Compaq M-LVDS Network Router User Manual

Multipoint-Low Voltage
Differential Signaling
(M-LVDS) Evaluation Module
User’s Guide
April 2004
High Performance Analog
SLLU039B
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Copyright  2004, Texas Instruments Incorporated
EVM IMPORTANT NOTICE
Texas Instruments (TI) provides the enclosed product(s) under the following conditions:
This evaluation kit being sold by TI is intended for use for ENGINEERING DEVELOPMENT OR EVALUATION
PURPOSES ONLY and is not considered by TI to be fit for commercial use. As such, the goods being provided
may not be complete in terms of required design-, marketing-, and/or manufacturing-related protective
considerations, including product safety measures typically found in the end product incorporating the goods.
As a prototype, this product does not fall within the scope of the European Union directive on electromagnetic
compatibility and therefore may not meet the technical requirements of the directive.
Should this evaluation kit not meet the specifications indicated in the EVM User’s Guide, the kit may be returned
within 30 days from the date of delivery for a full refund. THE FOREGOING WARRANTY IS THE EXCLUSIVE
WARRANTY MADE BY SELLER TO BUYER AND IS IN LIEU OF ALL OTHER WARRANTIES, EXPRESSED,
IMPLIED, OR STATUTORY, INCLUDING ANY WARRANTY OF MERCHANTABILITY OR FITNESS FOR ANY
PARTICULAR PURPOSE.
The user assumes all responsibility and liability for proper and safe handling of the goods. Further, the user
indemnifies TI from all claims arising from the handling or use of the goods. Please be aware that the products
received may not be regulatory compliant or agency certified (FCC, UL, CE, etc.). Due to the open construction
of the product, it is the user’s responsibility to take any and all appropriate precautions with regard to electrostatic
discharge.
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exclusive.
TI assumes no liability for applications assistance, customer product design, software performance, or
infringement of patents or services described herein.
Please read the EVM User’s Guide and, specifically, the EVM Warnings and Restrictions notice in the EVM
User’s Guide prior to handling the product. This notice contains important safety information about temperatures
and voltages. For further safety concerns, please contact the TI application engineer.
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Post Office Box 655303
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Copyright  2004, Texas Instruments Incorporated
EVM WARNINGS AND RESTRICTIONS
It is important to operate this EVM within the supply voltage range of 3 V to 3.6 V.
Exceeding the specified supply range may cause unexpected operation and/or irreversible
damage to the EVM. If there are questions concerning the supply range, please contact a TI
field representative prior to connecting the input power.
Applying loads outside of the specified output range may result in unintended operation and/or
possible permanent damage to the EVM. Please consult the EVM User’s Guide prior to
connecting any load to the EVM output. If there is uncertainty as to the load specification,
please contact a TI field representative.
During normal operation, some circuit components may have case temperatures greater than
125°C. The EVM is designed to operate properly with certain components above 125°C as
long as the input and output ranges are maintained. These components include but are not
limited to linear regulators, switching transistors, pass transistors, and current sense
resistors. These types of devices can be identified using the EVM schematic located in the
EVM User’s Guide. When placing measurement probes near these devices during operation,
please be aware that these devices may be very warm to the touch.
Mailing Address:
Texas Instruments
Post Office Box 655303
Dallas, Texas 75265
Copyright  2004, Texas Instruments Incorporated
Preface
How to Use This Manual
This document contains the following chapters:
- Chapter 1—The M-LVDS Evaluation Module
- Chapter 2—Test Setup
- Chapter 3—Bill of Materials, Board Layout, and PCB Construction
- Appendix A—Schematic
Related Documentation From Texas Instruments and Others
- Introduction to M-LVDS (SLLA108)
- LVDS Designer’s Notes (SLLA014A).
- Reducing EMI With Low Voltage Differential Signaling (SLLA030B).
- Interface Circuits for TIA/EIA−644 (LVDS) (SLLA038B).
- Transmission at 200 Mpbs in VME Card Cage Using LVDM (SLLA088).
- LVDS Multidrop Connections (literature number SLLA054).
- SN65MLVD20x data sheets, Multipoint-LVDS Line Drivers and Receivers,
(SLLS573 and SLLS558)
- Electromagnetic Compatibility Printed Circuit Board and Electronic
Module Design, VEC workshop, Violette Engineering Corporation.
FCC Warning
This equipment is intended for use in a laboratory test environment only. It
generates, uses, and can radiate radio frequency energy and has not been
tested for compliance with the limits of computing devices pursuant to subpart
J of part 15 of FCC rules, which are designed to provide reasonable protection
against radio frequency interference. Operation of this equipment in other
environments may cause interference with radio communications. In which
case the user, at his own expense, is required to take the necessary measures
to correct this interference.
