R24-SERIES REVERSE OSMOSIS INSTALLATION AND OPERATION MANUAL
INSTALLATION AND OPERATION MANUAL
Please read the entire manual before proceeding with the installation and startup:
Do not use where the water is microbiologically unsafe.
Always turn off the unit, shut off the feed water, and disconnect the electrical power when working on the unit.
Never allow the pump to run dry.
Never start the pump with the reject valve closed.
Never allow the unit to freeze or operate with a feed water temperature above 100
Changes in operating variables are beyond the control Alamo Water Refiners, Inc. The end user is responsible for the safe operation of this equipment. The suitability of the product water for any specific application is the responsibility of the end user.
Successful long-term performance of a RO system depends on proper operation and maintenance of the system. This includes the initial system startup and operational startups and shutdowns.
Preventing fouling or scaling of the membranes is not only a matter of system design, but also a matter of proper operation. Record keeping and data normalization is required in order to know the actual system performance and to enable corrective measures when necessary. Complete and accurate records are also required in case of a system performance warranty claim.
Changes in the operating parameters of a RO system can be caused by changes in the feed water, or can be a sign of trouble. Maintaining an operation and maintenance log is crucial in diagnosing and preventing system problems. For your reference, a typical log sheet is included in this manual.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
II. Controls, Indicators, and Components
A. Figure # 1
B. Figure # 2
General System Drawing
Controller Option One
C. Figure # 3
Controller Option Two
F. Operation and Maintenance Log
IV. Replacement Parts List
V. Membrane Replacement
Flow Rate Guidelines
Temperature Correction Factors
Filmtec Technical Information - Cleaning and Disinfection of Filmtec RO Membranes
The separation of dissolved solids and water using RO membranes is a pressure driven temperature dependent process. The membrane material is designed to be as permeable to water as possible while maintaining the ability to reject dissolved solids.
The main system design parameters require the following:
Internal flows across the membrane surface must be high enough to prevent settling of fine suspended solids on the membrane surface.
The concentration of each dissolved ionic species must not exceed the limits of solubility anywhere in the system.
Pre-treatment must be sufficient to eliminate chemicals that would attack the membrane materials.
(Gallons per day / Gallons per minute)
Maximum production based on standard membranes and feed water of
25°C, SDI < 3, 1000 ppm TDS, and pH 8. Individual membrane productivity may vary (± 15%). May be operated on other feed waters with reduced capacity.
(Typical Membrane Percent Rejection)
Based on membrane manufactures specifications, overall system percent rejection may be less.
Recovery (without reject recirculation)
Recovery (with reject recirculation, depending on feed water)
Number Of Membranes Per Vessel
Pressure Vessel Array
Number Of Membranes
(System ships with one 5 micron cartridge)
Feed Water Connection
Product Water Connection
Reject Water Connection
Feed Water Required
Feed water required will be less if reject recycle is used.
Feed Water Pressure
230 VAC, 3-ph, 60 Hz (Other voltages available)
Grundfos Multistage Centrifugal Pump
Dimensions L x W x H
14,400 / 10 18,000 / 12.5
21,600 / 15
98 % 98 % 98 %
4 x 40
4 x 40
4 x 40
8 10 12
20" BB 20" BB 20" BB
1 1/2" NPT
1 1/2" NPT
1 1/2" NPT
CRX4-160/14G CRX4-160/14G CRX4-160/14G
5 5 5
8 x 3 x 6 8 x 3 x 6
8 x 3 x 6
B. RO OVERVIEW
Reverse osmosis systems utilize semipermeable membrane elements to separate the feed water into two streams. The pressurized feed water is separated into purified (product) water and concentrate (reject) water. The impurities contained in the feed water are carried to drain by the reject water.
Feed Water Product Water
The RO feed water must be pretreated in order to prevent membrane damage and/or fouling.
Proper pretreatment is essential for reliable operation of any RO system.
Pretreatment requirements vary depending on the nature of the feed water. Pretreatment equipment is sold seperatly. The most common forms of pretreatment are described below.
Media Filter - Used to remove large suspended solids (sediment) from the feed water.
Backwashing the media removes the trapped particles. Backwash can be initiated by time or differential pressure.
