Contemporary Research TD960801

EXTEND-A-BUS for
A Line of Fieldbus Extenders for DeviceNet
User Manual
#TD960801-0MC
Trademarks
Contemporary Controls, ARC Control, ARC DETECT and
EXTEND-A-BUS are trademarks or registered trademarks of
Contemporary Control Systems, Inc. ARCNET is a registered
trademark of Datapoint Corporation. Other product names may be
trademarks or registered trademarks of their respective companies.
TD960801-0MC Revised 07-16-02
Copyright
© Copyright April 1999-2002 by Contemporary Control Systems,
Inc. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be
reproduced, transmitted, transcribed, stored in a retrieval system, or
translated into any language or computer language, in any form or
by any means, electronic, mechanical, magnetic, optical, chemical,
manual, or otherwise, without the prior written permission of:
Contemporary Control Systems, Inc.
2431 Curtiss Street
Downers Grove, Illinois 60515 USA
Tel:
+1-630-963-7070
Fax:
+1-630-963-0109
E-mail: info@ccontrols.com
WWW: http://www.ccontrols.com
Contemporary Controls Ltd
Sovereign Court Two
University of Warwick Science Park
Sir William Lyons Road
Coventry CV4 7EZ UK
Tel:
+44 (0)24 7641 3786
Fax:
+44 (0)24 7641 3923
E-mail: info@ccontrols.co.uk
Disclaimer
Contemporary Control Systems, Inc. reserves the right to make
changes in the specifications of the product described within this
manual at any time without notice and without obligation of
Contemporary Control Systems, Inc. to notify any person of such
revision or change.
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Contents
Chapter 1 Introduction ......................................................... 1
1.1
Description ................................................ 1
1.2
Features ..................................................... 2
1.3
Specifications ............................................ 2
1.4
Port Specifications .................................... 3
1.5
Ordering Information ................................ 4
Chapter 2 Installation ........................................................... 5
2.1
Introduction ............................................... 5
2.2
Electromagnetic Compliance ..................... 5
2.3
Mounting the EXTEND-A-BUS ............... 6
2.4
Powering the EXTEND-A-BUS ............... 6
2.5
Connecting to the CAN Port ..................... 9
2.6
Connecting to the Backbone Port ............ 12
Chapter 3 Operation .......................................................... 19
3.1
CAN Communications ............................ 19
3.2
Theory of Operation ................................ 20
3.3
System Considerations ............................ 23
3.4
LED Indicators ........................................ 25
Chapter 4 Service ............................................................... 27
Warranty ............................................................. 27
Technical Support ............................................... 28
Warranty Repair ................................................. 28
Non-Warranty Repair ......................................... 29
Returning Products for Repair ............................ 29
Appendices
Appendix A—Permissible Segment Lengths ...... 31
Appendix B—Declaration of Conformity ........... 34
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List of Figures
Figure 2-1 DC Powered ........................................................ 7
Figure 2-2 Redundant DC Powered ...................................... 8
Figure 2-3 AC Powered ........................................................ 8
Figure 2-4 AC Powered with Battery Backup ...................... 9
Figure 2-5 CAN Port Connector Assignments ................... 10
Figure 2-6 Data Rate Switch .............................................. 11
Figure 2-7 Appropriate terminators are required
at the ends of both the coaxial cable backbone
and DeviceNet subnets ...................................... 13
Figure 2-8 A maximum of eight EXTEND-A-BUSes can .....
occupy one coaxial backbone segment before an ..
active hub is required ........................................ 14
Figure 2-9 A 62.5/125 µm duplex fiber optic cable is
used on the -FOG model up to a maximum of
1830 meters ....................................................... 15
Figure 2-10 By using two AI3-CXS hubs, a
distributed star topology is achieved ................. 17
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1
Introduction
1.1
Description
The EXTEND-A-BUS for DeviceNet series of fieldbus
extenders enable the geographic expansion of CAN-based
device networks such as DeviceNet by linking individual
DeviceNet subnets together into a single larger network.
The medium arbitration method used by DeviceNet is intolerant
of excessive signal delay. Since cable length introduces delay,
DeviceNet networks tend to be distance limited. Repeaters are
ineffective in extending distances since they introduce additional
delay. On the other hand, fieldbus extenders like EXTEND-ABUS solve the problem by segmenting a single DeviceNet
network into manageable subnets.
EXTEND-A-BUS interconnects two physically separated but
similar networks using a different interconnecting medium.
Thus, a pair is required to interconnect two networks (or
subnets) the way two modems are used on leased phone lines.
Utilizing ARCNET as the high-speed deterministic
interconnecting medium, the EXTEND-A-BUS captures
DeviceNet traffic and replicates it to the receiving device. The
receiving device removes DeviceNet data and rebroadcasts the
data to its attached DeviceNet subnet. EXTEND-A-BUS does
not filter out DeviceNet identifiers or MAC addresses, so
DeviceNet messages are rebroadcast unmodified.
Application Information
Each EXTEND-A-BUS creates a DeviceNet subnet and a
minimum of two EXTEND-A-BUSes is required to establish a
network. The data rate on each subnet can be different from the
other subnets. DeviceNet identifiers or MAC ID checks are
replicated on all subnets. EXTEND-A-BUS pairs are best
viewed as an extension cord. Each EXTEND-A-BUS does not
consume a permanent MAC ID and, therefore, is transparent to
the network.