Read This First
v
vi
Running Title—Attribute Reference
Contents
1
The M-LVDS Evaluation Module . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1.1
Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1.2
M-LVDS Standard TIA/EIA−899 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1.3
M-LVDS EVM Kit Contents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1.4
Configurations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1.4.1 Point-to-Point . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1.4.2 Multidrop . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1.4.3 Multipoint . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1.4.4 EVM Operation With Separate Power Supplies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1.5
Recommended Equipment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1-1
1-2
1-3
1-4
1-5
1-5
1-6
1-6
1-7
1-8
2
Test Setup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.1
Typical Cable Test Configurations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.1.1 Point-to-Point Simplex Transmission . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.1.2 Point-to-Point Parallel Terminated Simplex Transmission . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.1.3 Two-Node Multipoint Transmission . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.2
Test Results . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2-1
2-2
2-2
2-3
2-3
2-5
3
Bill of Materials, Board Layout, and PCB Construction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.1
Bill of Materials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.2
Board Layout . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.3
PCB Construction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3-1
3-2
3-3
3-6
A
Schematic . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A-1
Chapter Title—Attribute Reference
vii
Running Title—Attribute Reference
Figures
1−1.
1−2.
1−3
1−4
1−5
1−6
1−7
1−8
2−1
2−2
2−3
2−4
2−5
2−6
3−1
3−2
3−3
3−4
3−5
3−6
M-LVDS Unit Interval Definition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Expanded Graph of Receiver Differential Input Voltage Showing Transition Region . . . .
Point-to-Point Simplex Circuit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Parallel Termination Simplex Circuit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Multidrop or Distributed Simplex Circuit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Five-Node Multipoint Circuit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Two-Node Multipoint Circuit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
EVM Configuration for Including a Ground Potential Difference Voltage Between Nodes
Point-to-Point Simplex Transmission . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Point-to-Point Parallel Terminated Simplex Transmission . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Two-Node Multipoint Transmission . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Point-to-Point Parallel Simplex Typical Eye Pattern Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Parallel Terminated Point-to-Point Parallel Simplex Typical Eye Pattern Data . . . . . . . . . .
Two-Node Multipoint Typical Eye Pattern Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Assembly Drawing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Top Layer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Second Layer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Third Layer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Bottom Layer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Trace Configurations in Printed-Circuit Boards . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1-2
1-4
1-5
1-5
1-6
1-6
1-7
1-8
2-2
2-3
2-4
2-5
2-6
2-6
3-3
3-3
3-4
3-4
3-5
3-7
Tables
1−1
1−2
2−1
3−1
3−2
viii
M−LVDS Devices Supported by the EVM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Receiver Input Voltage Threshold Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
EVM Configuration Options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
M-LVDS EVM Bill of Materials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
EVM Layer Stack Up . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1-2
1-4
2-2
3-2
3-8
Chapter 1
The M-LVDS Evaluation Module
This document describes the multipoint low-voltage differential-signaling
(M-LVDS) evaluation module (EVM) used to aid designers in development and
analysis of this new signaling technology. The Texas Instruments
SN65MLVD200A, SN65MLVD201, SN65MLVD202A, SN65MLVD203,
SN65MLVD204A, SN65MLVD205A, SN65MLVD206, SN65MLVD207 series
are low-voltage differential line drivers and receivers complying with the
M-LVDS standard (TIA/EIA−899). The EVM kit contains the assembled
printed-circuit board and all of the released devices referred to in Table 1−1.
Using the EVM to evaluate these devices should provide insight into the design
of low-voltage differential circuits. The EVM board allows the designer to
connect an input to one or both of the drivers and configure a point-to-point,
multidrop, or multipoint data bus.
The EVM can be used to evaluate device parameters while acting as a guide
for high-frequency board layout. The board allows for the connection of a
100-Ω controlled impedance cable of varying lengths. This provides the
designer with a tool for evaluation and successful design of an end product.
Topic
Page
1.1
Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-2
1.2
M-LVDS Standard TIA/EIA−899 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-3
1.3
M-LVDS EVM Kit Contents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-4
1.4
Configurations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-5
1.5
Recommended Equipment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-8
The M-LVDS Evaluation Module
1-1
Overview
1.1 Overview
The EVM comes with all the production devices in Table 1−1. The
SN65MLVD201 and SN65MLVD207 are installed on the circuit board, and can
easily be replaced with the other devices supplied. The M-LVDS devices
evaluated with this EVM are in the SN75ALS180 and SN75176 footprint. Use
of these industry standard footprints allows the designer to easily configure the
parts into a simplex or half-duplex data bus. These are all TIA/EIA−899
M-LVDS standard compliant devices. While initially intended for half-duplex or
multipoint applications, M-LVDS devices are not precluded from being used
in a point-to-point or multidrop configuration. In these configurations there can
be a distinct advantage to the additional current drive provided by an M-LVDS
driver.
The M-LVDS devices shown in Table 1−1 all include output slew-rate limited
drivers, thus the need for different nominal signaling rates. The M-LVDS
standard recommends the transition time not exceed 0.5 of the unit interval
(UI). The definition of transition time (tr and tf) in M-LVDS is the 10% to 90%
levels shown in Figure 1−1. Using the maximum transition time for each of the
drivers and the 0.5(tUI) rule results in the signaling rates shown in Table 1−1.
