Dell 720N Laptop User Manual

Œ
'HOOŒ3RZHU9DXOWŒ11DQG1
6<67(0$'0,1,675$725$1'
&200$1'5()(5(1&(*8,'(
ZZZGHOOFRP
___________________
Information in this document is subject to change without notice.
© 1998–1999 Network Appliance, Inc. Licensed to Dell Computer Corporation. All rights reserved.
Reproduction in any manner whatsoever without the written permission of Dell Computer Corporation is strictly forbidden.
No part of this book covered by copyright may be reproduced in any form or by any means—graphic, electronic, or mechanical,
including photocopying, recording, taping, or storage in an electronic retrieval system—without prior written permission of the
copyright owner.
Portions of this product are derived from the Berkeley Net2 release and the 4.4-Lite-2 release, which are copyrighted and publicly
distributed by The Regents of the University of California.
Copyright © 1980–1995 The Regents of the University of California. All rights reserved.
Portions of this product are derived from NetBSD, which is copyrighted and publicly distributed by Carnegie Mellon University.
Copyright © 1994, 1995 Carnegie Mellon University. All rights reserved. Author Chris G. Demetriou.
Permission to use, copy, modify, and distribute this software and its documentation is hereby granted, provided that both the
copyright notice and its permission notice appear in all copies of the software, derivative works or modified versions, and any
portions thereof, and that both notices appear in supporting documentation.
CARNEGIE MELLON ALLOWS FREE USE OF THIS SOFTWARE IN ITS “AS IS” CONDITION. CARNEGIE MELLON DISCLAIMS
ANY LIABILITY OF ANY KIND FOR ANY DAMAGES WHATSOEVER RESULTING FROM THE USE OF THIS SOFTWARE.
Software derived from copyrighted material of The Regents of the University of California, Carnegie Mellon University, and
Network Appliance are subject to the following license and disclaimer:
Redistribution and use in source and binary forms, with or without modification, are permitted provided that the following
conditions are met:
1. Redistributions of source code must retain the above copyright notices, this list of conditions, and the following
disclaimer.
2. Redistributions in binary form must reproduce the above copyright notices, this list of conditions, and the following
disclaimer in the documentation and/or other materials provided with the distribution.
3. All advertising materials mentioning features or use of this software must display the following acknowledgment:
This product includes software developed by the University of California, Berkeley and its contributors.
4. Neither the name of the University nor the names of its contributors may be used to endorse or promote products derived
from this software without specific prior written permission.
THIS SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED BY THE REGENTS AND CONTRIBUTORS “AS IS” AND ANY EXPRESS OR IMPLIED
WARRANTIES, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, THE IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A
PARTICULAR PURPOSE ARE DISCLAIMED. IN NO EVENT SHALL THE REGENTS OR CONTRIBUTORS BE LIABLE FOR ANY
DIRECT, INDIRECT, INCIDENTAL, SPECIAL, EXEMPLARY, OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES (INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED
TO, PROCUREMENT OF SUBSTITUTE GOODS OR SERVICES; LOSS OF USE, DATA, OR PROFITS; OR BUSINESS
INTERRUPTION) HOWEVER CAUSED AND ON ANY THEORY OF LIABILITY, WHETHER IN CONTRACT, STRICT LIABILITY, OR
TORT (INCLUDING NEGLIGENCE OR OTHERWISE) ARISING IN ANY WAY OUT OF THE USE OF THIS SOFTWARE, EVEN IF
ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGE.
Network Appliance reserves the right to change any products described herein at any time, and without notice. Network
Appliance assumes no responsibility or liability arising from the use of products described herein, except as expressly agreed to
in writing by Network Appliance. The use and purchase of this product do not convey a license under any patent rights,
trademark rights, or any other intellectual property rights of Network Appliance.
The product described in this manual may be protected by one or more U.S. patents, foreign patents, or pending applications.
RESTRICTED RIGHTS LEGEND: Use, duplication, or disclosure by the government is subject to restrictions as set forth in
subparagraph (c)(1)(ii) of the Rights in Technical Data and Computer Software clause at DFARS 252.277-7103 (October 1988) and
FAR 52-227-19 (June 1987).
Trademarks used in this text: Dell, the DELL logo, and PowerVault are trademarks of Dell Computer Corporation; Data ONTAP,
SnapMirror, SnapRestore, Snapshot, WAFL, FilerView, and SecureShare are trademarks of Network Appliance, Inc.; MS-DOS,
Microsoft, Windows, and Windows NT are registered trademarks and Windows for Workgroups is a trademark of Microsoft
Corporation; UNIX is a registered trademark of The Open Group in the United States and other countries.
Other trademarks and trade names may be used in this document to refer to either the entities claiming the marks and names or
their products. Dell Computer Corporation disclaims any proprietary interest in trademarks and trade names other than its own.
April 1999
P/N 4385P Rev. A00
3UHIDFH
$ERXW7KLV*XLGH
This guide describes how to configure, operate, and manage Dell PowerVault F720N,
F740N, and F760N filers that run Data ONTAP 5.3 software. The guide is organized in
three parts:
‡
Chapters 1 through 19 describe how to configure, operate, and manage Dell
PowerVault 720N, 740N, and 760N filers.
‡
Appendix A, “Command Reference,” provides the commands that you use to
control a filer.
‡
“Glossary” provides definitions of terms, acronyms, and abbreviations used in
this guide.
$XGLHQFH
This guide is for system administrators who are familiar with operating systems that
run on the filer’s clients, such as UNIX, Microsoft Windows 9x, and Microsoft
Windows NT. It also assumes that you are familiar with how the Network File System
(NFS), Common Internet File System (CIFS), and Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP)
protocols are used for file sharing or transfers. This guide doesn’t cover basic system
or network administration topics, such as Internet Protocol (IP) addressing, routing,
and network topology; it emphasizes the characteristics of the Dell filer.
2WKHU'RFXPHQWV<RX0D\1HHG
Besides this System Administrator and Command Reference Guide, the following
documentation is included with your system:
‡
The Getting Started document provides step-by-step instructions for setting up
your computer system.
‡
‡
The Quick Reference card provides the filer commands and command options.
The Installation and Troubleshooting Guide provides instructions for installing
system hardware and includes troubleshooting and diagnostic procedures for
testing your computer system.
v
‡
The User’s Guide provides instructions for configuring and operating a new filer
that runs Data ONTAP 5.3 software.
You may also have one or more of the following documents.
NOTE: Documentation updates are sometimes included with your system to describe
changes to your system or software. Always read these updates before consulting
any other documentation because the updates often contain the latest information.
‡
Documentation is included with any options you purchase separately from your
system. This documentation includes information that you need to configure and
install these options. Installation instructions for the options are included in the
Installation and Troubleshooting Guide.
‡
Technical information files—sometimes called “readme” files—may be installed
on your root volume to provide last-minute updates about technical changes to
your system or advanced technical reference material intended for experienced
users or technicians.
7HUPLQRORJ\
This guide uses the following terms:
‡
‡
Filer refers to a PowerVault F720N, F740N, or F760N storage system.
System refers, at a minimum, to a filer and a connected PowerVault F700N
Disk-Array Enclosure (DAE) storage system. A tape backup device can also be a
component of the system, but is not required.
1RWDWLRQDO&RQYHQWLRQV
You can enter filer commands on either the system console or from any client computer that can access the filer through telnet.
In examples that illustrate commands executed on a UNIX workstation, this guide
uses the command syntax of SunOS 4.1.x. The command syntax and output might
differ, depending on your version of UNIX.
This guide uses the term “type” to mean pressing one or more keys on the keyboard.
It uses the term “enter” to mean pressing one or more keys and then pressing the
Enter key.
.H\&RPELQDWLRQV
When describing key combinations, this guide uses the hyphen
(-) to separate individual keys. For example, “Ctrl-D” means pressing the “Control”
and “D” keys simultaneously. Also, this guide uses the term “Enter” to refer to the
key that generates a carriage return, although the key is named “Return” on some
keyboards.
vi
7\SRJUDSKLFDO&RQYHQWLRQV
Typographical conventions used in this guide are shown in the following table:
&RQYHQWLRQ
7\SHRI,QIRUPDWLRQ
Italic type
Words or characters that require special attention.
File names.
Placeholders for information you must supply. For
example, if the guide says to enter the arp -d
hostname command, you enter the characters
“arp -d” followed by the actual name of the host.
Man page names.
Book titles in cross-references.
Monospaced font
Command and daemon names.
Information displayed on the system console or
other computer monitors.
The contents of files.
Bold monospaced
font
Words or characters you type. What you type is
always shown in lowercase letters, unless you
must type it in uppercase letters.
6SHFLDO0HVVDJHV
This guide contains special messages that are described as follows:
NOTE: A NOTE contains important information that helps you install or operate the
system efficiently.
&$87,21$&$87,21FRQWDLQVLQVWUXFWLRQVWKDW\RXPXVWIROORZWRDYRLG
GDPDJHWRWKHHTXLSPHQWDV\VWHPFUDVKRUORVVRIGDWD
:$51,1*$:$51,1*FRQWDLQVLQVWUXFWLRQVWKDW\RXPXVWIROORZWRDYRLG
SHUVRQDOLQMXU\
vii
viii
&RQWHQWV
&KDSWHU
,QWURGXFLQJ'HOO)LOHUV About Filers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-1
What a Filer Is . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-1
Components of a Filer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-1
Filer and Filer Main Unit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-1
What a Filer Does. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-1
How You Administer a Filer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-2
Command Execution Through the Filer’s Command Line . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-3
Command Execution Through Windows NT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-3
Configuration File Editing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-3
Command Execution Through FilerView . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-3
About Filer Main Unit Components. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-3
Two Kinds of Components. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-3
Internal Filer Components . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-3
Slots and Ports . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-4
About PowerVault 700N Storage Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-5
PowerVault 700N Storage Systems Contain Disks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-5
PowerVault 700N Storage System Environmental Information . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-5
About Data ONTAP 5.3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-5
Data ONTAP 5.3 Overview. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-5
Data Storage Management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-6
Data Organization Management. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-6
Data Access Management. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-7
Filer Administration With Data ONTAP 5.3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-8
Filer Administration Activities. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-8
Configuring the Filer. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-8
Monitoring and Maintaining Client Access. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-8
Monitoring and Maintaining Network Access . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-8
ix
Monitoring and Maintaining Filer Hardware. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-9
Periodic Administration Tasks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-9
&KDSWHU
)LOHU$GPLQLVWUDWLRQ%DVLFV Overview. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
About This Chapter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Using the Administration Host . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
About the Administration Host . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Administration Host Privileges. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Administration Host Entry in the /etc/hosts.equiv file . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Administration Host as the Mail Host . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Designating a Different Mail Host . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Requirements for Using an NFS Client as the Administration Host . . . . . . . .
Requirements for Using a CIFS Client as the Administration Host . . . . . . . . .
The Root Volume . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
About the Root Volume . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Designating the Root Volume . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
About the Volume Name Prefix . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Syntax to Refer to the Root Volume From NFS Clients. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Editing Configuration Files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
What Editor to Use . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Where Configuration Files Reside . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Choosing an NFS or a CIFS Client . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Editing Files From an NFS Client . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Editing Files From a CIFS Client. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Obtaining Access to the Filer Shell . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Ways to Access the Command Line . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Sharing a Single telnet and Console Session. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
telnet Session Restriction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Closing a telnet Session. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
telnet and Console Password Requirement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
rsh Support . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Commands Accepted From rsh. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Use Ctrl-C to Terminate the Command That Is Running . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Changing the System Password . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Where to Go to Learn More About Security . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
About Multiple Administrative Users . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
What Is an Administrative User? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Multiple Administrative Users Increase Filer Security . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Command to Use to Create Administrative Users. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Ways to Access the Filer Using an Administrative Login Name . . . . . . . . . . .
x
2-1
2-1
2-1
2-1
2-1
2-2
2-2
2-2
2-2
2-2
2-2
2-2
2-3
2-3
2-3
2-3
2-3
2-3
2-3
2-3
2-4
2-5
2-5
2-5
2-5
2-5
2-5
2-5
2-5
2-6
2-6
2-6
2-6
2-6
2-7
2-7
2-7
Creating Administrative Users. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-7
Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-7
Prerequisites . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-7
Restrictions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-7
Steps to Create a New Administrative User Using a Console or Telnet . . . . . 2-8
Step to Create a New Administrative User Using rsh . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-8
Deleting Administrative Users. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-8
Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-8
Caution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-9
Step . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-9
Listing Administrative Users . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-9
Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-9
Step . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-9
Changing an Administrative User Password . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-9
Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-9
Restrictions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-9
Steps to Change an Administrative Password Using a Console
or telnet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-10
Step to Change an Administrative Password Using rsh. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-10
Halting and Rebooting the Filer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-10
Data Storage in NVRAM. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-10
NVRAM Event During Orderly Shutdown . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-10
Procedure to Halt the Filer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-10
Procedure to Boot the Filer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-11
Procedure to Reboot the Filer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-11
Where the Filer Boots From. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-11
Use the Halt Command to Avoid Data Loss. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-11
For More Information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-11
Understanding the Filer Default Configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-12
About the Default Configuration. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-12
Default Exported and Shared Directories . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-12
Default Directories Created . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-12
Permissions for the Default Directories . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-12
Accessing the Directories . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-13
Contents of the etc Directory. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-13
How The /home Directory Is Used. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-14
The /etc/rc File . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-15
How the Filer Uses the /etc/rc File. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-15
Procedure for Editing the /etc/rc File . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-15
Default /etc/rc File Contents. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-16
Explanation of Default /etc/rc Contents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-16
Changing SNMP Commands in /etc/rc. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-18
xi
Naming Conventions for Network Interfaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Interface Types the Filer Supports. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
How Interfaces Are Numbered . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
How Multiple Ports Are Identified . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
How Interfaces Are Named . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Virtual Interface Names . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
About Using Interface Names in Scripts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Filer Host Names . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Host Name Example . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Reasons to Follow a Special Recovery Procedure. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Procedure When the Filer Does Not Boot . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Procedure When Administration Host Cannot Access the Filer . . . . . . . . . .
Core Files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
About Core Files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Core File Storage in /etc/crash. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
What the savecore Command Does . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Core Dump Space Needed . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Message Logging . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
About Message Logging . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
About the syslogd Daemon and the /etc/syslog.conf File . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
The /etc/syslog.conf File Format . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
The facility Parameter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
The level Parameter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
The action Parameter. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Example Line From /etc/syslog.conf . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
The /etc/messages File Restart Schedule . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Checking the /etc/messages File Daily . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Sample /etc/syslog.conf File . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
For More Information. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Configuring Filer Options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Commands to Use to Set Options. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
The options Command . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
What the options Command Does . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Syntax of the options Command . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Example of the options Command . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
The vol options Command . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
vol options Command Configures Volume-Level Behavior . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Syntax of the vol options Command . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Example of the vol options Command. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
xii
2-19
2-19
2-19
2-19
2-19
2-20
2-20
2-20
2-20
2-21
2-21
2-21
2-22
2-22
2-22
2-22
2-22
2-23
2-23
2-23
2-23
2-23
2-24
2-24
2-25
2-25
2-25
2-25
2-26
2-26
2-26
2-26
2-26
2-26
2-26
2-27
2-27
2-27
2-27
Sending Automatic Email . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-27
How Automatic Email Messages Are Controlled. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-27
How the autosupport Daemon Works . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-28
Mail Host Requirement for autosupport. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-28
About Configuring autosupport . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-28
Events That Trigger autosupport Email . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-28
Contents of Automatic Email Messages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-29
Use the options Command to Configure autosupport . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-29
Disabling or Enabling the autosupport Daemon. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-29
Specifying Addresses for autosupport Mail . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-30
Specifying the Filer Administrator’s Address . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-30
Sending an Immediate Message . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-30
Sending a Short Message . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-31
Filer System Time Synchronization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-31
Commands for Synchronizing Time . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-31
Time Synchronization with the rdate Command . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-31
When to Use the rdate Command . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-32
Filer Clock Accuracy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-32
Use of cron jobs to Run rdate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-32
cron job Example . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-32
Time Synchronization With SNTP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-32
When to Use SNTP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-33
List of timed Options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-33
Synchronizing Filer System Time . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-33
Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-33
Prerequisites . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-33
Steps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-34
Using options Command Options to Maintain Filer Security. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-35
What the Options to the options Command Do. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-35
Software Licenses. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-36
About Software Licenses. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-36
Enabling Services . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-36
Displaying Current License Codes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-37
Disabling a License. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-38
Replacing License Codes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-38
&KDSWHU
'LVNDQG)LOH6\VWHP0DQDJHPHQW Disk Concepts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-1
Chapter Contents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-1
Understanding RAID Groups . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-1
About Disk Addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-2
Use Disk Scrubbing to Protect Data From Media Errors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-3
xiii
Understanding Hot Spare Disks. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-4
Understanding Hot Swap. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-4
Understanding Usable Space on Each Disk. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-4
Handling Disk Failures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-4
Effects of Disk Failure on Filer Operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-5
Volume Concepts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-6
Section Contents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-6
Understanding Volumes. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-6
Determining the Number of Volumes to Use . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-7
Planning a Multiple Volume Configuration. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-8
Installing a Foreign Volume . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-8
Procedures for Managing Disks and Volumes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-9
Section Contents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-9
Disk Management Tasks. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-9
About This Section. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-9
Setting the Size of a Volume’s RAID Groups. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-9
Changing the Size of a RAID Group After Creating It . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-9
Installing New Disks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-10
Adding Disks to Volumes. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-10
Removing a Failed Disk . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-10
Removing a Hot Spare Disk. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-10
Removing an Active File System Disk . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-11
Volume Management Tasks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-11
Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-11
Creating Volumes. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-11
After Creating a New Volume . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-12
Adding Disks to a Volume . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-12
Monitoring Volume Status . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-12
Setting Volume Options. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-12
Converting a Mirror Into a Regular Volume . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-12
Making a Volume Inactive . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-13
Reactivating an Off-line Volume. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-13
Adding a Foreign Volume. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-13
Destroying a Volume . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-14
Renaming a Volume. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-14
Handling Volume Failures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-14
File Statistics for Volumes. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-15
How Data ONTAP 5.3 Provides File Statistics. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-15
Information Obtained by the Filestats Command . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-15
The filestats Command Syntax . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-15
Example With No Options Specified . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-15
Use File Statistics for Snapshot Management. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-16
xiv
Example With Ages Option Specified . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-16
Example to Determine Volume Capacity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-17
Getting a File Statistics Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-17
Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-17
Restrictions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-17
Step . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-18
filestats Command Options. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-18
Options to Use With the filestats Command . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-18
About the Ages Option. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-18
Example of the Ages Option . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-18
About the timetype Option. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-19
About the sizes Option. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-19
Example of the Sizes Option . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-19
About the Style Option. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-20
About the expr Option . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-20
Boolean Expressions to Use With the expr Option . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-21
Example of the expr Option . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-21
Volume Reversion Using SnapRestore . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-21
About SnapRestore . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-21
How SnapRestore Works. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-22
What SnapRestore Reverts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-22
Files That SnapRestore Cannot Recover . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-22
How SnapRestore Affects Recent SnapShots. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-22
Typical Applications of SnapRestore . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-22
Considerations Before Using SnapRestore . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-23
How SnapRestore Works With SnapMirror . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-23
Effects of Reverting a Root Volume. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-24
Effects of SnapRestore on Filer Backup and Recovery . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-24
Reverting a Volume to a Selected SnapShot. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-25
Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-25
Prerequisites . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-25
Cautions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-25
Steps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-25
&KDSWHU
1HWZRUN$GPLQLVWUDWLRQ Working With Large Files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-1
About Large Files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-1
Software Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-1
How to Enable NFS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-1
Using SNMP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-2
About SNMP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-2
Data SNMP Provides . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-2
xv
Command to Configure the SNMP Agent . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-2
SNMP Commands Supported by Dell . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-3
About the Dell Custom MIB. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-3
About MIB Group Contents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-4
About Traps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-4
How to Define Traps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-5
Host Name Resolution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-6
How the Filer Resolves Host Names. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-6
Name Resolution Search . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-7
Default Search Order . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-7
Specifying a Search Order . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-7
Example Search Order. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-8
Using the /etc/hosts File for Host Name Resolution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-8
Example . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-8
Using DNS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-9
Disabling DNS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-10
Using NIS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-10
NIS Maps the Filer Uses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-10
Routing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-11
About Filer Routing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-11
Routing Table on the Filer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-12
Specifying Default Routers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-12
Using the routed Daemon to Manage Multiple Routers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-12
Displaying Routing Status . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-13
The /etc/dgateways File. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-13
How the Filer Replies to Requests . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-14
Using ifconfig to Configure an Interface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-15
About the ifconfig Command. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-15
The ifconfig Command Syntax. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-15
Reasons to Use the ifconfig Command. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-15
Changing the Interface’s IP Address, Network Mask, or
Broadcast Address. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-15
Setting the Media Type on an Ethernet Interface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-15
Setting the Maximum Transmission Unit (MTU) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-16
Configuring the Interface Up or Down. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-16
Edit /etc/rc File to Make Changes Persistent After Reboot. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-17
Viewing Interface Configuration Information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-17
EtherChannel Trunking . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-17
Trunks Are a Logical Group of Interfaces. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-17
Synonyms for Trunks. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-17
Interfaces Before Trunking . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-17
Interfaces After Trunking . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-18
Kinds of Trunks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-18
xvi
Two Kinds of Trunks. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-18
Single-Mode Trunks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-19
Multiple-Mode Trunks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-19
Hardware Requirements for Trunks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-20
Virtual Interfaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-20
Trunking Supported by Virtual Interface Feature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-20
Naming Virtual Interfaces. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-20
Trunking Virtual Interfaces. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-21
You Can Trunk Virtual Interfaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-21
Second-Level Interface Configurations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-21
Second-Level Virtual Interfaces on a
Single Filer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-21
Why Use Second-Level Virtual Interfaces on a Single Filer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-21
Example of a Second-Level Virtual Interface on a Single Filer . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-21
Virtual Interface Management. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-22
Use the vif Commands to Manage Virtual Interfaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-22
Put These vif Commands in /etc/rc . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-22
Creating a Single-Mode Trunk . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-23
Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-23
Prerequisites . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-23
Step . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-23
Example . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-23
Specifying a Preferred Link in a Single-Mode Trunk . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-23
Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-23
Step . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-24
Removing a Link From Preferred Status in a Single-Mode Trunk . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-24
Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-24
Step . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-24
Creating a Multiple-Mode Trunk . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-24
Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-24
Prerequisites . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-25
Step . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-25
Example . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-25
Creating a Second-Level Virtual Interface on a Single Filer. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-25
Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-25
Steps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-26
Example . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-26
Adding Physical Interfaces to a Trunk . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-26
Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-26
Step . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-27
xvii
Displaying the Status of a Trunk . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Description. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Step . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Sample Output. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Displaying Trunk Statistics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Description. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Step . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Sample Output. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Destroying a Trunk . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Description. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Prerequisites . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Step . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Database File Protection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
How Data ONTAP 5.3 Provides Database File Protection. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
How to Provide Additional Protection for Database Files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
How nvfail Works. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Where to Look for Database File Verification Instructions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Error Message Example. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Enabling and Disabling Database File Protection With nvfail . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Description. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Step to Enable nvfail . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Step to Disable nvfail . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Using the nvfail_rename File for Additional Database Protection. . . . . . . . . . . . .
Description. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Restrictions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Steps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
&KDSWHU
4-27
4-27
4-27
4-27
4-28
4-28
4-28
4-28
4-29
4-29
4-29
4-29
4-29
4-29
4-29
4-29
4-30
4-30
4-31
4-31
4-31
4-31
4-31
4-31
4-31
4-31
)LOH6KDULQJ%HWZHHQ1)6DQG&,)68VHUV About This Chapter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
About File Sharing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
File-Locking Interactions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
About This Section. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Types of Clients . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Types of Locks. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Managing Symbolic Links for CIFS Access. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
About Symbolic Links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Controlling Access to Symbolic Links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Enabling Symbolic Links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
How to Enable and Disable Symbolic Links. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
How to Redirect Absolute Symbolic Links. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
How to Prevent Symbolic Link Cycling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
xviii
5-1
5-1
5-1
5-1
5-1
5-1
5-2
5-2
5-2
5-2
5-3
5-3
5-4
NFS and CIFS Use of the Read-Only Bit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-4
About Read-only Bits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-4
How NFS Treats the Read-Only Bit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-4
How the Filer Tracks the NFS or CIFS Client Read-Only Bit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-5
Naming Files Used by Both NFS and CIFS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-5
About File Naming Conventions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-5
Maximum Length of File Names . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-5
How the Filer Generates Short 8.3 File Names . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-6
Which Clients Support Short File Names. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-6
Legal Characters Used in File Names . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-6
Case-Sensitivity in File Names . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-7
Languages and Character Sets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-7
File Names, Languages, and Character Sets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-7
File Names Use Character Sets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-7
Every Volume Has a Language. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-7
Language Selection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-7
What a Language Applies to . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-8
Kinds of Character Sets Supported . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-8
Languages Supported . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-9
How to Choose a Language. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-10
Language Procedures. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-11
Displaying a List of Supported Languages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-11
Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-11
Step . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-11
Setting the Console Encoding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-11
Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-11
Step . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-11
Setting the Language of a Volume . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-12
Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-12
Prerequisites . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-12
Caution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-12
Step . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-12
Creating a Volume That Uses a Specified Language. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-12
Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-12
Prerequisites . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-13
Caution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-13
Step . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-13
Displaying Which Volume Uses Which Language. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-13
Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-13
Step . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-13
Sample Output . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-14
xix
CIFS File Name Case . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Case Preservation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Case Conversion Procedures. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Forcing CIFS File Names to Lowercase . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Description. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Step . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Preserving the Case of CIFS File Names . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Description. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Caution. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Step . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Directory Conversion Time . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Directory Conversion Can Take a Considerable Amount of Time . . . . . . . . .
When There Is no Need to Convert. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
How to Speed Up Directory Conversion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Speeding Up Conversion Time by Renaming NFS Directories . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Description. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Step . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
How to Manage UNIX Access to NTFS Files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
UNIX Users Need Windows NT Credentials to Access NTFS Files. . . . . . . .
WAFL Credential Caching . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
How to Manage the WAFL Credential Cache. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
The Default Configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Two Ways to Manage the WAFL Credential Cache . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Global Cache Management Options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
When to Use the wcc Command . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
The wcc Command Syntax . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
The wcc Command Options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Setting How Long Each WAFL Credential Cache Entry Is Valid . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Description. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Step . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Adding An Entry to the WAFL Credential Cache. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Description. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Prerequisites . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Cautions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Step . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Deleting Entries From the WAFL Credential Cache . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Description. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Prerequisites . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Caution. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Step . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
xx
5-14
5-14
5-14
5-14
5-14
5-15
5-15
5-15
5-15
5-15
5-15
5-15
5-15
5-16
5-16
5-16
5-16
5-16
5-16
5-17
5-17
5-17
5-17
5-17
5-17
5-18
5-18
5-19
5-19
5-20
5-20
5-20
5-20
5-20
5-20
5-21
5-21
5-21
5-21
5-21
Displaying WAFL Credential Cache Statistics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-21
Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-21
Step . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-21
Sample Output . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-22
Displaying a Mapping Result for a UNIX Name. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-24
Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-24
Step . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-24
Sample Output . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-24
Displaying a Mapping Result for a Windows Name . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-25
Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-25
Step . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-25
Sample Output . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-25
Toggling CIFS Login Tracing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-26
Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-26
Caution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-26
Step to Turn On CIFS Login Tracing. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-26
Sample Output . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-26
Step to Turn Off CIFS Login Tracing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-26
&KDSWHU
1)6$GPLQLVWUDWLRQ Managing NFS Exports . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-1
Introducing the /etc/exports File . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-1
/etc/exports Controls Client Access to Directories. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-1
Format for /etc/exports Entries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-1
Filer Directory Path Format . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-1
Export Specification Determines Access Privileges. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-2
One keyword is required. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-2
What the list variable represents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-2
You can combine elements in an entry. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-2
Example 1: exporting default filer volume to administration host. . . . . . . 6-2
Example 2: exporting home directory to administration
host and clients. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-2
Rules For Exporting Volumes And Directories . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-3
Export Each Volume Separately . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-3
Example . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-3
Nonexample . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-3
Filer Must Resolve Host Names . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-3
Cannot Restrict Access By Host . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-3
You Can Export Ancestors and Descendants. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-3
Example . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-4
Nonexample . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-4
xxi
Filer Determines Permissions by Matching Longest Prefix. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-4
Example . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-4
Edit /etc/exports After Changing Volume Names . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-4
Default /etc/exports Entries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-5
/vol/vol0 and /vol/vol0 home Are Exported by Default. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-5
Example of Default exportfs File . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-5
Restricting Access to Volumes and Directories . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-5
Use Export Options to Restrict Directory Access . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-5
Restricting Access to /home . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-6
The -access Option . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-6
Syntax . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-6
Limits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-6
The -root Option. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-6
Syntax . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-6
Limits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-6
Restrictions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-6
The -rw Option. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-7
Syntax . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-7
Limits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-7
Restrictions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-7
The -ro Option . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-7
Syntax . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-7
The exportfs Command . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-7
Using the exportfs Command . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-7
Syntax . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-7
Canceling All Exports . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-8
Updating Exports Through /etc/exports . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-8
The /etc/netgroup File . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-9
The /etc/netgroup File Defines Groups of Clients . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-9
Syntax . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-9
Limits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-9
Member-list syntax. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-9
Restrictions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-9
Changes Take Effect Immediately. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-9
Example of /etc/netgroups. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-10
Example of /etc/exports Using Netgroups. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-10
Copy /etc/netgroup When Filer Doesn’t Use NIS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-10
Must copy NIS netgroup file. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-10
Automating copying with a Makefile . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-10
Example Makefile . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-10
Exporting to Subnets. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-11
About Exporting to Subnets. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-11
Valid Export Options for Subnets. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-11
xxii
Format for IP Subnet Addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-11
Export to a Subnet as You Do to a Client. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-11
Example:root access: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-11
Example 2: read/write access . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-12
Example 3: equivalent methods for exporting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-12
Configuring a Filer for WebNFS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-12
About Configuring a Filer for WebNFS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-12
The Filer Can Respond to NFS Requests From Browsers. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-12
Web Browser Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-12
Advantages of WebNFS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-12
How WebNFS Restricts File Access . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-12
Setting Up WebNFS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-13
Procedure for Setting Up WebNFS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-13
Example of Specifying WebNFS Root Directory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-13
Managing WebNFS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-14
Tasks You Can Perform . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-14
Changing the Root Directory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-14
Disabling the Root Directory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-14
Turning Off WebNFS Service. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-14
Displaying NFS Statistics. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-15
About Displaying NFS Statistics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-15
The nfsstat Command Displays NFS and RPC Statistics. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-15
Syntax. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-15
Options. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-15
Example: no options. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-16
Example: using the -l option. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-17
Example: using the -h option . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-17
Example: resetting counters with the -z option . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-18
&KDSWHU
&,)6$GPLQLVWUDWLRQ What Is CIFS?. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-1
What You Can Do Only From the Filer Command Line or FilerView . . . . . . . . 7-1
Effects of Renaming a Volume on Shares . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-1
Scope of This Chapter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-1
CIFS limitations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-2
Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-2
User Manager Limitations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-2
Server Manager Limitations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-2
Limits on CIFS Open Files, Sessions, and Shares. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-2
Limits for the Dell PowerVault 720N, 740N, and 760N . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-2
Changing or Viewing the Filer’s Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-2
When to Change or View a Filer’s Description. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-2
xxiii
Changing a Filer’s Description From Server Manager . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-3
Viewing a Filer’s Description From the Filer Command Line. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-3
Changing a Filer’s Description From the Filer Command Line. . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-3
Adding CIFS Users to the Filer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-3
When You Add CIFS Users . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-3
When Authenticating With a Domain Controller . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-4
What is the /etc/usermap.cfg file? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-4
Format of the /etc/usermap.cfg file . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-4
Format variables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-4
The following symbol conventions are in effect: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-5
Name requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-6
Default file contents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-6
When Authenticating With the UNIX Password Database . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-6
Adding Local Groups to the Filer. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-6
How to Add a Local Group. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-6
Adding a Group With the New Local Group Window . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-6
Using CIFS Commands With a Remote Shell Program . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-7
What You Can Use a Remote Shell Program for. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-7
UNIX Example . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-8
Automating Access Rights. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-8
Required Information in hosts.equiv File . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-8
Enabling Guest and Generic Access . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-8
Two Ways to Give Access to Unauthenticated or Occasional Users . . . . . . . 7-8
Guest Accounts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-8
Setting Up a Guest Account . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-9
Disabling Guest Access . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-9
Generic User Accounts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-9
Who Can Use the Generic User Account . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-9
Setting Up a Generic User Account . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-10
Disabling generic user access . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-10
Displaying a Filer’s Shares . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-10
Ways to Share Folders. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-10
Using Server Manager to Display a Filer’s Shares. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-10
Using the cifs shares Command to Display a Filer’s Shares . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-11
Command Syntax . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-11
Example of Displaying a filer’s Shares . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-11
Creating and Changing a Share . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-12
Ways to Share Folders. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-12
Creating a Share From Server Manager. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-12
Changing the Share Description and User Limit With Server Manager. . . . . 7-13
Creating a Share With the cifs shares Command . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-13
Example . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-14
Using the cifs shares Command to Change the Share . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-15
xxiv
Displaying Information About Shares . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-15
Methods of Displaying Information About Shares . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-15
Using Server Manager to View Information About Shares . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-16
Using the cifs Shares Command to View Information About Shares. . . . . . . 7-16
Examples of Displaying Share Information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-16
Deleting a Share . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-17
How to Delete a Share. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-17
Using Server Manager to Delete a Share. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-17
Using the cifs shares Command to Delete Shares . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-18
Command Syntax . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-18
Example . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-18
Creating a Home Share for Each User. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-18
When to Create a Home Directory. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-18
Accessing a Home Directory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-18
Share Name Length Limitations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-19
Creating a Share Containing User Home Directories. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-19
Creating Share Home Directories. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-19
Example From the Filer. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-20
Result . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-20
Assigning and Changing Access Rights . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-20
When to Assign or Change Access Rights. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-20
Methods of Assigning or Changing Access Rights to a Share. . . . . . . . . . . . 7-20
Assigning or Changing Access Rights With Server Manager. . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-21
Giving Access With the cifs access Command . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-22
Command syntax . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-22
Examples. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-22
Removing a User or Group With the cifs access -delete Command . . . . . . . 7-23
Displaying Access Rights to an NTFS File. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-23
Access Rights Display Methods. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-23
Displaying Access Rights From the Windows Desktop. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-23
Changing UNIX Permissions and DOS Attributes From Windows . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-23
How to change UNIX permissions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-23
Displaying SecureShare Access. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-24
Changing the Permissions of a Single Item . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-24
qtree Security Style Effects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-24
Recursive Application of Changes. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-25
Changing the Permissions of Multiple Items . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-25
Sending a Message to All Users on a Filer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-25
When to Send a Message . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-25
How to Send the Message . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-25
Event Auditing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-26
You Can Audit File Access Events . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-26
Why Use Event Auditing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-26
xxv
Active Event Log Naming . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Log Access . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Event Log Detail Displays . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
How to Examine an Event in Detail . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Windows File Access Detail Displays . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
UNIX File Access Detail Displays. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Unsuccessful File Access Detail Display . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Lost Record Event Detail Display. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Event Auditing Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Description. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Steps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Enabling CIFS Access Logging . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Description. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Step . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Disabling CIFS Access Logging. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Description. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Step . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Specifying the Active Event Log . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Description. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Prerequisites . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Step . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Setting a System ACL on a File. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Description. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Prerequisites . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Steps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Viewing Events in a Security Log . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Description. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Prerequisites . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Steps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Using Oplocks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
What Oplocks Do. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
When to Use Oplocks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Data Loss Possibilities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Error Handling And Write Completion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
When to Turn Oplocks Off. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Turning Oplocks On and Off Globally. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Turning Oplocks Off . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Turning Oplocks On . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Turning Oplocks On or Off at Individual Clients. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
For Additional Information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
xxvi
7-26
7-26
7-27
7-27
7-27
7-28
7-28
7-28
7-29
7-29
7-29
7-29
7-29
7-29
7-29
7-29
7-30
7-30
7-30
7-30
7-30
7-30
7-30
7-30
7-31
7-32
7-32
7-32
7-32
7-33
7-33
7-33
7-33
7-33
7-33
7-34
7-34
7-34
7-34
7-34
Displaying CIFS Statistics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-34
How and Why to Display CIFS Statistics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-34
Statistics Displays With the cifs stat Command . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-34
Example Of cifs stat Output . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-35
Displaying CIFS Session Information. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-35
CIFS Session Information You Can Display . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-35
Displaying Information With the cifs sessions Command . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-35
Displaying Information About All Connected Users . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-35
Displaying Information About One User . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-36
Displaying Connected User Security Information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-36
Stopping and Restarting CIFS Sessions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-37
Ways to Stop CIFS Sessions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-37
Disconnecting Users With Server Manager. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-37
Using the cifs terminate Command . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-38
The cifs terminate Command Not Persistent. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-38
Time Delay . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-38
Default Time Delay . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-38
Changing the Time Delay . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-39
Canceling the cifs terminate Command. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-39
Examples of the cifs terminate Command. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-39
Terminating CIFS Service for All Users on the Filer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-39
Console Display. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-39
Terminating a CIFS Session for a Specific Client . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-40
Using the cifs restart Command to Restart CIFS Service . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-40
Reconfiguring the Filer for CIFS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-40
When to Reconfigure a Filer for CIFS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-40
How to Reconfigure a Filer for CIFS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-40
&KDSWHU
+773$GPLQLVWUDWLRQ Starting HTTP Service . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-1
Procedure for Starting HTTP Service . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-1
Procedure for Testing HTTP Service . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-2
Protecting Web Pages With Passwords . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-2
Configuration Files for Password Protection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-2
The /etc/httpd.access File . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-3
The Directory Directive . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-3
The AuthName Directive. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-3
The Require User Directive. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-3
The Require Group Directive. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-3
The /etc/httpd.passwd File. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-3
The /etc/httpd.group File . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-4
Web Page Protection Examples. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-4
xxvii
Using the HTTP Virtual Firewall. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-5
About the HTTP Virtual Firewall. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-5
Syntax . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-5
Using Virtual Hosting. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-5
About Virtual Hosting. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-5
To Set Up and Enable Virtual Hosting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-5
Directing HTTP Requests. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-6
Mapping Virtual Host Addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-6
Specifying MIME Content-Type Values . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-7
About MIME Content-Type Values . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-7
Modifying MIME Content-Type Mappings. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-7
Translating URLs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-8
How the Filer Responds to URLs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-8
Translation Rules Supported by the Filer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-8
The Map Rule . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-8
The Redirect Rule . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-9
The Pass Rule. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-9
The Fail Rule . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-9
How the Filer Processes Rules . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-9
Displaying HTTP Connection Information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-10
Information in the /etc/log/httpd.log File . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-10
Displaying HTTP Statistics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-11
httpstat Statistic Types . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-11
Syntax . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-11
&KDSWHU
6QDSVKRWV Understanding Snapshots. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
What Is a Snapshot? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Accessing Snapshots. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Simplifying Tape Backup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Snapshots Use Little Disk Space. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Creating Snapshots for Your Needs. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Snapshots Maintain Original File Permissions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
How Snapshots Work . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Example . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Diagram of a Snapshot. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Snapshot Commands and Options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Snapshot Commands. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Snapshot Options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Automatic Snapshot Creation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Types of Automatic Snapshots. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Example 1 of snap sched Command . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
xxviii
9-1
9-1
9-1
9-1
9-1
9-1
9-2
9-2
9-2
9-2
9-4
9-4
9-4
9-5
9-5
9-6
Example 2 of snap sched Command . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-6
Snapshots Created by This Schedule . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-6
Result . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-7
User-Defined Automatic Snapshots. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-7
Example . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-8
Understanding Snapshot Disk Consumption. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-8
About Snapshot Disk Consumption . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-8
Disk Consumption by Multiple Identical Snapshots. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-8
Using the df Command to Display Snapshot Use . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-8
Sample df command output . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-8
How the Snapshot Reserve Works . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-9
Snapshots Use Deleted Active File Disk Space . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-9
Administering Snapshot Disk Space . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-10
Explanation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-10
Recovering Disk Space for File System Use. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-10
Example . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-10
Effects of Snapshots on Quotas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-11
Managing Snapshot Disk Consumption . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-11
About Snapshot Management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-11
Scheduling Snapshots . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-11
Displaying Snapshot Statistics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-12
Command Output. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-12
The %/Used Column. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-12
The %/Total Column . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-13
Output Summary. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-13
Changing the Snapshot Reserve . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-14
Adjusting Disk Space Used by Snapshots . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-14
Example . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-14
Accessing Snapshots From Clients. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-16
About Client Access to Snapshots. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-16
NFS Client Access to Snapshots . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-16
Explanation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-16
CIFS Client Access to Snapshots. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-17
Determining Snapshot Versions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-18
From an NFS client . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-18
From a CIFS Client . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-18
Determining Access Times . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-18
From an NFS client . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-18
From a CIFS client. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-18
xxix
&KDSWHU
TWUHH$GPLQLVWUDWLRQ About qtrees . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
qtree Parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Volumes and qtrees . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Uses of qtrees . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Using qtrees . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
What You Can Do With qtrees. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Using a qtree for a Project . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Using a qtree for Backups . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
qtree and Volume Defaults . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Moving Files Between qtrees . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
qtree Security Styles. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Types of Security Styles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
qtree Security Styles in Detail . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
qtree File Access Models . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Kinds of File Access Models . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
CIFS Access to Windows Files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
CIFS Access to UNIX Files. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
NFS Access to Windows Files. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
NFS Access to UNIX Files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Creating a qtree. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
How to Create a qtree . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Result . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Creating a qtree in the Root Volume . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Creating a qtree in a Volume Other Than the Root Volume. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Modifying the Security Style of a qtree. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
When to Change the Security Style of a qtree . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
How to Change the Security Style of a qtree . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Example With a qtree . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Example With a Volume . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Modifying qtree Oplocks Settings. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
When to Change Oplocks Settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Changing Oplocks Settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Example With A qtree. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Example With A Volume. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Effect of the cifs.oplocks.enable Option . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Displaying qtree Information. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
How to Display qtree Information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
The qtree Command Display . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Example qtree Display . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Explanation of Example qtree Display . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
xxx
10-1
10-1
10-1
10-1
10-2
10-2
10-2
10-2
10-2
10-3
10-3
10-3
10-3
10-5
10-5
10-5
10-5
10-5
10-6
10-6
10-6
10-6
10-6
10-6
10-7
10-7
10-7
10-7
10-7
10-7
10-7
10-8
10-8
10-8
10-8
10-8
10-8
10-9
10-9
10-9
&KDSWHU
4XRWDVDQG0D[LPXP1XPEHURI)LOHV Restricting or Tracking Disk Usage by Using Disk Quotas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-1
About Disk Quotas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-1
Format of the Quotas File . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-1
Quota Target Field. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-2
Quota Target for a User Quota . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-2
Quota Target for a Group Quota . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-2
Quota Target for a Tree Quota . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-2
Quota Target for Default Quotas. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-2
Type Field . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-3
Disk Field. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-3
Files Field . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-3
Sample Quotas File . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-4
The Quota Command. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-5
Enabling or Disabling Quotas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-5
Resizing Quotas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-6
How Quota Resize Affects Newly Added Quota Targets. . . . . . . . . . . . 11-6
Creating an Active Quota for a Quota Target . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-6
Displaying Information About Quotas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-7
Creating a User Quota . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-7
Creating a Group Quota . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-8
Removing Quota Restrictions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-8
When Quotas Are Exceeded . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-9
Messages Displayed by the Filer When Quotas Are Exceeded . . . . . . . 11-9
Messages Displayed on NFS Clients . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-9
Messages Displayed on CIFS Clients . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-10
Increasing the Maximum Number of Files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-10
About Increasing the Maximum Number of Files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-10
Viewing the Number of Files in a Volume . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-10
The df Command. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-11
About the df Command . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-11
Using the df Command With qtrees . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-11
&KDSWHU
'DWD%DFNXS Introduction to Data Backup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-1
Meaning of Data Backup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-1
Why You Want to Back Up Data From Disk to Tape . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-1
Different Methods for Backing Up the Filer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-1
How the dump Command Works . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-2
Purpose of the dump Command . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-2
What the dump Command Can Back Up . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-2
How the dump Command Uses Snapshots to Back Up Data . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-2
xxxi
Metadata Being Backed Up . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-2
How to Exclude Certain Types of Data From the Backup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-3
Windows NT ACLs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-3
Exclude List . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-3
Devices Used by the Dump Command . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-3
Incremental Backups . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-4
Where to Enter the Dump Command . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-4
Benefits of Entering the dump Command Through rsh. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-4
Benefits of Entering the dump Command on the Console . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-4
Format of the Backup Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-5
About This Section. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-5
Backup Data Format . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-5
Five Passes of the dump Command . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-5
Example . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-5
How the dump Command Writes and Stores Data on Tape. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-6
About This Section. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-6
Meaning of Tape Block . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-6
Meaning of Tape File . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-6
When the Dump Command Writes to Multiple Tape Files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-6
Different Types of Tape Files. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-7
Determining the Amount of Backup Data. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-7
Description. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-7
Step for Estimating the Amount of Data If You Back Up A qtree . . . . . . . . . 12-7
Steps for Estimating the Amount of Data if You Back Up Data
Not In A qtree . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-8
If the Filer Is Mounted on an NFS Client . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-8
If the Filer Is Shared by a CIFS Client . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-8
Determining the Number of Tapes for the Backup. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-8
Description. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-8
Prerequisites . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-9
Steps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-9
Prerequisites for the dump Command . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-9
About This Section. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-9
General Prerequisites. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-10
Prerequisites for Backing Up to a Nonqualified Tape Drive. . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-10
Prerequisites for Backing Up to a Remote Tape Drive . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-10
Recommendations for Performing a Backup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-11
About This Section. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-11
General Recommendations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-11
Avoid Backing Up Too Much Data in a Single Dump Command . . . . . 12-11
Store Incremental Backups for the Same Dump Path
on the Same Tape. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-11
Write Down Qtree Information Before Backing Up qtrees. . . . . . . . . . 12-11
xxxii
Recommendations for Minimizing Backup Time and Data Loss . . . . . . . . . 12-11
Use Multiple Local Tape Drives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-12
Organize Data to be Backed Up . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-12
Limit the Amount of Data in Each Backup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-12
Schedule the Backups Appropriately . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-12
Avoid Using an Exclude List . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-12
Recommendations for Minimizing Downtime During Data Recovery . . . . . 12-12
Recommendations for Minimizing the Number of
Tape Drives Required. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-12
The dump Command Syntax. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-13
Command Syntax. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-13
Rules for Entering the dump Command. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-13
Example of a Simple dump Command. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-13
Options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-13
Arguments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-13
Path . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-14
Descriptions of dump Options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-14
Using the dump Command to Back Up Data to Tape . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-15
Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-15
Prerequisites . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-16
Restrictions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-16
Steps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-16
Examples of Level-0 Backups to a Local Tape File. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-16
Examples of Backups to a Remote Tape File. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-16
Example of an Incremental Backup to a Local Tape Drive. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-17
Examples of Backups to Multiple Tape Files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-17
Example of Backing Up a Directory From a Snapshot . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-17
Example of Backups to a Tape Stacker . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-17
Example of Backing Up Multiple Files or Directories in
One dump Command. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-17
Example of Backing Up Data Without ACLs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-18
Example of Specifying a Blocking Factor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-18
Example of Specifying a Tape File Size . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-18
Example of Excluding Files From a Backup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-19
Example of Backing Up to a Tape Stacker Shared by Multiple Filers. . . . . . 12-19
Example of Backing Up the Entire Filer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-21
&KDSWHU
'DWD5HFRYHU\ Introduction to Data Recovery. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-1
Why You Want to Restore Data From Tape. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-1
Files Were Deleted From Disk but Backed Up to Tape . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-1
Files Are Corrupted . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-1
xxxiii
No Disk Slots Are Available for Expansion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-1
The Entire Filer Is Damaged and Unusable. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-1
When You Do Not Recover Data From Tape. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-2
Different Methods for Recovering Data. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-2
What Data Cannot Be Recovered . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-2
UNIX FIle Permissions and Windows NT ACLs. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-2
Scope of This Chapter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-2
The restore Command Syntax . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-2
The restore Command Syntax . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-2
Rules for Using the restore Command . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-3
The restore Command Function Keys . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-3
The restore Command options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-3
Using the restore Command. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-4
Description. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-4
Restrictions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-4
The i Function Key of the Solaris Ufsrestore Command. . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-5
Incremental-Only Restores. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-5
Parallel Restores. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-5
Prerequisites . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-5
Where to Enter the restore Command . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-5
Steps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-6
Performing a Full Restore of a Volume Containing qtrees . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-6
Description. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-6
Steps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-6
Examples of the restore Command . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-7
Example of Restoring a Subtree . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-7
Example of Restoring the Entire Filer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-8
If There Is One Backup for Each Volume . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-8
If Each Volume Was Backed Up as Subtrees or qtrees . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-8
Examples of Restoring From Multiple Tapes. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-9
Restoring the Volume to a Directory From Multiple Tapes
Using Two Tape Drives: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-9
Restoring a Volume to a Directory From Multiple Tapes
Using One Tape Drive. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-9
Example of Restoring a Named File From Multiple Tapes. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-9
Example . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-9
Example . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-10
Example of Listing Files. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-10
Restarting the restore Command . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-10
Description. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-10
Restrictions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-11
Steps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-11
Example . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-11
xxxiv
How to Use a Filer Tape Drive to Restore Files to Another System. . . . . . . . . . 13-12
About This Section . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-12
Requirements. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-12
Format for Specifying Filer Tape Drive. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-12
&KDSWHU
7DSH'HYLFH0DQDJHPHQW Introduction to Tape Device Management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14-1
Why You Want to Manage a Tape Device . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14-1
Scope of This Chapter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14-1
How the Filer Displays Information About Various Tape Drives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14-1
Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14-1
Qualified Tape Drives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14-1
Displaying Tape Device Information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14-2
Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14-2
Step for Displaying Information About Qualified Tape Devices . . . . . . . . . . . 14-2
Steps for Displaying Nonqualified Tape Devices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14-2
Steps for Displaying Information About Tape Stackers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14-2
Displaying Tape Device Information Along With Other Filer Information. . . . 14-3
Example of the sysconfig -t Command for a Qualified Tape Drive. . . . . . . . . 14-3
Examples Of the sysconfig -t Command for a Nonqualified Tape Drive . . . . 14-3
Example of the sysconfig -m Command . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14-3
Example of the sysconfig -v Command . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14-4
Using the mt Command to Control Tape Devices. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14-4
The mt Command Syntax. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14-4
Moving a Tape to the End of Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14-4
Appending a Dump. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14-5
Rewinding a Tape. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14-5
Taking a Tape Drive Off-Line . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14-5
Displaying Status Information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14-5
&KDSWHU
9ROXPH&RS\8VLQJWKHYROFRS\&RPPDQG6HW About This Chapter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-1
Overview of Volume Copy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-1
Introduction to the Filer’s Commands for Copying Volumes. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-1
Purposes of the vol copy Command Set . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-1
When to Copy Volumes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-1
Benefits of the vol copy Command Set . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-2
Requirements and Recommendation For Copying a Volume . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-3
Requirements for Copying a Volume . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-3
Verifying the Status of Each Volume . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-3
Checking the Status of a Volume . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-3
Changing the Status of a Volume . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-3
xxxv
Verifying the Size of Each Volume. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-4
Verifying the Contents of the Destination Volume . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-4
Verifying the Relationship Between Filers. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-4
Verifying Localhost as a Trusted Host . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-4
Recommendation for Copying a Volume . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-4
Details About Copying One Volume to Another . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-5
Command Syntax for Copying One Volume to Another . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-5
Specifying the Snapshots to Copy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-5
Specifying the Volumes Involved in the Copy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-5
Where to Enter the vol copy start Command . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-6
Examples of the vol copy start Command. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-6
Results of the vol copy start Command. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-6
Volume Copy Operations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-6
When to Use the Volume Copy Operation Number. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-7
Screen Messages From the vol copy Command . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-7
Maximum Number of Simultaneous Volume Copy Operations. . . . . . . . . . . 15-7
Example . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-7
Example . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-7
Possible Errors. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-8
Management of a Volume Copy Operation When it Is in Progress . . . . . . . . . . . 15-8
Checking the Status of a Volume Copy Operation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-8
Where to Enter the vol copy status Command . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-9
Example of a vol copy status Command . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-9
Aborting a Volume Copy Operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-10
Controlling the Speed of a Volume Copy Operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-10
Displaying the Default Speed for Copying a Volume. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-11
Example of Controlling the Speed of Copying a Volume. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-11
&KDSWHU
'DWD5HSOLFDWLRQ8VLQJ6QDS0LUURU About This Chapter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Overview of SnapMirror. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Purposes of SnapMirror . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Why You Want to Replicate a Volume. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
How SnapMirror Works . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Command and Configuration File for Controlling SnapMirror . . . . . . . . . . . .
How the Filer Creates a Baseline Version of the Mirror . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
How the Filer Updates the Mirror . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Number of Volume Copy Operations SnapMirror Generates . . . . . . . . . . . .
What Happens After You Replicate a Volume . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Differences Between a Mirror and a Regular Volume. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Snapshots Created During Data Replication . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Naming Conventions for Snapshots Used by SnapMirror . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
xxxvi
16-1
16-1
16-1
16-1
16-2
16-2
16-2
16-3
16-3
16-3
16-3
16-4
16-4
Example . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-4
Consequences of Deleting a Required Snapshot. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-5
How SnapMirror Works With Quotas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-6
Quotas on the Mirror . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-6
How to Apply the Same Quota Restrictions on the Former Mirror . . . . . . . . 16-6
How SnapMirror Works With the Dump Command . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-6
How to Back Up Data in the Mirror . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-6
Effect of the Dump Command on the Mirror Update Schedule. . . . . . . . . . . 16-6
The /etc/snapmirror.allow File . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-7
Purpose of the snapmirror.allow File . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-7
When You Can Modify the snapmirror.allow File. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-7
Format of the snapmirror.allow File . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-7
Example . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-7
Example . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-7
The /etc/snapmirror.conf File. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-8
Purpose of the snapmirror.conf File. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-8
When You Can Modify the snapmirror.conf File . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-8
Format of the snapmirror.conf File. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-8
Meaning of Each Field in asnapmirror.conf Entry. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-8
Rules for Specifying the Update Schedule. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-9
Example . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-9
When Changes to snapmirror.conf Take Effect . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-9
Recommendation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-9
Replicating a Volume. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-9
Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-9
Prerequisites . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-10
Restrictions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-10
Cautions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-10
Recommendations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-10
Steps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-11
Disabling Data Replication for the Entire Filer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-12
Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-12
Steps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-12
Resuming Data Replication for the Entire Filer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-13
Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-13
Prerequisites . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-13
Step . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-13
Disabling Data Replication for One Volume. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-13
Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-13
Steps to Disable Data Replication for One Volume . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-14
Steps to Disable Data Replication While Data Transfer Is in Progress. . . . . 16-14
xxxvii
Checking Data Replication Status . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Description. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Prerequisite . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Step . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Examples . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
When No Data Replication Is in Progress. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
When Data Replicating Is in Progress . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Converting a Mirror to a Regular Volume . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Description. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Prerequisite . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Steps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Differences Between the vol copy Command and SnapMirror . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Differences . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
&KDSWHU
16-14
16-14
16-14
16-15
16-15
16-15
16-15
16-15
16-15
16-16
16-16
16-16
16-16
6\VWHP,QIRUPDWLRQDQG3HUIRUPDQFH Displaying the Data ONTAP Version . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
How to Display the Data ONTAP Version . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Displaying Filer Configuration Information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Use the sysconfig Command. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Displaying Disk Information Using sysconfig -d. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Displaying RAID Information Using sysconfig -r . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Displaying Tape Drive Information Using sysconfig -t . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Displaying Overall Filer Information Using sysconfig -v. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Displaying Overall Filer Information Using sysconfig. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Displaying Volume Information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Use the Vol status Command . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Displaying Volume State Information With Vol Status. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Displaying Disk Information Using Vol status -d . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Displaying RAID Information Using Vol status -r . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Displaying RAID Information for Each Group Using Vol status -v . . . . . . . . .
