User`s guide | Cisco Systems 2.5 Network Router User Manual

Cisco Router and Security Device
Manager User’s Guide
2.5
Americas Headquarters
Cisco Systems, Inc.
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San Jose, CA 95134-1706
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Customer Order Number:
Text Part Number: OL-4015-12
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ARE PRESENTED WITHOUT WARRANTY OF ANY KIND, EXPRESS OR IMPLIED. USERS MUST TAKE FULL RESPONSIBILITY FOR
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LOCATE THE SOFTWARE LICENSE OR LIMITED WARRANTY, CONTACT YOUR CISCO REPRESENTATIVE FOR A COPY.
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Cisco Router and Security Device Manager 2.5 User’s Guide
© 2007 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.
C ON T E NT S
Home Page 1
Creating a New Connection 1
Creating a New Connection 1
New Connection Reference 2
Create Connection 2
Additional Procedures 3
How Do I Configure a Static Route? 4
How Do I View Activity on My LAN Interface? 4
How Do I Enable or Disable an Interface? 5
How Do I View the IOS Commands I Am Sending to the Router? 5
How Do I Launch the Wireless Application from Cisco SDM? 6
How Do I Configure an Unsupported WAN Interface? 6
How Do I Enable or Disable an Interface? 7
How Do I View Activity on My WAN Interface? 7
How Do I Configure NAT on a WAN Interface? 8
How Do I Configure NAT on an Unsupported Interface? 9
How Do I Configure a Dynamic Routing Protocol? 9
How Do I Configure Dial-on-Demand Routing for My ISDN or Asynchronous
Interface? 10
How Do I Edit a Radio Interface Configuration? 11
LAN Wizard 1
Ethernet Configuration 2
LAN Wizard: Select an Interface 2
LAN Wizard: IP Address and Subnet Mask 3
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LAN Wizard: Enable DHCP Server 3
LAN Wizard: DHCP Address Pool 4
DHCP Options 4
LAN Wizard: VLAN Mode 5
LAN Wizard: Switch Port 6
IRB Bridge 7
BVI Configuration 8
DHCP Pool for BVI 8
IRB for Ethernet 9
Layer 3 Ethernet Configuration 9
802.1Q Configuration 10
Trunking or Routing Configuration 10
Configure Switch Device Module 10
Configure Gigabit Ethernet Interface 11
Summary 11
802.1x Authentication 1
LAN Wizard: 802.1x Authentication (Switch Ports) 1
Advanced Options 2
LAN Wizard: RADIUS Servers for 802.1x Authentication 4
Edit 802.1x Authentication (Switch Ports) 6
LAN Wizard: 802.1x Authentication (VLAN or Ethernet) 7
802.1x Exception List 8
802.1x Authentication on Layer 3 Interfaces 9
Edit 802.1x Authentication 10
How Do I ... 11
How Do I Configure 802.1x Authentication on More Than One Ethernet
Port? 11
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Configuring WAN Connections 1
Configuring an Ethernet WAN Connection 1
Ethernet WAN Connection Reference 2
WAN Wizard Interface Welcome Window
Select Interface 3
IP Address: Ethernet without PPPoE 3
Encapsulation: PPPoE 4
Summary 5
Advanced Options 5
2
Configuring a Serial Connection 6
Serial Connection Reference 7
IP Address: Serial with Point-to-Point Protocol 7
IP Address: Serial with HDLC or Frame Relay 8
Authentication 9
Configure LMI and DLCI 10
Configure Clock Settings 11
Configuring a DSL Connection 13
DSL Connection Reference 14
IP Address: ATM or Ethernet with PPPoE/PPPoA 14
IP Address: ATM with RFC 1483 Routing 15
Encapsulation Autodetect 16
PVC 18
Configuring an ISDN Connection 20
ISDN Connection Reference 20
ISDN Wizard Welcome Window 21
IP Address: ISDN BRI or Analog Modem 21
Switch Type and SPIDs 22
Dial String 23
Configuring an Aux Backup Connection 24
Aux Backup Connection Reference 24
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Aux Backup Welcome Window 25
Backup Configuration 25
Backup Configuration: Primary Interface and Next Hop IP Addresses 26
Backup Configuration: Hostname or IP Address to Be Tracked 27
Configuring an Analog Modem Connection 27
Analog Modem Connection Reference 28
Analog Modem Welcome 28
Configuring a Cable Modem Connection 29
Cable Modem Connection Reference 29
Cable Modem Connection Wizard Welcome 30
Select Interface 30
Summary 30
Edit Interface/Connection 1
Connection: Ethernet for IRB 5
Connection: Ethernet for Routing 6
Existing Dynamic DNS Methods 7
Add Dynamic DNS Method 7
Wireless 9
Association
9
NAT 11
Edit Switch Port 12
Application Service 13
General 14
Select Ethernet Configuration Type 16
Connection: VLAN 17
Subinterfaces List 17
Add or Edit BVI Interface 18
Add or Edit Loopback Interface 18
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Connection: Virtual Template Interface 19
Connection: Ethernet LAN
19
Connection: Ethernet WAN 20
Connection: Ethernet Properties 22
Connection: Ethernet with No Encapsulation 24
Connection: ADSL 25
Connection: ADSL over ISDN 28
Connection: G.SHDSL 30
Connection: Cable Modem 34
Configure DSL Controller 35
Add a G.SHDSL Connection 37
Connection: Serial Interface, Frame Relay Encapsulation 40
Connection: Serial Interface, PPP Encapsulation 43
Connection: Serial Interface, HDLC Encapsulation 45
Add or Edit GRE Tunnel 46
Connection: ISDN BRI 48
Connection: Analog Modem 51
Connection: (AUX Backup) 53
Authentication 55
SPID Details 56
Dialer Options 57
Backup Configuration 59
Delete Connection 60
Connectivity Testing and Troubleshooting 62
Wide Area Application Services 1
Configuring a WAAS Connection 2
WAAS Reference 3
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NM WAAS 4
Integrated Service Engine 6
WCCP 7
Central Manager Registration 8
Create Firewall 1
Basic Firewall Configuration Wizard 4
Basic Firewall Interface Configuration 4
Configuring Firewall for Remote Access 5
Advanced Firewall Configuration Wizard 5
Advanced Firewall Interface Configuration 5
Advanced Firewall DMZ Service Configuration 6
DMZ Service Configuration 7
Application Security Configuration 8
Domain Name Server Configuration 9
URL Filter Server Configuration 9
Select Interface Zone 9
ZPF Inside Zones 10
Voice Configuration 10
Summary 11
SDM Warning: SDM Access 13
How Do I... 15
How Do I View Activity on My Firewall? 15
How Do I Configure a Firewall on an Unsupported Interface? 17
How Do I Configure a Firewall After I Have Configured a VPN? 17
How Do I Permit Specific Traffic Through a DMZ Interface? 18
How Do I Modify an Existing Firewall to Permit Traffic from a New Network
or Host? 19
How Do I Configure NAT on an Unsupported Interface? 19
How Do I Configure NAT Passthrough for a Firewall? 20
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How Do I Permit Traffic Through a Firewall to My Easy VPN Concentrator? 20
How Do I Associate a Rule with an Interface? 22
How Do I Disassociate an Access Rule from an Interface 22
How Do I Delete a Rule That Is Associated with an Interface? 23
How Do I Create an Access Rule for a Java List? 23
How Do I Permit Specific Traffic onto My Network if I Don’t Have a DMZ
Network? 24
Firewall Policy 1
Edit Firewall Policy/ACL 1
Choose a Traffic Flow 3
Examine the Traffic Diagram and Choose a Traffic Direction 4
Make Changes to Access Rules 6
Make Changes to Inspection Rules 10
Add App-Name Application Entry 12
Add rpc Application Entry 12
Add Fragment application entry 13
Add or Edit http Application Entry 14
Java Applet Blocking 15
Cisco SDM Warning: Inspection Rule 16
Cisco SDM Warning: Firewall 17
Edit Firewall Policy 17
Add a New Rule 21
Add Traffic 22
Application Inspection 23
URL Filter 24
Quality of Service 24
Inspect Parameter 24
Select Traffic 24
Delete Rule 25
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Application Security 1
Application Security Windows 1
No Application Security Policy 3
E-mail 4
Instant Messaging 5
Peer-to-Peer Applications 6
URL Filtering 7
HTTP 8
Header Options 9
Content Options 10
Applications/Protocols 12
Timeouts and Thresholds for Inspect Parameter Maps and CBAC
Associate Policy with an Interface 16
Edit Inspection Rule 16
Permit, Block, and Alarm Controls 17
13
Site-to-Site VPN 1
VPN Design Guide 1
Create Site to Site VPN 1
Site-to-Site VPN Wizard 4
View Defaults 5
VPN Connection Information 6
IKE Proposals 8
Transform Set 11
Traffic to Protect 13
Summary of the Configuration 14
Spoke Configuration 15
Secure GRE Tunnel (GRE-over-IPSec) 16
GRE Tunnel Information 16
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VPN Authentication Information 17
Backup GRE Tunnel Information 18
Routing Information 19
Static Routing Information 20
Select Routing Protocol 22
Summary of Configuration 23
Edit Site-to-Site VPN 23
Add new connection 26
Add Additional Crypto Maps 26
Crypto Map Wizard: Welcome 27
Crypto Map Wizard: Summary of the configuration 28
Delete Connection 28
Ping 29
Generate Mirror... 29
Cisco SDM Warning: NAT Rules with ACL 30
How Do I... 31
How Do I Create a VPN to More Than One Site? 31
After Configuring a VPN, How Do I Configure the VPN on the Peer Router? 33
How Do I Edit an Existing VPN Tunnel? 34
How Do I Confirm That My VPN Is Working? 35
How Do I Configure a Backup Peer for My VPN? 36
How Do I Accommodate Multiple Devices with Different Levels of VPN
Support? 36
How Do I Configure a VPN on an Unsupported Interface? 37
How Do I Configure a VPN After I Have Configured a Firewall? 38
How Do I Configure NAT Passthrough for a VPN? 38
Easy VPN Remote 1
Creating an Easy VPN Remote Connection 2
Create Easy VPN Remote Reference 3
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Create Easy VPN Remote 4
Configure an Easy VPN Remote Client 5
Easy VPN Remote Wizard: Network Information 5
Easy VPN Remote Wizard: Identical Address Configuration 6
Easy VPN Remote Wizard: Interfaces and Connection Settings 7
Easy VPN Remote Wizard: Server Information 9
Easy VPN Remote Wizard: Authentication 11
Easy VPN Remote Wizard: Summary of Configuration 13
Administering Easy VPN Remote Connections 14
Editing an Existing Easy VPN Remote Connection 15
Creating a New Easy VPN Remote Connection 15
Deleting an Easy VPN Remote Connection 16
Resetting an Established Easy VPN Remote Connection 16
Connecting to an Easy VPN Server 17
Connecting other Subnets to the VPN Tunnel 17
Administering Easy VPN Remote Reference 18
Edit Easy VPN Remote 18
Add or Edit Easy VPN Remote 23
Add or Edit Easy VPN Remote: General Settings 25
Network Extension Options 28
Add or Edit Easy VPN Remote: Easy VPN Settings 28
Add or Edit Easy VPN Remote: Authentication Information 30
Add or Edit Easy VPN Remote: Easy VPN Client Phase III
Authentication 33
Add or Edit Easy VPN Remote: Interfaces and Connections 35
Add or Edit Easy VPN Remote: Identical Addressing 37
Easy VPN Remote: Add a Device 39
Enter SSH Credentials 39
XAuth Login Window 40
Other Procedures 40
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How Do I Edit an Existing Easy VPN Connection? 40
How Do I Configure a Backup for an Easy VPN Connection? 41
Easy VPN Server 1
Creating an Easy VPN Server Connection 1
Create an Easy VPN Server Reference 3
Create an Easy VPN Server 4
Welcome to the Easy VPN Server Wizard 4
Interface and Authentication 4
Group Authorization and Group Policy Lookup 5
User Authentication (XAuth) 6
User Accounts for XAuth 7
Add RADIUS Server 8
Group Authorization: User Group Policies 9
General Group Information 10
DNS and WINS Configuration 11
Split Tunneling 11
Client Settings 12
Choose Browser Proxy Settings 15
Add or Edit Browser Proxy Settings 16
User Authentication (XAuth) 17
Client Update 18
Add or Edit Client Update Entry 19
Cisco Tunneling Control Protocol 20
Summary 21
Browser Proxy Settings 21
Editing Easy VPN Server Connections 23
Edit Easy VPN Server Reference 23
Edit Easy VPN Server 24
Add or Edit Easy VPN Server Connection 25
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Restrict Access 26
Group Policies Configuration 26
IP Pools 29
Add or Edit IP Local Pool 29
Add IP Address Range 30
Enhanced Easy VPN 1
Interface and Authentication 1
RADIUS Servers 2
Group Authorization and Group User Policies 4
Add or Edit Easy VPN Server: General Tab 5
Add or Edit Easy VPN Server: IKE Tab 6
Add or Edit Easy VPN Server: IPSec Tab 8
Create Virtual Tunnel Interface 10
DMVPN 1
Dynamic Multipoint VPN 1
Dynamic Multipoint VPN (DMVPN) Hub Wizard 2
Type of Hub 3
Configure Pre-Shared Key 3
Hub GRE Tunnel Interface Configuration 4
Advanced Configuration for the Tunnel Interface 5
Primary Hub 6
Select Routing Protocol 7
Routing Information 7
Dynamic Multipoint VPN (DMVPN) Spoke Wizard 9
DMVPN Network Topology 9
Specify Hub Information 10
Spoke GRE Tunnel Interface Configuration 10
Cisco SDM Warning: DMVPN Dependency 11
Edit Dynamic Multipoint VPN (DMVPN) 12
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General Panel 14
NHRP Panel 15
NHRP Map Configuration 16
Routing Panel 17
How Do I Configure a DMVPN Manually? 19
VPN Global Settings 1
VPN Global Settings 1
VPN Global Settings: IKE 3
VPN Global Settings: IPSec 4
VPN Global Settings: Easy VPN Server 5
VPN Key Encryption Settings 6
IP Security 1
IPSec Policies 1
Add or Edit IPSec Policy 3
Add or Edit Crypto Map: General 5
Add or Edit Crypto Map: Peer Information 6
Add or Edit Crypto Map: Transform Sets 7
Add or Edit Crypto Map: Protecting Traffic 9
Dynamic Crypto Map Sets 11
Add or Edit Dynamic Crypto Map Set 11
Associate Crypto Map with this IPSec Policy 12
IPSec Profiles 12
Add or Edit IPSec Profile 13
Add or Edit IPSec Profile and Add Dynamic Crypto Map 14
Transform Set 15
Add or Edit Transform Set 18
IPSec Rules 20
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Internet Key Exchange 1
Internet Key Exchange (IKE) 1
IKE Policies 2
Add or Edit IKE Policy 4
IKE Pre-shared Keys 6
Add or Edit Pre Shared Key 7
IKE Profiles 8
Add or Edit an IKE Profile 9
Public Key Infrastructure 1
Certificate Wizards 1
Welcome to the SCEP Wizard 2
Certificate Authority (CA) Information 3
Advanced Options 4
Certificate Subject Name Attributes 4
Other Subject Attributes 6
RSA Keys 7
Summary 8
CA Server Certificate 9
Enrollment Status 9
Cut and Paste Wizard Welcome 9
Enrollment Task 10
Enrollment Request 10
Continue with Unfinished Enrollment 11
Import CA certificate 12
Import Router Certificate(s) 12
Digital Certificates 13
Trustpoint Information 15
Certificate Details 15
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Revocation Check 15
Revocation Check, CRL Only 16
RSA Keys Window 16
Generate RSA Key Pair 17
USB Token Credentials 18
USB Tokens 19
Add or Edit USB Token 20
Open Firewall 22
Open Firewall Details 23
Certificate Authority Server 1
Create CA Server 1
Prerequisite Tasks for PKI Configurations 2
CA Server Wizard: Welcome 3
CA Server Wizard: Certificate Authority Information 3
Advanced Options 5
CA Server Wizard: RSA Keys 7
Open Firewall 8
CA Server Wizard: Summary 8
Manage CA Server 9
Backup CA Server 11
Manage CA Server Restore Window 11
Restore CA Server 11
Edit CA Server Settings: General Tab 12
Edit CA Server Settings: Advanced Tab 13
Manage CA Server: CA Server Not Configured 13
Manage Certificates 13
Pending Requests 13
Revoked Certificates 15
Revoke Certificate 16
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Cisco IOS SSL VPN 1
Cisco IOS SSL VPN links on Cisco.com 2
Creating an SSL VPN Connection 2
Create an SSL VPN Connection Reference 3
Create SSL VPN 4
Persistent Self-Signed Certificate 6
Welcome 7
SSL VPN Gateways 7
User Authentication 8
Configure Intranet Websites 10
Add or Edit URL 10
Customize SSL VPN Portal 11
SSL VPN Passthrough Configuration 11
User Policy 12
Details of SSL VPN Group Policy: Policyname 12
Select the SSL VPN User Group 13
Select Advanced Features 13
Thin Client (Port Forwarding) 13
Add or Edit a Server 14
Full Tunnel 15
Locating the Install Bundle for Cisco SDM 16
Enable Cisco Secure Desktop 18
Common Internet File System 19
Enable Clientless Citrix 19
Summary 20
Editing SSL VPN Connections 20
Editing SSL VPN Connection Reference 21
Edit SSL VPN 22
SSL VPN Context 23
Designate Inside and Outside Interfaces 25
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Select a Gateway 25
Context: Group Policies 26
Group Policy: General Tab 26
Group Policy: Clientless Tab 27
Group Policy: Thin Client Tab 29
Group Policy: SSL VPN Client (Full Tunnel) Tab 29
Advanced Tunnel Options 31
DNS and WINS Servers 33
Context: HTML Settings 33
Select Color 35
Context: NetBIOS Name Server Lists 35
Add or Edit a NBNS Server List 35
Add or Edit an NBNS Server 36
Context: Port Forward Lists 36
Add or Edit a Port Forward List 36
Context: URL Lists 36
Add or Edit a URL List 37
Context: Cisco Secure Desktop 37
SSL VPN Gateways 37
Add or Edit a SSL VPN Gateway 38
Packages 39
Install Package 40
Additional Help Topics 40
Cisco IOS SSL VPN Contexts, Gateways, and Policies 40
Learn More about Port Forwarding Servers 46
Learn More About Group Policies 47
Learn More About Split Tunneling 48
How do I verify that my Cisco IOS SSL VPN is working? 49
How do I configure a Cisco IOS SSL VPN after I have configured a
firewall? 50
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How do I associate a VRF instance with a Cisco IOS SSL VPN context? 50
SSL VPN Enhancements 1
SSL VPN Reference 1
SSL VPN Context: Access Control Lists 1
Add or Edit Application ACL 2
Add ACL Entry 3
Action URL Time Range 4
Add or Edit Action URL Time Range Dialog 5
Add or Edit Absolute Time Range Entry 6
Add or Edit Periodic Time Range Entry 7
VPN Troubleshooting 1
VPN Troubleshooting
1
VPN Troubleshooting: Specify Easy VPN Client 3
VPN Troubleshooting: Generate Traffic 4
VPN Troubleshooting: Generate GRE Traffic 5
Cisco SDM Warning: SDM will enable router debugs... 6
Security Audit 1
Welcome Page 4
Interface Selection Page 4
Report Card Page 5
Fix It Page 5
Disable Finger Service 6
Disable PAD Service 7
Disable TCP Small Servers Service 7
Disable UDP Small Servers Service 8
Disable IP BOOTP Server Service 8
Disable IP Identification Service 9
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Disable CDP 9
Disable IP Source Route 10
Enable Password Encryption Service 10
Enable TCP Keepalives for Inbound Telnet Sessions 11
Enable TCP Keepalives for Outbound Telnet Sessions 11
Enable Sequence Numbers and Time Stamps on Debugs 11
Enable IP CEF 12
Disable IP Gratuitous ARPs 12
Set Minimum Password Length to Less Than 6 Characters 12
Set Authentication Failure Rate to Less Than 3 Retries 13
Set TCP Synwait Time 13
Set Banner 14
Enable Logging 14
Set Enable Secret Password 15
Disable SNMP 15
Set Scheduler Interval 16
Set Scheduler Allocate 16
Set Users 17
Enable Telnet Settings 17
Enable NetFlow Switching 17
Disable IP Redirects 18
Disable IP Proxy ARP 18
Disable IP Directed Broadcast 19
Disable MOP Service 20
Disable IP Unreachables 20
Disable IP Mask Reply 20
Disable IP Unreachables on NULL Interface 21
Enable Unicast RPF on Outside Interfaces 22
Enable Firewall on All of the Outside Interfaces 22
Set Access Class on HTTP Server Service 23
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Set Access Class on VTY Lines 23
Enable SSH for Access to the Router 24
Enable AAA 24
Configuration Summary Screen 25
Cisco SDM and Cisco IOS AutoSecure 25
Security Configurations Cisco SDM Can Undo 27
Undoing Security Audit Fixes 28
Add or Edit Telnet/SSH Account Screen 28
Configure User Accounts for Telnet/SSH Page 29
Enable Secret and Banner Page 30
Logging Page 31
Routing 1
Add or Edit IP Static Route 3
Add or Edit an RIP Route 5
Add or Edit an OSPF Route 5
Add or Edit EIGRP Route 7
Network Address Translation 1
Network Address Translation Wizards 1
Basic NAT Wizard: Welcome 2
Basic NAT Wizard: Connection 2
Summary 3
Advanced NAT Wizard: Welcome 3
Advanced NAT Wizard: Connection 4
Add IP Address 4
Advanced NAT Wizard: Networks 4
Add Network 5
Advanced NAT Wizard: Server Public IP Addresses 5
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Add or Edit Address Translation Rule 6
Advanced NAT Wizard: ACL Conflict 7
Details 8
Network Address Translation Rules 8
Designate NAT Interfaces 12
Translation Timeout Settings 12
Edit Route Map 13
Edit Route Map Entry 14
Address Pools 15
Add or Edit Address Pool 16
Add or Edit Static Address Translation Rule: Inside to Outside 17
Add or Edit Static Address Translation Rule: Outside to Inside 20
Add or Edit Dynamic Address Translation Rule: Inside to Outside 23
Add or Edit Dynamic Address Translation Rule: Outside to Inside 26
How Do I . . . 28
How do I Configure Address Translation for Outside to Inside 28
How Do I Configure NAT With One LAN and Multiple WANs? 29
Cisco IOS IPS 1
Create IPS 2
Create IPS: Welcome 3
Create IPS: Select Interfaces 3
Create IPS: SDF Location 3
Create IPS: Signature File 4
Create IPS: Configuration File Location and Category 5
Add or Edit a Config Location 6
Directory Selection 7
Signature File 7
Create IPS: Summary 8
Create IPS: Summary 8
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Edit IPS 9
Edit IPS: IPS Policies 10
Enable or Edit IPS on an Interface 13
Edit IPS: Global Settings 14
Edit Global Settings 16
Add or Edit a Signature Location 17
Edit IPS: SDEE Messages 18
SDEE Message Text 19
Edit IPS: Global Settings 22
Edit Global Settings 23
Edit IPS Prerequisites 24
Add Public Key 25
Edit IPS: Auto Update 25
Edit IPS: SEAP Configuration 27
Edit IPS: SEAP Configuration: Target Value Rating 28
Add Target Value Rating 29
Edit IPS: SEAP Configuration: Event Action Overrides 29
Add or Edit an Event Action Override 31
Edit IPS: SEAP Configuration: Event Action Filters 32
Add or Edit an Event Action Filter 34
Edit IPS: Signatures 36
Edit IPS: Signatures 42
Edit Signature 46
File Selection 49
Assign Actions 50
Import Signatures 51
Add, Edit, or Clone Signature 53
Cisco Security Center 55
IPS-Supplied Signature Definition Files 55
Security Dashboard 56
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IPS Migration 59
Migration Wizard: Welcome 59
Migration Wizard: Choose the IOS IPS Backup Signature File 60
Signature File 60
Java Heap Size 60
Network Module Management 1
IDS Network Module Management 1
IDS Sensor Interface IP Address 3
IP Address Determination 4
IDS NM Configuration Checklist 5
IDS NM Interface Monitoring Configuration 7
Network Module Login 7
Feature Unavailable 7
Switch Module Interface Selection 7
Quality of Service 1
Creating a QoS Policy 1
Create a QoS Policy Reference 2
Create QoS Policy 2
QoS Wizard 3
Interface Selection 3
Queuing for Outbound Traffic 4
Add a New Traffic Class 5
Policing for Outbound Traffic 7
QoS Policy Generation 7
QoS Configuration Summary 8
Editing QoS Policies 9
Edit QoS Policy Reference 10
Edit QoS Policy 10
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Add Class for the New Policy 13
Add Service Policy to Class 14
Associate or Disassociate the QoS Policy 15
Add or Edit a QoS Class 15
Edit Match DSCP Values 18
Edit Match Protocol Values 19
Add Custom Protocols 19
Edit Match ACL 19
Configure Policing 19
Configure Shaping 20
Configure Queuing 21
Network Admission Control 1
Create NAC Tab 1
Other Tasks in a NAC Implementation 2
Welcome 3
NAC Policy Servers 4
Interface Selection 6
NAC Exception List 7
Add or Edit an Exception List Entry 7
Choose an Exception Policy 8
Add Exception Policy 9
Agentless Host Policy 10
Configuring NAC for Remote Access 10
Modify Firewall 11
Details Window 11
Summary of the configuration 12
Edit NAC Tab 13
NAC Components 14
Exception List Window 14
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Exception Policies Window 15
NAC Timeouts 15
Configure a NAC Policy 17
How Do I... 18
How Do I Configure a NAC Policy Server? 18
How Do I Install and Configure a Posture Agent on a Host? 18
Router Properties 1
Device Properties 1
Date and Time: Clock Properties 2
Date and Time Properties 3
NTP 4
Add or Edit NTP Server Details 5
SNTP 6
Add an NTP Server 7
Logging 8
SNMP 9
Netflow 10
Netflow Talkers 10
Router Access 11
User Accounts: Configure User Accounts for Router Access 11
Add or Edit a Username 12
View Password 14
vty Settings 15
Edit vty Lines 15
Configure Management Access Policies 17
Add or Edit a Management Policy 19
Management Access Error Messages 20
SSH 22
DHCP Configuration 23
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DHCP Pools 23
Add or Edit DHCP Pool 25
DHCP Bindings 26
Add or Edit DHCP Binding 27
DNS Properties 28
Dynamic DNS Methods 28
Add or Edit Dynamic DNS Method 29
ACL Editor 1
Useful Procedures for Access Rules and Firewalls 3
Rules Windows
3
Add or Edit a Rule 7
Associate with an Interface 10
Add a Standard Rule Entry 11
Add an Extended Rule Entry 13
Select a Rule 16
Port-to-Application Mapping 1
Port-to-Application Mappings 1
Add or Edit Port Map Entry 3
Zone-Based Policy Firewall 1
Zone Window 2
Add or Edit a Zone 3
Zone-Based Policy General Rules 3
Zone Pairs 5
Add or Edit a Zone Pair 5
Add a Zone 6
Select a Zone 7
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Authentication, Authorization, and Accounting 1
Configuring AAA 2
AAA Screen Reference 2
AAA Root Screen 3
AAA Servers and Server Groups 4
AAA Servers 4
Add or Edit a TACACS+ Server 5
Add or Edit a RADIUS Server 6
Edit Global Settings 7
AAA Server Groups 8
Add or Edit AAA Server Group 9
Authentication and Authorization Policies 10
Authentication and Authorization 10
Authentication NAC 11
Authentication 802.1x 12
Add or Edit a Method List for Authentication or Authorization 13
Router Provisioning 1
Secure Device Provisioning 1
Router Provisioning from USB 2
Router Provisioning from USB (Load File) 2
SDP Troubleshooting Tips 2
Cisco Common Classification Policy Language 1
Policy Map 1
Policy Map Windows 1
Add or Edit a QoS Policy Map 3
Associate a Policy Map to Interface 3
Add an Inspection Policy Map 5
Layer 7 Policy Map 5
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Application Inspection 5
Configure Deep Packet Inspection 6
Class Maps 6
Associate Class Map 7
Class Map Advanced Options 7
QoS Class Map 8
Add or Edit a QoS Class Map 9
Add or Edit a QoS Class Map 9
Select a Class Map 9
Deep Inspection 9
Class Map and Application Service Group Windows 9
Add or Edit an Inspect Class Map 12
Associate Parameter Map 12
Add an HTTP Inspection Class Map 13
HTTP Request Header 13
HTTP Request Header Fields 14
HTTP Request Body 15
HTTP Request Header Arguments 15
HTTP Method 16
Request Port Misuse 16
Request URI 16
Response Header 17
Response Header Fields 18
HTTP Response Body 19
HTTP Response Status Line 19
Request/Response Header Criteria 20
HTTP Request/Response Header Fields 20
Request/Response Body 21
Request/Response Protocol Violation 22
Add or Edit an IMAP Class Map 22
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Add or Edit an SMTP Class Map 22
Add or Edit a SUNRPC Class Map 23
Add or Edit an Instant Messaging Class Map 23
Add or Edit a Point-to-Point Class Map 23
Add P2P Rule 24
Add or Edit a POP3 Class Map 24
Parameter Maps 25
Parameter Map Windows 25
Add or Edit a Parameter Map for Protocol Information 25
Add or Edit a Server Entry 26
Add or Edit Regular Expression 26
Add a Pattern 27
Build Regular Expression 28
Regular Expression Metacharacters 30
URL Filtering 1
URL Filtering Window 2
Edit Global Settings 2
General Settings for URL Filtering 3
Local URL List 5
Add or Edit Local URL 6
Import URL List 7
URL Filter Servers 7
Add or Edit a URL Filter Server 8
URL Filtering Precedence 9
Configuration Management 1
Manually Editing the Configuration File 1
Config Editor 2
Reset to Factory Defaults 3
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This Feature Not Supported 6
More About.... 1
IP Addresses and Subnet Masks 1
Host and Network Fields 3
Available Interface Configurations 4
DHCP Address Pools 5
Meanings of the Permit and Deny Keywords 6
Services and Ports 6
More About NAT 13
Static Address Translation Scenarios 13
Dynamic Address Translation Scenarios 16
Reasons that Cisco SDM Cannot Edit a NAT Rule 17
More About VPN 18
Cisco.com Resources 18
More about VPN Connections and IPSec Policies 19
More About IKE 21
More About IKE Policies 22
Allowable Transform Combinations 23
Reasons Why a Serial Interface or Subinterface Configuration May Be
Read-Only 24
Reasons Why an ATM Interface or Subinterface Configuration May Be
Read-Only 25
Reasons Why an Ethernet Interface Configuration May Be Read-Only 26
Reasons Why an ISDN BRI Interface Configuration May Be Read-Only 27
Reasons Why an Analog Modem Interface Configuration May Be Read-Only 28
Firewall Policy Use Case Scenario 29
DMVPN Configuration Recommendations 29
Cisco SDM White Papers 31
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Getting Started 1
What’s New in this Release? 2
Cisco IOS Versions Supported 4
Viewing Router Information 1
Overview 2
Interface Status 6
Firewall Status 9
Zone-Based Policy Firewall Status 10
VPN Status 12
IPSec Tunnels 12
DMVPN Tunnels 14
Easy VPN Server 15
IKE SAs 17
SSL VPN Components 18
SSL VPN Context 19
User Sessions 19
URL Mangling 20
Port Forwarding 20
CIFS 20
Full Tunnel 21
User List 21
Traffic Status 23
Netflow Top Talkers 23
Top Protocols 23
Top Talkers 24
QoS 25
Application/Protocol Traffic 27
NAC Status 28
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Logging 29
Syslog 29
Firewall Log 32
Application Security Log 34
SDEE Message Log 35
IPS Status 37
IPS Signature Statistics 38
IPS Alert Statistics 39
802.1x Authentication Status 40
File Menu Commands 1
Save Running Config to PC 1
Deliver Configuration to Router 1
Write to Startup Config 2
Reset to Factory Defaults 2
File Management 2
Rename 5
New Folder 5
Save SDF to PC 6
Exit 6
Unable to perform squeeze flash 6
Edit Menu Commands 1
Preferences 1
View Menu Commands 1
Home 1
Configure 1
Monitor 1
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Running Config 2
Show Commands 2
Cisco SDM Default Rules 3
Refresh 4
Tools Menu Commands 1
Ping 1
Telnet 1
Security Audit 1
USB Token PIN Settings 2
Wireless Application 3
Update Cisco SDM 3
CCO Login 4
Help Menu Commands 1
Help Topics 1
Cisco SDM on CCO 1
Hardware/Software Matrix 1
About this router... 2
About Cisco SDM 2
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CH A P T E R
1
Home Page
The home page supplies basic information about the router hardware, software,
and configuration. This page contains the following sections:
Host Name
The configured name of the router.
About Your Router
Shows basic information about your router hardware and software, and contains
the following fields:
Hardware
Software
Model Type
Shows the router model IOS Version
number.
Available/Total Memory
Available RAM/Total
RAM
Cisco SDM Version
The version of Cisco
IOS software that is
currently running on the
router.
The version of Cisco
Router and Security
Device Manager (Cisco
SDM) software that is
currently running on the
router.
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Hardware
Home Page
Software
Total Flash Capacity
Flash plus Webflash (if
applicable)
Feature Availability
The features available in the Cisco IOS image the router is using are
designated by a check. The features Cisco SDM checks for are: IP, Firewall,
VPN, IPS, and NAC.
More...
The More... link displays a popup window providing additional hardware and
software details.
•
Hardware Details—In addition to the information presented in the About
Your Router section, this tab displays information about:
– Where the router boots from–Flash or Configuration File.
– Whether the router has accelerators, such as VPN accelerators.
– A diagram of the hardware configuration, including flash memory and
installed devices such as USB flash and USB tokens.
•
Software Details—In addition to the information presented in the About Your
Router section, this tab displays information about:
– The feature sets included in the IOS image.
– The version of Cisco SDM running.
Configuration Overview
This section of the home page summarizes the configuration settings that have
been made.
Note
If you do not see feature information described in this help topic on the home
page, the Cisco IOS image does not support the feature. For example, if the router
is running a Cisco IOS image that does not support security features, the Firewall
Policy, VPN, and Intrusion Prevention sections do not appear on the home page.
View Running Config
Click this button to display the router’s running configuration.
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Home Page
Interfaces and
Connections
Total Supported LAN
Up (n): The number of
LAN and WAN
connections that are
up.
Down (n): The number Double-arrow head: Click
to display/hide details.
of LAN and WAN
connections that are
down.
The total number of
LAN interfaces that
are present in the
router.
Total Supported WAN
The number of Cisco
SDM-supported WAN
interfaces that are present
on the router.
Total WAN
Connections
The total number of Cisco
SDM-supported WAN
connections that are
present on the router.
Number of DHCP Clients
(Detail view)
Current number of clients
leasing addresses.
Configured LAN Interface The number of
supported LAN
interfaces currently
configured on the
router.
DHCP Server
Configured/
Not Configured
DHCP Pool (Detail view)
If one pool is
configured, starting
and ending address of
DHCP pool.
If multiple pools are
configured, list of
configured pool
names.
Interface
Type
IP/Mask
Description
Name of configured
interface
Interface type
IP address and subnet
mask
Description of interface
Firewall Policies
Active/Inactive
Trusted (n)
Active—A firewall The number of
trusted (inside)
is in place.
interfaces.
Inactive—No
firewall is in place.
Untrusted (n)
DMZ (n)
The number of
The number of
untrusted (outside) DMZ interfaces.
interfaces.
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Firewall Policies
Active/Inactive
Trusted (n)
Untrusted (n)
DMZ (n)
Interface
Firewall Icon
NAT
Inspection Rule
Access Rule
The name of the
interface to which
a firewall has been
applied
Whether the
interface is
designated as an
inside or an
outside interface.
The name or
number of the NAT
rule applied to this
interface.
The names or
numbers of the
inbound and
outbound
inspection rules.
The names or
numbers of the
inbound and
outbound access
rules.
Up (n)- The number of
active VPN
connections.
VPN
IPSec (Site-to-Site)
The number of
configured site-to-site
VPN connections.
GRE over IPSec
The number of
configured GRE over
IPSec connections.
Xauth Login Required
The number of Easy
VPN connections
awaiting an Xauth
Login. See note.
Easy VPN Remote
The number of
configured Easy VPN
Remote connections.
No. of DMVPN Clients
If router is configured
as a DMVPN hub, the
number of DMVPN
clients.
No. of Active VPN clients
If this router is
functioning as an Easy
VPN Server, the number
of Easy VPN clients
with active connections.
Interface
Type
IPSec Policy
Description
The name of an
interface with a
configured VPN
connection
The type of VPN
connection configured
on the interface.
The name of the IPSec
policy associated with
the VPN connection.
A description of the
connection.
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Home Page
Note
•
Some VPN servers or concentrators authenticate clients using Extended
Authentication (XAuth). This shows the number of VPN tunnels awaiting an
Xauth login. If any Easy VPN tunnel awaits XAuth login, a separate message
panel is shown with a Login button. Clicking Login allows you to enter the
credentials for the tunnel.
•
If Xauth has been configured for a tunnel, it will not begin to function until
the login and password has been supplied. There is no timeout after which it
will stop waiting; it will wait indefinitely for this information.
NAC Policies
Active or Inactive
Interface Column
NAC Policy Column
The name of the interface to which the The name of the NAC policy.
policy is applied. For example,
FastEthernet 0, or Ethernet 0/0.
Intrusion
Prevention
Routing
No. of Static
Routes
The number of static Active Signatures
routes configured on
the router.
Dynamic
Routing
Protocols
Lists any dynamic
routing protocols
that are configured
on the router.
The number of active
signatures the router is
using. These may be
built in, or they may be
loaded from a remote
location.
No. of IPS-enabled The number of router
interfaces
interfaces on which IPS
has been enabled.
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Routing
Home Page
Intrusion
Prevention
SDF Version
The version of SDF
files on this router.
Security
Dashboard
A link to the IPS
Security Dashboard,
where the top-ten
signatures can be
viewed and deployed.
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2
Creating a New Connection
The Cisco SDM connection wizards guide you LAN and WAN configurations,
and check the information that you enter against the existing configuration,
warning you of any problems.
This chapter contains the following sections:
•
Creating a New Connection
•
New Connection Reference
•
Additional Procedures
Creating a New Connection
Complete these steps to create a new connection:
Step 1
On the Cisco SDM toolbar, click Configure.
Step 2
On the Tasks bar, click Interfaces and Connections.
Step 3
In the Create New Connection box, choose the type of connection that you want
to configure. Information about the type of connection you choose is displayed in
the Information box, and the Use Case Scenario area displays a graphic showing
the kind of connection that you chose.
Step 4
Click Create New Connection to get started.
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New Connection Reference
New Connection Reference
The following topic describes the screen referred to in this chapter:
•
Create Connection
Create Connection
This window allows you to create new LAN and WAN connections.
Note
You cannot use Cisco SDM to create WAN connections for Cisco 7000 series
routers.
Field Reference
Table 2-1 describes the fields in this screen.
Table 2-1
Create Connection Fields
Element
Description
Create New Connection
Choose a connection type to configure on the physical interfaces
available on your router. Only interfaces that have not been
configured are available. If all interfaces have been configured, this
area of the window is not displayed.
If the router has Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) or serial
interfaces, multiple connections can be configured from a single
interface because Cisco Router and Security Device Manager II
(Cisco SDM) configures subinterfaces for each interface of that
type.
The Other (Unsupported by Cisco SDM) radio button appears if an
unsupported logical or physical interface exists, or if a supported
interface exists that has been given an unsupported configuration.
When you click the Other (Unsupported by Cisco SDM) radio
button, the Create New Connection button is disabled.
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Additional Procedures
Table 2-1
Create Connection Fields
Element
Description
If the router has radio interfaces but you do not see a Wireless radio
button, you are not logged on as an Cisco SDM Administrator. If
you need to use the wireless application, go to the Cisco SDM Tools
menu and choose Wireless Application.
Use Case Scenario
When you click the radio button for a connection type, a network
diagram appears illustrating that type of connection.
Information
The information area displays more information about the
connection type you choose. For example, if you choose Ethernet
LAN, theinformation area may display the text “Configure Ethernet
LAN interface for straight routing and 802.1q trunking.”
Create New Connection button
Click Create New Connection to start the wizard for the type of
connection you chose.
Additional Procedures
This section contains procedures for tasks that the wizard does not help you
complete.
This section contains the following topics:
•
How Do I Configure a Static Route?
•
How Do I View Activity on My LAN Interface?
•
How Do I Enable or Disable an Interface?
•
How Do I View the IOS Commands I Am Sending to the Router?
•
How Do I Configure an Unsupported WAN Interface?
•
How Do I Enable or Disable an Interface?
•
How Do I View Activity on My WAN Interface?
•
How Do I Configure NAT on a WAN Interface?
•
How Do I Configure a Static Route?
•
How Do I Configure a Dynamic Routing Protocol?
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Additional Procedures
•
How Do I Configure Dial-on-Demand Routing for My ISDN or
Asynchronous Interface?
How Do I Configure a Static Route?
To configure a static route:
Step 1
From the task bar, click Routing.
Step 2
In the Static Routing group, click Add....
The Add IP Static Route dialog box appears.
Step 3
In the Prefix field, enter the IP address of the static route destination network.
Step 4
In the Prefix Mask field, enter the subnet mask of the destination network.
Step 5
If you want this static route to be the default route, check the Make this as the
Default Route check box.
Step 6
In the Forwarding group, select whether to identify a router interface or the
destination router IP address as the method to forward data, and then choose either
the forwarding router interface or enter the destination router IP address.
Step 7
Optionally, in the Distance Metric field, enter the distance metric to be stored in
the routing table.
Step 8
If you want to configure this static route to be a permanent route, which means
that it will not be deleted even if the interface is shut down or the router is unable
to communicate with the next router, check the Permanent Route check box.
Step 9
Click OK.
How Do I View Activity on My LAN Interface?
You can view activity on a LAN interface by using the Monitor mode in Cisco
SDM. Monitor mode can display statistics about the LAN interface, including the
number of packets and bytes that have been sent or received by the interface, and
the number of send or receive errors that have occurred. To display statistics about
about a LAN interface:
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Step 1
From the toolbar, click Monitor.
Step 2
From the left frame, click Interface Status.
Step 3
In the Select an Interface field, select the LAN interface for which you want to
view statistics.
Step 4
Select the data item(s) you want to view by checking the associated check box(es).
You can view up to four statistics at a time.
Step 5
Click Start Monitoring to see statistics for all selected data items.
The Interface Details screen appears, displaying the statistics you selected. The
screen defaults to showing real-time data, for which it polls the router every
10 seconds. If the interface is up and there is data transmitting across it, you
should see an increase in the number of packets and bytes transferred across the
interface.
How Do I Enable or Disable an Interface?
You can disable an interface without removing its configuration, and you can
reenable an interface that you have disabled.
Step 1
Click Interfaces and Connections in the task bar.
Step 2
Click the Edit Interfaces and Connections tab.
Step 3
Select the interface that you want to disable or enable.
Step 4
If the interface is enabled, the Disable button appears below the Interface List.
Click that button to disable the interface. If the interface is currently disabled, the
Enable button appears below the Interface List. Click that button to disable the
interface.
How Do I View the IOS Commands I Am Sending to the Router?
If you are completing a Wizard to configure a feature, you can view the Cisco IOS
commands that you are sending to the router when you click Finish.
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Step 1
From the Cisco SDM Edit menu, select Preferences.
Step 2
Check Preview commands before delivering to router.
Step 3
Click OK.
The next time you use a wizard to configure the router and click Finish on the
Summary window, the Deliver window will appear. In this window you can view
the commands that you are delivering to the router’s configuration. Click Deliver
when you are finished reviewing the commands.
If you are editing a configuration, the Deliver window is displayed when you click
OK in the dialog window. In this window you can view the Cisco IOS commands
that you are sending to the router .
How Do I Launch the Wireless Application from Cisco SDM?
Use the following procedure to launch the wireless application from Cisco SDM.
Step 1
Go to the Cisco SDM Tools menu and select Wireless Application. The Wireless
Application launches in a separate browser window.
Step 2
In the left panel, click the title of the configuration screen that you want to work
in. To obtain help for any screen, click the help icon in the upper right corner. This
icon looks like an open book with a question mark.
How Do I Configure an Unsupported WAN Interface?
Cisco SDM does not support configuration of every WAN interface that your
router might support. If Cisco SDM discovers an interface in your router that it
does not support, or a supported interface with an unsupported configuration,
Cisco SDM displays a radio button labeled Other (Unsupported by Cisco SDM).
The unsupported interface is displayed in the Interfaces and Connections window,
but it cannot be configured using Cisco SDM.
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Additional Procedures
To configure an unsupported interface, you must use the router command-line
interface (CLI).
How Do I Enable or Disable an Interface?
You can disable an interface without removing its configuration, and you can
reenable an interface that you have disabled.
Step 1
Click Configure on the Cisco SDM toolbar.
Step 2
Click Interfaces and Connections in the left frame.
Step 3
Click the interface that you want to disable or enable.
Step 4
If the interface is enabled, the Disable button appears below the Interface List.
Click it to disable the interface. If the interface is currently disabled, the Enable
button appears in that location. Click that button to disable the interface.
How Do I View Activity on My WAN Interface?
You can view activity on a WAN interface by using the Monitor feature in Cisco
SDM. Monitor screens can display statistics about the WAN interface, including
the number of packets and bytes that have been sent or received by the interface,
and the number of send or receive errors that have occurred. To display statistics
about a WAN interface:
Step 1
From the toolbar, click Monitor.
Step 2
From the left frame, click Interface Status.
Step 3
In the Select an Interface field, choose the WAN interface for which you want to
view statistics.
Step 4
Choose the data item(s) you want to view by checking the associated check
box(es). You can view up to four statistics at a time.
Step 5
Click Show Details to see statistics for all selected data items.
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The Interface Details screen appears, displaying the statistics you selected. The
screen defaults to showing real-time data, for which it polls the router every
10 seconds. If the interface is up and there is data transmitting across it, you
should see an increase in the number of packets and bytes transferred across the
interface.
How Do I Configure NAT on a WAN Interface?
Step 1
Click Configure on the Cisco SDM toolbar.
Step 2
Click NAT in the left frame.
Step 3
In the NAT window, click Designate NAT interfaces.
Step 4
Find the interface for which you want to configure NAT.
Step 5
Check inside(trusted) next to the interface to designate the interface as an inside,
or trusted interface. An inside designation is typically used to designate an
interface serving a LAN whose resources. must be protected. Check
outside(untrusted) to designate it as an outside interface. Outside interfaces
typically connect to an untrusted network. Click OK.
The interface is added to the pool of interfaces using NAT.
Step 6
Review the Network Address Translation Rules in the NAT window. If you need
to add, delete, or modify a rule, click the appropriate button on the NAT window
to perform the configuration you need.
For more information, click the following links:
•
Add or Edit Static Address Translation Rule: Inside to Outside
•
Add or Edit Static Address Translation Rule: Outside to Inside
•
Add or Edit Dynamic Address Translation Rule: Inside to Outside
•
Add or Edit Dynamic Address Translation Rule: Outside to Inside
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How Do I Configure NAT on an Unsupported Interface?
Cisco SDM can configure Network Address Translation (NAT) on an interface
type unsupported by Cisco SDM. Before you can configure the firewall, you must
first use the router CLI to configure the interface. The interface must have, at a
minimum, an IP address configured, and it must be working. To verify that the
connection is working, verify that the interface status is “Up.”
After you have configured the unsupported interface using the CLI, you can
configure NAT using Cisco SDM. The unsupported interface will appear as
“Other” on the router interface list.
How Do I Configure a Dynamic Routing Protocol?
To configure a dynamic routing protocol:
Step 1
From the toolbar, click Configure.
Step 2
From the left frame, click Routing.
Step 3
In the Dynamic Routing group, click the dynamic routing protocol that you want
to configure.
Step 4
Click Edit.
The Dynamic Routing dialog box appears, displaying the tab for the dynamic
routing protocol you selected.
Step 5
Using the fields in the Dynamic Routing dialog box, configure the dynamic
routing protocol. If you need an explanation for any of the fields in the dialog box,
click Help.
Step 6
When you have finished configuring the dynamic routing protocol, click OK.
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How Do I Configure Dial-on-Demand Routing for My ISDN or
Asynchronous Interface?
ISDN BRI and asynchronous connections are dial-up connections, meaning that
in order to establish a connection, the router must dial a preconfigured phone
number. Because the cost of these types of connections is usually determined by
the amount of time that a connection was established, and in the case of an
asynchronous connection, that a phone line will be tied up, it is often desirable to
configure Dial-on-Demand Routing (DDR) for these connection types.
Cisco SDM can help you configure DDR by:
•
Letting you associate a rule (or ACL) with the connection, which causes the
router to establish the connection only when it recognizes network traffic that
you have identified as interesting with the associated rule.
•
Setting idle timeouts, which cause the router to end a connection after a
specified amount of time when there is no activity on the connection.
•
Enabling multilink PPP, which causes an ISDN BRI connection to use only
one of the two B channels unless a specified percentage of bandwidth is
exceeded on the first B channel. This has the advantage of saving costs when
network traffic is low and the second B channel is not needed, but letting you
utilize the full bandwidth of your ISDN BRI connection when needed.
To configure DDR on an existing ISDN BRI or asynchronous connection:
Step 1
Click Configure on the Cisco SDM toolbar.
Step 2
Click Interfaces and Connections in the left frame.
Step 3
Click the ISDN or asynchronous interface on which you want to configure DDR.
Step 4
Click Edit.
The Connection tab appears.
Step 5
Click Options.
The Edit Dialer Option dialog box appears.
Step 6
If you want the router to establish the connection only when it recognizes specific
IP traffic, click the Filter traffic based on selected ACL radio button, and either
enter a rule (ACL) number that will identify which IP traffic should cause the
router to dial out, or click the ... button to browse the list of rules and choose the
rule that you want to use to identify IP traffic from that list.
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Step 7
If you want to configure the router to end the connection when the connection is
idle, i.e., no traffic passes across it, for a specified amount of time, in the Idle
timeout field, enter the number of seconds the connection can remain idle before
the router ends the connection.
Step 8
If you are editing an ISDN connection, and you would like to use your second B
channel only when the traffic on the first B channel exceeds a certain threshold,
check the Enable MultiLink PPP check box, then in the Load Threshold field,
enter a number between 1 and 255, where 255 equals 100% of bandwidth, that will
determine the threshold on the first B channel. When traffic on that channel
exceeds that threshold, it will cause the router to connect the second B channel.
In addition, in the Data direction field, you can choose whether this threshold
should apply to outbound or inbound traffic.
Step 9
Click OK.
How Do I Edit a Radio Interface Configuration?
You must use the Wireless Application to edit an existing radio interface
configuration.
Step 1
Click Configure on the Cisco SDM toolbar.
Step 2
Click Interfaces and Connections in the left frame, and then click the Edit
Interface/Connection tab.
Step 3
Choose the radio interface and click Edit. In the Connections tab, you can change
the IP address or bridging information. If you want to change other wireless
parameters, click Launch Wireless Application.
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Additional Procedures
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LAN Wizard
The Cisco Router and Security Device Manager (Cisco SDM) LAN wizard guides
you in the configuration of a LAN interface. The screen lists the LAN interfaces
on the router. You can select any of the interfaces shown in the window, and click
Configure to make the interface a LAN interface and configure it.
This window lists the router interfaces that were designated as inside interfaces in
Startup configuration, and lists the Ethernet interfaces and switch ports that have
not been configured as WAN interfaces. The list includes interfaces that have
already been configured.
When you configure an interface as a LAN interface, Cisco SDM inserts the
description text $ETH-LAN$ in the configuration file so that it recognizes the
interface as a LAN interface in the future.
You can return to this screen as often as necessary to configure additional LAN
interfaces.
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LAN Wizard
Ethernet Configuration
Field Reference
Table 3-1
IP Address and Subnet Mask
Element
Description
Interface
The name of the interface
Configure
To configure an interface you have selected, click Configure. If the
interface has not been configured before, Cisco SDM will take you through
the LAN Wizard to help you configure it. If the interface has been given a
configuration using Cisco SDM, Cisco SDM displays an Edit window
enabling you to change configuration settings.
The Configure button may be disabled if a LAN interface has been given a
configuration that Cisco SDM does not support. For a list of such
configurations, see Reasons Why an Ethernet Interface Configuration May
Be Read-Only.
Ethernet Configuration
The wizard guides you through the configuration of an Ethernet interface on the
LAN. You must provide the following information:
•
An IP address and subnet mask for the Ethernet interface
•
A DHCP address pool if you decide to use DHCP on this interface
•
The addresses of DNS and WINS servers on the WAN
•
A domain name
LAN Wizard: Select an Interface
Select the interface on which you want to configure a LAN connection in this
window. This window lists interfaces that can support Ethernet LAN
configurations.
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LAN Wizard: IP Address and Subnet Mask
LAN Wizard: IP Address and Subnet Mask
This window lets you configure an IP address and subnet mask for the Ethernet
interface that you chose in the first window.
Field Reference
Table 3-2
IP Address and Subnet Mask
Element
Description
IP Address
Enter the IP address for the interface in dotted decimal format. Your
network administrator should determine the IP addresses of LAN
interfaces. For more information, see IP Addresses and Subnet Masks.
Subnet Mask
Enter the subnet mask. Obtain this value from your network administrator.
The subnet mask enables the router to determine how much of the IP
address is used to define the network and host portions of the address.
Alternatively, select the number of network bits. This value is used to
calculate the subnet mask. Your network administrator can tell you the
number of network bits to enter.
LAN Wizard: Enable DHCP Server
This screen lets you enable a DHCP server on your router. A DHCP server
automatically assigns reusable IP addresses to the devices on the LAN. When a
device becomes active on the network, the DHCP server grants it an IP address.
When the device leaves the network, the IP address is returned to the pool for use
by another device.
Field Reference
Table 3-3
IP Address and Subnet Mask
Element
Description
Enable DHCP Server
To configure the router as a DHCP server on this interface, click Yes.
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LAN Wizard
LAN Wizard: DHCP Address Pool
LAN Wizard: DHCP Address Pool
This screen lets you configure the DHCP IP address pool. The IP addresses that
the DHCP server assigns are drawn from a common pool that you configure by
specifying the starting IP address in the range, and the ending address in the
range.
For more information, see DHCP Address Pools.
Note
If there are discontinuous address pools configured on the router, then the
Starting IP and Ending IP address fields will be read-only.
Field Reference
Table 3-4
DHCP Address Pool
Element
Description
Starting IP
Enter the beginning of the range of IP addresses for the DHCP server to use
in assigning addresses to devices on the LAN. This is the lowest-numbered
IP address in the range.
Ending IP
Enter the highest-numbered IP address in the range of IP addresses.
DNS Server and WINS
Server Fields
If this window displays DNS Server and WINS Server fields, you can click
DHCP Options for information on them.
DHCP Options
Use this window to configure DHCP options that will be sent to hosts on the LAN
that are requesting IP addresses from the router. These are not options for the
router that you are configuring; these are parameters that will be sent to the
requesting hosts on the LAN. To set these properties for the router, click
Additional Tasks on the Cisco SDM category bar, click DHCP, and configure
these settings in the DHCP Pools window.
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LAN Wizard
LAN Wizard: VLAN Mode
Field Reference
Table 3-5
IP Address and Subnet Mask
Element
Description
DNS Server 1
The DNS server is typically a server that maps a known device name with
its IP address. If you have DNS server configured for your network, enter
the IP address for that device here.
DNS Server 2
If there is an additional DNS server on the network, you can enter the IP
address for that server in this field.
Domain Name
The DHCP server that you are configuring on this router will provide
services to other devices within this domain. Enter the name of the domain.
WINS Server 1
Some clients may require Windows Internet Naming Service (WINS) to
connect to devices on the Internet. If there is a WINS server on the network,
enter the IP address for the server in this field.
WINS Server 2
If there is an additional WINS server on the network, enter the IP address
for the server in this field.
LAN Wizard: VLAN Mode
This screen lets you determine the type of VLAN information that will be carried
over the switch port. Switch ports can be designated either to be in access mode,
in which case they will forward only data that is destined for the VLAN to which
they are assigned, or they can be designated to be in trunking mode, in which case
they will forward data destined for all VLANs including the VLAN to which they
are assigned.
If this switch port will be connected to a single device, such as a single PC or IP
phone, or if this device will be connected to a port on a networking device, such
as another switch, that is an access mode port, then select Single Device.
If this switch port will be connected to a port on a network device, such as another
switch, that is a trunking mode, select Network Device.
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LAN Wizard: Switch Port
Field Reference
Table 3-6
IP Address and Subnet Mask
Element
Description
Single Device
If this switch port will be connected to a single device, such as a single PC
or IP phone, or if this device will be connected to a port on a networking
device, such as another switch, that is an access mode port, then choose
Single Device.
Network Device
If this switch port will be connected to a port on a network device, such as
another switch, that is a trunking mode, choose Network Device.
LAN Wizard: Switch Port
This screen lets you assign an existing VLAN number to the switch port or to
create a new VLAN interface to be assigned to the VLAN switch port.
Field Reference
Table 3-7
IP Address and Subnet Mask
Element
Description
Existing VLAN
If you want to assign the switch port to a VLAN that has already been
defined, such as the default VLAN (VLAN 1), enter the VLAN ID number
in the Network (VLAN) Identifier field.
New VLAN
If you want to create a new VLAN interface to which the switch port will
be assigned, enter the new VLAN ID number in the New VLAN field, and
then enter the IP address and subnet mask of the new VLAN logical
interface in the IP Address and Subnet Mask fields.
Include this VLAN in an If you want the switch port to form part of a bridge with your wireless
IRB bridge...
network, check this box. The other part of the bridge must be configured
using the Wireless Application. The IP address and Subnet mask fields
under New VLAN are disabled when this box is checked.
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IRB Bridge
Launching the Wireless Application
After completing this LAN configuration, do the following to launch the Wireless
Application and complete the bridging configuration.
Step 1
Select Wireless Application from the Cisco SDM Tools menu. The Wireless
Application opens in a separate browser window.
Step 2
In the Wireless Application, click Wireless Express Security, and then click
Bridging to provide the information to complete the bridging configuration.
IRB Bridge
If you are configuring a VLAN to be part of an IRB bridge, the bridge must be a
member of a bridge group.
To create a new bridge group that this interface will be part of, click Create a new
bridge group and enter a value in the range 1 through 255.
To have this VLAN be a member of an existing bridge group, click Join an
existing bridge group, and select a bridge group.
Note
When you complete the bridge configuration in the Wireless Application, you
must use the same bridge group number entered in this screen.
Field Reference
Table 3-8
IP Address and Subnet Mask
Element
Description
Create a new bridge
group
To create a new bridge group that this interface will be part of, click Create
a new bridge group and enter a value in the range 1 through 255.
Join an existing bridge
group
To have this VLAN be a member of an existing bridge group, click Join an
existing bridge group, and select a bridge group.
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BVI Configuration
BVI Configuration
Assign an IP address and subnet mask to the BVI interface. If you selected an
existing bridge group in the previous screen, the IP address and subnet mask will
appear in this screen. You can change it, or leave the values unchanged.
Field Reference
Table 3-9
BVI Configuration
Element
Description
IP Address
Enter the IP address for the interface in dotted decimal format. Your
network administrator should determine the IP addresses of LAN
interfaces. For more information, see IP Addresses and Subnet Masks.
Net Mask
Enter the subnet mask. Obtain this value from your network administrator.
The subnet mask enables the router to determine how much of the IP
address is used to define the network and host portions of the address.
Net Bits
Alternatively, select the number of network bits. This value is used to
calculate the subnet mask. Your network administrator can tell you the
number of network bits to enter.
DHCP Pool for BVI
When you configure the router as a DHCP server, you can create a pool of IP
addresses that clients on the network can use. When a client logs off the network,
the address it was using is returned to the pool for use by another host.
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IRB for Ethernet
Field Reference
Table 3-10
DHCP Pool for BVI
Element
Description
DHCP Server
Configuration
If you want to have the router function as a DHCP server, check DHCP
Server Configuration.
Start IP
Enter the starting IP address for the pool. Be sure to specify IP addresses in
the same subnet as the IP address you gave the interface. For example, If
you gave the interface an IP address of 10.10.22.1, with a subnet mask of
255.255.255.0, you have over 250 addresses available for the pool, and you
might specify a start IP Address of 10.10.22.2.
End IP
Enter the ending IP address for the pool. Using the above example, the end
IP address would be 10.10.22.254.
IRB for Ethernet
If your router has a wireless interface, you can use Integrated Routing and
Bridging to have this interface form part of a bridge to the wireless LAN, and
enable traffic destined for the wireless network to be routed through this interface.
Click Yes if you want to configure this Layer 3 interface for Integrated Routing
and Bridging.
If you do not want this interface to be used in bridge to the wireless interface, click
No. You will still be able to configure it as a regular routing interface.
Layer 3 Ethernet Configuration
Cisco SDM supports Layer 3 Ethernet configuration on routers with installed
3750 switch modules. You can create VLAN configurations and designate router
Ethernet interfaces as DHCP servers.
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Layer 3 Ethernet Configuration
802.1Q Configuration
You can configure a VLAN that does not use the 802.1Q encapsulation protocol
used for trunking connections. Provide a VLAN ID number, and check Native
VLAN if you do not want the VLAN to use 802.1Q tagging.
If you want to use the 802.1Q tagging, leave the Native VLAN box unchecked.
Field Reference
Table 3-11
IP Address and Subnet Mask
Element
Description
VLAN ID (1-4094)
Enter a VLAN ID number from 1 to 4094. Cisco SDM displays a message
telling you to enter a different VLAN ID if the ID that you enter is already
in use.
Native VLAN
If you do not want the VLAN to use 802.1Q tagging, check Native VLAN.
If you want the VLAN to use 802.1Q tagging, leave this box unchecked.
Trunking or Routing Configuration
You can configure Layer 3 Ethernet interfaces for 802.1Q trunking or for basic
routing. If you configure the interface for 802.1Q trunking, you can configure
VLANs on the interface, and you can configure a native VLAN that does not use
the 802.1q encapsulation protocol. I f you configure the interface for routing, you
cannot configure subinterfraces or additional VLANs on the interface.
Configure Switch Device Module
If you are configuring a Gigabit Ethernet interface for routing, you can provide
information about the switch module in this window. It is not required that you
provide this information.
You can provide an IP address and subnet mask for the switch module, and login
credentials required to log on to the the switch module interface.
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Summary
Check the box at the bottom of the screen if you want to log on to the switch
module after providing the information in this wizard and delivering the
configuration to the router.
Configure Gigabit Ethernet Interface
Provide IP address and subnet mask information for Gigabit Ethernet interfaces
in this window. For more information on IP addresses and subnet masks, see LAN
Wizard: IP Address and Subnet Mask.
Field Reference
Table 3-12
IP Address and Subnet Mask
Element
Description
IP Address of Physical
Interface
Enter the IP address and subnet mask for the physical Gigabit Ethernet
interface in these fields.
IP Address of VLAN
Subinterface
Provide the IP address and subnet mask for the VLAN subinterface that you
want to create on the physical interface. These fields appear if you are
configuring this interface for routing. These fields do not appear if you are
configuring this interface for Integrated Routing and Bridging (IRB).
Summary
This window provides a summary of the configuration changes that you made for
the interface you selected.
To save this configuration to the router’s running configuration and leave this wizard:
Click Finish. Cisco SDM saves the configuration changes to the router’s running
configuration. Although the changes take effect immediately, they will be lost if
the router is turned off.
If you checked Preview commands before delivering to router in the User
Preferences window, the Deliver window appears. In this window you can view
the CLI commands that you are delivering to the router.
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Summary
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802.1x Authentication
802.1x authentication allows a remote Cisco IOS router to connect authenticated
VPN users to a secure network through a VPN tunnel that is up at all times. The
Cisco IOS router will authenticate users through a RADIUS server on the secure
network.
802.1x authentication is applied to switch ports or Ethernet (routed) ports, but not
to both types of interfaces. If 802.1x authentication is applied to an Ethernet port,
non-authenticated users can be routed outside the VPN tunnel to the Internet.
802.1x authentication is configured on interfaces by using the LAN wizard.
However, before you can enable 802.1x on any interface, AAA must be enabled
on your Cisco IOS router. If you attempt to use the LAN wizard before AAA is
enabled, a window appears asking if you want to enable AAA. If you choose to
enable AAA, then the 802.1x configuration screens will appear as part of the LAN
wizard. If you choose to not enable AAA, then the 802.1x configuration screens
will not appear.
LAN Wizard: 802.1x Authentication (Switch Ports)
This window allows you to enable 802.1x authentication on the switch port or
ports you selected for configuration using the LAN wizard.
Enable 802.1x Authentication
Check Enable 802.1x Authentication to enable 802.1x authentication on the
switch port.
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LAN Wizard: 802.1x Authentication (Switch Ports)
Host Mode
Choose Single or Multiple. Single mode allows only one authenticated client to
have access. Multiple mode allows for any number of clients to have access once
a single client has been authenticated.
Note
Ports on Cisco 85x and Cisco 87x routers can be set only to multiple host mode.
Single mode is disabled for these routers.
Guest VLAN
Check Guest VLAN to enable a VLAN for clients lacking 802.1x support. If you
enable this option, choose a VLAN form the VLAN drop-down list.
Auth-Fail VLAN
Check Auth-Fail VLAN to enable a VLAN for clients that fail 802.1x
authorization. If you enable this option, choose a VLAN form the VLAN
drop-down list.
Periodic Reauthentication
Check Periodic Reauthentication to force reauthentication of 802.1x clients on
a regular interval. Choose to configure the interval locally, or to allow the
RADIUS server to set the interval. If you choose to configure the reauthentication
interval locally, enter a value in the range of 1–65535 seconds. The default setting
is 3600 seconds.
Advanced Options
Click Advanced Options to open a window with additional 802.1x authentication
parameters.
Advanced Options
This window allows you to change the default values for a number of 802.1x
authentication parameters.
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LAN Wizard: 802.1x Authentication (Switch Ports)
Radius Server Timeout
Enter the time, in seconds, that your Cisco IOS router waits before timing out its
connection to the RADIUS server. Values must be in the range of 1–65535
seconds. The default setting is 30 seconds.
Supplicant Reply Timeout
Enter the time, in seconds, that your Cisco IOS router waits for a reply from an
802.1x client before timing out its connection to that client. Values must be in the
range of 1–65535 seconds. The default setting is 30 seconds.
Supplicant Retries Timeout
Enter the time, in seconds, that your Cisco IOS router retries an 802.1x client
before timing out its connection to that client. Values must be in the range of
1–65535 seconds. The default setting is 30 seconds.
Quiet Period
Enter the time, in seconds, that your Cisco IOS router will wait between the initial
connection to a client and when a login request is sent. Values must be in the range
of 1–65535 seconds. The default setting is 60 seconds.
Rate Limit Period
Values must be in the range of 1–65535 seconds. However, the default setting is
0 seconds, which turns off Rate Limit Period.
Maximum Reauthentication Attempts
Enter the maximum number of times your Cisco IOS router tries to reauthenticate
an 802.1x client. Values must be in the range 1–10. The default setting is 2.
Maximum Retries
Enter the maximum number of login requests that can be sent to the client. Values
must be in the range 1–10. The default setting is 2.
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LAN Wizard: RADIUS Servers for 802.1x Authentication
Reset to Defaults
Click Reset to Defaults to reset all advanced options to their default values.
LAN Wizard: RADIUS Servers for 802.1x
Authentication
802.1x authentication information is configured and stored in a policy database
residing on RADIUS servers running Cisco Secure ACS version 3.3. The router
must validate the credentials of 802.1x clients by communicating with a RADIUS
server. Use this window to provide the information the router needs to contact one
or more RADIUS servers. Each RADIUS server that you specify must have Cisco
Secure ACS software version 3.3 installed and configured.
Note
All of your Cisco IOS router interfaces enabled with 802.1x authorization will use
the RADIUS servers set up in this window. When you configure a new interface,
you will see this screen again. Additions or changes to the RADIUS server
information, however, do not have to be made.
Choose the RADIUS client source
Configuring the RADIUS source allows you to specify the source IP address to be
sent in RADIUS packets bound for the RADIUS server. If you need more
information about an interface, choose the interface and click the Details button.
The source IP address in the RADIUS packets sent from the router must be
configured as the NAD IP address in the Cisco ACS version 3.3 or later.
If you choose Router chooses source, the source IP address in the RADIUS
packets will be the address of interface through which the RADIUS packets exit
the router.
If you choose an interface, the source IP address in the RADIUS packets will be
the address of the interface that you chose as the RADIUS client source.
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LAN Wizard: RADIUS Servers for 802.1x Authentication
Note
Cisco IOS software allows a single RADIUS source interface to be configured on
the router. If the router already has a configured RADIUS source and you choose
a different source, the source IP address placed in the packets sent to the RADIUS
server changes to the IP address of the new source, and may not match the NAD
IP address configured on the Cisco ACS.
Details
If you need a quick snapshot of the information about an interface before choosing
it, click Details. The screen shows you the IP address and subnet mask, the access
rules and inspection rules applied to the interface, the IPSec policy and QoS
policy applied, and whether there is an Easy VPN configuration on the interface.
Server IP, Timeout, and Parameters Columns
The Server IP, Timeout, and Parameters columns contain the information that the
router uses to contact a RADIUS server. If no RADIUS server information is
associated with the chosen interface, these columns are blank.
Use for 802.1x Check Box
Check this box if you want to use the listed RADIUS server for 802.1x. The server
must have the required 802.1x authorization information configured if 802.1x is
used successfully.
Add, Edit, and Ping
To provide information for a RADIUS server, click the Add button and enter the
information in the screen displayed. Choose a row and click Edit to modify the
information for a RADIUS server. Choose a row and click Ping to test the
connection between the router and a RADIUS server.
Note
When performing a ping test, enter the IP address of the RADIUS source interface
in the source field in the ping dialog. If you chose Router chooses source, you
need not provide any value in the ping dialog source field.
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Edit 802.1x Authentication (Switch Ports)
The Edit and Ping buttons are disabled when no RADIUS server information is
available for the chosen interface.
Edit 802.1x Authentication (Switch Ports)
This window allows you to enable and configure 802.1x authentication
parameters.
If a message is displayed indicating that the port is operating in trunk mode
instead of the 802.1x authentication parameters, then the switch cannot have
802.1x authentication enabled.
If the 802.1x authentication parameters appear but are disabled, then one of the
following is true:
•
AAA has not been enabled.
To enable AAA, go to Configure > Additional Tasks > AAA.
•
AAA has been enabled, but an 802.1x authentication policy has not been
configured.
To configure an 802.1x authentication policy, go to Configure > Additional
Tasks > AAA > Authentication Policies > 802.1x.
Enable 802.1x Authentication
Check Enable 802.1x Authentication to enable 802.1x authentication on this
switch port.
Host Mode
Choose Single or Multiple. Single mode allows only one authenticated client to
have access. Multiple mode allows for any number of clients to have access once
a single client has been authenticated.
Note
Ports on Cisco 87x routers can be set only to multiple host mode. Single mode is
disabled for these routers.
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LAN Wizard: 802.1x Authentication (VLAN or Ethernet)
Guest VLAN
Check Guest VLAN to enable a VLAN for clients lacking 802.1x support. If you
enable this option, choose a VLAN form the VLAN drop-down list.
Auth-Fail VLAN
Check Auth-Fail VLAN to enable a VLAN for clients that fail 802.1x
authorization. If you enable this option, choose a VLAN form the VLAN
drop-down list.
Periodic Reauthentication
Check Periodic Reauthentication to force reauthentication of 802.1x clients on
a regular interval. Choose to configure the interval locally, or to allow the
RADIUS server to set the interval. If you choose to configure the reauthentication
interval locally, enter a value in the range of 1–65535 seconds. The default setting
is 3600 seconds.
Advanced Options
Click Advanced Options to open a window with additional 802.1x authentication
parameters.
LAN Wizard: 802.1x Authentication (VLAN or
Ethernet)
This window allows you to enable 802.1x authentication on the Ethernet port you
selected for configuration using the LAN wizard. For Cisco 87x routers, this
window is available for configuring a VLAN with 802.1x authentication.
Note
Before configuring 802.1x on VLAN, be sure that 802.1x is not configured on any
VLAN switch ports. Also be sure that the VLAN is configured for DHCP.
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LAN Wizard: 802.1x Authentication (VLAN or Ethernet)
Use 802.1x Authentication to separate trusted and untrusted traffic on the interface
Check Use 802.1x Authentication to separate trusted and untrusted traffic on
the interface to enable 802.1x authentication.
Exception Lists
Click Exception Lists to create or edit an exception list. An exception list
exempts certain clients from 802.1x authentication while allowing them to use the
VPN tunnel.
Exempt Cisco IP phones from 802.1x authentication
Check Exempt Cisco IP phones from 802.1x authentication to exempt Cisco IP
phones from 802.1x authentication while allowing them to use the VPN tunnel.
802.1x Exception List
An exception list exempts certain clients from 802.1x authentication while
allowing them to use the VPN tunnel. Exempt clients are identified by their MAC
addresses.
Add
Click Add to open a window where you can add the MAC address of a client. The
MAC address must be in the format that matches one of these examples:
•
0030.6eb1.37e4
•
00-30-6e-b1-37-e4
Cisco SDM rejects misformatted MAC addresses, except for MAC addresses
shorter than the given examples. Shorter MAC addresses will be padded with a
“0” (zero) for each missing digit.
Note
Cisco SDM’s 802.1x feature does not support the CLI option that associates
policies with MAC addresses and will not include in the exception list MAC
addresses that have a policy associated with them.
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802.1x Authentication on Layer 3 Interfaces
Delete
Click Delete to remove a chosen client from the exception list.
802.1x Authentication on Layer 3 Interfaces
This window allows you to configure 802.1x authentication on a Layer 3
Interface. It lists Ethernet ports and VLAN interfaces that have or can be
configured with 802.1x authentication, allows you to choose a Virtual Template
interface for untrusted clients, and create an exception list for clients to bypass
802.1x authentication.
Note
If policies have been set using the CLI, they will appear as read-only information
in this window. In this case, only enabling or disabling 802.1x is allowed in this
window.
Prerequisite Tasks
If a prerequisite task appears in the window, it must be completed before 802.1x
authentication can be configured. A message explaining the prerequisite task is
displayed, along with a link to the window where the task can be completed.
Enable 802.1x Authentication Globally
Check Enable 802.1x Authentication Globally to enable 802.1x authentication
on all Ethernet ports.
Interfaces Table
The Interfaces table has the following columns:
Interface—Displays the name of the Ethernet or VLAN interface.
802.1x Authentication—Indicates whether 802.1x authentication is enabled for
the Ethernet port.
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802.1x Authentication on Layer 3 Interfaces
Edit
Click Edit to open a window of editable 802.1x authentication parameters. The
parameters are the 802.1x authentication settings for the interface chosen in the
Interfaces table.
Untrusted User Policy
Choose a Virtual Template interface from the drop-down list. The chosen Virtual
Template interface represents the policy applied to clients that fail 802.1x
authentication.
Click the Details button to see more information about the chosen Virtual
Template interface.
Exception List
For more information about the exception list, see 802.1x Exception List.
Exempt Cisco IP phones from 802.1x authentication
Check Exempt Cisco IP phones from 802.1x authentication to exempt Cisco IP
phones from 802.1x authentication while allowing them to use the VPN tunnel.
Apply Changes
Click Apply Changes for the changes you made to take effect.
Discard Changes
Click Discard Changes to erase the unapplied changes you made.
Edit 802.1x Authentication
This window allows you to enable and change the default values for a number of
802.1x authentication parameters.
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How Do I ...
Enable 802.1x Authentication
Check Enable 802.1x Authentication to enable 802.1x authentication on the
Ethernet port.
Periodic Reauthentication
Check Periodic Reauthentication to force reauthentication of 802.1x clients on
a regular interval. Choose to configure the interval locally, or to allow the
RADIUS server to set the interval. If you choose to configure the reauthentication
interval locally, enter a value in the range of 1–65535 seconds. The default setting
is 3600 seconds.
Advanced Options
Click Advanced Options for descriptions of the fields in the Advanced Options
box.
How Do I ...
This section contains procedures for tasks that the wizard does not help you
complete.
How Do I Configure 802.1x Authentication on More Than One
Ethernet Port?
Once you configure 802.1x authentication on an interface, the LAN wizard will
no longer display any 802.1x options for Ethernet ports because Cisco SDM uses
the 802.1x configuration globally.
Note
For configuring switches, the LAN wizard will continue to display the 802.1x
options.
If you want to edit the 802.lx authentication configuration on an Ethernet port, go
to Configure > Additional Tasks > 802.1x.
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CH A P T E R
5
Configuring WAN Connections
The WAN wizards enable you to configure WAN connections for all Cisco
SDM-supported interfaces.
This chapter contains the following sections:
•
Configuring an Ethernet WAN Connection
•
Configuring a Serial Connection
•
Configuring a DSL Connection
•
Configuring an ISDN Connection
•
Configuring an Aux Backup Connection
•
Configuring an Analog Modem Connection
•
Configuring a Cable Modem Connection
Configuring an Ethernet WAN Connection
Complete these steps to configure an Ethernet WAN Connection:
Step 1
If you want to review the IOS CLI commands that you send to the router when
you complete the configuration, go to the Cisco SDM toolbar, and click Edit >
Preferences > Preview commands before delivering to router.
Step 2
In the Cisco SDM toolbar, click Configure.
Step 3
In the Cisco SDM taskbar, click Interfaces and Connections.
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Step 4
In the Create Connection tab, click Ethernet WAN.
Step 5
Click Create Connection to start the wizard. The wizard Welcome screen
describes the tasks you will complete.
Step 6
Click Next to go to the subsequent screens to configure the connection.
Step 7
Cisco SDM displays the Summary screen when you have completed the
configuration. Review the configuration. If you need to make changes, click Back
to return to the screen in which you need to make changes, then return to the
Summary screen.
Step 8
If you want to test the connection after sending the configuration to the router,
check Test the connectivity after configuring. After you click Finish, Cisco
SDM tests the connection and displays the test results in another screen.
Step 9
To send the configuration to the router, click Finish.
The Ethernet WAN Connection Reference describes the screens that Cisco SDM
displays.
Ethernet WAN Connection Reference
•
WAN Wizard Interface Welcome Window
•
Select Interface
•
Encapsulation: PPPoE
•
IP Address: Ethernet without PPPoE
•
IP Address: ATM or Ethernet with PPPoE/PPPoA
•
Authentication
•
Advanced Options
•
Summary
WAN Wizard Interface Welcome Window
This window lists the types of connections you can configure for this interface
using Cisco SDM. If you need to configure another type of connection for this
interface, you can do so using the CLI.
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Select Interface
This window appears if there is more than one interface of the type you selected
in the Create Connection window. Choose the interface that you want to use for
this connection.
Field Reference
Table 5-1 describes the fields in this screen.
Table 5-1
Select Interface Fields
Element
Description
Check Boxes
Check the box next to the interface that you want to use for this
connection.
If you are configuring an Ethernet interface, Cisco SDM inserts the
description text $ETH-WAN$ in the configuration file so that it will
recognize the interface as a WAN interface in the future.
Enable Dynamic DNS
Click Enable Dynamic DNS if you want to update your DNS
servers automatically whenever the WAN interface IP address
changes. Click the Dynamic DNS button to configure dynamic
DNS.
The Enable Dynamic DNS option is not shown for all connection
types.
IP Address: Ethernet without PPPoE
Choose the method that the WAN interface will use to obtain an IP address.
Field Reference
Table 5-2 describes the fields in this screen.
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Table 5-2
Ethernet without PPPoE IP Address Fields
Element
Description
Static IP Address
If you choose Static IP Address, enter the IP address and subnet
mask or the network bits in the fields provided. For more
information, see IP Addresses and Subnet Masks.
Dynamic (DHCP Client)
If you choose Dynamic, the router will lease an IP address from a
remote DHCP server. Enter the name of the DHCP server that will
assign addresses.
Dynamic DNS
Choose dynamic DNS if you want to update your DNS servers
automatically whenever the WAN interface IP address changes.
Click the Dynamic DNS button to configure dynamic DNS.
Encapsulation: PPPoE
This window lets you enable Point-to-Point-Protocol over Ethernet (PPPoE)
encapsulation. This is necessary if your service provider or network administrator
requires remote routers to communicate using PPPoE.
PPPoE is a protocol used by many asymmetric digital subscriber line (ADSL)
service providers. Ask your service provider if PPPoE is used over your
connection.
If you choose PPPoE encapsulation, Cisco SDM automatically adds a dialer
interface to the configuration, and this is shown in the Summary window.
Field Reference
Table 5-3 describes the fields in this screen.
Table 5-3
PPoE Encapsulation Fields
Element
Description
Enable PPPoE Encapsulation
If your service provider requires that the router use PPPoE, check
this box to enable PPPoE encapsulation. Uncheck this box if your
service provider does not use PPPoE. This check box will not be
available if your router is running a version of Cisco IOS that does
not support PPPoE encapsulation.
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Summary
This screen displays a summary of the WAN link that you configured.You can
review this information, and if you need to change anything, you can click the
Back button to return to the screen on which you need to make changes.
Button Reference
Table 5-4 describes the buttons in this screen.
Table 5-4
WAN Summary Buttons
Element
Description
Test the connectivity after
configuring
Check this box if you want Cisco SDM to test the connection you
have configured after it delivers the commands to the router. Cisco
SDM will test the connection and report results in another window.
To save this configuration to the router’s running configuration and leave this wizard:
Click Finish. Cisco SDM saves the configuration changes to the router’s running
configuration. The changes will take effect immediately, but will be lost if the
router is turned off.
If you checked Preview commands before delivering to router in the Cisco
SDM Preferences window, the Deliver window appears. In this window, you can
view the CLI commands that you are delivering to the router.
Advanced Options
There are two advanced options available, based on the router’s configuration:
Default static route, and Port Address Translation (PAT). If the Static Route
option is not visible in the window, a static route has already been configured on
the router. If the PAT option is not visible, PAT has already been configured on an
interface.
Field Reference
Table 5-5 describes the fields in this screen.
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Table 5-5
Advanced Options Fields
Element
Description
Default Static Route
Check this box if you want to configure a static route to the outside
interface to which outgoing traffic will be routed. If a static route
has already been configured on this router, this box does not appear.
Next Hop Address
If your service provider has given you a next-hop IP address to use,
enter the IP address in this field. If you leave this field blank, Cisco
SDM will use the WAN interface that you are configuring as the
next-hop interface.
Port Address Translation
If devices on the LAN have private addresses, you can allow them
to share a single public IP address. You can ensure that traffic goes
to its proper destination by using PAT, which represents hosts on a
LAN with a single IP address and uses different port numbers to
distinguish the hosts. If PAT has already been configured on an
interface, the PAT option will not be visible.
Inside Interface to be Translated Choose the inside interface connected to the network whose host IP
addresses you want to be translated.
Configuring a Serial Connection
Complete these steps to configure a Serial connection:
Step 1
If you want to review the IOS CLI commands that you send to the router when
you complete the configuration, go to the Cisco SDM toolbar, and click Edit >
Preferences > Preview commands before delivering to router.
Step 2
In the Cisco SDM toolbar, click Configure.
Step 3
In the Cisco SDM taskbar, click Interfaces and Connections.
Step 4
In the Create Connection tab, click Serial.
Step 5
Click Create Connection to start the wizard. The wizard Welcome screen
describes the tasks you will complete.
Step 6
Click Next to go to the subsequent screens to configure the connection.
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Step 7
Cisco SDM displays the Summary screen when you have completed the
configuration. Review the configuration. If you need to make changes, click Back
to return to the screen in which you need to make changes, then return to the
Summary screen.
Step 8
If you want to test the connection after sending the configuration to the router,
check Test the connectivity after configuring. After you click Finish, Cisco
SDM tests the connection and displays the test results in another screen.
Step 9
To send the configuration to the router, click Finish.
The Serial Connection Reference describes the screens that Cisco SDM displays.
Serial Connection Reference
•
WAN Wizard Interface Welcome Window
•
Select Interface
•
IP Address: Serial with Point-to-Point Protocol
•
IP Address: Serial with HDLC or Frame Relay
•
Authentication
•
Configure LMI and DLCI
•
Configure Clock Settings
•
Advanced Options
•
Summary
IP Address: Serial with Point-to-Point Protocol
Choose the method that the point-to-point interface will use to obtain an IP
address.
Field Reference
Table 5-6 describes the fields in this screen.
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Table 5-6
Serial Connection with Point-to-Point Protocol
Element
Description
Static IP Address
If you choose Static IP Address, enter the IP address and subnet
mask or the network bits in the fields provided. For more
information, see IP Addresses and Subnet Masks.
IP Unnumbered
Choose IP Unnumbered if you want the interface to share an IP
address that has already been assigned to another interface. Then
choose the interface whose IP address you want to use for the
interface you are configuring.
Easy IP (IP Negotiated)
Choose Easy IP (IP Negotiated) if the router will obtain an IP
address through PPP/IPCP address negotiation.
Dynamic DNS
Choose dynamic DNS if you want to update your DNS servers
automatically whenever the WAN interface IP address changes.
Click the Dynamic DNS button to configure dynamic DNS.
IP Address: Serial with HDLC or Frame Relay
Choose the method that the WAN interface will use to obtain an IP address. If
Frame Relay encapsulation is used, Cisco SDM creates a subinterface, and the IP
address is assigned to the subinterface Cisco SDM creates.
Field Reference
Table 5-7 describes the fields in this screen.
Table 5-7
Serial Connection with HDLC or Frame Relay Fields
Element
Description
Static IP Address
If you choose Static IP Address, enter the IP address and subnet
mask or the network bits in the fields provided. For more
information, see IP Addresses and Subnet Masks.
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Table 5-7
Serial Connection with HDLC or Frame Relay Fields
Element
Description
IP Unnumbered
Choose IP Unnumbered if you want the interface to share an IP
address that has already been assigned to another interface. Then
choose the interface whose IP address you want to use for the
interface you are configuring.
Dynamic DNS
Choose dynamic DNS if you want to update your DNS servers
automatically whenever the WAN interface IP address changes.
Click the Dynamic DNS button to configure dynamic DNS.
Authentication
This page is displayed if you enabled or are configuring:
•
PPP for a serial connection
•
PPPoE or PPPoA encapsulation for an ATM connection
•
PPPoE or PPPoA encapsulation for an Ethernet connection
•
An ISDN BRI or analog modem connection
Your service provider or network administrator may use a Challenge Handshake
Authentication Protocol (CHAP) password or a Password Authentication Protocol
(PAP) password to secure the connection between the devices. This password
secures both incoming and outgoing access.
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Field Reference
Table 5-8 describes the fields in this screen.
Table 5-8
Authentication Fields
Element
Description
Authentication Type
Check the box for the type of authentication used by your service
provider. If you do not know which type your service provider uses,
you can check both boxes: the router will attempt both types of
authentication, and one attempt will succeed.
CHAP authentication is more secure than PAP authentication.
Username
The username is given to you by your Internet service provider or
network administrator and is used as the username for CHAP or
PAP authentication.
Password
Enter the password exactly as given to you by your service provider.
Passwords are case sensitive. For example, the password cisco is not
the same as Cisco.
Confirm Password
Reenter the same password that you entered in the previous box.
Configure LMI and DLCI
If you are configuring a connection with Frame Relay encapsulation, you must
specify the protocol used to monitor the connection, called the Local Management
Identifier (LMI), and provide a unique identifier for this particular connection,
called a data link connection identifier (DLCI).
Field Reference
Table 5-9 describes the fields in this screen.
Table 5-9
Element
LMI and DLCI Fields
Description
LMI Type
ANSI
Annex D defined by American National Standards Institute (ANSI)
standard T1.617.
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Table 5-9
LMI and DLCI Fields
Element
Description
Cisco
LMI type defined jointly by Cisco Systems and three other
companies.
ITU-T Q.933
ITU-T Q.933 Annex A.
Autosense
The default. This setting allows the router to detect which LMI type
is being used by communicating with the switch and to then use that
type. If autosense fails, the router will use the Cisco LMI type.
DLCI
Enter the DLCI in this field. This number must be unique among all
DLCIs used on this interface.
Use IETF Frame Relay
Encapsulation
Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) encapsulation. This option
is used with connecting to non-Cisco routers. Check this box if you
are connecting to a non-Cisco router on this interface.
Configure Clock Settings
The Clock Settings window is available when you are configuring a T1 or E1 link.
The default Frame Relay clock settings are shown in this page. You should not
change them unless you know you have different requirements.
Field Reference
Table 5-10 describes the fields in this screen.
Table 5-10
Clock Settings Fields
Element
Description
Clock Source
Internal specifies that the clock be generated internally. Line
specifies that the clock source be taken from the network. The clock
synchronizes data transmission. The default is line.
T1 Framing
This field configures the T1 or E1 link for operation with D4 Super
Frame (sf) or Extended Superframe (esf). The default is esf.
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Table 5-10
Clock Settings Fields
Element
Description
Line Code
This field configures the router for operation on binary 8-zeros
substitution (B8ZS) or alternate mark inversion (AMI) T1 lines. The
b8zs setting ensures density on a T1 or E1 line by substituting
intentional bipolar violations in bit positions 4 and 7 for a sequence
of eight zero bits. When the router is configured with the AMI
setting, you must use the data-coding inverted setting to ensure
density on the T1 line. The default is b8zs.
Data Coding
Click inverted if you know that user data is inverted on this link, or
if the Line Code field is set to AMI. Otherwise leave this set to the
default value normal. Data inversion is used with bit-oriented
protocols such as HDLC, PPP, and Link Access Procedure,
Balanced (LAPB) to ensure density on a T1 line with AMI
encoding. These bit-oriented protocols perform “zero insertions”
after every five “one” bits in the data stream. This has the effect of
ensuring at least one zero in every eight bits. If the data stream is
then inverted, it ensures that at least one out of every eight bits is a
one.
Cisco SDM will set data coding to inverted if the line code is AMI
and there are no time slots configured for 56 kbps. If you do not
want to use inverted data coding with the AMI line code, you must
use the CLI to configure all time slots to 56 kbps.
Facilities Data Link (FDL)
This field configures the router behavior on the Facilities Data Link
(FDL) of the Extended Superframe. When configured with att, the
router implements AT&T TR 54016. When configured with ansi, it
implements ANSI T1.403. When you choose both, the router
implements both att and ansi choices.When you choose none, the
router ignores the FDL. The default is none. If T1 or E1 framing
is set to sf, Cisco SDM will set FDL to none and make this field
read-only.
Line Build Out (LBO)
This field is used to configure the line build out (LBO) of the T1
link. The LBO decreases the transmit strength of the signal by –7.5
or –15 decibels. It is not likely to be needed on actual T1 or E1 lines.
The default is none.
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Table 5-10
Clock Settings Fields
Element
Description
Remote Loopback Requests
This field specifies whether the router will go into loopback mode
when a loopback code is received on the line. Choosing full causes
the router to accept full loopbacks, while choosing payload-v54
will cause the router to choose payload loopbacks.
Enable Generation/Detection of
Remote Alarms
Check this box if you want the router T1 link to generate remote
alarms (yellow alarms) and to detect remote alarms being sent from
the peer on the other end of the link.
The remote alarm is transmitted by a router when it detects an alarm
condition: either a red alarm (loss of signal) or a blue alarm
(unframed 1s). The receiving channel service unit/data service unit
(CSU/DSU) then knows that there is an error condition on the line.
This setting should only be used when T1 framing is set to esf.
Configuring a DSL Connection
Complete these steps to configure an ADSL, or G.SHDSL connection:
Step 1
If you want to review the IOS CLI commands that you send to the router when
you complete the configuration, go to the Cisco SDM toolbar, and click Edit >
Preferences > Preview commands before delivering to router.
Step 2
In the Cisco SDM toolbar, click Configure.
Step 3
In the Cisco SDM taskbar, click Interfaces and Connections.
Step 4
The Create Connection tab displays the available DSL connection types, for
example, ADSL (PPPoE or RFC 1483 routing or PPPoA). Choose an available
connection type.
Step 5
Click Create Connection to start the wizard. The wizard Welcome screen
describes the tasks you will complete.
Step 6
Click Next to go to the subsequent screens to configure the connection.
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Step 7
Cisco SDM displays the Summary screen when you have completed the
configuration. Review the configuration. If you need to make changes, click Back
to return to the screen in which you need to make changes, then return to the
Summary screen.
Step 8
If you want to test the connection after sending the configuration to the router,
check Test the connectivity after configuring. After you click Finish, Cisco
SDM tests the connection and displays the test results in another screen.
Step 9
To send the configuration to the router, click Finish.
The DSL Connection Reference describes the screens that Cisco SDM displays.
DSL Connection Reference
•
WAN Wizard Interface Welcome Window
•
Select Interface
•
Encapsulation: PPPoE
•
Encapsulation Autodetect
•
IP Address: ATM or Ethernet with PPPoE/PPPoA
•
IP Address: ATM with RFC 1483 Routing
•
Authentication
•
Advanced Options
•
PVC
•
Summary
IP Address: ATM or Ethernet with PPPoE/PPPoA
Choose the method that the WAN interface will use to obtain an IP address.
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Field Reference
Table 5-11 describes the fields in this screen.
Table 5-11
ATM or Ethernet with PPPoE or PPPoA
Element
Description
Static IP Address
If you choose Static IP Address, enter the IP address and subnet
mask or the network bits in the fields provided.
Dynamic (DHCP Client)
If you choose Dynamic, the router will lease an IP address from a
remote DHCP server. Enter the name of the DHCP server that will
assign addresses.
IP Unnumbered
Choose IP Unnumbered if you want the interface to share an IP
address that has already been assigned to another interface. Then
choose the interface whose IP address you want to use for the
interface you are configuring.
Easy IP (IP Negotiated)
Choose Easy IP (IP Negotiated) if the router will obtain an IP
address through PPP/IPCP address negotiation.
Dynamic DNS
Choose dynamic DNS if you want to update your DNS servers
automatically whenever the WAN interface IP address changes.
Click the Dynamic DNS button to configure dynamic DNS.
IP Address: ATM with RFC 1483 Routing
Choose the method that the WAN interface will use to obtain an IP address.
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Field Reference
Table 5-12 describes the fields in this screen.
Table 5-12
ATM with RFC 1483 Routing
Element
Description
Static IP Address
If you choose Static IP Address, enter the IP address and subnet
mask or the network bits in the fields provided. For more
information, see IP Addresses and Subnet Masks.
Dynamic (DHCP Client)
If you choose Dynamic, the router will lease an IP address from a
remote DHCP server. Enter the name of the DHCP server that will
assign addresses.
IP Unnumbered
Click IP Unnumbered if you want the interface to share an IP
address that has already been assigned to another interface. Then
choose the interface whose IP address you want to use for the
interface you are configuring.
Dynamic DNS
Choose dynamic DNS if you want to update your DNS servers
automatically whenever the WAN interface IP address changes.
Click the Dynamic DNS button to configure dynamic DNS.
