Crown Audio 402and 602 Stereo Amplifier User Manual

XLS Series
XLS 202
Operation Manual
XLS 402
XLS 602
Obtaining Other Language Versions: To obtain information in another language about the use of this product, please contact your
local Crown Distributor. If you need assistance locating your local distributor, please contact Crown at 574-294-8000.
This manual does not include all of the details of design, production, or variations of the equipment. Nor does it cover every possible
situation which may arise during installation, operation or maintenance.
The information provided in this manual was deemed accurate as of the publication date. However, updates to this information may have
occurred. To obtain the latest version of this manual, please visit the Crown website at www.crownaudio.com.
Trademark Notice: Crown and Amcron are registered trademarks of Crown International. Other trademarks are the property of their
respective owners.
Some models may be exported under the name Amcron.®
©2003 by Crown Audio Inc., P.O. Box 1000, Elkhart, Indiana 46515-1000 U.S.A. Telephone: 574-294-8000
133465-4C
4/03
XLS Series Power Amplifiers
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page 2
Read these instructions.
Keep these instructions.
Heed all warnings.
Follow all instructions.
Do not use this apparatus near water.
Clean only with a dry cloth.
Do not block any ventilation openings. Install
in accordance with the manufacturer’s instructions.
Do not install near any heat sources such as
radiators, heat registers, stoves, or other
apparatus that produce heat.
Do not defeat the safety purpose of the polarized or grounding-type plug. A polarized plug
has two blades with one wider than the other.
A grounding-type plug has two blades and a
third grounding prong. The wide blade or the
third prong is provided for your safety. If the
provided plug does not fit into your outlet,
consult an electrician for replacement of the
obsolete outlet.
Protect the power cord from being walked on
or pinched, particularly at plugs, convenience
receptacles, and the point where they exit from
the apparatus.
Only use attachments/accessories specified
by the manufacturer.
Use only with a cart, stand, bracket, or table
specified by the manufacturer, or sold with the
apparatus. When a cart is used, use caution
when moving the cart/apparatus combination
to avoid injury from tip-over.
Unplug this apparatus during lightning storms
or when unused for long periods of time.
Refer all servicing to qualified service personnel. Servicing is required when the apparatus
has been damaged in any way, such as powersupply cord or plug is damaged, liquid has
been spilled or objects have fallen into the
apparatus, the apparatus has been exposed to
rain or moisture, does not operate normally,
or has been dropped.
To reduce the risk of fire or electric shock, do
not expose this apparatus to rain or moisture.
TO PREVENT ELECTRIC SHOCK DO NOT REMOVE
TOP OR BOTTOM COVERS. NO USER SERVICEABLE PARTS INSIDE. REFER SERVICING TO
QUALIFIED SERVICE PERSONNEL.
À PRÉVENIR LE CHOC ÉLECTRIQUE N’ENLEVEZ
PAS LES COUVERCLES. IL N’Y A PAS DES PARTIES SERVICEABLE À L’INTÉRIEUR. TOUS REPARATIONS DOIT ETRE FAIRE PAR PERSONNEL
QUALIFIÉ SEULMENT.
IMPORTANT
XLS Series amplifiers require Class 2 output wiring.
MAGNETIC FIELD
CAUTION! Do not locate sensitive high-gain equipment such as preamplifiers or tape decks directly
above or below the unit. Because this amplifier has
a high power density, it has a strong magnetic field
which can induce hum into unshielded devices that
are located nearby. The field is strongest just above
and below the unit.
If an equipment rack is used, we recommend locating the amplifier(s) in the bottom of the rack and the
preamplifier or other sensitive equipment at the top.
WATCH FOR THESE SYMBOLS:
The lightning bolt triangle is used to alert the user
to the risk of electric shock.
The exclamation point triangle is used to alert the
user to important operating or maintenance instructions.
FCC COMPLIANCE NOTICE
This device complies with part 15 of the FCC rules. Operation is subject to the following
two conditions: (1) This device may not cause harmful interference, and (2) this device
must accept any interference received, including interference that may cause undesired
operation.
CAUTION: Changes or modifications not expressly approved by the party responsible for
complicance could void the user’s authority to operate the euqipment.
NOTE: This equipment has been tested and found to comply with the limits for a Class B
digital device, pursuant to part 15 of the FCC Rules. These limits are designed to provide
reasonable protection against harmful interference in a residential installation. This equipment generates, uses, and can radiate radio frequency energy and, if not installed and used
in accordance with the instruction manual, may cause harmful interference to radio communications. However, there is no guarantee that interference will not occur in a particular
installation. If this equipment does cause harmful interference to radio or television reception, which can be determined by turning the equipment off and on, the user is encouraged
to try to correct the interference by one or more of the following measures:
• Reorient or relocate the receiving antenna.
• Increase the separation between the equipment and receiver.
• Connect the equipment into an outlet on a circuit different from that to which the receiver
is connected.
• Consult the dealer or an experienced radio/TV technician for help.
Operation Manual
XLS Series Power Amplifiers
DECLARATION of CONFORMITY
Crown International, Inc.
Issued By:
Crown International, Inc.
1718 W. Mishawaka Road
Elkhart, Indiana 46517 U.S.A.
