D+/232D+ - Glossary of Terms
can effectively use a WAN (Wide Area Network) as a large
single LAN (Local Area Network). This kind of
interconnection is known as a virtual private network
Pre/post alarm images - The images from immediately
before and after an alarm. These images are stored in a
buffer for later retrieval.
Progressive scan - Progressive scan, as opposed to
interlaced video, scans the entire picture, line by line every
sixteenth of a second. In other words, captured images are
not split into separate fields as in interlaced scanning.
Computer monitors do not need interlace to show the
picture on the screen, but instead show them progressively,
on one line at a time in perfect order, i.e. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7
etc., so there is virtually no "flickering" effect. In a
surveillance application, this can be critical when viewing
detail within a moving image, such as a person running. A
high-quality monitor is required to get the best from
progressive scan. See also Interlacing.
Protocol - A special set of rules governing how two entities
will communicate. Protocols are found at many levels of
communication, and there are hardware protocols and
software protocols.
Proxy server - In an organization that uses the Internet, a
proxy server acts as an intermediary between a workstation
user and the Internet. This provides security, administrative
control, and a caching service. Any proxy server associated
with a gateway server, or part of a gateway server,
effectively separates the organization’s network from the
outside network and the local firewall. It is the firewall
server that protects the network against outside intrusion.
A proxy server receives requests for Internet services (such
as web page requests) from many users. If the proxy server
is also a cache server, it looks in its local cache of
previously downloaded web pages. If it finds the page, it is
returned to the user without forwarding the request to the
Internet. If the page is not in the cache, the proxy server,
acting as a client on behalf of the user, uses one of its own
IP addresses to request the page from another server over
the Internet. When the requested page is returned, the proxy
server forwards it to the user that originally requested it.
P-VOP - See VOP.
Resolution - Image resolution is a measure of how much
detail a digital image can hold: the greater the resolution,
the greater the level of detail. Resolution can be specified as
the number of pixel-columns (width) by the number of
pixel-rows (height), e.g. 320x240.
Alternatively, the total number of pixels (usually in
megapixels) in the image can be used. In analog systems it
is also common to use other format designations, such as
CIF, QCIF, 4CIF, etc.
RTCP (Real-Time Control Protocol) - RTCP provides
support for real-time conferencing of groups of any size
within an intranet. This support includes source
identification and support for gateways like audio and video
bridges as well as multicast-to-unicast translators.
RTCP offers quality-of-service feedback from receivers to
the multicast group as well as support for the
synchronization of different media streams.
RTP (Real-Time Transport Protocol) - RTP is an Internet
protocol for the transport of real-time data, e.g. audio and
video. It can be used for media-on-demand as well as
interactive services such as Internet telephony.
RTSP (Real Time Streaming Protocol) - RTSP is a control
protocol, and a starting point for negotiating transports
such as RTP, multicast and Unicast, and for negotiating
RTSP can be considered a "remote control" for controlling
the media stream delivered by a media server. RTSP servers
typically use RTP as the protocol for the actual transport of
audio/video data.
Router - A device that determines the next network point to
which a packet should be forwarded on its way to its final
destination. A router creates and/or maintains a special
routing table that stores information on how best to reach
certain destinations. A router is sometimes included as part
of a network switch. See also switch.
Server - In general, a server is a computer program that
provides services to other computer programs in the same or
other computers. A computer running a server program is
also frequently referred to as a server. In practice, the server
may contain any number of server and client programs. A
web server is the computer program that supplies the
requested HTML pages or files to the client (browser).
Sharpness - This is the control of fine detail within a
picture. This feature was originally introduced into color TV
sets that used notch filter decoders. This filter took away all
high frequency detail in the black and white region of the
picture. The sharpness control attempted to put some of that
detail back in the picture. Sharpness controls are mostly
superfluous in today's high-end TVs. The only logical
requirement for it nowadays is on a VHS machine.
Simplex - In simplex operation, a network cable or
communications channel can only send information in one
SMTP (Simple Mail Transfer Protocol) - SMTP is used for
sending and receiving e-mail. However, as it is "simple," it
is limited in its ability to queue messages at the receiving
end, and is usually used with one of two other protocols,
POP3 or IMAP. These other protocols allow the user to save
messages in a server mailbox and download them
periodically from the server.