Water Softener - Used to remove calcium and magnesium from the feed water in order to prevent hardness scaling. The potential for hardness scaling is predicted by the Langelier
Saturation Index (LSI). The LSI should be zero or negative throughout the unit unless approved anti-scalents are used. Softening is the preferred method of controlling hardness scale.
Carbon Filter - Used to remove chlorine and organics from the feed water. Free chlorine will cause rapid irreversible damage to the membranes.
The residual free chlorine present in most municipal water supplies will damage the thin film composite structure of the membranes used in this unit. Carbon filtration or sodium bisulfite injection should be used to completely remove the free chlorine residual.
Chemical Injection - Typically used to feed antiscalant, coagulant, or bisulfite into the feed water or to adjust the feed water pH.
Prefilter Cartridge - Used to remove smaller suspended solids and trap any particles that may be generated by the other pretreatment. The cartridge(s) should be replaced when the pressure drop across the housing increases 5 - 10 psig over the clean cartridge pressure drop.
The effect of suspended solids is measured by the silt density index (SDI) test. An SDI of five (5) or less is specified by most membrane manufacturers and three (3) or less is
Iron & Manganese - These foulants should be removed to less than 0.1 ppm. Special media filters and/or chemical treatment is commonly used. pH - The pH is often lowered to reduce the scaling potential.
Silica: Reported on the analysis as SiO2. Silica forms a coating on membrane surfaces when the concentration exceeds its solubility. Additionally, the solubility is highly pH and temperature dependent. Silica fouling can be prevented with chemical injection and/or reducing the recovery.
II. CONTROLS, INDICATORS, and COMPONENTS (see figure 1)
A. Controller - Controls the operation of the system and displays the product water quality. There are three controllers available. Controller # 1 has an on/off switch and an input for tank level. Controller # 2 has an on/off switch, tank level input, low pump suction pressure shutdown, and a product water TDS meter. Controller # 3 is the CI1000 (shown).
B. Reject Control Valve - Controls the amount of reject flow. If the reject recycle option
is included, two reject control valves will be present.
C. Pump Discharge Valve - Used to throttle the pump.
D. Prefilter Pressure Gauges - Indicates the inlet and outlet pressure of the prefilter. The difference between these two gauges is the prefilter differential pressure.
E. Pump Discharge Pressure Gauge - Indicates the pump discharge pressure.
F. Reject Pressure Gauge - Indicates the reject pressure.
G. Reject Flow Meter - Indicates the reject flow rate in gallons per minute (gpm). If the
reject recycle option is included, two reject flow meters will be present.
H. Product Flow Meter - Indicates the product flow rate in gallons per minute (gpm).
I. Prefilter Housing - Contains the RO prefilter.
J. Automatic Inlet Valve - Opens when pump is on and closes when the pump is off.
K. Low Pressure Switch - Sends a signal to the controller if the pump suction pressure is low. Included only with controller option # 1 & 2.
L. RO Feed Pump - Pressurizes the RO feed water.
M. RO Membrane Vessels - Contains the RO membranes.
Controller Package One
Controller Package Two
1. The water supply should be sufficient to provide a minimum of 20 psig pressure at the design
Proper pretreatment must be determined and installed prior to the RO system.
A fused high voltage disconnect switch located within 10 feet of the unit is
5. recommended. This disconnect is not provided with the RO system.
Responsibility for meeting local electrical and plumbing codes lies with the owner / operator.
Install indoors in an area protected from freezing. Space allowances for the removal of the membranes from the pressure vessels should be provided. This system requires 42"
minimum clear space on each side.
B. PLUMBING CONNECTIONS
Note: It is the responsibility of the end user to ensure that the installation is done according to
local codes and regulations.
1. Connect the pretreated feed water line to the inlet side of the prefilter housing. (Figure #
1 item # 1) A feed water shutoff valve should be located within 10 feet of the system.
Temporarily connect the outlet of the product water flow meter to drain. (Figure # 1 item
# 2) The product water line should never be restricted. Membrane and/or system damage may occur if the product line is blocked.