Sue Whitfield
574-294-8289
swhitfield@crownintl.com
European Representative’s Name and Address:
Nick Owen
19 Clos Nant Coslech
Pontprennau
Cardiff
CF23 8ND United Kingdom
Equipment Type: Commercial Audio Power Amplifiers
Family Name: XLS Amplifiers
Model Names: XLS 202, XLS 402, XLS 602, XLS 402TX, XLS 602TX
EMC Standards:
EN 55103-1:1995 Electromagnetic Compatibility - Product Family Standard for Audio, Video, Audio-Visual and Entertainment Lighting Control Apparatus for Professional Use, Part 1: Emissions
EN 55103-1:1995 Magnetic Field Emissions-Annex A @ 10 cm and 1 M
EN 61000-3-2:1995+A14:2000 Limits for Harmonic Current Emissions (equipment input current 16A per phase)
EN 61000-3-3:1995 Limitation of Voltage Fluctuations and Flicker in Low-Voltage Supply Systems Rated Current 16A
EN 55022:1992 + A1: 1995 & A2:1997 Limits and Methods of Measurement of Radio Disturbance Characteristics of ITE: Radiated, Class B Limits; Conducted, Class B
EN 55103-2:1996 Electromagnetic Compatibility - Product Family Standard for Audio, Video, Audio-Visual and Entertainment Lighting Control Apparatus for Professional Use, Part 2: Immunity
EN 61000-4-2:1995 Electrostatic Discharge Immunity (Environment E2-Criteria B, 4k V Contact, 8k V Air Discharge)
EN 61000-4-3:1996 Radiated, Radio-Frequency, Electromagnetic Immunity (Environment E2, Criteria A)
EN 61000-4-4:1995 Electrical Fast Transient/Burst Immunity (Criteria B)
EN 61000-4-5:1995 Surge Immunity (Criteria B)
EN 61000-4-6:1996 Immunity to Conducted Disturbances Induced by Radio-Frequency Fields (Criteria A)
EN 61000-4-11:1994 Voltage Dips, Short Interruptions and Voltage Variation
Safety Standard:
EN 60065: 1998 Safety Requirements - Audio Video and Similar Electronic Apparatus
I certify that the product identified above conforms to the requirements of the EMC Council Directive 89/336/EEC as amended by 92/31/EEC, and the Low Voltage Directive 73/23/EES as amended by 93/68/EEC.
Signed
Date of Issue: January 1, 2001
Larry Colburn
Operation Manual
Title: Senior Vice President of Manufacturing
Due to line current harmonics, we recommend that you contact your supply authority before connection.
page 3
XLS Series Power Amplifiers
Table of Contents
Important Safety Instructions ................................................2
4 Advanced Features and Options ...................................... 15
Declaration of Conformity ............................................................3
4.1 Protection Systems ........................................................ 15
1 Welcome ................................................................................5
4.1.1 Output Current Limiting......................................... 15
1.1 Features ...........................................................................5
4.1.2. DC Protection ...................................................... 15
1.2 How to Use This Manual ..................................................5
4.1.3 Circuit Breaker....................................................... 15
2 Setup ......................................................................................6
4.1.4 Thermal Protection ............................................... 15
2.1 Unpack Your Amplifier ....................................................6
5 Troubleshooting .................................................................. 16
2.2 Install Your Amplifier ......................................................6
6 Specifications ..................................................................... 17
2.3 Ensure Proper Cooling ...................................................6
7 AC Power Draw and Thermal Dissipation ..................... 19
2.4 Choose Input Wire and Connectors ................................7
8 Service ... .............................................................................. 22
2.5 Choose Output Wire and Connectors ..............................7
8.1 Worldwide Service .......................................................... 22
2.6 Wire Your System ...........................................................8
8.2 US and Canada Service .................................................. 22
2.6.1 Stereo Mode Using the 5-way Binding Posts..........8
8.2.1 Service at a US or Canada Service Center ............ 22
2.6.2 Stereo Mode Using the Speakon® Connector ........9
8.2.2 Factory Service ..................................................... 22
2.6.3 Bridge-Mono Mode ...............................................10
8.2.3 Factory Service Shipping Instructions ................... 22
2.7 Connect to AC Mains ......................................................11
9 Warranty .............................................................................. 23
2.8 Protecting Your Speakers ................................................11
Crown Factory Service Information Form ...................................25
2.9 Startup Procedure ...........................................................11
3 Operation ............................................................................. 12
3.1 Precautions ..................................................................... 12
3.2 Front Panel Controls and Indicators ............................... 13
3.3 Back Panel Controls and Connectors............................... 14
page 4
Operation Manual
XLS Series Power Amplifiers
1 Welcome
The XLS Series of power amplifiers from Crown
represents a new era in affordable, quality
power amplification. The line consists of three
models in a uniform, rugged chassis, incorporating the best of tried-and-true design principles and innovative features.
Modern power amplifiers are sophisticated
pieces of engineering capable of producing
extremely high power levels. They must be
treated with respect and correctly installed if
they are to provide the many years of reliable
service for which they were designed.
In addition, XLS Series amplifiers include a
number of features which require some explanation before they can be used to their maximum advantage.
Operation Manual
Please take the time to study this manual so
that you can obtain the best possible service
from your amplifier.
1.1 Features
•Simple, reliable design incorporates many
popular features.
•Housed in a rugged, all-steel 2U chassis.
•Efficient forced-air fan prevents excessive
thermal buildup.
•Electronically balanced XLR inputs. Touchproof binding post and Speakon® outputs.
•Features precision detented level controls,
power switch, and four LEDs which indicate
clip for each channel, power and fault conditions.
1.2 How to Use This Manual
This manual provides you with the necessary
information to safely and correctly setup and
operate your amplifier. It does not cover every
aspect of installation, setup or operation that
might occur under every condition. For additional information, please consult Crown’s
Amplifier Application Guide (available online at
www.crownaudio.com), Crown Technical Support, your system installer or retailer.