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Extending the Interconnecting Medium or Backbone
The backbone side of the EXTEND-A-BUS must comply with
standard ARCNET cabling rules. Companion AI ARCNET
active hubs are available for extending the backbone cabling up
to 6 km using coaxial cabling and ten active hubs. When using
a fiber optic backbone, a maximum of 4.8 km can be achieved
requiring two active hubs. Hubs are cascaded to reach the
required distance.
1.2
Features
•
Extends the length of DeviceNet networks up to 6 km
•
Fully DeviceNet compliant
•
Fiber optic or coaxial cabling
•
Star, bus or distributed star topology
•
Variable data rate up to 500 kbps
•
Low voltage AC or DC powered
•
Panel-mount enclosure
1.3
Specifications
Electrical
Input voltage:
Input power:
Input frequency:
DC
10–36 volts
4 watts
N/A
AC
8–24 volts
4VA
47-63 Hz
Power Options
– DC powered
– Redundant powered
– AC powered
– AC powered with battery backup
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Environmental
Operating:
0°C to 60°C
Storage:
-40°C to +85°C
Functional
Data latency: 1.2 ms typical per EXTEND-A-BUS pair
Regulatory Compliance
FCC Part 15 Class A
CE Mark
1.4
Port Specifications
Compliance
Data Rate
able
Autobaud
LEDs
Transceivers
Cable
Connectors
Maximum segment
or subnet distance
CAN Port
DeviceNet
Volume I, Release 2.0
125 kbps, 250 kbps, 500 kbps selector
125 kbps, 250 kbps, 500 kbps
CAN status:
Module status/network status
Optically isolated 82C251
DeviceNet Thick
5 position Open-pluggable
125 kbps: 500 meters (1640 ft)
250 kbps: 250 meters (820 ft)
500 kbps: 100 meters (328 ft)
Maximum number
of nodes per segment 64
Terminating resistor 121 ohms
Compliance
Data Rate
Backbone Port
ARCNET
ANSI/ATA 878.1
2.5 Mbps
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Link status:
Reconfiguration status/activity status
Transceivers
-CXB model: transformer coupled
-FOG model: 850 nm duplex
fiber optic
Cable
-CXB model: RG-62/u coaxial
-FOG model: 62.5/125 µm duplex
fiber optic
Connectors
-CXB model: BNC
-FOG model: ST
Maximum segment
-CXB model: 305 meters (1000 ft)
or subnet distance
-FOG model: 1830 meters (6000 ft)
(optical power
budget 10.4dB)
Maximum number
-CXB model: 8
of nodes per segment -FOG model: N/A
Terminating resistor -CXB model: 93 ohms
-FOG model: N/A
LEDs
1.5
Ordering Information
The EXTEND-A-BUS series is available in several
configurations depending upon the application and cable media
supported.
EXTEND-A-BUSes:
EB/DNET-CXB EXTEND-A-BUS with coaxial bus backbone
EB/DNET-FOG EXTEND-A-BUS with fiber optic backbone
Accessories:
AI-XFMR
AI-XFMR-E
AI-DIN
BNC-T
BNC-TER
Wall-mount transformer 120 VAC (nom)
Wall-mount transformer 240 VAC (nom)
DIN-rail mounting kit
BNC “T” connector
93-ohm BNC terminator
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2
Installation
2.1
Introduction
The EXTEND-A-BUS series is intended to be panel mounted
into an industrial enclosure or into a wiring closet. Two #8 pan
head screws (not provided) are required for mounting.
Optionally, the bridge can be mounted on a DIN rail by
purchasing a DIN rail mounting kit.
2.2.
Electromagnetic Compliance
The EXTEND-A-BUS series complies with Class A radiated
and conducted emissions as defined by FCC part 15 and
EN55022. This equipment is intended for use in non-residential
areas. Refer to the following notices in regard to the location of
the installed equipment.
Note: This equipment has been tested and found to comply
with the limits for a Class A digital device, pursuant to Part 15
of the FCC Rules. These limits are designed to provide
reasonable protection against harmful interference when the
equipment is operated in a commercial environment. This
equipment generates, uses, and can radiate radio frequency
energy and, if not installed and used in accordance with the
instruction manual, may cause harmful interference to radio
communications. Operation of this equipment in a residential
area is likely to cause harmful interference in which case the
user will be required to correct the interference at his own
expense.
Warning
This is a Class A product as defined in EN55022. In a
domestic environment this product may cause radio
interference in which case the user may be required to take
adequate measures.
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The EXTEND-A-BUS has been tested to EN50082 Generic
Immunity Standard–Industrial Environment. This standard
identifies a series of tests requiring the equipment to perform to
a particular level during or after the execution of the tests. The
three classes of performance are defined by CCSI as follows:
Class A - Normal operation, however, occasional
reconfigurations may occur or throughput may be reduced due
to an error recovery algorithm by the ARCNET data link level
protocol.
Class B - Throughput reduced to zero and continuous
reconfigurations occur. Normal operation resumed after
offending signal removed.
Class C - Complete loss of function. Unit resets and normal
operation restored without human intervention.
At no time did the EXTEND-A-BUS fail to return to normal
operation or become unsafe during the execution of these tests.
A copy of the Declaration of Conformity is in the appendix.