Connect the outlet of the reject water flow meter to a drain. (Figure # 1 item # 3) The reject drain line should never be restricted. Membrane and/or system damage may occur if the reject drain line is blocked. An air gap must be located between the end of the drain line and the drain. The use of a standpipe or other open drain satisfies most state and local codes and allows for visual inspection and sampling.
Note: It is the responsibility of the end user to ensure that the installation is done according to
local codes and regulations.
1. A safety switch or fused disconnect should be installed within 10 feet of the system.
Verify that the disconnect switch is de-energized using a voltmeter.
Connect the outlet of the disconnect switch to the terminals on top of the motor starter
(Figure # 2, 3, or 4). Attach the power supply ground to the chassis ground. It will be necessary to drill a hole in the enclosure and install a water tight strain relief or conduit connector. The hole size and location must be determined by the installer. Check the pump motor nameplate for the amperage draw at various voltages to determine the wire size required.
4. Do not apply power to the RO unit at this time.
1. Verify that the pretreatment equipment is installed and working properly. Verify that no free chlorine is present in the feed water.
2. Verify that the on/off switch is in the off position.
3. Verify that the pump discharge valve (Figure # 1 item C) is open.
4. Install a 20" five micron filter cartridge in the prefilter housing. (Figure #1 item I)
5. Open the reject control valve completely (Figure # 1 item B) by turning it counterclockwise.
Close the reject recycle control valve completely if the reject recycle option is included.
6. Open the feed water shutoff valve installed in step III-B-1 above.
7. Manually open the inlet solenoid valve (figure #1 item J) by turning the white lever located near the valve outlet.
8. Water will flow through the system and to drain through the reject flow meter (figure # 1 item G).
9. Manually close the inlet solenoid valve after the air has been purged from the system, or after
10 minutes, whichever occurs first.
10. Close the pump discharge valve half way. (Figure # 1 item C)
11. Engage the safety switch or disconnect (installed in step III-C-1 above) to apply electrical power to the RO system.
12. Move the controller on/off switch to the on position. Move the switch back to the off position after the pump starts and look at the motor fan as the pump stops to determine if the pump rotation is correct. If the CI 1000 Controller is included (controller option # 3), put the
key switch in the on position and press the start / stop button to turn the pump on and off.
There is a 10 second delay before the pump starts. See the controller section for more
details. The fan should rotate in the direction of the rotation arrow. Continue with the startup if the pump is rotating in the proper direction. If the pump is rotating backwards, change the rotation by disconnecting the power and reversing any two of the wires on the power inlet.
(Figure #2 item #1) Verify proper pump rotation before continuing.
13. Turn the system on.
14. Adjust the reject control valve(s) (figure # 1 item B) and the pump discharge valve (Figure #
1 item C) until the desired flows are achieved. Closing the reject valve increases the product flow and decreases the reject flow. Opening the pump discharge valve increases both the reject flow and the product flow. See the flow rate guidelines and temperature correction table in the appendix to determine the flow rates for different operating temperatures.
15. Allow the product water to flow to drain for 30 minutes.
16. Turn off the system and connect the product line to the point of use. (Figure # 1 item # 2)
The product water line should never be restricted. Membrane and/or system damage may occur if the product line is blocked.
17. Restart the system and record the initial operating data using the log sheet in the next section.
Note: See the controller section of this manual for more installation and operation information
Two controller options are available.
Controller option # 1 is a basic controller with an on / off switch, low pressure, tank level, and pretreatment interlock (see figure # 2).
Automatic low pressure reset
If the unit shuts down due to low pressure, a red light on the front of the controller will illuminate. The controller will automatically restart the unit after a user selected time delay. The user selects the delay time by positioning a jumper cap inside the controller (see attached drawing).
Tank Level / Pretreatment Indicator
If the unit shuts down due to a high product tank level or pretreatment interlock, an amber lamp will illuminate. The lamp will turn off and the unit will restart when the condition clears. The same lamp is used for both tank level and pretreatment interlock.
1. When the power switch is turned on, the pump will run as long as the circuit between the tank level terminals and the interlock terminals are closed, and the low pressure switch contacts are open.
2. To install a tank level switch, remove the jumper wire from the terminal strip and connect the level switch to the terminals. The RO pump and inlet valve will turn on when the level switch contacts are closed (tank not full), and turn off if the level switch contacts open (tank full).