We strongly recommend you read all instructions, warnings and cautions contained in this
manual. Also, for your protection, please send
in your warranty registration card today. And
save your bill of sale — it’s your official proof
of purchase.
page 5
XLS Series Power Amplifiers
2 Setup
2.4 Choose Input Wire
and Connectors
Crown recommends using pre-built or professionally wired balanced line (two-conductor plus shield), 22-24 gauge cables and
connectors. You should use 3-pin male XLR cable ends at the
amplifier inputs. Unbalanced line may also be used but may
result in noise over long cable runs.
Figure 2.3 shows connector pin assignments for balanced wiring,
and Figure 2.4 shows connector pin assignments for unbalanced
wiring.
Figure 2.3
Balanced Input
Connector Wiring
Figure 2.4
Unbalanced Input
Connector Wiring
NOTE: Custom wiring should only be performed by
qualified personnel.
2.5 Choose Output Wire and Connectors
Crown recommends using pre-built or professionally wired, highquality, two- or four-conductor, heavy gauge speaker wire and
connectors. You may use a 4-pole Speakon® connector (Figure
2.5 and Table 1) or banana plugs, spade lugs, or bare wire for
your output connectors (Figure 2.6). To prevent the possibility of
short-circuits, wrap or otherwise insulate exposed loudspeaker
cable connectors.
Note: Binding post outputs on European models come
with safety plugs installed to prevent European powercord plugs from being inserted. The top & bottom entry
positions for these connectors should therefore be used
with European models.
Using the guidelines below, select the appropriate size of wire
based on the distance from amplifier to speaker.
Distance
up to 25 ft.
Wire Size
16 AWG
26-40 ft.
14 AWG
41-60 ft.
12 AWG
61-100 ft.
10 AWG
101-150 ft.
8 AWG
151-250 ft.
6 AWG
CAUTION: Never use shielded cable for output wiring.
Operation Manual
page 7
XLS Series Power Amplifiers
page 8
Operation Manual
XLS Series Power Amplifiers
2 Setup
2.6.2 Stereo Mode Using the
Speakon® Connector
There are two ways to wire two speakers in stereo to the amplifier’s Speakon® connector.
1) Wire the two speakers to the same Speakon®
connector as shown in Figure 2.8.
or
Figure 2.8 Speakon® Stereo Wiring Option 1:
Wire Two Speakers to One Speakon® Connector
2) Wire speaker 1 to the amplifier’s Speakon®
connector, and wire speaker 2 to speaker 1
(Figure 2.9).
SPEAKER 1
SPEAKER 2
AMPLIFIER
Figure 2.9 Speakon® Stereo Wiring Option 2:
Wire Speaker 1 to the Amplifier’s Speakon®
Connector, and Wire Speaker 2 to Speaker 1
SPEAKON OUT
SPEAKON IN
SPEAKON OUT
OR THRU
SPEAKON IN
CABLE 1: AMPLIFIER OUT TO SPEAKER 1 IN
1+ TO 1+
1– TO 1–
2+ TO 2+
2– TO 2–
CABLE 2: SPEAKER 1 OUT TO SPEAKER 2 IN
2+ TO 1+
2– TO 1–
Operation Manual
page 9
XLS Series Power Amplifiers
2 Setup
2.6.3 Bridge-Mono Mode
INPUTS: Use a custom “Y” adapter cable, wired
to split the signal and invert the polarity for the
Channel 2 amplifier input as shown in Figure
2.10. We recommend you label the ends of the Y
adapter to help make sure to connect the correct
end to each amplifier input.
Connect the Y adapter between the signal source
and each amplifier input (Figure 2.11).
NOTE: Crown provides a reference of wiring pin
assignments for commonly used connector
types in the Crown Amplifier Application Guide
available at www.crownaudio.
OUTPUTS:There are two ways to wire a speaker
in Bridge-Mono mode:
1) Wire the speaker across the red binding post
of each channel (Figure 2.11). Do not use the
black binding posts when the amp is being operated in Bridge-Mono mode.
or
2) Wire the speaker to terminals 1+ and 2+ in the
Speakon connector (Figure 2.12).
NOTE: The Channel 1 and 2 level controls
MUST be set to identical settings when
operating the XLS amplifier in BridgeMono mode.
Figure 2.11 Bridge-Mono Wiring of Input and
5-Way Binding Post Output
Figure 2.12 Alternate Bridge-Mono Wiring:
Loudspeaker Wired to Amplifier’s
Speakon®Connector
Figure 2.10 Custom Input Cable for Bridge-Mono Mode
page 10
Operation Manual
XLS Series Power Amplifiers
2 Setup
2.7 Connect to AC Mains
Connect your amplifier to the AC mains power
source (power outlet) with the supplied AC power
cordset. First, connect the IEC end of the cordset to
the IEC connector on the amplifier; then, plug the
other end of the cordset to the AC mains.
2.9 Startup Procedure
Use the following procedure when first turning on
your amplifier:
WARNING: The third prong of this connector
(ground) is an important safety feature. Do
not attempt to disable this ground connection by using an adapter or other methods.
3. Turn on the “Power” switch. The Power indicator should glow.
Amplifiers don’t create energy. The AC mains voltage and current must be sufficient to deliver the
power you expect. You must operate your amplifier
from an AC mains power source with not more than
a 10% variation above or a 15% variation below the
amplifier’s specified line voltage and within the
specfied frequency requirements (indicated on the
amplifier’s back panel label). If you are unsure of the
output voltage of your AC mains, please consult
your electrician.