2.3
Mounting the EXTEND-A-BUS
The EXTEND-A-BUS is intended for mounting onto a vertical
panel within an industrial control enclosure. Two #8 screws can
be used for mounting the EXTEND-A-BUS in a vertical
orientation. Refer to the mechanical specifications for details.
To mount the EXTEND-A-BUS onto a DIN rail, an optional
DIN rail mounting clip (AI-DIN) must be purchased and
installed on the rear of the EXTEND-A-BUS. Once the clip is
mounted to the EXTEND-A-BUS, the EXTEND-A-BUS can be
snapped onto the DIN rail.
2.4
Powering the EXTEND-A-BUS
The EXTEND-A-BUS requires either low voltage AC or DC
power in order to operate. Consult the specifications for power
requirements. Power is provided to a four pin removable keyed
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connector. There are several methods for providing power.
These methods are DC powered, redundant DC powered, AC
powered and AC powered with battery backup.
2.4.1
DC Powered
Make connections as shown in Figure 2-1. The EXTEND-ABUS incorporates a DC-DC converter that accepts a wide
voltage range (10–36 VDC) and converts the voltage for
internal use. Input current varies with input voltage so it is
important to size the power conductors accordingly. Input power
to the EXTEND-A-BUS maximizes at 4 watts; therefore, at
10 VDC, the input current is approximately 400 ma. The
ground connection to the EXTEND-A-BUS is connected to
chassis within the EXTEND-A-BUS. The input connections are
reverse voltage protected.
Figure 2-1. DC Powered
2.4.2
Redundant DC Powered
Redundant diode isolated DC power inputs are provided on the
EXTEND-A-BUS for those applications in which there is a
concern that the EXTEND-A-BUS remain operational in the
event of a primary power failure. Make connections as shown in
Figure 2-2. Each power supply source must be sized for the full
4-watt load of the EXTEND-A-BUS. Do not assume that input
currents will be balanced from the two supplies.
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Figure 2-2. Redundant DC Powered
2.4.3
AC Powered
If only AC power is available, the EXTEND-A-BUS can be
powered by the secondary of a low voltage transformer whose
primary is connected to the AC mains. The secondary voltage
must be in the range of 8 to 24 VAC, 47–63 Hz with the
capability of delivering up to 4 VA of apparent power. The
secondary of the transformer must not be grounded. For
convenience, two auxiliary power supplies are available:
•
AI-XFMR for 120 VAC primary power
•
AI-XFMR-E for 240 VAC primary power
Reference Figure 2-3.
Figure 2-3. AC Powered
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2.4.4
AC Powered with Battery Backup
The EXTEND-A-BUS can also be powered from both an AC
and DC power source. Usually, the DC source is from a battery
supply which is connected as the DC powered option. Refer to
Figure 2-4. In this application, the EXTEND-A-BUS does not
charge the battery so separate provisions are required for
charging. If the AC source fails, the EXTEND-A-BUS will
operate from the battery source.
Figure 2-4. AC Powered with Battery Backup
2.5
Connecting to the CAN Port
The CAN port complies to the DeviceNet physical layer
specification for an isolated port. Since the port is isolated, bus
power (V+, V–) must be present in order for the port to
function. A bus power sensor has been provided in the
EXTEND-A-BUS to ensure that in the absence of bus power,
the port will not enter the “bus off” state.
2.5.1
CAN Port Assignments
A five position open style male connector has been provided on
the EXTEND-A-BUS for connections. See figure 2-5 for
connector assignments. A mating female connector has been
provided in order to make field connections.
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Terminators are required at the ends of trunk cables. If the
EXTEND-A-BUS is located at the end of a trunk and no
terminator is present, a discrete resistor terminator (121 ohms)
can be connected under the screw terminals for CAN_H and
CAN_L.
Refer to Figure 2-5 for wiring details.
Network Connector (Female Contacts)
1
2
3
4
5
5
V+
red
4
CAN_H
white
3
drain
bare
2
CAN_L
blue
1
V-
black
Device Connector (Male Contacts)
Figure 2-5. CAN Port Connector Assignments
2.5.2
CAN Port Data Rates
Several data rates can be selected by a rotary switch as shown
in figure 2-6. Switch positions are labeled A, S, 125, 250, 500.
A and S are used to implement autobauding which will be
discussed later. The remaining positions determine a fixed data
rate in units of kbps. Therefore, the lowest rate is 125 kbps and
the highest is 500 kbps. The data rate switch is only read upon
power up; so to change settings, the switch position should be
changed and the power cycled to the EXTEND-A-BUS. A
clockwise rotation increases the data rate setting.
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Figure 2-6. Data Rate Switch
2.5.3
Autobauding
Autobauding is the action of automatically matching the data
rate of the EXTEND-A-BUS to the data rate of a master
controller or scanner in a DeviceNet network. By moving the
Data Rate switch to the A position and powering up the
EXTEND-A-BUS, the EXTEND-A-BUS will attempt to
determine the data rate by observing the traffic on the CAN
port. Therefore, it is important that the CAN port be connected
to the DeviceNet subnet connecting the master controller. All
other EXTEND-A-BUSes should have their Data Rate switch
set to S (slave) position since their data rate will be set by the
master EXTEND-A-BUS (the one connected to the master)
which will broadcast the required data rate to all slaves once the
data rate is determined. Autobauding functions for the three
data rates: 125, 250 and 500 kbps.