Encapsulation Autodetect
In this window, choose the type of encapsulation that the WAN link will use. Ask
your service provider or network administrator which type of encapsulation is
used for this link. The interface type determines the types of encapsulation
available.
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Field Reference
Table 5-13 describes the fields in this screen.
Table 5-13
Encapsulation Fields
Element
Description
Autodetect
Click Autodetect to have Cisco SDM discover the encapsulation
type. If Cisco SDM succeeds, it will automatically supply the
encapsulation type and other configuration parameters it discovers.
Note
Cisco SDM supports autodetect on SB106, SB107, Cisco
836, and Cisco 837 routers. However if you are configuring
a Cisco 837 router and the router is running Cisco IOS
Release 12.3(8)T or 12.3(8.3)T, the autodetect feature is not
supported.
Encapsulations Available for ADSL, G.SHDSL, or ADSL over ISDN
PPPoE
Provides Point-to-Point Protocol over Ethernet encapsulation. This
option is available when you have selected an Ethernet interface or
an ATM interface. An ATM subinterface and a dialer interface will
be created when you configure PPPoE over an ATM interface.
The PPPoE radio button will be disabled if your router is running a
version of Cisco IOS that does not support PPPoE encapsulation.
PPPoA
Point-to-Point protocol over ATM. This option is available when
you have selected an ATM interface. An ATM subinterface and a
dialer interface will be created when you configure PPPoA over an
ATM interface.
The PPPoA radio button will be disabled if your router is running a
version of Cisco IOS that does not support PPPoA encapsulation.
RFC 1483 routing
with AAL5-SNAP
This option is available when you have selected an ATM interface.
An ATM subinterface will be created when you configure an RFC
1483 connection. This subinterface will be visible in the Summary
window.
RFC 1483 routing
with AAL5-MUX
This option is available when you have selected an ATM interface.
An ATM subinterface will be created when you configure an RFC
1483 connection. This subinterface will be visible in the Summary
window.
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Table 5-13
Encapsulation Fields
Element
Description
Encapsulations Available for Serial Interfaces
Frame Relay
Provides Frame Relay encapsulation. This option is available when
you have selected a serial interface. A serial subinterface will be
created when you create a Frame Relay connection. This
subinterface will be visible in the Summary window.
Note
If a Frame Relay serial connection has been added to an
interface, only Frame Relay encapsulation will be enabled
in this window when subsequent serial connections are
configured on the same interface.
Point-to-Point Protocol
Provides PPP encapsulation. This option is available when you have
selected a serial interface.
High Level Data Link Control
Provides HDLC encapsulation. This option is available when you
have selected a serial interface.
PVC
ATM routing uses a two-layer hierarchical scheme, virtual paths and virtual
channels, denoted by the virtual path identifier (VPI) and virtual channel
identifier (VCI), respectively. A particular virtual path may carry a number of
different virtual channels corresponding to individual connections. When
switching is performed based on the VPI, all cells on that particular virtual path
are switched regardless of the VCI. An ATM switch may route according to VCI,
VPI, or both VCI and VPI.
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Field Reference
Table 5-14 describes the fields in this screen.
Table 5-14
PVC Fields
Element
Description
VPI
Enter the VPI value obtained from your service provider or system
administrator. The virtual path identifier (VPI) is used in ATM
switching and routing to identify the path used for a number of
connections. Enter the VPI value given to you by your service
provider.
VCI
Enter the VCI value obtained from your service provider or system
administrator. The virtual circuit identifier (VCI) is used in ATM
switching and routing to identify a particular connection within a
path that it may share with other connections. Enter the VCI value
given to you by your service provider.
Cisco IOS Default Values
The values shown in the following table are Cisco IOS defaults. Cisco SDM will
not overwrite these values if they have been changed during a prior configuration,
but if your router has not been previously configured, these are the values that will
be used
Connection Type Parameter
Value
ADSL
•
Operating mode
•
Auto
G.SHDSL
•
Operating mode
•
Annex A (United States)
•
Line rate
•
Auto
•
Equipment type
•
CPE
•
Operating mode
•
Auto
ADSL over
ISDN
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Configuring an ISDN Connection
Configuring an ISDN Connection
Complete these steps to configure an ISDN connection:
Step 1
If you want to review the IOS CLI commands that you send to the router when
you complete the configuration, go to the Cisco SDM toolbar, and click Edit >
Preferences > Preview commands before delivering to router.
Step 2
In the Cisco SDM toolbar, click Configure.
Step 3
In the Cisco SDM taskbar, click Interfaces and Connections.
Step 4
In the Create Connection tab, click ISDN (PPP).
Step 5
Click Create Connection to start the wizard. The wizard Welcome screen
describes the tasks you will complete.
Step 6
Click Next to go to the subsequent screens to configure the connection.
Step 7
Cisco SDM displays the Summary screen when you have completed the
configuration. Review the configuration. If you need to make changes, click Back
to return to the screen in which you need to make changes, then return to the
Summary screen.
Step 8
If you want to test the connection after sending the configuration to the router,
check Test the connectivity after configuring. After you click Finish, Cisco
SDM tests the connection and displays the test results in another screen.
Step 9
To send the configuration to the router, click Finish.
The ISDN Connection Reference describes the screens that Cisco SDM displays.
ISDN Connection Reference
•
ISDN Wizard Welcome Window
•
Select Interface
•
IP Address: ISDN BRI or Analog Modem
•
Switch Type and SPIDs
•
Authentication
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•
Advanced Options
•
Dial String
•
Summary
ISDN Wizard Welcome Window
PPP is the only type of encoding supported over an ISDN BRI by Cisco SDM.
IP Address: ISDN BRI or Analog Modem
Choose the method that the ISDN BRI or analog modem interface will use to
obtain an IP address.
Field Reference
Table 5-15 describes the fields in this screen.
Table 5-15
IP Address for ISDN BRI or Analog Modem Fields
Element
Description
Static IP Address
If you choose Static IP Address, enter the IP address and subnet
mask or the network bits in the fields provided. For more
information, see IP Addresses and Subnet Masks.
IP Unnumbered
Choose IP Unnumbered if you want the interface to share an IP
address that has already been assigned to another interface. Then,
choose the interface that has the IP address that you want the
interface that you are configuring to use.
Easy IP (IP Negotiated)
Choose IP Negotiated if the interface will obtain an IP address
from your ISP through PPP/IPCP address negotiation whenever a
connection is made.
Dynamic DNS
Choose Dynamic DNS if you want to update your DNS servers
automatically whenever the WAN interface IP address changes.
Click the Dynamic DNS button to configure dynamic DNS.
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Configuring an ISDN Connection
Switch Type and SPIDs
ISDN BRI connections require identification of the ISDN switch type, and in
some cases, identification of the B channels using service profile ID (SPID)
numbers. This information will be provided to you by your service provider.
Field Reference
Table 5-16 describes the fields in this screen.
Table 5-16
Switch Type and SPIDs Fields
Element
Description
ISDN Switch Type
Choose the ISDN switch type. Contact your ISDN service provider
for the switch type for your connection.
Cisco SDM supports these BRI switch types:
–
•
For North America:
– basic-5ess—Lucent (AT&T) basic rate 5ESS switch
– basic-dms100—Northern Telecom DMS-100 basic rate
switch
– basic-ni—National ISDN switches
•
For Australia, Europe, and the UK:
– basic-1tr6—German 1TR6 ISDN switch
– basic-net3—NET3 ISDN BRI for Norway NET3, Australia
NET3, and New Zealand NET3switch types;
ETSI-compliant switch types for Euro-ISDN E-DSS1
signaling system
– vn3—French ISDN BRI switches
•
For Japan:
– ntt—Japanese NTT ISDN switches
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Table 5-16
Element
Switch Type and SPIDs Fields
Description
•
For voice or PBX systems:
– basic-qsig—PINX (PBX) switches with QSIG signaling
per Q.931
I have SPIDS
Check this check box if your service provider requires SPIDs.
Some service providers use SPIDs to define the services that are
subscribed to by an ISDN device that is accessing the ISDN service
provider. The service provider assigns the ISDN device one or more
SPIDs when you first subscribe to the service. If you are using a
service provider that requires SPIDs, your ISDN device cannot
place or receive calls until it sends a valid, assigned SPID to the
service provider when the device accesses the switch to initialize
the connection.
Currently, only the DMS-100 and NI switch types require SPIDs.
The AT&T 5ESS switch type may support a SPID, but we
recommend that you set up the ISDN service without SPIDs. In
addition, SPIDs have significance only at the local access ISDN
interface. Remote routers never receive the SPID.
A SPID is usually a 7-digit telephone number with some optional
numbers. However, service providers may use different numbering
schemes. For the DMS-100 switch type, two SPIDs are assigned,
one for each B channel.
Spid 1
Enter the SPID for the first BRI B channel provided to you by your
ISP.
Spid 2
Enter the SPID for the second BRI B channel provided to you by
your ISP.
Dial String
Enter the phone number of the remote end of the ISDN BRI or analog modem
connection. This is the phone number that the ISDN BRI or analog modem
interface will dial whenever a connection is made. The dial string is provided to
you by your service provider.
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Configuring an Aux Backup Connection
Configuring an Aux Backup Connection
Complete these steps to configure an Aux Backup connection:
Step 1
If you want to review the IOS CLI commands that you send to the router when
you complete the configuration, go to the Cisco SDM toolbar, and click Edit >
Preferences > Preview commands before delivering to router.
Step 2
In the Cisco SDM toolbar, click Configure.
Step 3
In the Cisco SDM taskbar, click Interfaces and Connections.
Step 4
In the Create Connection tab, click Aux Backup.
Step 5
Click Create Connection to start the wizard. The wizard Welcome screen
describes the tasks you will complete.
Step 6
Click Next to go to the subsequent screens to configure the connection.
Step 7
Cisco SDM displays the Summary screen when you have completed the
configuration. Review the configuration. If you need to make changes, click Back
to return to the screen in which you need to make changes, then return to the
Summary screen.
Step 8
If you want to test the connection after sending the configuration to the router,
check Test the connectivity after configuring. After you click Finish, Cisco
SDM tests the connection and displays the test results in another screen.
Step 9
To send the configuration to the router, click Finish.
The Aux Backup Connection Reference describes the screens that Cisco SDM
displays.
Aux Backup Connection Reference
•
Aux Backup Welcome Window
•
Backup Configuration
•
Backup Configuration: Primary Interface and Next Hop IP Addresses
•
Backup Configuration: Hostname or IP Address to Be Tracked
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Configuring an Aux Backup Connection
•
Summary
Aux Backup Welcome Window
The option to configure the AUX port as a dial-up connection only appears for the
Cisco 831 and 837 routers.
The Aux dial-backup radio button is disabled if any of the following conditions
exist:
•
More than one default route exists.
•
One default route exists and it is configured with an interface other than the
primary WAN interface.
The Aux dial-backup option is not shown if any of the following conditions exist:
•
The router is not using a Cisco IOS image that supports the Aux dial-backup
feature.
•
A primary WAN interface is not configured.
•
The asynchronous interface is already configured.
•
The asynchronous interface is not configurable by Cisco SDM because of the
presence of unsupported Cisco IOS commands in the existing configuration.
Backup Configuration
ISDN BRI and analog modem interfaces can be configured to work as backup
interfaces to other, primary interfaces. In that case, an ISDN or analog modem
connection will be made only if the primary interface goes down for some reason.
If the primary interface and connection go down, the ISDN or analog modem
interface will immediately dial out and try to establish a connection so that
network services are not lost.
Choose whether this ISDN BRI or analog modem connection should act as a
backup connection.
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Field Reference
Table 5-17 describes the fields in this screen.
Table 5-17
Backup Configuration Fields
Element
Description
Configure this connection as
backup
Check this option to designate this interface as backup.
Do not configure this connection Check this option if you do not want to designate this interface as
as backup.
backup.
Prerequisites
Note the following prerequisites:
•
The primary interface must be configured for site-to-site VPN.
•
The Cisco IOS image on your router must support the SAA ICMP Echo
Enhancement feature.
Backup Configuration: Primary Interface and Next Hop IP Addresses
In order for the ISDN BRI or analog modem connection to act as a backup
connection, it must be associated with another interface on the router that will act
as the primary connection. The ISDN BRI or analog modem connection will be
made only if the connection on the primary interface goes down.
Field Reference
Table 5-18 describes the fields in this screen.
Table 5-18
Hostname or IP Address to Be Tracked Fields
Element
Description
Primary Interface
Enter the IP address or hostname of the destination host to which
connectivity will be tracked. Please specify an infrequently
contacted destination as the site to be tracked.
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Configuring an Analog Modem Connection
Table 5-18
Hostname or IP Address to Be Tracked Fields
Element
Description
Primary Next Hop IP Address
Choose the router interface that will maintain the primary
connection.
Backup Next Hop IP Address
This field is optional. Enter the IP address to which the backup
interface will connect when it is active, known as the next hop IP
address.
Backup Configuration: Hostname or IP Address to Be Tracked
This screen lets you identify a specific host to which connectivity must be
maintained. The router will track connectivity to that host, and if the router
discovers that connectivity has been lost by the primary interface, a backup
connection will be initiated over the ISDN BRI or analog modem interface.
Field Reference
Table 5-19 describes the fields in this screen.
Table 5-19
Hostname or IP Address to Be Tracked Fields
Element
Description
IP Address to Be Tracked
Enter the IP address or hostname of the destination host to which
connectivity will be tracked. Please specify an infrequently
contacted destination as the site to be tracked.
Configuring an Analog Modem Connection
Complete these steps to configure an Analog Modem connection:
Step 1
If you want to review the IOS CLI commands that you send to the router when
you complete the configuration, go to the Cisco SDM toolbar, and click Edit >
Preferences > Preview commands before delivering to router.
Step 2
In the Cisco SDM toolbar, click Configure.
Step 3
In the Cisco SDM taskbar, click Interfaces and Connections.
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Step 4
In the Create Connection tab, click Analog Modem.
Step 5
Click Create Connection to start the wizard. The wizard Welcome screen
describes the tasks you will complete.
Step 6
Click Next to go to the subsequent screens to configure the connection.
Step 7
Cisco SDM displays the Summary screen when you have completed the
configuration. Review the configuration. If you need to make changes, click Back
to return to the screen in which you need to make changes, then return to the
Summary screen.
Step 8
If you want to test the connection after sending the configuration to the router,
check Test the connectivity after configuring. After you click Finish, Cisco
SDM tests the connection and displays the test results in another screen.
Step 9
To send the configuration to the router, click Finish.
The Analog Modem Connection Reference describes the screens that Cisco SDM
displays.
Analog Modem Connection Reference
•
Analog Modem Welcome
•
IP Address: ISDN BRI or Analog Modem
•
Authentication
•
Dial String
•
Summary
Analog Modem Welcome
This screen describes the tasks you will perform to configure an analog modem
connection. PPP is the only type of encoding supported over an analog modem
connection by Cisco SDM.
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Configuring a Cable Modem Connection
Configuring a Cable Modem Connection
Complete these steps to configure a Cable Modem connection:
Step 1
If you want to review the IOS CLI commands that you send to the router when
you complete the configuration, go to the Cisco SDM toolbar, and click Edit >
Preferences > Preview commands before delivering to router.
Step 2
In the Cisco SDM toolbar, click Configure.
Step 3
In the Cisco SDM taskbar, click Interfaces and Connections.
Step 4
In the Create Connection tab, click Cable Modem.
Step 5
Click Create Connection to start the wizard. The wizard Welcome screen
describes the tasks you will complete.
Step 6
Click Next to go to the subsequent screens to configure the connection.
Step 7
Cisco SDM displays the Summary screen when you have completed the
configuration. Review the configuration. If you need to make changes, click Back
to return to the screen in which you need to make changes, then return to the
Summary screen.
Step 8
If you want to test the connection after sending the configuration to the router,
check Test the connectivity after configuring. After you click Finish, Cisco
SDM tests the connection and displays the test results in another screen.
Step 9
To send the configuration to the router, click Finish.
The Cable Modem Connection Reference describes the screens that Cisco SDM
displays.
Cable Modem Connection Reference
•
Cable Modem Connection Wizard Welcome
•
Select Interface
•
Advanced Options
•
Summary
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Cable Modem Connection Wizard Welcome
The Welcome screen indicates that you are using the cable modem connection
wizard, and describes the tasks you perform when you configure a Cable Modem
connection.
Click Next to begin configuring the connection.
Select Interface
Select the cable modem interface to configure in this screen. The interface that
you select will be configured as a DHCP client.
Field Reference
Table 5-20 describes the fields in this screen.
Table 5-20
Select Interface
Element
Description
Select an interface for the WAN
connection
Choose the cable modem interface that you want to configure.
Enable Dynamic DNS
Check Enable Dynamic DNS if you want to update your DNS
servers automatically whenever the WAN interface IP address
changes.
Dynamic DNS
Click the Dynamic DNS button to configure a dynamic DNS
method. See Add or Edit Dynamic DNS Method for more
information.
Summary
The Summary screen shows the configuration you are sending to the router. Cisco
SDM configures a cable modem connection as a DHCP client. The following lines
show cable modem connection with no NAT or static route configuration
Selected Interface: Cable Modem 0/1/0
IP Address: Dynamic (DHCP Client)
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Field Reference
Table 5-21 describes the buttons in this screen.
Table 5-21
Summary Buttons
Element
Description
Test the connectivity after
configuring
Check this box if you want Cisco SDM to test the connection you
have configured after it delivers the commands to the router. Cisco
SDM will test the connection and report results in another window.
To save this configuration to the router’s running configuration and leave this wizard:
Click Finish. Cisco SDM saves the configuration changes to the router’s running
configuration. The changes will take effect immediately, but will be lost if the
router is turned off.
If you checked Preview commands before delivering to router in the Cisco
SDM Preferences window, the Deliver window appears. In this window, you can
view the CLI commands that you are delivering to the router.
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6
Edit Interface/Connection
This window displays the router’s interfaces and connections. The window also
enables you to add, edit, and delete connections, and to enable or disable
connections.
Add
When you choose an unconfigured physical interface and click Add, the menu
contains choices for adding a connection on that interface. Click Add to create a
new loopback or tunnel interface. If the Cisco IOS image on the router supports
Virtual Template Interfaces (VTI), the context menu contains an option to add a
VTI. If there are switch ports present on the router, you can add a new VLAN.
If you want to reconfigure an interface, and see no choices except Loopback and
Tunnel when you click Add, choose the interface and click Delete. All the types
of connections available for that kind of interface will appear in the Add menu.
Click Available Interface Configurations to see what configurations are
available for an interface.
Edit
When you choose an interface and click Edit, a dialog appears. If the interface is
a supported and configured interface and is not a switch port, the dialog will have
the following tabs:
•
Connection
•
Association tab
•
NAT tab
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Application Service
•
General tab
Edit Interface/Connection
If the interface is not supported, the dialog will not have a Connection tab. If you
choose a switch port, the Edit Switch Port dialog appears. The Edit button will be
disabled if the interface is supported and unconfigured.
Delete
Choosing a connection and clicking Delete displays a dialog box informing you
of the associations this connection has and asking you if you want to remove the
associations along with the connection. You can delete just the connection, or the
connection and all of its associations.
Summary
Clicking the Summary button hides the details about the connection, restricting
the information to the IP address, Type, Slot, Status, and Description.
Details
Clicking Details displays the Details About Interface area, described next. Details
about the interface are shown by default.
Enable or Disable
When the chosen interface or connection is down, this appears as the Enable
button. Click the Enable button to bring up the chosen interface or connection.
When the chosen interface or connection is up, this appears as the Disable button.
Click the Disable button to administratively shut down the interface or
connection. This button cannot be used with an interface whose configuration was
not delivered to the router.
Test Connection
Click to test the chosen connection. A dialog appears that enables you to specify
a remote host to ping through this connection. The dialog then reports on the
success or failure of the test. If the test fails, information about why the test may
have failed is given, along with the steps you need to take to correct the problem.
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Interface List
The interface list displays the physical interfaces and the logical connections to
which they are configured.
Interfaces
This column lists the physical and logical interfaces by name. If a logical interface
is configured for a physical interface, the logical interface is shown under the
physical interface.
If Cisco SDM is running on a Cisco 7000 family router, you will be able to create
a connection only on Ethernet and Fast Ethernet interfaces.
IP Address
This column can contain the following types of IP addresses:
•
The configured IP address of the interface.
•
DHCP Client—The interface receives an IP address from a Dynamic Host
Configuration Protocol (DHCP) server.
•
IP address negotiated—The interface receives an IP address through
negotiation with the remote device.
•
IP unnumbered—The router will use one of a pool of IP addresses supplied
by your service provider for your router, and for the devices on the LAN.
•
Not Applicable—The interface type cannot be assigned an IP address.
Type
The Type column displays the interface type, such as Ethernet, serial, or ATM.
Slot
The number of the physical slot in the router that the interface is installed in. If
Cisco SDM is running on a Cisco 1710 router, the slot field is empty.
Status
This column shows whether this interface is up or down. The green icon with the
upward-pointing arrowhead indicates the interface is up. The red icon with the
downward-pointing arrowhead indicates that the interface is down.
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Description
This column contains any descriptions provided for this connection.
Details About Interface
This area of the window displays association and, if applicable, connection details
about the interface chosen in the interface list. Association details include such
information as Network Address Translation (NAT), access, and inspection rules,
IPsec policies, and Easy VPN configurations. Connection details include IP
address, encapsulation type, and DHCP options.
Item Name
The name of the configuration item, such as IP address/Subnet mask, or IPsec
policy. The actual items listed in this column depend on the type of interface
chosen.
Item Value
If the named item has a configured value, it is displayed in this column.
Why Are Some Interfaces or Connections Read-Only?
There are many conditions that can prevent Cisco SDM from modifying a
previously configured interface or subinterface.
•
For reasons why a previously configured serial interface or subinterface may
appear as read-only in the interface list, see the help topic Reasons Why a
Serial Interface or Subinterface Configuration May Be Read-Only.
•
For reasons why a previously configured ATM interface or subinterface may
appear as read-only in the interface list, see the help topic Reasons Why an
ATM Interface or Subinterface Configuration May Be Read-Only.
•
For reasons why a previously configured Ethernet LAN or WAN interface
may appear as read-only in the interface list, see the help topic Reasons Why
an Ethernet Interface Configuration May Be Read-Only.
•
For reasons why a previously configured ISDN BRI interface may appear as
read-only in the interface list, see the help topic Reasons Why an ISDN BRI
Interface Configuration May Be Read-Only.
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Connection: Ethernet for IRB
Connection: Ethernet for IRB
This dialog box contains the following fields if you chose Ethernet for IRB in
the Configure list.
Current Bridge Group/Associated BVI
These read-only fields contain the current bridge group value and the current
Bridge-Group Virtual Interface (BVI) name.
Create a new Bridge Group/Join an existing Bridge Group
Choose whether you want to make this interface a member of a new bridge group,
or if you want to join an existing bridge group. If you want to create a new bridge
group, enter a number in the range 1 to 255. If you want to have the interface join
an existing bridge group, choose the BVI interface that is already a member of that
group.
IP Address
Enter the IP address and subnet mask in the fields provided.
Dynamic DNS
Enable dynamic DNS if you want to update your DNS servers automatically
whenever the WAN interface IP address changes.
Note
This feature appears only if supported by the Cisco IOS release on your router.
To choose a dynamic DNS method to use, do one of the following:
•
Enter the name of an existing dynamic DNS method.
Enter the name in the Dynamic DNS Method field exactly as it appears in the
list in Configure > Additional Tasks > Dynamic DNS Methods.
•
Choose an existing dynamic DNS method from a list.
Click the drop-down menu and choose an existing method. A window with a
list of existing dynamic DNS methods opens. This menu choice is available
only if there are existing dynamic DNS methods.
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Connection: Ethernet for Routing
•
Create a new dynamic DNS method.
Click the drop-down menu and choose to create a new dynamic DNS method.
To clear an associated dynamic DNS method from the interface, choose None
from the drop-down menu.
Connection: Ethernet for Routing
This dialog box contains the following fields if you chose Ethernet for Routing
in the Configure list.
IP Address
Enter an IP address and subnet mask in the IP Address fields. This address will be
the source IP address for traffic originating from this interface, and the destination
IP address for traffic destined for hosts connected to this interface.
DHCP Relay
Click to enable the router to act as a DHCP relay. A device acting as a DHCP relay
forwards DHCP requests to a DHCP server. When a device needs to have an IP
address dynamically assigned, it broadcasts a DHCP request. A DHCP server
replies to this request with an IP address. You can have a maximum of one DHCP
relay or one DHCP server per subnetwork.
Note
If the router was configured to be a DHCP relay and to have more than one remote
DHCP server IP address, these fields are disabled.
IP Address of Remote DHCP Server
Enter the IP address of the DHCP server that will provide addresses to devices on
the LAN.
Dynamic DNS
Enable dynamic DNS if you want to update your DNS servers automatically
whenever the WAN interface IP address changes.
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Connection: Ethernet for Routing
Note
This feature appears only if supported by the Cisco IOS release on your router.
To choose a dynamic DNS method to use, do one of the following:
•
Enter the name of an existing dynamic DNS method.
Enter the name in the Dynamic DNS Method field exactly as it appears in the
list in Configure > Additional Tasks > Dynamic DNS Methods.
•
Choose an existing dynamic DNS method from a list.
Click the drop-down menu and choose an existing method. A window with a
list of existing dynamic DNS methods opens. This menu choice is available
only if there are existing dynamic DNS methods.
•
Create a new dynamic DNS method.
Click the drop-down menu and choose to create a new dynamic DNS method.
To clear an associated dynamic DNS method from the interface, choose None
from the drop-down menu.
Existing Dynamic DNS Methods
This window allows you to choose a dynamic DNS method to associate with a
WAN interface.
The list of existing dynamic DNS methods shows each method’s name and
associated parameters. Choose a method from the list, and then click OK to
associate it to the WAN interface.
To add, edit, or delete dynamic DNS methods, go to Configure > Additional
Tasks > Dynamic DNS Methods.
Add Dynamic DNS Method
This window allows you to add a dynamic DNS method. Choose the type of
method, HTTP or IETF, and configure it.
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Connection: Ethernet for Routing
HTTP
HTTP is a dynamic DNS method that updates a DNS service provider with
changes to the associated interface’s IP address.
Server
If using HTTP, choose the domain address of the DNS service provider from the
drop-down menu.
Username
If using HTTP, enter a username for accessing the DNS service provider.
Password
If using HTTP, enter a password for accessing the DNS service provider.
IETF
IETF is a dynamic DNS method that updates a DNS server with changes to the
associated interface’s IP address.
DNS Server
If using IETF, and no DNS server is configured for the router in Configure >
Additional Tasks > DNS, then enter the IP address of your DNS server.
Hostname
Enter a hostname if one is not configured in Configure > Additional Tasks >
Router Properties > Edit > Host, or if you want to override the configured
hostname. When updating the interface IP address, the dynamic DNS method
sends the hostname along with the interface’s new IP address.
Domain Name
Enter a domain name if one is not configured in Configure > Additional Tasks
> Router Properties > Edit > Domain, or if you want to override the configured
domain name. When updating the interface IP address, the dynamic DNS method
sends the domain name along with the interface’s new IP address.
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Edit Interface/Connection
Wireless
Wireless
If the router has a wireless interface, you can launch the wireless application from
this tab. You can also launch the wireless application from the Tools menu by
choosing Tools > Wireless Application.
Association
Use this window to view, create, edit, or delete associations between interfaces
and rules or VPN connections.
Interface
The name of the interface you selected in the Interfaces and Connections window.
Zone
If this interface is a member of a security zone, the name of the zone is displayed
in this field. If you want to include this interface in a security zone, click the
button to the right of the field, choose Select a Zone, and specify the zone in the
displayed dialog. If you need to create a new zone, choose Create a Zone, enter
a name for the zone in the displayed dialog, and click OK. The name of the zone
you created appears in the zone field.
Access Rule
The names or numbers of any access rules associated with this interface. Access
rules permit or deny traffic that matches the IP address and service criteria
specified in the rule.
Inbound
The name or number of an access rule applied to inbound traffic on this interface.
If you want to apply a rule, click the ... button and either choose an existing rule
or create a rule and choose it.
When a rule is applied to inbound traffic on an interface, the rule filters traffic
before it enters the router. Any packet that the rule does not permit is dropped and
will not be routed to another interface. When you apply a rule to the inbound
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Association
direction on an interface, you are not only preventing it from entering a trusted
network connected to the router, you are also preventing it from being routed
anywhere else by the local router.
Outbound
The name or number of an access rule applied to outbound traffic on this interface.
If you want to apply a rule, click the ... button and either choose an existing rule
or create a rule and choose it.
When a rule is applied to outbound traffic on an interface, the rule filters traffic
after it enters the router and before it exits the interface. Any packet that the rule
does not permit is dropped before it leaves the interface.
Inspect Rule
The names of inspection rules associated with this interface. Inspection rules
create temporary holes in firewalls so that hosts inside the firewall that started
sessions of a certain type can receive return traffic of the same type.
Inbound
The name or number of an inspection rule applied to inbound traffic on this
interface. If you want to apply an inbound rule, click the Inbound drop-down
menu and choose a rule.
Outbound
The name or number of an inspection rule applied to outbound traffic on this
interface. If you want to apply an outbound rule, click the Outbound drop-down
menu and choose a rule.
VPN
VPNs protect traffic that may flow over lines that your organization does not
control. You can use the chosen interface in a VPN by associating it with an IPsec
policy.
IPsec Policy
The configured IPsec policy associated with this interface. To associate the
interface with an IPsec policy, choose the policy from this list.
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NAT
Note
An interface can be associated with only one IPsec policy.
Note
To create a GRE-over-IPsec Tunnel, you must first associate the policy with the
tunnel interface, and then associate it with the source interface for the tunnel. For
example, if you wanted to associate a policy with Tunnel3, whose source interface
is Serial0/0, you would first choose Tunnel3 in the Interfaces and Connections
window, click Edit and associate the policy with it, and then click OK. Then you
would choose the Serial0/0 interface and associate the same policy with it.
EzVPN
If the interface is used in an Easy VPN connection, the name of the connection is
shown here.
Note
An interface cannot be used in both a virtual private network (VPN) connection
and an Easy VPN connection.
Making Association Changes
When you change the association properties of an interface, the changes are
reflected in the lower portion of the Edit Interface/Connection window. For
example, if you associate an IPsec policy with the interface, the name of the IPsec
policy appears in the lower portion of the window. If you delete an association,
the value in the Item Value column changes to <None>.
NAT
If you intend to use this interface in a NAT configuration, you must designate it
as either an inside or an outside interface. Choose the traffic direction to which
NAT is to be applied. If the interface connects to a LAN that the router serves,
choose Inside. If it connects to the Internet or to your organization’s WAN,
choose Outside. If you have chosen an interface that cannot be used in a NAT
configuration, such as a logical interface, this field is disabled and contains the
value Not Supported.
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Edit Switch Port
Edit Switch Port
This window lets you edit VLAN information for Ethernet switch ports.
Mode Group
Choose the type of VLAN information you want to be carried across this Ethernet
switch port. Choosing Access causes the switch port to forward only data destined
for the specific VLAN number. Choosing Trunking causes the switch port to
forward data for all VLANs, including the VLAN data itself. Choose Trunking
only for “trunking” VLAN ports that connect to other networking devices, such
as another switch, that will connect to devices in multiple VLANs.
VLAN
To assign the switch port to a VLAN, enter the VLAN number to which this
switch port should belong. If the switch port does not already have a VLAN
associated with it, this field will show the default value VLAN 1. To create a new
VLAN interface corresponding to a VLAN ID, enter that VLAN ID here and
check the Make VLAN visible to interface list check box.
Make VLAN visible to interface list Check Box
Check if you want to create a new VLAN with the VLAN ID specified in the
VLAN field.
Stacking Partner
Choose a switch module as the stacking partner to use. When a device contains
multiple switching modules, these must be stacked before other stacking partners.
Bridge Group Number
If you want this switch port to form part of a bridge to a wireless network, enter
the number of an existing bridge group.
Speed
Choose the speed to match the network to which the switch port will be connected.
Or choose auto to allow for the speed to be automatically set to the optimal value.
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Application Service
Duplex
Choose full or half, or auto to allow for the duplex to be automatically set to
match the network to which the switch port will be connected.
If Speed is set to auto, then Duplex is disabled.
Power Inline
The Power inline drop-down list appears if the switch port supports an inline
power supply. Choose one of the following values:
•
auto—Automatically detect and power inline devices.
•
never —Never apply inline power.
Application Service
This window allows you to associate QoS policies and application and protocol
monitoring with the chosen interface.
QoS
To associate a QoS policy with the interface in the inbound direction, choose a
QoS policy from the Inbound drop-down menu.
To associate a QoS policy with the interface in the outbound direction, choose a
QoS policy from the Outbound drop-down menu.
QoS statistics for the interface can be monitored by going to Monitor > Traffic
Status > QoS.
Netflow
To associate Netflow statistics monitoring with the interface in the inbound
direction, check the Inbound check box.
To associate Netflow statistics monitoring with the interface in the outbound
direction, check the Outbound check box.
Netflow statistics for the interface can be monitored by going to Monitor >
Interface Status. Netflow top talkers and top protocols can be monitored by
going to Monitor > Traffic Status > Top N Traffic Flows.
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General
NBAR
To associate Network-based application recognition (NBAR) with the interface,
check the NBAR Protocol check box.
NBAR statistics for the interface can be monitored by going to Monitor > Traffic
Status > Application/Protocol Traffic.
General
This window displays general security settings and allows you to enable or disable
them by checking or unchecking the check box next to the name and description.
If you have allowed the Security Audit feature to disable certain properties and
want to reenable them, you can reenable them in this window. The properties
listed in this window follow.
Description
In this field you can enter a short description of the interface configuration. This
description is visible in the Edit Interfaces and Connections window. A
description, such as “Accounting” or “Test Net 5,” can help other Cisco SDM
users understand the purpose of the configuration.
IP Directed Broadcasts
An IP directed broadcast is a datagram that is sent to the broadcast address of a
subnet to which the sending machine is not directly attached. The directed
broadcast is routed through the network as a unicast packet until it arrives at the
target subnet, where it is converted into a link-layer broadcast. Because of the
nature of the IP addressing architecture, only the last router in the chain, the one
that is connected directly to the target subnet, can conclusively identify a directed
broadcast. Directed broadcasts are occasionally used for legitimate purposes, but
such use is not common outside the financial services industry.
IP directed broadcasts are used in the extremely common and popular “smurf”
denial of service attack, and they can also be used in related attacks. In a “smurf”
attack, the attacker sends ICMP echo requests from a falsified source address to a
directed broadcast address, causing all the hosts on the target subnet to send
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General
replies to the falsified source. By sending a continuous stream of such requests,
the attacker can create a much larger reply stream, which can completely inundate
the host whose address is being falsified.
Disabling IP directed broadcasts drops directed broadcasts that would otherwise
be “exploded” into link-layer broadcasts at that interface.
IP Proxy ARP
ARP is used by the network to convert IP addresses into MAC addresses.
Normally ARP is confined to a single LAN, and a router can act as a proxy for
ARP requests, making ARP queries available across multiple LAN segments.
Because it breaks the LAN security barrier, proxy ARP should be used only
between two LANs with an equal security level, and only when necessary.
IP Route Cache-Flow
This option enables the Cisco IOS Netflow feature. Using Netflow, you can
determine packet distribution, protocol distribution, and current flows of data on
the router. This information is useful for certain tasks, such as searching for the
source of a spoofed IP address attack.
Note
The IP Route Cache-Flow option enables Netflow on both inbound and outbound
traffic. To enable Netflow on either inbound traffic or outbound traffic, use the
Netflow options available on the Application Service tab.
IP Redirects
ICMP redirect messages instruct an end node to use a specific router as a part of
its path to a particular destination. In a properly functioning IP network, a router
sends redirects only to hosts on its own local subnets, no end node will ever send
a redirect, and no redirect will ever traverse more than one network hop. However,
an attacker may violate these rules. Disabling ICMP redirects has no negative
impact on the network and can eliminate redirect attacks.
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Select Ethernet Configuration Type
IP Mask-Reply
ICMP mask reply messages are sent when a network device must know the subnet
mask for a particular subnetwork in the internetwork. ICMP mask reply messages
are sent to the device requesting the information by devices that have the
requested information. These messages can be used by an attacker to gain network
mapping information.
IP Unreachables
ICMP host unreachable messages are sent if a router receives a nonbroadcast
packet that uses an unknown protocol, or if the router receives a packet that it is
unable to deliver to the ultimate destination because it knows of no route to the
destination address. These messages can be used by an attacker to gain network
mapping information.
Select Ethernet Configuration Type
This window is displayed when you click an interface in the Interfaces and
Connections window and Cisco SDM cannot determine whether the interface is
configured as a LAN interface or as a WAN interface. When you configure an
interface using Cisco SDM, you designate it as an inside or outside interface, and
Cisco SDM adds a descriptive comment to the configuration file based on your
designation. If you configure an interface using the command-line interface
(CLI), the configuration will not include this descriptive comment, and Cisco
SDM will not have this information.
To Indicate that the Interface is a LAN Interface:
Click LAN, and then click OK. Cisco SDM adds the comment line $ETH-LAN$
to the interface configuration, and the interface appears in the LAN wizard
window with the designation Inside in the Interfaces and Connections window.
To Indicate that the Interface is a WAN Interface:
Click WAN, and then click OK. Cisco SDM adds the comment line $ETH-WAN$
to the interface configuration, and the interface appears in the WAN wizard
window with the designation Outside in the Interfaces and Connections window.
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Connection: VLAN
Connection: VLAN
This window lets you configure a VLAN interface.
VLAN ID
Enter the ID number of the new VLAN interface. If you are editing a VLAN
interface, you cannot change the VLAN ID.
Native VLAN Check Box
Check if this VLAN is a nontrunking VLAN.
IP Address Fields
IP Address Type
Choose whether this VLAN interface will have a static IP address or no IP
address. This field is visible when VLAN only is chosen in the Configure As field.
IP Address
Enter the IP address of the VLAN interface.
Subnet Mask
Enter the subnet mask of the VLAN interface, or indicate the number of subnet
bits using the scrolling field.
DHCP Relay
Click DHCP Relay for more information.
Subinterfaces List
This window displays the subinterfaces configured for the interface that you
chose, and enables you to add, edit, and remove configured subinterfaces. For
each configured subinterface, the window displays the Subinterface ID, VLAN
ID, IP address and mask, and a description, if one was entered. For example, if the
router had the interface FastEthernet1, and the subinterfaces FastEthernet1.3 and
FastEthernet1.5 are configured, this window might contain the following display
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Add or Edit BVI Interface
5
3
56
67
56.8.1.1/255.255.255.0
Bridge No. 77
In this example, FastEthernet1.5 is configured for routing, and FastEthernet1.3 is
configured for IRB.
Note
You must choose the physical interface on which the subinterfaces are configured
to display this window. For the example described, you would have to choose
FastEthernet 1 to display this window. If you chose FastEthernet1.3 or
FastEthernet1.5 and clicked edit, you would display the edit dialog with the
information for that interface.
Add, Edit, and Delete Buttons
Use these buttons to configure, edit, and remove subinterfaces from the chosen
physical interface.
Add or Edit BVI Interface
Add or edit a Bridge Group Virtual Interface (BVI) in this window. If your router
has a Dot11Radio interface, a BVI is automatically created when you configure a
new bridge group. This is done to support IRB bridging. You can change the IP
address and subnet mask in this window.
IP Address/Subnet Mask
Enter the IP address and subnet mask that you want to give the BVI.
Add or Edit Loopback Interface
This window enables you to add a loopback interface to the chosen interface.
IP Address
Choose whether the loopback interface is to have no IP address or a static IP
address.
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Connection: Virtual Template Interface
Static IP Address
If you chose Static IP address, enter that IP address in this field.
Subnet Mask
Enter the subnet mask in this field, or choose the number of subnet bits from the
field on the right. The subnet mask tells the router which bits of the IP address
designate the network address and which bits designate the host address.
Connection: Virtual Template Interface
You can add or edit a VTI as part of an 802.1x or VPN configuration. When you
are editing a VTI, the fields that you can edit appear in a Connection tab.
Interface Type
Choose either default or tunnel. If you choose tunnel, you must also select a
tunnel mode.
IP Address
Choose Unnumbered. The VTI uses the IP address of the physical interface that
is chosen in the Unnumbered to field.
Unnumbered to
This field appears when you choose Unnumbered in the IP Address field. Choose
the interface whose IP address you want this VTI to use.
Tunnel Mode
Choose IPSec-IPv4.
Connection: Ethernet LAN
Use this window to configure the IP address and DHCP properties of an Ethernet
interface that you want to use as a LAN interface.
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Connection: Ethernet WAN
IP Address
Enter the IP address for this interface. Obtain the IP address value from your
service provider or network administrator. For more information, see IP
Addresses and Subnet Masks.
Subnet Mask
Enter the subnet mask. Obtain this value from your network administrator. The
subnet mask enables the router to determine how much of the IP address is used
to define the network and subnet portion of the address.
DHCP Relay
Click to enable the router to act as a DHCP relay. A device acting as a DHCP relay
forwards DHCP requests to a DHCP server. When a device needs to have an IP
address dynamically assigned, it broadcasts a DHCP request. A DHCP server
replies to this request with an IP address. You can have a maximum of 1 DHCP
relay or 1 DHCP server per subnetwork.
Note
If the router was configured to be a DHCP relay with more than one remote DHCP
server IP address, this button will be disabled.
IP Address of Remote DHCP Server
If you clicked DHCP Relay, enter the IP address of the DHCP server that will
provide addresses to devices on the LAN.
Connection: Ethernet WAN
This window lets you add an Ethernet WAN connection.
Enable PPPoE Encapsulation
Click this option if the connection must use Point-to-Point Protocol over Ethernet
(PPPoE) encapsulation. Your service provider can tell you whether the connection
uses PPPoE. When you configure a PPPoE connection, a dialer interface is
automatically created.
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Connection: Ethernet WAN
IP Address
Choose one of the following IP address types, and enter the information in the
fields displayed. If the Ethernet connection is not using PPPoE, you will see only
the Static IP address and Dynamic options.
Static IP Address
If you choose Static IP Address, enter the IP address and subnet mask or the
network bits in the fields provided. For more information, see IP Addresses and
Subnet Masks.
Dynamic (DHCP Client)
If you choose Dynamic, the router will lease an IP address from a remote DHCP
server. Enter the name of the DHCP server from which addresses will be leased.
IP Unnumbered
Choose IP Unnumbered if you want the interface to share an IP address that is
already assigned to another interface. Then choose the interface whose IP address
this interface is to share.
Easy IP (IP Negotiated)
Choose Easy IP (IP Negotiated) if the router will obtain an IP address through
Point-to-Point Protocol/IP Control Protocol (PPP/IPCP) address negotiation.
Authentication
Click to enter CHAP/PAP authentication password information.
Dynamic DNS
Enable dynamic DNS if you want to update your DNS servers automatically
whenever the WAN interface IP address changes.
Note
This feature appears only if supported by the Cisco IOS release on your router.
To choose a dynamic DNS method to use, do one of the following:
•
Enter the name of an existing dynamic DNS method.
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Connection: Ethernet Properties
Enter the name in the Dynamic DNS Method field exactly as it appears in the
list in Configure > Additional Tasks > Dynamic DNS Methods.
•
Choose an existing dynamic DNS method from a list.
Click the drop-down menu and choose an existing method. A window with a
list of existing dynamic DNS methods opens. This menu choice is available
only if there are existing dynamic DNS methods.
•
Create a new dynamic DNS method.
Click the drop-down menu and choose to create a new dynamic DNS method.
To clear an associated dynamic DNS method from the interface, choose None
from the drop-down menu.
Connection: Ethernet Properties
This window enables you to configure properties for an Ethernet WAN link.
Enable PPPoE Encapsulation
Click Enable PPPoE encapsulation if your service provider requires that you use
it. PPPoE specifies Point-to-Point Protocol over Ethernet encapsulation.
IP Address
Static IP Address
Available with PPPoE encapsulation and with no encapsulation. If you choose
Static IP Address, enter the IP address and subnet mask or the network bits in the
fields provided. For more information, see IP Addresses and Subnet Masks.
Dynamic (DHCP Client)
Available with PPPoE encapsulation and with no encapsulation. If you choose
Dynamic, the router will lease an IP address from a remote DHCP server. Enter
the name of the DHCP server that will assign addresses.
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Connection: Ethernet Properties
IP Unnumbered
Available with PPPoE encapsulation. Choose IP Unnumbered if you want the
interface to share an IP address that has already been assigned to another
interface. Then choose the interface whose IP address this interface is to share.
Easy IP (IP Negotiated)
Available with PPPoE encapsulation. Choose Easy IP (IP Negotiated) if the
router will obtain an IP address using PPP/IPCP address negotiation.
Authentication
Click to enter CHAP/PAP authentication password information.
Dynamic DNS
Enable dynamic DNS if you want to update your DNS servers automatically
whenever the WAN interface IP address changes.
Note
This feature appears only if supported by the Cisco IOS release on your router.
To choose a dynamic DNS method to use, do one of the following:
•
Enter the name of an existing dynamic DNS method.
Enter the name in the Dynamic DNS Method field exactly as it appears in the
list in Configure > Additional Tasks > Dynamic DNS Methods.
•
Choose an existing dynamic DNS method from a list.
Click the drop-down menu and choose an existing method. A window with a
list of existing dynamic DNS methods opens. This menu choice is available
only if there are existing dynamic DNS methods.
•
Create a new dynamic DNS method.
Click the drop-down menu and choose to create a new dynamic DNS method.
To clear an associated dynamic DNS method from the interface, choose None
from the drop-down menu.
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Connection: Ethernet with No Encapsulation
Connection: Ethernet with No Encapsulation
Use this window to configure an Ethernet connection with no encapsulation.
IP Address
Choose how the router will obtain an IP address for this link.
•
Static IP address—If you choose Static IP Address, enter the IP address and
subnet mask or network bits in the fields provided. For more information, see
IP Addresses and Subnet Masks.
•
Dynamic IP address—If you choose Dynamic, the router will lease an IP
address from a remote DHCP server. Then enter the name or IP address of the
DHCP server.
Hostname
If your service provider inserts a hostname for the router into the DHCP response
that contains the dynamic IP address, you can enter that name in this field for
informational purposes.
Dynamic DNS
Enable dynamic DNS if you want to update your DNS servers automatically
whenever the WAN interface IP address changes.
Note
This feature appears only if supported by the Cisco IOS release on your router.
To choose a dynamic DNS method to use, do one of the following:
•
Enter the name of an existing dynamic DNS method.
Enter the name in the Dynamic DNS Method field exactly as it appears in the
list in Configure > Additional Tasks > Dynamic DNS Methods.
•
Choose an existing dynamic DNS method from a list.
Click the drop-down menu and choose an existing method. A window with a
list of existing dynamic DNS methods opens. This menu choice is available
only if there are existing dynamic DNS methods.
•
Create a new dynamic DNS method.
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Connection: ADSL
Click the drop-down menu and choose to create a new dynamic DNS method.
To clear an associated dynamic DNS method from the interface, choose None
from the drop-down menu.
Connection: ADSL
This window enables you to specify or edit properties of a PPPoE link supported
by an ADSL connection.
Encapsulation
Choose the type of encapsulation that will be used for this link.
•
PPPoE specifies Point-to-Point Protocol over Ethernet encapsulation.
•
PPPoA specifies Point-to-Point Protocol over ATM encapsulation.
•
RFC 1483 Routing (AAL5 SNAP) specifies that each PVC can carry multiple
protocols.
•
RFC 1483 Routing (AAL5 MUX) specifies that each PVC can carry only one
type of protocol.
If you are editing a connection, the encapsulation is shown, but not editable. If you
need to change the encapsulation type, delete the connection and re-create it using
the encapsulation type you need.
For more information on these encapsulation types, click Encapsulation
Autodetect.
Virtual Path Identifier
The virtual path identifier (VPI) is used in ATM switching and routing to identify
the path used for a number of connections. Enter the VPI value given to you by
your service provider.
If you are editing an existing connection, this field is disabled. If you need to
change this value, delete the connection and re-create it using the value you need.
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Connection: ADSL
Virtual Circuit Identifier
The virtual circuit identifier (VCI) is used in ATM switching and routing to
identify a particular connection within a path that your connection may share with
other connections. Enter the VCI value given to you by your service provider.
If you are editing an existing connection, this field is disabled. If you need to
change this value, delete the connection and re-create it using the value you need.
IP Address
Choose how the router will obtain an IP address for this link.
•
Static IP address—If you choose Static IP Address, enter the IP address and
subnet mask, or network bits in the fields provided. For more information, see
IP Addresses and Subnet Masks.
•
Dynamic IP address—If you choose Dynamic, the router will lease an IP
address from a remote DHCP server. Then enter the name or IP address of the
DHCP server.
•
Unnumbered IP address—Choose IP Unnumbered if you want the interface
to share an IP address that has already been assigned to another interface.
Then choose the interface whose IP address this interface is to share.
•
IP Negotiated—This interface will obtain an IP address using PPP/IP Control
Protocol (IPCP) address negotiation.
Hostname
If your service provider has provided a hostname for DHCP option 12, enter it
here.
Operating Mode
Choose one of the following values:
•
auto—Configure the Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line (ADSL) after
autonegotiating with the digital subscriber access line multiplexer (DSLAM)
located at the central office.
•
ansi-dmt—Configure the ADSL line to train in the ANSI T1.413 Issue 2
mode.
•
itu-dmt—Configure the ADSL line to train in the ITU G.992.1 mode.
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Connection: ADSL
•
adls2—Configure the ADSL line to train in the ITU G.992.3 mode. This
mode is available for the HWIC-ADSL-B/ST, HWIC-ADSLI-B/ST,
HWIC-1ADSL, and HWIC-1ADSLI ADSL network modules.
•
adsl2+—Configure the ADSL line to train in the ITU G.992.4 mode. This
mode is available for the HWIC-ADSL-B/ST, HWIC-ADSLI-B/ST,
HWIC-1ADSL, and HWIC-1ADSLI ADSL network modules.
•
splitterless—Configure the ADSL line to train in the G.Lite mode. This
mode is available for older ADSL network modules such as the WIC-1ADSL.
Authentication
Click if you need to enter CHAP or PAP authentication information.
Dynamic DNS
Enable dynamic DNS if you want to update your DNS servers automatically
whenever the WAN interface IP address changes.
Note
This feature appears only if supported by the Cisco IOS release on your router.
To choose a dynamic DNS method to use, do one of the following:
•
Enter the name of an existing dynamic DNS method.
Enter the name in the Dynamic DNS Method field exactly as it appears in the
list in Configure > Additional Tasks > Dynamic DNS Methods.
•
Choose an existing dynamic DNS method from a list.
Click the drop-down menu and choose an existing method. A window with a
list of existing dynamic DNS methods opens. This menu choice is available
only if there are existing dynamic DNS methods.
•
Create a new dynamic DNS method.
Click the drop-down menu and choose to create a new dynamic DNS method.
To clear an associated dynamic DNS method from the interface, choose None
from the drop-down menu.
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Connection: ADSL over ISDN
Enable Multilink PPP
Check this check box if you want to use Multilink Point-to-Point Protocol (MLP)
with this interface. MLP can improve the performance of a network with multiple
WAN connections by using load balancing functionality, packet fragmentation,
bandwidth-on-demand, and other features.
Connection: ADSL over ISDN
Add or edit an ADSL over ISDN connection in this window.
Encapsulation
Choose the type of encapsulation to use for this link.
•
PPPoE specifies Point-to-Point Protocol over Ethernet encapsulation.
•
RFC 1483 Routing (AAL5 SNAP) specifies that each PVC can carry
multiple protocols.
•
RFC 1483 Routing (AAL5 MUX) specifies that each PVC can carry only
one type of protocol.
If you are editing a connection, the encapsulation is shown, but not editable. If you
need to change the encapsulation type, delete the connection and re-create it using
the encapsulation type you need.
Virtual Path Identifier
The virtual path identifier (VPI) is used in ATM switching and routing to identify
the path used for a number of connections. Obtain this value from your service
provider.
If you are editing an existing connection, this field is disabled. If you need to
change this value, delete the connection and re-create it using the value you need.
Virtual Circuit Identifier
The virtual circuit identifier (VCI) is used in ATM switching and routing to
identify a particular connection within a path that your connection may share with
other connections. Obtain this value from your service provider.
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Connection: ADSL over ISDN
If you are editing an existing connection, this field is disabled. If you need to
change this value, delete the connection and re-create it using the value you need.
IP Address
Choose how the router will obtain an IP address for this link.
•
Static IP address—If you choose Static IP Address, enter the IP address and
subnet mask, or network bits in the fields provided. For more information, see
IP Addresses and Subnet Masks.
•
Dynamic IP address—If you choose Dynamic, the router will lease an IP
address from a remote DHCP server. Then enter the name or IP address of the
DHCP server.
•
Unnumbered IP address—Choose IP Unnumbered if you want the interface
to share an IP address that has already been assigned to another interface.
Then choose the interface whose IP address this interface is to share.
•
IP Negotiated—This interface will obtain an IP address using PPP/IP Control
Protocol (IPCP) address negotiation.
Operating Mode
Choose the mode that the ADSL line should use when training.
Note
If the Cisco IOS release you are running on the router does not support all five
operating modes, you will see options only for the operating modes supported by
your Cisco IOS release.
•
annexb—Standard Annex-B mode of ITU-T G.992.1.
•
annexb-ur2—ITU-T G.992.1 Annex-B mode.
•
auto—Configure the Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line (ADSL) line after
autonegotiating with the digital subscriber access line multiplexer (DSLAM)
located at the central office.
•
etsi—European Telecommunications Standards Institute mode.
•
multimode—Mode chosen by the firmware for the best operating condition
on digital subscriber line (DSL). The final mode can be either ETSI mode or
standard Annex-B mode depending on the current DSLAM setting.
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Edit Interface/Connection
Connection: G.SHDSL
Authentication
Click if you need to enter CHAP or PAP authentication information.
Dynamic DNS
Enable dynamic DNS if you want to update your DNS servers automatically
whenever the WAN interface IP address changes.
Note
This feature appears only if supported by the Cisco IOS release on your router.
To choose a dynamic DNS method to use, do one of the following:
•
Enter the name of an existing dynamic DNS method.
Enter the name in the Dynamic DNS Method field exactly as it appears in the
list in Configure > Additional Tasks > Dynamic DNS Methods.
•
Choose an existing dynamic DNS method from a list.
Click the drop-down menu and choose an existing method. A window with a
list of existing dynamic DNS methods opens. This menu choice is available
only if there are existing dynamic DNS methods.
•
Create a new dynamic DNS method.
Click the drop-down menu and choose to create a new dynamic DNS method.
To clear an associated dynamic DNS method from the interface, choose None
from the drop-down menu.
Enable Multilink PPP
Check this check box if you want to use Multilink Point-to-Point Protocol (MLP)
with this interface. MLP can improve the performance of a network with multiple
WAN connections by using load balancing functionality, packet fragmentation,
bandwidth-on-demand, and other features.
Connection: G.SHDSL
This window enables you to create or edit a G.SHDSL connection.
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Connection: G.SHDSL
Note
If the connection that you are configuring uses a DSL controller, the Equipment
Type and Operating Mode fields do not appear in the dialog.
Encapsulation
Choose the type of encapsulation that will be used for this link.
•
PPPoE specifies Point-to-Point Protocol over Ethernet encapsulation.
•
PPPoA specifies Point-to-Point Protocol over ATM encapsulation.
•
RFC 1483 Routing (AAL5 SNAP) specifies that each PVC can carry
multiple protocols.
•
RFC 1483 Routing (AAL5 MUX) specifies that each PVC can carry only
one type of protocol.
If you are editing a connection, the encapsulation is shown, but not editable. If you
need to change the encapsulation type, delete the connection and re-create it using
the encapsulation type you need.
For more information on these encapsulation types, click Encapsulation
Autodetect.
Virtual Path Identifier
The virtual path identifier (VPI) is used in ATM switching and routing to identify
the path used for a number of connections. Obtain this value from your service
provider.
If you are editing an existing connection, this field is disabled. If you need to
change this value, delete the connection and re-create it using the value you need.
Virtual Circuit Identifier
The virtual circuit identifier (VCI) is used in ATM switching and routing to
identify a particular connection within a path that your connection may share with
other connections. Obtain this value from your service provider.
If you are editing an existing connection, this field is disabled. If you need to
change this value, delete the connection and re-create it using the value you need.
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Connection: G.SHDSL
IP Address
Choose how the router will obtain an IP address for this link. The fields that
appear in this area change according to the encapsulation type chosen. Your
service provider or network administrator must tell you the method the router
should use to obtain an IP address.
Static IP address
If you choose Static IP Address, enter the address that the interface will use, and
the subnet mask or the network bits. Obtain this information from your service
provider or network administrator. For more information, see IP Addresses and
Subnet Masks.
Dynamic IP address
If you choose Dynamic IP address, the interface will obtain an IP address from a
DHCP server on the network. If the DHCP server uses DHCP option 12, it sends
a hostname for the router along with the IP address the router is to use. Check with
your service provider or network administrator to determine the hostname sent.
IP Unnumbered
Choose this option if you want the interface to share an IP address with an
Ethernet interface on the router. If you choose this option, you must specify from
the drop-down list the Ethernet interface whose address you want to use.
IP Address for Remote Connection in Central Office
Enter the IP address of the gateway system to which this link will connect. This
IP address is supplied by the service provider or network administrator. The
gateway is the system that the router must connect to in order to access the
Internet or your organization’s WAN.
Equipment Type
Choose one of the values below:
CPE
Customer premises equipment. If the encapsulation type is PPPoE, CPE is
automatically chosen and the field is disabled.
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Connection: G.SHDSL
CO
Central office.
Operating Mode
Choose one of the values below:
Annex A (U.S.)
Configures the regional operating parameters for North America.
Annex B (Europe)
Configures the regional operating parameters for Europe.
Enable Multilink PPP
Check this check box if you want to use Multilink Point-to-Point Protocol (MLP)
with this interface. MLP can improve the performance of a network with multiple
WAN connections by using load balancing functionality, packet fragmentation,
bandwidth-on-demand, and other features.
Authentication
Click if you need to enter CHAP or PAP authentication information.
Dynamic DNS
Enable dynamic DNS if you want to update your DNS servers automatically
whenever the WAN interface IP address changes.
Note
This feature appears only if supported by the Cisco IOS release on your router.
To choose a dynamic DNS method to use, do one of the following:
•
Enter the name of an existing dynamic DNS method.
Enter the name in the Dynamic DNS Method field exactly as it appears in the
list in Configure > Additional Tasks > Dynamic DNS Methods.
•
Choose an existing dynamic DNS method from a list.
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Connection: Cable Modem
Click the drop-down menu and choose an existing method. A window with a
list of existing dynamic DNS methods opens. This menu choice is available
only if there are existing dynamic DNS methods.
•
Create a new dynamic DNS method.
Click the drop-down menu and choose to create a new dynamic DNS method.
To clear an associated dynamic DNS method from the interface, choose None
from the drop-down menu.
Connection: Cable Modem
Use this dialog to change the default IP address of the cable modem service
module.
Field Description
Table 6-1
Cable Modem
Element
Description
Change the default service module IP address
Check box
Check Change the default service module IP address if you want to
change the default IP address of this service module
IP Address
Subnet Mask
You can enter the subnet mask in decimal format, or you can choose
the number of bits to include in the subnet mask. 255.255.255.0 is
an example of a subnet mask in decimal format. That subnet mask
value is equivalent to 24 bits. Use the up arrow and the down arrow
if you want to choose the number of bits. If you enter a decimal
value, the bit value is automatically updated. If you enter a bit value,
the decimal value is automatically updated.
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Edit Interface/Connection
Configure DSL Controller
Configure DSL Controller
Cisco SDM supports the configuration of the Cisco WIC-1SHDSL-V2. This WIC
supports TI, E1, or a G.SHDSL connection over an ATM interface. Cisco SDM
only supports a G.SHDSL connection using the ATM interface. This window lets
you set the controller mode on the WIC to ATM, enabling a G.SHDSL connection,
and lets you create or edit DSL controller information for the G.SHDSL
connection.
Controller Mode
Cisco SDM supports only ATM mode, which provides for a G.SHDSL
connection, on this controller. This field will automatically be set to ATM mode
when the OK button is clicked.
Equipment Type
Choose whether your connection terminates at the central office (CO) or your
customer premises equipment (CPE).
Operating Mode
Choose whether the DSL connection should use Annex A signaling (for DSL
connections in the United States) or Annex B signaling (for DSL connections in
Europe).
Line Mode
Choose whether this is a 2-wire or 4-wire G.SHDSL connection.
Line Number
Choose the interface number on which the connection will be made.
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Configure DSL Controller
Line Rate
Choose the DSL line rate for the G.SHDSL port. If you have chosen a 2-wire
connection, you can choose either auto, which configures the interface to
automatically negotiate the line rate between the G.SHDSL port and the DSLAM,
or the actual DSL line rate. The supported line rates are 200, 264, 392, 520, 776,
1032, 1160, 1544, 2056, and 2312.
If you have chosen a 4-wire connection, you must choose a fixed line rate. The
supported line rates for a 4-wire connection are 384, 512, 640, 768, 896, 1024,
1152, 1280, 1408, 1664, 1792, 1920, 2048, 2176, 2304, 2432, 2688, 2816, 2944,
3072, 3200, 3328, 3456, 3584, 3712, 3840, 3968, 4096, 4224, 4352, 4480, and
4608
Note
If different DSL line rates are configured at opposite ends of the DSL uplink, the
actual DSL line rate is always the lower rate.
Enable Sound to Noise Ratio Margin
The sound-to-noise ratio margin provides a threshold for the DSL modem to
determine whether it should reduce or increase its power output depending on the
amount of noise on the connection. If you have set the line rate to “auto”, you can
enable this feature to maximize the quality of the DSL connection. Note that you
cannot use this feature if your line rate is fixed. To enable the sound-to-noise ratio
margin, check this check box and choose the ratio margins in the Current and
Snext fields. To disable this feature, uncheck this check box.
Current
Choose the sound-to-noise ratio margin in the form of decibels (dB) on the current
connection. The lower the ratio chosen here, the more noise will be tolerated on
the connection. A lower dB setting will cause the DSL modem to allow more noise
on the line, potentially resulting in a connection of lower quality but higher
throughput. A higher dB setting causes the modem to restrict noise, potentially
resulting in a connection of higher quality but lower throughput.
Snext
Choose the Self near-end crosstalk (Snext) sound-to-noise ratio margin in the
form of decibels.
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Add a G.SHDSL Connection
DSL Connections
This field displays all of the G.SHDSL connections currently configured on this
controller. To configure a new G.SHDSL connection, click Add. This displays the
Add a G.SHDSL Connection page, letting you configure the new connection. To
edit an existing G.SHDSL connection, choose the connection in this field and
click Edit. This also will display the Add a G.SHDSL Connection page, letting
you edit the connection configuration. To delete a connection, choose the
connection in this field, and click Delete.
Add a G.SHDSL Connection
This window enables you to create or edit a G.SHDSL connection.
Encapsulation
Select the type of encapsulation that will be used for this link.
•
PPPoE specifies Point-to-Point Protocol over Ethernet encapsulation.
•
PPPoA specifies Point-to-Point Protocol over ATM encapsulation.
•
RFC 1483 Routing (AAL5 SNAP) specifies that each PVC can carry
multiple protocols.
•
RFC 1483 Routing (AAL5 MUX) specifies that each PVC carry only one
type of protocol.
If you are editing a connection, the encapsulation is shown, but not editable. If you
need to change the encapsulation type, delete the connection, and recreate it,
using the encapsulation type you need.
Virtual Path Identifier
The virtual path identifier (VPI) is used in ATM switching and routing to identify
the path used for a number of connections. Obtain this value from your service
provider.
If you are editing an existing connection, this field is disabled. If you need to
change this value, delete the connection and recreate it using the value you need.
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Add a G.SHDSL Connection
Virtual Circuit Identifier
The virtual circuit identifier (VCI) is used in ATM switching and routing to
identify a particular connection within a path that it may share with other
connections. Obtain this value from your service provider.
If you are editing an existing connection, this field is disabled. If you need to
change this value, delete the connection and recreate it using the value you need.
IP Address
Select how the router will obtain an IP address for this link. The fields that appear
in this area change according to the encapsulation type chosen. Your service
provider or network administrator must tell you the method the router should use
to obtain an IP address.
Static IP address
If you select Static IP address, enter the address that the interface will use, and the
subnet mask, or the network bits. Obtain this information from your service
provider or network administrator. For more information, refer to IP Addresses
and Subnet Masks.
Dynamic IP address
If you select Dynamic IP address, the interface will obtain an IP address from a
DHCP server on the network. If the DHCP server uses DHCP option 12, it sends
a host name for the router along with the IP address it is to use. Check with your
service provider or network administrator to determine the host name sent.
IP Unnumbered
Select this option if you want the interface to share an IP address with an Ethernet
interface on the router. If you select this option, you must specify from the drop
down list the Ethernet interface whose address you want to use.
Description
Enter a description of this connection that makes it easy to recognize and manage.
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Add a G.SHDSL Connection
Enable Multilink PPP
Check this check box if you want to use Multilink Point-to-Point Protocol (MLP)
with this interface. MLP can improve the performance of a network with multiple
WAN connections by using load balancing functionality, packet fragmentation,
bandwidth-on-demand, and other features.
Authentication
Click if you need to enter CHAP or PAP authentication information.
Dynamic DNS
Enable dynamic DNS if you want to automatically update your DNS servers
whenever the WAN interface’s IP address changes.
Note
This feature appears only if supported by your Cisco server’s IOS.
To choose a dynamic DNS method to use, do one of the following:
•
Enter the name of an existing dynamic DNS method.
Enter the name in the Dynamic DNS Method field exactly as it appears in
the list in Configure > Additional Tasks > Dynamic DNS Methods.
•
Choose an existing dynamic DNS method from a list.
Click the drop-down menu and choose to use an existing method. A window
with a list of existing dynamic DNS methods will open. This menu choice is
available only if there are existing dynamic DNS methods.
•
Create a new dynamic DNS method.
Click the drop-down menu and choose to create a new dynamic DNS method.
To clear an associated dynamic DNS method from the interface, choose None
from the drop-down menu.
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Connection: Serial Interface, Frame Relay Encapsulation
Connection: Serial Interface, Frame Relay
Encapsulation
Complete these fields if you are configuring a serial subinterface for Frame Relay
encapsulation. If you are editing a connection or creating a connection in the Edit
Interfaces and Connections window, the encapsulation is shown but is not
editable. If you need to change the encapsulation type, delete the connection and
re-create it using the encapsulation type you need.
Encapsulation
Frame Relay chosen.
IP Address
Choose either Static IP address or IP unnumbered.
IP Address
If you chose Static IP address, enter the IP address for this interface. Obtain this
value from your network administrator or service provider. For more information,
see IP Addresses and Subnet Masks.
Subnet Mask
If you chose Static IP address, enter the subnet mask. The subnet mask specifies
the portion of the IP address that provides the network address. This value is
synchronized with the subnet bits. Your network administrator or service provider
provides the value of the subnet mask or the network bits.
Subnet Bits
Alternatively, enter the network bits to specify how much of the IP address
provides the network address.
IP Unnumbered
If you chose IP unnumbered, the interface will share an IP address that has already
been assigned to another interface. Choose the interface whose IP address this
interface is to share.
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Connection: Serial Interface, Frame Relay Encapsulation
DLCI
Enter the data link connection identifier (DLCI) in this field. This number must
be unique among all DLCIs used on this interface. The DLCI provides a unique
Frame Relay identifier for this connection.
If you are editing an existing connection, the DLCI field will be disabled. If you
need to change the DLCI, delete the connection and create it again.
LMI Type
Ask your service provider which of the following Local Management Interface
(LMI) types you should use. The LMI type specifies the protocol used to monitor
the connection:
ANSI
Annex D defined by American National Standards Institute (ANSI) standard
T1.617.
Cisco
LMI type defined jointly by Cisco and three other companies.
ITU-T Q.933
ITU-T Q.933 Annex A.
Autosense
Default. This setting allows the router to detect which LMI type is used by the
switch and then use that type. If autosense fails, the router will use the Cisco LMI
type.
Use IETF Frame Relay Encapsulation
Check this check box to use Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF)
encapsulation. This option is used to connect with routers not from Cisco. Check
this box if you are connecting to a router not from Cisco on this interface.
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Connection: Serial Interface, Frame Relay Encapsulation
Clock Settings
In most cases, clock settings should not be changed from the default values. If you
know that your requirements are different from the defaults, click and adjust the
clock settings in the window displayed.
The Clock Settings button appears only if you are configuring a T1 or E1 serial
connection.
Dynamic DNS
Enable dynamic DNS if you want to update your DNS servers automatically
whenever the WAN interface IP address changes.
Note
This feature appears only if supported by the Cisco IOS release on your router.
To choose a dynamic DNS method to use, do one of the following:
•
Enter the name of an existing dynamic DNS method.
Enter the name in the Dynamic DNS Method field exactly as it appears in the
list in Configure > Additional Tasks > Dynamic DNS Methods.
•
Choose an existing dynamic DNS method from a list.
Click the drop-down menu and choose an existing method. A window with a
list of existing dynamic DNS methods opens. This menu choice is available
only if there are existing dynamic DNS methods.
•
Create a new dynamic DNS method.
Click the drop-down menu and choose to create a new dynamic DNS method.
To clear an associated dynamic DNS method from the interface, choose None
from the drop-down menu.
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Connection: Serial Interface, PPP Encapsulation
Connection: Serial Interface, PPP Encapsulation
Complete these fields if you are configuring a serial interface for Point-to-Point
Protocol encapsulation. If you are editing a connection or creating a connection
in the Edit Interfaces and Connections window, the encapsulation is shown but is
not editable. If you need to change the encapsulation type, delete the connection
and re-create it using the encapsulation type you need.
Encapsulation
PPP chosen.
IP Address
Choose Static IP Address, IP Unnumbered, or IP Negotiated. If you choose IP
Unnumbered, choose the interface whose IP address this interface is to share. If
you choose IP Negotiated, the router obtains an IP address from the service
provider for this interface. If you choose Specify an IP address, complete the
fields below.
IP Address
Enter the IP address for this point-to-point subinterface. Obtain this value from
your network administrator or service provider. For more information, see IP
Addresses and Subnet Masks.
Subnet Mask
Enter the subnet mask. The subnet mask specifies the portion of the IP address
that provides the network address. This value is synchronized with the network
bits. Obtain the value of the subnet mask or the network bits from your network
administrator or service provider.
Subnet Bits
Alternatively, enter the network bits to specify how many bits in the IP address
provide the network address.
Authentication
Click if you need to enter CHAP or PAP authentication information.
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Connection: Serial Interface, PPP Encapsulation
Clock Settings
In most cases, clock settings should not be changed from the default values. If you
know that your requirements are different from the defaults, click and adjust the
clock settings in the window displayed.
The Clock Settings button appears only if you are configuring a T1 or E1 serial
connection.
Dynamic DNS
Enable dynamic DNS if you want to update your DNS servers automatically
whenever the WAN interface IP address changes.
Note
This feature appears only if supported by the Cisco IOS release on your router.
To choose a dynamic DNS method to use, do one of the following:
•
Enter the name of an existing dynamic DNS method.
Enter the name in the Dynamic DNS Method field exactly as it appears in the
list in Configure > Additional Tasks > Dynamic DNS Methods.
•
Choose an existing dynamic DNS method from a list.
Click the drop-down menu and choose an existing method. A window with a
list of existing dynamic DNS methods opens. This menu choice is available
only if there are existing dynamic DNS methods.
•
Create a new dynamic DNS method.
Click the drop-down menu and choose to create a new dynamic DNS method.
To clear an associated dynamic DNS method from the interface, choose None
from the drop-down menu.
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Connection: Serial Interface, HDLC Encapsulation
Connection: Serial Interface, HDLC Encapsulation
Fill out these fields if you are configuring a serial interface for HDLC
encapsulation. If you are editing a connection or creating a connection in the Edit
Interfaces and Connections window, the encapsulation is shown but is not
editable. If you need to change the encapsulation type, delete the connection and
re-create it using the encapsulation type you need.
Encapsulation
HDLC chosen.
IP Address
Choose either Static IP address or IP Unnumbered. If you choose IP
Unnumbered, choose the interface whose IP address this interface is to share. If
you choose Static IP Address, complete the fields below.
IP Address
Enter the IP address for this interface. Obtain this value from your network
administrator or service provider. For more information, see IP Addresses and
Subnet Masks.
Subnet Mask
Enter the subnet mask. The subnet mask specifies the portion of the IP address
that provides the network address. This value is synchronized with the network
bits. Obtain the value of the subnet mask or the network bits from your network
administrator or service provider.
Subnet Bits
Alternatively, choose the number of bits that specify how much of the IP address
provides the network address.
Clock Settings
In most cases, clock settings should not be changed from the default values. If you
know that your requirements are different from the defaults, click and adjust the
clock settings in the window displayed.
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Add or Edit GRE Tunnel
The Clock Settings button appears only if you are configuring a T1 or E1 serial
connection.
Dynamic DNS
Enable dynamic DNS if you want to update your DNS servers automatically
whenever the WAN interface IP address changes.
Note
This feature appears only if supported by the Cisco IOS release on your router.
To choose a dynamic DNS method to use, do one of the following:
•
Enter the name of an existing dynamic DNS method.
Enter the name in the Dynamic DNS Method field exactly as it appears in the
list in Configure > Additional Tasks > Dynamic DNS Methods.
•
Choose an existing dynamic DNS method from a list.
Click the drop-down menu and choose an existing method. A window with a
list of existing dynamic DNS methods opens. This menu choice is available
only if there are existing dynamic DNS methods.
•
Create a new dynamic DNS method.
Click the drop-down menu and choose to create a new dynamic DNS method.
To clear an associated dynamic DNS method from the interface, choose None
from the drop-down menu.
Add or Edit GRE Tunnel
You can add a GRE tunnel to an interface or edit an existing interface in this
window. This window does not appear if the GRE tunnel is not configured using
gre ip mode.
Tunnel Number
Enter a number for this tunnel.
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Add or Edit GRE Tunnel
Tunnel Source
Choose the interface that the tunnel will use. This interface must be reachable
from the other end of the tunnel; therefore, it must have a public, routable IP
address.
Tunnel Destination
The tunnel destination is the interface on the router at the other end of the tunnel.
Choose whether you will specify an IP address or a hostname, and then enter that
information. If you chose IP address, provide the IP address and subnet mask in
dotted decimal format; for example, 192.168.20.1 and 255.255.255.0.
Make sure that this address or hostname is reachable using the ping command;
otherwise, the tunnel will not be properly created.
Tunnel IP Address
Enter the IP address of the tunnel in dotted decimal format; for example,
192.168.20.1. For more information, see IP Addresses and Subnet Masks.
GRE Keepalive Check Box
Check if you want the router to send GRE keepalives. Specify the interval, in
seconds, that keepalives will be sent, and the waiting period, in seconds, between
retries.
Maximum Transmission Unit
Enter the maximum transmission unit (MTU) size. If you want the size adjusted
to a lower value when the adjustment would avoid packet fragmentation, click
Adjust MTU to avoid fragmentation.
Bandwidth
Click to specify the bandwidth for this tunnel in kilobytes.
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Connection: ISDN BRI
Connection: ISDN BRI
Complete these fields if you are configuring an ISDN BRI connection. Because
Cisco SDM supports only PPP encapsulation over an ISDN BRI connection, the
encapsulation shown is not editable.
Encapsulation
PPP chosen.
ISDN Switch Type
Choose the ISDN switch type. Contact your ISDN service provider for the switch
type for your connection.
Cisco SDM supports these BRI switch types:
•
For North America:
– basic-5ess—Lucent (AT&T) basic rate 5ESS switch
– basic-dms100—Northern Telecom DMS-100 basic rate switch
– basic-ni—National ISDN switches
•
For Australia, Europe, and the UK:
– basic-1tr6—German 1TR6 ISDN switch
– basic-net3—NET3 ISDN BRI for Norway NET3, Australia NET3, and
New Zealand NET3switch types; ETSI-compliant switch types for
Euro-ISDN E-DSS1 signaling system
– vn3—French ISDN BRI switches
•
For Japan:
– ntt—Japanese NTT ISDN switches
•
For Voice/PBX systems:
– basic-qsig—PINX (PBX) switches with QSIG signaling per Q.931 ()
SPIDs
Click if you need to enter service profile ID (SPID) information.
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Connection: ISDN BRI
Some service providers use SPIDs to define the services subscribed to by the
ISDN device that is accessing the ISDN service provider. The service provider
assigns the ISDN device one or more SPIDs when you first subscribe to the
service. If you are using a service provider that requires SPIDs, your ISDN device
cannot place or receive calls until it sends a valid, assigned SPID to the service
provider when accessing the switch to initialize the connection.
Only the DMS-100 and NI switch types require SPIDs. The Lucent (AT&T) 5ESS
switch type may support a SPID, but we recommend that you set up that ISDN
service without SPIDs. In addition, SPIDs have significance at the local-access
ISDN interface only. Remote routers never receive the SPID.
A SPID is usually a seven-digit telephone number with some optional numbers.
However, service providers may use different numbering schemes. For the
DMS-100 switch type, two SPIDs are assigned, one for each B channel.
Remote Phone Number
Enter the phone number of the destination of the ISDN connection.
Options
Click if you need to associate ACLs with a dialer list to identify interesting traffic,
enter timer settings, or enable or disable multilink PPP.
Identifying interesting traffic will cause the router to dial out and create an active
connection only when the router detects interesting traffic.
Timer settings will cause the router to automatically disconnect a call after the
line is idle for the specified amount of time.
Multilink PPP can be configured to provide load balancing between ISDN B
channels.
IP Address
Choose Static IP address, IP Unnumbered, or IP Negotiated. If you choose
Specify an IP address, complete the fields below.
IP Address
Enter the IP address for this point-to-point subinterface. Obtain this value from
your network administrator or service provider. For more information, see IP
Addresses and Subnet Masks.
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Connection: ISDN BRI
Subnet Mask
Enter the subnet mask. The subnet mask specifies the portion of the IP address
that provides the network address. This value is synchronized with the network
bits. Obtain the value of the subnet mask or the network bits from your network
administrator or service provider.
Subnet Bits
Alternatively, enter the network bits to specify how many bits in the IP address
provide the network address.
Authentication
Click if you need to enter CHAP or PAP authentication information.
Dynamic DNS
Enable dynamic DNS if you want to update your DNS servers automatically
whenever the WAN interface IP address changes.
Note
This feature appears only if supported by the Cisco IOS release on your router.
To choose a dynamic DNS method to use, do one of the following:
•
Enter the name of an existing dynamic DNS method.
Enter the name in the Dynamic DNS Method field exactly as it appears in the
list in Configure > Additional Tasks > Dynamic DNS Methods.
•
Choose an existing dynamic DNS method from a list.
Click the drop-down menu and choose an existing method. A window with a
list of existing dynamic DNS methods opens. This menu choice is available
only if there are existing dynamic DNS methods.
•
Create a new dynamic DNS method.
Click the drop-down menu and choose to create a new dynamic DNS method.
To clear an associated dynamic DNS method from the interface, choose None
from the drop-down menu.
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Connection: Analog Modem
Connection: Analog Modem
Complete these fields if you are configuring an analog modem connection.
Because Cisco SDM supports only PPP encapsulation over an analog modem
connection, the encapsulation shown is not editable.
Encapsulation
PPP chosen.
Remote Phone Number
Enter the phone number of the destination of the analog modem connection.
Options
Click if you need to associate ACLs with a dialer list to identify interesting traffic
or enter timer settings.
Identifying interesting traffic will cause the router to dial out and create an active
connection only when the router detects interesting traffic.
Timer settings will cause the router to automatically disconnect a call after the
line is idle for the specified amount of time.
Clear Line
Click to clear the line. You should clear the line after creating an async connection
so that interesting traffic triggers the connection.
IP Address
Choose Static IP address, IP Unnumbered, or IP Negotiated. If you choose
Specify an IP address, complete the fields below.
IP Address
Enter the IP address for this point-to-point subinterface. Obtain this value from
your network administrator or service provider. For more information, see IP
Addresses and Subnet Masks.
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Connection: Analog Modem
Subnet Mask
Enter the subnet mask. The subnet mask specifies the portion of the IP address
that provides the network address. This value is synchronized with the network
bits. Obtain the value of the subnet mask or the network bits from your network
administrator or service provider.
Subnet Bits
Alternatively, enter the network bits to specify how many bits in the IP address
provide the network address.
Authentication
Click if you need to enter CHAP or PAP authentication information.
Dynamic DNS
Enable dynamic DNS if you want to update your DNS servers automatically
whenever the WAN interface IP address changes.
Note
This feature appears only if supported by the Cisco IOS release on your router.
To choose a dynamic DNS method to use, do one of the following:
•
Enter the name of an existing dynamic DNS method.
Enter the name in the Dynamic DNS Method field exactly as it appears in the
list in Configure > Additional Tasks > Dynamic DNS Methods.
•
Choose an existing dynamic DNS method from a list.
Click the drop-down menu and choose an existing method. A window with a
list of existing dynamic DNS methods opens. This menu choice is available
only if there are existing dynamic DNS methods.
•
Create a new dynamic DNS method.
Click the drop-down menu and choose to create a new dynamic DNS method.
To clear an associated dynamic DNS method from the interface, choose None
from the drop-down menu.
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Connection: (AUX Backup)
Connection: (AUX Backup)
Complete these fields if you are configuring an asynchronous dial-up connection
using the console port to double as an AUX port on a Cisco 831 or 837 router.
Once you enter the information in this window, click Backup Details and enter
dial-backup information, which is required for this type of connection. Note that
because Cisco SDM supports only PPP encapsulation over an analog modem
connection, the encapsulation shown is not editable.
The option to configure the AUX port as a dial-up connection appears only for the
Cisco 831 and 837 routers. This option will not be available for those routers if
any of the following conditions occur:
•
Router is not using a Zutswang Cisco IOS release
•
Primary WAN interface is not configured
•
Asynchronous interface is already configured
•
Asynchronous interface is not configurable by Cisco SDM because of the
presence of unsupported Cisco IOS commands in the existing configuration
Encapsulation
PPP chosen.
Remote Phone Number
Enter the phone number of the destination of the analog modem connection.
Options
Click if you need to associate ACLs with a dialer list to identify interesting traffic
or enter timer settings.
Identifying interesting traffic will cause the router to dial out and create an active
connection only when the router detects interesting traffic.
Timer settings will cause the router to automatically disconnect a call after the
line is idle for the specified amount of time.
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Connection: (AUX Backup)
Clear Line
Click to clear the line. You should clear the line after creating an async connection
so that interesting traffic triggers the connection.
IP Address
Choose Static IP address, IP Unnumbered, or IP Negotiated. If you choose
Specify an IP address, complete the fields below.
IP Address
Enter the IP address for this point-to-point subinterface. Obtain this value from
your network administrator or service provider. For more information, see IP
Addresses and Subnet Masks.
Subnet Mask
Enter the subnet mask. The subnet mask specifies the portion of the IP address
that provides the network address. This value is synchronized with the network
bits. Obtain the value of the subnet mask or the network bits from your network
administrator or service provider.
Subnet Bits
Alternatively, enter the network bits to specify how many bits in the IP address
provide the network address.
Backup Details
Click to display the Backup Configuration window, which lets you configure
dial-backup information for this connection. This information is mandatory for
this type of connection, and an error will be displayed if you try to complete the
connection configuration without entering dial-backup configuration information.
Authentication
Click if you need to enter CHAP or PAP authentication information.
Dynamic DNS
Enable dynamic DNS if you want to update your DNS servers automatically
whenever the WAN interface IP address changes.
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Authentication
Note
This feature appears only if supported by the Cisco IOS release on your router.
To choose a dynamic DNS method to use, do one of the following:
•
Enter the name of an existing dynamic DNS method.
Enter the name in the Dynamic DNS Method field exactly as it appears in the
list in Configure > Additional Tasks > Dynamic DNS Methods.
•
Choose an existing dynamic DNS method from a list.
Click the drop-down menu and choose an existing method. A window with a
list of existing dynamic DNS methods opens. This menu choice is available
only if there are existing dynamic DNS methods.
•
Create a new dynamic DNS method.
Click the drop-down menu and choose to create a new dynamic DNS method.
To clear an associated dynamic DNS method from the interface, choose None
from the drop-down menu.
Authentication
This page is displayed if you enabled PPP for a serial connection or PPPoE
encapsulation for an ATM or Ethernet connection, or you are configuring an ISDN
BRI or analog modem connection. Your service provider or network administrator
may use a Challenge Handshake Authentication Protocol (CHAP) password or a
Password Authentication Protocol (PAP) password to secure the connection
between the devices. This password secures both incoming and outgoing access.
CHAP/PAP
Check the box for the type of authentication used by your service provider. If you
do not know which type your service provider uses, you can check both boxes: the
router will attempt both types of authentication, and one attempt will succeed.
CHAP authentication is more secure than PAP authentication.
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SPID Details
Login Name
The login name is given to you by your service provider and is used as the
username for CHAP/PAP authentication.
Password
Enter the password exactly as given to you by your service provider. Passwords
are case sensitive. For example, the password test is not the same as TEST.
Reenter Password
Reenter the same password that you entered in the previous box.
SPID Details
Some service providers use service profile ID numbers (SPIDs) to define the
services subscribed to by the ISDN device that is accessing the ISDN service
provider. The service provider assigns the ISDN device one or more SPIDs when
you first subscribe to the service. If you are using a service provider that requires
SPIDs, your ISDN device cannot place or receive calls until it sends a valid,
assigned SPID to the service provider when accessing the switch to initialize the
connection.
Only the DMS-100 and NI switch types require SPIDs. The AT&T 5ESS switch
type may support a SPID, and we recommend that you set up that ISDN service
without SPIDs. In addition, SPIDs have significance at the local-access ISDN
interface only. Remote routers never receive the SPID.
A SPID is usually a seven-digit telephone number with some optional numbers.
However, service providers may use different numbering schemes. For the
DMS-100 switch type, two SPIDs are assigned, one for each B channel.
SPID1
Enter the SPID to the first BRI B channel provided to you by your ISP.
SPID2
Enter the SPID to the second BRI B channel provided to you by your ISP.
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Dialer Options
Dialer Options
Both ISDN BRI and analog modem interfaces can be configured for
dial-on-demand routing (DDR), which causes the connection to dial out and
become active only under specified circumstances, thus saving connection time
and cost. This window lets you configure options specifying when ISDN BRI or
analog modem connections should be initiated and ended.
Dialer List Association
The dialer list lets you associate the ISDN BRI or analog modem connection with
an ACL to identify interesting traffic. Identifying interesting traffic will cause the
interface to dial out and establish a connection only when the router detects data
traffic that matches the ACL.
Allow all IP traffic
Choose this option to cause the interface to dial out and establish a connection
whenever there is any IP traffic being sent over the interface.
Filter traffic based on selected ACL
Choose this option to associate an ACL, which must be created using the rules
interface, with the interface. Only traffic that matches the traffic identified in the
ACL will cause the interface to dial out and establish a connection.
You can enter the ACL number you want to associate with the dialer interface to
identify interesting traffic, or you can click the button next to the field to browse
the list of ACLs or create a new ACL and choose it.
Timer Settings
Timer settings let you configure the maximum amount of time that a connection
with no traffic stays active. By configuring timer settings, you can have
connections that shut down automatically, saving you connection time and cost.
Idle timeout
Enter the number of seconds that are allowed to pass before an idle connection
(one that has no traffic passing over it) is terminated.
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Dialer Options
Fast idle timeout
The fast idle timeout is used when one connection is active while a competing
connection is waiting to be made. The fast idle timeout sets the maximum number
of seconds with no interesting traffic before the active connection is terminated
and the competing connection is made.
This occurs when the interface has an active connection to a next hop IP address
and the interface receives interesting data with a different next hop IP destination.
Because the dialer connection is point-to-point, the competing packet cannot be
delivered until the current connection is ended. This timer sets the amount of time
that must pass while the first connection is idle before that connection will be
terminated and the competing connection made.
Enable Multilink PPP
Multilink PPP lets you load-balance data over multiple ISDN BRI B channels and
asynchronous interfaces. With multilink PPP, when an ISDN connection is
initially made, only one B channel is used for the connection. If the traffic load on
the connection exceeds the specified threshold (entered as a percentage of total
bandwidth), then a connection with a second B channel is made, and the data
traffic is shared over both connections. This has the advantage of reducing
connection time and cost when data traffic is low, and letting you use your full
ISDN BRI bandwidth when it is needed.
Check this check box if you want to enable multilink PPP. Uncheck it if you do
not.
Load Threshold
Use this field to configure the percentage of bandwidth that must be used on a
single ISDN BRI channel before another ISDN BRI channel connection will be
made to load-balance traffic. Enter a number between 1 and 255, where 255
equals 100 percent of bandwidth on the first connection being utilized.
Data Direction
Cisco SDM supports Multilink PPP only for outbound network traffic.
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Backup Configuration
Backup Configuration
ISDN BRI and analog modem interfaces can be configured to work as backup
interfaces to other, primary interfaces. In that case, an ISDN or analog modem
connection will be made only if the primary interface goes down for some reason.
If the primary interface and connection go down, the ISDN or analog modem
interface will immediately dial out and try to establish a connection so that
network services are not lost.
Enable Backup
Check if you want this ISDN BRI or analog modem interface to act as a backup
connection. Uncheck this check box if you do not want the ISDN BRI or analog
modem interface to be a backup interface.
Primary Interface
Choose the interface on the router that will maintain the primary connection. The
ISDN BRI or analog modem connection will only be made should the connection
on the chosen interface go down.
Tracking Details
Use this section to identify a specific host to which connectivity must be
maintained. The router will track connectivity to that host, and if the router
discovers that connectivity to the host specified was lost by the primary interface,
this will initiate a backup connection over the ISDN BRI or analog modem
interface.
Hostname or IP Address to be Tracked
Enter the hostname or IP address of the destination host to which connectivity will
be tracked. Specify an infrequently contacted destination as the site to be tracked.
Track Object Number
This is a read-only field that displays an internal object number generated and
used by Cisco SDM for tracking the connectivity to the remote host.
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Delete Connection
Next Hop Forwarding
These fields are optional. You can enter the IP address to which the primary and
backup interfaces will connect when they are active. This is known as the next hop
IP address. If you do not enter next hop IP addresses, Cisco SDM will configure
static routes using the interface name. Note that when you back up a multipoint
WAN connection, such as an Ethernet connection, you must enter next hop IP
addresses in order for routing to occur properly, but when backing up a
point-to-point connection, this information is not necessary.
Primary Next Hop IP Address
Enter the next hop IP address of the primary interface.
Backup Next Hop IP Address
Enter the next hop IP address of the ISDN BRI or analog modem backup interface.
Delete Connection
You can delete a WAN connection that appears in the Edit Interface/Connections
window. This window appears when you are deleting an interface configuration,
and when the connection you want to delete contains associations such as access
rules that have been applied to this interface. This window gives you the
opportunity to save the associations for use with another connection.
When you delete a connection, the Create New Connection list is refreshed if the
deletion makes a connection type available that was not available before the
deletion.
You can automatically delete all associations that the connection has, or delete the
associations later.
To view the associations that the connection has:
Click View Details.
To delete the connection and all associations:
Click Automatically delete all associations, and then click OK to cause Cisco
SDM to delete the connection and all of the associations.
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Delete Connection
To manually delete the associations:
To manually delete the associations, click View Details to see a list of the
associations that this connection has. Make note of the associations, choose I will
delete the associations later, and then click OK. You can manually delete the
associations using the instructions in the following list.
The possible associations and the instructions for deleting them are:
•
Default Static Route—The interface is configured as the forwarding interface
for a default static route. To delete the static route with which this interface
is associated, click Configure, then click Routing. Click the static route in
the Static Routing table, and click Delete.
•
Port Address Translation—PAT is configured, using the interface on which
this connection was created. To delete the PAT association, click Configure,
then click NAT. Click the rule associated with this connection, and click
Delete.
•
NAT—The interface is designated as either a NAT inside or NAT outside
interface. To delete the NAT association, click Configure, then click
Interfaces and Connections. Click the connection in the interface list, and
then click Edit. Click the NAT tab, then choose None from the NAT
drop-down menu.
•
ACL—An ACL is applied to the interface on which the connection was
created. To delete the ACL, click Configure, then click Interfaces and
Connections. Click the connection in the Interface List, then click Edit.
Click the Association tab, then in the Access Rule group, click the ... button
next to both the Inbound and Outbound fields, and click None.
•
Inspect—An inspection rule is applied to the interface on which the
connection was created. To delete the inspection rule, click Configure, then
click Interfaces and Connections. Click the connection in the Interface List,
then click Edit. Click the Association tab, then in the Inspection Rule group,
for both the Inbound and Outbound fields, choose None.
•
Crypto—A crypto map is applied to the interface on which the connection
was created. To delete the crypto map, click Configure, then click Interfaces
and Connections. Click the connection in the Interface List, and then click
Edit. Click the Association tab, then in the VPN group, in the IPSec Policy
field, click None.
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Connectivity Testing and Troubleshooting
•
EZVPN—An Easy VPN is applied to the interface on which the connection
was created. To delete the Easy VPN, click Configure, then click Interfaces
and Connections. Click the connection in the Interface List, and then click
Edit. Click the Association tab, then in the VPN group, in the Easy VPN
field, click None.
•
VPDN—VPDN commands that are required for a PPPoE configuration are
present in the router configuration. If there are any other PPPoE connections
configured on the router, do not delete the VPDN commands.
•
ip tcp adjust mss—This command is applied to a LAN interface to adjust the
TCP maximum size. If there are any other PPPoE connections configured on
the router, do not delete this command.
•
Backup connection—When a backup connection is configured for the
primary interface.To delete the backup association, click Configure, then
click Interfaces and Connections. Click the Backup interface in the
Interface List, then click Edit. Click the Backup tab and uncheck the Enable
Backup check box.
•
PAT on Backup connection—PAT is configured on the backup interface. To
delete the PAT association, click Configure, then click NAT. Click the rule
associated with this connection, and then click Delete.
•
Floating Default Route on Backup connection—The Backup interface is
configured with a floating default static route. To delete the floating static
route, click Configure, then click Routing. Click the floating static route in
the Static Routing table, and click Delete.
Connectivity Testing and Troubleshooting
This window allows you to test a configured connection by pinging a remote host.
If the ping fails, Cisco SDM reports the probable cause and suggests actions you
can take to correct the problem.
Which connection types can be tested?
Cisco SDM can troubleshoot ADSL, G.SHDSL V1 and G.SHDSL V2
connections, using PPPoE, AAL5SNAP or AAL5MUX encapsulation.
Cisco SDM can troubleshoot Ethernet connections with PPPoE encapsulation.
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Connectivity Testing and Troubleshooting
Cisco SDM cannot troubleshoot unencapsulated Ethernet connections, Serial and
T1 or E1 connections, Analog connections, and ISDN connections. Cisco SDM
provides basic ping testing for these connection types.