2.8 Protecting Your Speakers
It's wise to avoid clipping the amplifier signal. Not
only does clipping sound bad, it can damage highfrequency drivers. To prevent clipping, insert a limiter between your mixer output and amplifier input.
That way, no matter how strong a signal your mixer
produces, the amplifier will not clip. Set the limiter
threshold so that mixer signals above 0 on the
mixer meters do not quite drive the amplifier into
clipping.
1. Turn down the level of your audio source.
2. Turn down the level controls of the amplifier.
4. Turn up the level of your audio source to an
optimum level.
5. Turn up the Level controls on the amplifier until
the desired loudness or power level is
achieved.
6. Turn down the level of your audio source to its
normal range.
If you ever need to make any wiring or installation
changes, don’t forget to disconnect the power cord.
For help with determining your system’s optimum
gain structure (signal levels) please refer to the
Crown Amplifier Application Guide, available online
at www.crownaudio.com.
Also, avoid sending strong subsonic signals to the
amplifier. High-level, low-frequency signals from
breath pops or dropped microphones can blow out
drivers. To prevent subsonic signals, insert a highpass filter between mixer output and amplifier input
(or between mixer and limiter). Alternatively, switch
in highpass filters at your mixer. Set the filter to as
high a frequency as possible that does not affect
your program. For example, try 35 Hz for music and
75 Hz for speech. On each mixer input channel, set
the filter frequency just below the lowest fundamental frequency of that channel's instrument.
Operation Manual
page 11
XLS Series Power Amplifiers
3 Operation
3.1 Precautions
Your amplifier is protected from internal and external faults, but you should still take the following
precautions for optimum performance and safety:
1. Before use, your amplifier first must be configured for proper operation, including input and
output wiring hookup. Improper wiring can
result in serious operating difficulties. For
information on wiring and configuration, please
consult the Setup section of this manual or, for
advanced setup techniques, consult Crown’s
Amplifier Application Guide available online at
www.crownaudio.com.
2. Use care when making connections, selecting
signal sources and controlling the output level.
The load you save may be your own!
3. Do not short the ground lead of an output cable
to the input signal ground. This may form a
ground loop and cause oscillations.
4. WARNING: Never connect the output to
a power supply, battery or power main.
Electrical shock may result.
5. Tampering with the circuitry, or making unauthorized circuit changes may be hazardous and
invalidates all agency listings.
6. Do not operate the amplifier with the red Clip
LEDs constantly flashing.
7. Do not overdrive the mixer, which will cause
clipped signal to be sent to the amplifier. Such
signals will be reproduced with extreme accuracy, and loudspeaker damage may result.
8. Do not operate the amplifier with less than the
rated load impedance. Due to the amplifier’s
output protection, such a configuration may
result in premature clipping and speaker damage. Operating with a 2-ohm load is not
recommended, as the amplifier might
shut down.
Remember: Crown is not liable for damage that
results from overdriving other system components.
page 12
Operation Manual
XLS Series Power Amplifiers
3 Operation
3.2 Front Panel Controls
and Indicators
A. Cooling Vents
Front-to-rear forced airflow.
D. Power Indicator
Green LED indicates amplifier has been
turned on and AC power is available.
E. Fault Indicator
Two black rotary level controls, one for
each channel.
Yellow LED illuminates when amplifier is
in protect mode. Also illuminates briefly
during normal power-up when amplifier is
first switched on.
C. Clip Indicators
F. Power Switch
Two red LEDs, one for each channel, illuminate when the channel’s output signal
is being overdriven.
Amplifier is on when the switch is in the
UP position.
B. Level Controls
Figure 4.1 Front Panel Controls and Indicators
Operation Manual
page 13
XLS Series Power Amplifiers
3 Operation
3.3 Back Panel Controls
and Connectors
G. Power Connector
H. Circuit Breaker
Provides overload protection.
I. Balanced XLR Inputs
Two 3-pin female XLR input connectors are
provided (one per channel).
J. Fans
Provide front-to-back forced airflow for cooling.
K. 5-Way Binding Post Output Jacks
One pair per channel; accept banana plugs,
spade lugs or bare wire. Note: Binding post
outputs on European models come with safety
plugs installed to prevent European power-cord
plugs from being inserted. The top & bottom
entry positions for these connectors should
therefore be used with European models.
L. 4-Pole Speakon Output Connector
One connector is used for the two output channels. It accepts a 4-pole Speakon connector.
See Page 6, Figure 2.5 and Table 1 for connector wiring.
Figure 4.1 Back Panel Controls and Connectors
page 14
Operation Manual
XLS Series Power Amplifiers
4 Advanced Features and Options
NOTE: For detailed information about
these Crown amplifier features, please
consult the Crown Amplifier Application
Guide, available on the Crown website
at www.crownaudio.com.
4.1.3 Circuit Breaker
The high-voltage power supplies of your Crown
amplifier are protected by a circuit breaker. The
breaker rating varies depending on model and
supply voltage as follows:
4.1 Protection Systems
Your Crown amplifier provides extensive protection and diagnostic capabilities, including
output current limiting, DC protection, circuit
breaker, and special thermal protection for the
unit’s transformers.
Table 2: Circuit-Breaker Amperage Ratings
4.1.1 Output Current Limiting
Output Current Limiting circuitry protects the
amplifier output stage for damage caused by
short-circuit loads.
Figure 4.1
Fault Indicator
4.1.2 DC Protection
DC Protection disconnects the loudspeaker
load in the event of an output DC offset exceeding 2V. In such an event the yellow Fault LED
will illuminate (see Figure 4.1) and both amplifier channels will be muted. In the majority of
cases, DC protection is indicative of a faulty
amplifier channel, and will be accompanied by
an illuminated Clip LED, even with no input
connected and level controls set at minimum. If
this is the case, contact your dealer or service
center.
