WATLOW ANAFAZE SYSTEM 32 HARDWARE Installation And Operation Manua Revision 5

WATLOW ANAFAZE SYSTEM 32 HARDWARE Installation And Operation Manua Revision 5
WATLOW ANAFAZE SYSTEM 32
HARDWARE
Installation And Operation Manua
Revision 5
December 21, 1988
Watlow Anafaze
344 Westridge DR
Watsonville, CA 95076
Phone: 831-724-3800
Fax: 831-724-0320
Copyright (c) 1987-1988. All RIGHTS RESERVED: No part of this publication
may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system or transmitted in any form by any
means; electronic, mechanical, photo copying, recording, or otherwise, without
the prior written permission of Watlow Anafaze
Printed in U.S.A.
STATEMENT OF WARRANTY
ANAFAZE, Incorporated warrants that the Products furnished under this
Agreement will be free from material defects in material and workmanship for a
period of 90 days from the date of shipment. The customer shall provide notice to
ANAFAZE, Incorporated of any such defect within one week after the Customer's
discovery of such defect. The sole obligation and liability of ANAFAZE,
Incorporated under this warranty shall be to repair or replace, at its option,
without cost to the Customer, the product or part which is so defective and as to
which such notice is given.
Upon request by ANAFAZE, Incorporated, the product or part claimed to be
defective shall immediately be returned at the Customer's expense to ANAFAZE,
Inc. Replaced or repaired products or parts will be shipped to the Customer at the
expense of ANAFAZE, Incorporated
There shall be no warranty or liability for any products or parts which have been
subject to misuse, accident, negligence, failure of electric power or modification
by the Customer without ANAFAZE, Incorporated's written approval. Final
determination of warranty eligibility shall be made by ANAFAZE, Incorporated.
If a warranty claim is considered invalid for any reason, the Customer will be
charged for services performed and expenses incurred by ANAFAZE,
Incorporated in handling and shipping the returned unit.
As to replacement parts supplied or repairs made during the original warranty
period, the warranty period of the replacement or repaired part shall terminate
with the termination of the warranty period with respect to the original product or
part.
THE FOREGOING WARRANTY CONSTITUTES THE SOLE
LIABILITY OF ANAFAZE INCORPORATED AND THE CUSTOMER'S
SOLE REMEDY WITH RESPECT TO THE PRODUCTS AND IS IN LIEU
OF ALL OTHER WARRANTIES, LIABILITIES AND REMEDIES.
EXCEPT AS THUS PROVIDED, ANAFAZE, INC. DISCLAIMS ALL
WARRANTIES, EXPRESS OR IMPLIED, INCLUDING ANY
WARRANTY OF MERCHANTABILITY OR FITNESS FOR A
PARTICULAR PURPOSE.
PLEASE NOTE EXTERNAL SAFETY DEVICES MUST BE USED WITH
THIS EQUIPMENT SEE WARNING ON NEXT PAGE.
PLEASE -- See last page to register your name and address with ANAFAZE
for technical updates.
WARNING
ANAFAZE HAS MADE EFFORTS TO ENSURE THE RELIABILITY AND
SAFETY OF THE SYSTEM 32 AND PROVIDE RECOMMENDATIONS
FOR ITS SAFE USE IN SYSTEMS APPLICATIONS. PLEASE NOTE
THAT IN ANY APPLICATION, FAILURES CAN OCCUR THAT WILL
RESULT IN FULL CONTROL OUTPUTS OR OTHER OUTPUTS THAT
MAY CAUSE DAMAGE OR UNSAFE CONDITIONS IN THE
EQUIPMENT OR PROCESS CONNECTED TO THE ANAFAZE SYSTEM
32.
GOOD ENGINEERING PRACTICES, ELECTRICAL CODES, AND
INSURANCE REGULATIONS REQUIRE INDEPENDENT, EXTERNAL,
SAFETY DEVICES BE USED TO PREVENT POTENTIALLY
DANGEROUS OR UNSAFE CONDITIONS ASSUMING THAT THE
SYSTEM 32 CAN FAIL WITH OUTPUTS FULL ON, OR OUTPUTS
FULL OFF, OR OTHER CONDITIONS THAT WOULD BE
UNEXPECTED.
THE SYSTEM 32 INCLUDES A RESET CIRCUIT THAT WILL SET THE
CONTROL OUTPUTS TO THE DATA STORED IN THE EEROM IF THE
MICROPROCESSOR RESETS -- NORMALLY THE RESULT OF A
POWER FAILURE AND POWER RETURN. THE COMPUTER OR
OTHER HOST DEVICE SHOULD BE PROGRAMMED TO
AUTOMATICALLY
RELOAD
THE
DESIRED
OPERATING
CONSTANTS, OR SAFE VALUES FOR THE PROCESS, UPON RETURN
OF SYSTEM POWER.
THE COMPUTER CAN ALSO BE
PROGRAMMED TO CHECK PROCESS DATA AND CAUSE ALARMS
INCLUDING CONTACT OUTPUTS FOR AUTOMATIC SHUT DOWN
TO ASSIST IN PREVENTING DANGEROUS OR UNSAFE CONDITIONS.
ANAFAZE WILL BE PLEASED TO PROVIDE APPLICATION
ASSISTANCE AND PROGRAMMING IF DESIRED. IN ANY EVENT,
THESE SAFETY FEATURES DO NOT ELIMINATE THE NEED TO
PROVIDE EXTERNAL, INDEPENDENT SAFETY DEVICES IN
POTENTIALLY DANGEROUS OR UNSAFE CONDITIONS.
ANAFAZE ALSO OFFERS AN OPTIONAL SOFTWARE PROGRAM
FOR IBM PC COMPATIBLE COMPUTERS THAT WILL RELOAD THE
SYSTEM 32 WITH THE CURRENT VALUES IN THE COMPUTER
MEMORY UPON A RESET. THE USER MUST INSURE THAT THIS
WILL BE SAFE FOR THE PROCESS. THIS FEATURE STILL DOES
NOT ELIMINATE THE NEED FOR APPROPRIATE EXTERNAL,
INDEPENDENT SAFETY DEVICES.
PLEASE CONTACT ANAFAZE IMMEDIATELY IF THERE ARE ANY
QUESTIONS ABOUT SYSTEM SAFETY
TABLE OF CONTENTS
1.0 INTRODUCTION_____________________________________________ 1
1.1 SYSTEM FEATURES _________________________________________1
1.2 PLUG IN SYSTEM 32 MODULES_______________________________2
1.3 ANASOFT 32 -- POWERFUL OPERATING SOFTWARE __________4
2.0 SPECIFICATIONS____________________________________________ 6
2.1 ANALOG INPUTS ____________________________________________6
2.2 OPERATING PARAMETERS __________________________________7
2.3 REPORTING PARAMETERS __________________________________7
2.4 COMMUNICATIONS _________________________________________7
2.5 CONTROL AND ALARM OUTPUTS ____________________________8
2.6 DIGITAL INPUT OR OUTPUT _________________________________8
2.7 ANALOG OUTPUTS __________________________________________8
2.8 GENERAL ___________________________________________________8
2.9 SUBASSEMBLY IDENTIFICATION ____________________________9
3.0 INSTALLATION ____________________________________________ 10
3.1 PHYSICAL CONSIDERATIONS_______________________________10
3.2 CONFIGURATION __________________________________________14
3.3 AC POWER INPUT __________________________________________16
4.0 COMMUNICATIONS SET-UP AND CONNECTIONS ____________ 17
4.1 RS-232 _____________________________________________________17
4.2 CURRENT LOOP____________________________________________18
4.3 RS-485 _____________________________________________________19
5.0 ANALOG INPUTS___________________________________________ 22
5.1 COMMON MODE VOLTAGE_________________________________22
5.2 NORMAL MODE VOLTAGE _________________________________22
5.3 GROUNDING _______________________________________________22
5.4 SOURCE IMPEDANCE ______________________________________22
5.5 ANALOG INPUT MODULES__________________________________23
5.6 A32-RRIAM -- REED RELAY ANALOG INPUT MODULE ________23
5.7 A32-SSAIM -- SOLID STATE ANALOG INPUT MODULE ________26
5.8 SCALING AND CALIBRATION _______________________________27
5.9 DIAGRAMS OF TYPICAL INPUTS ____________________________28
5.10 ANALOG INPUT CONNECTIONS ____________________________29
6.0 CONTROL OUTPUTS________________________________________ 31
6.1 PROCESSOR I/O MODULE __________________________________31
6.2 PROCESSOR I/O [A32-PIOM] PID OUTPUT CONNECTIONS ____34
6.3 ANALOG OUTPUT MODULE A32-AOM _______________________36
7.0 DETAILED MODULE DESCRIPTIONS ________________________ 38
7.1 PROCESSOR I/O MODULE -- A32-PIOM_______________________38
7.2 REED RELAY ANALOG INPUT MODULE -- A32-RRAIM ________39
7.3 SOLID STATE ANALOG INPUT MODULE -- A32-SSAIM ________41
7.4 ANALOG OUTPUT MODULE -- A32-AOM _____________________41
7.5 PULSE INPUT MODULE -- A32-PIM___________________________42
7.6 POWER SUPPLY----PART NO. A32-PS_________________________42
7.7 OPERATOR STATION -- A32-OS______________________________42
8.0 PID CONTROL______________________________________________ 44
8.1 CONTROL LOOPS __________________________________________44
8.2 ADJUSTMENT OF PID CONSTANTS __________________________52
8.3 ANALOGY OF PID CONTROL TERMINOLOGY _______________55
9.0 SOFTWARE ________________________________________________ 57
9.1 ANASOFT-32 _______________________________________________57
9.2 CUSTOM APPLICATION PROGRAMS ________________________58
10.0 SOFTWARE COMMAND STRUCTURE _______________________ 59
10.1. Commands from Allen Bradley Programmable Controllers (CMD) _59
10.2. Error Checking (BCC / CRC)_________________________________59
10.3. Protocol ___________________________________________________59
10.4. Status Codes _______________________________________________59
10.5. Data Table Addresses _______________________________________60
10.6. Input Types ________________________________________________61
10.7. Output Types ______________________________________________61
11.0 TROUBLE SHOOTING INFORMATION ______________________ 63
11.1 Computer Problems _________________________________________63
11.2 Computer Software__________________________________________63
11.3 Communications Problems ___________________________________64
11.4 SYSTEM 32 Problems _______________________________________64
1.0 INTRODUCTION
The ANAFAZE SYSTEM 32 is the key element used to form an innovative
measurement and control system. It combines its power with an IBM PC or
similar computer to deliver an extremely efficient data acquisition and process
control system. The SYSTEM 32 concentrates its power in analog measurement,
independent digital loop control, alarm monitoring, and signal processing. This
frees the computer to perform process control supervision including: graphic
process displays, operator data entry, data printout, data storage, and process
performance analysis.
The flexible ANAFAZE SYSTEM 32 is built upon a series of cost effective plug
in modules to handle a variety of diverse requirements. These plug in modules
make it easy to configure the SYSTEM 32 to specifically fit individual application
needs. Thus a tailored system can be obtained from off the shelf modules.
The SYSTEM 32 is an excellent choice for applications where multiple inputs
such as temperature, flow, speed, pressure, and others need to be measured or
controlled. This is because a mixture of different sensor types can be directly
connected to the SYSTEM 32. It is also well suited for processes with multiple
temperature zones and control methods including cascade, ramp and soak, and
adaptive control. The SYSTEM 32 is especially efficient since each controller
provides independent stand-alone PID control of up to 32 process loops and up to
96 channels of data acquisition.
The result is a powerful distributed process control system with the reliability of
independent loop control and the flexibility of computer supervision.
1.1 SYSTEM FEATURES
1.1.1 ACCURATE MEASUREMENT: Every process requires accurate
data measurement. The SYSTEM 32 assures this with optically-isolated
input modules.
Further noise rejection is achieved by an integrating
measurement technique. Input to input isolation is provided with reed relay
switching. This combination enables the SYSTEM 32 to deliver needed
accuracy in difficult process environments.
1.1.2 CONVENIENT INSTALLATION: Substantial savings in wiring
and installation costs can be achieved by locating SYSTEM 32 units
physically near the process. This is because the communication between the
SYSTEM 32 and the computer requires only four wires. A local or remote
system of up to 16 units [512 loops] can be connected on a single serial line
using RS-232, RS-485, or 20ma loop communication -- all opticallyisolated. Larger systems may utilize multiple communication lines.
1
1.1.3 PROCESS INTEGRITY: The ANAFAZE approach delivers high
integrity because the SYSTEM 32 independently controls and checks each
loop for alarms while it is in turn checked by the computer. Thus a
computer failure will not affect the process and a controller problem will be
detected by the computer. Further integrity is built in to the SYSTEM 32
since it has EEROM memory to protect control and alarm parameters. A
watchdog timer with digital output adds to process integrity.
1.1.4 MULTIPLE TYPES OF INPUTS AND CONTROL OUTPUTS:
Since there is a large variety of processes and sensor types the system 32 has
been designed to accept nearly any input and provide nearly any control
output. Measurements from thermocouples, RTD's, infrared sensors,
millivolt, milliamp, and other signals are directly connected the SYSTEM
32. Thermocouple reference junction compensation and linearization is
done by the SYSTEM 32. With plug in input modules, 16 to 96 inputs can
be accommodated in a single SYSTEM 32.
For control, each SYSTEM 32 includes, as standard, 32 digital outputs for
time proportioning or on/off control.
Additionally, 8 standard on/off
outputs can be used for global alarm shutdowns or process warnings.
Optional plug- in analog output modules provide open or closed loop
control. Each module contains 16 outputs which includes both 4 to 20ma
and 0 to 5Vdc outputs which can be selected individually for each output.
1.1.5 STANDARD [ALLEN BRADLEY] COMMUNICATION
PROTOCOL: The SYSTEM 32 utilizes a form of ANSI 3.28-1976
standard protocol for communication. Jumper selection of CRC or BCC,
and baud rate allow the system to matched to any host computer or other
device. This ANSI standard is also used by Allen Bradley enabling the
SYSTEM 32 to be connected directly to these programmable controllers.
1.1.6 COMPACT EASILY MAINTAINED PACKAGING: Front plug
in modules with removable screw terminal blocks provide high reliability
and convenient maintainability. A 3 and 6 slot housing is available and the
modules require a 5Vdc power supply which can be mounted internally or
externally.
1.2 PLUG IN SYSTEM 32 MODULES
The flexible ANAFAZE SYSTEM 32 design allows cost effective matching of
measurement and control capabilities to the process needs. By selecting a
combination of plug in modules the system will perform full PID control
processing, communications to a host computer, industrial sensor measurement,
and deliver precise control outputs.
2
Configurations can start with only the PROCESSOR I/O MODULE to provide 32
time proportioning or on/off open loop control outputs. For closed loop control,
simply add an ANALOG INPUT MODULE, either reed relay for 16 inputs, or
solid state for 32 inputs. A plug in ANALOG OUTPUT MODULE provides 16
analog control outputs.
Systems can be matched to different applications by combining the following
modules:
1.2.1 PROCESSOR I/O MODULE: The on board microprocessor
performs all necessary control calculations, on-line analog calibration,
system self test, thermocouple compensation and linearization, and
communication to the host computer.
This module contains the
communications interface, 32 time proportioning or on/off control outputs,
24 digital outputs, and 16 digital inputs.
Powerful Control: The SYSTEM 32 features a digital control algorithm
that allows each loop to be independently defined. Control outputs can be
set for closed loop or open loop with computer setting of the output level.
Switching between open loop and closed loop control can be initiated with
bumpless transfer. Closed loop control modes can be selected as: on/off,
proportional only [P], proportional with integral [PI], or full PID. In
addition, each output can be selected as reverse [heat] or direct [cool] acting
and a programmable digital output filter can be used to further match each
loop to the process conditions.
Unique Control Output Flexibility: Total control flexibility is assured
since each control output can be easily selected from the computer to match
individual process needs. The unique ANAFAZE design offers: on/off,
Cycle Time Proportioning, or Distributed Zero Crossing. Further flexibility
is included since each output can be set as reverse or direct acting. When a
process requires high power or the use of contactors, the SYSTEM 32 Cycle
Time Proportioning outputs are automatically balanced to minimize the
peak power consumption. For processes with solid-state power switching,
the Distributed Zero Crossing outputs provide the smoothest application of
control power.
Open Heater Detection: The SYSTEM 32 measures the current flowing in
each heater or other time proportioning output circuit to ensure that open
heaters and stuck relays are detected.
