Chaparral G5312/G7313 Network Card User Manual

G- and K-Series
External RAID Board Controller
G5312/G7313
K5312/K7313
User’s Guide
Copyright
©1999, 2000 Chaparral Network Storage, Inc.
Document Number: 07-0033-003
This document covers G5312, G7313, K5312, and K7313.
All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced without the prior written consent of:
Chaparral Network Storage, Inc.
7420 E. Dry Creek Parkway
Longmont, Colorado 80503
http://www.chaparralnet.com
Trademarks
Chaparral Network Storage, Inc. and the Chaparral logo are trademarks of Chaparral Network Storage, Inc.
AHA and AIC are trademarks of Adaptec, Inc.
Windows is a registered trademark and Windows NT is a trademark of Microsoft Corporation in the U.S.
and other countries, used under license.
All other trademarks are owned by their respective owners.
Changes
The material in this document is subject to change without notice. While reasonable efforts have been made
to ensure the accuracy of this document, Chaparral Network Storage, Inc. assumes no liability resulting
from errors or omissions in this publication, or from the use of the information contained herein.
If you would like to provide comments or suggestions on the quality and/or accuracy of this manual, please
contact Chaparral at http://www.chaparralnet.com/manuals.
Chaparral reserves the right to make changes in the product design without reservation and without
notification to its users. Comments and suggestions can be sent to the address listed above.
Technical Support
If after reviewing this user’s guide, you still have questions about installing or using your Chaparral
product, please contact us at (303) 684-3200 or by e-mail at support@chaparralnet.com
Federal Communications Commission Radio Frequency Interference Statement
WARNING: Changes or modifications to this unit not expressly approved by the party responsible for
compliance could void the user’s authority to operate the equipment.
This equipment has been tested and found to comply with the limits for a Class A digital device, pursuant
to Part 15 of the FCC rules. These limits are designed to provide reasonable protection against harmful
interference in a residential installation. This equipment generates uses, and can radiate radio frequency
energy, and if not installed and used in accordance with the instruction manual, may cause harmful
interference to radio communications. However, there is no guarantee that interference will not occur in a
particular installation. However, if this equipment does cause interference to radio or television equipment
reception, which can be determined by turning the equipment off and on, the user is encouraged to try to
correct the interference by one or more of the following measures:
!
Reorient or relocate the receiving antenna.
!
Increase the separation between equipment and receiver.
i
!
Connect the equipment to an outlet on a circuit different from that to which the receiver is connected.
!
Consult the dealer or an experienced radio/television technician for help.
Use a shielded and properly grounded I/O cable and power cable to ensure compliance of this unit to
the specified limits of the rules.
This device complies with part 15 of the FCC rules. Operation is subject to the following two conditions:
(1) this device may not cause harmful interference and (2) this device must accept any interference
received, including interference that may cause undesired operation.
!
Canadian Compliance Statement
This Class A digital apparatus meets all requirements of the Canadian Interference-Causing Equipment
Regulations.
Cet appareil numérique de la classe A respecte toutes les exigences du Règlement sur le matérial brouilleur
du Canada
ii
Contents
1
Introduction
About This Guide 1-1
Conventions 1-2
Product Features 1-2
Motherboard CPU Subsystem (G-Series) 1-2
Motherboard Ultra2 SCSI Channels (G-Series) 1-2
Motherboard Disk Cache (G-Series) 1-3
Battery Interface (G-Series) 1-3
Hardware Configuration and Management Support
(G-Series) 1-3
Onboard Connectors (G-Series) 1-4
Daughterboard (G-Series) 1-4
Motherboard CPU Subsystem (K-Series) 1-4
Motherboard Ultra2 SCSI Channels (K-Series) 1-4
Motherboard Disk Cache (K-Series) 1-5
Integrated Battery Backup and Interface (K-Series) 1-5
Hardware Configuration and Management Support
(K-Series) 1-6
Onboard Connectors (K-Series) 1-6
Fibre Channel Connection (K-Series) 1-6
Fibre Channel Features 1-6
Specifications 1-7
Physical (G-Series) 1-7
Electrical (G-Series) 1-7
Environmental (G-Series) 1-8
Battery (G-Series) 1-9
Physical (K-Series) 1-10
Electrical (K-Series) 1-10
iii
G- and K-Series User’s Guide
Environmental (K-Series) 1-11
Battery (K-Series) 1-12
Reference Documents 1-13
External Documents 1-13
Chaparral Documents 1-13
2
Hardware Installation
Connecting the Controller 2-1
Connecting to the SCSI Port 2-1
Connecting to the Fibre Channel Port 2-1
Connecting to the RS-232 Port 2-2
3
Accessing the Disk Array Administrator
Software
Accessing the Disk Array Administrator Using the RS-232 Serial Port 3-1
Navigating the Disk Array Administrator Software 3-3
Changing the Screen Display 3-4
Disk Array Administrator Menu Tree 3-4
4
Creating and Managing Arrays
Creating Arrays 4-1
Managing Arrays 4-8
Viewing Array Status 4-8
Stopping the Array Initialization Process 4-14
Verifying an Array 4-15
Reconstructing an Array 4-17
Expanding Array Capacity 4-18
Changing the Array LUN 4-21
Changing the Array Name 4-22
Trusting an Array 4-22
Deleting an Array 4-24
iv
Contents
5
Monitoring System Status
Displaying the Event Log 5-1
Viewing the Most Recent Event 5-2
Viewing One Event at a Time 5-2
Viewing a Whole Screen of Events 5-4
Capturing the Event Log File 5-4
Displaying Hardware and Configuration Information 5-5
Displaying Overall Statistics 5-11
Resetting Overall Statistics 5-14
6
Managing Spares
Managing Dedicated Spares 6-1
Adding a Dedicated Spare 6-2
Deleting a Dedicated Spare 6-3
Enabling Dynamic Spares 6-3
Managing the Spare Pool 6-5
Adding a Spare to the Spare Pool 6-5
Deleting a Spare from the Spare Pool 6-6
Displaying the Spare Pool 6-7
7
Configuring the Controller
Rebooting the Controller 7-1
Changing the Date and Time 7-2
Changing the Controller’s LUN and SCSI Target ID or Fibre Channel Loop
ID 7-4
Understanding LUNs 7-4
Changing the Controller’s Target ID and LUN 7-6
Configuring the SCSI Channels 7-9
Working with LUN Zoning 7-11
Viewing Known WWNs 7-12
Creating Names (Aliases) for Server WWNs 7-14
v
G- and K-Series User’s Guide
Configuring LUN Zoning 7-15
Changing the Sample Rate 7-17
Changing the Alarm Mute Setting 7-18
Locking the Cache Setting 7-20
Enabling and Disabling the Battery 7-21
Changing the Utility Priority 7-22
Rescanning All Channels 7-23
Pausing I/O 7-24
Restoring Default Settings 7-25
Upgrading Firmware 7-26
Upgrading the Controller’s Firmware 7-26
8
Managing Disk Drives and Enclosures
Managing Disk Drives 8-1
Displaying Drive Information 8-2
Clearing Metadata from a Drive 8-4
Enabling and Disabling Write-back Cache 8-5
Displaying Disk Cache Status 8-7
Enabling and Disabling SMART Changes 8-8
Blinking a Drive LED 8-9
Taking Down a Drive 8-10
Testing a Drive 8-11
Managing SAF-TE Enclosures 8-11
Changing the SEP LUN 8-12
Changing the Additional SEP Settings 8-14
9
Troubleshooting
Chaparral Technical Support 9-1
Terminal Emulator and COM Port Problems 9-1
Array Problems 9-2
Host SCSI Channel Problems 9-3
vi
Contents
Device SCSI Channel Problems 9-4
Problems During Bootup 9-4
Controller Problems 9-5
Warning And Error Events 9-6
Warnings 9-7
Errors 9-8
Using the Loader Diagnostics Menu 9-9
Using the Loader Utility Menu 9-9
Understanding SCSI Errors 9-9
Disk Errors 9-9
Disk Channel Errors 9-11
Voltage and Temperature Errors and Warnings 9-13
A
Array Basics
Array Types A-1
RAID 0 (Striped Disks) A-1
RAID 1, RAID 1/O (Mirrored Disks) A-2
RAID 3 A-2
RAID 4 A-3
RAID 5 A-3
RAID 50 A-3
Volume Sets A-4
Comparing RAID Levels A-4
Mixing Disks from Different Manufacturers or with Different
Capacities A-6
Mixing Disks on Different RAID Controller Channels A-6
B
Glossary
vii
G- and K-Series User’s Guide
viii
1
Introduction
This User’s Guide explains how to install and use the Chaparral G- and K-Series
External RAID Controllers, which are designed to be installed in a RAID enclosure
and used with a host system to provide a powerful disk subsystem.
The G5312 and K5312 RAID controllers are fault-tolerant SCSI-to-SCSI RAID
controllers that bridge the SCSI interface between the host system and the SCSI hard
drive peripherals. They support low voltage differential (LVD) Ultra2 or single-ended
Ultra SCSI buses. The G5312 and K5312 have one Ultra2 SCSI host channel and two
Ultra2 SCSI disk channels. Each disk channel is a separate SCSI bus.
The G7313 and K7313 offer all of the features of the G5312 and K5312 except that
they support Fibre Channel (FC) connectivity, single loop. They each have one FC
host and three Ultra2 SCSI disk channels.
Administrative software is embedded in firmware; thus, the G- and K-Series requires
no specific software drivers for the host operating system.
About This Guide
This User’s Guide describes how to install and configure your Chaparral RAID
controller. It assumes that you are familiar with the basic functions of your computer
system. It also assumes that you are familiar with SCSI and Fibre Channel
configurations and basic network administration terminology.
1-1
G- and K-Series User’s Guide
Conventions
This Guide uses several typographical conventions to help explain how to use the
controller.
Convention
Description
Bold
Words in bold indicate items to select such as menu items
or command buttons.
CTRL-R
Keys you press simultaneously. In this example, hold
down the Ctrl key and press the r key.
Notes give you important information that may affect how
you decide to set up your system.
!
Cautions warn you about actions that may permanently
delete data or cause damage to your system.
Product Features
The following sections describe the features of the G- and K-Series RAID controllers.
Motherboard CPU Subsystem (G-Series)
!
Am5x86-133 MHz processor with internal 16 KB L1 unified code and data
cache
!
8-MB zero-wait state, burst mode, extended-data out (EDO) DRAM memory
(independent of disk cache)
!
1-MB nonvolatile sectored Flash event/code/configuration store memory
Motherboard Ultra2 SCSI Channels (G-Series)
!
Onboard Adaptec AIC™-789x PCI-Ultra2 SCSI interface controller ASICs
!
All SCSI channels support Wide Ultra2 SCSI (80 MB/sec)
!
Each SCSI channel can independently auto-sense LVD and single-ended modes
and negotiate Narrow or Wide SCSI
1-2
Introduction
!
Supports full backward compatibility for asynchronous, fast, Ultra 1, and
Ultra2 SCSI (80 MB/sec)
!
SCSI terminators and termination power sources must reside in the enclosure
subsystem
Note: There is no support for high-voltage differential (HVD) SCSI
(RS-485 SCSI-3 compliant).
Motherboard Disk Cache (G-Series)
!
Adaptec AIC-2100 dual-port PCI disk cache ECC memory controller
!
PCI-to-PCI Bridge providing full CPU and PCI bus concurrency
!
Disk cache size modularity using standard SDRAM 168-pin ECC DIMM
(16 MB to 128 MB)
!
Battery backup switching regulator and control interface for disk cache memory
Battery Interface (G-Series)
!
Battery charger and battery control interface
!
Integrated software-controlled battery charger, diagnostics, and periodic battery
monitoring
!
Battery pack connection to the motherboard or to the backplane interface
!
Nickel Metal Hydride (NiMH) battery pack delivery of a minimum of 72 hours
continuous backup to disk cache memory
Hardware Configuration and Management Support
(G-Series)
!
Dual RS-232 serial ports
!
Analog-to-digital converter for power, temperature, and enclosure monitoring
!
Onboard standard PC-type lithium disk battery for continuous Real-Time Clock
(RTC) power when the unit is shut down
!
Dedicated channel activity LEDs, status LEDs, and alarm I/O to backplane
connector interface
1-3
G- and K-Series User’s Guide
!
General purpose I/O for enclosure-specific functions to backplane connector
interface
!
SAF-TE support for enclosure management.
Onboard Connectors (G-Series)
!
2-pin fan connector (fused 12.0 V)
!
3-pin battery pack connector
!
6-pin status/fault/backup LED connector
Daughterboard (G-Series)
The G7313 incorporates a FC daughterboard for single loop Fibre Channel
connectivity.
Motherboard CPU Subsystem (K-Series)
The K-Series motherboard that is installed in an enclosure includes the following
features:
!
IDT C6/C6+ Winchip, 200 MHz processor with internal 64-KB L1 cache and a
66 MHz/64-bit external bus
!
8-MB zero-wait state DRAM memory (independent of disk cache)
!
2-MB nonvolatile sectored Flash event/code/configuration store memory
Motherboard Ultra2 SCSI Channels (K-Series)
!
Three onboard Ultra2 SCSI (also known as LVD) channels
!
Adaptec AIC-7890 and Adaptec AIC-7896 PCI-LVDS interface controller
ASICs
!
Ultra2 SCSI channel 0 can operate as an independent target or initiator
(software dependent)
!
All SCSI channels support Wide Ultra2 SCSI (80 MB/sec)
!
Each SCSI channel can independently auto-sense LVD and single-ended modes
and negotiate Narrow or Wide SCSI
1-4
Introduction
!
Supports full backward compatibility for asynchronous, fast, Ultra 1
(40 MB/sec), and Ultra2 SCSI (80 MB/sec)
!
Onboard Ultra2 SCSI terminators supporting auto-detection and autoconfiguration for LVD/SE
!
Onboard termination power source circuit breakers
Note: There is no support for high-voltage differential (HVD) SCSI (RS485 SCSI-3 compliant).
Motherboard Disk Cache (K-Series)
!
Adaptec AIC-2100 dual-port PCI disk cache ECC memory controller
!
PCI-to-PCI Bridge providing full CPU and PCI bus concurrency
!
Disk cache size modularity using standard SDRAM 168-pin ECC DIMM
(16 MB to 128 MB)
!
Battery backup switching regulator and control interface for controller cache
memory
!
Onboard battery charger and intelligent control/monitoring interface
Integrated Battery Backup and Interface (K-Series)
!
Battery charger and battery control interface
!
Integrated software controlled battery charger, diagnostics, and periodic battery
monitoring
!
Nickel Metal Hydride (NiMH) battery pack delivery of greater than 72 hours
continuous backup to controller cache memory
!
Software-controlled battery charger and diagnostics
1-5
G- and K-Series User’s Guide
Hardware Configuration and Management Support
(K-Series)
!
RS-232 serial port for configuration and troubleshooting
!
Analog-to-digital converter for power, temperature, and enclosure monitoring
!
Onboard standard PC-type lithium battery for continuous Real-Time Clock
(RTC) power when the unit is shut down
Onboard Connectors (K-Series)
!
Qty = two 2-pin fan connector (fused 12.0 V)
!
3-pin battery pack connector
!
Front panel 26-pin connector
Fibre Channel Connection (K-Series)
The K7313 features a Fibre Channel connection for single loop Fibre Channel
connectivity.
Fibre Channel Features
!
JNI FC interface controller
!
64 KB x 18 parity-protected synchronous SRAM for queuing up to 500
command blocks
!
VSC7125 full-speed 10-bit transceiver, SERDES, for FC-0 interface
!
93C56 serial EEPROM, 2 Kbit in 128 x 16 organization, for storing system
configuration parameters
!
MIA detection circuit for optical module operation support
!
LT1117, 5.0 V to 3.3 V stepdown linear voltage regulator for local 3.3 V supply
!
106.25 MHz clock generator for full-speed FC operation
1-6
Introduction
Specifications
The following sections describe the physical, electrical, environmental, and battery
specifications of the G- and K-Series.
Physical (G-Series)
Table 1-1 shows the physical specifications of the motherboard and daughterboard:
Table 1-1. Physical Specifications
Item
Specifications
Motherboard
Form factor: 4.25 x 9.0 inch PCB outline
0.77 inch max Z-axis height without daughterboard
1.02 inch max Z-axis height single daughterboard
376-pin backplane connector receptacle
Daughterboard
Form factor: 4.0 x 2.19 inch max PCB board, 0.54 inch
typical Z-axis height above top surface of motherboard PCB
100-pin surface mount connectors with 0.8-mm pin pitch,
7-mm connector stack height
Electrical (G-Series)
Table 1-2 shows the electrical specifications of the controllers:
Table 1-2. Electrical Specifications
Item
Specifications
VCC
+5.0 Vdc
G5312/G7313:
3.0A typical Ultra2 SCSI host
4.0A max Ultra2 SCSI host
4.0A typical FC host
5.0A max FC host
A/D Monitoring
-3.5% to +6.5% Normal operation
4.825 Vdc to 5.325 Vdc
>-6.5% to <+10.0% Degraded mode
(warning alert)
>4.67 Vdc to <5.5 Vdc
1-7
G- and K-Series User’s Guide
Table 1-2. Electrical Specifications (Continued)
Item
Specifications
<-6.5%, >+10.0 Controller shutdown
(failure)
<4.67 Vdc, 5.5 Vdc
+12V
+12 Vdc
0.6A max battery charging
0.1 A typical normal operation
0.2 A max normal operation
A/D Monitoring
±10.0% normal operation
(10.8 Vdc to 13.2 Vdc)
>±10% Degraded mode (warning alert)
(9.6 Vdc to 10.8 Vdc)
(13.2 Vdc to 14.4 Vdc)
>±20% Controller shutdown (failure)
<9.6 Vdc and >14.4 Vdc
Environmental (G-Series)
Table 1-3 shows the environmental specifications of the controllers:
Table 1-3. Environmental Specifications
Item
Specifications
Reliability
MTBF (Mean Time Between Failure): 200,000 poweron hours
Temperature
Internal ambient operating:
MTTR (Mean Time To Repair): 20 minutes
5oC to 50oC maximum with specified air flow for
G5312
5oC to 45oC maximum with specified air flow for
G7313
Normal operating: 5oC to 50oC for SCSI host,
5oC to 45oC for FC host
Degraded mode operating: 0oC to 5oC and 50oC to 55oC
for SCSI host,
0oC to 5oC and 45oC to 55oC for FC host
Non-operating: -40oC to +100oC
1-8
Introduction
Table 1-3. Environmental Specifications (Continued)
Item
Specifications
Humidity
Operating: 10% to 85% non-condensing
Non-operating: 5% to 90% non-condensing
Air flow
10.0 cubic feet/minute (CFM1) minimum along
longitudinal axis of controller at maximum temperature
Vibration
5 Hz @ 2.0 x 10-7 PSD, 17-500 Hz @ 2.2 x 10-5 PSD
(PSD = power spectral density g2 /Hz) per IBM C-S 19711-002
Shock
Vertical: 30.0 g @ 3.0 msec pulse width
Horizontal: 15.0 g @ 3.0 msec pulse width per IBM C-S
1-9711-007
1 Linear
flow along controller Y (long) axis
Battery (G-Series)
Table 1-4 shows the specifications of the G5312/G7313 battery available from
Chaparral:
Table 1-4. Battery Specifications
Item
Specifications
Charge time
4 hours maximum
Operating range
5oC to +40oC = 3 year life; > 40oC = 1 year life
Storage
temperature
-20oC to +40oC
Storage humidity
65% ± 20%
A fully charged battery can provide a minimum of 72 hours backup time using all
ranges of DIMM sizes. Replace batteries only with the same type as provided by the
manufacturer. Dispose of batteries according to manufacturer’s instructions.