3. To install a pretreatment interlock, remove the jumper wire from the terminal strip and connect the normally closed pretreatment switch contacts to the terminals. The RO pump and inlet valve will turn on when the switch contacts are closed, and turn off if the switch contacts open.
4. If the low-pressure contacts close continuously for five (5) seconds, the RO pump and inlet valve will turn off and the low pressure light will illuminate. The controller will automatically restart the unit after the user selected time delay. Turning the controller off then back on will manually reset a low pressure shutdown.
Note: Use the plastic lever to push the terminal strip contacts open. Insert the bare end of the wire into the terminal and release the lever. The lever can be moved from one terminal to another as needed. One lever is included with each controller.
Controller option # 2 is the CI 1000. This is a microprocessor based controller with a product water conductivity meter. A separate manual for this controller begins on the next page.
The autoflush option is available with both controllers. On controllers # 1, the flush valve is preset to open for 2 minutes every time the pump starts and 2 minutes every hour. On controller
#2, the flush times are user programmable. (See the following CI1000 information.)
REVERSE OSMOSIS CONTROLLER
Model # CI-1000
TABLE OF CONTENTS
III. Service and Maintenance
The 3501 Reverse Osmosis Controller is designed to control and monitor the operating parameters of a reverse osmosis water purification system. Information is displayed on a back-lit liquid crystal display, and on individual light-emitting diodes (LEDs). Functions and controls are operated through snap-dome switches (see Figure 1).
Temperature Compensated Conductivity Monitor
Three Modes of Operation: Stand-by, Tank Feed, and Direct Feed
Low Feed Pressure Sensing with Automatic Reset
Autoflush with Adjustable Flush Time
Power Requirements: The controller can operate with a power source of 115 or
230 VAC single phase. A multi-function power inlet is used to select the proper input voltage.
140° F). Relative humidity must not exceed 95 percent.
Conductivity Monitor: The conductivity monitor measures the product water quality and displays this information in micro-mhos/cm. The display is temperature compensated to 25° C (770 F).
Inlet Solenoid: A 24 VAC output is provided to power the inlet solenoid. This output always energizes 12 seconds before the pump turns on, and de-energizes
12 seconds after the pump turns off.
Flush Valve: A 24 VAC output is provided to power the optional reject solenoid valve. This output will energize during the flush cycle. This is an optional accessory.
Motor Starter: A 24 VAC output is included to provide controlled pump operation. This output powers the coil of the magnetic starter relay. This output is energized depending on other operating parameters.
Diverter Valve: A 24 VAC output energizes when the product water quality is below the setpoint. The valve is not included with the system. This output is intended to power a relay or some other low current device. The maximum current available is one ampere.
WARNING: All the inputs described below are dry contacts. Do not apply voltage to
these contacts or permanent damage to the controller will result.
Conductivity Probe: There are four inputs for the conductivity probe, two for the thermistor and two for the conductivity. Only probes with a cell constant of 1.0 and a thermistor with a nominal resistance value of 20K at 25' C will work with this controller.
Low Pressure Switch: This is a dry contact that signals the system to shut down if the pump suction pressure falls below the desired value. This is a normally open contact. When a circuit is not complete between the two terminals, the system will operate. If contact is made between the two terminals, the system will shut down. The LCD display and a LED will indicate when the system is shut down due to low pressure. The controller can be programmed to automatically restart.
This is described in Section III, Operation.
Tank Level: This is a dry contact that signals the system to shut down when the storage tank is full. This contact is normally closed. When a circuit is complete between the two terminals the system will operate. If contact is broken between the two terminals, the system will shut down if it is operating in the tank feed mode. A LED will indicate when the tank is full. The system will restart itself when the contact is closed. The switch for this function in not provided with the controller.
Pretreatment Interlock: This is a dry contact that signals the system to shut down when a pretreatment device is not functioning, or regenerating. This could be used on a water softener, multi media filter, chemical feed pump, differential pressure switch, etc. This contact is normally open. When a circuit is not complete between the two terminals the system will operate. If the contact is closed the system will shut down. A LED will indicate when the system is shut down due to pretreatment interlock. The system will restart itself when the contact is opened.