This slew-rate control differentiates M-LVDS devices from LVDS
(TIA/EIA−644A) compliant devices. The slower transition times available with
M-LVDS help to reduce higher frequency components in the transmitted
signal. This reduces EMI and allows longer stubs on the main transmission
line. For this reason it is generally better to select a driver with a specified
signaling rate no greater than is required in the system.
Figure 1−1. M-LVDS Unit Interval Definition
tr
tf
90%
50%
10%
UI
Table 1−1. M-LVDS Devices Supported by the EVM
1-2
Nominal
Signaling Rate
(Mbps)
Footprints
Receiver
Type
Part
Number
Status
100
SN75176
Type-1
SN65MLVD200AD
Production
200
SN75176
Type-1
SN65MLVD201D
Production
100
SN75ALS180
Type-1
SN65MLVD202AD
Production
200
SN75ALS180
Type-1
SN65MLVD203D
Production
100
SN75176
Type-2
SN65MLVD204AD
Production
100
SN75ALS180
Type-2
SN65MLVD205AD
Production
200
SN75176
Type-2
SN65MLVD206D
Production
200
SN75ALS180
Type-2
SN65MLVD207D
Production
The M-LVDS Evaluation Module
M-LVDS Standard TIA/EIA−899
The EVM has been designed with the individual driver and receiver section
(SN75ALS180 footprint, U1) on one half of the board and the transceiver
section (SN75176 footprint, U2) on the other half (see Figure 3−1). The EVM
as delivered incorporates two 100-Ω termination resistors at each driver
output, receiver input, and transceiver I/O. These allow the user to evaluate
a single driver, receiver, or transceiver, while not having to deal with a
transmission line or additional I/Os.
Jumpers are included to allow the two sections of the EVM to either share the
same power and ground or be run off of independent supplies. Ground shifts
or common-mode offsets can be introduced by the removal of these jumpers
and using separate power supplies.
1.2 M-LVDS Standard TIA/EIA−899
The M-LVDS standard was created in response to a demand from the data
communications community for a general-purpose high-speed balanced
interface standard for multipoint applications. The TIA/EIA−644 standard
defines the LVDS electrical-layer characteristics used for transmitting
information in point-to-point and multidrop architectures. TIA/EIA−644 does
not address data transmission for multipoint architectures, therefore the need
for development of a new standard.
The standard, Electrical Characteristics of Multipoint-Low-Voltage Differential
Signaling (M-LVDS) TIA/EIA−899, specifies low-voltage differential signaling
drivers and receivers for data interchange across half-duplex or multipoint
data bus structures. M-LVDS is capable of operating at signaling rates up to
500 Mbps. In other words, when the devices are used at the nominal signaling
rate, the rise and fall times will be within the specified values in the standard.
The M-LVDS standard defines the transition time (tr and tf) to be 1 ns or slower
into a test load. Using this information combined with the requirement that the
transition time not exceed 0.5 of the unit interval (UI), gives a minimum unit
interval of 2 ns, leading to the 500 Mpbs maximum signaling rate.
The standard defines Type-1 and Type-2 receivers. Type-1 receivers include
no provisions for failsafe and have their differential input voltage thresholds
near zero volts. Type-2 receivers have their differential input voltage
thresholds offset from zero volts to detect the absence of a voltage difference.
Type-1 receivers maximize the differential noise margin and are intended for
the maximum signaling rate. Type-2 receivers are intended for control signals,
slower signaling rates, or where failsafe provisions are needed. The bus
voltage logic state definition can be seen in Table 1−2 and Figure 1−2.
The M-LVDS Evaluation Module
1-3
M-LVDS EVM Kit Contents
Table 1−2. Receiver Input Voltage Threshold Requirements
Receiver Type
Low
High
Type-1
−2.4 V ≤ VID ≤ −0.05 V
0.05 V ≤ VID ≤ 2.4 V
Type-2
−2.4 V ≤ VID ≤ 0.05 V
0.15 V ≤ VID ≤ 2.4 V
Figure 1−2. Expanded Graph of Receiver Differential Input Voltage Showing Transition
Region
Type−1 and Type−2 Receiver Differential Input Thresholds
Type 1
Type 2
2.4
ÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎ
ÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎ
ÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎ
ÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎ
ÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎ
ÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎ
ÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎ
ÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎ
ÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎ
ÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎ
ÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎ
High
0.15
High
VID (V)
0.1
0.05
0
Low
−0.05
Low
−2.4
Transition Region
1.3 M-LVDS EVM Kit Contents
The M-LVDS EVM kit contains the following:
J M-LVDS EVM PWB with SN65MLVD201D and SN65MLVD207D
installed (6424409B)
J Additional
devices
SN65MLVD200A,
SN65MLVD202A,
SN65MLVD203,
SN65MLVD204A,
SN65MLVD205A,
SN65MLVD206
J M-LVDS EVM kit documentation (user’s guide)
J SN65MLVD20x data sheets, Multipoint-LVDS Line Driver and
Receiver, (SLLS573 and SLLS558)
1-4
The M-LVDS Evaluation Module
Configurations
1.4 Configurations
The M-LVDS EVM board allows the user to construct various bus
configurations. The two devices on the EVM allow for point-to-point simplex,
parallel-terminated point-to-point simplex, and two-node multipoint operation.