If you must store the battery for a long time, you should take certain precautions to
ensure the battery has sufficient charge when it is returned to service. The
recommended storage temperature is between +5°C to +25°C. Avoid temperature
extremes exceeding -20°C or +40°C for any extended period of time. Exposure to
extreme temperatures causes the battery to discharge at a faster rate and can take
longer to take a full charge when it is returned to service. A new battery or fully
discharged battery can take from four to eight hours or more to fully charge.
1-9
G- and K-Series User’s Guide
Physical (K-Series)
Table 1-5 shows the physical specifications of the motherboard and daughterboard.
Table 1-5. Physical Specifications
Item
Specifications
Motherboard
Form factor: 4.95 x 7.34 inch motherboard PCB, 1.25 inch max Z-axis
height
AMP Z-Pack backplane mating receptacle, 235-pin connector with
combined LVD, FC, RS-232 serial port, I2C, general purpose I/O
(GPIO), and power
Daughterboard
Form factor: 4.0 x 2.19 inch max PCB board, 0.54 inch typical Z-axis
height above top surface of motherboard PCB.
100-pin surface mount connectors with 0.8-mm pin pitch, 7-mm
connector stack height
Electrical (K-Series)
Table 1-6 shows the electrical specifications of the controllers.
Table 1-6. Electrical Specifications
Item
Specifications
VCC
+5.0 Vdc
3.0 A max operating current (K5312, LVDS host)
4.0 A max operating current (K7313, Fibre Channel
host)
A/D Monitoring
-3.5%, +6.5% normal operation
4.825 Vdc to 5.325 Vdc
-5.0%, +10% degraded mode (warning alert)
4.75 Vdc to 5.5 Vdc
<-5.0%, >+10.0% controller shutdown (failure)
+12V
+12.0 Vdc
1.4 A max operating current (no battery or battery
charged)
1.8 A max operating current (battery charging)
1-10
Introduction
Table 1-6. Electrical Specifications
Item
Specifications
A/D Monitoring
± 8.0% normal operation
11.04 Vdc to 12.96 Vdc
± 10.0% degraded mode (warning alert)
(10.8 Vdc) (13.2 Vdc)
>± 10.0% controller shutdown (failure)
14.4 Vdc
Battery
0.4 A max charging current
0.04 A typical trickle charge current (normal
operation)
A/D Monitoring
Internal thermocouple in battery pack monitored
Warning issued if pack exceeds temperature range
(5oC to 45oC)
Write back cache remains enabled during battery
pack thermal warning
Environmental (K-Series)
Table 1-7 shows the environmental specifications of the controllers.
Table 1-7. Environmental Specifications
Item
Reliability
Specifications
K5312 Main Board: MTBF = 200,000 hours
K7313 Main and Fibre Boards: MTBF = 140,000 hours
CPU Fan = 37,523, MTTF = 4.3 years
Battery = 26,300, MTTF - 3.0 years
Note: Battery life is probably higher based on duty cycle, battery
stress is primarily during re-charge activity if battery backup is
activated.
Temperature
5oC to 45oC normal operating range with unobstructed airflow
0oC to 5oC and 45oC to 50oC degraded mode operating range
-40oC to +100oC non-operating/storage (without battery pack)
5oC to 25oC non-operating/storage (with battery pack)
1-11
G- and K-Series User’s Guide
Table 1-7. Environmental Specifications
Item
Specifications
Humidity
10% to 85% non-condensing operating (without battery pack)
60% to 70% non-condensing operating/non-operating (with battery
pack)
5% to 90% non-condensing non-operating (without battery pack)
Air flow
Internally cooled, unobstructed
Vibration
5 Hz @ 2.0 x 10-7 PSD, 17-500 Hz @ 2.2 x 10-5 PSD (PSD = power
spectral density g2 /Hz) per IBM C-S 1-9711-002
Shock
Vertical: 30.0 g @ 3.0 msec pulse width
Horizontal: 15.0 g @ 3.0 msec pulse width per IBM C-S 1-9711-007
Battery (K-Series)
Table 1-8 shows the specifications of the battery available from Chaparral.
Table 1-8. Battery Specifications
Item
Specifications
Charge time
4 hours maximum
Operating range
5oC to +40oC = 3 year life; > 40oC = 1 year life
Storage
temperature
5oC to 25oC
Storage humidity
65% ± 5%
Note: Outside these limits the battery life will be diminished.
If you must store the battery for a long time, you should take certain precautions to
ensure the battery has sufficient charge when you return it to service. The
recommended storage temperature is between +5oC to +25oC. Avoid temperature
extremes exceeding -20oC or +40oC for any extended period of time. Exposure to
extreme temperatures causes the battery to discharge at a faster rate and can take
longer to take a full charge when it is returned to service. A new battery or fully
discharged battery can take from four to eight hours or more to fully charge.
1-12
Introduction
Reference Documents
External Documents
!
Adaptec’s AIC-7890/91 and AIC-7896, PCI Bus Master Single-chip LVDS
Ultra II ASIC Data Book
!
Adaptec’s AIC-1160, PCI Bus Master Single-chip Fibre Channel Data Book
!
SCSI-2 and SCSI-3 Specification - ANSI standard documents
!
Fibre Channel Physical and Signaling Interface (FC-PH) - ANSI standard
document
Chaparral Documents
!
Chaparral CAPI Functional Specification
!
Chaparral K5312/K7313 Board-Only Design-In Handbook
!
G5312/G7313 External Raid Controller Design-In Handbook
!
Multi-LUN SAF-TE Environmental Processor Design
❒
1-13
G- and K-Series User’s Guide
1-14
2
Hardware Installation
This chapter explains how to connect the controller in your RAID enclosure to your
network and host computer.
Connecting the Controller
Your controller is already installed in an enclosure. Before you configure the
controller and create arrays, you must connect the controller, which has two types of
data connections:
!
SCSI channel (G5312 and K5312)—permitting connection to a server (host).
!
Fibre Channel (G7313 and K7313)—permitting connection to other FC
devices, typically through an arbitrated loop or SAN with fabric.
!
RS-232 serial port—for configuration and management of the controller.
Connecting to the SCSI Port
You can connect the controller (G5312 and K5312) to a SCSI port. Refer to your
enclosure documentation for the type of connector required.
To connect to the SCSI port:
1
2
3
Be sure the enclosure is turned off.
Connect one end of the SCSI cable to the SCSI port on the enclosure.
Connect the other end of the SCSI cable to a server’s SCSI port.
Connecting to the Fibre Channel Port
You can connect the controller (G7313 and K7313) to an FC HBA or to an FC switch
or hub. You must use proper FC components. Refer to your enclosure documentation
for the type of connector required.
2-1
G- and K-Series User’s Guide
To connect to the Fibre Channel port:
1
2
3
Be sure the enclosure power is turned off.
4
Turn power on and begin configuration.
Connect one end of the Fibre Channel cable to the FC port on the enclosure.
Connect the other end of the Fibre Channel cable to a server’s HBA or to an
arbitrated loop hub or fabric switch.
Connecting to the RS-232 Port
You use the RS-232 port to update the firmware, configure, and monitor the
controller using a VT-100/ANSI computer with a terminal emulator.
Refer to your enclosure documentation for information about the correct type of cable
to use. Use a 9-pin straight-through cable. A null modem cable does not work.
9 Pin Female
D SUB
9 Pin Female
D SUB
2
3
5
2
3
5
Configure the RS-232 port in your terminal emulator software using the following
settings:
!
Baud rate: 9600, 19200, 38400, 57600, or 115200; 115200 best for
downloading firmware upgrades
!
Data Bits: 8
!
Stop Bits: 1
!
Parity: None
!
Flow Control: None or XON/XOFF.
2-2
Hardware Installation
To connect to the RS-232 port:
1
2
Be sure the enclosure power is turned off.
3
Connect the other end of the serial cable to the serial port on the computer that
will monitor and configure the controller.
4
Turn power on and begin configuration.
Using a straight-through serial cable, connect one end of the cable to the serial
port on the enclosure.
❒
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G- and K-Series User’s Guide
2-4
3
Accessing the Disk Array
Administrator Software
You can display and change a variety of settings using the Disk Array Administrator
software. Using the Disk Array Administrator, you can:
!
Create and mange arrays (see Chapter 4, Creating and Managing Arrays)
!
Monitor system status (see Chapter 5, Monitoring System Status)
!
Manage spares (see Chapter 6, Managing Spares)
!
Configure the controller (see Chapter 7, Configuring the Controller)
!
Manage disk drives and enclosures (see Chapter 8, Managing Disk Drives and
Enclosures)
You can access the Disk Array Administrator software using the RS-232 serial port
connection on the controller. You must connect a computer with terminal emulator
software, such as HyperTerminal, to the serial port according to Connecting to the
RS-232 Port on page 2-2.
Accessing the Disk Array Administrator
Using the RS-232 Serial Port
You can access the Disk Array Administrator software using the RS-232 serial port.
You must use a straight-through serial cable. You cannot use a null modem cable.
Configure the RS-232 port in your terminal emulator software using the following
settings:
Setting
Value
Terminal Emulation
VT-100 or ANSI (for color support)
Font
Terminal
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G- and K-Series User’s Guide
Setting
Value
Translations
None
Columns
80
Set the communications parameters for the terminal program as follows:
Setting
Value
Baud rate
115,200
Data bits
8
Stop bits
1
Parity
None
Flow Control
Software (XON/XOFF)
Connector
COM1 (typically)
To access the Disk Array Administrator software using the RS-232 serial port:
1
From the computer connected to the controller, start your terminal emulation
software.
Be sure that your terminal emulation software is set to use the correct COM port
on your computer. See Terminal Emulator and COM Port Problems on
page 9-1 for more details on how the controller can auto-detect the baud rate.
2
Press CTRL-R.
The initial Chaparral Disk Array Administrator screen displays.
3-2
Accessing the Disk Array Administrator Software
3
Press Enter.
The System Menu displays.
You can now perform all of the functions described in following chapters. All
steps start from the System Menu.
If an alarm condition has occurred, you will see a message about the problem.
This message will also be stored in the event log.
Navigating the Disk Array Administrator
Software
You can navigate the Disk Array Administrator software using your keyboard.
Table 3-1 below describes the primary navigation and selection methods:
Table 3-1. Disk Array Administrator navigation
To
Select a menu item
Do this
Press the ↑ and ↓ and press Enter.
or
Press the letter that is a different color (or
highlighted) in a menu item (hot key).
Return to the previous menu or
screen without saving your changes
Press Esc, CTRL+Z, or ←.
Scroll through the available choices
for a setting
Press the ↑ and ↓.
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Note: After four minutes of inactivity, the Disk Array Administrator
software times out and returns to the initial screen.
Changing the Screen Display
After you have accessed the Disk Array Administrator software, you can change the
screen display using a combination of keystrokes, as shown on the System Menu.
Table 3-2 lists the keystrokes required to change various screen displays.
Table 3-2. Changing screen displays
Select
Function
Ctrl-A
Toggles between ANSI and VT100 character sets
(use VT100 for legacy systems)
Ctrl-B
Toggles between black and white and color screen
Ctrl-E
Toggles between the event log, hardware
information, and configuration information screens
Ctrl-H
Displays Help screen
Ctrl-R
Refreshes screen
Ctrl-Z,
Esc, or ←
Escapes or quits menu
Disk Array Administrator Menu Tree
Figure 3-1 on page 3-5 and Figure 3-2 on page 3-6 describe the complete Disk Array
Administrator menu hierarchy. In the Disk Array Administrator, menu options that
are not accessible appear gray. For example, the Array Menu is not accessible unless
one or more arrays exist.
3-4
Accessing the Disk Array Administrator Software
Figure 3-1. Menu tree
3-5
G- and K-Series User’s Guide
Figure 3-2. Menu tree (continued)
❒
3-6
4
Creating and Managing Arrays
Using the Disk Array Administrator, you can create and manage arrays. You can
perform the following array-related functions:
!
Create arrays (see page 4-1)
!
View array and drive status (see page 4-8)
!
Stop the initialization process (see page 4-14)
!
Verify an array (see page 4-15)
!
Reconstruct an array (see page 4-17)
!
Expand array capacity (see page 4-18)
!
Change the array Logical Unit Number (LUN) (see page 4-21)
!
Change the array name (see page 4-22)
!
Trust an array (see page 4-22)
!
Delete an array (see page 4-24)
Creating Arrays
You can create an array anytime. The following table describes the drive
requirements for each RAID level.
Table 4-1. Drive requirements by array type
RAID Level
Minimum
No. of
Drives
Maximum
No. of
Drives
Volume Set
1
1
0
2
16
3
3
16
4
3
16
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G- and K-Series User’s Guide
Table 4-1. Drive requirements by array type (Continued)
RAID Level
Minimum
No. of
Drives
Maximum
No. of
Drives
5
3
16
50
6
16
Mirrored
2
16
Note: Before you create more than one array, you must be sure that your
host operating system supports multiple Logical Unit Numbers (LUNs).
Most operating systems do, or have an option you can enable to support
multiple LUNs. If your operating system does not support multiple LUNs,
the host will only be able to see one array.
To create an array:
1
From the System Menu, select Add an Array and press Enter.
The Enter Array Name screen displays.
2
Enter a name for the array and press Enter.
You can use up to 35 characters. You can include any characters in the name,
including spaces.
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Creating and Managing Arrays
If you do not want to name the array, you can just press Enter. You can add or
change the name later.
The LUN screen displays.
3
Select the LUN for the array and press Enter.
The LUN that displays is the suggested default LUN assignment.
If the letters OV appear before a LUN, it indicates that the selection overlaps
with a soft LUN, probably the controller or SAF-TE Environmental Processor
(SEP) LUN. You can create an array at an overlapped LUN, but it is not visible
to the host system until you reboot the controller.
Note: Most Unix, Linux, and Macintosh operating systems require the
controller LUN be a higher value than all array LUNs. Before creating your
first array, change the controller LUN to a higher value or choose NONE
(best choice) if you are not using CAPI to manage the arrays. This allows
your first array to be seen at LUN 0.
The system warns you about the LUN for UNIX and Macintosh, as above, the
first time you create an array. Press Enter and the system asks if you want to be
warned again. Select No to avoid receiving this warning again, otherwise select
Yes to be warned the next time you create an array.
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The RAID Type screen displays.
4
Select the array type: RAID0, RAID3, RAID4, RAID5, RAID50, VOLUME
(a single drive similar to just a bunch of disks (JBOD) except that it includes
metadata), or MIRRORED and press Enter.
Note: A RAID 10 array is created when there are more than two drives in a
mirrored array.
See Appendix A, Array Basics for more information.
The Number of Drives screen displays.
4-4
Creating and Managing Arrays
5
Enter the number of drives (excluding spares) you want in the array and press
Enter.
The Select Drives screen displays with a list of all available drives, including
the following information about each drive:
– Channel
– SCSI ID
– Drive capacity
– Drive manufacturer
– Drive model number
– Drive firmware revision
– Drive state
6
Select the drives you want to use for the array and press Enter.
You select a drive by highlighting it and pressing Enter. Each selected drive
turns gray in the drive list. After you press Enter for the number of drives you
entered previously, the system automatically goes to the next screen. To skip a
drive, use the ↑ or ↓ keys.
If the array is mirrored, RAID 3, RAID 4, RAID 5, or RAID 50 and you have
one or more drives left, the Number of Spares screen displays.
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G- and K-Series User’s Guide
7
If the Number of Spares screen displays, enter the number of spares you want to
add and press Enter.
This creates dedicated spares that can only be used by this array. A dedicated
spare drive will not be available for any other use. For more information about
spares, see Chapter 6, Managing Spares.
If you do not want a spare, enter 0.
The Select Drives screen displays.
8
If the Select Drives screens displays, select the drive you want to use as a
dedicated spare and press Enter.
Only available drives, that is, drives that are not members of an array and are
not assigned as a dedicated or pool spares, display. You can delete a dedicated
spare from the array at any time. For more information see, Deleting a
Dedicated Spare on page 6-3.
You select a drive by highlighting it and pressing Enter. Each selected drive
turns gray in the drive list. After you press Enter for the number of drives you
entered previously, the system automatically goes to the next screen. To skip a
drive, use the ↑ or ↓ keys.
If the array you are creating is a RAID 3, RAID 4, RAID 5, or RAID 50, the
Chunk Size screen displays.
9
If the Chunk Size screen displays, select the chunk size and press Enter.
The chunk size is the amount of contiguous data that is written to an array
member before moving to the next member of the array. To determine the
4-6
Creating and Managing Arrays
appropriate chunk size, refer to your operating system documentation. For
example, the default chunk size for Windows NT and many other operating
systems is 64 KB. If you are using the array for a database with very small
records, you may want to use a smaller chunk size.
The system confirms that you want to create the array.
10 Select Yes and press Enter.
A message notifies you that the array is being created and shows the progress of
the initialization process. The array initialization process takes from several
minutes to more than an hour depending on the array type (volume, RAID 0,
and RAID 1 are the fastest), array size, drive speed, and other processes running
on the controller.
You can press Esc to return the Disk Array Administrator menus and perform
other functions. To check the progress of the array initialization, select Array
Menu from the System Menu. The status of the initialization displays in the list
of arrays.
If you find that you need to change the disks or some other array configuration,
you can stop the array initialization process. See Stopping the Array
Initialization Process on page 4-14.
Note: Most operating systems, such as Windows NT 4.0, require you to
reboot the host system to see the new array. NetWare v3.12 and higher can
recognize new devices by typing the command SCAN FOR NEW
DEVICES at the console prompt. Other operating systems might have
similar features.
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G- and K-Series User’s Guide
Managing Arrays
The Disk Array Administrator software lets you manage your arrays in a variety of
ways. You can:
!
View array and drive status (see page 4-8)
!
Stop the initialization process (see page 4-14)
!
Verify an array (see page 4-15)
!
Reconstruct an array (see page 4-17)
!
Expand array capacity (see page 4-18)
!
Change the array LUN (see page 4-21)
!
Change the array name (see page 4-22)
!
Trust an array (see page 4-22)
!
Delete an array (see page 4-24)
Viewing Array Status
You can view the status of an array, including the following information:
!
State—Online, Offline, Critical, or Fault-tolerant.
!
Name—The name given to the array.
!
RAID—RAID type (0, 3, 4, 5, 50, Volume, or Mirrored). The term “mirrored”
is used for both RAID 1 and RAID 10 arrays.
!
# of Drives—Number of drives in the array when fault-tolerant. For example, if
you create a three-drive RAID-5 array and lose one drive, the number will still
display 3.
!
# of Spares—Number of spare drives dedicated to this array.
!
LUN #—LUN presented to the host system.
!
Size—Size of the entire array (expressed in MB or GB for arrays larger than
10 GB).
!
Chunk size—The array’s chunk size.
4-8
Creating and Managing Arrays
!