The stand-by mode is intended to place the system in a temporary non-operational mode. When the system is placed in this mode it will operate for the amount of time set for the flush cycle. If the flush time is set for zero the system will operate for one minute. After this cycle is complete the pump will turn off and the inlet valve will close. The system will repeat this cycle once every hour. When the system is flushing, the amount of time remaining in the flush cycle will be indicated on the last line of the display. When the system is idle, the amount of time remaining until the next flush will be indicated. When the pump is running, the reject valve and diverter valve outputs are energized.
The tank feed mode is intended to be used when the system is feeding a storage tank. When in this mode the system will shut down when the tank level switch
(not provided) has an open contact. The flush cycle is also enabled in this mode.
If the autoflush option has been included on the system, the controller will activate the flush cycle when the system is turned on and once every hour. When the system is flushing, the amount of time remaining in the flush cycle will be indicated on the last line of the display. When the system is not flushing the amount of time until the next flush will be indicated. The system will still flush every hour even if the tank is full. During a full tank condition the system is essentially in standby. When the system is flushing, the diverter valve output is energized. If the flush time is set for zero the system will not flush when the tank
The direct feed mode is intended to be used when the system is feeding a distribution loop or another piece of equipment. In this mode the system will not flush and the tank level switch is disregarded. When the system is in this mode, the total number of hours the system has been operated will be indicated on the last line of the display.
NOTE: Refer to Section III, Operation for detailed instructions on operating the controls .
Start / Stop Button: This button turns the system on and off.
Select Button: This button is used to select a function or parameter so that it can be reviewed or changed.
Up Arrow. This button increases the value of, or advances to the next option of, the function selected.
Down Arrow. This button decreases the value of, or advances to the next option of, the function selected.
Accept Button: Pressing this button causes the controller to store current values or options in memory.
Alarm Reset Button: This button is used to reset the system after a shut down due to; low pressure or overload.
Key Switch: This switch which serves as a master power switch. When the system is turned on the key may not be removed. If the system is turned off the key may be removed.
Multi Function Display: This is a back-lit liquid crystal display. It provides information to the operator regarding water quality, system options, etc.
There are six individual LED's to indicate the following conditions:
(See Front View drawing)
On: Indicates when the system is on.
Overload: Indicates that the system has shut down due to an overload condition on one of the outputs.
Low Quality: Indicates that the quality of the water is below the setpoint.
Tank Full: Indicates when the system is shut down due to a full storage tank. The system will only shut down in the tank feed mode
Pretreatment Interlock: Indicates when the system is shut down due to external pretreatment equipment.
Low Pressure: Indicates that the system has shut down due to low pump feed pressure.
The key switch must be in the ON position (see Figure 1).
Press the up or down arrow when the Alamo Water logo is displayed to increase or decrease the contrast of the display.
When the Start/Stop button is pressed the inlet valve will open. After a 12 second delay the pump will start. The system will operate according to the information stored in memory. The product water conductivity is displayed in the large numbers at the top center of the display. The temperature is displayed as degrees
Celsius in the top right corner of the display. The mode of operation is displayed below the product water quality. Flush time information or pump run hours are displayed on the bottom of the display.
Press the SELECT button to view the configuration screen. The software revision level is displayed in the upper right corner of this screen. While the configuration screen is displayed, the SELECT button moves the highlight cursor to the next field. The up and down arrows change the value of the highlighted field. The
ACCEPT button saves all of the values and brings up the timer screen. The
RESET button discards all changes and brings up the timer screen. If no input is detected for a continuous 30 seconds, the controller will discard all changes and return to the operation screen. An asterisk appears next to a field whenever the value of the field equals the value stored in memory. The configuration screen contains the following field with their options:
MODE: (direct feed, tank feed, and standby)
LOW QUALITY: (2-200 micromhos) This is the set point for the diverter valve.
When the product water conductivity is equal to or greater than value selected, the diverter valve output will be energized and the low quality LED will turn on.
AUTOSTART: (on/off) if "on" is selected, the system will automatically restart after a power loss. If "off" is selected, the unit will not restart after a power loss.