Displaying Filer Statistics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Use the sysstat and uptime Commands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
About the sysstat Command . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
About the uptime Command . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Example . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Displaying Network Statistics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Use the netstat Command. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
About the netstat Command . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Displaying Interface Statistics. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Use the ifstat Command . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
ifstat Syntax . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
xxxviii
17-1
17-1
17-1
17-1
17-1
17-1
17-2
17-2
17-2
17-2
17-2
17-2
17-2
17-3
17-3
17-3
17-3
17-3
17-4
17-4
17-4
17-4
17-4
17-4
17-4
17-4
Explanation of Interface Statistics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17-5
Ethernet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17-5
GB Ethernet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17-7
Improving Filer Performance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17-8
About This Section . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17-8
Limiting Directory File Size. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17-8
Balancing NFS Traffic on Network Interfaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17-9
Avoiding Access Time Update for Inodes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17-9
Improving Performance on Directory Lookups. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17-9
Improving Read-Ahead Performance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17-9
&KDSWHU
7URXEOHVKRRWLQJ Getting Technical Assistance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18-1
Information to Note Before Calling for Support . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18-1
How to Contact Dell. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18-1
Booting From System Boot Diskette. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18-1
Boot From Diskette To Correct Some Types of Problems. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18-1
Procedure for Booting From Diskette . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18-2
Restarting a Shut Down Filer. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18-3
Procedure for Restarting Filer After Unexpected Shutdown . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18-3
NVRAM Problem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18-3
How the Filer Handles Inconsistent NVRAM Contents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18-3
Inconsistency Due to Improperly Updated Volume . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18-3
Inconsistency Due to Log Updates for Off-line Volume . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18-4
Inconsistency Due to Other Reasons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18-4
Volume Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18-4
Types of Volume Problems Described. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18-4
Failed Mounts and Stale File Handles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18-4
Changing Volume Names Can Cause Mount and File Handle Problems. . . . 18-4
Procedure for Fixing the /etc/exports Problem. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18-4
Volume Name Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18-5
Volume Naming Rules . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18-5
Examples of Volume Names . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18-5
Error Messages About Volume Names . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18-5
Disk Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18-5
Types of Disk Problems Described . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18-5
Disk Failure Without a Hot Spare Disk . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18-6
About This Section . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18-6
Filer Runs in Degraded Mode. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18-6
Filer Logs Warning Messages in /etc/messages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18-6
Filer Shuts Down Automatically After 24 Hours. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18-6
Filer Reconstructs Data After Disk Is Replaced . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18-6
xxxix
Disk Failure With a Hot Spare Disk . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18-6
About This Section. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18-6
Filer Replaces Disk With Spare and Reconstructs Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18-7
Related Information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18-7
Disk Errors. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18-7
Types of Disk Errors Described . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18-7
Error Message: Nonexistent Disks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18-7
Error Message: Disk in Use . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18-7
Error Message: System Cannot Boot Because Disks Are Missing . . . . . . . . 18-8
Inconsistent File System. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18-8
Inconsistencies Seldom Occur . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18-8
Contact Technical Support if an Inconsistency Occurs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18-8
Disk Operations in Maintenance Mode. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18-9
Maintenance Mode Operations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18-9
Displaying Detailed Disk Information. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18-9
Checking Access to a Disk. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18-9
Erasing a Disk Label. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18-9
Configuration Problems. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18-10
The /etc/rc, /etc/exports, and /etc/hosts Files Can Contain Errors. . . . . . . . 18-10
What to Do When the Filer Is Not Accessible From the
Administration Host . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18-10
Filer Runs Setup When /etc/rc Is Damaged or Missing. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18-10
How to Recover From Configuration Errors if NFS Is the
Only Licensed Protocol . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18-11
How to Reset the Filer Password . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18-11
Reset the Password if You Forget It . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18-11
Procedure for Resetting the Password . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18-11
How to Initialize All Disks and Create a New File System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18-12
Initializing All Disks Erases All Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18-12
Procedure for Initializing All Disks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18-12
Network Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18-12
Detect Network Problems Using ping at the Filer Console. . . . . . . . . . . . . 18-12
What the ping Command Does . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18-13
How to Troubleshoot Network Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18-13
Contact Technical Support About Other Network Problem. . . . . . . . . . . . . 18-13
NFS Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18-14
Client’s Inability To Mount Directories Indicates NFS Problems . . . . . . . . . 18-14
How to Troubleshoot NFS Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18-14
Windows Access Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18-15
Kinds of Access Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18-15
Preliminary Troubleshooting Steps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18-15
xl
Filer Can’t Register With the Windows NT Domain. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18-15
Using WINS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18-15
Not Using WINS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18-16
Incorrect Password or Unknown Username . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18-17
Users Cannot Map a Drive . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18-17
UNIX cpio Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18-17
The cpio Version Should Support 32-bit Inode Definition Numbers. . . . . . . 18-17
Why the Problem Occurs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18-18
Ask UNIX Provider Whether cpio Version Supports 32-bit Inode
Definition Numbers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18-18
UNIX df Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18-18
The df Version Must Support Large File Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18-18
Enable NFS Option to Avoid Displaying Useless Data. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18-18
DOS, Windows, and Macintosh Clients Might Have Display Problem . . . . 18-18
Filer df Command Always Shows Correct Disk Space. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18-18
qtrees Affect Disk Space Displayed by df . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18-19
Filer Quota Report Command Always Displays Correct Usage . . . . . . . . . . 18-19
Serious Error Messages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18-19
Panic Messages Mean Serious Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18-19
What to Do After a Panic Message . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18-19
&KDSWHU
'HWDLOHG2SWLRQV,QIRUPDWLRQ About options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19-1
About Setting Detailed Information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19-1
Option Values. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19-1
Autosupport Options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19-1
What the Autosupport Options Do. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19-1
The autosupport.doit Option . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19-2
Default. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19-2
Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19-2
The autosupport.enable Option . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19-2
Default. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19-2
Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19-2
The autosupport.from Option. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19-2
Default. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19-2
Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19-2
The autosupport. mailhost Option . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19-2
Default. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19-2
Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19-2
The autosupport.noteto Option . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19-3
Default. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19-3
Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19-3
xli
CIFS Options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
What the CIFS Options Do . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
The cifs.access_logging_enable Option. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Default . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
The cifs.access_logging.filename Option . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Default . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
The cifs.bypass_traverse_checking Option . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Default . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
The cifs.guest_account Option . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Default . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
The cifs.home_dir Option. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Default . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
The cifs.idle_timeout Option . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Default . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
The cifs.netbios_aliases Option . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Default . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
The cifs.oplocks.enable Option . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Default . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
The cifs.perm_check_use_gid Option . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Default . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
The cifs.scopeid Option . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Default . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
The cifs.search_domains Option . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Default . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Description:. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
The cifs.show_snapshot Option . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Default . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
The cifs.symlinks.cycleguard Option . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Default . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
xlii
19-3
19-3
19-3
19-3
19-3
19-3
19-3
19-3
19-3
19-3
19-4
19-4
19-4
19-4
19-4
19-4
19-4
19-4
19-4
19-4
19-5
19-5
19-5
19-5
19-5
19-5
19-5
19-5
19-5
19-5
19-5
19-6
19-6
19-6
19-6
19-6
19-6
19-6
19-6
19-6
19-6
The cifs.symlinks.enable Option . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19-7
Default. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19-7
Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19-7
DNS Options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19-7
What the DNS Options Do. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19-7
The dns.domainname Option. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19-7
Default. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19-7
Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19-7
The dns.enable Option . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19-7
Default. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19-7
Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19-7
HTTP Options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19-8
What the HTTP Options Do . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19-8
The httpd.admin.enable Option . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19-8
Default. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19-8
Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19-8
The httpd.enable Option. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19-8
Default. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19-8
Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19-8
The httpd.log.max_file_size Option . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19-8
Default. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19-8
Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19-8
The httpd.rootdir Option. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19-8
Default. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19-8
Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19-9
The httpd.timeout Option. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19-9
Default. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19-9
Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19-9
The httpd.timewait.enable Option . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19-9
Default. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19-9
Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19-9
NFS Options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19-9
What the NFS Option Does . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19-9
The nfs.mount_rootonly Option . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19-9
Default. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19-9
Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19-9
The nfs.per_client_stats.enable Option . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19-10
Default. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19-10
Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19-10
The nfs.tcp.enable Option . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19-10
Default. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19-10
Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19-10
xliii
The nfs.v2.df.2gb.lim Option . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Default . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
The nfs.v3.enable Option. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Default . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
The nfs.webnfs.enable Option. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Default . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
The nfs.webnfs.rootdir Option. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Default . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
The nfs.webnfs.rootdir.set Option. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Default . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
NIS Options. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
What the NIS Options Do . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
The nis.domainname Option . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Default . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
The nis.enable Option . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Default . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
RAID Options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
What the RAID Options Do . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
The raid.reconstruct_speed Option . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Default . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
The raid.scrub.enable Option. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Default . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
The raid.timeout Option. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Default . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
timed Options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
What the timed Options Do. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
The timed.enable Option . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Default . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
The timed.log Option . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Default . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
xliv
19-10
19-10
19-10
19-10
19-10
19-10
19-11
19-11
19-11
19-11
19-11
19-11
19-11
19-11
19-11
19-11
19-11
19-11
19-11
19-12
19-12
19-12
19-12
19-12
19-12
19-12
19-12
19-12
19-12
19-12
19-12
19-13
19-13
19-13
19-13
19-13
19-13
19-13
19-13
19-13
19-13
19-13
The timed.max_skew Option . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19-13
Default. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19-13
Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19-14
The timed.proto Option . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19-14
Default. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19-14
Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19-14
The timed.sched Option. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19-14
Default. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19-14
Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19-14
The timed.servers Option. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19-15
Default. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19-15
Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19-15
volume Options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19-15
What the volume Options Do. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19-15
The Minra Option . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19-15
Default. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19-15
Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19-15
The no_atime_update Option. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19-15
Default. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19-15
Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19-16
The nosnap Option. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19-16
Default. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19-16
Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19-16
The nosnapdir Option. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19-16
Default. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19-16
Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19-16
The nvfail Option . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19-16
Default. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19-16
Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19-16
The raidsize Option. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19-17
Default. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19-17
Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19-17
The root Option . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19-17
Default. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19-17
Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19-17
The snapmirrored Option . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19-17
Default. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19-17
Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19-17
Miscellaneous Options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19-17
What the Miscellaneous Options Do . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19-17
The console.encoding Option. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19-18
Default. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19-18
Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19-18
xlv
The ip.match_any_ifaddr Option . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Default . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
The ip.path_mtu_discovery.enable Option. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Default . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
The rsh.enable Option . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Default . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
The snmp.enable Option . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Default . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
The telnet.enable Option . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Default . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
The telnet.hosts Option . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Default . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
The vol.copy.throttle Option . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Default . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
The wafl.convert_ucode Option. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Default . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
The wafl.create_ucode Option. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Default . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
The wafl.default_nt_user Option . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Default . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
The wafl.default_unix_user Option . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Default . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
The wafl.maxdirsize Option . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Default . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
The wafl.root_only_chown Option. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Default . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
The wafl.wcc_minutes_valid Option . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Default . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
xlvi
19-18
19-18
19-18
19-18
19-18
19-18
19-19
19-19
19-19
19-19
19-19
19-19
19-19
19-19
19-19
19-19
19-19
19-19
19-20
19-20
19-20
19-20
19-20
19-20
19-20
19-20
19-20
19-20
19-20
19-20
19-21
19-21
19-21
19-21
19-21
19-21
19-21
19-21
19-21
19-21
19-21
19-21
$SSHQGL[$
&RPPDQG5HIHUHQFH $
User Commands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A-3
File Formats. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A-114
Headers, Tasks, and Macros . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A-118
System Services and Daemons. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A-159
*ORVVDU\
,QGH[
)LJXUHV
Figure 4-1.
Figure 4-2.
Figure 4-3.
Figure 4-4.
Figure 4-5.
Figure 5-1.
Figure 9-1.
Figure 9-2.
Figure 9-3.
Interfaces Before Trunking . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-18
Interfaces After Trunking . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-18
Single-Mode Trunks. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-19
Multiple-Mode Trunks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-20
Second-Level Virtual Interface on a Single Filer. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-22
Flowchart to Choose a Language . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-10
Diagram of a Snapshot. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-3
snap sched Command Sample . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-6
Directory Structure of NFS Client Access to Snapshots . . . . . . . . . 9-16
7DEOHV
Table 1-1.
Table 1-2.
Table 1-3.
Table 1-4.
Table 1-5.
Table 1-6.
Table 1-7.
Table 2-1.
Table 2-2.
Table 2-3.
Table 2-4.
Table 2-5.
Table 2-6.
Table 2-7.
Table 2-8.
Table 2-9.
Table 2-10.
Table 2-11.
Table 2-12.
Table 2-13.
Table 2-14.
Major Components of a Filer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-1
Filer Features . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-2
Filer Internal Components . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-4
Slots and Ports. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-5
Data Storage Management Concepts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-6
Data Organization Management Concepts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-7
Periodic Administration Tasks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-9
Administration Host Privileges . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-1
Editing Configuration Files From a NIFS Client . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-4
Commands Accepted From rsh. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-6
Character Restrictions for User Name. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-8
Permissions for the Default Directories . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-12
Accessing the Directories . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-13
Contents of the etc Directory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-13
Using the /home Directory. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-15
Default /etc/rc Command Contents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-17
Relationship of Port Numbers to Letters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-19
How Interfaces Are Named . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-20
Host Name Example . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-21
Core Dump Space . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-22
facility Parameter Keywords . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-23
xlvii
Table 2-15.
Table 2-16.
Table 2-17.
Table 2-18.
Table 2-19.
Table 2-20.
Table 2-21.
Table 3-1.
Table 3-2.
Table 3-3.
Table 4-1.
Table 4-2.
Table 4-3.
Table 4-4.
Table 4-5.
Table 4-6.
Table 4-7.
Table 4-8.
Table 5-1.
Table 5-2.
Table 5-3.
Table 6-1.
Table 6-2.
Table 7-1.
Table 7-2.
Table 7-3.
Table 7-4.
Table 7-5.
Table 7-6.
Table 7-7.
Table 7-8.
Table 8-1.
Table 8-2.
Table 8-3.
Table 9-1.
Table 9-2.
Table 9-3.
Table 10-1.
Table 10-2.
Table 10-3.
Table 10-4.
Table 12-1.
Table 12-2.
xlviii
level Parameter Keywords . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-24
action Parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-24
Variables of the options Command . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-26
Variables of the vol options Command . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-27
autosupport Email Trigger Events . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-28
List of timed Options. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-33
license Command Service or Feature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-37
Valid Values for timetype Option. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-19
Valid File Attributes for expr Option . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-20
expr Option Boolean Expressions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-21
MIB Group Contents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-4
Parameter Descriptions Default Search Order for Maps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-7
Format Descriptions for a Search Order . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-7
Media Types on an Ethernet Interface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-16
Default MTU Sizes. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-16
Using the ifconfig Command. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-17
Enabling the nvfail Option . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-30
Character Sets Supported . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-8
Supported Languages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-9
wcc Command Options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-18
exportfs Command Options Syntax . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-8
nfsstat Command Options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-15
CIFS File Access Limits. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-2
/etc/usermap.cfg Format Variables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-5
Generic User Account options Commands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-10
Creating a Share With cifs shares Command . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-14
Changing a Share With cifs shares Command . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-15
Windows File Access Detail Displays . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-27
cifs stat Command Output Fields . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-35
cifs terminate Command Variables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-38
HTTP Request Variables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-6
URL Response Fields . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-8
httpstat Statistic Types . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-11
Snapshot Commands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-4
Snapshot Options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-4
Automatic Snapshot Types . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-5
qtree and Volume Defaults . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-3
qtree Security Styles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-3
qtree Security Styles in Detail . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-4
qtree Command Display . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-9
dump Command Descriptions Sample of Backing Up to Tape Stacker
Table 12-3.
Table 13-1.
Table 13-2.
Table 15-1.
Table 15-2.
Table 15-3.
Table 15-4.
Table 16-1.
Table 16-2.
Table 17-1.
Table 17-2.
Table 17-3.
Table 17-4.
Table 17-5.
Table 17-6.
Table 17-7.
Table 18-1.
Table 18-2.
Table 18-3.
Table 18-4.
Table 18-5.
Table 19-1.
Shared by Multiple Filers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-20
Sample of Backing Up the Entire Filer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-22
restore Command Function Keys . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-3
restore Command Options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-3
vol copy Command Situations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-2
Command Syntax for Copying One Volume to Another . . . . . . . . . 15-5
Examples of the vol copy start Command. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-6
vol copy start Command Error Messages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-8
Replicating a Volume Situation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-1
Differences in vol copy Command and SnapMirror . . . . . . . . . . . 16-17
ifstat Command on Ethernet Interface — RECEIVE . . . . . . . . . . . . 17-5
ifstat Command on Ethernet Interface — TRANSMIT. . . . . . . . . . . 17-6
ifstat Command on Ethernet Interface — DEVICE . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17-7
ifstat Command on Ethernet Interface — LINK INFO . . . . . . . . . . . 17-7
ifstat Command on GB Ethernet Interface — RECEIVE . . . . . . . . . 17-7
ifstat Command on GB Ethernet Interface — TRANSMIT. . . . . . . . 17-8
ifstat Command on GB Ethernet Interface — DEVICE . . . . . . . . . . 17-8
Using WINS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18-16
Not Using WINS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18-16
Incorrect Password or Unknown Username . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18-17
Users Cannot Map a Drive. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18-17
Panic Message Components. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18-19
console.encoding Values . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19-18
xlix
l
&+$37(5
,QWURGXFLQJ'HOOŒ)LOHUV
$ERXW)LOHUV
:KDWD)LOHU,V
A filer is a hardware and software system. It acts on network requests from clients
and processes them by writing data to or retrieving data from disks in PowerVault
700N Disk-Array Enclosure (DAE) storage systems that are connected to it. The software that enables the filer to perform these tasks is the Data ONTAP™ 5.3 operating
system.
&RPSRQHQWVRID)LOHU
A filer consists of the following major components listed in Table 1-1.
7DEOH0DMRU&RPSRQHQWVRID)LOHU
&RPSRQHQW
)XQFWLRQ
Filer main unit
The piece of hardware that receives and sends
data.
PowerVault
700N storage
systems
Hardware that holds disks and is connected to
the filer.
Data ONTAP
5.3
Software that is the operating system for the
filer.
)LOHUDQG)LOHU0DLQ8QLW
Often, the filer main unit is referred to simply as a filer.
:KDWD)LOHU'RHV
A filer provides the features described in Table 1-2.
Introducing Dell Filers 1-1
7DEOH)LOHU)HDWXUHV
)HDWXUH
'HVFULSWLRQ
Network file service
The filer enables users on client workstations to
create, delete, modify, and access files stored on it.
Client workstations are connected to the filer
through network connections.
Multiprotocol file
sharing
Clients can use the following protocols to access
data on the filer:
‡
CIFS (Common Internet File System)—used by
Windows clients.
‡
HTTP (HyperText Transmission Protocol)—
used by the World Wide Web.
‡
NFS (Network File System)—used by UNIX®
systems.
Files written using one protocol are accessible to
clients of any protocol, provided that filer licenses
and permissions allow it. For example, an NFS client can access a file created by a CIFS client, and a
CIFS client can access a file created by an NFS
client.
Data protection
Autosupport
The filer protects disk data in the following ways:
‡
Network Transaction Logging—the filer
records network transactions in case of failures and reconstructs transactions on
recovery.
‡
Disk Redundancy—the filer reconstructs data
disks in case of disk failure.
Mail notifications about filer problems is automatically sent to the customer-defined administrator
accounts.
+RZ<RX$GPLQLVWHUD)LOHU
You administer the filer using the Data ONTAP 5.3 operating system. You can use the
following methods of administering a filer:
‡
‡
‡
‡
1-2
Command execution through the filer’s command line
Command execution through Microsoft® Windows NT® operating system
Configuration file editing
Command execution through FilerView
Dell PowerVault 720N, 740N, and 760N System Administrator and Command Reference Guide
&RPPDQG([HFXWLRQ7KURXJKWKH)LOHU·V&RPPDQG/LQH
You use the filer’s command line to execute all Data ONTAP 5.3 administrative commands from the command line, with the exception of some Windows NT
administrative commands.
You can access the filer’s command line from
‡
‡
A serial terminal connected to the Console port of the filer
A telnet session to the filer
You can also access some commands through a remote shell program, such as the
UNIX rsh utility.
&RPPDQG([HFXWLRQ7KURXJK:LQGRZV17
You use Windows NT commands to perform filer administrative tasks related to
Windows NT.
You can execute Windows NT commands that affect the filer using native Windows
NT administration tools such as Server Manager and User Manager.
&RQILJXUDWLRQ)LOH(GLWLQJ
You edit configuration files to supply information that Data ONTAP 5.3 needs to perform certain tasks.
You can access configuration files by mounting the root directory of the filer on a
UNIX client or by mapping the administrative share (C$) to a drive on a Windows client, then editing the file from the client.
&RPPDQG([HFXWLRQ7KURXJK)LOHU9LHZ
You use FilerView to perform most administrative tasks from a Web-based interface.
You can use FilerView even if you did not purchase a license for the HTTP protocol.
$ERXW)LOHU0DLQ8QLW&RPSRQHQWV
7ZR.LQGVRI&RPSRQHQWV
The filer main unit has two kinds of components: internal components that enable it
to function, and slots and ports that connect it to networks and PowerVault 700N
storage systems.
,QWHUQDO)LOHU&RPSRQHQWV
The internal components described in Table 1-3 enable the filer to function.
Introducing Dell Filers 1-3
7DEOH)LOHU,QWHUQDO&RPSRQHQWV
&RPSRQHQW
'HVFULSWLRQ
System board
The system board is the main board
of the filer. It has upgradable firmware. All components are connected
to the system board.
System memory
System memory stores information
temporarily.
NVRAM (Nonvolatile Random Access
Memory)
Data ONTAP 5.3 uses NVRAM to log
network transactions as a data integrity measure. In case of a system or
power failure, Data ONTAP 5.3 uses
the contents of NVRAM to restore
network data to disk.
Diskette drive
In an emergency and for major
upgrades, Data ONTAP 5.3 uses the
diskette drive to boot from diskettes.
LCD and LEDs
The filer displays status information
on the LCD and LEDs.
Environmental adapter
The environmental adapter performs
the following functions:
‡
Monitors the filer’s temperature
and fans
‡
Sends critical information to the
filer’s LCD
‡
‡
Logs information
Shuts down the filer if its temperature is beyond a critical
range or the fans cease
operating
6ORWVDQG3RUWV
The filer has slots for external connections and ports for a console and diagnostic
hardware, as shown in Table 1-4.
1-4
Dell PowerVault 720N, 740N, and 760N System Administrator and Command Reference Guide
7DEOH6ORWVDQG3RUWV
&RPSRQHQW
'HVFULSWLRQ
Slots
The filer contains expansion slots for network interface cards,
tape drive adapters, and PowerVault 700N storage system
adapters.
Serial ports
The two serial ports are as follows:
‡
The console port connects to the filer a serial terminal
that you can use as a console.
‡
The diagnostics port is not used.
$ERXW3RZHU9DXOW16WRUDJH6\VWHPV
3RZHU9DXOW16WRUDJH6\VWHPV&RQWDLQ'LVNV
A PowerVault 700N storage system contains the disks that store the data that the
filer serves.
3RZHU9DXOW16WRUDJH6\VWHP(QYLURQPHQWDO
,QIRUPDWLRQ
PowerVault 700N storage systems collect information about the presence of disks,
fan status, power supply status, and temperature. PowerVault 700N storage systems
send messages to the console if parameters exceed permissible operating
conditions.
$ERXW'DWD217$3
'DWD217$32YHUYLHZ
You administer the filer using Data ONTAP 5.3 commands.
Data ONTAP 5.3 manages data in the following three ways:
‡
‡
‡
Data storage management
Data organization management
Data access management
Introducing Dell Filers 1-5
'DWD6WRUDJH0DQDJHPHQW
Data ONTAP 5.3 stores data on disks in PowerVault 700N storage systems. Disks are
organized into RAID groups, and RAID groups are organized into volumes. These
items are explained in Table 1-5, along with what aspects of them you can administer.
7DEOH'DWD6WRUDJH0DQDJHPHQW&RQFHSWV
'DWD6WRUDJH
&RQFHSW
([SODQDWLRQ
6WRUDJH$GPLQLVWUDWLYH$FWLRQV
RAID (Redundant Array of
Independent
Disks)
A feature that enables file
access even if one disk in a
RAID group is damaged.
RAID group
A RAID group consists of a
parity disk and up to 27 data
disks, and optional spare
disks.
You can control the size of a
RAID group. This enables you
to customize backups and disk
failure recovery.
Data disks
Hold the data that clients
access.
Parity disk
Contains information that Data
ONTAP 5.3 uses to reconstruct data if a data disk fails.
Each RAID group has one parity disk.
You can control the number of
data and spare disks that a filer
can use. This enables you to
manage recovery if a disk fails.
Spare disks
Replace failed data disks automatically with reconstructed
data.
Volumes
Pools of storage composed of
multiple disks that store client
data. A filer can support up to
23 volumes or can have only
one volume.
You can specify the size of a
volume, add disks to it, copy
volumes, and control the number of RAID groups in a
volume. This gives flexibility in
managing data storage tasks
such as backups and restores,
and enables you to customize
volumes.
'DWD2UJDQL]DWLRQ0DQDJHPHQW
Data is organized in files, which are the smallest unit of data management. Users
organize files into directories, and you organize directories into file systems, which
are known as volumes. You can also organize directories into special directories called
qtrees. Major data organization concepts that are special to filers are explained in
Table 1-6.
1-6
Dell PowerVault 720N, 740N, and 760N System Administrator and Command Reference Guide
7DEOH'DWD2UJDQL]DWLRQ0DQDJHPHQW&RQFHSWV
'DWD2UJDQL
]DWLRQFRQFHSW
volume
([SODQDWLRQ
'DWD2UJDQL]DWLRQ$GPLQLVWUDWLYH
$FWLRQV
An independent file
system.
You can specify the following features
for a volume:
‡
A security style, which determines whether a volume can
contain files that use UNIX security, Windows NT File System
(NTFS) security, or both type of
files
‡
‡
Whether it uses CIFS oplocks
Disk space and file limits
This enables you to customize volumes for the needs of your users.
qtree
A special subdirectory of the root
directory of a volume. It has the
following special
attributes:
‡
A security
style
‡
A CIFS oplocks
setting
‡
Disk space and
file limits
You can specify the following features
for a qtree:
‡
A security style like that of
volumes
‡
‡
Whether it uses CIFS oplocks
Disk space and file limits
This enables you customize areas for
projects and to keep users and
projects from monopolizing
resources.
'DWD$FFHVV0DQDJHPHQW
Data ONTAP 5.3 manages access to data by performing the following operations:
‡
‡
‡
Checks file access permissions against file access requests.
Checks write operations against file and disk usage quotas that you set.
Takes snapshots and makes them available so that users can access deleted or
overwritten files. Snapshots are read-only copies of the entire file system.
Data ONTAP 5.3 enables you to perform the following actions:
‡
‡
‡
Administer network connections
Administer protocols
Dump data to tape and restore it to the filer
Introducing Dell Filers 1-7
‡
‡
Copy volumes
Mirror volumes
)LOHU$GPLQLVWUDWLRQ:LWK'DWD217$3
)LOHU$GPLQLVWUDWLRQ$FWLYLWLHV
Administering a filer involves the following activities:
‡
‡
‡
‡
‡
Configuring the filer
Monitoring and maintaining client access to data
Monitoring and maintaining network access
Monitoring and maintaining filer hardware
Performing periodic administration tasks
&RQILJXULQJWKH)LOHU
You configure the filer by running either the Setup Wizard or the setup program or
both if necessary, then editing configuration files if necessary.
0RQLWRULQJDQG0DLQWDLQLQJ&OLHQW$FFHVV
You monitor client access to data on the filer by the following methods:
‡
Gathering network statistics so that you can verify and improve the performance
of the filer
‡
‡
Gathering file statistics so that you can schedule snapshots
Monitoring accesses to a file by CIFS clients so that you can monitor potential
security problems
You maintain client access by the following methods:
‡
Configuring volumes and qtrees to accommodate the needs of Microsoft®
Windows operating systems and UNIX clients
‡
‡
‡
‡
Configuring volumes so that there is enough disk space for data
Configuring RAID groups to maintain maximum data availability
Configuring snapshots so that data is recoverable in case of accidental deletions
Setting quotas to make sure that users have enough resources for their work
0RQLWRULQJDQG0DLQWDLQLQJ1HWZRUN$FFHVV
You monitor network access by gathering network statistics so that you can verify
and improve the performance of the filer and its network interfaces.
1-8
Dell PowerVault 720N, 740N, and 760N System Administrator and Command Reference Guide
You maintain network access by following general filer network administration procedures and procedures specific to your protocol. These procedures are described in
later chapters in this guide.
0RQLWRULQJDQG0DLQWDLQLQJ)LOHU+DUGZDUH
You monitor hardware by gathering statistics about your hardware and analyzing
them for performance.
You maintain the hardware as described in the appropriate hardware guides.
3HULRGLF$GPLQLVWUDWLRQ7DVNV
Table 1-7 lists essential tasks that you should consider performing periodically, suggests how often to perform a task, and lists the command or file to use for the task.
7DEOH3HULRGLF$GPLQLVWUDWLRQ7DVNV
+RZ2IWHQ
7DVN
&RPPDQGRU)LOH
Daily
Review filer performance and CPU
utilization.
sysstat FRPPDQG
Review filer disk usage on a pervolume and per-snapshot level.
df FRPPDQG
Check for drive failures, reboots,
and other logged events
/etc/messages file
Review CIFS utilization, if licensed
for CIFS.
cifs statFRPPDQG
Review HTTP utilization, if licensed
for HTTP.
httpstatFRPPDQG
Review NFS utilization, if licensed
for NFS.
nfsstatFRPPDQG
Introducing Dell Filers 1-9
7DEOH3HULRGLF$GPLQLVWUDWLRQ7DVNVFRQWLQXHG
+RZ2IWHQ
7DVN
&RPPDQGRU)LOH
Weekly
Review filer disk usage on a peruser level.
quota report
FRPPDQG
Test connectivity to NT Domain
Controller.
cifs testdc
FRPPDQG
Review current shared CIFS
directories.
cifs shares
FRPPDQG
Review NFS exports
/etc/exports file
Review filer network traffic
statistics.
netstatFRPPDQG
Review network interface performance statistics on a per-interface
level.
ifstatFRPPDQG
Make sure that the PowerVault
700N storage systems are connected properly.
shelfchkFRPPDQG
Review filer uptime.
uptimeFRPPDQG
Review filer OS revision.
versionFRPPDQG
Review current NIS server.
ypwhichFRPPDQG
Monthly
1-10 Dell PowerVault 720N, 740N, and 760N System Administrator and Command Reference Guide
&+$37(5
)LOHU$GPLQLVWUDWLRQ%DVLFV
2YHUYLHZ
$ERXW7KLV&KDSWHU
This chapter describes routine filer administration procedures that you need regardless of the file-sharing protocols licensed for your filer.
This chapter emphasizes the filer characteristics that distinguish the filer from a
general-purpose server.
8VLQJWKH$GPLQLVWUDWLRQ+RVW
$ERXWWKH$GPLQLVWUDWLRQ+RVW
The filer recognizes a single client computer as the administration host. The administrator who set up the filer specified the name of the administration host using the
setup program.
$GPLQLVWUDWLRQ+RVW3ULYLOHJHV
The filer granted root permissions to the administration host after the setup procedure was completed. Table 2-1 describes the administration host’s privileges.
7DEOH$GPLQLVWUDWLRQ+RVW3ULYLOHJHV
,IWKHDGPLQLVWUDWLRQKRVWLV
an NFS client
<RXFDQ
‡
Mount the filer root directory and
edit configuration files from the
administration host.
‡
Enter filer commands by using a
remote shell program such as
rsh.
Filer Administration Basics 2-1
7DEOH$GPLQLVWUDWLRQ+RVW3ULYLOHJHVFRQWLQXHG
,IWKHDGPLQLVWUDWLRQKRVWLV
a CIFS client
<RXFDQ
Edit configuration files from any CIFS
client as long as you connect to the
filer as root or “Administrator.”
$GPLQLVWUDWLRQ+RVW(QWU\LQWKHHWFKRVWVHTXLYILOH
The setup procedure placed the administration host name in the /etc/hosts.equiv file
automatically.
$GPLQLVWUDWLRQ+RVWDVWKH0DLO+RVW
For the administration host to send email, it must provide a server for the SMTP protocol, such as the sendmail program, or the Microsoft Exchange server.
'HVLJQDWLQJD'LIIHUHQW0DLO+RVW
You can designate another host at your site to be the mail host at any time. Refer to
“Use the Options Command to Configure Autosupport” for information about how to
specify a different mail host.
5HTXLUHPHQWVIRU8VLQJDQ1)6&OLHQWDVWKH
$GPLQLVWUDWLRQ+RVW
If you plan to use an NFS client to manage the filer, the client must
‡
support a text editor that can display and edit text files containing lines ending
with the newline character
‡
‡
support the telnet and rsh commands
be able to mount directories using the NFS protocol
5HTXLUHPHQWVIRU8VLQJD&,)6&OLHQWDVWKH
$GPLQLVWUDWLRQ+RVW
If you plan to use a CIFS client to manage the filer, the client must support the
telnet and rsh commands.
7KH5RRW9ROXPH
$ERXWWKH5RRW9ROXPH
Every filer has a root volume. It is the volume from which the filer reads configuration
files. During setup, the filer creates a default volume, named vol0, and designates it
as the root volume.
2-2
Dell PowerVault 720N, 740N, and 760N System Administrator and Command Reference Guide
'HVLJQDWLQJWKH5RRW9ROXPH
If you add volumes to your filer, you choose a volume to be the root volume during
the multivolume configuration process.
For more information about designating the multiple volume configuration process,
read Chapter 3, “Disk and File System Management.”
$ERXWWKH9ROXPH1DPH3UHIL[
Volume names begin with the following prefix:
/vol/
6\QWD[WR5HIHUWRWKH5RRW9ROXPH)URP1)6&OLHQWV
To refer to the root volume when mounting the root volume to an NFS client, use the
following syntax:
/vol/vol0
(GLWLQJ&RQILJXUDWLRQ)LOHV
:KDW(GLWRUWR8VH
The filer does not include a local editor. You must use an editor from a client to
change filer configuration files.
:KHUH&RQILJXUDWLRQ)LOHV5HVLGH
Configuration files reside in the /etc directory in the filer’s root volume.
&KRRVLQJDQ1)6RUD&,)6&OLHQW
The procedure for modifying configuration files is different depending on whether you
edit the files from an NFS client or a CIFS client. If you use an NFS client, edit the files
from the administration host. If you use a CIFS client, connect to the filer as
Administrator.
(GLWLQJ)LOHV)URPDQ1)6&OLHQW
Table 2-2 describes how to edit configuration files from an NFS client.
Filer Administration Basics 2-3
7DEOH(GLWLQJ&RQILJXUDWLRQ)LOHV)URPD1,)6&OLHQW
6WHS
$FWLRQ
If the NFS client is...
Then...
the administration host
Mount the filer root volume to
the host.
not the administration host
1.
Mount the filer root volume
to the administration host.
2.
From the administration
host, edit the /etc/exports
file on the root volume to
grant root permission to the
client.
3.
Use the filer console, a
telnet client, or the rsh
command to issue the following command to the filer:
H[SRUWIV
4.
Mount the filer root volume
to the client.
From the client, use a text editor to edit the files in the /etc directory.
(GLWLQJ)LOHV)URPD&,)6&OLHQW
To edit configuration files from a CIFS client, perform the following steps:
1.
Connect from a CIFS client to the filer as Administrator.
After setup finished, the default /etc/passwd and /etc/group files on the root volume were set up to enable you to share files on the filer as Administrator.
2.
Display the contents of the filer’s C$ share and select a file to edit.
After setup finished, the filer root directory was shared automatically as C$. The
Administrator has read, write, and execute rights to the share.
The C$ share is a “hidden” share; you can get to it only by specifying the path
manually (for example, as \\filer\C$), rather than accessing it through the Network
Neighborhood icon.
2-4
Dell PowerVault 720N, 740N, and 760N System Administrator and Command Reference Guide
2EWDLQLQJ$FFHVVWRWKH)LOHU6KHOO
:D\VWR$FFHVVWKH&RPPDQG/LQH
The filer supports a command-line interface. You can access the command line:
‡
‡
‡
directly, from the system console
remotely, using telnet
remotely, using a remote shell such as rsh
6KDULQJD6LQJOHWHOQHWDQG&RQVROH6HVVLRQ
The console and telnet share a single session. Everything entered through telnet
is echoed at the console; everything entered at the console is echoed to the telnet
session.
WHOQHW6HVVLRQ5HVWULFWLRQ
Only one telnet session can be open at a time.
&ORVLQJDWHOQHW6HVVLRQ
To close a telnet session, press Ctrl-] to log out of the filer, then press Ctrl-D to log
out of telnet.
WHOQHWDQG&RQVROH3DVVZRUG5HTXLUHPHQW
Although telnet and the console share the same shell session, telnet and the
console each prompt you for a password. Both the console and telnet connections
use the same password.
UVK6XSSRUW
The filer supports rsh with trusted remote hosts—those remote hosts listed in /etc/
hosts.equiv on the root volume.
In addition to enteringrsh commands manually, you can use a shell script or
crontabfile to enter some commands.
NOTE: You can use rsh only to enter filer commands. You cannot use rsh to
remotely log in to the filer. To log in to a filer remotely from a host, use telnet.
&RPPDQGV$FFHSWHG)URPUVK
Table 2-3 lists the filer commands that you can execute
Filer Administration Basics 2-5
.
7DEOH&RPPDQGV$FFHSWHG)URPUVK
cifs
httpstat
rdate
timezone
date
mt
reboot
uptime
df
netstat
restore
version
disk
nfsstat
route
vif
download
options
snap
vol
dump
qtree
snmp
ypwhich
exportfs
quota
sysconfig
halt
raid
sysstat
8VH&WUO&WR7HUPLQDWHWKH&RPPDQG7KDW,V5XQQLQJ
Ctrl-C terminates whatever command is being run from the console or a telnet
session.
Because the console and telnet share a single session, a command entered at the
console or through telnet can be terminated inadvertently from either location.
To ensure that a command is not terminated by Ctrl-C, start the command from a
trusted host through rsh.
&KDQJLQJWKH6\VWHP3DVVZRUG
A system password is required to establish a console or telnet connection with the
filer. The password was specified during setup.
You can change the system password at any time with the passwd command. When
you enter the passwd command, the filer prompts you to enter the old password, if
any, and then requests the new password twice.
:KHUHWR*RWR/HDUQ0RUH$ERXW6HFXULW\
For information about ways to increase filer security in addition to password protection, use the options described in “Using Options Command Options to Maintain Filer
Security.”
$ERXW0XOWLSOH$GPLQLVWUDWLYH8VHUV
:KDW,VDQ$GPLQLVWUDWLYH8VHU"
An administrative user is a named account that exists on a filer. Administrative users
have the same privileges as root, but can have a different password than root.
2-6
Dell PowerVault 720N, 740N, and 760N System Administrator and Command Reference Guide
0XOWLSOH$GPLQLVWUDWLYH8VHUV,QFUHDVH)LOHU6HFXULW\
Adding multiple administrative users to a filer means you no longer need to share the
root password. Instead, administrative users access the filer, either locally or
remotely, with a unique login name and password. The filer records each user name
at login with a syslog message in /etc/messages, to enable auditing.
&RPPDQGWR8VHWR&UHDWH$GPLQLVWUDWLYH8VHUV
Use the useradd option of the useradmin command to create multiple administrative users on a filer.
:D\VWR$FFHVVWKH)LOHU8VLQJDQ$GPLQLVWUDWLYH/RJLQ
1DPH
Using an administrative login name, you can access a filer through any of the following tools:
‡
‡
‡
Filer console
telnet
rsh
&UHDWLQJ$GPLQLVWUDWLYH8VHUV
'HVFULSWLRQ
The useradmin command enables you to increase filer security by creating multiple
administrative users, rather than sharing the root name and password among multiple
administrators.
3UHUHTXLVLWHV
You must be logged in as root or as an existing administrative user to use the
command.
5HVWULFWLRQV
The user name is sensitive. It cannot contain any of the 15 characters shown in
Table 2-4.
The password should contain at least six characters, including at least two alpha characters and one numeric or special character.
Filer Administration Basics 2-7
7DEOH&KDUDFWHU5HVWULFWLRQVIRU8VHU1DPH
&KDUDFWHU
&KDUDFWHU
* (asterisk)
< (less than sign)
\ (back slash)
| (pipe)
: (colon)
+ (plus sign)
, (comma)
? (question mark)
= (equal sign)
] (right bracket)
/ (forward slash)
; (semicolon)
> (greater than sign)
space
[ (left bracket)
6WHSVWR&UHDWHD1HZ$GPLQLVWUDWLYH8VHU8VLQJD
&RQVROHRU7HOQHW
To create a new administrative user using the filer console or a telnet session, perform the following steps:
1.
Enter the following command:
XVHUDGPLQXVHUDGGXVHUBQDPH
XVHUBQDPH is the new administrative user login name.
2.
Enter a password for the new user when prompted.
6WHSWR&UHDWHD1HZ$GPLQLVWUDWLYH8VHU8VLQJUVK
To create a new administrative user using rsh, enter the following command:
XVHUDGPLQXVHUDGGXVHUBQDPHSDVVZRUG
user_name is the new administrative user login name.
password is the new password associated with the new user name.
'HOHWLQJ$GPLQLVWUDWLYH8VHUV
'HVFULSWLRQ
Use the userdel option to delete administrative users created with the useradd
option of the useradmin command. You can use the userdel option at any time to
maintain filer security by keeping the administrative user list current.
2-8
Dell PowerVault 720N, 740N, and 760N System Administrator and Command Reference Guide
&DXWLRQ
You are not prompted for a password when deleting a user.
6WHS
To delete an administrative user, enter the following command:
XVHUDGPLQXVHUGHOXVHUBQDPH
user_name is the login name you want to delete.
/LVWLQJ$GPLQLVWUDWLYH8VHUV
'HVFULSWLRQ
Use the userlist option to get a list of administrative users on a filer. You can use
the userlist option at any time to determine whether you need to add or delete
administrative users.
6WHS
To list one or more administrative users using a console, telnet or rsh, enter the
following command:
XVHUDGPLQXVHUOLVW>XVHUQDPHBOLVW@
username_list is a space-separated list of login names you want to display.
NOTE: If you do not specify any user names, all administrative users are listed.
&KDQJLQJDQ$GPLQLVWUDWLYH8VHU
3DVVZRUG
'HVFULSWLRQ
Use the passwd command from a console, telnet, or rsh to change your administrative password on a filer at any time. Changing your password at regular intervals
can provide you with better filer security.
5HVWULFWLRQV
When you use telnet or a console, the passwd command prompts you for the user
name if administrative users, other than root, exist.
The passwd command only accepts arguments when you use rsh.
Filer Administration Basics 2-9
6WHSVWR&KDQJHDQ$GPLQLVWUDWLYH3DVVZRUG8VLQJD
&RQVROHRUWHOQHW
To change an administrative user password using a console or telnet, perform the
following steps:
1.
Enter the passwd command.
2.
When prompted, enter the administrative user name of the user whose password you want to change.
3.
Enter the old password.
4.
Enter the new password.
6WHSWR&KDQJHDQ$GPLQLVWUDWLYH3DVVZRUG8VLQJUVK
To change an administrative user password using rsh, enter the following command:
SDVVZGROGBSDVVZRUGQHZBSDVVZRUGXVHUQDPH
NOTE: If you do not use the third argument, the passwd command works as before,
and expects you to enter the old and new password for root.
+DOWLQJDQG5HERRWLQJWKH)LOHU
'DWD6WRUDJHLQ195$0
The filer stores requests it receives in nonvolatile random-access memory (NVRAM).
The use of NVRAM
‡
‡
improves system performance
prevents loss of data in case of a system or power failure
195$0(YHQW'XULQJ2UGHUO\6KXWGRZQ
The halt and reboot commands perform an orderly shutdown. During an orderly
shutdown, the contents of NVRAM are flushed to disk.
3URFHGXUHWR+DOWWKH)LOHU
To halt the filer, enter the following command:
halt
The filer displays the following prompt:
ok
2-10 Dell PowerVault 720N, 740N, and 760N System Administrator and Command Reference Guide
3URFHGXUHWR%RRWWKH)LOHU
To boot the filer, perform the following steps:
1.
Ensure that the RN prompt is displayed on the console.
2.
Enter the following command:
boot
3URFHGXUHWR5HERRWWKH)LOHU
You can halt and reboot the filer in a single operation by entering the following
command:
UHERRW
:KHUHWKH)LOHU%RRWV)URP
When the filer boots, it uses the boot diskette in its diskette drive, if there is one.
Otherwise, the filer boots from its hard disk.
8VHWKH+DOW&RPPDQGWR$YRLG'DWD/RVV
You should always execute the halt command before turning the filer Off for the following reasons:
‡
The halt command flushes all data from NVRAM to disk, eliminating a potential
point of failure.
‡
‡
The halt command avoids potential data loss on CIFS clients.
If a CIFS client is disconnected from the filer, the users’ applications are terminated and changes made to open files since the last save are lost.
&$87,211HYHULQWHUUXSW&,)6VHUYLFHE\KDOWLQJWKHILOHUZLWKRXWJLY
LQJDGYDQFHZDUQLQJWR&,)6XVHUV
Before turning the filer Off, use the halt or cifs terminate command to
send a warning message to CIFS users. This method gives users an opportunity
to save files and exit applications within the time period that you specified before
the actual shutdown.
NOTE: Clients using Windows 9x or Windows for Workgroups™ can display the
CIFS shutdown messages only when the clients’ WinPopup program is configured to receive messages. The capability to display messages from the filer is
built into Windows NT.
)RU0RUH,QIRUPDWLRQ
For more information about cifs terminate, refer to the section, “Stopping and
Restarting CIFS Sessions,” in Chapter 7.
Filer Administration Basics 2-11
8QGHUVWDQGLQJWKH)LOHU'HIDXOW
&RQILJXUDWLRQ
$ERXWWKH'HIDXOW&RQILJXUDWLRQ
The default configuration of a filer depends on whether the filer is running NFS, CIFS,
or both; and NIS.
Although the default configuration is usable for small sites, it is probably not secure
enough for large sites or for sites connected to the Internet.
Subsequent sections in this chapter describe in greater detail how you might want to
modify the default configuration to suit your needs.
'HIDXOW([SRUWHGDQG6KDUHG'LUHFWRULHV
'HIDXOW'LUHFWRULHV&UHDWHG
When setup finishes, two default directories are made available for access by clients. The default directories are:
‡
‡
the root directory
the /home directory
3HUPLVVLRQVIRUWKH'HIDXOW'LUHFWRULHV
Table 2-5 shows the permissions that are assigned to the default directories when
setup finishes.
7DEOH3HUPLVVLRQVIRUWKH'HIDXOW'LUHFWRULHV
7KLVGLUHFWRU\
The root
directory
)URPWKLV
FOLHQW
+DVWKHVHSHUPLVVLRQV
NFS
‡
full permissions for the root user on the
administration host
‡
‡
no permissions for any other user or host
‡
read and write permissions to all files for
the Administrator user when logged in to
the filer using the root password
‡
no permissions for other users
CIFS
no permissions
2-12 Dell PowerVault 720N, 740N, and 760N System Administrator and Command Reference Guide
7DEOH3HUPLVVLRQVIRUWKH'HIDXOW'LUHFWRULHVFRQWLQXHG
7KLVGLUHFWRU\
The /home
directory
)URPWKLV
FOLHQW
+DVWKHVHSHUPLVVLRQV
NFS
permissions associated with individual users
and with groups through UNIX security
database
CIFS
permissions assigned by the filer administrator
for the HOME share
$FFHVVLQJWKH'LUHFWRULHV
Table 2-6 shows how to access the default directories. Replace filer with the host
name of your filer.
7DEOH$FFHVVLQJWKH'LUHFWRULHV
)URPWKLV
FOLHQW
'RWKLV
The root
directory
NFS
Mount /filer/vol/vol0.
CIFS
Map a drive to \\filer\C$.
The /home
directory
NFS
Mount /filer/vol/vol0/home.
CIFS
Map a drive to \\filer\HOME.
7RDFFHVV
Or
Use the Network Neighborhood icon to locate the
filer and locate the HOME share.
&RQWHQWVRIWKHHWF'LUHFWRU\
The root directory contains an etc directory in which the filer configuration files are
stored. You can modify the configuration files from the administration host.
Table 2-7 describes the files in the etc directory. Note that some of the configuration
files might not exist on your filer if you use the filer for CIFS or NFS only.
7DEOH&RQWHQWVRIWKHHWF'LUHFWRU\
)LOHVKDULQJ
SURWRFRO
)LOHQDPH
&RQWHQWV
.cifs.cat
Domain information (only if the filer is a
member of a domain)
CIFS only
Filer Administration Basics 2-13
7DEOH&RQWHQWVRIWKHHWF'LUHFWRU\FRQWLQXHG
)LOHQDPH
&RQWHQWV
cifsconfig.txt
CIFS commands that the filer used for
configuration
)LOHVKDULQJ
SURWRFRO
CIFS only
The filer maintains this file automatically
whenever you enter a cifs command,
which can cause changes you make manually to be lost.
To edit this file, terminate CIFS service by
using the cifs terminate command,
edit and save the file, then reboot the filer.
exports
NFS export points
NFS only
hosts
Known hosts and their IP addresses
All
hosts.equiv
Trusted hosts and users for rsh
All
group
CIFS group names, GIDs (group identification numbers), and members’ names
CIFS only
Not used if you use NIS to authenticate
groups.
netgroup
Network groups
NFS only
nsswitch.conf
The order in which the filer contacts name
services
All
passwd
Users’ names, UIDs (user identification
numbers), and primary GIDs
CIFS
Not used if you use NIS to authenticate
users.
rc
Script of commands to be executed when
the filer is initializing
All
serialnum
Filer serial number and license codes.
All
shadow
Encrypted password strings and password aging information
CIFS
Not used if you use NIS to authenticate
users
+RZ7KHKRPH'LUHFWRU\,V8VHG
How the /home directory is used depends on the file-sharing protocol used by the client. Table 2-8 describes how NFS and CIFS clients use the directory.
2-14 Dell PowerVault 720N, 740N, and 760N System Administrator and Command Reference Guide
7DEOH8VLQJWKHKRPH'LUHFWRU\
)RU1)6FOLHQWV
)RU&,)6FOLHQWV
The /home directory is exported with
read and write permissions to all NFS
clients, and with root access to the
administration host.
The /home directory can be shared by
CIFS users as the home share immediately after setup finishes.
Clients can mount directories after
the filer host name is added to the
filer /etc/hosts file or to the client’s
name server.
The svtx bit (also known as the sticky
bit) is set on the /home directory to
prevent users from deleting each
other’s files. This is a safe configuration for networks that use UNIX
permissions to provide security for
network-accessible files. You can
clear the sticky bit with the chmod
command.
Before users can read and write files
in the home share, you must follow
the procedures in the section, “Creating a Home Share for Each User,” in
Chapter 7.
By default, CIFS users can write and
delete their own files in /home. For
more information about access
rights, refer to the section,“Assigning
and Changing Access Rights,” in
Chapter 7.
7KHHWFUF)LOH
+RZWKH)LOHU8VHVWKHHWFUF)LOH
The filer executes the commands in the /etc/rc file on the root volume at boot time to
configure the filer.
If your filer is licensed to run the CIFS protocol, the /etc/rc file must be present at boot
time for the CIFS protocol to be enabled. No CIFS-specific information is entered in
/etc/rc as a result of the setup procedure.
All the commands in the /etc/rc file are executable from the command line—there are
no commands that are restricted to being executed from within the /etc/rc file.
3URFHGXUHIRU(GLWLQJWKHHWFUF)LOH
To make changes in the filer configuration that take effect every time the filer is
booted, perform the following steps:
1.
Make a backup copy of the /etc/rc file.
2.
Edit the /etc/rc file.
NOTE: Do not add CIFS commands in /etc/rc.
Filer Administration Basics 2-15
See “Editing Configuration Files” for instructions about editing files from NFS
and CIFS clients.
3.
Save the edited file.
4.
Reboot the filer to test the new configuration.
If the new configuration does not work as desired, repeat steps 2 through 4.
'HIDXOWHWFUF)LOH&RQWHQWV
The best way to understand the commands used in /etc/rc on the root volume is to
examine the following sample /etc/rc file:
#Auto-generated /etc/rc Fri May 30 14:51:36 PST 1997
hostname filer
ifconfig e0 ‘hostname’-0
ifconfig e1 ‘hostname’-1
route add default MyRouterBox
routed on
options dns.domainname company.com
options dns.enable on
options nis.domainname company.com
options nis.enable on
timezone US/Pacific
savecore
exportfs -a
nfs on
([SODQDWLRQRI'HIDXOWHWFUF&RQWHQWV
Table 2-9 explains the commands in the sample /etc/rc file.
2-16 Dell PowerVault 720N, 740N, and 760N System Administrator and Command Reference Guide
7DEOH'HIDXOWHWFUF&RPPDQG&RQWHQWV
&RPPDQG
([SODQDWLRQ
KRVWQDPHILOHU
Sets the filer’s host name.
LIFRQILJH
­KRVWQDPH®
LIFRQILJH
­KRVWQDPH®
Sets the IP address for the filer’s Ethernet and Gigabit
Ethernet interfaces with a default network mask. The
arguments in single backquotes expand to “filer” if
you specify “filer” as the host name during setup.
The actual IP addresses are obtained from the /etc/
hosts file on the root volume; you might prefer to
enter IP addresses directly in /etc/rc on the root volume. If the specified network interface is not present,
ifconfig issues an error message and has no other
effect.
The actual interface names and numbers depend on
the specific filer. Refer to “Naming Conventions for
Network Interfaces” for more information about interface names.
If you change the filer’s host name, you must modify
the /etc/hosts file on the root volume to substitute the
new host name. If you don’t, ifconfig fails.
To override the default network mask, explicitly specify the network mask in the ifconfig command after
the host name; for example:
LIFRQILJH­KRVWQDPH®QHWPDVN
URXWHDGGGHIDXOW/RFDO5RXWHU
The preceding command specifies the default router.
You can add route commands to /etc/rc on the root
volume to set static routes for the filer. The network
address for LocalRouter must be in /etc/hosts on the
root volume.
URXWHGRQ
Starts the routing daemon. See the section,
“Routing,” in Chapter 4 for more information about
routing.
RSWLRQV
GQVGRPDLQQDPH
GHOOFRP
These options set the DNS domain.
RSWLRQV
GQVHQDEOHRQ
Filer Administration Basics 2-17
7DEOH'HIDXOWHWFUF&RPPDQG&RQWHQWVFRQWLQXHG
&RPPDQG
([SODQDWLRQ
RSWLRQV
QLVGRPDLQQDPH
GHOOFRP
RSWLRQV
QLVHQDEOHRQ
These options set the NIS domain name and enable
NIS.
WLPH]RQH86
3DFLILF
Sets the time zone. The argument to the timezone
command specifies which file in the /etc/zoneinfo
directory on the root volume describes the time zone
you want.
VDYHFRUH
Saves the core file from a system panic, if any, in the
/etc/crash directory on the root volume. Core files are
created only during the first boot after a system panic.
H[SRUWIVD
Exports all directories specified in the /etc/exports file
on the root volume. This command is included only if
the filer runs NFS.