Protected Memory: Setpoints and other control parameters entered from
the computer are stored in non-volatile memory eliminating the need to reenter these parameters after a power failure.
Communication Monitor: A communications monitor can be enabled that
will turn off all control outputs after a selectable time period if no
communication is received form the host computer.
3
1.2.2 ANALOG INPUT MODULES: Two optically-isolated analog input
modules are available for the SYSTEM 32. A 16 channel reed relay
switching module and a 32 channel solid state switching module. The reed
relay module provides the highest level of input noise protection and the
solid state module is more economical. The two types of input modules can
be mixed in a single controller. Allowing up to 48 channels of reed relay
inputs, 96 channels of solid state inputs , or any combination such as 32
reed relay inputs with 32 solid state inputs. Both modules offer direct
connection of industrial sensors including thermocouples, RTD's, infrared
sensors, milliamp, and millivolt signals.
1.2.3 PULSE INPUT MODULE: Allows measurement of speed, RPM,
flow, and other inputs from sensor that produce pulse outputs. Each module
accepts up to 32 inputs and optical- isolation can be optionally added where
necessary. The pulse input module requires an expanded PROCESSOR I/O
MODULE, please contact ANAFAZE for additional information.
1.2.4 ANALOG OUTPUT MODULE: Provides 16 analog outputs for
open or closed loop control. Both 4 to 20ma and 0 to 5vdc are available for
each output [select one].
1.2.5 HOUSING: provides fully enclosed mounting for all modules and
includes a passive [no electrical components] interconnecting backplane. A
3 and 6 slot housing is offered. The 6 slot housing can be mounted in
standard relay racks. The six slot housing is 19" wide, 12.25" high, and
only 7.5" deep. The 3 slot housing is 10 5/8" wide, 12.25" high, and 7.5"
deep.
1.2.6 POWER SUPPLY: All the SYSTEM 32 modules operate from this
5vdc power supply. The power supply is furnished mounted to a standard
module front panel and occupies one slot in the housing. If desired the
power supply can be removed from the panel and externally mounted. This
frees the slot for an other module. The power supply connects to terminals
on the passive backplane.
1.3 ANASOFT 32 -- POWERFUL OPERATING SOFTWARE
Whether the process is simple or complex it must be defined and set up in order to
control it. Therefor, another essential element of a successful measurement and
control system is the application software. ANASOFT 32 is sophisticated menu
driven software program for the SYSTEM 32 that runs on IBM PC and compatible
computers. It is designed to be easily operated by inexperienced computer users
and it offers full flexibility for complex applications.
1.3.1 GRAPHIC PROCESS DISPLAYS: ANASOFT features a process
monitor screen that provides an overview of the system status at a glance.
Measured data can be displayed in either a graphic or numeric mode. On
4
line, real-time data for each input can be graphically plotted on the screen.
Data is continuously stored for every input to provide a history over user
selected time intervals. These on line plots enable quick analysis of process
conditions for optimizing performance, tuning control loops, determining
reasons for alarms, and other situations.
1.3.2 TUNING AND PROCESS SET UP: The password protected tune
menu displays necessary data for efficient tuning since it displays real time
process information. Key selectable sub menus are used to enter control
parameters, input scaling, trend plot scaling and time interval, warning
levels, and alarm setpoints.
1.3.3 DATA LOGGING: Hardcopy data is essential for record keeping,
quality control, required agency reporting, and production reports.
ANASOFT offers both automatic printer data logging, and disk data logging
in LOTUS compatible files. An available option for data recording when the
computer is not on line is the on-board memory option. This is 28.8k Bytes
of RAM memory for each A32-PIOM module in the system.
1.3.4 SYSTEM EXPANSION: ANAFAZE can provide complete turn key
systems for advanced control applications. Ramp and soak, adaptive
control, cascade control, and other types of systems can be designed and
installed by ANAFAZE engineering. Since many applications can be based
on ANASOFT, the cost and the time period for implementation is reduced.
ANASOFT is written in Microsoft QUICKBASIC and the source code is
provided for users that want to make their own modifications.
5
2.0 SPECIFICATIONS
2.1 ANALOG INPUTS
Number of channels:
32 for PID control, 48 total with reed multiplexer,
96 total with solid state.
Multiplexing:
three wire reed relay, guarded inputs. two wire solid
state.
A/D converter:
integrating voltage to frequency.
Loop update:
each loop 2 times per second, reed modules; 1 time
per second solid state.
Input isolation:
optical coupling.
Input resolution:
0.02% full scale [Approximately 12.7uv].
Temp. coefficient:
.005% per degree.
Measurement accuracy:
+0.1% full scale.
Thermocouple break:
up scale standard.
Standard input types:
All are present in every system: select by command
from host, any order, any mix:
Thermocouple ranges:
[200 ohms max.]
J: -350 to 1400 F K: -450 to 2500 F
T: -450 to 750 F E: -450 to 1450 F
R: 0 to 3200 F
S: 0 to 3200 F
SYSTEM 32 must be operating between 0 and 50
degrees C for full T/C ranges.
Thermocouple scaling:
Degrees F [convert to degrees C in computer].
Other Inputs:
-10mv to 60mv input range with provision for
scaling resistors and bridges for Voltage/Current
andRTD inputs.
Linear Scaling:
-16.7% to 100% for -10 to 60 mv
Voltage Ranges:100v max:
Select resistors for 0 to 10v, 0 to 5v, 2 to 10v, etc.
as required.
Current Ranges:
Select resistors for 0 to 10ma, 4 to 20ma, 10 to
50ma, etc. as required.
Bridge Excitation:
10v+.13%, at 50ma max [temperature coefficient
15ppm/degree C max].
Optional input types:
Other T/C types, Non-contact infrared, 2, 3, or 4wire RTD, Carbon Potential.
6
2.2 OPERATING PARAMETERS
Independently set for each loop through serial interface.
Input type:
any standard type (see above), any mix.
Gain:
0 to 255 proportional; 0 to 510 on/off. Proportional
Band: Direct reading in engineering units of the
loop range.
Integral:
0 to 1020 seconds. Reset: .05 to 60 Repeats/Min. [4
sec. resolution].
Derivative:
0 to 255 sec. Rate: .01 to 4.25 Min.
Digital Filter:
Averages last 0 to 255 outputs. [0- 127.5 sec. time
constant].
Setpoint:
+span. Resolution: 0.01%; 0.1o for T/C.
ANASOFT resolution: 0.1%; 1o for T/C.
Deviation band alarm:
0 to +25% Full Scale; 0 to +250o T/C.
Control output level:
Direct or reverse acting, 0-100%.
Manual output:
0 to 100% (0.4% resolution).
2.3 REPORTING PARAMETERS
The computer can request any of the following for any loop:
Operating parameters:
all of the above
Analog inputs:
measured values
Digital I/O:
status
2.4 COMMUNICATIONS
Types:
RS-232 or 20ma current loop, factory set; optional
RS422 or RS485
Baud rate:
2400 or 9600, switch selectable
Protocol:
Form of ANSI X3.28-1976 [Allen Bradley
compatible]
Character set:
ANSI X3.4
Error check:
CRC or BCC, switch selectable.
Isolation:
optical for all types including RS-232.
Display:
LED indicates communication active.
7
2.5 CONTROL AND ALARM OUTPUTS
32 Individually selectable control outputs:
Digital Outputs:
Time proportioning, On/Off, Alarms: voltage
output: 5VDC at 6ma maximum for solid state or
other relays.
Analog:
voltage or current: selectable (4 to 20ma, or 0 to 5
volts).
2.6 DIGITAL INPUT OR OUTPUT
24 DigitalOutputs:
TTL Level:
@ 6ma
16 Digital Inputs:
2.7 ANALOG OUTPUTS
Types:
true= < 0.4v @ 6ma false = > 3.9v
TTL Level:
0 to 5Vdc at 5ma max.
4-20ma at 8Vdc max [maximum loop impedance
400 ohms].
Both are available at the output terminals of each
output. Either can be used -- no jumpers are
required. DO NOT USE BOTH ON SAME
OUTPUT.
Accuracy:
+3%
Resolution:
0.4%
2.8 GENERAL
Power input:
120VAC, 60Hz, to power supply.
modules require 5vdc @ 5A max [6 slot].
Operating ambient:
0 to 50 C.
Humidity:
10% to 90%, non-condensing.
Enclosures:
NEMA 4, 12, 13 and others optional.
Physical:
6 Slot Housing: 16.7" wide [19" standard rack
mount], 12.5" high, 7.5" deep.
3 Slot Housing: 10.7" wide.
Mounting:
4 mounting holes for standard rack or panel
mounting -- see outline drawings.
Weight:
maximum 20 pounds depends on plug modules
selected.
8
2.9 SUBASSEMBLY IDENTIFICATION
A32-PIOM:
PROCESSOR I/O MODULE includes factory selectable
communication interface [RS-232 or current loop], 32 control outputs, 24 digital
outputs, and 16 digital inputs.
A32-RRAIM: REED RELAY ANALOG INPUT MODULE for 16 mixed sensor
inputs including direct connection of thermocouples [J, K, or T] or millivolt [ -5 to
60mv]. Includes reference junction sensors for thermocouple inputs.
A32-SSAIM: SOLID STATE ANALOG INPUT MODULE for 32 mixed analog
inputs including direct connection of thermocouple or millivolt inputs. Includes
reference junction sensors for thermocouple inputs.
A32-IAIM-SIXX: SPECIAL INPUT SCALING for RRAIM or SSAIM to connect
milliamp, voltage, or RTD inputs. Consult ANAFAZE for details.
A32-AOM : ANALOG OUTPUT MODULE with 16 analog outputs set for both 0
to 5Vdc and 4 to 20ma. Consult ANAFAZE for other output levels.
A32-H6: 6 SLOT HOUSING including passive interconnection backplane and up
to three blank front panels. Can be mounted on a panel or in a standard 19 rack
[12.5" high, 19"wide, 7.5"deep].
A32-H3: 3 SLOT HOUSING including passive backplane and up to one blank
front panel. For panel mounting 12.5" high, 10.7" wide and 7.5" deep.
A32-PS: POWER SUPPLY: mounted on a blank front panel with wiring to
passive backplane. Supply can be externally mounted or plugged into a module
slot. Dimensions: 9" high, 2" wide and 5" deep.
A32-OS: OPERATOR STATION: allows for data display and setpoint entry away
from the system computer [requires ANASOFT].
ANASOFT-32: Software operating system for IBM PC and compatible computers.
CABLES: Interconnection cables with an RS-232 connector on one end and wires
at other for connection to SYSTEM 32 terminals:
CA-232M
CA-232F
25' RS-232 cable male computer connector
25' RS-232 cable female computer connector
9
3.0 INSTALLATION
There are some precautions that must be observed when installing SYSTEM 32:
WARNING: ELECTRICAL SHOCK DANGER
It is very important that all system power including the
power input
be disconnected before servicing the ANAFAZE SYSTEM 32. HIGH
VOLTAGE MAY BE PRESENT EVEN WHEN POWER IS TURNED
OFF.
To reduce the danger of electrical shock always mount the SYSTEM 32
in an enclosure that prevents personnel contact.
Since the ANAFAZE SYSTEM 32 can make measurements of input signals that
are not referenced to ground, the SYSTEM 32 ground and other signal lines can
have power line or other high voltage present even if the input power is turned off.
This could happen, for example, if a thermocouple was inadvertently shorted to the
AC power line.
WARNING: USE CORRECT INSULATION TRIM LENGTH AND
WIRE GAGE
The correct insulation trim length is 1/4" or 5mm. Care must be taken
to prevent contact between any wires and the case which is grounded.
The terminal manufacturer has UL approval for #14 to #30 AWG
(American Wire Gage). ANAFAZE recommends using #18 or #20
AWG.
To effectively use the plug-in terminals, the wire insulation should be trimmed so
that the wire fits inside the terminal with no bare wire exposed. Stranded wire
should be tinned.
WARNING: SUPPORT CABLES
Power, input, and output cables should be supported to reduce strain
on the connectors and to prevent them from being pulled out of the
terminal strips.
3.1 PHYSICAL CONSIDERATIONS
The ANAFAZE SYSTEM 32 consists of a number of plug in modules for a
housing with a passive backplane. Three or six slots are provided for plug-in
option boards.
3.1.1 MOUNTING [SEE DIAGRAMS ON NEXT 3 PAGES]
For optimum performance when directly connecting thermocouple inputs
the unit should be protected from thermal shocks whenever possible. This
will minimize any temperature gradients across the terminal strips and result
in the highest accuracy.
10
6 SLOT HOUSING DIMENSIONS
11
3 SLOT HOUSING DIMENSIONS
12
POWER SUPPLY DIMENSIONS
13
3.1.3 DETACHABLE TERMINAL BLOCKS
WARNING - ALWAYS CHECK TERMINAL LOCATION AND
ORIENTATION
All connections, except the Ac power supply, are made on removable
terminal strips. Terminal strip removal is achieved by removing the
retaining screws and pulling them directly away from the front panel. The
terminal strips must be carefully installed in the correct position and not up
side down.
3.2 CONFIGURATION
WARNING - TURN OFF POWER BEFORE CHANGING SWITCH
The unit configuration switch is located on the A32-PIOM PROCESSOR I/O
MODULE. It is a eight position DIP switch which is used to set the unit station
number, the baud rate, and the communications check character. The functions are:
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
_____________________________________________
|
|
|
1
0
|
|
1
0
|
|
1
0
|
|
Station Number
1
0
|COMM | 9600| CRC | NOT |
|Check| 2400| BCC | USED|
ON = 1
OFF = 0
|
3.2.1. STATION NUMBER (STN)
Four bit switches (Switch 1 - Switch 4) are provided on the SYSTEM 32 to
select controller addresses. These are read in hex format providing 16
addresses, 0000 to 1111. The base Station Number is 08 and the bit
switches select an address above that. Setting the bit switch in the on
position is considered a one by the processor.
Switch Number
4 3 2 1
Settings
Hex Address
0 0 0 0 [all off]
08
0 0 0 1
09
0 0 1 0
0A
0 0 1 1
0B
0 1 0 0
0C
0 1 0 1
0D
0 1 1 0
0E
0 1 1 1
0F
1 0 0 0
10
1 0 0 1
11
1 0 1 0
12
1 0 1 1
13
1 1 0 0
14
1 1 0 1
15
1 1 1 0
16
1 1 1 1 [all on]
17
14
Octal Address
010
011
012
013
014
015
016
017
020
021
022
023
024
025
026
027
Controller
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
3.2.2 COMMUNICATIONS WATCHDOG TIMER
The communications timer provides a method of turning off all control
outputs if there is a problem in the host computer that effects
communication. It operates by monitoring activity on the communication
line. If this controller has not been contacted within the time interval, it
automatically sets all control outputs to manual with zero outputs. A
dedicated digital output is set when the watchdog times out.
WARNING: IF THE COMMUNICATIONS WATCHDOG IS
ENABLED,
INSURE
THAT
THE
HOST
COMPUTER
COMMUNICATES WITH EACH SYSTEM 32 WITH IN THE TIME
LIMIT. IF NOT THE CONTROL OUTPUTS WILL BE SET TO
MANUAL WITH ZERO OUTPUT.
Switch Setting
On
Off
Watchdog Status
Enabled
Disabled
The hardware bit switch number 5 must be set to the "ON" position to
enable the communications watchdog timer. If the switch is ON at startup
then the controller constantly monitors the elapsed time between host
communication packets and takes action should the elapsed time overflow
the preset timeout period.
Furthermore, the option may be disabled by the host. If a value of -1 is
written into the timeout period counter then the controller disables the
option and ceases to monitor elapsed time. To re-enable the option via
software, the host must rewrite a valid timeout period to the watchdog
counter.
Timeout Period
The host computer may adjust the timeout period value within the range of
1 to 1092 seconds (or 18.2 minutes) with a resolution of one second. A 2byte number representing the length of the timeout period in seconds can be
written to the controller data table addresses 0290 and 0291 Hex.
The default timeout period (set by the controller on startup/reset) is 2
minutes (120 seconds).
Controller Action on Timeout
If the watchdog option is enabled and the elapsed time between
communication packets from the host exceeds the set timeout period, the
controller initiates a communications alarm sequence. This sequence
involves the following :
15
1. All control output types are set to MANUAL
2. All output values for control outputs are set to 0%.
3. Digital output 72 is set ON. This output is available at
TB2, pin 30.