WBcache—Status of the write-back cache (enabled or disabled) for this array.
!
Created—Date the array was created.
!
Utility—Utility running (None, Verify, Reconstruct, Expand, or Initialize).
To view the status of an array:
1
From the System Menu, select Array Menu and press Enter.
The Select Array screen displays with a list of existing arrays.
2
Select the array you want and press Enter.
The Array Menu screen displays.
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G- and K-Series User’s Guide
3
Select Array Status and press Enter.
The status screen displays showing the status of the array you selected.
4
Press Esc to return to the Array Menu.
Viewing Array Statistics
You can view the current array statistics. The following statistics are available:
!
Read—Total number of host read requests directed to the array
!
Write—Total number of host write requests directed to the array
!
SecRd—Total number of sectors read from the array
!
SecWt—Total number of sectors written to the array
!
Queue Depth—Current number of commands from the host that are queued up
!
I/O Size—Last host I/O block size request in 512-byte sectors
Similar statistics are also available on an aggregate basis for all array LUNs. For more
information, see Displaying Overall Statistics on page 5-11.
To view the array statistics:
1
From the System Menu, select Array Menu and press Enter.
The Select Array screen displays with a list of existing arrays.
4-10
Creating and Managing Arrays
2
Select the array you want and press Enter.
The Array Menu screen displays.
3
Select Array Statistics and press Enter.
The statistics menu screen displays.
4
Select View Statistics and press Enter.
The statistics screen displays showing the statistics of the array you selected.
5
Press Esc to return to the statistics menu.
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G- and K-Series User’s Guide
Resetting Array Statistics
You can reset the follow array statistics to zero:
!
Read
!
Write
!
SecRd
!
SecWt
!
I/O Size
Note: Resetting statistics here also resets the statistics for this array that are
included in the aggregate statistics. See Displaying Overall Statistics on
page 5-11.
You may want to reset the statistics if you are monitoring performance or doing
benchmark testing. You may also want to reset statistics when you change how you
are using the array.
Note: You cannot reset the queue depth value. It always reflects the current
I/O queue depth.
To reset array statistics:
1
From the System Menu, select Array Menu and press Enter.
The Select Array screen displays with a list of existing arrays.
2
Select the array you want and press Enter.
The Array Menu screen displays.
3
Select Array Statistics and press Enter.
The statistics menu screen displays.
4
Select Reset Statistics and press Enter.
The system confirms that you want to make the change.
5
Select Yes and press Enter.
The system confirms that the statistics have been cleared and returns to the
statistics menu.
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Creating and Managing Arrays
Viewing Drive Status
You can view the status of the drives in an array, including the following information:
!
Drive number—This drive’s sequential position in the controller’s drive list
!
Drive status—Whether the drive is up or down
!
Channel number—Back-end disk bus number
!
Target ID
!
Size—Size of the drive in MB
!
Status—If part of an array, this displays the array name and member number. If
a spare, this displays the type of spare. If unused, displays Available. If drive
was part of an array that no longer exists, displays Leftover.
Note: If a drive has failed or malfunctioned, it may not be listed.
To view drive status:
1
From the System Menu, select Array Menu and press Enter.
The Select Array screen displays with a list of existing arrays.
2
Select the array you want and press Enter.
The Array Menu screen displays.
3
Select Drive Status and press Enter.
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The drive status screen displays showing the drives that are members of the
array and that are assigned as dedicated spares.
Use the ↑ or ↓ arrow keys to scroll through the drives. These are the drives that
are currently members of the array.
4
Press Esc to return to the Array Menu.
Stopping the Array Initialization Process
If you find that you need to change the disks or some other array configuration, you
can stop the array initialization process.
After you stop the process, the array is marked as offline and cannot be used. You
must delete the array before you can use the drives in another array.
To stop the array initialization process:
1
From the System Menu, select Array Menu and press Enter.
The Select Array screen displays with a list of existing arrays.
2
Select the array you want and press Enter.
The Array Menu screen displays.
3
Select Abort Initialization and press Enter.
The system confirms that you want to stop the initialization process.
4
4-14
Select Yes and press Enter.
Creating and Managing Arrays
Verifying an Array
The Verify function allows you to verify the data on the specified array (RAID 3,
RAID 4, RAID 5, RAID 50, and mirrored arrays only):
!
RAID 3, RAID 4, RAID 5, and RAID 50—Verifies all parity blocks in the
selected array and corrects any bad parity.
!
Mirrored—Compares the primary and secondary drives. If a mismatch occurs,
the primary is copied to the secondary.
You may want to verify an array when you suspect there is a problem.
To verify an array:
1
From the System Menu, select Array Menu and press Enter.
The Select Array screen displays with a list of existing arrays.
2
Select the array you want and press Enter.
The Array Menu screen displays.
3
Select Verify Function and press Enter.
The verify menu displays.
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G- and K-Series User’s Guide
4
Select Start Verify and press Enter.
Verification begins and the percentage of verification completed displays. You
can continue to use the array during verification.
To return to the verification menu, press Esc. To check the progress of the array
verification, you can use the verification status described below or select Array
Menu from the System Menu. The status of the verification displays in the list
of arrays.
Viewing Verification Status
You can view the status of the verification process while it is running.
To view verification status:
1
From the System Menu, select Array Menu and press Enter.
The Select Array screen displays with a list of existing arrays.
2
Select the array you want and press Enter.
The Array Menu screen displays.
3
Select Verify Function and press Enter.
The verify menu displays.
4
Select View Verify Status and press Enter.
The Verify Status screen displays.
5
4-16
Press Esc to return to the verify menu.
Creating and Managing Arrays
Stopping the Verification
You can stop the verification process. Normally, you want to let the verification
finish, though stopping it does not cause any damage to your data. You may want to
stop the verification if you want improve performance of the controller for another
application.
To stop the verification process:
1
From the System Menu, select Array Menu and press Enter.
The Select Array screen displays with a list of existing arrays.
2
Select the array you want and press Enter.
The Array Menu screen displays.
3
Select Verify Function and press Enter.
The verify menu displays.
4
Select Abort Verify and press Enter.
The system confirms that you want to stop the verification process.
5
Select Yes and press Enter.
Reconstructing an Array
The controller automatically reconstructs redundant arrays (RAID 3, RAID 4, RAID
5, RAID 50, and mirrored) if an array becomes critical and a properly sized spare
drive is available. An array becomes critical when one or more member drives fails.
If a reconstruct does not start automatically, it means that no valid spares are
available. To start a reconstruct, replace the failed drive, and then add it as a spare
(see Adding a Dedicated Spare on page 6-2, and Enabling Dynamic Spares on
page 6-3) or as a pool spare (see Adding a Spare to the Spare Pool on page 6-5).
Remember that any pool spares added might be used by any critical array, not
necessarily the array you want.
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Expanding Array Capacity
You can expand array capacity without stopping I/O activity, so you can continue
using the array while the expansion process runs. You can only expand one array at a
time.
Note: Expanding an array here does not change the size of the host
operating system partitions that reside on the array, because our controller is
working at the block level not the file system level of the operating system.
To use the new space, you must create a new partition using the newly added
space or use a third party application specific to the operating system to
change the partition size.
How you create a new partition or resize an existing one depends upon the
operating system. Most operating systems cannot resize an existing partition.
Refer to your operating system documentation.
The number of drives you can add to an array depends upon the RAID level as shown
below. You also cannot exceed the maximum number of drives for each RAID level.
See Creating Arrays on page 4-1.
Table 4-2. Drive additions by RAID level
RAID Level
Number of Drives You
Can Add
RAID 0
1 to 4
RAID 1 (mirrored)
Cannot expand
Volume Set
Cannot expand
RAID 10
2 or 4
RAID 3, 4, or 5
1 to 4
RAID 50
3 to 5
Note: Once you start expanding array capacity, you cannot stop it. The
expand function may take an hour or more to complete, depending on the
array type, array size, drive speed, and other processes running on the
controller.
4-18
Creating and Managing Arrays
To expand an array:
1
From the System Menu, select Array Menu and press Enter.
The Select Array screen displays with a list of existing arrays.
2
Select the array you want and press Enter.
The Array Menu screen displays.
3
Select Expand Function and press Enter.
The expand menu displays.
4
Select Start Expand and press Enter.
The Number of Drives screen displays.
5
Enter the number of drives you want to add and press Enter.
The Select Drives screen displays.
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G- and K-Series User’s Guide
6
Press Enter.
The list of available drives screen displays.
7
Select the drives you want to add from the list of available drives and press
Enter.
Only available drives, that is, drives that are not members of an array and are
not assigned as a dedicated or pool spares, display.
You select a drive by highlighting it and pressing Enter. Each selected drive
turns gray in the drive list. After you press Enter for the number of drives you
entered previously, the system automatically begins the expansion. To skip a
drive, use the ↑ or ↓ keys.
Expansion begins and the percentage completed displays. To return to the Array
Menu, press Esc. To check the progress of the expansion, you can use the
expand status described below or select Array Menu from the System Menu.
The status of the expansion displays in the list of arrays.
Viewing Expand Status
You can view the status of the expansion process while it is running.
To view expand status:
1
From the System Menu, select Array Menu and press Enter.
The Select Array screen displays with a list of existing arrays.
2
Select the array you want and press Enter.
The Array Menu screen displays.
4-20
Creating and Managing Arrays
3
Select Expand Function and press Enter.
The expand menu displays.
4
Select View Expand Status and press Enter.
The Expand Status screen displays.
5
Press Esc to return to the expand menu.
Changing the Array LUN
You can change the LUN assigned to an array, as it appears under the controller’s
target ID from the host system’s point of view. The change takes place immediately,
however, you may need to reboot the host system to see the array at the new LUN.
Note: You cannot change the array’s LUN to one that is already in use. If
you want to use a LUN that is already in use, you must first reassign the
LUN in use.
For more information about LUNs and your controller, see Understanding LUNs on
page 7-4.
To change the array LUN:
1
From the System Menu, select Array Menu and press Enter.
The Select Array screen displays with a list of existing arrays.
2
Select the array you want and press Enter.
The Array Menu screen displays.
3
Select Change LUN and press Enter.
The New LUN screen displays.
4
Enter the LUN you want to use and press Enter.
The system confirms that you want to make the change.
5
Select Yes and press Enter.
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G- and K-Series User’s Guide
Changing the Array Name
You can change the name of the array. This does not affect the target ID or LUN
values of the array. The controller does not allow you to change an array name when a
utility is running.
To change the array name:
1
From the System Menu, select Array Menu and press Enter.
The Select Array screen displays with a list of existing arrays.
2
Select the array you want and press Enter.
The Array Menu screen displays.
3
Select Change Array Name and press Enter.
The Enter New Name screen displays.
4
Enter the name you want to use and press Enter.
You can use up to 35 characters. You can include any characters in the name,
including spaces.
The system confirms that you want to make the change.
5
Select Yes and press Enter.
Trusting an Array
You can use the Trust Array function to bring an array back online by resynchronizing
the time and date stamp and any other metadata on a bad disk. This makes the disk an
active member of the array again. You might need to do this when:
!
One or more disks of an array start up more slowly or were powered on after the
rest of the disks in the array. This causes the date and time stamps to differ,
which the controller interprets as a problem with the “late” disks. In this case,
the array will function normally after using Trust Array.
!
An array is offline because a drive is failing, you have no data backup, and you
want to try to recover the data from the array. In this case, the Trust Array
function may work, but only as long as the failing drive continues to operate.
Before you can use this function, you must enable it in the Option Configuration
menu.
4-22
Creating and Managing Arrays
!
Caution: The trust array feature can cause unstable operation and data loss
if used improperly. This feature is intended for disaster recovery.
To trust an array:
1
From the System Menu, select Configuration Menu and press Enter.
The Configuration Menu displays.
2
Selection Option Configuration and press Enter.
The Option Configuration Menu displays.
3
Select Enable Trust Array and press Enter.
The Enable Trust Array screen displays.
4
Select Enable and press Enter.
The option is only enabled until you use it. After you trust an array, the option
reverts back to being disabled.
5
6
Press Esc twice to return to the System Menu.
Select Array Menu and press Enter.
The Select Array screen displays with a list of existing arrays.
7
Select the array you want and press Enter.
The Array Menu screen displays.
8
Select Trust Array and press Enter.
The system confirms that you want to trust the array.
9
Select Yes and press Enter.
The array will be back online.
Note: If the array does not come back online, it may be that too many
members are offline or the array may have additional failures on the bus or
enclosure that Trust Array cannot fix.
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G- and K-Series User’s Guide
Deleting an Array
You can delete an array when you no longer need the array or you need the drives for
another use.
!
Caution: Deleting an array deletes the data contained in the array;
however, before reusing the drives, you should do a low-level format on
each drive.
Note: You cannot delete an array while any utility (Initialize, Verify,
Expand, or Reconstruct) is running on the array. You must stop the utility, if
allowed, or let it finish before you can delete the array.
To delete an array:
1
From the System Menu, select Delete an Array and press Enter.
A list of arrays appears in the menu, if more than one array is exists.
2
Select the array you want to delete and press Enter.
The system asks you to confirm the deletion.
3
❒
4-24
Select Yes and press Enter.
5
Monitoring System Status
You should monitor your system regularly to ensure that the controller, disks, and
arrays are working properly. The Disk Array Administrator software lets you monitor
the status several ways:
!
Event log (see below)
!
Hardware information (see Displaying Hardware and Configuration
Information on page 5-5)
!
Array status screen (see Viewing Array Status on page 4-8)
!
Disk status screen (see Viewing Drive Status on page 4-13)
!
Power On Self-Test (POST) (see Problems During Bootup on page 9-4)
!
Overall Statistics screen (see Displaying Overall Statistics on page 5-11)
Displaying the Event Log
The controller’s event log contains important information about the status of the
controller, disks, and arrays. You should check it regularly to monitor the status of
your system. For more information about specific SCSI disk and channel errors, see
Understanding SCSI Errors on page 9-9.
Below is a list of some of the key warning and failure events included in the log
during operation:
!
Disk detected error
!
Disk channel error
!
Battery failure
!
Drive down
!
Power up
5-1
G- and K-Series User’s Guide
!
Array critical
!
Array offline
!
Temperature warning
!
Temperature failure (this leads to a shutdown which is also logged)
!
Voltage warning
!
Voltage failure (this leads to a shutdown which is also logged)
The event log stores the most recent 400 events. Events are numbered sequentially
from 001 to 999. The numbering wraps back to 001 after reaching 999.
Note: If you are having a problem with the controller or an array, check the
event log before calling technical support. Event messages may let you
resolve the problem without calling. You should also check Chapter 9,
Troubleshooting.
You can view the event information three ways:
!
Most recent event
!
One event at a time, most recent event first
!
Full page of events at a time
You can also capture the event log to a file. See Capturing the Event Log File on
page 5-4.
Viewing the Most Recent Event
The most recent voltage or temperature event displays in rotation with the date and
time whenever the Disk Array Administrator times out and returns to its initial screen.
Viewing One Event at a Time
You can view controller-related events one at a time. The events display in reverse
chronological order, that is, the most recent event is first.
5-2
Monitoring System Status
To display one event at a time:
1
From the System Menu, select Event Log Menu and press Enter.
The Event Log Menu screen displays.
2
Select View Event Log and press Enter.
The Event Log screen displays the last event that occurred.
Sequential event
number
Event date
Event time
Event
3
Press ↑ to see the previous event.
You can continue to view earlier events by pressing ↑.
4
Press Esc to return to the Event Log Menu.
5-3
G- and K-Series User’s Guide
Viewing a Whole Screen of Events
You can also view events from the log file a whole screen at time. This lets you
quickly review all recent events. The events display in chronological order, that is, the
most recent event is last.
To display a whole screen of events:
1
From anywhere in the Disk Array Administrator software, press CTRL-E.
The first screen of events from the event log displays.
2
3
Press u to page up or d to page down in the log.
Keep pressing CTRL-E to page through the other information screens and
return to the menu.
Capturing the Event Log File
You can also capture the entire event log, which saves it to a file on your hard drive.
This is useful if you want to print the log or attach it to an e-mail message.
The steps below use HyperTerminal as the terminal emulator software. If you use a
different terminal emulator, your procedure may be different.
To capture the event log file:
1
5-4
With HyperTerminal up and running as your RS-232 interface terminal, press
CTRL-E until the event log displays.
Monitoring System Status
2
From the Transfer menu in HyperTerminal, select Capture Text.
The Capture Text window displays.
3
4
5
6
Enter the path and file name you want to use to store the log file contents.
Click Start.
Press P on the keyboard to begin the transfer.
From the Transfer menu in HyperTerminal, select Capture Text.
The Capture Text window displays.
7
Click Stop.
Displaying Hardware and Configuration
Information
You can display the controller’s hardware and configuration information. This is
where you can see what version of the firmware you have. Chaparral technical
support personnel may request this information.
You can display the hardware and configuration information two ways:
!
Hardware information only
!
Hardware and configuration information
Table 5-1 lists the configuration information that is available.
Table 5-1. Configuration information
Group
Field
What displays
Field
What displays
HOST
Enabled
Field is just a
placeholder.
SE/LVD
Negotiation rate.
Target ID
(K5312 and
G5312 only)
SCSI ID of
controller as set in
the Disk Array
Administrator
software.
5-5
G- and K-Series User’s Guide
Table 5-1. Configuration information (Continued)
Group
Field
What displays
Controller
LUN
SOFT, NONE, or
specific number as
set in the Disk
Array
Administrator
software.
Topology
Always Loop.*
Field
What displays
(G7313 and
K7313 only)
CHAN 0
5-6
Node WWN
(G7313 and
K7313 only)
FC World Wide
Name for node.
Port WWN
(G7313 and
K7313 only)
FC World Wide
Name for port.
FC Addr
(G7313 and
K7313 only)
24-bit FC address
or None if the FC
link is not active.
AL_PA
(G7313 and
K7313 only)
Currently
assigned value
or None if the
FC link is not
active.
Loop ID
(G7313 and
K7313 only)
SOFT or a specific
number as set in
the Disk Array
Administrator
software.
Current
Currently
assigned value
or Inactive if the
FC link is not
active.
Initiator ID
SCSI ID of
controller on
Channel 0 as set in
the Disk Array
Administrator
software.
Ultra/U2
Hardware runs
as Ultra2.
Monitoring System Status
Table 5-1. Configuration information (Continued)
Group
Field
What displays
Field
What displays
CHAN 1
Initiator ID
SCSI ID of
controller on
Channel 1 as set in
the Disk Array
Administrator
software.
Ultra/U2
Hardware runs
as Ultra2.
CHAN 2
Initiator ID
SCSI ID of
controller on
Channel 2 as set in
the Disk Array
Administrator
software.
Ultra/U2
Hardware runs
as Ultra2.
CONTROLLER
Backoff
Percentage set in
Disk Array
Administrator
software. 1% is
default and
recommended
value.
Utility Pri
HIGH, MED, or
LOW utility
priority as set in
Disk Array
Administrator
software.
Alarm Mute
ON or OFF as set
in Disk Array
Administrator
software.
Battery
ENABLED or
DISABLED as
set in Disk Array
Administrator
software.
Cache Lock
ON or OFF as set
in Disk Array
Administrator
software.
Dyn. Spare
ON or OFF as
set in Disk Array
Administrator
software.