QIVRQ
Turns on NFS file service. This command is included
even if NFS is not licensed for your filer. When the filer
runs this command from /etc/rc on the root volume on
a filer without an NFS license, the command fails and
the following messages appear:
1)6VHUYLFHLVQRWOLFHQVHG
8VHWKH«OLFHQVH¬FRPPDQGWROLFHQVHLW
1)6VHUYHULV127UXQQLQJ
&KDQJLQJ6103&RPPDQGVLQHWFUF
Regardless of whether SNMP is enabled at your site, add the following commands to
/etc/rc on the root volume:
VQPSFRQWDFW«\RXUHPDLODQGWHOHSKRQHQXPEHU¬
VQPSORFDWLRQ«ORFDWLRQRI\RXUILOHU¬
VQPSLQLW
For example:
VQPSFRQWDFW¦MGRH#DEFFRP§
VQPSORFDWLRQ¦$%&FRUSRUDWLRQHQJLQHHULQJODE§
VQPSLQLW
2-18 Dell PowerVault 720N, 740N, and 760N System Administrator and Command Reference Guide
1DPLQJ&RQYHQWLRQVIRU1HWZRUN
,QWHUIDFHV
,QWHUIDFH7\SHVWKH)LOHU6XSSRUWV
The filer supports the following interface types:
‡
‡
‡
Ethernet
Gigabit Ethernet
Virtual
+RZ,QWHUIDFHV$UH1XPEHUHG
Interface numbers are assigned based on the slot in which the interface card is
installed. For more information about how network interfaces are numbered, refer to
the hardware guide for your specific filer.
+RZ0XOWLSOH3RUWV$UH,GHQWLILHG
Some Ethernet interface cards support four ports. These cards are referred to as
quad-port interfaces. The filer uses a letter to refer to each port on a quad-port interface. Table 2-10 shows the relationship of port numbers to letters.
7DEOH5HODWLRQVKLSRI3RUW1XPEHUVWR/HWWHUV
3RUWQXPEHU
/HWWHU
1
a
2
b
3
c
4
d
+RZ,QWHUIDFHV$UH1DPHG
Table 2-11 shows how interfaces other than virtual interfaces are named, and how
interface names are combined with card slot numbers and port letters to make their
names unique.
Filer Administration Basics 2-19
7DEOH+RZ,QWHUIDFHV$UH1DPHG
,QWHUIDFHW\SH
/HWWHUXVHGLQQDPH
([DPSOHVRIQDPHV
Ethernet (single)
e
e0
e1
Ethernet (quad-port)
e
e0a
e0b
e0c
e0d
e1a
e1b
9LUWXDO,QWHUIDFH1DPHV
The name of a virtual interface is a string that is no longer than 15 characters that
meets the following criteria:
‡
‡
‡
It must begin with a letter.
It must not contain a space.
It must not already be in use for a virtual interface.
Virtual interface names are case-sensitive.
$ERXW8VLQJ,QWHUIDFH1DPHVLQ6FULSWV
When you write or modify shell scripts that involve interface names, remember the
interface naming conventions that the filer uses. Because the slot in which an interface card is installed is a part of the interface name, different filers might have
different interface names.
)LOHU+RVW1DPHV
The first time the setup program runs, the filer creates a host name for each installed
interface by appending the interface name to the host name.
+RVW1DPH([DPSOH
A filer named filer with a single Ethernet interface in slot 0 and a quad-port Ethernet
interface in slot 1 has the host names shown in Table 2-12.
2-20 Dell PowerVault 720N, 740N, and 760N System Administrator and Command Reference Guide
7DEOH+RVW1DPH([DPSOH
,QWHUIDFH
+RVWQDPH
Single-port Ethernet card in slot 0
filer-0
Quad-port Ethernet card in slot 1
filer-1a
filer-1b
filer-1c
filer-1d
5HDVRQVWR)ROORZD6SHFLDO5HFRYHU\3URFHGXUH
Certain configuration errors can require you to follow a special recovery procedure
because
‡
‡
The filer does not have a local text editor.
Problems with interface configuration can make the filer inaccessible to clients
from which the /etc/rc file can be edited.
3URFHGXUH:KHQWKH)LOHU'RHV1RW%RRW
If configuration errors prevent the filer from booting from the hard disk, try booting
from the diskette. For more information, see the section, “Booting from System Boot
Diskette,” in Chapter 18.
3URFHGXUH:KHQ$GPLQLVWUDWLRQ+RVW&DQQRW$FFHVVWKH
)LOHU
If your filer becomes inaccessible from the administration host after you change the
/etc/rc file, perform the following steps to recover from the error:
1.
Enter commands on the console to configure the interface with the correct
address.
2.
Enter the exportfs command to export the filer root directory to the administration host.
3.
Edit the filer /etc/rc file from the administration host.
4.
Reboot the filer.
If the changes do not correct the problem, repeat Steps 1 through 4.
Filer Administration Basics 2-21
&RUH)LOHV
$ERXW&RUH)LOHV
When a hardware or software failure causes the filer to crash, the filer creates a core
file that Dell technical support can use to troubleshoot the problem.
&RUH)LOH6WRUDJHLQHWFFUDVK
On the first boot after a system crash, the filer stores the core file in the /etc/crash
directory on the root volume.
:KDWWKHVDYHFRUH&RPPDQG'RHV
The savecore command, which is included in the default /etc/rc file on the root
volume
‡
Produces a core.n.nz file. The n in the file name is a number. The string nz indicates that the file is compressed.
‡
‡
Displays a message on the system console.
Logs a message in /etc/messages on the root volume.
&RUH'XPS6SDFH1HHGHG
A core dump file contains the contents of memory and NVRAM. Core dumps are written to a set of areas at the beginning of all the disks. The core dump area on each disk
has a fixed size of approximately 20,447,232 bytes. Therefore, a filer or appliance with
a large amount of memory can have an insufficient amount of core dump disk space
to store a full core dump.
Table 2-13 shows how many disks are needed to store a full core dump for the
amount of memory you might have in a specific filer or appliance.
7DEOH&RUH'XPS6SDFH
0HPRU\LQ0%
'LVNV1HHGHG
32
2
64
4
96
5
128
7
160
9
192
10
2-22 Dell PowerVault 720N, 740N, and 760N System Administrator and Command Reference Guide
7DEOH&RUH'XPS6SDFHFRQWLQXHG
0HPRU\LQ0%
'LVNV1HHGHG
224
12
256 or more
14
0HVVDJH/RJJLQJ
$ERXW0HVVDJH/RJJLQJ
The filer maintains messages in the /etc/messages file on the root volume.
The level of information that the filer records in the /etc/messages file is configurable.
$ERXWWKHV\VORJG'DHPRQDQGWKHHWFV\VORJFRQI)LOH
The message logging daemon, syslogd, uses the /etc/syslog.conf configuration file
on the filer root volume to determine how to log system messages.
You can configure syslogd to direct system messages to the console, to a file, or to
a remote system based on their severity and origin.
By default, all system messages (except for those of severity level debug) are written
to the console and to the /etc/messages file on the root volume.
7KHHWFV\VORJFRQI)LOH)RUPDW
The /etc/syslog.conf file consists of lines with two tab-separated (not spaceseparated) fields of the following form:
IDFLOLW\OHYHODFWLRQ
7KHIDFLOLW\3DUDPHWHU
The facility parameter specifies the subsystem from which the message originated. Table 2-14 describes the facility parameter keywords.
7DEOHIDFLOLW\3DUDPHWHU.H\ZRUGV
.H\ZRUG
'HVFULSWLRQ
auth
messages from the authentication system, such as login
cron
messages from the internal cron facility
daemon
messages from filer daemons, such as rshd
Filer Administration Basics 2-23
7DEOHIDFLOLW\3DUDPHWHU.H\ZRUGVFRQWLQXHG
.H\ZRUG
'HVFULSWLRQ
kern
messages from the filer kernel
*
messages from all facilities
7KHOHYHO3DUDPHWHU
The level parameter describes the severity of the message. Table 2-15 describes
the level parameter keywords arranged in order from highest to lowest severity.
7DEOHOHYHO3DUDPHWHU.H\ZRUGV
.H\ZRUG
'HVFULSWLRQ
emerg
panic condition that causes a disruption of normal service
alert
condition that you should correct immediately, such as a failed
disk
crit
critical conditions, such as disk errors
err
errors, such as those caused by a bad configuration file
warning
conditions that might become errors if not corrected
notice
conditions that are not errors, but might require special
handling
info
information, such as the hourly uptime message
debug
used for diagnostic purposes (suppressed by default)
*
specifies all levels
7KHDFWLRQ3DUDPHWHU
The action parameter specifies where messages should be sent. Messages for the
specified level or higher are sent to the message destination. Table 2-16 describes the
possible actions and gives examples of each action.
7DEOHDFWLRQ3DUDPHWHUV
$FWLRQ
([DPSOH
Send messages to a file specified by
a path.
/etc/messages
Send messages to a host name preceded by an @ sign.
@adminhost
2-24 Dell PowerVault 720N, 740N, and 760N System Administrator and Command Reference Guide
7DEOHDFWLRQ3DUDPHWHUVFRQWLQXHG
$FWLRQ
([DPSOH
Send messages to the console.
/dev/console
or
*
([DPSOH/LQH)URPHWFV\VORJFRQI
The following example causes all kernel messages of levels emerg, alert, crit,
and err to be sent to the /etc/messages file:
HUUNHUQHWFPHVVDJHV
7KHHWFPHVVDJHV)LOH5HVWDUW6FKHGXOH
Every Sunday at midnight, the /etc/messages file is copied to /etc/messages.0, the
/etc/messages.0 file is copied to /etc/messages.1, and so on. The system saves messages for up to six weeks.
&KHFNLQJWKHHWFPHVVDJHV)LOH'DLO\
Check the /etc/messages file once a day for important messages. You can automate
checking this file by creating a script on the administration host that periodically
searches /etc/messages and then alerts you.
6DPSOHHWFV\VORJFRQI)LOH
The following example shows a customized /etc/syslog.conf file:
/RJDQ\WKLQJRIOHYHOLQIRRUKLJKHUWRHWFPHVVDJHV
LQIRHWFPHVVDJHV
/RJDOONHUQHOPHVVDJHVDQGDQ\WKLQJRIOHYHOHUURU
KLJKHUWRWKHFRQVROH
HUUNHUQGHYFRQVROH
/RJDOONHUQHOPHVVDJHVDQGDQ\WKLQJRIOHYHOHUURU
KLJKHUWRDUHPRWHORJKRVWV\VWHPFDOOHGDGPLQKRVW
HUUNHUQ#DGPLQKRVW
/RJPHVVDJHVIURPWKHDXWKHQWLFDWLRQV\VWHPRIOHYHOQRWLFH
RUKLJKHUWRWKHHWFVHFXUHPHVVDJHILOH7KLVILOHKDV
UHVWULFWHGDFFHVV
DXWKQRWLFHHWFVHFXUHPHVVDJH
Filer Administration Basics 2-25
)RU0RUH,QIRUPDWLRQ
For more information about the syslog.conf file, see the syslog.conf(5) man page.
&RQILJXULQJ)LOHU2SWLRQV
&RPPDQGVWR8VHWR6HW2SWLRQV
The filer recognizes two commands, options and vol options, to set options.
“The options Command” describes the syntax for the options command.
“The vol options Command” describes the syntax for the vol options command.
7KHRSWLRQV&RPPDQG
:KDWWKHRSWLRQV&RPPDQG'RHV
When used interactively, the options command displays option values or changes
the filer’s behavior temporarily; the system returns to the state specified in the /etc/rc
file when rebooted. To make changes permanent, you must include the options
commands in the /etc/rc file.
6\QWD[RIWKHRSWLRQV&RPPDQG
The syntax of the options command is as follows:
RSWLRQV>RSWLRQ>YDOXH@@
If you omit a value for an option, the command displays the current value of the
option.
Table 2-17 describes the variables.
7DEOH9DULDEOHVRIWKHRSWLRQV&RPPDQG
9DULDEOH
'HVFULSWLRQ
option
the name of the option
value
the value of the option
([DPSOHRIWKHRSWLRQV&RPPDQG
The following command specifies the recipients of automatic email:
options autosupport.to customer@company.com
2-26 Dell PowerVault 720N, 740N, and 760N System Administrator and Command Reference Guide
7KHYRORSWLRQV&RPPDQG
YRORSWLRQV&RPPDQG&RQILJXUHV9ROXPH/HYHO%HKDYLRU
You use the vol options command to configure volume-level behavior. You can use this
command only with volume options, which are listed in the section, “Volume
Options,” in Chapter 19.
Changes made with the vol options command are persistent between reboots—
you do not need to add them to the /etc/rc file.
6\QWD[RIWKHYRORSWLRQV&RPPDQG
The syntax of the vol options command is as follows:
YRORSWLRQV YROQDPHRSWLRQ>YDOXH@
If you omit a value for an option, the command displays the current value of the
option.
Table 2-18 describes the variables.
7DEOH9DULDEOHVRIWKHYRORSWLRQV&RPPDQG
9DULDEOH
'HVFULSWLRQ
volname
the name of the volume that the option applies to
option
the name of the option
value
the value of the option
([DPSOHRIWKHYRORSWLRQV&RPPDQG
The following command sets the maximum size of a RAID group in the volume
named myvol to 12:
YRORSWLRQVP\YROUDLGVL]H
6HQGLQJ$XWRPDWLF(PDLO
+RZ$XWRPDWLF(PDLO0HVVDJHV$UH&RQWUROOHG
The filer uses the autosupport daemon to control how automatic email messages
are sent from your filer to your administrator.
Filer Administration Basics 2-27
+RZWKHDXWRVXSSRUW'DHPRQ:RUNV
The autosupport daemon is enabled by default on the filer. The daemon triggers
automatic email messages to customer-defined administrator accounts, alerting them
to potential filer problems.
0DLO+RVW5HTXLUHPHQWIRUDXWRVXSSRUW
Because the filer doesn’t function as a mail host, it relies on another host at your site
that listens on the SMTP port (25) to send mail. Therefore, autosupport requires at
least one host reachable by the filer that runs an SMTP server or a mail forwarder,
such as the sendmail program or Microsoft Exchange server. By default, the administration host defined during setup is used as a mail host. You can specify more mail
hosts.
$ERXW&RQILJXULQJDXWRVXSSRUW
You can specify up to five addresses of email recipients.
Refer to “Use the Options Command to Configure Autosupport” for more
information about specifying the email address and other options.
(YHQWV7KDW7ULJJHUDXWRVXSSRUW(PDLO
The mail host sends email about your filer after any of the events listed in Table 2-19.
7DEOHDXWRVXSSRUW(PDLO7ULJJHU(YHQWV
(YHQW
6XEMHFWOLQHRIWKHHPDLOPHVVDJH
Low NVRAM lithium battery
BATTERY_LOW!!!
Disk failure
DISK_FAIL!!!
Disk scrub occurred
DISK_SCRUB!!!
Fan failure
FAN_FAIL!!!
Shutdown because of
overheating
OVER_TEMPERATURE_SHUTDOWN!!!
Partial RPS failure
POWER_SUPPLY_DEGRADED!!!
System reboot
REBOOT
PowerVault 700N storage system error
SHELF_FAULT!!!
Spare disk failure
SPARE FAIL!!!
Weekly backup of /etc/messages
WEEKLY_LOG
option autosupport.doit
FRPPDQG
THE STRING SPECIFIED IN OPTION
autosupport.doit
2-28 Dell PowerVault 720N, 740N, and 760N System Administrator and Command Reference Guide
&RQWHQWVRI$XWRPDWLF(PDLO0HVVDJHV
Each email message generated by autosupport contains the following types of
information:
‡
‡
‡
‡
‡
‡
‡
date and time stamp of the message
Data ONTAP 5.3 software version
system ID of the filer
host name of the filer
software licenses enabled for the filer
SNMP contact name and location (if specified in /etc/rc)
output of the following commands (some are applicable only to the licensed
protocols):
V\VFRQILJY
RSWLRQV
LIFRQILJD
QIVVWDWF
FLIVVWDW
FLIVVHVVLRQV
FLIVVKDUHV
KWWSVWDW
GI
GIL
VQDSVFKHG
V\VFRQILJU
‡
‡
contents of /etc/messages
contents of /etc/serialnum
8VHWKHRSWLRQV&RPPDQGWR&RQILJXUHDXWRVXSSRUW
To change the default behavior of the autosupport daemon, use the options command. As with other filer commands, you can add options commands to the /etc/rc
file if you want to execute them automatically when the filer reboots.
'LVDEOLQJRU(QDEOLQJWKHDXWRVXSSRUW'DHPRQ
The autosupport daemon is enabled by default. The syntax of the command to disable or enable the daemon is as follows:
RSWLRQVDXWRVXSSRUWHQDEOHRQ_RII
Example: DXWRVXSSRUWHQDEOHRII
Filer Administration Basics 2-29
Specifying mail hosts: The command to specify hosts that send autosupport email
messages is as follows:
RSWLRQVDXWRVXSSRUWPDLOKRVWKRVWQDPH
You can specify up to five mail host names. Separate names by commas and do not
include spaces in the list. The default is the administration host.
Example: RSWLRQVDXWRVXSSRUWPDLOKRVWKRVWKRVWKRVW
6SHFLI\LQJ$GGUHVVHVIRUDXWRVXSSRUW0DLO
The command for specifying the recipients of automatic email messages sent by the
autosupport daemon is as follows:
RSWLRQVDXWRVXSSRUWWRDGGUHVVHV
You can specify up to five email addresses. Separate email addresses by commas and
do not include spaces in the list.
Example: RSWLRQVDXWRVXSSRUWWRFXVWRPHU#FRPSDQ\FRP
Be sure to enter the command on a single line.
6SHFLI\LQJWKH)LOHU$GPLQLVWUDWRU·V$GGUHVV
The options command for specifying the filer administrator is as follows:
RSWLRQVDXWRVXSSRUWIURPDGGUHVV
Example: RSWLRQVDXWRVXSSRUWIURPMGRH#DEFFRP
6HQGLQJDQ,PPHGLDWH0HVVDJH
Immediate messages contain the same filer data as automatic messages.
How to send immediate messages: The command to send an automatic email message immediately is as follows:
RSWLRQVDXWRVXSSRUWGRLWVWULQJ
The string is used in the subject line of the email message to explain why the email
was sent.
Example: RSWLRQVDXWRVXSSRUWGRLW7(67,1*
2-30 Dell PowerVault 720N, 740N, and 760N System Administrator and Command Reference Guide
6HQGLQJD6KRUW0HVVDJH
The options autosupport.noteto command specifies the recipients of short
email messages sent by autosupport. The short email messages are for urgent
events, such as disk failures or filer reboots. The following example shows a short
message:
5HWXUQ3DWKDXWRVXSSRUW!
5HFHLYHGIURPILOHUE\FRPSDQ\FRP60,
LG$$7KX6HS3'7
0HVVDJH,G$$#FRPSDQ\FRP!
)URPDXWRVXSSRUW
7RMGRH
'DWH7KX6HS
5HVHQW'DWH7KX6HS3'7
6XEMHFW6\VWHP$OHUWIURPILOHU
5(%227RQ7KX6HS3'7
Short messages are useful if the person who should be notified of urgent events
reads email on a small screen, such as the screen on an alphanumeric pager.
)LOHU6\VWHP7LPH6\QFKURQL]DWLRQ
&RPPDQGVIRU6\QFKURQL]LQJ7LPH
The filer uses two commands and a set of options to control and synchronize the system time.
‡
The date command sets the time locally.
For example, the following command sets the system date and time to 9:25 a.m.
on May 22, 1999:
date 199905220925
‡
The rdate command synchronizes the filer’s time with the time on another host
with an accuracy of one second.
‡
SNTP (Simple Network Time Protocol) synchronizes the filer’s time with the time
on a time server with a theoretical maximum accuracy of one nanosecond; actual
accuracy depends on the accuracy of the time server and network delays.
7LPH6\QFKURQL]DWLRQZLWKWKHUGDWH
&RPPDQG
The rdate command synchronizes the filer’s time with a target computer’s time
using the UDP time service (typically, UDP port 37). This service is available on most
UNIX computers. Check /etc/services and /etc/inetd.conf on the target computer to
see whether this service is supported.
Filer Administration Basics 2-31
NOTE: There is currently no Windows 9x or Windows NT counterpart to the rdate
command. If you want to use the rdate command, you must have a UNIX workstation that supports rdate on your filer’s network.
:KHQWR8VHWKHUGDWH&RPPDQG
You use the rdate command when you need time accuracy only to the second, or
when you want to keep your current method of synchronizing time.
)LOHU&ORFN$FFXUDF\
To keep the filer’s clock accurate, regularly run the rdate command on the filer with
the target machine, a computer that maintains accurate time and that supports the
port 37 UDP time service. For example, if the name of the target computer is
time_node, enter
UGDWHWLPHBQRGH
8VHRIFURQMREVWR5XQUGDWH
A typical scheme is to have a UNIX computer run a periodic cron job that executes
the appropriate rdate command on your filer through rsh. The computer and the
user (if not root) running the cron job must be in the filer’s /etc/hosts.equiv file on the
root volume.
FURQMRE([DPSOH
For example, on the UNIX computer named adminhost, the user named adminuser
sets up a cron job to run every day at 3 a.m. It directs the filer named filer to request
a time update from the computer named time_node, which maintains an accurate
time and supports the UDP time service.
crontab entry: The crontab entry on the UNIX system is as follows:
UVKILOHUOURRWUGDWHWLPHBQRGH
Entry in /hosts/equiv file: The /etc/hosts.equiv file on filer must contain the following line:
DGPLQKRVWDGPLQXVHU
The adminhost and time_node host names must be known to the filer.
7LPH6\QFKURQL]DWLRQ:LWK6173
You control how time is synchronized using SNTP and whether time changes are
logged by using the timed options.
2-32 Dell PowerVault 720N, 740N, and 760N System Administrator and Command Reference Guide
:KHQWR8VH6173
You use SNTP when you need a high degree of accuracy.
/LVWRIWLPHG2SWLRQV
Before using SNTP, you set the timed options as described in “Synchronizing Filer
System Time” or accept the default settings. The timed options are listed in
Table 2-20. For details about the timed options, see “Timed Options.”
7DEOH/LVWRIWLPHG2SWLRQV
7LPHGRSWLRQ
)XQFWLRQ
'HIDXOW
timed.enable
Determines whether the timed daemon
runs.
Off
timed.log
Determines whether to log time
changes initiated by the timed daemon
to the console.
Off
timed.max_skew
Sets the maximum allowable
discrepancy between filer time and
server time.
30m
timed.proto
Selects whether to use the protocol
used by the rdate command or SNTP.
ntp
timed.sched
Schedules when to synchronize the time
with a time server.
hourly
timed.servers
Specifies up to five time servers in order
of contact priority.
None
6\QFKURQL]LQJ)LOHU6\VWHP7LPH
'HVFULSWLRQ
This procedure describes how to set the timed options to synchronize filer system
time. You can do this any time. After you complete this procedure, filer time is continually updated automatically.
3UHUHTXLVLWHV
You must have available the name of at least one time server. You can get a list of NTP
(Network Time Protocol) time servers, which SNTP can use, from http://
www.eecis.udel.edu/~mills/ntp/servers.htm.
Filer Administration Basics 2-33
6WHSV
To set the timed options so that you can synchronize filer time, perform the following
steps:
1.
Turn on the timed daemon by entering the following command:
options timed.enable on
2.
If desired, turn on console logging of time changes initiated by the timed daemon by entering the following command:
options timed.log on
3.
Specify the maximum discrepancy allowed before time is not synchronized by
entering the following command:
options timed.max_skew nu
n is the number of units (specified by u).
u is one of the following
‡
‡
‡
s for seconds
m for minutes
h for hours
The default is 30m, which stands for 30 minutes.
4.
Specify a protocol by entering the following command:
options timed.proto protocol
protocol is one of the following:
‡
‡
rdate for the protocol used by the rdate command
ntp for SNTP
The default is ntp.
5.
Specify a synchronization schedule by entering the following command:
options timed.sched schedule
schedule is one of the following:
‡
‡
‡
‡
hourly to synchronize hourly
multihourly to synchronize every six hours
daily to synchronize every day at midnight
a number followed by m to specify an interval of minutes or h to specify an
interval of hours
The default is hourly.
2-34 Dell PowerVault 720N, 740N, and 760N System Administrator and Command Reference Guide
6.
Specify up to five time servers by entering the following command:
options timed.servers servers
servers is a list of the host names or IP addresses of up to five time servers,
separated by commas.
8VLQJRSWLRQV&RPPDQG2SWLRQVWR0DLQ
WDLQ)LOHU6HFXULW\
:KDWWKH2SWLRQVWRWKHRSWLRQV&RPPDQG'R
The following options to the options command help maintain filer security:
‡
The telnet.hosts option restricts telnet access to a limited number of
hosts. Use this option to specify a comma-separated list of up to five hosts that
can log in to the filer using telnet. Alternatively, you can disable telnet for all
hosts by specifying a hyphen (-). By default, the option argument consists of an
asterisk (*), which means all hosts have telnet access.
‡
A record of all telnet and console logins is maintained in the /etc/messages file
on the root volume.
‡
The mount_rootonly option restricts the mount privilege to root using privileged ports (ports 1 through 1,024). By default, the option is enabled. This option
accepts the arguments off and on to disable and enable it. This option is applicable only if your filer runs NFS.
NOTE: Some PC clients and some older implementations of NFS on UNIX workstations use non-privileged ports to send requests. If you have these clients at your site,
disable the mount_rootonly option or upgrade the client software.
‡
The wafl.root_only_chown option enables only root to change the owner of
a file. When the option is disabled, the owner of a file can change its ownership
without being root. By default, this option is enabled. Use the arguments off
and on to disable and enable the option.
When a non-root user changes the owner of a file, the set-user-id and set-groupid bits are cleared. If a non-root user tries to change the owner of a file but the
change causes the file’s recipient to exceed his or her quota, the attempt fails.
This option is applicable only if your filer runs NFS.
Filer Administration Basics 2-35
6RIWZDUH/LFHQVHV
$ERXW6RIWZDUH/LFHQVHV
The filer requires software licenses to enable these services and features:
‡
‡
‡
‡
‡
NFS
CIFS
HTTP
SnapMirror
SnapRestore
Licenses are installed on the filer at the factory per your order, so the initial setup of
your filer does not involve entering license codes.
You need to enter license codes only if any of the following conditions applies:
‡
You purchased a filer with a release earlier than Release 4.0, and you are upgrading it to Release 4.0 or later.
‡
‡
You want to enable a service not previously licensed for your filer.
The filer’s file system becomes corrupt and must be rebuilt.
Dell provides you with the appropriate license codes when shipping you the software
upgrade kit or when giving you instructions for obtaining the software upgrade over
the Internet.
(QDEOLQJ6HUYLFHV
To enter a license code to enable a protocol on your filer, use the license command
with the following syntax:
OLFHQVHSURWRFRO FRGH
The protocol field can be one of these values: nfs, cifs, http, snapmirror, and
snaprestore.
Example: If the license code for NFS is ABCDEFG, enter
OLFHQVHQIV $%&'()*
The events that take place after a license command depend on the protocol specified. Table 2-21 discusses the events for each service or feature.
2-36 Dell PowerVault 720N, 740N, and 760N System Administrator and Command Reference Guide
7DEOHOLFHQVH&RPPDQG6HUYLFHRU)HDWXUH
6HUYLFHRU
IHDWXUH
NFS
0HVVDJHV
QIVOLFHQVHHQDEOHG
QIVHQDEOHG
The filer also automatically runs the nfs on command to start
NFS service. However, the filer does not add the nfs on command to /etc/rc as a result of the license command. If you
want the filer to run NFS service after each reboot, add nfs on
to /etc/rc.
CIFS
&,)6OLFHQVHHQDEOHG
5XQFLIVVHWXSWRHQDEOH&,)6
To start CIFS service, set up the filer’s CIFS configuration by running cifs setup. You don’t need to run cifs setup after the
license command if you already set up the CIFS configuration.
HTTP
KWWSOLFHQVHHQDEOHG
8VH«RSWLRQVKWWSGHQDEOH¬WRHQDEOHKWWS
To start HTTP service, enter the following command:
RSWLRQVKWWSGHQDEOHRQ
Results: The options command takes effect immediately. If
you want the filer to automatically start HTTP service after each
reboot, add options httpd.enable to /etc/rc.
SnapMirror
VQDSPLUURUOLFHQVHHQDEOHG
VQDSPLUURUHQDEOHG
SnapRestore
VQDSUHVWRUHOLFHQVHHQDEOHG
VQDSUHVWRUHLVHQDEOHG
Example: The following example shows how to activate several protocols with one
command:
OLFHQVHQIV $%&'()*&,)6 +,-./01KWWS 3456789
'LVSOD\LQJ&XUUHQW/LFHQVH&RGHV
To display licensing information, enter the license command without parameters,
as follows:
ILOHU!license
QIV $%&'()*
FLIV QRWOLFHQVHG
KWWS 3456789
VQDSUHVWRUH QRWOLFHQVHG
Filer Administration Basics 2-37
'LVDEOLQJD/LFHQVH
To disable a license, enter DISABLE as the code for the protocol. For example, to disable your filer’s license for NFS, enter
OLFHQVHQIV ',6$%/(
After you disable a license, your filer stops service for the corresponding protocol. You
can restart the service by reentering the license code.
5HSODFLQJ/LFHQVH&RGHV
If you misplace a license code, contact Dell technical support to obtain a copy.
2-38 Dell PowerVault 720N, 740N, and 760N System Administrator and Command Reference Guide
&+$37(5
'LVNDQG)LOH6\VWHP0DQDJHPHQW
'LVN&RQFHSWV
&KDSWHU&RQWHQWV
This chapter covers the following topics:
‡
‡
‡
‡
‡
‡
‡
‡
‡
Understanding RAID groups
About disk addresses
Use disk scrubbing to protect data from media errors
Understanding hot spare disks
Understanding hot swap
Using disks of various sizes
Understanding usable space on each disk
Handling disk failures
Effects of disk failure on filer operation
8QGHUVWDQGLQJ5$,'*URXSV
The filer uses RAID Level 4 to ensure data integrity even when one of the disks fails.
The file system design, together with the support for RAID, optimizes filer performance and enables you to incrementally expand the filer’s disk storage capacity.
In a RAID group, different disks have different functions. Most of the disks in the
RAID group are data disks. One disk is the parity disk, which enables the filer to
recover the data on a data disk if one fails.
Multiple RAID groups: The filer supports multiple RAID groups. The factory default
filer configuration contains one RAID group. The filer supports up to 32 RAID groups.
Each RAID group belongs to only one volume; you cannot assign more than one volume to the same RAID group.
Spare disks are used by RAID groups as needed. They do not have to be in the
same PowerVault 700N storage system to be available to a RAID group. The filer
Disk and File System Management 3-1
automatically assigns disks to RAID groups and creates new RAID groups as each
RAID group is filled with its maximum number of disks.
RAID group size: The following characteristics apply to RAID group size:
‡
‡
‡
‡
The default number of disks in a RAID group (including the parity disk) is 14.
A RAID group must contain at least two disks.
The largest RAID group size you can create manually is 28 disks.
The maximum RAID group size is 52 disks.
Occasionally, you might encounter situations in which you want to specify a RAID
group size other than the default. For example, you might want to configure a filer
with smaller RAID groups for the following reasons:
‡
‡
Using smaller RAID groups reduces disk reconstruction time if a disk fails.
‡
Conversely, configuring with larger (therefore, fewer) RAID groups in a filer uses
fewer disks for parity, leaving more disks available for data storage.
Using smaller (therefore, more) RAID groups provides higher reliability by reducing the risk of data loss due to multiple-disk failure.
Parity disks: In each RAID group, the filer assigns the role of parity disk to the largest
disk in the RAID group. After a data disk failure, the filer uses the parity disk in conjunction with the other data disks to reconstruct the failed disk’s data and optionally
write it to a hot spare disk. The parity disk must be at least as large as the largest data
disk.
For more information about how the filer recovers from disk failures by using the parity disk or hot spare disk, refer to “Handling Disk Failures.”
$ERXW'LVN$GGUHVVHV
You identify a disk by its address, which is listed in the HA.Disk_ID column of the
output of the sysconfig -r command. In this output listing, HA refers to the host
adapter and Disk_ID refers to the disk ID number.
You use the disk address to
‡
interpret screen messages (for example, command output or error messages)
that you see on your display
‡
quickly locate the disk that the message is referring to
Fibre channel disk addresses: With fibre channel disks, the disk address is a combination of the disk’s adapter number and the disk’s fibre channel loop ID. To create the
fibre channel loop ID, multiply the shelf ID switch value by eight and add it to the bay
number. For example, ha 8, shelf 1, disk 2 has disk ID 8.10.
For more information: For more information about locating specific drives on PowerVault 700N storage systems, refer to the Installation and Troubleshooting Guide.
3-2
Dell PowerVault 720N, 740N, and 760N System Administrator and Command Reference Guide
8VH'LVN6FUXEELQJWR3URWHFW'DWD)URP0HGLD(UURUV
The filer uses the RAID disk scrubbing procedure to increase data availability. The filer
scans each disk in the RAID group for media errors. If the filer finds media errors, it
fixes them by reconstructing the data from parity and rewriting the data.
Disk scrubbing reduces the chance of a multiple disk failure, caused by a disk media
error encountered while the system was running in degraded mode.
The filer only scans a RAID group when all the group’s disks are operational. Although
disk scrubbing slows the filer somewhat, network clients might not notice the change
in the filer’s performance because disk scrubbing starts automatically at 1:00 A.M. on
Sunday, when most systems are lightly loaded.
By default, disk scrubbing is enabled. You might want to disable scrubbing if you have
a recurring problem that scrubbing encounters.
Example: For example, there might be an unrecoverable error on a disk that you cannot fix before the next disk scrub. The following commands disable and enable disk
scrubbing:
RSWLRQVUDLGVFUXEHQDEOHRII
RSWLRQVUDLGVFUXEHQDEOHRQ
Commands to start and stop disk scrubbing: You can also manually start and
stop disk scrubbing regardless of the current value (On or Off) of the
raid.scrub.enable option. Following are the commands for starting and stopping
scrubbing manually:
GLVNVFUXEVWDUW
GLVNVFUXEVWRS
Sample messages logged from scrubbing: Messages from the disk scrubbing process are sent to the system error logging daemon.
Following are sample messages that can appear:
‡
If the filer finds an inconsistent parity block during scrubbing, it prints the following messages:
,QFRQVLVWHQWSDULW\RQYROXPHYROXPHBQDPH5$,'JURXSQ
VWULSH Q
5HZULWLQJEDGSDULW\EORFNRQYROXPHYROXPHBQDPH5$,'JURXS
QVWULSH Q
NOTE: An Inconsistent parity error message might indicate file system
corruption. If you get such an error, contact Dell technical support for assistance.
‡
If the filer finds a media error on the parity disk, it prints the following message:
5HZULWLQJEDGSDULW\EORFNRQYROXPHYROXPHBQDPH5$,'JURXS
QVWULSHQ
Disk and File System Management 3-3
‡
If the filer finds a media error on a data disk, it prints the following message:
5HZULWLQJEDGEORFNIURPSDULW\RQGLVNQEORFNQ
‡
If the filer finds more than one bad block, it prints the following message:
0XOWLSOHEDGEORFNVIRXQGRQYROXPHYROXPHBQDPH5$,'JURXS
QVWULSHQ
The following sample messages appear after disk scrubbing is complete:
6FUXEIRXQGQSDULW\LQFRQVLVWHQFLHV
6FUXEIRXQGQPHGLDHUURUV
'LVNVFUXEELQJILQLVKHG
8QGHUVWDQGLQJ+RW6SDUH'LVNV
In addition to data disks and parity disks, the filer supports zero or more hot spare
disks. A hot spare disk is not part of any RAID group and does not contain file system
data. After a disk failure, the filer automatically rebuilds data (or parity) onto a hot
spare disk, which then replaces the failed disk in the RAID group. This procedure
avoids a system shutdown and returns the system to full performance.
A hot spare disk cannot replace a failed disk that is larger than itself. If you use only
one hot spare disk in a filer, the hot spare disk must be as large as the largest file system disk. If you have multiple hot spare disks installed, the system uses the smallest
hot spare disk needed to replace the failed disk.
8QGHUVWDQGLQJ+RW6ZDS
The filer enables you to hot swap disk drives. Hot swapping a disk drive means installing or removing it from the PowerVault 700N storage system while the filer is running,
with minimal interruption to a file system. For example, you might want to hot swap a
disk into a filer to replace a disk or to add a hot spare disk.
8QGHUVWDQGLQJ8VDEOH6SDFHRQ(DFK'LVN
A disk’s usable space can be different from its physical space. The information here
applies to data, parity, and hot spare disks.
Disks from different manufacturers might differ slightly in size even though they
belong to the same size category.
+DQGOLQJ'LVN)DLOXUHV
If one block on a data disk fails, the filer uses the parity disk in its RAID group to
reconstruct the data on that block. The block is mapped to a new location on disk. If
an entire data disk fails, the parity disk for that RAID group prevents any data loss and
enables the filer to continue running.
Although the filer can continue to function with a failed disk, if it cannot reconstruct
that failed disk on a hot spare, it automatically shuts down after 24 hours to
3-4
Dell PowerVault 720N, 740N, and 760N System Administrator and Command Reference Guide
encourage you to replace the failed disk. You can change the amount of time from
24 hours to another value using the raid.timeout option to the options
command.
(IIHFWVRI'LVN)DLOXUHRQ)LOHU2SHUDWLRQ
The effects of a disk failure on filer operation depend on whether the filer has a hot
spare disk.
Without a hot spare disk: If the filer is not equipped with a hot spare disk, after a
disk fails the filer enters a state called “degraded mode.” In this state, the RAID feature enable the filer to continue to run without losing data (although the filer’s
performance is affected). Replace the failed disk as soon as possible because a second disk failure in the same RAID group causes the entire file system to be lost.
When a disk fails, the filer logs a warning message in the /etc/messages file and to
the system console every hour, notifying you of the number of hours before the system shuts down.
The shutdown ensures that you notice the disk failure. You can restart the filer without fixing the disk, but the filer continues to shut itself off at the specified intervals
until you repair the problem.
By default, the filer shuts down after 24 hours. You can change this time interval using
the option raid.timeout command; the argument is the time, in hours, that the
system runs before automatic shutdown.
The system shuts down after the specified period if it is running in degraded mode. A
filer is in degraded mode if either of the following conditions exist:
‡
‡
One disk in any RAID group has failed.
The batteries on the NVRAM card are low (if the filer is a PCI-based system).
With a hot spare disk: If you reserve one or more disks as hot spare disks when you
configure your filer, the filer also enters degraded mode after a disk failure. However,
the filer immediately begins rebuilding the missing data in the background on the hot
spare disk, with minimal interruption to file service.
The filer logs this activity in the /etc/messages file and does not automatically shut
down. If you turn off the filer while it is in degraded mode, it stops data reconstruction. After you turn the filer back on, the filer restarts the data reconstruction process
from the beginning.
Except for a loss in performance while data is rebuilt on the hot spare disk, the failure
of a single disk is transparent to the user. The filer exits degraded mode and returns to
normal operation after it finishes reconstructing the data.
Dell recommends that you replace the failed disk with a new hot spare disk after the
filer finishes reconstructing data. This way, the filer continues to have a hot spare disk
that it can use in case another disk fails.
Disk and File System Management 3-5
The sysconfig -r command displays which disk is reserved as the hot spare disk.
In addition to disk failure and hot spare disk replacement activity, the /etc/messages
file logs any failure in a periodic check of the hot spare disk.
Command to control RAID data reconstruction speed: You can control the speed
of RAID data reconstruction by entering the following command:
RSWLRQVUDLGUHFRQVWUXFWBVSHHGVSHHG
where speed is a number ranging from 1 (slowest) to 10 (fastest). Because RAID data
reconstruction consumes CPU time, sometimes increasing the speed of data reconstruction slows the filer’s network operations. The default speed is 4, which means
approximately 40% of the CPU time is used for RAID data reconstruction.
When RAID data reconstruction is in progress, use the sysstat command to check
the system load on the filer. If the load is light, increase the speed of RAID data reconstruction to maximize CPU utilization. For more information about the sysstat
command, refer to the section, “Displaying Filer Statistics,” in Chapter 17.
9ROXPH&RQFHSWV
6HFWLRQ&RQWHQWV
This section covers the following topics:
‡
‡
‡
‡
Understanding volumes
Determining the number of volumes to use
Planning a multiple volume configuration
Installing a foreign volume
8QGHUVWDQGLQJ9ROXPHV
Data on the filer is organized in volumes. A volume is an independent file system with
its own RAID groups.
The initial configuration for new filers running includes one 2- to 14-disk volume (a root
file system). All remaining disks are spares.
Volume naming conventions: You choose the volume names. The names must follow these naming conventions:
‡
‡
‡
begin with either a letter or an underscore (_)
contain only letters, digits, and underscores
contain no more than 255 characters
The root volume: Each filer must have a root volume to boot. The root volume of a
filer (configured with either a single volume or multiple volumes) is the volume whose
/etc directory is used by the filer for configuration information.
3-6
Dell PowerVault 720N, 740N, and 760N System Administrator and Command Reference Guide
The filer uses two naming conventions to indicate the root volume:
‡
‡
/vol/vol0
/
In the /vol/vol0 convention
‡
/vol
Indicates that the next part of the path, such as vol0 in this example, is a volume
name.
‡
/vol0
Indicates the default name of the root volume for a filer. You can change this
name using the vol rename command.
Mounting volumes: On filers configured with multiple volumes, mounting / is equivalent to mounting /vol/vol0/, (where vol0 is the root directory of the root volume).
Paths that begin with / (for example, /etc) refer to directories on the root volume.
NOTE: /vol is not a directory—it is a special virtual root path under which the filer
mounts other directories. You cannot mount /vol to view all the volumes on the filer;
you must mount each filer volume separately.
In mount requests and server commands, prefix the path names of the volumes and
directories you want to mount using the convention /vol/volume_name/directory.
Example: For example, /vol/users/home/cheryl is a directory called /home/cheryl in a
volume named users.
'HWHUPLQLQJWKH1XPEHURI9ROXPHVWR8VH
Whether you should use the default single volume configuration or create additional
volumes depends mainly on the storage capacity of the filer.
Use of a single volume: If you want the filer to be configured with a single volume,
you do not need to do any further volume configuration after you complete the initial
setup.
If your filer doesn’t have a large number of disks, a single-volume configuration is
probably all you need. You can create additional volumes in the future.
Use of multiple volumes: There are several factors to consider before deciding to
create and use multiple volumes:
Configuring with multiple volumes aids in the administration of filers that have large
storage capacities, enabling you to
‡
Perform administrative and maintenance tasks, for example, backup and restore,
on individual volumes rather than on a single, large file system.
‡
Set option command values, for example, snap sched, raidsize, minra,
no_atime_update, and so on, differently for individual volumes.
Disk and File System Management 3-7
‡
Take individual volumes off-line, for example, to perform administrative tasks on
their file systems or associated RAID groups, while the other volumes remain online, without interrupting the availability of the data on them.
Limitations of configuring with multiple volumes include
‡
‡
The filer’s storage space is partitioned.
‡
‡
You can expand but not concatenate, shrink, or split volumes.
Additional administrative overhead is introduced, for example, defining export
points.
You cannot perform a local copy of a volume’s contents; you must use dump and
restore or ndmp copy.
3ODQQLQJD0XOWLSOH9ROXPH&RQILJXUDWLRQ
Before you configure a filer with multiple volumes, you must decide on the number
and sizes of volumes you want to configure.
When deciding the number and sizes of volumes you want to configure, keep the following considerations in mind:
‡
Configuring with more volumes
—
provides more flexible quota and snapshot configuration
—
requires more export points
‡
Configuring with larger volumes increases the time needed to restore a volume
from tape.
‡
‡
The maximum number of volumes per filer is 23.
The maximum recommended volume size is 250 GB.
For instructions about specific volume configuration procedures, see “Volume Management Tasks.”
,QVWDOOLQJD)RUHLJQ9ROXPH
You can remove an entire volume from one filer and install it in another, which makes
the moved volume a foreign volume to the filer.
Example: For example, you might want to move a volume to a different filer to
‡
replace the volume’s PowerVault 700N storage system with one that has a
greater storage capacity
‡
gain access to the files on a dead filer
When a filer detects a foreign volume at boot time, it places the foreign volume offline. You can then bring the foreign volume on-line. For more information about installing and bringing up a foreign volume on-line, refer to “Adding a Foreign Volume.”
3-8
Dell PowerVault 720N, 740N, and 760N System Administrator and Command Reference Guide
3URFHGXUHVIRU0DQDJLQJ'LVNVDQG
9ROXPHV
6HFWLRQ&RQWHQWV
This section provides step-by-step procedures for performing many filer management
tasks from the command line on a filer administration host or client. It is organized
into two main sections:
‡
‡
Disk management tasks
Volume management tasks
Alternatively, you can perform these procedures using the FilerView program, which
has a graphical interface.
'LVN0DQDJHPHQW7DVNV
$ERXW7KLV6HFWLRQ
This section contains procedures for managing the filer’s disks and RAID groups.
6HWWLQJWKH6L]HRID9ROXPH·V5$,'*URXSV
To set the RAID group size of a volume when you create it, enter the command
YROFUHDWHYROXPHUQ
where volume is the name of the volume and n is the number of disks you want in
each RAID group. Every RAID group must contain at least two disks.
&KDQJLQJWKH6L]HRID5$,'*URXS$IWHU&UHDWLQJ,W
To change the size of a RAID group, enter the command
YROYROXPHRSWLRQVUDLGVL]HVL]H
where size is the number of disks you want in the RAID group.
NOTE: You can only change the size of the last RAID group in a volume. You cannot
change the size of RAID groups after they have been filled.
Disk and File System Management 3-9
,QVWDOOLQJ1HZ'LVNV
New disks are ones that have never been used. Perform the following steps to install
new disks.
1.
Install one or more disks according to the refer to the Installation and Troubleshooting Guide for your PowerVault 700N storage system.
The system displays a message confirming that one or more disks were installed,
then waits 15 seconds as the disk(s) is turned on. The system recognizes the
disks as a hot spare disks.
If you added multiple disks, they might require 25–40 seconds to come up to
speed as the system checks the device addresses on each adapter and returns to
normal operation.
2.
Type the following command:
V\VFRQILJU
3.
Check the sysconfig -r output to verify that the new disk has been added.
$GGLQJ'LVNVWR9ROXPHV
To add new disks to a volume, perform the following steps:
1.
Enter the command
V\VFRQILJU
to verify that there are spare disks available for you to add.
2.
Add the disks to a volume by entering the command
YRODGGYROXPHQGLVNV
where volume is the name of the volume and ndisks is the number of disks
you want to add to the volume.
Refer to the vol(1) man page for details about adding disks to volumes.
5HPRYLQJD)DLOHG'LVN
When a RAID disk has failed, you need not enter any commands—just remove the
failed disk from the PowerVault 700N storage system.
5HPRYLQJD+RW6SDUH'LVN
If you want to swap disks because you want to use a hot spare disk in another filer,
perform the following steps:
1.
Type the following command and use the output to determine the disk number:
V\VFRQILJ U
3-10 Dell PowerVault 720N, 740N, and 760N System Administrator and Command Reference Guide
2.
Type the following command to spin down the disk, replacing disk_name with the
name of the disk from the output in Step 1:
GLVNUHPRYHGLVNBQDPH
After the disk stops spinning, the disk is ready to be removed.
3.
Remove the disk from the filer following the instructions in the hardware guide
for your filer model. File service resumes 15 seconds after you remove the disk.
5HPRYLQJDQ$FWLYH)LOH6\VWHP'LVN
If you want to remove a disk because it is logging excessive errors, perform the following steps:
1.
Type the following command and use the output to determine the disk number:
V\VFRQILJ U
2.
Type the following command to fail the disk, using the disk name from the output
in Step 1 in place of disk_name:
GLVNIDLOGLVNBQDPH
The disk fail command permanently marks a disk as failed. You cannot reuse
the disk; you must replace it.
After the disk fail command, the system operates in degraded mode, which
means that a disk is missing from the RAID group.
3.
Remove the disk from the filer following the instructions in the hardware guide
for your specific filer. File service resumes 15 seconds after you remove the disk.
9ROXPH0DQDJHPHQW7DVNV
,QWURGXFWLRQ
This section contains procedures for configuring and managing volumes.
NOTE: Although you can expand volume sizes and the RAID groups assigned to them
after you create an initial multiple volume configuration, you cannot split or shrink volumes after you create them.
&UHDWLQJ9ROXPHV
You can create up to 23 volumes on a filer. Each volume must contain at least two
disks.
To create a new volume, at the system prompt enter
YROFUHDWHQHZYROQ
Disk and File System Management3-11
where newvol is the name for the new volume and n is the number of disks to use.
You must have at least n spare disks available.
$IWHU&UHDWLQJD1HZ9ROXPH
After you create a new volume on a CIFS filer, you must create shares that refer to the
new volume to enable clients to access it.
After you create a new volume on an NFS filer, you must
1.
Update the system /etc/exports file.
2.
Run exportfs.
3.
Add the appropriate mount point information to the /etc/fstab or /etc/vfstab file
on clients that mount volumes from the filer.
$GGLQJ'LVNVWRD9ROXPH
To add more disks to an existing volume, enter
YRODGGYROQ
where vol is the name of the volume and n is the number of disks to be added.
0RQLWRULQJ9ROXPH6WDWXV
To determine volume status, such as size, options, disk assignments, and so on, enter
YROVWDWXVYROXPH
To view the RAID group and individual disk information for a particular volume, enter
YROVWDWXVUYROXPH
To view the RAID group and individual disk information for all volumes, enter
YROVWDWXVU
6HWWLQJ9ROXPH2SWLRQV
To set various volume options, enter
YRORSWLRQVYROXPHRSWLRQYDOXH
&RQYHUWLQJD0LUURU,QWRD5HJXODU9ROXPH
After you use the SnapMirror™ feature to mirror data to a mirror, you can convert the
mirror into a regular volume so that clients can write data to the volume. Enter the following command syntax to convert a mirror to a regular volume:
YRORSWLRQVYROXPHVQDSPLUURUHGRII
3-12 Dell PowerVault 720N, 740N, and 760N System Administrator and Command Reference Guide
Although you can convert a mirror into a regular volume, you cannot set the
snapmirrored option to on to convert a regular volume into a mirror. To start using a
volume as a mirror, follow the instructions in Chapter 16, “Data Replication Using
SnapMirror,” to mirror data to the volume.
&$87,21$IWHU\RXFRQYHUWDPLUURULQWRDUHJXODUYROXPHWKHILOHUVWRSV
XVLQJLWIRUGDWDUHSOLFDWLRQ,I\RXZDQWWRXVHWKHYROXPHDVDPLUURU
DJDLQ\RXPXVWWDNHWKHYROXPHRIIOLQHDQGIROORZWKHLQVWUXFWLRQVLQ
&KDSWHU´'DWD5HSOLFDWLRQ8VLQJ6QDS0LUURUµWRUHVWDUWWKHSURFHVVRI
UHSOLFDWLQJGDWDLQWRWKHYROXPH
0DNLQJD9ROXPH,QDFWLYH
To remove a volume from active use upon next reboot, enter
YRORIIOLQHYROXPH
5HDFWLYDWLQJDQ2IIOLQH9ROXPH
To reactivate an off-line volume, enter
YRORQOLQHYROXPH
$GGLQJD)RUHLJQ9ROXPH
To add a foreign volume, that is, a volume that was previously installed on another
filer, you move the disks that contain the volume from the old filer to the destination
filer.
To add a foreign volume, perform the following steps:
1.
Follow the instructions in the hardware guide to remove the disks from the old
filer.
2.
Turn off the destination filer and install the disks in the destination filer’s PowerVault 700N storage system.
3.
Turn on and boot the destination filer.
Results: When the destination filer boots, it places the foreign volume off-line. If
the foreign volume has the same name as an existing volume on the filer, the filer
renames it volume_name(1), where volume_name is the original name of the
volume.
CAUTION: If the foreign volume is incomplete, repeat Steps 1 and 2 to add
the missing disks. Do not try to add missing disks while online—doing so
will cause them to become hot spare disks.
Disk and File System Management3-13
4.
If the filer renamed the foreign volume because of a name conflict, type the following command to rename the volume:
YROUHQDPHROGQDPHQHZQDPH
Example: The following command renames the volume vol0(1) to vol1:
YROUHQDPHYROYRO
5.
Type the following command to bring the volume on-line in the new filer, replacing volume_name with the name of the volume:
YRORQOLQHYROXPHBQDPH
6.
Enter the following command to confirm that the added volume came on-line:
YROVWDWXV
'HVWUR\LQJD9ROXPH
To destroy a volume, turning its disks back into spare disks, perform the following
steps.
1.
To deactivate the volume, enter
YRORIIOLQHYROXPH
2.
Enter the reboot command to reboot the filer.
3.
To destroy the volume, enter
YROGHVWUR\YROXPH
5HQDPLQJD9ROXPH
To rename a volume, perform the following steps
1.
Enter
YROUHQDPHROGYROXPHQHZYRO
2.
Update the /etc/exports file and run exportfs.
3.
Update any CIFS shares that refer to the volume.
+DQGOLQJ9ROXPH)DLOXUHV
A volume might fail because of an inconsistent directory or a double-disk failure. If the
system does not reboot after a volume failure, take the volume off-line, as follows:
1.
Boot the filer from a system boot diskette into maintenance mode.
2.
Use the vol command to take the failed volume off-line.
3-14 Dell PowerVault 720N, 740N, and 760N System Administrator and Command Reference Guide
If the failed volume was the filer’s root volume, you must designate another volume
as the new root volume.
)LOH6WDWLVWLFVIRU9ROXPHV
+RZ'DWD217$33URYLGHV)LOH6WDWLVWLFV
The filestats command provides you with a quick way to display a summary of file
statistics within a volume on a filer, by reading file information from a snapshot that
you specify.
,QIRUPDWLRQ2EWDLQHGE\WKH)LOHVWDWV&RPPDQG
The output from the filestats command provides you with a list containing the following information about files from a snapshot in a volume:
‡
‡
‡
‡
Size
Creation time
Modification time
Owner
7KHILOHVWDWV&RPPDQG6\QWD[
The filestats command has the following syntax:
filestats [ages ages] [sizes sizes] [timetype {a,m,c,cr}][style
{readable,table,html}]volume volume_name snapshot snapshot_name
The volume and snapshot arguments are required.
volume_name is the name of the volume.
snapshot_name is the name of the snapshot.
Use the ages, timetype, sizes, and style options when you want to list specific
file information from a volume. For more information about filestats options, see
the section “filestats Command Options.”
([DPSOH:LWK1R2SWLRQV6SHFLILHG
The following example shows sample output from the filestats command,
without any options:
WSXEVFI!ILOHVWDWVYROXPHYROVQDSVKRWKRXUO\
92/ YRO61$36+27 KRXUO\
,12'(6 &2817('B,12'(6 727$/B%<7(6 727$/B.% Disk and File System Management3-15
),/(6,=(
.
.
.
0
0
0
*
0$;
&808/$7,9(&2817
&808/$7,9(727$/.%
$*($7,0(
'
'
'
'
0$;
&808/$7,9(&2817
8,'
&2817
727$/.%
*,'
&2817
727$/.%
&808/$7,9(727$/.%
8VH)LOH6WDWLVWLFVIRU6QDSVKRW0DQDJHPHQW
File statistics help you determine when to schedule snapshots by enabling you to see
when most file activity takes place on a volume. Using the filestats command
also helps you determine snapshot disk consumption.
([DPSOH:LWK$JHV2SWLRQ6SHFLILHG
Enter the filestats command with the ages option to display a daily breakdown of
file changes in a volume, as shown in the following example:
filestats ages 1D,2D,3D,4D,5D,6D,7D,8D,9D,10D,11D,12D,
13D,14D volume vol0 snapshot hourly.0
‡
Use the daily age breakdown displayed in the CUMULATIVE TOTAL KB column of
the AGE output to determine the average change in data per day.
‡
Divide the amount of disk space you want to reserve for snapshots by the daily
change average. For example, if you find that the average daily change rate is
3 GB and you have a 200 GB volume, 40 GB (or 20 percent) of which you want to
reserve for snapshots, divide 40 by 3 to determine the number of daily snapshots
3-16 Dell PowerVault 720N, 740N, and 760N System Administrator and Command Reference Guide
you can have before exceeding your space limit. In this example, 13 daily snapshots is your limit.