LOWPRESSURE RETRY: (0-10) This is the number of times the system will attempt to restart after a low pressure shutdown.
LOW PRESSURE DELAY: (15-90 seconds in 15 second increments) This is the amount of time between attempts to restart after a low pressure shutdown.
system will flush for this amount of time every hour in tank feed and
Pressing either the ACCEPT or the RESET button from the configuration screen brings up the timer screen. The controller has three timers (hour meters). Two are user resetable and one is not. All of these timers count up when the pump is running. The two user resetable meters are labeled PREFILTER and
MEMBRANE. Pressing the reset button when either of these timers are highlighted will reset the timer to zero. The SELECT button moves the highlight cursor to the next timer. Press Accept while the membrane meter is highlighted to exit and return to the operation screen.
This screen is used to calibrate the conductivity and temperature. Press ACCEPT and RESET at the same time to bring up this screen. The temperature and conductivity fields on the last two lines of the display can be adjusted using the up and down arrows. Use the arrow keys to input the correct temperature and then press the ACCEPT button. The conductivity will now be highlighted. Use the arrow keys to input the correct conductivity and press the ACCEPT button.
Always calibrate the temperature first. (Note: the new values are only saved when the ACCEPT button is pressed while the field is highlighted.) When the desired values are entered press the RESET button to return to the operation screen. You can only enter the calibration screen if the conductivity and temperature readings are stable.
Under certain circumstances a pop-up screen may be displayed. These look like a window that partially blocks out the screen behind it. The conditions that display pop-up screens are:
Low Inlet Pressure
Trying to calibrate if the temperature and/or conductivity is not stable.
The 3501 Reverse Osmosis Controller is designed for ease of maintenance and minimum service. Since the highest quality of electronic semiconductor components are used in this design, it is not likely that circuit malfunctions or failures will occur. It is our recommendation that service be limited to identifying malfunctions at the board level and that component level troubleshooting be referred to the factory.
Field failures that most frequently occur are:
- Improper or broken wiring connections
- Incorrect wiring of the motor starter
- Cable run is too long
- Water in connectors
Description of Problem
System shuts down on low pressure but pressure is okay.
Pressing the Start/Stop button does not turn the system on.
Conductivity monitor does not display the proper reading.
Erratic conductivity display
Possible Cause or Solution
1. Check the pressure switch set point
2. Possible short in wiring to pressure switch
3. Defective pressure switch
4. Orifice in pressure switch may be plugged
1. Verify that the key switch is on
2. Verify that the circular connector on the bottom of the controller is attached
3. Check the fuse in the power inlet
1. Calibrate the controller
2. Check the wiring to the conductivity probe
3. Clean the conductivity probe
4. Replace the conductivity probe
1. Conductivity probe wiring may be too close to high voltage lines.
2. Check for moisture in the connection between the probe and the lead wire.
F. Operation and Maintenance Log
Note: Change the prefilter when the differential pressure increases by 5 - 10 psi over the clean differential pressure.
Clean the RO membranes when the product flow drops by 15% or more. (See appendix)
Salt Passage Permeate Flow Pressure Drop
Normal to increased
Normal to increased
Normal to moderate increase
Decreased or moderately increased
Increased to increased
Increased Normal to low
RO TROUBLE SHOOTING GUIDE
Predominantly first stage to increased
Predominantly first stage to moderate
Can occur in any stage increase
Most severe in the first stage
Most severe in the first stage
Decreased Increased Predominantly last stage (CaSO
Chlorine oxidant attack
Abrasion of membrane by crystalline material
O-ring leaks, End or side seal glue leaks.
Conversion too high.
Analysis of metal ions in cleaning solution.
SDI measurement of feed/ X-ray diffraction analysis of cleaning sol.
Analysis of metal ions in cleaning sol. Check LSI of reject. Calculate maximum solubility for
in reject analysis.
Bacteria count in permeate and reject. Slime in pipes and vessels.
Destructive testing, e.g. IR reflection analysis.
Chlorine analysis of feed.
Destructive element test.
Microscopic solids analysis of feed. Destructive element test.
Colloidal material passage.
Check flows and pressures against design guidelines
Improved pretreatment to remove metals.