Version
Version of the
Configuration
Application
Programming
Interface.
CAPI
5-7
G- and K-Series User’s Guide
Table 5-1. Configuration information (Continued)
Group
Field
What displays
Field
What displays
SEP
Poll Rate
Number of seconds
as set in the Disk
Array
Administrator
software.
Temperature
ON or OFF as
set in Disk Array
Administrator
software.
Slot flags
ON or OFF as set
in Disk Array
Administrator
software.
Global Flags
ON or OFF as
set in Disk Array
Administrator
software.
* If you have installed the new optional Fibre Channel interface upgrade, you can also
use the Point-to-Point topology.
To display hardware information only:
1
From the System Menu, select Utilities Menu and press Enter.
The Utilities Menu screen displays.
5-8
Monitoring System Status
2
Select Hardware Information and press Enter.
The Hardware Information screen displays.
3
Press Esc to return to the Utilities Menu.
5-9
G- and K-Series User’s Guide
To display hardware and configuration information:
1
From anywhere in the Disk Array Administrator software, press CTRL-E.
The first screen of events from the event log displays.
2
Press CTRL-E again.
The Hardware Information screen displays.
3
Press CTRL-E again.
You can press Esc to return to the previous screen.
The Configuration Information screen displays.
4
5-10
Press CTRL-E or Esc to return to where you started from.
Monitoring System Status
Displaying Overall Statistics
You can display two types of aggregate statistics for all array LUNs:
!
General statistics (Similar statistics are also available for individual array
LUNs. For more information, see Viewing Array Statistics on page 4-10.)
– I/O operations per second (IOPS)
– Bandwidth (in millions of bytes per second)
– Number of read operations
– Number of write operations
– Total sectors (512 byte) read
– Total sectors written
– Total current command queue depth across all LUNs
!
Host read/write histogram that shows how many host reads and writes fell into a
particular size range. The I/O ranges are based on powers of two:
– 1 Sector
– 2-3 Sectors
– 4-7 Sectors
– 8-15 Sectors
– 16-31 Sectors
– 32-63 Sectors
– 64-127 Sectors
– 128-255 Sectors
– 256-511 Sectors
– 512-1023 Sectors
– 1024-2047 Sectors
– 2048 (and larger) Sectors
This information may be helpful in interpreting performance based on individual
system configurations and operating systems. The information displayed here can be
useful to profile applications and their usage of the array and what type of RAID level
is applicable to your needs.
5-11
G- and K-Series User’s Guide
To access the general array statistics:
1
From the System Menu, select Utilities Menu and press Enter.
The Utilities Menu screen displays.
2
Select Overall Statistics and press Enter.
The Overall Statistics screen displays.
3
Select View Statistics and press Enter.
The View Statistics screen displays.
4
5-12
Press Esc to return to the Overall Statistics screen.
Monitoring System Status
To access the read/write histogram:
1
From the System Menu, select Utilities Menu and press Enter.
The Utilities Menu screen displays.
2
Select Overall Statistics and press Enter.
The Overall Statistics screen displays.
3
Select View R/W Histogram and press Enter.
The View R/W Histogram screen displays.
4
Press Esc to return to the Overall Statistics screen.
5-13
G- and K-Series User’s Guide
Resetting Overall Statistics
You can also reset all of the overall statistics back to zero. You may want to reset the
statistics if you are monitoring performance or doing benchmark testing.
Note: Resetting statistics here also resets the statistics for each individual
array. See Viewing Array Statistics on page 4-10.
To reset overall statistics:
1
From the System Menu, select Utilities Menu and press Enter.
The Utilities Menu screen displays.
2
Select Overall Statistics and press Enter.
The Overall Statistics screen displays.
3
Select Reset All Statistics and press Enter.
The system confirms that you want to make the change.
4
Select Yes and press Enter.
The system confirms that the statistics have been cleared and returns to the
Overall Statistics screen.
❒
5-14
6
Managing Spares
Chaparral RAID controllers automatically reconstruct redundant (fault-tolerant)
arrays (RAID 3, RAID 4, RAID 5, RAID 50, and mirrored) if an array becomes
critical and a properly sized spare drive is available. An array becomes critical when
one or more member drives fails.
You can set up two types of spare drives:
!
Dedicated—available drive that is assigned to a specific array. See page 6-1.
!
Pool—available drive that is assigned to the pool, which can provide a spare for
any failed drive in any redundant array. See page 6-5.
In addition, if you enable the Dynamic Spares option and a drive fails, you can
replace the drive and the controller will rescan the bus, find the new disk drive, and
automatically start reconstruction of the array. See page 6-3.
The controller looks for a dedicated spare first. If it does not find a properly sized
dedicated spare, it looks for a pool spare.
If a reconstruct does not start automatically, it means that no valid spares are
available. To start a reconstruct, you must:
1
2
Replace the failed drive, if no other drive is available.
Add the new drive or another available drive as a dedicated spare to the array or
as a pool spare.
Remember that any pool spares added might be used by any critical array, not
necessarily the array you want
Managing Dedicated Spares
Dedicated spares are unused disk drives that you assign as a spare to a specific array.
The disk must be as large as the smallest member of the array. You cannot use a
dedicated spare drive in an array or as a pool spare.
6-1
G- and K-Series User’s Guide
While using a dedicated spare is the most secure way to provide spares for your
arrays, it is also expensive to keep an idle drive assigned to each array. An alternative
method is to assign one or more idle drives to the spare pool. See Managing the Spare
Pool on page 6-5.
Adding a Dedicated Spare
You assign dedicated spare drives to a specific array. If a member drive in the array
fails, the controller uses a dedicated spare drive to automatically reconstruct the array.
You can add dedicated spare drives to Mirrored (RAID 1 and RAID 10) and Parity
(RAID 3, RAID 4, RAID 5, and RAID 50) arrays when you create the array or
afterward. You can assign up to four dedicated spare drives to an array. For more
information about assigning spares when you create an array, see Creating Arrays on
page 4-1.
Note: A spare cannot be added that does not have enough capacity to
replace the smallest member in the array.
To add a dedicated spare:
1
From the System Menu, select Array Menu and press Enter.
The Select Array screen displays with a list of existing arrays.
2
Select the array you want and press Enter.
The Array Menu screen displays.
3
Select Add Spare and press Enter.
The list of drives screen displays listing the available drives.
Note: If a drive was a member of an array and was removed from the array,
you cannot use it as a spare until you clear the drive’s metadata. For more
information, see Clearing Metadata from a Drive on page 8-4.
4
Select the drive you want to add as a spare and press Enter.
The system confirms the change.
5
6-2
Select Yes and press Enter.
Managing Spares
Deleting a Dedicated Spare
You can delete a dedicated spare drive from an array at any time.
To delete a dedicated spare drive:
1
From the System Menu, select Array Menu and press Enter.
The Select Array screen displays with a list of existing arrays.
2
Select the array you want and press Enter.
The Array Menu screen displays.
3
4
Select Delete Spare and press Enter.
Select the spare drive you want to delete and press Enter.
The system confirms the deletion.
5
Select Yes and press Enter to delete the spare.
The drive is now available for use in an array or as a spare.
Enabling Dynamic Spares
The Dynamic Spares option lets you use all of your disk drives in redundant arrays,
without assigning one as a spare. For example, if you enable Dynamic Spares and a
drive fails, you can replace the drive and the controller will rescan the bus, find the
new disk drive, and automatically start reconstruction of the array. The controller
automatically finds the new drive and reconstructs the array.
With Dynamic Spares enabled, if you have spares or available drives, the controller
first looks for a dedicated or spare pool drive for the reconstruction. If none is found,
it uses an available drive, which the controller automatically assigns as a spare and
starts reconstruction.
You must make sure that the new or available drive has enough capacity to replace the
smallest member in the array and does not contain metadata (see Clearing Metadata
from a Drive on page 8-4).
Note: Performance in systems without a SAF-TE Enclosure Processor
(SEP) will decrease if an array becomes critical with this option enabled and
there are no available drives to start a reconstruct. To minimize the
performance impact, increase the rescan rate as described in the steps below.
6-3
G- and K-Series User’s Guide
To enable dynamic spares:
1
From the System Menu, select Configuration Menu and press Enter.
The Configuration Menu screen displays.
2
Select Option Configuration and press Enter.
The Option Configuration screen displays.
3
Select Dynamic Spare Configuration and press Enter.
The Dynamic Spare Config screen displays. The current setting is marked with
an * next to it.
4
Select Enabled and press Enter.
The Rescan Rate screen displays.
5
Enter the rescan rate in minutes.
This tells the controller how often it should look for an available drive by
rescanning the bus. Remember that rescanning the bus frequently can affect
performance. If you have a SEP, the dynamic spare configuration will not
rescan the bus. The SEP will detect the new drive and tell the controller to
rescan and the rescan rate you set here will not affect the system.
The system confirms the change.
6
6-4
Select Yes and press Enter.
Managing Spares
Managing the Spare Pool
The spare pool lets you have one or more disk drives available for the reconstruction
of redundant arrays (Mirrored [RAID 1 and RAID 10] and Parity [RAID 3, RAID 4,
RAID 5, and RAID 50]) arrays. Once you assign a drive to the spare pool, it is not
available for use as an array member or as a dedicated spare.
If a pool spare is too small (smaller than an individual member in an array), the
controller cannot use it.
Adding a Spare to the Spare Pool
You can add up to eight drives to the spare pool to reconstruct any critical array on the
controller. After an array has started using a pool spare, other critical arrays are
prevented from using it. For a pool spare to be used, it must be at least as large as the
minimum drive size in the array.
To add a pool spare:
1
From the System Menu, select Pool Spare Menu and press Enter.
The Pool Spare Menu screen displays.
6-5
G- and K-Series User’s Guide
2
Select Add Pool Spare and press Enter.
The Select Drives screen displays.
3
Select each spare drive you want to add and press Enter.
Deleting a Spare from the Spare Pool
You can delete a spare from the spare pool at any time.
To delete a spare from the spare pool:
1
From the System Menu, select Pool Spare Menu and press Enter.
The Pool Spare Menu screen displays.
2
Select Delete Pool Spare and press Enter.
The Delete Pool Spare screen displays listing the drives assigned to spare pool.
3
6-6
Select the pool spare you want to delete and press Enter.
Managing Spares
Displaying the Spare Pool
You can display a list of the all of the pool spares.
To display the spare pool:
1
From the System Menu, select Pool Spare Menu and press Enter.
The Pool Spare Menu screen displays.
2
Select Display Pool Spares and press Enter.
The Display Pool Spare screen displays listing all disk drives assigned to the
spare pool.
3
Press Esc to return to the Spare Pool Menu.
❒
6-7
G- and K-Series User’s Guide
6-8
7
Configuring the Controller
The Disk Array Administrator lets you configure settings and perform a variety of
functions on the controller. You can:
!
Reboot the controller (see page 7-1)
!
Change the date and time (see page 7-2)
!
Change the LUN and target ID or FC Loop ID (see page 7-4)
!
Configure the SCSI channels (see page 7-9)
!
Set up LUN zoning (see page 7-11)
!
Change the sample rate (see page 7-17)
!
Change the alarm mute setting (see page 7-18)
!
Lock the cache setting (see page 7-20)
!
Enable or disable the battery (see page 7-21)
!
Change the I/O priority (see page 7-22)
!
Rescan all channels (see page 7-23)
!
Pause I/O (see page 7-24)
!
Restore the default settings (see page 7-25)
!
Upgrade the firmware (see page 7-26)
Rebooting the Controller
You may need to shut down and restart the controller after making certain
configuration changes and when you move it or make hardware changes. We strongly
recommend that you shut down the controller gracefully and do not just turn off the
power. A normal shut down ensures that the write-back cache has been flushed to the
disk.
7-1
G- and K-Series User’s Guide
!
Caution: Anyone accessing an array when you shut down the controller
will lose access and may lose data.
To shut down and restart the controller:
1
From the System Menu, select Shutdown/Restart and press Enter.
The system confirms that you want to shut down.
2
Select Yes and press Enter.
The system confirms that it has shut down.
3
Press Enter to reboot.
The system performs its self-test. When you see the Disk Array Administrator
initial screen, the controller is ready. See Chapter 3, Accessing the Disk Array
Administrator Software.
Changing the Date and Time
You can change the controller’s date and time.
To set the controller’s date:
1
From the System Menu, select Configuration Menu and press Enter.
The Configuration Menu screen displays.
2
Select Set Date/Time and press Enter.
The Set Date/Time screen displays.
7-2
Configuring the Controller
3
Select Set Date and press Enter.
The Set Date screen displays.
4
Enter the date you want and press Enter.
Enter the date in the following format: MM/DD/YYYY.
The system confirms that you want to make the change.
5
Select Yes and press Enter to make the changes.
The system confirms that the changes are made.
6
Press Esc to return to the Configuration Menu.
To set the controller’s time:
1
From the System Menu, select Configuration Menu and press Enter.
The Configuration Menu screen displays.
2
Select Set Date/Time and press Enter.
The Set Date/Time screen displays.
7-3
G- and K-Series User’s Guide
3
Select Set Time and press Enter.
The Set Time screen displays.
4
Enter the time you want and press Enter.
Enter the time in the following format: hh:mm:ss.
The system confirms that you want to make the change.
5
Select Yes and press Enter to make the changes.
The system confirms that the changes are made.
6
Press Esc to return to the Configuration Menu.
Changing the Controller’s LUN and SCSI
Target ID or Fibre Channel Loop ID
You can change the SCSI target ID or the Fibre Channel Loop ID and the LUN that
the controller uses on the host bus.
Understanding LUNs
The RAID controller supports up to eight SCSI Logical Unit Numbers (LUNs) that
are numbered zero through seven. There are three different types of LUNs: controller,
SEP, and Array. These LUNs have the following characteristics:
7-4
Configuring the Controller
!
Controller LUN—You only need to assign a controller LUN if you are using the
Configuration Application Program Interface (CAPI) to configure the controller
over a host channel via SCSI protocol extensions. If you are not using CAPI,
you can set the controller LUN to NONE. If you are using CAPI, you can set it
to a value of 0-7 or SOFT. If set to SOFT, the controller LUN is automatically
assigned a LUN value when the controller boots. The soft LUN value will be
assigned to the first available LUN (starting from zero) that does not already
have a hard (that is, a numeric) LUN assignment.
Note: Most Unix, Linux, and Macintosh operating systems require the
controller LUN to be a higher value than all array LUNs. Before creating
your first array, change the controller LUN to a higher value or choose
NONE (best choice) if you are not using CAPI to manage the arrays. This
allows your first array to be seen at LUN 0.
!
SEP LUNs—Allow access to SEPs. A SEP LUN may be set to a value of 0-7,
SOFT (see the controller LUN description for the meaning of SOFT), or NONE.
NONE means that the SEP cannot be accessed via a LUN. Note that if both a
controller LUN and a SEP LUN are set to SOFT, the controller LUN will be
assigned a value first. For information about changing the SEP LUN, see
Changing the SEP LUN on page 8-12.
!
Array LUNs—Allow access to arrays on the controller. Array LUNs may be set
any numeric value from 0-7. They may not be set to a SOFT value. Note that an
array LUN value may be set to overlap a SOFT controller LUN value. In this
case, the controller will keep the numeric value of the overlapped LUN (and the
array will not be visible) until you reboot, after which the array will take the
LUN, and the controller LUN will change to first available SOFT LUN value.
For information about changing the array LUN, see Changing the Array LUN
on page 4-21.
Note: Because a maximum of eight LUNs are supported, if eight arrays are
required, the controller and SEP LUNs will not be accessible, and must be
set to SOFT or NONE.
7-5
G- and K-Series User’s Guide
Changing the Controller’s Target ID and LUN
You can change the controller’s target ID or LUN, if necessary:
!
Target ID—This is either the SCSI target ID for the G5312 or K5312 or the
controller’s FC Loop ID for the G7313 or K7313.
– SCSI target ID—You may need to change controller’s SCSI target ID when
you have existing devices at ID 1, the controller’s default, or when you are
adding more than one controller to a system.You can set the target ID to any
number between 0 and 15.
– FC Loop ID—You may need to change this if you want the controller to be
at a specific address or if your system checks addresses in reverse order
(lowest address first). You have two options:
SOFT—Use this setting if you do not care if the controller’s Loop ID
changes when you power down and power up. This setting lets the FC loop
initialization process determine the Loop ID.
Any number between 0 and 125—Select a specific number if you want the
Loop ID to stay the same after you power down and power up. The Disk
Array Administrator software cannot tell you which Loop IDs are available.
To be sure that you have successfully assigned the Loop ID you want, check
the Loop ID after you reboot the controller. If the controller cannot get the
specified Loop ID during the loop initialization process, it will try to get a
soft address.
!
LUN—You only need to assign a controller LUN if you are using the
Configuration Application Program Interface (CAPI) to configure the controller
over a host channel via SCSI protocol extensions.
If you are not using CAPI, you can set the controller LUN to NONE. If you are
using CAPI, you can set it to a value of 0-7 or SOFT. If set to SOFT, the
controller LUN is automatically assigned a LUN value when the controller
boots. The soft LUN value will be assigned to the first available LUN (starting
from zero) that does not already have a hard (that is, a numeric) LUN
assignment.
You can have three options for setting the LUN:
– NONE—Use this setting if you are not using CAPI to configure the
controller (this change takes effect immediately).
– SOFT—Use this setting if you do not care if the controller’s LUN changes
when you reboot the controller.
7-6
Configuring the Controller
– Any number between 0 and 7—Select a specific number if you want the
controller’s LUN to stay the same when you reboot.
To change the controller’s target ID and LUN:
1
From the System Menu, select Configuration Menu and press Enter.
The Configuration Menu screen displays.
2
Select Host Configuration and press Enter.
The Host Configuration screen displays.
3
Select Target ID and press Enter.
The Target ID screen displays.
4
Select the option or number you want to use and press Enter.
To
Do this
Set a SCSI Target ID
!
Select the [target ID] you want to
use and press Enter.
This can be any number from 0 to
15.
FC Loop ID
Let the FC loop initialization
process determine the Loop ID for
the channel each time the
controller powers up
!
Select SOFT and press Enter.
This is the default setting.
7-7
G- and K-Series User’s Guide
To
Keep the same Loop ID for the
channel at all times
Do this
!
Select the [Loop ID] you want to
use and press Enter.
This can be any number from 0 to
125.
The Controller LUN screen displays.
5
Select the option or number you want to use.
To
Do this
Not assign the controller a LUN
!
Select NONE and press Enter.
Let the controller determine the
channel LUN each time it powers up
!
Select SOFT and press Enter.
This is the default setting.
Keep the same LUN for the
controller at all times
!
Select the [LUN] you want to use
and press Enter.
This can be any number from 0 to
7.
The system confirms that you want to make the change.
6
7-8
Select Yes and press Enter to make the changes.
Configuring the Controller
Configuring the SCSI Channels
You can change two channel configuration options for each channel:
!
Channel speed—You can change the channel speed for each SCSI channel on
the controller. You can select Ultra or Ultra2. This is helpful if you are
troubleshooting a problem on the channel or if you have legacy ultrawide disk
drives.
Note: Ultra/Ultra2 SCSI is enabled by default. This means that for a singleended bus, transfer rates are 40 MB/sec maximum; for an LVD bus, 80
MB/sec maximum. This Ultra SCSI setting only affects the device channel.