All of these modes of operation can be configured through onboard jumpers,
external cabling, and different resistor combinations. The devices which are
delivered with the EVM change output operation but, configuration of jumpers
to setup the transmission type is independent of the devices installed
1.4.1
Point-to-Point
The point-to-point simplex configuration is shown in Figure 1−3. The setup
schematic for this option is shown in Figure 2−1. Although this is not the
intended mode of operation for M-LVDS, it works well for high noise or long
higher-loss transmission lines. Due to the increased drive current, a single
100-Ω termination resistor on the EVM will result in a differential bus voltage
(VOD) twice as large as a doubly terminated line. This practice is acceptable
as long as the combination of input voltage and common-mode voltage does
not exceed absolute maximum ratings of the line circuits.
Figure 1−3. Point-to-Point Simplex Circuit
U1
U1
T
This configuration can also have a termination at the source and load (parallel
terminated), thereby, keeping normal M-LVDS signal levels as shown in Figure
1−4.
The schematic for this option is shown in Figure 2−2. Due to the increased
drive current, double termination can be used to improve transmission line
characteristics .
Figure 1−4. Parallel Termination Simplex Circuit
U1
U1
T
T
The M-LVDS Evaluation Module
1-5
Configurations
1.4.2
Multidrop
A multidrop configuration (see Figure 1−5) with two receiver nodes can be
simulated with the EVM. To get additional receiver nodes on the same bus
requires additional EVMs. M-LVDS controlled driver transition times and
higher signal levels help to accommodate the multiple stubs and additional
loads on the bus. This does not exempt good design practices, which would
keep stubs short to help prevent excessive signal reflections.
A bus line termination could be placed at both ends of the transmission line,
improving the signal quality by reducing return reflections to the driver. This
would allow the use of standard compliant TIA/EIA 644A receivers on the bus
in addition to M-LVDS receivers.
Figure 1−5. Multidrop or Distributed Simplex Circuit
T
1.4.3
Multipoint
The multipoint configuration is the primary application of the M-LVDS devices
and the associated standard. The M-LVDS standard allows for any
combination of drivers, receivers, or transceivers up to a total of 32 on the line.
Figure 1−6 shows a representation of a five-node multipoint configuration
using transceivers. Increased drive current, in addition to the wider commonmode input, allows M-LVDS parts to drive multiple receivers over longer line
lengths with up to 2 V of ground noise.
Figure 1−6. Five-Node Multipoint Circuit
T
T
A two-node multipoint setup (see Figure 1−7) can be configured with the EVM.
Additional EVMs are needed for more nodes. The test setup and schematic
for this configuration is shown in Figure 2−3.
1-6
The M-LVDS Evaluation Module
Configurations
Figure 1−7. Two-Node Multipoint Circuit
T
T
U2
U1
1.4.4
EVM Operation With Separate Power Supplies
The EVM has been designed with independent power planes for the two
devices. The two devices can be powered with independent supplies or with
a single supply. Sending and receiving data between backplanes, racks, or
cabinets where separate power sources may exist can have offset ground
potentials between nodes. Jumpers W7, 8, 9, and 10 tie the two separate
power and ground planes together. If two separate supplies are used and
jumpers W7, 8, 9, and 10 are removed, care should be taken to ensure the
absolute maximum device ratings are not exceeded. Keep in mind that if
jumpers W7, 8, 9, and 10 are not removed when using separate power
supplies, a difference in potential between the supplies causes a current to
flow between supplies and through the jumpers.
The EVM can be configured with three power supplies with isolated outputs
in such a way as to input a fixed offset between the grounds (see Figure 1−8).
This induces a ground potential difference voltage between U1 and U2. To
demonstrate this capability, the following steps should be followed.
- Adjust PS1 and PS3 to the supply voltage (3.3 V) and current limit to
50 mA.
- Set PS2 to 0 V
- Induce a ground offset by varying the output of PS2.
PS2 Output
The PS2 output should not exceed ± 2 V to remain within the device
ratings.
The M-LVDS Evaluation Module
1-7
Recommended Equipment
Figure 1−8. EVM Configuration for Including a Ground Potential Difference Voltage
Between Nodes
+
PS1
−
J13
J14
+
W10
W8
W7
W9
PS2
J17
−
J18
+
PS3
Jumpers removed from
W7, W8, W9, W10
−
1.5 Recommended Equipment
- 3.3 Vdc at 0.5-A power supply or multiple power supplies (with both
devices powered and enabled the board draws about 35 mA).
- A 100-Ω transmission medium from the driver to the receiver, (twisted-pair
cable recommended, CAT5 cable for example).
- A function or pattern generator capable of supplying 3.3-V signals at the
desired signaling rate.