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2.6
Connecting to the Backbone Port
The backbone (link) port is ARCNET compliant and, therefore,
complies with the cabling rules for ARCNET networks. For
more information on designing an ARCNET cabling system,
refer to Contemporary Controls’ publication, “ARCNET
Tutorial & Product Guide.”
Either of two transceivers are available on the backbone port.
The coaxial bus (-CXB) transceiver requires coaxial cable
allowing a total of eight EXTEND-A-BUS devices to be
connected onto one wiring segment. The fiber optic (-FOG)
transceiver allows for two EXTEND-A-BUSes to be connected
in a point-to-point or link fashion. If star or distributed star
topologies are desired or if the cabling distances must exceed the
basic specifications, ARCNET compliant active hubs are
required. Contemporary Controls provides two series of active
hubs–the MOD HUB series of modular hubs and the AI series
of fix port hubs. Refer to the appendix for more information on
active hubs.
2.6.1
Connecting Coaxial Bus Networks (-CXB)
Coaxial bus backbone ports must be interconnected with
RG-62/u 93-ohm coaxial cable. In a simple two EXTEND-ABUS arrangement, a BNC-Tee (BNC-T) is twisted onto each
BNC backbone port. A length of RG-62/u cable, no shorter
than 6 feet (2 m) nor longer than 1000 feet (305 m) is connected
between the BNC-Tee connectors. At the open end of each
BNC-Tee is connected a 93-ohm terminator (BNC-TER). This
completes the basic connection.
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Figure 2-7. Appropriate terminators are
required at the ends of both the coaxial cable
backbone and DeviceNet subnets.
More than two EXTEND-A-BUSes (but no more than eight)
can be connected to one wiring segment. Insert the desired
number of EXTEND-A-BUSes using BNC-Tee connectors to
the backbone wiring. Make sure that any two EXTEND-ABUSes are separated by at least 6 foot (2 m) of cable and that
the complete cabling segment does not exceed 1000 feet
(305 m).
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Figure 2-8. A maximum of eight EXTEND-A-BUSes can
occupy one coaxial backbone segment before an active hub is
required. Use BNC “Tees” and terminators when making
connections. One of each is included in the -CXB model.
2.6.2
Connecting Fiber Optic Cable (-FOG)
Multimode fiber optic cable is typically available in three sizes,
50/125, 62.5/125, and 100/140. The larger the size, the more
energy that can be launched and, therefore, the greater the
distance. Bayonet style ST connectors, similar in operation to
BNC coaxial cable connectors, are provided for making the
fiber connections.
Fiber optic connections require a duplex cable arrangement.
Two unidirectional cable paths provide the duplex link. There
are two devices on the EXTEND-A-BUS fiber port. One device,
colored light gray, is the transmitter and the other, dark gray, is
the receiver. Remember that “light goes out of the light (gray).”
To establish a working link between an EXTEND-A-BUS and
another EXTEND-A-BUS or an EXTEND-A-BUS to a hub, the
transmitter of point A must be connected to a receiver at point
B. Correspondingly the receiver at point A must be connected to
a transmitter at point B. This establishes the duplex link which
is actually two simplex links. Fiber optic cable is available
paired for this purpose. Usually the manufacturers' labeling is
only on one cable of the pair which is handy for identifying
which of the two cables is which. Establish your own protocol
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for connecting cable between hubs and EXTEND-A-BUSes in
the field using the manufacturers' labeling as a guide. However,
remember that to connect point A to point B requires a paired
fiber optic cable and that the light gray connector at one point
must connect to a dark gray connector at the other point.
Figure 2-9. A 62.5/125 µm duplex fiber optic
cable is used on the -FOG model up to a
maximum of 1830 meters.
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2.6.3
Extending the Backbone
The backbone side of the EXTEND-A-BUS must comply with
standard ARCNET cabling rules. Companion AI ARCNET
active hubs are available for extending the backbone cabling up
to 6 km using coaxial cabling and ten active hubs. When using
a fiber optic backbone, a maximum of 4.8 km can be achieved
requiring two active hubs. Hubs can be cascaded to reach the
required distance.
By using active hubs, star and distributed star topologies are
possible. There is, however, a limit to the overall length of the
backbone network. The delay experienced when an EXTENDA-BUS communicates to another EXTEND-A-BUS with each
located at the extreme ends of a network cannot exceed 31 µs.
This delay is due to cable and hub delays. This delay translates
to a maximum of 6 km of coaxial cable or 4.8 km of fiber optic
cable. When making this calculation, only consider the distance
between the two furthest EXTEND-A-BUSes. Also verify the
distance limitations of active hubs being used. Active hubs that
incorporate coaxial star ports (-CXS) allow for 2000 foot
connections between compatible ports but no bussing. When
making a connection to a -CXS port from the EXTEND-ABUS’ -CXB port, make sure that the -CXS port is located at
one end of the segment and that no terminator is used. The
length of a segment connecting a -CXB port cannot exceed
1000 feet (305 m).
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Figure 2-10. By using two AI3-CXS hubs, a distributed star
topology is achieved. Note that the hub-to-hub distance can be
a maximum of 610 m when using coaxial cable and that no
terminators are used at the AI3 ports. However, the cables to
the EXTEND-A-BUSes still cannot exceed 305 m.