What is Basic Ping Testing?
When Cisco SDM performs basic ping testing, it does the following:
1.
Checks the interface status to see if it is up or down.
2.
Checks DNS Settings, whether they be Cisco SDM default options or
user-specified hostnames.
3.
Checks for DHCP and IPCP configurations on the interface.
4.
Exits interface test.
5.
Pings the destination.
Cisco SDM reports the results of each of these checks in the Activity/Status
columns. If the ping succeeds, then the connection will be reported as successful.
Otherwise the connection is reported down, and the test that failed is noted.
How does Cisco SDM Troubleshoot?
When Cisco SDM troubleshoots a connection, it performs a more extensive check
than the basic ping test. If the router fails a test, Cisco SDM performs additional
checks so it can provide you with the possible reasons for failure. For example, if
Layer 2 status is down, Cisco SDM attempts to determine the reason(s), reports
them, and recommends actions you can take to rectify the problem. Cisco SDM
performs the following tasks:
1.
Checks interface status. If the Layer 2 protocol is up, Cisco SDM goes to step
2.
If Layer 2 protocol status is down, Cisco SDM checks ATM PVC status for
XDSL connections, or PPPoE status for encapsulated Ethernet connections.
– If the ATM PVC test fails, Cisco SDM displays possible reasons for the
failure and actions you can take to correct the problem.
– If the PPPoE connection is down, there is a cabling problem, and Cisco
SDM displays appropriate reasons and actions.
After performing these checks, the test is terminated and Cisco SDM reports
the results and suggests actions.
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2.
Checks DNS Settings, whether they be Cisco SDM default options or
user-specified hostnames.
3.
Checks DHCP or IPCP configuration and status. If the router has an IP
address through either DHCP or IPCP Cisco SDM goes to step 4.
If the router is configured for DHCP or IPCP but has not received an IP
address through either of these methods, Cisco SDM performs the checks in
step 1. The test terminates and Cisco SDM reports the results and suggests
actions.
4.
Pings the destination. If the ping succeeds, Cisco SDM reports success.
If the ping fails on an xDSL connection with PPPoE encapsulation, Cisco SDM
checks:
•
the ATM PVC status
•
the PPPoE tunnel status
•
the PPP authentication status
After performing these checks, Cisco SDM reports the reason that the ping failed.
If the ping fails on an Ethernet with PPPoE encapsulation connection, Cisco SDM
checks:
•
the PPPoE tunnel status
•
the PPP authentication status
After performing these checks, Cisco SDM reports the reason that the ping failed.
If the ping fails on an xDSL connection with AAL5SNAP or AAL5MUX
encapsulation, Cisco SDM checks the ATM PVC status and reports the reason the
ping failed.
IP Address/Hostname
Specify the server name to ping to test WAN interface.
Automatically determined by SDM
Cisco SDM pings its default host to test WAN interface. Cisco SDM detects the
router's statically configured DNS servers, and dynamically imported DNS
servers. Cisco SDM pings these servers, and if successful pings exit through the
interface under test, Cisco SDM reports success. If no pings succeeded, or
successful pings were not found to exit the interface under test, Cisco SDM
reports failure.
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User Specified
Specify the IP address of hostname of your choice for testing WAN interface.
Summary
Click this button if you want to view the summarized troubleshooting
information.
Details
Click this button if you want to view the detailed troubleshooting information.
Activity
This column displays the troubleshooting activities.
Status
Displays the status of each troubleshooting activity by the following icons and
text alerts:
The connection is up.
The connection is down.
Test is successful.
Test failed.
Reason
This box provides the possible reason(s) for the WAN interface connection
failure.
Recommended action(s)
This box provides a possible action/solution to rectify the problem.
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What Do You Want to Do?
If you want to:
Do this:
Troubleshoot the WAN interface
connection.
Click Start button.
Save the test report.
When test is running, Start button label will change to Stop.
You have option to abort the troubleshooting while test is in
progress.
Click Save Report button to save the test report in HTML
format.
This button will be active only when test is in progress or
when the testing is complete.
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7
Wide Area Application Services
Cisco’s Wide Area Application Services (WAAS) is a WAN optimization and
application acceleration solution that enables branch office server consolidation,
improves performance for centralized applications, and provides remote users
with LAN-like access to applications, storage, and content across the WAN.
The WAAS solution has three major components:
•
Wide Area Engine Edge—(WAE-E). The edge WAE is installed on clients. It
is a file caching device that serves client requests at remote sites and branch
offices. The device is deployed at each branch office or remote campus,
replacing file servers and print servers, giving local clients fast, near-LAN
read and write access to a cached view of data residing at a remote data center.
•
Wide Area Engine Core—(WAE-C). The core WAE component is installed on
a server at the data center. It connects directly to one or more file servers or
network-attached storage (NAS) devices. Core WAEs are placed between the
file servers at the data center and the WAN that connects the data center to the
enterprise’s remote sites and branch offices. Requests that are received from
edge WAEs are translated by the core WAE into the original file server
protocol and forwarded to the appropriate file server. The core WAEs at the
data center can provide load balancing and failover support.
•
Web Cache Communication Protocol—(WCCP). This is a Cisco protocol that
specifies interactions between one or more routers or Layer 3 switches, and
one or more application appliances, web caches, and caches of other
protocols. The purpose of the interaction is to establish and maintain the
transparent redirection of selected types of traffic flowing through a group of
routers to a group of appliances. Any type of TCP traffic can be redirected.
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Wide Area Application Services
Configuring a WAAS Connection
This chapter contains the help topics for the WAAS configuration screens and
contains the following sections:
•
Configuring a WAAS Connection
•
WAAS Reference
Configuring a WAAS Connection
You must have a WAAS network interface module installed on the router in order
to configure WAAS.
Complete the following steps to configure a WAAS connection:
Step 1
If you want to review the Cisco IOS CLI commands that you send to the router
when you complete the configuration, go to the Cisco SDM toolbar, and click Edit
> Preferences > Preview commands before delivering to router. The preview
screen allows you to cancel the configuration if you want to.
Step 2
In the Cisco SDM toolbar, click Configure.
Step 3
In the Cisco SDM toolbar, click Interfaces and Connections.
Step 4
Click the NM WAAS tab, next to the Edit Interface/Connection tab.
Step 5
Click Edit Settings to configure the router for the WAAS network module.
a.
Enter the required information in the Integrated Services Engine tab. See
Integrated Service Engine for more information
b.
Click WCCP, and enter the required information in the WCCP tab. See
WCCP for more information.
Step 6
Click OK to return to the NM WAAS tab.
Step 7
If you checked Preview commands before delivering to router in the Edit
Preferences screen, the Cisco IOS CLI commands that you are sending are
displayed. Click Deliver to send the configuration to the router, or click Cancel
to discard it. If you did not make this setting, clicking OK sends the configuration
to the router.
Step 8
In the Tools menu, click Telnet.
Step 9
Enter the router username and password.
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Step 10
If necessary, enter the enable command, press Enter, and provide the enable
password.
Step 11
At the Cisco IOS command prompt, enter the following commands:
Router(config)# wccp router-list 1 default_gateway
Router(config)# wccp tcp-promiscuous router-list-num 1
Router(config)# wccp version 2
Replace default_gateway with the IP address of the router that provides a route to
the CM.
Step 12
In the NM WAAS tab, click Register.
a.
Enter the IP address of the WAAS CM.
b.
Choose the interface on which you want to send the registration request. The
interface that you choose must have a route to the WAAS CM network.
c.
Click OK. Cisco SDM displays a username and password dialog box.
d.
Enter the username and password required to login to the CM.
After the router registers with the CM, the blue https link contains the CM IP
address.
Step 13
Click on the https link to view the registration status for the Edge WAE on the
router. The CM displays the device registration status as online.
WAAS Reference
The following sections describe the WAAS configuration screens:
•
NM WAAS
•
Integrated Service Engine
•
WCCP
•
Central Manager Registration
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NM WAAS
If a WAAS network module is installed on the router, Cisco SDM shows the NM
WAAS tab. This tab shows the current WAAS status and configuration, and from
this tab you can go to the WAAS configuration screens.
From this screen, Cisco SDM allows you to log in to the WAAS Central Manager
(CM) so that you can register the edge WAE, and view the registration status sent
by the CM.
Note
Do not click the Register button at the top of the screen until you configure the
WAAS NM and enter these Cisco IOS global configuration mode CLI commands:
Router(config)# wccp router-list 1 default_gateway
Router(config)# wccp tcp-promiscuous router-list-num 1
Router(config)# wccp version 2
Replace default_gateway with the IP address of the router that provides a route to
the CM. See Configuring a WAAS Connection for more information.
Related Links
•
Configuring a WAAS Connection
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Field Reference
Table 7-1 describes the information in the NM WAAS tab.
Table 7-1
NM WAAS Tab
Element
Description
Registration status with the WAAS
central manager
Cisco SDM shows one of the following:
Register
•
Active—The Edge WAE is registered with the WAAS
central manager. Cisco SDM displays a green icon when
the Edge WAE is registered.
•
Inactive—The Edge WAE is not registered with the
WAAS central manager. Cisco SDM displays a red icon
when the Edge WAE is not registered.
To log on to the CM and register the Edge WAE on the router,
click Register.
Note
Do not attempt to register until you have configured
the WAAS NM, and entered the Cisco IOS CLI
commands noted at the beginning of this help topic.
Refresh
To refresh the registration status, click Refresh. Cisco SDM
displays a username and password dialog to allow you to
login to the CM.
To configure the WAAS device....
To launch the central manager device manager, click on the
displayed link.
WAAS Configuration
WAAS Interface
The name of the WAAS network module; for example,
Integrated Service Engine 0/0.
Router IP address
The IP address of the router interface to the service module.
This is the IP address of the Redirect interface.
Service Module Internal IP Address
The internal IP address assigned to the service module.
Service Module External IP Address
(Optional). The external IP address assigned to the service
module.
Default Gateway
The default gateway IP address used by the service module.
WCCP Protocol Settings
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Table 7-1
NM WAAS Tab (continued)
Element
Description
Version
The version of the WCCP protocol in use; for example,
WCCP Version 2.
Inside Interface
The name of the router interface being used for the WCCP
inside interface. This interface is connected to the LAN.
Outside Interface
The name of the router interface being used for the WCCP
outside interface. This interface is connected to the WAN.
Redirect Interface
The router interface that is redirecting traffic to the WAAS
service module. This interface is configured to avoid
redirection loops.
Buttons
Edit Settings
Click Edit Settings to display a dialog that enables you to
change integrated service engine settings and WCCP
settings.
Delete
Click Delete to remove the current WAAS configuration.
Reload
Click Reload to refresh the information in this screen.
Integrated Service Engine
Enter settings for the router, the WAAS service module, and the gateway that the
service module uses in this screen.
Field Reference
Table 7-2 describes the configuration fields in this screen.
Table 7-2
Integrated Service Engine Tab
Element
Description
Router IP Address
IP Address
Enter the IP address of the router interface that is to redirect traffic
to the WAAS service module.
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Table 7-2
Integrated Service Engine Tab (continued)
Element
Description
Subnet mask
Enter the subnet mask in decimal format; for example,
255.255.255.0. Or, choose the number of subnet bits; for example,
24. Entering values in one field updates the other. For example, if
you enter 255.255.255.0, the subnet bits field is automatically
updated to display 24.
Service Module
Internal IP Address
Enter the internal IP address of the WAAS network module. This IP
address must be on the same subnet as the router IP address used.
For example, if the router IP address is 10.0.0.20, the service
module internal IP address might be 10.0.0.21.
Subnet Mask
Enter the subnet mask in decimal format; for example,
255.255.255.0. Or, choose the number of subnet bits; for example,
24. Entering values in one field updates the other. For example, if
you enter 255.255.255.0, the subnet bits field is automatically
updated to display 24.
External IP Address
(Optional). Enter the external IP address for the WAAS network
module. This IP address may be required to connect to the WAAS
CM.
Subnet Mask
Enter the subnet mask in decimal format; for example,
255.255.255.0. Or, choose the number of subnet bits; for example,
24. Entering values in one field updates the other. For example, if
you enter 255.255.255.0, the subnet bits field is automatically
updated to display 24.
Default Gateway
Default Gateway IP Address
Enter the IP address of the default gateway router that the WAAS
service module is to use.
WCCP
Configure WCCP settings in this screen. WCCP settings specify the router
interfaces that redirect traffic to the WAAS NM, and information about the WAAS
CM.
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Field Reference
Table 7-3 describes the fields in this screen.
Table 7-3
WCCP Tab Field Reference
Element
Description
WCCP Settings
WCCP 61 Redirect
Choose the LAN subinterface from the list that carries the traffic
that you want to redirect to the WAAS NM. The interface that you
choose is displayed as the Inside Interface on the NM WAAS tab.
Choose IN from the list to the right of the interface list.
WCCP 62 Redirect
Choose the WAN subinterface from the list that carries the traffic
that you want to redirect to the WAAS NM. he interface that you
choose is displayed as the Outside Interface on the NM WAAS tab.
Choose IN from the list to the right of the interface list.
WCCP Redirect Exclude
Choose the Integrated Services Engine used in this configuration to
specify that the router is not to repeatedly redirect the same traffic
to the local WAE.
Central Manager Registration
In this screen, register with the WAAS Central Manager.
Field Reference
Table 7-4 describes the fields in this screen
Table 7-4
WAAS Central Manager Registration
Element
Description
IP Address
Enter the IP Address of the WAAS Central Manager.
Primary Interface
Choose the router interface on which the registration request should
be sent. The interface must have a route to the WAAS Central
Manager’s network.
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8
Create Firewall
A firewall is a set of rules used to protect the resources of your LAN. These rules
filter the packets arriving at the router. If a packet does not meet the criteria
specified in the rule, it is dropped. If it does meet the criteria, it is allowed to pass
through the interface that the rule is applied to. This wizard enables you to create
a firewall for your LAN by answering prompts in a set of screens.
In this window, select the type of firewall that you want to create.
Note
•
The router that you are configuring must be using a Cisco IOS image that
supports the Firewall feature set in order for you to be able to use Cisco
Router and Security Device Manager (Cisco SDM) to configure a firewall on
the router.
•
The LAN and WAN configurations must be complete before you can
configure a firewall.
Basic Firewall
Click this if you want Cisco SDM to create a firewall using default rules. The use
case scenario shows a typical network configuration in which this kind of firewall
is used.
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Advanced Firewall
Click this if you want Cisco SDM to lead you through the steps of configuring a
firewall. You have the option to create a DMZ network, and to specify an
inspection rule. The use case scenario shown when you select this option shows
you a typical configuration for an Internet of firewall.
What Do You Want to Do?
If you want to:
Do this:
Have Cisco SDM create a firewall for me.
Click Basic Firewall. Then, click Launch the Selected
Task.
You might want to select this option if you
do not want to configure a DMZ network, or Cisco SDM asks you to identify the interfaces on your
if there is only one outside interface.
router, and then it uses Cisco SDM default access rules
and inspection rules to create the firewall.
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If you want to:
Do this:
Have Cisco SDM help me create an
Advanced Firewall.
Select Advanced Firewall. Then, click Launch the
Selected Task.
If your router has multiple inside and
outside interfaces, and you want to
configure a DMZ, you should select this
option.
Cisco SDM will show you the default inspection rule and
allow you to use it in the firewall. Or, you can create your
own inspection rule. Cisco SDM will use a default access
rule in the firewall
Get information about a task that this
wizard does not help me complete.
Select a topic from the following list:
•
How Do I View Activity on My Firewall?
•
How Do I Configure a Firewall on an Unsupported
Interface?
•
How Do I Configure a Firewall After I Have
Configured a VPN?
•
How Do I Permit Specific Traffic Through a DMZ
Interface?
•
How Do I Modify an Existing Firewall to Permit
Traffic from a New Network or Host?
•
How Do I Configure NAT on an Unsupported
Interface?
•
How Do I Configure NAT Passthrough for a
Firewall?
•
How Do I Permit Traffic Through a Firewall to My
Easy VPN Concentrator?
•
How Do I Associate a Rule with an Interface?
•
How Do I Disassociate an Access Rule from an
Interface
•
How Do I Delete a Rule That Is Associated with an
Interface?
•
How Do I Create an Access Rule for a Java List?
•
How Do I View the IOS Commands I Am Sending to
the Router?
•
How Do I Permit Specific Traffic onto My Network
if I Don’t Have a DMZ Network?
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Basic Firewall Configuration Wizard
Basic Firewall Configuration Wizard
Cisco SDM will protect the LAN with a default firewall when you select this
option. For Cisco SDM to do this, you must specify the inside and outside
interfaces in the next window. Click Next to begin configuration.
Basic Firewall Interface Configuration
Identify the interfaces on the router so that the firewall will be applied to the
correct interface.
Outside (untrusted) Interface
Select the router interface that is connected to the Internet or to your
organization’s WAN.
Note
Do not select the interface through which you accessed Cisco SDM as the outside
(untrusted) interface. Doing so will cause you to lose your connection to Cisco
SDM. Because it will be protected by a firewall, you will not be able to launch
Cisco SDM from the outside (untrusted) interface after the Firewall Wizard
completes.
Allow secure Cisco SDM access from outside interfaces checkbox
Check this box if you want users outside the firewall to be able to access the router
using Cisco SDM. The wizard will display a screen that allows you to specify a
host IP address or a network address. The firewall will be modified to allow access
to the address you specify. If youspecify a network address, all hosts on that
network willbe allowed through the firewall.
Inside (trusted) Interfaces
Check the physical and logical interfaces connecting to the LAN. You can select
multiple interfaces.
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Advanced Firewall Configuration Wizard
Configuring Firewall for Remote Access
Creating a firewall can block access to the router that remote administrators may
need. You can specify the router interfaces to use for remote management access
and the hosts from which administrators can log on to Cisco SDM to manage the
router. The firewall will be modified to allow secure remote access from the host
or network that you specify.
Select the outside interface
If you are using the Advanced Firewall wizard, select the interface through which
users are to launch Cisco SDM. This field does not appear in the Basic Firewall
wizard.
Source Host/Network
If you want to allow a single host access through the firewall, choose Host
Address and enter the IP address of a host. Choose Network Address and enter
the address of a network and a subnet mask to allow hosts on that network access
through the firewall. The host or network must be accessible from the interface
that you specified. Choose Any to allow any host connected to the specified
interfaces secure access to the network.
Advanced Firewall Configuration Wizard
Cisco SDM will help you create an Internet firewall by asking you for information
about the interfaces on the router, whether you want to configure a DMZ network,
and what rules you want to use in the firewall.
Click Next to begin configuration.
Advanced Firewall Interface Configuration
Identify the router’s inside and outside interfaces and the interface that connects
to the DMZ network.
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Check outside or inside to identify each interface as an outside or an inside
interface. Outside interfaces connect to your organizations’s WAN or to the
Internet. Inside interfaces connect to your LAN.
Allow secure Cisco SDM access from outside interfaces checkbox
Check this box if you want users outside the firewall to be able to access the router
using Cisco SDM. The wizard will display a screen that allows you to specify a
host IP address or a network address. The firewall will be modified to allow access
to the address you specify. If youspecify a network address, all hosts on that
network willbe allowed through the firewall.
DMZ Interface
Select the router interface that connects to a DMZ network, if one exists. A DMZ
network is a buffer zone used to isolate traffic that comes from an untrusted
network. If you have a DMZ network, select the interface that connects to it.
Advanced Firewall DMZ Service Configuration
This window allows you to view rule entries that specify which services available
inside the DMZ you want to make available through the router’s outside
interfaces. Traffic of the specified service types will be allowed through the
outside interfaces into the DMZ network.
DMZ Service Configuration
This area shows the DMZ service entries configured on the router.
Start IP Address
The first IP address in the range that specifies the hosts in the DMZ network.
End IP Address
The last IP address in the range that specifies the hosts in the DMZ network. If
there is no value listed in this column, the IP address in the Start IP address
column is presumed to be the only host in the DMZ network. The range can
specify a maximum of 254 hosts.
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Service Type
The type of service, either Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) or User
Datagram Protocol (UDP).
Service
The name of the service, such as Telnet, or FTP, or a protocol number.
To configure a DMZ service entry:
Click Add, and create the entry in the DMZ Service Configuration window.
To edit a DMZ service entry:
Select the service entry, and click Edit. Then, edit the entry in the DMZ Service
Configuration window.
DMZ Service Configuration
Create or edit a DMZ service entry in this window.
Host IP Address
Enter the address range that will specify the hosts in the DMZ that this entry
applies to. The firewall will allow traffic for the specified TCP or UDP service to
reach these hosts.
Start IP Address
Enter the first IP address in the range; for example, 172.20.1.1. If Network
Address Translation (NAT) is enabled, you must enter the NAT-translated address,
known as the inside global address.
End IP Address
Enter the last IP address in the range; for example, 172.20.1.254. If NAT is
enabled, you must enter the NAT-translated address.
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Service
TCP
Click this option if you want to allow traffic for a TCP service.
UDP
Click this option if you want to allow traffic for a UDP service.
Service
Enter the service name or number in this field. If you do not know the name or
number, click the button and select the service from the list displayed.
Application Security Configuration
Cisco SDM provides preconfigured application security policies that you can use
to protect the network. Use the slider bar to select the security level that you want
and to view a description of the security it provides. The wizard summary screen
displays the policy name, SDM_HIGH, SDM_MEDIUM, or SDM_LOW and the
configuration statements in the policy. You can also view the details of the policy
by clicking the Application Security tab and choosing the name of the policy.
Preview Commands Button
Click to view the IOS commands that make up this policy.
Custom Application Security Policy Button
This button and the Policy Name field are visible if you are completing the
Advanced Firewall wizard. Choose this option if you want to create your own
application security policy. If the policy already exists, enter the name in the field,
or click the button on the right, choose Select an existing policy, and select the
policy. To create a policy, click the button, choose Create a New Policy, and
create the policy in the dialog displayed.
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Domain Name Server Configuration
The router must be configured with the IP address of at least one DNS server for
application security to work. Click Enable DNS-based hostname-to-address
translation, and provide the IP address of the primary DNS server. If a secondary
DNS server is available, enter it’s IP address in the Secondary DNS Server field.
The IP addresses that you enter will be visible in the DNS Properties window
under Additional Tasks.
URL Filter Server Configuration
URL filter servers are capable of storing and maintaining much more URL
filtering information than a router configuration file can contain. If there are URL
filter servers on the network, you can configure the router use them. You can
configure additional URL filter server parameters by going to Configure >
Additional Tasks > URL Filtering. See URL Filtering for more information.
Filter HTTP Request through URL Filter Server
Check the Filter HTTP Request through URL Filter Server box to enable URL
filtering by URL filter servers.
URL Filter Server Type
Cisco SDM supports the Secure Computing and Websense URL filter servers.
Choose either Secure Computing or Websense to specify the type of URL filter
server on the network.
IP Address/Hostname
Enter the IP address or the hostname of the URL filter server.
Select Interface Zone
This window appears if a router interface other than the one you are configuring
is a member of a Zone-Based Policy Firewall security zone. For more information
about this topic, see Zone-Based Policy Firewall.
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Select Zone
Select the security zone that you want the interface to be a member of. If you
choose not to assign the interface to a zone, there is a strong possibility that traffic
will not pass through the interface.
ZPF Inside Zones
Zones that include interfaces used in generic routing encapsulation (GRE) tunnels
must be designated as inside (trusted) zones in order for GRE traffic to pass
through the firewall.
This window lists the configured zones and their member interfaces. To designate
a zone as inside, check the inside (trusted) column in the row for that zone.
Voice Configuration
Include voice traffic in the router firewall policy by providing the necessary
information in this screen.
Field Reference
Table 8-1 describes the fields in this screen.
Table 8-1
Voice Configuration Fields
Element
Description
Enable Voice Configuration
Check Enable Voice Configuration to enable the other fields in
this screen.
Interface
The name of a router interface, for example, GigabitEthernet0/1
Outside (untrusted)
Check Outside (untrusted) next to the interface name if you are
using the interface to connect to the WAN.
Inside (trusted)
Check Inside (trusted) next to the interface name if you are using
the interface to connect to the LAN or other trusted network.
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Table 8-1
Voice Configuration Fields
Element
Description
Select the Lineside Protocol
The lineside protocol is the protocol used when sending traffic too
and from the phones on the network. Choose one of the following
options:
Select the Trunkside Protocol
Enable logging for voice traffic
•
SIP—Session Initiation Protocol.
•
SCCP—Skinny Client Control Protocol.
The trunkside protocol is the protocol used when sending traffic
over the Internet. Choose one of the following options:
•
SIP—Session Initiation Protocol.
•
H.323
To view logging messages related to voice traffic in the monitor
screens, check Enable logging for voice traffic. To view these
messages, click Monitor in the Cisco SDM toolbar, and then click
Firewall.
Summary
This screen summarizes the firewall information. You can review the information
in this screen and use the Back button to return to screens in the wizard to make
changes.
The summary screen uses plain-language to describe the configuration. You can
view the CLI commands that Cisco SDM delivers to the router by going to Edit >
Prefereences, and checking Preview commands before delivering to router.
Inside (trusted) Interface(s)
Cisco SDM lists the router’s logical and physical interfaces that you designated
as the inside interfaces in this wizard session, along with their IP addresses.
Underneath, plain-language descriptions are given for each configuration
statement applied to the inside interfaces . The following are examples:
Inside(trusted) Interfaces:
FastEthernet0/0 (10.28.54.205)
Apply access rule to the inbound direction to deny spoofing traffic.
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Apply access rule to the inbound direction to deny traffic sourced
from broadcast, local loopback address.
Apply access rule to the inbound direction to permit all other
traffic.
Apply application security policy SDM_HIGH to the inbound direction.
This example shows the Cisco SDM Application Security policy SDM_HIGH
applied to inbound traffic on this interface.
Outside (untrusted) Interface(s)
Cisco SDM lists the router logical and physical interfaces that you designated as
outside interfaces in this wizard session, along with their IP addresses.
Underneath, plain-language descriptions are given for each configuration
statement applied to the outside interfaces. The following are examples:
FastEthernet0/1 (142.120.12.1)
Turn on unicast reverse path forwarding check for non-tunnel
interfaces.
Apply access rule to the inbound direction to permit IPSec tunnel
traffic if necessary.
Apply access rule to the inbound direction to permit GRE tunnel
traffic for interfaces if necessary.
Apply access rule to the inbound direction to permit ICMP traffic.
Apply access rule to the inbound direction to permit NTP traffic if
necessary.
Apply access rule to the inbound direction to deny spoofing traffic.
Apply access rule to the inbound direction to deny traffic sourced
from broadcast, local loopback and private address.
Apply access rule to the inbound direction to permit service traffic
going to DMZ interface.
Service ftp at 10.10.10.1 to 10.10.10.20
Apply access rule to the inbound direction to permit secure SDM access
from 140.44.3.0 255.255.255.0 host/network
Apply access rule to the inbound direction to deny all other traffic.
Note that this configuration turns on reverse path forwarding, a feature that allows
the router to discard packets that lack a verifiable source IP address, and permits
ftp traffic to the DMZ addresses 10.10.10.1 through 10.10.10.20.
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DMZ Interface
If you configured an Advanced firewall, this area shows you the DMZ interface
you designated, along with its IP address. Underneath, Cisco SDM describes what
access and inspection rules were associated with this interface. The following are
examples:
FastEthernet (10.10.10.1)
Apply CBAC inspection rule to the outbound direction
Apply access rule to the inbound direction to deny all other traffic.
To save this configuration to the router’s running configuration and leave this wizard:
Click Finish. Cisco SDM saves the configuration changes to the router’s running
configuration. The changes will take effect immediately, but will be lost if the
router is turned off.
If you checked Preview commands before delivering to router in the User
Preferences window, the Deliver configuration to router window appears. In this
window, you can view the CLI commands you that are delivering to the router.
SDM Warning: SDM Access
This window appears when you have indicated that Cisco SDM should be able to
access the router from outside interfaces. It informs you that you must ensure that
SSH and HTTPS are configured, and that at least one of the interfaces designated
as outside be configured with a static IP address. To do this, you must ensure that
an outside interface is configured with a static IP address, and then associate a
management policy with that interface.
Determining if an Outside Interface is Configured with a Static IP Address
Complete the following steps to determine if an outside interface is configured
with a static IP address.
Step 1
Click Configure > Interfaces and Connections > Edit Interface/Connection.
Step 2
Review the IP column in the Interface list table to determine if an outside interface
has a static IP addresses.
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Step 3
If no outside interface has a static IP address, select one and click Edit to display
a dialog that allows you to reconfigure the IP address information for the
interface.
If there is anoutside interface with a static IP address, note that interface name and
complete the next procedure.
Configuring SSH and HTTPS
Complete the following steps to configure a management policy for SSH and
HTTPS on the router.
Step 1
Click Configure > Additional Tasks > Router Access > Management Access.
Step 2
If there is no management policy, click Add. If you want to edit an existing
management policy, select the policy and click Edit.
Note
If you are editing a management policy it must be associated with an interface that
has a static IP address.
Step 3
In the displayed dialog, enter the address information in the Source Host/Network
box. The IP address information that you enter must include the IP address of the
PC you will use to manage the router.
Step 4
Choose an outside interface with a static IP address in the Management Interface
box. This interface must have a route to the IP address you specified in the Source
Host/Network box.
Step 5
In the Management Protocols box, check Allow SDM.
Step 6
Check HTTPS and SSH to allow those protocols.
Step 7
Click OK to close the dialog.
Step 8
Click Apply Changes in the window that displays management access policies.
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How Do I...
How Do I...
This section contains procedures for tasks that the wizard does not help you
complete.
How Do I View Activity on My Firewall?
Activity on your firewall is monitored through the creation of log entries. If
logging is enabled on the router, whenever an access rule that is configured to
generate log entries is invoked—for example, if a connection were attempted from
a denied IP address—then a log entry is generated and can be viewed in Monitor
mode.
Enable Logging
The first step to viewing firewall activity is to enable logging on the router. To
enable logging:
Step 1
From the left frame, select Additional Tasks.
Step 2
In the Additional Tasks tree, click Logging and then click the Edit button.
Step 3
In the Syslog screen, check Logging to Buffer.
Step 4
In the Buffer Size field, enter the amount of router memory that you want to use
for a logging buffer. The default value is 4096 bytes. A larger buffer will store
more log entries but you must balance your need for a larger logging buffer
against potential router performance issues.
Step 5
Click OK.
Identify the Access Rules for Which You Want to Generate Log Entries
In addition to enabling logging, you must identify the access rules that you want
to generate log entries. To configure access rules for generating log entries:
Step 1
From the left frame, select Additional Tasks.
Step 2
In the Additional Tasks tree, click ACL Editor, and then click Access Rules.
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Each access rule appears in the upper table on the right side of the screen. The
lower table shows the specific source and destination IP addresses and the
services that are permitted or denied by the rule.
Step 3
In the upper table, click the rule that you want to modify.
Step 4
Click Edit.
The Edit a Rule dialog box appears.
Step 5
The Rule Entry field shows each of the source IP/destination IP/service
combinations that are permitted or denied by the rule. Click the rule entry that you
want to configure to generate log entries.
Step 6
Click Edit.
Step 7
In the rule entry dialog box, check the Log Matches Against this Entry check
box.
Step 8
Click OK to close the dialog boxes you have displayed.
The rule entry that you just modified will now generate log entries whenever a
connection is attempted from the IP address range and services that the define the
rule entry.
Step 9
Repeat Step 4 through Step 8 for each rule entry that you want to configure to
generate log entries.
Once your logging configuration is complete, follow the steps below to view your
firewall activity:
Step 1
From the toolbar, select Monitor Mode.
Step 2
From the left frame, select Firewall Status.
In the Firewall statistics, you can verify that your firewall is configured and view
how many connection attempts have been denied.
The table shows each router log entry generated by the firewall, including the time
and the reason that the log entry was generated.
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How Do I Configure a Firewall on an Unsupported Interface?
Cisco SDM can configure a firewall on an interface type unsupported by Cisco
SDM. Before you can configure the firewall, you must first use the router CLI to
configure the interface. The interface must have, at a minimum, an IP address
configured, and it must be working. For more information on how to configure an
interface using the CLI, refer to the Software Configuration Guide for your router.
To verify that the connection is working, verify that the interface status is “Up” in
the Interfaces and Connections window.
The following is an exerpt showing the configuration for an ISDN interface on a
Cisco 3620 router:
!
isdn switch-type basic-5ess
!
interface BRI0/0
! This is the data BRI WIC
ip unnumbered Ethernet0/0
no ip directed-broadcast
encapsulation ppp
no ip mroute-cache
dialer map ip 100.100.100.100 name junky 883531601
dialer hold-queue 10
isdn switch-type basic-5ess
isdn tei-negotiation first-call
isdn twait-disable
isdn spid1 80568541630101 6854163
isdn incoming-voice modem
Other configurations are available in the Software Configuration Guide for your
router.
After you have configured the unsupported interface using the CLI, you canuse
Cisco SDM to configure the firewall. The unsupported interface will appear as
“Other” in the fields listing the router interfaces.
How Do I Configure a Firewall After I Have Configured a VPN?
If a firewall is placed on an interface used in a VPN, the firewall must permit
traffic between the local and remote VPN peers. If you use the Basic or Advanced
Firewall wizard, Cisco SDM will automatically permit traffic to flow between
VPN peers.
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If you create an access rule in the ACL Editor available in Additional Tasks, you
have complete control over the permit and deny statements in the rule, and you
must ensure that traffic is permitted between VPN peers. The following
statements are examples of the types of statements that should be included in the
configuration to permit VPN traffic:
access-list 105
access-list 105
access-list 105
access-list 105
non500-isakmp
permit
permit
permit
permit
ahp
esp
udp
udp
host
host
host
host
123.3.4.5
123.3.4.5
123.3.4.5
123.3.4.5
host
host
host
host
192.168.0.1
192.168.0.1
192.168.0.1 eq isakmp
192.168.0.1 eq
How Do I Permit Specific Traffic Through a DMZ Interface?
Follow the steps below to configure access through your firewall to a web server
on a DMZ network:
Step 1
From the left frame, select Firewall and ACL.
Step 2
Select Advanced Firewall.
Step 3
Click Launch the Selected Task.
Step 4
Click Next.
The Advanced Firewall Interface Configuration screen appears.
Step 5
In the Interface table, select which interfaces connect to networks inside your
firewall and which interfaces connect to networks outside the firewall.
Step 6
From the DMZ Interface field, select the interface that connects to your DMZ
network.
Step 7
Click Next>.
Step 8
In the IP Address field, enter the IP address or range of IP addresses of your web
server(s).
Step 9
From the Service field, select TCP.
Step 10
In the Port field, enter 80 or www.
Step 11
Click Next>.
Step 12
Click Finish.
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How Do I Modify an Existing Firewall to Permit Traffic from a
New Network or Host?
You can use the Edit Firewall Policy tab to modify your firewall configuration to
permit traffic from a new network or host.
Step 1
From the left frame, select Firewall and ACL.
Step 2
Click the Edit Firewall Policy tab.
Step 3
In the traffic selection panel select a From interface and a To interface to specify
the traffic flow to which the firewall has been applied, and click Go. A firewall
icon will appear in the router graphic if a firewall has been applied to the traffic
flow. If the traffic flow you select does not display the access rule you need to
modify, select a different From interface or a different To interface.
Step 4
Examine the access rule in the Service area. Use the Add button to disp.lay a
dialog for a new access rule entry.
Step 5
Enter a permit statement for the network or host you want to allow access to the
network. Click OK in the rule entry dialog.
Step 6
The new entry appears in the service area..
Step 7
Use the Cut and Paste buttons to reorder the entry to a different position in the
list if you need to do so.
How Do I Configure NAT on an Unsupported Interface?
Cisco SDM can configure Network Address Translation (NAT) on an interface
type unsupported by Cisco SDM. Before you can configure the firewall, you must
first use the router CLI to configure the interface. The interface must have, at a
minimum, an IP address configured, and it must be working. To verify that the
connection is working, verify that the interface status is “Up.”
After you have configured the unsupported interface using the CLI, you can
configure NAT . The unsupported interface will appear as “Other” on the router
interface list.
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How Do I Configure NAT Passthrough for a Firewall?
If you have configured NAT and are now configuring your firewall, you must
configure the firewall so that it permits traffic from your public IP address. To do
this you must configure an ACL. To configure an ACL permitting traffic from
your public IP address:
Step 1
From the left frame, select Additional Tasks.
Step 2
In the Rules tree, select ACL Editor and then Access Rules.
Step 3
Click Add.
The Add a Rule dialog box appears.
Step 4
In the Name/Number field, enter a unique name or number for the new rule.
Step 5
From the Type field, choose Standard Rule.
Step 6
In the Description field, enter a short description of the new rule, such as “Permit
NAT Passthrough.”
Step 7
Click Add.
The Add a Standard Rule Entry dialog box appears.
Step 8
In the Action field, choose Permit.
Step 9
In the Type field, choose Host.
Step 10
In the IP Address field, enter your public IP address.
Step 11
In the Description field, enter a short description, such as “Public IP Address.”
Step 12
Click OK.
Step 13
Click OK.
The new rule now appears in the Access Rules table.
How Do I Permit Traffic Through a Firewall to My Easy VPN
Concentrator?
In order to permit traffic through your firewall to a VPN concentrator, you must
create or modify access rules that permit the VPN traffic. To create these rules:
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Step 1
From the left frame, select Additional Tasks.
Step 2
In the Rules tree, select ACL Editor and then Access Rules.
Step 3
Click Add.
The Add a Rule dialog box appears.
Step 4
In the Name/Number field, enter a unique name or number for this rule.
Step 5
In the Description field, enter a description of the rule, such as “VPN
Concentrator Traffic.”
Step 6
Click Add.
The Add an Extended Rule Entry dialog box appears.
Step 7
In the Source Host/Network group, from the Type field, select A Network.
Step 8
In the IP Address and Wildcard Mask fields, enter the IP address and network
mask of the VPN source peer.
Step 9
In the Destination Host/Network group, from the Type field, select A Network.
Step 10
In the IP Address and Wildcard Mask fields, enter the IP address and network
mask of the VPN destination peer.
Step 11
In the Protocol and Service group, select TCP.
Step 12
In the Source port fields, select =, and enter the port number 1023.
Step 13
In the Destination port fields, select =, and enter the port number 1723.
Step 14
Click OK.
The new rule entry appears in the Rule Entry list.
Step 15
Step 16
Repeat Step 7 through Step 15, creating rule entries for the following protocols
and, where required, port numbers:
•
Protocol IP, IP protocol GRE
•
Protocol UDP, Source Port 500, Destination Port 500
•
Protocol IP, IP Protocol ESP
•
Protocol UDP, Source Port 10000, Destination Port 10000
Click OK.
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How Do I Associate a Rule with an Interface?
If you use the Cisco SDM Firewall wizard, the access and inspection rules that
you create are automatically associated with the interface for which you created
the firewall. If you are creating a rule in Additonal Tasks/ACL Editor, you can
associate it with an interface from the Add or Edit a Rule window. If you do not
associate it with an interface at that time, you can still do so later.
Step 1
Click Interfaces and Connections in the left panel and click the Edit Interfaces
and Connections tab.
Step 2
Select the interface that you want to associate a rule with, and click Edit.
Step 3
In the Association tab, enter the rule name or number in the Inbound or Outbound
field in the Access Rule or Inspection Rule boxes. If you want the rule to filter
traffic before it enters the interface, use the Inbound field. If you want the rule to
filter traffic that has already entered the router, but may exit the router through the
selected interface, use the Outbound field.
Step 4
Click OK in the Association tab.
Step 5
In the Access Rules or the Inspection Rules window, examine the Used By column
to verify that the rule has been associated with the interface.
How Do I Disassociate an Access Rule from an Interface
You may need to remove the association between an access rule and an interface.
Removing the association does not delete the access rule. You can associate it
with other interfaces if you want. To remove the association between an access
rule and an interface, perform the following steps.
Step 1
Click Interfaces and Connections in the left panel and click the Edit Interfaces
and Connections tab.
Step 2
Select the interface that you want to disassociate the access rule from.
Step 3
Click Edit.
Step 4
In the Association tab, find the access rule in the inbound or outbound field in the
Access Rule box. The access rule may have a name, or a number.
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Step 5
Click in the inbound or outbound field, and then click the button to the right.
Step 6
Click None (clear rule association).
Step 7
Click OK.
How Do I Delete a Rule That Is Associated with an Interface?
Cisco SDM does not allow you to delete a rule that is associated with an interface;
you must first remove the association between the rule and the interface, and then
delete the access rule.
Step 1
Click Interfaces and Connections in the left panel and click the Edit Interfaces
and Connections tab.
Step 2
Select the interface that you want to disassociate the rule from.
Step 3
Click Edit..
Step 4
In the Association tab, find the rule in the Access Rule box or the Inspect Rule
box. The rule may have a name or a number.
Step 5
Find the rule in the association tab. If it is an access rule, click None (clear rule
association). If it is an Inspection rule, click None.
Step 6
Click OK.
Step 7
Click Rules in the left frame. Use the Rules tree to go to the Access Rule or the
Inspection Rule window.
Step 8
Select the rule that you want to remove, and click Delete.
How Do I Create an Access Rule for a Java List?
Inspection rules allow you to specify Java lists. A Java list is used to permit Java
applet traffic from trusted sources. These sources are defined in an access rule that
the Java List references. To create this kind of access rule, and use it in a Java list,
do the following:
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Step 1
If you are at the Inspection Rules window, and you have clicked Java List, click
the button to the right of the Number field and click Create a new rule (ACL)
and select. The Add a Rule window opens.
If you are at the Access Rules window, click Add to open the Add a Rule window.
Step 2
From the Add a Rule window, create a standard access rule that permits traffic
from the addresses you trust. For example, if you wanted to permit Java applets
from hosts 10.22.55.3, and 172.55.66.1, you could create the following access
rule entries in the Add a Rule window:
permit host 10.22.55.3
permit host 172.55.66.1
You can provide descriptions for the entries and a description for the rule.
You do not need to associate the rule with the interface to which you are applying
the inspection rule.
Step 3
Click OK in the Add a Rule window.
Step 4
If you started this procedure from the Inspection Rules window, then click OK in
the Java List window. You do not need to complete Step 5 and Step 6.
Step 5
If you started this procedure in the Access Rules window, go to the Inspection
Rules window and select the inspection rule you want to create a Java list for, and
click Edit.
Step 6
Check http in the Protocols column, and click Java List.
Step 7
In the Java List Number field, enter the number of the access list that you created.
Click OK.
How Do I Permit Specific Traffic onto My Network if I Don’t Have
a DMZ Network?
The Firewall wizard, lets you specify the traffic that you want to allow onto the
DMZ. If you do not have a DMZ network, you can still permit specified types of
outside traffic onto your network, using the Firewall Policy feature.
Step 1
Configure a firewall using the Firewall wizard.
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Step 2
Click Edit Firewall Policy/ACL.
Step 3
To display the access rule you need to modify, select the outside (untrusted)
interface as the From interface, and the inside (trusted) interface as the To
interface. The access rule applied to inbound traffic on the untrusted interface is
displayed.
Step 4
To allow a particular type of traffic onto the network that is not already allowed,
click Add in the Service area.
Step 5
Create the entries you need in the rule entry dialog.You must click Add for each
entry you want to create.
Step 6
The entries you create will appear in the entry list in the Service area.
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Firewall Policy
The Firewall Policy feature lets you view and modify firewall configurations—
access rules and CBAC inspection rules—in the context of the interfaces whose
traffic they filter. Using a graphical representation of the router and its interfaces,
you can choose different interfaces on the router and see whether an access rule
or an inspection rule has been applied to that interface. You can also view the
details of the rules displayed in the Edit Firewall Policy/ACL window.
Edit Firewall Policy/ACL
Use the Edit Firewall Policy/ACL window to view the access and inspection rules
in a context that displays the interfaces the rules are associated with. Also use it
to modify the access and inspection rules that are displayed.
Configure a Firewall Before Using the Firewall Policy Feature
Before using the Edit Firewall Policy/ACL window, you should perform the
following tasks:
1.
Configure LAN and WAN interfaces. You must configure the LAN and
WAN interfaces before you can create a firewall. You can use the LAN and
WAN wizards to configure connections for your router.
2.
Use the Firewall Wizard to configure a firewall and a DMZ.The Firewall
Wizard is the easiest way to apply access rules and inspection rules to the
inside and outside interfaces you identify, and will allow you to configure a
DMZ interface and specify the services that should be allowed onto the DMZ
network.
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3.
Come to the Firewall Policy window to edit the firewall policy you
created. After configuring LAN and WAN interfaces and creating a firewall,
you can open this window and get a graphical representation of the policy in
a traffic flow. You can view the access rule and inspection rule entries and
make any necessary changes.
Use the Firewall Policy View Feature
After you have created the firewall, you can use the Firewall Policy View window
to get a graphical view of the firewall in the context of the router interfaces, and
to modify it if you need to.
For more information, click the action that you want to take:
•
Choose a Traffic Flow
•
Examine the Traffic Diagram and Choose a Traffic Direction
•
Make Changes to Access Rules
•
Make Changes to Inspection Rules
For a use case example, see Firewall Policy Use Case Scenario.
Note
If the router is using a Cisco IOS image that does not support the Firewall feature
set, only the Services area will be displayed, and you will only be able to create
access control entries.
Apply Changes Button
Click to deliver changes you have made in this window to the router. If you leave
the Edit Firewall Policy/ACL window without clicking Apply Changes, Cisco
SDM displays a message indicating that you must either apply changes or discard
them.
Discard Changes Button
Click to discard changes you have made in this window. This button does not let
you remove changes that you have delivered to the router using the Apply
Changes button.
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Choose a Traffic Flow
Traffic flow refers to traffic that enters the router on a specified interface (the from
interface) and exits the router on a specified interface (the to interface). The Cisco
SDM traffic-flow display controls are located in a row at the top of the Edit
Firewall Policy/ACL window.
Note
There must be a least two configured interfaces on the router. If there is only one,
Cisco SDM will display a message telling you to configure an additional
interface.
The following table defines the Cisco SDM traffic-flow display controls.
From
Choose the interface from which the traffic flow you are interested in
originates. The firewall will protect the network connected to the
From interface. The From drop-down list contains only interfaces
with configured IP addresses.
To
Choose the interface out of which the traffic will leave the router. The
To drop-down list contains only interfaces with configured IP
addresses.
Details button. Click to view details about the interface. Details such
as IP address, encapsulation type, associated IPSec policy, and
authentication type are provided.
Go
button
Click to update the traffic-flow diagram with information about the
interfaces you have chosen. The diagram is not updated until you click
Go. The Go button is disabled if you have not chosen a From interface
or a To interface, or if the From and To interfaces are the same.
View
Option
Choose Swap From and To interface to swap the interfaces that you
originally chose in the From and To drop-down lists. You can use the
swap option if you want to create a firewall protecting both the
network connected to the From interface and the network connected
to the To interface. You can choose View all Access control lists in
traffic flow when one access rule has been applied to the From
interface and another access rule has been applied to the To interface
for a traffic direction you have chosen. The entries of both access rules
are displayed in another window.
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Cisco SDM displays interfaces that have IP addresses in alphabetical order in both
the From and To drop-down lists. By default, Cisco SDM chooses the first
interface in the From list, and the second interface in the To list. Use the From
and To drop-down lists to choose a different traffic flow. The chosen traffic flow
is displayed in the traffic diagram below the traffic-flow display controls.
For example, to view traffic flow from a network connected to the router interface
Ethernet 0 and exiting on the router interface Serial 0, follow these steps:
Step 1
Choose Ethernet 0 in the From drop-down list.
Step 2
Choose Serial 0 in the To drop-down list.
Step 3
Click Go.
Step 4
To switch the interfaces in the From and To drop-down lists, choose Swap From
and To interface from the View Option drop-down list.
Access rules applied to originating and returning traffic may be different. To learn
more about how to switch between displaying originating and returning traffic in
the traffic diagram, see Examine the Traffic Diagram and Choose a Traffic
Direction.
Step 5
Click the Details button next to the From or To drop-down list to open a window
showing an interface’s IP address, IPSec policy, and other information.
To work with the traffic diagram, see Examine the Traffic Diagram and Choose a
Traffic Direction. To return to the main Firewall Policy window description see
Edit Firewall Policy/ACL.
Examine the Traffic Diagram and Choose a Traffic Direction
The traffic diagram displays the router with the chosen From and To interfaces
(see Choose a Traffic Flow for more information). It also displays the types of
rules applied for the chosen traffic flow, as well as the direction in which they have
been applied.
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Originating Traffic
Click to highlight the traffic flow that enters the router at the From interface and
exits the router at the To interface. When this area is highlighted, you can see the
details of rules applied in the direction of traffic flow.
Returning Traffic
Click to highlight the traffic flow that enters the router on the To interface and
exits the router on the From interface. When this area is highlighted, you can see
the details of rules applied to returning traffic.
Icons
Rules are represented by icons in the traffic flow:
A filter symbol indicates that an access rule is being applied.
A magnifying glass indicates that an inspection rule is being applied.
A firewall icon in the router indicates that a firewall has been applied to
the Originating traffic flow. Cisco SDM displays a firewall icon if the
following sets of criteria are met:
•
There is an inspection rule applied to Originating traffic on the
inbound direction of the From interface, and there is an access rule
applied to the inbound direction of the To interface.
•
The access rule on the inbound direction of the To interface is an
extended access rule, and contains at least one access rule entry.
No firewall icon is displayed when a firewall has been applied to
Returning traffic. If the Firewall feature is available, but no firewall has
been applied to the traffic flow, IOS Firewall: Inactive will be
displayed underneath the traffic diagram.
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Rules applied to Originating traffic are indicated by a right arrow. An
icon on the From interface traffic line indicates the presence of a rule
filtering traffic inbound to the router. An icon placed on the To interface
traffic line indicates a rule filtering traffic outbound from the router. If
you place the mouse over this icon, Cisco SDM will display the names
of the rules that have been applied.
Rules applied to Returning traffic are indicated by a left arrow. An icon
on the To interface traffic line indicates the presence of a rule filtering
traffic inbound to the router. An icon on the From interface traffic line
indicates the presence of a rule filtering traffic outbound from the router.
The names of the rules applied are displayed when you place the cursor
over this icon.
Note
Although the icons are shown on a particular interface in the diagram, a firewall
policy might contain access control entries that affect traffic not represented by
the diagram. For example, an entry that contains the wildcard icon in the
Destination column (see Make Changes to Access Rules) might apply to traffic
exiting interfaces other than the one represented by the currently chosen To
interface. The wildcard icon appears as an asterisk and stands for any network or
host.
To make changes to an access rule, see Make Changes to Access Rules. To return
to the main Firewall Policy window description see Edit Firewall Policy/ACL.
Make Changes to Access Rules
The policy panel shows the details of the rules applied to the chosen traffic flow.
The Policy panel is updated when the From and To interfaces are chosen and when
the Traffic Diagram is toggled between Originating Traffic focus and Returning
Traffic focus.
The Policy panel is blank if an access rule that contains no entries has been
associated with an interface. For example, if a rule name was associated with an
interface using the CLI, but entries for the rule were not created, this panel would
be blank. If the Policy Panel is blank, you can use the Add button to create entries
for the rule.
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Service Area Header Fields
Firewall Feature
Availability
If the Cisco IOS image that the router is using supports the
Firewall feature, this field contains the value Available.
Access Rule
The name or number of the access rule whose entries are
being displayed.
Inspection Rule
The name of the inspection rule whose entries are being
displayed.
This icon appears when an access rule has been associated
with an interface, but no access rule of that name or number
has been created. Cisco SDM informs you that the policy has
no effect unless there is at least one access rule entry.
Service Area Controls
The following table describes the controls found in the Service Area.
Add button
Click to add an access rule entry. Specify whether you want
to add the entry before or after the entry currently chosen.
Then, create the entry in the Add an Entry window.
Remember that the order of entries is important. Cisco SDM
displays the Extended entry dialog when you add an entry
from the Edit Firewall Policy/ACL window. To add a
standard rule entry, go to Additional Tasks > ACL Editor >
Access Rules.
Edit button
Click to edit a chosen access rule entry. Although you can
only add extended rule entries in the Edit Firewall
Policy/ACL window, you are not prevented from editing a
standard rule entry that has already been applied to a chosen
interface.
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Cut button
Click to remove a chosen access rule entry. The entry is
placed on the clipboard and can be pasted to another position
in the list, or it can be pasted to another access rule. If you
want to reorder an entry, you can cut the entry from one
location, choose an entry before or after the location that you
want for the cut entry, and click Paste. The Paste context
menu allows you to place the entry before or after the entry
you chose.
Copy button
Choose a rule entry and click to put the rule entry on the
clipboard.
Paste button
Click to paste an entry on the clipboard to the chosen rule.
You will be prompted to specify whether you want to paste
the entry before or after the currently chosen entry. If Cisco
SDM determines that an identical entry already exists in the
access rule, it displays the Add an Extended Rule Entry
window so that you can modify the entry. Cisco SDM does
not allow duplicate entries in the same access rule.
Interface
drop-down list
If the chosen traffic flow (Originating or Returning) contains
an access rule on both the From interface and the To interface,
you can use this list to toggle between the two rules.
If the chosen traffic flow does not have a firewall applied, you
can apply a firewall by choosing Originating traffic and
clicking the Apply Firewall button. By default, clicking
Apply Firewall will associate an Cisco SDM-default
inspection rule to the inbound direction of the From interface,
and will associate an access rule to the inbound direction of
the To interface that denies traffic. If the Cisco IOS image
that the router is using does not support the Firewall feature,
this button is disabled. For example, to apply a firewall that
protects the network connected to the Ethernet 0 interface
from traffic entering the Ethernet 1 interface, choose Ethernet
0 from the From drop-down list, and Ethernet 1 from the To
drop-down list. Then click Apply Firewall. If you want to
apply a firewall that protects the network connected to the
Ethernet 1 interface from traffic entering the Ethernet 0
interface, go to Additional Tasks > ACL Editor > Access
Rules.
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Service area buttons are disabled if the rule is read-only. A rule is read-only when
it contains syntax that Cisco SDM does not support. Read-only rules are indicted
by this icon:
.
If there is an existing standard rule that filters the returning traffic flow to which
you are applying the firewall, Cisco SDM informs you that it will convert the
standard access rule to an extended rule.
Service Area Entry Fields
The following table describes the icons and other data in the Service Area entries.
Field
Description
Action
Whether the traffic will
be permitted or denied
Icons
Meaning
Permit source traffic
Deny source traffic
Source/
Destination
Network or host
address, or any host or
network.
The address of a network
The address of a host
Any network or host
Service
Type of service
filtered.
Examples: TCP, EIGRP, UDP,
GRE. See IP Services.
Examples: Telnet, http, FTP.
See TCP Services.
Examples: SNMP, bootpc,
RIP. See UDP Services.
Internet Group Management
Protocol (IGMP).
Examples: echo-reply,
host-unreachable. See ICMP
Message Types.
Log
Whether or not denied
traffic is logged.
Log denied traffic. To
configure logging for firewalls
see Firewall Log.
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Field
Description
Icons
Option
Options configured
using the CLI
No icons.
Description
Any description
provided.
No icons
Meaning
To make changes to inspection rules, see Make Changes to Inspection Rules. To
return to the main Firewall Policy window description see Edit Firewall
Policy/ACL.
Make Changes to Inspection Rules
The Applications area appears if the Cisco IOS image running on the router
supports CBAC Inspection rules. The Applications area displays the inspection
rule entries that are filtering the traffic flow, and is updated whenever a new traffic
flow is chosen. The inspection rule that affects the chosen direction of traffic is
displayed.
The Applications area will display one of the following for Originating traffic:
•
The inspection rule that is applied to the inbound direction of the From
interface, if one exists.
•
The inspection rule that is applied to the outbound direction of the To
interface, if the inbound direction of the From interface has no inspection rule
applied.
Swap From and To Interfaces to Bring Other Rules into View
Inspection rules applied to Returning traffic are not displayed.You can display
an inspection rule applied to Returning traffic by choosing Swap From and To
interfaces in the View Options menu. You can also view inspection rules that are
not displayed in the Edit Firewall Policy/ACL window by going to the Application
Security window in the Firewall and ACL task.
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This icon appears when two inspection rules are found in the chosen
traffic direction. Cisco SDM also displays a warning dialog, giving you
the opportunity to dissociate one of the inspection rules from the
interface.
Application Area Controls
The following is a list of Application area controls:
Add—Click to add an inspection rule. If there is no inspection rule, you can add
the Cisco SDM default inspection rule, or you can create and add a custom
inspection rule. If you add the Cisco SDM default inspection rule to a traffic flow
with no inspection rule, it will be associated with the inbound traffic to the From
interface. You can add an entry for a specific application whether or not an
inspection rule already exists.
Edit—Click to edit a chosen entry.
Delete—Click to delete a chosen entry.
Global Settings—Click to display a dialog box that enables you to set global
timeouts and thresholds.
Summary—Click to display the application or protocol name and a description
for each entry.
Detail—Click to display the application or protocol name, description, alert
status, audit trail status, and timeout settings for each entry.
Application Area entry fields
The following list describes the Application area entry fields:
Application Protocol—Displays the name of the application or protocol. For
example, vdolive.
Alert—Indicates whether or not an alert is on (default) or off.
Audit Trail—Indicates whether or not audit trail is on or off (default).
Timeout—Displays how long, in seconds, the router waits before blocking return
traffic for this protocol or application.
Description—Displays a short description. For example, VDOLive protocol.
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To return to the main Firewall Policy window description see Edit Firewall
Policy/ACL.
Add App-Name Application Entry
Use this window to add an application entry that you want the Cisco IOS firewall
to inspect.
Alert Action
Choose one of the following:
•
default-on—Leave as default. Default value is on.
•
on—Enable alert.
•
off—Disable alert.
Audit Action
Choose one of the following:
•
default-off—Leave as default. Default value is off.
•
on—Enable audit trail.
•
off—Disable audit trail.
Timeout
Specify how long the router should wait before blocking return traffic for this
protocol or application. The field is prefilled with the default value for the
protocol or application.
Add rpc Application Entry
Add a Remote Procedure Call (RPC) program number in this window, and specify
Alert, Audit, Timeout, and Wait time settings.
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Alert Action
Choose one of the following:
•
default-on—Leave as default. Default value is on.
•
on—Enable alert.
•
off—Disable alert.
Audit Action
Choose one of the following:
•
default-off—Leave as default. Default value is off.
•
on—Enable audit trail.
•
off—Disable audit trail.
Timeout
Specify how long the router should wait before blocking return traffic for this
protocol or application. The field is prefilled with the default value.
Program Number
Enter a single program number in this field.
Wait Time
You can optionally specify how many minutes to allow subsequent RPC
connections from the same source to be made to the same destination address and
port. The default wait time is zero minutes.
Add Fragment application entry
In this window, you can add a fragment entry to an inspection rule that you are
configuring in the Edit Firewall Policy/ACL window, and you can specify Alert,
Audit, and Timeout settings. A fragment entry sets the maximum number of
unreassembled packets that the router should accept before dropping them.
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Alert Action
Choose one of the following:
•
default(on)—Leave as default. Default value is on.
•
on—Enable alert.
•
off—Disable alert.
Audit Action
Choose one of the following:
•
default(off)—Leave as default. Default value is off.
•
on—Enable audit trail.
•
off—Disable audit trail.
Timeout
Specify how long the router should wait before blocking return traffic for this
protocol or application. The field is prefilled with the default value.
Range (optional)
Enter the maximum number of unreassembled packets the router should accept
before dropping them. The range can have a value between 50 and 10000.
Add or Edit http Application Entry
Use this window to add an http application to the inspection rule.
Alert Action
Choose one of the following:
•
default-on—Leave as default. Default value is on.
•
on—Enable alert.
•
off—Disable alert.
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Audit Action
Choose one of the following:
•
default-off—Leave as default. Default value is off.
•
on—Enable audit trail.
•
off—Disable audit trail.
Timeout
Specify how long the router should wait before blocking return traffic for this
protocol or application. The field is prefilled with the default value.
Hosts/network for Java applet download
The source hosts or networks whose applet traffic is to be inspected. Multiple
hosts and networks can be specified.
Click Add to display the Java Applet Blocking window in which you can specify
a host or network.
Click Delete to remove an entry from the list.
Java Applet Blocking
Use this window to specify whether Java applets from a specified network or host
should be permitted or denied.
Action
Choose one of the following:
•
Do Not Block (Permit)—Permit Java applets from this network or host.
•
Block (Deny)—Deny Java applets from this network or host.
Host/Network
Specify the network or the host.
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Type
Choose one of the following:
•
A Network—If you choose this, provide a network address in the IP address
field. Note that the wildcard mask enables you to enter a network number that
may specify multiple subnets.
•
A Host Name or IP Address—If you choose this, provide a host IP address
or host name in the next field.
•
Any IP address—If you choose this, the action you specified is to apply to
any host or network.
IP Address/Wildcard Mask
Enter a network address and then the wildcard mask to specify how much of the
network address must match exactly.
For example, if you entered a network address of 10.25.29.0 and a wildcard mask
of 0.0.0.255, any Java applet with a source address containing 10.25.29 would be
filtered. If the wildcard mask were 0.0.255.255, any Java applet with a source
address containing 10.25 would be filtered.
Host Name/IP
This field appears if you chose A Host Name or IP Address as Type. If you enter
a host name, ensure that there is a DNS server on the network that can resolve the
host name to an IP address.
Cisco SDM Warning: Inspection Rule
This window is displayed when Cisco SDM finds two inspection rules have been
configured for a direction in a traffic flow. For example, you might have one
inspection rule applied to traffic inbound on the From interface, and another
applied to traffic outbound on the To interface. Two inspection rules may not harm
the functioning of the router, but they may be unnecessary. Cisco SDM allows you
to keep the inspection rules the way they are, to remove the inspection rule on the
From interface, or to remove the inspection rule on the To interface.
•
Do not make any change—Cisco SDM will not remove either inspection
rule.
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•
Keep inspection rule name on <interface-name> inbound, and dissociate
inspection rule name on <interface-name> outbound—Cisco SDM will
keep one inspection rule, and dissociate the rule from the other interface.
•
Keep inspection rule name on <interface-name> outbound and dissociate
inspection rule name on <interface-name> inbound—Cisco SDM will keep
one inspection rule, and dissociate the rule from the other interface.
Before you make a selection and click OK, you may want to click Cancel, then
determine if you need to add entries to the inspection rule you want to retain. You
can add entries by using the Add button in the Application area toolbar in the Edit
Firewall Policy/ACL window.
Cisco SDM Warning: Firewall
This window appears when you click Apply Firewall in the Edit Firewall
Policy/ACL window. It lists the interfaces to which it will apply a rule, and
describes the rule that it will apply.
Example:
SDM will apply firewall configuration to the following interfaces:
Inside (Trusted) Interface: FastEthernet 0/0
* Apply inbound default SDM Inspection rule
* Apply inbound ACL. Anti-spoofing, broadcast, local loopback, etc.).
Outside (Untrusted) Interface: Serial 1/0
* Apply inbound access list to deny returning traffic.
Click OK to accept these changes, or click Cancel to stop the application of the
firewall.
Edit Firewall Policy
The Edit Firewall Policy window provides a graphical view of the firewall policies
on the router and enables you to add ACLs to policies without leaving the window.
Read the procedures in the sections that follow to see how to view the information
in this window and add rules.
This help topic contains the following sections:
•
Things You Must do Before Viewing Information in this Window
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•
Expanding and Collapsing the Display of a Policy
•
Adding a New Rule to a Policy
•
Adding a New Zone Policy
•
Reordering Rules Within a Policy
•
Copying and Pasting a Rule
•
Displaying the Rule Flow Diagram
•
Applying Your Changes
•
Discarding Your Changes
Things You Must do Before Viewing Information in this Window
This window is empty if no zone, zone-pairs, or policy maps have been
configured. Create a basic configuration containing these elements by going to
Configure > Firewall and ACL > Create Firewall and completing the Advanced
Firewall wizard. After you have done this, you can create additional zones, zone
pairs and policies as needed by going to Configure > Additional Tasks > Zones
to configure zones, and to Additional Tasks > Zone Pairs to configure additional
zone pairs.
To create the policy maps that the zone pairs are to use, go to Configure >
Additional Tasks > C3PL. Click the Policy Map branch to display additional
branches which enable you to create policy maps and the class maps that define
traffic for the policy maps.
Expanding and Collapsing the Display of a Policy
When the display of a policy is collapsed, only the policy name and the source and
destination zones are displayed. To expand the display of the policy to show the
rules that make up the policy, click the + button to the left of the policy name. An
expanded view of a firewall policy might look similar to the following:
Traffic Classification
ID
Source
Destination
Action
Rule Options
Service
clients-servers-policy (clients to servers)
1
any
any
tcp
Permit Firewall
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Traffic Classification
Action
Rule Options
udp
icmp
2
Unmatched Traffic
Drop
The policy named clients-servers-policy contains two ACLs. The rule with the ID
1 permits TCP, UDP, and ICMP traffic from any source to any destination. The
rule with the ID 2 drops any unmatched traffic.
Adding a New Rule to a Policy
To add a new rule to a policy, complete the following steps:
Step 1
Step 2
Click anywhere in the display for that policy, and click the + Add button.
•
To insert a rule for new traffic in the order that you want it select an existing
rule, click the + Add button, and choose Insert or Insert After. The Insert
and Insert After options are also available from a context menu that you
display by right-clicking on an existing rule.
•
Choosing Rule for New Traffic automatically places the new rule at the top
of the list.
•
Choosing Rule for Existing Traffic allows you to select an existing class map
and modify it. It automatically places the new rule at the top of the list.
Complete the displayed dialog. Click Add a New Rule for more information.
Adding a New Zone Policy
To add a new zone policy, complete the following steps:
Step 1
Click Add and choose New Zone Policy.
Step 2
In the Add a Rule screen, specify the source zone by clicking the button to the
right of the Source Zone field and selecting an existing zone or creating a new
zone.
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Step 3
Specify the destination zone by clicking the button to the right of the Destination
Zone field and selecting an existing zone or creating a new zone.
Make settings in the other fields of the Add a Rule window. See Add a New Rule
for more information.
Reordering Rules Within a Policy
If a policy contains more than one rule that permits traffic, you can reorder them
by selecting a rule and clicking the Move Up button or the Move Down button.
The Move Up button is disabled if you selected a rule that is already at the top of
the list, or if you selected the Unmatched Traffic rule. The Move Down button is
disabled if you selected a rule that is already at the bottom of the list.
You can also use the Cut and the Paste buttons to reorder rules. To remove a rule
from its current position, select it and click Cut. To place the rule in a new
position, select an existing rule, click Paste, and choose Paste or Paste After.
The Move Up, Move Down, Cut, Paste, and Paste After operations are also
available from the context menu displayed when you right-click on a rule.
Copying and Pasting a Rule
Copying and pasting a rule is very useful if one policy contains a rule that can be
used with few or no modifications in another policy.
To copy a rule, select a rule and click the Copy button or right-click the rule and
choose Copy. To paste the rule to a new location, click Paste and choose Paste or
Paste After. The Paste and Paste After buttons are also available from the context
menu. When you paste a rule to a new location, the Add a New Rule dialog is
displayed so you can make changes to the rule if you need to.
Displaying the Rule Flow Diagram
Click anywhere in a firewall policy and click Rule Diagram to display the Rule
Flow Diagram for that policy. The Rule Flow Diagram displays the source zone
on the right of the router icon, and the destination zone on the left of the icon.
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Applying Your Changes
To send your changes to the router, click Apply Changes at the bottom of the
screen.
Discarding Your Changes
To discard changes that you have made but have not sent to the router, click
Discard Changes at the bottom of the screen.
Add a New Rule
Define a traffic flow and specify protocols to inspect in the Add a Rule window.
Complete the following steps to add a new rule.
Step 1
If you are creating a zone policy, the Source Zone and Destination Zone fields
appear. Do the following:
a.
To specify the source zone, click the button next to the Source Zone field. To
choose an existing zone click Select a Zone and choosing the zone from the
displayed dialog. To create a zone, click Create a Zone, enter a zone name,
and specify the interfaces to associate with the zone in the displayed dialog.
b.
To specify the destination zone, click the button next to the Destination Zone
field. To choose an existing zone click Select a Zone and choosing the zone
from the displayed dialog. To create a zone, click Create a Zone, enter a zone
name, and specify the interfaces to associate with the zone in the displayed
dialog.
Step 2
In the Source and Destination field, specify that the traffic is flowing between a
network and another network by choosing Network, or that the traffic is flowing
between entities that may be networks or may be individual hosts by choosing
Any.
Step 3
Enter a name for the traffic flow in the Traffic Name field.
Step 4
Click Add next to the Source Network and Destination Network columns and add
source and destination network addresses. You can add multiple entries for the
source and destination networks, and you can edit an existing entriy by selecting
it and clicking Edit.
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Step 5
Reorder an entry if necessary by selecting it and clicking Move Up or Move
Down. The Move Up button is disabled when the selected entry is already at the
top of the list. The Move Down button is disabled when the selected entry is
already at the bottom of the list.
Step 6
Enter a name that describes the protocols or services that you are identifying for
inspection in the Service Name field.
Step 7
To specify a service click on a branch in the tree in the left-hand column, choose
the service, and click Add>>. Click the + icon next to a branch to display the
available services of that type. To remove a service from the right-hand column,
select it and click <<Remove.
Step 8
To specify how you want the traffic handled, choose Permit Firewall, Permit
ACL, or Drop in the Action field. If you choose Permit Firewall, you can click
Advanced and choose a menu item if you want to further define the action, such
as inspecting the protocols that you chose in the service box. See the following
help topics for more information:
•
Application Inspection
•
URL Filter
•
Quality of Service
•
Inspect Parameter
Step 9
If you chose Drop as the action, you can click Log to have the event logged.
Step 10
Click OK to close this dialog and send the changes to the router.
Add Traffic
Use the Add Traffic dialog to create a source and destination address entry for a
rule.
Action
Use the Include or the Exclude option to specify whether you want the rule to
apply to the traffic exchanged between the source and destination addresses.
Choose Include to include this traffic in the rule.
Choose Exclude to have this traffic excluded from the rule.
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Source Host/Network and Destination Host/Network
Specify the source and the destination of the traffic in these fields.
Type
Choose one of the following values:
•
Any IP Address—Choose if you do now want to limit the source or
destination traffic to any host or network.
•
A Network—Choose if you want to specify a network address as the source
or destination, and specify the network address in the IP Address and
Wildcard Mask fields.
•
A Host Name or IP Address—Choose if you want to specify the name or IP
address of a host. Then, specify the host in the Host Name/IP field.
IP Address
Enter the network address. This field is displayed when you choose A Network
in the Type field.
Wildcard Mask
Enter the wildcard mask that specifies the bits that are used for the network
address. For example, if the network address is 192.168.3.0, specify 0.0.0.255 as
the mask. This field is displayed when you choose A Network in the Type field.
Host Name/IP
Enter the name or the IP address of a host in this field. If you enter a name, the
router must be able to contact a DNS server to resolve the name to an IP address.
This field is displayed whenyou choose A Host Name or IP Address in the Type
field.
Application Inspection
Configure deep packet inspection for any of the applications or protocols listed in
this screen by checking the box next to the application or protocol, clicking the
button to the right of the field, and choosing Create or Select from the context
menu. Choose Create to configure a new policy map. Choose Select to apply an
existing policy map to the traffic. The policy map name appears in the field when
you are done.
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For example, to create a new policy map for Instant Messaging, check the box
next to IM, click the button next to the IM field, and choose Create. Then, create
the policy map in the Configure Deep Packet Inspection dialog.
URL Filter
Add an URL filter by choosing an existing URL filter from the URL Filter Name
list, or by clicking Create New and making a new URL filter in the dialogs
displayed. the settings for the URL filter that you chose or created are summarized
in this dialog.
Quality of Service
You can drop traffic that exceeds a specified rate per second, the police rate, and
drop traffic that exceeds a specified burst value. The police rate can be a value
between 8,000 and 2,000,000,000 bits per second. The burst rate can be a value
between 1,000 and 512,000,000 bytes.
Inspect Parameter
Specify an existing parameter map in the Inspect Parameter window by choosing
a parameter map in the Inspect Parameter Map list, or click Create New to create
a new parameter map to apply to the rule for the policy you are modifying. The
details of the parameter map that you specify are displayed in the Preview box.
To learn about parameter maps, click Timeouts and Thresholds for Inspect
Parameter Maps and CBAC.
Select Traffic
Select a class map that specifies the traffic that you want to add to the policy. To
view more information about a particular class map, select the class map and click
View Details.
When you click OK, the Add a New Rule dialog is displayed, with the
information in the class map that you chose. You can make additional changes to
the class map or leave it unchanged. If you do make changes, you can change the
name of the class map if you do not want your changes to apply to other policies
that use the original class map.
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Delete Rule
This dialog is displayed when you delete a rule that contains a class map or ACL
that you might want to delete along with the rule or keep for use in other rules.
Automatically delete class maps and ACLs used by this rule
Click this option to remove the class maps and ACLs that are part of this rule.
They will be removed from the router configuration and not be available for use
by other rules.
I will delete the unused class maps and ACLs later
Click this option to remove the rule but retain the class maps and ACLs. You can
keep them for use in other parts of the firewall configuration.
View Details
Click View Details to display the names of the class maps and ACLs that are
associated with the rule you are deleting. The dialog expands to show the
details.When you click View Details, the button name becomes Hide Details.
Hide Details
Click Hide Details to close the details portion of the dialog. When you click Hide
Details, the button name becomes View Details.
Manually Deleting Class Maps
To manually delete a class map, complete the following steps.
Step 1
Go to Configure > Additional Tasks > C3PL > Class Maps.
Step 2
Click the node for the type of class map that you are deleting.
Step 3
Select the name of the class map that was displayed in the View Details window
and click Delete.
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Manually Deleting ACLs
To manually delete an ACL, complete the following steps.
Step 1
Go to Configure > Additional Tasks > ACL Editor.
Step 2
Click the node for the type of ACL that you are deleting.
Step 3
Select the name or number of the ACL that was displayed in the View Details
window and click Delete.
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10
Application Security
Application Security allows you to create security policies to govern the use of
network and web applications. You can apply the policies that you create to
specific interfaces, clone an existing policy to leverage the settings for a new
policy, and remove policies from the router.
This chapter contains the following sections:
•
Application Security Windows
•
No Application Security Policy
•
E-mail
•
Instant Messaging
•
Peer-to-Peer Applications
•
URL Filtering
•
HTTP
•
Applications/Protocols
•
Timeouts and Thresholds for Inspect Parameter Maps and CBAC
Application Security Windows
The controls in the Application Security windows allow you to associate policies
with interfaces, make global settings, and add, delete and clone application
security policies. The application security drawers enable you to quickly navigate
to the application security area in which you need to make changes.
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Application Security Windows
Policy Name List
Select the policy that you want to modify from this list. If no policies are
configured, this list is empty, and the Application Security window displays a
message that indicates no policies are available on the router. To create a policy,
click the Action button, and choose Add.
Application Security Buttons
•
Action button—Click to add a policy, delete the chosen policy, or clone the
chosen policy. If no policies are configured on the router, Add is the only
action available.
•
Associate button—Click to display a dialog that allows you to associate the
policy with an interface. The dialog enables you to choose the interface, and
to specify the traffic direction to which the policy is to apply.
•
Global Settings button—Click to make settings to timeout and threshold
values that apply to all policies. Click Global Settings for more information.
E-mail Drawer
Click to make changes to e-mail application security settings. Click E-mail for
more information.
Instant Messaging Drawer
Click to make changes to security settings for Yahoo Messenger, MSN
Messenger, and other instant messaging applications. Click Instant Messaging for
more information.
Peer-to-Peer Drawer
Click to make changes to security settings for KaZa A, eDonkey, and other
peer-to-peer applications. Click Applications/Protocols for more information.
URL Filtering Drawer
Click to add a list of URLs that you want the application security policy to filter.
You can also add filtering servers.
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No Application Security Policy
HTTP Drawer
Click to make changes to HTTP security settings. Click HTTP for more
information.
Applications/Protocols Drawer
Click to make changes to the security settings of other applications and protocols.
Click Applications/Protocols for more information.
No Application Security Policy
Cisco SDM displays this window when you click the Application Security tab,
but no Application Security policy is configured on the router. You can create a
policy from this window, and view the global settings that provide default values
for the parameters that you can set when you create policies.
Policy Name
Empty when no policy is configured for the router. Choosing Add from the Action
context menu enables you to create a policy name and to begin to make settings
for the policy.
Action
If no policy is configured on the router, you can choose Add from the context
menu to create a policy. Once a policy is configured, the other actions, Edit and
Delete, are available.
Associate
If no policy is configured this button is disabled. When a policy is created, you
can click this button to associate the policy with an interface. See Associate Policy
with an Interface for more information.
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E-mail
Global Settings
Global settings provide the default timouts, thresholds, and other values for policy
parameters. Cisco SDM provides defaults for each parameter, and you can change
each value to define a new default that will apply unless overridden for a specific
application or protocol. When you are creating a policy, you can accept the default
value for a particular parameter, or choose another setting. Because the
Application Security configuration windows do not display the default values you
must click this button to view them in the Global Timeouts and Thresholds
window. See Timeouts and Thresholds for Inspect Parameter Maps and CBAC for
more information.
E-mail
Specify the e-mail applications that you want to inspect in this window. To learn
about the buttons and drawers available in the Application Security tab, click
Application Security Windows.
Edit Button
Click to edit the settings for the chosen application. Settings that you create
override the global settings configured on the router.
Applications Column
The name of the e-mail application, for example bliff, esmtp, and smtp. To edit the
settings for an application, check the box to the left of the application name, and
click Edit.
Alerts, Audit, and Timeout Columns
These columns display values that have been explicitly set for an application. If a
setting is not changed for an application, the column is empty. For example, if
auditing has been enabled for the bliff application, but no changes have been made
to the alert or to the timeout settings, the value on is displayed in the Audit
column, and the Alert and Timeout columns are blank.
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Instant Messaging
Options Column
This column can contain fields if other settings for the chosen application exist.
MAX Data Field
Specifies the maximum number of bytes (data) that can be transferred in a single
Simple Mail Transport Protocol (SMTP) session. After the maximum value is
exceeded, the firewall logs an alert message and closes the session. Default value:
20 MB.
Secure login Checkbox
Causes a user at a nonsecure location to use encryption for authentication.
Reset
Resets the TCP connection if the client enters a nonprotocol command before
authentication is complete.
Router Traffic
Enables inspection of traffic destined to or originated from a router. Applicable
only for H.323, TCP, and UDP protocols.
Instant Messaging
Use this window to control the traffic for Instant Messaging (IM) applications
such as Yahoo Messenger, and MSN Messenger. To learn about the buttons and
drawers available in the Application Security tab, click Application Security
Windows.
Click Permit, Block, and Alarm Controls to learn how to specify the action the
router takes if it encounters traffic with the characteristics that you specify in this
window.
The following example shows traffic blocked for Yahoo Messenger traffic, and
alarms generated when traffic for that application arrives:
Yahoo Messenger
Block
Send Alarm (checked)
The SDM_HIGH profile blocks IM applications. If the router uses the
SDM_HIGH profile, and it does not block IM applications, those applications
may have connected to a new server that is not specified in the profile. To enable
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the router to block these applications, check the Send Alarm checkbox next to the
IM applications to reveal the names of the servers to which the applications
connect. Then, use the CLI to block traffic from these servers. The following
example uses the server name newserver.yahoo.com:
Router(config)# appfw policy-name SDM_HIGH
Router(cfg-appfw-policy)# application im yahoo
Router(cfg-appfw-policy-ymsgr)# server deny name newserver.yahoo.com
Router(cfg-appfw-policy-ymsgr)# exit
Router(cfg-appfw-policy)# exit
Router(config)#
Note
•
IM applications are able to communicate over nonnative protocol ports, such
as HTTP, and through their native TCP and UDP ports. Cisco SDM
configures block and permit actions based on the native port for the
application, and always blocks communication conducted over HTTP ports.
•
Some IM applications, such as MSN Messenger 7.0, use HTTP ports by
default. To permit these applications, configure the IM application to use its
native port.
Peer-to-Peer Applications
This page allows you to create policy settings for peer-to-peer applications such
as Gnutella, BitTorrent, and eDonkey. To learn about the buttons and drawers
available in the Application Security tab, click Application Security Windows.
Click Permit, Block, and Alarm Controls to learn how to specify the action that
the router takes if it encounters traffic with the characteristics that you specify in
this window.
The following example shows traffic blocked for BitTorrent traffic, and alarms
generated when traffic for that application arrives:
Example 10-1 Blocking BitTorrent Traffic
BitTorrent
Block
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URL Filtering
Note
•
Peer-to-peer applications are able to communicate over nonnative protocol
ports, such as HTTP, and through their native TCP and UDP ports. Cisco
SDM configures block and permit actions based on the native port for the
application, and always blocks communication conducted over HTTP ports.
•
Application security policies will not block files if they are being provided by
a paid service such as altnet.com. Files downloaded from peer-to-peer
networks are blocked.
URL Filtering
URL filtering allows you to control user access to Internet websites by using URL
lists. In these lists, you can specify whether a URL is to be permitted or denied.
Include URL filtering capabilities in the Application Security policy by clicking
Enable URL filtering in this window.
You can configure one local URL list on the router that is used for all Application
Security policies. URL lists can also be stored on URL filter servers that the router
can connect to. Information for these servers is stored in a URL filter server list.
You can configure one URL filter server list on the router that is used for all
Application Security policies.
The local URL list can be maintained in this window by using the Add URL, Edit
URL, and Import URL list buttons. Because Cisco IOS software can maintain
these lists with or without a configured Application Security policy, you can also
maintain these lists the Additional Tasks window.
To learn how to maintain a local URL list, click Local URL List.
To learn how to maintain the URL filter server list, click URL Filter Servers.
For information on how the router uses a local URL list in combination with URL
lists on URL filter servers, click URL Filtering Precedence.
For general information about URL filtering, click URL Filtering Window.
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HTTP
HTTP
Specify general settings for HTTP traffic inspection in this window. To learn
about the buttons and drawers available in the Application Security tab, click
Application Security Windows.
Click Permit, Block, and Alarm Controls to learn how to specify the action that
the router takes when it encounters traffic with the characteristics that you specify
in this window.
For more detailed information about how the router can inspect HTTP traffic, see
HTTP Inspection Engine at the following link:
http://www.cisco.com/en/US/products/ps6350/products_configuration_guide_ch
apter09186a0080455acb.html
Detect noncompliant HTTP traffic Checkbox
Check if you want Cisco SDM to examine HTTP traffic for packets that do not
comply with the HTTP protocol. Use the Permit, Block, and Alarm controls to
specify the action that the router takes when this type of traffic is encountered.
Note
Blocking noncompliant HTTP traffic can cause the router to drop traffic from
popular websites that might not be blocked on the basis of content, if those
websites do not conform to the HTTP protocol.
Detect tunneling applications Checkbox
Check if you want Cisco SDM to examine HTTP traffic for packets that are
generated by tunneling applications. Use the Permit, Block, and Alarm controls
to specify the action that you want Cisco SDM to take when it encounters this type
of traffic.
Set maximum URI length inspection Checkbox
Check if you want to define a maximum length for Universal Resource Indicators
(URIs). Specify the maximum length in bytes, and then use the Permit, Block, and
Alarm controls to specify the action that the router takes if it encounters an URL
that is longer than this value.
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Enable HTTP inspection Checkbox
Check if you want the router to inspect HTTP traffic. If you want to block traffic
from Java applications, you can specify a Java blocking filter by clicking the ...
button and either specifying an existing ACL, or creating a new ACL for Java
inspection.
Enable HTTPS inspection checkbox
Check if you want the router to inspect HTTPS traffic.
Set time out value checkbox
Check if you want to set a time out for HTTP sessions, and enter the number of
seconds in the Time-Out field. Sessions will be dropped that exceed this amount
of time.
Enable audit trail
You can make CBAC audit trail settings for HTTP traffic that will override the
setting in the Global Timeouts and Thresholds window. Default means that the
current global setting will be used. On explicitly enables the CBAC audit trail for
HTTP traffic and for HTTPS traffic if HTTPS inspection is enabled, and overrides
the global audit trail setting. Off explicitly disables the CBAC audit trail for
HTTP traffic and for HTTPS traffic if HTTPS inspection is enabled, and overrides
the global audit trail setting.
Header Options
You can have the router permit or deny traffic based on HTTP header length and
the request method contained in the header. Request methods are the commands
sent to HTTP servers to fetch URLs, web pages, and perform other actions. To
learn about the buttons and drawers available in the Application Security tab,
click Application Security Windows.
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Set maximum header length checkbox
Check if you want the router to permit or deny traffic based on HTTP header
length, and specify the maximum Request and maximum Response header length.
Use the Permit, Block, and Alarm controls to specify the action the router takes
if header length exceeds these lengths.
Configure Extension Request Method checkboxes
If you want the router to permit or deny HTTP traffic based on an extension
request method, check the box next to that request method. Use the Permit,
Block, and Alarm controls to specify the action the router takes if it encounters
traffic using that request method.
Configure RFC Request Method checkboxes
If you want the router to permit or deny HTTP traffic based on one of the HTTP
request methods specified in RFC 2616, Hypertext Transfer Protocol—HTTP/1.1,
check the box next to that request method. Use the Permit, Block, and Alarm
controls to specify the action the router takes if it encounters traffic using that
request method.
Content Options
You can have the router examine the content of HTTP traffic and permit or block
traffic, and generate alarms based on what things that you make the router check.
To learn about the buttons and drawers available in the Application Security tab,
click Application Security Windows.
Click Permit, Block, and Alarm Controls to learn how to specify the action that
the router takes if it encounters traffic with the characteristics that you specify in
this window.
Verify Content Type checkbox
Check if you want the router to verify the content of HTTP packets by matching
the response with the request, by enabling an alarm for unknown content types, or
by using both of these methods. Use the permit, block, and alarm controls to
specify the action the router takes if requests cannot be matched with responses,
and when it encounters an unknown content type.
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Set Content Length checkbox
Check this box to set a minimum and maximum length for the data in an HTTP
packet, and enter the values in the fields provided. Use the permit, block, and
alarm controls to specify the action the router takes if the amount of data falls
below the minimum length or when it exceeds the maximum length.
Configure Transfer Encoding Checkbox
Check this box to have the router verify how the data in the packet is encoded, and
use the permit, block, and alarm controls to specify the action the router takes if
it encounters the transfer encodings that you choose.
Chunk checkbox
The Encoding format specified in RFC 2616, Hypertext Transfer
Protocol—HTTP/1. The body of the message is transferred in a series of chunks;
each chunk contains its own size indicator.
Compress checkbox
The encoding format produced by the UNIX "compress" utility.
Deflate checkbox
The "ZLIB" format defined in RFC 1950, ZLIB Compressed Data Format
Specification version 3.3, combined with the "deflate" compression mechanism
described in RFC 1951, DEFLATE Compressed Data Format Specification
version 1.3.
gzip checkbox
The encoding format produced by the GNU zip (“gzip”) program.
Identity checkbox
Default encoding, which indicates that no encoding has been performed.
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Applications/Protocols
Applications/Protocols
This window allows you to create policy settings for applications and protocols
that are not found in the other windows. To learn about the buttons and drawers
available in the Application Security tab, click Application Security Windows.
Applications/Protocols Tree
The Applications/Protocols tree enables you to filter the list on the right according
to the type of applications and protocols that you want to view. First choose the
branch for the general type that you want to display. The frame on the right
displays the available items for the type that you chose. If a plus (+) sign appears
to the left of the branch, there are subcategories that you can use to refine the
filter. Click on the + sign to expand the branch and then select the subcategory that
you want to display. If the list on the right is empty, there are no applications or
protocols available for that type. To choose an application, you can check the box
next to it in the tree, or you can check the box next to it in the list.
Example: If you want to display all Cisco applications, click the Applications
branch folder, and then click the Cisco folder. You will see applications like clp,
cisco-net-mgmt, and cisco-sys.
Edit Button
Click this button to edit the settings for the chosen application. Settings that you
make override the global settings configured on the router.
Applications Column
The name of the application or protocol, for example tcp, smtp, or ms-sna. To edit
the settings for an item, check the box to the left of the item name, and click Edit.
Alerts, Audit, and Timeout Columns
These columns display explicitly-set values for an item. If a setting is not changed
for an item, the column is empty. For example, if auditing has been enabled for
the ms-sna application, but no changes have been made to the alert or to the
timeout settings, the value on is displayed in the Audit column, but the Alert and
Timeout columns are blank.
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Options Column
This column can contain fields if other settings were made for the chosen item.
MAX Data
Specifies the maximum number of bytes (data) that can be transferred in a single
Simple Mail Transport Protocol (SMTP) session. After the maximum value is
exceeded, the firewall logs an alert message and closes the session. Default value:
20 MB.
Secure login
Causes a user at a nonsecure location to use encryption for authentication.
Reset
Resets the TCP connection if the client enters a nonprotocol command before
authentication is complete.
Router Traffic
Enables inspection of traffic destined to or originated from a router. Applicable
only for H.323, TCP, and UDP protocols.
Timeouts and Thresholds for Inspect Parameter Maps and CBAC
Use this information to help you create or edit a parameter map for inspection
purposes, or to set Context-Based Access Control (CBAC) global timeouts and
thresholds. CBAC uses timeouts and thresholds to determine how long to manage
state information for a session and to determine when to drop sessions that do not
become fully established. These timeouts and thresholds apply to all sessions.
Global Timer values can be specified in seconds, minutes, or hours.
TCP Connection Timeout Value
Amount of time to wait for a TCP connection to be established. The default value
is 30 seconds.
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TCP FIN Wait Timeout Value
Amount of time that a TCP session will still be managed after the firewall detects
a FIN exchange. The default value is 5 seconds.
TCP Idle Timeout Value
Amount of time that a TCP session will still be managed after no activity has been
detected. The default value is 3600 seconds.
UDP Idle Timeout Value
Amount of time that a User Datagram Protocol (UDP) session will still be
managed after no activity has been detected. The default value is 30 seconds.
DNS Timeout Value
Amount of time that a Domain Name System (DNS) name lookup session will be
managed after no activity has been detected. The default value is 5 seconds
SYN Flooding DoS Attack Thresholds
An unusually high number of half-open sessions may indicate that a Denial of
Service (DoS) attack is under way. DoS attack thresholds allow the router to start
deleting half-open sessions after the total number of them has reached a maximum
threshold. By defining thresholds, you can specify when the router should start
deleting half-open sessions and when it can stop deleting them.
One-minute session thresholds. These fields let you specify the threshold
values for new connection attempts.
Low
Stop deleting new connections after the number of new
connections drops below this value. The default value is
400 sessions.
High
Start deleting new connections when the number of new
connections exceeds this value. The default value is
500 sessions
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Maximum incomplete session thresholds. These fields let you specify the
threshold values for the total number of existing half-open sessions.
Low
Stop deleting new connections after the number of new
connections drops below this value. The default value is
400 sessions for Cisco IOS releases older than
12.4(11)T. When a Low value is not explicitly set,
Cisco IOS will stop deleting new sessions when the
number of sessions drops to 400.
For Cisco IOS release 12.4(11)T and later, the default
value is unlimited. When a Low value is not explicitly
set, Cisco IOS will not stop deleting new connections.
High
Start deleting new connections when the number of new
connections exceeds this value. The default value is
500 sessions for Cisco IOS releases older than
12.4(11)T. When a High value is not explicitly set,
Cisco IOS starts deleting sessions when more than 500
new sessions have been established.
For Cisco IOS release 12.4(11)T and later, the default
value is unlimited. When a High value is not explicitly
set, Cisco IOS will not start deleting new connections.
TCP Maximum Incomplete Sessions per Host:
The router starts deleting half-open sessions for the same host when the total
number for that host exceeds this number. The default number of sessions is 50.
If you check the Blocking Time field and enter a value, the router will continue
to block new connections to that host for the number of minutes that you specify.
Enable audit globally
Check if you want to turn on CBAC audit trail messages for all types of traffic.
Enable alert globally
Check if you want to turn on CBAC alert messages for all types of traffic.
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Associate Policy with an Interface
In this window, select the interface to which you want to apply the selected policy.
Also specify whether the policy is to apply to incoming traffic, to outgoing traffic,
or to traffic in both directions.
For example, if the router has FastEthernet 0/0 and FastEthernet 0/1 interfaces,
and you want to apply the policy to the FastEthernet 0/1 interface, on traffic
flowing in both directions, check the box next to FastEthernet 0/1, and check the
boxes in both the Incoming and the Outgoing columns. To have only incoming
traffic inspected, only check the box in the Incoming column.
Edit Inspection Rule
Use this window to specify custom inspection rule settings for an application.
Settings made here and applied to the router’s configuration override the global
settings.
Click the Global Settings button in the Application Security window to display
the global settings for the parameters that you can set in this window. See
Timeouts and Thresholds for Inspect Parameter Maps and CBAC for more
information.
Alert Field
Choose one of the following values:
•
default—Use the global setting for alerts.
•
on—Generate an alert when traffic of this type is encountered.
•
off—Do not generate an alert when traffic of this type is encountered.
Audit Field
Choose one of the following values:
•
default—Use the global setting for audit trails.
•
on—Generate an audit trail when traffic of this type is encountered.
•
off—Do not generate an audit trail when traffic of this type is encountered.
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Timeout Field
Enter the number of seconds that a session for this application should be managed
after no activity has been detected. The timeout value that you enter sets the TCP
Idle Timeout value if this is a TCP application, or the UDP timeout value if this
is a UDP application.
Other Options
Certain applications can have additional options set. Depending on the
application, you may see the options described next.
MAX Data field
Specifies the maximum number of bytes (data) that can be transferred in a single
Simple Mail Transport Protocol (SMTP) session. After the maximum value is
exceeded, the firewall logs an alert message and closes the session. Default value:
20 MB.
Secure Login Checkbox
Causes a user at a nonsecure location to use encryption for authentication.
Reset Checkbox
Resets the TCP connection if the client enters a nonprotocol command before
authentication is complete.
Router Traffic Checkbox
Enables inspection of traffic destined to or originated from a router. Applicable
only for H.323, TCP, and UDP protocols.
Permit, Block, and Alarm Controls
Use the Permit, Block, and Alarm controls to specify what the router is to do when
it encounters traffic with the characteristics that you specify. To make a policy
setting for an option with these controls, check the box next to it. Then, in the
Action column, choose Permit to allow traffic related to that option, or choose
Block to deny traffic. If you want an alarm to be sent to the log when this type of
traffic is encountered, check Send Alarm. The Send Alarm control is not used in
all windows.
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Logging must be enabled for Application Security to send alarms to the log. For
more information go to this link: Application Security Log.
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11
Site-to-Site VPN
The help topics in this section describe the Site-to-Site VPN configuration
screens, and the VPN Design Guide screens.
VPN Design Guide
If you are an administrator setting up a VPN network, the VPN Design Guide
helps you to determine which kind of VPN to configure. You provide information
about what type of user you are, the type of equipment that the router establishes
VPN connections with, the type of traffic that the VPN will carry, and other
features that you need to configure. After you provide this information, the VPN
Design Guide recommends a VPN type, and allows you to launch the wizard that
will enable you to configure that type of VPN.