SMTP authentication is an extension of SMTP, whereby the
client is required to log into the mail server before or during
the sending of email. It can be used to allow legitimate users
to send email while denying the service to unauthorized
AXIS 231D+/232D+ - Glossary of Terms
users, such as spammers.
SNMP (Simple Network Management Protocol) - SNMP
forms part of the Internet Protocol suite, as defined by the
Internet Engineering Task Force. The protocol can support
monitoring of network-attached devices for any conditions
that warrant administrative attention.
Sockets - Sockets are a method for communication between
a client program and a server program over a network. A
socket is defined as "the endpoint in a connection." Sockets
are created and used with a set of programming requests or
"function calls" sometimes called the sockets application
programming interface (API).
SSL/TSL (Secure Socket Layer/Transport Layer Security)
These two protocols (SSL is succeeded by TSL) are
cryptographic protocols that provide secure communication
on a network. SSL is commonly used over HTTP to form
HTTPS, as used e.g. on the Internet for electronic financial
transactions. SSL uses public key certificates to verify the
identity of the server.
Subnet & subnet mask - A subnet is an identifiably
separate part of an organization's network. Typically, a
subnet may represent all the machines at one geographic
location, in one building, or on the same local area network
(LAN). Having an organization's network divided into
subnets allows it to be connected to the Internet with a
single shared network address.
The subnet mask is the part of the IP address that tells a
network router how to find the subnet that the data packet
should be delivered to. Using a subnet mask saves the router
having to handle the entire 32-bit IP address; it simply looks
at the bits selected by the mask.
Switch - A switch is a network device that connects
network segments together, and which selects a path for
sending a unit of data to its next destination. In general, a
switch is a simpler and faster mechanism than a router,
which requires knowledge about the network and how to
determine the route. Some switches include the router
function. See also Router.
TCP (Transmission Control Protocol) - TCP is used along
with the Internet Protocol (IP) to transmit data as packets
between computers over the network. While IP takes care of
the actual packet delivery, TCP keeps track of the individual
packets that the communication (e.g. requested a web page
file) is divided into, and, when all packets have arrived at
their destination, it reassembles them to re-form the
complete file.
TCP is a connection-oriented protocol, which means that a
connection is established between the two end-points and is
maintained until the data has been successfully exchanged
between the communicating applications.
Telnet - Telnet is a simple method with which to access
another network device, e.g. a computer. The HTTP protocol
and the FTP protocols allow you to request specific files
from remote computers, but do not allow you logon as a
user of that computer. With Telnet, you log on as a regular
user with whatever privileges you may have been granted
for specific applications and data residing on that computer.
TVL (TV Lines) - A method of defining resolutions in
analog video.
UDP (User Datagram Protocol) - UDP is a communications
protocol that offers limited service for exchanging data in a
network that uses the Internet Protocol (IP). UDP is an
alternative to the Transmission Control Protocol (TCP). The
advantage of UDP is that it is not required to deliver all data
and may drop network packets when there is e.g. network
congestion. This is suitable for live video, as there is no
point in re-transmitting old information that will not be
displayed anyway.
Unicast - Communication between a single sender and a
single receiver over a network. A new connection is
established for each new user.
UPnPTM - A set of computer network protocols that allows
the automatic peer-to-peer detection of devices on the
network. UPnP is promoted by the UPnP Forum.
URL (Uniform Resource Locator) - An "address" on the
USB - (Universal Serial Bus) A plug-and-play interface
between a computer and peripheral devices, e.g. scanners,
printers, etc.
Varifocal lens - A varifocal lens provides a wide range of
focal lengths, as opposed to a lens with a fixed focal length,
which only provides one.
VPN (Virtual Private Network) - This creates a secure
"tunnel" between the points within the VPN. Only devices
with the correct "key" will be able to work within the VPN.
The VPN network can be within a company LAN (Local Area
Network), but different sites can also be connected over the
Internet in a secure way. One common use for VPN is for
connecting a remote computer to the corporate network, via
e.g. a direct phone line or via the Internet.
VOP (Video Object Plane) - A VOP is an image frame in an
MPEG-4 video stream. There are several types of VOP:
- An I-VOP is complete image frame.