([DPSOHWR'HWHUPLQH9ROXPH&DSDFLW\
You can also use the filestats command to determine when most activity occurs
on a volume during a given day so that you can effectively schedule hourly snapshots.
The following example shows how you can use the filestats command to determine when most file changes occur in a volume within a 24-hour period:
filestats ages 1H,2H,3H,4H,5H,6H,7H,8H,9H,10H,11H,12H,
13H,14H,15H,16H,17H,18H,19H,20H,21H,22H,23H,24H volume vol0
snapshot hourly.0
If hourly.0 was taken at 8 a.m., and most file changes took place between 7H and 9H,
which corresponds to 3 p.m. and 5 p.m. in this example, you can schedule more snapshots during these hours, and fewer throughout the rest of the day. Scheduling more
snapshots before or during increased file activity decreases the time between file
changes and snapshots.
For information about managing snapshots, refer to the section, “Managing Snapshot
Disk Consumption,” in Chapter 9.
*HWWLQJD)LOH6WDWLVWLFV6XPPDU\
'HVFULSWLRQ
Use the output from the filestats command for a summary of the following information about files in a volume:
‡
‡
‡
‡
Size
Creation time
Modification time
Owner
5HVWULFWLRQV
The following two arguments are required when using the filestats command:
‡
‡
volume
snapshot
Disk and File System Management3-17
6WHS
To use the filestats command, enter the following command:
filestatsvolume volume_namesnapshotsnapshot_name (where
YROXPHBQDPHLVWKHQDPHRIWKHYROXPHDQGVQDSVKRWBQDPHLVWKH
QDPHRIWKHVQDSVKRW
ILOHVWDWV&RPPDQG2SWLRQV
2SWLRQVWR8VH:LWKWKHILOHVWDWV&RPPDQG
You can use the following options with the filestats command:
‡
‡
‡
‡
‡
ages
timetype
sizes
style
expr
$ERXWWKH$JHV2SWLRQ
The ages option of the filestats command enables you to see when files have
been accessed. You can specify file ages in seconds, hours, and days, using a comma
to separate each value. By default, file ages are broken down by days, in 30-day
increments.
([DPSOHRIWKH$JHV2SWLRQ
For example, to display files with ages under 900 seconds (15 minutes), 4 hours, and
seven days, respectively, enter the following command:
filestats ages 900,4H,7D volume vol0 snapshot hourly.1
The output looks like the following:
$*($7,0(
&808/$7,9(&2817
&808/$7,9(727$/.%
+
'
0$;
3-18 Dell PowerVault 720N, 740N, and 760N System Administrator and Command Reference Guide
$ERXWWKHWLPHW\SH2SWLRQ
The timetype option enables you to specify the time types that you want to list in
the age comparison.
Table 3-1 describes the valid timetype values you can use with the timetype
option.
7DEOH9DOLG9DOXHVIRUWLPHW\SH2SWLRQ
9DOXH
'HILQLWLRQ
a
Access time
m
Modification time
c
File change time (last size/status
change)
cr
File creation time
$ERXWWKHVL]HV2SWLRQ
The sizes option enables you to specify the breakdown of sizes, using a comma to
separate each value. Default values are in bytes, but you can also use the following
three suffixes at the end of a number you specify:
‡
‡
‡
‡
K (kilobytes)
M (megabytes)
G (gigabytes)
* (a special value you use to list all unique file sizes, one line per unique size.
Using this command can result in output of several thousands of lines.)
([DPSOHRIWKH6L]HV2SWLRQ
For example, to display file sizes in four categories—files with less than 500 kilobytes,
files with less than 2 megabytes, files with less than 1 gigabyte, and all other files,
enter the following command:
filestats sizes 500K,2M,1G volume vol0 snapshot hourly.1
The output looks like the following:
),/(6,=(
&808/$7,9(&2817
&808/$7,9(727$/.%
.
0
*
0$;
Disk and File System Management3-19
$ERXWWKH6W\OH2SWLRQ
The style option controls the output style. The three style option arguments are
as follows:
‡
readable. This is the default and is what you see when you use the
filestats command with no style option.
‡
table. Use the table argument when the filestats output will be used by
processing programs.
‡
html. Use the html argument for output that will be read by a Web browser.
$ERXWWKHH[SU2SWLRQ
The expr option is an advanced option of the filestats command. The expr
option enables you to specify a Boolean expression that the filestats command
refers to for each file it encounters.
Table 3-2 lists valid file attributes that you can use with the expr option.
7DEOH9DOLG)LOH$WWULEXWHVIRUH[SU2SWLRQ
$WWULEXWH
'HILQLWLRQ
tid
Tree ID
type
File type
perm
Permissions
flags
Additional flags
nlink
Count of hard links
uid
Numeric user ID of file owner
gid
Numeric group ID of file owner
size
Size, in bytes
blkcnt
Size, in blocks
gen
Generation number
atime
Time of last read or write, in seconds
mtime
Time of last write, in seconds
ctime
Time of last size/status change
crtime
Time of file creation
atimeage
Access time, in seconds
mtimeage
Modification age
3-20 Dell PowerVault 720N, 740N, and 760N System Administrator and Command Reference Guide
7DEOH9DOLG)LOH$WWULEXWHVIRUH[SU2SWLRQFRQWLQXHG
$WWULEXWH
'HILQLWLRQ
ctimeage
Size/status time age
crtimeage
File creation age
%RROHDQ([SUHVVLRQVWR8VH:LWKWKHH[SU2SWLRQ
You can use the following standard Boolean expressions as arguments to the expr
option as shown in Table 3-3.
7DEOHH[SU2SWLRQ%RROHDQ([SUHVVLRQV
$UJXPHQW
$UJXPHQW
&&
>
||
<
==
>=
!=
>=
!
NOTE: Enclose the entire Boolean string following the expr option in quotation
marks. Attributes you use in the string must be enclosed in braces {}.
([DPSOHRIWKHH[SU2SWLRQ
For example, if you want to restrict the filestats command output to include only
files whose size is greater than 10,000 bytes and whose UID is 5150, enter the following command:
filestats expr “{size}>10000&&{uid}==5150” volume vol0
snapshot hourly.0
9ROXPH5HYHUVLRQ8VLQJ6QDS5HVWRUH
$ERXW6QDS5HVWRUH
The filer’s SnapRestore™ feature enables you to revert a volume to the state it was in
when a particular snapshot was taken. Without this feature, you would need to use
one of the following methods to restore data to a volume:
‡
‡
Restoring files from tape
Copying files from a snapshot to the active file system
Disk and File System Management3-21
Using either of these methods takes a longer time than reverting the volume. This is
because with SnapRestore, no data needs to be copied; the file system is just put
back in its earlier state.
SnapRestore is a licensed feature. You must purchase and install the license code
before you can use it.
+RZ6QDS5HVWRUH:RUNV
After you select a snapshot for reversion, the filer reboots with the volume containing
the same data and timestamps as it did when the snapshot was taken. All data that
exists before you initiate the reversion is overwritten.
&$87,21<RXFDQQRWXQGRWKHUHYHUVLRQWRFKDQJHWKHYROXPHEDFNWRWKH
VWDWHLWZDVLQEHIRUHWKHUHYHUVLRQ
:KDW6QDS5HVWRUH5HYHUWV
SnapRestore reverts only the file contents. It does not revert attributes of a volume.
For example, the snapshot schedule, volume option settings, RAID group size, and
maximum number of files remain unchanged after the reversion.
Option settings applicable to the entire filer, however, might be reverted. This is
because the option settings are stored in a registry in the /etc directory. If you revert
the root directory, the registry is reverted to the version that was in use at the snapshot creation time. For more information about how reverting a root volume works,
refer to “Effects of Reverting a Root Volume.”
)LOHV7KDW6QDS5HVWRUH&DQQRW5HFRYHU
You cannot revert a volume to recover a deleted snapshot. For example, if you delete
the hourly.2 snapshot and revert the volume to the hourly.1 snapshot, you cannot find
the hourly.2 snapshot after the reversion. Although the hourly.2 snapshot existed at
the creation time of the hourly.1 snapshot, SnapRestore cannot revert the contents of
the hourly.2 snapshot because you already deleted it.
+RZ6QDS5HVWRUH$IIHFWV5HFHQW6QDS6KRWV
After you revert a volume to a particular snapshot, you lose the snapshots that are
more recent than the snapshot used for the volume reversion. For example, after you
revert the volume to the hourly.1 snapshot, you no longer have access to more recent
snapshots, such as the hourly.0 snapshot. This is because at the creation time of the
hourly.1 snapshot, the hourly.0 snapshot did not exist.
7\SLFDO$SSOLFDWLRQVRI6QDS5HVWRUH
If a client application corrupts data files in a volume, you can revert the volume to a
snapshot taken before the data corruption. The following examples illustrate some situations in which you can apply SnapRestore to recover from corrupted data.
3-22 Dell PowerVault 720N, 740N, and 760N System Administrator and Command Reference Guide
Example: A messaging application or a database application stores user data in one
or two files that can grow to several hundred GB in a volume. If, for some reason, this
application corrupts the files, you can revert the volume to a snapshot taken before
the data corruption.
Example: You can revert a volume used as a test environment to its original state
after each test.
&RQVLGHUDWLRQV%HIRUH8VLQJ6QDS5HVWRUH
This section describes two considerations you must make before deciding whether
you should use SnapRestore to revert a volume.
Time required for data recovery: If the amount of corrupted data is small, it is easier
to copy the files from a snapshot or restore the files from tape than to use SnapRestore for these reasons:
‡
‡
You can preserve the data in other files in the same volume.
The filer does not need to reboot.
If the amount of data to be recovered is large, it takes a long time to copy the files
from a snapshot or to restore from tape. In this case, SnapRestore is the preferred
method for recovering from data corruption.
Free space required for data recovery: If a file to be recovered needs more space
than the amount of free space in the active file system, you cannot copy the file from
the snapshot to the active file system. For example, if a 10-GB file is corrupted and
only 5 GB of free space exists in the active file system, you cannot copy the file from
a snapshot to recover the file. In this case, SnapRestore can quickly recover the file;
you do not have to spend time making the additional space available in the active file
system.
+RZ6QDS5HVWRUH:RUNV:LWK6QDS0LUURU
The following list describes how SnapRestore and SnapMirror interact with each
other:
‡
You can revert a volume that is the source volume for data replication. You cannot, however, revert a volume that is currently the mirror for data replication.
‡
You can revert to any snapshot that is displayed by the snap list command.
That is, you can revert to a regular snapshot or a snapshot created by SnapMirror
for data replication. The snapshots created by SnapMirror have a different naming
convention than the regular snapshots, as explained in the section, “Snapshots
Created During Data Replication,” in Chapter 16.
‡
If you have both regular and SnapMirror snapshots in the volume, avoid reverting
to a snapshot taken before the SnapMirror snapshot. If you must revert to a snapshot taken before the SnapMirror snapshot, after the reversion, the volume
contains no SnapMirror snapshot that is essential for the incremental update of
the mirror. The filer must re-create the base-line version of the mirror.
Disk and File System Management3-23
‡
For example, vol1 is the source volume for data replication and it contains two
snapshots: hourly.0 and filerA_vol1.2. If hourly.0 was taken earlier than
filerA_vol1.2 and you revert vol1 to hourly.0, you cannot find filerA_vol1.2 after the
reversion. As a result, the filer cannot start an incremental update of the mirror. It
must re-create the baseline version of the mirror.
(IIHFWVRI5HYHUWLQJD5RRW9ROXPH
Because the /etc directory of the root volume contains configuration information
about the filer, reverting the root volume might change the filer configuration. The following list describes the effects of reverting the root volume:
‡
The volume loses the changes that were made to the /etc directory after the
snapshot creation time. Suppose you change the IP address of an interface on
the filer after the hourly.0 snapshot was taken. If you revert the root volume to
the hourly.0 snapshot, the filer reboots with the old IP address for the interface.
‡
The options used for the entire filer are reverted to the settings that were in
effect when the snapshot was taken.
Recommendations: Avoid reverting the configuration files. To avoid reverting the
configuration files, follow one of these steps:
‡
Store all data that might need to be reverted in a volume other than the root volume. This ensures that you never need to revert the root volume.
‡
If the data you want to revert resides in the root volume, back up the /etc directory to another volume or another filer before using SnapRestore. After you revert
the volume, restore the /etc directory and reboot the filer.
If you back up the /etc directory to another volume, you can use the
vol options volume root command to make the filer reboot with that volume as the root volume. In this way, when the filer reboots during the reversion,
it can use the correct settings in the /etc directory.
(IIHFWVRI6QDS5HVWRUHRQ)LOHU%DFNXSDQG5HFRYHU\
Because all files in a reverted volume have timestamps that are the same as those
when the snapshot was created, the filer’s dump and restore commands might be
affected. Incremental backup and restore operations can no longer rely on the timestamps to determine what data needs to be backed up or restored.
Recommendation: After you revert a volume, perform a level-0 backup of the volume. After the level-0 backup is finished, the filer can perform subsequent
incremental backups correctly. Also, if you need to restore data from tape to this volume, use only the backups created after the volume reversion.
3-24 Dell PowerVault 720N, 740N, and 760N System Administrator and Command Reference Guide
5HYHUWLQJD9ROXPHWRD6HOHFWHG
6QDS6KRW
'HVFULSWLRQ
Use SnapRestore to revert a volume to a snapshot. You can use this feature at any
time. After you enter the command for reverting a volume, the filer reboots with the
volume containing the same data as it did when the snapshot was taken.
3UHUHTXLVLWHV
You must meet these prerequisites before using SnapRestore:
‡
SnapRestore is a licensed feature. You must enter the snaprestore license
code before you can revert a volume to a snapshot.
‡
Snapshots must exist on the filer so that you can select one snapshot for the
reversion.
‡
‡
The volume to be reverted must be on-line.
The volume to be reverted must not be a mirror used for data replication.
&DXWLRQV
Be sure that you understand the following rules before reverting a volume:
‡
SnapRestore overwrites all data in the volume. After you use SnapRestore to
revert to a selected snapshot, you cannot undo the reversion.
‡
When you revert a source volume for data replication, try not to select a snapshot
taken before the SnapMirror snapshot. If you must revert to a snapshot taken
before the SnapMirror snapshot, the filer can no longer perform an incremental
update of the mirror; it must recreate the base-line version of the mirror.
‡
Snapshot deletions are irrevocable. If you delete a snapshot, you cannot recover
the snapshot by using SnapRestore.
‡
After you revert a volume to a selected snapshot, you lose all the snapshots that
were taken after the selected snapshot.
‡
Reverting the root volume causes the filer to reboot with configuration files that
were in effect when the snapshot was taken.
6WHSV
To revert one or more volumes, perform the steps that follow. At any time before you
enter y in the last step, if for some reason, you do not want to proceed with the volume reversion, enter Ctrl-C.
1.
Notify network users that you are going to revert a volume so that they know the
current data in the volume will be replaced by that of the selected snapshot. NFS
users can unmount the files and directories in the volume before the reversion. If
Disk and File System Management3-25
they do not unmount the files and directories, they might see the “Stale file handle” error message after the volume reversion.
2.
If you know the name of the snapshot for reverting the volume, go to Step 5.
If you want to review the list of snapshots available for volume reversion, enter
the following command:
YROVQDSUHVWRUHYROXPH
volume is the name of the volume to be reverted. Enter the name only, not the
complete path.
You can enter multiple volume names in the command, separated by spaces.
Result: The filer displays a warning message and prompts you to confirm your
decision for reverting the volume.
Between the time you enter the vol snaprestore command and the time
when reversion is completed, the filer stops deleting and creating snapshots.
3.
Enter y to confirm that you want to revert the volume.
Result: The filer displays a list of snapshots for you to choose from.
4.
Enter the name of the snapshot for reverting the volume and go to Step 7.
Result: The filer displays the name of the volume and the name of the snapshot
for the reversion. Then it asks whether you want to reboot the filer to proceed
with the reversion.
5.
Enter the following command:
YROVQDSUHVWRUHYROXPHVVQDSVKRW>YROXPHVVQDSVKRW@
volume is the name of the volume to be reverted. Enter the name only, not the
complete path.
snapshot is the name of the snapshot for volume reversion.
You can enter multiple pairs of volume name and snapshot name in the
command.
Result: The filer displays a warning message and prompts you to confirm your
decision for reverting the volume.
Between the time you enter the vol snaprestore command and the time
when reversion is completed, the filer stops deleting and creating snapshots.
3-26 Dell PowerVault 720N, 740N, and 760N System Administrator and Command Reference Guide
6.
Enter y to confirm that you want to revert the volume.
Result: The filer displays the name of the volume and the name of the snapshot
for the reversion. Then it asks whether you want to reboot the filer to proceed
with the reversion.
7.
Enter y to confirm that you want to continue with the reversion.
Result: The filer reboots.
Disk and File System Management3-27
3-28 Dell PowerVault 720N, 740N, and 760N System Administrator and Command Reference Guide
&+$37(5
1HWZRUN$GPLQLVWUDWLRQ
:RUNLQJ:LWK/DUJH)LOHV
$ERXW/DUJH)LOHV
You can have large files on your filer. The maximum size of a large file is determined
by the smaller of the following two values:
‡
‡
Maximum file size supported by your server
Maximum file size supported by your clients
However, if the maximum file size on your client is larger than the maximum file size
on your server and you enter a command to display the volume size on your server,
the file size is displayed incorrectly. In this case, the maximum file size appears as
2 GB, even though the file on the client is larger than 2 GB.
6RIWZDUH5HTXLUHPHQWV
To use large files, ensure that your system meets the following requirements:
‡
‡
‡
‡
Filer operating system: Data ONTAP 5.3
NFS version 3: enabled
UNIX host and clients: Solaris 2.6 or later
Windows NT host and clients; 4.0 or later
+RZWR(QDEOH1)6
To enable NFS version 3, use the options command to set the nfs.v3.enable
option to On.
Network Administration 4-1
8VLQJ6103
$ERXW6103
You use SNMP (Simple Network Management Protocol) to direct a process, called an
agent, on the filer to perform network management tasks such as gathering status
and diagnostic information. The information is sent to network management stations,
which are client workstations on a network. The network management stations use
third-party applications to process the information.
The information that is exchanged to perform these tasks is described in ASCII files
called Management Information Bases (MIBs).
'DWD61033URYLGHV
For diagnostic and other network management services, the filer supports the SNMP
MIB-II specification. Based on SNMP version 1, this specification provides data about
the following MIB-II groups:
‡
‡
‡
‡
‡
‡
‡
‡
system
interfaces
address translation
IP
ICMP
TCP
UDP
SNMP MIB-II
SNMP commands enable users to specify up to eight communities and trap notifications for up to eight management stations.
&RPPDQGWR&RQILJXUHWKH6103$JHQW
To use SNMP, configure the SNMP agent using the snmp command. A typical set of
SNMP commands in the /etc/rc file in the root volume is as follows:
snmp
snmp
snmp
snmp
snmp
4-2
contact ’jdoe@abc.com 555-555-1212’
location ’ABC corporation, engineering lab’
community add ro private
traphost add snmp-mgr1
init
Dell PowerVault 720N, 740N, and 760N System Administrator and Command Reference Guide
6103&RPPDQGV6XSSRUWHGE\'HOO
SNMP commands that Dell supports are described in detail in the snmp(1) man page.
The following paragraphs provide brief explanations of these commands:
‡
snmp contact ’jdoe@abc.com 555-555-1212’
Sets the email address and telephone number of the person responsible for the
filer. You can include the person’s full name, but an email address and a telephone number enable the administrator to contact the right person after
receiving an automatic email message.
‡
snmp location ’ABC corporation, engineering lab’
Sets the physical location of the filer. This value is returned by the SNMP agent.
‡
snmp community add ro private
Creates a read-only community called private. The SNMP manager uses the
community name as a password to communicate with the filer’s SNMP agent.
‡
snmp traphost add snmp-mgr1
Makes the system snmp-mgr1 the recipient of all SNMP traps from the filer.
‡
snmp init 1
Initializes the SNMP daemon with the values specified with snmp commands.
This command also sends the SNMP cold start and links up or down traps, as
appropriate, to any trap hosts that were previously registered using the snmp
traphost command. This command should be the last SNMP command in the
filer’s /etc/rc file.
‡
snmp traps
Generates asynchronous notification of events, called traps.
$ERXWWKH'HOO&XVWRP0,%
The Dell custom MIB provides detailed information about many aspects of filer operation. You must use Dell custom MIB 1.1.2 or higher. It contains objects that help you
manage multivolume features.
Where to get the MIB: You can obtain the custom MIB from the Data ONTAP 5.3 CD.
To locate the MIB on the CD, read the contents.txt file.
Installing the MIB: Install the MIB file on your network management workstation
according to the installation procedure for your workstation, so that your workstation
can obtain information from the filer about the objects that are part of the MIB.
Using deprecated single-volume objects: Single-volume objects are deprecated,
but you can use them for single-volume systems as before. If you are using a singlevolume filer, you do not need to make changes to use the new MIB.
Finding multivolume objects: The descriptions of the deprecated single-volume
objects contain the names of the corresponding new multivolume objects. For
multivolume objects, use the new objects rather than the deprecated ones.
Network Administration 4-3
$ERXW0,%*URXS&RQWHQWV
The top-level groups in the custom MIB and the information they contain are
described in Table 4-1.
7DEOH0,%*URXS&RQWHQWV
*URXSQDPH
&RQWHQWV
FLIV
Statistics like those displayed by the cifs stat command.
filesys
Information related to the file system, including the equivalent of the maxfiles and df commands, and some of the
information from the snap list command.
nfs
Statistics like those displayed by the nfsstat command,
including statistics for each client if per-client statistics are
enabled. The per-client statistics are indexed by client IP
addresses.
product
Product-level information, such as the software version string
and the system ID.
quota
Information related to disk quotas, including the output of
the quota report command. To access quota information,
quotas must be turned On.
For more information about quotas, see “Restricting or Tracking Disk Usage by Using Disk Quotas” in Chapter 11.
raid
Information about RAID equivalents to the sysconfig -r
output.
For more information about sysconfig, see Chapter 17,
“System Information and Performance.”
sysstat
System-level statistics, such as CPU uptime, idle time, and
the number of kilobytes transmitted and received on all network interfaces.
$ERXW7UDSV
You use the snmp traps command to inspect the value of MIB variables periodically
and send an SNMP trap to the machines on the traphost list whenever that value
meets the conditions you specify. The traphost list specifies network management
stations that receive trap information.
You use the SNMP third-party applications on your network management station to
process the trap information. For example, you can set a trap to monitor the fans on a
filer and have the SNMP application on your network management station put a flashing message on your console that tells you that a fan has ceased operating.
You can set traps on any numeric variable in the filer’s MIB.
4-4
Dell PowerVault 720N, 740N, and 760N System Administrator and Command Reference Guide
+RZWR'HILQH7UDSV
You define or change a user-specified trap using the following snmp traps
command:
WUDSVWUDSQDPHSDUDPHWHUYDOXH
trapname is the name of the trap.
value is the value that you assign to the definition.
parameter must be a parameter listed in the Table 4-2.
7DEOH3DUDPHWHU'HVFULSWLRQV
3DUDPHWHU
'HVFULSWLRQ
var
A trap’s variable is the MIB variable that is queried
to determine the trap’s value. All MIB variables
must be specified in the form snmp.oid, where
oid is an OID (Object Identifier). A list of OIDs in
the Dell MIB is in the traps.dat file in the same
directory as the MIB.
trigger
A trap’s trigger is a piece of code that determines
whether the trap should send data. The following
triggers are available:
single-edge-trigger—sends data when the
trap’s target MIB variable’s value crosses an
edge—a value that you specify.
double-edge-trigger—enables you to have
the trap send data when an edge is crossed in
either direction (the edges can be different for each
direction.
level-trigger—sends data whenever the trap’s
value exceeds a certain level.
edge-1
edge-2
A trap’s edges are the threshold values that are
compared against during evaluation to determine
whether to send data.
edge-1-direction
edge-2-direction
Edge-triggered traps only send data when the
edges are crossed in one direction. By default this
is UP for the first edge and DOWN for the second
edge. The direction arguments let you change this
default.
interval
The interval is the number of seconds between
evaluation of the trap. A trap can only send data as
often as it is evaluated.
Network Administration 4-5
7DEOH3DUDPHWHU'HVFULSWLRQVFRQWLQXHG
3DUDPHWHU
'HVFULSWLRQ
interval-offset
The interval offset is the amount of time in seconds
until the first trap evaluation, and is zero by default.
You can set it to a non-zero value to prevent too
many traps from being evaluated at once (at system startup, for example).
backoffcalculator
After a trap sends data, you might not want it to be
evaluated so often anymore. For instance, you
might want to know within a minute of when a file
system is full, but only want to be notified every
hour that it is still full. There are two kinds of backoff calculators: stepwise and exponential.
backoff-step
The number of seconds to increase the evaluation
interval if you are using a step backoff. If a trap’s
interval is 10 and its backoff-step is 3590, the trap is
evaluated every 10 seconds until it sends data, and
once an hour thereafter.
backoffmultiplier
The value by which to multiply a trap’s evaluation
interval each time it fires. If you set the backoff calculator to exponential-backoff and the backoff
multiplier to 2, the interval doubles each time the
trap fires.
It is important to distinguish between the kind of user-specified traps you can set
using the snmp traps command, and the built-in support for traps, such as coldstart. Built-in traps such as cold start are automatically sent to the hosts on the
traphosts list when some event (a reboot in the case of a cold start) occurs. Userspecified traps only exist after they are defined by a series of snmp traps
commands.
Traps are persistent. After you set a trap, it remains across reboots until you specifically remove it.
+RVW1DPH5HVROXWLRQ
+RZWKH)LOHU5HVROYHV+RVW1DPHV
The filer resolves host names by searching maps or databases for services to use.
The filer tries name resolution services in a default order or in the order that you specify in the /etc/nsswitch.conf file in the root volume.
4-6
Dell PowerVault 720N, 740N, and 760N System Administrator and Command Reference Guide
1DPH5HVROXWLRQ6HDUFK
By default, first the filer tries to resolve host names locally by searching the /etc/hosts
file in the root volume and in the /etc/nsswitch.conf file in the root volume. If it cannot
resolve the host name, the filer tries NIS, if NIS is enabled. If the filer still cannot
resolve the host name, the filer requests services from a DNS server, if DNS is
enabled. You can specify any or all of the resolution methods.
'HIDXOW6HDUFK2UGHU
Table 4-3 shows the default search order for each map.
7DEOH'HIDXOW6HDUFK2UGHUIRU0DSV
0DS
6HUYLFHVLQVHDUFKRUGHU
hosts
root files, NIS, DNS
passwd
root files, NIS
netgroup
root files, NIS
group
root files, NIS
shadow
root files, NIS
6SHFLI\LQJD6HDUFK2UGHU
To specify a different order in which the filer contacts host name services, create the
/etc/nsswitch.conf file in the root volume. Each line must have the following format as
described in Table 4-4:
PDSVHUYLFH
7DEOH)RUPDW'HVFULSWLRQVIRUD6HDUFK2UGHU
3DUDPHWHU
'HVFULSWLRQ
map
One of the following maps or databases: hosts, passwd, netgroup,
group, or shadow.
service
One or more of the following:
files for local files in the /etc directory
in the root volume
dns for DNS
nis for NIS
Network Administration 4-7
([DPSOH6HDUFK2UGHU
You can list services in the order in which you want the filer to contact the services.
For example, the following file instructs the filer to contact first NIS for hosts, then
DNS, and finally local files in /etc in the root volume. For passwords, the contact order
is NIS, then local files in /etc in the root volume.
KRVWVQLVGQVILOHV
SDVVZGQLVILOHV
When the filer resolves a host, the search stops.
NOTE: When performing CIFS operations, the filer can use WINS servers for host
name service. However, filer commands unrelated to CIFS use the /etc/hosts file,
DNS, or NIS to resolve host names, as described in the following sections.
8VLQJWKHHWFKRVWV)LOHIRU+RVW1DPH5HVROXWLRQ
The filer can use the /etc/hosts file in the root volume to resolve host names used in
the /etc/rc, /etc/syslog.conf, /etc/dgateways, /etc/exports, /etc/netgroup, and /etc/
hosts.equiv root volume files. If you do not use any host names, you do not need /etc/
hosts.
By default, the filer reads the /etc/hosts file in the root volume whenever it needs to
resolve host names, so changes to the file take effect immediately. If you change the
IP address for an interface, the new IP address doesn’t take effect until you reboot the
filer and execute the appropriate ifconfig command from /etc/rc. It is safest to
reboot the filer after changing any /etc file to make sure that the new configuration
works correctly.
If you use DNS and you put files first in the /etc/nsswitch.conf file in the root
volume: The filer looks up host addresses in /etc/hosts in the root volume before
sending queries to the DNS server. Therefore, it is important that each entry in /etc/
hosts contains accurate information.
To reduce the need for updating information in /etc/hosts in the root volume, when
using DNS, keep only a minimum number of entries in /etc/hosts.
If you use NIS: You can do one of the following actions:
‡
Modify the Makefile of the NIS master to copy the NIS master’s /etc/hosts file
from the root volume to the filer when it is changed.
‡
Have the filer use NIS directly.
([DPSOH
You can put the following line at the end of the NIS Makefile section for hosts.time:
#PQWGLU WPSGHOOBHWFBPQWB?
LI>GPQWGLU@WKHQUPIPQWGLUPNGLUPQWGLUIL?
IRUILOHULQILOHUILOHUILOHUGR?
4-8
Dell PowerVault 720N, 740N, and 760N System Administrator and Command Reference Guide
PRXQWILOHUHWFPQWGLU?
PYPQWGLUKRVWVPQWGLUKRVWVEDN?
FSHWFKRVWVPQWGLUKRVWV?
XPRXQWPQWGLU?
GRQH?
UPGLUPQWGLU
Substitute the name of each filer in the “for filer in...” list in place of filer1, filer2, and
so on.
8VLQJ'16
The filer includes DNS client capabilities to query DNS servers for host-name-to-IPaddress and IP-address-to-host-name translation services. With DNS enabled, you no
longer have to update the filer’s /etc/hosts file in the root volume every time you add a
new host to the network. (If you use the default search order or put files before DNS
in the /etc/nsswitch.conf file, you still have to update the /etc/hosts file if one of its
entries changes before the filer tries to resolve host names.)
NOTE: To prevent naming inconsistencies, Dell recommends that when you enable
DNS, you use only the default /etc/hosts file in the root volume.
Enabling DNS during setup: At setup, if you enter y in response to the following
prompt, setup prompts you for a DNS domain name, as follows:
'R\RXZDQWWRUXQ'16UHVROYHU>Q@y
3OHDVHHQWHU'16GRPDLQQDPH>@
After you enter a DNS domain name, setup prompts you for the IP addresses for up
to three DNS name servers. Based on the IP addresses you enter, setup generates
the /etc/resolv.conf file in the root volume. Entries in /etc/resolv.conf file consist of the
word “nameserver” followed by an IP address, as follows:
QDPHVHUYHULSBDGGUHVV
For details about name server query policies, see the resolv.conf(5) man page.
Enabling DNS without using setup: If you didn’t start DNS during setup, you can
start DNS by performing the following steps:
1.
Create a /etc/resolv.conf file in the root volume. The file consists of up to three
lines, each specifying a name server host in the following format:
QDPHVHUYHULSBDGGUHVV
For example:
QDPHVHUYHU
QDPHVHUYHU
QDPHVHUYHU
Network Administration 4-9
2.
Edit the /etc/rc file in the root volume to make sure that the option specifying the
DNS domain name is set and that the option to enable DNS is set to On.
For example:
RSWLRQVGQVGRPDLQQDPH
RSWLRQVGQVHQDEOHRQ
3.
FRP
Reboot the filer or enter the commands at the filer prompt.
Result: DNS is now enabled. You no longer have to update the filer’s
/etc/hosts file in the root volume every time you add a new host to the network,
unless you specify files first in the /etc/nsswitch.conf file in the root volume.
'LVDEOLQJ'16
To disable DNS, enter the following command or put the command in the /etc/rc file in
the root volume to make the change permanent:
RSWLRQVGQVHQDEOHRII
Changing your DNS domain name: To change your DNS domain name, enter the
following command or put the command in the /etc/rc file in the root volume to make
the change permanent:
RSWLRQVGQVGRPDLQQDPHGRPDLQQDPH
8VLQJ1,6
The filer includes NIS client capabilities to query NIS servers for host-name-to-IPaddress and IP-address-to-host-name translation services.
Because the nsswitch.conf file already enables you to specify the order in which
the filer finds password information, you do not need to use + or - entries in the filer’s
/etc/passwd file in the root volume. Any existing + or - entries are ignored.
1,60DSVWKH)LOHU8VHV
The filer uses the following NIS maps:
KRVWVE\QDPH
KRVWVE\DGGU
SDVVZGE\QDPH
SDVVZGE\XLG
SDVVZGDGMXQFW
JURXSE\QDPH
JURXSE\JLG
QHWJURXSE\KRVW
Shadow password information is obtained from the passwd.byname map.
4-10 Dell PowerVault 720N, 740N, and 760N System Administrator and Command Reference Guide
Enabling NIS during setup: During setup, the following prompt appears:
'R\RXZDQWWRUXQ1,6&OLHQW>Q@
If you enter y, setup prompts you for an NIS domain name, as follows:
3OHDVHHQWHU1,6GRPDLQQDPH>@
Enter an NIS domain name.
Enabling NIS without using setup: If you didn’t start NIS during setup, you can
start NIS by performing the following steps:
1.
Edit the /etc/rc file in the root volume to make sure that the option specifying the
NIS domain name is set and the option to enable NIS is On. Insert lines similar to
the following:
RSWLRQVQLVGRPDLQQDPHFRPSDQ\FRP
RSWLRQVQLVHQDEOHRQ
2.
Enter the options commands from the command line or reboot the filer.
Result: Options entered only on the command line are not saved if you reboot.
NIS is now enabled. You no longer have to update the filer’s /etc/hosts file in the
root volume every time you add a new host to the network, unless you specify
files first in the /etc/nsswitch.conf file in the root volume.
Disabling NIS: To disable NIS on a running system, enter the following command, or
put the command in the /etc/rc file in the root volume to make the change permanent:
RSWLRQVQLVHQDEOHRII
Changing your NIS domain name: To change the domain name on a running system, enter the following command or put the command in the /etc/rc file in the root
volume to make the change permanent:
RSWLRQVQLVGRPDLQQDPHQHZGRPDLQ
Displaying the NIS server name: To display the NIS server name, enter the following
command:
\SZKLFK
The ypwhich command has no options.
5RXWLQJ
$ERXW)LOHU5RXWLQJ
Even though the filer can have multiple network interfaces, it does not function as a
router; that is, the filer does not route packets between its interfaces on behalf of
other network hosts. It can, however, route its own packets.
Network Administration 4-11
5RXWLQJ7DEOHRQWKH)LOHU
For routing its own packets, the filer relies on the default route and explicit routes.
Typically, the filer learns explicit routes through icmp redirect messages received
from the default router; you do not need to enter explicit routes in the filer’s routing
table. To display the filer’s current routing table, use the netstat -r command. For
example:
QHWVWDWU
5RXWLQJWDEOHV
,QWHUQHW
'HVWLQDWLRQ*DWHZD\)ODJV5HIV
GHIDXOW
8VH,QWHUIDFH
8*
H
OLQN8&
H
OLQN8+/
H
QZR
QZR
I8+/
H
OLQN8+/
H
If you must enter explicit information into the filer’s routing table, use the route command. See the route(1) man page about how to add or modify information in the
routing table.
If the filer cannot find an explicit route in the routing table for a particular destination,
it uses the default route. This means that the filer sends the traffic to the default
router, which is specified in the /etc/dgateways file in the root volume.
6SHFLI\LQJ'HIDXOW5RXWHUV
One default router is specified during setup. You can, however, add potential default
routers at any time to the /etc/dgateways file in the root volume. For each added
router, you should also specify the metric, which is a number indicating the route preference for the router. The highest preference is 1, which is also the default preference
for the router specified during setup. The lowest preference is 15. For information
about the format of the /etc/dgateways file, refer to “The /etc/dgateways File” on
page 13.
8VLQJWKHURXWHG'DHPRQWR0DQDJH0XOWLSOH5RXWHUV
To help manage multiple routers and to enable you to create redundant routing
schemes, the filer runs the routed daemon, a simple routing daemon, which is
enabled at boot time. This daemon “listens” for Routing Information Protocol (RIP)
packets being exchanged between routers on the network to determine which routers are alive. From the routers that are alive, the routed daemon selects the one
with the highest preference to use as the filer’s default router.
However, the filer doesn’t rely on the routed daemon to construct the routing table.
The function of the filer’s routed daemon is to check the status of the default router.
Refer to the route(1), routed(1), and dgateways(1) man pages to learn more about
routing on the filer.
4-12 Dell PowerVault 720N, 740N, and 760N System Administrator and Command Reference Guide
You turn the routed daemon Off and On with the routed command.
To turn the routed daemon Off, enter
routed off
To turn the routed daemon back On, enter
routed on
NOTE: If you turn the routed daemon Off by editing /etc/rc in the root volume, manually designate a default router in /etc/rc.
'LVSOD\LQJ5RXWLQJ6WDWXV
To display the status of the default gateway list, use the routed status command.
The -n option forces the command to display numeric values for gateway names. An
example of the routed status display is as follows:
URXWHGVWDWXV
5,3VQRRSLQJLVRQ
*DWHZD\0HWULF6WDWH7LPH/DVW+HDUG
NDUO$/,9(:HG0DU*07
JURXFKR$/,9(:HG0DU*07
$/,9(:HG0DU*07
$/,9(:HG0DU*07
MXQH$/,9(:HG0DU*07
$/,9(:HG0DU*07
$/,9(:HG0DU*07
$/,9(:HG0DU*07
$/,9(:HG0DU*07
The routed status display shows the following information:
‡
‡
‡
‡
‡
whether RIP snooping is active (On or Off)
the current list of default gateways
the metrics of the default gateways (1 through 15)
the state of the gateways (ALIVE or DEAD)
the last time each gateway was heard from
7KHHWFGJDWHZD\V)LOH
The /etc/dgateways file in the root volume is the configuration database for the
routed daemon. From the routers that routed has determined to be alive, routed
selects the one with the highest preference to be the default router. When the filer
cannot find an explicit route for a packet, it routes the packet to the default router.
Network Administration 4-13
The file consists of lines with the following format:
JDWHZD\PHWULF
where gateway is the name or the IP address of a default router and metric is a preference indicator, which ranges from 1 (highest) to 15 (lowest) as shown below.
*DWHZD\
0HWULF
192.9.200.10
1
eng_gateway
2
NOTE: Each entry for such a default router must have an IP address that belongs to
the IP subnet of one of the interfaces configured for the filer.
+RZWKH)LOHU5HSOLHVWR5HTXHVWV
The following list describes how the filer uses its interfaces to respond to different
types of packets.
NFS-over-UDP requests: The filer does not use the conventional IP routing mechanisms to reply to NFS-over-UDP requests. The filer sends the response on the
network interface on which the request was received to the same address that generated the request. For example, the filer named filer uses the filer-e1 interface to
send packets in response to NFS requests received on the filer-e1 interface.
This way of handling NFS-over-UDP requests enables you to attach multiple interfaces
of the filer to networks with the same IP subnetwork number while keeping NFSover-UDP traffic isolated to the appropriate physical networks.
Because of this scheme, it is possible that NFS-over-UDP responses might be
returned through a different path than you might expect from an examination of the IP
routing table using netstat -r. This scheme generally works well, although it can
result in different routes than expected if your environment contains one-way routes.
For example, the IP packets might not be routed as you intended if you configured the
network so that the IP traffic from host1 to host2 is routed through router1 and the IP
traffic from host2 to host1 is routed through router2.
NFS-over-TCP, -CIFS, and -HTTP requests: The filer tries to return NFS-over-TCP and
-HTTP traffic over the interface on which the traffic was received. However, there are
exceptions. For example, if the filer experiences excessive queuing to a response or
experiences a time-out followed by a retransmit, the filer routes the traffic by using
conventional IP routing table lookups. If the filer has multiple interfaces attached to
networks with the same IP network number, the filer uses the first interface it finds
with that number to send the responses.
IP-based traffic other than NFS and HTTP requests: For other types of traffic, for
example, traffic generated by telnet, rsh, and ping, the filer uses IP routing table
lookups and routing. If the filer has multiple interfaces attached to networks with the
same IP network number, the filer uses the first interface it finds with that number to
send the responses.
4-14 Dell PowerVault 720N, 740N, and 760N System Administrator and Command Reference Guide
8VLQJLIFRQILJWR&RQILJXUHDQ,QWHUIDFH
$ERXWWKHLIFRQILJ&RPPDQG
The /etc/rc file in the root volume contains ifconfig commands to configure network interfaces, including virtual interfaces, at system boot. You can also manually
use the ifconfig command when the system is operating.
7KHLIFRQILJ&RPPDQG6\QWD[
The ifconfig command syntax is as follows:
LIFRQILJLQWHUIDFH!
>>DOLDV_DOLDV@DGGUHVV!@>XS_GRZQ@
>QHWPDVNPDVN!@>EURDGFDVWDGGUHVV!@
>PWXVL]HVL]H!@>PHGLDW\SHW\SH!@
>WUXVWHG_XQWUXVWHG@>ZLQV_ZLQV@
5HDVRQVWR8VHWKHLIFRQILJ&RPPDQG
You use the ifconfig command for the following purposes:
‡
‡
‡
‡
changing the interface’s IP address, network mask, or broadcast address
setting the media type on an Ethernet interface
setting the maximum transmission unit (MTU)
configuring the interface up or down
&KDQJLQJWKH,QWHUIDFH·V,3$GGUHVV1HWZRUN0DVNRU
%URDGFDVW$GGUHVV
The following examples show configuring an Ethernet interface and a virtual interface
on a filer:
LIFRQILJH
LIFRQILJHQHWPDVN
LIFRQILJHEURDGFDVW
The interface names on your system might be different, depending on your specific
filer. For information about interface naming conventions, refer to “Naming Conventions for Network Interfaces” in Chapter 2.
6HWWLQJWKH0HGLD7\SHRQDQ(WKHUQHW,QWHUIDFH
The following example shows configuring an Ethernet interface on a filer:
LIFRQILJHPHGLDW\SHWS
Network Administration 4-15
The media types you can use depend on the type of Ethernet card. The possible
types you can enter in the ifconfig command are the same as those you can select
when running setup. They are described in Table 4-5.
7DEOH0HGLD7\SHVRQDQ(WKHUQHW,QWHUIDFH
0HGLDW\SH
'HVFULSWLRQ
100tx
100Base-T
100tx-fd
100Base-T, full-duplex
tp
100Base-T
tp-fd
10Base-T, full-duplex
auto
100Base-T/100Base-TX Ethernet using Auto-Negotiation
1000fx
Gigabit Ethernet
6HWWLQJWKH0D[LPXP7UDQVPLVVLRQ8QLW078
The following example shows setting the MTU for an Ethernet interface:
LIFRQILJHPWXVL]H
Table 4-6 lists the default MTU sizes.
7DEOH'HIDXOW0786L]HV
,QWHUIDFH
'HIDXOW078VL]H
Ethernet
1500
Gigabit Ethernet
1500
Use a smaller MTU value for an interface if a bridge or router on the attached network
cannot break large packets into fragments.
To view the current setting of the MTU value, use the following command:
QHWVWDW L
&RQILJXULQJWKH,QWHUIDFH8SRU'RZQ
The following example illustrates how to configure interfaces up and down:
LIFRQILJHDXS
LIFRQILJHGRZQ
LIFRQILJYLUWBLQWHUIDFHXS
4-16 Dell PowerVault 720N, 740N, and 760N System Administrator and Command Reference Guide
(GLWHWFUF)LOHWR0DNH&KDQJHV3HUVLVWHQW$IWHU5HERRW
If you want changes made with ifconfig to remain in effect after a reboot, include
the ifconfig commands in the /etc/rc file.
9LHZLQJ,QWHUIDFH&RQILJXUDWLRQ,QIRUPDWLRQ
Table 4-7 illustrates examples of how to use the ifconfig command to view interface configuration information.
7DEOH8VLQJWKHLIFRQILJ&RPPDQG
'HVFULSWLRQ
6\QWD[
Show the current configurations of all
network interfaces.
LIFRQILJD
Show the current configuration of a
specific network interface.
LIFRQILJLQWHUIDFH
Example: Enter the following command to show the current
configuration of interface e0:
LIFRQILJH
(WKHU&KDQQHO7UXQNLQJ
7UXQNV$UHD/RJLFDO*URXSRI,QWHUIDFHV
To get the security of failover or the throughput that multiple interfaces working as
one interface can provide, you can group up to four Ethernet interfaces. You group
them into a logical interface unit known as a trunk. A trunk is composed of links, each
of which is an interface. Commands that work on physical interfaces also work on
trunks, except that the ifstat command returns limited trunk information.
6\QRQ\PVIRU7UXQNV
Trunks are also referred to by the following terms:
‡
‡
‡
Virtual aggregations
Link aggregations
EtherChannel virtual interfaces.
This document uses the term trunk.
,QWHUIDFHV%HIRUH7UXQNLQJ
Figure 4-1 shows four separate interfaces, e3a, e3b, e3c, and e3d, before trunking.
Network Administration 4-17
Subnetwork A
1
2
3
4
Switch
e3a e3b e3c e3d
Filer
)LJXUH,QWHUIDFHV%HIRUH7UXQNLQJ
,QWHUIDFHV$IWHU7UXQNLQJ
Figure 4-2 shows the four interfaces after trunking into a multiple-mode trunk called
Trunk1.
Subnetwork A
Logical 1
1
2
3
4
Switch
e3a e3b e3c e3d
Trunk 1
Filer
)LJXUH,QWHUIDFHV$IWHU7UXQNLQJ
.LQGVRI7UXQNV
7ZR.LQGVRI7UXQNV
There are two kinds of trunks:
‡
‡
Single-mode trunks enable one link to fail over to another link.
Multiple-mode trunks enable faster throughput by having links share network
loads.
4-18 Dell PowerVault 720N, 740N, and 760N System Administrator and Command Reference Guide
6LQJOH0RGH7UXQNV
In a single-mode trunk, only one of the interfaces is active. The other interfaces are on
standby, ready to take over if the active interface fails.
In Figure 4-3, e0 and e1 are part of the SingleTrunk1 single-mode trunk. The active
interface, e0, fails. Failure means that the link status of the interface is down, which
signals that the interface has lost connection with the switch. The e1 interface takes
over and maintains the connection. The interface e1 also takes over the MAC address
of the e2 interface.
Switch
Switch
e0 fails
e0
e1
SingleTrunk1
e0
e1
SingleTrunk1
)LJXUH6LQJOH0RGH7UXQNV
With single-mode trunks, the filer performs takeover based on the absence of a link.
0XOWLSOH0RGH7UXQNV
In a multiple-mode trunk, all the interfaces are active. This provides greater speed
than a single interface.
A multiple-mode trunk requires a switch that supports manually configurable trunking.
The switch determines how the load is balanced among the interfaces.
In Figure 4-4, e0, e1, e2, and e3 are part of the MultiTrunk1multiple-mode trunk. All
four interfaces in the MultiTrunk1multiple-mode trunk are active.
Network Administration 4-19
Switch
e0
e1
e2
e3
MultiTrunk1
)LJXUH0XOWLSOH0RGH7UXQNV
+DUGZDUH5HTXLUHPHQWVIRU7UXQNV
To use a multiple-mode trunk, you need a switch that supports manually configurable
trunking over multiple port connections. The switch determines how to forward
incoming packets to the filer, so you configure the switch so that all the port connections are part of a single logical port. For information about configuring the switch, see
the switch documentation.
Filer network interfaces that are part of the same trunk do not have to be on the same
network card, but some Ethernet switches and routers require that all members of
the trunk be either half duplex or full duplex.
9LUWXDO,QWHUIDFHV
7UXQNLQJ6XSSRUWHGE\9LUWXDO,QWHUIDFH)HDWXUH
The feature that supports trunking is known as a virtual network interface, or virtual
interface. The filer treats a virtual interface in the same way as a physical interface,
except for the ifstat command, which does not show virtual interface information.
The vif command is customized for virtual interfaces and can provide information
that ifconfig can’t. For example, to get status information about a virtual interface,
use the vif status command rather than ifstat.
1DPLQJ9LUWXDO,QWHUIDFHV
The name of a virtual interface is a string that is no longer than 15 characters that
meets the following criteria:
‡
‡
‡
It must begin with a letter.
It must not contain a space.
It must not already be in use for a virtual interface.
Virtual interface names are case-sensitive.
4-20 Dell PowerVault 720N, 740N, and 760N System Administrator and Command Reference Guide
7UXQNLQJ9LUWXDO,QWHUIDFHV
<RX&DQ7UXQN9LUWXDO,QWHUIDFHV
You create a trunk of virtual interfaces to eliminate a switch as a single point of failure.
A trunk of virtual interfaces is known as a second-level virtual interface.
NOTE: With second-level interfaces, if a switch fails and there is a failover to another
switch, it might take a few minutes for the spanning tree relay to be reconfigured.
6HFRQG/HYHO,QWHUIDFH&RQILJXUDWLRQV
You can use second-level virtual interfaces on a single filer.
6HFRQG/HYHO9LUWXDO,QWHUIDFHVRQD
6LQJOH)LOHU
:K\8VH6HFRQG/HYHO9LUWXDO,QWHUIDFHVRQD6LQJOH)LOHU
You use second-level virtual interfaces on a single filer to maintain service even if a
switch fails.
([DPSOHRID6HFRQG/HYHO9LUWXDO,QWHUIDFHRQD6LQJOH
)LOHU
A subnetwork has two switches that are capable of trunking over multiple port connections. The filer has a two-link multiple-mode trunk to one switch and a two-link
multiple-mode trunk to the second switch. You can create a second-level trunking single mode that contains both of the multiple-mode trunks. When the second-level
trunk is configured using the ifconfig(1) command, only one of the two multiplemode trunks is brought up as the active link. If all the underlying interfaces in the
active trunk fail, the second-level trunk activates the link corresponding to the other
trunk.
Network Administration 4-21
Switch 1
Switch 2
Switch 1
Switch 2
Switch 1
fails
e0
e1
Firstlev1
e2
e3
Firstlev2
e0
e1
Firstlev1
Secondlev
e2
e3
Firstlev2
Secondlev
)LJXUH6HFRQG/HYHO9LUWXDO,QWHUIDFHRQD6LQJOH)LOHU
In Figure 4-5, Secondlev is the second-level virtual interface and is composed of the
two virtual interfaces Firstlev1 and Firstlev2. Firstlev1 is initially the active
interface; if Switch 1 drops both links, Switch2 and Firstlev2 take over and maintain the connection to the network.
9LUWXDO,QWHUIDFH0DQDJHPHQW
8VHWKHYLI&RPPDQGVWR0DQDJH9LUWXDO,QWHUIDFHV
You manage virtual interfaces with the vif command. This command enables you to
perform the following actions:
‡
‡
‡
‡
‡
Create either a single-mode or a multiple-mode trunk.
‡
Destroy a trunk.
Specify a preferred link to activate in a single-mode trunk.
Add physical interfaces to a trunk.
Display the status of a virtual interface.
Display virtual interface statistics, such as the number of packets received and
transmitted on each link that makes up a virtual interface. You can specify the
time interval, in seconds, at which the statistics are displayed.
3XW7KHVHYLI&RPPDQGVLQHWFUF
The following commands are not persistent:
‡
‡
‡
vif add
vif create
vif favor
Put these commands in the /etc/rc file to make them persistent across reboots.
4-22 Dell PowerVault 720N, 740N, and 760N System Administrator and Command Reference Guide
&UHDWLQJD6LQJOH0RGH7UXQN
'HVFULSWLRQ
Use this procedure to create a trunk in which only one interface is active at a time,
thereby ensuring access to a network. After you complete this procedure, the interfaces you specify are combined into a trunk in which one interface is active and the
others are ready to take over in case of failure of the active interface.
3UHUHTXLVLWHV
You need the following items to complete the procedure:
‡
A name for the trunk that meets the following criteria:
— It must begin with a letter.
— It must not contain a space.
— It must not already be in use for a virtual interface.
Trunk names are case-sensitive.
‡
A list of the interfaces you want to combine into the trunk.
6WHS
To create a trunk in which only one interface is active at a time, enter the following
command or put it in the /etc/rc file:
YLIFUHDWHVLQJOHWUXQNLQWHUIDFHVwhere trunkis the name of the
trunk and interfacesis a list of the interfaces you want the trunk to consist of).
([DPSOH
The single-mode trunk shown on “Single-Mode Trunks” was created with the following command:
YLIFUHDWUHVLQJOH6LQJOH7UXQNHH
6SHFLI\LQJD3UHIHUUHG/LQNLQD
6LQJOH0RGH7UXQN
'HVFULSWLRQ
Use this procedure to specify an interface you prefer to be active in a single-mode
trunk. For example, if you are replacing or upgrading a physical interface and want the
new interface to be the active link, you make the new interface the preferred link.
Network Administration 4-23
After you complete this procedure, the link you specify is the active link and the other
links are not active.
NOTE: If no links are preferred, the active link is selected randomly.
6WHS
To specify an interface you prefer to be the active link in a single-mode trunk, enter
the following command or put it in the in the /etc/rc file:
YLIIDYRULQWHUIDFH(where LQWHUIDFH is the name of an interface).
5HPRYLQJD/LQN)URP3UHIHUUHG6WDWXVLQ
D6LQJOH0RGH7UXQN
'HVFULSWLRQ
Use this procedure to remove a link from preferred status in a single-mode trunk. A
preferred link has priority for being the active link. You might want to perform this procedure if you are replacing or upgrading a physical interface that is currently the
preferred link and want to stop using it.
NOTE: There can only be one preferred link in a trunk.
After you complete this procedure, the currently preferred link is not the preferred
link, and you can use the vif favor command to make another link the preferred
link.
6WHS
To remove a link from preferred status in a single-mode trunk, enter the following
command:
YLIQRIDYRULQWHUIDFH (where LQWHUIDFH is the name of an interface).
&UHDWLQJD0XOWLSOH0RGH7UXQN
'HVFULSWLRQ
Use this procedure to create a trunk in which all interfaces are active at the same
time, thereby increasing throughput. After you complete this procedure, you have
increased throughput compared to using only a single interface. You can perform this
procedure any time you have a configured switch and the physical interfaces available.
4-24 Dell PowerVault 720N, 740N, and 760N System Administrator and Command Reference Guide
3UHUHTXLVLWHV
You need the following items to complete the procedure:
‡
A switch that supports manually configurable trunking configured according to
the manufacturer’s instructions for a multiple-mode trunk.
‡
A name for the trunk that meets the following criteria:
— It must begin with a letter.
— It must not contain a space.
— It must not already be in use for a virtual interface.
Trunk names are case-sensitive.
‡
A list of the interfaces you want the trunk to consist of.
6WHS
To create a trunk in which all interfaces are active at once, enter the following
command or put it in the in the /etc/rc file:
YLIFUHDWHPXOWLWUXQNLQWHUIDFHV (where WUXQN is the name of the trunk
and LQWHUIDFHV is a list of the interfaces that make up the trunk).
([DPSOH
The multiple-mode trunk shown in “Single-Mode Trunks” was created with the following command:
YLIFUHDWUHPXOWL0XOWL7UXQNHHHH
&UHDWLQJD6HFRQG/HYHO9LUWXDO,QWHUIDFH
RQD6LQJOH)LOHU
'HVFULSWLRQ
You use this procedure to create a second-level virtual interface on a single filer. You
follow this procedure when you have available two switches configured for multipleport connections and four or more interfaces. After you complete this procedure, all
interfaces are active at once until there is a switch failure, in which case connectivity
is maintained by the links to one switch even if the other switch fails.
Network Administration 4-25
6WHSV
To create a second-level virtual interface on a single filer, complete the following
steps:
1.
Enter the following commands to create two multiple-mode interfaces:
YLIFUHDWHPXOWLWUXQNLILI
YLIFUHDWHPXOWLWUXQNLILI
WUXQN and WUXQNare the names of the trunks.
if1, if2, if3, and if4 are interfaces.
2.