Create Site to Site VPN
A Virtual Private Network (VPN) lets you protect traffic that travels over lines that
your organization may not own or control. VPNs can encrypt traffic sent over
these lines and authenticate peers before any traffic is sent.
You can let Cisco Router and Security Device Manager (Cisco SDM) guide you
through a simple VPN configuration by clicking the VPN icon. When you use the
Wizard in the Create Site-to-Site VPN tab, Cisco SDM provides default values for
some configuration parameters in order to simplify the configuration process.
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Create Site to Site VPN
If you want to learn more about VPN technology, there is background information
at the link More About VPN.
Create a Site-to-Site VPN
This option allows you to create a VPN network connecting two routers.
Create a Secure GRE Tunnel (GRE-over-IPSec)
This option allows you to configure a generic routing encapsulation protocol
(GRE) tunnel between your router and a peer system.
What Do You Want to Do?
If you want to:
Do this:
Configure the router as part of a VPN network
connecting two routers.
Select Create a site-to-site VPN . Then click
Launch the selected task.
When you configure a VPN network between two
routers, you can control how the remote router is
authenticated, how traffic is encrypted, and what
traffic is encrypted.
Configure a GRE tunnel between your router and
another router.
You may want to configure a GRE tunnel if you need
to connect networks that use different LAN
protocols, or if you need to send routing protocols
over the connection to the remote system.
Select Create a Secure GRE tunnel
(GRE-over-IPSec). Then click Launch the
selected task.
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Create Site to Site VPN
If you want to:
Do this:
Find out how to perform other VPN-related tasks
that this wizard does not guide you through.
Select a topic from the following list:
•
How Do I View the IOS Commands I Am
Sending to the Router?
•
How Do I Create a VPN to More Than One
Site?
•
After Configuring a VPN, How Do I
Configure the VPN on the Peer Router?
•
How Do I Edit an Existing VPN Tunnel?
•
How Do I Confirm That My VPN Is
Working?
•
How Do I Confirm That My VPN Is
Working?
•
How Do I Configure a Backup Peer for My
VPN?
•
How Do I Accommodate Multiple Devices
with Different Levels of VPN Support?
•
How Do I Configure a VPN on an
Unsupported Interface?
•
How Do I Configure a VPN After I Have
Configured a Firewall?
•
How Do I Configure NAT Passthrough for a
VPN?
•
How Do I Configure a DMVPN Manually?
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Create Site to Site VPN
If you want to:
Do this:
The following link provides guidelines to use
when configuring a Cisco VPN 3000 series
Configuration instructions for Easy VPN servers and
concentrator to operate with an Easy VPN
concentrators are available on www.cisco.com.
Remote Phase II client, and other information
which you might find useful:
Configure an Easy VPN concentrator.
http://www.cisco.com/en/US/products/sw/ioss
wrel/ps5012/products_feature_guide09186a008
00a8565.html
The following link connects you to Cisco VPN
3000 series documentation:
http://www.cisco.com/en/US/products/hw/vpnd
evc/ps2284/products_getting_started_guide_bo
ok09186a00800bbe74.html
Site-to-Site VPN Wizard
You can have Cisco SDM use default settings for most of the configuration values,
or you can let Cisco SDM guide you in configuring a VPN.
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What do you want to do?
If you want to:
Do this:
Quickly configure a site-to-site VPN
using Cisco SDM-provided defaults.
Check Quick setup, and then click Next.
Cisco SDM will automatically provide a default IKE policy to
govern authentication, a default transform set to control the
encryption of data and a default IPSec rule that will encrypt
all traffic between the router and the remote device.
Quick setup is best used when both the local router and the
remote system are Cisco routers using Cisco SDM.
Quick setup will configure 3DES encryption if it is supported
by the IOS image. Otherwise, it will configure DES
encryption. If you need AES or SEAL encryption, click
Step-by-step wizard.
View the default IKE policy, transform Click View Defaults.
set, and IPSec rule that will be used to
configure a One-step VPN.
Configure a site-to-site VPN using
parameters that you specify.
Check Step-by-Step wizard, and then click Next.
You can create a custom configuration for the VPN, and use
any of the Cisco SDM defaults that you need.
Step-by-step wizard allows you to specify stronger encryption
than the Quick setup wizard allows.
View Defaults
This window displays the default Internet Key Exchange (IKE) policy, transform
set, and IPSec rule that Cisco SDM will use to configure a Quick Setup site-to-site
VPN. If you need a different configuration than this window shows, check
Step-by-Step wizard so that you can define configuration values.
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VPN Connection Information
Use this window to identify the IP address or host name of the remote site that
will terminate the VPN tunnel that you are configuring, to specify the router
interface to use, and to enter the pre-shared key that both routers will use to
authenticate each other.
Select the interface for this VPN Connection
Select the interface on this router that connects to the remote site.The router you
are configuring is represented as the Local router in the Use Case Scenario
diagram.
Peer Identity
Enter the IP address of the remote IP Security (IPSec) peer that will terminate the
VPN tunnel you are configuring. The remote IPSec peer might be another router,
a VPN concentrator, or any other gateway device that supports IPSec.
Peer(s) with dynamic IP addresses
Select this option if the peers the router connects to use a dynamically-assigned
IP addresses.
Peer with static IP address
Select this option if the peer the router connects to uses a fixed IP address.
Enter the IP Address of the remote peer
(Enabled when Peer with static IP address is selected). Enter the IP address of the
remote peer.
Authentication
Click this button if the VPN peers use a pre-shared key to authenticate
connections from each other. This key must be the same on each side of the VPN
connection.
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Enter the pre-shared key, and then reenter it for confirmation. Exchange the
pre-shared key with the administrator of the remote site through some secure and
convenient method, such as an encrypted e-mail message. Question marks (?) and
spaces must not be used in the pre-shared key. The pre-shared key can contain a
maximum of 128 characters.
Note
•
The characters you enter for the pre-shared key are not displayed in the field
as you enter them. You may find it helpful to write down the key before you
enter it so that you can communicate it to the administrator of the remote
system.
•
Pre-shared keys must be exchanged between each pair of IPSec peers that
need to establish secure tunnels. This authentication method is appropriate
for a stable network with a limited number of IPSec peers. It may cause
scalability problems in a network with a large or increasing number of IPSec
peers.
Digital Certificate
Click this button if the VPN peers will use digital certificates for authentication.
Note
The router must have a digital certificate issued by a Certificate Authority to
authenticate itself. If you have not configured a digital certificate for the router,
go to VPN components, and use the Digital Certificate wizard to enroll for a
digital certificate.
Traffic to Encrypt
If you are configuring a Quick Setup site-to-site VPN connection, you need to
specify the source and destination subnets in this window.
Source
Choose the interface on the router that will be the source of the traffic on this VPN
connection. All traffic coming through this interface whose destination IP address
is in the subnet specified in the Destination area will be encrypted.
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Details
Click this button to obtain details about the interface you selected. The details
window shows any access rules, IPSec policies, Network Address Translation
(NAT) rules, or Inspection rules associated with the interface. To examine any of
these rules in more detail, go to Additional Tasks/ACL Editor, and examine them
in the Rules windows.
Destination
IP address and Subnet Mask. Enter the IP address and subnet mask of the
destination for this traffic. For more information about how to enter values in
these fields, see IP Addresses and Subnet Masks.
The destination is depicted as the Remote router in the Use Case Scenario diagram
in the main VPN wizard window.
IKE Proposals
This window lists all the Internet Key Exchange (IKE) policies that have been
configured on the router. If no user-defined policies have been configured, the
windows lists the Cisco SDM default IKE policy. IKE policies govern the way that
devices in a VPN authenticate themselves.
The local router will use the IKE policies listed in this window to negotiate
authentication with the remote router.
The local router and the peer device must both use the same policy. The router that
initiates the VPN connection offers the policy with the lowest priority number
first. If the remote system rejects that policy, the local router offers the policy with
the next lowest number, and continues in this fashion until the remote system
accepts. You must coordinate closely with the administrator of the peer system so
that you can configure identical policies on both routers.
For Easy VPN connections, IKE policies are only configured on the Easy VPN
server. The Easy VPN client sends proposals, and the server responds according
to its configured IKE policies.
Priority
This is the order in which the policy will be offered during negotiation.
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Encryption
Cisco SDM supports a variety of encryption types, listed in order of security. The
more secure an encryption type is, the more processing time it requires.
Note
•
Not all routers support all encryption types. Unsupported types will not
appear in the screen.
•
Not all IOS images support all the encryption types that Cisco SDM supports.
Types unsupported by the IOS image will not appear in the screen.
•
If hardware encryption is turned on, only those encryption types supported by
hardware encryption will appear in the screen.
Cisco SDM supports the following types of encryption:
•
DES—Data Encryption Standard. This form of encryption supports 56-bit
encryption.
•
3DES—Triple DES. This is a stronger form of encryption than DES,
supporting 168-bit encryption.
•
AES-128—Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) encryption with a 128-bit
key. AES provides greater security than DES and is computationally more
efficient than 3DES.
•
AES-192—AES encryption with a 192-bit key.
•
AES-256—AES encryption with a 256-bit key.
Hash
The authentication algorithm to be used for the negotiation. Cisco SDM supports
the following algorithms:
•
SHA_1—Secure Hash Algorithm. A hash algorithm used to authenticate
packet data.
•
MD5—Message Digest 5. A hash algorithm used to authenticate packet data.
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D-H Group
The Diffie-Hellman Group—Diffie-Hellman is a public-key cryptography
protocol that allows two routers to establish a shared secret over an unsecure
communications channel. Cisco SDM supports the following groups:
•
group1—D-H Group 1. 768-bit D-H Group.
•
group2—D-H Group 2. 1024-bit D-H Group. This group provides more
security than group 1, but requires more processing time.
•
group5—D-H Group 5.1536-bit D-H Group. This group provides more
security than group 2, but requires more processing time.
Authentication
The authentication method to be used. The following values are supported:
Note
•
PRE_SHARE—Authentication will be performed using pre-shared keys.
•
RSA_SIG—Authentication will be performed using digital certificates.
You must choose the authentication type that you specified when you identified
the interfaces that the VPN connection is using.
Type
Either Cisco SDM Default or User Defined. If no User Defined policies have been
created on the router, this window will show the default IKE policy.
To add or edit an IKE policy:
If you want to add an IKE policy that is not included in this list, click Add and
create the policy in the window displayed. Edit an existing policy by selecting it
and clicking Edit. Cisco SDM Default policies are read only, and cannot be
edited.
To accept the policy list:
To accept the IKE policy list and continue, click Next.
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Transform Set
This window lists the Cisco SDM-default transform sets and the additional
transform sets that have been configured on this router. These transform sets will
be available for use by the VPN or DMVPN. A transform set represents a certain
combination of security protocols and algorithms. During the IPSec security
association negotiation, the peers agree to use a particular transform set for
protecting a particular data flow. A transform describes a particular security
protocol with its corresponding algorithms.
You can select only one transform set in this window, but you can associate
additional transform sets to the VPN or DMVPN connection using the VPN or
DMVPN Edit tabs.
Select Transform Set
Select the transform set that you want to use from this list.
Details of the Selected Transform Set
This area supplies details about the selected transform set. Not all types of
encryption, authentication, and compression have to be configured; therefore,
some columns may not contain values.
To learn the possible values each column may contain, click Add or Edit
Transform Set.
Name
The name given to this transform set.
ESP Encryption
The type of Encapsulating Security Protocol (ESP) encryption used. If ESP
encryption is not configured for this transform set, this column will be empty.
ESP Authentication
The type of ESP authentication used. If ESP authentication is not configured for
this transform set, this column will be empty.
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AH Authentication
The type of Authentication Header (AH) authentication used. If AH
authentication is not configured for this transform set, this column will be empty.
IP Compression
If IP compression is configured for this transform set, this field contains the value
COMP-LZS.
IP compression is not supported on all routers.
Note
Mode
This column contains one of the following:
•
Transport—Encrypt data only. Transport mode is used when both endpoints
support IPsec. Transport mode places the authentication header or
encapsulated security payload after the original IP header; thus, only the IP
payload is encrypted. This method allows users to apply network services
such as quality-of-service (QoS) controls to encrypted packets.
•
Tunnel—Encrypt data and IP header. Tunnel mode provides stronger
protection than transport mode. Because the entire IP packet is encapsulated
within AH or ESP, a new IP header is attached, and the entire datagram can
be encrypted. Tunnel mode allows network devices such as routers to act as
an IPsec proxy for multiple VPN users.
Type
Either User Defined, or Cisco SDM Default.
What Do You Want to Do?
If you want to:
Do this:
Select a transform set for the VPN to
use.
Select a transform set, and click Next.
Add a transform set to the router’s
configuration.
Click Add, and create the transform set in the Add Transform
Set window. Then click Next to continue VPN configuration.
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If you want to:
Do this:
Edit an existing transform set.
Select a transform set, and click Edit. Then, edit the
transform set in the Edit Transform Set window. After editing
the transform set, click Next to continue VPN configuration.
Cisco SDM Default transform sets are read only and cannot
be edited.
Associate additional transform sets
with this VPN.
Select one transform set in this window, and complete the
VPN wizard. Then, associate other transform sets to the VPN
in the Edit tab.
Traffic to Protect
This window lets you define the traffic that this VPN protects. The VPN can
protect traffic between specified subnets, or protect the traffic specified in an
IPSec rule that you select.
Protect All Traffic Between the Following Subnets
Use this option to specify a single source subnet (a subnet on the LAN) whose
outgoing traffic you want to encrypt, and one destination subnet supported by the
peer that you specified in the VPN Connection window.
All traffic flowing between other source and destination pairs will be sent
unencrypted.
Source
Enter the address of the subnet whose outgoing traffic you want to protect, and
specify the subnet mask. For more information, refer to Available Interface
Configurations.
All traffic from this source subnet that has a destination IP address on the
destination subnet will be protected.
Destination
Enter the address of the destination subnet, and specify the mask for that subnet.
You can select a subnet mask from the list, or type in a custom mask. The subnet
number and mask must be entered in dotted decimal format, as shown in the
previous examples.
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All traffic going to the hosts in this subnet will be protected.
Create/Select an access-list for IPSec traffic
Use this option if you need to specify multiple sources and destinations, and/or
specific types of traffic to encrypt. An IPSec rule can consist of multiple entries,
each specifying different traffic types and different sources and destinations.
Click the button next to the field, and specify an existing IPSec rule that defines
the traffic you want to encrypt, or create an IPSec rule to use for this VPN. If you
know the number of the IPSec rule, enter it in the box to the right. If you do not
know the number of the rule, click the ... button and browse for the rule. When
you select the rule, the number will appear in the box.
Note
Because they can specify traffic type, and both source and destination, IPSec rules
are extended rules. If you enter the number or name of a standard rule, a Warning
message is displayed indicating that you have entered the name or number of a
standard rule.
Any packets that do not match the criteria in the IPSec rule are sent with no
encryption.
Summary of the Configuration
This window shows you the VPN or DMVPN configuration that you created. You
can review the configuration in this window and use the back button to make
changes if you want.
Spoke Configuration
If you have configured a DMVPN hub, you can have Cisco SDM generate a
procedure that will assist you or other administrators in configuring DMVPN
spokes. The procedure explains which options to select in the wizard, and what
information to enter in spoke configuration windows. You can save this
information to a text file that you or another administrator can use.
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Test the connectivity after configuring
Click to test the VPN connection you have just configured.The results of the test
will be shown in another window.
To save this configuration to the router’s running configuration and leave this wizard:
Click Finish. Cisco SDM saves the configuration changes to the router’s running
configuration. The changes will take effect immediately, but will be lost if the
router is turned off.
If you checked Preview commands before delivering to router in the Cisco
SDM Preferences window, the Deliver window will appear . In this window, you
can view the CLI commands you that are delivering to the router.
Spoke Configuration
This window contains information that you can use to give a spoke router a
configuration that will be compatible with the DMVPN hub that you configured.
It lists the windows you need to complete, giving you data that you need to enter
in the window so that the spoke will be able to communicate with the hub.
It provides the following data that you need to input into the spoke configuration:
•
The hub’s public IP address. This is the IP address of the hub interface that
supports the mGRE tunnel.
•
The IP address of the hub’s mGRE tunnel.
•
The subnet mask that all tunnel interfaces in the DMVPN must use.
•
The advanced tunnel configuration information.
•
The routing protocol to use, and any information associated with the protocol,
such as Autonomous System number (for EIGRP), and OSPF Process ID.
•
The hash, encryption, DH group, and Authentication Type of the IKE policies
that the hub uses, so that compatible IKE policies can be configured on the
spoke.
•
The ESP and Mode information of the transform sets that the hub uses. If
similar transform sets have not been configured on the spoke, they can be
configured using this information.
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Secure GRE Tunnel (GRE-over-IPSec)
Generic routing encapsulation (GRE) is a tunneling protocol developed by Cisco
that can encapsulate a wide variety of protocol packet types inside IP tunnels,
creating a virtual point-to-point link to Cisco routers at remote points over an IP
internetwork. By connecting multiprotocol subnetworks in a single-protocol
backbone environment, IP tunneling using GRE allows network expansion across
a single-protocol backbone environment.
This wizard enables you to create a GRE tunnel with IPSec encryption. When you
create a GRE tunnel configuration, you also create an IPSec rule that describes the
endpoints of the tunnel.
GRE Tunnel Information
General GRE tunnel information is provided in this screen.
Tunnel Source
Select the interface name or the IP address of the interface that the tunnel will use.
The IP address of the interface must be reachable from the other end of the tunnel;
therefore it must a a public, routable IP address. An error will be generated if you
enter an IP address that is not associated with any configured interface.
Note
Cisco SDM lists interfaces with static IP addresses and interfaces configured as
unnumbered in the Interface list. Loopback interfaces are not included in the list.
Details
Click to obtain details about the interface that you selected. The details window
shows any access rules, IPSec policies, NAT rules, or Inspection rules associated
with the interface. If a NAT rule has been applied to this interface that causes the
address to be unroutable, the tunnel will not operate properly. To examine any of
these rules in more detail, go to Additional Tasks/ACL Editor and examine the in
the Rules window.
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Tunnel Destination
Enter the IP address of the interface on the remote router at the other end of the
tunnel. This is the source interface from the point of view of the other end of the
tunnel.
Make sure that this address is reachable by using the ping command. The ping
command is available from the Tools menu. If the destination address cannot be
reached, the tunnel will not be created properly.
IP Address of the GRE tunnel
Enter the IP address of the tunnel. The IP addresses of both ends of the tunnel
must be in the same subnet. The tunnel is given a separate IP address so that it can
be a private address, if necessary.
IP Address
Enter the IP address of the tunnel in dotted decimal format. For more information,
see IP Addresses and Subnet Masks.
Subnet Mask
Enter the subnet mask for the tunnel address in dotted decimal format.
VPN Authentication Information
VPN peers use a pre-shared key to authenticate connections from each other. This
key must be the same on each side of the VPN connection.
Pre-Shared Key
Click this button if the VPN peers use a pre-shared key for authentication and then
enter the pre-shared key, and then reenter it for confirmation. Exchange the
pre-shared key with the administrator of the remote site through some secure and
convenient method, such as an encrypted e-mail message. Question marks (?) and
spaces must not be used in the pre-shared key.
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Note
•
The characters that you enter for the pre-shared key are not displayed in the
field as you enter them. You may find it helpful to write down the key before
you enter it so that you can communicate it to the administrator of the remote
system.
•
Pre-shared keys must be exchanged between each pair of IPSec peers that
need to establish secure tunnels. This authentication method is appropriate
for a stable network with a limited number of IPSec peers. It may cause
scalability problems in a network with a large or increasing number of IPSec
peers.
Digital Certificate
Click this button if the VPN peers will use digital certificates for authentication.
The router must have a digital certificate issued by a Certificate Authority to
authenticate itself. If you have not configured a digital certificate for the router,
go to VPN components, and use the Digital Certificate wizard to enroll for a
digital certificate.
Note
If you are authenticating using digital certificates, the VPN tunnel might not be
created if the CA server contacted during IKE negotiation is not configured to
respond to Certificate Revocation List (CRL) requests. To correct this problem,
go to the Digital Certificates page, select the configured trustpoint, and select
None for Revocation.
Backup GRE Tunnel Information
You can configure a backup GRE-over-IPSec tunnel that the router can use when
the primary tunnel fails. This tunnel will use the same interface that you
configured for the primary tunnel, but it must be configured with the backup VPN
router as the peer. If routing is configured for the primary GRE-over-IPSec tunnel,
the keepalive packets that the routing protocol sends are used to verify that the
tunnel is still active. If the router stops receiving keepalive packets on the primary
tunnel, then traffic is sent through the backup tunnel.
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Create a backup secure GRE tunnel for resilience
Check this box if you want to create a backup tunnel.
IP address of the backup GRE tunnel’s destination
Enter the IP address of the interface on the remote router at the other end of the
tunnel. (This is the source interface from the point of view of the other end of the
tunnel.)
Make sure that this address is reachable by using the ping command. The ping
command is available from the Tools menu. If the destination address specified in
the Ping dialog cannot be reached, the tunnel will not be created properly.
Tunnel IP address
Enter the IP address of the tunnel. The IP addresses of both ends of the tunnel
must be in the same subnet. The tunnel is given a separate IP address so that it can
be a private address, if necessary.
IP Address
Enter the IP address of the tunnel in dotted decimal format. For more information,
see IP Addresses and Subnet Masks.
Subnet Mask
Enter the subnet mask for the tunnel address in dotted decimal format.
Routing Information
This window enables you to configure routing for the tunneled traffic. Information
that you add in this window appears in the Routing window. Changes that you
make in the Routing window may affect routing of VPN traffic. Configuring
routing enables you to specify the networks that will participate in the
GRE-over-IPSec VPN. Additionally, if you configure a backup GRE-over-IPSec
tunnel, the keepalive packets sent by routing protocols allow the router to
determine whether the primary tunnel has failed.
Select a dynamic routing protocol if this router is being used in a large VPN
deployment with a large number of networks in the GRE over IPSec VPN. Select
static routing if a small number of networks will participate in the VPN.
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EIGRP
Check this box to use the Enhanced Interior Gateway Routing Protocol (EIGRP)
protocol to route traffic. Then click Next to specify which networks will
participate in the GRE-over-IPSec VPN in the Routing Information window.
OSPF
Check this box to use the Open Shortest Path First protocol (OSPF) to route
traffic. Then click Next to specify which networks will participate in the
GRE-over-IPSec VPN in the Routing Information window.
RIP
Check this box to use the Routing Information Protocol(RIP) to route traffic. Then
click Next to specify which networks will participate in the GRE-over-IPSec VPN
in the Routing Information window.
Note
This option is not available when you configure a backup GRE-over-IPSec tunnel.
Static Routing
Static routing can be used in smaller VPN deployments in which only a few
private networks participate in the GRE-over-IPSec VPN. You can configure a
static route for each remote network so that traffic destined for the remote
networks will pass through the appropriate tunnels.
Static Routing Information
You can configure a static route for each remote network so that traffic destined
for the remote networks will pass through the appropriate tunnels. Configure the
first static route in the Static Routing Information window. If you need to
configure additional static routes, you can do so in the Routing window.
Check this box if you want to specify a static route for the tunnel, and select one
of the following:
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•
Tunnel all traffic—All traffic will be routed through the tunnel interface and
encrypted. Cisco SDM creates a default static route entry with the tunnel
interface as the next hop.
If a default route already exists, Cisco SDM modifies that route to use the
tunnel interface as the next hop, replacing the interface that was originally
there, and creates a new static entry to the tunnel destination network that
specifies the interface in the original default route as the next hop.
The following example assumes the network at the other end of the tunnel is
200.1.0.0, as specified in the destination network fields:
! Original entry
ip route 0.0.0.0
0.0.0.0 FE0
! Entry changed by SDM
ip route 0.0.0.0
0.0.0.0 Tunnel0
! Entry added by SDM
ip route 200.1.0.0
255.255.0.0 FE0
If no default route exists, Cisco SDM simply creates one, using the tunnel
interface as the next hop. For example:
ip route 0.0.0.0
•
0.0.0.0 Tunnel0
Do split tunneling—Split tunneling allows traffic that is destined for the
network specified in the IP Address and Network Mask fields to be encrypted
and routed through the tunnel interface. All other traffic will not be
encrypted. When this option is selected, Cisco SDM creates a static route to
the network, using the IP address and network mask.
The following example assumes that the network address
10.2.0.0/255.255.0.0 was entered in the destination address fields:
The following example assumes that the network address
10.2.0.0/255.255.0.0 was entered in the destination address fields:
ip route 10.2.0.0 255.255.0.0 Tunnel0
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When split tunneling is selected, the IP Address and Subnet Mask fields will
appear, requiring you to enter the IP Address and Subnet Mask of the
destination peer. You must ensure that the destination IP address entered in
the Tunnel Destination field of the GRE Tunnel Information window is
reachable. If it is not reachable, no tunnel will be established.
IP Address
Enabled with split tunneling. Enter the IP address of the network at the other end
of the tunnel. Cisco SDM will create a static route entry for the packets with a
destination address in that network. This field is disabled when Tunnel all traffic
is selected.
You must ensure that the IP address entered in this field is reachable before you
configure this option. If it is not reachable, no tunnel will be established.
Network Mask
Enabled with split tunneling. Enter the network mask used on the network at the
other end of the tunnel. This field is disabled when Tunnel all traffic is selected.
Select Routing Protocol
Use this window to specify how other networks behind your router are advertised
to the other routers in the network. Select one of the following:
Note
•
EIGRP—Extended Interior Gateway Routing Protocol.
•
OSPF—Open Shortest Path First.
•
RIP—Routing Internet Protocol.
•
Static Routing. This option is enabled when you are configuring a GRE over
IPSec tunnel.
RIP is not supported for DMVPN Hub and spoke topology but is available for
DMVPN Full Mesh topology.
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Summary of Configuration
This screen summarizes the GRE configuration that you have completed. You can
review the information in this screen and click the back button to return to any
screen in which you want to make changes. If you want to save the configuration,
click Finish.
GRE tunnel configuration creates an IPSec rule that specifies which hosts the
GRE traffic will be allowed to flow between. This IPSec rule is displayed in the
summary.
To save this configuration to the router’s running configuration and leave this wizard:
Click Finish. Cisco SDM saves the configuration changes to the router’s running
configuration. The changes will take effect immediately, but will be lost if the
router is turned off.
If you checked Preview commands before delivering to router in the Cisco
SDM Preferences window, the Deliver window will appear . In this window, you
can view the CLI commands you that are delivering to the router.
Edit Site-to-Site VPN
Virtual Private Networks (VPNs) let you protect data between your router and a
remote system by encrypting traffic so that it cannot be read by others who are
using the same public network. In effect, it gives you the protection of a private
network over public lines that may be used by other organizations.
Use this window to create and manage VPN connections to remote systems. You
can create, edit, and delete VPN connections, and reset existing connections. You
can also use this window to configure your router as an Easy VPN client with
connections to one or more Easy VPN servers or concentrators.
Click the link for the part of the window for which you want help:
Site-to-Site VPN Connections
VPN connections, sometimes referred to as tunnels, are created and managed
from the VPN Connections box. A VPN connection links a router interface to one
or more peers specified by a crypto map defined in an IP Security (IPSec)
policy.You can view, add, edit, and delete the VPN connections in this list.
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Edit Site-to-Site VPN
Status column
The status of the connection, which is indicated by the following icons:
The connection is up.
The connection is down.
The connection is being established.
Interface
The router interface that is connected to the remote peers in this VPN connection.
An interface can be associated with only one IPSec policy. The same interface will
appear on multiple lines if there is more than one crypto map defined for the IPSec
policy used in this connection.
Description
A short description of this connection.
IPSec Policy
The name of the IPSec policy used in this VPN connection. The IPSec policy
specifies how data is encrypted, which data will be encrypted, and where data will
be sent. For more information, click More about VPN Connections and IPSec
Policies.
Sequence Number
The sequence number for this connection. Because an IPSec policy may be used
in more than one connection, the combination of the sequence number and IPSec
policy name uniquely identifies this VPN connection. The sequence number does
not prioritize the VPN connection; the router will attempt to establish all
configured VPN connections regardless of sequence number.
Peers
The IP addresses or host names of the devices at the other end of the VPN
connection. When a connection contains multiple peers, their IP addresses or host
names are separated by commas. Multiple peers might be configured to provide
alternative routing paths for the VPN connection.
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Edit Site-to-Site VPN
Transform Set
This shows the name of the transform set used by this VPN connection. Multiple
transform set names are separated by commas. A transform set specifies the
algorithms that will be used to encrypt data, ensure data integrity, and provide
data compression. Both peers must use the same transform set, and they negotiate
to determine which set they will use. Multiple transform sets may be defined to
ensure that the router can offer a transform set that the negotiating peer will agree
to use. The transform sets is a component of the IPSec policy.
IPSec Rule
The rule that determines which traffic should be encrypted on this connection.
The IPSec rule is a component of the IPSec Policy.
Type
One of the following:
•
Static—This is a static site-to-site VPN tunnel. The VPN tunnel uses static
crypto maps.
•
Dynamic—This is a dynamic site-to-site VPN tunnel. The VPN tunnel uses
dynamic crypto maps.
Add Button
Click to add a VPN connection
Delete Button
Click to delete a selected VPN connection
Test Tunnel.. Button
Click to test a selected VPN tunnel.The results of the test will be shown in another
window.
Clear Connection Button
Click to reset an established connection to a remote peer. This button is disabled
if you have selected a dynamic site-to-site VPN tunnel.
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Edit Site-to-Site VPN
Generate Mirror..Button
Click to create a text file that captures the VPN configuration of the local router
so that a remote router can be given a VPN configuration that enables it to
establish a VPN connection to the local router. This button is disabled if you have
selected a dynamic site-to-site VPN tunnel.
Note
Any previously configured VPN connections detected by Cisco SDM that do not
use ISAKMP crypto maps will appear as read-only entries in the VPN connection
table and cannot be edited.
Add new connection
Use this window to add a new VPN connection between the local router and a
remote system, referred to as a peer. You create the VPN connection by
associating an IPSec policy with an interface.
To create a VPN connection:
Step 1
Select the interface you want to use for the VPN from the Select Interface list.
Only interfaces that are not used in other VPN connections are shown in this list.
Step 2
Select a policy from the Choose IPSec Policy list. Click OK to return to the VPN
Connections window.
Add Additional Crypto Maps
Use this window to add a new crypto map to an existing IPSec policy. This
window shows the interface associated with the VPN connection that you selected
in the VPN Connections window, the IPSec policy associated with it, and the
crypto maps that the policy already contains.
The crypto map specifies a sequence number, the peer device at the other end of
the connection, the set of transforms that encrypt the traffic, and the IPSec rule
that determines which traffic is encrypted.
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Edit Site-to-Site VPN
Note
Adding a crypto map to an existing IPSec policy is the only way to add a VPN
tunnel to an interface that is already being used in an existing VPN connection.
Interface
This is the interface used in this VPN connection.
IPSec Policy
This is the name of the IPSec policy controlling the VPN connection. The crypto
maps making up the IPSec policy are shown in the list below this field. For more
information, click More about VPN Connections and IPSec Policies.
What Do You Want to Do?
If you want to:
Do this:
Configure the crypto map yourself.
Click Add New Crypto Map and use the Add Crypto Map
window to create the new crypto map. Click OK when you
are finished. Then click OK in this window.
Have Cisco Router and Security Device Check the Use Add Wizard box, and click OK. Cisco SDM
Manager (Cisco SDM) help you add a will guide you in creating a new crypto map, and will
new crypto map to this connection.
associate it with the IPSec policy.
Crypto Map Wizard: Welcome
This wizard will guide you through the creation of a crypto map. A crypto map
specifies the peer devices at the other end of the VPN connection, defines how
traffic will be encrypted, and identifies which traffic will be encrypted.
Click Next to begin creating a crypto map.
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Edit Site-to-Site VPN
Crypto Map Wizard: Summary of the configuration
The Cryptomap wizard summary page displays the data you entered in the wizard
windows. You can review it, click Back to return to a screen to make changes, and
then return to the Summary window and click Finish to deliver the cryptomap
configuration to the router.
Delete Connection
Use this window to delete a VPN tunnel, or simply to disassociate it from an
interface but preserve the definition for future use.
Delete the crypto map with sequence number n from IPSec policy policy name
Click this button, and then click OK to remove the VPN tunnel definition. The
associations created between the interface, IPSec policy, and peer devices will be
lost when you do this. If more than one interface has been associated with this
tunnel definition, those associations are deleted as well.
Delete the dynamic crypto map with sequence number n from the dynamic crypto map set set name
This button is shown if you selected a dynamic site-to-site VPN tunnel. Click this
button, and then click OK to remove the VPN tunnel definition. The associations
created between the interface, IPSec policy, and peer devices will be lost when
you do this. If more than one interface has been associated with this tunnel
definition, those associations are deleted as well.
Disassociate the IPSec policy policy name from the interface interface name, and keep the IPSec policy
for possible future reuse
Click this button, and then click OK to retain the tunnel definition but remove its
association with the interface. You will be able to associate this definition with
another router interface if you wish.
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Edit Site-to-Site VPN
Ping
You can ping a peer device in this window. You can select both the source and
destination of the ping operation. You may want to ping a remote peer after you
reset a VPN tunnel.
Source
Select or enter the IP address where you want the ping to originate. If the address
you want to use is not in the list, you can enter a different one in the field. The
ping can originate from any interface on the router. By default, the ping command
originates from the outside interface with the connection to the remote device.
Destination
Select the IP address that you want to ping. If the address you want to use is not
in the list, you can enter a different one in the field.
To ping a remote peer:
Specify the source and destination, and click Ping. You can read the output of the
ping command to determine whether the ping was successful.
To clear the output of the ping command:
Click Clear.
Generate Mirror...
This window shows you the IPSec policy used for the VPN tunnel to the selected
peer, and allows you to save the policy in a text file that you can use when
configuring the VPN connection on the peer device.
Peer Device
Select the IP address or host name of the peer device to see the IPSec policy
configured for the tunnel to that device. The policy appears in the box under the
peer IP address.
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Edit Site-to-Site VPN
To create a text file of the IPSec policy:
Click Save, and specify a name and location for the text file. You can give this text
file to the administrator of the peer device so that he or she can create a policy that
mirrors the one you created on the router. Click After Configuring a VPN, How
Do I Configure the VPN on the Peer Router? to learn how to use the text file to
create a mirror policy.
Caution
The text file that you generate must not be copied into the configuration file of the
remote system, but must be used only to show what has been configured on the
local router so that the remote device can be configured in a way that is
compatible. Identical names for IPSec policies, IKE policies, and transform sets
may be used on the remote router, but the policies and transform sets may be
different. If the text file is simply copied into the remote configuration file,
configuration errors are likely to result.
Cisco SDM Warning: NAT Rules with ACL
This window appears when you are configuring a VPN using interfaces with
associated NAT rules that use Access rules. This type of NAT rule can change IP
addresses in packets before the packets leave or enter the LAN, and a NAT rule
will prevent VPN connections from functioning properly if it changes source IP
addresses so that they don’t match the IPSec rule configured for the VPN. To
prevent this from happening, Cisco SDM can convert these to NAT rules that use
route maps. Route maps specify subnets that should not be translated.
The window shows the NAT rules that have to be changed to ensure the VPN
connection functions properly.
Original Address
The IP address that NAT will translate.
Translated Address
The IP address that NAT will substitute for the original address.
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Rule Type
The type of NAT rule, either Static or Dynamic.
To make the listed NAT rules use route maps:
Click OK.
How Do I...
This section contains procedures for tasks that the wizard does not help you
complete.
How Do I Create a VPN to More Than One Site?
You can use Cisco SDM to create multiple VPN tunnels on one interface on your
router. Each VPN tunnel will connect the selected interface on your router to a
different subnet at the destination router. You can configure multiple VPN tunnels
to connect to the same interface but to different subnets on the destination router,
or you can configure multiple VPN tunnels that will connect to different interfaces
on the destination router.
First, you must create the initial VPN tunnel. The steps below describe how to
create the initial VPN tunnel. If you have already created your first VPN tunnel
and need to add an additional tunnel to the same interface, skip the first procedure
and perform the steps in the next procedure in this help topic.
Create the initial VPN tunnel:
Step 1
From the left frame, select VPN.
Step 2
Select Create a Site-to-Site VPN .
Step 3
Click Launch the Selected Task.
The VPN Wizard starts.
Step 4
Click Quick Setup.
Step 5
Click Next>.
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Step 6
From the Select the Router Interface for this VPN Connection field, choose the
interface on the source router on which to create the VPN tunnel. This is the
interface connected to the Internet on the Local system in the Use Case Scenario
diagram.
Step 7
In the Peer Identity field, enter the IP address of the destination router interface.
Step 8
In the Authentication fields, enter and reenter the pre-shared key that the two VPN
peers will use.
Step 9
In the Source field, select the interface that connects to the subnet whose IP traffic
you want to protect. This is the Local router in the Use Case Scenario diagram,
and is usually an interface connected to the LAN.
Step 10
In the Destination fields, enter the IP address and subnet mask of the destination
router.
Step 11
Click Next>.
Step 12
Click Finish.
Create an Additional Tunnel from the Same Source Interface
After you have created the initial VPN tunnel, follow these steps to create an
additional tunnel from the same source interface to a different destination
interface or destination subnet:
Step 1
From the left frame, select VPN.
Step 2
Select Create a Site-to-Site VPN.
Step 3
Click Launch the Selected Task.
The VPN Wizard starts.
Step 4
Click Quick Setup.
Step 5
Click Next>.
Step 6
From the Select the Router Interface for this VPN Connection field, choose the
same interface that you used to create the initial VPN connection.
Step 7
In the Peer Identity field, enter the IP address of the destination router interface.
You can enter the same IP address that you entered when you created the initial
VPN connection. This indicates that this second VPN connection should use the
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same interface on the destination router as the initial VPN connection. If you do
not want both VPN connections to connect to the same destination interface, enter
the IP address of a different interface on the destination router.
Step 8
In the Authentication fields, enter and reenter the pre-shared key that the two VPN
peers will use.
Step 9
In the Source field, select the same interface used to create the initial VPN
connection.
Step 10
In the Destination fields, you have the following options:
•
If, in the Peer Identity field, you entered the IP address of a different interface
on the destination router and want to protect the IP traffic coming from a
specific subnet, enter the IP address and subnet mask of that subnet in the
appropriate fields.
•
If you entered the same IP address in the Peer Identity field as you used for
the initial VPN connection, indicating that this VPN tunnel will use the same
router interface as the initial VPN tunnel, then enter the IP address and subnet
mask of the new subnet that you want to protect in the appropriate fields.
Step 11
Click Next>.
Step 12
Click Finish.
After Configuring a VPN, How Do I Configure the VPN on the Peer
Router?
Cisco SDM generates VPN configurations on your router. Cisco SDM includes a
function that will generate a text file of the configuration that can be used as a
template to create a VPN configuration for the peer router to which your VPN
tunnel connects. This text file can only be used as a template that shows you which
commands need to be configured. It cannot be used without editing because it
contains information that is only correct for the local router you configured.
To generate a template configuration for the peer VPN router:
Step 1
From the left frame, select VPN.
Step 2
Select Site-to-Site VPN. in the VPN tree, and then click the Edit tab.
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Step 3
Select the VPN connection that you want to use as a template, and click Generate
Mirror.
Cisco SDM displays the Generate Mirror screen.
Step 4
From the Peer Device field, select the IP address of the peer device for which you
want to generate a suggested configuration.
The suggested configuration for the peer device appears on the Generate Mirror
screen.
Step 5
Click Save to display the Windows Save File dialog box, and save the file.
Caution
Step 6
Step 7
Do not apply the mirror configuration to the peer device without
editing! This configuration is a template that requires additional
manual configuration. Use it only as a starting point to build the
configuration for the VPN peer.
After saving the file, use a text editor to make any needed changes to the template
configuration. These are some commands that may need editing:
•
The peer IP address command(s)
•
The transform policy command(s)
•
The crypto map IP address command(s)
•
The ACL command(s)
•
The interface ip address command(s)
After you have finished editing the peer configuration file, deliver it to the peer
router using a TFTP server.
How Do I Edit an Existing VPN Tunnel?
To edit an existing VPN tunnel:
Step 1
From the left frame, select VPN.
Step 2
Select Site-to-Site VPN. in the VPN tree, and then click the Edit tab.
Step 3
Click the connection that you want to edit.
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Step 4
Click Add.
Step 5
Select Static crypto maps to <policy name>
Step 6
In the Add static crypto maps window, you can add more crypto maps to the VPN
connection.
Step 7
If you need to modify any of the components of the connection, such as the IPSec
policy or the existing crypto map, note the names of those components in the VPN
window, and go to the appropriate windows under VPN Components to make
changes.
How Do I Confirm That My VPN Is Working?
You can verify that your VPN connection is working by using the Monitor mode
in Cisco SDM. If your VPN connection is working, Monitor mode will display the
VPN connection by identifying the source and destination peer IP addresses.
Depending on whether your VPN connection is an IPSec tunnel or an Internet Key
Exchange (IKE) security association (SA), Monitor mode will display the number
of packets transferred across the connection, or show the current state of the
connection. To display the current information about a VPN connection:
Step 1
From the toolbar, select Monitor Mode.
Step 2
From the left frame, select VPN Status.
Step 3
From the Select A Category field, select whether to view information for IPSec
tunnels or IKE SAs.
Each configured VPN connection will appear as a row on the screen.
If you are viewing IPSec tunnel information, you can verify the following
information to determine that your VPN connection is working:
•
The local and remote peer IP addresses are correct, indicating that the VPN
connection is between the correct sites and router interfaces.
•
The tunnel status is “up.” If the tunnel status is “down” or “administratively
down,” then the VPN connection is not active.
•
The number of encapsulation and decapsulation packets is not zero,
indicating that data has been transferred over the connection and that the sent
and received errors are not too high.
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If you are viewing IKE SA information, you can verify that your VPN connection
is working by verifying that the source and destination IP addresses are correct,
and that the state is “QM_IDLE,” indicating that the connection has been
authenticated and that data transfer can take place.
How Do I Configure a Backup Peer for My VPN?
To configure multiple VPN peers inside a single crypto map:
Step 1
From the left frame, select VPN.
Step 2
From the VPN tree, select VPN Components, and then IPSec Policies.
Step 3
In the IPSec Policies table, click the IPSec policy to which you want to add
another VPN peer.
Step 4
Click Edit.
The Edit IPSec Policy dialog box appears.
Step 5
Click Add.
Step 6
The Add Crypto Map dialog box appears, letting you set the values for the new
crypto map. Set the values for the new crypto map, using all four tabs in the dialog
box. The Peer Information tab contains the Specify Peers field, which lets you
enter the IP address of the peer you want to add.
Step 7
When you have finished, click OK.
The crypto map with the new peer IP address appears in the “Crypto Maps in this
IPSec Policy” table.
Step 8
To add additional peers, repeat Step 4 through Step 8.
How Do I Accommodate Multiple Devices with Different Levels
of VPN Support?
To add multiple transform sets to a single crypto map:
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Step 1
From the left frame, select VPN.
Step 2
From the VPN tree, select VPN Components, and then IPSec Policies.
Step 3
In the IPSec Policies table, click the IPSec policy that contains the crypto map to
which you want to add another transform set.
Step 4
Click Edit.
The Edit IPSec Policy dialog box appears.
Step 5
In the “Crypto Maps in this IPSec Policy” table, click the crypto map to which
you want to add another transform set.
Step 6
Click Edit.
The Edit Crypt Map dialog box appears.
Step 7
Click the Transform Sets tab.
Step 8
In the Available Transform Sets field, click a transform set that you want to add
to the crypto map.
Step 9
Click >> to add the selected transform set to the crypto map.
Step 10
If you want to add additional transform sets to this crypto map, repeat Step 9 and
Step 10 until you have added all the transform sets you want.
Click OK.
How Do I Configure a VPN on an Unsupported Interface?
Cisco SDM can configure a VPN over an interface type unsupported by Cisco
SDM. Before you can configure the VPN connection, you must first use the router
CLI to configure the interface. The interface must have, at a minimum, an IP
address configured, and it must be working. To verify that the connection is
working, verify that the interface status is “Up.”
After you have configured the unsupported interface using the CLI, you can use
Cisco SDM to configure your VPN connection. The unsupported interface will
appear in the fields that require you to choose an interface for the VPN
connection.
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How Do I Configure a VPN After I Have Configured a Firewall?
In order for a VPN to function with a firewall in place, the firewall must be
configured to permit traffic between the local and remote peer IP addresses. Cisco
SDM creates this configuration by default when you configure a VPN
configuration after you have already configured a firewall.
How Do I Configure NAT Passthrough for a VPN?
If you are using NAT to translate addresses from networks outside your own and
if you are also connecting to a specific site outside your network via a VPN, you
must configure NAT passthrough for your VPN connection, so that network
address translation does not take place on the VPN traffic. If you have already
configured NAT on your router and are now configuring a new VPN connection
using Cisco SDM, you will receive a warning message informing you that Cisco
SDM will configure NAT so that it does not translate VPN traffic. You must accept
the message so that Cisco SDM will create the necessary ACLs to protect your
VPN traffic from translation.
If you are configuring NAT using Cisco SDM and you have already configured a
VPN connection, perform the following procedure to create ACLs.
Step 1
From the left frame, select Additional Tasks/ACL Editor.
Step 2
In the Rules tree, choose Access Rules.
Step 3
Click Add.
The Add a Rule dialog box appears.
Step 4
In the Name/Number field, enter a unique name or number for the new rule.
Step 5
From the Type field, choose Extended Rule.
Step 6
In the Description field, enter a short description of the new rule.
Step 7
Click Add.
The Add a Standard Rule Entry dialog box appears.
Step 8
In the Action field, choose Permit.
Step 9
In the Source Host/Network group, from the Type field, select A Network.
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Step 10
In the IP Address and Wildcard Mask fields, enter the IP address and subnet mask
of the VPN source peer.
Step 11
In the Destination Host/Network group, from the Type field, select A Network.
Step 12
In the IP Address and Wildcard Mask fields, enter the IP address and subnet mask
of the VPN destination peer.
Step 13
In the Description field, enter a short description of the network or host.
Step 14
Click OK.
The new rule now appears in the Access Rules table.
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12
Easy VPN Remote
Cable modems, xDSL routers, and other forms of broadband access provide
high-performance connections to the Internet, but many applications also require
the security of VPN connections that perform a high level of authentication and
that encrypt the data between two particular endpoints. However, establishing a
VPN connection between two routers can be complicated and typically requires
tedious coordination between network administrators to configure the VPN
parameters of the two routers.
The Cisco Easy VPN Remote feature eliminates much of this tedious work by
implementing Cisco Unity Client Protocol, which allows most VPN parameters to
be defined at a Cisco IOS Easy VPN server. This server can be a dedicated VPN
device, such as a Cisco VPN 3000 concentrator or a Cisco PIX Firewall or a Cisco
IOS router that supports the Cisco Unity Client Protocol.
After the Cisco Easy VPN server has been configured, a VPN connection can be
created with minimal configuration on an Easy VPN remote, such as a Cisco 800
series router or a Cisco 2800 series router. When the Easy VPN remote initiates
the VPN tunnel connection, the Cisco Easy VPN server pushes the IPsec policies
to the Easy VPN remote and creates the corresponding VPN tunnel connection.
The Cisco Easy VPN Remote feature provides for automatic management of the
following details:
•
Negotiating tunnel parameters, such as addresses, algorithms, and lifetime.
•
Establishing tunnels according to the parameters that were set.
•
Automatically creating the NAT or Port Address Translation (PAT) and
associated access lists that are needed, if any.
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•
Authenticating users, that is, ensuring that users are who they say they are by
way of usernames, group names, and passwords.
•
Managing security keys for encryption and decryption.
Cisco SDM provides a wizard that guides you through Easy VPN Remote
configuration. You can also edit an existing configuration using Easy VPN
Remote edit screens.
This chapter contains the following sections:
•
Creating an Easy VPN Remote Connection
•
Administering Easy VPN Remote Connections
•
Other Procedures
Creating an Easy VPN Remote Connection
Create an Easy VPN Remote connection by using the Easy VPN Remote wizard.
Complete these steps:
Step 1
If you want to review the IOS CLI commands that you send to the router when
you complete the configuration, go to the Cisco SDM toolbar, and click Edit >
Preferences > Preview commands before delivering to router. The preview
screen allows you to cancel the configuration if you want to.
Step 2
On the Cisco SDM toolbar, click Configure.
Step 3
On the Cisco SDM category bar, click VPN.
Step 4
In the VPN tree, choose Easy VPN Remote.
Step 5
In the Create Easy VPN Remote tab, complete any recommended tasks that are
displayed by clicking the link for the task. Cisco SDM either completes the task
for you, or displays the necessary configuration screens for you to make settings
in.
Step 6
Click Launch Easy VPN Remote Wizard to begin configuring the connection.
Step 7
Make configuration settings in the wizard screens. Click Next to go from the
current screen to the next screen. Click Back to return to a screen you have
previously visited.
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Step 8
Cisco SDM displays the Summary screen when you have completed the
configuration. Review the configuration. If you need to make changes, click Back
to return to the screen in which you need to make changes, then return to the
Summary screen.
Step 9
If you want to test the connection after sending the configuration to the router,
check Test the connectivity after configuring. After you click Finish, Cisco
SDM tests the connection and displays the test results in another screen.
Step 10
To send the configuration to the router, click Finish.
Step 11
If you checked Preview commands before delivering to router in the Edit
Preferences screen, the Cisco IOS CLI commands that you are sending are
displayed. Click OK to send the configuration to the router, or click Cancel to
discard it. If you did not make this setting, clicking Finish sends the configuration
to the router.
The section Create Easy VPN Remote Reference contains detailed information
about the screens you use.
Create Easy VPN Remote Reference
The following topics describe the Create Easy VPN Remote screens:
•
Create Easy VPN Remote
•
Configure an Easy VPN Remote Client
•
Easy VPN Remote Wizard: Network Information
•
Easy VPN Remote Wizard: Identical Address Configuration
•
Easy VPN Remote Wizard: Interfaces and Connection Settings
•
Easy VPN Remote Wizard: Server Information
•
Easy VPN Remote Wizard: Authentication
•
Easy VPN Remote Wizard: Summary of Configuration
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Create Easy VPN Remote
Cisco SDM allows you to configure your router as a client to an Easy VPN server
or concentrator. Your router must be running a Cisco IOS software image that
supports Easy VPN Phase II. The Create Easy VPN Remote tab enables you to
launch the Easy VPN Remote wizard.
To be able to complete the configuration, you must have the following information
ready.
•
Easy VPN server’s IP address or hostname
•
IPSec group name
•
Key
•
Whether or not there are devices on the local network with IP addresses that
conflict with addresses used in networks that the Easy VPN Remote client
will connect to.
Field Reference
Table 12-1 describes the fields in this screen.
Table 12-1
Create Easy VPN Remote Tab Felds
Element
Description
Use Case Scenario
This area displays a network diagram that depicts the type of
connection that the wizard enables you to configure.
Recommended Tasks
This area describes recommended tasks to complete before
beginning the Easy VPN Remote configuration. Click the link for a
particular task to complete it.
If the Cisco IOS image on the router is version 12.4(9)T or later,
Cisco SDM displays the recommended task Enable DNS if DNS is
not enabled on the router so that a Split DNS configuration, if
pushed by the server, will work.
Launch Easy VPN Remote
Wizard
Click Launch Easy VPN Remote Wizard to start the wizard.
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Configure an Easy VPN Remote Client
This wizard guides you through the configuration of an Easy VPN Remote
Phase II Client.
Note
If the router is not running a Cisco IOS image that supports Easy VPN Remote
Phase II or later, you will not be able to configure an Easy VPN client.
Easy VPN Remote Wizard: Network Information
Indicate whether or not there are IP addresses in the local network that overlap
with IP addresses in networks that the router connects to through the Easy VPN
server in this screen. Also, indicate if there are devices on the local network that
must be reached from those networks.
Note
This screen is displayed when the Cisco IOS image on the router is version
12.4(11)T or later.
Field Reference
Table 12-2 describes the fields in th is screen.
Table 12-2
Network Information Fields
Element
Description
Client IP Addressing
Does your client location have an
addressing scheme that might overlap with
other client locations?
Yes—Click Yes if devices on your local network use IP
addresses that are also used by devices in other networks
that the router will connect to through the Easy VPN
Server. For example, printers on the local network may
use IP addresses that are used by devices in the peer
network. If you click Yes, Cisco SDM displays the
Device Reachability fields.
No—Click No if devices on the local network do not use
IP addresses that are also used in networks that the router
connects to through the Easy VPN server.
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Table 12-2
Network Information Fields (continued)
Element
Description
Device Reachability
Do you have devices at your client location Yes—Click Yes if there are devices on the local network,
that must be reached from the server-side
such as printers, that must be reached from networks that
networks or other client locations?
the router connects to through the Easy VPN server.
No—Click No if there are no devices that must be
reached from networks that the router connects to
through the Easy VPN server.
Easy VPN Remote Wizard: Identical Address Configuration
Enter the local and global IP addresses of the devices that must be reached from
networks that the router connects to through the Easy VPN server in this screen.
Field Reference
Table 12-3 describes the fields in th is screen.
Table 12-3
Identical Address Configuration Fields
Element
Description
Accessible Devices
Device Local IP
The local IP address of a device that is identified as a device that must be
reached by other networks.
Device Global IP
The global IP address given to a device that is identified as a device that must
be reached by other networks. Because the global IP address for each device
must be routable from the Easy VPN server, you must obtain these addresses
from the Easy VPN server administrator. Each IP address must be on the same
subnet, and one address must be reserved for use by non accessible devices on
the local network.
Add
To add the local IP address and global IP address of a device, click Add.
Edit
To change the IP address information for a device, choose an entry and click
Edit.
Delete
To remove an entry for an accessible device, choose the entry and click Delete.
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Table 12-3
Identical Address Configuration Fields (continued)
Element
Description
Non Accessible Devices
IP Address
Enter the IP address that you reserved for non accessible devices in this field.
This IP address must be in the same subnet as the device global IP addresses.
Cisco SDM creates a NAT rule to translate IP addresses of devices that do not
need to be reached from other networks to this IP address, and assigns this IP
address to a new loopback interface.
Subnet Mask
Enter the subnet mask in decimal format; for example, 255.255.255.0. Or,
choose the number of subnet bits; for example, 24. Entering values in one field
updates the other. For example, if you enter 255.255.255.0, the subnet bits field
is automatically updated to display 24.
Warning Messages
Cisco SDM displays a warning message when you click Next if it detects any of
the following problems:
•
There are no devices added.
•
If you enter an IP address for the non accessible devices that is already used
by a router interface.
•
If you enter an IP address for the non accessible devices that is already used
as a global IP address for an accessible device.
•
If you enter local IP address for a device that falls outside the subnet for the
LAN interface it connects to.
Easy VPN Remote Wizard: Interfaces and Connection Settings
In this window, you specify the interfaces that will be used in the Easy VPN
configuration.
Field Reference
Table 12-4 describes the fields in th is screen.
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Table 12-4
Interfaces and Connection Settings Fields
Element
Description
Interfaces
Choose the inside and outside interfaces in this box.
Check boxes
Check the inside (LAN) interfaces that serve the local networks that
you want to include in this Easy VPN configuration. You can choose
multiple inside interfaces, with the following restrictions:
•
If you choose an interface that is already used in another Easy
VPN configuration, you are told that an interface cannot be part
of two Easy VPN configurations.
•
If you choose interfaces that are already used in a VPN
configuration, you are informed that the Easy VPN
configuration you are creating cannot coexist with the existing
VPN configuration. You will be asked if you want to remove the
existing VPN tunnels from those interfaces and apply the Easy
VPN configuration to them.
•
An existing interface does not appear in the list of interfaces if
it cannot be used in an Easy VPN configuration. For example,
loopback interfaces configured on the router do not appear in
this list.
•
An interface cannot be designated as both an inside and an
outside interface.
Up to three inside interfaces are supported on Cisco 800 and Cisco
1700 series routers. You can remove interfaces from an Easy VPN
configuration in the Edit Easy VPN Remote window.
Interface List
In the Interfaces list, choose the outside interface that connects to
the Easy VPN server or concentrator.
Note
Cisco 800 routers do not support the use of interface E 0 as
the outside interface.
Connection Settings
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Table 12-4
Interfaces and Connection Settings Fields
Element
Description
Automatically
With the automatic setting, the VPN tunnel is established
automatically when the Easy VPN configuration is delivered to the
router configuration file. However, you will not be able to control
the tunnel manually in the VPN Connections window. The Connect
or Disconnect button is disabled when this Easy VPN connection is
chosen.
Manually
With the manual setting, you must click the Connect or Disconnect
button in the Edit Easy VPN Remote window to establish or take
down the tunnel, but you will have full manual control over the
tunnel in the Edit Easy VPN Remote window. Additionally, if a
security association (SA) timeout is set for the router, you will have
to manually reestablish the VPN tunnel whenever a timeout occurs.
You can change SA timeout settings in the VPN Components VPN
Global Settings window.
When there is traffic from local
networks (interesting traffic)
With the traffic-based setting, the VPN tunnel is established
whenever outbound local (LAN side) traffic is detected.
Note
The option for traffic-based activation appears only if
supported by the Cisco IOS image on your router.
Easy VPN Remote Wizard: Server Information
The information entered in this window identifies the Easy VPN tunnel, the Easy
VPN server or concentrator that the router will connect to, and the way you want
traffic to be routed in the VPN.
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Field Reference
Table 12-5 describes the fields in this screen.
Table 12-5
Server Information Fields
Element
Description
Easy VPN Servers
Easy VPN Server 1
Enter the IP address or the hostname of the primary Easy VPN
server or concentrator to which the router will connect. If you enter
a hostname, there must be a Domain Name System (DNS) server on
the network that can resolve the hostname to the correct IP address
for the peer device.
Easy VPN Server 2
The Easy VPN Server 2 field appears when the Cisco IOS image on
the router supports Easy VPN Remote Phase III. This field does not
appear when the Cisco IOS image does not support Easy VPN
Remote Phase III.
Enter the IP address or the hostname of the secondary Easy VPN
server or concentrator to which the router will connect. If you enter
a hostname, there must be a DNS server on the network that can
resolve the hostname to the correct IP address for the peer device.
Mode of operation with no identical addressing
Client
Choose Client if you want the PCs and other devices on the router’s
inside networks to form a private network with private IP addresses.
Network Address Translation (NAT) and Port Address Translation
(PAT) will be used. Devices outside the LAN will not be able to ping
devices on the LAN, or reach them directly.
Network Extension
Choose Network Extension if you want the devices connected to
the inside interfaces to have IP addresses that are routable and
reachable by the destination network. The devices at both ends of
the connection will form one logical network. PAT will be
automatically disabled, allowing the PCs and hosts at both ends of
the connection to have direct access to one another.
Consult with the administrator of the Easy VPN server or
concentrator before choosing this setting.
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Table 12-5
Server Information Fields (continued)
Element
Description
If you choose Network Extension, you can enable remote
management of the router by checking the box to request a
server-assigned IP address for your router. This IP address can be
used for connecting to your router for remote management and
troubleshooting (ping, Telnet, and Secure Shell). This mode is
known as Network Extension Plus
Note
If the router is not running a Cisco IOS image that supports
Easy VPN Remote Phase IV or later, you will not be able to
set Network Extension Plus.
Mode of operation with overlapping address space and local devices needing to be reached
If you clicked Yes in the Client IP Addressing section of the Network Information screen, and also
clicked Yes in the Device Reachability section, the router is automatically configured for Network
Extension mode.
Have the server assign an IP
address to manage my router
remotely
Check this box if you want the Easy VPN server to assign an IP
address to the router so that it can manage the router Easy VPN
operation remotely.
Mode of operation with overlapping address space but no devices needing to be reached
If you clicked Yes in the Client IP Addressing section of the Network Information screen, but clicked
No in the Device Reachability section, the router is automatically configured for Client mode. The
Easy VPN server automatically assigns the router an IP address so that it can manage the router Easy
VPN operation remotely. All devices on the local network will share this IP address when
communicating with other devices on the corporate network.
Easy VPN Remote Wizard: Authentication
Use this window to specify security for the Easy VPN Remote tunnel.
Field Reference
Table 12-6 describes the fields in this screen.
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Table 12-6
Authentication Screen Fields
Element
Description
Device Authentication
Authentication
Choose Digital Certificate or Preshared Key.
Digital Certificate
If you choose digital certificate, a digital certificate must be
configured on the router to use.
Note
The Digital Certificates option is available only if supported
by the Cisco IOS image on your router.
Preshared Key
If you choose Preshared Key in the authentication field, you must
supply a user group name as well as the preshared key.
User Group
Enter the IPSec group name. The group name must match the group
name defined on the VPN concentrator or server. Obtain this
information from your network administrator.
Key
Enter the IPSec group key. The group key must match the group key
defined on the VPN concentrator or server. Obtain this information
from your network administrator.
Reenter key
Reenter the key to confirm its accuracy.
User Authentication
User authentication (XAuth) appears in this window if the Cisco IOS image on the router supports
Easy VPN Remote Phase III. If user authentication does not appear, it must be configured from the
router command-line interface.
From PC browser when
browsing
User authentication will be performed in the web browser. This
option appears only if supported by the Cisco IOS image on your
router.
From router console or SDM
User authentication will be performed from the router console, or
from Cisco SDM.
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Table 12-6
Authentication Screen Fields
Element
Description
Save XAuth Credentials to this
router
The Easy VPN server may use XAuth to authenticate the router. If
the server allows the save password option, you can eliminate the
need to enter the username and password each time the Easy VPN
tunnel is established by this option. Enter the username and
password provided by the Easy VPN server administrator, and then
reenter the password to confirm its accuracy. The information is
saved in the router configuration file and used each time the tunnel
is established.
Caution
Storing the XAuth username and password in router
memory creates a security risk, because anyone who has
access to the router configuration can obtain this
information. If you do not want this information stored
on the router, do not enter it here. The Easy VPN server
will simply challenge the router for the username and
password each time the connection is established.
Additionally, Cisco SDM cannot itself determine
whether the Easy VPN server allows the save password
option. You must determine whether the server allows
this option. If the server does not allow this option, you
should not create a security risk by entering the
information here.
Username
Enter the username required for authentication.
Password
Enter the password required for authentication.
Reenter password
Reenter the password to confirm accuracy.
Easy VPN Remote Wizard: Summary of Configuration
This window shows you the Easy VPN configuration that you have created, and it
allows you to save the configuration. A summary similar to the following appears:
Easy VPN tunnel name:test1
Easy VPN server: 222.28.54.7
Group: myCompany
Key: 1234
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Control: Auto
Mode: Client
Outside Interface: BVI222
Inside Interfaces: Dialer0
You can review the configuration in this window and click the Back button to
change any items.
Clicking the Finish button writes the information to the router’s running
configuration, and, if the tunnel has been configured to operate in automatic
mode, the router attempts to contact the VPN concentrator or server.
If you want to change the Easy VPN configuration at a later time, you can make
the changes in the Edit Easy VPN Remote window.
Note
In many cases, your router establishes communication with the Easy VPN server
or concentrator after you click Finish, or after you click Connect in the Edit Easy
VPN Remote window or VPN Connections windows. However, if the device has
been configured to use XAuth, it challenges the router for a username and
password. When this happens, you must first supply a Secure Shell (SSH) login
ID and password to log on to the router and then provide the XAuth login and
password for the Easy VPN server or concentrator. You must follow this process
when you click Finish and the configuration is delivered to the router, and when
you disconnect and then reconnect the tunnel in the Edit Easy VPN Remote
window. Find out whether XAuth is used, and determine the required username
and password.
Test VPN Connectivity
If you choose to test the VPN connection you have just configured, the results of
the test are shown in another window.
Administering Easy VPN Remote Connections
Use Cisco SDM to edit Easy VPN Remote connection settings, reset connections,
and delete connections. You can use the Easy VPN Remote Edit screens to create
an Easy VPN Remote connection, but it is recommended that you use the wizard
to do so.
This section contains the followint topics:
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•
Editing an Existing Easy VPN Remote Connection
•
Creating a New Easy VPN Remote Connection
•
Deleting an Easy VPN Remote Connection
•
Resetting an Established Easy VPN Remote Connection
•
Connecting to an Easy VPN Server
•
Connecting other Subnets to the VPN Tunnel
•
Administering Easy VPN Remote Reference
Editing an Existing Easy VPN Remote Connection
Follow these steps to edit an existing Easy VPN Remote connection:
Step 1
On the Cisco SDM toolbar, click Configure.
Step 2
On the Cisco SDM category bar, click VPN.
Step 3
In the VPN tree, choose Easy VPN Remote.
Step 4
Click the Edit Easy VPN Remote tab.
Step 5
Select the Easy VPN Remote connection that you want to edit.
Step 6
Click Edit.
Step 7
Modify settings in the Edit Easy VPN Remote dialog tabs.
Step 8
Click OK to send the changes to the router and close the dialog.
Creating a New Easy VPN Remote Connection
You can create a new Easy VPN Remote connection using the Easy VPN Remote
Edit screens.
Follow these steps to create a new Easy VPN Remote connection:
Step 1
On the Cisco SDM toolbar, click Configure.
Step 2
On the Cisco SDM category bar, click VPN.
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Step 3
In the VPN tree, choose Easy VPN Remote.
Step 4
Click the Edit Easy VPN Remote tab.
Step 5
Click Add.
Step 6
Make settings in the Add Easy VPN Remote dialog tabs.
Step 7
Click OK to send the changes to the router and close the dialog.
Deleting an Easy VPN Remote Connection
Follow these steps to delete an Easy VPN Remote connection:
Step 1
On the Cisco SDM toolbar, click Configure.
Step 2
On the Cisco SDM category bar, click VPN.
Step 3
In the VPN tree, choose Easy VPN Remote.
Step 4
Click the Edit Easy VPN Remote tab.
Step 5
Select the Easy VPN Remote connection that you want to delete.
Step 6
Click Delete.
Step 7
Confirm the deletion by clicking OK in the displayed message screen.
Resetting an Established Easy VPN Remote Connection
Follow these steps to reset an established Easy VPN Remote connection:
Step 1
On the Cisco SDM toolbar, click Configure.
Step 2
On the Cisco SDM category bar, click VPN.
Step 3
In the VPN tree, choose Easy VPN Remote.
Step 4
Click the Edit Easy VPN Remote tab.
Step 5
Select the Easy VPN Remote connection that you want to reset.
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Step 6
Click Reset Connection. The status window that is displayed reports the success
or failure of the reset.
Connecting to an Easy VPN Server
Follow these steps to connect to an Easy VPN Remote server:
Step 1
On the Cisco SDM toolbar, click Configure.
Step 2
On the Cisco SDM category bar, click VPN.
Step 3
In the VPN tree, choose Easy VPN Remote.
Step 4
Click the Edit Easy VPN Remote tab.
Step 5
Select an Easy VPN Remote connection.
Step 6
Click Connect to complete the connection to the configured Easy VPN Server.
Connecting other Subnets to the VPN Tunnel
To allow subnets not directly connected to your router to use the tunnel, follow
these steps:
Step 1
In the Network Extensions Options window, check Configure Multiple Subnets.
Step 2
Choose Enter the subnets and add the subnets and network masks to the list, or
choose Select an ACL.
Step 3
To enter the subnets manually, click the Add button and enter the subnet address
and mask. Cisco SDM will generate an ACL automatically.
Note
The subnets you enter must not be directly connected to the router.
Step 4
To add an existing ACL, enter its name or choose it from the drop-down list.
Step 5
Click OK to close the dialog.
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Administering Easy VPN Remote Reference
The following topics describe the Edit Easy VPN Remote screens:
•
Edit Easy VPN Remote
•
Add or Edit Easy VPN Remote
•
Add or Edit Easy VPN Remote: General Settings
•
Network Extension Options
•
Add or Edit Easy VPN Remote: Easy VPN Settings
•
Add or Edit Easy VPN Remote: Authentication Information
•
Add or Edit Easy VPN Remote: Easy VPN Client Phase III Authentication
•
Add or Edit Easy VPN Remote: Interfaces and Connections
•
Add or Edit Easy VPN Remote: Identical Addressing
•
Easy VPN Remote: Add a Device
•
Enter SSH Credentials
•
XAuth Login Window
Edit Easy VPN Remote
Easy VPN connections are managed from this window. An Easy VPN connection
is a connection configured between an Easy VPN client and an Easy VPN server
or concentrator to provide for secure communications with other networks that the
server or concentrator supports.
The list of connections displays information about the configured Easy VPN
Remote connections.
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Field Reference
Table 12-7 describes the fields and buttons in this screen.
Table 12-7
Edit Easy VPN Remote Fields
Element
Description
Add
Click Add to create a new Easy VPN Remote connection.
Edit
Choose an Easy VPN Remote connection, and click Edit to modify
connection settings.
Delete
Choose an Easy VPN Remote connection, and click Delete to delete
the connection.
Reset Connection
Choose an Easy VPN Remote connection, and click Reset
Connection to clear the current security association (SA) and create
a new one to reset the connection.
Test Tunnel
Choose an Easy VPN Remote connection, and click Test Tunnel to
send data through the VPN tunnel. Cisco SDM displays a message
indicating the results of the test.
Connect or Disconnect or Login The name of this button changes based on the status of the chosen
Easy VPN Remote connection.
This button is labeled Connect if all of the following are true:
•
The connection uses manual tunnel control.
•
The tunnel is down.
•
The XAuth response is not set to be requested from a PC
browser session.
Click Connect to establish the connection.
This button is labeled Disconnect if all of the following are true:
•
The connection uses manual tunnel control.
•
The tunnel is up.
•
The XAuth response is not set to be requested from a PC
browser session.
Click Disconnect to terminate the connection.
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Table 12-7
Element
Edit Easy VPN Remote Fields
Description
This button is labeled Login if all of the following are true:
•
The Easy VPN server or concentrator being connected to uses
XAuth.
•
The XAuth response is set to be requested from Cisco SDM or
the router console.
•
The tunnel is waiting for XAuth credentials (the connection has
been initiated).
Click Login to login to the Easy VPN server and establish the
connection.
If the connection is set to automatic or traffic-based tunnel control,
this button is disabled.
Status
The connection is up. When an Easy VPN connection is up, the
Disconnect button enables you to deactivate the connection if
manual tunnel control is used.
The connection is down. When an Easy VPN connection is down,
the Connect button enables you to activate the connection if manual
tunnel control is used.
The connection is being established.
Xauth Required—The Easy VPN server or concentrator requires an
XAuth login and password. Use the Login button to enter the login
ID and password and establish the connection.
Configuration Changed—The configuration for this connection has
been changed, and needs to be delivered to the router. If the
connection uses manual tunnel control, use the Connect button to
establish the connection.
Name
The name given to this Easy VPN connection.
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Table 12-7
Edit Easy VPN Remote Fields
Element
Description
Mode
Either client or network extension. In client mode, the VPN
concentrator or server assigns a single IP address to all traffic
coming from the router; devices outside the LAN have no direct
access to devices on the LAN. In network extension mode, the VPN
concentrator or server does not substitute IP addresses, and it
presents a full routable network to the peers on the other end of the
VPN connection.
Details
Choose an Easy VPN Remote connection from the list to see the values of the following settings for
that connection.
Authentication
Digital certificates or preshared key. The preshared key option
shows the user group sharing the key.
Outside Interface
This is the interface that connects to the Easy VPN server or
concentrator.
Inside Interfaces
These are the inside interfaces included in this Easy VPN
connection. All hosts connected to these interfaces are part of the
VPN.
Easy VPN Server
The names or IP addresses of the Easy VPN servers or
concentrators. If the Cisco IOS image on your router supports Easy
VPN Remote Phase III, you can identify two Easy VPN servers or
concentrators during configuration using Cisco SDM.
Multiple Subnet Support
The addresses of subnets which are not directly connected to the
router but which are allowed to use the tunnel. An ACL defines the
subnets allowed to use the tunnel.
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Table 12-7
Edit Easy VPN Remote Fields
Element
Description
Tunnel Activation
The value is Auto, Manual, or traffic-based.
If the connection is configured with the Manual setting, you must
click Connect to establish the tunnel, but you can start or stop the
tunnel at any time by clicking Connect or Disconnect.
If the connection is configured with the Auto setting, the VPN
tunnel is established automatically when the Easy VPN
configuration is delivered to the router configuration file. However,
the Connect or Disconnect button is not enabled for this connection.
If the connection is configured with the traffic-based setting, the
VPN tunnel is established automatically when inside traffic
qualifies for outside routing. However, the Connect or Disconnect
button is not enabled for this connection.
Backup Connection
A backup Easy VPN remote connection that has been set up.
Backup connections are configured in the Cisco SDM Interfaces
and Connections task.
XAuth Response Method
If XAuth is enabled, the Item Value column shows one of the
following about how the XAuth credentials are sent:
•
They must be entered from Cisco SDM or the router console.
•
They must be entered from a PC browser when browsing.
•
The credentials are automatically sent because they have been
saved on the router.
Identical Addressing Interface
If identical addressing is configured, the Item Value column
displays the word Configured,” and the name, IP address, and
number of subnet bits for the interface, for example, Loopback1
(20.20.20.1/24).
Split DNS
If split DNS is configured, the Item Value column displays the word
Enabled, and the following information:
•
Domain names sent to corporate DNS servers
•
Corporate DNS servers pushed from Server
•
Internet DNS servers
Multiple values are separated by commas.
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Add or Edit Easy VPN Remote
Use this window to configure your router as an Easy VPN client. Your router must
have a connection to an Easy VPN concentrator or server on the network.
Note
This window appears if the Cisco IOS image on your router supports Easy VPN
Client Phase II.
The Cisco Easy VPN Remote feature implements the Cisco Unity Client protocol,
which allows most VPN parameters to be defined at a VPN remote access server.
This server can be a dedicated VPN device, such as a VPN 3000 concentrator or
a Cisco PIX Firewall, or it can be a Cisco IOS router that supports the Cisco Unity
Client protocol.
Note
•
If the Easy VPN server or concentrator has been configured to use XAuth, it
requires a username and password whenever the router establishes the
connection, including when you deliver the configuration to the router, and
when you disconnect and then reconnect the tunnel. Find out whether XAuth
is used and the required username and password.
•
If the router uses Secure Shell (SSH) you must enter the SSH login and
password the first time you establish the connection.
Field Reference
Table 12-8 describes the fields in this screen.
Table 12-8
Add or Edit Easy VPN Remote Fields
Element
Description
Name
Enter a name for the Easy VPN remote configuration.
Mode]
Client
Choose Client if you want the PCs and other devices on the router’s
inside networks to form a private network with private IP addresses.
Network Address Translation (NAT) and Port Address Translation
(PAT) will be used. Devices outside the LAN will not be able to ping
devices on the LAN or to reach them directly.
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Table 12-8
Add or Edit Easy VPN Remote Fields
Element
Description
Network Extension
Choose Network Extension if you want the devices connected to
the inside interfaces to have IP addresses that are routable and
reachable by the destination network. The devices at both ends of
the connection will form one logical network. PAT will be
automatically disabled, allowing the PCs and hosts at both ends of
the connection to have direct access to one another.
Tunnel Control
Auto
Choose Auto if you want the VPN tunnel to be established
automatically when the Easy VPN configuration is delivered to the
router configuration file. However, you will not be able to control
the tunnel manually in the VPN Connections window. The Connect
and Disconnect buttons are disabled when this Easy VPN
connection is chosen.
Manual
Choose Manual if you want to control when the VPN tunnel is
established and terminated. You must click the Connect button in
the Edit Easy VPN Remote window to establish the tunnel. The
Connect and Disconnect buttons are enabled whenever you choose
a VPN connection with the Manual tunnel control setting.
Easy VPN Concentrator or
Server
Specify the name or the IP address of the VPN concentrator or
server that the router connects to. Choose IP address if you are
going to provide an IP address or choose Hostname if you are going
to provide the hostname of the concentrator or server. Then specify
the appropriate value in the field underneath. If you specify a
hostname, there must be a DNS server on the network that can
resolve the hostname to the proper IP address. If you enter an IP
address, use standard dotted decimal format, for example,
172.16.44.1.
Group
Group Name]
Enter the IPSec group name. The group name must match the group
name defined on the VPN concentrator or server. Obtain this
information from your network administrator.
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Table 12-8
Add or Edit Easy VPN Remote Fields
Element
Description
Group Key
Enter the IPSec group password. The group password must match
the group password defined on the VPN concentrator or server.
Obtain this information from your network administrator.
Confirm Key
Reenter the group password to confirm.
Interfaces
Outside Interface Toward Server Choose the interface that has the connection to the Easy VPN server
or Concentrator
or concentrator.
Note
Inside Interfaces
Cisco 800 routers do not support the use of interface E 0 as
the outside interface.
Specify the inside interfaces to include in this Easy VPN
configuration. All hosts connected to these interfaces will be part of
the VPN. As many as three inside interfaces are supported on Cisco
800 series and Cisco 1700 series routers.
Note
An interface cannot be designated as both an inside
interface and an outside interface.
Add or Edit Easy VPN Remote: General Settings
Use this Window to configure your router as an Easy VPN client. Your router must
have a connection to an Easy VPN concentrator or server on the network.
Note
This window appears if the Cisco IOS image on your router supports Easy VPN
Client Phase IV.
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The Cisco Easy VPN Remote feature implements the Cisco Unity Client protocol,
which allows most VPN parameters to be defined on a VPN remote access server.
This server can be a dedicated VPN device, such as a VPN 3000 concentrator or
a Cisco PIX Firewall, or it can be a Cisco IOS router that supports the Cisco Unity
Client protocol.
Field Reference
Table 12-9 describes the fields in this screen.
Table 12-9
Easy VPN Remote General Settings Fields
Element
Description
Name
Enter a name for the Easy VPN remote configuration.
Servers
You can specify up to ten Easy VPN servers by IP address or
hostname, and you can order the list to specify which servers the
router will attempt to connect to first.
Click Add to specify the name or the IP address of a VPN
concentrator or server for the router to connect to, and then enter the
address or hostname in the window displayed.
Click Delete to delete the specified IP address or hostname.
Click Move Up to move the specified server IP address or hostname
up in the list. The router attempts to contact routers in the order in
which they appear in this list.
Click Move Down to move the specified IP address or hostname
down the list.
Mode
Client
Choose Client mode if you want the PCs and other devices on the
router’s inside networks to form a private network with private IP
addresses. Network Address Translation (NAT) and Port Address
Translation (PAT) will be used. Devices outside the LAN will not be
able to ping devices on the LAN or to reach them directly.
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Table 12-9
Easy VPN Remote General Settings Fields
Element
Description
Network Extension
Choose Network Extension if you want the devices connected to
the inside interfaces to have IP addresses that are routable and
reachable by the destination network. The devices at both ends of
the connection will form one logical network. PAT will be
automatically disabled, allowing the PCs and hosts at both ends of
the connection to have direct access to one another.
•
Enable remote management and troubleshooting of your router.
You can enable remote management of the router by checking
the box to request a server-assigned IP address for you router.
This IP address can be used for connecting to your router for
remote management and troubleshooting (ping, Telnet, and
Secure Shell). This mode is called Network Extension Plus.
Consult the administrator of the Easy VPN server or concentrator
before you choose this setting.
If you choose Network Extension, you also have the capability to:
•
Allow subnets not directly connected to the router to use the
tunnel.
To allow subnets not directly connected to your router to use the
tunnel, click the Options button and configure the network
extension options.
•
Enable remote management and troubleshooting of your router.
You can enable remote management of the router by checking
the box to request a server-assigned IP address for you router.
This IP address can be used for connecting to your router for
remote management and troubleshooting (ping, Telnet, and
Secure Shell). This mode is called Network Extension Plus.
Have the server assign an IP
address to manage my router
remotely.
Check this box to request a server-assigned IP address for you
router. This IP address can be used for connecting to your router
for remote management and troubleshooting (ping, Telnet, and
Secure Shell). This mode is called Network Extension Plus.
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Network Extension Options
To allow subnets not directly connected to your router to use the tunnel, enter the
subnets in this screen, or enter an ACL that defines the subnets you want to allow.
Field Reference
Table 12-10 describes the fields in this screen.
Table 12-10
Network Extension Options Fields
Element
Description
Configure Multiple Subnets
Check Configure Multiple Subnets to enable the other fields in
this screen.
Enter the subnets. SDM will
create the necessary ACL.
Check this option to enter each subnet and subnet mask manually.
Click Add to add an entry to the list. Click Delete to remove the
selected entry.
Select an ACL
Check Select an ACL to use an ACL to define the subnets. If you
know the name or number of the ACL enter it in the field. Or, click
the button to the right of the field, and select an existing ACL or
create a new ACL. To remove an ACL association in this screen,
click the button and choose None (clear rule association).
Add or Edit Easy VPN Remote: Easy VPN Settings
Use this window to configure your router as an Easy VPN client. Your router must
have a connection to an Easy VPN concentrator or server on the network.
Note
This window appears if the Cisco IOS image on your router supports Easy VPN
Client Phase III.
The Cisco Easy VPN Remote feature implements The Cisco Unity Client
protocol, which allows most VPN parameters to be defined on a VPN remote
access server. This server can be a dedicated VPN device, such as a VPN 3000
concentrator or a Cisco PIX Firewall, or it can be a Cisco IOS router that supports
the Cisco Unity Client protocol.
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Field Reference
Table 12-11 describes the fields in this screen.
Table 12-11
Easy VPN Settings Fields
Element
Description
Name
Enter a name for the Easy VPN remote configuration.
Mode
Client
Choose Client mode if you want the PCs and other devices on the
router’s inside networks to form a private network with private IP
addresses. Network Address Translation (NAT) and Port Address
Translation (PAT) will be used. Devices outside the LAN will not be
able to ping devices on the LAN or to reach them directly.
Network Extension
Choose Network Extension if you want the devices connected to
the inside interfaces to have IP addresses that are routable and
reachable by the destination network. The devices at both ends of
the connection will form one logical network. PAT will be
automatically disabled, allowing the PCs and hosts at both ends of
the connection to have direct access to one another.
Consult the administrator of the Easy VPN server or concentrator
before you choose this setting.
Tunnel Control
Auto
Choose Auto if you want the VPN tunnel to be established
automatically when the Easy VPN configuration is delivered to the
router configuration file. However, you will not be able to control
the tunnel manually in the VPN Connections window. The Connect
and Disconnect buttons are disabled when this Easy VPN
connection is chosen.
Manual
Choose Manual if you want to control when the VPN tunnel is
established and terminated. You must click the Connect button in
the Edit Easy VPN Remote window to establish the tunnel. The
Connect and Disconnect buttons are enabled whenever you choose
a VPN connection with the Manual tunnel control setting.
Servers
You can specify up to ten Easy VPN servers by IP address or hostname, and you can order the list to
specify which servers the router will attempt to connect to first.
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Table 12-11
Easy VPN Settings Fields
Element
Description
Add
Click Add to specify the name or the IP address of a VPN
concentrator or server for the router to connect to; then enter the
address or hostname in the window displayed.
Delete
Click Delete to delete the chosen server IP address or hostname.
Move Up
Click Move Up to move the specified server IP address or hostname
up in the list. The router attempts to contact routers in the order in
which they appear in this list.
Move Down
Click Move Down to move the specified IP address or hostname
down the list.
Outside Interface Toward Server Choose the interface that has the connection to the Easy VPN server
or Concentrator
or concentrator.
Note
Inside Interfaces
Cisco 800 routers do not support the use of interface E 0 as
the outside interface.
Specify the inside interfaces to include in this Easy VPN
configuration. All hosts connected to these interfaces will be part of
the VPN. As many as three inside interfaces are supported on Cisco
800 series and Cisco 1700 series routers.
Note
An interface cannot be designated as both an inside and an
outside interface.
Add or Edit Easy VPN Remote: Authentication Information
Use this window to enter the information required for the router to be
authenticated by the Easy VPN server or concentrator.
Field Reference
Table 12-12 describes the fields in this screen.
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Table 12-12
Authentication Information Fields
Element
Description
Device Authentication
Digital Certificate.
If you choose digital certificate, a digital certificate must be
configured on the router to use.
Note
The Digital Certificates option is available only if supported
by the Cisco IOS image on your router.
Preshared Key
Choose Preshared Key to use the IKE key value given to you by your
network administrator. Obtain the IPSec group name and IKE key
value from your network administrator. The group name must match
the group name defined on the VPN concentrator or server.
Group Name
Enter the IPSec groupname given to you by your network
administrator. The group name must match the group name defined
on the VPN concentrator or server. This field only appears if
Preshared Key is chosen.
Current Key
The Current Key field displays asterisks (*) if there is a current IKE
key value. This field contains the value <None> if no key has been
configured. This field only appears if Preshared Key is chosen.
New Key
Enter the new IKE key value given to you by your network
administrator. This field only appears if Preshared Key is chosen.
Reenter Key
Reenter the new key to confirm accuracy. If the values in the New
Key and Reenter Key fields are not the same, Cisco SDM prompts
you to reenter the key values. This field only appears if Preshared
Key is chosen
User Authentication
If the Easy VPN server or concentrator has been configured to use XAuth, it requires a username and
password whenever the router establishes the connection, including when you deliver the configuration
to the router, and when you disconnect and reconnect the tunnel. Find out whether XAuth is used, and
obtain the required username and password.
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Table 12-12
Authentication Information Fields
Element
Description
From PC
Choose From PC if you will enter the credentials in a web browser
window.
Note
This option appears only if supported by the Cisco IOS
image on your router.
From this router
Choose From this router if you will enter the credentials from the
router command line interface or from Cisco SDM.
Save Credentials
If the server allows passwords to be saved, you can eliminate the
need to enter the username and password each time the Easy VPN
tunnel is established. The information is saved in the router
configuration file and used each time the tunnel is established.
Choose Save Credentials to save the username and password to the
router configuration file.
Caution
Storing the XAuth username and password in router
memory creates a security risk because anyone who has
access to the router configuration can obtain this
information. If you do not want this information stored
on the router, do not enter it here. The Easy VPN server
will simply challenge the router for the username and
password each time the connection is established. Also,
Cisco SDM cannot itself determine whether the server
allows passwords to be saved. You must determine
whether the server allows this option. If the server does
not allow passwords to be saved, you should not create a
security risk by entering the information here.
Username
Enter the username you have been given by the server administrator.
Current Password
The Current Password field displays asterisks (*) if there is a
configured password. This field contains the value <None> if no
password has been configured.
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Table 12-12
Authentication Information Fields
Element
Description
New Password
Enter the new password given to you by the server administrator.
Reenter Password
Reenter the new password to confirm accuracy. If the values in the
New Password and Reenter Password fields are not the same, Cisco
SDM prompts you to reenter the password values.
Add or Edit Easy VPN Remote: Easy VPN Client Phase III Authentication
This window appears if the Cisco IOS image on your router supports Easy VPN
Client Phase III. If the image supports Easy VPN Client Phase II, a different
window appears.
Use this window to enter the information required for the router to be
authenticated by the Easy VPN server or concentrator.
Field Reference
Table 12-13 describes the fields in this screen.
Table 12-13
Authentication Information Fields
Element
Description
Device Authentication
Group Name
Enter the IPSec groupname given to you by your network
administrator. The group name must match the group name defined
on the VPN concentrator or server.
Current Key
The Current Key field displays asterisks (*) if there is a current IKE
key value. This field contains the value <None> if no key has been
configured.
New Key
Enter the new IKE key value given to you by your network
administrator.
Reenter Key
Reenter the new key to confirm accuracy. If the values in the New
Key and Reenter Key fields are not the same, Cisco SDM prompts
you to reenter the key values.
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Table 12-13
Authentication Information Fields
Element
Description
User Authentication
If the Easy VPN server or concentrator has been configured to use XAuth, it requires a username and
password whenever the router establishes the connection, including when you deliver the configuration
to the router, and when you disconnect and reconnect the tunnel. Find out whether XAuth is used, and
obtain the required username and password.
From PC
Choose From PC if you will enter the credentials in a web browser
window.
Note
This option appears only if supported by the Cisco IOS
image on your router.
From this router
Choose From this router if you will enter the credentials from the
router command line interface or from Cisco SDM.
Save Credentials
If the server allows passwords to be saved, you can eliminate the
need to enter the username and password each time the Easy VPN
tunnel is established. The information is saved in the router
configuration file and used each time the tunnel is established.
Choose Save Credentials to save the username and password to the
router configuration file.
Caution
Username
Storing the XAuth username and password in router
memory creates a security risk because anyone who has
access to the router configuration can obtain this
information. If you do not want this information stored
on the router, do not enter it here. The Easy VPN server
will simply challenge the router for the username and
password each time the connection is established. Also,
Cisco SDM cannot itself determine whether the server
allows passwords to be saved. You must determine
whether the server allows this option. If the server does
not allow passwords to be saved, you should not create a
security risk by entering the information here.
Enter the username you have been given by the server administrator.
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Table 12-13
Authentication Information Fields
Element
Description
Current Password
The Current Password field displays asterisks (*) if there is a
configured password. This field contains the value <None> if no
password has been configured.
New Password
Enter the new password given to you by the server administrator.
Reenter Password
Reenter the new password to confirm accuracy. If the values in the
New Password and Reenter Password fields are not the same, Cisco
SDM prompts you to reenter the password values.
Add or Edit Easy VPN Remote: Interfaces and Connections
Identify the inside and outside interfaces, and specify how the VPN tunnel is
brought up in this screen.
Field Reference
Table 12-14 describes the fields in this screen.
Table 12-14
Element
Interfaces and Connection Settings Fields
Description
Interfaces
Check boxes
Check the inside (LAN) interfaces that serve the local networks that
you want to include in this Easy VPN configuration. You can choose
multiple inside interfaces, with the following restrictions:
•
If you choose an interface that is already used in another Easy
VPN configuration, you are told that an interface cannot be part
of two Easy VPN configurations.
•
If you choose interfaces that are already used in a VPN
configuration, you are informed that the Easy VPN
configuration you are creating cannot coexist with the existing
VPN configuration. You will be asked if you want to remove the
existing VPN tunnels from those interfaces and apply the Easy
VPN configuration to them.
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Table 12-14
Interfaces and Connection Settings Fields
Element
Description
•
An existing interface does not appear in the list of interfaces if
it cannot be used in an Easy VPN configuration. For example,
loopback interfaces configured on the router do not appear in
this list.
•
An interface cannot be designated as both an inside and an
outside interface.
Up to three inside interfaces are supported on Cisco 800 and Cisco
1700 series routers. You can remove interfaces from an Easy VPN
configuration in the Edit Easy VPN Remote window.
Interface list
In the Interfaces list, choose the outside interface that connects to
the Easy VPN server or concentrator.
Note
Virtual Tunnel Interface
Cisco 800 routers do not support the use of interface E 0 as
the outside interface
Check this option if you want to use a Virtual Tunnel Interface
(VTI) for this connection. If the VTIs in the list are used by other
VPN connections, click Add to create a new one.
Connection Settings
Auto
Choose Auto to have the router establish the VPN tunnel
automatically when the Easy VPN configuration is delivered to the
router configuration file. You will not be able to control the tunnel
manually using the Connect or Disconnect button. These buttons are
disabled when this setting is chosen.
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Table 12-14
Interfaces and Connection Settings Fields
Element
Description
Manual
Choose Manual if you want to bring up and shut down the VPN
tunnel manually. With the manual setting, you must click the
Connect or Disconnect button in the Edit Easy VPN Remote screen
to establish or take down the tunnel. Additionally, if a security
association (SA) timeout is set for the router, you will have to
manually reestablish the VPN tunnel whenever a timeout occurs.
You can change SA timeout settings in the VPN Components VPN
Global Settings window.
Interesting Traffic
Choose Interesting Traffic to establish the VPN tunnel whenever
outbound local (LAN side) traffic is detected. The Connect or
Disconnect button is disabled when you choose this Easy VPN
connection setting.
Note
The Interesting Traffic option appears only if supported by
the Cisco IOS image on your router.
Add or Edit Easy VPN Remote: Identical Addressing
In this screen, enter the information needed to configure identical addressing.
Identical addressing enables remote networks to reach local devices that have IP
addresses that might overlap with addresses in remote networks.
Field Reference
Table 12-15
Identical Addressing Tab Fields
Element
Description
Configure identical addressing
Check Configure identical addressing if there are devices on the
local network with IP addresses that might overlap with addresses
in remote networks in your organization. You must check this box
to enable the other controls in this screen.
Loopback Interface
Loopback Interface
Click the down arrow to select an existing loopback interface. If no
loopback interfaces are configured, click Add.
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Table 12-15
Identical Addressing Tab Fields (continued)
Element
Description
Add
Clicking Add displays the dialog that enables you to configure a
loopback interface.
Enable split tunneling
Split tunneling enables the router to only use the VPN tunnel to send
traffic to network addresses given to it by the Easy VPN server and
to send other traffic through the Internet. To enable the router to use
this feature, click Enable split tunneling.
Accessible Devices
Device Local IP
The local IP address of a device that is identified as a device that
must be reached by other networks.
Device Global IP
The global IP address given to a device that is identified as a device
that must be reached by other networks. Because the global IP
address for each device must be routable from the Easy VPN server,
you must obtain these addresses from the Easy VPN server
administrator. Each IP address must be on the same subnet, and one
address must be reserved for use by non accessible devices on the
local network.
Add
To add the local IP address and global IP address of a device, click
Add.
Edit
To change the IP address information for a device, choose an entry
and click Edit.
Delete
To remove an entry for an accessible device, choose the entry and
click Delete.
Warning Messages
Cisco SDM displays a warning message when you click OK if it detects any of
the following problems:
•
There are no devices added.
•
If you enter an IP address for the non accessible devices that is already used
by a router interface.
•
If you enter an IP address for the non accessible devices that is already used
as a global IP address for an accessible device.
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•
If you enter local IP address for a device that falls outside the subnet for the
LAN interface it connects to.
•
If you chose client mode in the General tab. Identical addressing only works
with network extension mode.
•
If you did not choose a virtual tunnel interface in the Interfaces and
Connections tab.
Easy VPN Remote: Add a Device
Enter the local IP address and global IP address information for a device in this
screen. The global IP address is an IP address that can be used to identify the
device to other networks.
Field Reference
Table 12-16 describes the fields in this screen.
Table 12-16
Add a Device Fields
Element
Description
Local IP Address
Enter the local IP address of the device that must be reached.
Global IP Address
Enter the global IP address that you want to use for this device. The
address you use must be routable from the Easy VPN server.
Enter SSH Credentials
If the router uses Secure Shell (SSH), you must to enter the SSH login and
password the first time you establish the connection. Use this window to enter
SSH or Telnet login information.
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Field Reference
Table 12-17 describes the fields in this screen.
Table 12-17
Enter SSH Credentials Fields
Element
Description
Please Enter the Username
Enter the SSH or Telnet account username that you will use to log
in to this router.
Please Enter the Password
Enter the password associated with the SSH or Telnet account
username that you will use to log in to this router.