- A P-VOP codes the differences between images, as long as
it is more efficient to do so. Otherwise it codes the whole
image, which may also be a completely new image.
WAN (Wide-Area-Network) - Similar to a LAN, but on a
larger geographical scale.
W-LAN (Wireless LAN) - A wireless LAN is a wireless local
area network that uses radio waves as its carrier: where the
network connections for end-users are wireless. The main
network structure usually uses cables.
Web server - A Web server is a program, which allows
Web browsers to retrieve files from computers connected to
68 AXIS 231D+/232D+ - Glossary of Terms
the Internet. The Web server listens for requests from Web
browsers and upon receiving a request for a file sends it
back to the browser.
The primary function of a Web server is to serve pages to
other remote computers; consequently, it needs to be
installed on a computer that is permanently connected to
the Internet. It also controls access to the server whilst
monitoring and logging server access statistics.
WEP (Wireless Equivalent Privacy) - A wireless security
protocol, specified in the IEEE 802.11 standard, which is
designed to provide a wireless local area network (WLAN)
with a level of security and privacy comparable to that
usually expected of a wired LAN. Security is at two different
levels; 40-bit and 128-bit encryption. The higher the bit
number, the more secure the encryption.
WINS (Windows Internet Naming Service) - Part of the
Microsoft Windows NT Server, WINS manages the
association of workstation names and locations with IP
addresses, without the user or administrator having to be
involved in each configuration change.
WPA-PSK (Wi-Fi Protected Access - Pre-Shared Key) This wireless encryption method uses a pre-shared key (PSK)
for key management. Keys can usually be entered as manual
hex values, as hexadecimal characters, or as a Passphrase.
WPA-PSK provides a greater degree of security than WEP.
Zoom lens - A zoom lens can be moved (zoomed) to
enlarge the view of an object to show more detail.
AXIS 231D+/232D+ 69
Accessing the video stream 15
Action buttons 9, 23
Active/Inactive 9, 23
ActiveX controls 8
Administrator 16
Advanced TCP/IP settings 42
Alarm 34, 50
AMC 10, 15
Backlight compensation 20
Backup 47
Bandwidth 12, 60
Buffer Size 32
Buffers 32
CGI links 22, 27
Click-in-image 26
Connection Module 50
Constant bit rate 12
Control Button 7, 49
Customize 21
Date & Time 40
Default viewer 23
DNS configuration 42
Emergency recovery 53
Event 30
Event Servers 30
Event Types 31
Factory Default 48
Frame rates 18, 60
FTP Server 30
Guard Tour 28
Host name 42
HTML examples 24
HTTP API 22, 27
HTTP port number 43
HTTPS 37, 43
Include windows 34
IP address filtering 36
IR cut filter 19
IR light 9
Live View 16
Maximum bandwidth 44
Motion JPEG 12
MPEG-4 12
MPEG-4 clients 15
MPEG-4 protocols 13
Multicasting 13
NAT Traversal 43
Network 41
Network Connector 7
New Server Time 40
Night vision 19
Output buttons 9, 23
Overlay image 19
Overlay settings 18
Own home page 22
Own web files 21
Pan/Tilt/Zoom 25
70 AXIS 231D+/232D+
Pan/Tilt/Zoom Control Queue 11
Pan/Tilt/Zoom Controls 10
Pinout 46
Pinout - I/O connectors 50
Port Status 35
Ports & Devices 46
Post-trigger Buffer 32
Preset positions 27
Pre-trigger Buffer 32
PTZ commands 22, 27
PTZ control queue 27
PTZ controls 25
Pulse 9, 23
QuickTime 23
Recovery 53
Referrals 36
Restart 47
Restore 47
RTP 13, 46
RTSP 13, 44
Scheduled Event 33
Security 36
Sequence mode 9
Serial Number 7
Services 41
Setup Tools 16
Snapshot 9
Specifications 56
Streaming MPEG-4 14
Support 47
System options 36
TCP Server 30
Time mode 40
Triggered Event 31
Troubleshooting 52
UDP 13
Unicasting 13
Upgrade Server 47
UPnP 46
User defined links 22
Variable bit rate 12
Video format 9
Video stream 18
White balance 19