Host SCSI channel rates are controlled by setting the host adapter.
!
SCSI ID assigned to each channel (initiator ID)—The controller assigns each of
its SCSI channels one of the SCSI IDs (initiator IDs), leaving 15 SCSI IDs
available for devices. You can change the SCSI ID assigned to each channel.
You may need to do this if the default ID, 7, conflicts with a SEP ID. You can
set the ID to any number between 0 and 15.
To configure the channel:
1
From the System Menu, select Configuration Menu and press Enter.
The Configuration Menu screen displays.
2
Select Channel Configuration and press Enter.
The Channel Configuration screen displays.
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G- and K-Series User’s Guide
3
Select the channel you want and press Enter.
The Ultra/U2 screen displays.The current setting is marked with an * next to it
4
Select the setting you want and press Enter.
The initiator ID screen displays showing the current initiator ID.
5
Select the initiator ID you want and press Enter.
The system confirms that you want to make the change.
6
7
7-10
Select Yes and press Enter to make the changes.
Press Esc to return to the Configuration Menu.
Configuring the Controller
Working with LUN Zoning
The controller’s LUN zoning capability lets you specify which servers (hosts) can
access each array. This gives you complete control of array access based on your
specific needs. LUN zoning is only available on the G7313 and K7313 models.
Figure 7-1 shows an example of how you can use LUN zoning.
Figure 7-1. LUN zoning example
Before you set up LUN zoning, you should know the World Wide Name (WWN) for
each server that you want to set up. Your SAN administrator should know the WWNs
for your network. You can display a list of all WWNs that the controller is aware of
on the SAN, and you can give each WWN a name (alias) of your own. This makes
working with the LUN zoning feature faster and easier.
You set up LUN zoning by either excluding or including servers on a list for each
array LUN. The list can include or exclude up to 16 specific servers or all servers for
each array LUN.
For example, in Figure 7-1, Array A has an include list that only contains Host 2, so
only Host 2 can access Array A. Array F has an exclude list that contains only Host 2,
so all hosts except for Host 2 can access the array.
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G- and K-Series User’s Guide
Viewing Known WWNs
You can view a list of all server (host) WWNs that the controller is aware of on your
SAN. The controller will be aware of any server that was booted since the controller
was last restarted. Typically, servers scan for devices during their device discovery
process. When this happens, the controller saves the WWN information for the server
and retains the information even after you reboot the controller.
You can determine which WWN is for which server by booting one server at a time
and then viewing the WWN list. The most recently booted server is first on the list.
You can then give the servers names you recognize, for example you can use the
computer name that has already been assigned to each server, to make LUN zoning
easier to manage.
To view known WWNs:
1
From the System Menu, select Configuration Menu and press Enter.
The Configuration Menu screen displays.
2
Select Manage Host Names and press Enter.
The Manage Host Names screen displays.
7-12
Configuring the Controller
3
Select Display Host List and press Enter.
The Display Host List screen displays showing all WWNs known to the
controller. The WWNs are listed according the when they were booted. The
most recently booted server (host) is listed first
Note: A hosts WWN can be placed at the top of the known hosts list
whenever the host performs a device discovery or bus scanning type of
operation.
4
Press Esc to return to the Manage Host Names screen.
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G- and K-Series User’s Guide
Creating Names (Aliases) for Server WWNs
You can give the servers on your SAN names (aliases) that you can easily recognize
to make LUN zoning easier to manage. For example, you can use the computer name
that has already been assigned to each server.
You can determine which WWN is for which server by booting one server at a time
and then viewing the WWN list. The most recently booted server is first on the list.
You can name up to 63 servers. The names are stored on the controller, so if you
change controllers, you have to rename the servers.
To create or change names for WWNs:
1
From the System Menu, select Configuration Menu and press Enter.
The Configuration Menu screen displays.
2
Select Manage Host Names and press Enter.
The Manage Host Names screen displays.
3
Select Add or Name Host and press Enter.
The Add or Name Host screen displays all known WWNs and host names that
you have set up. If you want to change the name (alias), enter the new name in
Step 5. For more information see Viewing Known WWNs on page 7-12.
If the controller is not aware of any WWNs, the list is empty. Select Enter New
Host to enter a WWN.
Name set up
previously
7-14
Configuring the Controller
Note: If you have not manually assigned a WWN an alias, the controller
will attempt to give the WWN a default name. The default name, if
available, is the name of the manufacturer of the server’s host bus adapter
(HBA), enclosed in angle brackets. For example, a Qlogic HBA will have a
default name of <Qlogic>.
4
Select the WWN you want to name and press Enter.
The Enter Host Name screen displays.
5
Enter the name (alias) you want and press Enter.
You can enter up to 16 characters. You can use any combination of characters
and spaces.
Configuring LUN Zoning
Once you set up server (host) names (aliases), you can easily set up your LUN zoning.
This is where you determine which servers can access each array LUN.
You set up LUN zoning by either excluding or including servers on a list for each
array LUN. The list can include or exclude up to 16 specific servers or all servers for
each array LUN.
The zoning information is stored as part of the array’s metadata using the WWN for
each server. If you install a new controller, the array’s LUN zoning will remain. The
LUN zoning will also remain if you change the array’s LUN.
Note: Changes to LUN zoning take effect immediately, therefore, you
should make changes that limit access to arrays when the arrays are not in
use.
To set up LUN zoning:
1
From the System Menu, select Array Menu and press Enter.
The Select Array screen displays with a list of existing arrays.
2
Select the array you want and press Enter.
The Array Menu screen displays.
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G- and K-Series User’s Guide
3
Select LUN Zoning and press Enter.
The LUN Exclude List or LUN Include List screen displays. The default setting
for each array LUN is Include All Hosts. This results in all servers (hosts) being
able to access all arrays. You can change the list type using the Change Zone
Type option. See the next step.
4
Select the option you want and press Enter.
– Display Host List—Displays a list of the servers (hosts) currently on the
include or exclude list for the selected array. This option only displays
servers if you have already used Add Host to List and added one or more
WWNs to an include or exclude list.
– Add Host to List—Displays the Enter Host WWN screen where you enter
the WWN or name (alias) or select the server you want to add to the current
list for the selected array. Enter the WWN or name (alias) or select the server
from the list and press Enter.
– Remove Host from List—Displays the Remove Host from List screen
which contains a list of the servers (hosts) currently on the include or
exclude list for the selected array. Select the WWN of the server you want to
remove from the list and press Enter.
– Change Zone Type—Displays the Change Zone type screen where you can
change the type of zoning to one of four options described below. Changing
the zone type does not add or remove any hosts in previously created lists.
7-16
Configuring the Controller
Include All Hosts—Permits all servers (hosts) on the network to access the
selected array. This is the default zone type. This results in all servers (hosts)
being able to access all arrays. If you have already created an include or
exclude list, you can use this option to override the list. Your existing list is
retained and you can display, add, or remove servers from the list.
Include Listed Hosts—Lets you enter or select the WWNs of the specific
servers (hosts) you want to be able to access the selected array.
Exclude All Hosts—Permits no servers (hosts) on the network to access the
selected array. If you have already created an include or exclude list, you can
use this option to override the list. Your existing list is retained and you can
display, add, or remove servers from the list.
Exclude Listed Hosts—Lets you enter or select the WWNs or names
(aliases) of the specific servers (hosts) you do not want to be able to access
the selected array.
Whether you use an include or exclude list depends on your needs. You may
want to determine which list would be shorter and create the shorter list.
If you have changed the LUN zoning, the system confirms that you want to
make the change.
5
Select Yes and press Enter to make the changes.
The system confirms that the changes are made.
6
Press Esc to return to the LUN Zoning screen.
Changing the Sample Rate
You can set how often the controller samples data when updating status screens (disk
and array). The default is one second.
To change the sample rate:
1
From the System Menu, select Configuration Menu and press Enter.
The Configuration Menu screen displays.
2
Select New Sample Rate and press Enter.
The New Sample Rate screen displays.
3
Enter the sample rate and press Enter.
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G- and K-Series User’s Guide
Changing the Alarm Mute Setting
You can enable or disable the audible alarm that sounds when the controller becomes
too hot, detects low or high voltage, or an array becomes critical or offline. Changing
the mute setting lets you turn off the alarm when it is sounding. You should turn it
back on after resolving the problem.
The alarm sounds for temperature or voltage conditions (events). Warning events are
generated when the temperature or voltage enters the warning range. Shutdown
events are generated when the temperature or voltage enters the shutdown range.
After reaching the shutdown range, the controller will not function. You must resolve
the problem and reboot the controller. If the problem is not resolved, it will shut down
again.
Alarm conditions trigger an event message that displays in the Disk Array
Administrator software window and in the event log. See Displaying the Event Log
on page 5-1.
Table 7-1 shows the temperature and voltage thresholds for each alarm and what to
do to resolve the problem.
Table 7-1. Alarm thresholds
Alarm threshold
What to do when the alarm sounds
CPU temperature
! Check the Disk Array Administrator software to
Warning—0°C to 5°C and
65°C to 70°C
Shutdown—0°C and 70°C
<0°C and >70°C
Onboard temperature
Warning—0°C to 5°C and
45°C to 50°C
Shutdown—0°C and 50°C
<0°C and 50°C
7-18
confirm what the alarm means. See Chapter 3,
Accessing the Disk Array Administrator
Software.
! Check the ambient temperature and lower it, if
needed. Ambient temperature should be less
than 45°C.
!
Same as above for the CPU temperature.
Configuring the Controller
Table 7-1. Alarm thresholds
Alarm threshold
What to do when the alarm sounds
VCC voltage
! Check the Disk Array Administrator software to
Warning—5V -3.5% and +6.5%
Shutdown—5V -6.5% and +10%
12V voltage
confirm what the alarm means. See Chapter 3,
Accessing the Disk Array Administrator
Software.
! If it is a warning alarm, let the controller
continue to operate.
! If it is a shutdown alarm, turn off the power to
the controller and send it for service.
!
Same as above for the VCC voltage.
Warning—12V -8% and +8%
Shutdown—12V -10% and +10%
To enable or disable the alarm:
1
From the System Menu, select Configuration Menu and press Enter.
The Configuration Menu screen displays.
2
Select Alarm Mute and press Enter.
The Alarm Mute screen displays. The current setting is marked with an * next
to it.
3
Select the option you want and press Enter.
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G- and K-Series User’s Guide
Locking the Cache Setting
You can prevent host systems from using SCSI mode select commands to change the
controller’s write-back cache setting. Some operating systems disable write cache. If
cache lock is enabled, the host cannot modify the cache setting. The default setting is
disabled.
This option is useful in some environments where the host system disables the
controller’s write-back cache, resulting in degraded performance.
To lock the cache setting:
1
From the System Menu, select Configuration Menu and press Enter.
The Configuration Menu screen displays.
2
Select Option Configuration and press Enter.
The Option Configuration screen displays.
7-20
Configuring the Controller
3
Select Cache Lock and press Enter.
The Cache Lock screen displays. The current setting is marked with an * next to
it.
4
Select the option you want and press Enter.
Enabling and Disabling the Battery
If you are not using a battery in your controller, the controller will sound an alarm. To
eliminate the alarm, you can disable the battery. The default setting is battery enabled.
Note: You should only disable the battery if you are running the controller
with an uninterruptable power supply (UPS), so that you will not lose power
to the controller.
If you disable the battery, the controller will not give any warnings, nor will it disable
the write-back cache.
If you change this setting, you must reboot the controller for the change to take effect.
To change the battery setting:
1
From the System Menu, select Configuration Menu and press Enter.
The Configuration Menu screen displays.
2
Select Option Configuration and press Enter.
The Option Configuration screen displays.
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G- and K-Series User’s Guide
3
Select Battery and press Enter.
The Battery screen displays. The current setting is marked with an * next to it
4
Select the option you want and press Enter.
Changing the Utility Priority
You can change the priority at which all utilities (Verify, Reconstruct, Expand,
Initialize, etc.) run when there are active I/O operations competing for the controller’s
CPU. The choices are:
!
High (default)
!
Medium
!
Low
For example, select High if your highest priority is to get the array back to a fully
fault-tolerant state. This causes heavy I/O with the host to be slower than normal.
Select Low priority if streaming data without interruption, such as for a Web server, is
more important than data redundancy. This allows the reconstruct or other utility to
run at a slower rate with minimal effects on host I/O.
7-22
Configuring the Controller
To change Utility priority:
1
From the System Menu, select Configuration Menu and press Enter.
The Configuration Menu screen displays.
2
Select Utility Priority and press Enter.
The Utility Priority screen displays. The current setting is marked with an *
next to it.
3
Select the option you want and press Enter.
Rescanning All Channels
You can tell the controller to scan all disk channels for new or removed disk drives.
You can use this option when you install or remove drives. The Rescan temporarily
pauses all I/O processes and then resumes normal operation.
If you are using an enclosure with a SEP, the controller will perform a rescan
automatically for you. With a SEP, the controller will detect removed drives almost
immediately; however, installed drives will be detected after a three-minute delay.
This delay is to allow the new drives to spin-up.
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G- and K-Series User’s Guide
To rescan all channels:
1
From the System Menu, select Utilities Menu and press Enter.
The Utilities Menu screen displays.
2
Select Rescan and press Enter.
Pausing I/O
Some drive enclosures allow you to remove and replace drives while SCSI bus
activity continues; others do not. Refer to your enclosure documentation.
!
Caution: Pausing I/O halts active I/O to the host.
Note: If you are not sure that your enclosure supports hot swapping, use the
Hot Swap Pause option before you remove or replace any drives in an array
to ensure data integrity.
Hot Swap Pause suspends activity on all device channels used in the controller,
thereby assuring data integrity on the connected drives and arrays.
7-24
Configuring the Controller
To pause I/O:
1
From the System Menu, select Utilities Menu and press Enter.
The Utilities Menu screen displays.
2
Select Hot Swap Pause and press Enter.
The Bus Paused screen displays.
3
!
When you have replaced the drive, resume SCSI bus activity by pressing Esc.
Caution: Do not stay in the Hot Swap Pause mode for too long; otherwise,
an operating system time-out may occur (the time varies according to the
operating system). For example, in Windows NT the default limitation
during I/O activity is 10 seconds.
Restoring Default Settings
You can restore all of the controller’s default settings. You may want to do this if the
controller is not working properly and you cannot determine why. This lets you then
change the settings that are critical to your configuration.
Note: Restoring defaults does not change any LUN zoning you have set up.
The zoning information is stored on the array as metadata and is retained.
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G- and K-Series User’s Guide
To restore the default settings:
1
From the System Menu, select Configuration Menu and press Enter.
The Configuration Menu screen displays.
2
Select Restore Defaults and press Enter.
The Restore Defaults screen displays. The selected option is marked with an *
next to it.
The system confirms that you want to make the change.
3
Select Yes and press Enter to make the change.
The system confirms that the changes are made.
4
Press Enter to return to the Configuration Menu.
Upgrading Firmware
You can upgrade the firmware for the controller.
Information regarding the latest release of firmware and firmware updates is available
from the Chaparral Web site (www.chaparralnet.com/ and click on “Support”).
Contact Chaparral technical support for firmware updates at (303) 845-3200 or e-mail
to Support@chaparralnet.com
Upgrading the Controller’s Firmware
You use the Flash Utility to download new firmware (.fla file) for your controller, to
auto-detect your VT-100/ANSI terminal baud rate, and to run onboard diagnostics.
The Flash Utility is resident in the embedded firmware of the controller.
You access the Flash Utility using a computer with VT-100/ANSI terminal emulator
software, such as HyperTerminal, connected to the controller through the serial RS232 interface. The controller auto-detects the baud rate when you hold down the
space bar on the computer while powering-on the controller. Valid baud rates are
9,600, 19,200, 38,400, 57,600 and 115,200. The default baud rate is 115,200 and is
recommended to expedite the download process.
7-26
Configuring the Controller
To upgrade the controller’s firmware:
1
Call Chaparral technical support for information about downloading the
firmware updates.
See Chaparral Technical Support on page 9-1.
2
From the computer connected to the controller, access the Disk Array
Administrator software.
See Chapter 3, Accessing the Disk Array Administrator Software.
3
From the System Menu, select Shutdown/Restart and press Enter.
The system confirms that you want to shut down.
4
Select Yes and press Enter.
The system confirms that it has shut down.
5
6
Press Enter to reboot.
While the controller reboots, hold down the space bar on your keyboard.
The Flash Utility screen displays.
7
Press the number on your keyboard that corresponds to the protocol you want to
use to transfer the firmware upgrade file from your computer to the controller.
We recommend using the KERMIT protocol.
The system shows that it is ready to use KERMIT.
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G- and K-Series User’s Guide
8
Using your terminal emulator software, send the .fla file using KERMIT.
If you are using HyperTerminal, select Transfer | Send File, navigate to where
the firmware update file is located, select it, and click Open. Select the same
Protocol from the drop-down list as you selected from the Flash Utility screen.
Click Send.
The file transfers. The system displays messages showing that it is flashing the
code and rebooting the controller.
!
❒
7-28
Caution: Do not interrupt the power when transferring the new firmware.
8
Managing Disk Drives and
Enclosures
The Disk Array Administrator software lets you control a variety of functions related
to disk drives and SAF-TE Environmental Processor (SEP) enclosures connected to
your controller.
!
For drives, you can:
– Display drive information (see page 8-2)
– Clear metadata from a drive (see page 8-10)
– Enable/disable write-back cache and display cache status (see page 8-5)
– Enable/disable changes to SMART (see page 8-8)
– Blink a drive LED (see page 8-9)
– Take down a drive (see page 8-10)
– Test a drive (see page 8-11)
!
For SEP enclosures, you can:
– Change the SEP LUN (see page 8-12)
– Change additional SEP settings (see page 8-14)
Managing Disk Drives
The Disk Array Administrator software lets you control a variety of functions related
to disk drives. You should also refer to your disk drive or enclosure documentation for
information about related functions.
8-1
G- and K-Series User’s Guide
Displaying Drive Information
You can display two types of information about disk drives:
!
A list of all drives connected to the controller
!
The status of all drives in an array
Displaying All Drives
You can display a list of all drives connected to the controller. The information
includes:
!
Channel
!
SCSI target ID
!
Size
!
Manufacturer
!
Model number
!
Drive firmware revision
If any of the drives are members of an array, the following information may also
display:
!
Utility running—Expand, Verify, etc.
!
Array number—this array’s sequential position in the controller’s array list
!
Member number—this drive’s sequential position in the array
Drives that are not members of any array are listed as Available. Drives that contain
leftover metadata from a previous array are listed as Leftover. This situation can arise
if drives are pulled and reinserted. To clear left over metadata, use the Clear Metadata
function. See Clearing Metadata from a Drive on page 8-4.
8-2
Managing Disk Drives and Enclosures
To display all drives:
1
From the System Menu, select Display Drives and press Enter.
The Display Drives screen displays.
2
Press Esc to return to the System Menu.
Viewing Drive Status
You view the status of the drives in an array, including the following information:
!
Drive number—This drive’s sequential position in the controller’s drive list
!
Drive status—Whether the drive is up or down
!
Channel number—Back-end disk bus number
!
Target ID
!
Size—Size of the drive in MB
!