Enter the following command to create a single-mode interface from the multiple-mode interfaces:
YLIFUHDWHVLQJOHVHFRQGOHYWUXQNWUXQN
VHFRQGOHYis the name of a second-level virtual interface.
WUXQN and WUXQNare the names of the trunks.
([DPSOH
The following commands create the second-level virtual interface shown in “Example
of a Second-Level Virtual Interface on a Single Filer.”
vif create multi Firstlev1 e0 e1
vif create multi Firstlev2 e2 e3
vif create single Secondlev Firstlev1 Firstlev2
$GGLQJ3K\VLFDO,QWHUIDFHVWRD7UXQN
'HVFULSWLRQ
Use this procedure to add one or more physical interfaces to a trunk. After you complete this procedure, you get the following results, depending on the type of trunk you
are configuring:
‡
For a single-mode trunk, you get improved reliability by providing additional interfaces to fall back on.
‡
For a multiple-mode trunk, you get improved throughput.
You can perform this procedure any time after the trunk you are adding interfaces to
has been created. You must also configure the switch for the additional ports and
physical interfaces available for the additions to take effect.
4-26 Dell PowerVault 720N, 740N, and 760N System Administrator and Command Reference Guide
6WHS
To add one or more physical interfaces to a trunk, enter the following command or put
it in the in the /etc/rc file:
YLIDGGWUXQNLQWHUIDFHV (where WUXQN is the name of a previously configured
virtual interface and LQWHUIDFHV is a list of the physical interfaces you want to add to
the trunk).
'LVSOD\LQJWKH6WDWXVRID7UXQN
'HVFULSWLRQ
Use this procedure to display the status of a specified trunk. After you complete this
procedure, you get information that, for example, is useful in troubleshooting trunk
problems. You can use this procedure any time.
6WHS
To display the status of a trunk, enter the following command:
YLIVWDWXVWUXQN(where WUXQN is the name of the trunk. If you don’t specify a
trunk, the status of all trunks is displayed).
6DPSOH2XWSXW
YLIVWDWXV
GHIDXOWWUDQVPLW
PXOWL
IDLO
ORJ
YLIOLQNVWUDQVPLW
PXOWL
IDLO
GHIDXOW
XS
HDVWDWHXSVLQFH-DQ
PHGLDW\SHW[IG
IODJVHQDEOHGQH[WOLQN
LQSXWSDFNHWVLQSXWE\WHV
RXWSXWSDFNHWVRXWSXWE\WHV
XSLQGLFDWLRQVEURNHQLQGLFDWLRQV
LQGLFDWLRQXSDW-DQ
FRQVHFXWLYHWUDQVLWLRQV
HEVWDWHXSVLQFH-DQ
PHGLDW\SHW[IG
IODJVHQDEOHGDGGUHVVVHW
LQSXWSDFNHWVLQSXWE\WHV
RXWSXWSDFNHWVRXWSXWE\WHV
Network Administration 4-27
XSLQGLFDWLRQVEURNHQLQGLFDWLRQV
LQGLFDWLRQXSDW-DQ
FRQVHFXWLYHWUDQVLWLRQV
'LVSOD\LQJ7UXQN6WDWLVWLFV
'HVFULSWLRQ
Use this procedure to display statistics for a specified trunk over a specified period of
time. After you complete this procedure, you get information that, for example, is useful in troubleshooting trunk problems. You can use this procedure any time.
6WHS
To display statistics, enter the following command:
YLIVWDWWUXQNLQWHUYDO(where WUXQN is the name of the trunk. If you don’t
specify a trunk, the status of all trunks is displayed. LQWHUYDO is the interval, in seconds. The default is one second.)
6DPSOH2XWSXW
This is sample output for the stat option.
YLIVWDWYLI
9LUWXDOLQWHUIDFHWUXQNYLI
HD
,Q2XW
HE
,Q2XW
4-28 Dell PowerVault 720N, 740N, and 760N System Administrator and Command Reference Guide
'HVWUR\LQJD7UXQN
'HVFULSWLRQ
Use this procedure to destroy or delete a trunk. You destroy a trunk when you cease
needing it or want to use the interfaces for other purposes than a trunk. After you
complete this procedure, the interfaces in the trunk act individually rather than as links
in a trunk.
3UHUHTXLVLWHV
Before you destroy a trunk, you must configure it down using the ifconfig down
command.
6WHS
To destroy a trunk, enter the following command:
YLIGHVWUR\WUXQN(where WUXQN is the name of the trunk).
'DWDEDVH)LOH3URWHFWLRQ
+RZ'DWD217$33URYLGHV'DWDEDVH)LOH3URWHFWLRQ
Data ONTAP 5.3 provides database file protection through the nvfail option of the
vol options command. The nvfail option enables a filer to detect NVRAM inconsistencies at boot time. Use it to warn database administrators of NVRAM problems
that could compromise database validity. If the filer finds any problems, database
instances hang or shut down, and the filer sends error messages to the console to
alert you to check the state of the database.
+RZWR3URYLGH$GGLWLRQDO3URWHFWLRQIRU'DWDEDVH)LOHV
You can provide additional protection to specific database files by adding them to an
optional file you create called /etc/nvfail_rename. When you enable nvfail and
the filer detects NVRAM errors at boot up, the filer renames any database files specified in the nvfail_rename file by appending .nvfail to the original file name.
When the filer renames a database file, the database cannot restart automatically.
This gives you the opportunity to examine the file for inconsistencies before you
remove the .nvfail extension and make the file accessible again.
+RZQYIDLO:RUNV
When you enable nvfail, the following process shown in Table 4-8 takes place
during boot-up.
Network Administration 4-29
7DEOH(QDEOLQJWKHQYIDLO2SWLRQ
,I
7KHQ
The filer detects no NVRAM errors
File service starts normally.
The filer detects NVRAM errors and
you use the optional
nvfail_rename file
a) The filer returns a stale filehandles
(ESTALE) error to NFS clients trying
to access the database, causing the
application to hang, crash, or shut
down, and sends an error message to
the filer console and log file.
b) The filer renames database files
specified in the nvfail_rename file
by appending .nvfail to the original
file name, making those files unavailable to both CIFS and NFS clients.
The filer detects NVRAM errors and
you do not use the optional
nvfail_rename file
a) The filer returns a stale filehandles
(ESTALE) error to NFS clients trying
to access the database, causing the
application to hang, crash, or shut
down, and sends an error message to
the filer console and log file.
b) No database files are renamed.
When the application restarts, files
are available to both CIFS and NFS clients, even if you have not verified
that they are valid.
:KHUHWR/RRNIRU'DWDEDVH)LOH9HULILFDWLRQ,QVWUXFWLRQV
See the documentation for your specific database software for instructions about
examining database file validity.
(UURU0HVVDJH([DPSOH
When you enable nvfail and the filer encounters NVRAM errors, the message sent
to the console and the /etc/messages file looks like the following:
$OOILOHKDQGOHVKDYHEHHQLQYDOLGDWHGGXHWRSUHYLRXV195$0
IDLOXUH
$OOILOHV\VWHPVPXVWEHUHPRXQWHGE\WKHFOLHQWV
If you created an nvfail_rename file, you receive an additional message:
5HQDPLQJILOHVLQHWFQYIDLOBUHQDPH
QYIDLOBUHQDPHROGBILOHBQDPHQHZBILOHBQDPH
4-30 Dell PowerVault 720N, 740N, and 760N System Administrator and Command Reference Guide
(QDEOLQJDQG'LVDEOLQJ'DWDEDVH)LOH
3URWHFWLRQ:LWKQYIDLO
'HVFULSWLRQ
Use the nvfail option with the vol options command to provide database file
protection by turning NVRAM error processing On or Off. The default setting is Off.
6WHSWR(QDEOHQYIDLO
To enable the nvfail option, enter the following command:
YRORSWLRQVYROXPHBQDPHQYIDLORQ
volume_name is the name of the volume.
6WHSWR'LVDEOHQYIDLO
To disable the nvfail option, enter the following command:
YRORSWLRQV YROXPHBQDPHQYIDLORII
volume_name is the name of the volume.
8VLQJWKHQYIDLOBUHQDPH)LOHIRU
$GGLWLRQDO'DWDEDVH3URWHFWLRQ
'HVFULSWLRQ
Use the optional nvfail_rename file when you want to rename database files after
the filer detects NVRAM errors. This enables you to examine the files for consistency
before clients can access them.
5HVWULFWLRQV
You can only list one database file name per line in the nvfail_rename file, but you
can list as many files as you want.
6WHSV
To create the nvfail_rename file, complete the following steps:
1.
Use an editor to create (or modify) the nvfail_rename file in the filer’s /etc
directory.
Network Administration 4-31
2.
List the path name and file name, one file per line, within the nvfail_rename
file; for example:
/vol/vol1/home/dbs/oracle-WG73.dbf
3.
Save the file.
4-32 Dell PowerVault 720N, 740N, and 760N System Administrator and Command Reference Guide
&+$37(5
)LOH6KDULQJ%HWZHHQ1)6DQG
&,)68VHUV
$ERXW7KLV&KDSWHU
$ERXW)LOH6KDULQJ
This chapter describes how the filer works with NFS and CIFS clients simultaneously.
Because these clients interact with a file server differently, you need to understand
how the read and write operations performed by one client affect the operations performed by the other client.
)LOH/RFNLQJ,QWHUDFWLRQV
$ERXW7KLV6HFWLRQ
This section describes in general what happens when a client program using one protocol tries to read or write a file that is currently used by a client program using a
different protocol in an environment consisting of CIFS and NFS users. For details
about locking in a particular protocol, consult the documentation for that protocol.
7\SHVRI&OLHQWV
There are CIFS clients and NFS clients.
7\SHVRI/RFNV
NFS locks are advisory, while CIFS locks are mandatory. CIFS applications depend on
locking to behave properly. Because NFS locks are only advisory, file-manipulation
operations, such as rm, rmdir, and mv, by a UNIX-based NFS client on a file opened
by a (PC)NFS application can cause the application to crash.
Reads by UNIX-based NFS clients always succeed.
A deny-write operation causes a file-manipulation operation, such as rm, rmdir, and
mv, on a CIFS-accessed file by a UNIX-based NFS client to fail.
File Sharing Between NFS and CIFS Users 5-1
Byte-range locks work on portions of a file. Byte-range operations other than reads by
a UNIX-based NFS client fail if the attempted operation is forbidden by the lock. As is
appropriate for NFS, a UNIX-based NFS application might be forbidden to access a
byte-range that is locked by CIFS.
NOTE: There is one exception to the enforcement of locks set by CIFS clients on the
filer. When the filer runs the dump command, it ignores the file lock set by a CIFS client that prevents read access to parts of a file or the entire file. Ignoring the “read”
file lock allows the filer to back up all files.
0DQDJLQJ6\PEROLF/LQNVIRU&,)6$FFHVV
$ERXW6\PEROLF/LQNV
CIFS clients can follow symbolic links, which are created by NFS clients. A symbolic
link is a special file that points to another file or directory. A symbolic link is, in some
respects, like a shortcut in the Windows environment.
There are two kinds of symbolic links: absolute and relative:
‡
Absolute symbolic links begin with a slash (/) and are treated as a path relative to
the root of the file system.
‡
Relative symbolic links begin with a character other than a slash (/) and are
treated as a path relative to the parent directory of the symbolic link.
&RQWUROOLQJ$FFHVVWR6\PEROLF/LQNV
You can control CIFS access to symbolic links in three ways:
‡
‡
‡
Enabling or disabling symbolic links
Redirecting absolute symbolic links
Preventing or allowing the following of symbolic links that can refer to a directory
higher in the same tree
(QDEOLQJ6\PEROLF/LQNV
When the symbolic links for CIFS feature is enabled, which is the default setting, if
the object being accessed by a CIFS client is an absolute or relative symbolic link, the
filer follows the link under the following conditions:
5-2
‡
‡
The ultimate target is in the same share as the symbolic link.
‡
The final component of a symbolic link is followed only if the operation is to open
an existing file.
‡
Other operations, such as deleting and renaming, result in deleting or renaming
the symbolic link itself rather than the target of the symbolic link.
A symbolic link encountered in any path component other than the final one is
always followed.
Dell PowerVault 720N, 740N, and 760N System Administrator and Command Reference Guide
CIFS client applications often perform operations such as writing to a temporary file,
renaming the original file to a backup name, then renaming the temporary file to the
original name. Therefore, take care in using symbolic links whose ultimate target is a
file, as opposed to a directory. If the original file were targeted directly by a symbolic
link, this sequence of operations would have the result—unintended by the application—of the file being stored in the directory where the symbolic link was, and the
renamed symbolic link pointing at the original file rather than to the updated file. For
symbolic links to directories, this type of situation does not arise.
Because many PC applications work as described previously, if there are symbolic
links that point to files, a PC could encounter such symbolic links. It is best to disable
symbolic links for CIFS when there are symbolic links that point to files.
If you expect many files to be changed by applications that update files as described,
you might want to disable symbolic links for CIFS.
+RZWR(QDEOHDQG'LVDEOH6\PEROLF/LQNV
You enable and disable symbolic links with the cifs.symlinks.enable option. The
option is On by default.
To disable symbolic links for CIFS, use
options cifs.symlinks.enable off
To reenable symbolic links for CIFS, use
options cifs.symlinks.enable on
+RZWR5HGLUHFW$EVROXWH6\PEROLF/LQNV
In a UNIX environment, the NFS client interprets the file system location represented
by an absolute symbolic link. The CIFS client cannot do this. In a CIFS environment,
the filer enables you to redirect absolute symbolic links on the filer.
For example, you might want to redirect symbolic links pointing at the /u/users/charlie
directory to the /home/charlie directory on the filer. You do so by specifying symbolic
link redirection mappings in a text file named /etc/symlink.translations.
The format of the /etc/symlink.translations file is:
Map link target
where both link and target are absolute symbolic link path names.
For example, the entry:
Map /u/users/charlie/* /home/charlie/*
makes symbolic links pointing at the /u/users/charlie directory point to the /home/
charlie directory.
File Sharing Between NFS and CIFS Users 5-3
+RZWR3UHYHQW6\PEROLF/LQN&\FOLQJ
You can create directory structures that are cyclic by creating a symbolic link that
refers to a directory higher in the same tree, through use of a symbolic link having a
“dot” or “dot-dot” component. Therefore, a simple recursive descent of the tree
goes deeper and deeper until the maximum path length is reached. At that point an
error is returned. For example, if you used Windows Explorer to search for files in
such a cyclic directory, the same files show up repeatedly.
The cifs.symlinks.cycleguard option controls whether symbolic links that
might include a directory higher in the same tree are followed.
To eliminate the possibility of cyclic directory structures, make sure that the
cifs.symlinks.cycleguard option is On, which is the default, with the following
command:
options cifs.symlinks.cycleguard on
If you use symbolic links having dot or dot-dot components and want the filer to follow the links, set the cifs.symlinks.cycleguard option to Off with the following
command:
options cifs.symlinks.cycleguard off
When you list the contents of a directory, symbolic links that are valid references to
files or directories are listed as if the target of the symbolic link existed in the directory. If the symbolic link cannot be expanded, it still looks like a file in a directory
listing; however, any attempt by an application to open the link results in an access
error.
1)6DQG&,)68VHRIWKH5HDG2QO\%LW
$ERXW5HDGRQO\%LWV
The filer, along with the MS-DOS® operating system and Windows, supports a per-file
read-only bit that reflects whether a file is writable or read-only. This bit applies only to
files and not to directories. NFS has no protocol operations that know about the perfile read-only bit. However, some software, when used both by NFS clients on UNIX
systems and by CIFS clients on Windows systems, requires that the read-only bit
reflects whether the file is writable.
+RZ1)67UHDWVWKH5HDG2QO\%LW
The following list describes how NFS treats the read-only bit:
5-4
‡
Any file with the read-only bit turned on is treated, for all NFS operations, as if it
had no write permission bits turned on.
‡
If a file has at least one write permission bit turned on and an NFS client turns off
all write permission bits, the filer turns on the read-only bit for that file. As
Dell PowerVault 720N, 740N, and 760N System Administrator and Command Reference Guide
described in the preceding paragraph, a file with the read-only bit turned on
appears to an NFS client not to have any write permission bits turned on.
‡
If a file has no write permission bits turned on and an NFS client turns on any
write permission bit, the filer turns off the read-only bit for that file.
‡
If a file’s read-only bit is turned on and an NFS client attempts to find out the permission bits for the file, the actual permission bits for the file are not sent to the
NFS client; instead, the filer sends the permission bits to the NFS client with the
write permission bits masked off.
‡
If a file’s read-only bit is turned on and a CIFS client turns the read-only bit off, the
filer turns on the owner’s write permission bit for the file.
‡
Files with the read-only bit turned on are writable only by the superuser.
+RZWKH)LOHU7UDFNVWKH1)6RU&,)6&OLHQW5HDG2QO\%LW
Whenever the read-only bit is turned on by a client, even if it was already on before
the client did so, the filer tracks whether the client that turned on the bit was an NFS
or CIFS client, as follows:
‡
If the bit was turned on by a CIFS client, renaming the file is not allowed. This is
because file systems on MS-DOS and Windows systems do not allow renaming
a file whose read-only bit has been set. NFS deletes follow NFS conventions.
That is, deletes are allowed if the user has write permission in the parent
directory.
‡
If the bit was turned on by an NFS client that turned off all write permission bits,
removing or renaming the file is allowed if the user has sufficient permission to
do so. This is because file systems on UNIX systems allow removing or renaming
a file that has no write permission bits set.
‡
If the filer is using UNIX-style security, CIFS clients are also allowed to delete a
file with the read-only bit set. This is required for compatibility with standard
UNIX source control programs, such as RCS.
‡
If the filer is configured with PC-style security, the read-only bit is enforced.
1DPLQJ)LOHV8VHGE\%RWK1)6DQG&,)6
$ERXW)LOH1DPLQJ&RQYHQWLRQV
File naming conventions depend on both the network clients’ operating systems and
the file-sharing protocols. For example, file names are case-sensitive for clients running UNIX and are case-insensitive, but case-preserving, for clients running Windows
operating systems.
0D[LPXP/HQJWKRI)LOH1DPHV
On the filer, the maximum length of a file name is 255 characters for NFS clients and
CIFS clients that support the PC’s long file name format. Some CIFS clients, such as
MS-DOS and Windows 3.x clients, support only file names in the 8.3 format (8 characters for the file name and 3 characters for the file name extension). In any directory
File Sharing Between NFS and CIFS Users 5-5
that has access from a CIFS client, the filer creates and maintains two names: the
original long name and an additional short name in 8.3 format.
+RZWKH)LOHU*HQHUDWHV6KRUW)LOH1DPHV
The filer generates an 8.3 file name as follows:
1.
It truncates the file name to six characters.
2.
It appends a tilde (~) and a number or letter to the name. If it runs out of letters
and numbers because there are too many similar names, it creates a unique file
name that bears no relation to the original file name.
3.
It truncates the file name extension to three characters.
NOTE: The number or letter appended to the short name ensures that the file
name is unique. It is not for showing the order of file creation.
For example, if an NFS client creates a file named specifications.html, the short name
created by the filer is specif~0.htm. If this short name already exists, the filer uses a
different number at the end of the file name. For example, if the UNIX client creates
another file named specifications_new.html, the short version of
specifications_new.html is specif~1.htm.
:KLFK&OLHQWV6XSSRUW6KRUW)LOH1DPHV
The short names appear on clients that support only the 8.3 format. The short names
are not visible to NFS clients. On Windows 9x and Windows NT clients, you can
choose to display the short name or the long name by using File Properties.
NOTE: Under some circumstances, an application running on a client that uses names
in 8.3 format can “lose” the file’s original long-format name. This can occur as a consequence of the way an application saves a file that it has edited. Some applications
rename the original file, then save the edited file as if it were newly created. The filer
thus receives instructions to delete the original file and create a new one. When the
client supports only 8.3 names, this new name no longer has an equivalent in long
format.
/HJDO&KDUDFWHUV8VHGLQ)LOH1DPHV
The characters that you can use in file names depend on the client operating systems.
Because restrictions on legal characters vary from one operating system to another,
refer to the documentation for your client’s operating system for more information
about prohibited characters.
When you name a file to be shared by users on different operating systems, it helps
to use only characters that are common to both. For example, if you use UNIX to create a file and use a colon (:) as its file name, an MS-DOS user sees the name
displayed as ~0 because the colon is an illegal character in an MS-DOS file name.
5-6
Dell PowerVault 720N, 740N, and 760N System Administrator and Command Reference Guide
&DVH6HQVLWLYLW\LQ)LOH1DPHV
Uppercase and lowercase characters are significant to NFS clients but not to CIFS clients. For example, if a file named specifications already exists, an NFS user can still
save another file under the name Specifications, but a CIFS user is instructed by the
application to choose another file name. This section describes how both NFS and
CIFS users can use file names that differ only by case.
When a client creates a file name, the filer preserves the case. For example, if a CIFS
client creates Spec.txt, the file name is displayed by both CIFS and NFS clients as
Spec.txt. If an NFS user later creates a file named spec.txt, NFS and CIFS clients see
the file names as follows:
‡
On NFS clients, one file is displayed as Spec.txt and the other is displayed as
spec.txt. That is, the file names are displayed in the same way as they were
created.
‡
On CIFS clients, even those that support long names, one file is displayed as
Spec.txt and the other is displayed as Spec~0.txt.
/DQJXDJHVDQG&KDUDFWHU6HWV
)LOH1DPHV/DQJXDJHVDQG&KDUDFWHU6HWV
File names in languages other than English can use characters that have diacritic
marks, or accents, or can use characters that are not even in the Roman alphabet.
UNIX and Windows systems can create file names with no restrictions, provided that
they do not violate the naming conventions of the operating system that they were
created in. The language you select affects multiprotocol behavior and the code page
for Windows 98 and older clients.
)LOH1DPHV8VH&KDUDFWHU6HWV
To make sure that file names stored on the filer are usable by both UNIX and Windows applications, you must choose a character set that contains the characters in
the language that your clients use. To do so, you choose a language, and the filer uses
a character set that is appropriate to the language.
(YHU\9ROXPH+DVD/DQJXDJH
Every volume uses a language, and therefore a character set, that you specify for file
names. The root volume determines the code page for PCs and the console character
set.
/DQJXDJH6HOHFWLRQ
The language you specify controls the name translation between UNIX and Windows
names.
File Sharing Between NFS and CIFS Users 5-7
NOTE: If a filer is licensed for CIFS, you must set a language for every volume on the
filer.
:KDWD/DQJXDJH$SSOLHVWR
The filer uses a character set appropriate to a given language. The language you select
determines which character set the filer uses for the following names:
‡
‡
‡
User names
Share names
System and domain names
NOTE: The following must be in ASCII:
‡
‡
‡
Qtree names
Snapshot names
Volume names
.LQGVRI&KDUDFWHU6HWV6XSSRUWHG
The filer supports the following types of character sets. Table 5-1 shows what protocols and operating systems use a particular character set. You use this information to
determine what directory format you use.
7DEOH&KDUDFWHU6HWV6XSSRUWHG
&KDUDFWHU
VHWW\SH
'HVFULSWLRQ
8VHGE\
ASCII
A 7-bit character set used by most
computers. Does not allow letters
with accents; that is, diacritics.
NFS, console and log
files, qtree names,
snapshot names, and
volume names.
Unicode
A 16-bit character encoding system. It includes all major languages.
WIN 32 applications
and file names in the
following systems:
‡
‡
5-8
Windows NT
Windows 9x
UNIX
A variety of character sets used by
UNIX. Can include single-byte and
multibyte characters.
NFS, console, and log
messages
UTF-8
An ASCII-compatible multibyte Unicode encoding.
Some Solaris clients
Dell PowerVault 720N, 740N, and 760N System Administrator and Command Reference Guide
7DEOH&KDUDFWHU6HWV6XSSRUWHGFRQWLQXHG
&KDUDFWHU
VHWW\SH
OEM
'HVFULSWLRQ
8VHGE\
Single or multiple encodings for
older clients
‡
‡
DOS
‡
NT system and
domain name
Windows 9x
(except for file
names)
/DQJXDJHV6XSSRUWHG
The filer supports the languages shown in Table 5-2. The language code for each language appears next to the language. To override the normal UNIX character set so
that a UNIX system uses UTF-8 code, add .UTF-8 to the language code.
You use a language code to specify a language with the vol lang command, as
described in “Setting the Language of a Volume.”
7DEOH6XSSRUWHG/DQJXDJHV
/DQJXDJH
/DQJXDJH&RGH
Danish
da
Dutch
nl
English
en
English (US)
en_US
Finnish
fi
French
fr
German
de
Hebrew
he
Italian
it
Japanese euc-j
ja
Japanese PCK(sjis)
ja_JP.PCK
Norwegian
no
Portuguese
pt
POSIX (ASCII only for DOS and ISO-Latin1 for
NFS. Equivalent to the Sun locale.)
C
File Sharing Between NFS and CIFS Users 5-9
7DEOH6XSSRUWHG/DQJXDJHVFRQWLQXHG
/DQJXDJH
/DQJXDJH&RGH
Spanish
es
Swedish
sv
+RZWR&KRRVHD/DQJXDJH
The flow chart in Figure 5-1 shows how to choose a language.
Start
Filer used
for NFS
only?
Yes
Language does not
matter.
No
Filer used
for CIFS
only?
Yes
Set the language of the
volume to the language
of its clients. Use sjis for
Japanese.
No
Set the language of each
volume to the language
used by NFS.
)LJXUH)ORZFKDUWWR&KRRVHD/DQJXDJH
5-10 Dell PowerVault 720N, 740N, and 760N System Administrator and Command Reference Guide
/DQJXDJH3URFHGXUHV
You can perform the following operations to query and specify the language that a volume uses.
‡
‡
‡
Show what languages the filer supports.
‡
‡
Create a volume that uses a specified language other than the default.
Specify a language for the console.
Change the language, and therefore the character set, that a volume uses for file
names.
Show each volume with the language that it uses.
'LVSOD\LQJD/LVWRI6XSSRUWHG/DQJXDJHV
'HVFULSWLRQ
This procedure displays a list of languages for which the filer supports character sets.
You can perform this procedure at any time to determine what language to specify for
a volume if you do not already know what languages are supported.
6WHS
To display a list of the languages for which the filer supports character sets, enter the
following command:
vol lang
6HWWLQJWKH&RQVROH(QFRGLQJ
'HVFULSWLRQ
Use this procedure to set how the console displays non-ASCII information. You would
change the encoding if your console does not accept or display characters properly
using the current encoding. The default encoding is nfs.
6WHS
To set the encoding of the filer console, enter the following command:
options console.encoding encoding
HQFRGLQJ is one of the following encoding styles. You can use both NFS extended
(greater than 0x7F) and SGML characters for input.
‡
nfs—The NFS character set of the root volume. You can use both NFS extended
(greater than 0x7F) and SGML characters for input.
File Sharing Between NFS and CIFS Users5-11
‡
sgml—SGML character format. You can use both NFS extended (greater than
0x7F) and SGML characters for input.
‡
utf8—UTF-8 character sets. For input, any character greater than 0x7F is treated
as the beginning of a UTF-8 encoding.
6HWWLQJWKH/DQJXDJHRID9ROXPH
'HVFULSWLRQ
This procedure sets the language that a volume uses to store file names. You complete this procedure when you want the files names stored in a volume to use a
different language than the default language. You should complete this procedure
before any files are created in the volume so that all file names use the same
language.
After you complete the procedure, the filer stores file names in the selected volume
using a character set that best fits the language you select.
3UHUHTXLVLWHV
To complete this procedure, you need the language code of the language you want to
use. You can get the language code from the table in “Languages Supported.”
&DXWLRQ
Changing the language after the volume contains files can cause some of the NFS
encodings to be invalid and is not recommended.
6WHS
To set the language and character set that a volume uses to store file names, enter
the following command:
vol lang volume langcode
volume is the name of the volume whose language you want to change.
langcode is the code for the language you want the volume to use.
&UHDWLQJD9ROXPH7KDW8VHVD6SHFLILHG
/DQJXDJH
'HVFULSWLRQ
This procedure creates a volume with a specified language. You use this procedure
when you are creating a volume but want to use a language different from the
5-12 Dell PowerVault 720N, 740N, and 760N System Administrator and Command Reference Guide
language of the root volume, which is the default language. You use this procedure
any time you want to create a volume.
After you complete the procedure, the filer stores file names in the volume you created using a character set that best fits the language you selected.
3UHUHTXLVLWHV
To complete this procedure, you need the language code of the language you want to
use. You can get the language code from Table 5-2 in “Languages Supported.”
&DXWLRQ
Changing the language of a volume after the volume contains files can cause some of
the NFS encodings to be invalid and is not recommended.
6WHS
To set the language and character set that a volume uses to store file names, enter
the following command:
vol create volume -l langcode
volume is the name of the volume whose language you want to change.
langcode is the code for the language you want the volume to use.
'LVSOD\LQJ:KLFK9ROXPH8VHV:KLFK
/DQJXDJH
'HVFULSWLRQ
This procedure displays a list of volumes with the language each volume is configured
to use. You perform this procedure when you want to know which volume uses which
language. This is useful in matching clients with languages or deciding whether to
create a volume to accommodate clients that use a language that you might not have
a volume for.
6WHS
To display a list of volumes with the language each volume is configured to use, enter
the following command:
vol status -l
File Sharing Between NFS and CIFS Users5-13
6DPSOH2XWSXW
Each row of the list displays the name of the volume, the language code, then the
language.
Volume Language
vol0
ja (Japanese euc-j)
&,)6)LOH1DPH&DVH
&DVH3UHVHUYDWLRQ
By default, the filer preserves the case of CIFS file names.
&DVH&RQYHUVLRQ3URFHGXUHV
You can force all PC-created file names to be stored on the filer in lowercase or return
to having the filer preserve case.
To force all CIFS file names to be stored on the filer in lowercase, follow the procedure in “Forcing CIFS File Names to Lowercase.” You might want to do this to avoid
the following problems:
‡
UNIX lowercase names might contain uppercase characters when converted to
CIFS names.
‡
Some CIFS clients changing the case of NFS file names on the filer, making them
inaccessible from NFS.
To change back to having the filer preserve the case of CIFS file names, follow the
procedure in “Preserving the Case of CIFS File Names.”
)RUFLQJ&,)6)LOH1DPHVWR/RZHUFDVH
'HVFULSWLRQ
This procedure enables you to force all CIFS file names to be stored on the filer in
lowercase. You should do this if you have CIFS clients, so that they do not change the
case of NFS file names on the filer that were originally lowercase.
If you perform this procedure, you should do so before Windows files appear on the
filer.
After you complete this procedure, the filer stores all CIFS names in lowercase and
does not preserve case.
5-14 Dell PowerVault 720N, 740N, and 760N System Administrator and Command Reference Guide
6WHS
To force all CIFS file names created by CIFS to be lowercase, enter the following
command:
options cifs.save_case off
3UHVHUYLQJWKH&DVHRI&,)6)LOH1DPHV
'HVFULSWLRQ
This procedure enables you to return from forcing all file names to be stored in lowercase to the default behavior of preserving the case of CIFS file names. You perform
this procedure when you want to return to the default behavior.
&DXWLRQ
File names that were converted to lowercase are not changed.
6WHS
To return to preserving the case of CIFS file names, enter the following command:
options cifs.save_case on
'LUHFWRU\&RQYHUVLRQ7LPH
'LUHFWRU\&RQYHUVLRQ&DQ7DNHD&RQVLGHUDEOH$PRXQWRI
7LPH
Although the conversion process to Unicode directory format is automatic, the initial
conversion of a directory can take a considerable amount time, especially if the directory contains a large number of files.
It is important to take these conversion times into consideration when deciding when
to convert the directories. While a directory is being converted, the filer might not be
able to perform any other file system or network operations until the conversion is
complete.
:KHQ7KHUH,VQR1HHGWR&RQYHUW
If there are portions of the directory tree that will never have CIFS access, there is no
need to convert them. However, any future CIFS access to an unconverted directory
immediately triggers its conversion.
File Sharing Between NFS and CIFS Users5-15
+RZWR6SHHG8S'LUHFWRU\&RQYHUVLRQ
If you have a directory that contains more than 50,000 files, before triggering a conversion, you can use an NFS client to distribute files among a greater number of
subdirectories. This speeds up the conversion process and avoids a possible crash.
6SHHGLQJ8S&RQYHUVLRQ7LPHE\
5HQDPLQJ1)6'LUHFWRULHV
'HVFULSWLRQ
Use this procedure to convert a directory to Unicode format if you have access to a
Windows NT client connected to the filer. After you complete this procedure, you
have a Unicode directory containing files that were in a non-Unicode directory, and its
files are accessible to CIFS clients.
6WHS
To convert directories to Unicode format quickly, perform the following steps:
1.
Create a new CIFS directory from a Windows NT client on the same volume in
the same qtree as the directory you want to convert.
2.
With the NFS mv command, rename files from the directory you want to convert
into the directory you just created.
3.
Optionally remove the old directory.
4.
Optionally rename the new directory.
+RZWR0DQDJH81,;$FFHVVWR17)6)LOHV
81,;8VHUV1HHG:LQGRZV17&UHGHQWLDOVWR$FFHVV
17)6)LOHV
If a user is using UNIX and tries to open a file with an ACL in a mixed or NTFS
(Windows NT security style) qtree, the filer uses NTFS security semantics to determine whether the user has access to the file.
The filer does this by converting the UNIX UID (User ID) into a Windows NT credential, which is also known as a WAFL (Write Anywhere File Layout) credential.
Windows uses the credential to verify that a user has access rights to the file. A UNIX
user can have both a UNIX name and a Windows name.
As part of the process of creating a WAFL credential, the filer contacts an NT domain
controller to look up a user’s SID (Security ID) and groups.
5-16 Dell PowerVault 720N, 740N, and 760N System Administrator and Command Reference Guide
:$)/&UHGHQWLDO&DFKLQJ
Windows verifies each request for access to files. Each access usually takes between
10 and 500 milliseconds, and can take longer because contacting a domain controller
to create a WAFL credential is time-consuming. To reduce the time spent in contacting a domain controller, the filer can cache the WAFL credential in a credential cache.
This cache is called the WAFL credential cache.
+RZWR0DQDJHWKH:$)/&UHGHQWLDO
&DFKH
7KH'HIDXOW&RQILJXUDWLRQ
The default configuration stores each WAFL credential for 20 minutes. This is generally sufficient for most situations.
7ZR:D\VWR0DQDJHWKH:$)/&UHGHQWLDO&DFKH
You can manage the cache globally with options and specifically with the wcc command. This enables you to add entries to and remove entries from the WAFL
credential cache and to troubleshoot file access problems that might be caused by
mapping problems.
NOTE: If you make changes to the WAFL credential cache and an NFS client has
cached information, it can take a noticeable amount of time for the changes to
become visible.
*OREDO&DFKH0DQDJHPHQW2SWLRQV
If the default configuration does not work well for your site, you can use an option to
set how long each WAFL credential cache entry is valid. You can also trace CIFS logins
as an aid to debugging mapping problems.
‡
To set how long each WAFL credential cache entry is valid, use the
wafl.wcc_minutes_valid option, as described in “Setting How Long Each
Wafl Credential Cache Entry Is Valid.”
‡
To display information about every CIFS login attempt, use the CIFS login tracing
feature, as described in “Toggling CIFS Login Tracing.”
:KHQWR8VHWKHZFF&RPPDQG
You use the wcc command to perform the following tasks:
‡
Add names to or remove names from the WAFL credential cache, as described in
“Adding an Entry to the WAFL Credential Cache” and “Deleting Entries from the
WAFL Credential Cache.
‡
Monitor the WAFL credential cache by displaying statistics about it, as described
in “Displaying WAFL Credential Cache Statistics.”
File Sharing Between NFS and CIFS Users5-17
‡
Troubleshoot file access and other problems by displaying what name mappings
would be, as described in “Displaying a Mapping Result for a UNIX Name” on
and “Displaying a Mapping Result for a Windows Name.”
7KHZFF&RPPDQG6\QWD[
The wcc command has five basic types, each with its own function. The type is determined by the first option, as follows:
‡
‡
‡
‡
‡
wcc -a adds a name to the WAFL credential cache.
wcc -d displays statistics about the WAFL credential cache.
wcc -s displays what the mapping of a Windows NT name would be.
wcc -u displays what the mapping of a UNIX name would be.
wcc -x removes entries from the WAFL credential cache.
7KHZFF&RPPDQG2SWLRQV
Each wcc command type has a different set of options, as shown in Table 5-3.
7DEOHZFF&RPPDQG2SWLRQV
7\SH
2WKHURSWLRQV
)XQFWLRQ
wcc -a
-u uname -i ip-addr
[-v]
Adds the name to the WAFL credential
cache. The -v option displays Windows
NT groups.
wcc -d
[-v] ...
Displays the following statistics about the
WAFL credential cache:
‡
‡
‡
Number of entries in the cache
Age of the oldest entry
Number of Administrator-privileged
entries
The -v option adds mappings for every
user.
wcc -s
ntname [-i ip-addr]
[-v]
wcc -u
uname [-i ip-addr]
[-v]
Displays what the current mapping of the
specified name would result in, but does
not change the WAFL credential cache.
The -v option displays numeric SIDs.
5-18 Dell PowerVault 720N, 740N, and 760N System Administrator and Command Reference Guide
7DEOHZFF&RPPDQG2SWLRQVFRQWLQXHG
7\SH
2WKHURSWLRQV
)XQFWLRQ
wcc -x
[-f] [-v]
Removes all entries from the WAFL credential cache.
The -v option displays how many entries
have been removed.
-i ip-addr [-v]
Removes all entries from the WAFL credential cache with the same IP address.
The -v option displays how many entries
have been removed.
-s ntname [-i ip-addr]
[-v]
Removes the entries with the given Windows NT name and optional qualifying IP
address. If the Windows NT name is the
name of a group, removes all members of
that group from the WAFL credential
cache.
The -v option displays how many entries
have been removed.
-u uname [-i ip-addr]
[-v]
Removes the entries with the given UNIX
name and optional qualifying IP address.
The -v option displays how many entries
have been removed.
The -v option increases the level of detail of information. The kind of information varies with each command. You can have up to three instances of the -v option (-vvv) per
command. Each repetition of the option increases the level of detail; three instances
provide statistics that are only of interest to Dell technical support.
6HWWLQJ+RZ/RQJ(DFK:$)/&UHGHQWLDO
&DFKH(QWU\,V9DOLG
'HVFULSWLRQ
This procedure enables you to change how long each WAFL credential cache entry is
valid. If you need to see security updates as they occur, you might want to use a
smaller value than the default. However, access verifications are more frequent than
with a greater value. This means that with a smaller value, users might experience
slower performance.
File Sharing Between NFS and CIFS Users5-19
6WHS
To change how long each WAFL credential cache entry is valid, enter the following
command:
options wafl.wcc_minutes_valid n
n is the number of minutes you want each entry to be valid. It can range from 1
through 20160. The default value is 20.
$GGLQJ$Q(QWU\WRWKH:$)/&UHGHQWLDO
&DFKH
'HVFULSWLRQ
This procedure adds an entry to the WAFL credential cache. You can use this procedure in a script to load the WAFL credential cache at boot time with entries rather
than wait for those entries to be created in the course of accessing a file. You can perform this procedure at any time.
3UHUHTXLVLWHV
You must have the names and IP addresses of those you want to add to the WAFL
credential cache.
&DXWLRQV
If you add more entries than the maximum number of entries allowed, the older
entries are deleted.
6WHS
To add an entry to the WAFL credential cache, enter the following command:
wcc -a -u uname -i ipaddress
uname is the UNIX name of a user.
ipaddress is the IP address of the host that the user is on.
5-20 Dell PowerVault 720N, 740N, and 760N System Administrator and Command Reference Guide
'HOHWLQJ(QWULHV)URPWKH:$)/&UHGHQWLDO
&DFKH
'HVFULSWLRQ
This procedure deletes entries from the WAFL credential cache. You do this to force
the lookup of UIDs the next time they are used, but you don’t want to wait until the
entries time out automatically.
3UHUHTXLVLWHV
You must have the name and optionally the IP address of the person or group you
want to remove from the WAFL credential cache.
&DXWLRQ
If the Windows NT name is the name of a group, this procedure removes all members of that group from the WAFL credential cache.
6WHS
To remove an entry from the WAFL credential cache, enter the following command:
wcc -x name
name can be one of the following specifications:
‡
‡
-s followed by a Windows user name or group name
-u followed by a UNIX name
You can further narrow the specification of a user by adding -i, followed by the IP
address of the host that the user is on.
'LVSOD\LQJ:$)/&UHGHQWLDO&DFKH
6WDWLVWLFV
'HVFULSWLRQ
This procedure displays WAFL credential cache statistics in detail. You can do this at
any time to monitor the WAFL credential cache.
6WHS
To display statistics about the WAFL credential cache, enter the following command:
wcc -d
You can get more detailed information by appending -v to the command line.
File Sharing Between NFS and CIFS Users5-21
6DPSOH2XWSXW
The following sample output shows the output of statistics with the -d option.
wcc -d
mday (UID 10050) from 10.100.4.41 => NT-DOMAIN\mday*
Total WCC entries: 3; oldest is 127 sec.
Total Administrator-privileged entries: 1
* indicates members of "BUILTIN\Administrators" group
The following sample output shows the output of statistics with the -v option used
twice.
cc -dvv
mmm (UID 1321) from 10.100.4.41 => NT-DOMAIN\mmm
***************
UNIX uid = 1321
NT membership
NT-DOMAIN\mmm
NT-DOMAIN\Domain Users
NT-DOMAIN\SU Users
NT-DOMAIN\Installers
NT-DOMAIN\tglob
NT-DOMAIN\Engineering
BUILTIN\Users
User is also a member of Everyone, Network Users,
Authenticated Users
***************
mday (UID 10050) from 10.100.4.41 => NT-DOMAIN\mday*
***************
UNIX uid = 10050
5-22 Dell PowerVault 720N, 740N, and 760N System Administrator and Command Reference Guide
NT membership
NT-DOMAIN\mday
NT-DOMAIN\Domain Users
NT-DOMAIN\Domain Admins
NT-DOMAIN\SU Users
NT-DOMAIN\Installers
BUILTIN\Users
BUILTIN\Administrators
User is also a member of Everyone, Network Users,
Authenticated Users
***************
hawleyr (UID 1129) from 10.100.4.41 => NT-DOMAIN\hawleyr
***************
UNIX uid = 1129
NT membership
NT-DOMAIN\hawleyr
NT-DOMAIN\Domain Users
NT-DOMAIN\Installers
NT-DOMAIN\SU Users
BUILTIN\Users
User is also a member of Everyone, Network Users,
Authenticated Users
***************
Total WCC entries: 3; oldest is 156 sec.
Total Administrator-privileged entries: 1
* indicates members of "BUILTIN\Administrators" group
File Sharing Between NFS and CIFS Users5-23
'LVSOD\LQJD0DSSLQJ5HVXOWIRUD81,;
1DPH
'HVFULSWLRQ
This procedure displays what the current mapping of the specified UNIX name of a
UNIX user would result in, but does not change the WAFL credential cache itself. You
use this procedure if a UNIX user cannot access a file that the user should be able to
access, and you suspect that mapping problems might be part of the problem.
6WHS
To display what the current mapping of a UNIX name would result in, but not change
the WAFL credential cache, enter the following command:
wcc -u uname
uname is the UNIX name of a user.
You can further narrow the specification of the user by adding
-i, followed by the IP address of the host that the user is on.
You can get more detailed information by appending -v to the command line.
6DPSOH2XWSXW
The following example shows the mapping of a UNIX name.
wcc -u fuser001
(NT - UNIX) account name(s):
(NT-DOMAIN\fuser001 - fuser001)
***************
UNIX uid = 1172
NT membership
NT-DOMAIN\fuser001
NT-DOMAIN\Domain Users
BUILTIN\Users
TFILER\Test
User is also a member of Everyone, Network Users,
Authenticated Users
***************
5-24 Dell PowerVault 720N, 740N, and 760N System Administrator and Command Reference Guide
'LVSOD\LQJD0DSSLQJ5HVXOWIRUD
:LQGRZV1DPH
'HVFULSWLRQ
This procedure displays what the current mapping of the specified UNIX name of a
Windows NT account would result in, but does not change the WAFL credential cache
itself. You use this procedure if a Windows NT user cannot access a file that the user
should be able to access, and you suspect that mapping problems might be part of
the problem.
6WHS
To display what the current mapping of a Windows name would result in, but not
change the WAFL credential cache, enter the following command:
wcc -s uname
uname is a Wndows NT account.
‡
You can further narrow the specification of the user by adding
-i, followed by the IP address of the host that the user is on.
‡
You can get more detailed information by appending -v to the command line.
6DPSOH2XWSXW
The following example shows the mapping of a Windows name.
wcc -s bluebottle
(NT - UNIX) account name(s):
(NT-DOMAIN\bluebottle - pcuser)
***************
UNIX uid = 65534
NT membership
NT-DOMAIN\bluebottle
NT-DOMAIN\Domain Users
BUILTIN\Users
User is also a member of Everyone, Network Users,
Authenticated Users
***************
File Sharing Between NFS and CIFS Users5-25
7RJJOLQJ&,)6/RJLQ7UDFLQJ
'HVFULSWLRQ
You can enable login information to be displayed after every CIFS login. You can do
this any time you need to troubleshoot mapping problems. Login problems are often
the cause of users being denied access to files they should have access to. CIFS login
tracing is especially useful in producing verbose messages when a login attempt fails.
&DXWLRQ
Turning on CIFS login tracing should be used carefully because every CIFS login is
traced and results in console messages. Constant use of CIFS login tracing can result
in many console and log messages.
6WHSWR7XUQ2Q&,)6/RJLQ7UDFLQJ
To turn on CIFS login tracing, enter the following command:
options cifs.trace_login on
6DPSOH2XWSXW
If user jdoe attempts to log in, messages like the following
appear on the console:
Mon Jan 4 15:21:38 PST [CIFSAuthen]: Login attempt by DELL\jdoe
from SMITH-PC
Mon Jan
4 15:21:38 PST [CIFSAuthen]: User authenticated by DC
Mon Jan 4 15:21:38 PST [CIFSAuthen]: PC user name maps to UNIX
user smith
Mon Jan 4 15:21:38 PST [CIFSAuthen]: Unix user set to root by
wafl.nt_admin_priv_map_to_root
Mon Jan
4 15:21:38 PST [CIFSAuthen]: Login accepted
6WHSWR7XUQ2II&,)6/RJLQ7UDFLQJ
To turn off CIFS login tracing, enter the following command:
options cifs.trace_login off
5-26 Dell PowerVault 720N, 740N, and 760N System Administrator and Command Reference Guide
&+$37(5
1)6$GPLQLVWUDWLRQ
This chapter has the following three sections:
‡
‡
‡
Managing NFS Exports
Configuring a Filer for WebNFS
Displaying NFS Statistics
0DQDJLQJ1)6([SRUWV
,QWURGXFLQJWKHHWFH[SRUWV)LOH
HWFH[SRUWV&RQWUROV&OLHQW$FFHVVWR'LUHFWRULHV
The /etc/exports file controls how NFS clients access filer directories. You add entries
to the /etc/exports file for all the directories you want to export.
)RUPDWIRUHWFH[SRUWV(QWULHV
The format of the entries in the /etc/exports file is as follows:
filer_directory_path export_specification
)LOHU'LUHFWRU\3DWK)RUPDW
The filer directory path specifies which directory is made available to clients. The format is as follows:
/vol/volume_name/directory
Examples: The following lines show examples of filer directory paths:
/vol/vol0/home
/vol/users/local/jarnold
NFS Administration 6-1
([SRUW6SHFLILFDWLRQ'HWHUPLQHV$FFHVV3ULYLOHJHV
The export specification specifies the privileges that clients have to mount and access
the filer directory path. The format is as follows:
-root=list,-access=list,-ro=list,-rw=list
2QHNH\ZRUGLVUHTXLUHG
The keywords -root, -access, -ro, and -rw are all optional; however, you must
include at least one keyword in an export entry.
:KDWWKHOLVWYDULDEOHUHSUHVHQWV
The list variable represents a list that includes one or more
‡
‡
‡
host names
netgroup names
subnets
<RXFDQFRPELQHHOHPHQWVLQDQHQWU\
You can combine host names, netgroup names, and subnets in an entry, as shown in
the following example:
-root=adminhost:administrators,-rw=blender:pcusers:123.45.67.0/
24
([DPSOHH[SRUWLQJGHIDXOWILOHUYROXPHWRDGPLQLVWUDWLRQKRVW
The following line exports the root directory of the default filer volume to the administration host with root privileges. The administration host can mount the directory,
change permissions and ownerships, and create and delete directories and files.
/vol/vol0 -root=adminhost
([DPSOHH[SRUWLQJKRPHGLUHFWRU\WRDGPLQLVWUDWLRQKRVWDQGFOLHQWV
The following line exports the home directory from the default filer volume to the
administration host and two clients. The administration host has root privileges and
can mount the directory, change permissions and ownerships, and create and delete
directories and files. The clients can mount the directory and create and delete
directories.
/vol/vol0/home -root=adminhost,-rw=blender:mixer
6-2
Dell PowerVault 720N, 740N, and 760N System Administrator and Command Reference Guide
5XOHV)RU([SRUWLQJ9ROXPHV$QG
'LUHFWRULHV
([SRUW(DFK9ROXPH6HSDUDWHO\
If the filer has multiple volumes, you must export each volume separately; you cannot
export all volumes by specifying /vol as the exported directory.
([DPSOH
The following lines show how to export the volumes on a filer that has three volumes:
/vol/vol0 -root=filer, -access=mixer:blender
/vol/users -root=filer, -access=mixer:blender
/vol/builds -root=filer, -access=mixer:blender
1RQH[DPSOH
The following line shows an invalid entry for the /etc/exports directory for a filer that
has three volumes; /vol cannot be used by itself as a path:
/vol -root=filer, -access=blender:mixer
)LOHU0XVW5HVROYH+RVW1DPHV
To export directories to hosts, the filer must be able to resolve host names into IP
addresses. Host name resolution can take place
‡
‡
through DNS name resolution
by using the /etc/hosts file on the filer root volume
Refer to “Host Name Resolution” in Chapter 4 for more information about
host-name-to-IP-address resolution.
&DQQRW5HVWULFW$FFHVV%\+RVW
Neither the filer nor NFS provide a way to specify hosts that cannot mount the filer. To
restrict access to exports, you must export volumes and directories in a manner that
specifically includes those hosts that should be allowed to mount them. Exclusion
occurs when a host is not specifically included in the list of hosts authorized to mount
exported volumes and directories.
<RX&DQ([SRUW$QFHVWRUVDQG'HVFHQGDQWV
The filer permits directories that have exported ancestors to be exported. In many
implementations of the UNIX operating system, you cannot export a directory that
has an exported ancestor in the same file system.
NFS Administration 6-3
([DPSOH
The following lines show exports that the filer allows:
/vol/vol0 -access=adminhost,-root=adminhost
/vol/vol0/home -access=blender:mixer
1RQH[DPSOH
The following lines show exports that are not allowed on some UNIX systems:
/home -root=adminhost,-access=blender:mixer
/home/local -root=adminhost,-access=blender:mixer
)LOHU'HWHUPLQHV3HUPLVVLRQVE\0DWFKLQJ/RQJHVW3UHIL[
The filer uses the longest matching prefix in determining permissions.
In the preceding example
‡
A client mounting /vol/vol0/home/user1 gets permissions for /vol/vol0/home
because /vol/vol0/home is the longest matching prefix.
‡
A client mounting /vol/vol0 gets -access=adminhost, -root=adminhost
permissions.
NOTE: Because of the way the filer determines permissions, it makes little sense to
give a client greater permissions at a higher level in the file system.
([DPSOH
The following lines show an /etc/exports file that creates a security breech by enabling
any host to mount the /vol/vol0 directory while restricting specific hosts to mounting
the /vol/vol0/home directory. In this example, any host can gain access to the /vol/
vol0/home directory by mounting the /vol/vol0 directory:
/vol/vol0
/vol/vol0/home -access=red:blue:green
(GLWHWFH[SRUWV$IWHU&KDQJLQJ9ROXPH1DPHV
If you rename a volume using the vol rename command
6-4
‡
‡
Entries in the /etc/exports file that refer to the volume become incorrect.
‡
The filer displays an error message when the exportfs -a command is
entered, or when the filer is rebooted.
‡
Clients display the error message, “Stale NFS file handle,” after the filer is
rebooted.
The in-memory information about active exports gets updated automatically, and
clients continue to access the exports without problems.
Dell PowerVault 720N, 740N, and 760N System Administrator and Command Reference Guide
&$87,217RHQVXUHWKDWWKHHQWULHVLQWKHHWFH[SRUWVILOHUHPDLQYDOLG
DOZD\VHGLWWKHHQWULHVLQWKHILOHWRUHIOHFWYROXPHQDPHFKDQJHVLPPHGL
DWHO\DIWHUUHQDPLQJYROXPHV
'HIDXOWHWFH[SRUWV(QWULHV
YROYRODQGYROYROKRPH$UH([SRUWHGE\'HIDXOW
By default, the root volume (/vol/vol0) and the /vol/vol0/home directory are exported to
the administration host when you run setup.
([DPSOHRI'HIDXOWH[SRUWIV)LOH
The default /etc/exports file contains the following lines; in this example, the name of
the administration host is silver:
#Auto-generated by setup Mon Oct 27 14:15:36 PST 1997
/vol/vol0 -access=silver,root=silver
/vol/vol0/home -root=silver
The contents of the default /etc/exports file is shown below:
‡
/vol/vol0 -access=adminhost, -root=adminhost
Only the administration host (adminhost) can mount the root directory and modify files in the directory.
NOTE: On filers with a single volume, you can refer to the root directory without
the /vol prefix.
‡
/vol/vol0/home -root=adminhost
The administration host (adminhost) can mount the home directory as root.
All other clients can access the home directory to read and write files.
5HVWULFWLQJ$FFHVVWR9ROXPHVDQG
'LUHFWRULHV
8VH([SRUW2SWLRQVWR5HVWULFW'LUHFWRU\$FFHVV
You can use the export options to restrict access to directories in various ways.
NFS Administration 6-5
5HVWULFWLQJ$FFHVVWRKRPH
You can restrict access to the /home directory to particular groups by
‡
‡
using the chmod command to change access modes for the directory
using the -rw or -access options in the /etc/exports file to limit write privilege
to specific hosts
7KHDFFHVV2SWLRQ
The -access option lists the hosts that can mount exported directories. When you
use the -access option, only the hosts listed can mount the associated directory.
6\QWD[
The syntax for the -access option is as follows:
-access=hostname[:...:hostname]
/LPLWV
There is no limit to the number of host names you can specify with the -access
option. However, the length of a line in the /etc/exports file cannot exceed 1,024
characters.
NOTE: If you cannot fit all the host names in a 1,024-character line, you can use netgroups in place of host names.
7KHURRW2SWLRQ
The -root option lists the hosts that can mount exported directories as root. Hosts
that mount exported directories as root have full control over the directories and can
perform the following operations:
‡
‡
‡
Create and delete directories and files.
Change ownership and group associations of directories and files.
Set access permissions for directories and files.
6\QWD[
The syntax for the -root option is as follows:
-root=hostname[:...:hostname]
/LPLWV
You can specify 1 to 256 host names with the -root option.
5HVWULFWLRQV
You cannot use netgroup names with the -root option.
6-6
Dell PowerVault 720N, 740N, and 760N System Administrator and Command Reference Guide
7KHUZ2SWLRQ
The -rw option lists the hosts that can modify the exported directories; hosts not
listed by the -rw option have read privilege only.
6\QWD[
The syntax for the -rw option is as follows:
-rw=hostname[:...:hostname]
/LPLWV
You can specify 1 to 256 host names with the -rw option.
5HVWULFWLRQV
You cannot use netgroup names with the -rw option.
7KHUR2SWLRQ
The -ro option lists the clients that cannot modify the exported directories.
6\QWD[
The syntax for the -ro option is as follows:
-ro=hostname[:...:hostname]
7KHH[SRUWIV&RPPDQG
8VLQJWKHH[SRUWIV&RPPDQG
You use the exportfs command to export and unexport volumes and directories.