4. The internal controller reset flag is set TRUE. (Hence the host
will receive a RESET status code upon re-establishing
communication).
3.2.3 BAUD RATE SELECTION
Switch 6 is used to set the baud rate at either 2400 or 9600.
communication problems occur try 2400 baud.
Switch Setting
0
1
If
Baud Rate
2400
9600
3.2.4 ERROR CHECKING
Switch 7 is used to select the method of error that is used by the SYSTEM
32. BCC is slightly faster and can be used for most applications. CRC
provides the highest data integrity and is recommended if communications
problems are noted.
Switch Setting
0
1
Error Check
BCC
CRC
3.3 AC POWER INPUT
The ANAFAZE 32 PID requires 120VAC at 60Hz for power input to the power
supply. The power supply can be mounted to a module panel or externally if
desired.
3.3.1 POWER CONNECTIONS
The power must be connected according to the terminal labels. The
abbreviations are:
FG
NEU
HOT
Third wire ground -- normally Green wire
110VAC Neutral -- normally white wire
110VAC Hot -- normally black wire
+5
+5Vdc input on back plane
GND
GND on backplane
WARNING: DO NOT REVERSE THE +5 AND GND
CONNECTIONS IRREVERSIBLE DAMAGE TO THE 32 SYSTEM
WILL OCCUR
16
3.3.2 POWER FUSE
The SYSTEM 32 power supply is not fused. An external 1/2 AMP fuse in
the AC input line is recommended.
4.0 COMMUNICATIONS SET-UP AND CONNECTIONS
The ANAFAZE SYSTEM 32 is designed for three types of serial communications:
RS-232, RS-485, and 20ma current loop. Up to 16 units can be connected on one
communication line.
4.1 RS-232
The optically-isolated RS-232 interface is located on the processor module A32PIOM. Multiple SYSTEM 32 units are connected in parallel. Connections are
made on the upper terminal block TB1 as follows:
Computer
SYSTEM 32 [1]
TB1
SYSTEM 32 [2]
TB1
RX #3 -----------
TX- #2 ------------
TX- #2
TX #2 -----------
RX+ #3 ------------
RX+ #3
GND #7 ----------
RX- #4 ------------
RX- #4
The computer pins are for the normal 25 pin RS-232 connector. On some
computers transmit TX and receive RX may be reversed. Please check your
computer manual for details.
The ANAFAZE SYSTEM 32 RS-232 interface transmits data on TX- and receives
data on RX+. The host computer TXD output should be connected to the SYSTEM
32 RX+ input. The SYSTEM 32 TX- output should be connected to the host
computer RXD input. Host computer communication ground should be connected
to the SYSTEM 32 RX-.
Multiple SYSTEM 32 units are connected on the RS-232 line in parallel. The
SYSTEM 32 nearest to the computer is connected as described above. Then each
SYSTEM 32 is daisy chained wire for wire to the next unit. The next units' TX- is
connected to the first units' TX-, RX+ to RX+, and RX- to RX- etc.
WARNING: REMOVE JUMPER FOR MULTIPLE SYSTEM 32
INSTALLATIONS
Jumper JU18 must be removed on all but the farthest unit from the
computer when multiple units are on the same communications line.
17
4.1.1 Other RS-232 Lines
Some host computers or other RS-232 devices use additional communication lines
that are not required by the SYSTEM 32. These include:
RTS - Ready to Send
CTS - Clear To Send
DSR - Data Set Ready
DTR - Data Terminal Ready
If the host computer uses RTS and CTS or DSR and DTR, these lines should be
connected together in pairs [or as shown in the computer manual]. Normally this is
done in the RS-232 connector hood at the host computer. Alternately the effect of
these lines can be eliminated in software. The ANAFAZE SYSTEM 32 is ready to
receive data; therefore these lines are not required.
4.2 CURRENT LOOP
The current loop interface is located on the processor module A32-PIOM. Current
loop is recommended for longer cable runs and noisy environments. The
ANAFAZE SYSTEM 32 current loop is optically isolated. It uses an external
power supply for the current loop which is normally included in the device
communicating with the SYSTEM 32. Consult ANAFAZE for recommendations.
SINGLE UNIT:
Computer
SYSTEM 32
RX+
TX+ #1
RX-
TX- #2
TX+
RX+ #3
TX-
RX- #4
MULTIPLE UNITS:
Computer
SYSTEM 32 [1]
SYSTEM 32 [2]
Last SYSTEM 32
RX+
TX+ #1
TX+ #1
TX+ #1
RX-
TX- #2
TX- #2
TX- #2
TX+
RX+ #3
RX+ #3
RX+ #3
TX-
RX- #4
RX- #4
RX- #4
18
Multiple SYSTEM 32 units are connected in series. R+ is connected to the first
unit TX+ and TX- from the first unit is connected to TX+ of the next unit. These
serial connections are continued until the last unit is reached. The last unit TX- is
connected to the computer R-. T+ is connected to the first unit RX+ and the RX- is
connected to the next unit RX+. The last unit RX- is connected to the computer T-.
4.3 RS-485
The RS-485 is a voltage balance long distance multi-point transmission interface. It
may use 2 or 4 lines depending on system requirements.
4.3.1 RS-485 Description
The EIA Standard RS-485 specifies only the electrical characteristics of
generators (transmitters) and receivers for use in digital multi-point systems.
The specification of transmission lines, signaling rates, protocols, etc. is left
entirely up to the user. The transmitters and receivers selected by Anafaze
also meet the requirements of RS-422.
The following information is intended to make recommendations for the
application of the RS-485 interface to Anafaze equipment. This note covers
4 wire communication. Anafaze equipment will also support 2 wire
communication. Please contact the factory for recommendations.
The maximum signaling rate used by the Anafaze System 32 and associated
equipment is 9600 baud. Since this is far below the maximum signaling
rate covered by the specification, satisfactory performance may be expected
without strict adherence to all of the design rules. ANAFAZE has presented
conservative recommendations to insure reliable operation. If deviations
are necessary, please contact ANAFAZE.
4.3.2 Cable Selection
ANAFAZE recommends twisted shielded pairs for the RS-485 cables. The
transmitters and receivers specified in RS-485 are very tolerant of cable
characteristics, and some leeway is possible unless distances and signaling
rates push the specification limits.
One requirement is very important, as it impacts performance even down to
low frequency operation. The loop resistance of the transmission line [wire
only -- not terminating resistor] must not exceed 200 ohms for a properly
terminated line with a reasonable margin for noise. Thus the following
recommendations for distance and wire gauge should be observed:
19
Distance
Wire Gauge
1500 ft.
4000 ft.
6000 ft.
28 AWG
24 AWG
22 AWG
Recommended Cable
Alpha 3492
Beldon 9729
Beldon 9184
The use of a shield depends on the noise environment and grounding
considerations [4.3.3]. The above cables are shielded.
4.3.3 Connections
Connection of the Anafaze controllers to a system computer requires an
interface at the computer to convert RS-232 levels to RS-485. Anafaze
recommends Black Box Model LD485A for this purpose. The LD485A
should be configured for DCE operation, with the RTS/CTS delay jumper in
the "on" position.
The RS-485 specification is for "balanced line" operation, and is not true
differential. Thus a common connection is required between all stations on
the communication line. This can be accomplished by either a 5th wire
(which could be shield) or a common ground connection. The Anafaze
system more conveniently supports the common ground connection,
although 5th wire can be supported if required due to common mode
voltages generated in a given installation. The 5th wire connection would be
required only if the "common mode" voltage between stations exceeds the
RS-485 specification of 7 volts peak. The power common in the Anafaze
controller has been wired to chassis ground. To make sure the
communication system works, the controller chassis must be electrically
tied to Earth ground, and the host computer communication must be tied to
Earth ground. If the host computer RS-232 communication is not referenced
to Earth ground, then install the 100 ohm resistor in W7 as recommended by
Black Box.
Figure 1 shows the only recommended system hookup. (Other hookups may
work fine). The transmitter from the host computer connects in parallel to
the controller receivers, and the host computer receiver hooks in parallel to
the controller transmitters. A single "daisy chain" is recommended. Octopus
connections or "spurs" are discouraged. A termination resistor is required at
each end of the transmission line. This is accomplished by applying a 200
ohm resistor across the line at the farthest point from the computer
transmitter, and by setting the Black Box SW2 to the "term" position to
terminate the computer receive line.
20
ANAFAZE SYSTEM 32 connections for a single unit are as follows:
COMPUTER
Black Box
LD485A
SYSTEM 32
+485 Output (Start bit +5v)
TXA
RX+ #3
-485 Output (Start bit 0v)
TXB
RX- #4
+485 Input
RXA
TX+ #1
-485 Input
RXB
TX- #2
Shield-------Earth Ground---------Shield
Do not Ground
Note: Connect the shields to earth ground only at the computer or other 485
interface. No shield connection is required at the SYSTEM 32. Connect a 200
ohm terminating resistor between RX- and RX+ at the SYSTEM 32.
For multiple units connect the system as follows:
Black Box
LD485A
SYSTEM 32
[1]
SYSTEM 32
[n]
TXA
RX+ #3
TXB
RX- #4
RX+ #3 ---|
200 ohms
RX- #4 ---|
RXB
TX+ #1
TX+ #1
RXA
TX- #2
TX- #2
Ground
Ground
21
5.0 ANALOG INPUTS
Connecting analog signals to the ANAFAZE SYSTEM 32 is normally
straightforward. Most signals, including thermocouples can
be directly
connected and mixed in any order. However, some problems may occur that could
reduce accuracy and possibly damage the unit. Sections 5.1 through 5.4 indicate
some of the potential areas for concern. [See typical input DIAGRAM in section
5.13].
5.1 COMMON MODE VOLTAGE
Common mode voltage is the voltage between the ground at
the sensor and
the ground at the ANAFAZE SYSTEM 32. It can be an
AC or DC voltage
and appears equally at the high and low
input terminals. Frequently it is
caused by large currents flowing in the ground path between the SYSTEM 32 and
the sensors. The effects are minimized by locating the SYSTEM 32 as close as
possible to the sensors. Do not exceed the maximum common mode voltage of
150 volts AC.
5.2 NORMAL MODE VOLTAGE
Normal mode voltage appears across the terminals of the input and is the signal
from the sensor plus any undesirable noise. The major cause of this noise is AC
power line pick-up. The effects are reduced by the ANAFAZE SYSTEM 32
capacity to integrate the signal over a multiple of the power line frequency.
Further reduction can be achieved by locating the SYSTEM 32 near the sensors
and by using twisted and shielded sensor wires. To ensure accurate readings, the
maximum of normal mode plus signal should not exceed -10mv to +65mv.
5.3 GROUNDING
For best accuracy, observe the grounding recommendations for connecting each
input and output signal. The analog signal grounds should be connected to the
low terminals on the analog input terminals. The communication and control
outputs should also be connected with their respective grounds. Do not mix the
grounds or connect them together. The analog input section is optically isolated
from the processing and control section. Connecting the grounds together will
negate this feature and could damage the unit. If possible, route the analog signal
cables separately from the communication, control and power cables.
5.4 SOURCE IMPEDANCE
Each sensor has a certain output impedance which is effectively connected across
the ANAFAZE SYSTEM 32 input amplifier when a measurement is made. To
reach the rated accuracy, the maximum source impedance should not exceed 300
ohms. Consult ANAFAZE for operation with higher source impedance.
22
5.5 ANALOG INPUT MODULES
Two types of analog input modules are available for the SYSTEM 32. The A32RRIAM -- REED RELAY ANALOG INPUT MODULE provides 16 analog
inputs with reed relay switching. The A32-SSAIM -- SOLID STATE ANALOG
INPUT MODULE provides 32 inputs with solid state switching. The A32SSAIM also provides 32 digital outputs for special systems. The primary
differences are:
The REED RELAY ANALOG INPUT MODULE provides 250Vdc
isolation between input channels and three wire switching: high, low, and
shield for each input. This module allows connection of three and four
wire RTD's and other special sensors. The REED RELAY ANALOG
INPUT MODULE is also recommended where high noise is present or
where grounded sensors are used and the ground potential difference will
exceed 10 Vdc.
The SOLID STATE ANALOG INPUT MODULE provides 32 inputs and
includes a high and low switch for each channel. The solid state switching
limits the channel to channel protection to 15Vdc. The SOLID STATE
ANALOG INPUT MODULE should be used with un-grounded sensors, or
sensors with the same ground potential [with-in 10Vdc].
5.6 A32-RRIAM -- REED RELAY ANALOG INPUT MODULE
The A32-RRAIM includes 16 analog inputs and a reference power supply. The
module can be plugged into any housing slot.
5.6.1 INPUT CIRCUITS
The ANAFAZE A32-RRAIM contains an isolated area that can be used to
install resistors to scale input voltages and connect inputs to match the -10
to 60mv (-16.7% to 100%) input range. The input circuit is designed to
enable connection of current inputs (such as 4 to 20ma), voltage inputs, and
for connection of transducers (RTD) in bridge configurations. ANAFAZE
will supply input scaling as needed -- order option A32-SI-XX. The input
circuit is shown below:
AUX O---------O---------O---------O
|
|
|RA
|
|
|
TERMINAL HI O-----------------------------O----HI
BLOCK
|RE
|RC
|RB
MEASUREMENT
|
|
|
INPUT
LO O-------------------O---------O----LO
|
|RD
|
|
SHLD O---------O-------------------O----SH
RA, RB, RC, RD and RE are selected separately for each input and are
labeled on the PC board for each loop. CH 1 (channel 1) is loop 1 etc.
Resistors should be 0.1% metal film, 1/4 watt. Other components such as
23
capacitors can be installed for signal conditioning. Please consult
ANAFAZE. The PC board silk screen shows the resistor locations.
5.6.2 USE OF THE SHIELD CONNECTION
The shield connection provides a third input which is switched as each
channel is measured. It is the ground reference for the measurement section.
By switching this reference with every channel, the effective measurement
ground can float to match the ground at the sensor, thus greatly reducing the
error caused by different ground potentials (common mode).
The system is factory set for use with non-shielded cables. Zero ohm
resistors in the RD position connect each low input to shield. Normally
when non-shielded cables are used, this will result in the lowest noise pickup.
If shielded cables are used, the shield should be connected to ground or the
low signal output at the sensor if possible. If this is done, the RD resistor for
that channel must be removed.
WARNING - USE SHIELD CORRECTLY
If the shield is used for any input always remove the factory installed
RD resistor.
5.6.3 VOLTAGE INPUTS
DC Voltage inputs should be connected with the positive side to the HIGH
terminal and the negative side to the LOW terminal. The input range is -10
to +60 mv. Signals greater than 60 mv must be scaled with resistors to
match the input full scale to 60 mv. For scaling the positive input should be
connected to the AUX terminal and the negative input to the LOW terminal.
The scaling resistor RA is selected as the voltage dropping and/or current
limiting resistor. RB is selected for the 60 mv full scale dropping resistor. It
should normally be less then 300 ohms and should never be greater then
1000 ohms. Any value above 1000 ohms for RB will cause error due to the
upscale burnout circuit. Typical standard value scaling resistors are as
follows:
0-100mv
RA= 499 ohms
RB= 750 ohms
ACC.= +.1%
0-500mv
5.49k
750 ohms
+.1%
0-1v
6.91k
442 ohms
+.2%
0-5v
39.2k
475 ohms
-.2%
0-10v
49.9k
301 ohms
-.1%
Please note section 5.6.2 regarding the shield connection.
Please note section 5.8 regarding scaling and calibration.
The above values are standard metal film values and will give an accuracy
of +/- .25% when using .1% tolerance resistors.
Any possible error due to resistor tolerance may be corrected by using
scaling in ANASOFT.
24
5.6.4 DC CURRENT INPUTS
Current inputs from transmitters are accommodated by placing resistors in
the input section to convert the current input into a voltage. Different
current input ranges are accommodated by selecting the proper resistor
values. In general RC is selected to maintain a low source resistance. RA
and RC produce the input full scale of 60mv. The positive input should be
connected to the AUX terminal, and the negative input to the LOW
terminal. The following input values are suggested:
4 to 20 ma
0 to 10 ma
RA = 93.1 ohms
RA = 26.7 ohms
RB = 20.0 ohms
RB = 20.0 ohms
RC = 20.0 ohms
RC = 20.0 ohms
Load resistance=17 ohms
Load Resistance=14 ohms
A single 0.1% resistor may be used in place of the above resistors although
a small error may occur. This error can be corrected in using the scaling in
ANASOFT.