Status—If a member of an array, this displays the array name and member
number. If a spare, this displays the type of spare. If unused, displays Available.
If drive was part of an array that no longer exists, displays Leftover.
Note: If a drive has failed or malfunctioned, it may not be listed.
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G- and K-Series User’s Guide
To view drive status:
1
From the System Menu, select Array Menu and press Enter.
The Select Array screen displays with a list of existing arrays.
2
Select the array you want and press Enter.
The Array Menu screen displays.
3
Select Drive Status and press Enter.
The Drive Status screen displays showing the drives that are members of the
array and that are assigned as spares.
Use the ↑ or ↓ arrow keys to scroll through the drives. These are the drives that
are currently members of the array.
4
Press Esc to return to the Array Menu.
Clearing Metadata from a Drive
All of the member drives in an array contain metadata in the first sectors of the drive.
The controller uses the metadata to identify array members after restarting or
changing controllers.
You can clear the metadata from a drive if you have a drive that was previously a
member of an array. Drives in this state display Leftover in the Display Drives screen.
After you clear the metadata, you can use the drive in an array or as a spare.
8-4
Managing Disk Drives and Enclosures
To clear metadata from a drive:
1
From the System Menu, select Utilities Menu and press Enter.
The Utilities Menu screen displays.
2
Select Drive Utilities Menu and press Enter.
The Drive Utilities Menu screen displays.
3
Select Clear Metadata and press Enter.
The Select Drive screen displays showing drives that are not array members.
4
Select the drive you want and press Enter.
You can now use this drive in an array or as a spare.
Enabling and Disabling Write-back Cache
You can control the write-back cache setting for all of your disk drives at once.
Changes take effect after the next rescan or reboot.
This can be set to ENABLE, DISABLE, or DON’T MODIFY (which means the
controller should not change any drive’s write-back cache settings). The default
setting is DON’T MODIFY.
Typically, if your drives are part of an array, you do not want to turn on write-back
cache on the drives. The controller is already using write-back cache to improve
performance. Turning on write-back cache on the disk drive may improve
performance in some cases, depending on the type of array and how you are using it.
Any disk drives with write-back cache enabled should be connected to an
Uninterruptable Power Supply (UPS) in case of power failure. If the drives are not on
a UPS and power is lost during disk writes, the array will lose any data in the disk’s
write-back cache.
To change the write-back cache setting:
1
From the System Menu, select Configuration Menu and press Enter.
The Configuration Menu screen displays.
8-5
G- and K-Series User’s Guide
2
Select Disk Configuration and press Enter.
The Disk Configuration screen displays.
3
Select Write-back Cache and press Enter.
The Write-back Cache screen displays. The current setting is marked with an *
next to it.
4
5
Select the option you want and press Enter.
Reboot or rescan to have your changes take effect.
See Rebooting the Controller on page 7-1 or Rescanning All Channels on
page 7-23.
8-6
Managing Disk Drives and Enclosures
Displaying Disk Cache Status
You can display cache status of each disk drive. Any disk drives with write-back
cache enabled should be connected to a UPS in case of power failure. If the drives are
not on a UPS and power is lost during disk writes, the array will lose any data in the
disk’s write-back cache.
To display disk cache status:
1
From the System Menu, select Utilities Menu and press Enter.
The Utilities Menu screen displays.
2
Select Drive Utilities Menu and press Enter.
The Drive Utilities Menu screen displays.
3
Select Display Drive Cache and press Enter.
The list of drives screen displays.
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G- and K-Series User’s Guide
4
Select a drive and press Enter.
The cache status screen displays showing the status of the read and write cache.
5
Press Esc to return to the Drive Utilities Menu.
Enabling and Disabling SMART Changes
You can enable or disable the ability to change the Self-Monitoring, Analysis and
Reporting Technology (SMART) settings for all drives connected to the controller.
This can be set to ENABLE, DISABLE, or DON’T MODIFY (which means the
controller should not change any drive’s SMART settings). The default setting is
DON’T MODIFY.
On most drives, SMART is disabled by default by the manufacturer. You may want to
enable it if you want disk drives to be able to recover from errors on their own.
To enable or disable SMART changes:
1
From the System Menu, select Configuration Menu and press Enter.
The Configuration Menu screen displays.
2
Select Disk Configuration and press Enter.
The Disk Configuration screen displays.
8-8
Managing Disk Drives and Enclosures
3
Select SMART and press Enter.
The SMART screen displays. The current setting is marked with an * next to it.
4
5
Select the option you want and press Enter.
Reboot or rescan to have your changes take effect.
See Rebooting the Controller on page 7-1 or Rescanning All Channels on
page 7-23.
Blinking a Drive LED
You can blink the LED on a specific drive. The drive continues blinking its LED until
you do one of the following:
!
Press Esc before the Disk Array Administrator times out
!
Repeat the blink LED command, which toggles the blink LED command off
To blink a drive:
1
From the System Menu, select Utilities Menu and press Enter.
The Utilities Menu screen displays.
2
Select Drive Utilities Menu and press Enter.
The Drive Utilities Menu screen displays.
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G- and K-Series User’s Guide
3
Select Blink Drive LED and press Enter.
The Select Drive screen displays.
4
5
Select the drive you want and press Enter.
Press Esc to stop blinking the LED.
Taking Down a Drive
!
Caution: This function is only for testing arrays and should not be used in
normal operation.
The Down Drive function sets the status of a drive in a fault-tolerant array to down.
This forces the controller to remove it from the array and marks the array as critical.
At this point, you will be unable to down any additional drives in the array.
To make the drive display again, you must use Rescan. See Rescanning All Channels
on page 7-23. After you rescan, you must clear the metadata from the drive before
you can use it in an array or as a spare. See Clearing Metadata from a Drive on
page 8-4.
To take down a drive:
1
From the System Menu, select Utilities Menu and press Enter.
The Utilities Menu screen displays.
2
Select Drive Utilities Menu and press Enter.
The Drive Utilities Menu screen displays.
3
Select Down Drive and press Enter.
The Select Drive screen displays showing drives that are array members.
4
Select the drive you want and press Enter.
The system confirms that you want to make the change.
5
8-10
Select Yes and press Enter to make the change.
Managing Disk Drives and Enclosures
Testing a Drive
This function issues a Test Unit Ready (TUR) command to the selected disk. This just
tells you that the drive can respond, but it still may not be functioning properly.
To test a drive:
1
From the System Menu, select Utilities Menu and press Enter.
The Utilities Menu screen displays.
2
Select Drive Utilities Menu and press Enter.
The Drive Utilities Menu screen displays.
3
Select Test Unit Ready and press Enter.
The Select Drive screen displays.
4
Select the drive you want and press Enter.
If the TUR was successful, TUR STATUS OK displays.
If the TUR was not successful, a failure message displays.
5
Press Esc to return to the Drive Utilities Menu.
Managing SAF-TE Enclosures
A SEP (SAF-TE Environmental Processor) is a SCSI device from which the RAID
controller can inquire about environmental conditions such as temperature, power
supply and fan status, and the presence or absence of disk drives. The RAID
controller can also tell the SEP about RAID activities such as drive rebuilds and failed
disk drives.
SAF-TE configuration settings are automatically enabled when G- and K-Series
controllers are installed in an enclosure that contains a SEP. No changes are required
to the default configuration settings to support SAF-TE.
You can control the following functions for SEP enclosures:
!
Change the SEP LUN (see page 8-12)
!
Change additional SEP settings (see page 8-14):
– Polling interval
– Temperature sensor status
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G- and K-Series User’s Guide
– Slot update status
– Enclosure update status
Changing the SEP LUN
SEP LUNs allow access to SEPs. A SEP LUN may be set to a value of 0-7, SOFT, or
NONE. If set to SOFT, the SEP LUN is automatically assigned a value when the
controller boots. The soft LUN value will be assigned to the first available LUN
(starting from zero) that does not already have a hard (that is, a numeric) LUN
assignment. NONE means that the SEP cannot be accessed via a LUN.
Note that if both a controller LUN and a SEP LUN are set to SOFT, the controller
LUN will be assigned a value first.
You may want to change the SEP LUN if it conflicts with the LUN of another device.
To change the SEP LUN:
1
From the System Menu, select Configuration Menu and press Enter.
The Configuration Menu screen displays.
2
Select SEP Configuration and press Enter.
The SEP Configuration screen displays.
8-12
Managing Disk Drives and Enclosures
3
Select SEP LUNs and press Enter.
The SEP LUNs screen displays.
4
Select the LUN of the SEP you want and press Enter.
The SEP LUN screen displays.
5
Select the option or number you want to use.
To
Do this
Not assign the SEP a LUN
!
Select NONE and press Enter.
Let the controller determine the SEP
LUN each time it powers up
!
Select SOFT and press Enter.
This is the default setting.
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G- and K-Series User’s Guide
To
Do this
Keep the same LUN for the SEP at
all times
!
Select the [LUN] you want to use
and press Enter.
This can be any number from 0 to
7 that is not already in use.
The system confirms that you want to make the change.
6
Select Yes and press Enter to make the change.
Changing the Additional SEP Settings
You can change four additional SEP settings:
!
Polling interval—This is the interval, in seconds, that the controller polls the
SEPs for status changes. The default setting is 5 seconds.
!
Temperature sensor—This controls whether the controller’s onboard
temperature sensor provides temperature information to the host along with the
enclosure’s temperature detected by the SEP. The default setting is OFF, which
means that neither the controller nor the enclosure is providing temperature
information to the host.
!
Slot update status (Slot Flags)—This controls whether the controller sends
commands to the SEP to update the status of each enclosure slot. The default
setting is ON, which means that the controller does request status updates from
the enclosure.
!
Enclosure update status (Global Flags)—This controls whether the controller
sends commands to the SEP to update the overall status of the enclosure. The
default setting is OFF, which means that the controller does not request status
updates from the enclosure.
To change the SEP settings:
1
From the System Menu, select Configuration Menu and press Enter.
The Configuration Menu screen displays.
2
Select SEP Configuration and press Enter.
The SEP Configuration screen displays.
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Managing Disk Drives and Enclosures
3
Select SEP Settings and press Enter.
The Poll Rate screen displays.
4
Enter the poll rate you want, in seconds, and press Enter.
The Temperature screen displays. The current setting is marked with an * next
to it.
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G- and K-Series User’s Guide
5
Select the option you want and press Enter.
The Slot Flags screen displays. The current setting is marked with an * next to it
6
Select whether you want the SEP to send slot status updates to the controller
and press Enter.
The Global Flags screen displays. The current setting is marked with an * next
to it.
7
Select whether you want the SEP to send enclosure status updates to the
controller and press Enter.
The system confirms that you want to make the change.
8
❒
8-16
Select Yes and press Enter to make the change.
9
Troubleshooting
Chaparral Technical Support
For assistance configuring and using your Chaparral product, contact your authorized
distributor or Chaparral technical support at: support@chaparralnet.com. Resolutions
to common problems you may encounter are described in the following sections.
Terminal Emulator and COM Port Problems
Problem: Screen continuously puts out garbage characters.
The likely cause of this problem is a baud rate mismatch between the terminal
emulator and the controller. The default baud rate is 115,200. Follow these steps if
you set your terminal emulator to this rate and still get garbage characters:
1
If you are able, shut down the controller.
See Rebooting the Controller on page 7-1. If you are not able to shut down the
controller, continue with step 2.
2
3
4
Turn OFF the power to the enclosure containing the controller.
5
When the Flash Utility appears, select option 5 to continue to boot the
controller.
Press the spacebar of your terminal emulator.
Turn ON the power while continuing to press the spacebar. This will allow the
controller to autodetect the baud rate setting.
Note: Some terminal emulators don’t immediately change to the new baud
rate settings, and you have to exit and restart the emulator to use the new
settings.
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G- and K-Series User’s Guide
Problem: Nothing is displayed on the terminal emulator screen.
The probable cause of this problem is a bad RS-232 cable connection or swapped
transmit/receive lines. If the cable is properly connected on both ends, try a null
modem adapter that will reverse the RS-232 transmit and receive signals. The need
for a null modem adapter depends on both your enclosure and the RS-232 cable you
are using.
Problem: Screen is updated, but won’t respond to keystrokes.
Disable hardware flow control on the terminal or terminal emulator. The controller
supports XON/XOFF flow control and works properly in most cases with no flow
control.
Problem: Screen looks correct, but clock is not being updated.
Check to be sure that enclosure containing the controller is still powered on. If you
are using XON/XOFF, press the Ctrl key and the Q key simultaneously.
Problem: Screen is updated and menus appear right, but boxes around menus
look incorrect.
Try a different font in your terminal emulator program, such as Terminal. If you
cannot find a font that looks correct, set ASCII Display to Yes in the Display options
item of the Configuration menu.
Array Problems
Problem: Array is much smaller than it should be.
The backoff percent may be set higher than 1%, which is causing the array to be much
smaller than the full size of its member disks.
Note: We strongly recommend that you leave the backoff percent at 1%.
The setting backs off or reduces the capacity of the array by the given percentage. The
backoff percentage helps when you assign spares by compensating for the minor
capacity differences that occur between vendors. For example, two 18-GB drives
from two different vendors may differ in capacity by 100 MB. With a back-off of 0%,
you would not be able to replace an array member’s slightly larger 18-GB drive with
a smaller 18-GB drive. If you intend to only use identical drives from the same
vendor, then you can use a back-off of 0%.
9-2
Troubleshooting
The default setting is 1% backoff. This default allows you to easily work with drives
that have the same nominal capacity, but different actual capacities. The backoff
percentage affects all arrays created on the controller after you set the percentage.
If the drives in an array are not equal in size, the array capacity in a RAID-5 array is
based on the smallest member’s capacity. The backoff percentage is then backed off
the capacity from that amount.
To change the backoff percentage:
1
From the System Menu, select Configuration Menu and press Enter.
The Configuration Menu displays.
2
Select Backoff Percent and press Enter.
The Backoff Percent screen displays.
3
Enter the backoff percent you want to use and press Enter.
Enter the percentage as three digits in the following format: 00.0%. The default
is 01.0%.
Host SCSI Channel Problems
Problem: The host SCSI BIOS scan displays “Device name not available.”
The controller is properly connected, but no arrays have been created. Use the Disk
Array Administrator to create an array and reboot the host system.
Problem: The host SCSI BIOS scan hangs.
Check that termination is set correctly in the Configuration Menu and the drive
enclosure. Check that the device ID set in the Disk Array Administrator does not
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G- and K-Series User’s Guide
conflict with any other devices on the host SCSI channel. If you have a long SCSI
cable, try a different or shorter cable.
Problem: Only one array is displayed during host SCSI BIOS scan.
Check to assure that LUN support is enabled. Most SCSI host adapters, such as the
AHA-2940U2W, ship with LUN support disabled by default. Use Display Array
Status to check the LUN assignment for each array. If LUN 0 is not assigned to an
array, or some other LUN numbers are skipped, use the Change LUN Assignment
option for each array until you have LUN numbers starting at 0 with no LUNs
skipped. You must reboot the host system to recognize the new LUN assignment.
Problem: All arrays are displayed during host SCSI BIOS scan, but only one
array is seen by the operating system.
SCSI drivers for some operating systems require a parameter switch to enable LUN
support. For example, the NetWare driver, aic7870.dsk, requires the driver
parameter LUN_ENABLE=FF (in startup.ncf) to scan for all LUN’s. Check the
driver documentation for your host SCSI channel. You may also need to compact the
LUN mapping.
Device SCSI Channel Problems
Problem: Not all drives connected to the controller device channels are
displayed during boot, or the controller hangs during display of connected
drives and never reaches the Disk Array Administrator screen.
Check your array enclosure’s documentation to be sure that the enclosure is properly
configured for use with a RAID controller. If your enclosure supports removable
drives, check the drive shuttles to be sure that the power connectors, SCSI connectors,
and ID connectors are properly seated. Check termination and ID assignment. If you
have enabled Ultra/Ultra2 SCSI on any device channels, try disabling it.
Note: Check the controller termination settings for all channels.
Problems During Bootup
The following sections describe problems you might encounter during Power On
Self-Test (POST) or during bootup and explain how to resolve those problems. POST
shows problems related to the processor, logic, and memory.
9-4
Troubleshooting
Problem: Controller failed the onboard memory test.
When this failure occurs, it means the internal CPU memory failed. Replace the
controller to correct the problem.
Problem: System hangs at Loading Bridge during BFLU Loader Menu.
Reflash the firmware to ensure you are using the latest version. See Upgrading
Firmware on page 7-26. If you cannot update the firmware or if the updated firmware
does not correct the problem, replace the controller.
Problem: One of the POST diagnostic test failed.
Contact Chaparral technical support.
Problem: The system hangs at CT_srv starting.
Follow these steps to resolve the problem:
1
2
3
4
Check the disk and host channels to make sure they are properly terminated.
Verify that there are not any SCSI address conflicts.
Check the enclosure to make sure everything is properly connected.
If the enclosure and the drive work properly, replace the controller.
Problem: The system hangs during a drive scan.
Follow these steps to resolve the problem:
1
2
3
Check the enclosure to make sure everything is properly connected.
Remove and replace the drive that failed the scan.
If the enclosure and the drive work properly, replace the controller.
Controller Problems
Problem: The controller’s STATUS LED does not turn on. (The controller’s
STATUS LED is on the controller board and is only visible if you open your
enclosure or if it is connected to a status LED on your enclosure.)
Check that 5V power is being applied to the controller. Check the RS-232 interface
for power-on initialization and for diagnostics errors. Check the Disk Array
Administrator for outstanding events.
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G- and K-Series User’s Guide
Problem: The controller’s STATUS LED is on but there is no RS-232 display. (The
controller’s STATUS LED is on the controller board and is only visible if you
open your enclosure or if it is connected to a status LED on your enclosure.)
Check that the RS-232 cable is the correct type (direct connect). Check that the
terminal emulation utility on the computer system is properly configured. See
Accessing the Disk Array Administrator Using the RS-232 Serial Port on page 3-1.
Problem: The controller reports a SDRAM memory error.
Check that the SDRAM DIMM is fully seated in the connector and the latches are
fully engaged into the DIMM notches. Check that the SDRAM is from the Chaparral
approved vendor list. See the Chaparral technical support web site for the latest
updated information.
Problem: The controller reports a Battery error.
Verify that the 3-cell NiMH battery pack is being used. The battery packs from other
Chaparral external RAID controllers, such as the G6322, are not compatible. You will
not damage the battery pack or the controller by using the wrong battery, but the
controller will not operate properly. Check the battery pack cable for breaks. Ensure
that the battery connector is fully seated in the controller connector mate.
Warning And Error Events
There are a number of conditions that trigger warning or error events, activate the
alarm, and may affect the state of the STATUS and FAULT LEDs. The alarm or
buzzer sounds mainly when the Disk Array Administrator displays a warning or error
event. The controller’s STATUS LED is on the controller board and is only visible if
you open your enclosure or if it is connected to a status LED on your enclosure. The
FAULT LED is only visible if it is connected to a fault LED on your enclosure.
The alarm will silence when you acknowledged the event by pressing Esc. The events
in these categories are listed below.
9-6
Troubleshooting
Warnings
Warning events let you know that something related to the controller or an array has a
problem. You should correct the problem as soon as possible. Table 9-1 below
defines each warning event and recommends the action you should take.