Cleaning with acid cleaners.
Optimize pretreatment system for colloidal removal. Clean with high pH, anionic detergent formulation.
Increase acid addition and scale inhibitor for
Clean with an acid formulation for
Shock dosage of sodium bisulfite.
Continuous feed of low conc. Of bisulfite at reduced pH.
Formaldehyde sterilization. Clean with alkaline anionic surfactant. Chlorine dosage up-stream with subs. Dechlorination.
Replace cartridge filters.
Optimization of pretreatment system
(e.g. coagulation process.)
Resin/activated carbon treatment. Clean with high pH detergent.
Check chlorine feed equipment and dechlorination equipment.
Improved pretreatment. Check all filters for media leakage.
Repair or replace elements.
Reduce conversion rate. Calibrate sensors.
Increase analysis and data collection.
MOTOR TROUBLE SHOOTING CHART
Motor fails to start Blown fuses Replace fuses with proper type and rating
Improper power supply
Open circuit in winding or control switch
Short circuited stator
Poor stator coil connection
Motor may be overloaded
Check and rest overload in starter.
Check to see that power supplied agrees with motor nameplate and load factor.
Indicated by humming sound when switch is closed.
Check to see if motor and drive turn freely. Check bearing and lubrication.
Indicated by blown fuses. Motor must be rewound.
Remove end bells, locate with test lamp.
Look for broken bars or end ring.
Motor Stalls One phase connection
Low motor voltage
Check lines for open phase.
Change type or size. Consult manufacturer.
See that nameplate voltage is maintained. Check connection.
Fuses blown, check overload relay, stator and push buttons.
Check for loose connections to line, to fuses and to control.
Motor runs and then dies down
Motor does not come up to speed
Not applied properly
Voltage too low at motor terminals because of line drop.
Broken rotor bars or loose rotor.
Motor takes too long to Open primary circuit accelerate Excess loading
Defective squirrel cage rotor
Applied voltage too low
Motor overheats while running under load
Wrong sequence of phases
Consult supplier for proper type.
Use higher voltage on transformer terminals or reduce load. Check connections. Check conductors for proper size.
Look for cracks near the rings. A new rotor may be required as repairs are usually temporary.
Locate fault with testing device and repair.
Check for high resistance.
Replace with new rotor.
Get power company to increase power tap. reverse connections at motor or at switchboard.
Frame or bracket vents may be clogged with dirt and prevent proper ventilation of motor.
Motor may have one phase open
Grounded could reduce load.
Open vent holes and check for a continuous stream of air from the motor.
Check to make sure that all leads are well connected.
Locate and repair. for faulty leads, connections and transformers.
Motor vibrates after correcting have been made motor misaligned
Coupling out of balance
Driven equipment unbalanced
Defective ball bearing
Bearing not in line
Balancing weights shifted
Polyphase motor running single phase
Excessive end play
Rebalance driven equipment.
Check for open circuit.
Adjust bearing or add washer.
MOTOR TROUBLE SHOOTING CHART (
Unbalanced line current Unequal terminal volts Check leads and connections on polyphase motors during normal operation
Single phase operation Check for open contacts
Fan striking insulation loose on bedplate
Tighten holding bolts.
Hot bearings general
Hot bearings ball
Airgap not uniform
Bent or sprung shaft
Excessive belt pull
Pulleys too far away
Pulley diameter too small
Deterioration of grease, or lubricant contaminated
Check and correct bracket fits or bearing.
Straighten or replace shaft.
Decrease belt tension.
Move pulley closer to motor bearing.
Use larger pulleys.
Correct by realignment of drive.
Maintain proper quantity of grease in bearing.
Remove old grease, wash bearings thoroughly in kerosene and replace with new grease.
Reduce quantity of grease: bearing should not be more than ½ filled.
Check alignment, side and end thrust.
Replace bearing: first clean housing thoroughly.
Broken ball or rough races
These instructions do not cover all details or variations in equipment nor provide for every possible condition to be met in connection with installation, operation or maintenance. Chart courtesy of Marathon Electric.
RO SYSTEM TROUBLE SHOOTING
High Product Water TDS
Membrane attack by chlorine
Clogged pre-filter-creates pressure drop and low reject flow.