Depending on which options you use, the command exports the volumes and directories listed in the /etc/exports file or a specific volume or directory.
6\QWD[
The syntax for the exportfs command is as follows:
exportfs [ -aiuv ] [ -o options ][ filer_directory_path ]
Table 6-1 describes the options.
NFS Administration 6-7
7DEOHH[SRUWIV&RPPDQG2SWLRQV6\QWD[
2SWLRQ
'HVFULSWLRQ
-a
Exports all the entries listed in the /etc/exports file.
-u
Unexports all the entries listed in the /etc/exports file.
NOTE: When you use the -u option with the -a option, all exports
are unexported regardless of whether they were created from the
/etc/exports file or with the -o option.
-i
Exports all the export entries listed in the /etc/exports file, but
ignores the options specified for the entries.
-v
Prints each path name as it is exported or unexported.
-o
Specifies the options for a volume or directory that you include in
the command line.
Example: To export the /vol/vol/home/terry directory to the host
“mixer” with read/write access, you enter the following
command:
exportfs -o -rw=mixer /vol/vol0/home/terry
NOTE: Volumes and directories that are exported directly rather
than through the /etc/exports file remain exported until canceled
using the -au option or until the filer is rebooted.
&DQFHOLQJ$OO([SRUWV
To cancel all exports, enter the following command:
exportfs -au
8SGDWLQJ([SRUWV7KURXJKHWFH[SRUWV
When you make changes to the /etc/exports file, take one of the following actions to
make the changes take effect:
‡
Run the exportfs -a command.
Or
‡
Reboot the filer.
If you delete entries from the /etc/exports file when you make changes, take one of
the following actions to activate the changes and ensure that deleted exports are
deactivated:
‡
Run the following commands:
exportfs -au
exportfs -a
6-8
Dell PowerVault 720N, 740N, and 760N System Administrator and Command Reference Guide
Or
‡
Reboot the filer.
7KHHWFQHWJURXS)LOH
7KHHWFQHWJURXS)LOH'HILQHV*URXSVRI&OLHQWV
The filer /etc/netgroup file defines groups of clients that the filer uses for checking
access permission while processing a mount request.
6\QWD[
The following line shows the syntax for each line in the /etc/netgroup file:
groupname member-list
/LPLWV
Each line in the /etc/netgroup file is limited to 4,096 characters.
0HPEHUOLVWV\QWD[
Each element in member-list is
‡
‡
another group name
an entry in the following form:
(hostname, username, domainname)
— An element in an entry can be blank, but the commas must be present.
— When group names are used in the /etc/exports file, the username and
domainname fields are ignored.
— When domain names are used, they must be DNS names; NIS names cannot be used.
5HVWULFWLRQV
You cannot use netgroup names with the -rw and -root options.
&KDQJHV7DNH(IIHFW,PPHGLDWHO\
Changes made to the netgroup file take effect immediately.
NFS Administration 6-9
([DPSOHRIHWFQHWJURXSV
The following lines show an example of a /etc/netgroups file:
trusted-hosts (adminhost,,)
untrusted-hosts (red,,) (blue,,) (green,,)
all-hosts trusted-hosts untrusted-hosts
([DPSOHRIHWFH[SRUWV8VLQJ1HWJURXSV
The following lines show an example of an /etc/exports file that uses netgroup group
names:
/vol/vol0 -access=trusted-hosts,root=adminhost
/vol/vol0/home -access=all-hosts,root=adminhost
&RS\HWFQHWJURXS:KHQ)LOHU'RHVQ·W8VH1,6
If your filer is not configured as an NIS client, the network groups on the filer are not
linked with NIS.
0XVWFRS\1,6QHWJURXSILOH
You must copy an existing NIS network group over to /vol/vol0/etc/netgroup on the
filer before the exportfs command can use it.
$XWRPDWLQJFRS\LQJZLWKD0DNHILOH
You can modify the Makefile of the NIS master to copy the NIS master’s /etc/netgroup
file to the filer when it is changed.
([DPSOH0DNHILOH
The following lines of code in the NIS Makefile section for netgroup.time copy the
/etc/netgroup file to filers named filer1, filer2, and filer3; substitute the name of your
filers in the “for” list, in place of filer1, filer2, and filer3, and add any other filer names
to which you want the file copied:
@mntdir=/tmp/nac_etc_mnt_$$$$;\
if [ ! -d $$mntdir ]; then rm -f $$mntdir; mkdir $$mntdir; fi;\
for filer in filer1 filer2 filer3 ; do \
mount $$filer:/vol/vol0/etc $$mntdir;\
mv $$mntdir/netgroup $$mntdir/netgroup.bak;\
cp /etc/netgroup $$mntdir/netgroup;\
umount $$mntdir;\
done;\
rmdir $$mntdir
6-10 Dell PowerVault 720N, 740N, and 760N System Administrator and Command Reference Guide
([SRUWLQJWR6XEQHWV
$ERXW([SRUWLQJWR6XEQHWV
You can export a directory to clients on a subnet rather than to individual clients.
9DOLG([SRUW2SWLRQVIRU6XEQHWV
The valid export options in the /etc/exports file for exporting to subnets are as follows:
-ro=subnet_address[:subnet_address]...
-rw=subnet_address[:subnet_address]...
-root=subnet_address[:subnet_address]...
)RUPDWIRU,36XEQHW$GGUHVVHV
The subnet address is a dotted IP subnet address and a mask written in the following
format:
dotted_ip/num_bits
dotted_ip can be
‡
an IP address (“a.b.c.d”)
or
‡
an IP subnet
‡
‡
‡
a for a class A network
a.b for a class B network
a.b.c for a class C network
The size of the subnet is specified by the number of leading bits of the netmask,
num_bits.
([SRUWWRD6XEQHWDV<RX'RWRD&OLHQW
You export a directory to a subnet as you do to an individual client, except that you
specify a subnet address rather than a full IP address in an export option.
([DPSOHURRWDFFHVV
To export /vol/vol0/home on the filer for root access to a client named silver and all
addresses of the form 123.45.67.x with a netmask 255.255.255.0 (24 leading bits),
place the following entry in the /etc/exports file:
/vol/vol0/home -root=silver:123.45.67.0/24
NFS Administration 6-11
([DPSOHUHDGZULWHDFFHVV
To export /vol/vol0/home for read and write access to all addresses of the form
123.45.x.y with a 16-bit netmask (255.255.0.0), place the following entry in the /etc/
exports file:
/vol/vol0/home -rw=123.45.0.0/16
([DPSOHHTXLYDOHQWPHWKRGVIRUH[SRUWLQJ
The following entries in the /etc/exports file are equivalent. They export /vol/vol0/
home to a client named host1, the specified subnet, and a client named host2.
/vol/vol0/home -rw=host1:123.45.67.8/24:host2
/vol/vol0/home -rw=host1:123.45.67/24:host2
&RQILJXULQJD)LOHUIRU:HE1)6
$ERXW&RQILJXULQJD)LOHUIRU:HE1)6
7KH)LOHU&DQ5HVSRQGWR1)65HTXHVWV)URP%URZVHUV
The filer can use NFS rather than HTTP to respond to file transfer requests made
through Web browsers that support the WebNFS protocol.
The filer does not need a license for the HTTP protocol to respond to WebNFS
requests; however, the filer must be licensed for the NFS protocol.
:HE%URZVHU5HTXLUHPHQWV
To access files through the WebNFS protocol, users type URLs that start with “nfs://”.
Web browsers must be capable of sending requests using the WebNFS protocol.
$GYDQWDJHVRI:HE1)6
With WebNFS, the filer can transfer files much faster than with HTTP because the
WebNFS protocol can transfer several files, including graphics files, with only one TCP
connection. The HTTP protocol, in version 1.1, requires a separate connection for each
file that is transferred.
+RZ:HE1)65HVWULFWV)LOH$FFHVV
WebNFS access does not use the mount command to enable access to a subtree,
and does not consider UID/GID mappings.
6-12 Dell PowerVault 720N, 740N, and 760N System Administrator and Command Reference Guide
Requests are restricted as follows:
‡
‡
Requests are honored only for files in subtrees that have been exported.
If a subtree has been exported with the -o access option, files in that subtree
are not available through WebNFS.
6HWWLQJ8S:HE1)6
3URFHGXUHIRU6HWWLQJ8S:HE1)6
To set up WebNFS, perform the following steps:
1.
Enter the following command to turn on WebNFS:
options nfs.webnfs.enable on
2.
If you...
Want to specify a public directory, known as the root directory, for WebNFS
access
Then...
Enter the following commands, replacing directory with the path to the root
directory:
options nfs.webnfs.rootdir directory
options nfs.webnfs.rootdir.set TRUE
Results: All NFS lookups are done relative to the root directory. All WebNFS clients can access files and directories under the root directory.
Do not want to specify a public directory for WebNFS access
Do nothing.
([DPSOHRI6SHFLI\LQJ:HE1)65RRW'LUHFWRU\
To use the /vol/vol0/webfiles directory as the WebNFS root directory, you enter the
following commands:
options nfs.webnfs.rootdir /vol/vol0/webfiles
options nfs.webnfs.rootdir.set TRUE
NFS Administration 6-13
0DQDJLQJ:HE1)6
7DVNV<RX&DQ3HUIRUP
You can perform the following tasks to manage WebNFS service:
‡
‡
‡
Change the root directory.
Disable the root directory.
Turn off WebNFS service.
&KDQJLQJWKH5RRW'LUHFWRU\
To change the WebNFS root directory, perform the following steps:
NOTE: If you use the vol rename command to change the name of the volume in
which the WebNFS root directory resides, remember to use this procedure to specify
the new name of the root directory.
1.
Enter the following command, replacing newdir with the path of the new root
directory:
options nfs.webnfs.rootdir newdir
Example: To change the root directory to /vol/vol0/corpwebfiles, you the following command:
options web.webnfs.rootdir /vol/vol0/corpwebfiles
2.
Enter the following command to enable the root directory:
options nfs.webnfs.rootdir.set TRUE
'LVDEOLQJWKH5RRW'LUHFWRU\
To disable the root directory, enter the following command:
options nfs.webnfs.rootdir.set FALSE
7XUQLQJ2II:HE1)66HUYLFH
To turn off WebNFS service, enter the following command:
options nfs.webnfs.enable off
6-14 Dell PowerVault 720N, 740N, and 760N System Administrator and Command Reference Guide
'LVSOD\LQJ1)66WDWLVWLFV
$ERXW'LVSOD\LQJ1)66WDWLVWLFV
7KHQIVVWDW&RPPDQG'LVSOD\V1)6DQG53&6WDWLVWLFV
The nfsstat command displays statistics about NFS and Remote Procedure Calls
(RPCs) for the filer. You can use the output of this command to find performance bottlenecks or inefficiencies in your NFS setup.
NOTE: A full description of the meaning of NFS statistics is outside the scope of this
guide. A good source of information about this topic is Managing NFS and NIS by Hal
Stern, O’Reilly & Associates, Inc.
6\QWD[
The syntax of the nfsstat command is as follows:
nfsstat [ interval ] | [ -h [ ip_address | host_name ] ] | [ -l
] | [ -z ]
nfsstat -h [ ip_address | host_name ]
nfsstat -l
nfsstat -z
2SWLRQV
Table 6-2 describes the options for the nfsstat command.
7DEOHQIVVWDW&RPPDQG2SWLRQV
2SWLRQ
'HVFULSWLRQ
none
When no options are specified, the command displays statistical information since the last time the filer was rebooted.
interval
When an interval is specified, the command displays statistics continually. The interval specifies the number of
seconds the command waits between updates.
NFS Administration 6-15
7DEOHQIVVWDW&RPPDQG2SWLRQVFRQWLQXHG
2SWLRQ
'HVFULSWLRQ
-h
Displays statistics for a single client. You must provide the
client’s host name or IP address as an argument to the -h
option.
‡
To use the -h option, you must enable the
nfs.per_client_stats.enable option by entering
the following command:
options nfs.per_client_stats.enable on
‡
Enable the per-client statistics collection mode as soon
as possible after you start the filer or reset the counters
with nfsstat -z. Otherwise, nfsstat -l reports
incorrectly low percentages and displays statistics that
include clients that have generated RPC calls but no
NFS calls to the client.
-l
Displays statistics that have been collected for all NFS
clients.
-z
Resets the statistics counters.
([DPSOHQRRSWLRQV
The following lines show the output of the nfsstat command when you specify no
options:
nfsstat
Server rpc:
TCP:
calls
badcalls
nullrecv
badlen
xdrcall
0
0
0
0
0
calls
badcalls
nullrecv
badlen
xdrcall
24
0
0
0
0
UDP:
Server nfs:
calls
badcalls
24
0
Server nfs V2: (24 calls)
null
getattr
setattr
root
lookup readlink
read
6-16 Dell PowerVault 720N, 740N, and 760N System Administrator and Command Reference Guide
0 0%
5 21%
0 0%
0 0%
16 67%
wrcache
write
create
remove
rename
0 0%
0 0%
mkdir
rmdir
0 0%
readdir
0 0%
statfs
0 0%
0 0%
3 13%
0 0%
0 0%
0 0%
link
0 0%
0 0%
symlink
0 0%
Server nfs V3: (0 calls)
null
getattr
setattr
0 0%
0 0%
0 0%
write
create
mkdir
0 0%
0 0%
0 0%
root
lookup readlink
0 0%
0 0%
symlink
0 0%
0 0%
mknod
0 0%
remove
0 0%
rename
link
readdir
readdir+
fsstat
0 0%
0 0%
0 0%
0 0%
0 0%
fsinfo
0 0%
read
0 0%
rmdir
0 0%
pathconf
0 0%
commit
0 0%
([DPSOHXVLQJWKHORSWLRQ
The following lines show the output of the nfsstat command when you specify the
-l option:
nfsstat -l
172.17.25.13
sherlock
NFSOPS =
2943506 (90%)
172.17.25.16
watson
NFSOPS =
3553686 ( 2%)
172.17.25.18
hudson
NFSOPS =
2738083 ( 1%)
172.17.230.7
conan
NFSOPS =
673247l ( 3%)
172.17.230.8
baker
NFSOPS =
202614527 ( 1%)
172.17.230.9
moriarty
NFSOPS =
1006881 ( 0%)
NFSOPS =
1185 ( 0%)
175.17.230.10 doyle
([DPSOHXVLQJWKHKRSWLRQ
The following lines show the output of the nfsstat command when you specify the
-h option with a host name:
nfsstat -h eng_host
Client: 172.17.25.3 (eng_host)
Server rpc:
-------------------------------
calls
badcalls nullrecv badlen
xdrcall
33374
0
0
0
0
NFS Administration 6-17
Server nfs:
calls
badcalls
33345
0
Server nfs V2:
null
getattr
0 0%
8410 25% 19 0%
wrcache write
setattr
create
root
lookup
readlink
read
0 0%
13687 41%
42 0%
489 22%
remove
rename
link
symlink
0 0%
3225 10% 12 0%
7 0%
9 0%
0 0%
0 0%
mkdir
rmdir
readdir
statfs
0 0%
0 0%
416 1%
29 0%
Server nfs V3:
null
getattr
setattr
lookup
access
readlink
read
0 0%
0 0%
0 0%
0 0%
0 0%
0 0%
0 0%
write
create
mkdir
symlink
mknod
remove
rmdir
0 0%
0 0%
0 0%
0 0%
0 0%
0 0%
0 0%
rename
link
readdir
readdir+ fsstat
0 0%
0 0%
0 0%
0 0%
0 0%
fsinfo
0 0%
pathconf
0 0%
commit
0 0%
([DPSOHUHVHWWLQJFRXQWHUVZLWKWKH]RSWLRQ
The following command resets the counters:
nfsstat -z
6-18 Dell PowerVault 720N, 740N, and 760N System Administrator and Command Reference Guide
&+$37(5
&,)6$GPLQLVWUDWLRQ
:KDW,V&,)6"
CIFS (Common Internet File System) is a file-sharing protocol based on the
Server Message Block (SMB) protocol widely in use by personal computers and
workstations running a wide variety of operating systems. CIFS provides an open,
cross-platform mechanism for client systems, including Windows systems, to request
file and print services from server systems over a network.
This chapter describes how to manage the CIFS file protocol and users.
:KDW<RX&DQ'R2QO\)URPWKH)LOHU&RPPDQG/LQHRU
)LOHU9LHZ
You can do some operations that affect CIFS administration only from the filer command line or FilerView. These are
‡
Viewing volumes and examining their status. For additional information about volume operations, see Chapter 3, “Disk and File System Management.”
‡
Setting or changing volume and qtree security style and oplocks status. For information about administering qtrees from the filer command line, see Chapter 12,
“Qtree Administration.” For information about how to administer qtrees in FilerView, see FilerView on-line help.
(IIHFWVRI5HQDPLQJD9ROXPHRQ6KDUHV
If you change the name of a volume that contains at least one share, whether through
Windows NT or the vol rename command, the filer automatically offers the share to
users in the renamed volume at the next reboot. The new volume name is reflected in
the cifs shares command.
6FRSHRI7KLV&KDSWHU
This chapter does not discuss procedures that take place on the clients and it does
not describe how a machine joins a workgroup or domain. For information about these
topics, refer to the manuals for your client operating systems or books about PC
networking.
CIFS Administration 7-1
&,)6OLPLWDWLRQV
,QWURGXFWLRQ
This section describes CIFS limitations when operating on files on the filer.
8VHU0DQDJHU/LPLWDWLRQV
The Policy menu items and the New Users menu item are permanently disabled.
6HUYHU0DQDJHU/LPLWDWLRQV
The following Server Manager features are not supported:
‡
‡
stopping and starting services
specifying the recipients of alerts
/LPLWVRQ&,)62SHQ)LOHV6HVVLRQVDQG
6KDUHV
/LPLWVIRUWKH'HOO3RZHU9DXOW11DQG1
The filer is subject to limits on file access through CIFS. Table 7-1 shows access limits
for the 720N, 740N, and 760N filers with at least 120 MB of memory.
7DEOH&,)6)LOH$FFHVV/LPLWV
7\SHRIDFFHVV
0D[LPXPQXPEHU
Users
14,825
Files
269,500
Locked files
88,960
Shares
29,650
&KDQJLQJRU9LHZLQJWKH)LOHU·V
'HVFULSWLRQ
:KHQWR&KDQJHRU9LHZD)LOHU·V'HVFULSWLRQ
The description of a filer appears next to its name wherever a machine’s description
comments appear. Initially, the filer has no description. You might want to change the
description to something more informative so that you can distinguish filers from each
7-2
Dell PowerVault 720N, 740N, and 760N System Administrator and Command Reference Guide
other. You might want to view the description of a filer to find out, for example, what a
particular filer does or who is in charge of it.
&KDQJLQJD)LOHU·V'HVFULSWLRQ)URP6HUYHU0DQDJHU
To change the description of a filer from Server Manager, perform the following steps:
1.
Open Server Manager by choosing it from the Start menu.
2.
From the Server Manager Computer menu, choose Select Domain.
Result: The Select Domain window opens.
3.
In the Select Domain window, select the filer you want by typing its UNC name,
for example, \\FILERNAME, in the Domain field, then clicking OK.
4.
Double-click a filer name.
Result: The Filer Properties window appears
5.
Type a new description of the filer in the Description field.
6.
Click OK.
Result: The new description goes into effect.
9LHZLQJD)LOHU·V'HVFULSWLRQ)URPWKH)LOHU&RPPDQG
/LQH
To view the description of a filer, enter the following command:
FLIVFRPPHQW
&KDQJLQJD)LOHU·V'HVFULSWLRQ)URPWKH)LOHU&RPPDQG
/LQH
To change the description of a filer, enter the following command:
FLIVFRPPHQW¦GHVFULSWLRQ§
where description is its description, which must be enclosed in quotation marks. The
description must be no longer than 48 characters.
$GGLQJ&,)68VHUVWRWKH)LOHU
:KHQ<RX$GG&,)68VHUV
By default, Windows NT users who have an account map to a UNIX account of the
same name. If they do not have a Windows NT account, the user becomes a generic
user and uses the generic account, which is described in “Generic User Accounts.” In
CIFS Administration 7-3
the rare case that you must add a user explicitly, you can do so with the methods
described in this section.
You can add CIFS users to the filer at any time. The method you use for adding users
to the filer depends on whether you are authenticating with a domain controller or the
UNIX password database.
:KHQ$XWKHQWLFDWLQJ:LWKD'RPDLQ&RQWUROOHU
To add a user, create an account for the CIFS user within your Windows NT domain
environment. If you want the user to also use UNIX files, either create an entry in the
/etc/passwd file on the filer or include the user in the /etc/usermap.cfg file.
:KDWLVWKHHWFXVHUPDSFIJILOH"
The /etc/usermap.cfg file explicitly maps Windows NT users to the correct UNIX
account and UNIX users to a Windows NT account. The file can be coded as follows:
‡
‡
As a text file, with non-ASCII characters encoded in the NFS character set.
As a UNICODE file created using the Windows NT tools Notepad or Microsoft
Word.
The filer automatically detects which of these forms is in use.
)RUPDWRIWKHHWFXVHUPDSFIJILOH
The format of the /etc/usermap.cfg file is a list of text records in the following format:
[IP-qual:] [NT-domain\]NTUser [direction] [IP-qual:] UnixUser
Lines are processed sequentially.
)RUPDWYDULDEOHV
Table 7-2 describes the variables in the /etc/usermap.cfg file description.
7-4
Dell PowerVault 720N, 740N, and 760N System Administrator and Command Reference Guide
7DEOH/etc/usermap.cfg )RUPDW9DULDEOHV
9DULDEOH
'HVFULSWLRQ
IP-qual
An IP qualifier that the filer uses in matching a user. You use an
IP qualifier to narrow a match. IP-qual can be an IP address in
any of the following formats:
‡
A regular IP address specified as numbers separated by
periods (dot notation) with an optional subnet address. For
example, 192.4.1.0/24 narrows possible matches to the
192.4.1.0 class C subnet.
‡
‡
‡
A host name.
A network name.
A network name with a subnet specified in dot notation.
For example, corpnet/255.255.255.0 specifies the corpnet
subnet.
NT-domain
Specifies the domain to match or the domain to use for a
mapped UNIX account. The default is the domain in which the
filer is installed.
NTUser
Any user-type account name. If the name contains a space, put
the name in quotation marks.
direction
Restricts the direction of the mapping. By default, mappings
are bidirectional. You can use one of three symbols:
‡
‡
‡
UnixUser
=> means NT to UNIX mapping only.
<= means UNIX to NT mapping only.
== means bidirectional mapping. Use this to explicitly indicate a bidirectional mapping.
A UNIX account name.
The following symbol conventions are in effect:
‡
An asterisk (*) matches any name.
For example, to map all unmapped users to the UNIX “nobody” account, add the
following line:
‡
*
nobody
The null string (“”) matches no name and rejects any user.
For example, to prevent access completely, add the following line:
‡
*
""
This line prevents the default mapping of Windows NT users who have an
account map to a UNIX account of the same name. Any lines after this line are
disregarded by the filer.
You can use either spaces or tabs as separators.
CIFS Administration 7-5
1DPHUHTXLUHPHQWV
Windows NT and UNIX names have different requirements, as follows:
‡
Windows NT names are case-insensitive and can contain non-ASCII characters
within the character set in the current code page. Windows NT user names can
contain spaces, in which case you must enclose the name in quotation marks.
‡
UNIX user names are case-sensitive and must be in ASCII.
'HIDXOWILOHFRQWHQWV
If the filer is domain authenticated, by default the /etc/usermap.cfg file contains the
following line:
GRPDLQ?DGPLQLVWUDWRU
URRW
:KHQ$XWKHQWLFDWLQJ:LWKWKH81,;3DVVZRUG'DWDEDVH
To add a user, enter the user’s information into the NIS password and group maps.
NOTE: If you do not use NIS, create entries for the user in the filer’s /etc/passwd and
/etc/group files.
$GGLQJ/RFDO*URXSVWRWKH)LOHU
+RZWR$GGD/RFDO*URXS
You add a local group to the filer with the New Local Group window in the User Manager for Domains.
$GGLQJD*URXS:LWKWKH1HZ/RFDO*URXS:LQGRZ
To create a new local group, perform the following steps:
1.
Open User Manager for Domains by choosing it from the Start menu.
2.
From the User menu, choose Select Domain.
3.
Select the filer you want by typing its UNC name, for example, \\FILERNAME, in
the Domain field, then clicking OK.
Result: The User Manager window shows information for the specified filer.
4.
From the New User menu, choose New Local Group.
Result: The New Local Group window appears.
7-6
5.
Type the name of the new group in the Group Name text box.
6.
Type a description for the new group in the Description text box.
Dell PowerVault 720N, 740N, and 760N System Administrator and Command Reference Guide
7.
To add a member, type a user or group name in the Members list box or use the
Add Users and Groups window, as described in Step 8.
$GGLQJDQDPHZLWKWKH$GG8VHUVDQG*URXSVZLQGRZ
8. Click Add.
Result: The Add Users and Groups window appears.
9.
Click the arrow next to the List Names From text box to choose a domain that
contains names that you want to add.
Result: A list of names in the selected domain appears in the Names list box.
10. To add a name, type one or more user names in the Add Names list box or select
one or more names and click Add.
11. Specify one or more names in either of these ways:
‡
‡
Click one or more names in the Names list box.
Type valid user or group names in the Add Names list box.
12. Click Add in the window where you specified the names.
Result: The names are added to the Add Names field of the Add Users and
Groups window.
13. If you want, display the full name of a user associated with an account name by
clicking Show Full Name.
14. Click OK.
Result: The names appear in the Members field of the New Local Group window.
)LQDOVWHSVLQWKH1HZ/RFDO*URXSZLQGRZ
15. To remove one or more names from the list, select a name or names in the
Names list, then click Remove.
16. Click OK to put the additions into effect.
8VLQJ&,)6&RPPDQGV:LWKD5HPRWH6KHOO
3URJUDP
:KDW<RX&DQ8VHD5HPRWH6KHOO3URJUDPIRU
You can use a remote shell program, such as rsh, to
‡
‡
execute CIFS commands
create scripts containing CIFS commands to automate similar access rights tasks
CIFS Administration 7-7
81,;([DPSOH
For example, using rsh on the administration host, you can set access rights for a
specific user as follows:
UVKOURRWQILOHUFLIVDFFHVVKRPHMVPLWKU[
In this example, the filer name is filer, the user is jsmith, and the share is home. The
user has read, execute, and browsing rights to the directory on the filer that has been
defined as the home share.
$XWRPDWLQJ$FFHVV5LJKWV
Because you can use CIFS commands through a remote shell program, you can automate the task of defining access rights for multiple CIFS filers with similar user
information. For example, you can create a script containing CIFS commands to enter
similar user information for each filer at your site.
5HTXLUHG,QIRUPDWLRQLQKRVWVHTXLY)LOH
Make sure that the following entries are added to the hosts.equiv file in the etc
directory:
host
host
user
root
where host is the host you are using and user is your name.
NOTE: Make sure that you include both lines, or not all remote shell functionality
works properly.
(QDEOLQJ*XHVWDQG*HQHULF$FFHVV
7ZR:D\VWR*LYH$FFHVVWR8QDXWKHQWLFDWHGRU
2FFDVLRQDO8VHUV
You can enable unauthenticated or occasional users to have access to the filer
through CIFS in one of two ways:
‡
‡
For users who are not in a trusted domain, use a guest account.
For users who are authenticated but do not have an entry in the /etc/passwd file
on the filer, use a generic user account.
*XHVW$FFRXQWV
If you are using Windows NT domain authentication, guests are users who are not in
trusted domains.
If you use a UNIX password database for authentication, guests are users who do not
have an entry in the database.
7-8
Dell PowerVault 720N, 740N, and 760N System Administrator and Command Reference Guide
6HWWLQJ8SD*XHVW$FFRXQW
To set up a guest account, use the following options command:
RSWLRQVFLIVJXHVWBDFFRXQWDFFRXQWBQDPH
where account_name is the name of the guest account, usually guest or nobody,
which is a preconfigured account in the /etc/passwd file.
If you are using UNIX-style authentication, set the guest account to the name of an
account in the UNIX password database, typically guest, which is mapped to the
UNIX account nobody with the same access rights as the user everyone.
'LVDEOLQJ*XHVW$FFHVV
To disable guest access, use the following option command:
RSWLRQVFLIVJXHVWBDFFRXQW
ZLWKD««DVDFFRXQWBQDPH
*HQHULF8VHU$FFRXQWV
If you are using Windows NT domain authentication, a generic user account is
mapped by default with the name “pcuser.” The generic user account enables users
who meet the criteria described in this section to connect to NTFS or mixed qtrees on
the filer. For information about qtrees, see Chapter 10, “Qtree Administration,” or
FilerView on-line help.
NOTE: For generic user accounts to be active, pcuser must be an account in the /etc/
passwd file.
:KR&DQ8VHWKH*HQHULF8VHU$FFRXQW
To use the generic user account, a user must
‡
‡
‡
be authenticated
be in a trusted domain
not have an entry in the UNIX password database
All users of the generic user account have the same UNIX rights and the Windows NT
rights granted by their Windows NT group membership because they appear as one
account to the system.
CIFS Administration 7-9
6HWWLQJ8SD*HQHULF8VHU$FFRXQW
To set up a generic user account, use one of the following options commands with
an account name to use as an argument as shown in Table 7-3:
7DEOH*HQHULF8VHU$FFRXQWRSWLRQV&RPPDQGV
8VHUW\SH
2SWLRQ
'HVFULSWLRQ
NT
ZDIOGHIDXOWBXQL[BXVHU
Specifies the UNIX user
account to use when an NT
user attempts to log in and
that NT user would not
otherwise be mapped.
UNIX
ZDIOGHIDXOWBQWBXVHU
Specifies the NT user
account to use when a UNIX
user accesses a file with NT
security (has an ACL), and
that UNIX user would not
otherwise be mapped.
'LVDEOLQJJHQHULFXVHUDFFHVV
To disable generic user access, use the options described in the previous table with
a ““ as account_name.
'LVSOD\LQJD)LOHU·V6KDUHV
:D\VWR6KDUH)ROGHUV
If you want to create a folder to be shared by CIFS clients, do one of the following:
‡
From Windows NT, use Server Manager as described in “Using Server Manager
to Display a Filer’s Shares.”
‡
From the filer command line, use the cifs shares command to display share
information, as described in “Using the cifs Shares Command to Display A Filer’s
Shares.”
8VLQJ6HUYHU0DQDJHUWR'LVSOD\D)LOHU·V6KDUHV
To display a filers’s shares with Server Manager and get detailed information, perform
the following steps:
1.
Open Server Manager by choosing it from the Start menu.
2.
From the Server Manager Computer menu, choose Select Domain.
Result: The Select Domain window opens.
7-10 Dell PowerVault 720N, 740N, and 760N System Administrator and Command Reference Guide
3.
In the Select Domain window, select the filer you want by typing its UNC name,
for example, \\FILERNAME, in the Domain field, then clicking OK.
Result: A Server Manager window for the filer appears.
4.
Choose Computer > Shared Directories.
Result: The Shared Directories window appears.
5.
To get additional details about a share, double-click a share name.
Result: The Share Properties window appears.
8VLQJWKHFLIVVKDUHV&RPPDQGWR'LVSOD\D)LOHU·V
6KDUHV
To display the filer’s list of shares from the filer’s command line, use the cifs
shares command.
&RPPDQG6\QWD[
The syntax is as follows:
FLIVVKDUHV
([DPSOHRI'LVSOD\LQJDILOHU·V6KDUHV
The following example shows a filer’s shares:
FLIVVKDUHV
1DPH0RXQW3RLQW'HVFULSWLRQ
+20(YROPXIILQKRPH'HIDXOW6KDUH
HYHU\RQH)XOO&RQWURO
WHFKSXEV^J`)XOO&RQWURO
&YROPXIILQ5HPRWH
$GPLQLVWUDWLRQ
HYHU\RQH)XOO&RQWURO
%8,/7,1?$GPLQLVWUDWRUV)XOO&RQWURO
RSHQKRPHYROPXIILQZULWHUVBKRPHUHDGDEOHKRPH
GLUV
XVHUOLPLW IRUFHJURXS WHFKSXEV
HYHU\RQH[
WHFKSXEV^J`U[
VWRFNYROPXIILQ1RWKDOIEDNHG
XVHUOLPLW HYHU\RQH)XOO&RQWURO
IORXUYROPXIILQEOXHEHUU\)ORXUSRZHU
HYHU\RQH)XOO&RQWURO
VHVDPHYROEDJHOV
HYHU\RQH)XOO&RQWURO
CIFS Administration 7-11
&UHDWLQJDQG&KDQJLQJD6KDUH
:D\VWR6KDUH)ROGHUV
If you want to create a folder to be shared by CIFS clients, do one of the following:
‡
From Windows NT, use Server Manager as described in “Creating a Share From
Server Manager.”
‡
From the filer command line, use the cifs shares command to define a new
share, as described in “Creating a Share with the cifs Shares Command.”
NOTE: By default, three shares are created during CIFS setup: C$, IPC$, and HOME.
In filer console displays, the C$ share corresponds in UNIX to /vol/vol0 and the HOME
share corresponds to /vol/vol0/home.
&UHDWLQJD6KDUH)URP6HUYHU0DQDJHU
To create a share from the Windows NT desktop using Server Manager, create a
folder, then share it by performing the following steps:
1.
Create a folder on the filer.
2.
Open Server Manager by choosing it from the Start menu.
3.
From the Server Manager Computer menu, choose Select Domain.
Result: The Select Domain window opens.
4.
In the Select Domain window, select the filer you want by typing its UNC name,
for example, \\FILERNAME, in the Domain field, then clicking OK.
Result: A Server Manager window for the filer appears.
5.
Choose Computer > Shared Directories, then click the New Share button.
Result: The New Share window appears.
6.
Type a name for the new share in the Share Name field. The share name is casesensitive.
7.
Type the local path here of the folder you created in Step 1. This is usually
C:\VOL\VOLNAME\FOLDER.
8.
Type a description of the share in the Comments field, if you want.
9.
If you do not want to limit the number of users that can connect to the share at
the same time, select Maximum Allowed under User Limit.
10. To limit the number of users that can connect to the share at the same time, click
the arrows next to Users until the desired number appears.
11. If the share has Windows NT security, click Permissions to set permissions.
7-12 Dell PowerVault 720N, 740N, and 760N System Administrator and Command Reference Guide
12. Click OK.
Result: The New Share window disappears and the share is created.
&KDQJLQJWKH6KDUH'HVFULSWLRQDQG8VHU/LPLW:LWK
6HUYHU0DQDJHU
To change the description and user limit with Server Manager, perform the following
steps:
1.
Open Server Manager by choosing it from the Start menu.
2.
From the Server Manager Computer menu, choose Select Domain.
Result: The Select Domain window opens.
3.
In the Select Domain window, select the filer you want by typing its UNC name,
for example, \\FILERNAME, in the Domain field, then clicking OK.
Result: A Server Manager window for the filer appears.
4.
Choose Computer > Shared Directories.
Result: The Shared Directories window appears.
5.
Double-click a share name.
Result: The Share Properties window appears.
6.
Type a new description of the share in the Comments field, if you want.
7.
If you do not want to limit the number of users that can connect to the share at
the same time, select Maximum Allowed under User Limit.
8.
To limit the number of users that can connect to the share at the same time, click
the arrows next to Users until the desired number appears.
9.
Click Permissions to change share-level permissions.
10. Click OK.
Result: The window disappears and the new values go into effect.
&UHDWLQJD6KDUH:LWKWKHFLIVVKDUHV&RPPDQG
Following is the syntax for the cifs shares command for creating a share:
FLIVVKDUHVDGGVKDUHQDPHSDWK>FRPPHQWGHVFULSWLRQ@
> IRUFHJURXSJURXSQDPH@>PD[XVHUVQ@
Table 7-4 describes the parameters.
CIFS Administration 7-13
7DEOH&UHDWLQJD6KDUH:LWKFLIVVKDUHV&RPPDQG
9DULDEOH
'HVFULSWLRQ
GHVFULSWLRQ
A string describing the purpose of the share. It must contain
only characters in the current code page. It is required by the
CIFS protocol and is displayed in the share list in Network
Neighborhood on the client. If the description contains
spaces, you must enclose it in single quotation marks.
JURXSQDPH
The name of the group you want all files in the share to get
the group membership of.
Q
The maximum number of users that you specify can connect to the share at the same time. The limit on this number
is dependent on filer memory, and is shown in “Limits on
CIFS Open Files, Sessions, and Shares.”
SDWK
The path name, relative to the root of the filer's file system,
of the root directory of the share.
NOTE: Because the cifs shares command is casesensitive, be sure that you use the appropriate case when
entering the path name. Separators used in the path name
must be forward slashes (/).
VKDUHQDPH
The name of the share, which is used by CIFS users to
obtain access to the directory on the filer.
If sharename already exists, the cifs shares -add command fails.
&$87,21'RQRWFUHDWHVKDUHVZKRVHQDPHVHQG
ZLWKDGROODUVLJQGRLQJVRPLJKWFDXVHFRQIOLFWV
ZLWKUHVHUYHGQDPHV,QSDUWLFXODUGRQRWFUHDWH
VKDUHVFDOOHG&RU$'0,1&LVDUHVHUYHGVKDUH
QDPHDQG$'0,1LVDQLOOHJDOVKDUHQDPH
([DPSOH
The following example creates a new share called library:
FLIVVKDUHVDGGOLEUDU\YROYROKRPHOLE®1HZILOHOLEUDU\®
This example creates the library share and defines it as HOME\LIB (/home/lib in UNIX
notation) in the filer’s root volume. With the appropriate access rights, CIFS users can
gain access to the HOME\LIB directory in the root volume, which is displayed as the
library share on their computers. For more information about setting access rights,
refer to “Assigning and Changing Access Rights.”
7-14 Dell PowerVault 720N, 740N, and 760N System Administrator and Command Reference Guide
8VLQJWKHFLIV VKDUHV&RPPDQGWR&KDQJHWKH6KDUH
To change the description, forced file ownership, and user limits of a share, use the
following command:
FLIVVKDUHVFKDQJHVKDUHQDPH>FRPPHQWGHVFULSWLRQ_QRFRP
PHQW@> IRUFHJURXSJURXSQDPH_QRIRUFHJURXS@
>PD[XVHUVQ_QRPD[XVHUV@
Table 7-5 describes the parameters.
7DEOH&KDQJLQJD6KDUH:LWKFLIVVKDUHV&RPPDQG
3DUDPHWHURU
YDULDEOH
'HVFULSWLRQ
GHVFULSWLRQ
A string describing the purpose of the share. It must contain
only characters in the current code page. It is displayed in
the share list in Network Neighborhood on the client. If the
description contains spaces, you must enclose it in single
quotation marks.
JURXSQDPH
The name of the group you want all files in the share to get
the group membership of.
Q
The maximum number of users that you specify can connect to the share at the same time. The limit on this number
is dependent on filer memory, and is shown in “Limits on
CIFS Open Files, Sessions, and Shares.”
QRFRPPHQW
Specifies no description.
QRIRUFH
JURXS
Specifies no particular group to own the files that are created in the share.
QRPD[XVHUV
Specifies no maximum number of users that can connect to
the share at the same time.
VKDUHQDPH
The name of the share, which is used by CIFS users to
obtain access to the directory on the filer. It must contain
only characters in the current code page.
'LVSOD\LQJ,QIRUPDWLRQ$ERXW6KDUHV
0HWKRGVRI'LVSOD\LQJ,QIRUPDWLRQ$ERXW6KDUHV
You can display information about a specific share or all shares on the filer.
CIFS Administration 7-15
To display information about shares, do either of the following:
‡
From the Windows NT desktop, use Server Manager as described in “Using
Server Manager to View Information about Shares.”
‡
From the filer, use the cifs shares command as described in “Using the
cifs Shares Command to View Information about Shares.”
8VLQJ6HUYHU0DQDJHUWR9LHZ,QIRUPDWLRQ$ERXW6KDUHV
To display information about shares from Server Manager, perform the following
steps:
1.
Open Server Manager by choosing it from the Start menu.
2.
From the Server Manager Computer menu, choose Select Domain.
Result: The Select Domain window opens.
3.
In the Select Domain window, select the filer you want by typing its UNC name,
for example, \\FILERNAME, in the Domain field, then clicking OK.
Result: A Server Manager window for the filer appears.
4.
Double-click the name of a filer.
Result: The Filer Properties window appears.
5.
Click the Shares button.
Result: Information about each share on the filer appears.
8VLQJWKHFLIV 6KDUHV&RPPDQGWR9LHZ,QIRUPDWLRQ
$ERXW6KDUHV
To display information about a share or shares that exist, enter the following
command:
FLIVVKDUHVVKDUHQDPH
where sharename is the specific name of the share about which you want information. If you want information about all shares, leave sharename blank.
([DPSOHVRI'LVSOD\LQJ6KDUH,QIRUPDWLRQ
The following command example displays the share information only for the share
library created by the cifs shares -add command described in “Creating a Share with
the cifs Shares Command.”
FLIVVKDUHVOLEUDU\
The following command displays information about all shares:
FLIVVKDUHV
7-16 Dell PowerVault 720N, 740N, and 760N System Administrator and Command Reference Guide
The sample output is from cifs shares:
1DPH0RXQW3RLQW'HVFULSWLRQ
+20(YROPXIILQKRPH'HIDXOW6KDUH
HYHU\RQH)XOO&RQWURO
WHFKSXEV^J`)XOO&RQWURO
&YROPXIILQ5HPRWH
$GPLQLVWUDWLRQ
HYHU\RQH)XOO&RQWURO
%8,/7,1?$GPLQLVWUDWRUV)XOO&RQWURO
RSHQKRPHYROPXIILQZULWHUVBKRPHUHDGDEOHKRPH
GLUV
XVHUOLPLW IRUFHJURXS WHFKSXEV
HYHU\RQH[
WHFKSXEV^J`U[
VWRFNYROPXIILQ1RWKDOIEDNHG
XVHUOLPLW HYHU\RQH)XOO&RQWURO
IORXUYROPXIILQEOXHEHUU\)ORXUSRZHU
HYHU\RQH)XOO&RQWURO
VHVDPHYROEDJHOV
HYHU\RQH)XOO&RQWURO
'HOHWLQJD6KDUH
+RZWR'HOHWHD6KDUH
To delete shares, do either of the following:
‡
From the Windows NT desktop, use Server Manager as described “Using Server
Manager to Delete a Share.”
‡
From the filer, use the cifs shares command, as described in “Using the
cifs Shares Command to Delete Shares.”
8VLQJ6HUYHU0DQDJHUWR'HOHWHD6KDUH
To delete a share from Server Manager, follow these steps:
1.
Open Server Manager by choosing it from the Start menu.
2.
From the Server Manager Computer menu, choose Select Domain.
Result: The Select Domain window opens.
3.
In the Select Domain window, select the filer you want by typing its UNC name,
for example, \\FILERNAME, in the Domain field, then clicking OK.
Result: A Server Manager window for the filer appears.
CIFS Administration 7-17
4.
In the Server Manager window for the filer, choose Computer > Shared Directories, then click the Properties button.
Result: The Share Properties window appears.
5.
Click Stop Sharing, then click OK.
Result: The folder is no longer shared.
8VLQJWKHFLIV VKDUHV&RPPDQGWR'HOHWH6KDUHV
To delete a share, use the cifs shares -delete command.
&RPPDQG6\QWD[
The cifs shares -delete command has the following syntax:
FLIVVKDUHVGHOHWHVKDUHQDPH
where sharename is the specific name of the share that you want to delete.
([DPSOH
The following command deletes the share created by the cifs shares -add command
described in “Creating a Share with the cifs Shares Command.”
FLIVVKDUHVGHOHWHOLEUDU\
&UHDWLQJD+RPH6KDUHIRU(DFK8VHU
:KHQWR&UHDWHD+RPH'LUHFWRU\
You can create a share that contains home directories of registered CIFS users.
For example, if there are users called user1 and user2, the share contains directories
for user1 and user2. When user1 connects to the filer and asks for its list of shares,
the display shows a share called user1, but not user2 or any other individual user.
NOTE: If Domain1\user and Domain2\user are the same, they do not have different
home directories. To prevent access by the wrong user, set Windows permissions
and UNIX permissions at the root of the user’s home directory.
$FFHVVLQJD+RPH'LUHFWRU\
Users access their home directories in the same way as any other share. That is,
users can open the share with Network Neighborhood, by mapping a drive, or by
using a UNC name. The UNC name is
??ILOHU?XVHUQDPH
7-18 Dell PowerVault 720N, 740N, and 760N System Administrator and Command Reference Guide
6KDUH1DPH/HQJWK/LPLWDWLRQV
Because share names are truncated to 12 characters, the home directory name might
show a truncated version of the user’s account name.
For example, consider the 13-letter name administrator. From the filer point of view,
the home directory for administrator has a name that exactly matches the account
name administrator, but use of that directory is offered under the truncated share
name administrator.
If there were users administrator and administrator1, they would see an offer for their
own home directory, but both would see it as an offer to share the name administrato.
Therefore, each user gets the correct directory, even though the share names appear
the same.
&UHDWLQJD6KDUH&RQWDLQLQJ8VHU+RPH'LUHFWRULHV
The following procedure creates a share that automatically contains home directories
for CIFS users:
1.
Enable the home directory option by entering the following command.
RSWLRQVFLIVKRPHBGLUKRPHGLUSDWK
Where homedirpath is the UNIX path name that will be mapped to the share
CIFS.HOMEDIR. This share automatically contains CIFS user home directories.
If the directory containing the home directories is /vol/vol1/homes, enter the following command:
RSWLRQVFLIVKRPHBGLUYROYROKRPHV
2.
Within the directory specified by the cifs.home_dir option, create a directory
for each user. Make sure that the following conditions are met:
‡
‡
Each directory name matches the user’s login name exactly.
Each user is the owner of the directory.
&UHDWLQJ6KDUH+RPH'LUHFWRULHV
Using the cifs.home_dir option to create home directories is useful only if users
do not need to read or write other users’ home directories. If they must access other
users’ home directories, follow this procedure:
1.
Create an additional share, from either Windows or the filer, that maps to the
same path name as the CIFS.HOMEDIR share.
2.
From either Windows or the filer, assign each user the appropriate access permissions to other users’ home directories.
CIFS Administration 7-19
([DPSOH)URPWKH)LOHU
The following example shows how to create an additional share, assign user access
rights to the share, and display the share information from the filer command line. If
authentication is through the /etc/passwd file, UNIX permissions are shown; otherwise, Windows NT permissions appear.
FLIVVKDUHVDGGHQJKRPHVYROYROKRPHV?
FRPPHQW5HDGDEOHKRPHGLUHFWRULHV
«5HDGDEOHKRPHGLUHFWRULHV¬
FLIVDFFHVVHQJKRPHVJHQJLQHHULQJU[
FLIVVKDUHV
1DPH0RXQW3RLQW'HVFULSWLRQ
HQJKRPHYROYROKRPHV5HDGDEOHKRPH
GLUHFWRULHV
HQJLQHHULQJ^J`U[
&YROYRO5HPRWH
$GPLQLVWUDWLRQ
%8,/7,1?$GPLQLVWUDWRUV)XOO&RQWURO
+20(YROYROKRPH'HIDXOW6KDUH
HYHU\RQH)XOO&RQWURO
&,)6+20(',5YROYROKRPHV+RPH'LUHFWRULHV
HYHU\RQH)XOO&RQWURO
5HVXOW
Users in the engineering group can read all home directories in HOMES on the root
volume, which corresponds to the share defined by the options cifs.home_dir
command. However, they can only write to their own home directories, which reside
in the CIFS.HOMEDIR share.
$VVLJQLQJDQG&KDQJLQJ$FFHVV5LJKWV
:KHQWR$VVLJQRU&KDQJH$FFHVV5LJKWV
After you create a share, you define the user or group access rights to the share. If a
group or a user no longer exists, you can remove the corresponding entry from an
ACL.
0HWKRGVRI$VVLJQLQJRU&KDQJLQJ$FFHVV5LJKWVWRD
6KDUH
To assign access rights, use either of the following methods:
‡
From Windows, follow the instructions in “Assigning or Changing Access Rights
with Server Manager.”
7-20 Dell PowerVault 720N, 740N, and 760N System Administrator and Command Reference Guide
‡
From the filer command line, do one of the following:
a.
Add access with the cifs access command, as described in “Giving Access
With the Cifs Access Command.”
b.
Remove a user or group with the cifs access -delete command, as described
in “Removing a User or Group With the cifs Access -delete Command.”
$VVLJQLQJRU&KDQJLQJ$FFHVV5LJKWV:LWK6HUYHU
0DQDJHU
To assign or change access rights with Server Manager, use the Access Through
Share Permissions window by following these steps:
1.
Open Server Manager by choosing it from the Start menu.
2.
From the Server Manager Computer menu, choose Select Domain.
Result: The Select Domain window opens.
3.
In the Select Domain window, select the filer you want by typing its UNC name,
for example, \\FILERNAME, in the Domain field, then clicking OK.
Result: A Server Manager window for the filer appears.
4.
In the Server Manager window, click Computer > Shared Directories, then click
the Properties button.
Result: The Share Properties window appears.
5.
Click Permissions.
Result: The Access Through Share Permissions window appears.
6.
To add a new user or group, click Add.
Result: The Add Users and Groups window appears.
$GGLQJDQDPHZLWKWKH$GG8VHUVDQG*URXSVZLQGRZ
7. Click the arrow next to the List Names From field to choose a domain that contains names that you want to add.
Result: A list of names appears in the Names list box.
8.
9.
Specify one or more names in either of the following two ways:
a.
Click one or more names in the Names list box.
b.
Type valid user or group names in the Add Names text box.
Click Add in the window where you selected the names.
Result: The names are added to the Add Names field of the Add Users and
Groups window.
CIFS Administration 7-21
10. If you want, add or modify the access type by selecting one or more names and
choosing an access type from the Type of Access list.
6WHSVLQWKH$FFHVV7KURXJK6KDUH3HUPLVVLRQVZLQGRZ
11. To assign or change an access type, select a name or names in the Names list,
then click the arrow next to Type of Access and select an access type.
12. To remove one or more names from the list, select a name or names in the
Names list, then click Remove.
13. Click OK.
)LQDOVWHSLQWKH3URSHUWLHVZLQGRZ
14. Click OK to put the changes into effect.
*LYLQJ$FFHVV:LWKWKHFLIVDFFHVV&RPPDQG
You use the cifs access command to assign access to a share from the filer command line. To change the permissions, run the command with the new permissions.
&RPPDQGV\QWD[
The cifs access command has the following syntax:
FLIVDFFHVVVKDUH>J@XVHU_JURXSULJKWV
The -g flag specifies that the access rights are defined for a group.
rights can be UNIX-style permissions or Windows NT-style rights:
‡
UNIX-style permissions are defined as r, w, and x, which mean read, write and
delete, and execute and browse, respectively. To deny a right to a user, use a
hyphen (-).
‡
Windows NT-style rights are No Access, Read, Change, and Full Control.
([DPSOHV
Here are some examples of assigning access rights from the filer:
‡
‡
cifs access library -g engineering rwx
cifs access library domain\joed Change
NOTE: The group everyone is reserved. When you use it in an ACL, the group
everyone means every CIFS user. For example, to give every CIFS user read, write,
and execute rights to the library share, you enter the following command:
FLIVDFFHVVOLEUDU\HYHU\RQHUZ[
7-22 Dell PowerVault 720N, 740N, and 760N System Administrator and Command Reference Guide
5HPRYLQJD8VHURU*URXS:LWKWKHFLIVDFFHVVGHOHWH
&RPPDQG
If a user or group no longer exists, you can remove the corresponding entry from an
ACL. Use the following command syntax to remove an entry in an ACL:
FLIVDFFHVVGHOHWHVKDUHXVHU_JURXS
Following are some examples of removing entries from the library share.
The following command removes the engineering group from the library share.
FLIVDFFHVVGHOHWHOLEUDU\HQJLQHHULQJ
The following command removes the user joed from the library share.
FLIVDFFHVVGHOHWHOLEUDU\GRPDLQ?MRHG
'LVSOD\LQJ$FFHVV5LJKWVWRDQ17)6)LOH
$FFHVV5LJKWV'LVSOD\0HWKRGV
You can display access rights to an NTFS file from Windows.
'LVSOD\LQJ$FFHVV5LJKWV)URPWKH:LQGRZV'HVNWRS
To display access rights to a file from the Windows desktop, follow these steps:
1.
Right-click a file and choose Properties from the pop-up menu.
Result: The Properties sheet appears.
2.
Click the Security tab.
Result: If the file is a Windows file, the Security sheet appears.
3.
Click Permissions.
Result: Permissions are displayed.
&KDQJLQJ81,;3HUPLVVLRQVDQG'26
$WWULEXWHV)URP:LQGRZV
+RZWRFKDQJH81,;SHUPLVVLRQV
Some files and directories on the filer have both Windows and UNIX-style permissions. You can change Windows-style permissions from Windows by editing
Windows permissions. To change UNIX permissions in a UNIX file system from the
Windows desktop or to change DOS attributes, you use the SecureShare Access tool.
CIFS Administration 7-23
To use the SecureShare Access tool from a client, you must install the tool on the client. For instructions about downloading the SecureShare Access tool, see the
Software and Firmware Upgrade Guide or Start Here.
NOTE: To change UNIX permissions, you must understand them. Explaining UNIX
permissions is outside the scope of this guide. Consult literature about UNIX for an
explanation of UNIX permissions.
'LVSOD\LQJ6HFXUH6KDUH$FFHVV
To display SecureShare Access, follow these steps.
1.
Select the files and directories whose permissions you want to change.
The items are highlighted.
2.
Right-click one of the items you selected.
A pop-up menu appears.
3.
Choose Properties from the pop-up menu.
The Properties dialog box appears.
4.
Click the SecureShare tab.
SecureShare Access appears.
&KDQJLQJWKH3HUPLVVLRQVRID6LQJOH,WHP
If you select only one item, SecureShare Access appears.
&$87,216HFXUH6KDUH$FFHVVKDVQRXQGRIHDWXUH8VHLWYHU\FDUHIXOO\
TWUHH6HFXULW\6W\OH(IIHFWV
The security style of the qtree from which you select an item has the following
effects:
‡
In NTFS-style qtrees, all the edit fields and check boxes are disabled. Use standard Windows NT tools to manipulate NTFS files.
‡
‡
In NFS-style qtrees, the Has ACL check box is meaningless and is disabled.
In mixed-style qtrees, if a file has an ACL, the ACL is removed when you click the
OK or Apply button. A dialog box prompts you to confirm that this is what you
want.
NOTE: If you click OK or Apply on any page or tab of a Properties sheet, it puts into
effect all changes that you made on all pages or tabs of the Properties sheet.
7-24 Dell PowerVault 720N, 740N, and 760N System Administrator and Command Reference Guide
5HFXUVLYH$SSOLFDWLRQRI&KDQJHV
If one or more of the files is a directory, the Descend Into Subdirectories check box is
enabled. Select this check box to apply the changes you make recursively to the contents of any directory you selected. Links are not changed, but their targets are.
&KDQJLQJWKH3HUPLVVLRQVRI0XOWLSOH,WHPV
You can change the permissions of several items at once by selecting them, then displaying SecureShare Access by following Steps 2 through 4 in “Displaying
SecureShare Access.”
In the multiple-item display, the following conditions are in effect that are different
than the single-item display.
‡
Permissions; DOS attributes; or characteristics; for example, whether an item is a
directory, that are common to all the items you selected appear with a white
background.
‡
Permissions; DOS attributes; or characteristics; for example, whether an item is a
directory, where one item differs from the rest of the items you selected appear
with a light gray background.
‡
‡
Permissions or DOS attributes that you set apply to all items you selected.
Turning one of the check boxes gray preserves the permissions on any of the
selected items.
6HQGLQJD0HVVDJHWR$OO8VHUVRQD)LOHU
:KHQWR6HQGD0HVVDJH
You might want to send a message to all users on a filer to tell them of important
events. The message appears in an alert box. For example, you might need all users
to close any open files on the filer, but not want to stop CIFS services and, therefore,
not take advantage of the messaging function of the cifs terminate command.
+RZWR6HQGWKH0HVVDJH
To send a message to all users on a filer, follow these steps:
1.