Table 9-1. Warning events
Event
Definition
Recommended Action
BATT FAIL INFO
A warning condition in the
battery pack and/or charging
interface has been detected.
Replace the battery. Refer to the
enclosure’s documentation.
REPLACE
BATTERY
The battery is approaching its
3-year life span.
Replace the battery.
ARRAY
CRITICAL
One or more drives were
downed and the array is online
but no longer fault tolerant.
Add a spare to the array or to the
spare pool. Then replace the bad
drives. See Adding a Dedicated
Spare on page 6-2 or Adding a
Spare to the Spare Pool on
page 6-5.
DRIVE DOWN
An error occurred with the
drive and it was downed,
removing it from the active
array.
Add a spare to the array or to the
spare pool. Then replace the bad
drive. See Adding a Dedicated
Spare on page 6-2 or Adding a
Spare to the Spare Pool on
page 6-5.
SPARE
UNUSABLE
The drive still contains
metadata that must be cleared.
Clear the metadata from the spare
drive. See Clearing Metadata
from a Drive on page 8-4.
SMART EVENT
A disk drive IEPC
(informational exceptions page
control) predictive failure
message was received. No
actions by the controller are
taken on the drive for these
events.
Run diagnostics available from
your operating system on the
affected drive. Replace the drive,
if necessary.
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G- and K-Series User’s Guide
Table 9-1. Warning events (Continued)
Event
Definition
Recommended Action
ARRAY OFFLINE
More than one drive in a RAID
0 or volume set went down
bringing the array to an offline
state. This array is no longer
accessible by the host.
Replace the bad drive and restore
the data from backup.
VOLT/TEMP
WARN
The analog to digital convertor
monitored a temperature and/or
voltage in the warning range.
Check that the controller’s fan is
running. Check that the ambient
temperature is not too warm. See
Specifications on page 1-7.
UNWRITABLE
CACHE
The SDRAM cache has battery
backed up data, and the arrays
assigned to this data are not
present.
Either determine which drives are
missing and reinstall them, or
select Yes when asked if you want
to discard this data.
SDRAM CORR
ECC
A correctable single bit
SDRAM ECC error.
If this error occurs frequently,
replace the memory.
Errors
Error events let you know that something related the enclosure, controller, or disk
drives has failed and requires immediate attention. Table 9-2 defines each error event
and recommends the action you should take.
Table 9-2. Error events
Event
Definition
Recommended Action
VOLT/TEMP
FAIL
The analog to digital
convertor monitored a
temperature and/or voltage in the
failure range.
Check that the controller’s fan is
running. Check that the ambient
temperature is not too warm. See
Specifications on page 1-7.
ENCLOSURE
FAIL
Enclosure-specific general
purpose IO trigger a failure
condition.
Check the status of the enclosure.
Refer to the enclosure’s
documentation.
BATTERY
FAILED
A failure in the battery pack
and/or charging interface has
been detected.
Replace the controller’s battery.
9-8
Troubleshooting
Table 9-2. Error events (Continued)
Event
Definition
Recommended Action
DISK CHAN
FAILED
An error has occurred in
communicating on the disk
channel.
Check the cables on the channel.
Check the termination on the disk
channel.
SDRAM
UNCORR ECC
A noncorrectable multiple bit
SDRAM ECC error.
Reseat the memory. If the problem
continues, replace the memory.
Using the Loader Diagnostics Menu
If you have any diagnostic errors, contact Chaparral technical support.
Using the Loader Utility Menu
If you have any diagnostic errors, contact Chaparral technical support.
Understanding SCSI Errors
The event log includes SCSI errors reported by SEPs and disk drives on your system.
If you see these errors in the event log, the information below may assist you. For
more information about viewing the event log, see Displaying the Event Log on
page 5-1.
Disk Errors
If a disk detects an error, it reports the error, which is recorded in the event log. The
figure below shows an example of a disk detected error.
Disk Channel
SCSI ID
Sense Key
Sense Code
Sense Code Qualifier
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G- and K-Series User’s Guide
Using the information in Table 9-3 and Table 9-4 below, you can see that this is a
medium error, unrecovered read error—recommend reassignment.
Table 9-3 lists some of the most common SCSI sense key descriptions (in
hexadecimal). Table 9-4 lists the descriptions for the most common sense codes
(ASC) and sense code qualifiers (ASCQ), all in hexadecimal. See the SCSI Primary
Commands - 2 (SPC-2) Specification for a complete list of ASC and ASCQ
descriptions.
Table 9-3. Sense key descriptions
Sense Key
Description
0h
No sense
1h
Recovered error
2h
Not ready
3h
Medium error
4h
Hardware error
5h
Illegal request
6h
Unit attention
7h
Data protect
8h
Blank check
9h
Vendor-specific
Ah
Copy aborted
Bh
Aborted command
Ch
Obsolete
Dh
Volume overflow
Eh
Miscompare
Fh
Reserved
Table 9-4. ASC and ASCQ descriptions
9-10
ASC
ASCQ
0C
02
Write error—auto reallocation failed
Descriptions
0C
03
Write error—recommend reassignment
11
00
Unrecovered read error
Troubleshooting
Table 9-4. ASC and ASCQ descriptions (Continued)
ASC
ASCQ
Descriptions
11
01
Read retries exhausted
11
02
Error too long to correct
11
03
Multiple read errors
11
04
Unrecovered read error—auto reallocate failed
11
0B
Unrecovered read error—recommend reassignment
11
0C
Unrecovered read error—recommend rewrite the data
47
00
SCSI parity error
48
00
Initiator detected error message received
Disk Channel Errors
Disk channel errors are similar to disk detected errors, except they are detected by the
controller, instead of the disk drive. Some disk channel errors are displayed as text
strings, others are displayed as hexadecimal codes.
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G- and K-Series User’s Guide
The example below shows a disk channel error displaying the hexadecimal code. See
Table 9-5 below for a list of error code descriptions. Most disk channel errors are
informational since the controller issues retries to correct any problem. Errors that
cannot be corrected with retries will result in another critical event describing the
affected disk array (if any).
Disk Channel
SCSI ID
Error Code
Table 9-5. Disk Channel Error Codes
Error Code
9-12
Description
04
Data overrun or underrun occurred while getting sense data
05
Request for sense data failed
20
Selection timeout (displayed as "Sel Timeout")
21
Controller detected an unrecoverable protocol error on the part of the
target
22
Unexpected bus-free condition (displayed as "Unex Bsfree")
23
Parity error on data received from a target (displayed as "Parity Err")
24
Data overrun or underrun has been detected (displayed as “Data
OvUnRn”)
30
Target reported busy status (displayed as “Device Busy”)
31
Target reported queue full status (displayed as “Queue Full”)
32
Target has been reserved by another initiator
40
Controller aborted an I/O request to this target because it timed out
(displayed as "I/O Timeout")
41
I/O request was aborted because of a channel reset
42
I/O request was aborted because controller's decision to reset the
channel
Troubleshooting
Table 9-5. Disk Channel Error Codes (Continued)
Error Code
Description
43
I/O request was aborted because of third-party channel reset
(displayed as “Abort 3PRST”).
44
Controller decided to abort I/O request for reasons other than bus or
target reset
45
I/O request was aborted because of target reset requested by controller
46
Target did not respond properly to abort sequence
4B
I/O aborted due to operating mode change (such as LVD to SE or SE
to LVD) (displayed as “Abort MdChg”).
50
Disk channel hardware failure (displayed as "DskChn Fail") This
may be the result of bad termination or cabling.
Voltage and Temperature Errors and Warnings
Most voltage and temperature errors occur due to the enclosure. Check the enclosure
configuration first.
❒
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G- and K-Series User’s Guide
9-14
A
Array Basics
Chaparral’s RAID controllers let you set up and manage disk arrays. A disk array is a
group of disks that appears to the system as a single virtual disk. This is accomplished
through software resident in the RAID controller. RAID (Redundant Array of
Independent Disks) refers to disk arrays in which part of the array storage capacity
may be used to store redundant information. The redundant information lets you
restore user data if a disk in the array fails.
The host system views the controller as a single SCSI disk drive. It is actually an
array of physical disks behind a RAID controller. The controller is managed by
software to appear as a single very large physical disk. Depending on the array type,
the virtual disk has advantages in fault-tolerance, cost, performance, or a combination
of these. This section explains the different array types and the disk requirements for
each type.
Array Types
Array types are defined by their RAID level, a number from 0 through 5 (a higher
RAID level does not necessarily indicate a higher level of performance or faulttolerance). Chaparral’s RAID controllers let you create the types of arrays that have
proven to be the most useful for RAID applications: RAID 0, 1, 1/0 (also known as
mirrored), 3, 4, 5, 50, and Volume Sets.
RAID 0 (Striped Disks)
In a RAID 0 array, data is distributed, or striped, across the disks in the array. The
array appears to the server as one large disk with a capacity approximately equal to the
combined capacity of the physical disks. Because multiple reads and writes can be
handled in parallel, the input/output performance of the array is much better than that
of a single physical disk.
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G- and K-Series User’s Guide
RAID 0 arrays do not store redundant data, so they are not true RAID applications. If
one disk fails, the entire array fails and all array data is lost. The fault-tolerance of a
RAID 0 array, therefore, is less than that of any single disk in the array. The term
RAID 0 is widely used for these arrays, however, because they are conceptually similar
to true RAID applications.
RAID 1, RAID 1/O (Mirrored Disks)
In RAID 1 and RAID 1/0 arrays (commonly called mirrored arrays) disks are paired,
with both disks in a pair containing the same data. When data is written to a mirrored
array, it is written twice—once to each disk in the pair. A RAID 1 array has only one
set of paired disks. A RAID 1/0 array has multiple pairs, across which data is striped.
The read performance of RAID 1 arrays can be much better than that of a single disk,
while the write performance is slightly lower. In RAID 1/0 arrays, both read
performance and write performance are better than those of a single disk.
A mirrored array is also highly reliable, because both disks in a pair must fail for the
array to fail. In an array with five pairs of mirrored disks, for example, the array can
maintain its integrity even if five disks fail—as long as each pair is left with one good
disk. The main disadvantage of a mirrored array is its cost. Because all disks must
have a twin, you must use twice the number of disks that actually contribute to the
array capacity. In an eight-disk array, for example, you have only four disks of usable
capacity.
RAID 3
RAID 3 arrays contain redundant information in the form of parity data, which is
calculated block-by-block for all user data. The user data is distributed across all but
one of the disks in the array. The parity data is written exclusively to the parity disk
(also known as the check disk). In the event of a disk failure, the data can be
reconstructed from corresponding data stripes on the remaining disks in the array.
RAID 3 provides excellent I/O performance for applications that require high data
transfer rates such as image processing, video processing, scientific data collection,
batch data processing, or sequential reads and writes.
RAID 3 is not well suited for transaction processing or other applications that require
simultaneous reads and writes.
A-2
Array Basics
RAID 4
RAID 4 is similar to RAID 3 in that the redundant information is achieved in the form
of parity data. The user data is distributed across all but one of the disks. The
controller uses a single, dedicated parity drive for data protection. The main
difference is that RAID 3 usually synchronizes writes to its disks, while RAID 4 can
send data to its disk independently.
RAID 4 is best suited for transaction processing applications that require high read
requests, but not write requests such as inquires rather than updates.
RAID 4 is not recommended for I/O intensive applications that require high data
transfer rates.
RAID 5
RAID 5 arrays contain redundant information in the form of parity data, which is
calculated block-by-block for all user data. The parity information is distributed
across the disks in the array and occupies the equivalent capacity of about one disk.
Data is interspersed with the parity information. If one disk in the array fails, the data
on the failed disk can be reconstructed from the parity data and user data on the
remaining disks. Two disks must fail before the entire array fails.
The read performance of a RAID 5 array is excellent—comparable to that of a
RAID 0 array. Write performance is lower than that of a RAID 0 array, because write
operations involve calculating and writing new parity data as well as writing the new
user data.
RAID 50
RAID 50 arrays are made up of two or more RAID 5 arrays, across which data is
striped. RAID 50 arrays contain redundant information in the form of parity data,
which is calculated block-by-block for all user data. As in a RAID 5 array, the parity
information is distributed across the disks in the array and occupies the equivalent
capacity of one disk per RAID 5. Data is interspersed with the parity information. If
one disk in the array fails, the data on the failed disk can be reconstructed from the
parity data and user data on the remaining disks. Two disks in one RAID 5 subset
must fail before the entire array fails.
The read performance of a RAID 50 array is excellent—better than a RAID 5 array—
along with better data protection. Write performance is lower than that of a RAID 0
array, because write operations involve calculating and writing new parity data as
well as writing the new user data.
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G- and K-Series User’s Guide
Volume Sets
A volume set is the ability to create a host-accessible LUN that maps to a single disk
in the array, similar to JBOD. Volume sets are non-redundant and have a capacity
slightly less than the physical disk they are created from. Volume sets are useful if you
have a single disk available and you don’t want to use it as a spare.
Note: For more information on RAID levels, see The RAIDbook: A Source
Book for RAID Technology, published by the RAID Advisory Board (St.
Peter, Minnesota: February, 1996).
Comparing RAID Levels
Table A-1 illustrates the differences between the different RAID levels:
Table A-1. Comparing RAID Levels
RAID
Level
Min No.
of Drives
Description
Strengths
Weaknesses
RAID 0
2
Data striping
without
redundancy
Highest
performance
No data
protection—one
drive fails, all data
is lost
RAID 1
2
Disk mirroring
Very high:
• Performance
• Data protection
• Minimal penalty
on write
performance
High redundancy
cost overhead—
because all data is
duplicated, twice
the storage
capacity is required
RAID 2
n/a
No practical use
Previously used for
RAM error
environments
correction (known
as Hamming Code)
and in disk drives
before the use of
embedded error
correction
No practical use—
same performance
can be achieved by
RAID 3 at lower
cost
A-4
Array Basics
Table A-1. Comparing RAID Levels (Continued)
RAID
Level
Min No.
of Drives
Description
Strengths
Weaknesses
RAID 3
3
Block-level data
striping with
dedicated parity
drive
Excellent
performance for
large, sequential
data requests
Not well-suited for
transactionoriented network
applications; single
parity drive does
not support
multiple,
concurrent and
write requests
RAID 4
(Not
widely
used)
3
Block-level data
striping with
dedicated parity
drive
Data striping
supports multiple
simultaneous read
requests
Write requests
suffer from same
single parity-drive
bottleneck as
RAID 3; RAID 5
offers equal data
protection and
better performance
at same cost
RAID 5
3
Block-level data
striping with
distributed parity
Best
cost/performance
for transactionoriented networks;
very high
performance and
data protection;
supports multiple
simultaneous reads
and writes; can also
be optimized for
large, sequential
requests
Write performance
is slower than
RAID 0 or RAID 1
RAID 50
6
Combination of
RAID 0 (data
striping) and
RAID 5 with
distributed parity
Better random
performance and
data protection
than RAID 5
Lower storage
capacity than
RAID 5
A-5
G- and K-Series User’s Guide
Table A-1. Comparing RAID Levels (Continued)
RAID
Level
Min No.
of Drives
RAID
1/0
Also
known as
mirrored
4
Combination of
RAID 0 (data
striping) and RAID
1 (mirroring)
Highest
performance and
data protection
(can tolerate
multiple drive
failures)
High redundancy
cost overhead;
because all data is
duplicated, twice
the storage
capacity is
required; requires
minimum of four
drives
Volume
Sets
1
Non-RAID, nonstriped mapping to
a single drive
(similar to JBOD)
Ability to use a
single drive to store
additional data
Not protected,
lower performance
(not striped)
Description
Strengths
Weaknesses
Mixing Disks from Different Manufacturers or
with Different Capacities
An array can contain different models of SCSI disks, even disks with different
capacities; for example, an array can include a 4-GB disk and a 9-GB disk. If you mix
disks with different capacities, the smallest disk determines the logical capacity of all
other disks in the array, regardless of RAID level. For example, if a RAID 0 array
contains one 4-GB disk and four 9-GB disks, the capacity of the array is equivalent to
about five 4-GB disks. To maximize disk capacity, use disks of similar size.
Mixing Disks on Different RAID Controller
Channels
The G5312 and K5312 RAID controllers have two device channels: 1 and 2; the
G7313 and K7313 have three device channels: 0, 1, and 2. An array can consist of
disks on different channels of the same RAID controller.
❒
A-6
Glossary
Address—An address is a data structure or logical convention used to identify a
unique entity, such as a particular process or network device.
Arbitrated loop physical address (AL_PA)—An AL_PA is a 1-byte value used
in an arbitrated loop topology. This value is used to identify L_Ports. The value then
becomes the last byte of the address identifier for each public L_Port on the loop.
Bus—See Channel.
Channel—A channel is a common physical path composed of wires or other media,
across which signals are sent from one part of a computer to another. A channel is a
means of transferring data between modules and adapters, or between an adapter and
SCSI devices. A channel topology network consists of a single cable trunk that
connects one workstation to the next in a daisy-chain configuration. All nodes share
the same medium, and only one node can broadcast messages at a time.
Fabric—Fabric refers to a switched topology, which is one of the three FC
topologies. Fabric elements, which are responsible for frame routing, interconnect
various N_Ports or NL_Ports. Depending on vendor support, fabric switches may be
interconnected to support up to 16 million N_Ports on a single network.
Fibre—Fibre is a generic FC term that refers to all transmission media types
specified in the FC Physical Layer standard (FC-PH), such as optical fiber, copper
twisted pair, and copper coaxial cable.
Fibre channel (FC)—FC is a bidirectional, point-to-point serial data channel,
structured for high-performance capability. In the physical sense, an FC is an
interconnection of multiple communication points, called N_Ports, by a switching
network (fabric). FC transports incoming data from devices by reading the buffer
information, packaging it, and sending the information across the fabric. Although FC
is a generalized transport mechanism that has no protocol of its own or native I/O
command set, it can transport any existing upper level protocol such as SCSI and IP.
FC offers high-speed data transfer rates up to 1 Gbps. FC is most commonly used to
connect clustered servers to storage systems. ANSI has developed standards for FC.
FC adapter—An FC adapter is a printed circuit assembly that translates data
between the FC host processor’s internal bus and FC link.
G-1
G- and K-Series User’s Guide
FC Arbitrated Loop (FC-AL)—FC-AL is one of three FC topologies in which
ports use arbitration to establish a point-to-point circuit. Arbitrated loops allow
multiple ports to be connected serially in a single loop. Up to 126 NL_Ports and 1
FL_Port can be configured in a unidirectional loop. Ports arbitrate for access to the
loop based on their AL_PA. Ports with lower AL_PAs have higher priority than ports
with higher AL_PAs.
FC device—A device that uses FC communications is referred to as an FC device.
FC port—An FC port is the opening at the back of a router that provides a fiber optic
connection between the FC adapter and FC host.
FC protocol for SCSI (FCP)—FCP defines an FC mapping layer (FC-4) that uses
FC-PH services to transmit SCSI command, data, and status information between a
SCSI initiator and SCSI target. FCP enables transmission and receipt of SCSI
commands, data, and status across the FC using standard FC frame and sequence
formats.
Gigabit interface converter (GBIC)—A GBIC, also referred to as a Physical
Link Module, is a physical component that manages functions of the FC-0 layer. This
layer consists of the physical characteristics of the media and interface, including
drivers, transceivers, connectors, and cables. A GBIC attaches to an FC adapter and
connects a router to an FC host.