XAuth Login Window
This window appears when the Easy VPN server requests extended
authentication. Respond to the challenges by entering the information requested,
such as the account username, password, or any other information, to successfully
establish the Easy VPN tunnel. If you are unsure about the information that should
be provided, contact your VPN administrator.
Other Procedures
This section contains procedures for tasks that the wizard does not help you
complete.
How Do I Edit an Existing Easy VPN Connection?
To edit an existing Easy VPN remote connection, follow these steps:
Step 1
From the left frame, choose VPN.
Step 2
In the VPN tree, choose Easy VPN Remote.
Step 3
Click the Edit Easy VPN Remote tab and choose the connection that you want
to edit.
Step 4
Click Edit.
The Edit Easy VPN Remote window appears.
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Step 5
In the Edit Easy VPN Remote window, click the tabs to display the values that you
want to change.
Step 6
When you have finished making changes, click OK.
How Do I Configure a Backup for an Easy VPN Connection?
To configure a backup for an Easy VPN Remote connection, your router must
have an ISDN, async, or analog modem interface available for the backup.
If the ISDN, async, or analog modem interface has not been configured, follow
these steps:
Step 1
From the left frame, click Interfaces and Connections.
Step 2
Click the Create Connection tab.
Step 3
Choose an ISDN, async, or analog modem interface from the list.
Step 4
Click the Create New Connection button and use the wizard to configure the new
interface.
Step 5
In the appropriate wizard window, set the new interface as a backup for an Easy
VPN Remote connection.
If the ISDN, async, or analog modem interface has been configured, follow these
steps:
Step 1
From the left frame, click Interfaces and Connections.
Step 2
Click the Edit Interface/Connection tab.
Step 3
Choose an ISDN, async, or analog modem interface from the list of configured
interfaces.
Step 4
Click the Edit button.
Step 5
Click the Backup tab and configure the backup for an Easy VPN Remote
connection.
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Step 6
When you have finished configuring the backup, click OK.
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13
Easy VPN Server
The Easy VPN Server feature introduces server support for the Cisco VPN Client
Release 3.x and later software clients and Cisco VPN hardware clients. The
feature allows a remote end user to communicate using IP Security (IPSec) with
anyCisco IOS Virtual Private Network (VPN) gateway. Centrally managed IPSec
policies are “pushed” to the client by the server, minimizing configuration by the
end user.
The following link provides general information on the Cisco Easy VPN solution,
and other links for more specific information:
http://www.cisco.com/en/US/products/sw/secursw/ps5299/index.html
This chapter contains the following sections:
•
Creating an Easy VPN Server Connection
•
Editing Easy VPN Server Connections
Creating an Easy VPN Server Connection
Use theCisco SDM Easy VPN Server wizard to create an Easy VPN Server
connection on the router.
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Complete these steps to configure an Easy VPN Server connection using the Easy
VPN Server wizard:
Step 1
If you want to review the Cisco IOS CLI commands that you send to the router
when you complete the configuration, go to the Cisco SDM toolbar, and click Edit
> Preferences > Preview commands before delivering to router. The preview
screen allows you to cancel the configuration if you want to.
Step 2
In the Cisco SDM toolbar, click Configure.
Step 3
In the Cisco SDM taskbar, click VPN.
Step 4
In the VPN tree, click Easy VPN Server.
Step 5
In the Create Easy VPN Server tab, complete any recommended tasks that are
displayed by clicking the link for the task. Cisco SDM either completes the task
for you, or displays the necessary configuration screens for you to make settings
in.
Step 6
Click Launch Easy VPN Server Wizard to begin configuring the connection.
Step 7
Make configuration settings in the wizard screens. Click Next to go from the
current screen to the next screen. Click Back to return to a screen you have
previously visited.
Step 8
Cisco SDM displays the Summary screen when you have completed the
configuration. Review the configuration. If you need to make changes, click Back
to return to the screen in which you need to make changes, then return to the
Summary screen.
Step 9
If you want to test the connection after sending the configuration to the router,
check Test the connectivity after configuring. After you click Finish, Cisco
SDM tests the connection and displays the test results in another screen.
Step 10
To send the configuration to the router, click Finish.
Step 11
If you checked Preview commands before delivering to router in the Edit
Preferences screen, the Cisco IOS CLI commands that you are sending are
displayed. Click OK to send the configuration to the router, or click Cancel to
discard it. If you did not make this setting, clicking Finish sends the configuration
to the router.
Create an Easy VPN Server Reference describes the configuration screens you use
to create an Easy VPN server connection.
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Create an Easy VPN Server Reference
The topics in this section describe the configuration screens:
•
Create an Easy VPN Server
•
Welcome to the Easy VPN Server Wizard
•
Interface and Authentication
•
Group Authorization and Group Policy Lookup
•
User Authentication (XAuth)
•
User Accounts for XAuth
•
Add RADIUS Server
•
Group Authorization: User Group Policies
•
General Group Information
•
DNS and WINS Configuration
•
Split Tunneling
•
Client Settings
•
Choose Browser Proxy Settings
•
Add or Edit Browser Proxy Settings
•
User Authentication (XAuth)
•
Client Update
•
Add or Edit Client Update Entry
•
Cisco Tunneling Control Protocol
•
Summary
•
Browser Proxy Settings
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Create an Easy VPN Server
This wizard will guide you through the necessary steps to configure an Easy VPN
Server on this router.
Field Reference
Table 13-1 describes the fields in this screen.
Table 13-1
Create an Easy VPN Server Fields
Element
Description
Launch the Easy VPN Server Wizard
Click this button to start the wizard.
Welcome to the Easy VPN Server Wizard
This wizard will guide you in performing the following tasks to successfully
configure an Easy VPN Server on this router.
•
Choosing the interface on which the client connections will terminate, and the
authentication method used for the server and Easy VPN clients
•
Configuring IKE policies
•
Configuring an IPSec transform set
•
Configuring group authorization and the group policy lookup method
•
Configuring user authentication
•
Configuring external RADIUS servers
•
Configuring policies for remote users connecting to Easy VPN clients
Interface and Authentication
This window lets you choose the interface on which you want to configure the
Easy VPN Server.
If you choose an interface that is already configured with a site-to-site IPSec
policy, Cisco SDM displays a message that an IPSec policy already exists on the
interface. Cisco SDM uses the existing IPSec policy to configure the Easy VPN
Server.
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If the chosen interface is part of an Easy VPN Remote, GREoIPSec, or DMVPN
interface, Cisco SDM displays a message to choose another interface.
Field Reference
Table 13-2 describes the fields in this screen.
Table 13-2
Interface and Authentication Fields
Element
Description
Details
Click this button to obtain details about the interface you choose.
The details window shows any access rules, IPSec policies, NAT
rules, or inspection rules associated with the interface.
This button is dimmed when no interface is chosen.
Authentication
Choose one of the following:
Pre-shared Keys—If you click Pre-shared Keys, you must enter a
key value when you configure the Add Group Policy general setup
window.
Digital Certificates—If you click Digital Certificates, the
preshared keys fields does not appear in the Add Group Policy
general setup window.
Both—If you Both, entering a key value in the Add Group Policy
general setup window is optional.
Group Authorization and Group Policy Lookup
This windowallows you to define a new AAA authorization network method list
for group policy lookup or to choose an existing network method list.
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Field Reference
Table 13-3 describes the fields in this screen.
Table 13-3
Group Authorization and Policy Lookup Fields
Element
Description
Local Only
This option allows you to create a method list for the local database
only.
When you define an AAA method list for the local database, the
router looks at the local database for group authentication.
RADIUS Only
This option allows you to create a method list for a RADIUS
database.
RADIUS and Local
This option allows you to create a method list for both RADIUS and
local database.
When you define method lists for both a RADIUS and local
database, the router first looks at the RADIUS server and then the
local database for group authentication.
Select an existing AAA method
list
This option lets you choose an existing AAA method list on the
router to use for group authentication.
User Authentication (XAuth)
You can configure user authentication on Easy VPN Server. You can store user
authentication details on an external server such as a RADIUS server or a local
database or on both. An AAA login authentication method list is used to decide
the order in which user authentication details should be searched.
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Field Reference
Table 13-4 describes the fields in this screen.
Table 13-4
User Authentication Fields
Element
Description
Local
Click Local to add user authentication details to the local database.
RADIUS
Click RADIUS if you want to add user authentication details to the
database on the RADIUS server.
RADIUS and Local
Click RADIUS and Local to add user authentication details for
both a RADIUS and local database.
Select an existing AAA Method
List
Click Select an existing AAA Method List to choose a method list
from a list of all method lists configured on the router.
The chosen method list is used for extended authentication.
Add User Credentials
Click Add User Credentials to add a user account.
Summary
If you choose RADIUS, the Summary box is displayed. It explains
how the RADIUS and local databases are used, and that the Easy
VPN remote user can be notified when their password has expired.
•
Notify remote user of password expiration—This option is
checked by default. When enabled, the Easy VPN Server
notifies the user when their password has expired and prompts
them to enter a new password.
User Accounts for XAuth
Add an account for a user you want to authenticate after IKE has authenticated the
device.
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Field Reference
Table 13-5 describes the fields in this screen.
Table 13-5
User Accounts for XAuth Fields
Element
Description
User Accounts
The user accounts that XAuth will authenticate are listed in this box.
The account name and privilege level are visible.
Add
Use these buttons to add and edit user accounts. User accounts can
be deleted in the Additional Tasks > Router Access > User
Accounts/View window.
Edit
Note
Existing CLI view user accounts cannot be edited from this
window. If you need to edit user accounts, go to Additional
Tasks > Router Access >User Accounts/CLI View.
Add RADIUS Server
This window lets you add a new RADIUS server or edit or ping an already
existing RADIUS server.
Field Reference
Table 13-6 describes the fields in this screen.
Table 13-6
Add a RADIUS Server Fields
Element
Description
Add
Add a new RADIUS server.
Edit
Edit an already exiting RADIUS server configuration.
Ping
Ping an already existing RADIUS server or newly configured
RADIUS server.
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Group Authorization: User Group Policies
This window allows you to add, edit, clone or delete user group policies on the
local database.
Field Reference
Table 13-7 describes the fields in this screen.
Table 13-7
User Group Policies Fields
Element
Description
Group Policy List area
Select
Check the box in this column next to the groups that you want this
Easy VPN server connection to serve.
Group Name
Name given to the user group.
Pool
Name of the IP address pool from which an IP address is assigned
to a user connecting from this group.
DNS
Domain Name System (DNS) address of the group.
This DNS address is “pushed” to the users connecting to this group.
WINS
Windows Internet Naming Service (WINS) address of the group.
This WINS address is “pushed” to the users connecting to this
group.
Domain Name
Domain name of the group.
This domain name is “pushed” to the users connecting to this group.
Split ACL
The access control list (ACL) that represents protected subnets for
split tunneling purposes.
Configure Idle Timer
Idle Timer
Click the Configure Idle Timer check box and enter a value for the
maximum time that a VPN tunnel can remain idle before being
disconnected. Enter hours in the left field, minutes in the middle
field, and seconds in the right field. The minimum time allowed is
1 minute.
Disconnecting idle VPN tunnels can help the Easy VPN Server run
more efficiently by reclaiming unused resources.
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General Group Information
This window allows you to configure, edit and clone group polices.
Field Reference
Table 13-8 describes the fields in this screen.
Table 13-8
General Group Information Fields
Element
Description
Please Enter a Name for This
Group
Enter the group name in the field provided. If this group policy is
being edited, this field is disabled. If you are cloning a group policy,
you must enter a new value in this field.
Preshared Key
Enter the preshared key in the fields provided.
The Current key field cannot be changed.
Note
Pool Information
You do not have to enter a preshared key if you are using
digital certificates for group authentication. Digital
certificates are also used for user authentication.
Specifies a local pool of IP addresses that are used to allocate IP
addresses to clients.
Create a New Pool—Enter the range of IP addresses for the local IP
address pool in the IP Address Range field.
Select from an Existing Pool—Choose the range of IP addresses
from the existing pool of IP addresses.
Note
Subnet Mask (Optional)
This field cannot be edited if there are no predefined IP
address pools.
Enter a subnet mask to send with the IP addresses allocated to
clients in this group.
Maximum Connections Allowed Specify the maximum number of client connections to the Easy
VPN Server from this group. Cisco SDM supports a maximum of
5000 connections per group.
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DNS and WINS Configuration
This window allows you to specify the Domain Name Service (DNS) and
Windows Internet Naming Service (WINS) information.
Field Reference
Table 13-9 describes the fields in this screen.
Table 13-9
DNS and WINS Fields
Element
Description
DNS
Enter the primary and secondary DNS server IP address in the fields
provided. Entering a secondary DNS server address is optional.
WINS
Enter the primary and secondary WINS server IP address in the
fields provided. Entering a secondary WINS server address is
optional.
Domain Name
Specify the domain name that should be pushed to the Easy VPN
client.
Split Tunneling
This window allows you to enable split tunneling for the user group you are
adding.
Split tunneling is the ability to have a secure tunnel to the central site and
simultaneous clear text tunnels to the Internet. For example, all traffic sourced
from the client is sent to the destination subnet through the VPN tunnel.
You can also specify which groups of ACLs represent protected subnets for split
tunneling.
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Field Reference
Table 13-10 describes the fields in this screen.
Table 13-10
Split Tunneling Fields
Element
Description
Enable Split Tunneling
This box allows you to add protected subnets and ACLs for split
tunneling.
Split DNS
•
Enter the Protected Subnets—Add or remove the subnets for
which the packets are tunneled from the VPN clients.
•
Choose the Split Tunneling ACL—Choose the ACL to use for
split tunneling.
Enter the Internet domain names that should be resolved by your
network’s DNS server. The following restrictions apply:
•
A maximum of 10 entries is allowed.
•
Entries must be separated with a comma.
•
Do not use spaces anywhere in the list of entries.
•
Duplicate entries or entries with invalid formats are not
accepted.
Note
This feature appears only if supported by your Cisco
server’s IOS release.
Client Settings
This window allows you to configure additional attributes for security policy such
as adding or removing a backup server, Firewall Are-U-There, and
Include-Local-LAN.
Note
Some of the features described below appear only if supported by your Cisco
server’s IOS release.
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Field Reference
Table 13-11 describes the fields in this screen.
Table 13-11
Client Setting Fields
Element
Description
Backup Servers
You can specify up to ten servers by IP address or hostname as
backup for the Easy VPN server, and order the list to control which
servers the router will attempt to connect to first if the primary
connection to the Easy VPN server fails.
Configuration Push
•
Add—Click Add to specify the name or the IP address of an
Easy VPN server for the router to connect to when the primary
connection fails, and then enter the address or hostname in the
window displayed.
•
Delete—Click Delete to remove a specified IP address or
hostname.
You can specify an Easy VPN client configuration file using a URL
and version number. The Easy VPN Server sends the URL and
version number to Easy VPN hardware clients requesting that
information. Only Easy VPN hardware clients belonging to the
group policy you are configuring can request the URL and version
number you enter in this window.
Enter the URL of the configuration file in the URL field. The URL
should begin with an appropriate protocol, and can include
usernames and passwords. The following are URL examples for
downloading an upgrade file called sdm.exe:
•
http://username:password@www.cisco.com/go/vpn/sdm.exe
•
https://username:password@www.cisco.com/go/vpn/sdm.exe
•
ftp://username:password@www.cisco.com/go/vpn/sdm.exe
•
tftp://username:password@www.cisco.com/go/vpn/sdm.exe
•
scp://username:password@www.cisco.com/go/vpn/sdm.exe
•
rcp://username:password@www.cisco.com/go/vpn/sdm.exe
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Table 13-11
Client Setting Fields (continued)
Element
Description
Configuration Push
•
cns:
•
xmodem:
•
ymodem:
•
null:
•
flash:sdm.exe
•
nvram:sdm.exe
•
usbtoken[0-9]:sdm.exe
The USB token port number range is 0-9. For example, for a
USB token attached to USB port 0, the URL is
usbtoken0:sdm.exe.
•
usbflash[0-9]:sdm.exe
The USB flash port number range is 0-9. For example, for a
USB flash attached to USB port 0, the URL is
usbflash0:sdm.exe.
•
disk[0-1]:sdm.exe
The disk number is 0 or 1. For example, for disk number 0, the
URL is disk0:sdm.exe.
•
archive:sdm.exe
•
tar:sdm.exe
•
system:sdm.exe
In these examples, username is the site username and password is
the site password.
Enter the version number of the file in the Version field. The version
number must be in the range 1 to 32767.
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Table 13-11
Client Setting Fields (continued)
Element
Description
Browser Proxy
You can specify browser proxy settings for Easy VPN software
clients. The Easy VPN Server sends the browser proxy settings to
Easy VPN software clients requesting that information. Only Easy
VPN software clients belonging to the group policy you are
configuring can request the browser proxy settings you enter in this
window.
Enter the name under which the browser proxy settings were saved,
or choose one of the following from the drop-down menu:
•
Choose an existing setting...
Opens a window with a list of existing browser proxy settings.
•
Create a new setting and choose...
Opens a window where you can create new browser proxy
settings.
•
None
Clears any browser proxy settings assigned to the group.
Firewall Are-U-There
You can restrict VPN connections to clients running Black Ice or
Zone Alarm personal firewalls.
Include Local LAN
You can allow a non–split tunneling connection to access the local
subnetwork at the same time as the client.
Perfect Forward Secrecy (PFS)
Enable PFS if it is required by the IPSec security association you are
using.
Choose Browser Proxy Settings
From the drop-down list, choose the browser proxy settings you want to associate
with the group.
Field Reference
Table 13-12 describes the fields in this screen.
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Table 13-12
Choose Browser Proxy Settings
Element
Description
Proxy Settings
Choose the settings that you want to associate with the group.
Add or Edit Browser Proxy Settings
This window allows you to add or edit browser proxy settings.
Field Reference
Table 13-13 describes the fields in this screen.
Table 13-13
Browser Proxy Settings Fields
Element
Description
Browser Proxy Settings Name
If you are adding browser proxy settings, enter a name that will
appear in drop-down menus listing browser proxy settings. If you
are editing browser proxy settings, the name field is read-only.
Proxy Settings
Choose one of the following:
•
No Proxy Server
You do not want clients in this group to use a proxy server when
they use the VPN tunnel.
•
Automatically Detect Settings
You want clients in this group to automatically detect a proxy
server when they use the VPN tunnel.
•
Manual Proxy Configuration
You want to manually configure a proxy server for clients in
this group. If you choose this option, complete the procedure
for manually configuring a proxy server in this help topic.
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Manually Configuring a Proxy Server
If you choose Manual Proxy Configuration, follow these steps to manually
configure a proxy server:
Step 1
Enter the proxy server IP address in the Server IP Address field.
Step 2
Enter the port number that proxy server uses for receiving proxy requests in the
Port field.
Step 3
Enter a list of IP addresses for which you do not want clients to use the proxy
server.
Separate the addresses with commas, and do not enter any spaces.
Step 4
If you want to prevent clients from using the proxy server for local (LAN)
addresses, check the Bypass proxy server for local address check box.
Step 5
Click OK to save the browser proxy settings.
User Authentication (XAuth)
This allows you to configure additional attributes for user authentication, such as
Group Lock and save Password Attributes.
Field Reference
Table 13-14 describes the fields in this screen.
Table 13-14
User Authentication (XAuth) Fields
Element
Description
XAuth Banner
Enter the text for a banner that is shown to users during XAuth
requests.
Note
Maximum Logins Allowed Per
User
This feature appears only if supported by your Cisco
server’s IOS release.
Specify the maximum number of connections a user can establish at
a time. Cisco SDM supports a maximum of ten logins per user.
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Table 13-14
User Authentication (XAuth) Fields (continued)
Element
Description
Group Lock
You can restrict a client to connect to the Easy VPN Server only
from the specified user group.
Save Password
You can save extended authentication user name and password
locally on the Easy VPN Client.
Client Update
This window allows you to set up client software or firmware update notifications,
and displays existing client update entries. Existing client update entries can be
selected for editing or deletion.
Notifications are sent automatically to clients which connect to the server after a
new or edited client update configuration is saved. Clients already connected
require manual notification. To send a manual IKE notification of update
availability, choose a group policy in the group policies window and click the
Send Update button. Group clients meeting the client update criteria are sent the
notification.
Note
The client update window is available only if supported by your Cisco server’s
IOS release.
Field Reference
Table 13-6 describes the fields in this screen.
Table 13-15
Add a RADIUS Server Fields
Element
Description
Client Type
Displays the type of client for which the revision is intended.
Revisions
Displays which revisions are available.
URL Column
Displays the location of the revisions.
Add Button
Click to configure a new client update entry.
Edit Button
Click to edit the specified client update entry.
Delete Button
Click to delete the specified client update entry.
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Add or Edit Client Update Entry
This window allows you to configure a new client update entry.
Field Reference
Table 13-6 describes the fields in this screen.
Table 13-16
Add a RADIUS Server Fields
Element
Description
Client Type
Enter a client type or choose one from the drop-down menu. Client type
names are case sensitive.
For software clients, the client type is usually the operating system, for
example, Windows. For hardware clients, the client type is usually the
model number, for example, vpn3002.
If you are editing the client update entry, the client type is read-only.
URL
Enter the URL that leads to the latest software or firmware revision. The
URL should begin with an appropriate protocol, and can include
usernames and passwords.
The following are URL examples for downloading an upgrade file called
vpnclient-4-6.exe:
•
http://username:password@www.cisco.com/go/vpn/vpnclient-4.6.exe
•
https://username:password@www.cisco.com/go/vpn/vpnclient-4.6.exe
•
ftp://username:password@www.cisco.com/go/vpn/vpnclient-4.6.exe
•
tftp://username:password@www.cisco.com/go/vpn/vpnclient-4.6.exe
•
scp://username:password@www.cisco.com/go/vpn/vpnclient-4.6.exe
•
rcp://username:password@www.cisco.com/go/vpn/vpnclient-4.6.exe
•
cns:
•
xmodem:
•
ymodem:
•
null:
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Table 13-16
Element
Add a RADIUS Server Fields (continued)
Description
•
flash:vpnclient-4.6.exe
•
nvram:vpnclient-4.6.exe
•
usbtoken[0-9]:vpnclient-4.6.exe
The USB token port number range is 0-9. For example, for a USB
token attached to USB port 0, the URL is
usbtoken0:vpnclient-4.6.exe.
•
usbflash[0-9]:vpnclient-4.6.exe
The USB flash port number range is 0-9. For example, for a USB flash
attached to USB port 0, the URL is usbflash0:vpnclient-4.6.exe.
•
disk[0-1]:vpnclient-4.6.exe
The disk number is 0 or 1. For example, for disk number 0, the URL
is disk0:vpnclient-4.6.exe.
•
archive:vpnclient-4.6.exe
•
tar:vpnclient-4.6.exe
•
system:vpnclient-4.6.exe
In these examples, username is the site username and password is the site
password.
Revisions
Enter the revision number of the latest update. You can enter multiple
revision numbers by separating them with commas, for example,
4.3,4.4,4.5. Do not use any spaces.
Cisco Tunneling Control Protocol
Cisco Tunneling Control Protocol (cTCP) enables VPN clients to operate in
environments where standard ESP protocol (port 50) or IKE protocol (UDP port
500) are not permitted. For a variety of reasons, firewalls may not permit ESP or
IKE traffic, thus blocking VPN communication. cTCP solves this problem by
encapsulating ESP and IKE traffic in the TCP header so that firewalls do not see it.
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Field Reference
Table 13-17 describes the fields in this screen.
Table 13-17
Cisco Tunneling Control Protocol
Element
Description
Enable cTCP
Check Enable cTCP to enable this protocol on the Easy VPN server.
Specify the port numbers
Specify the port numbers on which the Easy VPN server must listen
for cTCP requests from clients, You can add a maximum of 10 port
numbers. Use a comma to separate entries. Here is an example of 3
port entries: 1000,3000,4000.
Summary
This window shows you the Easy VPN Server configuration that you have created,
and it allows you to save the configuration. You can review the configuration in
this window and click the Back button to change any items.
Clicking the Finish button writes the information to the router running
configuration. If the tunnel has been configured to operate in Auto mode, the
router also attempts to contact the VPN concentrator or server.
If you want to change the Easy VPN Server configuration at a later time, you can
make the changes in the Edit Easy VPN Server panel.
To save this configuration to the router running configuration and leave this
wizard, click Finish. Changes will take effect immediately.
Table 13-18
Summary Buttons
Element
Description
Test VPN Connectivity After
Configuring
Click to test the VPN connection you have just configured. The
results of the test appear in a separate window.
Browser Proxy Settings
This window lists browser proxy settings, showing how they are configured. You
can add, edit, or delete browser proxy settings. Use the group policies
configuration to associate browser proxy settings with client groups.
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Field Reference
Table 13-6 describes the fields in this screen.
Table 13-19
Add a RADIUS Server Fields
Element
Description
Name
The name of the browser proxy settings.
Settings
Displays one of the following:
•
No Proxy Server
No proxy server can be used by clients when they connect
through the VPN tunnel.
•
Automatically Detect Settings
Clients attempt to automatically detect a proxy server.
•
Manual Proxy Configuration
Settings are manually configured.
Server Details
Displays the proxy server IP address and port number used.
Bypass Local Addresses
If set, prevents clients from using the proxy server for local (LAN)
addresses.
Exceptions List
A list of IP addresses for which you do not want clients to use the
proxy server.
Add Button
Configure new browser proxy settings.
Edit Button
Edit the specified browser proxy settings.
Delete Button
Delete the specified browser proxy settings. Browser proxy settings
associated with one or more group policies can not be deleted before
those associations are removed.
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Editing Easy VPN Server Connections
Editing Easy VPN Server Connections
To edit an Easy VPN Server connection, complete these steps:
Step 1
If you want to review the Cisco IOS CLI commands that you send to the router
when you complete the configuration, go to the Cisco SDM toolbar, and click Edit
> Preferences > Preview commands before delivering to router. The preview
screen allows you to cancel the configuration if you want to.
Step 2
In the Cisco SDM toolbar, click Configure.
Step 3
In the Cisco SDM taskbar, click VPN.
Step 4
In the VPN tree, click Easy VPN Server.
Step 5
Click Edit VPN Server.
Step 6
Choose the VPN server connection that you want to edit.
Step 7
Click Edit. Then, make changes to the settings in the displayed dialogs.
Step 8
Click OK to close the dialog and send the changes to the router.
Step 9
If you checked Preview commands before delivering to router in the Edit
Preferences screen, the Cisco IOS CLI commands that you are sending are
displayed. Click Deliver to send the configuration to the router, or click Cancel
to discard it.
Edit Easy VPN Server Reference describes the configuration screens.
Edit Easy VPN Server Reference
The topics in this section describe the Edit Easy VPN Server screens:
•
Edit Easy VPN Server
•
Add or Edit Easy VPN Server Connection
•
Restrict Access
•
Group Policies Configuration
•
IP Pools
•
Add or Edit IP Local Pool
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•
Add IP Address Range
Edit Easy VPN Server
This window lets you view and manage Easy VPN server connections.
Field Reference
Table 13-6 describes the fields in this screen.
Table 13-20
Edit Easy VPN Server Fields
Element
Description
Add
Click Add to add a new Easy VPN Server.
Edit
Click Edit to edit an existing Easy VPN Server configuration.
Delete
Click Delete to delete a specified configuration.
Name
The name of the IPSec policy associated with this connection.
Interface
The name of the interface used for this connection.
Group Authorization
The name of the method list used for group policy lookup.
User Authentication Column
The name of the method list used for user authentication lookup.
Mode Configuration
Displays one of the following:
•
Initiate
The router is configured to initiate connections with Easy VPN
Remote clients.
•
Respond
The router is configured to wait for requests from Easy VPN
Remote clients before establishing connections.
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Table 13-20
Edit Easy VPN Server Fields (continued)
Element
Description
Test VPN Server Button
Click to test the chosen VPN tunnel. The results of the test appear
in a separate window.
Restrict Access Button
Click this button to restrict group access to the specified Easy VPN
Server connection.
This button is enabled only if both of the following conditions are
met:
•
There is more than one Easy VPN Server connection using the
local database for user authentication.
•
There is at least one local group policy configured.
Add or Edit Easy VPN Server Connection
This window lets you add or edit an Easy VPN Server connection.
Field Reference
Table 13-6 describes the fields in this screen.
Table 13-21
Easy VPN Server Connection Fields
Element
Description
Choose an Interface
If you are adding a connection, choose the interface to use from this
list. If you are editing the connection, this list is disabled.
Choose an IPSec Policy
If you are adding a connection, choose the IPSec policy to use from
this list. If you are editing the connection, this list is disabled.
Method List for Group Policy
Lookup
Choose the method list to use for group policy lookup from this list.
Method lists are configured by clicking Additional Tasks on the
Cisco SDM taskbar, and then clicking the AAA node.
Enable User Authentication
Check this checkbox if you want to require users to authenticate
themselves.
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Table 13-21
Easy VPN Server Connection Fields (continued)
Element
Description
Method List for User
Authentication
Choose the method list to use for user authentication from this list.
Method lists are configured by clicking Additional tasks on the
Cisco SDM taskbar, and then clicking the AAA node.
Mode Configuration
Check Initiate if you want the router to initiate connections with
Easy VPN Remote clients.
Check Respond if you want the router to wait for requests from
Easy VPN Remote clients before establishing connections.
Restrict Access
This window allows you to specify which group policies are allowed to use the
Easy VPN connection.
Field Reference
Table 13-6 describes the fields in this screen.
Table 13-22
Add a RADIUS Server Fields
Element
Description
Restrict Access
Click Restrict Access to enable restrictive access for this Easy VPN
connection.
Check Boxes
Allow a group access to the Easy VPN Server connection by
checking its check box. Deny a group access to the Easy VPN
Server connection by unchecking its check box.
Group Policies Configuration
This window lets you view, add, clone, and choose group policies for editing or
deletion. Group policies are used to identify resources for Easy VPN Remote
clients.
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Field Reference
Table 13-6 describes the fields in this screen.
Table 13-23
Group Policies Configuration Fields
Element
Description
Common Pool
Click Common Pool to designate an existing pool as a common
pool for all group policies to use. If no local pools have been
configured, this button is disabled. Pools can be configured by
clicking Additional Tasks > Local Pools, or when you configure
Easy VPN Server connections.
Add
Use these buttons to manage group policies on the router. Clicking
Clone displays the Group Policy edit tabs.
Edit
Clone
Delete
Send Update
Click to send an IKE notification of software or firmware updates to
active clients of the chosen group. If this button is disabled, the
chosen group does not have client update configured.
To set up client update notifications for the chosen group, click the
Edit button and then click the Client Update tab.
Group Name
The name of the group policy.
Pool
The IP address pool used by the clients in this group.
DNS
The DNS servers used by the clients in this group.
WINS
The WINS servers used by the clients in this group.
Domain Name
The domain name used by the clients in this group.
ACL
If split tunneling is specified for this group, this column may
contain the name of an ACL that defines which traffic is to be
encrypted.
Details Window
The Details window is a list of feature settings and their values for
the chosen group policy. Feature settings are displayed only if they
are supported by your Cisco router’s IOS release, and apply only to
the chosen group. The following feature settings may appear in the
list:
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Table 13-23
Element
Group Policies Configuration Fields (continued)
Description
•
Authentication—Values indicate a preshared key if one was
configured, or a digital certificate if a preshared key was not
configured.
•
Maximum Connections Allowed—Shows the maximum
number of simultaneous connections allowed. Cisco SDM
supports a maximum of 5000 simultaneous connections per
group.
•
Access Restrict—Shows the outside interface to which the
specified group is restricted.
•
Backup Servers—Shows the IP address of backup servers that
have been configured.
•
Firewall Are-U-There—Restricts connections to devices
running Black Ice or Zone Alarm firewalls.
•
Include Local LAN—Allows a connection not using split
tunneling to access the local stub network at the same time as
the client.
•
PFS (perfect forward secrecy)—PFS is required for IPSec.
•
Configuration Push, URL, and Version—The server sends a
configuration file from the specified URL and with the
specified version number to a client.
•
Group Lock—Clients are restricted to the group.
•
Save Password—XAuth credentials can be saved on the client.
•
Maximum Logins—The maximum number of connections a
user can establish simultaneously. Cisco SDM supports a
maximum of 10 simultaneous logins per user.
•
XAuth Banner—The text message shown to clients during
XAuth requests.
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IP Pools
This window lists the IP address pools available to group policies configured on
the router. Depending upon the area of Cisco SDM you are working in, Add, Edit,
and Delete buttons may be available, and the name of the window varies
depending on the area of Cisco SDM you are working in. You can use these to
manage local IP pools on the router.
Field Reference
Table 13-6 describes the fields in this screen.
Table 13-24
IP Pools Fields
Element
Description
Pool Name Column
The name of the IP address pool.
IP Address Range
The IP address range for the selected pool. A range of 2.2.2.0 to
2.2.2.254 provides 255 addresses.
Cache Size
The size of the cache for this pool.
Group Name
If a local pool is configured with the group option using the CLI, the
name of the group is displayed in the group name column. This
column is not displayed in all Cisco SDM areas.
Note
You cannot configure local pools with the group option
using Cisco SDM.
Add or Edit IP Local Pool
This window lets you create or edit a local pool of IP addresses.
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Field Reference
Table 13-6 describes the fields in this screen.
Table 13-25
Add or Edit IP Local Pool Fields
Element
Description
Pool Name
If you are creating a pool, enter the pool name. If you are editing a
pool, this field is disabled.
IP Address Range
Enter or edit the IP address ranges for the pool in this area. A pool
can contain more than one IP address range. Use the Add, Edit, and
Delete buttons to create additional ranges, edit ranges, and delete IP
address ranges.
Cache Size
Enter or edit the cache size for this pool in this field.
Add IP Address Range
This window lets you add an IP address range to an existing pool.
Field Reference
Table 13-6 describes the fields in this screen.
Table 13-26
Add IP Address Range Fields
Element
Description
Start IP Address
Enter the lowest IP address in the range. For example, if you are
defining a range between 10.10.10.1 to 10.10.10.254, enter
10.10.10.1.
End IP Address
Enter the highest IP address in the range. For example, if you are
defining a range between 10.10.10.1 to 10.10.10.254, enter
10.10.10.254.
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C H A P T E R
Enhanced Easy VPN
The following sections describe the Cisco Router and Security Device Manager
configuration screens for Enhanced Easy VPN.
Interface and Authentication
Specify the router interface to which the virtual template interface is to be
unnumbered, and specify the method to use for authentication in this window.
Interface
A virtual template interface must be unnumbered to a router interface to obtain an
IP address.
Cisco recommends that you unnumber the virtual template interface to a loopback
address for greatest flexibility. To do this, click Unnumbered to new loopback
interface and enter an IP address and subnet mask for the loopback interface. A
sample loopback IP address and subnet mask is 127.0.0.1, 255.255.255.0.
To unnumber the virtual template interface to another interface, click
Unnumbered to and choose the interface. You should choose the interface that
terminates the tunnel on the router. Click Details to view IP address,
authentication, policy, and other information about the interface that you are
choosing.
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Authentication
Select the method that Easy VPN clients are to use to authenticate themselves to
the Easy VPN Server configured on the router. Pre-shared keys require that you
communicate the key to administrators of Easy VPN clients. Digital certificates
do not require this, but each client must enroll for and receive a digital certificate.
RADIUS Servers
Identify the RADIUS servers that the router will use for authorization and group
policy lookup and the VPN groups configured on the RADIUS servers in the
RADIUS Servers window.
Field Reference
Table 14-1 describes the fields in this screen.
Table 14-1
RADIUS Servers Fields
Element
Description
RADIUS Client Source
Configuring the RADIUS source allows you to specify the source IP
address to be sent in packets bound for the RADIUS server. To view
the IP address and other information about an interface, select the
interface and click the Details button. This option can have the
following values:
•
Router chooses source—Choose Router chooses source if you
want the source IP address in the RADIUS packets to be the
address of the interface through which the RADIUS packets
exit the router.
•
Interface name—If you choose a specific router interface, the
source IP address in the RADIUS packets will be the address of
that interface.
The source IP address in the RADIUS packets sent from the router
must be configured as the NAD IP address in the Cisco Access
Control Server (ACS) version 3.3 or later.
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Enhanced Easy VPN
RADIUS Servers Fields
Element
Description
Note
Cisco IOS software allows a single RADIUS source
interface to be configured on the router. If the router already
has a configured RADIUS source and you choose a
different source, the source IP address placed in the packets
sent to the RADIUS server changes to the IP address of the
new source, and may not match the NAD IP address
configured on the Cisco ACS.
RADIUS Server List
Server IP
The Server IP column lists the IP addresses of each configured
server, for example, 192.168.108.14
Parameters
The Parameters column lists the authorization and accounting ports
for each server. For example, the column might contain the
following entry for a RADIUS server:
Authorization Port 1645; Accounting Port 1646
Select
The Select column contains a checkbox for each configured server.
Check the box next to each server that you want to be used. The
router does not contact a RADIUS server if the box next to it is not
checked.
Add
Click Add to create an entry for a RADIUS server.
Edit
Select a server entry and click Edit to change the information the
router has for that server.
Ping
Select a server entry and click Ping to test the connection between
the router and the RADIUS server.
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Element
Enhanced Easy VPN
RADIUS Servers Fields
Description
VPN Groups in RADIUS Server Enter the VPN groups configured on the RADIUS server that you
want this connection to give access to. Use a comma to separate
entries. A sample set of entries follows:
WGP-1, WGP-2, ACCTG, CSVC
These names must match the group names configured on the
RADIUS server. For easy administration, they should also match
the group names you configure for the easy VPN clients.
PKI-based user policy download Check PKI-based user policy download if you want the Easy VPN
server to download user-specific attributes from the RADIUS server
and push them to the client during mode configuration. The Easy
VPN server obtains the username from the client’s digital
certificate.
This option is displayed under the following conditions:
•
The router runs a Cisco IOS 12.4(4)T or later image.
•
You choose digital certificate authentication in the IKE policy
configuration.
•
You choose RADIUS or RADIUS and Local group
authorization.
Group Authorization and Group User Policies
You can create user groups that each have their own IP address pool, client update
configuration, split tunneling configuration, and other custom settings, These
group attributes are downloaded to the client in that group when they connect to
the Easy VPN server. The same group name must be configured on the clients who
are members of the group to ensure that the correct group attributes are
downloaded.
If group polices have already been configured, they appear in the list in this
window, and you can select them for this connection by checking the Select box
to the left of the group name.
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The group name, IP address pool name, DNS and WINS server names, and
domain name of each configured group is shown in the list. When you click Add
to configure settings for a new group or click Edit to change settings, the changes
appear in this list. To use settings for an existing group as a basis for a new group
configuration, select the existing group and click Clone. The Add, Edit, and Clone
buttons display dialogs that enable you to configure group settings.
Configure Idle Timer
Check Configure Idle Timer if you want to specify how long a connection is to
be maintained for idle clients in the Idle Timer fields. Enter time values in
HH:MM:SS format. For example, to enter 3 hours, 20 minutes, and 32 seconds,
enter the following values in the fields:
03:20:32
The timeout value will apply to all groups configured for this connection.
Add or Edit Easy VPN Server: General Tab
Enter general information for the Easy VPN Server connection in this dialog.
Name for this connection
Enter a name to identify this connection the name that you enter is displayed in
the Edit Easy VPN Server window.
IP Address of Virtual Tunnel Interface
Click Interface and Authentication for a description of the IP Address of Virtual
Tunnel fields.
Tunnel Mode
Choose IPSec-IPV4 in the Tunnel Mode field. The IPSec-IPV4 option enables the
creation of a IP version 4 IPSec tunnel.
Description
You can enter a description that administrators in you network will find useful
when changing configurations or troubleshooting the network.
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Add or Edit Easy VPN Server: IKE Tab
The IKE dialog in the Add Easy VPN Server dialogs enables you to create an IKE
profile for this connection.
Field Reference
xref describes the fields in this tab.
Table 14-2
Add or Edit Easy VPN Server Connection: IKE Tab
Element
Description
Match Identity Type
The IKE profile includes match criteria that allow the router to
identify the incoming and outgoing connections to which the IKE
connection parameters are to apply. Match criteria can currently be
applied to VPN groups. Group is automatically chosen in the Match
Identity Type field.
Add VPN groups to be
Build a list of groups that you want to be included in the match
associated with this IKE profile. criteria. The groups you add are listed.
•
Add—Click Add to display a menu with the following options:
– Add External Group Name—Choose Add External Group
Name to add the name of a group that is not configured on
the router, and enter the name in the dialog displayed.
– Select From Local Groups—Choose Select From Local
Groups to add the name of a group that is configured on the
router. In the displayed dialog, check the box next to the
group that you want to add. If all the local groups are used
in other IKE profiles, SDM informs you that all groups
have been selected.
•
Delete—Choose a group and click Delete to remove it from the
list.
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Enhanced Easy VPN
Add or Edit Easy VPN Server Connection: IKE Tab
Element
Description
Mode Configuration
Choose one of the followingoptions to specify how the Easy VPN
server is to handle mode configuration requests:
Group Policy Lookup
Authorization Policy
User Authentication Policy
•
Respond—Choose Respond in the Mode Configuration field if
the Easy VPN server is to respond to mode configuration
requests.
•
Initiate—Choose Initiate if the Easy VPN server is to initiate
mode configuration requests.
•
Both—Choose Both if the Easy VPN server is to both initiate
and respond to mode configuration requests.
Specify an authorization policy that controls access to group policy
information on the AAA server.
•
default—Choose default if you want to grant access to group
policy lookup information.
•
Policyname—To specify a policy, choose an existing policy in
the list.
•
Add—Click Add to create a policy in the displayed dialog.
Check User Authentication Policy if you want to allow XAuth
logins, or if you want to specify a user authentication policy to use
for XAuth logins. Choose one of the following options:
•
default—Choose default if you want to allow XAuth logins.
•
Policyname—If policies have been configured on the router,
they are displayed in this list and you can select a policy to use.
Click Add to create a policy in the displayed dialog and use it in this
IKE policy.
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Add or Edit Easy VPN Server Connection: IKE Tab
Element
Description
Dead Peer Discovery
Click Dead Peer Discovery to enable the router to send dead peer
detection (DPD) messages to Easy VPN Remote clients. If a client
does not respond to DPD messages, the connection with it is
dropped.
•
Keepalive Interval—Specify the number of seconds between
DPD messages in the Keepalive Interval field. The range is
from 10 to 3600 seconds.
•
Retry Interval—Specify the number of seconds between retries
if DPD messages fail in the Retry Interval field. The range is
from 2 to 60 seconds.
Dead peer discovery helps manage connections without
administrator intervention, but it generates additional packets that
both peers must process in order to maintain the connection.
Download user attributes from
RADIUS server based on PKI
certificate fields.
Check this option if you want the Easy VPN server to download
user-specific attributes from the RADIUS server and push them to
the client during mode configuration. The Easy VPN server obtains
the username from the client’s digital certificate.
This option is displayed under the following conditions:
•
The router runs a Cisco IOS 12.4(4)T or later image.
•
You choose digital certificate authentication in the IKE policy
configuration.
•
You choose RADIUS or RADIUS and Local group
authorization.
Add or Edit Easy VPN Server: IPSec Tab
Enter the information to create an IPSec profile in this dialog. An IPSec profile
specifies the transform sets to be used, how the Security Association (SA) lifetime
is to be determined, and other information.
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Transform Set Columns
Use the two columns at the top of the dialog to specify the transform sets that you
want to include in the profile. The left-hand column contains the transform sets
configured on the router. To add a configured tranform set to the profile, select it
and click the >> button. If there are no tranform sets in the left-hand column, or
if you need a transform set that has not been created, click Add and create the
transform set in the displayed dialog.
Time Based IPSec SA Lifetime
Click Time Based IPSec SA Lifetime if you want a new SA to be established
after a set period of time has elapsed. Enter the time period in the HH:MM:SS
fields to the right. The range is from 0:2:0 (2 minutes) to 24:0:0 (24 hours).
Traffic Volume Based IPSec SA Lifetime
Click Traffic Volume Based IPSec SA Lifetime if you want a new SA to be
established after a specified amount of traffic has passed through the IPSec tunnel.
Enter the number of kilobytes that should pass through the tunnel before an
existing SA is taken down and a new one is established. The range is from 2560
KB to 536870912 KB.
IPSec SA Idle Time
Click IPSec SA Idle Time if you want a new SA to be established after the peer
has been idle for a specified amount of time. Enter the idle time period in the
HH:MM:SS fields to the right. The range is from 0:1:0 (one minute) to 24:0:0 (24
hours).
Perfect Forwarding Secrecy
Click Perfect Forwarding Secrecy if IPSec should ask for perfect forward
secrecy (PFS) when requesting new security associations for this virtual template
interface, or should require PFS in requests received from the peer. You can
specify the following values:
•
group1—The 768-bit Diffie-Hellman prime modulus group is used to encrypt
the PFS request.
•
group2—The 1024-bit Diffie-Hellman prime modulus group is used to
encrypt the PFS request.
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group5—The 1536-bit Diffie-Hellman prime modulus group is used to
encrypt the PFS request.
Create Virtual Tunnel Interface
Enter the information for a virtual tunnel interface in this dialog.
Interface Type
Choose default, or tunnel as the interface type. If you are editing a virtual tunnel
interface, the configured value is displayed and the field is read only.
Configure the interface IP address
The IP address of the virtual tunnel interface can be unnumbered to another
interface, or it can have no IP address. Choose IP Unnumbered and choose an
interface name in the Unnumbered to field, or choose No IP address.
Tunnel Mode
Cisco SDM currently supports the IPSec-IPv4 tunnel mode and it is selected.
Select Zone
This field appears when the router runs a Cisco IOS image that supports
Zone-Policy Based Firewall (ZPF), and a zone has been configured on the router.
If you want this virtual tunnel interface to be a zone member, click the button to
the right of this field. Click Select a Zone and select the zone that you want the
interface to be a member of, or click Create a Zone to create a new zone for this
interface.
Note
It is not required that the virtual tunnel interface be a member of a zone. However,
the router does not forward traffic between zone-member interfaces and non
zone-member interfaces.
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DMVPN
These help topics provide information about Dynamic Multipoint Virtual Private
Network (DMVPN) configuration screens.
Dynamic Multipoint VPN
This wizard will help you to configure your router as a Dynamic Multipoint VPN
(DMVPN) hub or DMVPN spoke. A typical VPN connection is a point-to-point
IPSec tunnel connecting two routers. DMVPN enables you to create a network
with a central hub that connects other remote routers, referred to as spokes using
a GRE over IPSec tunnel. IPSec traffic is routed through the hub to the spokes in
the network. Cisco SDM allows you to configure your router as a primary or a
secondary DMVPN hub, or as a spoke router in a DMVPN network.
The following link contains more information about DMVPN (requires CCO
login ID).
Multipoint IPSec VPNs
Cisco SDM supports the configuration of a hub-and-spoke DMVPN that uses
IPSec profiles to define encryption. You can configure a fully-meshed DMVPN,
and use crypto-maps to define encryption in the DMVPN using the CLI. Fully
meshed DMVPNs and DMVPNs using crypto maps are managed and modified
using the CLI. Cisco SDM supports the configuration of a DMVPN starting from
IOS version 12.2(13)T.
Cisco SDM supports the configuration of a single DMVPN on a router.
In this screen, identify your router as a hub or as a spoke in the DMVPN network.
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It is important to configure the hub first because spokes must be configured using
information about the hub. If you are configuring a hub, you can use the
SpokeConfiguration feature available in the Summary window to generate a
procedure that you can send to spoke administrators so that they can configure the
spokes with the correct hub information. If you are configuring a spoke, you must
obtain the correct information about the hub before you begin.
Create a spoke (client) in Dynamic Multipoint VPN
Select if your router is a spoke in the DMVPN network. Spokes are the logical
endpoints in the network. Before starting configuration, you should ping the hub
to be sure you have connectivity to it, and have all the necessary information about
the hub configuration that you need. This information is listed in Dynamic
Multipoint VPN (DMVPN) Spoke Wizard.
Create a hub (server or head-end) in Dynamic Multipoint VPN
Select if your router is a hub in the DMVPN network. The hub is the logical center
point in a DMVPN network, and is connected to each spoke router via a
point-to-point IPSec connection. The hub can route IPSec traffic between the
spoke routers in the network.
Dynamic Multipoint VPN (DMVPN) Hub Wizard
This wizard will help you configure your router as a DMVPN hub. The hub should
be configured before the spokes so that you can provide the spoke administrators
with the information they need to configure their spoke routers.
The application window explains what you will be configuring. After you have
finished, you will need to provide spoke administrators with the following
information about the hub:
•
The IP address of the hub router’s physical interface.
•
The IP address of the hub’s mGRE tunnel interface.
•
The dynamic routing protocol to use to send routing updates to the DMVPN,
and the autonomous system (AS) number (for EIGRP), or process ID (for
OSPF) that should be used.
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Cisco SDM’s Configure Spoke feature enables you to create a text file that
contains the information that spoke administrators need about the hub’s
configuration. This feature is available from the Summary window of this wizard.
You also need to tell the spoke administrators which subnet mask to use, and
assign each spoke an IP address from the same subnet as the hub so that address
conflicts do not occur.
Type of Hub
DMVPN networks can be configured with a single hub, or with a primary and a
backup hub. Identify the type of hub you are configuring your router as.
Primary Hub
Check if the router is the primary hub in the DMVPN network.
Backup Hub
Check this button if the router is a backup hub in a full-mesh DMVPN network.
Configure Pre-Shared Key
DMVPN peers can use a pre-shared key or digital certificates to authenticate
connections from each other. If pre-shared keys are used, each hub router and
spoke router in the network must use the same pre-shared key.
Pre-shared keys should be exchanged with the administrator of the remote site
through some secure and convenient method, such as an encrypted e-mail
message. Question marks (?) and spaces must not be used in the pre-shared key.
The pre-shared key can contain a maximum of 128 characters.
Pre-Shared Key
Enter the pre-shared key used in the DMVPN network. Question marks (?) and
spaces must not be used in the pre-shared key. The pre-shared key can contain a
maximum of 128 characters.
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Digital Certificates
Select this button if your router uses digital certificates for authentication. Digital
certificates are configured under VPN Components>Public Key Infrastructure.
Confirm Pre-Shared Key
Reenter the key for confirmation. If the values in this field and the Pre-Shared Key
field do not match, Cisco SDM prompts you to reenter them.
Hub GRE Tunnel Interface Configuration
Multipoint Generic Routing Encapsulation (mGRE) is used in a DMVPN network
to allow a single GRE interface on a hub to support an IPSec tunnel to each spoke
router. This greatly simplifies DMVPN configuration. GRE allows routing
updates to be sent over IPSec connections.
Select the interface that connects to the Internet
Select the router interface that connects to the Internet. The GRE tunnel originates
from this interface.
Selecting an interface that uses a dialup connection may cause the connection to
be always up. You can examine supported interfaces in Interfaces and
Connections to determine if a dialup connection. Typically, interfaces such as
ISDN or Asynchronous Serial will be configured for a dialup connection.
IP Address
Enter the IP address for the mGRE interface. This must be a private address and
be in the same subnet as the GRE interfaces of the other routers in the network.
For example, the GRE interfaces might share the subnet 10.10.6.0, and be given
IP addresses in the range 10.10.6.1 through 10.10.6.254.
Subnet Mask
Enter the mask for the subnet that the GRE interfaces are in. For example, the
mask for the subnet 10.10.6.0 could be 255.255.255.0. For more information, see
IP Addresses and Subnet Masks.
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Advanced Button
Cisco SDM provides default values for advanced tunnel settings. However, the
hub administrator must decide on the tunnel settings and give them to the
personnel administering spoke routers so that they can make matching settings.
Advanced Configuration for the Tunnel Interface
Use this window to configure GRE tunnel parameters. Cisco SDM provides
default values, but you must obtain the correct values from the hub administrator
and enter them here.
The default values are provided in this help topic. If you change from the default,
and need to restore it, consult this help topic.
NHRP Authentication String
Enter the string that DMVPN hubs and spokes must use to authenticate
themselves for NHRP transactions. The string can be up to 8 characters long.
Special characters such as spaces, question marks (?) are not allowed. All devices
in the DMVPN must be configured with the same authentication string.
Cisco SDM Default: DMVPN_NW
NHRP Network ID
Enter the NHRP Network ID. The network ID is a globally unique, 32-bit network
identifier for a nonbroadcast, multiaccess (NBMA) network. The range is 1 to
4294967295.
Cisco SDM Default: 100000
NHRP Hold Time
Enter the number of seconds that NHRP network IDs should be advertised as
valid.
Cisco SDM Default: 360
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Tunnel Key
Enter the key to use for this tunnel. This key should be the same for all mGRE
tunnels in the network.
Cisco SDM Default: 100000
Bandwidth
Enter the intended bandwidth, in kilobytes per second (kbps). Default bandwidth
values are set during startup; the bandwidth values can be displayed using the
show interfaces EXEC command. 1000 is a typical bandwidth setting in DMVPN
configurations.
Cisco SDM Default: 1000
MTU
Enter the largest amount of data, in bytes, that should be allowed in a packet
travelling through the tunnel.
Cisco SDM Default: 1400
Tunnel Throughput Delay
Set a delay value for an interface, in tens of microseconds.
Cisco SDM Default: 1000
Primary Hub
If the router you are configuring is the backup hub in the DMVPN network, you
need to identify the primary hub by providing its public and private IP addresses.
Public IP Address
Enter the IP address of the interface on the primary hub that is used for this tunnel.
This should be a static IP address. Obtain this information from the hub
administrator.
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IP Address of hub’s mGRE tunnel interface
Enter the IP address of the mGRE tunnel interface on the primary hub. Obtain this
information from the hub administrator.
Select Routing Protocol
Use this window to specify how other networks behind your router are advertised
to the other routers in the network. Select one of the following:
Note
•
EIGRP—Extended Interior Gateway Routing Protocol.
•
OSPF—Open Shortest Path First.
•
RIP—Routing Internet Protocol.
•
Static Routing. This option is enabled when you are configuring a GRE over
IPSec tunnel.
RIP is not supported for DMVPN Hub and spoke topology but is available for
DMVPN Full Mesh topology.
Routing Information
Use this window to add or edit routing information about networks behind the
router that you want to advertise to the other routers in the network. The fields in
this window vary according to the routing protocol specified.
For more information on RIP parameters, see Add or Edit an RIP Route.
For more information on EIGRP parameters, see Add or Edit EIGRP Route.
For more information on OSPF parameters, see Add or Edit an OSPF Route.
Please select the version of RIP to enable
Specify RIP version 1 or version 2.
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Select an existing OSPF process ID/EIGRP AS number
You can select an existing process ID for OSPF or AS number for EIGRP if one
has been previously configured. See Recommendations for Configuring Routing
Protocols for DMVPN.
Create a new OSPF process ID/EIGRP AS number
If no process IDs exist, or if you want to use a different one, you can configure a
process ID in this field.
OSPF Area ID for tunnel network
Enter a new OSPF area ID for the network. This area ID is for the tunnel network.
Cisco SDM automatically adds the tunnel network to this process using this area
ID.
Private networks advertised using <protocol-name>
This area shows the networks advertised using the selected routing protocol. If
you have already configured the routing protocol you specified in this wizard, the
networks that you specified to be advertised will appear in this list.
Add all the private networks that you want to advertise to the DMVPN peers using
this routing process. The DMVPN wizard automatically adds the tunnel network
to this process.
Network—A network address. You can enter the address of a specific network,
and use the wildcard mask to generalize the advertisement.
Wild card mask—(EIGRP and OSPF protocols) A bit mask that specifies how
much of the network address must match the address given in the network column.
This mask can be used to have the router advertise networks in a particular range,
based on the given address. A 0 bit specifies that the bit in the network address
must match the corresponding bit in the given network address.
For example, if the network address were 172.55.10.3, and the wildcard mask was
0.0.255.255, the router would advertise all networks starting with the numbers
172.55, not just the network 172.55.10.3.
Area—Shown when OSPF is selected, the OSPF area number for that network.
Each router in a particular OSPF area maintains a topological database for that
area.
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Add—Click to add a network, or a group of networks, to advertise.
Edit—Click to edit the data for an advertised network or group of networks. This
button is enabled for entries that you created during the current instance of this
wizard.
Delete—Click to delete the data for the selected network or group of networks.
This button is enabled for entries that you created during the current instance of
this wizard.
Dynamic Multipoint VPN (DMVPN) Spoke Wizard
This wizard helps you to configure your router as a spoke in a DMVPN network.
Before starting the configuration, you should ping the hub to be sure that your
router can send traffic to it. Also you should have all the information about the
hub you need before you begin. A hub administrator who uses Cisco SDM to
configure the hub can generate a text file that contains the hub information spoke
administrators need.
You need to obtain the following information before you begin:
•
The IP address of the hub’s physical interface.
•
The IP address of the hub’s mGRE tunnel interface.
•
The IP address and subnet mask the hub administrator tells you to use for your
spoke. The hub administrator must assign addresses to each spoke to ensure
that all routers in the DMVPN are in the same subnet, and that each is using
a unique address.
•
The routing protocol to use, and the AS number (EIGRP) or Process ID
(OSPF) that is to be used to send routing updates in the DMVPN.
DMVPN Network Topology
Select the type of DMVPN network this router is a part of.
Hub and Spoke Network
Select this option if you are configuring the router in a network where each spoke
router has a point-to-point GRE over IPSec connection to the DMVPN hub, and
will send traffic destined for other spokes through the hub. When you select this
option, the graphic displays links from the spokes to the hub.
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Fully Meshed Network
Select if you are configuring the router as a spoke capable of establishing a direct
IPSec tunnel to other spokes in the network. A multipoint GRE tunnel is
configured on the spoke to support this functionality. When you select this option,
the graphic displays links from the spokes to the hub, and links to each other.
The wizard screen list the IOS images required to support a fully-meshed
DMVPN network.
Specify Hub Information
Use this window to provide necessary information about the hub in the DMVPN.
IP Address of Hub’s physical interface
Enter the IP address of the interface on the hub. Obtain this address from the hub
administrator. This address will be used as the tunnel destination.
IP Address of hub’s mGRE tunnel interface
Enter the IP address of the mGRE tunnel interface on the hub. The mGRE tunnel
addresses for the hub and spokes must be in the same subnet.
Spoke GRE Tunnel Interface Configuration
A point-to-point will be created for this spoke using the information entered in
this window.
Select the interface that connects to the Internet
Select the router interface that connects to the Internet. The GRE over IPSec
tunnel originates from this interface.
Selecting an interface that uses a dialup connection may cause the connection to
be always up. You can examine supported interfaces in Interfaces and
Connections to determine if a dialup connection, such as an ISDN or Async
connection has been configured for the physical interface you selected.
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Re-register with hub when IP address of interface-name changes—This option
is available when the interface you selected receives a dynamic IP address via
DHCP or IPCP. Specifying’ this option will allow the spoke to re-register with the
hub when it receives a new IP address.
IP Address
Enter the IP address for the GRE interface to this hub. This must be a private
address and be in the same subnet as the GRE interfaces of the other routers in the
network. For example, the GRE interfaces might share the subnet 10.10.6.0, and
be given IP addresses in the range 10.10.6.1 through 10.10.6.254.
If you are configuring a spoke router, you must use the IP address assigned to your
router by the hub administrator. Failure to do so may result in address conflicts.
Subnet Mask
Enter the mask for the subnet that the GRE interfaces are in. This mask must be
assigned by the hub administrator and be the same for all routers in the DMVPN.
For example, the mask for the subnet 10.10.6.0 could be 255.255.255.0. For more
information, see IP Addresses and Subnet Masks.
Advanced Button
Click this button to provide NHRP and tunnel parameters for this connection.
Cisco SDM provides default values for advanced tunnel settings. However, the
hub administrator must decide on the tunnel settings and give them to the
personnel administering spoke routers so that they can make matching settings. If
you are configuring a spoke router, obtain the tunnel settings from the hub
administrator, click this button, and enter them in the dialog box displayed.
Cisco SDM Warning: DMVPN Dependency
This window appears when the interface you have chosen for the DMVPN tunnel
source has a configuration that prevents its use for DMVPN. Cisco SDM informs
you of the conflict and gives you the option of allowing Cisco SDM to modify the
configuration so that the conflict is removed.
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Edit Dynamic Multipoint VPN (DMVPN)
Firewall
If a firewall has been applied to the interface that was designated as the tunnel
source, Cisco SDM can add access rule entries to the configuration so that GRE,
IPSec, and ISAKMP traffic is allowed through the firewall.
View Details
Click this button to view the access control entries that Cisco SDM will add to the
access rule if you select Allow GRE, IPSec, and ISAKMP traffic through the
firewall.
These entries allow both kinds of ISAKMP traffic, GRE traffic, Encapsulating
Security Protocol (ESP), and Authentication Header Protocol (AHP).
Edit Dynamic Multipoint VPN (DMVPN)
This window displays the existing DMVPN tunnel configurations. DMVPN
enables you to create a network with a central hub that connects other remote
routers, referred to as spokes. Cisco SDM supports hub-and-spoke network
topology, in which GRE over IPSec traffic is routed through the hub. Cisco SDM
allows you to configure your router as a primary or a secondary DMVPN hub, or
as a spoke router in a DMVPN network.
The following link contains more information about DMVPN (requires CCO
login ID). Multipoint IPSec VPNs
Cisco SDM supports the configuration of a hub-and-spoke DMVPN that uses
IPSec profiles to define encryption. You can configure a fully-meshed DMVPN,
and use crypto-maps to define encryption in the DMVPN using the CLI. Fully
meshed DMVPNs and DMVPNs using crypto maps are managed and modified
using the CLI.
Cisco SDM supports the configuration of a single DMVPN on a router.
The hub should be configured first, to establish the hub IP addresses and the
routing parameters that the spokes must be configured with. For other
recommendations on how to configure the routers in a DMVPN, see DMVPN
Configuration Recommendations.
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Interface
The physical interface from which this tunnel originates.
IPSec Profile
The IPSec profile that the tunnel uses. The IPSec profile defines the transform sets
that are used to encrypt traffic on the tunnel. Cisco SDM supports the use of only
IPSec profiles to define encryption in a DMVPN. If you want to use crypto-maps,
configure the DMVPN using the CLI.
IP Address
The IP address of the GRE tunnel. The GRE tunnel is used to send routing updates
to the DMVPN.
Description
A description of this tunnel.
Details panel
The Details panel shows the values for the entire configuration of the DMVPN
tunnel.
Why Are some Tunnels Interfaces Shown as Read-Only?
A tunnel interface is shown as read-only if it has already been configured with
crypto-map associations and NHRP parameters. You will be able to modify NHRP
parameters and routing information from this window, but you must edit the IP
address, tunnel source, and tunnel destination from the Interfaces and
Connections window.
Add
Click to add a new DMVPN tunnel configuration.
Edit
Click to edit a selected DMVPN tunnel configuration.
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Delete
Click to delete a DMVPN tunnel configuration.
General Panel
In this panel add or edit general configuration parameters of the DMVPN tunnel.
IP Address
Enter the IP address of the tunnel. This must be a private address and must be in
the same subnet as the other tunnel addresses in the DMVPN. If you are
configuring a spoke, you must use the address that the hub administrator has
assigned to your router so that no address conflicts occur.
Mask
Enter the subnet mask that the hub administrator has assigned to the DMVPN. For
more information, see IP Addresses and Subnet Masks.
Tunnel Source
Select the interface that the tunnel is to use, or enter that interface’s IP address.
See Using Interfaces with Dialup Configurations before you select an interface
configured for a dialup connection.
Tunnel Destination
Click This is a multipoint GRE tunnel if this is a DMVPN tunnel in a
fully-meshed network. Click IP/Hostname and specify an IP address or hostname
if this is a hub-and-spoke network
IPSec Profile
Select a configured IPSec profile for this tunnel. The IPSec profile defines the
transform sets that are used to encrypt traffic on this tunnel.
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MTU
Enter the largest amount of data, in bytes, that should be allowed in a packet
traveling through the tunnel.
Bandwidth
Enter the intended bandwidth, in kilobytes per second (kbps). Default bandwidth
values are set during startup; the bandwidth values can be displayed using the
show interfaces EXEC command. The value 1000 is a typical bandwidth setting
in DMVPN configurations.
Delay
Set a delay value for an interface, in tens of microseconds. The value 1000 is a
typical delay setting in DMVPN configurations.
Tunnel Key
Enter the key to use for this tunnel. This key should be the same for all mGRE
tunnels in the network.
This is a multipoint GRE Tunnel
Check if this to be an mGRE tunnel interface, an interface capable of maintaining
connections to multiple peers. If this router is being configured as a DMVPN hub,
you must check this box to allow the hub to establish connections with all spokes.
If the router is being configured as a spoke, check this box if you are configuring
a fully meshed DMVPN. In this way, a spoke can establish a connection to the hub
to send traffic and receive next hop information to directly connect to all other
spokes in the DMVPN.
NHRP Panel
Use this panel to provide NHRP configuration parameters.
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Authentication String
Enter the string that DMVPN hubs and spokes must use to authenticate
themselves for NHRP transactions. The string can be up to 8 characters long. All
NHRP stations in the DMVPN must be configured with the same authentication
string.
Hold Time
Enter the number of seconds that NHRP network IDs should be advertised as
valid.
Network ID
Enter the NHRP Network ID. The network ID is a globally unique, 32-bit network
identifier for a nonbroadcast, multiaccess (NBMA) network. The range is 1 to
4294967295. The network ID must be unique for each NHRP station.
Next Hop Server
This area lists the IP addresses of the next hop servers that this router can contact.
This area must contain the IP address of the primary and secondary hub if this is
a spoke router. If this is a hub, this area must contain the IP addresses of the other
hub routers in the DMVPN.
Click Add to enter the IP address of a next hop server. Select a server, and click
Delete to delete it from the list.
NHRP Map
This area lists the available IP-to-NBMA address mappings. Click Add to create
a new map. After you create the map, it will be added to this list. Click Edit to
modify a selected map. Click Delete to remove a selected map configuration.
NHRP Map Configuration
Use this window to create or edit a mapping between IP and NBMA addresses.
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Statically configure the IP-to-NMBA address mapping of IP destinations connected to an NBMA network.
Click this button if you are configuring a spoke in a fully meshed network. Cisco
SDM treats backup hubs as spokes to primary hubs, so also click this if you are
configuring a backup hub. In this part of the window you are providing the address
information that the spoke or backup hub needs to contact the primary hub.
Destination Reachable through NBMA network—Enter the IP address of the
mGRE tunnel configured on the primary hub. Spokes and backup hubs use this
tunnel information to establish contact with the hub and create an mGRE tunnel
to it. Spokes use the tunnel to send encrypted data to the hub and to query the hub
for next hop information to other spokes.
NBMA Address directly reachable— Enter the static IP Address of the interface
on the primary hub that supports the mGRE tunnel.
Configure NBMA addresses used as destinations for broadcast or multicast packets to be sent over a
tunnel network.
Use this area of the window to provide information used by routing protocols.
Dynamically add spokes’ IP addresses to hub’s multicast cache—Configure
this option if you are configuring a primary or a backup hub. This option is needed
by the hub to send routing updates to all connected DMVPN spokes.
IP address of NBMA address directly reachable—If you are configuring a
spoke in a full meshed DMVPN, or a backup hub, check this box, and provide the
static IP Address of the interface on the primary hub that supports the mGRE
tunnel.
Routing Panel
Use this panel to configure routing information for the DMVPN cloud.
Routing Protocol
Select the dynamic routing protocol that the hub and spoke routers in this
DMVPN use to perform routing. Note that all the routers in the DMVPN must be
configured for the routing protocol that you select.
•
RIP—Routing Internet Protocol
•
OSPF—Open Shortest Path First
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•
EIGRP—Extended Interior Gateway Routing Protocol
RIP Fields
If you selected RIP as the dynamic routing protocol, select Version 1, Version 2,
or Default. If you select Version 2, the router will include the subnet mask in the
routing update. If you select Default, the router will send out Version 2 updates,
but it will be able to receive RIP Version 1 or Version 2 updates.
Turn off split horizon—If this is the hub router, check this box to turn off split
horizon on the mGRE tunnel interface. Turning off split horizon allows the router
to advertise the routes that it has learned from the tunnel interface out the same
interface.
OSPF Fields
If you selected OSPF, the following fields must be completed:
OSPF process ID—Enter the process ID. This value identifies the OSPF process
to other routers. See Recommendations for Configuring Routing Protocols for
DMVPN.
OSPF Network Type—Select point-to-multipoint or broadcast.
Point-to-multipoint causes OSPF to add routes to the routing table on spoke
routers. If you wish to avoid this, you can select broadcast.
OSPF Priority—The OSPF priority identifies this router as a hub or as a spoke.
If this is a hub router, enter a priority value of 2. If this is a spoke router, enter a
priority value of 0.
EIGRP Fields
If you selected EIGRP, the following fields must be completed:
Autonomous System Number—Enter the Autonomous System Number for the
group of routers using EIGRP. Routers with the same EIGRP autonomous system
number maintain a topological database of routers in the region identified by that
number. See Recommendations for Configuring Routing Protocols for DMVPN.
Turn off split horizon—If this is the hub router, check this box to turn on split
horizon on the mGRE tunnel interface. Leave it unchecked to disable split
horizon. Turning off split horizon allows the router to advertise the routes that it
has learned from the tunnel interface out the same interface.
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Use original next hop— If this is a DMVPN hub router, EIGRP will advertise
this router as the next hop. Check this box to have EIGRP use the original IP next
hop when advertising routes to the DMVPN spoke routers.
How Do I Configure a DMVPN Manually?
You can configure your router as a DMVPN hub or spoke using the VPN
Components windows and the Edit Dynamic Multipoint VPN (DMVPN) window.
In order to do so you need to complete the following tasks:
•
Configure an IPSec profile. You cannot configure a DMVPN connection until
you have configured at least one IPSec profile.
•
Configure the DMVPN connection.
•
Specify the networks you want to advertise to the DMVPN cloud.
Procedures for these tasks are given below:
To configure an IPSec Profile:
You need to configure an IPSec policy, and then configure a DMVPN tunnel.
Step 1
Click VPN in the left panel, and then click VPN Components.
Step 2
Click the IPSec Profiles branch, and then click Add in the IPSec Profiles window.
Step 3
Name the profile, and select the transform sets it is to contain in the Add an IPSec
profile window. You can enter a short description if you want to.
Step 4
Click OK.
To configure a DMVPN connection:
Step 1
In the VPN tree, click the Dynamic Multipoint VPN branch.
Step 2
Click Edit Dynamic Multipoint VPN (DMVPN).
Step 3
Click Add.
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Step 4
In the DMVPN Tunnel Configuration window, complete the General, NHRP, and
Routing tabs to create a DMVPN tunnel.Consult the online help for more
information about a particular field.
To specify the networks you want to advertise to the DMVPN:
If there are networks behind your router that you want to advertise to the DMVPN,
you can do so by adding the network numbers in the Routing windows.
Step 1
From the left panel, click Routing.
Step 2
In the Routing window, select the routing protocol that you specified in DMVPN
configuration, and click Edit.
Step 3
Add the network numbers that you want to advertise.
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VPN Global Settings
These help topics describe the VPN Global Settings windows.
VPN Global Settings
This window displays the VPN global settings for the router.
Field Reference
Table 16-1 describes the fields in this screen.
Table 16-1
VPN Global Settings Fields
Element
Description
Edit Button
Click the Edit button to add or change VPN global settings.
Enable IKE
The value is True if IKE is enabled; it is False if IKE is disabled.
Note
Enable Aggressive Mode
If IKE is disabled, VPN configurations will not operate.
You can click Edit and enable IKE in the IKE tab of the
VPN Global Settings screen.
The value is True if Aggressive Mode is enabled; it is False if
Aggressive Mode is disabled.The Aggressive Mode feature allows
you to specify RADIUS tunnel attributes for an IPSec peer and to
initiate an IKE aggressive mode negotiation with the tunnel
attributes.
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Table 16-1
VPN Global Settings Fields
Element
XAuth Timeout
Description
IKE Identity
Either the host name of the router or the IP address that the router
will use to identify itself in IKE negotiations.
Dead Peer Detection
Dead Peer Detection (DPD) enables a router to detect a dead peer
and, if detected, delete the IPSec and IKE security associations with
that peer. If DPD is enabled, the following additional information is
displayed:
The number of seconds the router is to wait for a a system to respond
to the XAuth challenge.
•
IKE Keepalive (Sec)—The value is the number of seconds that
the router waits between sending IKE keepalive packets.
•
IKE Retry (Sec)—The value is the number of seconds that the
router waits between attempts to establish an IKE connection
with the remote peer. By default, “2” seconds is displayed.
•
DPD Type—Either On Demand or Periodic. If set to On
Demand, DPD messages are sent on the basis of traffic
patterns. For example, if a router has to send outbound traffic
and the liveliness of the peer is questionable, the router sends a
DPD message to query the status of the peer. If a router has no
traffic to send, it never sends a DPD message.
If set to Periodic, the router sends DPD messages at the interval
specified by the IKE Keepalive value.
IPSec Security Association (SA) The amount of time after which IPSec security associations (SAs)
Lifetime (Sec)
will expire and be regenerated. The default is 3600 seconds (1
hour).
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Table 16-1
VPN Global Settings Fields
Element
Description
IPSec Security Association (SA) The number of kilobytes that the router can send over the VPN
Lifetime (Kilobytes)
connection before the IPSec SA expires. The SA will be renewed
after the shortest lifetimes is reached.
Syslog Messages for Easy VPN
Connections
This field can have the following values:
•
Enabled—Syslog messages are enabled for all Easy VPN
connections.
•
Enabled for groups name, name—Syslog messages are enabled
for the groups listed.
•
Disabled—Syslog messages are disabled.
VPN Global Settings: IKE
This window lets you specify global settings for IKE and IPSEC.
Enable IKE
Leave this box checked if you want to use VPN.
Caution
If IKE is disabled, VPN configurations will not work.
Enable Aggressive mode
The Aggressive Mode feature allows you to specify RADIUS tunnel attributes for
an IPSec peer and to initiate an IKE aggressive mode negotiation with the tunnel
attributes.
Identity (of this router)
This field specifies the way the router will identify itself. Select either IP address
or host name.
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XAuth Timeout
The number of seconds the router is to wait for a response from a system requiring
XAuth authentication.
Enable Dead Peer Detection (DPD)
Dead Peer Detection (DPD) enables a router to detect a dead peer and, if detected,
delete the IPSec and IKE security associations with that peer.
The Enable Dead Peer Detection checkbox is disabled when the Cisco IOS image
that the router is using does not support DPD.
Keepalive
Specify the number of seconds that the router should maintain a connection when
it is not being used.
Retry
Specify the number of seconds that the router should wait between attempts to
establish an IKE connection with a peer. The default value is ‘2’ seconds.
DPD Type
Select On Demand or Periodic.
If set to On Demand, DPD messages are sent on the basis of traffic patterns. For
example, if a router has to send outbound traffic and the liveliness of the peer is
questionable, the router sends a DPD message to query the status of the peer. If a
router has no traffic to send, it never sends a DPD message.
If set to Periodic, the router sends DPD messages at the interval specified by the
IKE Keepalive value.
VPN Global Settings: IPSec
Edit global IPSec settings in this window.
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Authenticate and Generate new key after every
Check this box and specify the time interval at which the router should
authenticate and generate a new key. If you do not specify a value, the router will
authenticate and generate a new key every hour.
Generate new key after the current key encrypts a volume of
Check this box and specify the number of kilobytes that should be encrypted by
the current key before the router authenticates and generates a new one. If you do
not specify a value, the router will authenticate and generate a new key after the
current key has encrypted 4,608,000 kilobytes.
VPN Global Settings: Easy VPN Server
Make global settings for Easy VPN server connections in this screen.
Field Reference
Table 16-2 describes the fields in this screen.
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Table 16-2
VPN Global Settings: Easy VPN Server Fields
Element
Description
Common Pool
You can configure a common IP address pool for all clients to use.
If a group does not have a specific pool, clients belonging to that
group will be allocated an IP address from this common pool.
Select a common pool—Select a pool name from this list. If no
pools are configured, you click Additional Tasks > Local Pools >
Add, and configure a pool in the displayed dialog. Then, return to
this screen and select it.
Enable Syslog messages
Check Enable Syslog messages to enable Syslog messages for
client connections. You can specify the scope of this option with the
following options:
•
Enable Syslog messages for all client connections—Check this
option to enable Syslog messages for all groups that connect to
the Easy VPN server.
•
Enable Syslog messages for the following groups—Check this
option to enable Syslog messages for the groups that you
specify. Then, enter the group names in the box, separating one
group name from another with a comma. A sample set of entries
follows:
WGP-1, WGP-2, ACCTG, CSVC
The router must use Cisco IOS 12.4(4)T or later for this part of the
screen to be displayed.
VPN Key Encryption Settings
The VPN Key Encryption Settings window appears if the Cisco IOS image on
your router supports Type 6 encryption, also referred to as VPN key encryption.
You can use this window to specify a master key to use when encrypting VPN
keys, such as pre-shared keys, Easy VPN keys, and XAuth keys. When encrypted,
these keys will not be readable by someone viewing the router’s configuration file.
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Enable VPN Keys Encryption
Check to enable encryption of these keys.
Current Master Key
This field contains asterisks (*) when a master key has been configured.
New Master Key
Enter a new master key in this field. Master keys must be at least 8 characters long
and can be as long as 128 characters.
Confirm Master Key
Reenter the master key in this field for confirmation. If the values in this field and
in the New Master Key field do not match, Cisco SDM prompts you to reenter the
key.
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17
IP Security
IP Security (IPSec) is a framework of open standards that provides data
confidentiality, data integrity, and data authentication between participating
peers. IPSec provides these security services at the IP layer; it uses IKE to handle
negotiation of protocols and algorithms based on local policy, and to generate the
encryption and authentication keys to be used by IPSec.
Cisco SDM lets you configure IPSec transform sets, rules, and policies.
Use the IPSec tree to go to the IPSec configuration windows that you want to use.
IPSec Policies
This window displays the IPSec policies configured on the router, and the crypto
maps associated with each policy. IPSec policies are used to define VPN
connections. To learn about the relationship between IPSec policies, crypto maps,
and VPN connections, see More about VPN Connections and IPSec Policies.
Icon
If this icon appears next to the IPSec policy, it is read-only, and it cannot
be edited. An IPSec policy may be read-only if it contains commands
that Cisco SDM does not support.
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Name
The name of this IPSec policy.
Type
One of the following:
•
ISAKMP—IKE will be used to establish the IPSec security associations for
protecting the traffic specified by this crypto map entry. Cisco SDM supports
Internet Security Association and Key Management Protocol (ISAKMP)
crypto maps.
•
Manual—IKE will not be used to establish the IPSec security associations for
protecting the traffic specified by this crypto map entry.
Cisco SDM does not support the creation of manual crypto maps. Cisco SDM
treats as read-only any manual crypto maps that have been created using the
command-line interface (CLI).
•
Dynamic—Specifies that this crypto map entry is to reference a preexisting
dynamic crypto map. Dynamic crypto maps are policy templates used in
processing negotiation requests from a peer IPSec device.
Cisco SDM does not support the creation of dynamic crypto maps. Cisco
SDM treats as ready only any dynamic crypto maps created using the CLI.
Crypto Maps in this IPSec policy
Name
The name of the IPSec policy of which the crypto map is a part.
Seq. No.
When an IPSec policy is used in a VPN connection, the combination of the
sequence number and IPSec policy name uniquely identifies the connection.
Peers
This column lists the IP addresses or host names of the peer devices specified in
the crypto map. Multiple peers are separated by commas.
Transform Set
This column lists the transform sets used in the crypto map.
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Dynamic Crypto Maps Sets in this IPSec Policy
Dynamic Crypto Map Set Name
The name of this dynamic crypto map set. Names enable administrators to
understand how the crypto map set is used.
Sequence Number
The sequence number for this dynamic crypto map set.
Type
Type is always Dynamic.
What Do You Want to Do?
If you want to:
Do this:
Add an IPSec policy to the
configuration.
Click Add.
Edit an existing IPSec policy.
Select the policy, and click Edit.
Remove a crypto map entry from a
policy.
Select the policy, and click Edit. In the window, select the
crypto map you want to remove, and click Delete. Then, click
OK to return to this window.
Remove an IPSec policy.
Select the policy, and click Delete.
Add or Edit IPSec Policy
Use this window to add or edit an IPSec policy.
Name
The name of this IPSec policy. This name can be any set of alphanumeric
characters. It may be helpful to include the peer names in the policy name, or to
include other information that will be meaningful to you.
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Crypto Maps in this IPSec policy
This box lists the crypto maps in this IPSec policy. The list includes the name, the
sequence number, and the transform set that makes up this crypto map. You can
select a crypto map and edit it or delete it from the IPSec policy.
If you want to add a crypto map, click Add. If you want Cisco SDM to guide you
through the process, check Use Add Wizard, and then click Add.
Icon
If a crypto map is read-only, the read-only icon appears in this column.
A crypto map may be read-only if it contains commands that Cisco SDM
does not support.
Dynamic Crypto Maps Sets in this IPSec Policy
This box lists the dynamic crypto map sets in this IPSec policy. Use the Add
button to add an existing dynamic crypto map set to the policy. Use the Delete
button to remove a selected dynamic crypto map set from the policy.
What Do You Want to Do?
If you want to:
Do this:
Add a crypto map to this policy.
Click Add, and create a crypto map in the Add crypto map
panels. Or, check Use Add Wizard, and then click Add.
Note
Edit a crypto map in this policy.
The wizard allows you to add only one transform set
to the crypto map. If you need multiple transform sets
in the crypto map, do not use the wizard.
Select the crypto map, click Edit, and edit the crypto map in
the Edit crypto map panels.
Remove a crypto map from this policy. Select the crypto map, and click Delete.
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Add or Edit Crypto Map: General
Change general crypto map parameters in this window. This window contains the
following fields.
Name of IPSec Policy
A read-only field that contains the name of the policy in which this crypto map is
used. This field does not appear if you are using the Crypto Map Wizard.
Description
Enter or edit a description of the crypto map in this field. This description appears
in the VPN Connections list, and it can be helpful in distinguishing this crypto
map from others in the same IPSec policy.
Sequence Number
A number that, along with the IPSec policy name, is used to identify a connection.
Cisco SDM generates a sequence number automatically. You can enter your own
sequence number if you wish.
Security Association Lifetime
IPSec security associations use shared keys. These keys, and their security
associations time out together. There are two lifetimes: a timed lifetime and a
traffic-volume lifetime. The security association expires when the first of these
lifetimes is reached.
You can use this field to specify a different security association lifetime for this
crypto map than the lifetime that is specified globally. In the Kilobytes field, you
can specify the lifetime in the number of kilobytes sent, up to a maximum of
4608000. In the HH:MM:SS fields, you can specify the lifetime in hours, minutes,
and seconds. You can also specify both a timed and a traffic-volume lifetimes. If
both are specified, the lifetime will expire when the first criterion has been
satisfied.
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Enable Perfect Forwarding Secrecy
When security keys are derived from previously generated keys, there is a security
problem, because if one key is compromised, then the others can be compromised
also. Perfect Forwarding Secrecy (PFS) guarantees that each key is derived
independently. It thus ensures that if one key is compromised, no other keys will
be. If you enable PFS, you can specify use of the Diffie-Hellman group1, group2,
or group5 method.
Note
If your router does not support group5, it will not appear in the list.
Enable Reverse Route Injection
Reverse Route Injection (RRI) is used to populate the routing table of an internal
router running Open Shortest Path First (OSPF) protocol or Routing Information
Protocol (RIP) for remote VPN clients or LAN-to-LAN sessions.
Reverse Route Injection dynamically adds static routes to the clients connected to
the Easy VPN server.
Add or Edit Crypto Map: Peer Information
A crypto map includes the hostnames or IP addresses of the peers involved in the
security association. This screen allows you to add and remove peers associated
with this crypto map. Multiple peers provide the router with multiple routes for
encrypted data.
If you want to:
Do this:
Add a peer to the Current List.
Enter the IP address or host name of the peer, and click Add.
Remove a peer from the Current List.
Select the peer, and click Remove.
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Add or Edit Crypto Map: Transform Sets
Use this window to add and edit the transform set used in the crypto map. A crypto
map includes the hostnames or IP addresses of the peers involved in the security
association. Multiple peers provide the router with multiple routes for encrypted
data. However, the devices at both ends of the VPN connection must use the same
transform set.
Use the Crypto Map Wizard if it is sufficient for your router to offer a crypto map
with one transform set.
Use Add New Crypto Map... with Use Add Wizard unchecked if you want to
manually configure a crypto map with multiple transforms sets (up to six) to
ensure that the router can offer one transform set that the peer it is negotiating
with will accept. If you are already in the Crypto Map Wizard, exit the wizard,
uncheck Use Add Wizard, and click Add New Crypto Map....
If you manually configure a crypto map with multiple transforms sets, you can
also order the transform sets. This will be the order that the router will use to
negotiate which transform set to use.
Available Transform Sets
Configured transform sets available for use in crypto maps. In the Crypto Map
Wizard, the available transform sets are in the Select Transform Set drop-down
list.
If no transform sets have been configured on the router, only the default transform
sets provided with Cisco SDM are shown.
Note
•
Not all routers support all transform sets (encryption types). Unsupported
transform sets will not appear in the window.
•
Not all IOS images support all the transform sets that Cisco SDM supports.
Transform sets unsupported by the IOS image will not appear in the window.
•
If hardware encryption is turned on, only those transform sets supported by
both hardware encryption and the IOS image will appear in the window.
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Details of Selected Transform Set (Crypto Map Wizard Only)
Shows the name, encryption, authentication characteristics, and other parameters
of the chosen crypto map.
If this icon appears next to the transform set, it is read-only, and it cannot
be edited.
Selected Transform Sets In Order of Preference (Manual Configuration of Crypto Map Only)
The transform sets that have been chosen for this crypto map, in the order in which
they will be used. During negotiations with a peer, the router will offer transform
sets in the order given in this list. You can use the up and down arrow buttons to
reorder the list.
What Do You Want to Do? (Crypto Map Wizard Only)
If you want to:
Do this:
Use the selected transform set for the
crypto map.
Click Next.
Use another existing transform set.
Select it in the Select Transform Set list, and click Next.
Use a new transform set.
Click Add, and create the transform set in the Add Transform
Set window. Then, return to this window, and click Next.
Edit the selected transform set.
Click Edit, and edit the transform set in the Edit Transform
Set window.
Add more transform sets to this crypto Leave the crypto map wizard, uncheck Use Add Wizard, and
map. You may wish to do this to ensure click Add Crypto Map. The Transform Set tab allows you to
that the router can offer a transform set add and order transform sets.
that the peer will agree to use.
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What Do You Want to Do? (Manual Configuration of Crypto Map Only)
If you want to:
Do this:
Add a transform set to the Selected
Transform Sets box.
Select a transform set in the Available Transform Sets box,
and click the right-arrow button.
Remove a transform set from the
Selected Transform Sets box.
Select the transform set you want to remove, and click the
left-arrow button.
Change the preference order of the
selected transform sets.
Select a transform set, and click the up button or the down
button.
Add a transform set to the Available
Transform Sets list.
Click Add, and configure the transform set in the Add
Transform Set window.
Edit a transform set in the Available
Transform Sets list.
Click Edit, and configure the transform set in the Edit
Transform Set window.
Add or Edit Crypto Map: Protecting Traffic
You can configure the crypto map to protect all traffic (Crypto Map Wizard only)
or choose an IPSec rule to protect specified traffic.
Protect all traffic between the following subnets (Crypto Map Wizard Only)
Use this option to specify a single source subnet (a subnet on the LAN) whose
traffic you want to encrypt, and one destination subnet supported by the peer that
you specified in the Peers window. All traffic flowing between other source and
destination subnets will be sent unencrypted.
Source
Enter the address of the subnet whose outgoing traffic you want to protect, and
specify the subnet mask. You can either select a subnet mask from the list or type
in a custom mask. The subnet number and mask must be entered in dotted decimal
format. For more information, see IP Addresses and Subnet Masks.
All traffic from this source subnet that has a destination IP address on the
destination subnet will be encrypted.
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Destination
Enter the address of the destination subnet, and specify the mask for that subnet.
You can either select a subnet mask from the list or type in a custom mask. The
subnet number and mask must be entered in dotted decimal format.
All traffic going to the hosts in this subnet will be encrypted.
IPSec Rule (Create/Select an access-list for IPSec traffic)
You can add or change the IPSec rule used in this crypto map. Use this option if
you need to specify multiple sources and destinations, and/or specific types of
traffic to encrypt. An IPSec rule can consist of multiple entries, each specifying
different traffic types and different sources and destinations. Any packets that do
not match the criteria in the IPSec rule are sent unencrypted.
Note
If you are adding an IPSec rule for a VPN connection that uses a tunnel interface,
the rule must specify the same source and destination data as the tunnel
configuration.
To add or change the IPSec rule for the crypto map, click the … button to the right
of the IPSec rule field and choose one of the following:
•
Select an existing rule (ACL)—If the rule you want to use has already been
created, choose the rule, then click OK.
•
Create a new rule and select—If the rule you need has not been created,
create the rule, then click OK.
•
None—If you want to clear a rule association. The IPSec rule field shows the
name of the IPSec rule in use, but if you choose None, the field becomes
blank.
Another way to add or change the IPSec rule for this crypto map is to enter the
number of the IPSec rule directly in the IPSec rule field.
Note
IPSec rules must be extended rules, not standard rules. If the number or name you
enter identifies a standard rule, Cisco SDM will display a warning message when
you click OK.
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Dynamic Crypto Map Sets
Dynamic Crypto Map Sets
This window lists the dynamic crypto map sets configured on the router.
Add/Edit/Delete Buttons
Use these buttons to manage the crypto maps in the window. If you try to delete a
crypto map set associated with an IPSec policy, Cisco SDM prevents you from
doing so. You must disassociate the crypto map from the policy before deleting it.
You can do this in the IPSec Policies window.
Name
The name of the dynamic crypto map.
Type
Always Dynamic.
Add or Edit Dynamic Crypto Map Set
Add or edit a dynamic crypto map set in this window.
Name
If you are adding a dynamic crypto map, enter the name in this field. If you are
editing a crypto map set, this field is disabled, and you cannot change the name.
Crypto maps in this IPSec Policy
This area lists the crypto maps used in this set. Use the Add, Edit, and Delete
buttons to add, remove, or modify crypto maps in this list.
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Associate Crypto Map with this IPSec Policy
Sequence Number
Enter a sequence number to identify this crypto map set. This sequence number
cannot be in use by any other crypto map set.
Select the Dynamic Crypto Map Set
Select the dynamic crypto map set you want to add from this list.
Crypto Maps in this Dynamic Crypto Map Set
This area lists the names, sequence numbers, and peers in the dynamic crypto map
set you selected.
IPSec Profiles
This window lists configured IPSec profiles on the router. IPSec profiles consist
of one or more configured transform sets; the profiles are applied to mGRE
tunnels to define how tunneled traffic is encrypted.
Name
The name of the IPSec profile.
Transform Set
The transform sets used in this profile.
Description
A description of the IPSec profile.
Add
Click to add a new IPSec profile.
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Edit
Select an existing profile and click Edit to change the profile configuration.
Delete
Click to edit a selected IPSec profile. If the profile you are deleting is currently
used in a DMVPN tunnel, you must configure the DMVPN tunnel to use a
different IPSec profile.
Details of IPSec Profile
This area displays the configuration of the selected IPSec profile. For a
description of the information displayed in this area see Add or Edit IPSec Profile.
Add or Edit IPSec Profile
Enter the information to create an IPSec profile in this dialog. An IPSec profile
specifies the transform sets to be used, how the Security Association (SA) lifetime
is to be determined, and other information.
Transform Set Columns
Use the two columns at the top of the dialog to specify the transform sets that you
want to include in the profile. The left-hand column contains the transform sets
configured on the router. To add a configured tranform set to the profile, select it
and click the >> button. If there are no tranform sets in the left-hand column, or
if you need a transform set that has not been created, click Add and create the
transform set in the displayed dialog.
IKE Profile Association
If you want to associate an IKE profile with this IPSec profile, choose an existing
profile from the list. If an IKE profile has already been associated, this field is
read only.
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Time Based IPSec SA Lifetime
Click Time Based IPSec SA Lifetime if you want a new SA to be established
after a set period of time has elapsed. Enter the time period in the HH:MM:SS
fields to the right.
Traffic Volume Based IPSec SA Lifetime
Click Traffic Volume Based IPSec SA Lifetime if you want a new SA to be
established after a specified amount of traffic has passed through the IPSec tunnel.
Enter the number of kilobytes that should pass through the tunnel before an
existing SA is taken down and a new one is established.
IPSec SA Idle Time
Click IPSec SA Idle Time if you want a new SA to be established after the peer
has been idle for a specified amount of time. Enter the idle time period in the
HH:MM:SS fields to the right.
Perfect Forwarding Secrecy
Click Perfect Forwarding Secrecy if IPSec should ask for perfect forward
secrecy (PFS) when requesting new security associations for this virtual template
interface, or should require PFS in requests received from the peer. You can
specify the following values:
•
group1—The 768-bit Diffie-Hellman prime modulus group is used to encrypt
the PFS request.
•
group2—The 1024-bit Diffie-Hellman prime modulus group is used to
encrypt the PFS request.
•
group5—The 1536-bit Diffie-Hellman prime modulus group is used to
encrypt the PFS request.
Add or Edit IPSec Profile and Add Dynamic Crypto Map
Use this window to add or to edit an IPSec profile, or to add a dynamic crypto
map.
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Transform Set
Name
Enter a name for this profile.
Available Transform Sets
This column lists the transform sets configured on this router. To add a transform
set from this list to the Selected Transform Sets column, select a transform set and
click the right arrow (>>) button.
If you need to configure a new transform set, click the Transform Sets node in
the IPSec tree to go to the Transform Sets window. In that window, click Add to
create a new transform set.
Selected Transform Sets
This column lists the transform sets that you are using in this profile. You can
select multiple transform sets so that the router you are configuring and the router
at the other end of the tunnel can negotiate which transform set to use.
Transform Set
This screen allows you to view transform sets, add new ones, and edit or remove
existing transform sets. A transform set is a particular combination of security
protocols and algorithms. During the IPSec security association negotiation, the
peers agree to use a particular transform set for protecting a particular data flow.
You can create multiple transform sets and then specify one or more of them in a
crypto map entry. The transform set defined in the crypto map entry will be used
in the IPSec security association negotiation to protect the data flows specified by
that crypto map entry’s access list.
During IPSec security association negotiations with IKE, the peers search for a
transform set that is the same at both peers. When that transform set is found, it
is selected and applied to the protected traffic as part of both peers’ IPSec security
associations.
Name
Name given to the transform set.
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Transform Set
ESP Encryption
Cisco SDM recognizes the following ESP encryption types:
•
ESP_DES—Encapsulating Security Payload (ESP), Data Encryption
Standard (DES). DES supports 56-bit encryption.
•
ESP_3DES—ESP, Triple DES. This is a stronger form of encryption than
DES, supporting 168-bit encryption.