100V
120V
220V
240V
XLS 202
7A
7A
7A
7A
XLS 402
10A
10A
7A
7A
XLS 602
10A
10A
7A
7A
4.1.4 Thermal Protection
The Thermal Protection circuit will activate if
the internal heatsink temperature exceeds
proper operating temperatures (194 °F, 90 °C).
When the heatsink temperature has fallen to a
safe level, this protection circuit will automatically be reset. Principle causes of thermal protection are:
1) Inadequate ventilation of the equipment rack
2) Incorrect load impedance
3) Output cable short circuit
4) Blocked air vent
5) Heatsinks in need of cleaning
6) Cooling fan failure.
The cause of your amplifier’s thermal protection
state should be determined and corrected as
soon as possible. Without correction, the Thermal Protection circuit will typically reactivate.
Operation Manual
page 15
XLS Series Power Amplifiers
6 Specifications
Minimum Guaranteed Power
XLS 202
XLS 402
XLS 602
250W
200W
145W
400W
500W
570W
400W
260W
800W
1,140W
840W
600W
370W
1,200W
1,680W
250W
225W
500W
610W
445W
1,120W
880W
670W
1,760W
XLS 202
XLS 402
XLS 602
0.725
1.025
1.26
120 VAC, 60 Hz Units, per channel, both channels driven
1 kHz with 0.5% THD
Stereo, 2 ohms (per ch.)
Stereo, 4 ohms (per ch.)
Stereo, 8 ohms (per ch.)
Bridge-Mono, 8 ohms
Bridge-Mono, 4 ohms
240 VAC, 50 Hz Units, per channel, both channels driven
1 kHz with 0.5% THD
Stereo, 2 ohms (per ch.)
Stereo, 4 ohms (per ch.)
Bridge-Mono, 4 ohms
Performance
Sensitivity (volts RMS) for full rated power at 4 ohms
Frequency Response (at 1 watt, 22Hz - 20 kHz)
± 0.75 dB
± 0.75 dB
± 0.75 dB
Phase Response (at 1 watt, 10 Hz, 20 kHz)
–10°, +19°
–10°, +19°
–10°, +19°
> 100 dB
> 95 dB
> 100 dB
> 95 dB
> 100 dB
> 95 dB
Total Harmonic Distortion (THD) at 1 full bandwidth power, from 20 Hz to 1 kHz
< 0.5%
< 0.5%
< 0.5%
Intermodulation Distortion (IMD) 60 Hz and 7 kHz at 4:1,
from full rated output to –40 dB
< 0.3%
< 0.3%
< 0.3%
Signal to Noise Ratio below rated power (20 Hz to 20 kHz)
A-weighted, below rated power
No weighting, below rated power
Operation Manual
page 17
XLS Series Power Amplifiers
6 Specifications
Performance
XLS 202
XLS 402
XLS 602
Damping Factor (8 ohm): 10 Hz to 400 Hz
> 200
> 200
> 200
Crosstalk (below rated power,
at 1 kHz
at 20 kHz
–82 dB
–58 dB
–82 dB
–58 dB
–82 dB
–58 dB
DC Output Offset (Shorted input)
Input Impedance (nominally balanced, nominally unbalanced)
Load Impedance (Note: Safe with all types of loads)
Stereo
Bridge Mono
Voltage Gain (at maximum level setting)
AC Line Voltage and Frequency Configurations Available (± 10%)
Construction
± 10 mV
± 10 mV
± 10 mV
20 kilohms, 10 kilohms
20 kilohms, 10 kilohms
20 kilohms, 10 kilohms
2-8 ohms
8 ohms
2-8 ohms
8 ohms
2-8 ohms
8 ohms
31 dB
31 dB
31 dB
120 VAC/60 Hz and 230 VAC/50 Hz
120 VAC/60 Hz and 230 VAC/50 Hz
120 VAC/60 Hz and 230 VAC/50 Hzz
XLS 402
XLS 602
XLS 202
Ventilation
Flow-through ventilation from front to back
Flow-through ventilation from front to back
Flow-through ventilation from front to back
Cooling
Internal heat sinks with forced-air cooling
Internal heat sinks with forced-air cooling
Internal heat sinks with forced-air cooling
80.15 ft3 (2.27 m3)
80.15 ft3 (2.27 m3)
EIA Standard19"W (EIA RS-310-B)
x 3.5” (8.9 cm) H x14" (35.6cm) D
EIA Standard19"W (EIA RS-310-B)
x 3.5” (8.9 cm) H x14" (35.6cm) D
Air Volume Requirements (per minute per unit)
3 (2.27 m3)
80.15 ft
Dimensions: Width, Height, Depth (behind mounting surface)
EIA Standard19"W (EIA RS-310-B)
x 3.5” (8.9 cm) H x14" (35.6cm) D
Net Weight, Shipping Weight
21.0 lb (9.5 kg), 26.0 lb (11.8 kg)
page 18
25.3 lb (11.5 kg), 30.3 lb (13.8 kg)
27.2 lb (12.3 kg), 32.2 lb (14.6 kg)
Operation Manual
XLS Series Power Amplifiers
7 AC Power Draw and Thermal Dissipation
This section provides detailed information about the amount of power
and current drawn from the AC mains by XLS amplifiers and the amount
of heat produced under various conditions. The calculations presented
here are intended to provide a realistic and reliable depiction of the
amplifiers. The following assumptions or approximations were made:
Here are the equations used to calculate the data presented in Figures
7.1, 7.2 and 7.3:
• The amplifier’s available channels are loaded, and full power is being
delivered.