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3
Operation
3.1
CAN Communications
CAN was designed by Bosch and is currently described by ISO
11898. In terms of the Open Systems Interconnection model
(OSI), CAN partially defines the services for layer 1 (physical)
and layer 2 (data link). Other standards such as DeviceNet,
Smart Distributed System and CANopen (collectively called
higher layer protocols) build upon the basic CAN specification
and define additional services of the seven layer OSI model.
Since all of these protocols utilize CAN integrated circuits, they
therefore all comply with the data link layer defined by CAN.
CAN specifies the medium access control (MAC) and physical
layer signaling (PLS) as it applies to layers 1 and 2 of the OSI
model. Medium access control is accomplished using a
technique called non-destructive bit-wise arbitration. As
stations apply their unique identifier to the network, they
observe if their data is being faithfully produced. If it is not, the
station assumes that a higher priority message is being sent
and, therefore, halts transmission and reverts to receiving mode.
The highest priority message gets through and the lower priority
messages are resent at another time. The advantage of this
approach is that collisions on the network do not destroy data
and eventually all stations gain access to the network. The
problem with this approach is that the arbitration is done on a
bit by bit basis requiring all stations to hear one another within
a bit time (actually less than a bit time). At a 500 kbps bit-rate,
this time is less than 2000 ns which does not allow much time
for transceiver and cable delays. The result is that CAN
networks are usually quite short and frequently less than 100
meters in length at higher speeds. To increase this distance
either the data rate is decreased or additional equipment is
required.
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3.1.1
Repeaters
The usual approach to increasing network distance is to use
repeaters. Repeaters provide signal boost to make up the loss of
signal strength on a long segment. However, the problem with
long CAN segments is usually not lack of signal strength but
excessive signal latency. This latency is due to the propagation
delay introduced by the transceivers and twisted-pair wiring. If
this latency approaches one bit time, the non-destructive bitwise arbitration mechanism fails. Repeaters actually introduce
more delay due to the additional electronics and are not effective
in increasing the overall length of CAN networks. Repeaters
are generally used to increase the effective length of drop cables
from CAN trunk lines. Repeaters operate on the physical layer.
3.1.2
Bridges
Bridges are defined as devices that link two similar networks,
however, bridges can mean different things to different people so
further clarification is necessary. A local bridge stands by itself
connecting adjacent wiring segments together as in the case of a
repeater. Remote bridging interconnects two physically
separated but similar networks together using a different
interconnecting medium. Therefore, a pair of bridges are
required to interconnect two networks the way two modems are
used on leased phone lines. Sometimes bridges block network
traffic by restricting data only to stations specified in the
transmission that reside on the network controlled by the bridge.
This blocking is difficult to implement in broadcast networks
such as CAN and, therefore, not recommended. Bridges are
ignorant of the higher level protocols sent over CAN since
bridges operate at the data link layer. Therefore, protocols such
as DeviceNet, Smart Distributed System and CANopen are
passed without modification.
3.2
Theory of Operation
The EXTEND-A-BUS is classified as a remote bridge and
contained in a two piece metal enclosure suitable for panel
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mounting into a larger industrial enclosure. As an option, the
EXTEND-A-BUS can be DIN rail mounted by purchasing the
appropriate kit. The EXTEND-A-BUS has two ports, one for
the CAN network and the other for the ARCNET backbone.
The device can be powered from either a low voltage AC or DC
power supply.
3.2.1
CAN Port
One electrically isolated CAN port has been provided capable of
operating to the DeviceNet physical layer specification. This
was done to minimize ground loop problems while providing
isolation to the ARCNET backbone. The port conforms to the
DeviceNet specification for a five position unsealed connector.
One CAN segment, conforming to the electrical restrictions of
the CAN segment, attaches to this port. In a similar method,
additional CAN segments are attached to other EXTEND-ABUS CAN ports. The only restriction is that all CAN
compliant devices on the complete network have unique MAC
IDs.
3.2.2
ARCNET Port
On the coaxial cable model, a BNC connector has been
provided. On the fiber optics model, two ST connectors are
provided-one for transmit (TX) and one for receive (RX). The
coaxial port is of the high impedance type (-CXB) allowing for
up to eight devices on one coaxial cable segment. A BNC
terminator (BNC-TER) and a BNC Tee connector (BNC-T) are
provided to facilitate connections to other bridges on the
ARCNET backbone. The ARCNET port operates at 2.5 Mbps.
Each EXTEND-A-BUS requires a unique ARCNET node ID
which has no meaning to the CAN segments. Node ID’s are
automatically assigned by the EXTEND-A-BUSes themselves
using an arbitration scheme upon power up.
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3.2.3
Topologies
CAN-based device networks usually operate over a multidrop
topology with provisions for short drops of typically six meters
each. The trunk length depends upon the data rate and at 500
kbps, the maximum length of the trunk is 100 meters.
Conceptually, the multidrop topology is easy to understand and
appears easy to implement and for many applications this is
true. However, for some machines or processes, the star or
distributed star topology would reduce wiring especially when
devices are clustered in all directions from the main control
panel. By incorporating bridges, the multidrop topology is
maintained since the ARCNET side of the bridges are bused;
however, since each CAN segment attached to a bridge can
comply with the maximum capabilities of the CAN segment, a
system is created with a long ARCNET trunk of 1000 feet and
eight long CAN “drop” segments of 330 feet each. If a true star
topology or longer distances are desired, each EXTEND-ABUS can be connected to a companion AI series active hub.