- A multiple-channel high-bandwidth oscilloscope, preferably above the
1-GHz range
- Differential or single ended oscilloscope probes.
1-8
The M-LVDS Evaluation Module
Chapter 2
Test Setup
This chapter describes how to setup and use the M-LVDS EVM.
Topic
Page
2.1
Typical Cable Test Configurations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-2
2.2
Test Results . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-5
Test Setup
2-1
Typical Cable Test Configurations
2.1 Typical Cable Test Configurations
Each of the following test configurations is a transmission line consisting of a
twisted-pair cable connected on the 2-pin connectors (P1, P2, or P3).
Table 2−1 shows the possible configurations.
In addition to the different transmission topologies, the EVM can also be
configured to run off two or three separate power supplies, as described in the
previous section. This would allow the user to induce a ground shift or offset
between the two different drivers and receivers. This setup can be used with
any transmission line test.
Table 2−1. EVM Configuration Options
Configuration
Jumpers In
Resistors In
Resistors Out
Diagram
Point-to-point simplex transmission
W1, 2, 7, 8, 9, 10
R4
R5, 6, 7
Figure 2−1
Point-to-point parallel terminated simplex
transmission
W1, 2, 7, 8, 9, 10
R4, 7
R5, 6
Figure 2−2
Two-node multipoint transmission
W1, 2, 3, 4, 7, 8, 9, 10
R5, 16
R2, 4, 6, 7, 13 15
Figure 2−3
2.1.1
Point-to-Point Simplex Transmission
1) Connect a twisted-pair cable from P1 to P2.
2) Verify resistor R4 is installed.
3) Remove resistors R5, R6, and R7. This properly terminates the
transmission line at one end.
4) Enable the driver by connecting the jumper on W2 between pin 1 and
pin 2, or U1 pin 4 to VCC.
5) Enable the receiver by connecting the jumper on W1 between pin 2 and
pin 3, or U1 pin 3 to GND.
Figure 2−1. Point-to-Point Simplex Transmission
VCC
Jumper
W2
Input Signal
50- Ω
Cable
Signal Source
with 50-Ω
Output
5
50-Ω
Cable
Active Voltage
Probe
J1
R2
453
TP1
Output Signal
9
U1
10
R3
49.9
TP2
50- Ω cable or
Active Voltage
Probe into one
Channel of Scope
Terminated in
High Impedance
2-2
4
J2
R7
100
P2
R6
100
Twisted Pair Cable
2
12
U1
3
11
VCC
R4
100
P1
R5
100
W1
Jumper
Test Setup
Typical Cable Test Configurations
2.1.2
Point-to-Point Parallel Terminated Simplex Transmission
1) Connect a twisted-pair cable from P1 to P2.
2) Verify resistor R4 and R7 are installed.
3) Remove resistors R5 and R6. This properly terminates the transmission
line at both ends.
4) Enable the driver by connecting the jumper on W2 between pin 1 and pin
2, or U1 pin 4 to VCC.
5) Enable the receiver by connecting the jumper on W1 between pin 2 and
pin 3, or U1 pin 3 to GND.
Figure 2−2. Point-to-Point Parallel Terminated Simplex Transmission
VCC
Jumper
W2
Input Signal
50-Ω
Cable
Signal Source
with 50-Ω
Output
5
50-Ω
Cable
J1
R2
453
TP1
Active Voltage
Probe
9
U1
10
R3
49.9
TP2
50- Ω cable or
Active Voltage
Probe into one
Channel of Scope
Terminated in
High Impedance
2.1.3
4
J2
R7
100
R6
100
P2
Twisted Pair Cable
2
12
U1
3
11
VCC
Output Signal
R4
100
P1
R5
100
W1
Jumper
Two-Node Multipoint Transmission
1) Connect a twisted-pair cable between P1, P2, and P3.
2) Verify resistor R5 and R16 are installed.
3) Remove resistors R4, R6, R7, and R15. This properly terminates the
transmission line at both ends.
4) Enabling the driver in a two-node multipoint configuration will be a slightly
more challenging task. The user can either jumper enable a single driver
and send all of the data on the bus through a single driver, or sync the
driver enable to the data and send data from each driver. Enable a single
driver by connecting the jumper on W4 between pin 1 and pin 2 which
connects U2 pin 3 to VCC, or by connecting the jumper on W2 between pin
1 and pin 2 which connects U1 pin 4 to VCC.
5) Enable the receivers by connecting the jumpers on W1 and W3 between
pin 2 and pin 3, or U1 pin 3 to GND and U2 pin 2 to GND.