4 to 20 ma
0 to 10 ma
RB = 3.000 ohms
RB = 6.000 ohms
Please note section 5.6.2 regarding the shield connection.
Please note section 5.8 regarding scaling and calibration.
5.6.5 THERMOCOUPLE INPUTS
All thermocouple types may be directly connected to the ANAFAZE
SYSTEM 32. Types J,K,T,R,S,C, and B linearization and cold junction
compensation are provided standard in the ANAFAZE SYSTEM 32. For
other thermocouple types, optional input ranges are required.
Thermocouples should be connected with the positive lead to the HIGH
terminal and the negative lead to the LOW terminal. Note section 4.5 on
shielding.
5.6.6 RTD INPUTS
RTD's can be connected in different configurations including bridge
circuits, three wire and four wire -- please request a copy of the ANAFAZE
RTD application bulletin.
The standard industrial RTD is a 100 ohm Platinum three wire assmbly.
THE ANAFAZE SYSTEM 32 WILL BE CONFIGURED FOR THE
STANDARD THREE WIRE RTD INPUT UNLESS OTHERWISE
SPECIFIED.
ANAFAZE recommends using only the 3-wire or 4-wire RTD configuration
for high accuracy.
Due to multiple ranges, different RTD range resistors, and special
linearization of the RTD range for high accuracy, the RTD INPUT should
be factory installed. If less accuracy is acceptable, please request the
ANAFAZE RTD application bulletin to field install the RTD input.
25
5.6.7 INFRARED NON-CONTACT TEMPERATURE SENSORS
The ANAFAZE IRSM infrared sensing module is ideally suited for many
infrared non-contact temperature applications.
It can be supplied by
ANAFAZE as a fully integrated system with the SYSTEM 32 configured to
provide power for up to four IRSM sensing modules and for direct
connection of the IRSM output.
The following connections are required if the IRSM internal ambient sensor
is not used:
ANAFAZE SYSTEM 32
Pin
IRSM WIRES
Color
Function
AUX -------------------- A
HIGH -- no connection -LOW -------------------- B
SHLD ------------------- K
Orange
White
Shield
Signal out
[0-10madc]
Signal ground
Shield
No connection
E
REF GND ---------------- C
REF GND ---------------- J
Red
Black
Brown
+5vdc supply
power ground
no peak hold
+ REF ------------------ D
No connection
F
No connection
H
Green
Blue
Yellow
+15vdc supply
Ambient sensor
Track and hold
The range of the standard IRSM is 0-1000 degrees F with an output of 010madc. The input of the ANAFAZE SYSTEM 32 configured for a 010madc input. See section 5.6.4
To use more than the factory installed four IRSM with the SYSTEM 32, use
an external power supply of 8-15vdc.
If desired a second input can be used to monitor the IRSM internal ambient
temperature. Please consult ANAFAZE for additional IRSM information.
5.7 A32-SSAIM -- SOLID STATE ANALOG INPUT MODULE
The A32-SSAIM provides for 32 differential analog inputs. Analog input
connections are made on two terminal blocks and the module can be plugged into
any housing slot.
Only the -10 to +60mvdc range may be used with this module. If it is desired to
connect current signals to the input of this module then it will be necessary to use
the single loading resistor mounted on the plug in terminal block. See section
5.6.4 for resistor values.
26
5.8 SCALING AND CALIBRATION
Since a computer is used to display the reading and load the setpoints, a
mathematical step can be used to convert measurements and setpoints to
engineering units and correct for known sensor calibration errors.
For example, the ANAFAZE SYSTEM 32 does all thermocouple calculations in
degrees F since this provides almost twice the resolution of degrees C. If degrees
C display and setpoints are desired the computer makes the F to C conversion as
data is received from the ANAFAZE SYSTEM 32 and converts the setpoints from
C to F as they are sent to the controller.
In a similar manner, linear sensors can be converted to engineering units and
adjusted for known calibration errors with a conversion step. For a linear sensor
two outputs can be measured (x1 and x2) and converted into engineering units (y1
and y2) using the standard formula:
y = mx + b
where m = (y2 - y1)/(x2 - x1)
and b = y2 - mx2 or b = y1 - mx1
The same conversion formula can be used to convert the desired setpoint into a
percentage of full scale which allows the ANAFAZE SYSTEM 32 to control to
the actual measured signals while the computer displays the measurements and
setpoints in engineering units. This approach eliminates the need for
potentiometers and other analog adjustments on each input channel.
The ANASOFT-32 software for the IBM PC and compatible computers includes
these scaling functions as part of the menu driven program. Please consult
ANAFAZE for additional information.
27
5.9 DIAGRAMS OF TYPICAL INPUTS
SEE SECTION 5.6 FOR DETAILED INFORMATION.
Typical Thermocouple
AUX O
HIGH O-- + White ------------------------LOW O-- - Red ---------------------------SHLD O
Type J T/C
Shielded Thermocouple: To use shield remove jumper RD. Shield should be
grounded at probe [see 5.6.2].
AUX O
--------------------HIGH O-- + Yellow ------------------------LOW O-- - Red -----------------------------SHLD O--------------------------------------
Type K T/C
DC Voltage Input: Use scaling resistors to reduce the full scale voltage to 0 to
60mv. SEE SECTION 5.6.3 FOR SCALING RESISTORS VALUES OF RA
AND RB.
AUX O------------ +
HIGHO DC VOLTAGE ABOVE
LOW O------------ - 60mv
SHLD 0
AUX O
HIGH O------------- +
LOW O------------- - 60mv
SHLD O DC VOLTAGE BELOW
Current Transmitter Inputs: Use scaling resistors to convert the current to a
voltage input scaled to 0 to 60mv. This will result in a 0 to 20ma full scale range,
and an Mx + B scaling can be in the computer to display the engineering units.
SEE SECTION 5.6.5 FOR SCALING VALUES OF RA, RB, AND RC.
SCALING RESISTORS MUST BE INSTALLED.
AUX O------------- +
HIGH O
DC CURRENT INPUTS
LOW O------------- SHLD O
RTD INPUTS: The input loop must be configured for the three wire RTD input
and must have the proper scaling resistors installed.
AUX O------------HIGH O-------------
RTD
LOW O------------SHLD O------------28
5.10 ANALOG INPUT CONNECTIONS
5.10.1 A32-RRAIM Analog Input Connections
|
|
Assignment |
Pin
Channel
|
1
REF GND
|
2
REF GND
|
------------------------------|
3
LO
|
4
1
AUX
|
5
HI
|
6
SHLD
|
------------------------------|
7
LO
|
8
2
AUX
|
9
HI
|
10
SHLD
|
------------------------------|
11
LO
|
12
3
AUX
|
13
HI
|
14
SHLD
|
------------------------------|
15
LO
|
16
4
AUX
|
17
HI
|
18
SHLD
|
------------------------------|
19
LO
|
20
5
AUX
|
21
HI
|
22
SHLD
|
------------------------------|
23
LO
|
24
6
AUX
|
25
HI
|
26
SHLD
|
------------------------------|
27
LO
|
28
7
AUX
|
29
HI
|
30
SHLD
|
------------------------------|
31
LO
|
32
8
AUX
|
33
HI
|
34
SHLD
|
------------------------------|
35
+REF
|
36
+REF
|
Terminal 1 [Upper]
29
Terminal 2 [Lower]
Pin
Channel
Assignment
1
+ REF
2
+ REF
----------------------------3
LO
4
9
AUX
5
HI
6
SHLD
----------------------------7
LO
8
10
AUX
9
HI
10SHLD
----------------------------11
LO
12
11
AUX
13
HI
14
SHLD
----------------------------15
LO
16
12
AUX
17
HI
18
SHLD
----------------------------19
LO
20
13
AUX
21
HI
22
SHLD
----------------------------23
LO
24
14
AUX
25
HI
26
SHLD
----------------------------27
LO
28
15
AUX
29
HI
30
SHLD
----------------------------31
LO
32
16
AUX
33
HI
34
SHLD
----------------------------35
REF GND
36
REF GND
5.10.2 A32-SSAIM Analog Input Connections
UPPER TERMINAL BLOCK
Pin
1
3
5
7
9
11
13
15
17
19
21
23
25
27
29
31
33
35
Channel
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
Assignment
HI
LO
HI
LO
HI
LO
HI
LO
HI
LO
HI
LO
HI
LO
HI
LO
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
Pin
2
4
6
8
10
12
14
16
18
20
22
24
26
28
30
32
34
36
Channel
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
Assignment
HI
LO
HI
LO
HI
LO
HI
LO
HI
LO
HI
LO
HI
LO
HI
LO
LOWER TERMINAL BLOCK
Pin
1
3
5
7
9
11
13
15
17
19
21
23
25
27
29
31
33
35
Channel
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
Assignment
HI
LO
HI
LO
HI
LO
HI
LO
HI
LO
HI
LO
HI
LO
HI
LO
REF
RETN
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
30
Pin
2
4
6
8
10
12
14
16
18
20
22
24
26
28
30
32
34
36
Channel
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
Assignment
HI
LO
HI
LO
HI
LO
HI
LO
HI
LO
HI
LO
HI
LO
HI
LO
REF
RETN
6.0 CONTROL OUTPUTS
Control outputs are provided from the A32-PIOM -- PROCESSOR I/O MODULE
for digital outputs and the A32-AOM -- ANALOG OUTPUT MODULE for
analog outputs. The A32-AOM is not required for systems that do not need
analog outputs. The A32-PIOM provides the digital control outputs, the serial
communication, and miscellaneous digital inputs and outputs.
WARNING -- GROUND LOOP POTENTIAL
The ground of every control output is connected to the ANAFAZE 32
PID logic ground. Use caution when connecting external devices that
may have their low side at a voltage other than controller ground,
since potential ground loops can be created. Use isolated relays or the
isolated control device inputs if possible grounding problems are
expected.
6.1 PROCESSOR I/O MODULE
Most PROCESSOR I/O MODULE [PIOM] connections are provided on plug in
terminal blocks. Additional inputs and outputs are provided on ribbon cable
connectors. The control outputs are also available on ribbon cable connectors to
simplify external wiring. The pins used on the ribbon cable connectors can be to
connect these inputs and outputs to external terminal strips or standard I/O
module boards such as the Gordos PCB24.
TB1 IS THE UPPER TERMINAL BLOCK and TB2 IS THE LOWER
TERMINAL BLOCK. J1, J2, and J3 ARE CONNECTORS FOR RIBBON
CABLES. These connectors can be used to reduce point to point wiring and must
be used for the additional input and output connections.
Output 65 is used by the controller to indicate a high deviation alarm and output
66 to indicate a low deviation alarm. Output 67 is used by ANASOFT 32 to
indicate a computer determined high process alarm and output 68 for the
corresponding low alarm.
Typical control outputs utilize external optically-isolated solid-state relays. These
relays use a 3 to 32vdc input for control and can be sized to switch up to 50 amps
at 480vac. For larger currents these relays can be used to drive contactors.
Connections are made as follows:
Upper Terminal Block TB1
Out 1
Out 2
+5V
SSR 1
SSR 2
|--------|
|--------|
Pin
| - + |
| - + |
|--|--|--|
|--|--|--|
5 O-----------------| |
| |
|
| |
6 O--------------------|------------| |
|
|
11 O--------------------o---------------|
31
Alarm outputs are also used to activate SSR's when possible. The connections are
essentially the same.
Lower Terminal Block TB2
Low Dev.
High Dev.
+5V
SSR 1
SSR 2
|--------|
|--------|
Pin
| - + |
| - + |
|--|--|--|
|--|--|--|
Out 1
5 O--------------| |
| |
|
| |
Out 2
6 O-----------------|------------| |
|
|
11 O-----------------o---------------|
6.1.1 PROCESSOR READY
The processor READY is a Watchdog Timer Output from the PIOM and is
an indication that the microprocessor is running its program. This output is
available at READY Pin #33 of the TB2 on the PROCESSOR I/O
MODULE (PIOM).
This output is on [will sink current] whenever the microprocessor is
functioning properly. The READY output takes about 2 seconds upon
power up to indicate ready. The output is an open collector NPN transistor
to ground, capable of sinking 15ma. Maximum ratings of 24vdc at 25ma
should not be exceeded.
To use the READY output as a TTL signal, connect a 4.7Kohm resistor
from the +5v supply Pin #31 to READY Pin #33 of TB2. Pin #33 will be
TTL low(0v) with respect to ground Pin #32, when the processor is ready or
running. Pin #33 will be TTL high(5v), when the processor is not
functioning.
TTL output for Processor Ready
+ 5vdc 31 O-----Ground 32 O--------------------O TTL Output: 0v = OK
4.7 K
5v = Problem
Ready 33 O--------------------O
To use the READY output to energize a relay, an optically- isolated solidstate relay [SSR] is recommended. The control signal is +5v. Connect the
positive terminal of the SSR to Pin #31 and the negative terminal to Pin
#33. When the microprocessor is ready, the relay will be energized. Upon
failure of the microprocessor, the relay would be de-energized. A Gordos
#OAC5A or #G280D10 equivalent is recommended.
Processor Ready output connected to SSR
32
|--------|
+ 5vdc 31 O-------------------O + |
|
|
Ready 33 O-------------------O - |
| SSR |
|--------|
6.1.2 OUTPUTS ENABLE: A32-PIOM ONLY
The control outputs from the PIOM [TPV, ON-OFF, and DZC] for all 32
Loops are off, when Outputs ON Pin #35 of TB2 is TTL high or open. Also,
the outputs are off, whenever the microprocessor is not ready.
WARNING: If the outputs are not enabled through Pin 35, there will
be no control output from the PIOM. The Outputs enable has no
effect on the analog control outputs [A32- AOM].
To enable the outputs, Outputs ON Pin #35 must be tied to ground Pin #32
by a jumper. If so desired, a relay contact may be used that would enable the
outputs from some external circuit, such as a safety device. The outputs may
also be enabled or disabled by a TTL signal. A TTL low will turn the
outputs on and a TTL high will turn the outputs off. The TTL input should
be connected between ground pin 32, and the Outputs ON pin 35.
Jumper to keep
outputs enabled.
Ground
32 O------|
|
|
Outputs ON 35 O-------
External Relay or Switch to
enable outputs when closed.
Ground
32 O-------|
Relay or Switch
|
Outputs ON 35 O--------
6.1.3 COMMUNCIATIONS WATCHDOG TIMER
The communciations watchdog timer output is on Pin #30 of TB2 the lower
block on the PIOM. The output will be ON upon communication failure.
|---------|
+5vdc 31 O------ 0v= no comm 31 O------------|--O+ |
5v= comm
SSR will
|
|
GRD 32 O-------------O
be on with
| SSR |
TTL
no comm
|
|
COMM 30 O-------------O
30 O---------------|--Ο- |
|______|
33
6.2 PROCESSOR I/O [A32-PIOM] PID OUTPUT CONNECTIONS
6.2.1 SCREW TERMINAL CONNECTIONS
Pin #
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
TB1 [UPPER BLOCK]
Tx+ COMPUTER COMMUNICATION
Tx- SEE SECTION 4
Rx+ COMPUTER COMMUNICATION
Rx- SEE SECTION 4
PID OUT LOOP 1 SEE SECTION
PID OUT LOOP 2
6.1 FOR
PID OUT LOOP 3
WIRING
PID OUT LOOP 4
PID OUT LOOP 5
PID OUT LOOP 6
+5V LOGIC SUPPLY
PID OUT LOOP 7
PID OUT LOOP 8
PID OUT LOOP 9
+5V LOGIC SUPPLY
PID OUT LOOP 10
PID OUT LOOP 11
PID OUT LOOP 12
+5V LOGIC SUPPLY
PID OUT LOOP 13
PID OUT LOOP 14
PID OUT LOOP 15
+5V LOGIC SUPPLY
PID OUT LOOP 16
PID OUT LOOP 17
PID OUT LOOP 18
+5V LOGIC SUPPLY
PID OUT LOOP 19
PID OUT LOOP 20
PID OUT LOOP 21
+5V LOGIC SUPPLY
PID OUT LOOP 22
PID OUT LOOP 23
PID OUT LOOP 24
+5V LOGIC SUPPLY
LOGIC GROUND
TB2 [LOWER BLOCK]
PID OUT LOOP 25
PID OUT LOOP 26
PID OUT LOOP 27
PID OUT LOOP 28
PID OUT LOOP 29
PID OUT LOOP 30
+5V LOGIC SUPPLY
PID OUT LOOP 31
PID OUT LOOP 32
DIGITAL OUT 57
+5V LOGIC SUPPLY
DIGITAL OUT 58
DIGITAL OUT 59
DIGITAL OUT 60
+5V LOGIC SUPPLY
DIGITAL OUT 61
DIGITAL OUT 62
DIGITAL OUT 63
+5V LOGIC SUPPLY
DIGITAL OUT 64
ALARM OUT65
HIGHDEVIATION
ALARM OUT 66
LOW DEVIATION
+5V LOGIC SUPPLY
ALARM OUT 67
HIGH PROCESS
ALARM OUT 68
LOW PROCESS
DIGITAL OUT 69
+5V LOGIC SUPPLY
DIGITAL OUT 70
DIGITAL OUT 71
COMM WATCH 72 COMMUNICATION TIMER
+5V LOGIC SUPPLY
LOGIC GROUND
CPU READY
WATCHDOG TIMER
I sense OPEN HEATER SENSOR
Outputs ON
PID OUTPUTS ENABLE
I sense +
OPEN HEATER SENSOR
NOTES!