For distributed star topologies, multiple AI series active hubs
can be cascaded up to the ARCNET limit of four miles when
using coaxial cable. With increased distances comes increased
signal latency and potential real time performance degradation
of the network.
3.2.4
Power Requirements
Either low voltage AC or DC power will power the EXTENDA-BUS. A DC-DC converter accepts the input power and
converts it to +5 volts DC for use by the EXTEND-A-BUS.
The AC power must come from a floating secondary in the
range of 8 to 24 volts AC. The DC power source must be in the
range of 10 to 36 VDC. Power connections are derived from a
four position unsealed connector. The CAN port must still be
powered from the network itself since the EXTEND-A-BUS
does not serve as a network power supply; however, the
EXTEND-A-BUS can be powered from the 24 volt network
power supply.
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3.2.5
EXTEND-A-BUS Engine
A high speed 32 Mhz 80C188 microprocessor provides the
computing power for the EXTEND-A-BUS. The ARCNET
port consists of a 20020 controller chip and coaxial bus or fiber
optic transceiver. The CAN port consists of a Intel 82527 CAN
controller and isolated 82C251 transceiver. The CAN port is
capable of generating interrupts at a high speed since the
EXTEND-A-BUS must listen to all CAN traffic. Back to back
CAN data frames can generate an interrupt every 94 µs at 500
kbps. The ARCNET buffers will also generate interrupts
making low latency interrupt handling a priority for the
EXTEND-A-BUS. Included in the engine is a 128Kx8 FLASH
ROM and 128Kx8 SRAM. An internal serial port is used to
update the firmware.
3.3
System Considerations
There are some design considerations when implementing a
remote bridging system.
By its very nature of storing and forwarding messages, the
EXTEND-A-BUS system introduces additional signal latency
which may disturb DeviceNet systems with tight timing
constraints. With the DeviceNet protocol, there has been little
evidence of any timing problems. However, the potential exists
for a system to erroneously signal a failed response to an action
when short cabling delays are assumed. On systems with very
fast DeviceNet scanners while operating at low data rates and
lightly load systems, the possibility exists for the master to issue
a comment to a slave and fail to wait for the slave’s response
before issuing another command assuming a failed response.
This is especially true for devices that support long fragmented
messages. The solution is to increase the interscan time to
either 5 to 10 ms in order to allow sufficient time for response.
Another solution is to increase the data rate on all devices to
500 kbps. Still another solution is to move problem devices to
the local segment (the same segment as the scanner) in order to
eliminate delays due to the EXTEND-A-BUSes.
TD960801-0MC
23
Within a CAN segment, at least one device must acknowledge
the valid receipt of another device’s transmission. That
acknowledgment, however, does not extend beyond an
EXTEND-A-BUS. Even though a successful transmission
occurred on a CAN segment, that transmission must be
replicated on all other CAN segments generating additional
acknowledgments. Therefore, it is possible that a replicated
transmission on one CAN segment may fail due to a cabling
problem resulting in no acknowledgment while all other CAN
segments view the transmission successful. However, the
DeviceNet protocol does not rely upon the CAN data link
acknowledgment as sole indication of a successful transmission.
Additional error checking has been incorporated in the upper
layer DeviceNet protocol.
Single nodes can operate on an individual CAN segment with
remote bridging. Since each EXTEND-A-BUS has one internal
CAN chip, this CAN chip acknowledges the single node’s
message. Without remote bridges, a single node will fail to hear
an acknowledgment and will continuously retry.
The DeviceNet protocol supports autobauding which is possible
for the EXTEND-A-BUS to implement. One EXTEND-A-BUS
acts as a master for all other bridges on the network functioning
as slaves. The master EXTEND-A-BUS must be connected to
the CAN segment connected to the master controller. As the
master controller transmits data, the master EXTEND-A-BUS
determines the data rate and informs all other EXTEND-ABUSes the required data rate over the ARCNET connection.
Once the data rates are determined, traffic is sent between the
bridges functioning as one long extension cord. The EXTENDA-BUS data rates can be manually set by way of a switch and
there is no inherent reason why individual CAN segments
cannot be set to different data rates.
Using the same extension cord analogy, it would appear that a
remote bridging system must be powered before or at the same
time as the slave devices or master controller in order that all
devices can execute initialization routines such as duplicate
TD960801-0MC
24
MAC ID tests as in the case of DeviceNet. However, if a
remote bridge loses power while all other devices remain
powered, the failure mode should be no different than cutting the
cable in the middle of a CAN segment. When power is restored
to the remote bridges, the restart sequence should be the same as
if the maintenance person reconnected a disconnected cable.
CAN networks are usually configured in a bus or multidrop
topology while ARCNET can be configured as a bus, star or
distributed star topology. Therefore CAN implementations can
take advantage of the more flexible ARCNET cabling options.
Do not cascade EXTEND-A-BUSes beyond two since the delay
stackup could be excessive. Instead connect all EXTEND-ABUSes in a star topology using a hub thereby reducing data
latency to that of two EXTEND-A-BUSes.