Open Server Manager by choosing it from the Start menu.
2.
From the Server Manager Computer menu, choose Select Domain.
Result: The Select Domain window opens.
3.
In the Select Domain window, select the filer you want by typing its UNC name,
for example, \\FILERNAME, in the Domain field, then clicking OK.
Result: A Server Manager window for the filer appears.
CIFS Administration 7-25
4.
In the Server Manager window, from the Computer menu, choose Send
Message.
Result: The Send Message window appears.
5.
Enter a message in the text box of the Send Message window.
6.
Click OK to send the message.
(YHQW$XGLWLQJ
<RX&DQ$XGLW)LOH$FFHVV(YHQWV
Data ONTAP 5.3 enables you to monitor reads and writes of a specified file on the
filer by a specified user. The procedure for doing so is the same as for Windows NT.
NOTE: The file on the filer must be in a mixed or ntfs volume or qtree. You cannot
audit events on a file in a UNIX volume or qtree.
You can specify the logging of successes, failures, or both for each type of event as
described in “Setting a System ACL on a File.” You can view the events on the filer
using the Windows Event Viewer, as described in “Viewing Events in a Security Log.”
:K\8VH(YHQW$XGLWLQJ
You use event auditing to troubleshoot access problems, to check for suspicious activity on a system, or to investigate a security breach.
‡
If someone who should have access to a file cannot get access, examining the
event can provide a clue to resolving the problem.
‡
If a file has been changed in a way that indicates a security breach, event auditing
might provide clues about the nature of the breach if subsequent changes occur.
$FWLYH(YHQW/RJ1DPLQJ
The active event log is the file to which system writes access logging information. The
default active event log is /etc/log/adtlog.evt. You can specify another active event log
with the cifs.access_logging.filename option. You can change active event
logs at any time. The other logs remain available for reading until you delete them.
/RJ$FFHVV
Anyone can read an event log. You cannot write to an event log or clear one, but you
can delete one.
7-26 Dell PowerVault 720N, 740N, and 760N System Administrator and Command Reference Guide
(YHQW/RJ'HWDLO'LVSOD\V
+RZWR([DPLQHDQ(YHQWLQ'HWDLO
You examine an event in detail by double-clicking it and looking at the resulting event
details display. There are the following kinds of event details displays:
‡
‡
‡
‡
Windows file access detail displays
UNIX file access detail displays
Unsuccessful file access detail display
Lost record event detail display
:LQGRZV)LOH$FFHVV'HWDLO'LVSOD\V
Windows file access detail displays show the following information displayed in the
detail screens as shown in Table 7-6
.
7DEOH:LQGRZV)LOH$FFHVV'HWDLO'LVSOD\V
)LHOG
'HVFULSWLRQ
Object Server
The name of the subsystem server process calling
the audit check function. This is always SECURITY,
because this is a security log.
Object Type
The type of object being accessed.
Object name
The name (such as a file name) of the object being
accessed.
New Handle ID
The new handle identifier of the open object.
Operation ID
A unique identifier associating multiple events resulting from a single operation.
Process ID
The identifier of the client process accessing the
object.
Primary User Name
The user name of the user requesting the object
access. When impersonation is taking place, this is
the user name with which the server process is
logged on.
Primary Domain
The name of the computer, or SYSTEM if the user
identified by Primary User Name is SYSTEM. If the
computer is a member of a Windows NT Server
domain, this can also be the name of the domain
containing the primary user’s account.
Primary Logon ID
A unique identifier assigned when the primary user
logged on.
CIFS Administration 7-27
7DEOH:LQGRZV)LOH$FFHVV'HWDLO'LVSOD\VFRQWLQXHG
)LHOG
'HVFULSWLRQ
Object User Name
Your login.
Client Domain
The name of your computer or the domain containing the client user’s account.
Client Logon ID
A unique identifier assigned when the client user
logged on.
Accesses
The types of accesses to the object that were
attempted.
Privileges
Your privileges.
81,;)LOH$FFHVV'HWDLO'LVSOD\V
UNIX file access detail displays show the same kind of information as the Windows
file access event detail screens, but instead of an object name, NFS access appears
because the file is being accessed through NFS. In addition, UNIX file access detail
displays show the following information about the file that you are monitoring:
‡
‡
‡
The ID of the volume in which the file is located
The ID of the latest snapshot in which the file is located
The inode of the file
This information enables you to find the file using the ls -i command.
8QVXFFHVVIXO)LOH$FFHVV'HWDLO'LVSOD\
An unsuccessful file access detail display appears when a user could not access a file.
For example, an unsuccessful file access occurs when a user tries to access a file but
does not have permission to access it.
The display shows the ID of the user who tried to access the file and an indication
that the access attempt was unsuccessful.
/RVW5HFRUG(YHQW'HWDLO'LVSOD\
If the system could not create an audit record, the Lost record event detail display
gives a reason, such as the following reason:
,QWHUQDOUHVRXUFHVDOORFDWHGIRUWKHTXHXHLQJRIDXGLWPHVVDJHV
KDYHEHHQH[KDXVWHGOHDGLQJWRWKHORVVRIVRPHDXGLWV
1XPEHURIDXGLWUHFRUGVGLVFDUGHG
7-28 Dell PowerVault 720N, 740N, and 760N System Administrator and Command Reference Guide
(YHQW$XGLWLQJ2YHUYLHZ
'HVFULSWLRQ
This overview of how to audit events contains steps that are described in detail in
later sections.
6WHSV
To audit events, complete the following steps:
1.
Enable CIFS access logging, as described in “Enabling CIFS Access Logging.”
2.
Set a system ACL on the files you want to audit, as described in “Setting a System ACL on a File.” This involves specifying the users or groups whose access to
the file you want to audit.
3.
Use the Event Viewer, as described in “Viewing Events in a Security Log.” to
view the security log.
(QDEOLQJ&,)6$FFHVV/RJJLQJ
'HVFULSWLRQ
Use this procedure to enable CIFS access logging. You follow this procedure when
you want to start logging file access events by a specified user on a particular file.
After you complete this procedure, the filer is ready to process access logging
information.
6WHS
To enable CIFS access logging, enter the following command:
RSWLRQVFLIVDFFHVVBORJJLQJHQDEOHRQ
'LVDEOLQJ&,)6$FFHVV/RJJLQJ
'HVFULSWLRQ
Use this procedure to disable CIFS access logging. You follow this procedure when
you want to stop logging file access events and free the resources that are used by
access logging. After you complete this procedure, access logging stops.
CIFS Administration 7-29
6WHS
To disable CIFS access logging, enter the following command:
RSWLRQVFLIVDFFHVVBORJJLQJHQDEOHRII
6SHFLI\LQJWKH$FWLYH(YHQW/RJ
'HVFULSWLRQ
Use this procedure to specify the active event log. You follow this procedure when
you want to specify the name of a file to which the system writes access logging
information. You can do this at any time. After you complete this procedure, if access
logging is enabled, the system writes access logging information to the file you
specified.
3UHUHTXLVLWHV
You must have the path name of the file to use. This file must be in an existing writable directory.
6WHS
To specify the active log, center the following command at the command line:
RSWLRQVFLIVDFFHVVBORJJLQJILOHQDPHSDWKBQDPH
path_name is the path name in UNIX format of the file to which you want the system
to write access logging information.
6HWWLQJD6\VWHP$&/RQD)LOH
'HVFULSWLRQ
Use this procedure to set a system ACL (SACL) on a file. You must complete this procedure to monitor access activity on a file. You complete this procedure when you
have decided to monitor access to a file by specified users or groups. The procedure
is the standard Windows NT procedure for setting a SACL on a file. After you complete this procedure, if access logging is enabled, the filer logs accesses to the file by
the users or groups you specified.
3UHUHTXLVLWHV
You must have the following items to complete the procedure:
‡
‡
The name of the file you want to monitor
The name of the users or groups whose access to the file you want to monitor
7-30 Dell PowerVault 720N, 740N, and 760N System Administrator and Command Reference Guide
6WHSV
To set a SACL on a file, complete these steps;
1.
Right-click the file you want to monitor.
Result: The Properties tab for that file appears.
2.
Click the Security tab.
Result: The Security properties window appears.
3.
Click the Auditing button.
Result: A blank File Auditing window appears for the file you specified.
4.
Click the Add button.
Result: The Add Users and Groups window appears.
5.
Click the arrow next to the List Names From text box to choose a domain that
contains names that you want to add.
Result: A list of names in the selected domain appears in the Names list box.
6.
To add a name, type one or more user names in the Add Names list box or select
one or more names and click Add.
7.
Specify one or more names in one of these ways:
‡
‡
8.
Click one or more names in the Names list box.
Type valid user or group names in the Add Names list box.
Click Add in the window where you selected the names.
Result: The names are added to the Add Names field of the Add Users and
Groups window.
9.
If you want, display the full name of a user associated with an account name by
clicking Show Full Name.
10. Click OK.
Result: The names appear in the Name field of the File Auditing window and the
Events to Audit check boxes are enabled.
NOTE: Execute, Delete, Change Permissions, and Take Ownership events are not
currently supported.
CIFS Administration 7-31
9LHZLQJ(YHQWVLQD6HFXULW\/RJ
'HVFULSWLRQ
Use this procedure to view events in a security log and check the events on the file
and users you specified in the procedure “Setting a System ACL on a File.” After you
complete this procedure, access information is displayed.
3UHUHTXLVLWHV
You should have the name of the security log that you want to view.
6WHSV
To view events in a security log, perform the following steps:
1.
Open the Event Viewer by selecting the following menu items: Programs, Administrative Tools, and then Event Viewer.
Result: The event viewer appears.
2.
From the Log menu of the Event Viewer, choose Open.
Result: An Open window appears.
3.
Choose the share that contains the log you want to look at.
Result: A list of files appears.
4.
Click the log file you want to examine. An Open File Type window appears.
5.
If Security is not selected, select it.
6.
Click OK.
Result: The Event viewer appears and displays a list of Security events.
In the display, symbols preceding event entries have the following meanings:
‡
‡
7.
Key - Successful access attempts
Lock - Unsuccessful access attempts
To view an event detail, double-click the event.
Result: An event detail screen appears.
7-32 Dell PowerVault 720N, 740N, and 760N System Administrator and Command Reference Guide
8VLQJ2SORFNV
:KDW2SORFNV'R
Oplocks (opportunistic locks) enable the redirector on a CIFS client in certain filesharing scenarios to perform client-side caching of read-ahead, write-behind, and lock
information. A client can then work with a file (read or write it) without regularly
reminding the server that it needs access to the file in question. This improves performance by reducing network traffic.
:KHQWR8VH2SORFNV
Under some circumstances, if a process has an exclusive oplock on a file and a second process attempts to open the file, the first process must relinquish the oplock
and access to the file. The redirector must then invalidate cached data and flush
writes and locks, resulting in possible loss of data that was to be written.
'DWD/RVV3RVVLELOLWLHV
Any application that has write-cached data can lose that data under the following set
of circumstances:
‡
‡
‡
It has an exclusive oplock on the file.
It is told to either break that oplock or close the file.
During the process of flushing the write cache, the network or target system
generates an error.
(UURU+DQGOLQJ$QG:ULWH&RPSOHWLRQ
The cache itself does not have any error handling—the applications do. When the
application makes a write to cache, the write is always completed. If the cache, in
turn, makes a write to the target system over a network, it must assume that the
write is completed because if it does not, the data is lost.
:KHQWR7XUQ2SORFNV2II
CIFS oplocks on the filer are On by default.
You might turn CIFS oplocks Off under either of the following circumstances:
‡
You are using a database application whose documentation recommends that
oplocks be turned Off.
‡
You are handling critical data; that is, you have a good network but you cannot
afford even the slightest data loss.
Otherwise, you can leave CIFS oplocks On.
CIFS Administration 7-33
7XUQLQJ2SORFNV2QDQG2II*OREDOO\
You can turn CIFS oplocks On or Off globally for the entire filer or for individual qtrees,
which are special directories that are described in detail in Chapter 10, “Qtree
Administration.”
7XUQLQJ2SORFNV2II
You turn all CIFS oplocks Off with the following options command:
RSWLRQVFLIVRSORFNVHQDEOHRII
7XUQLQJ2SORFNV2Q
You turn CIFS oplocks On with the following options command:
RSWLRQVFLIVRSORFNVHQDEOHRQ
7XUQLQJ2SORFNV2QRU2IIDW,QGLYLGXDO&OLHQWV
You can turn CIFS oplocks On or Off at individual clients. Turning CIFS oplocks On at
the filer does not override any client-specific settings. Turning CIFS oplocks Off at the
filer disables all oplocks to or from the filer.
)RU$GGLWLRQDO,QIRUPDWLRQ
For additional information about oplocks, consult the Microsoft Knowledge Base at
http://www.microsoft.com/kb.
'LVSOD\LQJ&,)66WDWLVWLFV
+RZDQG:K\WR'LVSOD\&,)66WDWLVWLFV
You use the cifs stat command to display statistics about CIFS operations that
take place on your filer. You use the cifs stat display for diagnostic purposes.
6WDWLVWLFV'LVSOD\V:LWKWKHFLIVVWDW&RPPDQG
You can use the cifs stat command in two forms:
‡
If you specify a time interval, the command displays statistics at the specified
intervals.
‡
If you do not specify a time interval, the command displays CIFS statistics that
have accumulated since the last reboot.
7-34 Dell PowerVault 720N, 740N, and 760N System Administrator and Command Reference Guide
([DPSOH2IFLIVVWDW2XWSXW
The following command displays statistics every second:
FLIVVWDW
*HW$WWU5HDG:ULWH/RFN2SHQ&O'LUHFW2WKHU
Table 7-7 describes the fields.
7DEOHFLIVVWDW&RPPDQG2XWSXW)LHOGV
)LHOG
'HVFULSWLRQ
GetAttr
Attribute operations
Read
Read data operations
Write
Write data operations
Lock
Lock operations
Open/Cl
Open and close operations
Direct
Directory operations
Other
Other operations, such as deletes and logoffs
'LVSOD\LQJ&,)66HVVLRQ,QIRUPDWLRQ
&,)66HVVLRQ,QIRUPDWLRQ<RX&DQ'LVSOD\
You can display information about connected users and the number of shares and
open files for each user. You can also display information about a specific connected
user.
'LVSOD\LQJ,QIRUPDWLRQ:LWKWKHFLIVVHVVLRQV&RPPDQG
The cifs sessions command syntax is as follows:
FLIVVHVVLRQVXVHUQDPH!
'LVSOD\LQJ,QIRUPDWLRQ$ERXW$OO&RQQHFWHG8VHUV
To display information about all connected users, use the following command syntax:
FLIVVHVVLRQV
CIFS Administration 7-35
Sample output is
Server Registers as ’SILVER‘ in group WNT-DOMAIN
WINS Server: 272.320.0.4
PC style Access Control is being used
Using domain controller WNT-DOMAIN-PDC for authentication
========================================
PC (user)
#shares
#files
SMITHPC (qsmith)
1
1
PETERSPC (zpeters)
2
3
'LVSOD\LQJ,QIRUPDWLRQ$ERXW2QH8VHU
To display the information for a particular user, specify the user name in the command; for example:
FLIVVHVVLRQVJKRSSHU
users
VKDUHVILOHVRSHQHG
+$/(<+20(JKRSSHU
(1*86(56
5HDGGHQ\:
?*+233(5?65&?352'?&20021?+773'?KWWSGBIDVWF
+$/(<3&JKRSSHU
(1*86(56
'LVSOD\LQJ&RQQHFWHG8VHU6HFXULW\,QIRUPDWLRQ
To display security information for each connected user, use cifs sessions with
the -s option. After the first two lines, detailed information for each connected user is
displayed. The following example lists only one user.
FLIVVHVVLRQVV
users
6HFXULW\,QIRUPDWLRQ
+2/$5'3&URRW
81,;XLG XVHULVDPHPEHURIJURXSGDHPRQ
XVHULVDPHPEHURIJURXSZZZ
XVHULVDPHPEHURIJURXSZHOO
XVHULVDPHPEHURIJURXSKWWS
7-36 Dell PowerVault 720N, 740N, and 760N System Administrator and Command Reference Guide
17PHPEHUVKLS
:17'20$,1?URRW
:17'20$,1?'RPDLQ8VHUV
:17'20$,1?'RPDLQ$GPLQV
:17'20$,1?688VHUV
:17'20$,1?,QVWDOOHUV
%8,/7,1?8VHUV
%8,/7,1?$GPLQLVWUDWRUV
8VHULVDOVRDPHPEHURI(YHU\RQH1HWZRUN8VHUV
$XWKHQWLFDWHG8VHUV
6WRSSLQJDQG5HVWDUWLQJ&,)66HVVLRQV
:D\VWR6WRS&,)66HVVLRQV
If you want to stop CIFS sessions for all clients or for a single client, do one of the
following:
‡
From Windows NT, use Server Manager as described in “Disconnecting Users
With Server Manager.”
‡
From the filer command line, use the cifs shares command to display share information, as described in “Using the cifs Terminate Command.”
'LVFRQQHFWLQJ8VHUV:LWK6HUYHU0DQDJHU
To stop CIFS sessions with Server Manager, follow these steps:
1.
Open Server Manager by choosing it from the Start menu.
2.
From the Server Manager Computer menu, choose Select Domain.
Result: The Select Domain window opens.
3.
In the Select Domain window, select the filer you want by typing its UNC name,
for example, \\FILERNAME, in the Domain field, then clicking OK.
Result: A Server Manager window for the filer appears.
4.
In the Server Manager window, double-click the name of a filer.
Result: The Properties window for the filer appears.
5.
Click Users.
Result: The User Sessions window appears.
CIFS Administration 7-37
6.
To disconnect one or more users, do one of the following:
‡
To disconnect a single user or selected users, select them, then click
Disconnect.
‡
To disconnect all users, click Disconnect All.
Result: The selected users are disconnected.
NOTE: If at least one of the selected users has open resources, an alert box
appears for you to confirm or cancel your command.
8VLQJWKHFLIVWHUPLQDWH&RPPDQG
You can stop CIFS service for a specific client or shut down CIFS service from the filer
by using the cifs terminate command. Always terminate all CIFS sessions before
you reboot or turn Off the filer.
You can specify a single client or all clients, and the time delay, in minutes, before the
CIFS sessions are terminated, as shown in the following command syntax:
FLIVWHUPLQDWH>FOLHQW@>>W@WLPH@
Table 7-8 describes the variables.
7DEOHFLIVWHUPLQDWH&RPPDQG9DULDEOHV
9DULDEOH
'HVFULSWLRQ
client
Name of the client for which you are
ending a CIFS session.
time
Number of minutes before the termination happens.
7KHFLIVWHUPLQDWH&RPPDQG1RW3HUVLVWHQW
The cifs terminate command disables CIFS sessions only between the time you
enter the command and the next reboot. After each reboot, if your filer is licensed and
configured to run CIFS, the filer automatically starts CIFS service. If you want to prevent CIFS from restarting after a reboot, remove the /etc/cifsconfig.cfg file from the
filer or rename the file.
7LPH'HOD\
You can delay the termination of CIFS service after you enter the cifs terminate
command.
'HIDXOW7LPH'HOD\
The default time delay is five minutes.
7-38 Dell PowerVault 720N, 740N, and 760N System Administrator and Command Reference Guide
&KDQJLQJWKH7LPH'HOD\
When you use the -t option, the command counts down from the time specified.
&DQFHOLQJWKHFLIV WHUPLQDWH&RPPDQG
If you want to cancel the cifs terminate command, press Ctrl-C before the end of
the countdown.
NOTE: The halt command automatically invokes the cifs terminate command.
&$87,217KHrebootFRPPDQGDOVRVWRSV&,)6VHUYLFHKRZHYHULWGRHV
QRWSURYLGHDWLPHGHOD\GXULQJZKLFKXVHUVFDQVDYHWKHLURSHQILOHV
EHIRUHWKHGLVFRQQHFW&KDQJHVWKDWKDYHQRWEHHQVDYHGWRGLVNDUHORVWLI
WKH&,)6FOLHQWKDVDQRSHQILOHZKHQLWLVGLVFRQQHFWHGIURPWKHILOHU
([DPSOHVRIWKHFLIVWHUPLQDWH&RPPDQG
Here are some examples of the cifs terminate command.
7HUPLQDWLQJ&,)66HUYLFHIRU$OO8VHUVRQWKH)LOHU
To terminate CIFS service for all users on the filer after 10 minutes, enter the following command:
FLIVWHUPLQDWHW
The cifs terminate command displays an alert message on CIFS clients that
warns them of the pending shutdown of CIFS service.
NOTE: Windows 9x and Windows for Workgroup clients must have the WinPopup
program configured before they can display the alert message.
&RQVROH'LVSOD\
Here is the display for cifs terminate when you do not specify a time:
FLIVWHUPLQDWH
There are currently 35 CIFS users that have 37 open files
'LVFRQQHFWLQJZKLOHILOHVDUHRSHQPD\FDXVHGDWDORVV
+RZPDQ\PLQXWHVVKRXOG,ZDLW">@
PLQXWHVOHIW
PLQXWHVOHIW
PLQXWHVOHIW
PLQXWHVOHIW
&,)6VKXWWLQJGRZQ
CIFS Administration 7-39
7HUPLQDWLQJD&,)66HVVLRQIRUD6SHFLILF&OLHQW
To terminate a CIFS session for a particular client, specify the name of the computer
in the command. For example, the following command terminates a CIFS session for
a computer named PETERSPC after 10 minutes:
FLIVWHUPLQDWH3(7(563&W
8VLQJWKHFLIVUHVWDUW&RPPDQGWR5HVWDUW&,)66HUYLFH
To restart CIFS service, use the cifs restart command, as follows:
FLIVUHVWDUW
CIFS server is registering...
&,)6VHUYHULVUXQQLQJ
5HFRQILJXULQJWKH)LOHUIRU&,)6
:KHQWR5HFRQILJXUHD)LOHUIRU&,)6
You can reconfigure the filer for CIFS service at any time, for example, if you want to
change the authentication method from PDC (Primary Domain Controller) to UNIX
password database.
+RZWR5HFRQILJXUHD)LOHUIRU&,)6
To reconfigure a filer for CIFS, follow these steps:
1.
Enter the cifs terminate command to stop CIFS service.
2.
Enter the cifs setup command to reconfigure CIFS service.
‡
If you enter only valid information, when you exit the program, the filer automatically restarts CIFS using the new configuration information.
‡
If you enter some invalid information, for example, you mistype a domain
name, when you exit the program, the filer restarts CIFS with the previous
configuration.
7-40 Dell PowerVault 720N, 740N, and 760N System Administrator and Command Reference Guide
&+$37(5
+773$GPLQLVWUDWLRQ
NOTES: You can use the filer as an HTTP server only if you purchased the license for
HTTP. Without the license, you can use an HTTP client (Web browser) only to display
the filer’s man pages and to use FilerView.
As with UNIX-based systems, the URL is case sensitive.
6WDUWLQJ+7736HUYLFH
3URFHGXUHIRU6WDUWLQJ+7736HUYLFH
To start HTTP service on your filer, follow these steps:
1.
Enable the httpd daemon by entering the following command:
RSWLRQVKWWSGHQDEOHRQ
2.
Use the following command syntax to specify the root directory that contains the
files and directories to be read by HTTP clients:
RSWLRQVKWWSGURRWGLUGLUHFWRU\
For example, if the root directory is /vol/vol0/home/users/pages, enter the following command:
RSWLRQVKWWSGURRWGLUYROYROKRPHXVHUVSDJHV
3.
If you want to limit the size of the /etc/log/httpd.log log file to other than the
default of 2,147,483,647 bytes (2 GB minus 1 byte), use the following command:
RSWLRQVKWWSGORJPD[BILOHBVL]HE\WHV
4.
Make a copy of /etc/httpd.mimetypes.sample and name the copy /etc/
httpd.mimetypes.
If the /etc/httpd.mimetypes file is missing, the HTTP client uses the information in
/etc/httpd.mimetypes.sample.
HTTP Administration 8-1
NOTE: If you want these options to remain active after rebooting, you must add them
to the /etc/rc file.
The procedure for starting HTTP service is now complete, and clients can display text
files under the root directory by using a Web browser. If the filer will transfer files
other than text files, for example, image files and audio files, follow the instructions in
“Specifying MIME Content-Type Values” in Chapter 7 to configure your filer so that
the appropriate MIME Content-Type header is sent with each file transferred.
3URFHGXUHIRU7HVWLQJ+7736HUYLFH
To test the filer’s HTTP service, follow these steps:
1.
Create an HTML file in the root directory for HTTP. For example, create a file
named myfile.html in the HTTP root directory, which is /vol/vol0/home/users/
pages, assuming that the HTML root directory is /vol/vol0/home/users/pages.
2.
Start a Web browser on a client and specify the URL of the HTML file in the
browser.
For example, if your filer is filer and the root directory for HTTP is /vol/vol0/home/
users/pages, enter this URL:
KWWSILOHUP\ILOHKWPO
The path component of the URL is a path name relative to the HTTP root. Do not
specify the complete path name to the file in the URL.
NOTE: If the URL names a directory, for example, http://filer/home/pages, the filer
automatically tries to transfer the index.html file within the directory. If index.html
does not exist, the filer returns “Error 404. No such file or directory.”
3URWHFWLQJ:HE3DJHV:LWK3DVVZRUGV
&RQILJXUDWLRQ)LOHVIRU3DVVZRUG3URWHFWLRQ
You can restrict access to a specified directory so that only specified users or groups
have access to it.
Password protection involves three configuration files:
‡
‡
‡
8-2
/etc/httpd.access
/etc/httpd.passwd
/etc/httpd.group
Dell PowerVault 720N, 740N, and 760N System Administrator and Command Reference Guide
7KHHWFKWWSGDFFHVV)LOH
The /etc/httpd.access file contains directives that govern authentication for each directory. The filer supports the following directives:
‡
‡
‡
‡
directory
AuthName
require user
require group
These directives are compatible with the Apache Web server directives, but the filer
ignores all other directives.
7KH'LUHFWRU\'LUHFWLYH
Specifies a directory tree to be protected and encloses all other directives. The syntax
of the directory directive is as follows:
<Directory directory_name>
directive ...
</Directory>
7KH$XWK1DPH'LUHFWLYH
Specifies a “realm,” that is, an alias for the directory that appears instead of the directory name in the browser’s password dialog box when a user tries to access the
directory. Whatever follows AuthName is the name of the realm. The name of the
realm can contain spaces. The syntax of the AuthName directive is as follows:
$XWK1DPHUHDOPQDPH
7KH5HTXLUH8VHU'LUHFWLYH
Specifies the users who can access the directory. The syntax of the require
user directive is as follows:
UHTXLUHXVHUXVHUBLG>XVHUBLG@
7KH5HTXLUH*URXS'LUHFWLYH
Specifies the groups that can access the directory. The syntax of the require
group directive is as follows:
UHTXLUHJURXSJURXSBLG>JURXSBLG@
7KHHWFKWWSGSDVVZG)LOH
The /etc/httpd.passwd file contains the user_id and encrypted-password pairs. The
pairs have the following format:
XVHUBLGHQFU\SWHGBSDVVZG
HTTP Administration 8-3
The pairs are copied in from a machine on which the user has a password.
7KHHWFKWWSGJURXS)LOH
The /etc/httpd.group file contains a group_id and a list of user_ids in that group in the
following format:
JURXSBLGXVHUBLG>XVHUBLG@
The lists are copied in from a machine that has a similar list.
:HE3DJH3URWHFWLRQ([DPSOHV
The following /etc/httpd.access file restricts access to /vol/vol0/home/htdocs/private/
spec to only the user bob:
<Directory /vol/vol0/home/htdocs/private/spec>
AuthName polard Private Stuff
<Limit GET>
require user bob
</Limit GET>
</Directory>
The <Limit GET> and </Limit GET> directives, which might have been imported from
an Apache or NCA Web server, are not supported. To be used on a filer, the file does
not need to be edited to remove the Limit GET directive; the filer ignores the directive
and all other directives not mentioned in this chapter.
The following sample procedure restricts user access to a particular directory:
1.
Enter the following lines in the /etc/httpd.access file:
'LUHFWRU\YROYROKRPHKWGRFVSULYDWHVSHFV!
$XWK1DPH6RFLDOFRPPHQWDU\
UHTXLUHJURXSHQJLQHHULQJ
'LUHFWRU\!
2.
Enter the following line in /etc/httpd.group:
HQJLQHHULQJEREODUU\QDQF\URVH
The /vol/vol0/home/htdocs/private/specs directory is now accessible only to the group
engineering, which consists of the following user IDs:
‡
‡
‡
‡
8-4
bob
larry
nancy
rose
Dell PowerVault 720N, 740N, and 760N System Administrator and Command Reference Guide
8VLQJWKH+7739LUWXDO)LUHZDOO
$ERXWWKH+7739LUWXDO)LUHZDOO
The HTTP virtual firewall feature enables you to maintain security on your filer.
You can restrict HTTP requests by marking the subnetwork interface over which they
arrive as “untrusted.” An untrusted interface provides only HTTP access to your filer
on a read-only basis.
Mark an interface untrusted if it meets all the following conditions:
‡
‡
‡
You know you are going to service HTTP requests over that interface.
You don’t want to allow requests through protocols other than HTTP.
You want to restrict access to the filer through that interface to read-only access.
By default, a subnetwork interface is trusted.
6\QWD[
Mark an interface as untrusted or trusted by setting an option to the ifconfig command. Following are examples of the command:
‡
To mark the e0 interface as untrusted, enter the following command:
‡
ifconfig e0 untrusted
To mark the e0 interface as trusted, enter the following command:
ifconfig e0 trusted
8VLQJ9LUWXDO+RVWLQJ
$ERXW9LUWXDO+RVWLQJ
Virtual hosting enables a filer to respond to requests directed to more than one IP
address through a single physical interface. This means that a filer with only one physical interface can host several IP addresses.
Virtual hosting enables, for example, an Internet provider to host several Web sites
but have only one physical interface. An HTTP server can use the destination IP
address of an incoming HTTP request to find the directory that contains the HTTP
pages belonging to the virtual host.
7R6HW8SDQG(QDEOH9LUWXDO+RVWLQJ
To enable virtual hosting, you
‡
direct HTTP requests by putting subdirectory and host or address entries in the
/etc/httpd.hostprefixes file
HTTP Administration 8-5
‡
map virtual host addresses to the virtual host interface with the ifconfig
command
'LUHFWLQJ+7735HTXHVWV
To direct HTTP requests, use the following format in the /etc/httpd.hostprefixes file as
shown in Table 8-1:
SUHIL[>KRVWQDPHRUDGGUHVV@
7DEOH+7735HTXHVW9DULDEOHV
9DULDEOH
'HVFULSWLRQ
prefix
Specifies a subdirectory in the HTTP
root directory, which is defined by the
options httpd.rootdir command.
host-name-or-address
Specifies an HTTP host name or an IP
address. You can have more than one
of each.
For example, the line
FXVWRPHUZZZFXVWRPHUFRP
means that an HTTP request that comes for the interface with address
192.225.37.102, or with an HTTP 1.1 Host: header specifying www.customer.com, is
directed to /customer, and the requestor cannot get a file outside the /customer
directory.
If the HTTP server receives an HTTP request that is destined for one of its virtual host
IP addresses, in this example 192.225.37.102, the destination IP address is used to
select the virtual host root directory from the /etc/httpd.hostprefixes file.
0DSSLQJ9LUWXDO+RVW$GGUHVVHV
To map virtual host addresses to the virtual host interface, use the ifconfig command, as follows:
‡
Add a new IP virtual host address mapping with the following command:
ifconfig vh alias address
where address is an IP address.
The use of the vh interface indicates to the system that you are adding a virtual
‡
host address rather than adding an IP alias address to a network interface.
Delete virtual host addresses with the following command:
ifconfig vh -alias address
8-6
Dell PowerVault 720N, 740N, and 760N System Administrator and Command Reference Guide
NOTE: If you need to create a virtual subnet with many contiguous addresses, the IP
address can be a subnet address.
6SHFLI\LQJ0,0(&RQWHQW7\SH9DOXHV
$ERXW0,0(&RQWHQW7\SH9DOXHV
You can configure the filer to send the appropriate MIME (Multipurpose Internet Mail
Extensions) Content-Type header in each response to a get request. The header
shows the MIME Content-Type value of the file, which tells the browser on the client
how to interpret the file.
For example, if the MIME Content-Type value shows that the file being transferred is
an image file and the client is configured properly, the browser can render the image
by using a graphics program.
The filer determines the MIME Content-Type value of a file by mapping the file name
suffix, or example, .gif, .html, or .mpg, according to information in the /etc/
httpd.mimetypes file.
NOTE: On a Windows 9x or Windows NT 4.0 client, the /etc/httpd.mimetypes.sample
file name is not displayed in its entirety. By default, the Explorer displays the file name
as /etc/httpd.mimetypes. If you are using Windows, from the Explorer View menu,
select Options, then the View tab and, in the dialog box, make sure that there is no
check mark in the check box next to “Hide MS-DOS file extensions for file types that
are registered.”
0RGLI\LQJ0,0(&RQWHQW7\SH0DSSLQJV
To modify MIME Content-Type mappings or to add MIME Content-Types, edit the
entries in /etc/httpd.mimetypes. Entries are in the following format:
$QRSWLRQDOFRPPHQW
VXIIL[&RQWHQW7\SH
Lines preceded by the # sign are comments. The file name suffix is case-insensitive.
Following are sample entries:
0\FOLHQWV®EURZVHUVFDQQRZXVH
3,&7JUDSKLFVILOHV
SFWLPDJHSLFW
SLFWLPDJHSLFW
In the sample entries, files whose names ended with .pact or .pact are mapped to the
MIME Content-Type value of image/pict. The first field in the Content-Type value
describes the general type of data contained in the file; the second field is the data
subtype, which shows the specific format in which the data is stored. If the browser
HTTP Administration 8-7
on the client is configured to start a graphics program as a helper application, the user
can view a file named file.pict as a graphics file on the client.
7UDQVODWLQJ85/V
+RZWKH)LOHU5HVSRQGVWR85/V
You can specify that the filer’s response to an HTTP request be dependent on the
URL. For example, you can configure the filer to redirect a particular request to a specific directory, or to prevent access to a particular directory that is specified in the
URL.
How the filer maps its responses to URLs is defined in a configuration file named /etc/
httpd.translations. Each entry in the configuration file contains up to three fields in the
following format as shown in Table 8-2:
UXOHWHPSODWHUHVXOW
7DEOH85/5HVSRQVH)LHOGV
)LHOG
'HVFULSWLRQ
UXOH
Defines the response of the filer to a
request.
WHPSODWH
Specifies a component of a URL.
UHVXOW
Depends on the rule, as described in
the following section.
7UDQVODWLRQ5XOHV6XSSRUWHGE\WKH)LOHU
This section explains the meanings of the rules. It also describes the format required
for each type of entry in /etc/httpd.translations.
7KH0DS5XOH
The map rule specifies that if a component of a URL matches the template, the
request is mapped to another directory within the HTTP root directory on the same
host as defined in the result field.
For example, the following /etc/httpd.translations entry causes any requests to a URL
containing the /image-bin directory to be mapped to the /usr/local/http/images
directory:
PDSLPDJHELQXVUORFDOKWWSLPDJHV
8-8
Dell PowerVault 720N, 740N, and 760N System Administrator and Command Reference Guide
7KH5HGLUHFW5XOH
The redirect rule specifies that if a component of a URL matches the template, the
request is redirected to the URL defined in the result field. The result field for
the redirect rule must be specified as a complete URL beginning with http:// and the
host name.
For example, if /etc/httpd.translations contains the following entry
UHGLUHFWFJLELQKWWSFJLKRVW
the filer redirects CGI requests to another HTTP server named cgi-host. This is essential for calls to cgi-bin because the filer does not execute them.
7KH3DVV5XOH
The pass rule specifies that if a component of a URL matches the template, the filer
accepts the request, processes the request as is, and disregards other rules.
For example, if /etc/httpd.translations contains the following entry
SDVVLPDJHELQ
the filer processes the request for any URL containing /image-bin as is, even though
there is another rule specified as follows:
PDSLPDJHELQXVUORFDOKWWSLPDJHV
If the pass rule includes the result field, the filer accepts the request, processes
the request by using the URL defined in the result field, and disregards other
rules.
7KH)DLO5XOH
The fail rule specifies that if a component of a URL matches the template, the filer
denies access to that component and disregards other rules.
For example, if /etc/httpd.translations contains the following entry
IDLOXVUIRUELGGHQ
the filer does not provide access to the /usr/forbidden directory.
+RZWKH)LOHU3URFHVVHV5XOHV
The filer processes the rules defined in /etc/httpd.translations in the order they are
listed, and applies the rule if the URL matches the template. However, the filer stops
processing other rules after it applies a pass or fail rule.
In the template or result field of an /etc/httpd.translations entry, you can use
asterisks (*) as wildcard characters, as follows:
‡
In the template field, the wildcard character matches zero or more characters,
including the slash (/) character.
HTTP Administration 8-9
‡
In the result field, the wildcard character represents the text expanded from
the match in the template field. Include the wildcard character in the result
field only if you used a wildcard character in the template field.
‡
If you use multiple wildcard characters, the first one in the result field corresponds to the first one in the template field, the second one in the result
field corresponds to the second one in the template field, and so on.
Following is an example showing how a wildcard character is used:
5HGLUHFWDOOFJLUHTXHVWVWRP\FJLVHUYHU
UHGLUHFWFJLELQKWWSFJLKRVWFJLELQ
This redirect rule specifies that all CGI requests are redirected to another host named
cgi-host.
For example, if the filer receives the following requests
KWWSILOHUFJLELQGLVSOD\IDUHV
KWWSILOHUFJLELQGLVSOD\GDWHV
the filer expands the wildcard character to displayfares and displaydates and redirects
the requests to the host named cgi-host. To the client, the results of these requests
are the same as the results of the following requests:
KWWSFJLKRVWFJLELQGLVSOD\IDUHV
KWWSFJLKRVWFJLELQGLVSOD\GDWHV
'LVSOD\LQJ+773&RQQHFWLRQ,QIRUPDWLRQ
,QIRUPDWLRQLQWKHHWFORJKWWSGORJ)LOH
You can read the /etc/log/httpd.log file if you are interested in the following types of
information for each HTTP connection:
‡
‡
‡
‡
‡
‡
IP address of HTTP client.
Name of authorized users, if the requested page is protected, making requests.
The names are in the /etc/httpd.passwd file. If the page is not protected, dashes
appear instead of a name.
Time of connection in dd/mm/yy:hh:mm:ss format; gmt is used.
Request line from connecting host, for example, get /company.html.
STATUS code returned by the server, as defined in the HTTP 1.0 specifications.
TOTAL bytes sent in response by the filer, not including the MIME header.
Following is an example of the /etc/log/httpd.log file:
192.9.77.2
192.9.77.2
- - [26/Aug/1996:16:45:50] "GET /top.html" 200 1189
- - [26/Aug/1996:16:45:50] "GET /header.html" 200 531
8-10 Dell PowerVault 720N, 740N, and 760N System Administrator and Command Reference Guide
192.7.15.6 - - [26/Aug/1996:16:45:51] "GET /logo.gif" 200 1763
198.9.200.2 - - [26/Aug/1996:16:45:57] "GET /task/top.html" 200 334
192.9.20.5 authuser [26/Aug/1996:16:45:57] "GET /task/head.html"
200 519
'LVSOD\LQJ+7736WDWLVWLFV
KWWSVWDW6WDWLVWLF7\SHV
The httpstat command displays four types of statistics about HTTP operations on
the filer as shown in Table 8-3:
7DEOHKWWSVWDW6WDWLVWLF7\SHV
&ROXPQ
'HVFULSWLRQ
gets
Successful requests for files.
badcalls
Requests for nonexistent files.
open conn.
Number of HTTP connections currently open.
peak conn.
Largest number of simultaneous HTTP connections
since the filer was booted or since the
-z option was used.
6\QWD[
The syntax for the httpstat command is as follows:
KWWSVWDW>W_]@>LQWHUYDO@
If you use no arguments, httpstat displays HTTP statistics accumulated since the
last reboot or since the last time the -z argument was used.
The -z argument resets both the gets and badcalls counters.
The -t argument displays statistics since the last filer reboot.
You can specify the interval, in seconds, at which the filer displays the statistics. Following is an example of httpstat:
httpstat
HTTPD statistics:
gets
badcalls
451
11
open conn.
5
peak conn.
17
HTTP Administration 8-11
8-12 Dell PowerVault 720N, 740N, and 760N System Administrator and Command Reference Guide
&+$37(5
6QDSVKRWV
8QGHUVWDQGLQJ6QDSVKRWV
:KDW,VD6QDSVKRW"
A snapshot is a read-only copy of the entire file system—it reflects the state of the file
system at the time the snapshot was created.
$FFHVVLQJ6QDSVKRWV
Any client of a filer can access snapshots to recover old versions of files; for example,
files that were accidentally changed or deleted. The snapshot feature enables users to
restore their own files without help, because files in snapshots can be viewed and
copied by those who have permission to do so with the original files.
6LPSOLI\LQJ7DSH%DFNXS
Snapshots also simplify tape backup. The filer dump command automatically creates a
snapshot of the active file system, if necessary, before backing up the data to tape.
However, it is not necessary if you are backing up an existing snapshot. Because a
snapshot is a read-only copy of the file system, it does not change even when files in
the active file system are changing. As a result, dump can make a safe and consistent
backup without requiring you to take the filer off-line.
6QDSVKRWV8VH/LWWOH'LVN6SDFH
The filer uses a copy-on-write technique to create snapshots quickly without consuming any disk space. Snapshots begin to consume extra space only as blocks in the
active file system are modified and written to new locations on disk. For more information about the copy-on-write technique used by snapshots, refer to “How
Snapshots Work.”
&UHDWLQJ6QDSVKRWVIRU<RXU1HHGV
The filer creates and deletes snapshots automatically at preset intervals. You can also
create and delete snapshots manually. Each volume on the filer can have up to 20 different snapshots at one time.
Snapshots
9-1
6QDSVKRWV0DLQWDLQ2ULJLQDO)LOH3HUPLVVLRQV
Snapshot files carry the same permissions and inode numbers as the original files,
keeping the integrity of the security system intact. Inodes are data structures that
hold information about files on the filer. There is an inode for each file and a file is
uniquely identified by the file system on which it resides and its inode number on that
system.
NOTE: The inode number for a file in a snapshot is the same as the inode number for
the corresponding file in the active file system. As a result, some programs on UNIX
clients consider the two files to be the same. For example, if you use the GNU diff
program to compare the two files, it does not find any differences between them. To
make sure that the two files have different inode numbers before the comparison,
copy one of the files to another name.
+RZ6QDSVKRWV:RUN
When the filer creates a snapshot, it doesn’t copy disk blocks; instead, it identifies all
blocks in the file system as belonging to the snapshot as well as to the active file
system.
([DPSOH
Consider a particular file named foo in a newly created snapshot. Because the snapshot was just created, the snapshot version of foo has the same contents as the
version in the active file system. The same blocks on disk store both versions, so the
snapshot version of foo consumes no disk space.
Later, if foo is deleted, the blocks holding the data for foo are no longer part of the
active file system, but they are still part of the snapshot. Therefore, deleting foo from
the active file system does not free any disk space.
'LDJUDPRID6QDSVKRW
Figure 9-1 illustrates how disk space is used before and after foo is removed.
9-2
Dell PowerVault 720N, 740N, and 760N System Administrator and Command Reference Guide
Before any snapshot
is taken, disk space
is consumed by the
active file system
only.
After a snapshot is
taken, the active file
system and snapshot
point to the same disk
blocks. The snapshot
doesn´t use extra disk
space.
After the foo file is
deleted, the space
previously used by foo
is referenced by the
snapshot. That´s why
deleting active file
system data doesn´t
free disk space.
Space used by the active file system
Space used by the snapshot only
Unused disk space
)LJXUH'LDJUDPRID6QDSVKRW
Changing the contents of foo creates a similar situation. New data written to foo cannot be stored in the same disk blocks as the current contents because the snapshot is
using those blocks to store the old version of foo. Instead, the new data is written to
new disk blocks, so there are two separate copies of foo on disk—a new copy in the
active file system and an old one in the snapshot. This technique of duplicating disk
blocks only as they are modified is called copy-on-write.
In some directories, most data remains unchanged from day to day. For example, a
user with a 10-MB home directory might change only 100 KB to 500 KB on a typical
day. When files change slowly, snapshots can be kept on-line for days or even weeks
before they begin to consume unacceptable amounts of disk space. In other directories, data changes quickly. If a large percentage of data changes every day, there
might not be room to keep snapshots for even a few hours. To accommodate the
needs of different users, create multiple volumes on the filer. In this way, you can
apply different snapshot schedules to different volumes.
In summary, when the filer creates a snapshot, it doesn’t use any disk space, but as
files in the active file system are changed or deleted, the snapshot uses more and
more disk space. How often files are changed and deleted determines the number of
snapshots the filer can create and the length of time the snapshots can be kept.
Snapshots
9-3
6QDSVKRW&RPPDQGVDQG2SWLRQV
6QDSVKRW&RPPDQGV
The commands related to snapshots are listed in Table 9-1. If the volume name is
omitted in any of these commands, the command applies to the root volume.
7DEOH6QDSVKRW&RPPDQGV
&RPPDQG
0HDQLQJ
snap lista volume_name
Lists all available snapshots.
snap create volume_name
snapshot_name
Creates a snapshot with a specified name.
snap delete volume_name
snapshot_name
Deletes a specified snapshot.
snap rename volume_name from to
Renames a snapshot.
snap reserve volume_name
Reserves a percentage of the
disk space for snapshots.
snap sched volume_name
Schedules automatic
snapshots.
a.
Some of the information generated by this command is available through SNMP using the
Dell custom MIB as described in “Using SNMP” in Chapter 4.
6QDSVKRW2SWLRQV
The following options for the vol options command affect snapshots in the specified volume. The options remain in effect after the filer reboots. The options are
shown in Table 9-2.
7DEOH6QDSVKRW2SWLRQV
2SWLRQV
'HVFULSWLRQV
nosnap
Disables automatic snapshots. By default, this option is
disabled.
nosnapdir
Makes the .snapshot directory that is present at client
mount points or the root of the CIFS share invisible. It also
turns off access to the .snapshot directory and all .snapshot
directories under the mount point or the root of the CIFS
share. By default, this option is disabled.
NOTE: The dump command does not work if the nosnapdir or nosnap option is on.
9-4
Dell PowerVault 720N, 740N, and 760N System Administrator and Command Reference Guide
$XWRPDWLF6QDSVKRW&UHDWLRQ
The filer uses the snap sched command to create snapshots automatically and to
keep them on-line for a predetermined amount of time.
7\SHVRI$XWRPDWLF6QDSVKRWV
Table 9-3 describes the three types of automatic snapshots.
7DEOH$XWRPDWLF6QDSVKRW7\SHV
7\SH
'HVFULSWLRQ
Weekly
The filer creates these every Sunday at midnight.
Weekly snapshots are called weekly.n, where n is an integer.
weekly.0 is the most recent weekly snapshot, and weekly.1 is the
next most recent weekly snapshot.
When the filer creates a weekly snapshot, the value of n is
adjusted for all weekly snapshots. The higher the value of n, the
older the snapshot.
Nightly
The filer creates these every midnight except when a weekly
snapshot is scheduled to occur at the same time. If the number
of weekly snapshots is nonzero and it’s the day of the week that
weekly snapshots occur, no nightly snapshot is created.
Nightly snapshots are called nightly.n, where n is an integer.
nightly.0 is the most recent nightly snapshot, and nightly.1 is the
next most recent nightly snapshot.
When the filer creates a nightly snapshot, the value of n is
adjusted for all nightly snapshots. The higher the value of n, the
older the snapshot.
Hourly
The filer creates these on the hour at specified hours, except at
midnight, if a nightly or weekly snapshot is scheduled to occur at
the same time. This occurs either if the number of nightly snapshots in the schedule is nonzero, or if the number of weekly
snapshots in the schedule is nonzero and it’s the day of the week
that weekly snapshots occur.
Hourly snapshots are called hourly.n, where n is an integer.
hourly.0 is the most recent hourly snapshot, and hourly.1 is the
next most recent hourly snapshot.
When the filer creates an hourly snapshot, the value of n is
adjusted for all hourly snapshots. The higher the value of n, the
older the snapshot.
Snapshots
9-5
([DPSOHRIVQDSVFKHG&RPPDQG
Figure 9- 2 shows a sample snap sched command:
snap sched vol1 2
6
8@8,12,16,20
Volume name
Create a snapshot every week
and keep a maximum of two.
Create a snapshot every day
and keep a maximum of six.
Create a snapshot every hour,
or at the times listed in the
optional time list and keep a
maximum of eight.
Optional list of times,
in 24-hour format at
which an hourly snapshot
is created.
)LJXUHVQDSVFKHG&RPPDQG6DPSOH
In the snap sched command, the first argument after the volume name in the example indicates how many weekly snapshots to keep (2), the second argument indicates
how many nightly snapshots to keep (6), and the third argument indicates how many
hourly snapshots to keep (8). A zero in any of the three positions disables snapshots
for that interval.
The argument for hourly snapshots can include an optional list of numbers indicating
the hours at which the filer creates the snapshots in 24-hour time (8, 12, 17, 20). If the
argument is omitted, the filer creates an hourly snapshot.
The default snapshot schedule is
snap sched volume_name 0 2 6@8,12,16,20
([DPSOHRIVQDSVFKHG&RPPDQG
Following is an example of the snap sched command:
snap sched volume_name 2 6 8@8,12,16,20
6QDSVKRWV&UHDWHGE\7KLV6FKHGXOH
The following list describes the snapshots created by the example:
‡
‡
‡
9-6
weekly snapshots, and keeps the two most recent
daily snapshots, and keeps the six most recent
hourly snapshots at 8:00 a.m, noon, 4:00 p.m., and 8:00 p.m., and keeps the
eight most recent
Dell PowerVault 720N, 740N, and 760N System Administrator and Command Reference Guide
The following list shows the snapshots that are created by this snapshot schedule in
1998 (when January 11 is a Sunday):
% ls -lu .snapshot
total 64
drwxrwsrwx
drwxrwsrwx
drwxrwsrwx
drwxrwsrwx
drwxrwsrwx
drwxrwsrwx
drwxrwsrwx
drwxrwsrwx
drwxrwsrwx
drwxrwsrwx
drwxrwsrwx
drwxrwsrwx
drwxrwsrwx
drwxrwsrwx
drwxrwsrwx
drwxrwsrwx
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
root
root
root
root
root
root
root
root
root
root
root
root
root
root
root
root
4096
4096
4096
4096
4096
4096
4096
4096
4096
4096
4096
4096
4096
4096
4096
4096
Jan
Jan
Jan
Jan
Jan
Jan
Jan
Jan
Jan
Jan
Jan
Jan
Jan
Jan
Jan
Jan
14
14
13
13
13
13
12
12
14
13
12
10
09
08
11
04
12:00
08:00
20:00
16:00
12:00
08:00
20:00
16:00
00:00
00:00
00:00
00:00
00:00
00:00
00:00
00:00
hourly.0
hourly.1
hourly.2
hourly.3
hourly.4
hourly.5
hourly.6
hourly.7
nightly.0
nightly.1
nightly.2
nightly.3
nightly.4
nightly.5
weekly.0
weekly.1
5HVXOW
This schedule keeps the eight most recent hourly snapshots, created at 8 a.m., noon,
4 p.m., and 8 p.m. every day, the six most recent daily snapshots, and the two most
recent weekly snapshots. Whenever the filer creates a new snapshot of a particular
type, it deletes the oldest one and renames the existing ones. On the hour, for example, the filer deletes hourly.7, renames hourly.0 to hourly.1, and so on. The nightly
snapshot schedule jumps from January 12 to January 10 because there is a weekly
snapshot on January 11.
NOTE: On a UNIX client, if you use ls -l instead of ls -lu to list the snapshot
creation times, the times are not necessarily all different. The times listed by ls -l
reflect the modification times of the directory at the time of each snapshot, and are
not related to the times at which the snapshots are created.
The snap sched command is persistent across reboots. There is no need to put the
command in the /etc/rc file.
8VHU'HILQHG$XWRPDWLF6QDSVKRWV
You can create snapshots at predefined times instead of using the hourly, daily, and
weekly schedules.
Snapshots
9-7
([DPSOH
For example, if you want to create two snapshots for the volume named vol1 each
week, you can set up a cron job on the administration host to run twice each week at
an appropriate time to execute the following snap create command:
rsh filer snap create vol1 filename
NOTE: The snap create command does not accept a snapshot name containing a
slash (/).
8QGHUVWDQGLQJ6QDSVKRW'LVN
&RQVXPSWLRQ
$ERXW6QDSVKRW'LVN&RQVXPSWLRQ
It is important to understand the amount of disk space snapshots consume and the
amount of disk space they are likely to consume. The following sections explain how
to determine the amount of disk space used by snapshots.
'LVN&RQVXPSWLRQE\0XOWLSOH,GHQWLFDO6QDSVKRWV
Suppose a snapshot contains a 1-MB file that hasn’t changed since the filer created
the snapshot. If that file is removed from the active file system, the snapshot then
consumes 1 MB of disk space.
The same version of that 1-MB file might be referenced by several snapshots:
hourly.0, hourly.1, and hourly.2. If these snapshots all contain the 1-MB file that
hasn’t changed since the filer created those snapshots, only 1 MB of disk space is
consumed by the snapshots even though all three snapshots contain the file.
8VLQJWKHGI&RPPDQGWR'LVSOD\6QDSVKRW8VH
To provide information about snapshot disk utilization, the df command on the filer
treats snapshots as a partition different from the active file system.
6DPSOHGIFRPPDQGRXWSXW
Following is a partial sample df command output:
df
Filesystem
/vol/vol0
/vol/vol0/.snapshot
9-8
kbytes
3000000
1000000
used
2000000
500000
avail
capacity
1000000 65%
500000
50%
Dell PowerVault 720N, 740N, and 760N System Administrator and Command Reference Guide
NOTE: The numbers in this example were rounded off to make the example easier to
understand. Also, to make the output easier to read, the “Mounted on” column is not
included in the sample df output in the following sections.
In this example, the vol0 volume contains 4 GB of disk space. It has 1 GB (or 25%)
reserved for snapshots (the idea of reserving space for snapshots is described in
more detail later). That leaves 3 GB for the active file system, and 2 GB of the file system is in use.
It is important to understand that the /vol/vol0/.snapshot line counts data that
exists only in a snapshot. Because data that also exists in the active file system needs
to be stored on disk anyway, it is misleading if the filer charged the space to snapshots. In the example, half of the 1 GB reserved for the snapshot is used.
+RZWKH6QDSVKRW5HVHUYH:RUNV
By default, the snapshot reserve is 20% of disk space. For information about how to
adjust the amount of the snapshot reserve, refer to “Changing the Snapshot
Reserve.”
This section uses several examples to explain the advantages of reserving disk space
for snapshots.
6QDSVKRWV8VH'HOHWHG$FWLYH)LOH'LVN6SDFH
If the filer created a snapshot when the disks were full, removing files from the active
file system wouldn’t create any free space because everything in the active file system would also be referenced by the newly created snapshot. The filer would have to
delete the snapshot before it could create any new files.
The following example shows how disk space being freed by deleting files in the
active file system ends up in the snapshot:
If the filer creates a snapshot when the active file system is full and there is still space
remaining in the snapshot reserve, the df command output is as follows:
Filesystem
/vol/vol0/
/vol/vol0/.snapshot
kbytes
used
3000000 3000000
1000000 500000
avail
0
500000
capacity
100%
50%
If you remove 100 MB of files, the disk space used by these files is no longer part of
the active file system, so the space is reassigned to the snapshots instead. If you
enter the df command, the output is as follows:
Filesystem
/vol/vol0/
/vol/vol0/.snapshot
kbytes
used
3000000 2900000
1000000 600000
avail
100000
400000
capacity
97%
60%
The filer reassigns 100 MB of space from the active file system to the snapshot
reserve. Because there was reserve space for snapshots, removing files from the
active file system freed space for new files.