1. TB2 PIN 35 OUTPUTS ON MUST BE CONNECTED TO LOGIC
GROUND PIN 32 OF TB2 BEFORE PID DIGITAL OUTPUTS WILL BE
ACTIVE.
2. THE PID OUTPUTS ARE NEGATIVE LOGIC WITH REFERENCE TO
THE +5V LOGIC.
3. THE I SENSE OF PINS 34 & 36 ARE INPUTS FOR A SENSOR SIGNAL
IN THE OPEN HEATER DETECTION CIRCUIT.
Spare digital outputs and digital inputs are not used in the standard SYSTEM 32.
34
6.2.2 A32-PIOM OUTPUTS 50 PIN FLAT RIBBON CABLE
CONNECTIONS
IN #
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
J1 [TOP]
PID OUT LOOP 1
LOGIC GND
PID OUT LOOP 2
LOGIC GND
PID OUT LOOP 3
LOGIC GND
PID OUT LOOP 4
LOGIC GND
PID OUT LOOP 5
LOGIC GND
PID OUT LOOP 6
LOGIC GND
PID OUT LOOP 7
LOGIC GND
PID OUT LOOP 8
LOGIC GND
PID OUT LOOP 9
LOGIC GND
PID OUT LOOP 10
LOGIC GND
PID OUT LOOP 11
LOGIC GND
PID OUT LOOP 12
LOGIC GND
PID OUT LOOP 13
LOGIC GND
PID OUT LOOP 14
LOGIC GND
PID OUT LOOP 15
LOGIC GND
PID OUT LOOP 16
LOGIC GND
PID OUT LOOP 17
LOGIC GND
PID OUT LOOP 18
LOGIC GND
PID OUT LOOP 19
LOGIC GND
PID OUT LOOP 20
LOGIC GND
PID OUT LOOP 21
LOGIC GND
PID OUT LOOP 22
LOGIC GND
PID OUT LOOP 23
LOGIC GND
PID OUT LOOP 24
LOGIC GND
+5V LOGIC SUPPLY
LOGIC GND
J2 [MIDDLE]
DIGITAL OUT 33
LOGIC GND
DIGITAL OUT 34
LOGIC GND
DIGITAL OUT 35
LOGIC GND
DIGITAL OUT 36
LOGIC GND
DIGITAL OUT 37
LOGIC GND
DIGITAL OUT 38
LOGIC GND
DIGITAL OUT 39
LOGIC GND
DIGITAL OUT 40
LOGIC GND
DIGITAL IN 9
LOGIC GND
DIGITAL IN 10
LOGIC GND
DIGITAL IN 11
LOGIC GND
DIGITAL IN 12
LOGIC GND
DIGITAL IN 13
LOGIC GND
DIGITAL IN 14
LOGIC GND
DIGITAL IN 15
LOGIC GND
DIGITAL IN 16
LOGIC GND
DIGITAL IN 1
LOGIC GND
DIGITAL IN 2
LOGIC GND
DIGITAL IN 3
LOGIC GND
DIGITAL IN 4
LOGIC GND
DIGITAL IN 5
LOGIC GND
DIGITAL IN 6
LOGIC GND
DIGITAL IN 7
LOGIC GND
DIGITAL IN 8
LOGIC GND
+5V LOGIC SUPPLY
LOGIC GND
35
J3 [BOTTOM]
PID OUT LOOP 25
LOGIC GND
PID OUT LOOP 26
LOGIC GND
PID OUT LOOP 27
LOGIC GND
PID OUT LOOP 28
LOGIC GND
PID OUT LOOP 29
LOGIC GND
PID OUT LOOP 30
LOGIC GND
PID OUT LOOP 31
LOGIC GND
PID OUT LOOP 32
LOGIC GND
DIGITAL OUT 57
LOGIC GND
DIGITAL OUT 58
LOGIC GND
DIGITAL OUT 59
LOGIC GND
DIGITAL OUT 60
LOGIC GND
DIGITAL OUT 61
LOGIC GND
DIGITAL OUT 62
LOGIC GND
DIGITAL OUT 63
LOGIC GND
DIGITAL OUT 64
LOGIC GND
ALARM HI DEV 65
LOGIC GND
ALARM LO DEV 66
LOGIC GND
ALARM HI PROC 67
LOGIC GND
ALARM LO PROC 68
LOGIC GND
DIGITAL OUT 69
LOGIC GND
DIGITAL OUT 70
LOGIC GND
DIGITAL OUT 71
LOGIC GND
COMM WATCH 72
LOGIC GND
+5V LOGIC SUPPLY
LOGIC GND
6.3 ANALOG OUTPUT MODULE A32-AOM
Analog control outputs are provided for the SYSTEM 32 by using the A32-AOM.
Each module provides 16 analog outputs and up to two modules can be used in a
single SYSTEM 32 for 32 control outputs.
The AOM provides both 4 to 20ma with 400 ohms maximum load and 0- 5vdc at
5ma maximum. Both are available at the output terminals and either may be
selected.
WARNING: Both outputs may not used at the same time on the same
loop. THE OUTPUTS WILL BE IN ERROR.
WARNING: The grounds of all the analog outputs on a single
module are connected together. Ground loop problems and potential
damage can result if the outputs are connected to devices that have
common mode or other voltages on their terminals. Contact
ANAFAZE for isolated outputs.
6.3.1 Typical Connections
The output connections are designated as C for the positive terminal of the
current loops along with the loop number and the negative side of the
current loop is to any of the terminals labeled NEG.
The positive output connections for the voltage loops are V along with the
loop number and the negative side is to any of the terminals labeled NEG.
Typical Analog Output Connections are:
Function
TB1 Pin#
PID LOOP 1C [17C] POS
[4 to 20ma]
NEG
|--------------|
6 O----------------------- +
|
| I/P
|
| Converter |
5 O----------------------- |
|--------------|
TB2 Pin#
PID LOOP 13V [29V] POS
[0 to 5v]
NEG
|---------------|
20 O------------------ + Motor |
| Speed |
| Controller |
21 O------------------ |
|---------------|
36
6.3.2 A32-AOM ANALOG OUTPUT MODULE CONNECTIONS
Note the outputs are designated as follows:
LOOP #C Positive terminal for 4-20madc output.
LOOP #V Positive terminal for 0-5vdc output.
NEG
Negative terminals for both outputs.
TERMINAL BLOCK 1 [UPPER]
PIN
CONNECTION
1
NEG
2
NC
3
NEG
4
NC
5
NEG
6 PID LOOP 1C
POS [17C]
7
NEG
8 PID LOOP 1V
POS [17V]
9
NEG
10 PID LOOP 2C
POS [18C]
11
NEG
12 PID LOOP 2V
POS [18V]
13
NEG
14PID LOOP 3C
POS [19C]
15
NEG
16 PID LOOP 3V
POS [19V]
17
NEG
18 PID LOOP 4C
POS [20C]
19
NEG
20 PID LOOP 4V
POS [2OV]
21
NEG
22 PID LOOP 5C
POS [21C]
23
NEG
24 PID LOOP 5V
POS [21V]
25
NEG
26 PID LOOP 6C
POS [22C]
27
NEG
28 PID LOOP 6V
POS [22V]
29
NEG
30 PID LOOP 7C
POS [23C]
31
NEG
32 PID LOOP 7V
POS [23V]
33
NEG
34 PID LOOP 8C
POS [24C]
35
NEG
36 PID LOOP 8V
POS [24V]
TERMINAL BLOCK 2 [LOWER]
PIN
CONNECTION
1
NEG
2 PID LOOP 9C
POS [25C]
3
NEG
4 PID LOOP 9V
POS [25V]
5
NEG
6 PID LOOP 10C
POS [26C]
7
NEG
8 PID LOOP 10V
POS [26V]
9
NEG
10 PID LOOP 11C
POS [27C]
11
NEG
12 PID LOOP 11V
POS [27V]
13
NEG
14 PID LOOP 12C
POS[28C]
15
NEG
16 PID LOOP 12V
POS [28V]
17
NEG
18 PID LOOP 13C
POS [29C]
19
NEG
20 PID LOOP 13V
POS [29V]
21
NEG
22 PID LOOP 14C
POS [30C]
23
NEG
24 PID LOOP 14V
POS [30V]
25
NEG
26 PID LOOP 15C
POS [31C]
27
NEG
28 PID LOOP 15V
POS [31V]
29
NEG
30 PID LOOP 16C
POS [32C]
31
NEG
32 PID LOOP 16V
POS [32V]
33
NEG
34
NC
35
NEG
36
NC
NOTE!OUTPUT LOOP NUMBERS ARE IN REFERENCE TO THE INPUT LOOP
NUMBERS AND ARE SELECTABLE BY ADDRESS JUMPER.
LOOPS 1-16 ARE MODULE #1 OR ADDRESS #1.
LOOPS [17-32] ARE MODULE #2 OR ADDRESS #2
37
7.0 DETAILED MODULE DESCRIPTIONS
7.1 PROCESSOR I/O MODULE -- A32-PIOM
The PIOM is the main processor for the SYSTEM 32 and is required in each
system. The only PIOM option available for standard systems is the type of
communications interface.
The PIOM has two microprocessors, an 8031 and 8088. These microprocessors
perform all the SYSTEM 32 software operations using programs stored in
PROM's. The 8031 primarily manages the I/O functions including
communications, while the 8088 performs the control calculations including PID
and linearization thermocouple and other inputs. Other software functions include
self-test of the system, on-line analog calibration, and open heater detection.
The PIOM is comprised of a two board set, the larger board is the 8031 processor
and the smaller piggy back board is the 8088.
The SYSTEM 32 microprocessor programs allow control parameters and other
operating conditions, such as input types, to be entered from an external computer
through the built in serial interface. Communications protocol is a form of ANSI
X3.28-1976, which is compatible with Allen-Bradley PLC's.
Up to 29 parameters, such as input type, control setpoint, deviation alarms, PID
constants, can be entered for each loop. These parameters can be stored by
command in EEROM, and the SYSTEM 32 will start according to these
parameters on application of power or after a microprocessor reset.
WARNING: Only a safe set of parameters should be stored in
EEROM, since the system will automatically start with these values.
7.1.1 Control Outputs and Digital Inputs and Outputs
The standard SYSTEM 32 PIOM has 32 digital control outputs, 8 alarm and
status outputs, an additional 16 digital outputs, and 16 digital inputs.
In the simplest SYSTEM 32 configuration, the PIOM may be used without
any other modules as an open loop controller with 32 manually set control
outputs. The outputs can be set to any level [percent of full scale] from the
system computer.
When used for closed loop control, the 32 control outputs correspond to the
first 32 analog inputs. Additional analog inputs up to 96 total per PIOM,
are used for data acquisition. A special version of the SYSTEM 32 is
available for 48 control loops.
The control outputs may be independently software set as on/off, or pulsed
dc outputs with a choice of Cycle Time Proportioning or Distributed Zero
Crossing. The control action can be independently set for Reverse [Heat] or
38
Direct [Cool]. The outputs are 5vdc at 16ma maximum and are normally
used to switch optically-isolated solid-state relays (SSR's).
The alarm and status outputs include a global high and low deviation and a
watchdog timer which are set by the SYSTEM 32. If ANASOFT-32 is used
in the system computer, a global high and low process alarm output is set
from the system computer. These outputs are also 5vdc and are designed to
connect to SSR's.
The additional digital I/O are used by special versions of ANASOFT-32.
Eight digital outputs are available on the terminal strips, and the remaining
8 digital inputs and 16 digital outputs are provided on a 50 pin ribbon cable
connector. The pin configuration is compatible with standard I/O modules
such as Gordos PB24.
7.1.2 Communication
The type of communication interface is determined by the distance the 32
System will be from the host computer. The communications interface type
is set at the factory. RS-232 is recommended up to 50 feet although it can
be used up to 500 feet with special cables in low electrical noise
environments. For longer distances either the 20ma Current Loop (up to
5000 ft.), or the RS-485 (up to 10,000 ft.) is recommended. The 20ma
current loop is a dual twisted pair serial connection and RS-485 is 4 or 2
wire balanced line parallel connection.
7.1.3 Address and Option Switch
An 8-position dip switch on the PIOM provides for the address selection.
The addresses allow up to 16 SYSTEM 32 PIOM's to be on the same
communication line. It also allows selection of the baud rate of 2400 or
9600 as well as other communication parameters.
7.1.4 Terminal Blocks
Push on, screw locked terminal blocks are provided on each module for
connection of field wiring. The blocks are large enough for most types of
input wiring. The blocks can be removed to service the modules without
the need to remove the field wiring. The blocks also include temperature
stabilization to improve the reference junction compensation when
thermocouples are directly connected.
7.2 REED RELAY ANALOG INPUT MODULE -- A32-RRAIM
The RRAIM provides the connections for up to 16 analog inputs to the SYSTEM
32. Analog inputs are sequentially switched to a frequency [V/F] converter
powered by an isolated supply. The pulse output from this V/F passes through an
optical-isolator and to the PIOM where the pulses are counted and the readings are
determined. In addition to the analog inputs, two temperature sensors at each end
of the terminal blocks are measured for use as an electronic reference junction for
directly connected thermocouples.
39
7.2.1 Automatic Calibration
The RRAIM includes two additional inputs: a full scale and a zero signal
that are used by the PIOM for automatic full scale and zero calibration. The
zero input is read on one scan to calibrate the analog amplifier zero, on the
next scan the full scale input is read to calibrate the amplifier gain. The
next two scans are used to read the thermocouple reference temperatures
and then the calibration cycle starts again. Thus calibration is automatically
updated every two seconds.
7.2.2 Noise Rejection
The 16 channel reed relay input provides the highest level of protection
from input noise present in most industrial applications. By using a 3-pole
relay and switching both inputs for true differential measurement, and the
shield for noise rejection, up to 180vac of common mode voltage may be
present on an input without effecting calibration.
For further noise protection, the integration period for the voltage to
frequency converter is set at one period of the 60Hz power line frequency.
The provides high rejection of power line induced noise.
7.2.3 Resolution
The combination of the integration time period and the full scale frequency
output of the V/F results in a measurement resolution of one part in 5000, or
0.02%. This is slightly higher than 12 bit [one part in 4096] resolution.
The resolution of 0.02% full scale results in a measurement resolution of
better than 14 microvolts. This means that the typical thermocouple
resolution for a type J or T is 0.5 oF, for a type K 0.75 oF, and for type R or
S 2.0 oF.
7.2.4 Scanning Speed
The SYSTEM 32 with the RRIAM, measures each input twice per second.
The PIOM performs the complete PID calculations for all loops in less than
this time, thus every loop is updated twice per second. The PIOM scans
each RRAIM in parallel so the addition of RRAIM's to the system will not
add to the scanning or loop update time.
7.2.5 Analog Input Range
The analog input range of the RRAIM is -10 to +60mv. To measure other
inputs, such as 4-20 ma, scaling resistors are used. The RRAIM contains an
isolated section for the purpose of mounting scaling resistors. These
resistors may be mounted by the factory [order A32-SI as needed] by the
user.
7.2.6 RTD Excitation Voltage
The excitation voltage for RTD's is 10vdc at 50ma max. When using RTD's,
a max current of 3ma per sensor is recommended to avoid self-heating of
the RTD as well as avoiding overloading the RRIAM power supply.
40
7.2.7 Open Thermocouple Detection
The RRIAM has upscale open thermocouple detection which is
accomplished by placing a small current through the thermocouple leads.