•
ESP_AES_128—ESP, Advanced Encryption Standard (AES). Encryption
with a 128-bit key. AES provides greater security than DES and is
computationally more efficient than 3DES.
•
ESP_AES_192—ESP, AES encryption with a 192-bit key.
•
ESP_AES_256—ESP, AES encryption with a 256-bit key.
•
ESP_NULL—Null encryption algorithm, but encryption transform used.
•
ESP_SEAL—ESP with the 160-bit encryption key Software Encryption
Algorithm (SEAL) encryption algorithm. SEAL (Software Encryption
Algorithm) is an alternative algorithm to software-based Data Encryption
Standard (DES), Triple DES (3DES), and Advanced Encryption Standard
(AES). SEAL encryption uses a 160-bit encryption key and has a lower
impact to the CPU when compared to other software-based algorithms.
ESP Integrity
Indicates the integrity algorithm being used. This column will contain a value
when the transform set is configured to provide both data integrity and encryption.
The column will contain one of the following values:
•
ESP-MD5-HMAC—Message Digest 5, Hash-based Message Authentication
Code (HMAC).
•
ESP-SHA-HMAC—Security Hash Algorithm, HMAC.
AH Integrity
Indicates the integrity algorithm being used. This column will contain a value
when the transform set is configured to provide data integrity but not encryption.
The column will contain one of the following values:
•
AH-MD5-HMAC—Message Digest 5.
•
AH-SHA-HMAC—Security Hash Algorithm.
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Transform Set
IP Compression
Indicates whether IP data compression is used.
Note
If your router does not support IP compression, this box will be disabled.
Mode
This column contains one of the following values:
•
Tunnel—Both the headers and data are encrypted. The mode used in VPN
configurations.
•
Transport—Only the data is encrypted. This mode is used when the
encryption endpoints and the communication endpoints are the same.
Type
Either User Defined or Cisco SDM Default.
What Do You Want to Do?
If you want to:
Do this:
Add a new transform set to the router’s Click Add, and create the transform set in the Add Transform
configuration.
Set window.
Edit an existing transform set.
Select the transform set, and click Edit. Then edit the
transform set in the Edit Transform Set window.
Note
Delete an existing transform set.
Cisco SDM Default transform sets are read-only and
cannot be edited.
Select the transform set, and click Delete.
Note
Cisco SDM Default transform sets are read-only and
cannot be deleted.
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Transform Set
Add or Edit Transform Set
Use this window to add or edit a transform set.
To obtain a description of the allowable transform combinations, and descriptions
of the transforms, click Allowable Transform Combinations.
Note
•
Not all routers support all transform sets (encryption types). Unsupported
transform sets will not appear in the screen.
•
Not all IOS images support all the transform sets that Cisco SDM supports.
Transform sets unsupported by the IOS image will not appear in the screen.
•
If hardware encryption is turned on, only those transform sets supported by
both hardware encryption and the IOS image will appear in the screen.
•
Easy VPN servers only support tunnel mode. Transport mode is not supported
by Easy VPN servers.
•
Easy VPN Servers only support transform sets with ESP encryption. Easy
VPN servers do not support the AH algorithm.
•
Easy VPN Servers do not support ESP-SEAL encryption.
Name of this transform set
This can be any name that you want. The name does not have to match the name
in the transform set that the peer uses, but it may be helpful to give corresponding
transform sets the same name.
Data integrity and encryption (ESP)
Check this box if you want to provide Encapsulating Security Payload (ESP) data
integrity and encryption.
Integrity Algorithm
Select one of the following:
•
ESP_MD5_HMAC. Message Digest 5.
•
ESP_SHA_HMAC. Security Hash Algorithm.
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Transform Set
Encryption
Cisco SDM recognizes the following ESP encryption types:
Note
•
ESP_DES. Encapsulating Security Payload (ESP), Data Encryption Standard
(DES). DES supports 56-bit encryption.
•
ESP_3DES. ESP, Triple DES. This is a stronger form of encryption than DES,
supporting 168-bit encryption.
•
ESP_AES_128. ESP, Advanced Encryption Standard (AES). Encryption with
a 128-bit key. AES provides greater security than DES and is computationally
more efficient than 3DES.
•
ESP_AES_192. ESP, AES encryption with a 192-bit key.
•
ESP_AES_256. ESP, AES encryption with a 256-bit key.
•
ESP_SEAL—ESP with the 160-bit encryption key Software Encryption
Algorithm (SEAL) encryption algorithm. SEAL (Software Encryption
Algorithm) is an alternative algorithm to software-based Data Encryption
Standard (DES), Triple DES (3DES), and Advanced Encryption Standard
(AES). SEAL encryption uses a 160-bit encryption key and has a lower
impact to the CPU when compared to other software-based algorithms.
•
ESP_NULL. Null encryption algorithm, but encryption transform used.
The types of ESP encryption available depend on the router. Depending on the
type of router you are configuring, one or more of these encryption types may not
be available.
Data and address integrity without encryption (AH)
This check box and the fields below it appear if you click Show Advanced.
Check this box if you want the router to provide Authentication Header (AH) data
and address integrity. The authentication header will not be encrypted.
Integrity Algorithm
Select one of the following:
•
AH_MD5_HMAC—Message Digest 5.
•
AH_SHA_HMAC—Security Hash Algorithm.
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IPSec Rules
Mode
Select which parts of the traffic you want to encrypt:
•
Transport. Encrypt data only—Transport mode is used when both endpoints
support IPsec; this mode places the AH or ESP after the original IP header;
thus, only the IP payload is encrypted. This method allows users to apply
network services such as quality-of-service (QoS) controls to encrypted
packets. Transport mode should be used only when the destination of the data
is always the remote VPN peer.
•
Tunnel. Encrypt data and IP header—Tunnel mode provides stronger
protection than transport mode. Because the entire IP packet is encapsulated
within AH or ESP, a new IP header is attached, and the entire datagram can
be encrypted. Tunnel mode allows network devices such as a router to act as
an IPsec proxy for multiple VPN users; tunnel mode should be used in those
configurations.
IP Compression (COMP-LZS)
Check this box if you want to use data compression.
Note
Not all routers support IP compression. If your router does not support IP
compression, this box is disabled.
IPSec Rules
This window shows the IPSec rules configured for this router. IPSec rules define
which traffic IPSec will encrypt. The top part of the window lists the access rules
defined. The bottom part shows the access rule entries for the access rule selected
in the rule list.
IPSec rules contain IP address and type-of-service information. Packets that
match the criteria specified in the rule are encrypted. Packets that do not match
the criteria are sent unencrypted.
Name/Num
The name or number of this rule.
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Used By
Which crypto maps this rule is used in.
Type
IPSec rules must specify both source and destination and must be able to specify
the type of traffic the packet contains. Therefore, IPSec rules are extended rules.
Description
A textual description of the rule, if available.
Action
Either Permit or Deny. Permit means that packets matching the criteria in this
rules are protected by encryption. Deny means that matching packets are sent
unencrypted. For more information see Meanings of the Permit and Deny
Keywords.
Source
An IP address or keyword that specifies the source of the traffic. Any specifies
that the source can be any IP address. An IP address in this column may appear
alone, or it may be followed by a wildcard mask. If present, the wildcard mask
specifies the portions of the IP address that the source IP address must match. For
more information, see IP Addresses and Subnet Masks.
Destination
An IP address or keyword that specifies the destination of the traffic. Any
specifies that the destination can be any IP address. An IP address in this column
may appear alone, or it may be followed by a wildcard mask. If present, the
wildcard mask specifies the portions of the IP address that the destination IP
address must match.
Service
The type of traffic that the packet must contain.
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IPSec Rules
What Do You Want to Do?
If you want to:
Do this:
See the access rule entries for a
particular rule.
Select the rule in the rule list. The entries for that rule appear
in the lower box.
Add an IPSec rule.
Click Add, and create the rule in the rule window displayed.
Delete an IPSec rule.
Select the rule in the rule list, and click Delete.
Delete a particular rule entry.
Select the rule in the rule list, and click Edit. Then, delete the
entry in the rule window displayed.
Apply an IPSec rule to an interface.
Apply the rule in the interface configuration window.
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Internet Key Exchange
The help topics in this section describe the Internet Key Exchange (IKE)
configuration screens.
Internet Key Exchange (IKE)
Internet Key Exchange (IKE) is a standard method for arranging for secure,
authenticated communications. IKE establishes session keys (and associated
cryptographic and networking configuration) between two hosts across the
network.
Cisco SDM lets you create IKE policies that will protect the identities of peers
during authentication. Cisco SDM also lets you create pre-shared keys that peers
exchange.
What Do You Want to Do?
If you want to:
Do this:
Learn more about IKE.
Click More About IKE.
Enable IKE.
Click Global Settings, and then click Edit
to enable IKE and make other global
settings for IKE.
You must enable IKE for VPN connections to use IKE
negotiations.
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Internet Key Exchange (IKE)
If you want to:
Do this:
Create an IKE policy.
Click the IKE Policy node on the VPN tree.
See IKE Policies for more information.
Cisco SDM provides a default IKE policy, but there is no
guarantee that the peer has the same policy. You should
configure other IKE policies so that the router is able to
offer an IKE policy that the peer can accept.
Create a pre-shared key.
If IKE is used, the peers at each end must exchange a
pre-shared key to authenticate each other.
Create an IKE profile.
Click the Pre-Shared Key node on the VPN
tree. See IKE Pre-shared Keys for more
information.
Click the IKE Profile node on the VPN
tree. See IKE Profiles for more information.
IKE Policies
IKE negotiations must be protected; therefore, each IKE negotiation begins by
each peer agreeing on a common (shared) IKE policy. This policy states which
security parameters will be used to protect subsequent IKE negotiations. This
window shows the IKE policies configured on the router, and allows you to add,
edit, or remove an IKE policy from the router’s configuration. If no IKE policies
have been configured on the router, this window shows the default IKE policy.
After the two peers agree on a policy, the security parameters of the policy are
identified by a security association established at each peer. These security
associations apply to all subsequent IKE traffic during the negotiation.
The IKE policies in this list are available to all VPN connections.
Priority
An integer value that specifies the priority of this policy relative to the other
configured IKE policies. Assign the lowest numbers to the IKE policies that you
prefer that the router use. The router will offer those policies first during
negotiations.
Encryption
The type of encryption that should be used to communicate this IKE policy.
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Hash
The authentication algorithm for negotiation. There are two possible values:
•
Secure Hash Algorithm (SHA)
•
Message Digest 5 (MD5)
Authentication
The authentication method to be used.
•
Pre-SHARE. Authentication will be performed using pre-shared keys.
•
RSA_SIG. Authentication will be performed using digital signatures.
Type
Either SDM_DEFAULT or User Defined. SDM_DEFAULT policies cannot be
edited.
What Do You Want to Do?
If you want to:
Do this:
Learn more about IKE policies.
See More About IKE Policies.
Add an IKE policy to the router’s
configuration.
Click Add, and configure a new IKE policy in the Add IKE
policy window.
Cisco SDM provides a default IKE
policy, but there is no guarantee that the
peer has the same policy. You should
configure other IKE policies so that the
router is able to offer an IKE policy that
the peer can accept.
Edit an existing IKE policy.
Choose the IKE policy that you want to edit, and click Edit.
Then edit the IKE policy in the Edit IKE policy window.
Default IKE policies are read only. They cannot be edited.
Remove an IKE policy from the
router’s configuration.
Choose the IKE policy that you want to remove, and click
Remove.
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Add or Edit IKE Policy
Add or edit an IKE policy in this window.
Note
•
Not all routers support all encryption types. Unsupported types will not
appear in the screen.
•
Not all IOS images support all the encryption types that Cisco SDM supports.
Types unsupported by the IOS image will not appear in the screen.
•
If hardware encryption is turned on, only those encryption types supported by
both hardware encryption and the IOS image will appear in the screen.
Priority
An integer value that specifies the priority of this policy relative to the other
configured IKE policies. Assign the lowest numbers to the IKE policies that you
prefer that the router use. The router will offer those policies first during
negotiations.
Encryption
The type of encryption that should be used to communicate this IKE policy. Cisco
SDM supports a variety of encryption types, listed in order of security. The more
secure an encryption type, the more processing time it requires.
Note
If your router does not support an encryption type, the type will not appear in the
list.
Cisco SDM supports the following types of encryption:
•
Data Encryption Standard (DES)—This form of encryption supports 56-bit
encryption.
•
Triple Data Encryption Standard (3DES)—This is a stronger form of
encryption than DES, supporting 168-bit encryption.
•
AES-128—Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) encryption with a 128-bit
key. AES provides greater security than DES and is computationally more
efficient than triple DES.
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•
AES-192—Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) encryption with a 192-bit
key.
•
AES-256—Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) encryption with a 256-bit
key.
Hash
The authentication algorithm to be used for the negotiation. There are two
options:
•
Secure Hash Algorithm (SHA)
•
Message Digest 5 (MD5)
Authentication
The authentication method to be used.
•
Pre-SHARE. Authentication will be performed using pre-shared keys.
•
RSA_SIG. Authentication will be performed using digital signatures.
D-H Group
Diffie-Hellman (D-H) Group. Diffie-Hellman is a public-key cryptography
protocol that allows two routers to establish a shared secret over an unsecure
communications channel. The options are as follows:
Note
•
group1—768-bit D-H Group. D-H Group 1.
•
group2—1024-bit D-H Group. D-H Group 2. This group provides more
security than group 1, but requires more processing time.
•
group5—1536-bit D-H Group. D-H Group 5. This group provides more
security than group 2, but requires more processing time.
•
If your router does not support group5, it will not appear in the list.
•
Easy VPN servers do not support D-H Group 1.
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Lifetime
This is the lifetime of the security association, in hours, minutes and seconds. The
default is one day, or 24:00:00.
IKE Pre-shared Keys
This window allows you to view, add, edit, and remove IKE pre-shared keys in the
router’s configuration. A pre-shared key is exchanged with a remote peer during
IKE negotiation. Both peers must be configured with the same key.
Icon
If a pre-shared key is read-only, the read-only icon appears in this
column. A pre-shared key will be marked as read-only if it is
configured with the no-xauth CLI option
Peer IP/Name
An IP address or name of a peer with whom this key is shared. If an IP address is
supplied, it can specify all peers in a network or subnetwork, or just an individual
host. If a name is specified, then the key is shared by only the named peer.
Network Mask
The network mask specifies how much of the peer IP address is used for the
network address and how much is used for the host address. A network mask of
255.255.255.255 indicates that the peer IP address is an address for a specific
host. A network mask containing zeros in the least significant bytes indicates that
the peer IP address is a network or subnet address. For example a network mask
of 255.255.248.0 indicates that the first 22 bits of the address are used for the
network address and that the last 10 bits are for the host part of the address.
Pre-Shared Key
The pre-shared key is not readable in Cisco SDM windows. If you need to
examine the pre shared key, go to View->Running Config. This will display the
running configuration. The key is contained in the crypto isakmp key command.
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If you want to:
Do this:
Add a pre-shared key to the router’s
configuration.
Click Add, and add the pre-shared key in the Adda new Pre
Shared Key window.
Edit an existing pre-shared key.
Select the pre-shared key, and click Edit. Then edit the key in
the Edit Pre Shared Key window.
Remove an existing pre-shared key.
Select the pre-shared key, and click Remove.
Add or Edit Pre Shared Key
Use this window to add or edit a pre-shared key.
Key
This is an alphanumeric string that will be exchanged with the remote peer. The
same key must be configured on the remote peer. You should make this key
difficult to guess. Question marks (?) and spaces must not be used in the
pre-shared key.
Reenter Key
Enter the same string that you entered in the Key field, for confirmation.
Peer
Select Hostname if you want the key to apply to a specific host. Select
IP Address if you want to specify a network or subnetwork, or if you want to
enter the IP address of a specific host because there is no DNS server to translate
host names to IP addresses
Hostname
This field appears if you selected “Hostname” in the Peer field. Enter the peer’s
host name. There must be a DNS server on the network capable of resolving the
host name to an IP address.
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IP Address/Subnet Mask
These fields appear if you selected “IP Address” in the Peer field. Enter the IP
address of a network or subnet in the IP Address field. The pre-shared key will
apply to all peers in that network or subnet. For more information, refer to IP
Addresses and Subnet Masks.
Enter a subnet mask if the IP address you entered is a subnet address, and not the
address of a specific host.
User Authentication [Xauth]
Check this box if site-to-site VPN peers use XAuth to authenticate themselves. If
Xauth authenticationn is enabled in VPN Global Settings, it is enabled for
site-to-site peers as well as for Easy VPN connections.
IKE Profiles
IKE profiles, also called ISAKMP profiles, enable you to define a set of IKE
parameters that you can associate with one or more IPSec tunnels. An IKE profile
applies parameters to an incoming IPSec connection identified uniquely through
its concept of match identity criteria. These criteria are based on the IKE identity
that is presented by incoming IKE connections and includes IP address, fully
qualified domain name (FQDN), and group (the virtual private network [VPN]
remote client grouping).
For more information on ISAKMP profiles, and how they are configured using the
Cisco IOS CLI, go to Cisco.com and follow this path:
Products and Services > Cisco IOS Software > Cisco IOS Security > Cisco
IOS IPSec > Product Literature > White Papers > ISAKMP Profile Overview
IKE Profiles
The IKE Profiles area of the screen lists the configured IKE profiles and includes
the profile name, the IPSec profile it is used by, and a description of the profile if
one has beenprovided. If no IPSec profile uses the selected IKE profile, the value
<none> appears in the Used By column.
When you create an IKE profile from this window, the profile is displayed in the
list. When you use the Easy VPN server wizard to create a configuration, IKE
profiles are created automatically, named by SDM, and displayed in this list.
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Details of IKE Profile
The details area of the screen lists the configuration values for the selected profile.
You can use it to view details without clicking the Edit button and displaying an
additional dialog. If you need to make changes, click Edit and make the changes
you need in the displayed dialog. To learn more about the information shown in
this area, click Add or Edit an IKE Profile.
Add or Edit an IKE Profile
Enter information andmake settings in this dialog to create an IKE profile and
associate it with a virtual tunnel interface.
Field Reference
Table 18-1 describes the fields in this screen.
Table 18-1
Add or Edit IKE Profile Fields
Element
Description
IKE Profile Name
Enter a name for this IKE profile. If you are editing a profile, this
field is enabled.
Match Identity Type
The IKE profile includes match criteria that allow the router to
identify the incoming and outgoing connections to which the IKE
connection parameters are to apply. Match criteria can currently be
applied to VPN groups. Group is automatically chosen in the Match
Identity Type field.
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Table 18-1
Add or Edit IKE Profile Fields
Element
Description
Add VPN groups to be
Build a list of groups that you want to be included in the match
associated with this IKE profile. criteria. The groups you add are listed.
•
Add—Click Add to display a menu with the following options:
– Add External Group Name—Choose Add External Group
Name to add the name of a group that is not configured on
the router, and enter the name in the dialog displayed.
– Select From Local Groups—Choose Select From Local
Groups to add the name of a group that is configured on the
router. In the displayed dialog, check the box next to the
group that you want to add. If all the local groups are used
in other IKE profiles, SDM informs you that all groups
have been selected.
•
Delete—Choose a group and click Delete to remove it from the
list.
Virtual Tunnel Interface
Choose the virtual tunnel interface to which you want to associate
this IKE profile from the Virtual Tunnel Interface list. If you need
to create a virtual tunnel interface, click Add and create the
interface in the displayed dialog.
Mode Configuration
Choose one of the followingoptions to specify how the Easy VPN
server is to handle mode configuration requests:
•
Respond—Choose Respond in the Mode Configuration field if
the Easy VPN server is to respond to mode configuration
requests.
•
Initiate—Choose Initiate if the Easy VPN server is to initiate
mode configuration requests.
•
Both—Choose Both if the Easy VPN server is to both initiate
and respond to mode configuration requests.
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Table 18-1
Add or Edit IKE Profile Fields
Element
Description
Group Policy Lookup
Authorization Policy
Specify an authorization policy that controls access to group policy
information on the AAA server.
User Authentication Policy
•
default—Choose default if you want to grant access to group
policy lookup information.
•
Policyname—To specify a policy, choose an existing policy in
the list.
•
Add—Click Add to create a policy in the displayed dialog.
Check User Authentication Policy if you want to allow XAuth
logins, or if you want to specify a user authentication policy to use
for XAuth logins. Choose one of the following options:
•
default—Choose default if you want to allow XAuth logins.
•
Policyname—If policies have been configured on the router,
they are displayed in this list and you can select a policy to use.
Click Add to create a policy in the displayed dialog and use it in this
IKE policy.
Dead Peer Discovery
Click Dead Peer Discovery to enable the router to send dead peer
detection (DPD) messages to Easy VPN Remote clients. If a client
does not respond to DPD messages, the connection with it is
dropped.
•
Keepalive Interval—Specify the number of seconds between
DPD messages in the Keepalive Interval field. The range is
from 10 to 3600 seconds.
•
Retry Interval—Specify the number of seconds between retries
if DPD messages fail in the Retry Interval field. The range is
from 2 to 60 seconds.
Dead peer discovery helps manage connections without
administrator intervention, but it generates additional packets that
both peers must process in order to maintain the connection.
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Table 18-1
Add or Edit IKE Profile Fields
Element
Description
Download user attributes from
RADIUS server based on PKI
certificate fields.
Check this option if you want the Easy VPN server to download
user-specific attributes from the RADIUS server and push them to
the client during mode configuration. The Easy VPN server obtains
the username from the client’s digital certificate.
This option is displayed under the following conditions:
Description
•
The router runs a Cisco IOS 12.4(4)T or later image.
•
You choose digital certificate authentication in the IKE policy
configuration.
•
You choose RADIUS or RADIUS and Local group
authorization.
You can add a description of the IKE profile that you are adding or
editing.
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Public Key Infrastructure
The Public Key Infrastructure (PKI) windows enable you to generate enrollment
requests and RSA keys, and manage keys and certificates. You can use the Simple
Certificate Enrollment Process (SCEP) to create an enrollment request and an
RSA key pair and receive certificates online, or create an enrollment request that
you can submit to a Certificate Authority (CA) server offline.
If you want to use Secure Device Provisioning (SDP) to enroll for certificates, see
Secure Device Provisioning.
Certificate Wizards
This window allows you to select the type of enrollment you are performing. It
also alerts you to configuration tasks that you must perform before beginning
enrollment, or tasks that Cisco recommends you perform before enrolling.
Completing these tasks before beginning the enrollment process helps eliminate
problems that may occur.
Select the enrollment method Cisco SDM uses to generate the enrollment request.
Prerequisite Tasks
If Cisco SDM finds that there are configuration tasks that should be performed
before you begin the enrollment process, it alerts you to them in this box. A link
is provided next to the alert text so that you can go to that part of Cisco SDM and
complete the configuration. If Cisco SDM does not discover missing
configurations, this box does not appear. Possible prerequisite tasks are described
in Prerequisite Tasks for PKI Configurations.
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Certificate Wizards
Simple Certificate Enrollment Protocol (SCEP)
Click this button if you can establish a direct connection between your router and
a Certificate Authority (CA) server. You must have the server’s enrollment URL
in order to do this. The wizard will do the following:
•
Gather information from you to configure a trustpoint and deliver it to the
router.
•
Initiate an enrollment with the CA server you specified in the trustpoint.
•
If the CA server is available, display the CA server’s fingerprint for your
acceptance.
•
If you accept the CA server fingerprint , complete the enrollment.
Cut and Paste/Import from PC
Click this button if your router cannot establish a direct connection to the CA
server or if you want to generate an enrollment request and send it to the CA at
another time. After generation, the enrollment request can be submitted to a CA
at another time. Cut-and-Paste enrollment requires you to invoke the Digital
Certificates wizard to generate a request, and then to reinvoke it when you have
obtained the certificates for the CA server and for the router.
Note
Cisco SDM supports only base-64-encoded PKCS#10-type cut and paste
enrollment. Cisco SDM does not support importing PEM and PKCS#12 type
certificate enrollments.
Launch the selected task button
Click to begin the wizard for the type of enrollment that you selected. If Cisco
SDM has detected a required task that must be performed before enrollment can
begin, this button is disabled. Once the task is completed, the button is enabled.
Welcome to the SCEP Wizard
This screen indicates that you are using the SCEP wizard. If you do not want to
use the Simple Certificate Enrollment Process, click Cancel to leave this wizard.
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Certificate Wizards
After the wizard completes and the commands are delivered to the router, Cisco
SDM attempts to contact the CA server. If the CA server is contacted, Cisco SDM
displays a message window with the server’s digital certificate.
Certificate Authority (CA) Information
Provide information to identify the CA server in this window. Also specify a
challenge password that will be sent along with the request.
Note
The information you enter in this screen is used to generate a trustpoint. The
trustpoint is generated with a default revocation check method of CRL. If you are
editing an existing trustpoint with the SCEP wizard, and a revocation method
different from CRL, such as OCSP, already exists under the trustpoint, Cisco
SDM will not modify it. If you need to change the revocation method, go to
Router Certificates window, select the trustpoint you configured, and click the
Check Revocation button.
CA server nickname
The CA server nickname is an identifier for the trustpoint you are configuring.
Enter a name that will help you identify one trustpoint from another.
Enrollment URL
If you are completing an SCEP enrollment, you must enter the enrollment URL
for the CA server in this field. For example,
http://CAuthority/enrollment
The URL must begin with the characters http://. Be sure there is connectivity
between the router and the CA server before beginning the enrollment process.
This field does not appear if you are completing a cut-and-paste enrollment.
Challenge Password and Confirm Challenge Password
A challenge Password can be sent to the CA for you to use if you ever need to
revoke the certificate. It is recommended that you do so, as some CA servers do
not issue certificates if the challenge Password is blank. If you want to use a
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challenge Password, enter that password and then reenter it in the confirm field.
The challenge Password will be sent along with the enrollment request. For
security purposes, the challenge password is encrypted in the router configuration
file, so you should record the password and save it in a location you will
remember.
This password is also referred to as a challenge password.
Advanced Options Button
Advanced options allow you to provide more information to enable the router to
contact the CA server.
Advanced Options
Use this window to provide more information to enable the router to contact the
CA server.
Source the certificate request from a specific interface
Check this box if you want to specify a particular interface as the source of the
certificate.
HTTP Proxy and HTTP Port
If the enrollment request will be sent through a proxy server, enter the proxy
server IP address, and the port number to use for proxy requests in these fields.
Certificate Subject Name Attributes
Specify the optional information that you want to be included in the certificate.
Any information that you specify be included in the certificate request will be
placed in the certificate, and be viewable by any party to whom the router sends
the certificate.
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Include router’s fully qualified Domain Name (FQDN) in the certificate.
It is recommended that the router’s fully qualified domain name be included in the
certificate. Check this box if you want Cisco SDM to include the router’s fully
qualified domain name in the certificate request.
Note
If the Cisco IOS image running on the router does not support this feature, this
box is disabled.
FQDN
If you enabled this field, enter the routers FQDN in this field. An example of an
FQDN is
sjrtr.mycompany.net
Include router’s IP Address
Check if you want to include a valid IP address configured on your router in the
certificate request. If you check this box, you can manually enter an IP address,
or you can select the interface whose IP address you want to be used.
IP Address
Click if you want to enter an IP address, and enter an IP address configured on the
router in the field that appears. Enter an IP address that has been configured on
the router or an address that has been assigned to the router.
Interface
Select a router interface whose IP address you want to be included in the
certificate request.
Include router’s serial number
Check this box if you want the serial number of the router included in the
certificate.
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Other Subject Attributes
The information you enter in this window will be placed in the enrollment request.
CAs use the X.500 standard to store and maintain information for digital
certificates. All fields are optional, but it is recommended that you enter as much
information as possible.
Common Name (cn)
Enter the common name to be included in this certificate. This would be the name
used to search for the certificate in the X.500 directory.
Organizational Unit (ou)
Enter the Organizational Unit, or department name to use for this certificate. For
example, Development, or Engineering might be organizational units
Organization (o)
Enter the organization or company name. This is the X.500 organizational name.
State (st)
Enter the state or province in which the router or the organization is located.
Country (c)
Enter the country in which the router or the organization is located.
Email (e)
Enter the email address to be included in the router certificate.
Note
If the Cisco IOS image running on the router does not support this attribute, this
field is disabled.
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RSA Keys
RSA Keys
You must include an RSA public key in the enrollment request. Once the
certificate has been granted, the public key will be included in the certificate so
that peers can use it to encrypt data sent to the router. The private key is kept on
the router and used to decrypt the data sent by peers, and also used to digitally
sign transactions when negotiating with peers.
Generate new key pair(s)
Click this button if you want to generate a new key to use in the certificate. When
you generate a key pair, you must specify the modulus to determine the size of the
key. This new key appears in the RSA Keys window when the wizard is
completed.
Modulus
Enter the key modulus value. If you want a modulus value between 512 and 1024
enter an integer value that is a multiple of 64. If you want a value higher than
1024, you can enter 1536 or 2048. If you enter a value greater than 512, key
generation may take a minute or longer.
The modulus determines the size of the key. The larger the modulus, the more
secure the key, but keys with large modulus take longer to generate, and
encryption/decryption operations take longer with larger keys.
Generate separate key pairs for encryption and signature
By default, Cisco SDM creates a general purpose key pair that is used for both
encryption and signature. If you want Cisco SDM to generate separate key pairs
for encrypting and signing documents, check this box. Cisco SDM will generate
usage keys for encryption and signature.
Use existing RSA key pair
Click this button if you want to use an existing key pair, and select the key from
the drop-down list.
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Summary
Save to USB Token
Check the Save keys and certificates to secure USB token checkbox if you want
to save the RSA keys and certificates to a USB token connected to your router.
This checkbox appears only if a USB token is connected to your router.
Choose the USB token from the USB token drop-down menu. Enter the PIN
needed to log in to the chosen USB token in PIN.
After you choose a USB token and enter its PIN, click Login to log in to the USB
token.
Summary
This window summarizes the information that you provided. The information that
you provided is used to configure a trustpoint on the router and begin the
enrollment process. If you enabled Preview commands before delivering to
router in the Preferences dialog, you will be able to preview the CLI that is
delivered to the router.
If you are performing an SCEP enrollment
After the commands are delivered to the router, Cisco SDM attempts to contact
the CA server. If the CA server is contacted, Cisco SDM displays a message
window with the server’s digital certificate.
If you are performing a cut-and-paste enrollment
After the commands are delivered to the router, Cisco SDM generates an
enrollment request and displays it in another window. You must save this
enrollment request and present it to the CA server administrator in order to obtain
the CA server’s certificate, and the certificate for the router. The enrollment
request is in Base64 encoded PKCS#10 format.
After you obtain the certificates from the CA server, you must restart the Cut and
Paste wizard, and select Continue an unfinished enrollment to import the
certificates to your router.
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CA Server Certificate
CA Server Certificate
Cisco SDM displays the digital fingerprint of the CA server’s certificate. If you
wish to continue the enrollment process, you must accept this certificate. If you
do not accept the certificate, the enrollment does not proceed
CA server’s certificate’s finger print is:
Cisco SDM displays the hexadecimal value of the CA server’s certificate in large
type. For example:
E55725EC A389E81E 28C4BE48 12B905ACD
To accept the CA server’s certificate and continue the enrollment process
Click Yes, I accept this certificate and then click Next.
To decline the CA server’s certificate and stop the enrollment process
Click No, I do not accept this certificate and click Next.
Enrollment Status
This window informs you of the status of the enrollment process. If errors are
encountered during the process, Cisco SDM displays the information it has about
the error.
When status has been reported, click Finish.
Cut and Paste Wizard Welcome
The Cut and Paste wizard lets you generate an enrollment request and save it to
your PC so that you can send it to the Certificate Authority offline. Because you
cannot complete the enrollment in a single session, this wizard completes when
you generate the trustpoint and the enrollment request and save it to your PC.
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Enrollment Task
After you have submitted the enrollment request to the CA server manually, and
received the CA server certificate and the certificate for your router, you must
start the Cut and Paste wizard again to complete the enrollment and import the
certificates to the router.
Enrollment Task
Specify whether you are beginning a new enrollment or you are resuming an
enrollment with an enrollment request that you saved to the PC.
Begin New Enrollment
Click Begin new enrollment to generate a trustpoint, an RSA key pair and an
enrollment request that you can save to your PC and send to the CA server. The
wizard completes after you save the enrollment request. To complete the
enrollment after you have receive the CA server certificate and the certificate for
your router, re-enter the Cut and Paste wizard and select Continue with an
unfinished enrollment.
Continue with an unfinished enrollment
Click this button to resume an enrollment process. You can import certificates you
have received from the CA server, and you can generate a new enrollment request
for a trustpoint if you need to.
Enrollment Request
This window displays the base-64-encoded PKCS#10-type enrollment request that
the router has generated. Save the enrollment request to the PC. Then, send it to
the CA to obtain your certificate.
Save:
Browse for the directory on the PC that you want to save the enrollment request
text file in, enter a name for the file, and click Save.
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Continue with Unfinished Enrollment
Continue with Unfinished Enrollment
If you are continuing with an unfinished enrollment you need to select the
trustpoint associated with the unfinished enrollment, and then specify the part of
the enrollment process you need to complete. If you are importing a CA server
certificate or a router certificate, the certificate must be available on your PC.
Select CA server nickname (trustpoint)
Select the trustpoint associated with the enrollment you are completing.
Import CA and router certificate(s)
Choose this option if you want to import both the CA server’s certificate and the
router’s certificate in the same session. Both certificates must be available on the
PC.
This option is disabled if the CA certificate has already been imported.
Import CA certificate
Choose this option to import a CA server certificate that you have saved on your
PC. After you import the certificate, Cisco SDM will display the certificate’s
digital fingerprint. You can then verify the certificate and accept or reject it.
This option is disabled if the CA certificate has already been imported.
Import router certificate(s)
Choose this option to import a certificate for your router saved on your PC. After
you import the router certificate, Cisco SDM will report on the status of the
enrollment process.
Note
You must import the CA server’s certificate before you import the router’s
certificate.
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Import CA certificate
Generate enrollment request
Choose this option if you need to generate an enrollment request for the selected
trustpoint. The router will generate an enrollment request that you can save to the
PC and send to the CA.
Cisco SDM generates a base-64 encoded PKCS#10 enrollment request.
Import CA certificate
If you have the CA server certificate on your hard disk, you can browse for it and
import it to your router in this window. You can also copy and paste the certificate
text into the text area of this window.
Browse Button
Click to locate the certificate file on the PC.
Import Router Certificate(s)
If you have one or more certificates for your router granted by the CA on your
hard disk, you can browse for it and import it to your router.
Import more certificates
If you generated separate RSA key pairs for encryption and signature, you receive
two certificates for the router. Use this button when you have more than one router
certificate to import.
Remove certificate
Click the tab for the certificate you need to remove and click Remove certificate.
Browse
Browse to locate the certificate and import it to the router.
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Digital Certificates
Digital Certificates
This window allows you to view information about the digital certificates
configured on the router.
Trustpoints
This area displays summary information for the trustpoints configured on the
router and allows you to view details about the trustpoints, edit trustpoints, and
determine if a trustpoint has been revoked.
Details Button
The Trustpoints list only displays the name, enrollment URL, and enrollment type
for a trustpoint. Click to view all the information for the selected trustpoint.
Edit Button
A trustpoint can be edited if it is an SCEP trustpoint, and if the CA server’s
certificate and the router’s certificate have not both been successfully imported. If
the trustpoint is not an SCEP trustpoint, or if both the CA server and router
certificate associated with an SCEP trustpoint have been delivered, this button is
disabled.
Delete Button
Click to delete the selected trustpoint. Deleting a trustpoint destroys all
certificates received from the associated certificate authority.
Check Revocation Button
Click to check whether the selected certificate has been revoked. Cisco SDM
displays a dialog in which you select the method to use to check for revocation.
See Revocation Check and Revocation Check, CRL Only for more information.
Name
Trustpoint name.
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Digital Certificates
CA Server
The name or IP address of the CA server.
Enrollment Type
One of the following:
•
SCEP—Simple Certificate Enrollment Protocol. The enrollment was
accomplished by connecting directly to the CA server
•
Cut and Paste—Enrollment request was imported from PC.
•
TFTP—Enrollment request was made using a TFTP server.
Certificate chain for trustpoint name
This area shows details about the certificates associated with the selected
trustpoint.
Details Button
Click to view the selected certificate.
Refresh Button
Click to refresh the Certificate chain area when you select a different trustpoint in
the Trustpoints list.
Type
Usage
One of the following:
•
RA KeyEncipher Certificate—Rivest Adelman encryption certificate
•
RA Signature Certificate—Rivest Adelman signature certificate.
•
CA Certificate—The certificate of the CA organization.
•
Certificate—The certificate of the router.
One of the following:
•
General Purpose—A general purpose certificate that the router uses to
authenticate itself to remote peers.
•
Signature—CA certificates are signature certificates.
Serial Number
The serial number of the certificate
Issuer
The name of the CA that issued the certificate.
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Status
One of the following:
•
Available—The certificate is available for use.
•
Pending—The certificate has bee applied for, but is not available for use.
Expires (Days)
The number of days the certificate can be used before it expires.
Expiry Date
The date on which the certificate expires.
Trustpoint Information
The Trustpoints list in the Router Certificates window displays the key
information about each trustpoint on the router. This window displays all the
information provided to create the trustpoint.
Certificate Details
This window displays trustpoint details that are not displayed in the Certificates
window.
Revocation Check
Specify how the router is to check whether a certificate has been revoked in this
window.
Revocation Check
Configure how the router is to check for revocations, and order them by
preference. The router can use multiple methods.
Use/Method/Move Up/Move Down
Check the methods that you want to use, and use the Move Up and Move Down
buttons to place the methods in the order you want to use them.
•
OCSP—Contact an Online Certificate Status Protocol server to determine the
status of a certificate.
•
CRL—Certificate revocation is checked using a certificate revocation list.
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RSA Keys Window
•
None—Do not perform a revocation check.
CRL Query URL
Enabled when CRL is selected. Enter the URL where the certificate revocation list
is located. Enter the URL only if the certificate supports X.500 DN.
OCSP URL
Enabled when OCSP is selected. Enter the URL of the OCSP server that you want
to contact.
Revocation Check, CRL Only
Specify how the router is to check whether a certificate has been revoked in this
window.
Verification
One of the following:
•
None—Check the Certificate Revocation List (CRL) distribution point
embedded in the certificate.
•
Best Effort—Download the CRL from the CRL server if it is available. If it
is not available, the certificate will be accepted.
•
Optional—Check the CRL only if it has already been downloaded to the
cache as a result of manual loading.
CRL Query URL
Enter the URL where the certificate revocation list is located. Enter the URL only
if the certificate supports X.500 DN.
RSA Keys Window
RSA keys provide an electronic encryption and authentication system that uses an
algorithm developed by Ron Rivest, Adi Shamir, and Leonard Adelman. The RSA
system is the most commonly used encryption and authentication algorithm, and
is included as a part of Cisco IOS. To use the RSA system, a network host
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RSA Keys Window
generates a pair of keys. One is called the public key, and the other is called the
private key. The Public key is given to anyone who wants to send encrypted data
to the host. The Private key is never shared. When a remote hosts wants to send
data, it encrypts it with the public key shared by the local host. The local host
decrypts sent data using the private key.
RSA keys configured on your router
Name
The key name. Key names are automatically assigned by Cisco SDM. The key
"HTTPS_SS_CERT_KEYPAIR" and "HTTPS_SS_CERT_KEYPAIR.server" will be
shown as Read-Only. Similarly, any key that is locked/encrypted on the router will b
displayed with icons that indicate their status.
Usage
Either General Purpose or Usage. General purpose keys are used to encrypt data, and
sign the certificate. If separate keys are configured to encrypt data and to sign
certificates, these keys are labelled Usage keys.
Exportable
If this column contains a checkmark the key can be exported to another router if it
becomes necessary for that router to assume the role of the local router.
Key Data
Click to view a selected RSA key.
Save Key to PC Button
Click to save the data of the selected key to your PC.
Generate RSA Key Pair
Use this window to generate a new RSA key pair.
Label
Enter the label of the key in this field.
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Modulus
Enter the key modulus value. If you want a modulus value between 512 and 1024
enter an integer value that is a multiple of 64. If you want a value higher than
1024, you can enter 1536 or 2048. If you enter a value greater than 512, key
generation may take a minute or longer.
The larger the modulus size, the more secure the key is. However keys with larger
modulus sizes take longer to generate and longer to process when exchanged.
Type
Select the type of key to generate, General Purpose, or Usage. General purpose
keys are used for both encryption and signing of certificates. If you generate
Usage keys, one set of keys will be used for encryption, and a separate set will be
used for certificate signing.
Key is exportable checkbox
Check if you want the key to be exportable. An exportable key pair can be sent to
a remote router if it is necessary for that router to take over the functions of the
local router.
Save to USB Token
Check the Save keys to secure USB token checkbox if you want to save the RSA
keys to a USB token connected to your router. This checkbox appears only if a
USB token is connected to your router.
Choose the USB token from the USB token drop-down menu. Enter the PIN
needed to log in to the chosen USB token in PIN.
After you choose a USB token and enter its PIN, click Login to log in to the USB
token.
USB Token Credentials
This window appears when you add or delete credentials, such as an RSA key pair
or digital certificates, that have been saved on a USB token. For the deletion to
take place, you must provide the USB token name and PIN.
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USB Tokens
Choose the USB token from the USB token drop-down menu. Enter the PIN
needed to log in to the chosen USB token in PIN.
USB Tokens
This window allows you to configure USB token logins. This window also
displays a list of configured USB token logins. When a USB token is connected
to your Cisco router, Cisco SDM uses the matching login to log in to the token.
Add
Click Add to add a new USB token login.
Edit
Click Edit to edit an existing USB token login. Specifiy the login to edit by
choosing it in the list.
Delete
Click Delete to delete an existing USB token login. Specifiy the login to delete by
choosing it in the list.
Token Name
Displays the name used to log in to the USB token.
User PIN
Displays the PIN used to log in to the USB token.
Maximum PIN Retries
Displays the maximum number of times Cisco SDM will attempt to log in to the
USB token with the given PIN. If Cisco SDM is unsuccessful after trying for the
number specified, it will stop trying to log in to the USB token.
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Removal Timeout
Displays the maximum number of seconds that Cisco SDM will continue to use
Internet Key Exchange (IKE) credentials obtained from the USB token after the
token is removed from the router.
If Removal Timeout is empty, the default timeout is used. The default timeout is
triggered when a new attempt to access the IKE credentials is made.
Secondary Config File
Displays the configuration file that Cisco SDM attempts to find on the USB token.
The configuration file can be a CCCD file or a .cfg file.
CCCD refers to a boot configuration file. On USB tokens, a CCCD file is loaded
using TMS software.
Add or Edit USB Token
This window allows you to add or edit USB token logins.
Token Name
If you are adding a USB token login, enter the USB token name. The name you
enter must match the name of the token that you want to log in to.
A token name is set by the manufacturer. For example, USB tokens manufactured
by Aladdin Knowledge Systems are named eToken.
You can also use the name “usbtokenx”, where x is the number of the USB port to
which the USB token is connected. For example, a USB token connected to USB
port 0 is named usbtoken0.
If you are editing a USB token login, the Token Name field cannot be changed.
Current PIN
If you are adding a USB token login, or if you are editing a USB token login that
has no PIN, the Current PIN field displays <None>. If you are editing a USB token
login which has a PIN, the Current PIN field displays ******.
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USB Tokens
Enter New PIN
Enter a new PIN for the USB token. The new PIN must be at least 4 digits long
and must match the name of the token you want to log in to. If you are editing a
USB token login, the current PIN will be replaced by the new PIN.
Reenter New PIN
Reenter the new PIN to confirm it.
Maximum PIN Retries
Choose the maximum number of times Cisco SDM will attempt to log in to the
USB token with the given PIN. If Cisco SDM is unsuccessful after trying for the
number specified, it will stop trying to log in to the USB token.
Removal Timeout
Enter the maximum number of seconds that Cisco SDM will continue to use
Internet Key Exchange (IKE) credentials obtained from the USB token after the
token is removed from the router. The number of seconds must be in the range 0
to 480.
If you do not enter a number, the default timeout is used. The default timeout is
triggered when a new attempt to access the IKE credentials is made.
Secondary Config File
Specify a configuration file that exists on the USB token. The file can be a partial
or complete configuration file. The file extension must .cfg.
If Cisco SDM can log in to the USB token, it will merge the specified
configuration file with the router’s running configuration.
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Open Firewall
Open Firewall
This screen is displayed when Cisco SDM detects firewall(s) on interfaces that
would block return traffic that the router needs to receive. Two situations in which
it might appear are when a firewall will block DNS traffic or PKI traffic and
prevent the router from receiving this traffic from the servers. Cisco SDM can
modify these firewalls so that the servers can communicate with the router.
Modify Firewall
This area lists the exit interfaces and ACL names, and allows you to select which
firewalls that you want Cisco SDM to modify. Select the firewalls that you want
Cisco SDM to modify in the Action column. Cisco SDM will modify them to allow
SCEP or DNS traffic from the server to the router.
Note the following for SCEP traffic:
•
Cisco SDM will not modify firewall for CRL/OCSP servers if these are not
explicitly configured on the router. To permit communication with
CRL/OCSP servers, obtain the correct information from the CA server
administrator and modify the firewallsusing the Edit Firewall Policy/ACL
window.
•
Cisco SDM assumes that the traffic sent from the CA server to the router will
enter through the same interfaces through which traffic from the router to the
CA server was sent. If you think that the return traffic from CA server will
enter the router through a different interface than the one Cisco SDM lists,
you need to open the firewall using the Edit Firewall Policy/ACL window.
This may occur if asymmetric routing is used, whereby traffic from the router
to the CA server exits the router through one interface and return traffic enters
the router through a different interface.
•
Cisco SDM determines the exit interfaces of the router the moment the
passthrough ACE is added. If a dynamic routing protocol is used to learn
routes to the CA server and if a route changes—the exit interface changes for
SCEP traffic destined for the CA server—you must explicitly add a
passthrough ACE for those interfaces using the Edit Firewall Policy/ACL
window.
•
Cisco SDM adds passthrough ACEs for SCEP traffic. It does not add
passthrough ACEs for revocation traffic such as CRL traffic and OCSP
traffic. You must explicitly add passthrough ACEs for this traffic using the
Edit Firewall Policy/ACL window.
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Open Firewall
Details Button
Click this button to view the access control entry that Cisco SDM would add to
the firewall if you allow the modification.
Open Firewall Details
This window displays the access control entry (ACE) that Cisco SDM would add
to a firewall to enable various types of traffic to reach the router. This entry is not
added unless you check Modify in the Open Firewall window and complete the
wizard.
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Open Firewall
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20
Certificate Authority Server
You can configure a Cisco IOS router to serve as a Certificate Authority (CA)
server. A CA server handles certificate enrollment requests from clients, and can
issue and revoke digital certificates.
To create, back up, restore, or edit a CA server, go to Configure > VPN > Public
Key Infrastructure > Certificate Authority > Create CA Server.
To manage certificates on an existing CA server, go to Configure > VPN > Public
Key Infrastructure > Certificate Authority > Manage CA Server.
To monitor a CA server, go to Monitor > VPN Status > CA Server.
Create CA Server
This window allows you to launch a wizard for creating a Certificate Authority
(CA) server, or a wizard for restoring a CA server. Only one CA server can be set
up on a Cisco IOS router.
The CA server should be used to issue certificates to hosts on the private network
so that they can use the certificates to authenticate themselves to other
Prerequisite Tasks
If Cisco SDM finds that there are configuration tasks that should be performed
before you begin configuring the CA server, it alerts you to them in this box. A
link is provided next to the alert text so that you can go to that part of Cisco SDM
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and complete the configuration. If Cisco SDM does not discover missing
configurations, this box does not appear. Possible prerequisite tasks are described
in Prerequisite Tasks for PKI Configurations.
Create Certificate Authority (CA) Server
Click this button to create a CA server on the router. Because only one CA server
can be configured on the router, this button is disabled if a CA server is already
configured.
Note
The CA server you configure using SDM allows you to grant and revoke
certificates. Although the router does store the serial numbers and other
identifying information about the certificates that it grants, it does not store the
certificates themselves. The CA server should be configured with a URL to a
Registration Authority (RA) server that can store certificates that the CA server
grants.
Restore Certificate Authority (CA) Server
If a CA server already operates on the router, you can restore the CA server
configuration, and the information. If no CA server is configured on the router,
this option is disabled.
Prerequisite Tasks for PKI Configurations
Before you begin a certificate enrollment or CA server configuration, it may be
necessary for you to complete supporting configuration tasks first. SDM reviews
the running configuration before allowing you to begin, alerts you to
configurations you must complete, and provides links that take you to the areas of
SDM that allow you to complete these configurations.
SDM may generate alerts about the following configuration tasks:
•
SSH credentials not verified—Cisco SDM requires you to provide your SSH
credentials before beginning.
•
NTP not configured—The router must have accurate time for certificate
enrollment to work. Identifying a Network Time Protocol server from which
your router can obtain accurate time provides a time source that is not
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affected if the router needs to be rebooted. If your organization does not have
an NTP server, you may want to use a publicly available server, such as the
server described at the following URL:
http://www.eecis.udel.edu/~mills/ntp/clock2a.html
•
DNS not configured—Specifying DNS servers helps ensure that the router is
able to contact the certificate server. DNS configuration is required to contact
the CA server and any other server related to certificate enrollment such as
OCSP servers or CRL repositories if those servers are entered as names and
not as IP addresses.
•
Domain and/or Hostname not configured—It is recommended that you
configure a domain and hostname before beginning enrollment.
CA Server Wizard: Welcome
The Certificate Authority (CA) server wizard guides you through the
configuration of a CA server. Be sure to have the following information before
you begin:
•
General information about the CA server—The name that you intend to give
the server, the certificate issuer name that you want to use, and the username
and password that enrollees will be required to enter when sending an
enrollment request to the server.
•
More detailed information about the server—Whether the server will operate
in Registration Authority (RA) mode or Certificate Authority (CA) mode, the
level of information about each certificate that the server will store, whether
the server should grant certificates automatically, and the lifetimes of the
certificates granted, and open enrollment requests.
•
Supporting information—Links to the RA server that will store the
certificates and to the Certificate Revocation List Distribution Point (CDP)
server.
CA Server Wizard: Certificate Authority Information
Enter basic information about the CA server that you are configuring in this
window.
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CA Server Name
Provide a name to identify the server in the CA Server Name field. This could be
the host name of the router, or another name that you enter.
Grant
Choose Manual if you want to grant certificates manually. Choose Auto if you
want the server to grant certificates automatically. Auto, used mostly for debug
purposes, is not recommended since it will issue certificates to any requester
without requiring enrollment information.
Warning
Do not set Grant to Auto if your router is connected to the Internet. Grant should
be set to Auto only for internal purposes such as when executing debugging
procedures.
CDP URL
Enter the URL to a Certificate Revocation List Distribution Point (CDP) server in
the CDP URL field. The URL must be an HTTP URL. A sample URL follows:
http://172.18.108.26/cisco1cdp.cisco1.crl
The Certificate Revocation List (CRL) is the list of revoked certificates. Devices
needing to check the validity of another device’s certificate will fetch the CRL
from the CA server. Since many devices may attempt to fetch the CRL, offloading
it to a remote device, preferably an HTTP server, will reduce the performance
impact on the Cisco IOS router hosting the CA server. If the checking device
cannot connect to the CDP, as a backup it will use SCEP to fetch the CRL from
the CA server.
Issuer Name Attributes
Common Name (cn)
Enter the common name that you want to use for the certificate. This might be the
CA server name, the router hostname or another name you choose.
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Organizational Unit (ou)
Enter the Organizational Unit, or department name to use for this certificate. For
example, IT support, or Engineering might be organizational units.
Organization (o)
Enter the organization or company name.
State (st)
Enter the state or province in which the organization is located.
Country (c)
Enter the country in which the organization is located.
Email (e)
Enter the email address to be included in the router certificate.
Advanced Options
Click this button to enter advanced options for the CA server.
Advanced Options
The Advanced Options screen allows you to change default values for server
settings and to specify the URL for the database that is to contain the certificate
information.
Database
Configure the database level, the database URL, and database format in this
section of the dialog.
Database Level
Choose the type of data that will be stored in the certificate enrollment database:
•
minimal—Enough information is stored to continue issuing new certificates
without conflict. This is the default.
•
names—In addition to the information given by the minimal option, this
includes the serial number and subject name of each certificate.
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•
complete—In addition to the information given by the minimal and names
options, each issued certificate is written to the database.
Database URL
Enter the location to which the CA server will write certificate enrollment data. If
no location is given, certificate enrollment data will be written to flash memory
by default.
For example, to write certificate enrollment data to a tftp server, enter
tftp://mytftp. To reset the database URL to flash memory, enter nvram.
Database Archive
Choose pem to create the archive in pem format, or pkcs12 to create the archive
in pkcs12 format.
Database Username
Enter a username for the database archive in the Database Username field. The
username and password will be used to authenticate the server to the database.
Database Password and Confirm Password
Enter a password in the Database Password field, and reenter it in the Confirm
Password field.
Lifetimes
Set the lifetime, or time before expiration, of items associated with the CA server.
To set the lifetime for a specific item, choose it from the Lifetime drop-down list
and enter a value in the Lifetime field.
You can set lifetimes for the following items:
•
Certificate—Certificates issued by the CA server. Lifetime is entered in
days, in the range 1–1825. If no value is entered, a certificate expires after one
year. If a new value is entered, it affects certificates created only after that
value is in effect.
•
CRL—The Certificate Revocation List for certificates issued by the CA
server. Lifetime is entered in hours, in the range 1–336. If no value is entered,
a CRL expires after 168 hours (one week).
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•
Enrollment-Request—Open certificate requests existing in the enrollment
database, but not including requests received through SCEP. Lifetime is
entered in hours, in the range 1–1000. If no value is entered, an open
enrollment request expires after 168 hours (one week).
CA Server Wizard: RSA Keys
The CA server uses public and private RSA keys to encrypt data and to sign
certificates. SDM automatically generates a new key pair and gives it the name of
the CA server. You can change the key modulus and type, and you can make the
key exportable. You must enter a passphrase to use when restoring the CA server.
Label
This field is read-only. SDM uses the name of the CA server as the name of the
key pair.
Modulus
Enter the key modulus value. If you want a modulus value between 512 and 1024
enter an integer value that is a multiple of 64. If you want a value higher than
1024, you can enter 1536 or 2048. If you enter a value greater than 512, key
generation may take a minute or longer.
The modulus determines the size of the key. The larger the modulus, the more
secure the key, but keys with large modulus take longer to generate, and
encryption/decryption operations take longer with larger keys.
Type
By default, Cisco SDM creates a general purpose key pair that is used for both
encryption and signature. If you want Cisco SDM to generate separate key pairs
for encrypting and signing documents, choose Usage Keys. Cisco SDM will
generate usage keys for encryption and signature.
Key is exportable
Check Key is exportable if you want the CA server key to be exportable.
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Passphrase and Confirm Passphrase
In the Passphrase field, enter a passphrase to use when restoring the CA server
from backup. Reenter the same passphrase in the Confirm Passphrase field.
Open Firewall
The Open Firewall window appears when a firewall configuration must be
modified in order to allow communication between the CDP server and the CA
server. Select the interface, and check the Modify box to allow SDM to modify
the firewall to allow this traffic. Click Details to view the ACE that would be
added to the firewall.
CA Server Wizard: Summary
The Summary window displays the information that you entered in the wizard
screens so that you can review the information before sending it to the router. A
sample summary display follows:
-----------------------------------------------------------CA Server Configuration
-----------------------------------------------------------CA Server Name :CASvr-a
Grant:Manual
CDP URL:http://192.27.108.92/snrs.com
Common Name (cn):CS1841
Organization Unit (ou):IT Support
Organization (o):Acme Enterprises
State (st):CA
Country (c):US
-----------------------------------------------------------Advanced CA Server Configuration
-----------------------------------------------------------Database URL:nvram:
Database Archive:pem
Database Username:bjones
Database Password:*********
-----------------------------------------------------------RSA Keys:
------------------------------------------------------------
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CA Server will automatically generate RSA key pair with following
defaults:Modulus:1024
Type of Key:General Purpose
Exportable Key:No
Passphrase configured:******
-----------------------------------------------------------Firewall Pass-through ACEs for Interface(s):
-----------------------------------------------------------FastEthernet0/0
permit tcp host 192.27.108.92 eq www host 192.27.108.91 gt 1024
The summary display contains four sections, the CA Server Configuration
section, the CA Server Advanced Configuration section, the RSA Keys section,
and the Firewall Pass-through section. The name of this CA server is CAsvr-a.
Certificates will be manually granted. Certificate information will be stored in
nvram, in PEM format. SDM will generate a general-purpose key pair with the
default modulus 1024. The key will not be exportable. an ACE will be configured
to allow traffic to between the router and the CDP host with the IP address
192.27.108.92.
Manage CA Server
You can start and stop the CA server from this window, grant and reject certificate
requests, and revoke certificates. If you need to change the CA server
configuration, you can uninstall the server from this window and return to the
Create CA Server window to create the server configuration that you need.
Name
Displays the name of the server. The name of the server was created when the
server was created.
Status Icon
If the CA server is running, the word Running and a green icon is displayed. If the
CA server is not running, the word Stopped and a red icon is displayed.
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Start Server
The Start Server button is displayed if the server is stopped. Click Start Server
to start the CA server.
Stop Server
The Stop Server button is displayed if the server the server is running, click Stop
Server if you need to stop the CA server.
Backup Server
Click Backup Server to backup the server configuration information onto the PC.
Enter the backup location in the displayed dialog.
Uninstall Server
Click to uninstall the CA server from your Cisco IOS router. All of the CA server
configuration and data will be removed. If you backed up the CA server before
uninstalling it, you can restore its data only after you create a new CA server. See
Create CA Server.
Details of CA Server
The Details of CA Server table provides a snapshot of the CA Server
configuration. The following table shows sample information.
Item Name
Item Value
CA Certificate Lifetime
1095 days
CDP URL
http://192.168.7.5
CRL Lifetime
168 hours
Certificate Lifetime
365 days
Database Level
minimal
Database URL
nvram:
Enrollment Request Lifetime
168 hours
Grant
manual
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Item Name
Item Value
Issuer Name
CN=CertSvr
Mode
Certificate Authority
Name
CertSvr
See CA Server Wizard: Certificate Authority Information and Advanced Options
for descriptions of these items.
Backup CA Server
You can back up the files that contain the information for the CA server to your
PC. The Backup CA Server window lists the files that will be backed up. The
listed files must be present in the router NVRAM for the backup to be successful.
Click Browse and specify a folder on the PC to which the CA server files should
be backed up.
Manage CA Server Restore Window
If you have backed up and uninstalled a CA server, you can restore the server
configuration to the router by clicking the Restore CA Server button. You must
be able to provide the CA server name, complete database URL, and the backup
passphrase that was used during initial configuration. When you restore the CA
server, you are given the opportunity to change configuration settings.
Restore CA Server
If you have backed up the configuration for a CA server that was uninstalled, you
can restore it by providing the information about it in the Restore CA Server
window. You can edit settings for the server by clicking Edit CA server settings
before restoration. You must provide the name, file format, URL to the database,
and passphrase in order to back up the server or edit server settings.
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CA Server Name
Enter the name of the CA server that you backed up.
File Format
Choose the file format that was specified in server configuration, either PEM or
PKCS12.
Complete URL
Enter the router database URL that was provided when the CA server was
configured. This is the location to which the CA server writes certificate
enrollment data. Two sample URLs follow:
nvram:/mycs_06.p12
tftp://192.168.3.2/mycs_06.pem
Passphrase
Enter the passphrase that was entered when the CA server was configured.
Copy CA Server Files from PC
Check the Copy CA Server Files from PC checkbox if you want to copy the
server information that you backed up to the PC to router nvram.
Edit CA Server settings before restoration
Click Edit CA Server settings before restoration if you want to change CA
server configuration settings before restoring the server. See CA Server Wizard:
Certificate Authority Information and CA Server Wizard: RSA Keys for
information about the settings that you can change.
Edit CA Server Settings: General Tab
Edit general CA server configuration settings in this window. You cannot change
the name of the CA server. For information on the settings that you can change,
see CA Server Wizard: Certificate Authority Information.
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Manage CA Server: CA Server Not Configured
Edit CA Server Settings: Advanced Tab
You can change any of the advanced CA server settings in this window. For
information on these settings, see Advanced Options.
Manage CA Server: CA Server Not Configured
This window appears when you click Manage CA Server but no CA server is
configured. Click Create CA Server and complete the wizard to configure a CA
server on your router.
Manage Certificates
Clicking VPN > Public Key Infrastructure > Certificate Authority > Manage
Certificates displays the Pending Requests tab and the Revoked Certificates tab.
To go to the help topics for these tabs, click the following links:
•
Pending Requests
•
Revoked Certificates
Pending Requests
This window displays a list of certificate enrollment requests received by the CA
server from clients. The upper part of the window contains CA server information
and controls. For information on stopping, starting, and uninstalling the CA
server, see Manage CA Server.
You can choose a certificate enrollment request in the list, then choose to issue
(accept), reject, or delete it. The actions available depend on the status of the
chosen certificate enrollment request.
Select All
Click Select All to select all outstanding certificate requests. When all certificate
requests are selected, clicking Grant grants all requests. Clicking Reject when all
certificate requests are selected rejects all the requests..
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Grant
Click Grant to issue the certificate to the requesting client.
Note
The CA server windows do not show the IDs of the certificates that are granted.
In case it is ever necessary to revoke a certificate, you should obtain the certificate
ID from the administrator of the client that the certificate was issued for. The
client administrator can determine the certificate ID by entering the Cisco IOS
command sh crypto pki cert.
Delete
Click Delete to remove the certificate enrollment request from the database.
Reject
Click Reject to deny the certificate enrollment request.
Refresh
Click Refresh to update the certificate enrollment requests list with the latest
changes.
Certificate Enrollment Requests Area
The certificate enrollment requests area has the following columns:
Request ID—A unique number assigned to the certificate enrollment request.
Status—The current status of the certificate enrollment request. The status can be
Pending (no decision), Granted (issued certificate), Rejected (denied request).
Fingerprint—A unique digital client identifier.
Subject Name—The subject name in the enrollment request.
A sample enrollment request follows:
Request ID State
Fingerprint
Subject Name
1
serialNumber=FTX0850Z0GT+
hostname=c1841.snrsprp.com
B398385E6BB6604E9E98B8FDBBB5E8B
A
pending
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Revoke Certificate
Click Revoke Certificate to display a dialog that allows you to enter the ID of the
certificate that you want to revoke.
Note
The certificate ID does not always match the request ID shown in the CA server
windows. It may be necessary to obtain the ID of the certificate to be revoked from
the administrator of the client for which the certificate was granted. See Pending
Requests for information on how the client administrator can determine the
certificate ID.
Revoked Certificates
This window displays a list of issued and revoked certificates. Only issued
certificates can be revoked. The upper part of the window contains CA server
information and controls. For information on stopping, starting, and uninstalling
the CA server, see Manage CA Server.
The list of certificates has the following columns:
•
Certificate Serial Number—A unique number assigned to the certificate.
This number is displayed in hexadecimal format. For example, the decimal
serial number 1 is displayed as 0x01.
•
Revocation Date—The time and date that the certificate was revoked. If a
certificate was revoked at 41 minutes and 20 seconds after midnight on
February 6, 2007, the revocation date is displayed as 00:41:20 UTC Feb 6
2007.
Revoke Certificate
Click Revoke Certificate to display a dialog that allows you to enter the ID of the
certificate that you want to revoke.
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Note
The certificate ID does not always match the request ID shown in the CA server
windows. It may be necessary to obtain the ID of the certificate to be revoked from
the administrator of the client for which the certificate was granted. See Pending
Requests for information on how the client administrator can determine the
certificate ID.
Revoke Certificate
You can revoke certificates that have been granted by this CA server in this
window.
Certificate ID
Enter the ID of the certificate that you are revoking.
Note
The certificate ID does not always match the request ID shown in the CA server
windows. It may be necessary to obtain the ID of the certificate to be revoked from
the administrator of the client for which the certificate was granted. See Pending
Requests for information on how the client administrator can determine the
certificate ID.
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21
Cisco IOS SSL VPN
Cisco IOS SSL VPN provides Secure Socket Layer (SSL) VPN remote-access
connectivity from almost any Internet-enabled location using only a web browser
and its native SSL encryption. This enables companies to extend their secure
enterprise networks to any authorized user by providing remote-access
connectivity to corporate resources from any Internet-enabled location.
Cisco IOS SSL VPN also enables access from noncorporate-owned machines,
including home computers, Internet kiosks, and wireless hotspots, where an IT
department cannot easily deploy and manage the VPN client software necessary
for IPsec VPN connections.
There are three modes of SSL VPN access: clientless, thin-client and full-tunnel
client. Cisco SDM supports all three. Each mode is described below:
•
Clientless SSL VPN—Clientless mode provides secure access to private web
resources and will provide access to web content. This mode is useful for
accessing most content that you would expect to use within a web browser,
such as intranet access, and online tools that employ a web interface.
•
Thin Client SSL VPN (port-forwarding Java applet)—Thin Client mode
extends the capability of the cryptographic functions of the web browser to
enable remote access to TCP-based applications such as POP3, SMTP, IMAP,
Telnet, and SSH.
•
Full Tunnel Client SSL VPN—Full tunnel client mode offers extensive
application support through its dynamically downloaded SSL VPN client
software for Cisco IOS SSL VPN. With the Full tunnel Client for Cisco IOS
SSL VPN, we delivers a lightweight, centrally configured and
easy-to-support SSL VPN tunneling client that allows network layer
connectivity access to virtually any application.
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Cisco IOS SSL VPN links on Cisco.com
Cisco IOS SSL VPN Contexts, Gateways, and Policies describes how the
components of a Cisco IOS SSL VPN configuration work together.
Click Cisco IOS SSL VPN links on Cisco.com for links to Cisco IOS SSL VPN
documents.
This chapter contains the following sections:
•
Cisco IOS SSL VPN links on Cisco.com
•
Creating an SSL VPN Connection
•
Editing SSL VPN Connections
•
Additional Help Topics
Cisco IOS SSL VPN links on Cisco.com
This help topic lists the current links that provide the most useful information on
Cisco IOS SSL VPN.
The following link provides access to documents that describe Cisco IOS
SSL VPN. Return to this link from time to time for the latest information.
www.cisco.com/go/iosSSLVPN
The following link explains how to configure a AAA server using the RADIUS
protocol for Cisco IOS SSL VPN.
http://www.cisco.com/en/US/products/ps6441/products_feature_guide09186a00
805eeaea.html#wp1396461
Creating an SSL VPN Connection
To create an SSL VPN connection, complete the following tasks:
Step 1
If you want to review the IOS CLI commands that you send to the router when
you complete the configuration, go to the Cisco SDM toolbar, and click Edit >
Preferences > Preview commands before delivering to router. The preview
screen allows you to cancel the configuration if you want to.
Step 2
On the Cisco SDM toolbar, click Configure.
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Step 3
On the Cisco SDM category bar, click VPN.
Step 4
In the VPN tree, choose SSL VPN.
Step 5
In the Create SSL VPN tab, complete any recommended tasks that are displayed
by clicking the link for the task. Cisco SDM either completes the task for you, or
displays the necessary configuration screens for you to make settings in.
Step 6
Choose the task you want to complete. If you are creating the first SSL VPN
connection, choose Create a new SSL VPN.
Step 7
Click Launch the selected task to begin configuring the connection.
Step 8
Make configuration settings in the wizard screens. Click Next to go from the
current screen to the next screen. Click Back to return to a screen you have
previously visited.
Step 9
Cisco SDM displays the Summary screen when you have completed the
configuration. Review the configuration. If you need to make changes, click Back
to return to the screen in which you need to make changes, then return to the
Summary screen.
Step 10
If you checked Preview commands before delivering to router in the Edit
Preferences screen, the Cisco IOS CLI commands that you are sending are
displayed. Click OK to send the configuration to the router, or click Cancel to
discard it. If you did not make this setting, clicking Finish sends the configuration
to the router.
Create an SSL VPN Connection Reference describes the screens that you use to
complete this task.
Create an SSL VPN Connection Reference
The topics in this section describe the Create SSL VPN screens.
•
Create SSL VPN
•
Persistent Self-Signed Certificate
•
Welcome
•
SSL VPN Gateways
•
User Authentication
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Creating an SSL VPN Connection
•
Configure Intranet Websites
•
Add or Edit URL
•
Customize SSL VPN Portal
•
SSL VPN Passthrough Configuration
•
User Policy
•
Details of SSL VPN Group Policy: Policyname
•
Select the SSL VPN User Group
•
Select Advanced Features
•
Thin Client (Port Forwarding)
•
Add or Edit a Server
•
Full Tunnel
•
Locating the Install Bundle for Cisco SDM
•
Enable Cisco Secure Desktop
•
Common Internet File System
•
Enable Clientless Citrix
•
Summary
Create SSL VPN
You can use Cisco IOS SSL VPN wizards to create a new Cisco IOS SSL VPN or
to add new policies or features to an existing Cisco IOS SSL VPN.
Click Cisco IOS SSL VPN to get an overview of the features that Cisco SDM
supports. Cisco IOS SSL VPN Contexts, Gateways, and Policies describes how
the components of a Cisco IOS SSL VPN configuration work together.
Click Cisco IOS SSL VPN links on Cisco.com for links to Cisco IOS SSL VPN
documents.
Prerequisite Tasks
AAA and certificates must be configured on the router before you can begin a
Cisco IOS SSL VPN configuration. If either or both of these configurations are
missing, a notification appears in this area of the window, and a link is provided
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that enables you to complete the missing configuration. When all prerequisite
configurations are complete, you can return to this window and start configuring
Cisco IOS SSL VPN.
Cisco SDM enables AAA without user input. Cisco SDM can help you generate
public and private keys for the router, and enroll them with a certification
authority to obtain digital certificates. See Public Key Infrastructure for more
information. Alternatively, you can configure a persistent self-signed certificate
that does not require approval by a CA. For more information on the persistent
self-signed certificate feature, see the information at this link:
http://www.cisco.com/en/US/products/sw/iosswrel/ps5207/products_feature_gui
de09186a008040adf0.html#wp1066623
Make sure that the entire URL is present in the link field in your browser.
Create a new SSL VPN
Select this option to create a new Cisco IOS SSL VPN configuration. This wizard
enables you to create a Cisco IOS SSL VPN with one user policy and a limited set
of features. After you complete this wizard, you can use the other wizards to
configure addition policies and features for the Cisco IOS SSL VPN. You can
return to this wizard to create additional Cisco IOS SSL VPN configurations.
When you use Cisco SDM to create the first Cisco IOS SSL VPN configuration
on a router, you create a Cisco IOS SSL VPN context, configure a gateway, and
create a group policy. After you complete the wizard, click Edit SSL VPN to view
the configuration and familiarize yourself with how Cisco IOS SSL VPN
components work together. For information that will help you understand what
you see, click Cisco IOS SSL VPN Contexts, Gateways, and Policies.
Add a new policy to an existing SSL VPN for a new group of users
Select this option to add a new policy to an existing Cisco IOS SSL VPN
configuration for a new group of users. Multiple policies allow you to define
separate sets of capabilities for different groups of users. For example, you might
define a policy for engineering, and a separate policy for sales.
Configure advanced features for an existing SSL VPN
Select this option to configure additional features for an existing Cisco IOS SSL
VPN policy. You must specify the context under which this policy is configured.
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Launch the selected task button
Click to begin the configuration that you selected. You will receive a warning
message if you cannot complete the task that you chose. If there is a prerequisite
task that you need to complete, you will be told what it is and how to complete it.
Persistent Self-Signed Certificate
You can provide the information for a persistent self-signed certificate in this
dialog. Using the information that you provide, the HTTPS server will generate a
certificate that will be used in the SSL handshake. Persistent self-signed
certificates remain in the configuration even if the router is reloaded, and are
presented during the SSL handshake process. New users must manually accept
these certificates, but users who have previously done so do not have to accept
them again if the router was reloaded.
For more information on the persistent self-signed certificate feature, see the
information at this link:
http://www.cisco.com/en/US/products/sw/iosswrel/ps5207/products_feature_gui
de09186a008040adf0.html#wp1066623
Make sure that the entire URL is present in the link field in your browser.
Name
Cisco SDM places the name Router_Certificate in this field. You can change the
name if you want to do so. This corresponds to the subject name that would be
used in a certificate request.
Length of RSA Key
Cisco SDM places the value 512 in this field. You can specify a longer key, such
as 1024, if you want to do so. The key length should be a multiple of 64.
Subject
Provide the information for the fields in the subject area. For more information on
these fields, see the information in Other Subject Attributes.
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Generate Button
After providing the information in this window, click Generate to have the router
create the persistent self-signed certificate.
Welcome
The Welcome window for each wizard lists the tasks that the wizard enables you
to complete. Use this information to ensure that you are using the correct wizard.
If you are not, click Cancel to return to the Create SSL VPN window and choose
the wizard that you want to use.
When you provide all the information asked for by the wizard, the Summary
window displays the information that you provided. To see the Cisco IOS CLI
commands that you are delivering to the router, click Cancel to leave the wizard,
and go to Edit > Preferences, and check Preview commands before delivering
to router. Then restart the wizard and provide the information that it asks for.
When you deliver the configuration to the router, an additional window is
displayed that allows you to view the Cisco IOS CLI commands you are
delivering.
SSL VPN Gateways
A Cisco IOS SSL VPN gateway provides the IP address and the digital certificate
for the SSL VPN contexts that use it. You can provide the information for a
gateway in this window, and the information that will allow users to access a
portal.
IP Address and Name Fields
Use these fields to create the URL that users will enter to access the Cisco IOS
SSL VPN portal. The IP address list contains the IP addresses of all configured
router interfaces, and all existing Cisco IOS SSL VPN gateways. You can use the
IP address of a router interface if it is a public address that the intended clients
can reach, or you can use another public IP address that the clients can reach.
If you use an IP address that has not already been used for a gateway, you create
a new gateway.
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Allow Cisco SDM access through IP Address Checkbox
Check if you want to continue to access Cisco SDM from this IP address. This
checkbox appears if you entered the IP address you are currently using to access
Cisco SDM.
Note
If you check this checkbox, the URL that you must use to access Cisco SDM
changes after you deliver the configuration to the router. Review the information
area at the bottom of the window to learn which URL to use. Cisco SDM places a
shortcut to this URL on the desktop of your PC that you can use to access Cisco
SDM in the future.
Digital certificate
If you are creating a new gateway, select the digital certificate that you want the
router to present to clients when they log in to the gateway. If you chose the IP
address of an existing gateway, the router will use the digital certificate
configured for that gateway, and this field is disabled.
Information area
When you provide the information in the IP Address and Name fields, this area
contains the URL that users will enter. You must provide this URL to the users for
whom you are creating this Cisco IOS SSL VPN.
If you checked Allow Cisco SDM access through IP address, the URL that you
must use in the future to access Cisco SDM is shown in this area. Cisco SDM
places a shortcut to this URL on the desktop of your PC after you deliver the
Cisco IOS SSL VPN configuration to the router.
User Authentication
Use this window to specify how the router is to perform user authentication. The
router can authenticate Cisco IOS SSL VPN users locally, or it can send
authentication requests to remote AAA servers.
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External AAA server Button
Click if you want the router to use an AAA server to authenticate Cisco IOS SSL
VPN users. The router will use the AAA servers that are listed in this window. If
there are no AAA servers configured, you can configure them in this window. To
use this option, there must be at least one AAA server configured on the router.
Locally on this router Button
Click if you want the router to authenticate users itself. The router will
authenticate each user displayed in this window. If no users are configured on the
router, you can add users in this window.
First on an external AAA server and then locally on this router Button
Click if you want the router to authenticate using a AAA server first, and if
authentication fails, to attempt local authentication. If the user is not configured
on either a configured AAA server or locally on the router, authentication for that
user fails.
Use the AAA authentication method list Button
Click if you want the router to use a method list for authentication. A method list
contains the authentication methods that should be used. The router attempts the
first authentication method in the list. If authentication fails, the router tries the
next method in the list and continues until the user is authenticated, or until it
reaches the end of the list.
AAA servers configured for this router List
This list contains the AAA servers that the router uses to authenticate users. If you
choose to authenticate users with AAA servers, this list must contain the name or
IP address of at least one server. Use the Add button to add information for a new
server. To manage AAA configurations on the router, leave the wizard, click
Additional Tasks, and then click the AAA node in the Additional Tasks tree. This
list does not appear if you have chosen Locally on this router.
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Create user accounts locally on this router
Enter the users that you want the router to authenticate in this list. Use the Add
and Edit buttons to manage the users on the router. This list does not appear if
you chose External AAA server.
Configure Intranet Websites
Configure groups of intranet websites that you want users to have access to in this
window. These links will appear in the portal that the users of this Cisco IOS SSL
VPN see when they log in.
Action and URL List Columns
If you are adding a policy to an existing Cisco IOS SSL VPN context, there may
be URL lists present in the table that is displayed. Check Select if you want to use
a displayed URL list for the policy.
To create a new list, click Add and provide the required information in the dialog
displayed. Use the Edit and Delete keys to change or remove URL lists in this
table.
Add or Edit URL
Add or edit the information for a Cisco IOS SSL VPN link in this window.
Label
The label appears in the portal that is displayed when users log in to the Cisco IOS
SSL VPN. For example, might use the label Payroll calendar if you are providing
a link to the calendar showing paid holidays and paydays.
URL Link
Enter or edit the URL to the corporate intranet website that you want to allow
users to visit.
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Customize SSL VPN Portal
The settings that you make in this screen determine the appearance of the portal
to the user. You can select among the predefined themes listed, and obtain a
preview of the portal as it would appear if that theme were used.
Theme
Select the name of a predefined theme.
Preview
This area shows what the portal looks like with the selected theme.You may want
to preview several themes to determine which one you want to use.
SSL VPN Passthrough Configuration
In order for users to be able to connect to the intranet, access control entries
(ACE) must be added to firewall and Network Access Control (NAC)
configurations to permit SSL traffic to reach the intranet. Cisco SDM can
configure these ACE for you, or you can configure them yourself by going to
Firewall and ACL > Edit Firewall Policy/ACL and making the necessary edits.
If you are working in the Cisco IOS SSL VPN wizard, click Allow SSL VPN to
work with NAC and Firewall if you want Cisco SDM to configure these ACEs.
Click View Details to view the ACEs that Cisco SDM would create. An entry that
Cisco SDM adds might look like this example:
permit tcp any host 172.16.5.5 eq 443
If you are editing a Cisco IOS SSL VPN context, Cisco SDM displays the affected
interface and ACL that is applied to it. Click Modify to allow Cisco SDM to add
entries to the ACL to allow SSL traffic to pass through the firewall. Click Details
to view the entry that Cisco SDM adds. The entry will be one similar to the one
already shown.
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User Policy
This window allows you to choose an existing Cisco IOS SSL VPN and add a new
policy to it. For example, you might have created a Cisco IOS SSL VPN named
Corporate, and you want to define intranet access for a new group of users that
you name Engineering.
Select existing SSL VPN
Choose the Cisco IOS SSL VPN for which you want to create a new group of
users. The policies already configured for that Cisco IOS SSL VPN are displayed
in a box under the list. You can click any of them to display the details of the
policy. See Details of SSL VPN Group Policy: Policyname for more information.
Name of new policy
Enter the name that you want to give the new group of users. The area below this
field lists the group policies that already exist for this Cisco IOS SSL VPN.
Details of SSL VPN Group Policy: Policyname
This window displays the details of an existing Cisco IOS SSL VPN policy.
Services
This area lists the services, such as URL mangling, and Cisco Secure Desktop,
that this policy is configured for.
URLs exposed to users
This area lists the intranet URLs exposed to users who are governed by this policy.
Servers exposed to users
This area displays the IP addresses of the port forwarding servers that this policy
is configured to use.
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WINS servers
This area displays the IP addresses of the WINS servers that this policy is
configured to use.
Select the SSL VPN User Group
Choose the Cisco IOS SSL VPN and associated user group for which you want to
configure advanced services in this window.
SSL VPN
Choose the Cisco IOS SSL VPN that the user group is associated with from this
list.
User Group
Choose the user group for which you will configure advanced features. The
contents of this list is based on the Cisco IOS SSL VPN that you chose.
Select Advanced Features
Choose the features that you want to configure in this window. The wizard will
display windows that allow you to configure the features that you choose.
For example, if you click Thin Client (Port Forwarding), Cisco Secure Desktop,
and Common Internet File System (CIFS), the wizard will display configuration
windows for these features.
You must choose at least one feature to configure.
Thin Client (Port Forwarding)
Remote workstations must sometimes run client applications to be able to
communicate with intranet servers. For example Internet Mail Access Protocol
(IMAP) or Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP) servers may require
workstations to run client applications in order to send and receive e-mail. The
Thin-Client feature, also known as port forwarding, allows a small applet to be
downloaded along with the portal so that a remote workstation can communicate
with the intranet server.
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This window contains a list of the servers and port numbers configured for the
intranet. Use the Add button to add a server IP address and port number. Use the
Edit and Delete buttons to make changes to the information in this list and to
remove information for a server.
The list that you build appears in the portal that clients see when they log in.
Add or Edit a Server
Add or edit server information in this window.
Server IP Address
Enter the IP address or hostname of the server.
Server port on which service is listening
Enter the port the server is listening on for this service. This may be a standard
port number for the service, such as port number 23 for Telnet, or it may be a
nonstandard port number for which a Port-to-Application Map (PAM) has been
created. For example if you changed the Telnet port number on the server to 2323,
and you created a PAM entry for that port on that server, you would enter 2323 in
this window.
Port on Client PC
Cisco SDM enters a number in this field, beginning with the number 3000. Each
time you add an entry, Cisco SDM increments the number by 1. Use the entries
that Cisco SDM has placed in this field.
Description
Enter a description for the entry. For example, if you are adding an entry that
enables users to telnet to a server at 10.10.11.2, you could enter “Telnet to
10.10.11.2.” The description you enter appears on the portal.
Learn More
Click this link for more information. You can view that information now by
clicking Learn More about Port Forwarding Servers.
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Full Tunnel
Full tunnel clients must download the full tunnel software and obtain an IP
address from the router. Use this window to configure the IP address pool that full
tunnel clients will draw from when they log in and to specify the location of the
full tunnel install bundle.
Note
If the software install bundle is not already installed, there must be sufficient
memory in router flash for Cisco SDM to install it after you complete this wizard.
Enable Full Tunnel Checkbox
Check to allow the router to download the full tunnel client software to the user’s
PC, and to enable the other fields in this window.
IP Address Pool
Specify the IP address pool that full tunnel clients will draw from. You can enter
the name of an existing pool in the field, or you can click the button to the right
of the field and choose Select an existing IP pool to browse the list of pools,
Choose Create a new pool and complete the dialog that is displayed to create a
new pool. The address pool that you choose or create must contain addresses in
the corporate intranet.
Keep the Full Tunnel Client software installed on client’s PC Checkbox
Check if you want the Full Tunnel software to remain on the client’s PC after they
have logged off. If you do not check this checkbox, clients download the software
each time they establish communication with the gateway.
Install Full Tunnel Client Checkbox
Check if you want to install the full tunnel client software at this time. You can
also install the client software when editing this Cisco IOS SSL VPN.
The full tunnel client software must be installed on the router so that clients can
download it to establish full-tunnel connectivity. If the Full Tunnel software was
installed along with Cisco SDM, the path to it automatically appears in the
Location field, as shown in Example 21-1.
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Example 21-1 Full Tunnel Package Installed on Router
flash:sslclient-win-1.0.2.127.pkg
In Example 21-1, the Full Tunnel install bundle is loaded in router flash. If your
router’s primary device is a disk or a slot, the path that you see will start with
diskn or slotn .
If this field is empty, you must locate the install bundle so that Cisco SDM can
load it onto the router primary device, or download the software install bundle
from Cisco.com by clicking on the Download latest... link at the bottom of the
window. This link takes you to the following web page:
http://www.cisco.com/cgi-bin/tablebuild.pl/sslvpnclient
Note
You may need a CCO username and password in order to obtain software from
Cisco software download sites. To obtain these credentials, click Register at the
top of any Cisco.com webpage and provide the information asked for. Your userid
and password will be e-mailed to you.
Click Locating the Install Bundle for Cisco SDM to learn how to locate the Full
Tunnel software install bundle, and supply a path to it for Cisco SDM to use.
Advanced Button
Click to configure advanced options such as split tunneling, split DNS, and client
Microsoft Internet Explorer settings.
Locating the Install Bundle for Cisco SDM
Use the following procedure to locate software install bundles for Cisco SDM so
that it can use that location in the Cisco IOS SSL VPN configuration, or, if
necessary, load the software onto the router.
Note
You may need a CCO username and password in order to obtain software from
Cisco software download sites. To obtain these credentials, click Register at the
top of any Cisco.com webpage and provide the information asked for. Your userid
and password will be e-mailed to you.
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Step 1
Look at the Location field. If the path to the install bundle is in that field, no
further action need be taken. Cisco SDM configures the router to download the
software from that location. Example 21-2 shows a path to a software install
bundle.
Example 21-2 Full Tunnel Package Installed on Router
flash:sslclient-win-1.0.2.127.pkg
Step 2
If the Location field is empty, click the ... button to the right of the field to specify
the location of the software.
Step 3
If the software is installed on the router, choose Router File System and then
browse for the file.
If the software is on your PC, choose My Computer and browse for the file.
Cisco SDM places the router file system or PC path you specified in the Location
field.
Step 4
If the software is not on the router or on your PC, you must download it to your
PC, and then provide the path to the file in this field.
a.
Click the Download latest... link in the window. You are connected to the
download page for the software you want.
b.
There may be software packages available for Cisco IOS platforms and other
platforms on the web page that appears. Double-click the latest version of the
software that you want to download for Cisco IOS platforms, and provide
your CCO username and password when prompted to do so.
c.
Download the package to the PC.
d.
In the Cisco IOS SSL VPN wizard, click the ... button to the right of the
Location field, choose My Computer in the Select Location window that is
displayed, and navigate to the directory in which you placed the file.
e.
Select the install bundle file then click OK in the Select Location window.
Cisco SDM places that path in the Location field. examples shows an install
bundle located on the PC’s desktop.
Example 21-3 Full Tunnel Package Installed on Router
C:\Documents and Settings\username\Desktop\sslclient-win-1.1.0.154.pkg
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Cisco SDM installs the software onto the router from the PC directory that
you specified when you deliver the configuration to the router by clicking
Finish.
Enable Cisco Secure Desktop
The router can install Cisco Secure Desktop on the user PC when the user logs in
to the Cisco IOS SSL VPN. Web transactions can leave cookies, browser history
files, e-mail attachments, and other files on the PC after the user logs out. Cisco
Secure Desktop create a secure partition on the desktop and uses a Department of
Defense algorithm to remove the files after the session terminates.
Install Cisco Secure Desktop
Clients must download the Cisco Secure Desktop software install bundle from the
router. If this software was installed along with Cisco SDM, the path to it
automatically appears in the Location field as shown in Example 21-4.
Example 21-4 Cisco Secure Desktop Package Installed on Router
flash:/securedesktop-ios-3.1.0.29-k9.pkg
In Example 21-4, the Cisco Secure Desktop install bundle is loaded in router
flash. If your router’s primary device is a disk or a slot, the path that you see will
start with diskn or slotn.
If this field is empty, you must locate the install bundle so that Cisco SDM can
load it onto the router primary device, or download the software install bundle
from Cisco.com by clicking the Download latest... link at the bottom of the
window. This link takes you to the following web page:
http://www.cisco.com/cgi-bin/tablebuild.pl/securedesktop
Note
You may need a CCO username and password in order to obtain software from
Cisco software download sites. To obtain these credentials, click Register at the
top of any Cisco.com webpage and provide the information asked for. Your userid
and password will be e-mailed to you.
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Click Locating the Install Bundle for Cisco SDM to learn how to locate the Cisco
Secure Desktop software install bundle, and supply a path to it for Cisco Cisco
SDM to use.
Common Internet File System
Common Internet File System (CIFS) allows clients to remotely browse, access,
and create files on Microsoft Windows-based file servers using a web browser
interface.
WINS Servers
Microsoft Windows Internet Naming Service (WINS) servers maintain the
database that maps client IP addresses to their corresponding NetBIOS names.
Enter the IP addresses of the WINS servers in your network in this box. Use
semicolons (;) to separate addresses.
For example, to enter the IP addresses 10.0.0.18 and 10.10.10.2, you enter
10.0.0.18;10.10.10.2 in this box.
Permissions
Specify the permissions to grant to users.
Enable Clientless Citrix
Clientless Citrix allows users to run applications such as Microsoft Word or Excel
on remote servers in the same way that they would run them locally, without the
need for client software on the PC. The Citrix software must be installed on one
or more servers on a network that the router can reach.
Citrix Server
To create a new list, click Add and provide the required information in the dialog
displayed. Use the Edit and Delete keys to change or remove URL lists in this
table.
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Editing SSL VPN Connections
Summary
This window displays a summary of the Cisco IOS SSL VPN configuration that
you have created. Click Finish to deliver the configuration to the router, or click
Back to return to a wizard window to make changes.
To see the CLI commands that you are delivering to the router, go to Edit >
Preferences, and check Preview commands before delivering to router.
Editing SSL VPN Connections
To edit an SSL VPN connection, complete the following tasks:
Step 1
If you want to review the Cisco IOS CLI commands that you send to the router
when you complete the configuration, go to the Cisco SDM toolbar, and click Edit
> Preferences > Preview commands before delivering to router. The preview
screen allows you to cancel the configuration if you want to.
Step 2
In the Cisco SDM toolbar, click Configure.
Step 3
In the Cisco SDM taskbar, click VPN.
Step 4
In the VPN tree, click SSL VPN.
Step 5
Click Edit SSL VPN.
Step 6
Choose the SSL VPN connection that you want to edit.
Step 7
Click Edit. Then, make changes to the settings in the displayed dialogs.
Step 8
Click OK to close the dialog and send the changes to the router.
Step 9
If you checked Preview commands before delivering to router in the Edit
Preferences screen, the Cisco IOS CLI commands that you are sending are
displayed. Click Deliver to send the configuration to the router, or click Cancel
to discard it.
Editing SSL VPN Connection Reference describes the configuration screens.
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Editing SSL VPN Connection Reference
The topics in this section describe the SSL VPN Edit screens.
•
Edit SSL VPN
•
SSL VPN Context
•
Designate Inside and Outside Interfaces
•
Select a Gateway
•
Context: Group Policies
•
Group Policy: General Tab
•
Group Policy: Clientless Tab
•
Group Policy: Thin Client Tab
•
Group Policy: SSL VPN Client (Full Tunnel) Tab
•
Advanced Tunnel Options
•
DNS and WINS Servers
•
Context: HTML Settings
•
Select Color
•
Context: NetBIOS Name Server Lists
•
Add or Edit a NBNS Server List
•
Add or Edit an NBNS Server
•
Context: Port Forward Lists
•
Add or Edit a Port Forward List
•
Context: URL Lists
•
Add or Edit a URL List
•
Context: Cisco Secure Desktop
•
SSL VPN Gateways
•
Add or Edit a SSL VPN Gateway
•
Packages
•
Install Package
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Editing SSL VPN Connections
Edit SSL VPN
The Edit SSL VPN window allows you modify or create Cisco IOS SSL VPN
configurations. The top portion of the tab lists the configured Cisco IOS
SSL VPN contexts. The bottom portion displays details for that context.
Click Cisco IOS SSL VPN to get an overview of the Cisco IOS SSL VPN features
that Cisco SDM supports.
Click Cisco IOS SSL VPN links on Cisco.com for links to Cisco IOS SSL VPN
documents.
Click Cisco IOS SSL VPN Contexts, Gateways, and Policies for a description of
how the components of a Cisco IOS SSL VPN configuration work together.
SSL VPN Contexts
This area displays the Cisco IOS SSL VPN contexts configured on the router.
Click a context in this area to display the detailed information for it in the lower
part of the window. Add a new context by clicking Add and entering information
in the dialog displayed. Edit a context by selecting it and clicking Edit. Remove
a context and its associated group policies by selecting it and clicking Delete.
You can enable a context that is not in service by choosing it and clicking Enable.
Take a context out of service by choosing it and clicking Disable.
The following information is displayed for each context.
Name
The name of the Cisco IOS SSL VPN context. If you created the context in the
Cisco IOS SSL VPN wizard, the name is the string that you entered in the IP
Address and Name window.
Gateway
The gateway that the context uses contains the IP address, and digital certificate
that the Cisco IOS SSL VPN context will use.
Domain
If a domain has been configured for the context, it is displayed in this column. If
a domain is configured, users must enter that domain in the web browser to access
the portal.
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Status
Contains icons for quick status identification.
Administrative Status
Textual description of status.
•
In Service—Context is in service. Users specified in policies configured
under the context can access their Cisco IOS SSL VPN portal.
•
Not in Service—Context is not in service. Users specified in policies
configured under the context cannot access their Cisco IOS SSL VPN portal.
Sample Display
The following table shows a sample Cisco IOS SSL VPN contexts display.
Name
Gateway
Domain
Status
Administrative Status
WorldTravel
Gateway1
wtravel.net
In Service
A+Insurance
Gateway2
aplus.com
Not in Service
Details about SSL VPN Context: Name
This area displays details about the context with the name name that you selected
in the upper part of the window. You can modify the settings that you see by
clicking Edit in the top part of the window.
SSL VPN Context
Use this window to add or edit a Cisco IOS SSL VPN context.
Field Reference
Table 21-1 describes the fields in this screen.
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Table 21-1
SSL VPN Context Fields
Element
Description
Name
Enter the name of a new context, or choose the name of an existing
context to edit it.
Associated Gateway
Select an existing gateway, or click Create gateway to configure a
new gateway for the context. The gateway contains the IP address
and digital certificate is used for this context. Each gateway requires
a unique public IP address.
Domain
If you have a domain for this context, enter it in this field. Cisco IOS
SSL VPN users will be able to use this domain name when
accessing the portal, instead of an IP address. An example is
mycompany.com.
Authentication List
Choose the AAA method list to be used to authenticate users to this
context.
Authentication Domain
Enter the domain name that is to be appended to the username
before it is sent for authentication. This domain must match the
domain used on the AAA server for the users that will be
authenticated for this context.
Enable Context
Check Enable Context if you want the context to be enabled when
you finish configuring it. You do not have to return to this window
to disable it if you enable it here. You can enable and disable
individual contexts in the Edit SSL VPN tab.
Maximum Number of Users
Enter the maximum number of users that should be allowed to use
this context at one time.
VRF Name
Enter the VPN Routing and Forwarding (VRF) name for this
context. This VRF name must have already been configured on the
router.
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Table 21-1
SSL VPN Context Fields (continued)
Element
Description
Default Group Policy
Select the policy that you want to use as the default group policy.
The default group policy will be used for users who have not been
included in any policy configured on the AAA server.