Test Setup
2-3
Typical Cable Test Configurations
Figure 2−3. Two-Node Multipoint Transmission
VCC
W2
Jumper
Input Signal
50-Ω
Cable
Signal Source
with 50-Ω
Output
4
J2
5
R3
49.9
TP2
50- Ω cable or
Active Voltage
Probe into one
Channel of Scope
Terminated in
High Impedance
50-Ω
Cable
J1
R7
100
10
P2
R6
100
P1
R5
100
Twisted Pair Cable
R2
453
2
12
R4
100
U1
3
TP1
Active Voltage
Probe
9
U1
11
VCC
W1
Jumper
Output Signal
VCC
W4
Jumper
Input Signal
3
U2
J8
4
50- Ω cable or
Active Voltage
Probe into one
Channel of Scope
Terminated in
High Impedance
R15
100
P3
R16
100
R13
453
1
TP3
VCC
2
Active Voltage
Probe
2-4
J7
7
R14
49.9
TP4
50-Ω
Cable
6
Output Signal
W3
Jumper
Test Setup
Test Results
2.2 Test Results
The test configurations described in Section 2.1 were used to simulate pointto-point simplex, parallel-terminated point-to-point simplex, and two-node
multipoint. The test results are shown in the following figures. A Tektronix
HFS9003 was used to generate input signals, and a Tektronix TDS784D was
used to collect the output data.
The EVM was populated with a SN65MLVD207D and SN65MLVD201D for U1
and U2 respectively. The eye patterns were measured with the source
(Tektronix HFS9003) generating 215−1 PRBS NRZ data. In all cases, the
length of the transmission line is approximately 21 inches (53 cm), and adds
to the propagation delay in the device. This can be seen in the figures below
as a time delay from input to output
Figure 2−4 shows the point-to-point simplex transmission eye patterns. Trace
1 is the driver input signal applied to J2. The output signal is shown below
measured on both J1 (Figure 2−4 left picture), and TP1 (Figure 2−4 right
picture). The receiver output in both figures shows the offset zero crossing,
which is due to the Type-2 receiver incorporated into the SN65MLVD207
device. The reduced offset from a Type-1 receiver can be seen in Figure 2−6,
receiver number 2 output.
Measuring the output signal on J1 with a 50-Ω cable terminated into 50-Ω at
the scope will attenuate the signal due to the 453-Ω resistor in series with the
receiver output. The resistor is installed as a current limit for termination into
a 50-Ω load. As can be seen in the traces below the magnitude of trace 2 on
the left is one-tenth of trace 2 on the right. Measuring the signal with a
high-impedance probe on TP1 requires replacing R2, the 453-Ω resistor, with
a short to reduce signal roll-off. Measuring the output on TP1 allows the user
to see absolute signal levels out of the device.
Figure 2−4. Point-to-Point Parallel Simplex Typical Eye Pattern Data
Driver
Input
Receiver
Output
Differential
Bus
Voltage
50-Ohm Output Termination
Receiver Output Scaled 10:1
High Impedance Output Termination, R2 Shorted
The eye patterns in Figure 2−5 are parallel-terminated point-to-point simplex
data where trace 1 is the input signal applied to J2, and trace 2 is the output
Test Setup
2-5
Test Results
signal on TP1, R2 is shorted. Type-2 behavior is again observed on the
SN65MLVD207 receiver output.
Trace three shows the differential voltage on the bus. Note that the bus voltages are nominal M-LVDS levels of 1.1 VPP due to the lower load seen by the
current driver.
Figure 2−5. Parallel Terminated Point-to-Point Parallel Simplex Typical Eye Pattern Data
Driver
Input
Receiver
Output
Differential
Bus
Voltage
Figure 2−6 represents the two-node multipoint transmission eye patterns
where trace 1 is the input signal applied to J2, and traces 2 and 3 are the output
signals seen at TP1 and TP3 respectively with R2 and R13 shorted. The offset
zero-crossing shows the difference between Type−2 (Receiver #1 Output) and
Type−1 (Receiver #2 Output).
Figure 2−6. Two-Node Multipoint Typical Eye Pattern Data
Driver
Input
Receiver #1
Output
Receiver #2
Output
2-6
Test Setup
Chapter 3
Bill of Materials, Board Layout, and PCB
Construction
This chapter contains the bill of materials, board layout of the M-LVDS, and
describes the printed-circuit board.
Topic
Page
2.1
Bill of Materials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-2
3.2
Board Layout . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-3
3.3
PCB Construction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-6
Bill of Materials, Board Layout, and PCB Construction
3-1
Bill of Materials
3.1 Bill of Materials
Table 3−1. M-LVDS EVM Bill of Materials
Item
No.
Qty.