The input source impedance may go as high as 200 ohms before rated
accuracy is effected.
7.2.8 Address Selection
Each RRIAM has a jumper for address selection of the RRIAM in the
SYSTEM 32. As many as three RRAIM's may be used per system.
7.3 SOLID STATE ANALOG INPUT MODULE -- A32-SSAIM
The SSAIM is similar to the RRAIM except that the input channels are switched
with 2 wire solid state multiplexers instead of 3 pole reed relays. The result is less
voltage standoff [10volts maximum] between the inputs and the input grounds.
The number of input channels is increased to 32 at about the same cost of 16 reed
relay inputs.
The scan rate is still at 32 channels per second, thus each channel is updated every
second. The PIOM still scans the SSAIM's in parallel, thus additional SSAIM's
will not add to the scanning time.
The maximum number of SSAIM's per system is three. This gives a total of 96
inputs for a low cost data acquisition system.
Both RRAIM's and SSAIM's can be used in the same SYSTEM 32. The first 32
inputs are used for closed loop control.
7.4 ANALOG OUTPUT MODULE -- A32-AOM
The AOM is used when an analog output signal is required to control the final
control element. The 16 channel AOM provides a 4-20ma output [maximum load
400 ohms] or 0-5v output [5ma maximum]. Either output can be selected for each
loop on the terminal block.
Warning: Only one output may be used for each loop.
Other outputs are available upon special order, contact ANAFAZE.
The 8-bit Digital/Analog (D/A) converter supplies the necessary signal to the output
transistors according to the PIOM control calculations. The analog control output
for a particular loop verses a digital control output on the PIOM is software
selected.
The output transistors have a compliance voltage of 8vdc and all outputs share a
common ground which is isolated from the system ground.
Warning: The analog outputs must not be connected to devices that
feedback power line AC or other voltages to the AOM. If there is
voltage present optical isolators must be used.
Please consult
ANAFAZE for more information.
41
Each AOM has an address Dip switch for address selection of the AOM in the 32
System. Up to two AOM's may be used in each SYSTEM 32.
7.5 PULSE INPUT MODULE -- A32-PIM
The PIM counts up to 32 pulse inputs at maximum pulse rates of 1kHz with 50%
duty cycle pulses. The A32-PIM can only be used in systems with an expanded
PROCESSOR I/O MODULE [A32-PIOM-EX].
7.6 POWER SUPPLY----PART NO. A32-PS
The power required by the SYSTEM 32 is 5 vdc at 5 amps. Each module of the
SYSTEM 32 has a DC to DC converter for isolation and to provide the regulated
voltages used. These voltages are typically +5vdc and +15vdc.
Since each module includes isolation and regulation, nearly any 5vdc supply can be
used. The SYSTEM 32 can be run from battery power since only a single voltage
is required.
The A32-PS includes a standard SYSTEM 32 front panel, and wiring to the
SYSTEM 32 backplane. The power supply is normally mounted in one module
slot. For systems that require all the slots for other modules, the power supply can
be mounted externally.
The rating of the A32-PS is 120 vac input with 5 vdc at 7 amp output. The power
supply has an adjustment for the 5 vdc.
For a spare supply, option A32-PSWOFP [Power Supply With Out Front Panel] is
available.
7.7 OPERATOR STATION -- A32-OS
The OPERATOR STATION is used to view the measured input value or Process
Variable (PV) for any loop of the SYSTEM 32. The OPERATOR STATION can
also be used to change the Setpoint (SP) of a loop at a remote location from the
computer.
The OPERATOR STATION is a panel mount 1/8 DIN LED readout instrument
utilizing the communication line from the computer to the 32 System. The
OPERATOR STATION front panel contains the function keys for the display
selection and setpoint changing.
42
The OPERATOR STATION requires ANASOFT-32 to be running in the system
computer. It obtains its readings and changes the setpoints through the computer.
The OPERATOR STATION can select any PIOM and any loop in the system for
display and changes. The SP may be viewed for any loop in the system and may, if
elected by the customer, be changed from the OPERATOR STATION. The ability
to change SP from the OPERATOR STATION is selected in ANASOFT-32 by the
user.
43
8.0 PID CONTROL
This section provides some common definitions of control terms and information
on control loop tuning.
8.1 CONTROL LOOPS
A control loop may consist of four or five elements depending upon the placement
of the functions of some elements. These elements are defined as follows:
PRIMARY ELEMENT: This senses the PROCESS VARIABLE (PV), a
thermocouple (T/C) measuring temperature is an example.
SIGNAL CONDITIONER ELEMENT: this may be required between the
PRIMARY ELEMENT and the CONTROLLER ELEMENT if the signal
cannot be directly connected to the CONTROLLER ELEMENT. An
example is a pH transmitter.
CONTROLLER ELEMENT: accepts the signal from the PRIMARY
ELEMENT and sends the appropriate control signal to the FINAL
CONTROL ELEMENT. An example is the SYSTEM 32.
FINAL CONTROL ELEMENT: accepts the control signal from the
CONTROLLER ELEMENT and controls the MANIPULATED
VARIABLE ELEMENT. An example is a motor positioning valve unit for
the control of natural gas into a burner system or a Solid State Relay (SSR)
controlling voltage into an electric load.
MANIPULATED VARIABLE ELEMENT: is the energy of the process
such as steam, natural gas, etc... needed by the process for the Process
Variable to reach Setpoint.
The FINAL CONTROL ELEMENT may be controlled in open loop, that is with
out feedback or direct measurement of the Process Variable. For open loop control
the control output from the CONTROLLER ELEMENT is set to some output level
to produce a desired effect. This assumes that the process is slow enough for
corrective action to be taken based on information from another source other than
the PRIMARY ELEMENT or the process characteristics are such that open loop
control will hold the Setpoint within desired limits.
Closed loop makes use of feedback from the process, comparing the Process
Variable to the Setpoint, and changing the control output automatically as required
to control the process.
OPEN LOOP is also known as MANUAL CONTROL, while CLOSED LOOP is
known as AUTOMATIC CONTROL.
8.1.2 CONTROL MODES
The control mode is the form of control function. In the SYSTEM 32 the
choices are: on/off, proportional [P], proportional and integral [PI], and
proportional with integral and differential [PID]. The control mode should
44
not be confused with with the type of control output signal: for example
pulsed DC voltage or analog output.
8.1.3 ON/OFF CONTROL
The simplest way to control the PROCESS VARIABLE (PV), for example
temperature on an oven, to a desired SETPOINT (SP), operating
temperature, is to use ON/OFF control. When the temperature is below the
setpoint the heat is turned fully on and when the temperature is above the
setpoint the heat is turned fully off. The result of ON/OFF control is usually
the cycling of the PV around the SP. The amount of PV deviation from the
SP is primarily due to the process dynamics rather then the controller gain.
Most ON/OFF controllers GAIN, [also known as DEADBAND,
HYSTERESIS, or SENSITIVITY] is a fixed percentage of the controller
input span. Thus, a gain of 1/2% of a 0-1400 oF Type J span would be 7 oF.
This means the controller will not switch the output on, until the PV falls
below SP by 3.5 oF and will not switch the output off, until the PV rise
above SP by 3.5 oF. Occasionally the deadband is too narrow for the
process and intermittent chattering of the Final Control Element may be
present. An adjustable gain on the ON/OFF controller function is very
useful for eliminating Final Control Element chatter. The SYSTEM 32
provides adjustable gain for ON/OFF control loops.
The Final Control Element most often used with ON/OFF control is the
relay. For example relays can be used for electrical heating loads, solenoid
valves, and two-position motor control.
8.1.4 PID CONTROL
PID or 3-mode control is used when ON/OFF control is not satisfactory for
the control requirements of the process. If cycling of the PV cannot be
tolerated, if process loading is a variable, and if the SP is changeable, then
PID would most likely be used in place of ON/OFF control.
The PID initials stand for PROPORTIONAL, INTEGRAL, and
DERIVATIVE. The SYSTEM 32 utilizes the ISA standard PID equation
to calculate the control output as follows:
U= 1
--FSR
Kp(e + 1 edt + KDde)
--TI
dt
Where:
U is the control output in percent of output full scale. For a 4-20ma
output, 0% is 4ma, 50% is 12ma, and 100% is 20ma.
e is the error [the difference between the PV and SP].
FSR is the full scale range of the measured input. For a J thermocouple
the full scale range is -350 to 1400 oF, or 1750 o.
45
Kp is the proportional gain, and FSR/Kp is referred to as the
proportional band PB. The gain can be set from 0 to 255 for the
SYSTEM 32. Note that when gain is specified in the control equation
the output would be different for the same error if a different full scale is
used. If PB is used the FSR cancels out and the PB is independent of
the input range.
TI is the integral or reset time, and 1/TI is referred to as the reset rate.
For the SYSTEM 32, the integral or reset time can be set from 0 [off] to
1020 seconds with 4 second resolution. This corresponds to a reset rate
of 0.05 to 15 repeats per minute.
TD is the derivative time and the range for the SYSTEM 32 is 0 [off] to
255 seconds or 0.01 to 4.25 minutes.
8.1.5 PROPORTIONAL CONTROL [P]
Proportional control is when the control output signal is linearly
proportional to the error. In the above equation the integral and derivative
effects are zero. For the SYSTEM 32 this is accomplished by setting the
integral and derivative constants to zero. The proportional constant is also
known as gain.
As the gain of the controller is increased a small increase in error will cause
a large change in the control output. Since cycling of the PV can result
from high gain, reducing the gain is one way to improve stability.
In the control equation, once the error times the gain divided by the full
scale range reaches 100% [full control output] additional error cannot
increase the control output. If the error is less than this value a control
response proportional to the error is made. Thus if the error is less than
FSR/Kp it is said to be within the PROPORTIONAL BAND (PB). The PB
is equal to the full scale of the controller input divided by the gain. Thus a
gain of 100, for a thermocouple with a range of 0 to 1400 oF, results in a
proportional band of 140 oF.
Using ANASOFT-32 for the SYSTEM 32 allows the a choice of displays
for the proportional function. This function can be shown and entered as
either Gain or Proportional Band. If proportional band is selected, the
values can be entered IN THE ACTUAL ENGINEERING UNITS OF THE
INPUT regardless of the span of the instrument. Thus, a PB of 30 represents
30 oF for any thermocouple input range in the SYSTEM 32.
Gain may also be used, but once again the input span of the controller
becomes critical. For the SYSTEM 32, a gain of 30 represents 48 oF PB for
a Type J T/C, 87 oF for a Type K T/C, and 29 oF for a Type T T/C. To
obtain PB divide the span by the gain setting.
46
For temperature control, the most useful and easiest to use entry is the PB in
actual degrees for the SYSTEM 32. The nominal setting of the PB can be
between 5-20% of the SP. Thus, a SP of 300 oF may require a PB of 15-60
oF. To start use 10% of the SP.
A good way of establishing a PB setting is to start at a wide PB and then to
keep decreasing the PB [increasing gain] until the process cycles about the
SP. Take note of the PB at this point and double the figure. PB should be set
at this number. Reset should be set to a low value such as .3 [or set integral
to zero: off] and derivative should be at zero [off] before tuning PB.
The PB of 30 oF with a SP of 300 oF specifies that the output from the
controller will change proportionally from 0 to 100% over 30 degrees. The
output will be at 0% or 100%, if the PV is outside the PB of 30 oF from the
SP of 300 oF. Below 270 oF [greater than a 30 o error] the output will be at
100%, at 285 oF it will be at 50% and at 300 oF and above it will be at 0%.
All PID control functions take place within the PB, otherwise the controller
output is full on or full off with no Integral or Derivative action.
8.1.6 PROPORTIONAL AND INTEGRAL CONTROL [PI]
The Integral mode is also known as RESET action. Reset is the older of the
two terms and is descriptive of the control action that takes place. The
primary reason for for integral control is to reduce or eliminate steady state
errors, but this benefit typically comes at the cost of reduced stability.
With proportional only control the output will be zero when the PV is at SP
[error is zero]. Thus, in a heating system for example, the stable
temperature will always be below the setpoint. When the PV is stable at a
point above or below the SP, the deviation from the SP is known as
OFFSET. The control action that corrects for this offset, is integral or reset.
Reset is only active when the PV is not equal to the SP. The unit of Reset
most often used is called Repeats/Minute (R/M). This expresses the number
of times the PB response is repeated in one minute. This means with one
repeat per minute, that the control output would be exactly double the
proportional band [repeats the proportional band] only, if the error [SP-PV]
remained steady for the full minute. As long as reset is active, it will repeat
the PB response until the output has reached 0% or 100%.
MANUAL RESET is a manual biasing of the output, so that when the PV is
at SP, the output will be at the proper level to hold SP. It is more common
on older type controls. The newer controllers including the SYSTEM 32
provide AUTOMATIC RESET as described above. AUTOMATIC RESET
automatically makes the correction for offset errors, but the R/M value must
be set for the process.
47
Another way of viewing the reset action is to look at the integral term in the
control equation of section 8.1.4. The control output due to this term is the
error integrated over time. Thus a small offset over a long period of time
will increase the integral sum and consequently the control output until the
PV is equal to the SP. At this time, the proportional control output will be
zero and the system will be stable at setpoint due to the integral sum.
Consider again the above example, with the PB at 30 and the SP at 300 oF,
50% of the output is obtained at 285 oF, but zero output is obtained at SP.
Assuming 50% output is required to hold the temperature at 300 oF, it
would be reasonable to assume that the PV would be stable at 285 oF. This
results in an offset of 15 oF from 300 oF SP. To shift the PB so that 50% of
the output is at 300 oF, reset is used.
If, AUTOMATIC RESET is used with .5 R/M and assuming the last PB
response was 10% and the output is 50%. After the first minute, the output
will be at 55%. After the second minute, it will be at 60%. After the third,
65% and so until the output is at 100%. It would take ten minutes to do this,
assuming that there was no temperature rise. Since the temperature would
actually increase, the error would be reduced and the portion of the control
output due to proportional control would decrease. Since the value of the
integral sum is increasing with time, the effect of the reset output increases.
This interaction would continue until SP was reached, where reset holds the
temperature at setpoint and the proportional output becomes zero.
A .5 to 1 R/M would be a good starting point for most processes. A slow
process requires a slow reset (less then 1R/M). When too fast of a reset is
used, the PV may slowly cycle around the SP. When adding RESET to the
control mode of a controller, the addition of the RESET mode normally
requires widening of the PB from the PROPORTIONAL mode control only
setting.
8.1.7 PROPORTIONAL, INTEGRAL, AND DERIVATIVE
CONTROL [PID]
The Derivative mode is also known as RATE, ANTICIPATION, or
APPROACH. RATE is the more common term used. The function of
RATE is to prevent the overshoot or undershoot of PV at SP. It does this by
slowing the rate of approach of the PV to the SP.
When using PB with RESET, the PV will sometimes go past the SP when a
setpoint change or process disturbance occurs. This can happen since the
correct setting of the PB will cause a small damped oscillation around the
setpoint and the integral sum built up by the reset function cannot be
reduced until the PV is past the setpoint. Thus, a Two-Mode controller may
have overshoot, even if it is correctly set.
Most processes can tolerate an overshoot, but if the overshoot of the PV
relative to the SP cannot be tolerated, then the RATE function must be used.
48
RATE is also used to correct for rapid load changes, to slow large capacity
processes, and to overcome the slew rates of electric motor actuators.
The RATE function responds to the change in the error as a function of
time. Mathematically it is the first derivative of the error as a function of
time [see equation in section 8.1.4]. Thus if the error is steady the effect of
rate is zero. As the PV approaches the setpoint, the rate term will be
negative and reduce the control output. This will serve to slow the approach
to setpoint and reduce the tendency to overshoot. The higher the rate, the
faster the output is reduced, thus preventing overshoot. Too high a setting of
the rate will cause the PV to undershoot the setpoint and the approach will
be series of undershooting steps.
With PID control the output signal is a composite of the three control
functions and will vary as the constants for these functions are changed as
required to hold the PV to the SP. In general:
Increasing:
Kp and 1/TI reduce system errors.
Decreasing:
TI reduces stability, but speeds the settling time.
Setting TI = 0, turns off reset.
Increasing:
TD improves stability. Setting TD = 0, turns off rate.
8.1.8 ANAFAZE OUTPUT FILTER
The OUTPUT FILTER used by the ANAFAZE Controllers is a digital filter
on the output signal after the PID functions. It has a range of 0-255 levels
that gives a time constant of 0-127.5 seconds. It is used to filter out erratic
swings of the output due to extremely sensitive input signals, such as open
air T/C in a dry air gas oven or a turbine flow signal.