Implementing fiber optics over any reasonable distance with
CAN is difficult due to the increased delays caused by the
additional circuitry. However, fiber optic ARCNET solutions
are readily available. Therefore, the benefits of fiber optics can
be gained simply by adding remote bridges. Note that the
propagation delay of fiber optic cable (5 ns/m) is 25% more
than that of coaxial cable. This is important when calculating
ARCNET delay margin and was considered when setting the 4.8
km fiber optic limit.
3.4
LED Indicators
One CAN Status LED and one LINK Status LED are provided
in order to convey information regarding their respective ports.
When LEDs flash, they will flash approximately at a rate of 0.5
seconds on and 0.5 seconds off.
3.4.1
CAN Status LED
A dual color LED (red/green) is used to identify status of the
CAN port. After a power-on sequence, the LED indications are
as follows:
TD960801-0MC
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RED—The EXTEND-A-BUS has detected an internal problem
with the CAN port requiring service.
Flashing RED—The CAN port does not have sufficient voltage
on its V+ and V– lines to power the optically isolated port.
GREEN—The CAN port is receiving data.
Flashing GREEN—The CAN port is commissioned, however,
no CAN data has been received in over a second.
3.4.2
LINK Status LED
A dual color LED (yel/green) is used to identify status of the
ARCNET (backbone) port. After a power-on sequence, the
LED indications are as follows:
YELLOW—Continuous network configuration occurring or no
other EXTEND-A-BUS nodes found.
Flashing YELLOW—One or more network reconfigurations
detected on an operating network.
GREEN—Data is being received from the network.
Flashing GREEN—Network is operational, however, no data is
being received from the network in the last second.
3.4.3
Power-on LED Sequence
The CAN Status and LINK Status LEDs are sequenced upon
power-up to verify the integrity of the LEDs. The sequence is
as follows:
CAN status off and Link status off
CAN status GREEN for 0.25 seconds
CAN status RED for 0.25 seconds
LINK status GREEN for 0.25 seconds
LINK status YELLOW for 0.25 seconds
After the power-on sequence, both LEDs assume their normal
operation.
TD960801-0MC
26
4
Service
Warranty
Contemporary Controls (CC) warrants its product to the
original purchaser for one year from the product’s shipping
date. If a CC product fails to operate in compliance with its
specification during this period, CC will, at its option, repair or
replace the product at no charge. The customer is, however,
responsible for shipping the product; CC assumes no
responsibility for the product until it is received. This warranty
does not cover repair of products that have been damaged by
abuse, accident, disaster, misuse, or incorrect installation.
CC’s limited warranty covers products only as delivered. User
modification may void the warranty if the product is damaged
during installation of the modifications, in which case this
warranty does not cover repair or replacement.
This warranty in no way warrants suitability of the product for
any specific application.
IN NO EVENT WILL CC BE LIABLE FOR ANY
DAMAGES INCLUDING LOST PROFITS, LOST
SAVINGS, OR OTHER INCIDENTAL OR
CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES ARISING OUT OF THE
USE OR INABILITY TO USE THE PRODUCT EVEN IF CC
HAS BEEN ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF SUCH
DAMAGES, OR FOR ANY CLAIM BY ANY PARTY
OTHER THAN THE PURCHASER.
THE ABOVE WARRANTY IS IN LIEU OF ANY AND ALL
OTHER WARRANTIES, EXPRESSED OR IMPLIED OR
STATUTORY, INCLUDING THE WARRANTIES OF
MERCHANTABILITY, FITNESS FOR PARTICULAR
PURPOSE OR USE, TITLE AND NONINFRINGEMENT.
TD960801-0MC
27
Repair or replacement as provided above shall be the
purchaser’s sole and exclusive remedy and CC’s exclusive
liability for any breach of warranty.
Technical Support
Contemporary Controls (U.S.A.) will provide technical support
on its products by calling 1-630-963-7070 each weekday
(except holidays) between 8:00 a.m. and 5:00 p.m. Central time.
Contemporary Controls Ltd (U.K.) will provide technical
support on its products by calling +44 (0)24 7641 3786 each
weekday (except holidays) between 8:00 a.m. and 5:00 p.m.
United Kingdom time. If you have a problem outside these
hours, leave a voice-mail message in the CC after hours
mailbox after calling our main phone number. You can also fax
your request by calling 1-630-963-0109 (U.S.) or +44 (0)24
7641 3923 (U.K.), or contact us via e-mail at
info@ccontrols.com or info@ccontrols.co.uk. You can visit our
web site at www.ccontrols.com. When contacting us, please
leave a detailed description of the problem. We will contact you
by phone the next business day or in the manner your
instructions indicate. We will attempt to resolve the problem
over the phone. If unresolvable, the customer will be given an
RMA number in order that the product may be returned to CC
for repair.
Warranty Repair
Products under warranty that were not subjected to misuse or
abuse will be repaired at no charge to the customer. The
customer, however, pays for shipping the product back to CC
while CC pays for the return shipment to the customer. CC
normally ships ground. International shipments may take
longer. If the product has been determined to be misused or
abused, CC will provide the customer with a quotation for
repair. No work will be done without customer approval.