1
2
C1, C2
Capacitor, SMT1206, 50 V, 10%,
0.01 µF
AVX
12101C103JATMA
2
4
C5, C6, C9,
C10
Capacitor, SMT1206, 16 V, 10%,
1 µF
AVX
1206YC105KAT
3
4
C3, C4, C7, C8
Capacitor, SMT1210, 10 V, 10%,
10 µF
AVX
1210ZG106ZAT2A
4
2
J11, J13, J15,
J17
Banana jack, red
Allied
ST−351A
J11, J15
5
2
J12, J14, J16,
J18
Banana jack, black
Allied
ST−351B
J12, J16
6
4
J1 − J 10
Connector
Allied
713−4339
J3 − J6, J9, J10
7
4
TP1 − TP4
Header (make from 4−103239−0)
AMP
4−103239−0x2
8
3
P1 − P3
Header (make from 4−103239−0)
AMP
4−103239−0x2
9
4
W7 − W10
Header (make from 4−103239−0)
AMP
4−103239−0x2
10
4
W1 − W4
Header (make from 4−103239−0)
AMP
4−103239−0x3
11
1
U1
IC, SMT, 14P, High speed 50-Ω
line driver/receiver
TI
†SN65MLVD202AD
IC, SMT, 8P High speed 50-Ω
line driver/receiver
TI
12
†
1
Reference
Designation
U2
Description
MFG
Part #
Not Installed
SN65MLVD205AD
SN65MLVD203D
SN65MLVD207D
†SN65MLVD200AD
SN65MLVD204AD
SN65MLVD201D
SN65MLVD206D
13
2
R1, R3, R12,
R14
Resistor, SMT, 1/4 W, 1%, 49.9 Ω
Dale
CRCW121049R9F
14
2
R2, R13
Resistor, SMT, 1/4 W, 1%, 453 Ω
Dale
CRCW12104530F
15
6
R8 − R11, R17,
R18
Resistor, SMT, 1/4 W, 1%, 0.0 Ω
Dale
CRCW12100000F
16
6
R4 − R7, R15,
R16
Resistor, SMT, 1/4 W, 1%, 100 Ω
Dale
CRCW12101000F
17
4
1/2” nylon, hex, standoff
Keystone
1902C
18
4
Phillips, pan head, screw
19
8
Jumper, shorting
R1, R12
R8 − R11, R17,
R18
H703−ND
Only one will be installed.
3-2
Bill of Materials, Board Layout, and PCB Construction
Board Layout
3.2 Board Layout
Figure 3−1. Assembly Drawing
J8
J7 J18
R12
TP4W4 W3
VCC01
J15
GND01
VCC01
R14
J16
GND01
TP3
VCC01
GND01
VCC01
J14
W10GND
GND
VCC
W8
J1
J2
J13
VCC
R1
W2 W1 TP1
VCC
TP2
R2
VCC
J12
R4
P1
R5
GND
R8
R10
R3
R13 MADE
IN
U2
U.S.A.
TEXAS INSTRUMENTS U1
A/W NO. # 6424409B
R15
R7
PWA. EVM.
P3
P2
SN65MLVD
SERIAL NO.
R6
R16
R11
R17
W7
J9
VCC01
VCC
J6 J5
GND
GND01
W9
J11
GND
R9
R18
J10
GND01
J17
J4
J3
The top layer of the EVM contains the controlled impedance and matched
length traces.
Figure 3−2. Top Layer
Bill of Materials, Board Layout, and PCB Construction
3-3
Board Layout
The second layer of the EVM has the separate ground planes. These are the
reference planes for the controlled impedance traces on the top layer.
Figure 3−3. Second Layer
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The third layer of the EVM has the power planes. These are matched to the
ground planes to reduce radiated emission and crosstalk, while increasing
distributed capacitance.
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Figure 3−4. Third Layer
3-4
Bill of Materials, Board Layout, and PCB Construction
Board Layout
The bottom layer of the EVM contains bulk and decoupling capacitors to be
placed close to the power and ground pins on the device.
Figure 3−5. Bottom Layer
C9
C10
C8
C7
VCC01
C5
C4
GND01
VCC
C2
C1
C6
C3
GND
Bill of Materials, Board Layout, and PCB Construction
3-5
PCB Construction
3.3 PCB Construction
Information in this section was obtained from the following source:
- Electromagnetic Compatibility Printed Circuit Board and Electronic
Module Design, VEC workshop, Violette Engineering Corporation.
Characteristic impedance is the ratio of voltage to current in a transmission line
wave traveling in one direction. This characteristic impedance is the value that
is matched with our termination resistors so as to reduce reflections. This
reduction in reflections improves signal to noise ratio on the line and reduces
EMI caused by common mode voltages and spikes.
Two typical approaches are used for controlled impedance in printed-circuit
board construction, microstrip and stripline. Microstrip construction is shown
in Figure 3−6. The characteristic impedance of a microstrip trace on a
printed-circuit board is approximated by:
ZO +
60
Ǹ0.475år ) 0.67
ln
4h
0.67(0.8 W ) t)
(1)
where εr is the permeability of the board material, h is the distance between
the ground plane and the signal trace, W is the trace width, and t is the
thickness of the trace. The differential impedance for a two microstrip traces
can be approximated as follows with S being the distance between two
microstrip traces:
Z DIFF + 2
ZO
ǒ1 * 0.48e*0.96sńhǓ
(2)
Stripline construction is also shown in Figure 3−6, the signal lines should be
centered between the ground planes. The characteristic impedance of a
stripline trace in a printed-circuit board is approximated by:
Z O + 60
Ǹår
ln
4h
0.67p(0.8 W ) t)
(3)
where εr is the permeability of the board material, h is the distance between
the ground plane and the signal trace, W is the trace width, and t is the
thickness of the trace. The differential impedance for a two stripline traces can
be approximated as follows with S being the distance between two stripline
traces:
Z DIFF + 2
Note:
3-6
ZO
ǒ1 * 0.374e*2.9sńhǓ
(4)
For edge-coupled striplines, the term 0.374 may be replaced with 0.748 for lines which
are closely coupled (S < 12 mils, or 0,3 mm).