Enable RADIUS Accounting
Check Enable RADIUS Accounting to enable this feature for the
context that you are editing. If this option is disabled, the AAA
authentication list chosen for the context does not include any
configured AAA servers. You must choose a different
authentication list, or configure a new one.
To add the information for an AAA to the router configuration, click
Additional Tasks > AAA > AAA Servers > Add. Enter the IP
address and other required information in the displayed dialog. The
AAA server information you enter becomes available for use in
authentication lists.
Designate Inside and Outside Interfaces
An ACL that is applied to an interface on which a Cisco IOS SSL VPN connection
is configured may block the SSL traffic. Cisco SDM can automatically modify the
ACL to allow this traffic to pass through the firewall. However, you must indicate
which interface is the inside (trusted) interface, and which is the outside
(untrusted) interface for Cisco SDM to create the Access Control Entry (ACE)
that will allow the appropriate traffic to pass through the firewall.
Check Inside if the listed interface is a trusted interface, and check Outside if it
is an untrusted interface.
Select a Gateway
Select an existing gateway from this window. This window provides you with the
information you need to determine which gateway to select. It displays the names
and IP addresses of all gateways, the number of contexts each is associated with,
and whether the gateway is enabled or not.
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Context: Group Policies
This window displays the group policies configured for the chosen Cisco IOS
SSL VPN context. Use the Add, Edit, and Delete buttons to manage these group
policies.
For each policy, this window shows the name of the policy and whether the policy
is the default group policy. The default group policy is the policy assigned to a
user who has not been included in another policy. You can change the group policy
by returning to the Context window and selecting a different policy as the default.
Click a policy in the list to view details about the policy in the lower part of the
window. For a description of these details, click the following links
Group Policy: General Tab
Group Policy: Clientless Tab
Group Policy: Thin Client Tab
Group Policy: SSL VPN Client (Full Tunnel) Tab
Click here to learn more
Click the link in the window for important information. To get to that information
from this help page, click Learn More About Group Policies.
Group Policy: General Tab
When creating a new group policy, you must enter information in each field of the
General tab.
Field Reference
Table 21-2 describes the fields in this screen.
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Table 21-2
General Tab Fields
Element
Description
Name
Enter a name for the group policy, for example Engineering, Human
Resources, or Marketing.
Make this the default group
policy for context
Check if you want to make this the default group policy. The default
group policy is the policy assigned to a user who is not included in
another policy. If you check this checkbox, this policy will be shown
as the default policy in the Group Policy window.
Timeouts
Idle Timeout
Enter the number of seconds that the client can remain idle before
the session is terminated.
Session Timeout
Enter the maximum number of seconds for a session, regardless of
the activity on the session.
Application ACL
Application ACL
SSLVPN uses application ACLs to specify permitted and denied
URLs for groups. Choose a configured application ACL for this
group.
To configure application ACLs, go to the SSL VPN Context tree,
click App ACL to display the Access Control List window, and then
click Add.
View
Click View to display the details for the chosen application ACL.
Group Policy: Clientless Tab
Clientless Citrix allows users to run applications on remote servers in the same
way that they would run them locally, without client software needing to be
installed on the remote systems using these applications. The Citrix software must
be installed on one or more servers on a network that the router can reach.
Enter information if you want Cisco IOS SSL VPN clients to be able to use
Clientless Citrix.
Field Reference
Table 21-3 describes the fields in this screen.
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Table 21-3
Clientless Tab Fields
Element
Description
Clientless Web Browsing
Action
URL List
Select one or more URL lists that you want to display in the portal
that the users in this group will see. URLs in the list that you specify
will be displayed in the portal.
View
To examine a URL list, choose a name from the list and click View.
Add
To add a URL list or a Citrix Server list, click Add and choose the
option that you want
Hide URL bar in the portal page If you want to restrict users to URLs in the list, and prevent them
from entering additional URLs, click Hide URL bar in the portal
page.
Enable URL Obfuscation
Click Enable URL Obfuscation to enable this feature for the group
policy. When URL obfuscation is enabled, end users do not see the
the path to the web server or other internal resource in the web page
that they are using. Instead, they see an obfuscated path that
provides no information about the network.
Enable Citrix
Click Enable Citrix to enable Clientless Citrix for the group policy.
Citrix allows users to run applications such as Microsoft Word or
Excel on remote servers in the same way that they would run them
locally, without the need for client software on the PC. The Citrix
software must be installed on one or more servers on a network that
the router can reach.
Enable CIFS
Choose Enable CIFS if you want to allow group members to browse files on MS Windows servers in
the corporate network. When you enable CIFS, the options that follow are enabled.
Read
Click Read to allow group members to read files.
Write
Click Write to allow group members to make changes to files.
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Table 21-3
Clientless Tab Fields
Element
Description
NBNS Server List
You must specify the NBNS server list that will enable the
appropriate files to be displayed to these users. Choose the NBNS
Server list to use for this group. To configure a list, click NETBIOS
Name Server Lists in the SSL VPN Context tree and click Add to
configure a list.
View
To verify the contents of a WINS server list, choose the list and click
View.
Group Policy: Thin Client Tab
Make settings in this tab if you want to configure Thin Client, also known as port
forwarding, for members of this group.
Field Reference
Table 21-4 describes the fields in this screen.
Table 21-4
Thin Client Tab Fields
Element
Description
Enable Thin Client
Click Enable Thin Client (Port Forwarding) and specify a port
forward list to enable this feature. At least one port forward list must
be configured for the Cisco IOS SSL VPN context under which this
group policy is configured.
View
To examine the port forwarding list you have chosen, click View.
Automatically Download Applet The Automatically Download Applet option causes the Thin Client
applet to be downloaded automatically to clients when they have
logged on. This option is checked by default.
Group Policy: SSL VPN Client (Full Tunnel) Tab
Make setting in this tab if you want to enable the group members to download and
use full-tunnel client software.
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Note
You must specify the location of the Full Tunnel client software by clicking
Packages in the SSL VPN tree, specifying the location of the install bundle, and
then clicking Install.
Enable Full Tunnel connections by choosing Enable from the list. If you want to
require Full Tunnel connections, choose Required. If you choose Required,
Clientless and Thin Client communication will work only if the Cisco IOS
SSL VPN client software is successfully installed on the client PC.
IP address pool from which clients will be assigned an IP address
Clients who establish Full Tunnel communication are assigned IP addresses by
the router. Specify the name of the pool, or click the ... button to create a new pool
from which the router can assign addresses.
Keep full-tunnel client software installed on client’s PC Checkbox
Check if you want the Full Tunnel software to remain on the client’s PC after they
have logged off. If you do not check this checkbox, clients download the software
each time they establish communication with the gateway.
Renegotiate Key field
Enter the number of seconds after which the tunnel should be brought down so
that a new SSL key can be negotiated and the tunnel can be reestablished.
ACL to restrict access for users in this group to corporate resources
You can choose or create an access list (ACL) that specifies the resources on the
corporate network that group members will be restricted to.
Home page client should see when a web browser is opened with full tunnel software installed
Enter the URL to the home page that is to be displayed to full-tunnel clients in this
group.
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Dead Peer Detection Timeouts
Dead Peer Detection (DPD) allows a system to detect a peer that is no longer
responding. You can set separate timeouts that the router can use to detect clients
that are no longer responding, and servers that are no longer responding. The
range for both is from 0 to 3600 seconds.
Configure DNS and WINS servers Button
Click to display the DNS and WINS Servers dialog, which allows you to provide
the IP addresses of the DNS and WINS servers on the corporate intranet that
clients should use when accessing intranet hosts and services.
Configure Advanced Tunnel Options Button
Click to display the Advanced Tunnel Options dialog, which allows you to
configure tunnel settings for split tunneling, split DNS, and proxy server settings
for clients using Microsoft Internet Explorer.
Advanced Tunnel Options
The settings that you make in this dialog allow you to control the traffic that is
encrypted, specify the DNS servers on the corporate intranet, and specify the
proxy server settings that are to be sent to client browsers.
Split Tunneling
Encrypting all tunnel traffic may take excessive system resources. Split tunneling
allows you to specify the networks whose traffic should be encrypted, and exempt
traffic destined for other networks from encryption. You can either specify which
tunnel traffic is to be encrypted or you can specify the traffic that is not to be
encrypted and allow the router to encrypt all other tunnel traffic. You can only
build one list; included and excluded traffic are mutually exclusive.
Click Include traffic and use the Add, Edit, and Delete keys to build a list of
destination networks whose traffic is to be encrypted. Or, click Exclude traffic
and build a list of the destination networks whose traffic is not to be encrypted.
Click Exclude Local LANs to explicitly exclude from encryption client traffic
destined for LANs that the router is connected to. If there are networked printers
on these LANs, you must use this option.
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The section “Learn More About Split Tunneling” contains more information
about this topic.
Split DNS
If you want Cisco IOS SSL VPN clients to use the DNS server in the corporate
network only to resolve specific domains, you can enter those domains in this
area. They should be domains within the corporate intranet. Separate each entry
with a semicolon and do not use carriage returns. Here is a sample list of entries:
yourcompany.com;dev-lab.net;extranet.net
Clients must use the DNS servers provided by their ISPs to resolve all other
domains.
Browser Proxy Settings
The settings in this area are sent to client Microsoft Internet Explorer browsers
with full tunnel connections. These settings have no effect if clients use a different
browser.
Do not use proxy server
Click to instruct Cisco IOS SSL VPN client browsers not to use a proxy server.
Auto-detect proxy settings
Click if you want the Cisco IOS SSL VPN client browsers to auto detect proxy
server settings.
Bypass proxy settings for local addresses
Click if you want clients connecting to local addresses to be able to bypass normal
proxy settings.
Proxy Server
Enter the IP address of the proxy server and the port number for the service that
it provides in these fields. For example, if the proxy server supports FTP requests,
enter the IP address of the proxy server and port number 21.
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Do not use proxy server for addresses beginning with
If you do not want clients to use proxy servers when sending traffic to specific IP
addresses or networks, you can enter them here. Use a semicolon to separate each
entry. For example, if you do not want clients to use a proxy server when
connecting to any server in the 10.10.0.0 or 10.11.0.0 networks, enter
10.10;10.11. You can enter as many networks as you want.
DNS and WINS Servers
Enter the IP addresses for the corporate DNS and WINS servers that will be sent
to Cisco IOS SSL VPN clients. Cisco IOS SSL VPN clients will use these servers
to access hosts and services on the corporate intranet.
Provide addresses for primary and for secondary DNS servers and WINS servers.
DNS and WINS Servers
Enter the IP addresses for the corporate DNS and WINS servers that will be sent
to Cisco IOS SSL VPN clients. Cisco IOS SSL VPN clients will use these servers
to access hosts and services on the corporate intranet.
Provide addresses for primary and for secondary DNS servers and WINS servers.
Context: HTML Settings
The settings that you make in this window control the appearance of the portal for
the selected Cisco IOS SSL VPN context.
Select theme
You can specify the appearance of the portal by selecting a predefined theme
instead of by selecting each color yourself. When you select a theme, the settings
for that theme are displayed in the fields associated with the Customize button.
Customize Button
Click if you want to select each color used in the portal and specify a login
message and title. If you selected a predefined theme, the values for that theme
are displayed in the fields in this section. You can change these values, and the
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values you enter are used in the portal for the selected context. Changes that you
make in this window only affect the portal you are creating. They do not change
the default values for the theme.
Login Message
Enter the login message that you want clients to see when their browsers display
the portal. For example:
Welcome to the company-name network. Log off if you are not an
authorized user.
Title
Enter the title that you want to give the portal. For example:
Company-name network login page
Background Color for Title
The default value for the background color that appears behind the title is
#9999CC. Change this value by clicking the ... button and selecting a different
color.
Background Color for Secondary Titles
The default value for the background color that appears behind the title is
#9729CC. Change this value by clicking the ... button and selecting a different
color, or by entering the hexadecimal value for a different color.
Text Color
The default value for the text color is white. Change this value by clicking the
down arrow and selecting a different color.
Secondary Text Color
The default value for the secondary text color is black. Change this value by
clicking the down arrow and selecting a different color.
Logo File
If you have a logo that you want to display on the portal, click the ... button to
browse for it on your PC. It is saved to router flash after you click OK, and will
appear in the upper-left corner of the portal.
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Preview Button
Click to see a preview of the portal as it will look with the predefined theme or
custom values you have specified.
Select Color
Click Basic to select a predefined color, or click RGB to create a custom color.
Basic
Select the color that you want to use from the palette on the left. The color you
select appears in the large square in the right side of the dialog.
RGB
Use the Red, Green, and Blue sliders in combination to create a custom color. The
color you create appears in the large square in the right side of the dialog.
Context: NetBIOS Name Server Lists
View all the NetBIOS name server lists that are configured for the selected
Cisco IOS SSL VPN context in this window. CIFS uses NetBIOS servers to
display the corporate Microsoft Windows file system to Cisco IOS SSL VPN
users.
Each name server list configured for the context is shown in the NetBIOS Name
Server Lists area. Use the Add, Edit, and Delete buttons to manage these lists.
Click a list name to view the contents of the list in the Details of NetBIOS Name
Server area.
Add or Edit a NBNS Server List
Create or maintain a NBNS server list in this window. You must enter a name for
each list that you create, and provide the IP address, timeout and number of retries
to attempt for each server in the list. One server in each list must be designated as
the master server.
Each server in the list is displayed in this dialog, along with its master status,
timeout, and retries values.
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Add or Edit an NBNS Server
You must enter the IP address of each server, along with the number of seconds
that the router is to wait before attempting to connect to the server again, and the
number of times the router is to attempt to contact the server.
Check Make this server the master server if you want this server to be the first
server that the router contacts on the list.
Context: Port Forward Lists
Configure the port forwarding lists for the selected context in this window. The
lists can be associated to any group policy configured under the selected context.
Port forward lists reveal TCP application services to Cisco IOS SSL VPN clients.
The upper part of the window displays the port forward lists configured for the
selected context. Click a list name to display the details for the list in the lower
part of the window.
The window displays the IP address, port number used, corresponding port
number on the client, and a description if one was entered.
Add or Edit a Port Forward List
Create and maintain port forward lists in this window. Each list must be given a
name, and contain at least one server entry. Use the Add, Edit, and Delete buttons
to create, modify, and remove entries from the list.
Context: URL Lists
URL lists specify which links can appear on the portal for users in a particular
group. Configure one or more URL lists for each context, then use the group
policy windows to associate these lists with specific group policies.
The upper part of the window displays all the URL lists configured for the context.
The lower part of the window displays the contents of the selected list. For each
list, it displays the heading that is displayed at the top of the URL list, and each
URL that is in the list.
Use the Add, Edit, and Delete buttons to create and manage URL lists.
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Add or Edit a URL List
You must enter a name for each URL list, and heading text that will appear at the
top of the URL list.
Heading text should describe the overall contents of the links in the list. For
example, if a URL list provides access to the health plan web pages and insurance
web pages, you might use the heading text Benefits.
Use the Add button to create a new entry for the list, and the Edit and Delete
buttons to maintain the list. Each entry that you add appears in the list area.
Context: Cisco Secure Desktop
Cisco Secure Desktop encrypts cookies, browser history files, temporary files,
and e-mail attachments that could create security problems if left unencrypted.
After a Cisco IOS SSL VPN session is terminated, Cisco Secure Desktop removes
the data using a Department of Defense sanitation algorithm.
Click Enable Cisco Secure Desktop to allow all users of this context to download
and use Cisco Secure Desktop. This window displays a message if the install
bundle for this software is not found on the router.
To load the install bundle for Cisco Secure Desktop on the router, click Packages
in the Cisco IOS SSL VPN tree and follow the instructions in the window.
SSL VPN Gateways
This window displays the Cisco IOS SSL VPN gateways configured on the router
and enables you to modify existing gateways and configure new ones. A
Cisco IOS SSL VPN gateway is the user portal to the secure network.
SSL VPN Gateways
This area of the window lists the Cisco IOS SSL VPN gateways that are
configured on the router. It shows the name and IP address of the gateway, the
number of contexts configured to use the gateway, and the status of the gateway.
The gateway is enabled and in service.
The gateway is disabled and out of service.
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Click a gateway to view details about it in the lower part of the window. Enable a
gateway that is Disabled by choosing it and clicking Enable. Take an enabled
gateway out of service by choosing it and clicking Disable. To edit a gateway,
select the gateway and click the Edit button. To remove a gateway, choose the
gateway and click the Delete button.
Details of SSL VPN Gateway
This area of the window displays configuration details about the gateway selected
in the upper part of the window, and the names of the Cisco IOS SSL VPN
contexts that are configured to use this gateway.
For more information on gateway configuration details, click Add or Edit a SSL
VPN Gateway. For more information on contexts, click SSL VPN Context.
Add or Edit a SSL VPN Gateway
Create or edit a Cisco IOS SSL VPN gateway in this window.
Gateway Name
The gateway name uniquely identifies this gateway on the router, and is the name
used to refer to the gateway when configuring Cisco IOS SSL VPN contexts.
IP Address
Choose or enter the IP address that the gateway is to use. This must be a public IP
address, and cannot be an address used by another gateway on the router.
Digital Certificate
Choose the certificate that is to be sent to Cisco IOS SSL VPN clients for SSL
authentication.
HTTP Redirect Checkbox
Uncheck if you do not want HTTP redirect to be used. HTTP redirect
automatically redirects HTTP requests to port 443, the port used for secure
Cisco IOS SSL VPN communication.
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Enable Gateway Checkbox
Uncheck if you do not want to enable the gateway. You can also enable and disable
the gateway from the SSL VPN Gateways window.
Packages
This window enables you to obtain software install bundles that must be
downloaded to Cisco IOS SSL VPN clients to support Cisco IOS SSL VPN
features, and to load them on the router. You can also use this window to remove
install bundles that have been installed.
Follow the steps described in the window to download the install bundles from
Cisco.com to your PC, and then copy them from your PC to the router. If you need
to obtain any of the install bundles, start with Step 1 by clicking on the link to the
download site.
Note
Access to these download sites requires a CCO username and password. If you
don’t have a CCO username and password, you can obtain one by clicking
Register at the top of any Cisco.com webpage, and completing the form that is
displayed. Your username and password will be mailed to you.
If you have already loaded install bundles onto your PC or the router, complete
steps 2 and 3 to specify the current location of the install bundles and copy them
to router flash.
Click the ... button in each section to specify the current location of the install
bundle.
After you specify the current location, and where you want to copy it to in router
flash, click Install.
After the bundles have been loaded onto the router, the window displays name,
version, and build date information about the package. If an administration tool is
available with the package, the window displays a button enabling you to run this
tool.
The Cisco IOS SSL VPN client install bundle is available from the following link:
http://www.cisco.com/cgi-bin/tablebuild.pl/sslvpnclient
The Cisco Secure Desktop install bundle is available from the following link:
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http://www.cisco.com/cgi-bin/tablebuild.pl/securedesktop
Install Package
Specify the current location of an install bundle by browsing for it in this window.
If the install bundle is already located on the router, click Router and browse for
it. If it is located on the PC, click My Computer and browse for it. When you have
specified the current location of the install bundle, click OK.
The location will be visible in the Packages window.
Additional Help Topics
The help topics in this section provide additional background information, and
procedures that you may need to perform manually.
This section contains the following topics:
•
Cisco IOS SSL VPN Contexts, Gateways, and Policies
•
Learn More about Port Forwarding Servers
•
Learn More About Group Policies
•
Learn More About Split Tunneling
•
How do I verify that my Cisco IOS SSL VPN is working?
•
How do I configure a Cisco IOS SSL VPN after I have configured a firewall?
•
How do I associate a VRF instance with a Cisco IOS SSL VPN context?
Cisco IOS SSL VPN Contexts, Gateways, and Policies
Cisco SDM provides an easy way to configure Cisco IOS SSL VPN connections
for remote users. However, the terminology used in this technology can be
confusing. This help topic discusses the Cisco IOS SSL VPN terms used in Cisco
SDM configuration windows and describes how Cisco IOS SSL VPN components
work together. An example of using the Cisco IOS SSL VPN wizard and edit
windows in Cisco SDM is also provided.
Before discussing each component individually, it is helpful to note the following:
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•
One Cisco IOS SSL VPN context can support multiple group policies.
•
Each context must have one associated gateway.
•
One gateway can support multiple contexts.
•
If there is more than one group policy on the router, a AAA server must be
used for authentication.
Cisco IOS SSL VPN Contexts
A Cisco IOS SSL VPN context identifies resources needed to support SSL VPN
tunnels between remote clients and a corporate or private intranet, and supports
one or more group policies. A Cisco IOS SSL VPN context provides the
following resources:
•
An associated Cisco IOS SSL VPN gateway, which provides an IP address
that clients can reach and a certificate used to establish a secure connection.
•
Means for authentication. You can authenticate users locally, or by using
AAA servers.
•
The HTML display settings for the portal that provides links to network
resources.
•
Port forwarding lists that enable the use of Thin Client applets on remote
clients. Each list should be configured for use in a specific group policy.
•
URL lists that contain links to resources in the corporate intranet. Each list
should be configured for use in a specific group policy.
•
NetBIOS Name Server lists. Each list should be configured for use in a
specific group policy.
These resources are available when configuring Cisco IOS SSL VPN group
policies.
A Cisco IOS SSL VPN context can support multiple group policies. A Cisco IOS
SSL VPN context can be associated with only one gateway.
Cisco IOS SSL VPN Gateways
A Cisco IOS SSL VPN gateway provides a reachable IP address and certificate
for one or more Cisco IOS SSL VPN contexts. Each gateway configured on a
router must be configured with its own IP address; IP addresses cannot be shared
among gateways. It is possible to use the IP address of a router interface, or
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another reachable IP address if one is available. Either a digital certificate or a
self-signed certificate must be configured for gateways to use. All gateways on the
router can use the same certificate.
Although one gateway can serve multiple Cisco IOS SSL VPN contexts, resource
constraints and IP address reachability must be taken into account.
Cisco IOS SSL VPN Policies
Cisco IOS SSL VPN group policies allow you to accommodate the needs of
different groups of users. A group of engineers working remotely needs access to
different network resources than sales personnel working in the field. Business
partners and outside vendors must access the information they need to work with
your organization, but you must ensure that they do not have access to confidential
information or other resources they do not need. Creating a different policy for
each of these groups allows you provide remote users with the resources they
need, and prevent them from accessing other resources.
When you configure a group policy, resources such as URL lists, Port Forwarding
lists, and NetBIOS name server lists configured for the policy’s associated context
are available for selection.
If there is more than one group policy configured on the router, you must
configure the router to use a AAA server to authenticate users and to determine
which policy group a particular user belongs to. Click Learn More About Group
Policies for more information.
Example
In this example, a user clicks Create a new SSL VPN and uses the wizard to
create the first Cisco IOS SSL VPN configuration on the router. Completing this
wizard creates a new context, gateway, and group policy. The following table
contains the information the user enters in each wizard window, and the
configuration that Cisco SDM creates with that information.
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Table 21-5
Creating a New SSLVPN
Cisco IOS SSL VPN Wizard Window
Configuration
Create SSL VPN Window
Prerequisite Tasks area indicates that
digital certificates are not configured on
the router.
Cisco SDM configures a self-signed certificate named
“Router_Certificate” that will be available for use in all
Cisco IOS SSL VPN configurations.
User clicks self signed certificate and
configures a certificate in the Persistent
Self Signed Certificate dialog. The user
does not change the Cisco SDM-supplied
name Router_Certificate.
User clicks Create new SSL VPN.
IP Address and Name Window
User enters the following information:
Cisco SDM creates a context named “Asia.”
IP Address: 172.16.5.5
Cisco SDM creates a gateway named “gateway_1” that
uses the IP address 172.16.5.5 and Router_Certificate. This
gateway can be associated with other Cisco IOS SSL VPN
contexts.
Name: Asia
Check Enable secure SDM access
through 192.168.1.1.
Certificate: Router_Certificate
Users will access the Cisco IOS SSL VPN portal by
entering http://172.16.5.5/Asia. If this gateway is
associated with additional contexts, the same IP address
will be used in the URL for those contexts. For example if
the context Europe is also configured to use gateway_1,
users enter https://172.16.5.5/Europe to access the portal.
After the configuration is delivered to the router, users
must enter http://172.16.5.5:4443 to launch Cisco SDM
using this IP address.
Cisco SDM also begins to configure the first group policy,
named policy_1.
User Authentication Window
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Table 21-5
Creating a New SSLVPN (continued)
Cisco IOS SSL VPN Wizard Window
Configuration
User chooses Locally on this router.
Cisco SDM creates the authentication list
User adds one user account to the existing “sdm_vpn_xauth_ml_1.” This list will be displayed in the
list.
Cisco IOS SSL VPN Contexts window when the user
completes the wizard.
Those users listed in the User Authentication window are
the members of this authentication list, and will be
governed by policy_1.
Configure Intranet Websites Window
User configures the URL list Ulist_1. The The URL list with the heading Taiwan will be visible in the
heading is “Taiwan.”
portal that users in “sdm_vpn_xauth_ml_1” see when they
log in.
The URL list will be available for configuration in other
group policies configured under the context “Asia.”
Enable Full Tunnel Window
User clicks Enable Full Tunnel, and
selects a predefined address pool. No
advanced options are configured.
Client PCs will download Full Tunnel client software when
they log in for the first time, and a full tunnel is established
between the PC and the router when the user logs in to the
portal.
Customize SSL VPN Portal Window
User chooses Ocean Breeze.
Cisco SDM configures the HTTP display settings with this
color scheme. The portal displayed when policy_1 users
log in uses these settings. These portal settings also apply
to all policies configured under the context “Asia.” The
user can customize the HTTP display settings in the Edit
SSL VPN windows after completing the wizard.
SSL VPN Passthrough Configuration Window
User checks Allow SSL VPN to work
with NAC and Firewall
Cisco SDM adds an ACL with the following entry.
permit tcp any host 172.16.5.5 eq 443
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Table 21-5
Creating a New SSLVPN (continued)
Cisco IOS SSL VPN Wizard Window
Configuration
Summary Window
The Summary window displays the
information shown at the right.
Additional details can be viewed in the
Edit SSL VPN windows.
SSL VPN Policy Name: policy_1
SSL VPN Gateway Name: gateway_1
User Authentication Method List:
Local
Full Tunnel Configuration
SVC Status: Yes
IP Address Pool: Pool_1
Split Tunneling: Disabled
Split DNS: Disabled
Install Full Tunnel Client: Enabled
When this configuration is delivered, the router has one Cisco IOS SSL VPN
context named Asia, one gateway named gateway_1, and one group policy named
policy_1. This is displayed in the Edit SSL VPN window as shown in the
following table:
Name
Gateway
Domain
Asia
gateway_1
Asia
Status
Administrative Status
In Service
Details about SSL VPN context Asia:
Item Name
Item Value
Group Policies
policy_1
Services
URL Mangling, Full Tunnel
URLs exposed to Users
http://172.16.5.5/pricelist
http://172.16.5.5/catalog
Servers Exposed to users
<None>
WINS servers
<None>
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policy_1 provides the basic Cisco IOS SSL VPN service of URL mangling, and
specifies that a full tunnel be established between clients and the router. No other
features are configured. You can add features to policy_1, such as Thin Client and
Common Internet File System by choosing Configure advanced features for an
existing SSL VPN, choosing Asia and policy_1 in the Select the Cisco IOS
SSL VPN user group window, then choosing the features in the Advanced
Features window. Additional URL lists can also be configured in this wizard.
You can create a new group policy under context “Asia” by choosing Add a new
policy to an existing SSL VPN for a new group of users.
You can customize settings and the policies configured for context Asia by
choosing Asia in the context list and clicking Edit. The Edit SSL VPN Context
Asia window displays a tree that allows you to configure more resources for the
context, and to edit and configure additional policies. You can edit the settings for
gateway_1 by clicking SSL VPN Gateways under the SSL VPN node, selecting
gateway_1, then clicking Edit.
Learn More about Port Forwarding Servers
Port forwarding enables a remote Cisco IOS SSL VPN user to connect to static
ports on servers with private IP addresses on the corporate intranet. For example,
you can configure port forwarding on a router to give remote users Telnet access
to a server on the corporate intranet. To configure port forwarding, you need the
following information:
•
The IP address of the server.
•
The static port number on the server.
•
The remote port number for the client PC. In the dialog, Cisco SDM supplies
a port number that is safe to use.
To allow users to use Telnet to connect to a server with the IP address 10.0.0.100
(port 23) for example, you would create a port mapping entry with the following
information:
Server IP address: 10.0.0.100
Server port on which user is connecting: 23
Port on client PC: Cisco SDM-supplied value. 3001 for this example.
Description: SSL VPN Telnet access to server-a. This description will be on the
portal.
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When the client's browser connects to the gateway router, a portal applet is
downloaded to the client PC. This applet contains the server's IP address and static
port number, and the port number that the client PC is to use. The applet does the
following:
•
Creates a mapping on the client PC that maps traffic for port 23 on 10.0.0.100
to the PC's loopback IP address 127.0.0.1, port 3001.
•
Listens on port 3001, IP address 127.0.0.1
When the user runs an application that connects to port 23 on 10.0.0.100, the
request is sent to 127.0.0.1 port 3001. The portal applet listening on that port and
IP address gets this request and sends it over the Cisco IOS SSL VPN tunnel to
the gateway. The gateway router forwards it to the server at 10.0.0.100, and sends
return traffic back to the PC.
Learn More About Group Policies
Cisco IOS SSL VPN group policies define the portal and links for the users
included in those policies. When a remote user enters the Cisco IOS SSL VPN
URL they have been given, the router must determine which policy the user is a
member of so that it can display the portal configured for that policy. If only one
Cisco IOS SSL VPN policy is configured on the router, it can authenticate users
locally or using a AAA server, and then display the portal.
However, if more than one policy is configured, the router must rely on a AAA
server to determine which policy to use each time a remote user attempts to log
in. If you have configured more than one Cisco IOS SSL VPN group policy, you
must configure at least one AAA server for the router, and you must configure a
policy on that server for each group of users for which you created a Cisco IOS
SSL VPN policy. The policy names on the AAA server must be the same as the
names of the group policies configured on the router, and they must be configured
with the credentials of the users who are members of the group.
For example, if a router has been configured with local authentication for Bob
Smith, and only the group policy Sales has been configured, there is only one
portal available to display when Bob Smith attempts to log in. However, if there
are three Cisco IOS SSL VPN group policies configured, Sales, Field, and
Manufacturing, the router cannot, by itself, determine which policy group Bob
Smith is a member of. If a AAA server is configured with the proper information
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for those policies, the router can contact that server, and receive the information
that Bob Smith is a member of the group Sales. The router can then display the
correct portal for the Sales group.
For information on how to configure the AAA server, see the “Configuring
RADIUS Attribute Support for SSL VPN” section in the SSL VPN Enhancements
document at the following link:
http://www.cisco.com/en/US/products/ps6441/products_feature_guide09186a00
805eeaea.html#wp1396461
Learn More About Split Tunneling
When a Cisco IOS SSL VPN connection is set up with a remote client, all traffic
that the client sends and receives may travel through the Cisco IOS SSL VPN
tunnel, including traffic that is not on the corporate intranet. This can degrade
network performance. Split tunneling allows you to specify the traffic that you
want to send through the Cisco IOS SSL VPN tunnel and allow other traffic to
remain unprotected and be handled by other routers.
In the Split Tunneling area, you can specify the traffic to include in the Cisco IOS
SSL VPN and exclude all other traffic by default, or you can specify the traffic to
exclude from the CCisco IOS SSL VPN and include all other traffic by default.
For example, suppose that your organization uses the 10.11.55.0 and the
10.12.55.0 network addresses. Add these network addresses to the Destination
Network list, then click the Include traffic radio button. All other Internet traffic,
such as traffic to Google or Yahoo, would go direct to the Internet.
Or suppose it is more practical to exclude traffic to certain networks from the
Cisco IOS SSL VPN tunnel. In that case, enter the addresses for those networks
in the Destination Networks list, then click the Exclude traffic radio button. All
traffic destined for the networks in the Destination Networks list is sent over
nonsecure routes, and all other traffic is sent over the Cisco IOS SSL VPN tunnel.
If users have printers on local LANs that they want to use while connected to the
Cisco IOS SSL VPN, you must click Exclude local LAN in the Split Tunneling
area.
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Note
The Destination Network list in the Split Tunneling area may already contain
network addresses. The traffic settings you make in the Split Tunneling area
override any settings previously made for the listed networks.
How do I verify that my Cisco IOS SSL VPN is working?
The best way to determine that a Cisco IOS SSL VPN context will provide the
access that you configured for users is to configure yourself as a user, then attempt
to access all the websites and services that the context is configured to provide for
them. Use the following procedure as a guide in setting up this test.
Step 1
Ensure that credentials you can use are included in all appropriate policies on the
AAA server.
Step 2
If you can do so, open a Cisco SDM session to the router so that you can monitor
the Cisco IOS SSL VPN traffic that you will create. This must be done on a
separate PC if the PC you use to test the Cisco IOS SSL VPN context is not in a
network from which you can access Cisco SDM. Go to Monitor > VPN Status >
SSL VPN.
Step 3
Enter the URL to each of the web portals that are configured for this Cisco IOS
SSL VPN context. Determine that each page has the appearance that you
configured for it, and that all links specified in the URL lists for the policy appear
on the page.
Step 4
Test all links and services that should be available to users included in this policy.
If any of the policies that you are testing provide for downloading Cisco Secure
Desktop or the Full Tunnel client software, enter the URLs to the web portals for
those policies and click the links that will require the download of this software.
Determine that the software downloads properly and that you are able to access
the services that a user should be able to access from these links.
Step 5
If you were able to establish a Cisco SDM session before you began testing, click
the branch for the context that you are testing and observe the Cisco IOS
SSL VPN traffic statistics in the Cisco IOS SSL VPN window.
Step 6
Based on the results of your tests, go back to Cisco SDM if necessary and fix any
configuration problems you discovered.
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How do I configure a Cisco IOS SSL VPN after I have configured
a firewall?
If you have already configured a firewall, you can still use the Cisco IOS
SSL VPN wizards in Cisco SDM to create Cisco IOS SSL VPN contexts and
policies. Cisco SDM validates the Cisco IOS SSL VPN CLI commands that it
generates against the existing configuration on the router. If it detects an existing
firewall configuration that would have to be modified to allow Cisco IOS
SSL VPN traffic to pass through, you are informed. You can allow Cisco SDM to
make the necessary modifications to the firewall, or you can leave the firewall
intact and make the changes manually by going to Configure > Firewall and
ACL > Edit Firewall Policy/ACL and entering the permit statements that allow
Cisco IOS SSL VPN traffic to pass through the firewall.
How do I associate a VRF instance with a Cisco IOS SSL VPN
context?
VPN Routing and Forwarding (VFR) instances maintain a routing table and a
forwarding table for a VPN. You can associate a VRF instance or name with a
Cisco IOS SSL VPN context by going to Configure > VPN > SSL VPN > Edit
SSL VPN. Select the context that you want to associate a VRF instance to and
click Edit. Select the name of the VRF instance in the dialog displayed.
Note
The VRF instance must already be configured on the router.
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SSL VPN Enhancements
This chapter explains how to configure SSL VPN enhancements available with
SSL VPN Reference
•
SSL VPN Context: Access Control Lists
•
Add or Edit Application ACL
•
Add ACL Entry
•
Action URL Time Range
•
Add or Edit Action URL Time Range Dialog
•
Add or Edit Absolute Time Range Entry
•
Add or Edit Periodic Time Range Entry
SSL VPN Context: Access Control Lists
You can create Application ACLs to control access to specific URLs. This
window displays the Application ACLs created for the selected context, and
enables you to edit existing ACLs and create new ones.
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Field Reference
Table 22-1 describes the fields in this screen.
Table 22-1
SSL VPN Access Control List Fields
Element
Description
Access Control List
Add
To create an Application ACL, click Add and create the Application
ACL in the displayed dialog.
Edit
To edit an Application ACL, choose the ACL and click Edit. Edit
the ACL in the displayed dialog.
Delete
To delete an ACL choose the ACL and click Delete.
ACL Name
This table lists the names of the ACLs created for this context.
Details of ACL
Action
One of the following:
•
Permit—Access to the URL in this entry is allowed.
•
Deny—Access to the URL in this entry is denied.
URL
The URL to which the ACL controls access.
Action URL Time Range
The range or periods of time that this ACL is in effect.
Add or Edit Application ACL
Create or edit an application ACL in this window. Cisco IOS SSL VPN uses
application ACLs to specify permitted and denied URLs. One ACL can consist of
multiple entries.
Field Reference
Table 22-2 describes the fields in this screen.
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Table 22-2
Add or Edit SSL VPN Context ACL Fields
Element
Description
ACL Name
Enter a name for this ACL.
Add
To create an entry for this ACL, click Add and create the entry in
the displayed dialog.
Edit
To modify an entry, select the entry and click Edit. Then modify it
in the displayed dialog.
Delete
To remove an entry from this ACL, select the entry and click Delete.
List Area
Action
One of the following:
•
Permit—Access to the URL in this entry is permitted.
•
Deny—Access to the URL in this entry is denied.
URL
The URL to which this ACL entry controls access.
Action URL Time Range
The name of the time range applied to this ACL entry.
Add ACL Entry
Add or Edit an ACL entry in this window.
Field Reference
Table 22-3 describes the fields in this screen.
Table 22-3
Add or Edit SSL VPN Context ACL Entry Fields
Element
Description
Action
Choose one of the following:
•
Permit—Allow access to the URL in this entry.
•
Deny—Deny access to the URL in this entry is denied.
URL
Any
To have this ACL entry apply to any URL, click Any.
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Table 22-3
Add or Edit SSL VPN Context ACL Entry Fields (continued)
Element
Description
Specific URL
To have this ACL entry apply to a URL that you specify, click
Specific URL. Then, enter the URL in the field. Be sure to enter the
entire URL. The following are examples of valid URLs:
http://www.cisco.com
https://www.foo.com
ftp://ftp.bad-down-loads.com
Action URL Time Range
The action URL time range can specify the start and end date for the
action specified, as well as the time periods that the action is to be
in effect.To place a time range entry in this field, click the button to
the right of the field and choose one of the following:
•
Add Time Range List—Choose this option to create a new time
range entry.
•
Select Time Range List—Choose this option to select an
existing time range entry.
•
Remove Time Range List—Choose this option to remove the
current time range entry.
Action URL Time Range
Add time range lists in this window. Time range lists specify when permit or deny
actions are to be applied.
Field Reference
Table 22-4 describes the fields in this screen.
Table 22-4
Action URL Time Range Fields
Element
Description
Time Range Entry
Add
To create a time range entry, click Add, and create the entry in the
displayed dialog.
Edit
To edit an entry, select the entry, and click Edit. Make changes to
the entry in the displayed dialog.
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Table 22-4
Action URL Time Range Fields (continued)
Element
Description
Delete
To remove an entry, select the entry and click Delete.
Item Name
The Item Name list displays the time range entries configured for
this context.
Details of Action URL Time Range
The Details area displays additional information about the selected time range entry.
Type
Period
One of the following:
•
Absolute—The time range specifies an absolute date. There can
be a start date, and there can be an end date, or both.
•
Periodic—The time range specifies days of the week, so that
you can include some days and not others. It can also specify a
start time and an end time.
If the entry type is Periodic, this column shows which days are
included. The following examples show possible entries:
daily
weekdays
Sun, Tue, Sat
Start Time
The starting time and date is displayed for absolute entries, for
example, 10:00 11 Nov 2007.
The starting time is displayed for periodic entries, for example 8:00.
End Time
The end time and date is displayed for absolute entries, for example,
10:00 11 Dec 2007.
The end time is displayed for periodic entries, for example 23:00.
Add or Edit Action URL Time Range Dialog
Create or edit a time range entry in this dialog. A time range entry can consist of
multiple subentries.
Field Reference
Table 22-5 describes the fields in this screen.
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Table 22-5
Time Range Fields
Element
Description
Time Range Name
Enter a name for the time range.
Time Range Entry List Area
Type
Period
One of the following:
•
Absolute—The time range specifies an absolute date. There can
be a start date, and there can be an end date, or both.
•
Periodic—The time range specifies days of the week, so that
you can include some days and not others. It can also specify a
start time and an end time.
If the entry type is Periodic, this column shows which days are
included. The following examples show possible entries:
daily
weekdays
Sun, Tue, Sat
Start
The starting time and date is displayed for absolute entries, for
example, 10:00 11 Nov 2007.
The starting time is displayed for periodic entries, for example 8:00.
End
The end time and date is displayed for absolute entries, for example,
10:00 11 Dec 2007.
The end time is displayed for periodic entries, for example 23:00.
Add
To add an entry, click Add, and choose Absolute, or Periodic. If an
absolute entry has been added, the Absolute option is disabled.
Edit
To edit a time range entry, select the entry and click Edit.
Delete
To remove a time range entry, select the entry and click Delete.
Add or Edit Absolute Time Range Entry
Create or edit an absolute time range entry in this window. The time range can
have a start date, and end date, or both.
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Field Reference
Table 22-6 describes the fields in this screen.
Table 22-6
Element
Absolute Time Range Fields
Description
Start
To specify a start date, click Start, and enter a date and time.
From Date
Enter the starting date in dd/mm/yyyy format. For example,
entering 1/10/2007 specifies a start date of October 1, 2007.
Time
Enter the starting time in 24-hour format. For example, entering
13:00 specifies a starting time of 1:00 p.m.
End
To specify an end date, click End, and enter a date and time
Till Date
Enter the end date in dd/mm/yyyy format. For example, entering
1/1/2008 specifies an end date of January 1, 2008.
Time
Enter the ending time in 24-hour format. For example, entering
23:59 specifies an ending time of 11:59 p.m.
Add or Edit Periodic Time Range Entry
Create or edit a periodic time range entry in this window. You can specify which
days to include in the range, and starting and ending days and times.
Field Reference
Table 22-7 describes the fields in this screen.
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Table 22-7
Periodic Time Range Fields
Element
Description
Period
Choose one of the following:
•
Specific weekdays—To select specific days, choose this option,
and then check the boxes next to the days of the week that you
want to include.
•
weekdays—To include only Monday, Tuesday, Wednesday,
Thursday, and Friday, choose this option.
•
weekend—To include only Saturday, and Sunday, choose this
option.
•
daily—To include each day of the week, choose this option.
From Day
This option is available when you choose Specific weekdays.
Check the box next to one day of the week to specify the From day.
Till Day
This option is available when you choose Specific weekdays, and
you have specified one From day. Click the button and choose the
Till day from the list. If more than one From day is checked, this
option is disabled.
Duration
Start Time
Enter the starting time in 24-hour format. For example, entering
13:00 specifies a starting time of 1:00 p.m.
End Time
Enter the ending time in 24-hour format. For example, entering
23:59 specifies an ending time of 11:59 p.m.
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VPN Troubleshooting
Cisco SDM can troubleshoot VPN connections that you have configured. Cisco
SDM reports the success or failure of the connection tests, and when tests have
failed, recommends actions that you can take to correct connection problems.
The following link provides information on VPN troubleshooting using the CLI.
http://www.cisco.com/univercd/cc/td/doc/product/rtrmgmt/cw2000/cw2000_b/v
pnman/vms_2_2/rmc13/useguide/u13_rtrb.htm
VPN Troubleshooting
This window appear when you are troubleshooting a site-to-site VPN, a GRE over
IPSec tunnel, an Easy VPN remote connection, or an Easy VPN server
connection.
Note
VPN Troubleshooting will not troubleshoot more than two peers for site-to-site
VPN, GRE over IPsec, or Easy VPN client connections.
Tunnel Details
This box provides the VPN tunnel details.
Interface
Interface to which the VPN tunnel is configured.
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VPN Troubleshooting
Peer
The IP address or host name of the devices at the other end of the VPN connection.
Summary
Click this button if you want to view the summarized troubleshooting
information.
Details
Click this button if you want to view the detailed troubleshooting information.
Activity
This column displays the troubleshooting activities.
Status
Displays the status of each troubleshooting activity by the following icons and
text alerts:
The connection is up.
The connection is down.
Test is successful.
Test failed.
Failure Reason(s)
This box provides the possible reason(s) for the VPN tunnel failure.
Recommended action(s)
This box provides a possible action/solution to rectify the problem.
Close Button
Click this button to close the window.
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VPN Troubleshooting: Specify Easy VPN Client
Test Specific Client Button
This button is enabled if you are testing connections for an Easy VPN server
configured on the router. Click this button and specify the client to which you
want to test connectivity.
This button is disabled in the following circumstances:
•
The Basic testing is not done or has not completed successfully.
•
The IOS image does not support the required debugging commands.
•
The view used to launch Cisco SDM does not have root privileges.
What Do You Want to Do?
If you want to:
Do this:
Troubleshoot the VPN connection.
Click Start button.
When test is running, Start button label will change to Stop.
You have option to abort the troubleshooting while test is in
progress.
Save the test report.
Click Save Report button to save the test report in HTML
format.
This button is disabled when the test is in progress.
VPN Troubleshooting: Specify Easy VPN Client
This window allows you to specify the Easy VPN client which you want to debug.
IP Address
Enter IP address of Easy VPN client you want to debug.
Listen for request for X minutes
Enter the time duration for which Easy VPN Server has to listen to requests from
Easy VPN client.
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VPN Troubleshooting: Generate Traffic
Continue Button
After selecting the traffic generation type you want, click this button to continue
testing.
Close Button
Click this button to close the window.
VPN Troubleshooting: Generate Traffic
This window allows you to generate site-to-site VPN or Easy VPN traffic for
debugging. You can allow Cisco SDM to generate VPN traffic or you can generate
VPN traffic yourself.
VPN traffic on this connection is defined as
This area lists current VPN traffic on the interface.
Action
This column denotes whether the type of traffic is allowed in the interface.
Source
Source IP address.
Destination
Destination IP address.
Service
This column lists the type of traffic on the interface.
Log
This column indicates whether logging is enabled for this traffic.
Attributes
Any additional attributes defined.
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VPN Troubleshooting: Generate GRE Traffic
Have SDM generate VPN Traffic
Select this option if you want Cisco SDM to generate VPN traffic on the interface
for debugging.
Note
Cisco SDM will not generate VPN traffic when the VPN tunnel traffic is from
non-IP based Access Control List (ACL) or when the applied and current CLI
View is not root view.
Enter the IP address of a host in the source network
Enter the host IP address in the source network.
Enter the IP address of a host in the destination network
Enter the host IP address in the destination network.
I will generate VPN traffic from the source network
Select this option if you want to generate VPN traffic from the source network.
Wait interval time
Enter the amount of time in seconds that the Easy VPN Server is to wait for you
to generate source traffic. Be sure to give yourself enough time to switch to other
systems to generate traffic.
Continue Button
After selecting the traffic generation type you want, click this button to continue
testing.
Close Button
Click this button to close the window.
VPN Troubleshooting: Generate GRE Traffic
This screen appears if you are generating GRE over IPSec traffic.
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Cisco SDM Warning: SDM will enable router debugs...
Have SDM generate VPN Traffic
Select this option if you want Cisco SDM to generate VPN traffic on the interface
for debugging.
Enter the remote tunnel IP address
Enter the IP address of the remote GRE tunnel. Do not use the address of the
remote interface.
I will generate VPN traffic from the source network
Select this option if you want to generate VPN traffic from the source network.
Wait interval time
Enter the amount of time in seconds that the Easy VPN Server is to wait for you
to generate source traffic. Be sure to give yourself enough time to switch to other
systems to generate traffic.
Continue Button
After selecting the traffic generation type you want, click this button to continue
testing.
Close Button
Click this button to close the window.
Cisco SDM Warning: SDM will enable router
debugs...
This window appears when Cisco SDM is ready to begin advanced
troubleshooting. Advanced troubleshooting involves delivering debug commands
to the router waiting for results to report, and then removing the debug commands
so that router performance is not further affected.
This message is displayed because this process can take several minutes and may
affect router performance.
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Security Audit
Security Audit is a feature that examines your existing router configurations and
then updates your router in order to make your router and network more secure.
Security Audit is based on the Cisco IOS AutoSecure feature; it performs checks
on and assists in configuration of almost all of the AutoSecure functions. For a
complete list of the functions that Security Audit checks for, and for a list of the
few AutoSecure features unsupported by Security Audit, see the topic Cisco SDM
and Cisco IOS AutoSecure.
Security Audit operates in one of two modes—the Security Audit wizard, which
lets you choose which potential security-related configuration changes to
implement on your router, and One-Step Lockdown, which automatically makes
all recommended security-related configuration changes.
Perform Security Audit
This option starts the Security Audit wizard. The Security Audit wizard tests your
router configuration to determine if any potential security problems exist in the
configuration, and then presents you with a screen that lets you determine which
of those security problems you want to fix. Once determined, the Security Audit
wizard will make the necessary changes to the router configuration to fix those
problems.
To have Cisco SDM perform a security audit and then fix the problems it has found:
Step 1
In the left frame, select Security Audit.
Step 2
Click Perform Security Audit.
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The Welcome page of the Security Audit wizard appears.
Step 3
Click Next>.
The Security Audit Interface Configuration page appears.
Step 4
The Security Audit wizard needs to know which of your router interfaces connect
to your inside network and which connect outside of your network. For each
interface listed, check either the Inside or Outside check box to indicate where
the interface connects.
Step 5
Click Next>.
The Security Audit wizard tests your router configuration to determine which
possible security problems may exist. A screen showing the progress of this action
appears, listing all of the configuration options being tested for, and whether or
not the current router configuration passes those tests.
If you want to save this report to a file, click Save Report.
Step 6
Click Close.
The Security Audit Report Card screen appears, showing a list of possible security
problems.
Step 7
Check the Fix it boxes next to any problems that you want Cisco Router and
Security Device Manager (Cisco SDM) to fix. For a description of the problem
and a list of the Cisco IOS commands that will be added to your configuration,
click the problem description to display a help page about that problem.
Step 8
Click Next>.
Step 9
The Security Audit wizard may display one or more screens requiring you to enter
information to fix certain problems. Enter the information as required and click
Next> for each of those screens.
Step 10
The Summary page of the wizard shows a list of all the configuration changes that
Security Audit will make. Click Finish to deliver those changes to your router.
One-Step Lockdown
This option tests you router configuration for any potential security problems and
automatically makes any necessary configuration changes to correct any problems
found. The conditions checked for and, if needed, corrected are as follows:
•
Disable Finger Service
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•
Disable PAD Service
•
Disable TCP Small Servers Service
•
Disable UDP Small Servers Service
•
Disable IP BOOTP Server Service
•
Disable IP Identification Service
•
Disable CDP
•
Disable IP Source Route
•
Enable Password Encryption Service
•
Enable TCP Keepalives for Inbound Telnet Sessions
•
Enable TCP Keepalives for Outbound Telnet Sessions
•
Enable Sequence Numbers and Time Stamps on Debugs
•
Enable IP CEF
•
Disable IP Gratuitous ARPs
•
Set Minimum Password Length to Less Than 6 Characters
•
Set Authentication Failure Rate to Less Than 3 Retries
•
Set TCP Synwait Time
•
Set Banner
•
Enable Logging
•
Set Enable Secret Password
•
Disable SNMP
•
Set Scheduler Interval
•
Set Scheduler Allocate
•
Set Users
•
Enable Telnet Settings
•
Enable NetFlow Switching
•
Disable IP Redirects
•
Disable IP Proxy ARP
•
Disable IP Directed Broadcast
•
Disable MOP Service
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Welcome Page
•
Disable IP Unreachables
•
Disable IP Mask Reply
•
Disable IP Unreachables on NULL Interface
•
Enable Unicast RPF on Outside Interfaces
•
Enable Firewall on All of the Outside Interfaces
•
Set Access Class on HTTP Server Service
•
Set Access Class on VTY Lines
•
Enable SSH for Access to the Router
Welcome Page
This screen describes the Security Audit wizard and the changes the wizard will
attempt to make to your router configuration.
Interface Selection Page
This screen displays a list of all interfaces and requires you to identify which
router interfaces are “outside” interfaces, that is, interfaces that connect to
unsecure networks such as the Internet. By identifying which interfaces are
outside interfaces, Security Configuration knows on which interfaces to configure
firewall security features.
Interface Column
This column lists each of the router interfaces.
Outside Column
This column displays a check box for each interface listed in the Interface column.
Check the check box for each interface that connects to a network outside of your
network, such as the Internet.
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Report Card Page
Inside Column
This column displays a check box for each interface listed in the Interface column.
Check the check box for each interface that connects directly to your local
network and is thus protected from the Internet by your firewall.
Report Card Page
The Report Card popup page displays a list of recommended configuration
changes that, if made, make the network more secure. The Save button, enabled
after all checks are made, lets you save the report card to a file that you can print
or email. Clicking Close displays a dialog that lists the reported security
problems, and that can list security configurations that Cisco SDM can undo.
Fix It Page
This page displays the configuration changes recommended in the Report Card
page. Use the Select an Option list to display the security problems Cisco SDM
can fix, or the security configurations Cisco SDM can undo.
Select an Option: Fix the security problems
The Report Card screen displays a list of recommended configuration changes
that will make your router and network more secure. The potential security
problems in your router configuration are listed in the left column. To get more
information about a potential problem, click the problem. Online help will display
a more detailed description of the problem and the recommended configuration
changes. To correct all of the potential problems, click Fix All, and then click
Next> to continue. To correct individual security issues, check the Fix It check
box next to the issue or issues that you want to correct, and then click Next> to
continue the Security Audit Wizard. The Security Audit will correct the problems
you selected, collecting further input from you as necessary, and will then display
a list of the new configuration commands that will be added to the router
configuration.
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Fix All
Click this button to place a check mark next to all of the potential security
problems listed on the Report Card screen.
Select an option: Undo Security Configurations
When this option is selected, Cisco SDM displays the security configurations that
it can undo. To have Cisco SDM undo all the security configurations, click Undo
All. To specify a security configuration that you want to undo, check the Undo
box next to it. Click Next> after you have specified which security configurations
to undo. You must select at least one security configuration to undo.
Undo All
Click the button to place a checkmark next to all the security configurations that
Cisco SDM can undo.
To see which security configurations Cisco SDM can undo, click:
Security Configurations Cisco SDM Can Undo
I want Cisco SDM to fix some problems, but undo other security configurations
If you want Cisco SDM to fix some security issues but undo other security
configurations that you do not need, you can run the Security Audit wizard once
to specify the problems to fix, and then run it again so that you can select the
security configurations you want to undo.
Disable Finger Service
Security Audit disables the finger service whenever possible. Finger is used to
find out which users are logged into a network device. Although this information
is not usually tremendously sensitive, it can sometimes be useful to an attacker.
In addition, the finger service can be used in a specific type of Denial-of-Service
(DoS) attack called “Finger of death,” which involves sending a finger request to
a specific computer every minute, but never disconnecting.
The configuration that will be delivered to the router to disable the Finger service
is as follows:
no service finger
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This fix can be undone. To learn how, click Undoing Security Audit Fixes.
Disable PAD Service
Security Audit disables all packet assembler/disassembler (PAD) commands and
connections between PAD devices and access servers whenever possible.
The configuration that will be delivered to the router to disable PAD is as follows:
no service pad
This fix can be undone. To learn how, click Undoing Security Audit Fixes.
Disable TCP Small Servers Service
Security Audit disables small services whenever possible. By default, Cisco
devices running Cisco IOS version 11.3 or earlier offer the “small services”: echo,
chargen, and discard. (Small services are disabled by default in Cisco IOS
software version 12.0 and later.) These services, especially their User Datagram
Protocol (UDP) versions, are infrequently used for legitimate purposes, but they
can be used to launch DoS and other attacks that would otherwise be prevented by
packet filtering.
For example, an attacker might send a Domain Name System (DNS) packet,
falsifying the source address to be a DNS server that would otherwise be
unreachable, and falsifying the source port to be the DNS service port (port 53).
If such a packet were sent to the router’s UDP echo port, the result would be the
router sending a DNS packet to the server in question. No outgoing access list
checks would be applied to this packet, since it would be considered to be locally
generated by the router itself.
Although most abuses of the small services can be avoided or made less dangerous
by anti-spoofing access lists, the services should almost always be disabled in any
router which is part of a firewall or lies in a security-critical part of the network.
Since the services are rarely used, the best policy is usually to disable them on all
routers of any description.
The configuration that will be delivered to the router to disable TCP small servers
is as follows:
no service tcp-small-servers
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This fix can be undone. To learn how, click Undoing Security Audit Fixes.
Disable UDP Small Servers Service
Security Audit disables small services whenever possible. By default, Cisco
devices running Cisco IOS version 11.3 or earlier offer the “small services”: echo,
chargen, and discard. (Small services are disabled by default in Cisco IOS
software version 12.0 and later.) These services, especially their UDP versions,
are infrequently used for legitimate purposes, but they can be used to launch DoS
and other attacks that would otherwise be prevented by packet filtering.
For example, an attacker might send a DNS packet, falsifying the source address
to be a DNS server that would otherwise be unreachable, and falsifying the source
port to be the DNS service port (port 53). If such a packet were sent to the router’s
UDP echo port, the result would be the router sending a DNS packet to the server
in question. No outgoing access list checks would be applied to this packet, since
it would be considered to be locally generated by the router itself.
Although most abuses of the small services can be avoided or made less dangerous
by anti-spoofing access lists, the services should almost always be disabled in any
router which is part of a firewall or lies in a security-critical part of the network.
Since the services are rarely used, the best policy is usually to disable them on all
routers of any description.
The configuration that will be delivered to the router to disable UDP small servers
is as follows:
no service udp-small-servers
Disable IP BOOTP Server Service
Security Audit disables the Bootstrap Protocol (BOOTP) service whenever
possible. BOOTP allows both routers and computers to automatically configure
necessary Internet information from a centrally maintained server upon startup,
including downloading Cisco IOS software. As a result, BOOTP can potentially
be used by an attacker to download a copy of a router’s Cisco IOS software.
In addition, the BOOTP service is vulnerable to DoS attacks; therefore it should
be disabled or filtered via a firewall for this reason as well.
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The configuration that will be delivered to the router to disable BOOTP is as
follows:
no ip bootp server
This fix can be undone. To learn how, click Undoing Security Audit Fixes.
Disable IP Identification Service
Security Audit disables identification support whenever possible. Identification
support allows you to query a TCP port for identification. This feature enables an
unsecure protocol to report the identity of a client initiating a TCP connection and
a host responding to the connection. With identification support, you can connect
a TCP port on a host, issue a simple text string to request information, and receive
a simple text-string reply.
It is dangerous to allow any system on a directly connected segment to learn that
the router is a Cisco device and to determine the model number and the Cisco IOS
software version being run. This information may be used to design attacks
against the router.
The configuration that will be delivered to the router to disable the IP
identification service is as follows:
no ip identd
This fix can be undone. To learn how, click Undoing Security Audit Fixes.
Disable CDP
Security Audit disables Cisco Discovery Protocol (CDP) whenever possible. CDP
is a proprietary protocol that Cisco routers use to identify each other on a LAN
segment. This is dangerous in that it allows any system on a directly connected
segment to learn that the router is a Cisco device and to determine the model
number and the Cisco IOS software version being run. This information may be
used to design attacks against the router.
The configuration that will be delivered to the router to disable CDP is as follows:
no cdp run
This fix can be undone. To learn how, click Undoing Security Audit Fixes.
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Disable IP Source Route
Security Audit disables IP source routing whenever possible. The IP protocol
supports source routing options that allow the sender of an IP datagram to control
the route that the datagram will take toward its ultimate destination, and generally
the route that any reply will take. These options are rarely used for legitimate
purposes in networks. Some older IP implementations do not process
source-routed packets properly, and it may be possible to crash machines running
these implementations by sending them datagrams with source routing options.
Disabling IP source routing will cause a Cisco router to never forward an IP
packet that carries a source routing option.
The configuration that will be delivered to the router to disable IP source routing
is as follows:
no ip source-route
This fix can be undone. To learn how, click Undoing Security Audit Fixes.
Enable Password Encryption Service
Security Audit enables password encryption whenever possible. Password
encryption directs the Cisco IOS software to encrypt the passwords, Challenge
Handshake Authentication Protocol (CHAP) secrets, and similar data that are
saved in its configuration file. This is useful for preventing casual observers from
reading passwords, for example, when they happen to look at the screen over an
administrator’s shoulder.
The configuration that will be delivered to the router to enable password
encryption is as follows:
service password-encryption
This fix can be undone. To learn how, click Undoing Security Audit Fixes.
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Enable TCP Keepalives for Inbound Telnet Sessions
Security Audit enables TCP keep alive messages for both inbound and outbound
Telnet sessions whenever possible. Enabling TCP keep alives causes the router to
generate periodic keep alive messages, letting it detect and drop broken Telnet
connections.
The configuration that will be delivered to the router to enable TCP keep alives
for inbound Telnet sessions is as follows:
service tcp-keepalives-in
This fix can be undone. To learn how, click Undoing Security Audit Fixes.
Enable TCP Keepalives for Outbound Telnet Sessions
Security Audit enables TCP keep alive messages for both inbound and outbound
Telnet sessions whenever possible. Enabling TCP keep alives causes the router to
generate periodic keep alive messages, letting it detect and drop broken Telnet
connections.
The configuration that will be delivered to the router to enable TCP keep alives
for outbound Telnet sessions is as follows:
service tcp-keepalives-out
This fix can be undone. To learn how, click Undoing Security Audit Fixes.
Enable Sequence Numbers and Time Stamps on Debugs
Security Audit enables sequence numbers and time stamps on all debug and log
messages whenever possible. Time stamps on debug and log messages indicate
the time and date that the message was generated. Sequence numbers indicate the
sequence in which messages that have identical time stamps were generated.
Knowing the timing and sequence that messages are generated is an important
tool in diagnosing potential attacks.
The configuration that will be delivered to the router to enable time stamps and
sequence numbers is as follows:
service timestamps debug datetime localtime show-timezone msec
service timestamps log datetime localtime show-timeout msec
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service sequence-numbers
Enable IP CEF
Security Audit enables Cisco Express Forwarding (CEF) or Distributed Cisco
Express Forwarding (DCEF) whenever possible. Because there is no need to build
cache entries when traffic starts arriving at new destinations, CEF behaves more
predictably than other modes when presented with large volumes of traffic
addressed to many destinations. Routes configured for CEF perform better under
SYN attacks than routers using the traditional cache.
The configuration that will be delivered to the router to enable CEF is as follows:
ip cef
Disable IP Gratuitous ARPs
Security Audit disables IP gratuitous Address Resolution Protocol (ARP) requests
whenever possible. A gratuitous ARP is an ARP broadcast in which the source
and destination IP addresses are the same. It is used primarily by a host to inform
the network about its IP address. A spoofed gratuitous ARP message can cause
network mapping information to be stored incorrectly, causing network
malfunction.
To disable gratuitous ARPs, the following configuration will be delivered to the
router:
no ip gratuitous-arps
This fix can be undone. To learn how, click Undoing Security Audit Fixes.
Set Minimum Password Length to Less Than 6 Characters
Security Audit configures your router to require a minimum password length of
six characters whenever possible. One method attackers use to crack passwords is
to try all possible combinations of characters until the password is discovered.
Longer passwords have exponentially more possible combinations of characters,
making this method of attack much more difficult.
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This configuration change will require every password on the router, including the
user, enable, secret, console, AUX, tty, and vty passwords, to be at least six
characters in length. This configuration change will be made only if the Cisco IOS
version running on your router supports the minimum password length feature.
The configuration that will be delivered to the router is as follows:
security passwords min-length <6>
Set Authentication Failure Rate to Less Than 3 Retries
Security Audit configures your router to lock access after three unsuccessful login
attempts whenever possible. One method of cracking passwords, called the
“dictionary” attack, is to use software that attempts to log in using every word in
a dictionary. This configuration causes access to the router to be locked for a
period of 15 seconds after three unsuccessful login attempts, disabling the
dictionary method of attack. In addition to locking access to the router, this
configuration causes a log message to be generated after three unsuccessful login
attempts, warning the administrator of the unsuccessful login attempts.
The configuration that will be delivered to the router to lock router access after
three unsuccessful login attempts is as follows:
security authentication failure rate <3>
Set TCP Synwait Time
Security Audit sets the TCP synwait time to 10 seconds whenever possible. The
TCP synwait time is a value that is useful in defeating SYN flooding attacks, a
form of Denial-of-Service (DoS) attack. A TCP connection requires a three-phase
handshake to initially establish the connection. A connection request is sent by the
originator, an acknowledgement is sent by the receiver, and then an acceptance of
that acknowledgement is sent by the originator. Once this three-phase handshake
is complete, the connection is complete and data transfer can begin. A SYN
flooding attack sends repeated connection requests to a host, but never sends the
acceptance of acknowledgements that complete the connections, creating
increasingly more incomplete connections at the host. Because the buffer for
incomplete connections is usually smaller than the buffer for completed
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connections, this can overwhelm and disable the host. Setting the TCP synwait
time to 10 seconds causes the router to shut down an incomplete connection after
10 seconds, preventing the buildup of incomplete connections at the host.
The configuration that will be delivered to the router to set the TCP synwait time
to 10 seconds is as follows:
ip tcp synwait-time <10>
Set Banner
Security Audit configures a text banner whenever possible. In some jurisdictions,
civil and/or criminal prosecution of crackers who break into your systems is made
much easier if you provide a banner informing unauthorized users that their use
is in fact unauthorized. In other jurisdictions, you may be forbidden to monitor
the activities of even unauthorized users unless you have taken steps to notify
them of your intent to do so. The text banner is one method of performing this
notification.
The configuration that will be delivered to the router to create a text banner is as
follows, replacing <company name>, <administrator email address>, and
<administrator phone number> with the appropriate values that you enter into
Security Audit:
banner ~
Authorized access only
This system is the property of <company name> Enterprise.
Disconnect IMMEDIATELY as you are not an authorized user!
Contact <administrator email address> <administrator phone number>.
~
Enable Logging
Security Audit will enable logging with time stamps and sequence numbers
whenever possible. Because it gives detailed information about network events,
logging is critical in recognizing and responding to security events. Time stamps
and sequence numbers provide information about the date and time and sequence
in which network events occur.
The configuration that will be delivered to the router to enable and configure
logging is as follows, replacing <log buffer size> and <logging server ip
address> with the appropriate values that you enter into Security Audit:
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logging
logging
logging
logging
console critical
trap debugging
buffered <log buffer size>
<logging server ip address>
Set Enable Secret Password
Security Audit will configure the enable secret Cisco IOS command for more
secure password protection whenever possible. The enable secret command is
used to set the password that grants privileged administrative access to the Cisco
IOS system. The enable secret command uses a much more secure encryption
algorithm (MD5) to protect that password than the older enable password
command. This stronger encryption is an essential means of protecting the router
password, and thus network access.
The configuration that will be delivered to the router to configure the command is
as follows:
enable secret <>
Disable SNMP
Security Audit disables the Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP)
whenever possible. SNMP is a network protocol that provides a facility for
retrieving and posting data about network performance and processes. It is very
widely used for router monitoring, and frequently for router configuration
changes as well. Version 1 of the SNMP protocol, however, which is the most
commonly used, is often a security risk for the following reasons:
•
It uses authentication strings (passwords) called community strings which are
stored and sent across the network in plain text.
•
Most SNMP implementations send those strings repeatedly as part of periodic
polling.
•
It is an easily spoofable, datagram-based transaction protocol.
Because SNMP can be used to retrieve a copy of the network routing table, as well
as other sensitive network information, Cisco recommends disabling SNMP if
your network does not require it. Security Audit will initially request to disable
SNMP.
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The configuration that will be delivered to the router to disable SNMP is as
follows:
no snmp-server
Set Scheduler Interval
Security Audit configures the scheduler interval on the router whenever possible.
When a router is fast-switching a large number of packets, it is possible for the
router to spend so much time responding to interrupts from the network interfaces
that no other work gets done. Some very fast packet floods can cause this
condition. It may stop administrative access to the router, which is very dangerous
when the device is under attack. Tuning the scheduler interval ensures that
management access to the router is always available by causing the router to run
system processes after the specified time interval even when CPU usage is at
100%.
The configuration that will be delivered to the router to tune the scheduler interval
is as follows:
scheduler interval 500
Set Scheduler Allocate
On routers that do not support the command scheduler interval, Security Audit
configures the scheduler allocate command whenever possible. When a router is
fast-switching a large number of packets, it is possible for the router to spend so
much time responding to interrupts from the network interfaces that no other work
gets done. Some very fast packet floods can cause this condition. It may stop
administrative access to the router, which is very dangerous when the device is
under attack. The scheduler allocate command guarantees a percentage of the
router CPU processes for activities other than network switching, such as
management processes.
The configuration that will be delivered to the router to set the scheduler allocate
percentage is as follows:
scheduler allocate 4000 1000
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Set Users
Security Audit secures the console, AUX, vty, and tty lines by configuring Telnet
user accounts to authenticate access to these lines whenever possible. Security
Audit will display a dialog box that lets you define user accounts and passwords
for these lines.
Enable Telnet Settings
Security Audit secures the console, AUX, vty, and tty lines by implementing the
following configurations whenever possible:
•
Configures transport input and transport output commands to define
which protocols can be used to connect to those lines.
•
Sets the exec-timeout value to 10 minutes on the console and AUX lines,
causing an administrative user to be logged out from these lines after
10 minutes of no activity.
The configuration that will be delivered to the router to secure the console, AUX,
vty, and tty lines is as follows:
!
line console 0
transport output telnet
exec-timeout 10
login local
!
line AUX 0
transport output telnet
exec-timeout 10
login local
!
line vty ….
transport input telnet
login local
Enable NetFlow Switching
Security Audit enables NetFlow switching whenever possible. NetFlow switching
is a Cisco IOS feature that enhances routing performance while using Access
Control Lists (ACLs) and other features that create and enhance network security.
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NetFlow identifies flows of network packets based on the source and destination
IP addresses and TCP port numbers. NetFlow then can use just the initial packet
of a flow for comparison to ACLs and for other security checks, rather than having
to use every packet in the network flow. This enhances performance, allowing you
to make use of all of the router security features.
The configuration that will be delivered to the router to enable NetFlow is as
follows:
ip route-cache flow
This fix can be undone. To learn how, click Undoing Security Audit Fixes.
Disable IP Redirects
Security Audit disables Internet Message Control Protocol (ICMP) redirect
messages whenever possible. ICMP supports IP traffic by relaying information
about paths, routes, and network conditions. ICMP redirect messages instruct an
end node to use a specific router as its path to a particular destination. In a
properly functioning IP network, a router will send redirects only to hosts on its
own local subnets, no end node will ever send a redirect, and no redirect will ever
be traversed more than one network hop. However, an attacker may violate these
rules; some attacks are based on this. Disabling ICMP redirects will cause no
operational impact to the network, and it eliminates this possible method of
attack.
The configuration that will be delivered to the router to disable ICMP redirect
messages is as follows:
no ip redirects
Disable IP Proxy ARP
Security Audit disables proxy Address Resolution Protocol (ARP) whenever
possible. ARP is used by the network to convert IP addresses into MAC addresses.
Normally ARP is confined to a single LAN, but a router can act as a proxy for
ARP requests, making ARP queries available across multiple LAN segments.
Because it breaks the LAN security barrier, proxy ARP should be used only
between two LANs with an equal security level, and only when necessary.
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The configuration that will be delivered to the router to disable proxy ARP is as
follows:
no ip proxy-arp
This fix can be undone. To learn how, click Undoing Security Audit Fixes.
Disable IP Directed Broadcast
Security Audit disables IP directed broadcasts whenever possible. An IP directed
broadcast is a datagram which is sent to the broadcast address of a subnet to which
the sending machine is not directly attached. The directed broadcast is routed
through the network as a unicast packet until it arrives at the target subnet, where
it is converted into a link-layer broadcast. Because of the nature of the IP
addressing architecture, only the last router in the chain, the one that is connected
directly to the target subnet, can conclusively identify a directed broadcast.
Directed broadcasts are occasionally used for legitimate purposes, but such use is
not common outside the financial services industry.
IP directed broadcasts are used in the extremely common and popular “smurf”
Denial-of-Service attack, and they can also be used in related attacks. In a “smurf”
attack, the attacker sends ICMP echo requests from a falsified source address to a
directed broadcast address, causing all the hosts on the target subnet to send
replies to the falsified source. By sending a continuous stream of such requests,
the attacker can create a much larger stream of replies, which can completely
inundate the host whose address is being falsified.
Disabling IP directed broadcasts causes directed broadcasts that would otherwise
be “exploded” into link-layer broadcasts at that interface to be dropped instead.
The configuration that will be delivered to the router to disable IP directed
broadcasts is as follows:
no ip directed-broadcast
This fix can be undone. To learn how, click Undoing Security Audit Fixes.
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Disable MOP Service
Security Audit will disable the Maintenance Operations Protocol (MOP) on all
Ethernet interfaces whenever possible. MOP is used to provide configuration
information to the router when communicating with DECNet networks. MOP is
vulnerable to various attacks.
The configuration that will be delivered to the router to disable the MOP service
on Ethernet interfaces is as follows:
no mop enabled
This fix can be undone. To learn how, click Undoing Security Audit Fixes.
Disable IP Unreachables
Security Audit disables Internet Message Control Protocol (ICMP) host
unreachable messages whenever possible. ICMP supports IP traffic by relaying
information about paths, routes, and network conditions. ICMP host unreachable
messages are sent out if a router receives a nonbroadcast packet that uses an
unknown protocol, or if the router receives a packet that it is unable to deliver to
the ultimate destination because it knows of no route to the destination address.
These messages can be used by an attacker to gain network mapping information.
The configuration that will be delivered to the router to disable ICMP host
unreachable messages is as follows:
int <all-interfaces>
no ip unreachables
This fix can be undone. To learn how, click Undoing Security Audit Fixes.
Disable IP Mask Reply
Security Audit disables Internet Message Control Protocol (ICMP) mask reply
messages whenever possible. ICMP supports IP traffic by relaying information
about paths, routes, and network conditions. ICMP mask reply messages are sent
when a network devices must know the subnet mask for a particular subnetwork
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in the internetwork. ICMP mask reply messages are sent to the device requesting
the information by devices that have the requested information. These messages
can be used by an attacker to gain network mapping information.
The configuration that will be delivered to the router to disable ICMP mask reply
messages is as follows:
no ip mask-reply
This fix can be undone. To learn how, click Undoing Security Audit Fixes.
Disable IP Unreachables on NULL Interface
Security Audit disables Internet Message Control Protocol (ICMP) host
unreachable messages whenever possible. ICMP supports IP traffic by relaying
information about paths, routes, and network conditions. ICMP host unreachable
messages are sent out if a router receives a nonbroadcast packet that uses an
unknown protocol, or if the router receives a packet that it is unable to deliver to
the ultimate destination because it knows of no route to the destination address.
Because the null interface is a packet sink, packets forwarded there will always be
discarded and, unless disabled, will generate host unreachable messages. In that
case, if the null interface is being used to block a Denial-of-Service attack, these
messages flood the local network with these messages. Disabling these messages
prevents this situation. In addition, because all blocked packets are forwarded to
the null interface, an attacker receiving host unreachable messages could use
those messages to determine Access Control List (ACL) configuration.
If the “null 0” interface is configured on your router, Security Audit will deliver
the following configuration to the router to disable ICMP host unreachable
messages for discarded packets or packets routed to the null interface is as
follows:
int null 0
no ip unreachables
This fix can be undone. To learn how, click Undoing Security Audit Fixes.
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Enable Unicast RPF on Outside Interfaces
Security Audit enables unicast Reverse Path Forwarding (RPF) on all interfaces
that connect to the Internet whenever possible. RPF is a feature that causes the
router to check the source address of any packet against the interface through
which the packet entered the router. If the input interface is not a feasible path to
the source address according to the routing table, the packet will be dropped. This
source address verification is used to defeat IP spoofing.
This works only when routing is symmetric. If the network is designed in such a
way that traffic from host A to host B may normally take a different path than
traffic from host B to host A, the check will always fail, and communication
between the two hosts will be impossible. This sort of asymmetric routing is
common in the Internet core. Ensure that your network does not use asymmetric
routing before enabling this feature.
In addition, unicast RPF can be enabled only when IP Cisco Express
Forwarding (CEF) is enabled. Security Audit will check the router configuration
to see if IP CEF is enabled. If IP CEF is not enabled, Security Audit will
recommend that IP CEF be enabled and will enable it if the recommendation is
approved. If IP CEF is not enabled, by Security Audit or otherwise, unicast RPF
will not be enabled.
To enable unicast RPF, the following configuration will be delivered to the router
for each interface that connects outside of the private network, replacing
<outside interface> with the interface identifier:
interface <outside interface>
ip verify unicast reverse-path
Enable Firewall on All of the Outside Interfaces
If the Cisco IOS image running on the router includes the Firewall feature set,
then Security Audit will enable Context-Based Access Control (CBAC) on the
router whenever possible. CBAC, a component of the Cisco IOS Firewall feature
set, filters packets based on application-layer information, such as what kinds of
commands are being executed within the session. For example, if a command that
is not supported is discovered in a session, the packet can be denied access.
CBAC enhances security for TCP and User Datagram Protocol (UDP)
applications that use well-known ports, such as port 80 for HTTP or port 443 for
Secure Sockets Layer (SSL). It does this by scrutinizing source and destination
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addresses. Without CBAC, advanced application traffic is permitted only by
writing Access Control Lists (ACLs). This approach leaves firewall doors open,
so most administrators tend to deny all such application traffic. With CBAC
enabled, however, you can securely permit multimedia and other application
traffic by opening the firewall as needed and closing it all other times.
To enable CBAC, Security Audit will use Cisco SDM’s Create Firewall screens to
generate a firewall configuration.
Set Access Class on HTTP Server Service
Security Audit enables the HTTP service on the router with an access class
whenever possible. The HTTP service permits remote configuration and
monitoring using a web browser, but is limited in its security because it sends a
clear-text password over the network during the authentication process. Security
Audit therefore limits access to the HTTP service by configuring an access class
that permits access only from directly connected network nodes.
The configuration that will be delivered to the router to enable the HTTP service
with an access class is as follows:
ip http server
ip http access-class <std-acl-num>
!
!HTTP Access-class:Allow initial access to direct connected subnets !
!only
access-list <std-acl-num> permit <inside-network>
access-list <std-acl-num> deny any
Set Access Class on VTY Lines
Security Audit configures an access class for vty lines whenever possible.
Because vty connections permit remote access to your router, they should be
limited only to known network nodes.
The configuration that will be delivered to the router to configure an access class
for vty lines is as follows:
access-list <std-acl-num> permit <inside-network>
access-list <std-acl-num> deny any
In addition, the following configuration will be applied to each vty line:
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access-class <std-acl-num>
Enable SSH for Access to the Router
If the Cisco IOS image running on the router is a crypto image (an image that uses
56-bit Data Encryption Standard (DES) encryption and is subject to export
restrictions), then Security Audit will implement the following configurations to
secure Telnet access whenever possible:
•
Enable Secure Shell (SSH) for Telnet access. SSH makes Telnet access much
more secure.
•
Set the SSH timeout value to 60 seconds, causing incomplete SSH
connections to shut down after 60 seconds.
•
Set the maximum number of unsuccessful SSH login attempts to two before
locking access to the router.
The configuration that will be delivered to the router to secure access and file
transfer functions is as follows:
ip ssh time-out 60
ip ssh authentication-retries 2
!
line vty 0 4
transport input ssh
!
Note
After making the configuration changes above, you must specify the SSH
modulus key size and generate a key. Use the SSH page to do so.
Enable AAA
Cisco IOS Authentication, Authorization, and Accounting (AAA) is an
architectural framework for configuring a set of three independent security
functions in a consistent manner. AAA provides a modular way of performing
authentication, authorization, and accounting services.
Cisco SDM will perform the following precautionary tasks while enabling AAA
to prevent loss of access to the router:
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Configuration Summary Screen
•
Configure authentication and authorization for VTY lines
The local database will be used for both authentication and authorization.
•
Configure authentication for a console line
The local database will be used for authentication.
•
Modify HTTP authentication to use the local database
Configuration Summary Screen
This screen displays a list of all the configuration changes that will be delivered
to the router configuration, based on the security problems that you selected to fix
in the Report Card screen.
Cisco SDM and Cisco IOS AutoSecure
AutoSecure is a Cisco IOS feature that, like Cisco SDM, lets you more easily
configure security features on your router, so that your network is better
protected. Cisco SDM implements almost all of the configurations that
AutoSecure affords.
AutoSecure Features Implemented in Cisco SDM
The following AutoSecure features are implemented in this version of Cisco
SDM. For an explanation of these services and features, click the links below:
•
Disable SNMP
•
Disable Finger Service
•
Disable PAD Service
•
Disable TCP Small Servers Service
•
Disable IP BOOTP Server Service
•
Disable IP Identification Service
•
Disable CDP
•
Disable IP Source Route
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Cisco SDM and Cisco IOS AutoSecure
•
Disable IP Redirects
•
Disable IP Proxy ARP
•
Disable IP Directed Broadcast
•
Disable MOP Service
•
Disable IP Unreachables
•
Disable IP Unreachables on NULL Interface
•
Disable IP Mask Reply
•
Enable Password Encryption Service
•
Disable IP Unreachables on NULL Interface
•
Disable IP Unreachables on NULL Interface
•
Set Minimum Password Length to Less Than 6 Characters
•
Enable IP CEF
•
Enable Firewall on All of the Outside Interfaces
•
Set Users
•
Enable Logging
•
Enable Firewall on All of the Outside Interfaces
•
Set Minimum Password Length to Less Than 6 Characters
•
Enable Firewall on All of the Outside Interfaces
•
Set Users
•
Set Users
•
Set Users
•
Enable Unicast RPF on Outside Interfaces
•
Enable Firewall on All of the Outside Interfaces
AutoSecure Features Not Implemented in Cisco SDM
The following AutoSecure features are not implemented in this version of Cisco
SDM:
•
Disabling NTP—Based on input, AutoSecure will disable the Network Time
Protocol (NTP) if it is not necessary. Otherwise, NTP will be configured with
MD5 authentication. Cisco SDM does not support disabling NTP.
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Security Configurations Cisco SDM Can Undo
•
Configuring AAA—If the Authentication, Authorization, and Accounting
(AAA) service is not configured, AutoSecure configures local AAA and
prompts for configuration of a local username and password database on the
router. Cisco SDM does not support AAA configuration.
•
Setting SPD Values—Cisco SDM does not set Selective Packet Discard
(SPD) values.
•
Enabling TCP Intercepts—Cisco SDM does not enable TCP intercepts.
•
Configuring anti-spoofing ACLs on outside interfaces—AutoSecure creates
three named access lists used to prevent anti-spoofing source addresses.
Cisco SDM does not configure these ACLs.
AutoSecure Features Implemented Differently in Cisco SDM
•
Disable SNMP—Cisco SDM will disable SNMP, but unlike AutoSecure, it
does not provide an option for configuring SNMP version 3.
•
Enable SSH for Access to the Router—Cisco SDM will enable and configure
SSH on crypto Cisco IOS images, but unlike AutoSecure, it will not enable
Service Control Point (SCP) or disable other access and file transfer services,
such as FTP.
Security Configurations Cisco SDM Can Undo
This table lists the security configurations that Cisco SDM can undo.
Security Configuration
Equivalent CLI
Disable Finger Service
No service finger
Disable PAD Service
No service pad
Disable TCP Small Servers Service
No service tcp-small-servers
no service udp-small-servers
Disable IP BOOTP Server Service
No ip bootp server
Disable IP Identification Service
No ip identd
Disable CDP
No cdp run
Disable IP Source Route
No ip source-route
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Security Configuration
Equivalent CLI
Enable NetFlow Switching
ip route-cache flow
Disable IP Redirects
no ip redirects
Disable IP Proxy ARP
no ip proxy-arp
Disable IP Directed Broadcast
no ip directed-broadcast
Disable MOP Service
No mop enabled
Disable IP Unreachables
int <all-interfaces>
no ip unreachables
Disable IP Mask Reply
no ip mask-reply
Disable IP Unreachables on NULL
Interface
int null 0
Enable Password Encryption Service
service password-encryption
Enable TCP Keepalives for Inbound
Telnet Sessions
service tcp-keepalives-in
Enable TCP Keepalives for Outbound
Telnet Sessions
service tcp-keepalives-out
Disable IP Gratuitous ARPs
no ip gratuitous arps
no ip unreachables
Undoing Security Audit Fixes
Cisco SDM can undo this security fix. If you want Cisco SDM to remove this
security configuration, run the Security Audit wizard. In the Report Card window,
select the option Undo Security Configurations, place a check mark next to this
configuration and other configurations that you want to undo, and click Next>.
Add or Edit Telnet/SSH Account Screen
This screen lets you add a new user account or edit an existing user account for
Telnet and SSH access to your router.
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Configure User Accounts for Telnet/SSH Page
User Name
Enter the username for the new account in this field.
Password
Enter the password for the new account in this field.
Confirm Password
Reenter the new account password in this field for confirmation. The entry in this
field must match the entry in the password field.
Configure User Accounts for Telnet/SSH Page
This screen lets you manage the user accounts that have Telnet or Secure Shell
(SSH) access to your router. The table in this screen shows each Telnet user
account, listing the account username and displaying asterisks to represent the
account password. Note that this screen appears only if you have not already
configured any user accounts; therefore, the table on this screen is always empty
when it is initially displayed.
Enable Authorization for Telnet Check Box
Check this box to enable Telnet and SSH access to your router. Clear this box to
disable Telnet and SSH access to your router.
Add... Button
Click this button to display the Add a User Account screen, letting you add an
account by assigning the account a username and password.
Edit... Button
Click a user account in the table to select it, and click this button to display the
Edit a User Account screen, letting you edit the username and password of the
selected account.
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Enable Secret and Banner Page
Delete Button
Click a user account in the table to select it, and click this button to delete the
selected account.
Enable Secret and Banner Page
This screen lets you enter a new enable secret and a text banner for the router.
The enable secret is an encrypted password that provides administrator-level
access to all functions of the router. It is vital that the secret be secure and difficult
to crack. Your secret must be a minimum of six characters long, and it is
recommended that you include both alphabetic and numeric characters and that
you do not use a word that can be found in a dictionary, or that might be personal
information about yourself that someone might be able to guess.
The text banner will be displayed whenever anyone connects to your router using
Telnet or SSH. The text banner is an important security consideration because it
is a method of notifying unauthorized individuals that access to your router is
prohibited. in some jurisdictions, this is a requirement for civil and/or criminal
prosecution.
New Password
Enter the new enable secret in this field.
Re-enter New Password
Re-enter the new enable secret in this field for verification.
Login Banner
Enter the text banner that you want configured on your router.
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Logging Page
Logging Page
This screen lets you configure the router log by creating a list of syslog servers
where log messages will be forwarded, and by setting the logging level, which
determines the minimum severity a log message must have in order for it to be
captured.
IP Address/Hostname Table
This table displays a list of hosts to where the router log messages will be
forwarded. These hosts should be syslog servers that can trap and manage the
router log messages.
Add... Button
Click this button to display the IP Address/Host Name screen, letting you add a
syslog server to the list by entering either its IP address or host name.
Edit... Button
Click a syslog server in the table to select it, and click this button to display the
IP Address/Host Name screen, letting you edit the IP address or host name of the
selected syslog server.
Delete Button
Click a syslog server in the table to select it, and click this button to delete the
selected syslog server from the table.
Set logging level Field
In this field, select the minimum severity level that a router log message must have
in order for it to be trapped and forwarded to the syslog server(s) in the table on
this screen. A log message severity level is shown as a number from 1 through 7,
with lower numbers indicating more severe events. The descriptions of each of the
severity levels are as follows:
– 0 - emergencies
System unusable
– 1- alerts
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Immediate action needed
– 2 - critical
Critical conditions
– 3 - errors
Error conditions
– 4 - warnings
Warning conditions
– 5 - notifications
Normal but significant condition
– 6 - informational
Informational messages only
– 7 - debugging
Debugging messages
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Routing
The Routing window displays the configured static routes and Routing Internet
Protocol, (RIP), Open Shortest Path First (OSPF), and Extended Interior Gateway
Routing Protocol (EIGRP) configured routes. From this window, you can review
the routes, add new routes, edit existing routes, and delete routes.
Note
Static and dynamic routes configured for GRE over IPSec tunnels will appear in
this window. If you delete a routing entry that is used for GRE over IPSec
tunneling in this window, that route will no longer be available to the tunnel.
Static Routing
Destination Network
This is the network that the static route provides a path to.
Forwarding
This is the interface or IP address through which packets must be sent to reach the
destination network.
Optional
This area shows whether a distance metric has been entered, and whether or not
the route has been designated as a permanent route.
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What Do You Want To Do?
If you want to:
Do this:
Add a static route.
Click Add, and create the static route in the Add a Static
Route window.
Edit a static route.
Select the static route, and click Edit. Edit the route
information in the IP Static Route window.
When a route has been configured that SDM does not
support, the Edit button is disabled.
Delete a static route. Select the static route, and click Delete. Then, confirm
the deletion in the warning window.
Delete all static
routes.
Note
Click Delete All. Then, confirm the deletion in the
warning window.
•
If SDM detects a previously configured static route entry that has the next hop
interface configured as the “Null” interface, then the static route entry will be
read-only.
•
If SDM detects a previously configured static route entry with “tag” or
“name” options, that entry will be read-only.
•
If you are configuring a Cisco 7000 router, and the interface used for a next
hop is unsupported, that route will be marked as read only.
•
Read-only entries cannot be edited or deleted using SDM.
Dynamic Routing
This portion of the window allows you to configure RIP, OSPF, and EIGRP
dynamic routes.
Item Name
If no dynamic routes have been configured, this column contains the text RIP,
OSPF, and EIGRP. When one or more routes have been configured, this column
contains the parameter names for the type of routing configured.
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Add or Edit IP Static Route
Routing Protocol
Configuration Parameters
RIP
RIP Version, Network, Passive Interface
OSPF
Process ID
EIGRP
Autonomous System Number
Item Value
This column contains the text “Enabled,” and configuration values when a routing
type has been configured. It contains the text “Disabled” when a routing protocol
has not been configured.
What Do You Want To Do?
If you want to:
Do this:
Configure an RIP route.
Select the RIP tab and click Edit.
Then, configure the route in the RIP
Dynamic Route window.
Configure an OSPF route.
Select the OSPF tab and click Edit.
Then, configure the route in the
displayed window.
Configure an EIGRP route.
Select the EIGRP tab and click Edit.
Then, configure the route in the
displayed window.
Add or Edit IP Static Route
Use this window to add or edit a static route.
Destination Network
Enter the destination network address information in these fields.
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Add or Edit IP Static Route
Prefix
Enter the IP address of the destination network. For more information, refer to
Available Interface Configurations.
Prefix Mask
Enter the destination address subnet mask.
Make this the default route
Check this box to make this the default route for this router. A default route
forwards all the unknown outbound packets through this route.
Forwarding
Specify how to forward data to the destination network.
Interface
Click Interface if you want to select the interface of the router that forwards the
packet to the remote network.
IP Address
Click IP Address if you want to enter the IP Address of the next hop router that
receives and forwards the packet to the remote network.
Optional
You can optionally provide a distance metric for this route, and designate it as a
permanent route.
Distance Metric for this route
Enter the metric value that has to be entered in the routing table. Valid values are
1 through 255.
Permanent Route
Check this box to make this static route entry a permanent route. Permanent routes
are not deleted even if the interface is shut down or the router is unable to
communicate with the next router.
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Add or Edit an RIP Route
Add or Edit an RIP Route
Use this window to add or edit a Routing Internet Protocol (RIP) route.
RIP Version
The values are RIP version 1, RIP version 2, and Default. Select the version
supported by the Cisco IOS image that the router is running. When you select
version 1, the router sends version 1 RIP packets and can receive version 1
packets. When you select version 2, the router sends version 2 RIP packets and
can receive version 2 packets. When you select Default, the router sends version
1 packets, and can receive both version 1 and version 2 RIP packets.
IP Network List
Enter the networks on which you want to enable RIP. Click Add to add a network.
Click Delete to delete a network from the list.
Available Interface List
The available interfaces are shown in this list.
Make Interface Passive
Check the box next to the interface if you do not want it to send updates to its
neighbor. The interface will still receive routing updates, however.
Add or Edit an OSPF Route
Use this window to add or edit an Open Shortest Path First (OSPF) route.
OSPF Process ID
This field is editable when OSPF is first enabled; it is disabled once OSPF routing
has been enabled. The process ID identifies the router’s OSPF routing process to
other routers.
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Add or Edit an OSPF Route
IP Network List
Enter the networks that you want to create routes to. Click Add to add a network.
Click Delete to delete a network from the list.
Network
The address of the destination network for this route. For more information, refer
to Available Interface Configurations.
Mask
The subnet mask used on that network.
Area
The OSPF area number for that network. Each router in a particular OSPF area
maintains a topological database for that area.
Note
If SDM detects previously configured OSPF routing that includes “area”
commands, then the IP Network List table will be read-only and cannot be edited.
Available Interface List
The available interfaces are shown in this list.
Make Interface Passive
Check the box next to the interface if you do not want it to send updates to its
neighbor. The interface will still receive routing updates, however.
Add
Click Add to provide an IP address, network mask, and area number in the IP
address window.
Edit
Click Edit to edit the IP address, network mask, or area number in the IP address
window.
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Add or Edit EIGRP Route
Add or Edit EIGRP Route
Use this window to add or delete an Extended IGRP (EIGRP) route.
Autonomous System Number
The autonomous system number is used to identify the router’s EIGRP routing
process to other routers.
IP Network List
Enter the networks that you want to create routes to. Click Add to add a network.
Click Delete to delete a network from the list.
Available Interface List
The available interfaces are shown in this list.
Make Interface Passive
Check the box next to the interface if you do not want it to send updates to its
neighbor. The interface will neither send nor receive routing updates.
Caution
When you make an interface passive, EIGRP suppresses the exchange of hello
packets between routers, resulting in the loss of their neighbor relationship. This
not only stops routing updates from being advertised, but also suppresses
incoming routing updates.
Add
Click Add to add a destination network IP address to the Network list.
Delete
Select an IP address, and click Delete to remove an IP address from the Network
list.
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Add or Edit EIGRP Route
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Network Address Translation
Network Address Translation (NAT) is a robust form of address translation that
extends addressing capabilities by providing both static address translations and
dynamic address translations. NAT allows a host that does not have a valid
registered IP address to communicate with other hosts through the Internet. The
hosts may be using private addresses or addresses assigned to another
organization; in either case, NAT allows these addresses that are not
Internet-ready to continue to be used but still allow communication with hosts
across the Internet.
Network Address Translation Wizards
You can use a wizard to guide you in creating a Network Address Translation
(NAT) rule. Choose one of the following wizards:
•
Basic NAT
Choose the Basic NAT wizard if you want to connect your network to the
Internet (or the outside), and your network has hosts but no servers. Look at
the sample diagram that appears to the right when you choose Basic NAT. If
your network is made up only of PCs that require access to the Internet,
choose Basic NAT and click the Launch button.
•
Advanced NAT
Choose the Advanced NAT wizard if you want to connect your network to the
Internet (or the outside), and your network has hosts and servers, and the
servers must be accessible to outside hosts (hosts on the Internet). Look at the
sample diagram that appears to the right when you choose Advanced NAT.