It can be used also to allow the SYSTEM 32 to function more effectively
than with PID alone. Some processes may be very sensitive, requiring a
wide PB, such that good control control is not possible. By increasing the
digital output filter to reduce the high and low output swings due to the
process, the PB may be narrowed (lower number -- higher gain) to obtain
good control.
The filter can also be used to forgive badly tuned PID loops and poorly
designed processes. It may also be used to reduce output noise [control
output cycling] when a large amount of derivative action is required.
8.1.13 REVERSE-DIRECT ACTION
The ACTION of the control OUTPUT with RESPECT to the PV is known
as REVERSE ACTION, if the OUTPUT INCREASES as the PV
DECREASES. If the OUTPUT INCREASES as the PV INCREASES, then
it is known as DIRECT ACTION.
49
Heating applications normally uses REVERSE ACTION and cooling
applications normally will use DIRECT ACTION. The selection may also
be dependent upon the application of two competing mediums of energy
such as in a HEAT/COOL or TEMPERATURE/HUMIDITY applications.
8.1.14 HEAT/COOL DUAL OUTPUTS
Certain processes such as plastic molding, plastic extrusion, refrigeration
systems, test chambers, and others require both heating and cooling control
loops. In many cases a single process variable is used for dual output, that
is, it controls both heating and cooling. To optimize the process it may be
necessary to have different setpoints with a deadband between them,
different PID or other control constants, and different output types for the
heat/cool loops. For example, a mold may be heated using PID control
through a phase angle fired power controller, while cooling is accomplished
using on/off control through a cooling water valve.
Dual outputs are provided by directing a single analog input to two control
loops. This approach is practical because of the low system cost. Two
configurations are available:
For systems with only a few heat/cool loops, a single sensor is
connected to two analog inputs. One loop is then used for heating
and the second for cooling. This is practical in the SYSTEM 32
since the cost per loop is reasonably low and fully isolated inputs are
available if needed.
For systems that are nearly all heat/cool, a single reed relay analog
input module can be jumper set to direct each analog input to two
independent loops.
In both cases each loop is fully independent and can have its own setpoint,
control mode, and output signal type. The separate setpoint allows for a
deadband adjustment not normally possible in many controllers. ThreePosition or Two-Position floating control can be implemented by selecting
the proper setpoints for the heating and cooling loops.
8.1.9 CONTROL OUTPUTS
The SYSTEM 32 provides two signal types for use as control outputs:
digital and analog. The type of output is selected from software. If the
system uses any analog outputs the optional A32-AOM ANALOG
OUTPUT MODULE is required.
8.1.10 DIGITAL OUTPUT
Digital outputs normally control the process using relays. Two types of
control are used: ON/OFF and TIME PROPORTIONING. Time
proportioning is also referred to as pulsed DC output.
On/off control has been described in section 8.1.3.
50
Time proportioning control is a method of using a digital output and an
on/off device such as a relay to essentially achieve an analog control signal.
When the controller calculates the required control signal, it converts the
percent output into a percent duty cycle and outputs this to the process
through the relay. The process itself integrates this output and responds as
if this percentage was applied in an analog manner.
For example, in a temperature process, if the controller requires 23% power
output, it will set a duty cycle for the relay such that it is fully on for 23% of
the time, and off for 77% of the time. If the time constants of the process
and the type of relay have been correctly determined, this will result in the
same temperature as if the heater could have been analog adjusted and the
power had been set to 23%. The advantage of this type of control is that a
relay is a relatively inexpensive way to control the heater power.
Different relay types may be used depending on the power and other process
requirements: ELECTRO-MECHANICAL or SOLID STATE [SSR].
Modern SSR's can switch up to 480vac at 75 amps.
The digital outputs of the SYSTEM 32 are designed to drive opticallyisolated SSR's. If electromechanical relays are required, an SSR should be
used to connect the SYSTEM 32 to the relay. This approach will protect the
controller from wiring errors and isolate every output from the others.
The ANAFAZE SYSTEM 32 offers two types of time proportioning
outputs: Cycle Time Proportioning and Distributed Zero Crossing. Cycle
time proportioning is normally used for electro-mechanical relays and
Distributed Zero Crossing is typically used for solid state relays
CYCLE TIME PROPORTIONING is the proportioning of a selected fixed
cycle time between an ON time versus an OFF time. With a cycle time of 10
seconds and a required control signal of 40% the on time would be 4
seconds and the OFF time would be 6 seconds. If the next control
calculation required 38% output the on time would be 3.8 seconds and the
off time 6.2 seconds. Thus as the PID control calculation changes the
output required the system responds exactly, and the output duty cycle is
adjusted to maintain the process at the setpoint.
Cycle Time Proportioning is primarily used on electrical energy type of
processes. Some applications may use solenoid valves in a time
proportioning mode, rather then ON/OFF. The general rule of thumb for
cycle time is no less then 10 seconds [20 recommended] for electromechanical relays and no more then 5 seconds [2 recommended] for SSR's.
Normally the faster the cycle time, the closer the control and the more wear
on the relays.
51
8.1.11 DISTRIBUTED ZERO CROSSING
Distributed Zero Crossing [DZC] output is the other time proportioning
output available from the SYSTEM 32. This output is primarily for very fast
acting electrical heating loads using SSR's. The open air heater coil is an
example of a fast acting load. It should never be used with electromechanical relays.
The combination of Distributed Zero Crossing and a solid state relay can
approach the effect of analog phase angle fired control at a reduced cost.
The DZC output is a TIME PROPORTIONING output where the controller
decides for each cycle of the AC line if the power should be on or off. There
is no fixed cycle time since the on/off decision is made for each AC cycle.
For example if the control output is 25% the power would be turned on for 1
AC cycle and off for the next 3 AC cycles. This pattern would repeat until
the output level changed, for example to 28%. The power would then be on
for 1 AC cycle and off for 3 cycles, then after repeating 1 on and 3 off
several times the power would be set on for 2 cycles and off for 2 cycles.
The result is after 100 cycles the power will have been on for 28 cycles and
off for 72 cycles.
Since the time period for 60Hz power is 16.6ms the switching interval is
very short and the power is applied very uniformly. Switching is still only
done at the zero crossing of the AC power reducing the generated electrical
noise.
8.1.12 ANALOG OUTPUTS
Analog outputs may be CURRENT or VOLTAGE and are continuously
proportional over the range of the output signal level. The SYSTEM 32
matches the standard industrial signal levels by providing 4 to 20 ma for the
CURRENT output and 0 to 5 vdc for the VOLTAGE output.
The analog signals drive many types of FINAL CONTROL ELEMENTS
such as electric proportioning motors for gas valve control of burner
systems, I/P transducers for pneumatic control of valves, and SCR controls
for phase angle control of electrical loads.
8.2 ADJUSTMENT OF PID CONSTANTS
The SYSTEM 32 is normally operated using ANASOFT-32 in a system computer.
For other installations the constants can be adjusted in a similar manner using the
software supplied.
ANASOFT offers a choice of displays for the control constants. For many people,
the use of Proportional Band is the most logical way to view these constants. If this
display is desired it must be selected in the ANASOFT-32 installation program
QINSTALL.
In addition the Plot History function should be set up to correctly display the PV of
the loops being tuned. The time base must be adjusted prior to the start of tuning,
52
and the full scale adjusted to match the expected PV range. The graphics of the
Plot will show the effect of the PID tuning in real time.
The understanding of PID functions would be useful in tuning loops, but not
essential to a successful application of PID constants to a control loop.
8.2.1 INITIAL VALUES FOR PID LOOPS
The following values may initially be used for the PID constants. They
have been used for many applications and will serve as a starting point for
tuning the controller. If ANASOFT is used be sure the SYSTEM 32 control
is set for AUTO.
ON/OFF CONTROL
PB = Minimum PB
Reset = 7.5 R/M
Rate = 0 Min.
Output Filter = 4
Gain = 510
Integral = 8 Sec.
Derivative = 0 Sec.
Output Filter = 4
PROPORTIONAL BAND ONLY (P)
PB = 5% of SP Example SP = 450 PB = 22
Reset = .12 R/M
Rate = 0
Output Filter = 4
Gain = 79 [J T/C]
Integral = 500 Sec.
Derivative = 0 Sec.
Output Filter = 4
PB with Reset
(PI)
PB = 10% of SP Example SP = 450 PB = 45
Reset = .5 R/M
Rate = 0
Output Filter = 4
Gain = 39 [J T/C]
Integral = 120 Sec.
Derivative = 0 Sec.
Output Filter = 4
PB with Reset with Rate (PID)
PB = 15% of SP Example SP = 450 PB = 67
Reset = 1 R/M
Rate = 0.2/Min.
Output Filter = 4
Gain = 44 [K T/C]
Integral = 60 Sec.
Derivative = 12 Sec.
Output Filter = 4
WARNING: never set the reset above 3 R/M or integral below 20
seconds for proportional control as cycling will occur.
In controlling a process to a SP, process engineering must design the system
to allow the controller to be within it's control capability. In most processes,
the controller element is the fine control, while the process itself is the
course control. If all of the variables could be defined and precisely
controlled, when engineering a process, then a predetermined reset could be
used. When sizing control valves, electrical loads or whatever the final
element might be, the correct sizing will be one that allows the controller
output to be in the 40-60% of it's output when PV is stable at SP at mid53
range of the process control span. If the process elements are not correctly
sized then it will be difficult and even impossible to tune the controller.
8.2.2 TUNING PID LOOPS
1. First set PB to 2% of the desired SP, Reset to .2 R/M, Rate to 0, Filter to
0. Set control in AUTO. Set the plot function for the proper range to record
the PV over an appropriate time base such as one hour.
2. The SP is set to the desired control point. If overshoot cannot be
tolerated, set the SP to a value below the final SP for tuning. Most heat
processes are slow reacting compared to many other types of control
systems. Usually 20 minutes are required between adjustments to see any
effective change. After a suitable wait, look at the Plot Function. If cycling
is not occurring, the PB is set correctly. If cycling is occurring, double the
PB. After a suitable interval [normally at least 20 minutes] if cycling is still
occurring, double the PB again. Repeat this process until the cycling stops.
The time between cycling peaks will usually be about 5 to 15 minutes. A
small amount of cycling may be removed by using the digital output filter
allowing a narrow PB without cycling.
3. With the PB at the Setting from Step 2, increase the reset in steps of .3
R/M. Keep increasing the reset until, by watching the Plot Function,
cycling is occurring at a slow rate. The time period between peaks will
probably be 20-40 minutes. Reduce the reset in .1 R/M steps until the
cycling stops. Remember to take the time between adjustments to allow the
process to settle out.
4. With the PB and RESET set according to Step #2 and #3, move the SP
upscale from the present SP by at least 20%. If the present SP is 450, the
new SP should be at least 540. If this cannot be done due to process
considerations, then allow the process to cool off. No matter the method, a
step change in SP is required. A ramp of the PV is needed to check the
overshoot of the PV, in order to adjust the RATE. Starting the system up in
the morning may be the only way to get a ramp of the PV. After seeing the
overshoot on the Plot Function, turn on RATE to a small number such as
.08, for a small overshoot and a larger number like .2, for a larger
overshoot. Keep increasing the number until there is no overshoot. If, the
RATE gets too large, the PV will undershoot. If undershooting occurs,
reduce the RATE setting in small steps until it is eliminated. This is the
RATE setting when little or no over or undershooting occurs.
The above steps may be time consuming, especially at first.
experience the tuning process can be quick and straight forward.
With
Many processes have been controlled with the following values:
PB=40 RESET=.4 R/M [150 SEC.] RATE=0 [OFF] FILTER=4
54
8.2.3 OUTPUT FILTER
There is no tuning step for the Output Filter. Adjusting the PID without the
Filter gives the most accurate response of the control function of the PID
modes. The Output Filter may be turn on anytime so desired. The number is
increased as necessary to reduce cycling of the control output signal, thus
reducing the cycling of the PV. Some typical settings of the Output Filter is
2, 4, 8, 12, and 15. Use of the Output Filter is not reflected in the PV except
to make the PV more stable, the value of the PV is the actual response time
of the Primary Element and it's value.
8.3 ANALOGY OF PID CONTROL TERMINOLOGY
The terminology of PID may be confusing to technical, as well as non-technical
individuals, who have a need to have some understanding of PID control, due to
work requirements. The comparing of an unknown to the known has been a relative
easy way to explain a difficult subject for many years. The following analogy has
been used for many years and very successfully. The PID terms have been equated
to that of driving a car.
The little ole lady from Pasadena, the grandmother type, was out for a Sunday
drive. As she was waiting at a stop light for the light to turn green, a young man
who shall remain nameless, pulled up along side her. This young man had just
received his driver's license and had Daddy's car out for the first time by himself.
Pumping the gas pedal, he was gunning the engine and looking over at the little ole
lady. Needless to say, that when the light turn green, he stepped on the gas hard.
With burning tires, he squealed away, leaving the little ole lady behind. She in her
turn, gradually stepped on the gas, gently bringing the car up to the speed of 30
mph. The young man in the meantime had reached the next stop light and it was
red. He slammed on the brakes and came to a very quick stop.
While, waiting for the light to turn green, the young man was gunning the engine
and watching in his mirror, as the little ole lady gradually came up behind him. As
she approached the light, it turned green. She went through the light without
needing to change the car speed, while the young man once again, stepped on the
gas hard. They continued to repeat the same action over and over again. She
proportioned her speed to reach each light as it turned green, while the young man
was cycling between stepping on the gas or the brake. His gain was too high, as he
reacted too fast to changing conditions. This caused cycling of his car speed to a onoff state, not to say anything about his Dad state, if he had known. The little ole
lady had proportional control over her car speed by reacting gradually to changing
conditions. This is known as the PROPORTIONAL FUNCTION.
Now, the little ole lady with proportional control was trying very hard to maintain
the 30 mph. This was the speed that the traffic lights were set for, thus allowing the
smooth flow of traffic. As she approached a fairly steep hill, her speed started to fall
off. Her initial response was a proportional push on the gas pedal. This was not
enough to hold the speed to the 30 mph and the speed was very slowly decreasing
from the 30 mph she wanted. She very gently increased the pressure on the gas
pedal, raising the speed back up to 30 mph. As she started to go down the hill, the
55
car speed started to slowly increase. She slowly backed off the pressure to the gas
pedal, trying to maintain the 30 mph. This is known as reset, as she was resetting
the engine speed to maintain 30 mph with changing load conditions. This is the
RESET FUNCTION.
The little ole lady now was very close to home and had turned off the highway she
was on. A couple of blocks in front of her, she could see the traffic light was green.
As she was watching, the light turned yellow and then went to red. Upon seeing the
light turn yellow, she took her foot off the gas pedal, because she had anticipated
that she was going to stop, as the light was soon to be red. Now, the rate of
approaching the light was too fast and she knew that she would coast into the
intersection, if she did not step on the brake. By gently stepping on the brake, she
could control the rate of approach of the car to the white line. If, upon stepping on
the brake too lightly, she could overshoot the white line and go into the intersection.
Then, by stepping on the brake too hard, she could undershoot, stopping way back
of the white line and then would need to creep up to the white line. By applying the
proper amount of braking, she was able to stop the car at the white line with no over
or undershooting. This is known as the RATE FUNCTION.
With the OUTPUT FILTER of the Anafaze System, a new function had to be added
to the analogy.
Remember the young man from the proportional section that had way too much
gain? It seems that Daddy did find out and started to look for ways to curb the
young man's appetite for rash action without cutting off his foot or waiting until he
was 40 years old. Daddy's car is an 8 cylinder engine with a 4 barrel carburetor
which reacted very fast to the young man's demand. Daddy acquired a 6 cylinder for
his son to drive and decided after a couple of tickets for squealing tires, to replace it
with a 4 cylinder.
The 8 cylinder is equivalent to no filter action, while the 6 cylinder is equivalent to
a low filter number. The 4 cylinder would be a high filter number. A single
cylinder engine would be equivalent to a very high filter number. By having a high
gain due to youth and a low horsepower due to engine size, a fast response would
not allow squealing of the tires. A response may be made, but not fast enough to
hurt anything. Thus, a high filter setting would reduce high reactions to changing
conditions. This is the OUTPUT FILTER FUNCTION.