High voltage differential (HVD)—HVD is a differential SCSI scheme with
terminators that run on 5 volts.
Host bus adapter (HBA)—An HBA is the critical link between a host server or
workstation and a storage subsystem, integrating computing platforms, operating
systems, and I/O protocols to ensure proper interoperability and functionality. The
bus adapter provides direct storage connectivity from the system to data within the
storage subsystem and enables stable, high-speed transmission of information and
files. HBAs manage the controller-specific aspects of handling a storage driver
interface device implemented as a target driver, which supports mass storage
peripheral devices such as disks and tapes. A storage driver interface is used to
implement SCSI and other storage device drivers. An HBA connects to the storage
subsystem through a single PCI slot in the host computer and uses either fiber or
copper media.
Initiator—An initiator is an FC or SCSI device that contains application clients that
originate service requests and task management functions for processing by a target
FC or SCSI device.
G-2
Glossary
Initiator mode—Initiator mode is the configuration mode of a device in which an
FC or SCSI initiator requests operations to be performed by an FC or SCSI target
device.
Logical unit number or logical unit (LUN)—A LUN is a subdivision of a SCSI
target. For SCSI-3, each SCSI target supports up to 64 LUNs. An FC host using
LUNs can address multiple peripheral devices that may share a common controller.
Loop address—Loop address is an FC term that indicates the unique ID of a node
in FC loop topology. A loop address is sometimes referred to as a Loop ID.
Low voltage differential (LVD)—LVD is a method of powering SCSI cables that
will be formalized in the SCSI-3 specifications. LVD uses less power than the current
differential drive (HVD), is less expensive, and allows for higher speeds such as those
of Ultra-2 SCSI. LVD requires 3.3 volts (versus 5 volts for HVD).
Management Information Base (MIB)—A MIB is a database of managed
objects accessed by network management protocols. An SNMP MIP is a set of
parameters that an SNMP management station can query or set in the SNMP agent of
a network device (for example, a router).
Mapping table—A mapping table is a table indexed by sequential LUN values. The
values indicate select bus:target:LUN devices. Mapping tables are used by some
routers to perform FC-to-SCSI operations by default.
Point to Point—A point-to-point connection is a communication link between two
end systems. The point-to-point topology is one of three FC topologies, in which two
ports are directly connected by a link; there are no fabric, loop, or switching elements
present.
Router—A router is a device that enables connectivity between SCSI devices and
FC networks. It routes each data command to the appropriate SCSI channel based on
the address it is intended for.
SCSI adapter —A SCSI adapter is a 16-bit fast/wide differential or 8-bit narrow
single-ended physical connection between a router and SCSI devices. Each SCSI
adapter supports up to 16 (fast/wide) or 8 (narrow) SCSI devices, including itself.
SCSI addressing—Each device supported by a SCSI adapter has its own unique
SCSI address, which dictates the device’s priority when arbitrating for access to the
SCSI bus. A SCSI address of 7 has the highest priority. For a fast/wide SCSI adapter
that supports up to 16 devices, the next highest priority address is 6, then 5, 4, 3, 2, 1,
0, 15, 14, 13, 12, 11, 10, 9, and 8. The narrow SCSI adapter supports up to eight
devices, including itself. The SCSI address 7 has the highest priority, followed by 6,
5, 4, 3, 2, 1, and 0.
G-3
G- and K-Series User’s Guide
SCSI bus—A SCSI bus provides a means of transferring data between SCSI
devices. A SCSI bus is either an 8- or 16-bit bus that supports up to 8 or 16 devices,
including itself. The bus can consist of any mix of initiators and targets, with the
requirement that at least one initiator and one target must be present.
SCSI device—A SCSI device is a single unit on a SCSI bus that originates or
services SCSI commands. A SCSI device is identified by a unique SCSI address.
SCSI devices can act as initiators or targets.
SCSI port—A SCSI port is an opening at the back of a router that provides
connection between the SCSI adapter and SCSI bus.
Small computer system interface (SCSI) —SCSI is an industry standard for
connecting peripheral devices and their controllers to an initiator. Storage devices are
daisy-chained together and connected to a host adapter. The host adapter provides a
shared bus that attached peripherals use to pass data to and from the host system.
Examples of devices attached to the adapter include disk drives, CD-ROM discs,
optical disks, and tape drives. In theory, any SCSI device can be plugged into any
SCSI controller.
Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP) —SNMP is the Internet
standard protocol, defined in STD 15, RFC 1157, developed to manage nodes on a
Internet Protocol (IP) network.
Speed—Speed is a status type in the FC Status Menu that shows the speed (1,063
Mbps) of the FC adapter.
Storage area network (SAN)—SAN refers to the network behind servers that
links one or more servers to one or more storage systems. Each storage system could
be RAID, tape backup, tape library, CD-ROM library, or JBOD. SANs operate with
both SCSI and networking (IP) protocols. Servers and workstations use the FC
network for shared access to the same storage device or system. Legacy SCSI systems
are interfaced using an FC-to-SCSI bridge.
Target—A target is a device (peripheral) that responds to an operation requested by
an initiator (host system). Although peripherals are generally targets, a peripheral
may be required to act temporarily as an initiator for some commands (for example,
SCSI COPY command).
Terminator block/termination—A terminator block (or termination) refers to the
electrical connection at each end of a SCSI bus. The terminator block is composed of
a set of resisters, or possibly other components. The function of a terminator block is
to provide a pull-up for open collector drivers on the bus, and also impedance
matching to prevent signal reflections at the ends of the cable. SCSI buses require that
G-4
Glossary
a terminator be placed on the 68-pin high-density SCSI connector on the last SCSI
peripheral. Data errors may occur in a SCSI bus that is not terminated.
Topology—A network topology refers to the physical layout of nodes on a network.
Topologies range from local network topologies to WAN topologies. FC topologies
include point-to-point, FC-AL, and fabric.
Trap—In the context of SNMP, a trap is an unsolicited message sent by an agent to a
management station. The purpose is to notify the management station of some
unusual event.
❒
G-5
G- and K-Series User’s Guide
G-6
Index
A
Abort Initialization 4-14
Abort Verify 4-17
accessing the Disk Array Administrator
software 3-1
Add an Array 4-2
Add Host to List 7-16
Add or Name Host screen 7-14
Add Pool Spare 6-6
Add Spare 6-2
adding
arrays 4-1
dedicated spares 6-2
pool spares 6-5
alarm
temperature thresholds for 7-18
turning on or off for the controller 7-18
voltage thresholds for 7-18
Alarm Mute screen 7-19
aliases, giving to WWNs 7-14
Array Statistics 4-11, 4-12
Array Status 4-10
array types
defined A-1
maximum number of drives 4-1
minimum number of drives 4-1
arrays
adding 4-1
bringing back online 4-22
changing LUNs of 4-21
changing names of 4-22
controlling access to 7-15
creating 4-1
deleting 4-24
expanding capacity of 4-18
LUNs for 7-5
mixing disks A-6
reconstructing 4-17, 6-1
resetting aggregate statistics 5-14
resetting statistics 4-12
status of expanding 4-20
status of verifying 4-16
stopping the initialization process 4-14
stopping verify process 4-17
trusting 4-22
verifying 4-15
viewing aggregate statistics for all 5-11
viewing read/write histogram 5-11
viewing statistics 4-10
viewing status of 4-8
viewing status of drives in 4-13
B
Backoff percentage 9-2
battery
backup time 1-9
disabling 7-21
enabling 7-21
features 1-3, 1-5
specifications 1-9, 1-12
Battery screen 7-22
Blink Drive LED 8-10
blinking, LED of disk drive 8-9
Bus Paused screen 7-25
I-1
G- and K-Series User’s Guide
C
cache
disabling for disk drives 8-5
enabling for disk drives 8-5
locking setting on controller 7-20
Cache Lock screen 7-21
capacity, expanding for arrays 4-18
capturing, the event log file 5-4
Change Array Name 4-22
Change LUN 4-21
Change Zone Type 7-16
Channel Configuration screen 7-9
channels
changing SCSI ID 7-9
changing SCSI speed 7-9
configuring for SCSI 7-9
rescanning 7-23
Chaparral technical support 9-1
Chunk Size screen 4-6
Clear Metadata 8-5
communications parameters 3-2
configuration information
defined 5-5
displaying 5-5
Configuration Information screen 5-10
configuration software, accessing 3-1
configuring
SCSI channels 7-9
the controller 7-1
connecting
to the FC port 2-1
to the RS-232 port 2-2
Controller
LUN for 7-5
controller
changing FC Loop ID for 7-6
changing LUN 7-6
I-2
changing target ID 7-6
changing the sample rate 7-17
changing utility priority 7-22
configuring 7-1
connecting to the FC port 2-1
connecting to the RS-232 port 2-2
disabling the battery 7-21
displaying configuration information 5-5
displaying events 5-1
displaying hardware information 5-5
enabling the battery 7-21
locking the cache setting 7-20
monitoring status of 5-1
rebooting 7-1
rescanning channels 7-23
restoring defaults 7-25
setting the date and time 7-2
turning the alarm or off 7-18
understanding LUNs for 7-4
upgrading firmware 7-26
controller problems 9-5
conventions 1-2
creating arrays 4-1
customer support 9-1
D
data
status of verifying 4-16
stopping verify process 4-17
verifying 4-15
date, setting 7-2
dedicated spares
adding 6-2
defined 6-1
deleting 6-3
default settings, restoring 7-25
Index
Delete an Array 4-24
Delete Spare 6-3
deleting
arrays 4-24
dedicated spares 6-3
pool spares 6-6
device SCSI channel problems 9-4
disk array A-1
Disk Array Administrator
accessing 3-1
changing the screen display 3-4
initial screen 3-2
menu tree 3-4
navigating in 3-3
System Menu 3-3
Disk Configuration screen 8-6
disk drives
blinking LED of 8-9
clearing metadata from 8-4
disabling SMART changes 8-8
disabling write-back cache 8-5
displaying 8-2
displaying status 8-3
enabling SMART changes 8-8
enabling write-back cache 8-5
maximum by array type 4-1
minimum by array type 4-1
taking down 8-10
testing 8-11
using disks from different
manufacturers A-6
using disks with different capacities A-6
viewing cache status 8-7
viewing status of 4-13
Display Drive Cache 8-7
Display Drives screen 8-3
Display Host List 7-13, 7-16
Display Host List screen 7-13
Display Pool Spares 6-7
displaying
array status 4-8
cache status for disk drives 8-7
configuration information 5-5
disk drive status 8-3
disk drives 8-2
events 5-1
hardware information 5-5
pool spares 6-7
Down Drive 8-10
Drive Status 4-13
Drive Status screen 8-4
drives
blinking LED of 8-9
clearing metadata from 8-4
disabling SMART changes 8-8
disabling write-back cache 8-5
displaying 8-2
displaying status 8-3
enabling SMART changes 8-8
enabling write-back cache 8-5
maximum by array type 4-1
minimum by array type 4-1
taking down 8-10
testing 8-11
using disks from different
manufacturers A-6
using disks with different capacities A-6
viewing cache status cache 8-7
viewing status of 4-13
Dynamic Spare Configuration 6-4
dynamic spares, enabling 6-3
E
electrical specifications 1-7, 1-10
Enable Trust Array 4-23
I-3
G- and K-Series User’s Guide
Enable Trust Array screen 4-23
enclosures
changing LUNs 8-12
changing the enclosure status setting 8-14
changing the polling interval 8-14
changing the slot status setting 8-14
changing the temperature status
setting 8-14
Enter Array Name screen 4-2
Enter New Name 4-22
environmental specifications 1-8, 1-11
error events 9-8
error messages 9-7, 9-8
event log
capturing 5-4
displaying 5-1
Event Log Menu 5-3
Event Log Menu screen 5-3
Event Log screen 5-3
events
capturing log file 5-4
displaying 5-1
error 9-8
viewing most recent 5-2
viewing one at a time 5-2
viewing whole screen of 5-4
warning 9-7
Exclude All Hosts 7-17
Exclude Listed Hosts 7-17
Expand Function 4-19, 4-21
Expand Status screen 4-21
expanding
array capacity 4-18
status of 4-20
F
FC Loop ID, changing for controller 7-6
I-4
FC port, connecting to 2-1
Fibre Channel
changing Loop ID for controller 7-6
features 1-6
firmware, upgrading 7-26
Flash Utility screen 7-27
G
Global Flags screen 8-16
Global Flags, defined 8-14
H
Hardware Information 5-9
Hardware Information screen 5-9, 5-10
hardware information, displaying 5-5
histogram
viewing for reads and writes 5-11
host SCSI BIOS scan problems 9-3, 9-4
hosts
controlling access to arrays 7-15
giving names to 7-14
Hot Swap Pause 7-25
hot swapping 7-24
I
I/O
pausing 7-24
resuming 7-25
Include All Hosts 7-17
Include Listed Hosts 7-17
initial Disk Array Administrator screen 3-2
initialization process, stopping for
arrays 4-14
initiator ID, changing 7-9
Index
L
LEDs, blinking for disk drives 8-9
leftover drives, clearing metadata from 8-4
log file
capturing 5-4
viewing 5-1
Loop ID, changing for controller 7-6
LUN screen 4-3
LUN zoning
configuring 7-15
naming WWNs 7-14
overview 7-11
viewing known WWNs 7-12
LUNs
changing for arrays 4-21
changing for controller 7-6
changing for SEPs 8-12
for arrays 7-5
for SEP 7-5
for the controller 7-5
understanding 7-4
M
Manage Host Names 7-12, 7-14
Manage Host Names screen 7-12
menu tree 3-4
metadata, clearing from disk drives 8-4
mirrored disks A-2
mixing disks on arrays A-6
motherboard 1-2, 1-3, 1-4
muting the controller alarm 7-18
N
names
changing for arrays 4-22
creating for WWNs 7-14
navigating in the Disk Array Administrator
software 3-3
New LUN screen 4-21
New Sample Rate screen 7-17
Number of Drives screen 4-4
Number of Spares screen 4-5
O
Overall Statistics 5-12, 5-13, 5-14
Overall Statistics screen 5-12, 5-13, 5-14
P
parity disk A-2
pausing I/O 7-24
physical specifications 1-7, 1-10
Poll Rate screen 8-15
polling interval
changing for enclosures 8-14
Pool Spare Menu 6-5, 6-7
pool spares
adding 6-5
defined 6-1
deleting 6-6
displaying 6-7
priority, changing for controller utility 7-22
problems with
device SCSI channel 9-4
host SCSI BIOS scan 9-3
terminal screen 9-1, 9-2
the controller 9-5
problems with host SCSI BIOS scan 9-4
R
RAID levels
I-5
G- and K-Series User’s Guide
compared A-4
described A-1
RAID reference information A-4
RAID type screen 4-4
rebooting the controller 7-1
reconstructing arrays 4-17, 6-1
Remove Host from List 7-16
Rescan 7-24
rescanning channels 7-23
Reset Statistics 4-12
resetting
aggregate statistics for all arrays 5-14
array statistics 4-12
restarting the controller 7-1
Restore Defaults screen 7-26
restoring default settings 7-25
resuming I/O 7-25
RS-232 port
connecting to 2-2
settings for 2-2, 3-1
S
sample rate, changing 7-17
screen, changing display 3-4
screens
initial Disk Array Administrator 3-2
navigating in 3-3
System Menu 3-3
SCSI channels
changing SCSI ID of 7-9
changing speed of 7-9
configuring 7-9
SCSI ID
changing for SCSI channels 7-9
SEP Configuration screen 8-12, 8-14
SEP LUNs screen 8-13
I-6
SEPs
changing LUNs for 8-12
changing the enclosure status setting 8-14
changing the polling interval 8-14
changing the slot status setting 8-14
changing the temperature status 8-14
changing the temperature status
setting 8-14
LUNs for 7-5
serial port
connecting to 2-2
settings for 2-2, 3-1
servers
controlling access to arrays 7-15
giving names to 7-14
Set Date screen 7-3
Set Date/Time 7-2, 7-3
Set Date/Time screen 7-2
Set Time screen 7-4
Shutdown/Restart 7-2
shutting down the controller 7-1
size, expanding for arrays 4-18
Slot Flags screen 8-16
Slot Flags, defined 8-14
slot status setting, changing for
enclosures 8-14
SMART
disabling changes to 8-8
enabling changes to 8-8
SMART screen 8-9
software
accessing to configure the controller 3-1
navigating in 3-3
software menu tree 3-4
spares
adding dedicated 6-2
adding pool 6-5
defined 6-1
Index
deleting dedicated 6-3
deleting pool 6-6
displaying pool 6-7
enabling automatic 6-3
enabling dynamic 6-3
use in reconstructing 6-1
specifications 1-7
speed, changing for SCSI channels 7-9
Start Expand 4-19
Start Verify 4-16
statistics
resetting aggregate for all arrays 5-14
resetting for arrays 4-12
viewing aggregate for all arrays 5-11
viewing for arrays 4-10
viewing read/write histogram 5-11
status
monitoring for system 5-1
of expanding 4-20
viewing for arrays 4-8
viewing for disk drive cache 8-7
viewing for disk drives 8-3
viewing for drives 4-13
striped disks A-1
support 9-1
System Menu 3-3
system, monitoring status of 5-1
T
target ID, changing for controller 7-6
technical support 9-1
Temperature screen 8-15
temperature status setting, changing for
enclosures 8-14
temperature, alarm thresholds for 7-18
terminal
screen problems 9-2
terminal emulator software 3-1
terminal screen problems 9-1, 9-2
Test Unit Ready 8-11
testing, disk drives 8-11
time, setting 7-2
troubleshooting 9-1
trusting arrays 4-22
typographic conventions 1-2
U
Ultra/U2 screen 7-10
UltraSCSI, enabling 7-9
upgrading firmware 7-26
utility
changing priority of 7-22
Utility Priority screen 7-23
V
Verify Function 4-15, 4-16, 4-17
Verify Status screen 4-16
verifying data 4-15
status of 4-16
stopping process 4-17
View Event Log 5-3
View Expand Status 4-21
View R/W Histogram 5-13
View R/W Histogram screen 5-13
View Statistics 4-11, 5-12
View Statistics screen 5-12
View Verify Status 4-16
viewing
aggregate statistics for all arrays 5-11
array statistics 4-10
array status 4-8
cache status for disk drives 8-7
I-7
G- and K-Series User’s Guide
disk drive status 8-3
disk drives 8-2
drive status 4-13
events 5-1
known WWNs 7-12
pool spares 6-7
read/write histogram 5-11
status for drives 8-7
voltage, alarm thresholds for 7-18
volume sets A-4
W
warning events 9-7
World Wide Names
naming 7-14
viewing known 7-12
write-back cache
disabling for disk drives 8-5
enabling for disk drives 8-5
locking setting on controller 7-20
viewing for disk drives 8-7
WWNs
giving names to 7-14
viewing known 7-12
I-8
Chaparral Network Storage, Inc.
7420 E. Dry Creek Parkway
Longmont, CO 80503
2000 Chaparral Network Storage, Inc.
All rights reserved. Chaparral and Chaparral logo are
trademarks of Chaparral Network Storage, Inc.
Printed in the U.S.
11/00
Document Number: 07-0033-003