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If your network has e-mail servers, web servers, or other types of servers and
you want them to accept connections from the Internet, choose Advanced
NAT and click the Launch button.
Note
If you do not want your servers to accept connections from the Internet,
you can use the Basic NAT wizard.
Basic NAT Wizard: Welcome
The Basic NAT welcome window shows how the wizard will guide you through
configuring NAT for connecting one or more LANs, but no servers, to the Internet.
Basic NAT Wizard: Connection
Choose an Interface
From the drop-down menu, choose the interface that connects to the Internet. This
is the router WAN interface.
Choose Networks
The list of available networks shows the networks connected to your router.
Choose which networks will share the WAN interface in the NAT configuration
you set up. To choose a network, check its check box in the list of available
networks.
Note
Do not choose a network connected to the WAN interface set up in this NAT
configuration. Remove that network from the NAT configuration by unchecking
its check box.
The list shows the following information for each network:
•
IP address range allocated to the network
•
Network LAN interface
•
Comments entered about the network
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To remove a network from the NAT configuration, uncheck its check box.
Note
If Cisco SDM detects a conflict between the NAT configuration and an existing
VPN configuration for the WAN interface, it will inform you with a dialog box
after you click Next.
Summary
This window shows you the NAT configuration you created, and allows you to
save the configuration. The summary will appear similar to the following:
Interface that is connected to the Internet or to your Internet
service provider:
FastEthernet0/0
IP address ranges that share the Internet connection:
108.1.1.0 to 108.1.1.255
87.1.1.0 to 87.1.1.255
12.1.1.0 to 12.1.1.255
10.20.20.0 to 10.20.20.255
If you used the Advanced NAT wizard, you may also see additional information
similar to the following:
NAT rules for servers:
Translate 10.10.10.19 TCP port 6080 to IP address of interface
FastEthernet0/0 TCP port 80
Translate 10.10.10.20 TCP port 25 to 194.23.8.1 TCP port 25
Advanced NAT Wizard: Welcome
The Advanced NAT welcome window shows how the wizard will guide you
through configuring NAT for connecting your LANs and servers to the Internet.
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Advanced NAT Wizard: Connection
Choose an Interface
From the drop-down menu, choose the interface that connects to the Internet. This
is the router WAN interface.
Additional Public IP Addresses
Click Add to enter public IP addresses that you own. You will be able to assign
these IP address to servers on your network that you want to make available to the
Internet.
To delete an IP address from the list, choose the IP address and click Delete.
Add IP Address
Enter a public IP address that you own. You will be able to assign this IP address
to a server on your network that you want to make available to the Internet.
Advanced NAT Wizard: Networks
Choose Networks
The list of available networks shows the networks connected to your router.
Choose which networks will share the WAN interface in the NAT configuration
you set up. To choose a network, check its check box in the list of available
networks.
Note
Do not choose a network connected to the WAN interface set up in this NAT
configuration. Remove that network from the NAT configuration by unchecking
its check box.
The list shows the following information for each network:
•
IP address range allocated to the network
•
Network LAN interface
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•
Comments entered about the network
To remove a network from the NAT configuration, uncheck its check box.
To add a network not directly connected to your router to the list, click Add
Networks.
Note
If Cisco SDM does not allow you to place a check mark next to a network for
which you want to configure a NAT rule, the interface associated with the network
has already been designated as a NAT interface. This status will be indicated by
the word Designated in the Comments column. If you want to configure a NAT
rule for that interface, exit the wizard, click the Edit NAT tab, click Designate
NAT Interfaces, and uncheck the interface. Then return to the wizard and
configure the NAT rule.
Add Network
You can add a network to the list of networks made available in the Advanced
NAT wizard. You must have the network IP address and network mask. For more
information, see IP Addresses and Subnet Masks.
IP Address
Enter the network IP address.
Subnet Mask
Enter the network subnet mask in this field, or choose the number of subnet bits
from the scrolling field on the right. The subnet mask tells the router which bits
of the IP address designate the network address and which bits designate the host
address.
Advanced NAT Wizard: Server Public IP Addresses
This window allows you to translate public IP addresses to the private IP
addresses of internal servers that you want to make accessible from the Internet.
The list shows the private IP addresses and ports (if used) and the public IP
addresses and ports (if used) to which they are translated.
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To reorder the list based on the private IP addresses, click the column head
Private IP Address. To reorder the list based on the public IP addresses, click the
column head Public IP Address.
Add Button
To add a translation rule for a server, click Add.
Edit Button
To edit a translation rule for a server, choose it in the list and click Edit.
Delete Button
To delete a translation rule, choose it in the list and click Delete.
Add or Edit Address Translation Rule
In this window you can enter or edit the IP address translation information for a
server.
Private IP Address
Enter the IP address that the server uses on your internal network. This is an IP
address that cannot be used externally on the Internet.
Public IP Address
From the drop-down menu, choose the public IP address to which the server’s
private IP address will be translated. The IP addresses that appear in the
drop-down menu include the IP address of the router WAN interface and any
public IP addresses you own that were entered in the connections window (see
Advanced NAT Wizard: Connection).
Type of Server
Choose one of the following server types from the drop-down menu:
•
Web server
An HTTP host serving HTML and other WWW-oriented pages.
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•
E-mail server
An SMTP server for sending Internet mail.
•
Other
A server which is not a web or e-mail server, but which requires port
translation to provide service. This choice activates the Translated Port field
and the Protocol drop-down menu.
If you do not choose a server type, all traffic intended for the public IP address
you choose for the server will be routed to that address, and no port translation
will be done.
Original Port
Enter the port number used by the server to accept service requests from the
internal network.
Translated Port
Enter the port number used by the server to accept service requests from the
Internet.
Protocol
Choose TCP or UDP for the protocol used by the server with the original and
translated ports.
Advanced NAT Wizard: ACL Conflict
If this window appears, Cisco SDM has detected a conflict between the NAT
configuration and an existing ACL on the WAN interface. This ACL may be part
of a firewall configuration, a VPN configuration, or the configuration of another
feature.
Choose to modify the NAT configuration to remove the conflict, or choose to not
modify the NAT configuration. If you choose to not modify the NAT
configuration, the conflict may cause other features you have configured to stop
working.
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View Details
Click the View Details button to see the proposed modifications to the NAT
configuration to resolve the conflict. This button is not displayed with all feature
conflicts.
Details
This window lists the changes Cisco SDM will make to the NAT configuration to
resolve conflicts between NAT and another feature configured on the same
interface.
Network Address Translation Rules
The Network Address Translation Rules window lets you view NAT rules, view
address pools, and set translation timeouts. From this window you can also
designate interfaces as inside or outside interfaces.
For more information on NAT, follow the link More About NAT.
Designate NAT Interfaces
Click to designate interfaces as inside or outside. NAT uses the inside/outside
designations as reference points when interpreting translation rules. Inside
interfaces are those interfaces connected to the private networks that the router
serves. Outside interfaces connect to the WAN or to the Internet. The designated
inside and outside interfaces are listed above the NAT rule list.
Address Pools
Click this button to configure or edit address pools. Address pools are used with
dynamic address translation. The router can dynamically assign addresses from
the pool as they are needed. When an address is no longer needed, it is returned
to the pool.
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Translation Timeouts
When dynamic NAT is configured, translation entries have a timeout period after
which they expire and are purged from the translation table. Click this button to
configure the timeout values for NAT translation entries and other values.
Network Address Translation Rules
This area shows the designated inside and outside interfaces and the NAT rules
that have been configured.
Inside Interfaces
The inside interfaces are the interfaces that connect to the private networks the
router serves. NAT uses the inside designation when interpreting a NAT
translation rule. You can designate interfaces as inside by clicking Designate
NAT interfaces.
Outside Interfaces
The outside interfaces are the router interfaces that connect to the WAN or the
Internet. NAT uses the outside designation when interpreting a NAT translation
rule. You can designate interfaces as outside by clicking Designate NAT
interfaces.
Original Address
This is the private address or set of addresses that is used on the LAN.
Translated Address
This is the legal address or range of addresses that is used on the Internet or the
external network.
Rule Type
Rules are either static address translation rules or dynamic address translation
rules.
Static address translation allows hosts with private addresses to access the
Internet and to be publicly accessible from the Internet. It statically maps one
private IP address to one public or global address. If you wanted to provide static
translation to ten private addresses, you would create a separate static rule for
each address.
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Dynamic address translation. There are two methods of dynamic addressing
using NAT. One method maps multiple private addresses to a single public address
and the port numbers of host sessions to determine which host to route returning
traffic to. The second method uses named address pools. These address pools
contain public addresses. When a host with a private address needs to establish
communication outside the LAN, it is given a public address from this pool. When
the host no longer needs it, the address is returned to the pool.
Clone selected entry on Add
If you want to use an existing rule as the basis for a new rule that you want to
create, choose the rule and check this check box. When you click Add, the
addresses in the rule you chose appear in the Add Address Translation Rule
window. You can edit these addresses to obtain the ones you need for the new rule
instead of entering the entire address into each field.
What Do You Want to Do?
If you want to:
Do this:
Designate the inside and outside
interfaces.
Click Designate NAT interfaces, and designate interfaces as
inside or outside in the NAT Interface Setting window.
Interfaces can also be designated as inside or outside
interfaces in the Interfaces and Connections window.
You must designate at least one inside
interface and one outside interface in
order for the router to perform NAT.
Add, edit, or delete an address pool.
Click Address Pools, and configure address pool information
in
the dialog box.
Dynamic rules can use address pools to
assign addresses to devices as they are
needed.
Set the translation timeout.
Click Translation Timeouts, and set the timeout in the
Translation Timeouts window.
Add a NAT rule.
Click Add, and create the NAT rule in the Add Address
Translation Rule window.
If you want to use an existing NAT rule as a template for the
new rule, choose the rule, click Clone selected entry on
Add, and then click Add.
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If you want to:
Do this:
Edit a NAT rule.
Choose the NAT rule that you want to edit, click Edit, and
edit the rule in the Edit Address Translation Rule window.
Delete a NAT rule.
Choose the NAT rule that you want to delete, and click
Delete. You must confirm deletion of the rule in the Warning
box displayed.
View or edit route maps.
Click View Route MAP.
If virtual private network (VPN)
connections are configured on the
router, the local IP addresses in the
VPN must be protected from NAT
translations. When both a VPN and
NAT are configured, Cisco Router and
Security Device Manager (Cisco SDM)
creates route maps to protect IP
addresses in a VPN from being
translated. Additionally, route maps
can be configured using the
command-line interface (CLI). You can
view configured route maps and edit
the access rule they use.
Find out how to perform related
configuration tasks.
Note
See one of the following procedures:
•
How Do I Configure NAT Passthrough for a VPN?
•
How Do I Configure NAT on an Unsupported Interface?
•
How Do I Configure NAT Passthrough for a Firewall?
Many conditions cause previously configured NAT rules to appear as read-only in
the Network Address Translation Rules list. Read-only NAT rules are not editable.
For more information, see the help topic Reasons that Cisco SDM Cannot Edit a
NAT Rule.
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Designate NAT Interfaces
Use this window to designate the inside and outside interfaces that you want to
use in NAT translations. NAT uses the inside and outside designations when
interpreting translation rules, because translations are performed from inside to
outside, or from outside to inside.
Once designated, these interfaces are used in all NAT translation rules. The
designated interfaces appear above the Translation Rules list in the main NAT
window.
Interface
All router interfaces are listed in this column.
Inside (trusted)
Check to designate an interface as an inside interface. Inside interfaces typically
connect to a LAN that the router serves.
Outside (untrusted)
Check to designate an interface as an outside interface. Outside interfaces
typically connect to your organization’s WAN or to the Internet.
Translation Timeout Settings
When you configure dynamic NAT translation rules, translation entries have a
timeout period after which they expire and are purged from the translation table.
Set the timeout values for various translations in this window.
DNS Timeout
Enter the number of seconds after which connections to DNS servers time out.
ICMP Timeout
Enter the number of seconds after which Internet Control Message Protocol
(ICMP) flows time out. The default is 60 seconds.
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PPTP Timeout
Enter the number of seconds after which NAT Point-to-Point Tunneling Protocol
(PPTP) flows time out. The default is 86400 seconds (24 hours).
Dynamic NAT Timeout
Enter the maximum number of seconds that dynamic NAT translations should
live.
Max Number of NAT Entries
Enter the maximum number of NAT entries in the translation table.
UDP flow timeouts
Enter the number of seconds that translations for User Datagram Protocol (UDP)
flows should live. The default is 300 seconds (5 minutes).
TCP flow timeouts
Enter the number of seconds that translations for Transmission Control Protocol
(TCP) flows should live. The default is 86400 seconds (24 hours).
Reset Button
Clicking this button resets translation and timeout parameters to their default
values.
Edit Route Map
When VPNs and NAT are both configured on a router, packets that would
normally meet the criteria for an IPSec rule will not do so if NAT translates their
IP addresses. In this case, NAT translation will cause packets to be sent without
being encrypted. Cisco SDM may create route maps to prevent NAT from
translating IP addresses that you want to be preserved.
Although Cisco SDM only creates route maps to limit the action of NAT, route
maps can be used for other purposes as well. If route maps have been created
using the CLI, they will be visible in this window as well.
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Name
The name of this route map.
Route map entries
This box lists the route map entries.
Name
The name of the route map entry.
Seq No.
The sequence number of the route map.
Action
Route maps created by Cisco SDM are configured with the permit keyword. If
this field contains the value deny, the route map was created using the CLI.
Access Lists
The access lists that specify the traffic to which this route map applies.
To Edit a Route Map Entry
Choose the entry, click Edit, and edit the entry in the Edit Route Map Entry
window.
Edit Route Map Entry
Use this window to edit the access list specified in a route map entry.
Name
A read-only field containing the name of the route map entry.
Seq No.
A read-only field containing the sequence number for the route map. When Cisco
SDM creates a route map, it automatically assigns it a sequence number.
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Action
Either permit or deny. Route maps created by Cisco SDM are configured with the
permit keyword. If this field contains the value deny, the route map was created
using the CLI.
Access Lists
This area shows the access lists associated with this entry. The route map uses
these access lists to determine which traffic to protect from NAT translation.
To Edit an Access List in a Route Map Entry
Choose the access list, and click Edit. Then edit the access list in the windows
displayed.
Address Pools
The Address Pools window shows the configured address pools that can be used
in dynamic NAT translation.
Pool Name
This field contains the name of the address pool. Use this name to refer to the pool
when configuring a dynamic NAT rule.
Address
This field contains the IP address range in the pool. Devices whose IP addresses
match the access rule specified in the Add Address Translation Rule window will
be given private IP addresses from this pool.
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What Do You Want to Do?
If you want to:
Do this:
Add an address pool to the router
configuration.
Click Add, and configure the pool in the Add Address Pool
window.
If you want to use an existing pool as a template for the new
pool, choose the existing pool, check Clone selected entry
on Add, and click Add.
Edit an existing address pool.
Choose the pool entry, click Edit, and edit the pool
configuration in the Edit Address Pool window.
Delete an address pool.
Choose the pool entry, click Delete, and confirm deletion in
the Warning box displayed.
Note
If Cisco SDM detects a previously configured NAT address pool that uses the
“type” keyword, that address pool will be read-only and cannot be edited.
Add or Edit Address Pool
Use this window to specify an address pool for dynamic address translation, an
address for Port Address Translation (PAT), or a TCP load-balancing rotary pool.
Pool Name
Enter the name of the address pool.
Port Address Translation (PAT)
There may be times when most of the addresses in the pool have been assigned,
and the IP address pool is nearly depleted. When this occurs, PAT can be used with
a single IP address to satisfy additional requests for IP addresses. Check this
check box if you want the router to use PAT when the address pool is close to
depletion.
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IP Address
Enter the lowest-numbered IP address in the range in the left field; enter the
highest-numbered IP address in the range in the right field. For more information,
see Available Interface Configurations.
Network Mask
Enter the subnet mask or the number of network bits that specify how many bits
in the IP addresses are network bits.
Add or Edit Static Address Translation Rule: Inside to Outside
Use this help topic when you have chosen From Inside to Outside in the Add
or the Edit Static Address Translation Rule window.
Use this window to add or edit a static address translation rule. If you are editing
a rule, the rule type (static or dynamic) and the direction are disabled. If you need
to change these settings, delete the rule, and re-create it using the settings you
want.
Two types of static address translations use NAT: simple static and extended
static.
Note
If you create a NAT rule that would translate addresses of devices that are part of
a VPN, Cisco SDM will prompt you to allow it to create a route map that protects
those addresses from being translated by NAT. If NAT is allowed to translate
addresses of devices on a VPN, their translated addresses will not match the IPSec
rule used in the IPSec policy, and traffic will be sent unencrypted. You can view
route maps created by Cisco SDM or created using the CLI by clicking the View
Route Maps button in the NAT window.
Direction
This help topic describes how to use the Add Address Translation Rule fields
when From inside to outside is chosen.
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From inside to outside
Choose this option if you want to translate private addresses on the LAN to legal
addresses on the Internet or on your organization’s intranet. You may want to
choose this option if you use private addresses on your LAN that are not globally
unique on the Internet.
Translate from Interface
This area shows the interfaces from which packets needing address translation
come in to the router. It provides fields for you to specify the IP address of a single
host, or a network address and subnet mask that represent the hosts on a network.
Inside Interface(s)
If you chose From inside to outside for Direction, this area lists the designated
inside interfaces.
Note
If this area contains no interface names, close the Add Address Translation Rule
window, click Designate NAT interfaces in the NAT window, and designate the
router interfaces as inside or outside. Then return to this window and configure
the NAT rule.
IP Address
Do one of the following:
•
If you want to create a one-to-one static mapping between the address of a
single host and a translated address, known as the inside global address, enter
the IP address for that host. Do not enter a subnet mask in the Network Mask
field.
•
If you want to create n-to-n mappings between the private addresses in a
subnet to corresponding inside global addresses, enter any valid address from
the subnet whose addresses you want translated, and enter a network mask in
the next field.
Network Mask
If you want Cisco SDM to translate the addresses of a subnet, enter the mask for
that subnet. Cisco SDM determines the network and subnet number and the set of
addresses needing translation from the IP address and mask that you supply.
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Translate to Interface
This area shows the interfaces from which packets with translated addresses exit
the router. It also provides fields for specifying the translated address and other
information.
Outside Interface(s)
If you chose From inside to outside for Direction, this area contains the
designated outside interfaces.
Type
•
Choose IP Address if you want the address to be translated to the address
defined in the IP Address field.
•
Choose Interface if you want the Translate from address to use the address
of an interface on the router. The Translate from address will be translated to
the IP address assigned to the interface that you specify in the Interface field.
Interface
This field is enabled if Interface is chosen in the Type field. This field lists the
interfaces on the router. Choose the interface whose IP address you want the local
inside address translated to.
Note
If Interface is chosen in the Type field, only translations that redirect TCP/IP
ports are supported. The Redirect Port check box is automatically checked and
cannot be unchecked.
IP Address
This field is enabled if you chose IP Address in the Type field. Do one of the
following:
•
If you are creating a one-to-one mapping between a single inside local
address and a single inside global address, enter the inside global address in
this field.
•
If you are mapping the inside local addresses of a subnet to the corresponding
inside global addresses, enter any IP address that you want to use in the
translation in this field. The network mask entered in the Translate from
Interface area will be used to calculate the remaining inside global addresses.
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Note
If you do not enter a network mask in the Translate from Interface
area, Cisco SDM will perform only one translation.
Redirect Port
Check this check box if you want to include port information for the inside device
in the translation. This enables you to use the same public IP address for multiple
devices, as long as the port specified for each device is different. You must create
an entry for each port mapping for this “Translated to” address.
Click TCP if this is a TCP port number; click UDP if it is a UDP port number.
In the Original Port field, enter the port number on the inside device.
In the Translated Port field, enter the port number that the router is to use for this
translation.
Configuration Scenarios
Click Static Address Translation Scenarios for examples that illustrate how the
fields in this window are used.
Add or Edit Static Address Translation Rule: Outside to Inside
Use this help topic when you have chosen From Outside to Inside in the Add
or the Edit Static Address Translation Rule window.
Use this window to add or edit a static address translation rule. If you are editing
a rule, then the rule type (static or dynamic) and the direction are disabled. If you
need to change these settings, delete the rule, and re-create it using the settings
you want.
Two types of static address translations use NAT: simple static and extended
static.
Note
If you create a NAT rule that would translate addresses of devices that are part of
a VPN, Cisco SDM will prompt you to allow it to create a route map that protects
those addresses from being translated by NAT. If NAT is allowed to translate
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addresses of devices on a VPN, their translated addresses will not match the IPSec
rule used in the IPSec policy, and traffic will be sent unencrypted. You can view
route maps created by Cisco SDM or created using the CLI by clicking the View
Route Maps button in the NAT window.
Direction
Choose the traffic direction for this rule.
From outside to inside
Choose this option if you want to translate incoming addresses to addresses that
will be valid on your LAN. You may want to do this when you are merging
networks and must make one set of incoming addresses compatible with an
existing set on the LAN served by the router.
This help topic describes how the remaining fields are used when From outside to
inside is chosen.
Translate from Interface
This area shows the interfaces from which packets needing address translation
come in to the router. It provides fields for you to specify the IP address of a single
host, or a network address and subnet mask that represent the hosts on a network.
Outside Interfaces
If you choose From outside to inside, this area contains the designated outside
interfaces.
Note
If this area contains no interface names, close the Add Address Translation Rule
window, click Designate NAT interfaces in the NAT window, and designate the
router interfaces as inside or outside. Then return to this window and configure
the NAT rule.
IP Address
Do one of the following:
•
If you want to create a one-to-one static mapping between the outside global
address of a single remote host and a translated address, known as the outside
local address, enter the IP address for the remote host.
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•
If you want to create n-to-n mappings between the addresses in a remote
subnet to corresponding outside local addresses, enter any valid address from
the subnet whose addresses you want translated, and enter a network mask in
the next field.
Network Mask
If you want Cisco SDM to translate the addresses in a remote subnet, enter the
mask for that subnet. Cisco SDM determines the network and subnet number and
the set of addresses needing translation from the IP address and mask that you
supply.
Translate to Interface
This area shows the interfaces from which packets with translated addresses exit
the router. It also provides fields for specifying the translated address and other
information.
Inside Interface(s)
If you choose From outside to inside, this area contains the designated inside
interfaces.
IP Address
Do one of the following:
•
If you are creating a one-to-one mapping between a single outside global
address and a single outside local address, enter the outside local address in
this field.
•
If you are mapping the outside global addresses of a remote subnet to the
corresponding outside local addresses, enter any IP address that you want to
use in the translation in this field. The network mask entered in the Translate
from Interface area will be used to calculate the remaining outside local
addresses.
Note
If you do not enter a network mask in the Translate from Interface
area, Cisco SDM will perform only one translation.
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Network Address Translation Rules
Redirect Port
Check this check box if you want to include port information for the outside
device in the translation. This enables you to use extended static translation and
to use the same public IP address for multiple devices, as long as the port specified
for each device is different.
Click TCP if this is a TCP port number; click UDP if it is a UDP port number.
In the Original Port field, enter the port number on the outside device.
In the Translated Port field, enter the port number that the router is to use for this
translation.
Configuration Scenarios
Click Static Address Translation Scenarios for examples that illustrate how the
fields in this window are used.
Add or Edit Dynamic Address Translation Rule: Inside to Outside
Use this help topic when you have chosen From Inside to Outside in the Add
or the Edit Dynamic Address Translation Rule window.
Add or edit an address translation rule in this window. If you are editing a rule,
the rule type (static or dynamic) and the direction are disabled. If you need to
change these settings, delete the rule, and re-create it using the settings you want.
A dynamic address translation rule dynamically maps hosts to addresses, using
addresses included in a pool of addresses that are globally unique in the
destination network. The pool is defined by specifying a range of addresses and
giving the range a unique name. The configured router uses the available
addresses in the pool (those not used for static translations or for its own WAN IP
address) for connections to the Internet or other outside network. When an address
is no longer in use, it is returned to the address pool to be dynamically assigned
to another device later.
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Network Address Translation Rules
Note
If you create a NAT rule that would translate addresses of devices that are part of
a VPN, Cisco SDM will prompt you to allow it to create a route map that protects
those addresses from being translated by NAT. If NAT is allowed to translate
addresses of devices on a VPN, their translated addresses will not match the IPSec
rule used in the IPSec policy, and traffic will be sent unencrypted.
Direction
Choose the traffic direction for this rule.
From inside to outside
Choose this option if you want to translate private addresses on the LAN to legal
(globally unique) addresses on the Internet or on your organization’s intranet.
This help topic describes how the remaining fields are used when From inside to
outside is chosen.
Translate from Interface
This area shows the interfaces from which packets needing address translation
come in to the router. It provides fields for specifying the IP address of a single
host, or a network address and subnet mask that represent the hosts on a network.
Inside Interface(s)
If you chose From inside to outside for Direction, this area contains the
designated inside interfaces.
Note
If this area contains no interface names, close the Add Address Translation Rule
window, click Designate NAT interfaces in the NAT window, and designate the
router interfaces as inside or outside. Then return to this window and configure
the NAT rule.
Access Rule
Dynamic NAT translation rules use access rules to specify the addresses that need
translation. If you choose From inside to outside, these are the inside local
addresses. Enter the name or number of the access rule that defines the addresses
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Network Address Translation Rules
you want to translate. If you do not know the name or number, you can click the
... button and choose an existing access rule, or you can create a new access rule
to use.
Translate to Interface
This area shows the interfaces from which packets with translated addresses exit
the router. It also provides fields for specifying the translated address.
Outside Interface(s)
If you chose From inside to outside for Direction, this area contains the
designated outside interfaces.
Type
Choose Interface if you want the Translate from addresses to use the address of
an interface on the router. They will be translated to the address that you specify
in the Interface field, and PAT will be used to distinguish each host on the
network. Choose Address Pool if you want the addresses to be translated to
addresses defined in a configured address pool.
Interface
If you choose Interface in the Type field, this field lists the interfaces on the
router. Choose the interface whose IP address you want the local inside addresses
translated to. PAT will be used to distinguish each host on the network.
Address Pool
If you choose Address Pool in the Type field, you can enter the name of a
configured address pool in this field, or you can click Address Pool to choose or
create an address pool.
Configuration Scenarios
Click Dynamic Address Translation Scenarios for examples that illustrate how the
fields in this window are used.
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Network Address Translation Rules
Add or Edit Dynamic Address Translation Rule: Outside to Inside
Use this help topic when you have chosen From Outside to Inside in the Add
or the Edit Dynamic Address Translation Rule window.
Add or edit an address translation rule in this window. If you are editing a rule,
the rule type (static or dynamic) and the direction are disabled. If you need to
change these settings, delete the rule, and re-create it using the settings you want.
A dynamic address translation rule dynamically maps hosts to addresses, using
addresses included in a pool of addresses that are globally unique in the
destination network. The pool is defined by specifying a range of addresses and
giving the range a unique name. The configured router uses the available
addresses in the pool (those not used for static translations or for its own WAN IP
address) for connections to the Internet or other outside network. When an address
is no longer in use, it is returned to the address pool to be dynamically assigned
to another device later.
Note
If you create a NAT rule that would translate addresses of devices that are part of
a VPN, Cisco SDM will prompt you to allow it to create a route map that protects
those addresses from being translated by NAT. If NAT is allowed to translate
addresses of devices on a VPN, their translated addresses will not match the IPSec
rule used in the IPSec policy, and traffic will be sent unencrypted.
Direction
Choose the traffic direction for this rule.
From outside to inside
Choose this option if you want to translate incoming addresses to addresses that
will be valid on your LAN. You may want to do this when you are merging
networks and must make one set of incoming addresses compatible with an
existing set on the LAN served by the router.
This help topic describes how the remaining fields are used when From outside to
inside is chosen.
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Network Address Translation Rules
Translate from Interface
This area shows the interfaces from which packets needing address translation
come in to the router. It provides fields for specifying the IP address of a single
host, or a network address and subnet mask that represent the hosts on a network.
Outside Interfaces
If you chose From outside to inside, this area contains the designated outside
interfaces.
Note
If this area contains no interface names, close the Add Address Translation Rule
window, click Designate NAT interfaces in the NAT window, and designate the
router interfaces as inside or outside. Then return to this window and configure
the NAT rule.
Access Rule
Dynamic NAT translation rules use access rules to specify the addresses that need
translation. If you choose From outside to inside, these are the outside global
addresses. Enter the name or number of the access rule that defines the addresses
you want to translate. If you do not know the name or number, you can click the
... button and choose an existing access rule, or you can create a new access rule
to use.
Translate to Interface
This area shows the interfaces from which packets with translated addresses exit
the router. It also provides fields for specifying the translated address.
Inside Interface(s)
If you choose From outside to inside, this area contains the designated inside
interfaces.
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How Do I . . .
Type
Choose Interface if you want the Translate from addresses to use the address of
an interface on the router. They will be translated to the address that you specify
in the Interface field, and PAT will be used to distinguish each host on the
network. Choose Address Pool if you want the addresses to be translated to
addresses defined in a configured address pool.
Interface
If you choose Interface in the Type field, this field lists the interfaces on the
router. Choose the interface whose IP address you want the local inside addresses
translated to. PAT will be used to distinguish each host on the network.
Address Pool
If you choose Address Pool in the Type field, you can enter the name of a
configured address pool in this field, or you can click Address Pool to choose or
create an address pool.
Configuration Scenarios
Click Dynamic Address Translation Scenarios for examples that illustrate how the
fields in this window are used.
How Do I . . .
This section contains procedures for tasks that the wizard does not help you
complete.
How do I Configure Address Translation for Outside to Inside
The NAT wizard allows you to configure a Network Address Translation (NAT)
rule to translate addresses from inside to outside. To configure a NAT rule to
translate addresses from outside to inside, follow the directions in one of the
following sections:
•
Add or Edit Dynamic Address Translation Rule: Outside to Inside
•
Add or Edit Static Address Translation Rule: Outside to Inside
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How Do I . . .
How Do I Configure NAT With One LAN and Multiple WANs?
The NAT wizard allows you to configure a Network Address Translation (NAT)
rule between one LAN interface on your router and one WAN interface. If you
want to configure NAT between one LAN interface on your router and multiple
WAN interfaces, first use the NAT wizard to configure an address translation rule
between the LAN interface on your router and one WAN interface. Then follow
the directions in one of the following sections:
•
Add or Edit Static Address Translation Rule: Inside to Outside
•
Add or Edit Dynamic Address Translation Rule: Inside to Outside
Each time you add a new address translation rule using the directions in one of
these sections, choose the same LAN interface and a new WAN interface. Repeat
this procedure for all WAN interfaces that you want to configure with address
translation rules.
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How Do I . . .
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27
Cisco IOS IPS
The Cisco IOS Intrusion Prevention System (Cisco IOS IPS) allows you to
manage intrusion prevention on routers that use Cisco IOS Release 12.3(8)T4 or
later releases. Cisco IOS IPS lets you monitor and prevents intrusions by
comparing traffic against signatures of known threats and blocking the traffic
when a threat is detected.
Cisco SDM lets you control the application of Cisco IOS IPS on interfaces, import
and edit signature definition files (SDF) from Cisco.com, and configure the action
that Cisco IOS IPS is to take if a threat is detected.
IPS Tabs
Use the tabs at the top of the IPS window to go to the area where you need to work.
•
Create IPS—Click to go to the IPS Rule wizard to create a new Cisco IOS IPS
rule.
•
Edit IPS—Click to edit Cisco IOS IPS rules and apply or remove them from
interfaces.
•
Security Dashboard—Click to view the Top Threats table and deploy
signatures associated with those threats.
•
IPS Migration—If the router runs a Cisco IOS image of release 12.4(11)T or
later, you can migrate Cisco IOS IPS configurations created using earlier
versions of the Cisco IOS.
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Create IPS
IPS Rules
A Cisco IOS IPS rule specifies an interface, the type and direction of traffic that
it is to examine, and the location of the signature definition file (SDF) that the
router uses.
Create IPS
In this window you can launch the IPS Rule wizard.
The IPS Rule wizard prompts you for the following information:
•
The interface on which to apply the rule
•
The traffic on which to apply Cisco IOS IPS (inbound, outbound, or both)
•
The location of the signature definition file (SDF)
For Cisco IOS 12.4(11) or later images, you are also prompted for the following
information:
•
Where you want to store files that contain changes to the IOS IPS
configuration. A file that stores this type of information is referred to as a
delta file.
•
The public key to use to access the information in the delta files.
•
The signature category. The basic signature category is appropriate for
routers with less than 128 Mb of flash memory. The advanced signature
category is appropriate for routers with more than 128 Mb of flash memory.
The use case scenario illustrates a configuration in which a Cisco IOS IPS rule is
used. After you create the Cisco IOS IPS rule and deliver the configuration to the
router, you can modify the rule by clicking the Edit IPS tab.
For more information on Cisco IOS IPS, see the documents at the following link:
http://www.cisco.com/en/US/products/ps6634/prod_white_papers_list.html
Click the Launch IPS Rule Wizard button to begin.
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Create IPS
Create IPS: Welcome
This window provides a summary of the tasks to perform when you complete the
IPS Rule wizard.
Click Next to begin configuring a Cisco IOS IPS rule.
Create IPS: Select Interfaces
Choose the interfaces on which you want to apply the Cisco IOS IPS rule by
specifying whether the rule is to be applied to inbound traffic or outbound traffic.
If you check both the inbound and the outbound boxes, the rule applies to traffic
flowing in both directions.
For example: the following settings apply Cisco IOS IPS to inbound traffic on the
BRI 0 interface, and both inbound and outbound traffic on the FastEthernet 0
interface.
Interface Name
Inbound
Outbound
BRI 0
Check
—
FastEthernet 0
Check
Check
Create IPS: SDF Location
Cisco IOS IPS examines traffic by comparing it against signatures contained in a
signature definition file (SDF). The SDF can be located in router flash memory or
on a remote system that the router can reach. You can specify multiple SDF
locations so that if the router is not able to contact the first location, it can attempt
to contact other locations until it obtains an SDF.
Use the Add, Delete, Move Up, and Move Down buttons to add, remove, and
order a list of SDF locations that the router can attempt to contact to obtain an
SDF. The router starts at the first entry, and works down the list until it obtains an
SDF.
Cisco IOS images that support Cisco IOS IPS contain built-in signatures. If you
check the box at the bottom of the window, the router will use the built-in
signatures only if it cannot obtain an SDF from any location in the list.
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Create IPS
Create IPS: Signature File
The Cisco IOS IPS signature file contains the default signature information
present in each update to the file on Cisco.com. Any changes made to this
configuration are saved in a delta file. For security, the delta file must be digitally
signed. Specify the location of the signature file and provide the name and text of
the public key that will be used to sign the delta file in this window.
This help topic describes the Signature File window that is displayed when the
router runs Cisco IOS 12.4(11)T and later releases.
Specify the signature file you want to use with IOS IPS
If the signature file is already present on the PC, router flash memory, or on a
remote system, click Specify the signature file you want to use with IOS IPS to
display a dialog in which you can specify the signature file location.
Get the latest signature file from CCO and save to PC
Click Get the latest signature file from CCO and save to PC if the signature file
is not yet present on the PC or in router flash memory. Click Browse to specify
where you want to save the signature file, and then click Download to begin
downloading the file. Cisco SDM downloads the signature file to the location that
you specify.
Configure Public Key
Each change to the signature configuration is saved in the delta file. This file must
be digitally signed with a public key. You can obtain a key from Cisco.com and
paste the information in the Name and Key fields.
Note
If you have already added a public key to the configuration using the Cisco IOS
CLI, you must still provide a public key in this screen. After you have completed
the Cisco IOS IPS Rule Wizard, you can go to Edit IPS > Global Settings. In the
Global Settings screen, you can click Edit in the Edit IPS Prerequisites area, and
then click Public Key to display the Public Key dialog. In that dialog, you can
delete public keys that you do not need.
Follow these steps to place the public-key information in the Name and Key fields.
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Create IPS
Step 1
Go to the following link to obtain the public key:
http://www.cisco.com/pcgi-bin/tablebuild.pl/ios-v5sigup
Step 2
Download the key to your PC.
Step 3
Copy the text after the phrase “named-key” into the Name field. For example, if
the line of text including the name is the following:
named-key realm-cisco.pub signature
copy realm-cisco.pub
Step 4
30820122
00C19E93
17E630D5
B199ABCB
5B2146A9
FE3F0C87
50437722
006CF498
2F56D826
F3020301
signature
Copy the text between the phrase
field. Example text follows:
300D0609
A8AF124A
C02AC252
D34ED0F9
D7A5EDE3
89BCB7BB
FFBE85B9
079F88F8
8918EF3C
0001
2A864886
D6CC7A24
912BE27F
085FADC1
0298AF03
994AE74C
5E4189FF
A3B3FB1F
80CA4F4D
F70D0101
5097A975
37FDD9C8
359C189E
DED7A5B8
FA9E481D
CC189CB9
9FB7B3CB
87BFCA3B
to the Name field:
key-string ,
01050003
206BE3A2
11FC7AF7
F30AF10A
9479039D
F65875D6
69C46F9C
5539E1D1
BFF668E9
82010F00
06FBA13F
DCDD81D9
C0EFB624
20F30663
85EAF974
A84DFBA5
9693CCBB
689782A5
and the word quit into the Key
3082010A
6F12CB5B
43CDABC3
7E0764BF
9AC64B93
6D9CC8E3
7A0AF99E
551F78D2
CF31CB6E
02820101
4E441F16
6007D128
3E53053E
C0112A35
F0B08B85
AD768C36
892356AE
B4B094D3
Create IPS: Configuration File Location and Category
Specify a location for storing the signature information that the Cisco IOS IPS
will use. This information consists of the signature file and the delta file that is
created when changes are made to the signature information.
This help topic describes the Configuration File Location window that is
displayed when the router runs Cisco IOS 12.4(11)T and later releases.
Config Location
Click the button to the right of the Config Location field to display a dialog that
allows you to specify a location. After you enter information in that dialog, Cisco
SDM displays the path to the location in this field.
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Create IPS
Choose Category
Because router memory and resource constraints may prevent the use of all the
available signatures, there are two categories of signatures—basic and advanced.
In the Choose Category field, choose the category that will allow the Cisco IOS
IPS to function efficiently on the router. The basic category is appropriate for
routers with less than 128 MB of available flash memory. The advanced category
is appropriate for routers with more than 128 MB of available flash memory.
Add or Edit a Config Location
Specify a location for storing the signature information and the delta file that the
Cisco IOS IPS will use.
Specify config location on this router
To specify a location on the router, click the button to the right of the Directory
Name field and choose the directory in which you want to store the configuration
information.
Note
If the router has a LEFS-based file system, you will be unable to create a directory
in router memory. In this case, flash: is used as the config location.
Specify config location using URL
To specify a location on a remote system, specify the protocol and path of the
URL needed to reach the location. For example, if you want to specify the URL
http://172.27.108.5/ips-cfg, enter 172.27.108.5/ips-cfg.
Note
Do not include the protocol in the path that you enter. Cisco SDM adds the
protocol automatically. If you enter the protocol, Cisco SDM displays an error
message.
In the No. of Retries and Timeout fields, specify how many times the router is to
attempt to contact the remote system, and how long the router is to wait for a
response before stopping the contacting attempts.
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Create IPS
Directory Selection
Click the folder in which you want to store configuration information. If you want
to create a new folder, click New Folder, provide a name for it in the dialog
displayed, select it, and click OK.
Signature File
Specify the location of the signature file that the Cisco IOS IPS will use.
Specify Signature File on Flash
If the signature file is located on router flash memory, click the button to the right
of the field. Cisco SDM displays the signature file names of the correct format for
you to choose.
Specify Signature File using URL
If the signature file is located on a remote system, select the protocol to be used,
and enter the path to the file. For example, if the signature file IOS-S259-CLI.pkg
is located at 10.10.10.5, and the FTP protocol will be used , select ftp as the
protocol, and enter
10.10.10.5/IOS-S259-CLI.pkg
Note
Do not include the protocol in the path that you enter. Cisco SDM adds the
protocol automatically. If you enter the protocol, Cisco SDM displays an error
message. Additionally, when you use an URL, you must specify a filename that
conforms to the IOS-Snnn-CLI.pkg file naming convention, such as the file used
in the previous example.
Specify Signature File on PC
If the signature file is located on the PC, click Browse, navigate to the folder
containing the file, and select the filename. You must choose an Cisco
SDM-specific package of the format sigv5-SDM-Sxxx.zip; for example,
sigv5-SDM-S260.zip.
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Create IPS
Create IPS: Summary
Here is an example of a Cisco IOS IPS summary display on a router running a
Cisco IOS release earlier than 121.4(11)T.
Selected Interface: FastEthernet 0/1
IPS Scanning Direction: Both
Signature Definition File Location: flash//sdmips.sdf
Built-in enabled: yes
In this example, Cisco IOS IPS is enabled on the FastEthernet 0/1 interface, and
both inbound and outbound traffic is scanned. The SDF is named sdmips.sdf and
is located in router flash memory. The router is configured to use the signature
definitions built in to the Cisco IOS image that the router uses.
Create IPS: Summary
The Summary window displays the information that you have entered so that you
can review it before delivering the changes to the router.
This help topic describes the Summary window that is displayed when the router
runs Cisco IOS 12.4(11)T and later releases. A sample Summary window display
follows.
IPS rule will be applied to the outgoing traffic on the following interfaces.
FastEthernet0/1
IPS rule will be applied to the incoming traffic on the following interfaces.
FastEthernet0/0
Signature File location:
C:\SDM-Test-folder\sigv5-SDM-S260.zip
Public Key:
30819F30 0D06092A 864886F7 0D010101 05000381 8D003081 89028181 00B8BE84
33251FA8 F79E393B B2341A13 CAFFC5E6 D5B3645E 7618398A EFB0AC74 11705BEA
93A96425 CF579F1C EA6A5F29 310F7A09 46737447 27D13206 F47658C7 885E9732
CAD15023 619FCE8A D3A2BCD1 0ADA4D88 3CBD93DB 265E317E 73BE085E AD5B1A95
59D8438D 5377CB6A AC5D5EDC 04993A74 53C3A058 8F2A8642 F7803424 9B020301 0001
Config Location
flash:/configloc/
Selected category of signatures:
advanced
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Edit IPS
In this example, the Cisco IOS IPS policy is applied to the FastEthernet 0/0 and
the FastEthernet 0/1 interfaces. The signature file is located on the PC. The config
location is on router flash memory, in a directory named configloc.
Edit IPS
In this window you can view the Cisco IOS IPS buttons for configuring and
managing Cisco IOS IPS policies, security messages, signatures, and more.
IPS Policies Button
Click to display the Edit IPS window, where you can enable or disableCisco IOS
IPS on an interface and view information about how Cisco IOS IPS is applied. If
you enableCisco IOS IPS on an interface, you can optionally specify which traffic
to examine for intrusion.
Global Settings Button
Click to display the Edit IPS: Global Settings window, where you make settings
that affect the overall operation of Cisco IOS IPS.
Auto Update
This button appears if the Cisco IOS image on the router is version 12.4(11)T or
later. Auto Update allows you to configure the router to obtain the latest signature
updates from the Cisco Security Center automatically. Refer to Edit IPS: Auto
Update for more information.
SEAP Configuration
This button appears if the Cisco IOS image on the router is version 12.4(11)T or
later. Signature Event Action Processing (SEAP) gives you greater control over
IOS IPS by providing advanced filtering and overrides.
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Edit IPS
SDEE Messages Button
Secure Device Event Exchange (SDEE) messages report on the progress of Cisco
IOS IPS initialization and operation. Click to display the Edit IPS: SDEE
Messages window, where you can review SDEE messages and filter them to
display only error, status, or alert messages.
Signatures Button
Click to display the Edit IPS: Signatures window where you can manage
signatures on the router.
NM CIDS Button
This button is visible if a Cisco Intrusion Detection System network module is
installed in the router. Click to manage the IDS module.
Edit IPS: IPS Policies
This window displays the Cisco IOS IPS status of all router interfaces, and allows
you to enable and disable Cisco IOS IPS on interfaces.
Interfaces
Use this list to filter the interfaces shown in the interface list area. Choose one of
the following:
•
All interfaces—All interfaces on the router.
•
IPS interfaces—Interfaces on which Cisco IOS IPS has been enabled.
Enable Button
Click to enable Cisco IOS IPS on the specified interface. You can specify the
traffic directions to which Cisco IOS IPS is to be applied, and the ACLs used to
define the type of traffic you want to examine. See Enable or Edit IPS on an
Interface for more information.
Edit Button
Click to edit the Cisco IOS IPS characteristics applied to the specified interface.
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Edit IPS
Disable Button
Click to disable Cisco IOS IPS on the specified interface. A context menu shows
you the traffic directions on which Cisco IOS IPS has been applied, and you can
choose the direction on which you want to disable Cisco IOS IPS. If you disable
Cisco IOS IPS on an interface to which it has been applied, Cisco SDM
dissociates any Cisco IOS IPS rules from that interface.
Disable All Button
Click to disable Cisco IOS IPS on all interfaces on which it has been enabled. If
you disable Cisco IOS IPS on an interface to which it has been applied, Cisco
SDM dissociates any Cisco IOS IPS rules from that interface.
Interface Name
The name of the interface. For example: Serial0/0, or FE0/1.
IP
This column can contain the following types of IP addresses:
•
Configured IP address of the interface.
•
DHCP client—The interface receives an IP address from a Dynamic Host
Configuration Protocol (DHCP) server.
•
Negotiated—The interface receives an IP address through negotiation with
the remote device.
•
Unnumbered—The router will use one of a pool of IP addresses supplied by
your service provider for your router and for the devices on your LAN.
•
Not applicable—The interface type cannot be assigned an IP address.
Inbound IPS/Outbound IPS
•
Enabled—Cisco IOS IPS is enabled for this traffic direction.
•
Disabled—Cisco IOS IPS is disabled for this traffic direction.
VFR Status
Virtual Fragment Reassembly (VFR) status. The possible values are:
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•
On—VFR is enabled.
•
Off—VFR is disabled.
Cisco IOS IPS cannot identify the contents of IP fragments, nor can it gather port
information from the fragment in order to match it with a signature. Therefore,
fragments can pass through the network without being examined or without
dynamic access control list (ACL) creation.
VFR enables the Cisco IOS Firewall to create the appropriate dynamic ACLs,
thereby protecting the network from various fragmentation attacks.
Description
A description of the connection, if added.
IPS Filter Details
If no filter is applied to traffic, this area contains no entries. If a filter is applied,
the name or number of the ACL is shown in parentheses.
Inbound and Outbound Filter Buttons
Click to view the entries of the filter applied to inbound or outbound traffic.
Field Descriptions
Action—Whether the traffic is permitted or denied.
Permit source traffic.
Deny source traffic.
Source—Network or host address, or any host or network.
Destination—Network or host address, or any host or network.
Service—Type of service filtered: IP, TCP, UDP, IGMP, or ICMP.
Log—Whether or not denied traffic is logged.
Attributes—Options configured using the CLI.
Description—Any description provided.
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Enable or Edit IPS on an Interface
Use this window to choose the interfaces on which you want to enable intrusion
detection, and to specify the IPS filters for examining traffic.
Both, Inbound, and Outbound Buttons
Use these buttons to specify whether you are going to enable Cisco IOS IPS on
both inbound and outbound traffic, only inbound traffic, or only outbound traffic.
Inbound Filter
(Optional) Enter the name or number of the access rule that specifies the inbound
traffic to be examined. The ACL that you specify appears in the IPS Rules
Configuration window when the interface with which it is associated is chosen. If
you need to browse for the access rule or create a new one, click the ... button.
Outbound Filter
(Optional) Enter the name or number of the access rule that specifies the outbound
traffic to be examined. The ACL that you specify appears in the IPS Rules
Configuration window when the interface with which it is associated is chosen. If
you need to browse for the access rule or create a new one, click the ... button.
... Button
Use this button to specify a filter. Click to display a menu with the following
options:
•
Choose an existing rule. See Select a Rule for more information.
•
Create a new rule. See Add or Edit a Rule for more information.
•
None (clear rule association). Use this option to remove a filter from a traffic
direction to which it has been applied.
Enable fragment checking for this interface
(Enabled by default). Check if you want the Cisco IOS firewall to check for IP
fragments on this interface. See VFR Status for more information.
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Enable fragment checking on other interfaces
If fragment checking is enabled for outbound traffic, the router must examine the
inbound traffic that arrives on the interfaces that send outbound traffic to the
interface being configured. Specify these interfaces below.
If the Inbound radio button is chosen, this area does not appear.
Specify Signature File
The Specify Signature File box contains information about the SDF version that
the router is using, and enables you to update the SDF to a more recent version.
To specify a new SDF, click the ... button next to the Signature File field and
specify a new file in the displayed dialog.
Edit IPS: Global Settings
This window allows you to view and configure global settings for Cisco IPS. This
help topic describes the information that you may see if the running Cisco IOS
image is earlier than version 12.4(11)T.
Global Settings Table
This table in the Global Settings window displays the current global settings and
their values. Click Edit to change any of these values.
Item Name
Item Value
Syslog
If enabled, then notifications are sent to the syslog server
specified in System Properties.
SDEE
Security Device Event Exchange. If enabled, SDEE events
are generated.
SDEE Events
Number of SDEE events to store in the router buffer.
SDEE Subscription Number of concurrent SDEE subscriptions.
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Engine Options
Shun Events
The engine options are:
•
Fail Closed—By default, while the Cisco IOS
compiles a new signature for a particular engine, it
allows packets to pass through without scanning for
the corresponding engine. When enabled, this option
makes the Cisco IOS drop packets during the
compilation process.
•
Use Built-in Signatures (as backup)—If Cisco IOS
IPS does not find signatures or fails to load them from
the specified locations, it can use the Cisco IOS
built-in signatures to enable Cisco IOS IPS. This
option is enabled by default.
•
Deny Action on IPS Interface—We recommend this
when the router is performing load balancing. When
enabled, this option causes Cisco IOS IPS to enable
ACLs on Cisco IOS IPS interfaces instead of enabling
them on the interfaces from which attack traffic came.
This option uses the Shun Time parameter. Shun Time is
the amount of time that shun actions are to be in effect. A
shun action occurs if a host or network is added to an ACL
to deny traffic from that host or network.
Configured SDF Locations
A signature location is a URL that provides a path to an SDF. To find an SDF, the
router attempts to contact the first location in the list. If it fails, it tries each
subsequent location in turn until it finds an SDF.
Add Button
Click to add a URL to the list.
Edit Button
Click to edit a specified location.
Delete Button
Click to delete a specified location.
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Move Up an d Move Down Buttons
Use to change the order of preference for the URLs in the list.
Reload Signatures
Click to recompile signatures in all signature engines. During the time that
signatures are being recompiled in a signature engine, the Cisco IOS software can
not use that engine’s signatures to scan packets.
Edit Global Settings
Edit settings that affect the overall operation of Cisco IOS IPS in this window, in
the Syslog and SDEE and Global Engine tabs.
Enable Syslog Notification (Syslog and SDEE Tab)
Check this checkbox to enable the router to send alarm, event, and error messages
to a syslog server. A syslog server must be identified in System Properties for this
notification method to work.
SDEE (Syslog and SDEE Tab)
Enter the number of concurrent SDEE subscriptions, in the range of 1–3, in the
Number of concurrent SDEE subscriptions field. An SDEE subscription is a
live feed of SDEE events.
In the Maximum number of SDEE alerts to store field, enter the maximum
number of SDEE alerts that you want the router to store, in the range of 10–2000.
Storing more alerts uses more router memory.
In the Maximum number of SDEE messages to store field, enter the maximum
number of SDEE messages that you want the router to store, in the range of
10–500. Storing more messages uses more router memory.
Enable Engine Fail Closed (Global Engine Tab)
By default, while the Cisco IOS software compiles a new signature for a particular
engine, it allows packets to pass through without scanning for the corresponding
engine. Enable this option to make the Cisco IOS software drop packets during
the compilation process.
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Use Built-in Signatures (as backup) (Global Engine Tab)
If Cisco IOS IPS does not find or fails to load signatures from the specified
locations, it can use the Cisco IOS built-in signatures to enable Cisco IOS IPS.
This option is enabled by default.
Enable Deny Action on IPS interface (Global Engine Tab)
This option is applicable if signature actions are configured to
“denyAttackerInline” or “denyFlowInline.” By default, Cisco IOS IPS applies
ACLs to the interfaces from which attack traffic came, and not to Cisco IOS IPS
interfaces. Enabling this option causes Cisco IOS IPS to apply the ACLs directly
to the Cisco IOS IPS interfaces, and not to the interfaces that originally received
the attack traffic. If the router is not performing load balancing, do not enable this
setting. If the router is performing load balancing, we recommend that you enable
this setting.
Timeout (Global Engine Tab)
This option lets you set the number of minutes, in the range of 0–65535, that shun
actions are to be in effect. The default value is 30 minutes. A shun action occurs
if a host or network is added to an ACL to deny traffic from that host or network.
Add or Edit a Signature Location
Specify the location from which Cisco IOS IPS should load an SDF. To specify
multiple SDF locations, open this dialog again and enter the information for
another SDF.
Specify SDF on this router
Specify the part of router memory in which the SDF is located by using the
Location drop-down menu. For example: the menu could have the entries disk0,
usbflash1, and flash. Then choose the filename by clicking the down arrow next
to the File Name field or enter the filename in the File Name field.
Specify SDF using URL
If the SDF is located on a remote system, you can specify the URL at which it
resides.
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Protocol
Choose the protocol the router should use to obtain the SDF, such as http or https.
URL
Enter the URL in the following form:
path-to-signature-file
Note
The protocol you chose from the Protocol menu appears to the right of the URL
field. Do not reenter the protocol in the URL field.
The following URL is provided as an example of the format. It is not a valid URL
to a signature file, and it includes the protocol to show the full URL:
https://172.16.122.204/mysigs/vsensor.sdf
Autosave
Check this option if you want the router to automatically save the SDF if the
router crashes. This eliminates the need for you to reconfigure Cisco IOS IPS with
this SDF when the router comes back up.
Edit IPS: SDEE Messages
This window lists the SDEE messages received by the router. SDEE messages are
generated when there are changes to Cisco IOS IPS configuration.
SDEE Messages
Choose the SDEE message type to display:
•
All— SDEE error, status, and alert messages are shown.
•
Error—Only SDEE error messages are shown.
•
Status—Only SDEE status messages are shown.
•
Alerts—Only SDEE alert messages are shown.
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View By
Choose the SDEE message field to search.
Criteria
Enter the search string.
Go Button
Click to initiate the search on the string entered in the Criteria field.
Type
Types are Error, Status, and Alerts. Click SDEE Message Text to see possible
SDEE messages.
Time
Time message was received.
Description
Available description.
Refresh Button
Click to check for new SDEE messages.
Close Button
Click to close the SDEE Messages window.
SDEE Message Text
This topic lists possible SDEE messages.
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IDS Status Messages
Error Message
ENGINE_BUILDING: %s - %d signatures - %d of %d engines
Explanation Triggered when Cisco IOS IPS begins building the signature
microengine (SME).
Error Message
ENGINE_BUILD_SKIPPED: %s - there are no new signature
definitions for this engine
Explanation Triggered when there are no signature definitions or no changes
to the existing signature definitions of an Intrusion Detection System SME.
Error Message
ENGINE_READY: %s - %d ms - packets for this engine will be
scanned
Explanation Triggered when an IDS SME is built and ready to scan packets.
Error Message
SDF_LOAD_SUCCESS: SDF loaded successfully from %s
Explanation Triggered when an SDF file is loaded successfully from a given
location.
Error Message
BUILTIN_SIGS: %s to load builtin signatures
Explanation Triggered when the router resorts to loading the builtin
signatures.
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IDS Error Messages
Error Message
ENGINE_BUILD_FAILED: %s - %d ms - engine build failed - %s
Explanation Triggered when Cisco IOS IPS fails to build one of the engines
after an SDF file is loaded. One message is sent for each failed engine. This
means that the Cisco IOS IPS engine failed to import signatures for the
specified engine in the message. Insufficient memory is the most probable
cause of this problem. If this happens, the new imported signature that
belongs to this engine is discarded by Cisco IOS IPS.
Error Message
SDF_PARSE_FAILED: %s at Line %d Col %d Byte %d Len %d
Explanation Triggered when an SDF file does not parse correctly.
Error Message
SDF_LOAD_FAILED: failed to %s SDF from %s
Explanation Triggered when an SDF file fails to load for some reason.
Error Message
DISABLED: %s - IDS disabled
Explanation
IDS has been disabled. The message should indicate the cause.
Error Message
SYSERROR: Unexpected error (%s) at line %d func %s() file %s
Explanation Triggered when an unexpected internal system error occurs.
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Edit IPS: Global Settings
Several Cisco IOS IPS configuration options are available with Cisco IOS
12.4(11)T and later images. These are described in this help topic. Screen controls
and configuration options available prior to Cisco IOS 12.4(11)T, such as the
Syslog and SDEE global settings are described in Edit IPS: Global Settings.
This help topic describes the Global Settings window that is displayed when the
router runs Cisco IOS 12.4(11)T and later releases.
Engine Options
The engine options available with Cisco IOS 12.4(11)T and later images are the
following:
•
Fail Closed—By default, while the Cisco IOS compiles a new signature for a
particular engine, it allows packets to pass through without scanning for the
corresponding engine. When enabled, this option makes the Cisco IOS drop
packets during the compilation process.
•
Deny Action on IPS Interface—We recommend this when the router is
performing load balancing. When enabled, this option causes Cisco IOS IPS
to enable ACLs on Cisco IOS IPS interfaces instead of enabling them on the
interfaces from which attack traffic came.
Edit IPS Prerequisites Table
This table displays the information about how the router is provisioned for Cisco
IOS IPS. Click Edit to change any of these values. The sample data in the
following table indicated that the config location is the directory configloc in flash
memory, that the router is using the basic category of signatures, and that a public
key has been configured to allow the router to access the information in the
configloc directory.
Item Name
Item Value
Config Location
flash:/configloc/
Selected Category
basic
Public Key
Configured
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Edit Global Settings
The Edit Global Settings dialog contains a Syslog and SDEE tab, and a Global
Engine tab. Click the link below for the information that you want to see:
•
Syslog and SDEE Tab
•
Global Engine Tab
Syslog and SDEE Tab
The Syslog and SDEE dialog displayed when the router uses a Cisco IOS
12.4(11)T or later image allows you to configure syslog notification and
parameters for SDEE subscriptions, events and messages.
Enable Syslog Notification
Check this checkbox to enable the router to send alarm, event, and error messages
to a syslog server. A syslog server must be identified in System Properties for this
notification method to work.
SDEE
Enter the number of concurrent SDEE subscriptions, in the range of 1–3, in the
Number of concurrent SDEE subscriptions field. An SDEE subscription is a live
feed of SDEE events.
In the Maximum number of SDEE alerts to store field, enter the maximum number
of SDEE alerts that you want the router to store, in the range of 10–2000. Storing
more alerts uses more router memory.
In the Maximum number of SDEE messages to store field, enter the maximum
number of SDEE messages that you want the router to store, in the range of
10–500. Storing more messages uses more router memory.
Global Engine Tab
The Global Engine dialog displayed when the router uses a Cisco IOS 12.4(11)T
or later image allows you to configure the settings described in the following
sections.
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Enable Engine Fail Closed
By default, while the Cisco IOS software compiles a new signature for a particular
engine, it allows packets to pass through without scanning for the corresponding
engine. Enable this option to make the Cisco IOS software drop packets during
the compilation process.
Enable Deny Action on IPS interface
This option is applicable if signature actions are configured to
“denyAttackerInline” or “denyFlowInline.” By default, Cisco IOS IPS applies
ACLs to the interfaces from which attack traffic came, and not to Cisco IOS IPS
interfaces. Enabling this option causes Cisco IOS IPS to apply the ACLs directly
to the Cisco IOS IPS interfaces, and not to the interfaces that originally received
the attack traffic. If the router is not performing load balancing, do not enable this
setting. If the router is performing load balancing, we recommend that you enable
this setting.
Edit IPS Prerequisites
The Edit IPS Prerequisites dialog contains tabs for the following categories of
information. Click on a link for the information that you want to see:
•
Config Location Tab
•
Category Selection Tab
•
Public Key Tab
Config Location Tab
If a config location has been configured on the router, you can edit it. If none has
been configured, you can click Add and configure one. The Add button is disabled
if a config location is already configured. The Edit button is disabled when no
config location has been configured. See Create IPS: Configuration File Location
and Category for more information.
Category Selection Tab
If you specify a signature category, SDM configures the router with a subset of
signatures appropriate for a specific amount of router memory. You can also
remove an existing category configuration if you want to remove category
constraints when selecting signatures.
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Configure Category
Click Configure Category and choose either basic or advanced. The basic
category is appropriate for routers with less than 128 MB of available flash
memory. The advanced category is appropriate for routers with more than 128 MB
of available flash memory.
Delete Category
If you want to remove the category configuration, click Delete Category.
Public Key Tab
This dialog displays the public keys configured for Cisco IOS IPS. You can add
keys or delete keys from this dialog. To add a key, click Add and configure the
key in the dialog displayed.
To remove a key, select the key name and click Delete.
Add Public Key
You can copy the name of the key and the key itself from the following site on
Cisco.com:
http://www.cisco.com/pcgi-bin/tablebuild.pl/ios-v5sigup
Copy the key name and paste it into the Name field in this dialog. Then copy the
key from the same location and paste it into the Key field. For detailed instructions
that explain exactly which parts of the text to copy and paste, see Configure Public
Key.
Edit IPS: Auto Update
Signature file updates are posted on Cisco.com. Cisco SDM can download the
signature file update that you specify, or it can automatically download the latest
signature file update on a defined schedule.
This help topic describes the Auto Update window that is displayed when the
router runs Cisco IOS 12.4(11)T and later releases.
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Before Configuring Autoupdate
Before configuring autoupdate, you should synchronize the router clock with the
clock on your PC. To do this, complete the following steps:
Step 1
Go to Configure > Additional Tasks > Router Properties > Date/Time.
Step 2
In the Date/Time window, click Change Settings.
Step 3
Check the Synchronize with my local PC clock option, and then click the
Synchronize button.
Step 4
Close the dialog.
Download signature file from Cisco.com
To have Cisco SDM download a specific signature file from Cisco.com to your
PC, specify the file that you want Cisco SDM to download, and specify the
location where the file will be saved. Signature Package in use displays the
version that the Cisco IOS IPS is currently using. A CCO login is required to
download signature files and obtain other information from the Cisco.com the
Cisco IOS IPS web pages.
To download the latest signature file, click Get the latest file. Click Browse to
specify where you want the file saved, and then click Download to save the file
to your PC.
To browse the available files before downloading, click List the available files to
download. Then click the button to the right of the List of signature packages
field. Click Refresh in the context menu to browse the list of available files. To
view the readme file, click Show readme. Choose the file that you want, and then
use the Browse and Download buttons to save it to your PC.
Autoupdate
Click Enable Autoupdate if you want Cisco SDM to automatically obtain
updates from a remote server that you specify.
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IPS Autoupdate URL Settings
Enter the username and password required to log in to the server, and enter the
URL to the update file in the IPS Autoupdate URL Settings fields. A sample URL
follows:
tftp//:192.168.0.2/jdoe/ips-auto-update/IOS_update.zip
Schedule
Specify a schedule for when you want the router to obtain the update from the
server. You can specify multiple values in each column to indicate a range or to
indicate multiple time values. To specify that you want to obtain the update from
the server at 1:00 a.m. every day, Sunday through Thursday, choose the values in
the following table.
Minute
Hour
Date
Day
0
1
Select 1 and select Check the boxes
31.
for Sunday
through Thursday.
Click Apply Changes to send the changes that you make in the Auto Update fields
to the router. Click Discard Changes to remove the data that you have entered in
these fields.
Edit IPS: SEAP Configuration
Cisco IOS IPS available with Cisco IOS release 12.4(11)T or later implements
Signature Event Action Processing (SEAP). This window describes SEAP
features that you can configure. To begin configuration, click on one of the
buttons under the SEAP Configuration button.
You can configure SEAP settings for Cisco IOS IPS when the router runs
Cisco IOS 12.4(11)T and later releases.
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Edit IPS: SEAP Configuration: Target Value Rating
The target value rating (TVR) is a user-defined value that represents the user’s
perceived value of the target host. This allows the user to increase the risk of an
event associated with a critical system and to de-emphasize the risk of an event
on a low-value target.
Use the buttons to the right of the Target Value Rating and Target IP Address
columns to add, remove, and edit target entries. Click Select All to highlight all
target value ratings automatically. Click Add to display a dialog in which you can
create a new TVR entry. Click Edit to change the IP address information for an
entry.
Target Value Rating Column
Targets can be rated as High, Low, Medium, Mission Critical, or No Value. Once
a target entry has been created, the rating cannot be changed. If you need to
change the rating, you must delete the target entry and recreate it using the rating
that you want.
Target IP Address Column
The target IP address can be a single IP address or a range of IP addresses. The
following example shows two entries. One is a single IP address entry and the
other is an address range.
Target Value Rating
Target IP Address
High
192.168.33.2
Medium
10.10.3.1-10.10.3.55
Apply Changes
When you have entered the information that you want in the Target Value Rating
window, click Apply Changes. The Apply Changes button is disabled when
there are no changes to send to the router.
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Discard Changes
To clear information that you have entered in the Target Value Rating window but
have not sent to the router, click Discard Changes. The Discard Changes button
is disabled when there are no changes made that are awaiting delivery to the
router.
Add Target Value Rating
To add a TVR entry, choose the target value rating and enter a Target IP Address
or range of IP addresses.
Target Value Rating (TVR)
Targets can be rated as High, Low, Medium, Mission Critical, or No Value. Once
a rating has been used for one target entry, it cannot be used for additional entries.
Therefore, enter into the same entry all the targets that you want to give the same
rating.
Target IP Addresses
You can enter a single target IP address or a range of addresses, as shown in the
examples that follow:
192.168.22.33
10.10.11.4-10.10.11.55
The IP addresses that you enter are displayed in the Target Value Rating window.
Edit IPS: SEAP Configuration: Event Action Overrides
Event action overrides allow you to change the actions associated with an event
based on the Risk Rating RR of that event. You do this by assigning an RR range
for each event action. If an event occurs and its RR falls within the range that you
defined, the action is added to the event. Event action overrides are a way to add
event actions globally without having to configure each signature individually.
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Use Event Action Overrides
Check the Use Event Action Overrides box to enable Cisco IOS IPS to use event
action overrides. You can add and edit event action overrides whether or not they
are enabled on the router.
Select All
The Select All button works with the Enable, Disable and Delete buttons. If you
want to enable or disable all event action overrides, click Select All and then click
Enable or Disable. To remove all event action overrides, click Select All, and
then click Delete.
Add and Edit Buttons
Click Add to display a dialog in which you can enter the information for an event
action override. Choose an event action override, and click Edit to change the
information for an event action override.
Delete
Click Delete to remove the event action overrides that you selected, or to remove
all event action overrides if you clicked Select All.
Enable and Disable
The Enable and Disable buttons allow you to enable or disable event action
overrides. Choose one event action override, or click Select All to enable or
disable all event action overrides.
Apply Changes
When you have entered the information that you want in the Event Action
Overrides window, click Apply Changes. The Apply Changes button is disabled
when there are no changes to send to the router.
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Discard Changes
If you want to clear information that you have entered in the Event Action
Overrides window but have not sent to the router, click Discard Changes. The
Discard Changes button is disabled when there are no changes made that are
awaiting delivery to the router.
Add or Edit an Event Action Override
To add an event action override, choose the event action, enable or disable it, and
specify the RR range. If you are editing, you cannot change the event action.
Event Action
Choose one of the following event actions:
•
Deny Attacker Inline—Does not transmit this packet and future packets from
the attacker address for a specified period of time (inline only).
•
Deny Connection Inline—Does not transmit this packet and future packets on
the TCP Flow (inline only)
•
Deny Packet Inline—Does not transmit this packet.
•
Produce Alert—Writes an <evIdsAlert> to the log.
•
Reset TCP Connection—Sends TCP resets to hijack and terminate the TCP
flow.
Enabled
Click Yes to enable the event action override, or No to disable it. You can also
enable and disable event action overrides in the Event Action Override window.
Risk Rating
Enter the lower bound of the RR range in the Min box, and the upper bound of the
range in the Max box. When the RR value of an event falls within the range that
you specify, Cisco IOS IPS adds the override specified by the Event Action. For
example, if Deny Connection Inline is assigned a RR range of 90-100, and an
event with an RR of 95 occurs, Cisco IOS IPS responds by denying the connection
inline.
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Edit IPS: SEAP Configuration: Event Action Filters
Event action filters let Cisco IOS IPS perform individual actions in response to an
event without requiring it to perform all actions or remove the entire event. Filters
work by removing actions from an event. A filter that removes all actions from an
event effectively consumes the event. Event action filters are processed as an
ordered list. You can move filters up or down in the list to have the router process
one filter before it processes other filters.
The Event Action Filters window displays the configured event action filters, and
allows you to reorder the filters list so that Cisco IOS IPS processes the filters in
the order that you want.
Use Event Action Filters
Check Use Event Action Filters to enable the use of event action filters. You can
add, edit, and remove event action filters, and rearrange the list to specify the
order that the router processes the filters whether or not event action filtering is
enabled.
Event Action Filter List Area
For a description of the columns in the Event Action Filter List area, see Add or
Edit an Event Action Filter.
Event Action Filter List Buttons
The Event Action Filter List buttons allow you to create, edit, and remove event
action filters, and to place each event action filter in the order you want it to be in
the list. The buttons are described in the following sections.
Select All
The Select All button works with the Enable, Disable, and Delete buttons. To
enable or disable all event action filters, click Select All, and then click Enable
or Disable. To remove all event action filters, click Select All, and then click
Delete.
Add
Click the Add button to add an event action filter to the end of the list. A dialog
is displayed that enables you to enter the data for the filter.
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Insert Before
To insert a new event action filter before an existing one, select the existing filter
entry and click Insert Before. A dialog is displayed that enables you to enter the
data for the filter.
Insert After
To insert a new event action filter after an existing one, select the existing filter
entry and click Insert Before. A dialog is displayed that enables you to enter the
data for the filter.
Move Up
Choose an event action filter and click the Move Up button to move the filter up
in the list.
Move Down
Choose an event action filter and click the Move Down button to move the filter
down in the list.
Edit
Click the Edit button to edit an event action filter you have chosen.
Enable
Click the Enable button to enable an event action filter you have chosen. To
enable all event action filters, click Select All first, and then click Enable.
Disable
Click the Disable button to disable an event action filter you have chosen. To
disable all event action filters, click Select All first, and then click Disable.
Delete
Click the Delete button to delete an event action filter you have chosen. If you
want to delete all event action filters, click Select All first, and then click Delete.
Apply Changes
When you have entered the information that you want in this window, click Apply
Changes. The Apply Changes button is disabled when there are no changes to
send to the router.
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Discard Changes
If you want to clear information that you have entered in this window but have not
sent to the router, click Discard Changes. The Discard Changes button is disabled
when there are no changes awaiting delivery to the router.
Add or Edit an Event Action Filter
The following information describes the fields in the Add and the Edit Event
Action Filter dialogs.
Name
SDM provides event action filter names beginning with Q00000, incrementing the
numerical portion of the name by 1 each time you add an event action filter. You
can also enter a name that you choose. If you are editing an event action filter, the
Name field is read-only.
Enabled
Click Yes to enable the event action filter, or click No to disable it. You can also
enable and disable event action filters in the Event Action Filter window.
Signature ID
For Signature ID, enter a range of signature IDs from 900 to 65535, or enter a
single ID in that range. If you enter a range, use a dash (-) to separate the upper
and lower bounds of the range. For example, enter 988-5000.
Subsignature ID
For Subsignature ID, enter a range of subsignature IDs from 0 to 255, or enter a
single subsignature ID in that range. If you enter a range, use a dash (-) to separate
the upper and lower bounds of the range. For example, enter 70-200
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Attacker Address
For Attacker Address, enter a range of addresses from 0.0.0.0 to 255.255.255.255,
or enter a single address in that range. If you enter a range, use a dash (-) to
separate the upper and lower bounds of the range. For example, enter
192.168.7.0-192.168.50.0.
Attacker Port
For Attacker Port, enter a range of port numbers from 0 to 65535, or enter a single
port number in that range. If you enter a range, use a dash (-) to separate the upper
and lower bounds of the range. For example, enter 988-5000.
Victim Address
For Victim Address, enter a range of addresses from 0.0.0.0 to 255.255.255.255,
or enter a single address in that range. If you enter a range, use a dash (-) to
separate the upper and lower bounds of the range. For example, enter
192.168.7.0-192.168.50.0.
Victim Port
For Victim Port, enter a range of port numbers from 0 to 65535, or enter a single
port number in that range. If you enter a range, use a dash (-) to separate the upper
and lower bounds of the range. For example, enter 988-5000.
Risk Rating
For Risk Rating, enter an RR range between 0 and 100.
Actions to Subtract
Click any actions that you want to subtract from matching events. To subtract
more than one action from matching events, hold down the Ctrl key when you
choose additional events. All the events that you choose for this filter will be listed
in the Event Action Filters window.
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Stop on Match
If you want the Cisco IOS IPS to stop when an event matches this event action
filter, click Yes. If you want the Cisco IOS IPS to evaluate matching events against
the other remaining filters, click No.
Comments
You can add comments to describe the purpose of this filter. This field is optional.
Edit IPS: Signatures
Cisco IOS IPS prevents intrusion by comparing traffic against the signatures of
known attacks. Cisco IOS images that support Cisco IOS IPS have built-in
signatures that can be used, and you can also have Cisco IOS IPS import
signatures for the router to use when examining traffic. Imported signatures are
stored in a signature definition file (SDF).
This window lets you view the configured Cisco IOS IPS signatures on the router.
You can add customized signatures, or import signatures from SDFs downloaded
from Cisco.com. You can also edit, delete, enable, and disable signatures.
Cisco IOS IPS is shipped with an SDF that contains signatures that your router
can accommodate. To learn more about the SDF shipped with Cisco IOS IPS, and
how to have Cisco IOS IPS use it, click IPS-Supplied Signature Definition Files.
Signature Tree
The signature tree enables you to filter the signature list on the right according to
the type of signature that you want to view. First choose the branch for the general
type of signature that you want to display. The signature list displays the
configured signatures for the type that you chose. If a plus (+) sign appears to the
left of the branch, there are subcategories that you can use to refine the filter. Click
the + sign to expand the branch and then choose the signature subcategory that
you want to display. If the signature list is empty, there are no configured
signatures available for that type.
For example: If you want to display all attack signatures, click the Attack branch
folder. If you want to see the subcategories that you can use to filter the display
of attack signatures, click the + sign next to the Attack folder. If you want to see
Denial of Service (DoS) signatures, click the DoS folder.
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Import Button
Click to import a signature definition file from the PC or from the router. When
you have specified the file, Cisco IOS IPS displays the signatures available in the
file, and you can choose the ones that you want to import to the router. For more
information about how to choose the signatures to import, see Import Signatures.
Note
You can only import signatures from the router if the router has a DOS-based file
system.
SDFs are available from Cisco. Click the following URL to download an SDF
from Cisco.com (requires login):
http://www.cisco.com/cgi-bin/tablebuild.pl/ios-sigup
Cisco maintains an alert center that provides information on emerging threats. See
Cisco Security Center for more information.
View By and Criteria List
The View By and Criteria drop-down lists enable you to filter the display
according to the types of signatures that you want to view. First choose the criteria
in the View By drop-down list, then choose the value for that criteria in the
Criteria drop-down list.
For example: If you choose Engine in View By, Criteria changes to Engine, and
you can choose among the available engines, such as Atomic.ICMP and
Service.DNS.
If you choose Sig ID, or Sig Name, you must enter a value in the criteria field.
Total [n] New [n] Deleted [n]
This text gives you the count of new signatures and deleted signatures.
Select All
Click to choose all signatures in the list.
Add
Click Add if you want to do any of the following:
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•
Add New—Choose this option to add a new signature, and provide signature
parameters in the displayed dialog.
•
Clone—The clone option is enabled if a signature is specified that does not
belong to a hardcoded engine. It is disabled if the signature uses one of the
the Cisco IOS hardcoded engines.
Edit
Click to edit the parameters of the specified signature.
Delete
Click Delete to mark the specified signature for deletion from the list. To view
signatures you have deleted, click Details. For more information on the status and
handling of these signatures, see Signatures marked for deletion.
Note
You can display and monitor TrendMicro OPACL signatures, but you cannot edit,
delete, enable, or disable them. If a TrendMicro OPACL signature is specified, the
Edit, Delete, Enable and Disable buttons are disabled. The Cisco Incident
Control Server assumes control of these signatures.
Enable
Click Enable to enable the specified signature. An enabled signature is
designated with a green checkmark. A signature that was disabled and then
enabled has a yellow Wait icon in the ! column indicating that the change must be
applied to the router.
Disable
Click Disable to disable the specified signature. A signature that is disabled is
designated with a red icon. If the signature is disabled during the current session,
a yellow Wait icon appears in the ! column indicating that the change must be
applied to the router.
Summary or Details Button
Click to display or hide the signatures marked for deletion.
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Signature List
Displays the signatures retrieved from the router, and any signatures added from
an SDF.
Note
Signatures that are set to import and are identical to deployed signatures will not
be imported and will not appear in the signature list.
The signature list can be filtered using the selection controls.
Enabled
Enabled signatures are indicated with a green icon. If enabled,
the actions specified when the signature is detected is carried out.
Disabled signatures are indicated with a red icon. If disabled, the
actions are disabled and are not be carried out.
Alert (!)
This column may contain the yellow Wait icon.
This icon indicates new signatures that have not been delivered
to the router or modified signatures that have not been delivered
to the router.
Sig ID
Numerical signature ID. For example: the sigID for ICMP Echo
Reply is 2000.
SubSig ID
Subsignature ID.
Name
Name of the signature. For example: ICMP Echo Reply.
Action
Action to take when the signature is detected.
Filter
ACL associated with the corresponding signature.
Severity
Severity level of the event. Severity levels are informational, low,
medium, and high
Engine
Engine to which the signature belongs.
Right-click Context Menu
If you right-click a signature, Cisco SDM displays a context menu with the
following options:
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•
Actions—Click to choose the actions to be taken when the signature is
matched. See Assign Actions for more information.
•
Set Severity to—Click to set the severity level of a signature to: high,
medium, low, or informational.
•
Restore Defaults—Click to restore the signature’s default values.
•
Remove Filter—Click to remove a filter applied to the signature.
•
NSDB help (need CCO account)—Click to display help on the Network
Security Data Base (NSDB).
Signatures marked for deletion
This area is visible when the Details button is clicked. It lists the signatures that
you deleted from the Signature List, and signatures that are marked for deletion
because imported signatures are set to replace signatures already configured on
the router. See How to Import Signatures for more information.
Signatures marked for deletion remain active in the Cisco IOS IPS configuration
until you click Apply Changes. If you exit the Signatures window and disable
Cisco IOS IPS, the marked signatures will be deleted if Cisco IOS IPS is
re-enabled.
Undelete All Button
Click to restore all signatures in the signatures marked deleted list.
Undelete Button
Click to restore specified signatures marked for deletion. When clicked the
signatures are unmarked, and returned to the list of active signatures.
Apply Changes Button
Click to deliver newly imported signatures, signature edits, and newly enabled or
disabled signatures to the router. When the changes are applied, the yellow Wait
icon is removed from the ! column. These changes are saved to your router flash
memory in the file sdmips.sdf. This file is created automatically the first time you
click Apply Changes.
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Note
If you are attempting to import signatures, and these signatures are all identical to
deployed signatures, then the Apply Changes button is disabled.
Discard Changes Button
Click to discard accumulated changes.
Note
If you are attempting to import signatures, and these signatures are all identical to
deployed signatures, then the Discard Changes button is disabled.
Victim Port
For Victim Port, enter a range of port numbers from 0 to 65535, or enter a single
port number in that range. If you enter a range, use a dash (-) to separate the upper
and lower bounds of the range. For example, enter 988-5000.
Risk Rating
For Risk Rating, nter an RR range between 0 and 100.
Actions to Subtract
Click any actions that you want to subtract from matching events. To subtract
more than one action from matching events, hold down the Ctrl key when you
choose additional events. All the events that you choose for this filter will be listed
in the Event Action Filters window.
Stop on Match
If you want the Cisco IOS IPS to stop when an event matches this event action
filter, click Yes. If you want the Cisco IOS IPS to evaluate matching events against
the other remaining filters, click No.
Comments
You can add comments to describe the purpose of this filter. This field is optional.
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Edit IPS: Signatures
Cisco IOS IPS prevents intrusion by comparing traffic against the signatures of
known attacks. Cisco IOS images that support Cisco IOS IPS have built-in
signatures that Cisco IOS IPS can use, and you can also have Cisco IOS IPS
import signatures for the router to use when examining traffic. Imported
signatures are stored in a signature definition file (SDF).
This help topic describes the Signatures window displayed when the router runs
Cisco IOS 12.4(11)T and later releases.
The Signatures window lets you view the configured Cisco IOS IPS signatures on
the router. You can add customized signatures, or import signatures from SDFs
downloaded from Cisco.com. You can also edit, enable, disable, retire, and
unretire signatures.
Signature Tree
The signature tree enables you to filter the signature list on the right according to
the type of signature that you want to view. First choose the branch for the general
type of signature that you want to display. The signature list displays the
configured signatures for the type that you chose. If a plus (+) sign appears to the
left of the branch, there are subcategories that you can use to refine the filter. Click
the + sign to expand the branch and then choose the signature subcategory that
you want to display. If the signature list is empty, there are no configured
signatures available for that type.
For example: If you want to display all attack signatures, click the Attack branch
folder. If you want to see the subcategories that you can use to filter the display
of attack signatures, click the + sign next to the Attack folder. If you want to see
Denial of Service (DoS) signatures, click the DoS folder.
Import Button
Click to import a signature definition file from the PC or from the router. When
you have specified the file, Cisco IOS IPS displays the signatures available in the
file, and you can choose the ones that you want to import to the router. For more
information about how to choose the signatures to import, see Import Signatures.
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Note
You can only import signatures from the router if the router has a DOS-based file
system.
SDFs are available from Cisco. Click the following URL to download an SDF
from Cisco.com (requires login):
http://www.cisco.com/cgi-bin/tablebuild.pl/ios-sigup
Cisco maintains an alert center that provides information on emerging threats. See
Cisco Security Center for more information.
View By and Criteria List
The View By and Criteria drop-down lists enable you to filter the display
according to the types of signatures that you want to view. First choose the criteria
in the View By drop-down list, then choose the value for that criteria in the
Criteria drop-down list.
For example: If you choose Engine in View By, Criteria changes to Engine, and
you can choose among the available engines, such as Atomic.ICMP and
Service.DNS.
If you choose Sig ID, or Sig Name, you must enter a value in the criteria field.
Total [n]
This text gives you the total number of signatures on the router.
Select All
Click to choose all signatures in the list.
View By and Criteria List
The View By and Criteria drop-down lists enable you to filter the display
according to the types of signatures that you want to view. First choose the criteria
in the View By drop-down list, then choose the value for that criteria in the
Criteria drop-down list.
For example: If you choose Engine in View By, Criteria changes to Engine, and
you can choose among the available engines, such as Atomic.ICMP and
Service.DNS.
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If you choose Sig ID, or Sig Name, you must enter a value in the criteria field.
Total [n]
This text gives you the total number of signatures on the router.
Select All
Click to choose all signatures in the list.
Disable
Click Disable to disable the specified signature. A signature that is disabled is
designated with a red icon. If the signature is disabled during the current session,
a yellow Wait icon appears in the ! column indicating that the change must be
applied to the router.
Retire
Click Retire to prevent a signature from being compiled for scanning.
Unretire
Click Unretire to allow the signature to be compiled for scanning.
Signature List
Displays the signatures retrieved from the router, and any signatures added from
an SDF.
Note
Signatures that are set to import and are identical to deployed signatures will not
be imported and will not appear in the signature list.
The signature list can be filtered using the selection controls.
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Enabled
Enabled signatures are indicated with a green icon. If enabled,
the actions specified when the signature is detected is carried out.
Disabled signatures are indicated with a red icon. If disabled, the
actions are disabled and are not be carried out.
Alert (!)
This column may contain the yellow Wait icon.
This icon indicates new signatures that have not been delivered
to the router or modified signatures that have not been delivered
to the router.
Sig ID
Numerical signature ID. For example: the sigID for ICMP Echo
Reply is 2000.
SubSig ID
Subsignature ID.
Name
Name of the signature. For example: ICMP Echo Reply.
Action
Action to take when the signature is detected.
Severity
Severity level of the event. Severity levels are informational, low,
medium, and high
Fidelity Rating
The fidelity rating of the signature.
Retired
A value of true or false. True if signature has been retired. False
if not. Retired signatures are not compiled.
Engine
Engine to which the signature belongs.
Right-click Context Menu
If you right-click a signature, Cisco SDM displays a context menu with the
following options:
•
Actions—Click to choose the actions to be taken when the signature is
matched. See Assign Actions for more information.
•
Fidelity Rating—Click to enter a fidelity rating for the signature.
•
Set Severity to—Click to set the severity level of a signature to: high,
medium, low, or informational.
•
Restore Defaults—Click to restore the signature’s default values.
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•
NSDB help (need CCO account)—Click to display help on the Network
Security Data Base (NSDB).
Apply Changes
Click Apply Changes to deliver newly imported signatures, signature edits, and
newly enabled or disabled signatures to the router. When the changes are applied,
the yellow Wait icon is removed from the ! column. These changes are saved to
your router flash memory in the file sdmips.sdf. This file is created automatically
the first time you click Apply Changes.
Note
If you are attempting to import signatures, and these signatures are all identical to
deployed signatures, then the Apply Changes button is disabled.
Discard Changes
Click Discard Changes to discard accumulated changes.
Note
If you are attempting to import signatures, and these signatures are all identical to
deployed signatures, then the Discard Changes button is disabled.
Edit Signature
Use the fields in Edit Signature dialog to edit the selected signature. The changes
that you make are stored in a delta file that is saved to router flash memory. The
elements of signatures are described in the following sections.
This help topic describes the Edit Signatures window displayed when the router
runs Cisco IOS 12.4(11)T and later releases.
Signature ID
The unique numerical value assigned to this signature. This value allows the Cisco
IOS IPS to identify a particular signature.
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Subsignature ID
The unique numerical value assigned to this subsignature. A subsignature ID is
used to identify a more granular version of a broad signature.
Alert Severity
Choose one of the following to categorize the severity of the alert: High, Medium,
Low, or Informational.
Sig Fidelity Rating
The signature fidelity rating is a value set by the author of the signature to quantify
the confidence that the signature will produce true positives. This value is set
before a signature is deployed and can be adjusted when signature performance
data is available.
Promiscuous Delta
The promiscuous delta is a factor that is subtracted from the risk rating (RR) of
an event when the router is operating in promiscuous mode. The Promiscuous
Delta is subtracted from the RR every time an alert is triggered when the system
is deployed in promiscuous mode.
Note
Even though the promiscuous delta can be reconfigured on a signature basis, it is
not recommended that you change any of the predefined promiscuous-delta
settings.
Sig Description
The signature description includes the signature name and release, any alert notes
available from the Cisco Security Center, user comments, and other information.
Engine
The signature engine associated with this signature. One commonly-used engine
is named Atomic IP.
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The Engine box contains fields that allow you to tune a wide variety of signature
parameters. For example, you can specify the action to be taken if this signature
is matched and an event is generated, you can specify the layer 4 protocol to
inspect for events matching this signature, and you can specify IP parameters,
such as header length and type of service.
Event Counter
The controls in the Event Counter box allow you to specify the parameters
described in the following sections.
Event Count
The number of times an event must occur before an alert is generated.
Event Count Key
The type of information to use to count an event as occurring. For example, if you
choose both attacker and victim addresses and ports, each time you have these
4 pieces of information for an event, the count increments by 1. If you choose
attacker address, only that piece of information is needed.
Event Interval
The number of seconds between events being sent to the log. If you select Yes, an
additional field is displayed allowing you to enter the number of seconds.
Alert Frequency
The purpose of the alert frequency parameter is to reduce the volume of the alerts
written to the log,
Summary Mode
There are four modes: Fire All, Fire Once, Summarize, and Global Summarize.
The summary mode is changed dynamically to adapt to the current alert volume.
For example, you can configure the signature to Fire All, but after a certain
threshold is reached, it starts summarizing.
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Summary Key
The type of information to use to determine when to summarize. For example, if
you choose both attacker and victim addresses and ports, each time you have
these 4 pieces of information for an event, summarization occursY. If you choose
attacker address, only that piece of information is needed.
Specify Global Summary Threshold
You can optionally specify numerical thresholds to use for determining when to
summarize events to the log. If you choose Yes, you can specify a global summary
threshold, and a summary interval.
Status
You can specify whether the signature should be enabled, disabled, or retired in
the Status box. Additionally, the Status box can display the signatures that you
have obsoleted.
File Selection
This window allows you to load a file from your router. Only DOSFS file systems
can be viewed in this window.
The left side of window displays an expandible tree representing the directory
system on your Cisco router flash memory and on USB devices connected to that
router.
The right side of the window displays a list of the names of the files and
directories found in the directory that is specified in the left side of the window.
It also shows the size of each file in bytes, and the date and time each file and
directory was last modified.
You can choose a file to load in the list on the right side of the window. Below the
list of files is a Filename field containing the full path of the specified file.
Note
If you are choosing a configuration file to provision your router, the file must be
a CCCD file or have a .cfg extension.
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Name
Click Name to order the files and directories alphabetically based on name.
Clicking Name again will reverse the order.
Size
Click Size to order the files and directories by size. Directories always have a size
of zero bytes, even if they are not empty. Clicking Size again will reverse the
order.
Time Modified
Click Time Modified to order the files and directories based on modification date
and time. Clicking Time Modified again will reverse the order.
Assign Actions
This window contains the actions that can be taken upon a signature match.
Available actions depend on the signature, but the most common actions are listed
below:
•
alarm—Generate an alarm message. Same as produce-verbose-alert.
•
deny-attacker-inline—Create an ACL that denies all traffic from the IP
address considered to be the source of the attack by the Cisco IOS IPS system.
Same as denyAttackerInline.
•
deny-connection-inline—Drop the packet and all future packets on this TCP
flow. Same as produce-alert and denyFlowInline.
•
deny-packet-inline—Do not transmit this packet (inline only). Same as
drop.
•
denyAttackerInline—Create an ACL that denies all traffic from the IP
address considered to be the source of the attack by the Cisco IOS IPS system.
Same as deny-attacker-inline.
•
denyFlowInline—Create an ACL that denies all traffic from the IP address
that is considered the source of the attack belonging to the 5-tuple (src ip, src
port, dst ip, dst port and l4 protocol). denyFlowInline is more granular than
denyAttackerInline. Same as produce-alert and deny-connection-inline.
•
drop—Drop the offending packet. Same as deny-packet-inline.
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•
produce-alert—Generate an alert. Same as denyFlowInline and
deny-connection-inline.
•
produce-verbose-alert—Generate an alert which includes an encoded dump
of the offending packet. Same as alarm.
•
reset—Reset the connection and drop the offending packet. Same as
reset-tcp-connection.
•
reset-tcp-connection—Send TCP RESETS to terminate the TCP flow. Same
as reset.
Import Signatures
Use the Import IPS window to import signatures from an SDF or other file on your
PC. The information in this window tells you which signatures are available from
the SDF, and which of them are already deployed on your router.
How to Import Signatures
To import signatures, follow these steps:
Step 1
Use the signature tree, View By drop-down list, and Criteria List drop-down list
to display the signatures you want to import.
In the signature list, uncheck the Import checkbox for the signatures that you do
not want to import. If you want to uncheck the Import checkbox for all of the
signatures, click the Unselect All button, which changes to the Select All button
Step 2
Check the checkbox Do not import signatures that are defined as disabled if
you want to avoid importing signatures that may degrade router performance
when used.
Step 3
Click the Merge button to merge the imported signatures with the signatures that
are already configured on the router, or the Replace button to replace the already
configured signatures.
See Merge Button and Replace Button for more information.
Step 4
Click the Apply Changes button in the Edit IPS window to deploy the imported
signatures.
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You can make changes to the imported signatures before deploying them.
Signatures that set to import and are identical to deployed signatures will not be
imported. If all imported signatures are identical to deployed signatures, then the
Apply Changes button is disabled.
Signature Tree
If you need a description of the signature tree, click this link: Signature Tree. You
can use the signature tree in this window to assemble the signatures that you want
to import, category by category.
For example: you may want to add signatures from the OS category, and from the
Service category. You can do this by choosing the OS branch of the tree, and any
branch from that part of the tree that you want, such as the UNIX branch or the
Windows branch. When the types of signatures that you want to import are
displayed, you can make your selections in the signature list area. Then you can
choose the Service branch, and choose any of the service signatures that you want.
View By and Criteria List
The View By and Criteria list boxes enable you to filter the display according to
the types of signatures that you want to view. First choose the criteria in the View
By list, then choose the value for that criteria in the list to the right (the criteria
list).
For example: If you choose Engine in the View By list, the criteria list is labeled
Engine, and you can choose among the available engines, such as Atomic.ICMP,
and Service.DNS.
If you choose Sig ID, or Sig Name, you must enter a value in the criteria list.
Signature List Area
The signature list displays the signatures available in the SDF based on the criteria
you chose in the signature tree. The text of signatures already found on the target
router is blue.
The signature list area has these columns:
•
Sig ID—Unique numerical value assigned to this signature. This value allows
Cisco IOS IPS to identify a particular signature.
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Note
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Name—Name of the signature. For example: FTP Improper Address.
•
Severity—High, medium, low, or informational.
•
Deployed—Displays Yes if the signature is already deployed on the router.
Displays No if the signature is not deployed on the router.
•
Import—Contains a checkbox for each signature. If you want to import the
signature, check this box.
All of the signatures imported from an SDF or a zip file with the name
IOS-Sxxx.zip can be displayed in the signature list. When signatures are imported
from a zip file with a different name, only the signatures found through the View
By and Criteria List drop-down lists are displayed.
Merge Button
Click to merge the signatures that you are importing with the signatures that are
already configured on the router.
Replace Button
Click to replace the signatures that are already configured on the router with the
signatures that you are importing. Signatures already configured on the router but
that are not found in the list of signatures being imported are marked for deletion
and listed under Signatures Marked for Deletion in Edit IPS > Signatures. See
Signatures marked for deletion for more information.
Add, Edit, or Clone Signature
This window contains fields and values described in the Field Definitions section.
The fields vary depending on the signature, so this is not an exhaustive list of all
the fields you might see.
Field Definitions
The following fields are in the Add, Edit, and Clone Signature windows.
•
SIGID—Unique numerical value assigned to this signature. This value
allows Cisco IOS IPS to identify a particular signature.
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SigName—Name assigned to the signature.
•
SubSig—Unique numerical value assigned to this subsignature. A subsig ID
is u