• Efficiency at standard 1 kHz power into 4 ohms is 63% for the XLS
602, 57% for the XLS 402, and 49% for the XLS 202.
• Quiescent power draw is 26W for the XLS 602, 23W for the XLS 402,
and 19W for the XLS 202.
• XLS 602 quiescent thermal dissipation equals 88 btu/hr at 0 watts
with 4 and 8 ohm loads.
• The estimated duty cycles take into account the typical crest factor for
each type of source material.
• Duty cycle of pink noise is 50%.
• Duty cycle of highly compressed rock ‘n’ roll midrange is 40%.
• Duty cycle of rock ‘n’ roll is 30%.
• Duty cycle of background music is 20%.
• Duty cycle of continuous speech is 10%.
• Duty cycle of infrequent, short duration paging is 1%.
The value used for amplifier inefficiency is (1.00-Efficiency). The factor
3.415 converts watts to btu/hr. Thermal dissipation in btu is divided by
the constant 3.968 to get kcal.
Operation Manual
page 19
XLS Series Power Amplifiers
7 AC Power Draw and Thermal Dissipation
XLS 202
LOAD
2 Ohm Stereo
Duty
Cycle
AC
Mains
Power
Draw
(W)
50%
40%
30%
20%
10%
529
427
325
223
121
Current Draw
(Amps)
4 Ohm Stereo
Thermal
Dissipation
120V
230V
btu/hr
kcal/hr
5.1
4.1
3.1
2.1
1.2
2.6
2.1
1.6
1.1
0.6
953
776
598
420
243
240
196
151
106
61
AC
Mains
Power
Draw
(W)
427
346
264
182
101
Current Draw
(Amps)
8 Ohm Stereo
Thermal
Dissipation
120V
230V
btu/hr
kcal/hr
4.1
3.3
2.5
1.7
1.0
2.1
1.7
1.3
0.9
0.5
776
634
491
349
207
196
160
124
88
52
AC
Mains
Power
Draw
(W)
315
256
197
137
78
Current Draw
(Amps)
Thermal
Dissipation
120V
230V
btu/hr
kcal/hr
3.0
2.4
1.9
1.3
0.7
1.6
1.3
1.0
0.7
0.4
580
477
374
271
168
146
120
94
68
42
Figure 7.1 XLS 202
Power Draw, Current Draw and Thermal Dissipation at Various Duty Cycles
XLS 402
LOAD
2 Ohm Stereo
Duty
Cycle
AC
Mains
Power
Draw
(W)
50%
40%
30%
20%
10%
1023
823
623
423
223
Current Draw
(Amps)
4 Ohm Stereo
Thermal
Dissipation
120V
230V
btu/hr
kcal/hr
10.0
8.1
6.1
4.1
2.2
5.2
4.2
3.2
2.2
1.1
1547
1253
960
666
372
390
316
242
168
94
AC
Mains
Power
Draw
(W)
725
584
444
304
163
Current Draw
(Amps)
8 Ohm Stereo
Thermal
Dissipation
120V
230V
btu/hr
kcal/hr
7.1
5.7
4.4
3.0
1.6
3.7
3.0
2.3
1.6
0.8
1109
903
697
491
285
279
228
176
124
72
AC
Mains
Power
Draw
(W)
479
388
297
205
114
Current Draw
(Amps)
Thermal
Dissipation
120V
230V
btu/hr
kcal/hr
4.7
3.8
2.9
2.0
1.1
2.5
2.0
1.5
1.1
0.6
748
614
480
346
213
189
155
121
87
54
Figure 7.2 XLS 402
Power Draw, Current Draw and Thermal Dissipation at Varioius Duty Cycles
page 20
Operation Manual
XLS Series Power Amplifiers
7 AC Power Draw and Thermal Dissipation
XLS 602
LOAD
2 Ohm Stereo
Duty
Cycle
AC
Mains
Power
Draw
(W)
50%
40%
30%
20%
10%
1359
1093
826
559
293
Current Draw
(Amps)
4 Ohm Stereo
Thermal
Dissipation
120V
230V
btu/hr
kcal/hr
13.2
10.6
8.1
5.5
2.9
6.9
5.6
4.2
2.8
1.5
1774
1437
1100
763
426
447
362
277
192
107
AC
Mains
Power
Draw
(W)
978
788
597
407
216
Current Draw
(Amps)
8 Ohm Stereo
Thermal
Dissipation
120V
230V
btu/hr
kcal/hr
9.5
7.7
5.8
4.0
2.1
5.0
4.0
3.0
2.1
1.1
1292
1051
811
570
329
326
265
204
144
83
AC
Mains
Power
Draw
(W)
613
496
378
261
143
Current Draw
(Amps)
Thermal
Dissipation
120V
230V
btu/hr
kcal/hr
6.0
4.8
3.7
2.5
1.4
3.1
2.5
1.9
1.3
0.7
831
682
534
386
237
209
172
135
97
60
Figure 7.3 XLS 602
Power Draw, Current Draw and Thermal Dissipation at Various Duty Cycles
Operation Manual
page 21
XLS Series Power Amplifiers
8 Service
Crown amplifiers are quality units that rarely
require servicing. Before returning your unit for
servicing, please contact Crown Technical Support to verify the need for servicing.
list of authorized service centers in your area
can be obtained from the Crown website at
www.crownaudio.com, or by calling Crown
Customer Service.