Bill of Materials, Board Layout, and PCB Construction
PCB Construction
Figure 3−6. Trace Configurations in Printed-Circuit Boards
W
t
W
Board
Material
h
MICROSTRIP
S
W
t
STRIPLINE
Stripline construction is the preferred configuration for differential signaling.
This configuration reduces radiated emissions from circuit board traces due
to better control of the lines of flux. The additional ground plane also allows for
better control of impedance on the traces.
It can be seen from the functions and physical construction parameters that
careful consideration must be given to these parameters for a robust board
design. For instance it is not uncommon for εr to vary 10% across one board,
affecting skew. This is a good reason to keep differential lines close. Other
factors to keep in mind when doing a printed-circuit layout for transmission
lines are as follows:
1) Differences in electrical length translate into skew.
2) Careful attention to dimensions, length and spacing help to insure isolation between differential pairs.
3) Where possible use ideal interconnects, point-to-point with no loads or
branches. This keeps the impedance more uniform from end to end and
reduce reflections on the line.
4) Discontinuities on the line, vias, pads, test points will:
J
Reduce characteristic impedance
J
Increase the prop delay, and rise-time degradation
J
Increase signal transition time
5) Prioritize signals and avoid turns in critical signals. Turns can cause impedance discontinuities.
6) Within a pair of traces, the distance between the traces should be minimized to maintain common-mode rejection of the receivers. Differential
transmission works best when both lines of the pair are kept as identical
as possible.
Bill of Materials, Board Layout, and PCB Construction
3-7
PCB Construction
Table 3−2 shows the layer stack up of the EVM with the defined trace widths
for the controlled impedance etch runs using microstrip construction.
Table 3−2. EVM Layer Stack Up
Differential Model
Material
Type:
FR 406
Layer
No.
Layer
Type
Thickness
(mils)
Copper
Weight
Line
Width
(mils)
Spacing
(mils)
Impedance
(Ω)
Line
Width
(mils)
Impedance
(Ω)
1
Signal
0.0006
0.5 oz (start)
0.027
0.230
100
0.0420
50
0.027
0.230
100
0.0420
50
PREPREG
0.025
2
Plane
CORE
0.0012
1
0.004
3
Plane
PREPREG
0.0012
1
0.025
4
3-8
Single-Ended Model
Signal
0.0006
0.5 oz (start)
Bill of Materials, Board Layout, and PCB Construction
Appendix A
Schematic
This Appendix contains the EVM schematic.
Schematic
A-1
1
2
3
4
5
6
V CC
R2
453
W1
ReceiverO utput
D
W2
C1
0.01uF
J1
R1*
49.9
D
R8*
0.0
TP1
J3*
ReceiverInput+
U1
1
2
ReceiverEnable
3
D riverEnable
4
5
D riverInput
J2
5
R3
49.9
TP2
7
NC
V cc
R
V cc
RE
A
DE
B
D
Z
GND
Y
GND
NC
14
R4
100
13
P1
R5
100
12
R9*
0.0
J4*
11
RecieverInputJ5*
10
D riverO utputR10*
0.0
9
8
R7
100
SN 65M LV D 202,203,205,O R 207
P2
R6
100
C
R11*
0.0
C
J6*
GND
D riverO utput+
V CC01
W3
R13
453
W4
C2
0.01uF
ReceiverO utput
J7
R12*
49.9
TP3
R17*
0.0
J9*
TransceiverI/O
U2
1
B
2
ReceiverEnable
3
D riverEnable
4
D riverInput
J8
R
V cc
RE
B
DE
A
D
GND
8
B
7
R15
100
6
P3
R16
100
5
R18*
0.0
SN 65M LV D 200,201,204 OR 206
R14
49.9
J10*
TransceiverI/O
TP4
V CC
J13
J14
J17
V CC
J18
V CC01
J11*
J12*
J15*
V CC
V cc
W8
W9
W 10
V CC01
V cc01
V cc
A
W7
J16*
V CC01
C7
10uF
C10
1.0uF
C8
10uF
V cc01
C9
1uF
A
C3
10uF
C6
1.0uF
C4
10uF
C5
1uF
Title
M -LVDS EVM SCHEM ATIC
Size
O PTIO N AL
B
* These partsare forboard testpurposesonly and notinstalled in the finalproduct.
D ate:
File:
1
2
3
4
5
N um ber
Revision
6424409
27-Feb-2002
Sheet of
C:\Userdata\Protel_database\LV D M 200_EVDMraw
.ddb
n By: Loren D em ers
6