56
9.0 SOFTWARE
ANAFAZE offers turn key software for IBM PC and compatible computers. The
present software includes:
ANASOFT-32 Measurement and Control
ANASOFT-32-RS Measurement and Control with Ramp and Soak
ANASOFT-32-CP Measurement and Control with Carbon Potential
9.1 ANASOFT-32
ANASOFT-32 is a menu driven program that operates up to 3 ANAFAZE
SYSTEM 32 units using an IBM PC or compatible computer. It provides a
summary screen with color graphic displays of system operating conditions. A
detailed, password protected, tuning screen allows entering of all control
parameters, names for control loops, engineering unit and calibration factors, and
other loop data. The program provides automatic data storage on diskette in
LOTUS compatible files and automatic printout at user selected intervals. It is
written in MICROSOFT QUICK BASIC and the source listings can be purchased
so it can be modified by users.
9.1.1 ANASOFT-32-RS: RAMP AND SOAK
For ramp and soak, ANAFAZE offers ANASOFT-32-RS, a software
package that includes the capability for multiple ramp and soak recipes.
ANASOFT-32-RS is a complete package that features convenient profile
entry, graphic displays, warnings and alarms. Some of the features are:
Independent Ramp and Soak: Any loop in the system can be
defined with a fully independent ramp and soak recipe. These
recipes can be started, stopped, or put on hold independently as
required.
16 Segment Recipes: Each profile can have up to 16 segments of
ramp and soak and can be set for unlimited repeats.
Easy Setup: Ramp and Soak recipes are entered through a profile
menu that includes a simple, fill in the blanks table of time verses
setpoint.
Recipe Storage: Once a recipe is entered it can be given a name or
number and stored on disk. The same recipe can then be for any
loop. Up to 100 different recipes can be stored on disk at one time.
Profile Storage: ANASOFT provides for up to 20 profiles or
control tasks to be stored on disk for the system. Each profile is a
completely independent set of all system parameters. These
parameters include setpoints, ramp and soak recipes, alarms
warnings, input types, scaling and all other selected data. The
desired profile can be selected from the initial system menu. When
57
the profile is selected the stored ramp and soak recipe for each loop
is automatically setup.
Accurate Recipe Tracking: The ramp and soak software provides special
alarms and warnings in addition to the standard features of ANASOFT.
Tolerance levels are used for guaranteed soak, process warnings, and
process alarms.
Guaranteed Soak: An independent tolerance band can be entered
for each recipe segment. If the temperature is not within this
tolerance band, the soak time is stopped and remains stopped until
the temperature is within the band.
Alarms: A guaranteed soak time alarm can also be entered for each
recipe. If the temperature is out of tolerance for longer than this
entered time an alarm will occur.
Data Storage: Process data can be stored in LOTUS compatible
files to analyze process performance.
9.1.2 ANASOFT-32-CP: CARBON POTENTIAL MEASUREMENT
AND CONTROL
The Anafaze 32 System may be used for heat treating applications to
measure and control Carbon Potential. A Carbon Potential Input Module is
added to the SYSTEM 32 to allow the connection of most carbon potential
probes. The SYSTEM 32 software is expanded to provide the carbon
potential measurement and control. ANASOFT-32-CP software is also
available for IBM PC and compatible computers.
The Carbon Potential Input Module allows up to four inputs from carbon
probes. The outputs may be dual time proportioning outputs for solenoid
valve control or analog proportioning for motor positioning control.
The software provides for direct reading of the carbon potential of .15 to 1.4
%. The controller output for adding carburizing gas will be off, when the
temperature is below the setpoint of the temperature probe. This will be
adjustable from the tune menu of ANASOFT-32-CP.
The ANASOFT-32-CP software will allow ramp soak programs of the
carbon and temperature setpoints for customer customized furnace profiles.
The standard ANASOFT-32-CP will hold up to 100 furnace profiles and
each profile may have up to 16 segments. The standard use of setpoints may
be used without the use of the ramp soak programs.
9.2 CUSTOM APPLICATION PROGRAMS
ANAFAZE maintains a staff of engineers that can provide assistance in generating
software for custom applications. In addition ANAFAZE will design and
58
implement your entire turn key hardware and software system. Please contact your
local representative or ANAFAZE directly for a quotation.
10.0 SOFTWARE COMMAND STRUCTURE
The SYSTEM 32 will respond to commands according to the following format.
The commands generally follow the specifications of ANSI X3.28-1976. The
structure is outlined below:
10.1. Commands from Allen Bradley Programmable Controllers (CMD)
The A32PID will respond only to Unprotected Block Read (CMD01) and
Unprotected Block Write (CMD 08) commands from the Allen Bradley PLC. Any
other command numbers received will return an error status code.
10.2. Error Checking (BCC / CRC)
Controller bit Switch 7 will select the method of error checking to be used. CRC is
recommended for highest data integrity, BCC can be used when higher speed is
necessary.
Switch Setting
0
1
Error Check
BCC
CRC
10.3. Protocol
Controller protocol is set for full duplex. Switch 8 is not used at this time.
10.4. Status Codes
Four Error Code numbers will be returned in the Status (STS) byte to denote the
following error conditions :
Error Code (Hex)
Status/Error Condition
------------------------------------A0
Processor Reset
C0
Command Error
D0
Data Boundary Error
E0
[ Spare ]
59
10.4.1 Processor Reset
This Error Code is returned after :
ƒ Power-up reset
ƒ The watchdog timer resets the Master processor
ƒ The Master processor resets the Slave processor
10.4.2 Command Error
This Error Code is returned when the A32PID receives a command that is
not a Block Read or a Block Write.
10.4.3 Data Boundary Error
This Error Code is returned when:
ƒ A Read command attempts to read beyond the 32 byte boundary of
byte-size variables
ƒ A Read command attempts to read beyond the 64 byte boundary of
word-size variables
ƒ A Read command is received that specifies the number of bytes to read
as 0
ƒ AWritecommand attempts to write beyondthe32 byte boundary of
byte-size variables
ƒ A Write command attempts to write beyond the 64 byte boundary of
word-size variables
10.5. Data Table Addresses
Addresses
Hex Byte Range Octal Word Range
0100 - 011F
200 - 217
0120 - 013F
220 - 237
0140 - 015F
240 - 257
0160 - 017F
260 - 277
0180 - 019F
300 - 317
01A0 - 01BF
320 - 337
01C0 - 01DF
340 - 357
01E0 - 01FF
360 - 377
0200 - 021F
400 - 417
0220 - 025F
420 - 457
0260 - 029F
460 - 517
02A0 - 02A7
520 - 523
02A8
524
02B0 - 02B7
530 - 533
02BC
536
02BE
537
02C0 - 02FF
540 - 577
0300 - 037F
600 - 677
Variable
Number Size
Prop. Gain
32 Byte
Rate
32 Byte
Reset
32 Byte
Input Type
32 Byte
Output Value
32 Byte
Output Type
32 Byte
Output Filter
32 Byte
Cycle Time
32 Byte
Alarm Deviation
32 Byte
Setpoint
32 Word
Measured Value
32 Word
Ambients
08 Byte
Digital I/O's
01 Byte
Alarm Status
08 Byte
Heater Check
33 Byte
EEROM Save
--- ----DACQ Input Type
64 Byte
DACQ Meas. Val.
64 Word
60
10.6. Input Types
The following one byte codes designate the various input types accepted by the
SYSTEM 32:
Code
-----------00
01
02
03
04
05
06
07
Input Type
--------------Linear (0-60 mV)
J Thermocouple
K Thermocouple
T Thermocouple
[ Spare ]
[ Spare ]
RTD
Frequency (Pulse Counter)
10.7. Output Types
Output type codes are one byte hexadecimal designations formed by setting the
individual bits, as explained below, to their proper state.
___7______6______5______4______3______2______1______0____
|Cntrl | On
|
|
|
|Auto |Digitl| DZC |
|Action|
/ |
|
|
| /
| /
| /
|
|
| Off |
|
|
|Manual|Analog| TP |
|______|______|______|______|______|______|______|______|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
0 = Distributed
|
|
|
|
Zero Crossing
|
|
|
|
(DZC)
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
1 = Cycle Time
|
|
|
|
Proportioned
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
0 = Digital Output
|
|
|
1 = Analog Output
|
|
|
|
|
0 = PID Control ON
|
|
1 = PID Control OFF
|
|
|
0 = ON/OFF Control Disabled
|
1 = ON/OFF Control Enabled
|
0 = Reverse Acting Output
1 = Direct Acting Output
61
The following examples show the output code for specific output types:
Output Configuration ............................................................................ Hex Code
DZC Digital Output, Automatic control ............................................................... 00
Time Proportioned Digital Output, Automatic control ......................................... 01
Analog output, Automatic control......................................................................... 02
DZC Digital Output, Manual Control ................................................................... 04
Time Proportioned Digital Output, Manual control.............................................. 05
Analog output, Manual control ............................................................................. 06
ON/OFF Digital Output, Automatic control ......................................................... 40
ON/OFF Digital Output, Manual control .............................................................. 44
DZC Output, Automatic Control, Inverted Output ............................................... 80
Time Proportioned Output, Automatic Control, Inverted Output ......................... 81
Analog Output, Automatic Control, Inverted Output............................................ 82
DZC Output, Manual Control, Inverted Output .................................................... 84
Time Proportioned Output, Manual Control, Inverted Output.............................. 85
Analog Output, Manual Control, Inverted Output ................................................ 86
ON/OFF Output, Automatic Control, Inverted Output .........................................C0
ON/OFF Output, Manual Control, Inverted Output..............................................C4
62
11.0 TROUBLE SHOOTING INFORMATION
These four items must work together to operate the SYSTEM 32:
The SYSTEM 32
The computer including the RS-232 or other serial interface
The communications link
The computer software
If the system does not work on initial start up check the SYSTEM 32 indicator
lights, the computer, and the serial link.
11.1 Computer Problems
The computer can be checked by running standard programs that use the display
and the printer. The serial interface must be functioning. This is harder to test
since most programs do not utilize the serial interface. Check any computer
problems with the computer supplier.
11.2 Computer Software
This can be divided into: ANASOFT-32 and user written software:
11.2.1 User Written Software
For user written software a simple routine that sends and receives a
command from the SYSTEM 32 should be written and tested initially. The
ideal routine sends and receives commands displaying both sets on the
computer monitor. Since the protocol includes all characters, the display
should show the hex numbers of the characters sent in both directions.
Once successful communications is established, this program can be used as
a check if problems arise in the operating software.
11.2.1 ANASOFT-32
ANASOFT-32 is a complete menu driven software program which includes
error detection and diagnostic messages. If ANASOFT-32 will not run at all
please see the ANASOFT-32 manual for detailed information. The
following can be checked:
1. Correct path for files -- run QINSTALL and check the disk drive and
path for the data files.
2. All files present -- check that all necessary files are present and on the
specified directory.
3 Sufficient memory free -- ANAFAZE-32 requires 512K memory free to
run. You can use the DOS command CHKDSK to view the free
memory. If there is insufficient memory check step 4.
3. Delete any memory resident programs -- check the AUTOEXEC.BAT to
insure no memory resident programs are automatically run on start-up.
Some memory resident programs may interfere with ANASOFT-32.
If ANASOFT-32 runs then the next step is to establish communications
with the SYSTEM 32. When ANASOFT-32 is started the program asks for
63
the Edit or Run mode. Select the Run mode. If the SYSTEM 32 does not
answer, a communications error message will appear on the display [see
11.3 and 11.4].
11.3 Communications Problems
If the computer is functioning properly [section 11.1] then the communication
interface, cables and connections must be checked. A number of problems have
been traced to bad cables or connections.
11.3.1 Serial Interface
The serial interface must be correctly installed in the computer and set
according to the manufacturers directions. ANASOFT-32 communicates
using Comm Port 1. Some multi-function interface cards allow setting of
the comm port -- this should be done correctly. In addition be careful that
only one communications channel is set as comm port 1.
When the communications interface is correctly installed a scope can be
used to check the transmit line to insure characters are being sent to the
SYSTEM 32.
If a scope is not available, a test program [contact ANAFAZE] can be used
that will display sent and received characters. The transmit line and the
receive line can be disconnected from the SYSTEM 32 and connected
together at the SYSTEM 32. The program can be run and characters typed
on the keyboard will be sent to the SYSTEM 32 and returned to the
computer directly on the communication line. If these characters are
displayed on the monitor, the communication card, and the wiring can be
assumed correct. Carefully re-connect the SYSTEM 32 and go to section
11.4.
11.4 SYSTEM 32 Problems
A preliminary check of the SYSTEM 32 can be accomplished using the indicator
lights on the Processor [A32-PIOM PROCESSOR I/O MODULE]. The lights
function as follows:
11.4.1 Processor: Ready Light -- Green, Communications -- Orange
The Green Processor Ready light is the most important SYSTEM 32
indicator. If the green light is not on, the PIOM is not running and the
SYSTEM 32 cannot operate.
If no other indicator lights are on, the power supply probably is not working.
If the orange light is on, or is flashing, but the green light is not on, then the
power supply is at least putting out a voltage.
But if the green light is not on, don't worry about what the computer is
doing, or about communication problems. If the green light is not on,
nothing will work.
64
If the green light is on, then the orange light light is a communications
indicator. The orange light will appear whenever the PIOM has decoded a
communication containing the address of the PIOM as set in the DIP switch.
Thus the conditions for establishing the orange light in the presence of the
green light are:
1) PIOM working.
2) Host and PIOM set at the same BAUD rate.
3) PIOM address switches set correctly.
4) Host sending out proper communication containing correct
address.
No other conditions are guaranteed to exist. For instance, this does not
guarantee proper communication error checking protocols.
If the green light and orange light are both on, first check error protocol as
set by the DIP switch and by Anasoft, then check the communication
wiring. If the green light comes on but the orange light does not, then check
the above in addition to checking the PIOM address switch and the BAUD
rate.
11.4.2 Process Ready Light is Off
If on applying power to the controller, the GREEN READY light
illuminated on the processor board mounting panel:
is not
Use a voltmeter to measure the 5 VDC supply to the controller backplane to
make sure that the voltage measures between 4.9 and 5.3 volts D.C. A low
voltage detect circuit on the processor board will prevent operation if the
supply voltage drops below 4.75 volts D.C. (+/- .1 volt).
If there is non power or a low supply check the AC input power, and the
power supply output at the power supply terminals.
If power is present at the proper voltage contact ANAFAZE as the probable
cause is PROCESSOR I/O MODULE problem.
11.4.3 Orange Communication Light Remains Off
Normally this will also cause a COMMUNICATION ERROR message
when running Anasoft. If this occurs and the Green Light is on:
Verify that the communications options specified in the Anasoft Installation
program (QINSTALL) match those specified by the option bit switch
settings on the processor board. These options include the baud rate and the
method of error checking to be used.
Verify that the controller address bit switch settings on the processor board
are correct. If you have only one controller in your communications circuit
it's address should be 0 (all address bit switches off).
65
Verify that you are using the COM 1 serial port on your computer. Anasoft
assumes this to be the active communications port.
Verify the wiring connections between your computer and the Anafaze
controller. For RS-232, only three wires are (Rx, Tx and Gnd) are necessary
to communicate with the controller.
Check the hardware communications option that was specified when you
ordered your controller. If your processor module was modified for currentloop operation, it will not interface with a RS-232 circuit directly.
If all these items are checked and OK, contact ANAFAZE, the
PROCESSOR I/O MODULE probably has a problem.
11.4.5 No Control Outputs from PIOM
The Anasoft operating program displays proper output values for each loop
but the controller outputs remain off (0%).
Verify that the OUTPUTS ON input on the processor module is enabled. A
low level (0 volts) signal is necessary at this terminal to enable operation of
controller outputs. This connection is made at TB2, pin 35. NOTE: This
may be accomplished by connecting a jumper on TB2, between pin 32
(GND) and TB2, pin 35.
Chech the action of the communications watchdog timer. This may be
enabled and will set all control outputs to manual with zero output if
communications is not maintained by the host computer. Please see section
3.3.2 for details.
11.4.6 Measured Data Errors
If the input data does not appear to be correct or remains constant, check the
indicator lights on the analog input boards (RRAIM or SSAIM). The green
light indicates that the isolated supply is working properly, and a flashing
orange light indicates that the input module is scanning.
If the green light is not on and the PIOM has passed all the previous
conditions, then the most likely fault is in the input module. If the green
light is on and the orange light is not flashing, then the problem is probably
in the PIOM but could be in the input module. If the green light is on and
the orange light is flashing, then the problem is probably the input module,
the system wiring, or the transducers.
66
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