This unit has very sophisticated circuitry which
should only be serviced by a fully trained technician. This is one reason why each unit bears
the following label:
8.2.2 Factory Service
To obtain factory service, fill out the service
information page found in the back of this manual and send it along with your proof of purchase and the defective unit to the Crown
factory.
CAUTION: To prevent electric shock, do
not remove covers. No user serviceable
parts inside. Refer servicing to a qualified technician.
8.1 Worldwide Service
Service may be obtained from an authorized
service center. (Contact your local Crown/
Amcron representative or our office for a list of
authorized service centers.) To obtain service,
simply present the bill of sale as proof of purchase along with the defective unit to an authorized service center. They will handle the
necessary paperwork and repair.
Remember to transport your unit in the original
factory pack.
8.2 US and Canada Service
Service may be obtained in one of two ways:
from an authorized service center or from the
factory. You may choose either. It is important
that you have your copy of the bill of sale as
your proof of purchase.
8.2.1 Service at a US or Canada
Service Center
This method usually saves the most time and
effort. Simply present your bill of sale along
with the defective unit to an authorized service
center to obtain service. They will handle the
necessary paperwork and repair. Remember to
transport the unit in the original factory pack. A
page 22
For warranty service, we will pay for ground
shipping both ways in the United States. Contact Crown Customer Service to obtain prepaid shipping labels prior to sending the unit.
Or, if you prefer, you may prepay the cost of
shipping, and Crown will reimburse you. Send
copies of the shipping receipts to Crown to
receive reimbursement.
Your repaired unit will be returned via UPS
ground. Please contact us if other arrangements are required.
8.2.3 Factory Service Shipping
Instructions:
1. Before sending a Crown product to the
factory for service, first call the Crown Service Department for a return authorization
(RA) number.
2. Be sure to fill out the service information
form that follows and enclose it with your
shipment, either inside the box or in a
packing slip envelope securely attached to
the outside of the shipping carton. Do not
send the service information form separately. If you are sending the unit from a
Shipping Center, we recommend taping
the form to the product. We also recommend recording the serial number and
model before shipping for your reference.
3. To ensure the safe transportation of your
unit to the factory, ship it in an original
factory packing container. If you don’t have
the original carton, you may obtain a product service foam-in-place shipping pack
from the Crown Factory Service Department at the number listed below. For nonwarranty service, you may also provide
your own shipping pack, however we still
recommend using a Crown Supplied Shipping Container. Minimum recommended
requirements for materials are as follows:
275 P.S.I. burst test Double-Wall carton
that allows for 2-inch solid Styrofoam on
all six sides of unit or 3 inches of plastic
bubble wrap on all six sides of unit;
securely seal the package with an adequate
carton sealing tape. Do not use light boxes
or “peanuts.” Damage caused by poor
packing cannot be covered under warranty.
4. Do not ship the unit in any kind of cabinet
(wood or metal). Ignoring this warning
may result in extensive damage to the unit
and the cabinet. Accessories are not
needed—do not send the product documentation, cables and other hardware.
If you have any questions, please contact
Crown Factory Service.
Crown Factory Service
1718 W. Mishawaka Rd.,
Elkhart, Indiana 46517 U.S.A.
Telephone: 574-294-8200
800-342-6939 (North America,
Puerto Rico, and Virgin Islands only)
Facsimile:
574-294-8301 (Technical Support)
574-294-8124 (Factory Service)
Internet:
http://www.crownaudio.com
Operation Manual
XLS Series Power Amplifiers
9 Warranty
UNITED STATES & CANADA
SUMMARY OF WARRANTY
3
AR
YE
Crown International, 1718 West Mishawaka Road,
Elkhart, Indiana 46517-4095 U.S.A. warrants to
you, the ORIGINAL PURCHASER and ANY SUBSEQUENT OWNER of each NEW Crown product,
for a period of three (3) years from the date of
purchase by the original purchaser (the “warranty
period”) that the new Crown product is free of
defects in materials and workmanship. We further
warrant the new Crown product regardless of the
reason for failure, except as excluded in this Warranty.
ITEMS EXCLUDED FROM THIS
CROWN WARRANTY
This Crown Warranty is in effect only for failure of
a new Crown product which occurred within the
Warranty Period. It does not cover any product
which has been damaged because of any intentional misuse, accident, negligence, or loss which
is covered under any of your insurance contracts.
This Crown Warranty also does not extend to the
new Crown product if the serial number has been
defaced, altered, or removed.
WHAT THE WARRANTOR WILL DO
We will remedy any defect, regardless of the reason for failure (except as excluded), by repair,
replacement, or refund. We may not elect refund
unless you agree, or unless we are unable to provide replacement, and repair is not practical or
cannot be timely made. If a refund is elected, then
you must make the defective or malfunctioning
product available to us free and clear of all liens
or other encumbrances. The refund will be equal
to the actual purchase price, not including inter-
Operation Manual
est, insurance, closing costs, and other finance
charges less a reasonable depreciation on the
product from the date of original purchase. Warranty work can only be performed at our authorized service centers or at the factory. Warranty
work for some products can only be performed at
our factory. We will remedy the defect and ship
the product from the service center or our factory
within a reasonable time after receipt of the defective product at our authorized service center or
our factory. All expenses in remedying the defect,
including surface shipping costs in the United
States, will be borne by us. (You must bear the
expense of shipping the product between any foreign country and the port of entry in the United
States including the return shipment, and all
taxes, duties, and other customs fees for such foreign shipments.)