TD960801-0MC
28
Non-Warranty Repair
CC provides a repair service for all its products. Repair
charges are based upon a fixed fee basis depending upon the
complexity of the product. Therefore, Customer Service can
provide a quotation on the repair cost at the time a Returned
Material Authorization (RMA) is requested. Customers pay the
cost of shipping the defective product to CC and will be
invoiced for the return shipment to their facility. No repair will
be performed without customer approval. If a product is
determined to be unrepairable, the customer will be asked if the
product can be replaced with a refurbished product (assuming
one is available). Under no circumstances will CC replace a
defective product without customer approval. Allow ten
working days for repairs.
Returning Products for Repair
To schedule service for a product, please call CC Customer
Service support directly at 1-630-963-7070 (U.S.) or +44 (0)24
7641 3786 (U.K.). Have the product model and serial number
available, along with a description of the problem. A
Customer Service representative will record the appropriate
information and issue, via fax, an RMA number—a code
number by which we track the product while it is being
processed. Once you have received the RMA number, follow
the instructions of the Customer Service support representative
and return the product to us, freight prepaid, with the RMA
number clearly marked on the exterior of the package. If
possible, reuse the original shipping containers and packaging.
In any event, be sure you follow good ESD-control practices
when handling the product, and ensure that antistatic bags and
packing materials with adequate padding and shock-absorbing
properties are used. CC is not responsible for any damage
incurred from improper packaging. Shipments should be
insured for your protection.
TD960801-0MC
29
Ship the product, freight prepaid, to the location from which it
was purchased:
Contemporary Control Systems, Inc.
2431 Curtiss Street
Downers Grove, IL 60515
U.S.A.
Contemporary Controls Ltd
Sovereign Court Two
University of Warwick Science Park
Sir William Lyons Rd.
Conventry CV4 7EZ
U.K.
TD960801-0MC
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Appendices
Appendix A—Permissible Segment Lengths
A segment is defined as any portion of the complete ARCNET
cabling system isolated by one or more hub ports. On a hubless
or bus system, the complete ARCNET cabling system consists
of only one segment with several nodes; however, a system with
hubs has potentially many segments. An ARCNET node is
defined as a device with an active ARCNET controller chip
requiring an ARCNET device address. Active and passive hubs
do not utilize ARCNET addresses and, therefore, are not nodes.
Each segment generally supports one or more nodes, but in the
case of hub-to-hub connections there is the possibility that no
node exists on that segment.
The permissible cable length of a segment depends upon the
transceiver used and the type of cable installed. Table A-1
provides guidance on determining the constraints on cabling
distances as well as the number of nodes allowed per bus
segment.
The maximum segment distances are based upon nominal cable
attenuation figures and worst case transceiver power budgets.
Assumptions are noted.
When approaching the maximum limits, a link loss budget
calculation is recommended.
When calculating the maximum number of nodes on a bus
segment, do not count the hub ports that terminate the bus
segments nodes.
Do consider the maximum length of the bus segment to include
the cable attached to the hub ports.
The -CXB transceiver requires a minimum distance between
nodes. Adhere to this minimum since unreliable operation can
occur.
TD960801-0MC
31
Appendix A (continued)
Permissible Cable Lengths and Nodes Per Segment
Transceiver Description
Cable
Connectors
-CXS
-CXB
coaxial star
coaxial bus
RG-62/u
RG-62/u
BNC
BNC
-FOG
-FOG
-FOG
duplex fiber optic
duplex fiber optic
duplex fiber optic
50/125
62.5/125
100/140
ST
ST
ST
1
2
This represents the minimum distance between any two nodes or
between a node and a hub.
May require a jumper change on the EXTEND-A-BUS to achieve this
distance.
Table A-1. Permissible Cable Length
and Nodes Per Segment
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(2.5 Mbps)
Cable Length
Min
Max
Max Nodes
Bus Segment
0
2000 ft/610 m
6 ft/2 m1 1000 ft/305 m
0
0
02
N/A
8
3000 ft/915 m N/A
6000 ft/1825 m N/A
9000 ft/2740 m N/A
TD960801-0MC
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Notes
5.5 dB/1000 ft max
5.5 dB/1000 ft max
4.3 dB/km max
4.3 dB/km max
4.0 dB/km max
Appendix B—Declaration of Conformity
Applied Council Directives:
Electromagnetic Compatibility Directive, 89/336/EEC Council
Directive as amended by Council Directive 92/31/EEC &
Council Directive 93/68/EEC
Standard to which Conformity is Declared
EN 55022:1995 CISPR22: 1993, Class A, Limits and Methods
of Measurement of Radio Disturbance Characteristics of
Information Technology Equipment
EN 50082-2:1995, Electromagnetic Compatibility - Generic
Immunity Standard, Part 2: Industrial Environment
Manufacturer:
Contemporary Control Systems, Inc.
2431 Curtiss Street
Downers Grove, IL 60515 USA
Authorized Representative:
Contemporary Controls Ltd
Sovereign Court Two
University of Warwick Science Park
Sir William Lyons Road
Coventry CV4 7EZ
UNITED KINGDOM
TD960801-0MC
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Type of Equipment:
Industrial network extender
Model
Directive
EMC
EB/DNET-CXB
EB/DNET-FOG
Yes
Yes
Technical File TD960801-0FA
I, the undersigned, hereby declare that the product(s) specified
above conforms to the listed directives and standards.
George M. Thomas, President
TD960801-0MC
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April 6, 1999