Feed pressure too low.
Insufficiently flushed post-filter cartridge.
Brine seal on membrane leaks.
No Product Water or Not Enough Product Water
Feed water shut off.
Low feed pressure. Feed pressure must be at least 20 psi.
Pre-filter cartridge clogged.
Product check valve stuck.
Low pump discharge pressure
Carbon pre-filter may be exhausted. Replace with a new cartridge.
Replace pre-filter cartridge.
Feed pressure must be at least 20 psi.
Flush post-filter with pure water.
Determine if seal or o-ring is bad. Replace as needed.
Turn on feed water.
Consider booster pump.
Replace pre-filter cartridge.
Determine and correct cause; replace membrane.
Replace check valve fitting.
Open pump discharge valve, replace pump
IV. REPLACEMENT PARTS LIST
A list of common replacement parts is provided below. All of these parts are not used on every system and all of the parts are not listed. Contact you dealer for replacement parts assistance.
Pre filter housing 20" Big Blue
RO Membrane Pressure Vessels 4" x 80" FRP
Pressure Gauge, 2", 0-100 psi, Dry
Pressure Gauge, 2 1/2", 0-400 psi, LF
Flow Meter 1-10 gpm (product)
Flow Meter 1-10 gpm (reject)
Motor Starter Contactor, 16 amps, 24 volt coil
Overload Relay 8 - 14 amps
Overload Relay 6 - 8.5 amps
Transformer 208, 230, 460 x 24, 100 VA
R6316-V20B14S3T Pump with TEFC 3ph 7.5hp motor
R2316-214B Low Pressure Switch, 6.5 psi
Inlet Solenoid Valve, 1”, 24 volt coil
Alamo Brand 4 x 40 RO Membranes
CI 1000 RO Controller (package 2)
Basic RO Controller (package 1)
Autoflush Solenoid Valve, 1/2", Brass, 24 volt coil.
V. MEMBRANE REPLACEMENT
1. Turn off the system and close the feed water shutoff valve.
2. Disconnect the membrane feed hoses by loosing the brass fittings between the end of the hoses and the pressure vessel end caps.
3. Remove the retaining "U" pins from the pressure vessels.
4. Push the old membrane out of the vessel in the direction of the feed flow. (See flow arrows on the right side of figure #1)
5. Record the serial numbers of the new membranes.
6. Lightly lubricate the brine seals on the new membranes with clean water.
7. Install the new membranes in the direction of flow with the brine seal end going in last.
8. Lightly lubricate the end cap internal and external o-rings with glycerin.
9. Install the end caps and secure them with the "U" pins.
10. Install the membrane feed hoses.
11. Verify that all retaining "U" pins are installed.
12. Follow the start up procedure in section III-D.
Membrane Brine Seal
The following tables are intended as a guide to determining the flow rates for the R24 series RO systems. All flows are in gallons per minute (GPM).
Nominal flows for systems without reject recycle and a feed water Silt Density Index less than 3.
Nominal flows for systems with reject recycle and a feed water Silt Density Index less than 3.
Product (max) 10 12.5 15
Reject Recycle 3.6 4.5 5.5
Nominal flows for systems without reject recycle and a feed water Silt Density Index of 3 to less than 5.
Nominal flows for systems with reject recycle and a feed water Silt Density Index of 3 to less than 5.
Temperature Correction Factors
Deg C Deg F Correction Factor
30 86 1.16
29 84.2 1.13
28 82.4 1.09
27 80.6 1.06
26 78.8 1.03
25 77 1.00
24 75.2 0.97
23 73.4 0.94
22 71.6 0.92
21 69.8 0.89
20 68 0.86
19 66.2 0.84
18 64.4 0.81
17 62.6 0.79
16 60.8 0.77
15 59 0.74
14 57.2 0.72
13 55.4 0.70
12 53.6 0.68
11 51.8 0.66
10 50 0.64
9 48.2 0.62
8 46.4 0.61
7 44.6 0.59
6 42.8 0.57
5 41 0.55
Multiply the nominal product flow at 25° C by the temperature correction factor to determine the flow at various other temperatures.
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