FROM ANY DEFECT IN THE NEW CROWN
PRODUCT. THIS INCLUDES ANY DAMAGE TO
ANOTHER PRODUCT OR PRODUCTS RESULTING FROM SUCH A DEFECT. SOME STATES DO
NOT ALLOW THE EXCLUSION OR LIMITATIONS
OF INCIDENTAL OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES, SO THE ABOVE LIMITATION OR EXCLUSION MAY NOT APPLY TO YOU.
HOW TO OBTAIN WARRANTY
SERVICE
DESIGN CHANGES
You must notify us of your need for warranty service within the warranty period. All components
must be shipped in a factory pack, which, if
needed, may be obtained from us free of charge.
Corrective action will be taken within a reasonable time of the date of receipt of the defective
product by us or our authorized service center. If
the repairs made by us or our authorized service
center are not satisfactory, notify us or our authorized service center immediately.
DISCLAIMER OF CONSEQUENTIAL
AND INCIDENTAL DAMAGES
YOU ARE NOT ENTITLED TO RECOVER FROM
US ANY INCIDENTAL DAMAGES RESULTING
WARRANTY ALTERATIONS
No person has the authority to enlarge, amend, or
modify this Crown Warranty. This Crown Warranty is not extended by the length of time which
you are deprived of the use of the new Crown
product. Repairs and replacement parts provided
under the terms of this Crown Warranty shall
carry only the unexpired portion of this Crown
Warranty.
We reserve the right to change the design of any
product from time to time without notice and with
no obligation to make corresponding changes in
products previously manufactured.
LEGAL REMEDIES OF PURCHASER
THIS CROWN WARRANTY GIVES YOU SPECIFIC
LEGAL RIGHTS, YOU MAY ALSO HAVE OTHER
RIGHTS WHICH VARY FROM STATE TO STATE.
No action to enforce this Crown Warranty shall be
commenced after expiration of the warranty
period.
THIS STATEMENT OF WARRANTY SUPERSEDES
ANY OTHERS CONTAINED IN THIS MANUAL
FOR CROWN PRODUCTS.
12/01
page 23
XLS Series Power Amplifiers
9 Warranty
WORLDWIDE EXCEPT USA & CANADA
SUMMARY OF WARRANTY
3
AR
YE
Crown International, 1718 West Mishawaka Road,
Elkhart, Indiana 46517-4095 U.S.A. warrants to
you, the ORIGINAL PURCHASER and ANY SUBSEQUENT OWNER of each NEW Crown1 product,
for a period of three (3) years from the date of purchase by the original purchaser (the “warranty
period”) that the new Crown product is free of
defects in materials and workmanship, and we
further warrant the new Crown product regardless
of the reason for failure, except as excluded in this
Warranty.
1 Note: If your unit bears the name “Amcron,” please substitute
it for the name “Crown” in this warranty.
ITEMS EXCLUDED FROM THIS CROWNWARRANTY
This Crown Warranty is in effect only for failure of
a new Crown product which occurred within the
Warranty Period. It does not cover any product
which has been damaged because of any intentional misuse, accident, negligence, or loss which
is covered under any of your insurance contracts.
This Crown Warranty also does not extend to the
new Crown product if the serial number has been
defaced, altered, or removed.
WHAT THE WARRANTOR WILL DO
We will remedy any defect, regardless of the reason for failure (except as excluded), by repair,
replacement, or refund. We may not elect refund
unless you agree, or unless we are unable to provide replacement, and repair is not practical or
cannot be timely made. If a refund is elected, then
you must make the defective or malfunctioning
product available to us free and clear of all liens
or other encumbrances. The refund will be equal
to the actual purchase price, not including interest, insurance, closing costs, and other finance
charges less a reasonable depreciation on the
product from the date of original purchase. Warranty work can only be performed at our authorized service centers. We will remedy the defect
and ship the product from the service center
within a reasonable time after receipt of the defective product at our authorized service center.
DISCLAIMER OF CONSEQUENTIAL AND
INCIDENTAL DAMAGES
HOW TO OBTAIN WARRANTY SERVICE
DESIGN CHANGES
You must notify your local Crown importer of
your need for warranty service within the warranty
period. All components must be shipped in the
original box. Corrective action will be taken within
a reasonable time of the date of receipt of the
defective product by our authorized service center.
If the repairs made by our authorized service center are not satisfactory, notify our authorized service center immediately.
We reserve the right to change the design of any
product from time to time without notice and with
no obligation to make corresponding changes in
products previously manufactured.
YOU ARE NOT ENTITLED TO RECOVER FROM US
ANY INCIDENTAL DAMAGES RESULTING FROM
ANY DEFECT IN THE NEW CROWN PRODUCT.
THIS INCLUDES ANY DAMAGE TO ANOTHER
PRODUCT OR PRODUCTS RESULTING FROM
SUCH A DEFECT.
WARRANTY ALTERATIONS
No person has the authority to enlarge, amend, or
modify this Crown Warranty. This Crown Warranty
is not extended by the length of time which you are
deprived of the use of the new Crown product.
Repairs and replacement parts provided under the
terms of this Crown Warranty shall carry only the
unexpired portion of this Crown Warranty.
LEGAL REMEDIES OF PURCHASER
No action to enforce this Crown Warranty shall be
commenced after expiration of the warranty
period.
THIS STATEMENT OF WARRANTY SUPERSEDES
ANY OTHERS CONTAINED IN THIS MANUAL FOR
CROWN PRODUCTS.
7/01
page 24
Operation Manual
XLS Series Power Amplifiers
THIS PAGE INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK
page 26
Operation Manual
XLS Series Power Amplifiers
NOTES
Operation Manual
page 27
XLS Series Power Amplifiers
page 28
Operation Manual
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