Snapshots
9-9
$GPLQLVWHULQJ6QDSVKRW'LVN6SDFH
Even with the snapshot reserve, the job of administering snapshot disk space consumption is important. There is no way to prevent snapshots from consuming disk
space greater than the amount reserved for them. Consider what would happen in
the example if all files in the active file system were deleted. Before the deletion, the
df output was as follows:
Filesystem
/vol/vol0/
/vol/vol0/.snapshot
kbytes
used
3000000 3000000
1000000 500000
avail
0
500000
capacity
100%
50%
After removing all the data in the file system, the df command generates the following output:
Filesystem
/vol/vol0/
/vol/vol0/.snapshot
kbytes
used
3000000 2500000
1000000 3500000
avail
500000
0
capacity
83%
350%
([SODQDWLRQ
The entire 3 GB in the active file system moved into snapshots, along with the
500 MB that were in snapshots before, making a total of 3.5 GB of snapshot data.
This is 2.5 GB more than the space reserved for snapshots. Because the active file
system cannot use that space, the space shows up as used by the active file system
even though no files are there.
5HFRYHULQJ'LVN6SDFHIRU)LOH6\VWHP8VH
Whenever snapshots consume more than 100% of the snapshot reserve, the system
is in danger of becoming full. In this case, you can create files only after you remove
enough snapshots.
([DPSOH
For example, if 500 MB of data were added to the active file system in the preceding
example, a df command generates the following information:
Filesystem
/vol/vol0
/vol/vol0/.snapshot
kbytes
used
3000000 3000000
1000000 3500000
avail capacity
0
100%
0
350%
As soon as the filer creates a new snapshot, every block in the system is referenced
by some snapshot. Therefore, no matter how many files you remove from the active
file system, there is still not room to add any more. The only way to recover from this
situation is to remove enough snapshots to free more disk space. Refer to “Displaying Snapshot Statistics” in Chapter 9 for information about how to use the snap
list command to determine which snapshot to delete.
9-10 Dell PowerVault 720N, 740N, and 760N System Administrator and Command Reference Guide
(IIHFWVRI6QDSVKRWVRQ4XRWDV
Quotas do not count disk space consumed by snapshots. If snapshots were included
in the quota calculations, users could end up in a state where they could not create
any new files until all snapshots containing their old files expired.
0DQDJLQJ6QDSVKRW'LVN&RQVXPSWLRQ
$ERXW6QDSVKRW0DQDJHPHQW
This section describes
‡
‡
‡
how to schedule snapshots to suit your environment
how to determine a reasonable snapshot reserve
how to adjust the amount of space snapshots use
The examples in this section are for a volume named home.
6FKHGXOLQJ6QDSVKRWV
The best way to manage the amount of space consumed by snapshots in each volume is to use the snap sched command to adjust the schedule of snapshot
creation.
Following are some suggested strategies for scheduling and retaining snapshots:
‡
If users rarely lose files or typically notice lost files right away, use the default
snapshot schedule. For example, this is the schedule that creates a snapshot
every day and keeps two:
snap sched home 0 2 6@8,12,16,20
‡
If users commonly lose files and need to restore them, Dell recommends that
you delete the snapshots less often than you would in the preceding example.
On many systems only 5% or 10% of the data changes each week, so the
snapshot schedule of six nightly and two weekly snapshots consumes 10% to
20% of disk space. Considering the benefits of snapshots, it is worthwhile to
reserve this amount of disk space for snapshots. Following is the recommended
snapshot schedule, which keeps six daily snapshots and two weekly snapshots:
snap sched home 2 6 8@8,12,16,20
Snapshots 9-11
‡
If the data changes very quickly, reduce the number of snapshots scheduled. For
example, if a volume is filled and emptied each day, for example, a volume storing
large temporary files for a CAD application, it might not make sense to use daily
or weekly snapshots at all.
On a very active volume, schedule snapshots every hour and keep them for just a
few hours, or turn off snapshots. For example, the following schedule creates a
snapshot every hour and keeps three:
snap sched home 0 0 3
‡
This schedule doesn’t consume much disk space, and it lets users recover files in
recent snapshots as long as they notice their mistake within a couple of hours.
When you create a new volume on a filer, the new volume inherits the snapshot
schedule from the root volume. After you use the volume for a while, check how
much disk space the snapshots consume in the volume.
'LVSOD\LQJ6QDSVKRW6WDWLVWLFV
The snap list command shows the amount of disk space used by snapshots in a
specified volume. This command enables you to see how much disk space each snapshot uses, and helps you determine an appropriate snapshot reserve.
&RPPDQG2XWSXW
Following is an example of the command output. If you don’t specify a volume name
in the command, the output contains statistics about each volume.
snap list vol0
Volume vol0
%/used
---------0% ( 0%)
1% ( 1%)
2% ( 2%)
3% ( 2%)
3% ( 2%)
5% ( 3%)
7% ( 4%)
8% ( 4%)
10%( 5%)
%/total
---------0% ( 0%)
1% ( 1%)
2% ( 2%)
2% ( 2%)
3% ( 2%)
4% ( 3%)
6% ( 4%)
7% ( 4%)
9% ( 4%)
date
-----------Jan 19 08:01
Jan 19 00:01
Jan 18 20:01
Jan 18 16:01
Jan 18 12:01
Jan 18 00:01
Jan 17 00:00
Jan 16 00:01
Jan 15 00:01
name
-------hourly.0
nightly.0
hourly.1
hourly.2
hourly.3
nightly.1
nightly.2
nightly.3
nightly.4
7KH8VHG&ROXPQ
The %/used column shows space consumed by snapshots as a percentage of disk
space being used in the volume. The first number is cumulative for all snapshots
listed so far, and the second number is for the specified snapshot alone.
9-12 Dell PowerVault 720N, 740N, and 760N System Administrator and Command Reference Guide
‡
The first number is equal to
cumulative snapshot space x 100%
cumulative snapshot space + file system space
‡
The second number is equal to
this snapshot x 100%
this snapshot + file system space
7KH7RWDO&ROXPQ
The %/total column shows space consumed as a percentage of total disk space in
the volume.
‡
The first number is equal to
cumulative snapshot space x 100%
‡
total disk space in this volume
The second number is equal to
this snapshot x 100%
total disk space in this volume
“Cumulative snapshot space” is the total space used by this snapshot and all
other more recent snapshots (the ones preceding this snapshot in the snap
list output).
2XWSXW6XPPDU\
The %/used number is more useful for planning the snapshot reserve because it is
more likely to remain constant as the file system fills.
The example shows a volume that keeps five nightly snapshots and four hourly snapshots. That is, the volume uses the following command for creating snapshots
regularly:
snap sched vol0 0 5 4@8,12,16,20
The snap list output shows that the overhead for snapshots is only 10%, so the
default snapshot reserve of 20% seems to be a waste of disk space. Assuming that
this pattern of change holds up, a reserve of 12% to 15% provides a safe margin to
ensure that removing files frees disk space when the active file system is full.
The values in parentheses, that is, the values that show the space used by an individual snapshot, are useful in identifying a particular snapshot to remove when the file
system is full. However, deleting a particular snapshot doesn’t necessarily release the
total amount of disk space indicated, because other snapshots might be referring to
the same blocks. Refer to “Adjusting Disk Space Used by Snapshots” for further information about how to select a snapshot file for deletion to reclaim disk space.
Snapshots 9-13
If you do not want the total amount of disk space consumed by all snapshots to
exceed a certain percentage of the used disk space, use the cumulative values in the
snap list output to determine which snapshots to delete. In the preceding example, if you don’t want more than 5% of used disk space to be spent by snapshots,
delete all snapshots listed below nightly.1 in the snap list output; that is, nightly.2,
nightly.3, and nightly.4. After deleting the snapshots, nightly.1 and all the other more
recent snapshots consume 5% of the used disk space.
&KDQJLQJWKH6QDSVKRW5HVHUYH
The snapshot reserve can be used only by snapshots, not by the active file system.
The default snapshot reserve is 20% of the available disk space. To change the
reserve, enter the following command:
snap reserve volume_name percent
For example:
snap reserve vol0 25
With no arguments, the snap reserve command displays the percentage of disk
space reserved for snapshots in each volume.
NOTE: Snapshots can exceed the snapshot reserve space.
$GMXVWLQJ'LVN6SDFH8VHGE\6QDSVKRWV
This section describes how to use the snap list output to determine which snapshot file to delete to free the most disk space.
In the sample snap list output in “Displaying Snapshot Statistics,” the cumulative
disk space used by snapshots gradually increases from top to bottom.
For example, in the %/used column, the cumulative space used by hourly.1 is 2% and
the cumulative space used by hourly.2 is 3%. This is not always the case.
([DPSOH
Consider a filer with a 100-MB file system that has not changed since the first snapshot was taken. The snap list command on this filer displays the following output:
%/used
-------0% (0%)
0% (0%)
%/total
--------0% (0%)
0% (0%)
date
-----------May 05 16:00
May 05 12:00
name
--------hourly.0
hourly.1
0% (0%)
0% (0%)
May 05 08:00
hourly.2
The cumulative disk space used by snapshots does not increase because no changes
were made to the file system. However, if you had deleted 20 MB from the file
9-14 Dell PowerVault 720N, 740N, and 760N System Administrator and Command Reference Guide
system before the filer took the hourly.0 snapshot, the snap list command would
have displayed the following output:
%/used
-------0% (0%)
20% (20%)
20% (20%)
%/total
--------0% (0%)
1% (1%)
1% (1%)
date
-----------May 05 16:00
May 05 12:00
May 05 08:00
name
--------hourly.0
hourly.1
hourly.2
In the %/used column, the cumulative values for hourly.1 and hourly.2 are both 20%,
but the cumulative value for hourly.2 is not 40%. This is because both snapshots
point to the same 20 MB of data, the data that you just deleted.
The cumulative values for hourly.1 and hourly.2 are different if you delete and create
data between snapshots in the following way:
1.
Delete 20 MB of data and create 20 MB of new data after hourly.2.
2.
Delete the 20 MB of data created in Step 1 after hourly.1.
After the data deletions and additions, the snap list command displays the following output:
%/used
-------0% (0%)
20% (20%)
33% (20%)
%/total
--------0% (0%)
1% (1%)
2% (1%)
date
-----------May 05 16:00
May 05 12:00
May 05 08:00
name
--------hourly.0
hourly.1
hourly.2
In this scenario, hourly.1 and hourly.2 each consume 20% of the used disk space:
20 MB out of 100 MB. However, this time they reference different data blocks. Cumulatively, they consume 40 MB, which is about 33% of the disk space used: 120 MB,
which is 40 MB used by snapshots plus 80 MB in the file system.
Before trying to conserve space by deleting a large snapshot file, examine the cumulative values in the snap list output. If two adjacent snapshot files show little
difference in the cumulative values, most of the data referenced by the snapshots is
the same. In this case, removing one of the snapshots doesn’t free much disk space.
If you find snapshots confusing and hard to manage, use the default snapshot schedule and the default snapshot reserve because these settings are appropriate for most
environments. When you create a new volume on a filer, remember that the new volume inherits the snapshot schedule from the root volume. After you use the volume
for a while, check how much disk space the snapshots consume in the volume. If the
disk space seems high, decrease the amount of time that snapshots are kept or
increase the snapshot reserve.
As you use snapshots, continue to watch the statistics change over time. The statistics help you gain a better understanding of how snapshots work.
Snapshots 9-15
$FFHVVLQJ6QDSVKRWV)URP&OLHQWV
$ERXW&OLHQW$FFHVVWR6QDSVKRWV
Snapshots can be accessed by any user with the appropriate permissions. Every
directory in the filer’s active file system contains a directory named .snapshot,
through which users can access old versions of files in that directory. How users gain
access to snapshots depends on the file-sharing protocol used: NFS or CIFS.
1)6&OLHQW$FFHVVWR6QDSVKRWV
Figure 9-3 shows the directory structure on a client with the vol0 volume of a filer
named filer mounted on /n/filer.
/
n
etc
usr
var
toaster
files in the vol0
volume on the filer
.snapshot directory
nightly.0 directory
files in the vol0 volume
on the filer as of the
previous midnight
nightly.1 directory
files in the vol0 volume
on the filer as of the
midnight before last
)LJXUH'LUHFWRU\6WUXFWXUHRI1)6&OLHQW$FFHVVWR6QDSVKRWV
([SODQDWLRQ
In this example, the client can obtain access to snapshots by way of /n/filer/.snapshot. This might seem to contradict the explanation of snapshot access in the
preceding section, because it shows a .snapshot directory only at the mount point
instead of in every directory in the tree.
Actually, the .snapshot directory in the mount point is “real” to make the pwd command work, whereas the .snapshot directories in all other directories are “magic”;
that is, can be accessed when they are referenced by name but do not show up in a
directory listing.
9-16 Dell PowerVault 720N, 740N, and 760N System Administrator and Command Reference Guide
For example, at the mount point of a filer file system, a directory listing looks like this:
ls -a
.
..
.snapshot
dir1
dir2
The same command entered in a directory below the mount point does not show the
.snapshot directory; for example:
cd dir1
ls -a
.
..
file1
file2
If you enter the ls command with the directory name .snapshot, you can see a listing
of the snapshots for the dir1 directory:
ls .snapshot
hourly.0
hourly.1
hourly.2
hourly.3
hourly.4
hourly.5
hourly.6
hourly.7
nightly.0
nightly.1
nightly.2
nightly.3
nightly.4
nightly.5
weekly.0
weekly.1
If .snapshot were to show up in every directory, it would cause many commands to
work improperly. For instance, all recursive commands for removing files would fail
because everything below .snapshot is read-only. Recursive copies would copy everything in the snapshots as well as files in the active file system, and a find command
would generate a list much longer than expected.
&,)6&OLHQW$FFHVVWR6QDSVKRWV
To CIFS clients, the snapshot directory appears only at the root of a share. For example, if a user’s home directory is a share named bill that corresponds to the /vol/vol0/
home/bill directory, only the /vol/vol0/home/bill/.snapshot directory is visible. When
this user displays the contents of the home directory, the snapshot directory is displayed as ~snapshot if the operating system supports long file names and as ~snapsht
if the operating system supports only short file names.
NOTE: The snapshot directory is visible in that it is displayed in a directory listing or
File Manager display if the client operating system is configured to show hidden files.
In each directory within the share, a snapshot directory exists but is not visible to clients. For example, if the client operating system supports long file names, the
applications on that operating system can use the snapshot at each level of the share
by using .snapshot, ~snapshot, or ~SNAPSHT as the directory name. You cannot,
however, display the directory name in any listing.
Snapshots 9-17
'HWHUPLQLQJ6QDSVKRW9HUVLRQV
)URPDQ1)6FOLHQW
The best way to find all versions of a particular file preserved in snapshots is to use
the ls command. The following example shows how to find all versions of foo:
ls -l foo .snapshot/*/foo
-rw-r--r-- 1 smith 0 Jan 14 09:40
-rw-r--r-- 1 smith 0 Jan 13 18:39
-rw-r--r-- 1 smith 0 Jan 12 19:17
foo
.snapshot/nightly.0/foo
.snapshot/nightly.1/foo
The version of foo in the active file system was last modified on January 14, but the
old versions available in the snapshots were modified on January 13 and January 12.
Although users can use standard UNIX commands to examine the saved versions of
foo, they cannot modify or remove these older versions because everything beneath
.snapshot is read-only.
)URPD&,)6&OLHQW
Use the Find command to search for the file in the ~snapshot directory. For example,
if a user maps the home share to drive F: and wants to find all versions of foo in snapshots, the user can use the Find command to search for foo in the f:\~snapshot
folder.
'HWHUPLQLQJ$FFHVV7LPHV
When the filer creates a snapshot, the access time of each file in the snapshot is
updated to the snapshot creation time.
)URPDQ1)6FOLHQW
You can use the ls -lu command, which shows the access times of files, to determine when snapshots were created. Following is an example of the ls -lu
command:
ls -lu foo .snapshot/*/foo
-rw-r--r-- 1 smith 0 Jan 14 09:40
-rw-r--r-- 1 smith 0 Jan 14 00:00
-rw-r--r-- 1 smith 0 Jan 13 00:00
foo
.snapshot/nightly.0/foo
.snapshot/nightly.1/foo
)URPD&,)6FOLHQW
You can determine the access time of a file by checking its properties.
9-18 Dell PowerVault 720N, 740N, and 760N System Administrator and Command Reference Guide
&+$37(5
TWUHH$GPLQLVWUDWLRQ
$ERXWTWUHHV
A qtree is a special subdirectory of the root directory of a volume.
TWUHH3DUDPHWHUV
You can set the following parameters on a qtree:
‡
‡
‡
security style: NTFS (Windows NT file system), UNIX, or mixed
oplocks setting: On or Off
disk space and file limits, as described in Chapter 11, “Quotas and Maximum
Number of Files.”
9ROXPHVDQGTWUHHV
A volume has all the properties of a qtree except
‡
‡
It can have qtrees under it.
It has different defaults than a qtree.
Unless expressly mentioned otherwise, whatever applies to qtrees also applies to
volumes.
NOTE: You cannot create a qtree inside another qtree.
8VHVRITWUHHV
You use qtrees to group files that have similar characteristics, much in the way that
you use volumes. However, qtrees are much more flexible than volumes.
qtree Administration 10-1
8VLQJTWUHHV
:KDW<RX&DQ'R:LWKTWUHHV
You can use qtrees in the following two ways:
‡
Group files that have the same security style and oplocks setting, such as files
related to a particular activity, for example, a project, without having to create a
separate volume for them.
‡
Perform quick and easy backups.
8VLQJDTWUHHIRUD3URMHFW
One way to group files is to set up a qtree for a project, such as one maintaining a
database. Setting up a qtree for a project enables you to do the following actions:
‡
Set the security style of the project without affecting the security style of other
projects.
For example, you use NTFS-style security if the members of the project use Windows files and applications. Another project in another qtree can use UNIX files
and applications, while yet another project can use both Windows and UNIX files.
‡
Set oplocks (if the project uses Windows) as appropriate to the project without
affecting other projects.
For example, if one project uses a database that requires no oplocks, you can turn
oplocks Off on that project’s qtree. If another project uses oplocks, it can be in
another qtree that has oplocks set to On.
‡
Limit the disk space and number of files available to a project so that it does not
use up resources that other projects and users need. As the needs of the
projects and available resources change, you can easily change the limits on the
qtree. For instructions about managing space using qtrees, see Chapter 11,
“Quotas and Maximum Number of Files.”
8VLQJDTWUHHIRU%DFNXSV
You can back up individual qtrees. You would do so to
‡
‡
‡
add flexibility to backup schedules
modularize backups
keep the size of each backup to one tape
For details, see Chapter 12, “data backup.”
TWUHHDQG9ROXPH'HIDXOWV
Volumes and qtrees have the default values shown in Table 10-1.
10-2 Dell PowerVault 720N, 740N, and 760N System Administrator and Command Reference Guide
7DEOHTWUHHDQG9ROXPH'HIDXOWV
3DUDPHWHU
TWUHHGHIDXOW
9ROXPHGHIDXOW
oplocks
On
On
security
The style of the volume’s root directory
UNIX
0RYLQJ)LOHV%HWZHHQTWUHHV
In UNIX, you cannot move a file into or out of a qtree with a rename operation. As a
result, the mv command on some UNIX systems fails if you try to move a file into or
out of a qtree. You can always move the file by copying it, then deleting the original.
In Windows, you can move a file into or out of a qtree.
TWUHH6HFXULW\6W\OHV
7\SHVRI6HFXULW\6W\OHV
There are three kinds of security styles, described briefly in Table 10-2.
7DEOHTWUHH6HFXULW\6W\OHV
6W\OH
%HKDYLRU
NTFS
Exactly like Windows NT NTFS: Files and directories have Windows
NT file-level permission settings.
NOTE: To use NTFS security, make sure that the filer is licensed for
CIFS.
UNIX
Exactly like UNIX: Files and directories have UNIX permissions.
mixed
Both NTFS and UNIX security are allowed: a file or directory can
have either Windows NT permissions or UNIX permissions.
TWUHH6HFXULW\6W\OHVLQ'HWDLO
Table 10-3 describes the security styles in detail and the effects of changing to each
style.
qtree Administration 10-3
.
7DEOHTWUHH6HFXULW\6W\OHVLQ'HWDLO
6HFXULW\
VW\OH
'HVFULSWLRQ
(IIHFWRIFKDQJLQJWR
WKHVW\OH
NTFS
User access is determined as follows:
Windows NT permissions determine
file access for a file
that had them if the
change is from a
mixed qtree. Otherwise, UNIX-style
permission bits
determine file
access for files created before the
change.
CIFS requests: Windows NT permissions
determine user access if Windows NT
permissions have been set on a file.
NFS requests: Windows NT permissions
and a mapped CIFS identity determine
access. UNIX groups are not used in the
mapping from a UNIX identity to a CIFS
identity\.
NOTE: You cannot change permissions in
an NTFS qtree from a UNIX client.
UNIX
User access depends on the protocol, as
follows:
CIFS requests: Windows users are
mapped to a UNIX UID and UNIX permissions determine access.
The filer disregards
any Windows NT
permissions established previously.
In a UNIX qtree, a user cannot set Windows NT permissions. A Windows user
can change UNIX permissions from Windows using SecureShare Access, as
described in “Sending a Message to All
Users on a Filer” in Chapter 7.
NFS requests: Only the user’s UID, GID,
and UNIX-style permission bits of the file
or directory determine user access.
mixed
Both NTFS and UNIX style permissions
are permitted. The security style of a file is
the style most recently used to set permissions on that file. See the NTFS
information in “Types of Security Styles.”
None.
&$87,21&KDQJLQJ17)6SHUPLV
VLRQVRQDILOHUHFRPSXWHV81,;
SHUPLVVLRQVRQWKDWILOH
&KDQJLQJ81,;SHUPLVVLRQVRURZQ
HUVKLSRQDILOHGHOHWHVDQ\17)6
SHUPLVVLRQVRQWKDWILOH
10-4 Dell PowerVault 720N, 740N, and 760N System Administrator and Command Reference Guide
TWUHH)LOH$FFHVV0RGHOV
.LQGVRI)LOH$FFHVV0RGHOV
You can use the following four file access models in working with qtrees:
‡
‡
‡
‡
CIFS user accessing a file with Windows NT security
CIFS user accessing a file with UNIX security
NFS user accessing a file with Windows NT security
NFS user accessing a file with UNIX security
&,)6$FFHVVWR:LQGRZV)LOHV
CIFS accesses to Windows files obey Windows security rules.
&,)6$FFHVVWR81,;)LOHV
The following principles apply to accessing UNIX files from CIFS:
‡
‡
All CIFS users are mapped to UNIX UIDs and GIDs.
File accesses use UNIX security or PC security, as chosen during the cifs
setup program.
— UNIX-style permissions are determined by the rights associated with the
UNIX UID and GID.
— PC-style permissions are determined by the rights assigned in a share’s
Access Control List (ACL) and are limited by the UNIX permissions assigned
to a file.
‡
PC security is like FAT (File Allocation Table) file system security with per-file
permissions:
— If the owner of a file or directory accesses an item, the owner permissions
are checked to see whether they allow access.
— If someone other than the owner of a file or directory accesses an item, the
group permissions are checked to see whether they allow access.
1)6$FFHVVWR:LQGRZV)LOHV
The following principles apply to accessing Windows files from NFS:
‡
‡
Windows NT permissions are mapped to UNIX permissions.
‡
Windows NT permissions for Owner are mapped to UNIX owner permissions.
Each Windows NT user who sets Windows NT permissions is mapped to a UNIX
user and UNIX group, except that if the owner is a generic user, the owner is
mapped to root with restrictions.
qtree Administration 10-5
‡
Windows NT permissions for Everyone are mapped to UNIX Group and UNIX
Other permissions.
1)6$FFHVVWR81,;)LOHV
NFS accesses to UNIX files obey UNIX security rules.
&UHDWLQJDTWUHH
+RZWR&UHDWHDTWUHH
To create a qtree, use the following command:
qtree create pathname
5HVXOW
The qtree pathname is created, with the following properties:
‡
‡
‡
‡
Volume: the root volume, unless you specify another volume
Name: pathname
Security style: that of the root directory of the volume
Oplocks settings: On
&UHDWLQJDTWUHHLQWKH5RRW9ROXPH
If pathname does not begin with a slash (/), the qtree is created in the root volume.
For example:
qtree create news
creates the qtree /vol/vol0/news, where /vol/vol0/ is the default name for the root volume. For information about volumes, see “Volume Concepts” in Chapter 3.
&UHDWLQJDTWUHHLQD9ROXPH2WKHU7KDQWKH5RRW
9ROXPH
If you want to create a qtree (for example, news) in a particular volume (for example,
users), use the following command:
qtree create /vol/users/news
10-6 Dell PowerVault 720N, 740N, and 760N System Administrator and Command Reference Guide
0RGLI\LQJWKH6HFXULW\6W\OHRIDTWUHH
:KHQWR&KDQJHWKH6HFXULW\6W\OHRIDTWUHH
There are many circumstance under which you might want to change qtree style. Two
examples are
‡
Because the default security style of a qtree is that of its root volume, you might
want to change the security style of a qtree after creating it to the style you want.
‡
You might also want to change the security style to accommodate other users or
files; for example, if you start with an NTFS qtree and subsequently want to
include UNIX files and users, you might want to change the qtree to a mixed
qtree.
+RZWR&KDQJHWKH6HFXULW\6W\OHRIDTWUHH
To change the security style of a qtree, use the following command:
qtree security [pathname [mixed | ntfs | unix]]
([DPSOH:LWKDTWUHH
To change the security model of /vol/users/docs to be the same as Windows NT, use:
qtree security /vol/users/docs ntfs
([DPSOH:LWKD9ROXPH
To change the security model of the root directory of the users volume to mixed so
that, outside of a qtree in the volume, one file can have NTFS security and another
UNIX security, use
TWUHHVHFXULW\YROXVHUVPL[HG
NOTE: When you create an NTFS qtree or change a qtree to NTFS, by default, every
Windows user is given full access. You must change the permissions if you want to
restrict access to the qtree for some users. If you do not set NTFS file security on a
file, UNIX permissions are enforced.
0RGLI\LQJTWUHH2SORFNV6HWWLQJV
:KHQWR&KDQJH2SORFNV6HWWLQJV
You might want to change qtree oplocks settings when you add or remove software,
or when the kind of data you are using changes. For detailed information about
oplocks, see “Using Oplocks” in Chapter 7.
qtree Administration 10-7
&KDQJLQJ2SORFNV6HWWLQJV
To change the oplocks setting of a qtree, follow these steps:
1.
Make sure that the cifs.oplocks.enable option is set the way you want.
2.
Use the qtree oplocks command, as follows:
TWUHHRSORFNV>QDPH>HQDEOH_GLVDEOH@@
The command takes effect immediately.
NOTE: If you disable the oplocks feature on a qtree, existing oplocks in the qtree are
not broken.
([DPSOH:LWK$TWUHH
To enable oplocks in the /vol/users/docs qtree if oplocks are disabled and the
cifs.oplocks.enableoption is set to On, enter the following command:
qtree oplocks /vol/users/docs enable
([DPSOH:LWK$9ROXPH
To disable oplocks in the entire users volume if oplocks are enabled and the
cifs.oplocks.enable option is set to On, enter the following command:
qtree oplocks /vol/users/ disable
This disables only files and directories that were not in a qtree when oplocks were
enabled.
(IIHFWRIWKHFLIVRSORFNVHQDEOH2SWLRQ
Setting the cifs.oplocks.enable option has the following effects:
‡
If the cifs.oplocks.enable option is set to Off, all oplocks on the filer are
turned off.
‡
If the cifs.oplocks.enable option is set back to On, the setting for each
qtree comes into effect and oplocks are turned on for those qtrees where oplocks
are enabled.
'LVSOD\LQJTWUHH,QIRUPDWLRQ
+RZWR'LVSOD\TWUHH,QIRUPDWLRQ
To display all attributes of all qtrees on a filer, use the qtree command with no
arguments.
10-8 Dell PowerVault 720N, 740N, and 760N System Administrator and Command Reference Guide
7KHTWUHH&RPPDQG'LVSOD\
The qtree command lists for a filer the items described in Table 10-4.
7DEOHTWUHH&RPPDQG'LVSOD\
)LHOG
&RQWHQWV
Volume
The volumes on a filer. Keep in mind that a volume is itself a
qtree.
qtree
qtrees that are not volumes; each is listed next to its volume.
Style
The security style of each qtree.
Oplocks
The oplocks setting of each qtree.
([DPSOHTWUHH'LVSOD\
For example:
qtree
Volume
-------bagels
bagels
muffin
muffin
qtree
Style Oplocks
-------- ----- -------unix enabled
sesame
unix enabled
ntfs enabled
bran
unix enabled
([SODQDWLRQRI([DPSOHTWUHH'LVSOD\
In the example:
‡
Because bagels and muffin are volumes, each has a security style and oplocks
setting.
‡
Sesame is a qtree in the Bagels volume. Its security style and oplocks setting
happen to be the same as that of its parent volume, bagels.
‡
Bran is a qtree in the muffin volume. Its security style is different from that of its
parent volume, muffin. Files in bran have UNIX-style permissions; files in muffin
but not in bran have NTFS-style permissions.
qtree Administration 10-9
10-10 Dell PowerVault 720N, 740N, and 760N System Administrator and Command Reference Guide
&+$37(5
4XRWDVDQG0D[LPXP1XPEHURI
)LOHV
5HVWULFWLQJRU7UDFNLQJ'LVN8VDJHE\
8VLQJ'LVN4XRWDV
$ERXW'LVN4XRWDV
Filer disk quotas restrict disk space and the number of files used by a user, a group, or
a qtree. For information about how to create a qtree, refer to Chapter 10, “qtree
Administration.” This chapter discusses how to manage disk quotas by editing the
/etc/quotas file.
)RUPDWRIWKH4XRWDV)LOH
To set up disk quotas, create a quotas file in the /etc directory.
NOTE: Keep a record of your quotas file in a safe place and update it as you change it,
in case you must do a restore without having access to the root volume.
Following is a sample quotas file:
#Quota Target
/vol/home/user/joe
21
/vol/eng/proj1
writers
*
type
user
group
tree
group@/vol/eng/proj1
user
disk
500M
750M
750M
300M
50M
files
10K
75K
75K
50K
10K
NOTE: If the quota is a tree quota, the field in the type column of the quotas file
displays tree, not qtree.
Keep a record of your quotas file in a safe place and update it as you change it, in case
you must do a restore without having access to the root volume.
Quotas and Maximum Number of Files11-1
4XRWD7DUJHW)LHOG
Specifies the user, group, or qtree on which you want to impose restrictions. You can
assign more than one quota to a user or group, but only one quota to a qtree. The
entries can be in any order.
4XRWD7DUJHWIRUD8VHU4XRWD
You specify a user with one of the following targets:
‡
‡
‡
a file or subdirectory whose UID matches the user
the user’s name, as defined in the /etc/passwd file or the NIS password map
the user’s UID
The methods are equivalent, and inform the filer of the UID of the target. A file or
directory is used only as the source of a UID; there are no quota implications for that
file or directory. The UID of the user must not be 0.
Any file or subdirectory you use in the Quota Target field is referenced repeatedly
throughout the life of the system, so if you use a path name, choose a path name that
will last for as long as the user account remains on the system. For example, use a
user’s home directory for a user quota.
4XRWD7DUJHWIRUD*URXS4XRWD
You specify a group with one of the following targets:
‡
‡
‡
a file or subdirectory whose GID matches the group
the group’s name
the group’s GID
The methods are equivalent. A file or directory is used only as the source of a GID;
there are no quota implications for that file or directory. The GID of the group must
not be 0.
4XRWD7DUJHWIRUD7UHH4XRWD
To create a tree quota, use the quota qtree command to create a directory in the
root directory of a volume. The quota target in the quotas file for a tree quota is the
complete path name of this directory.
4XRWD7DUJHWIRU'HIDXOW4XRWDV
Use an asterisk (*) in the Quota Target field to specify a default for the user or group
quotas. Defaults do not apply to tree quotas. The default value applies to the following
users or groups:
‡
New users or groups that are created after the default entry has taken effect. For
example, if the maximum disk space for default user quotas is 500 MB, any new
user can use up to 500 MB of disk space.
‡
Users or groups that are not explicitly mentioned in the quotas file. For example,
if the maximum disk space for default user quotas is 500 MB, users for whom
11-2 Dell PowerVault 720N, 740N, and 760N System Administrator and Command Reference Guide
you have not specified a user quota in the quotas file can use up to 500 MB of
disk space.
To override a default for a specific user or group, specify a quota for that user or
group.
7\SH)LHOG
You can enter one of the following values in the Type field to define the quota type:
‡
user: If a user quota applies just to a tree and not to the entire volume, specify
user@tree, where tree is the name of a qtree. If a user quota applies to a volume other than the root volume, append @/vol/volume to the quota type. For
example, user@/vol/marketing means that the user quota applies to the
marketing volume.
‡
group: If a group quota applies just to a tree and not to the entire volume, specify
group@tree where tree is the name of a qtree. If a group quota applies to a
volume other than the root volume, append @volume to the quota type. For
example, group@/vol/marketing means that the group quota applies to the
marketing volume.
‡
tree: A tree quota is similar to a disk partition, but you can increase or decrease
the size of a tree quota at any time.
'LVN)LHOG
Specifies the maximum amount of disk space that the quota target can use. In this
field, K is equivalent to 1,024 bytes, M means 2^20 bytes, and G means 2^30 bytes.
If you omit the K, M, or G, the default is K.
If you want to track the disk usage but do not want to impose a disk usage limit on the
quota target, enter a dash (-) in the disk field.
NOTE: Do not put a blank in the Disk field; it acts as white space. The filer regards the
following entries as equivalent:
#Quota Target
/export
/export
type
tree
tree
disk
files
75K
75K
)LOHV)LHOG
Specifies the maximum number of files that the quota target can use. Use K to indicate 1,024 files. For example, 75K means 76,800 files. Use M to mean 2^20 and G to
mean 2^30. You can omit the K, M, or G. For example, if you enter 100, it means the
maximum number of files is 100. A blank in this field means there is no restriction on
the number of files that the quota target can use.
If you want to track the number of files but do not want to impose a limit on the number of files that can be used by the quota target, enter a dash (-) in the files field.
Quotas and Maximum Number of Files11-3
6DPSOH4XRWDV)LOH
Following is a sample quotas file that includes different kinds of quotas:
#Quota Target
/vol/home/user/jdoe
108
jsmith
publications
/vol/home/eng
/vol/cad/proj1
writers
*
*
*
*
mhoward
mhoward
mfisher
type
user
user
user@/vol/rls
group
group@/vol/cad
tree
group@/vol/cad/proj1
user
user@/vol/cad/proj1
group
group@/vol/cad/proj1
user
user@/vol/cad/proj1
user
disk
500M
500M
500M
750M
750M
750M
150M
50M
50M
750M
100M
150M
75M
-
files
10K
10K
10K
75K
75K
15K
10K
85K
75K
100K
75K
-
Any operation that creates files or writes to them must satisfy all applicable quotas.
The following list describes the effects of the sample quotas file:
‡
The owner of /vol/home/user/jdoe and the user whose UID is 108 can each use
500 MB of disk space and 10,240 files in the root volume.
‡
The user whose user name is jsmith can use 500 MB of disk space and 10,240
files in the rls volume.
‡
The group publications can use 750 MB of disk space with no restrictions on the
number of files in the root volume.
‡
The group that owns /vol/home/eng can use 750 MB of disk space and 76,800
files in the cad volume.
‡
‡
The qtree proj1 in the cad volume can use 750 MB of disk space and 76,800 files.
‡
Any user not otherwise mentioned in this file can use 50 MB of disk space and
15,360 files in the root volume.
‡
In the proj1 qtree, any user not otherwise mentioned in this file can use 50 MB of
disk space and 10,240 files.
‡
Any group not otherwise mentioned in this file can use 750 MB of disk space and
87,040 files in the root volume.
‡
In the proj1 qtree, any group not otherwise mentioned in this file can use 100 MB
of disk space and 76,800 files.
‡
The user mhoward can use 150 MB of disk space and 102,400 files in the root
volume. In the proj1 qtree, mhoward can use 75 MB of disk space and 76,800
files.
The writers group can use 150 MB of disk space and an unlimited number of files
in the proj1 qtree provided that the quotas on the proj1 qtree are not exceeded.
11-4 Dell PowerVault 720N, 740N, and 760N System Administrator and Command Reference Guide
‡
There is no limit as to how much disk space or how many files the user mfisher
can use. You can, however, use the quota report command to display the
amount of disk space and the number of files used by this user.
Both user and group quotas apply to the entire specified volume (or the root volume if
no volume name is specified). This is true even if the quota target in the quotas file is
specified in the form of a path name. For example, if the quota target for the user
named jdoe is /vol/home/user/jdoe, the filer imposes the quotas on all files written by
jdoe, not just the ones written to /vol/home/user/jdoe.
7KH4XRWD&RPPDQG
The quotas file specifies what the restrictions are on users, groups, and trees.
Whether these restrictions take effect depends on the quota command. The
quota command enables you to do the following tasks:
‡
‡
‡
enable and disable quotas on a per-volume basis
resize quotas on a per-volume basis
display information about all active quotas or about quotas that apply to a specified path
Some of the information from quota commands is available through SNMP using
the Dell custom MIB. For more information about the MIB, refer to “About the Dell
Custom MIB” in Chapter 4.
(QDEOLQJRU'LVDEOLQJ4XRWDV
The quota on|off command enables or disables quotas for all volumes or a specific volume. Use the following syntax when using the command:
quotas [on|off] volume
Use the following command to enable quotas for a volume:
quota on volume
This command computes the disk usage of each quota target. The computation can
take a few minutes to complete for a large number of quotas. To find out how much
quota initialization the filer has completed, use the quota command without any
arguments. For example:
quota
vol0: quotas are on.
vol1: quotas are initializing (24% done).
vol3: quotas are off.
Use the following command to disable quotas for a volume:
quota off volume
Because the filer remembers whether quotas are on or off even after it reboots, there
is no need to add a quota command to /etc/rc.
Quotas and Maximum Number of Files11-5
5HVL]LQJ4XRWDV
The quota resize command updates active quotas without recalculating disk
usage, and is faster than quota off followed by quota on. An active quota is
one that appears in the output of the quota report command, discussed in “Displaying Information about Quotas.”
You use the quota resize command after changing limits for a group or user. For
example, jdoe has a disk quota of 500 MB, as shown in the following example.
#Quota Target
/vol/home/user/jdoe
*
type
user
user
disk
500M
10M
files
10K
10K
Use the quota resize command to update the quota if jdoe’s disk quota were
increased, as shown in the following example:
#Quota Target
/vol/home/user/jdoe
*
type
user
user
disk
600M
10M
files
10K
10K
+RZ4XRWD5HVL]H$IIHFWV1HZO\$GGHG4XRWD7DUJHWV
The quota resize command usually ignores newly added quota targets. For each
entry that it skips, the quota resize command prints the following message:
quota resize: new entry on line n in /etc/quotas
where n is a line number.
The quota resize command does not ignore newly added quota targets in the
following situation:
If a default quota applies to the creator of a file, an active quota record is created for
the owner of the file. If a newly added quota target is the user or group that has an
active quota record, the quota resize command does not ignore the newly
added quota target. That is, if a user or group has written to a file that is under the
control of a default quota, a newly created entry in the quotas file for this user or
group takes effect after a quota resize command.
After you edit the quotas file, if you want to make sure that all entries take effect,
enter the quota off command followed by the quota on command. In this way,
all quotas listed in the file become active.
&UHDWLQJDQ$FWLYH4XRWDIRUD4XRWD7DUJHW
You can use the quota resize command so that quotas can take effect on targets
that have not created any files.
Because a quota becomes active when a quota target has written a file, you can make
an entry in the quotas file an active quota by following these steps:
1.
Create a file.
2.
Change ownership of the file to the quota target.
11-6 Dell PowerVault 720N, 740N, and 760N System Administrator and Command Reference Guide
Because the quota target now has an active quota record, you can enter the quota
resize command, including the volume name, to make the quota entry go into
effect. This procedure takes less time than executing the quota off command followed by the quota on command because only the newly active quota is
recalculated.
'LVSOD\LQJ,QIRUPDWLRQ$ERXW4XRWDV
The quota report command displays the current consumption of files and space
for each quota target and for each user and group that is under quota restrictions.
For example, if a user quota is specified in the quotas file for a user named jdoe, the
quota report shows how many files and how much disk space have been used by
jdoe. The Quota Specifier column in the quota report shows the same information as
the Quota Target column in the quotas file, with the following exception:
If a user or group is under default quota restrictions, quota report displays information about the user or group as if the user or group had an entry in the quotas file.
In this case, the Quota Specifier column in the quota report is blank.
With a path argument, quota report displays information about all quotas that
apply to the specified file.
&UHDWLQJD8VHU4XRWD
Follow these steps to limit disk space used by a user named jdoe:
1.
Decide who should be limited by a disk quota. In this example, the user is the
owner of /vol/home/user/jdoe. The filer restricts disk usage of files with the same
UID as /vol/home/user/jdoe.
2.
Add the following line to the quotas file:
YROKRPHXVHUMGRH
XVHU
0
.
Substitute the values you want for 300M and 20K. You can also use the UID of
jdoe or the name jdoe if you have set up a passwd file on the filer or the NIS database. If you want the restrictions to apply to a volume other than the root volume,
for example, the home volume, enter the following line:
YROKRPHXVHUMGRH
XVHU#YROKRPH
0
.
Substitute the values you want for 300M and 20K.
3.
Use the quota on command, including the volume name. For example, if quotas are already on for the home volume, enter the following commands:
TXRWDRIIKRPH
TXRWDRQKRPH
Quotas and Maximum Number of Files11-7
Alternatively, if jdoe is already under quota restriction, for example, if his files
were restricted by a default user quota, enter the following command so that the
user quota you just created can take effect:
TXRWDUHVL]HKRPH
&UHDWLQJD*URXS4XRWD
Follow these steps to limit disk space used by a group named service:
1.
Decide which group should be limited by a disk quota. In this example, the group
is the owner of /vol/home/user/service. That is, the filer restricts disk usage of
files with the same GID as /vol/home/group/service.
2.
Add the following line to the quotas file:
YROKRPHJURXSVHUYLFH
JURXS
0
.
Substitute the values you want for 700M and 100K. You can also use the GID of
the group or the name of the group. If you want the restrictions to apply to a volume other than the root volume, for example, the home volume, enter the
following line:
YROKRPHJURXSVHUYLFH
JURXS#YROKRPH
0
.
Substitute the values you want for 700M and 100K.
3.
Use the quota on command. If quotas are already on for the home volume,
enter the following commands:
TXRWDRIIKRPH
TXRWDRQKRPH
Alternatively, if the service group is already under quota restriction, for example,
if the group’s files are already restricted by a default group quota, enter the following command so that the group quota you just created can take effect:
TXRWDUHVL]HKRPH
5HPRYLQJ4XRWD5HVWULFWLRQV
To remove quota restrictions, follow these steps:
1.
Remove the appropriate line or lines from the quotas file.
2.
Use the quota off and quota on commands, including the volume name.
For example, enter the following commands:
TXRWDRIIKRPH
TXRWDRQKRPH
11-8 Dell PowerVault 720N, 740N, and 760N System Administrator and Command Reference Guide
:KHQ4XRWDV$UH([FHHGHG
This section describes how the filer responds when quotas are exceeded and what
users see on the client systems.
0HVVDJHV'LVSOD\HGE\WKH)LOHU:KHQ4XRWDV$UH([FHHGHG
When it receives a write request, the filer first determines whether the file to be written is in a qtree. If the write would exceed the qtree quota, the filer logs the following
error message:
tid tree_id: tree quota exceeded on volume_name
If the qtree is not full but the write would cause either the user or group quota to be
exceeded, the filer logs one of the following errors:
uid user_id: disk quota exceeded
gid group_id: disk quota exceeded
where user_id is the user’s UID and group_id is the group’s GID.
To the client, the filer returns an “out of disk space” error to the NFS write request or
a “disk full” error to the CIFS write request. The following sections describe how the
clients notify the users about quotas being exceeded.
0HVVDJHV'LVSOD\HGRQ1)6&OLHQWV
If a write from an NFS client to a filer causes a quota to be exceeded, the user experience depends on the operating system version and the application.
If a UNIX client mounts a filer without the noquota option, the login program on
the client checks to see whether the user has reached the disk quota and file quota
each time the user tries to log in to the client. The client displays a message to alert
the user before displaying the system prompt if a quota was reached. In the following
example, a user reached the disk quota on the filer mounted as /t/filer on a client
named client2:
rlogin client2
You have mail.
Block limit reached on /t/filer
client2%
Not all versions of UNIX perform the quota check as described in this section. Also,
the exact message printed varies from one version to another.
If a write causes a quota to be exceeded, the error message seen by the user
depends on the application. For example, on a SunOS 4.x client, if a user tries to save
a file using vi when his or her disk quota is reached, the error message is
Disc quota exceeded [Warning - /t/filer/home/jdoe/file1 is incomplete]
Quotas and Maximum Number of Files11-9
0HVVDJHV'LVSOD\HGRQ&,)6&OLHQWV
If a write from a CIFS client to a filer causes a quota to be exceeded, the user experience depends on the operating system and the application. Following are two
examples:
‡
An application might display a message as follows:
&DQQRWZULWHILOHILOHQDPH
‡
When a user tries to copy a file to the filer using the Explorer in Windows 95, the
error is as follows:
&DQQRWFUHDWHRUUHSODFHILOHQDPH&DQQRWUHDGIURPWKH
VRXUFHILOHRUGLVN.
,QFUHDVLQJWKH0D[LPXP1XPEHURI)LOHV
$ERXW,QFUHDVLQJWKH0D[LPXP1XPEHURI)LOHV
Initially, the maximum number of files on the filer is set at one for every 32 KB of disk
space. The number is increased automatically when you add a new disk. The increase
is determined by the filer, and is not a user-specified value.
Unlike UNIX, which requires that you specify the maximum number of files in a file
system when you create the file system, the filer enables you to use the maxfiles
command to increase the number of files for each volume at any time.
NOTE: Use caution when increasing the maximum number of files because after you
increase this number, you can never reduce it. As new files are created, the file
system consumes the additional disk space required to hold the inodes for the
additional files; there is no way for the filer to release that disk space. An inode is a
data structure containing information about files.
9LHZLQJWKH1XPEHURI)LOHVLQD9ROXPH
To see how many files are in a volume, use the df -i pathname command, which
shows how many inodes have been used, or use the maxfiles volume
command.
For example, both of the following commands show that the home volume has used
2,872 inodes:
df -i /vol/home
Filesystem
/vol/home/
iused
2872
ifree
118090
%iused
2%
Mounted on
/vol/home
maxfiles home
Volume home: maximum number of files is currently 120962 (2872 used)
11-10 Dell PowerVault 720N, 740N, and 760N System Administrator and Command Reference Guide
Information generated by the maxfiles command is available through SNMP using
the Dell custom MIB. For more information about the MIB, see “About the Dell Custom MIB” in Chapter 4.
7KHGI&RPPDQG
$ERXWWKHGI&RPPDQG
To verify the amount of free disk space on the filer, enter the df command on the
filer. Information generated from the df command is also available through SNMP,
using the Dell custom MIB, which is described in “About the Dell Custom MIB” in
Chapter 4.
With the -i option, the command displays the number of used inodes and the number of available inodes. Following is an example of the df -i command:
df -i /vol/home
Filesystem
/vol/home/
iused
240843
ifree
121525
%iused
66%
Mounted on
/vol/home
The total amount of disk space shown in the df output is less than the sum of available space on all disks installed in the volume.
NOTE: As with the UNIX FFS (Fast File System), the filer reserves 10 percent of the
total disk space for efficiency, which df does not count as part of the file system
space.
8VLQJWKHGI&RPPDQG:LWKTWUHHV
When you enter a df command with a path name on a client, the command returns
the amount of free space in the file system containing the path name. For example, if
the filer is mounted on the client as /t/filer, the df command on the client displays
the disk information about the /t/filer file system as follows:
df /t/filer/engineering/jdoe
Filesystem
filer:/
kbytes
used
avail capacity Mounted on
2097151 1646923 450228
79% /t/filer
However, if you defined qtrees on the filer, the information about available space
could be misleading because the actual space available might be less. For example, if
/engineering is a qtree with a disk quota of 1,800 MB, the space available in the /t/
filer/engineering directory is less than that in the df command output shown in the
preceding example.
If you have qtrees on the filer, Dell recommends that you mount each qtree separately. For example, if the filer named filer has two qtrees, /vol/home/engineering and
/vol/home/marketing, mount filer:/vol/home/engineering and filer:/vol/home/marketing on two mount points, for example, /t/filer/engineering and /t/filer/marketing.
Quotas and Maximum Number of Files11-11
In this way, the filer takes the qtrees into consideration when responding to a df
command from a client and returns the amount of free space in each qtree, as
opposed to the space available in the entire file system.
11-12 Dell PowerVault 720N, 740N, and 760N System Administrator and Command Reference Guide
&+$37(5
'DWD%DFNXS
,QWURGXFWLRQWR'DWD%DFNXS
0HDQLQJRI'DWD%DFNXS
Data backup means copying data from disk to tape. While the filer dump command
enables you to copy data to standard output, this chapter mainly discusses how to
copy data to tape.
:K\<RX:DQWWR%DFN8S'DWD)URP'LVNWR7DSH
The following list describes the reasons for backing up data from disk to tape:
‡
You can restore data from tape if an application or a user inadvertently corrupts or
deletes files that cannot be recovered from snapshots.
‡
You can store the backup tapes at an off-site archive to protect the data against
natural disasters.
‡
After you reinstall the file system on the filer (for example, for migrating to larger
disks or for converting a single-volume filer to a multivolume filer), you can
restore data from tape.
'LIIHUHQW0HWKRGVIRU%DFNLQJ8SWKH)LOHU
The filer supports the dump command backup method.
&$87,21,I\RXXVHWKHtarRUcpioFRPPDQGRQDQ1)6FOLHQWWREDFNXS
WKHILOHUEHDZDUHWKDWVRPHYHUVLRQVRIWKHVHFRPPDQGVIDLOZLWKILOHV\V
WHPVWKDWFRQWDLQORQJSDWKQDPHVXQXVXDOILOHQDPHVRUKDUGOLQNV
Data Backup 12-1
+RZWKHGXPS&RPPDQG:RUNV
3XUSRVHRIWKHGXPS&RPPDQG
The dump command writes file system data from disk to tape in a format that
enables you to restore the data to a filer using the filer’s restore command or the
Solaris ufsrestore command.
:KDWWKHGXPS&RPPDQG&DQ%DFN8S
The dump command can back up a file, a directory, a qtree, or an entire volume. In
the dump command, you specify the complete path name to be backed up. In this
chapter, this path name is referred to as the “dump path.”
+RZWKHGXPS&RPPDQG8VHV6QDSVKRWVWR%DFN8S
'DWD
The dump path can exist in the filer’s active file system or in a snapshot. If the dump
path is in an active file system, the filer takes a snapshot of the active file system
before it writes the data to tape. The snapshot capability ensures that the data written
to tape is consistent. As a result, you need not take the filer or volume off-line before
initiating the backup.
The dump command names each snapshot it creates snapshot_for_backup.n. The n
at the end of the snapshot name is an integer starting at 0. Each time the dump command creates a snapshot, it increments the integer by 1. The filer resets the integer to
0 when it is rebooted.
The dump command automatically deletes the snapshot after it successfully finishes
the backup.
When the filer executes multiple dump commands simultaneously, the dump commands create multiple snapshots. For example, if the filer is running two dump
commands simultaneously, you find these snapshots in the volumes from which data
is being backed up: snapshot_for_backup.0 and snapshot_for_backup.1.
&$87,21:KHQWKHdumpFRPPDQGLVLQSURJUHVVWKHILOHUGRHVQRWDOORZ
\RXWRGHOHWHWKHVQDSVKRWBIRUBEDFNXSQILOH,I\RXDUHEDFNLQJXSGDWD
IURPDQKRXUO\GDLO\RUZHHNO\VQDSVKRWPDNHVXUHWKDWWKHVQDSVKRW
VFKHGXOHUGRHVQRWGHOHWHWKHVQDSVKRWEHIRUHWKHdumpFRPPDQGLV
ILQLVKHG
0HWDGDWD%HLQJ%DFNHG8S
In addition to backing up data within files, the dump command backs up these types
of metadata:
‡
‡
UNIX group ID, owner ID, and file permissions
UNIX access time and modify time
12-2 Dell PowerVault 720N, 740N, and 760N System Administrator and Command Reference Guide
‡
‡
‡
‡
File type, including UNIX symbolic links and hard links
File size
DOS name, attributes, and create time
Windows NT ACLs
NOTE: The CIFS attributes (DOS name, attributes, and create time, and Windows NT
ACLs) can be restored only with the filer’s restore command. You cannot use the
Solaris ufsrestore command to restore these attributes, although the
ufsrestore command can restore the data in CIFS-created files.
+RZWR([FOXGH&HUWDLQ7\SHVRI'DWD)URPWKH%DFNXS
Options in the dump command enable you to exclude certain types of data from the
backup.
:LQGRZV17$&/V
You can choose not to back up Windows NT ACLs if the data is used only by NFS
clients.
([FOXGH/LVW
You can choose to exclude files and directories from a backup if you do not need
those files and directories again. For example, you can exclude temporary files generated by some applications or object files produced during program compilation.
When the dump command traverses the dump path, it compares file and directory
names to each exclude string specified in the dump command. If the name exactly
matches the string, the file is excluded from the backup.
NOTE: You can reduce the amount of backup data by using an exclude list in the
dump command. However, an exclude list increases the amount of time needed to
finish a dump command because the filer must compare each file name to the
exclude list to determine whether the file should be backed up.
'HYLFHV8VHGE\WKH'XPS&RPPDQG
The dump command can back up data to these devices:
‡
‡
Tape drives or tape stackers attached to the filer
Tape drives or tape stackers attached to another computer, provided that the following requirements are met:
‡
‡
The computer supports the rmt protocol.
The filer has a trusting relationship with the remote computer to which the
tape drive is attached. This relationship enables the filer to write to the tape
drive. For example, if you want to back up the filer to a tape drive attached to
another filer, include the filer in the /etc/hosts.equiv file of the destination
Data Backup 12-3
filer. If you want to back up the filer to a tape drive attached to a SunOS or
Solaris computer, include the filer in the /.rhosts file on the computer.
‡
‡
The filer can resolve the name of the computer to which the tape drive is
attached using the information about the computer in the filer’s /etc/hosts
file or in the DNS database.
Standard output, provided that you enter the dump command through rsh.
Because the console is not a standard output device, you cannot write to standard output if you enter the dump command on the console.
,QFUHPHQWDO%DFNXSV
You can specify the level of backup in a dump command (“dump level”), which ranges
from level 0 to level 9. A level 0 backup is a full backup: It writes all data in the dump
path to the backup media. Backups at dump level ranging from level 1 to level 9 are
incremental backups. In an incremental backup, only files changed since the previous
level are written to the backup media.
:KHUHWR(QWHUWKH'XPS&RPPDQG
You can enter the dump command through the console or through rsh.
%HQHILWVRI(QWHULQJWKHGXPS&RPPDQG7KURXJKUVK
Entering the dump command through rsh gives you these benefits:
‡
When the dump command is in progress, you can still use the console to manage the filer. If the dump command entered on the console is backing up a large
number of files, you cannot use the console for a long time.
‡
‡
You can start multiple dump commands through rsh.
‡
‡
It is less likely to inadvertently terminate the dump command. If you enter a
dump command on the console, it could be terminated by a Ctrl-C entered on a
host connected to the filer using telnet.
You can automate filer backups through shell scripts.
You can write data to standard output.
%HQHILWVRI(QWHULQJWKHGXPS&RPPDQGRQWKH&RQVROH
If you enter the dump command on the console, you can read and respond to screen
messages displayed by the command. For example, the command might prompt you
for another tape to complete the backup. A dump command entered through rsh
terminates and does not generate any messages when the command needs user
intervention.
12-4 Dell PowerVault 720N, 740N, and 760N System Administrator and Command Reference Guide
)RUPDWRIWKH%DFNXS'DWD
$ERXW7KLV6HFWLRQ
When the filer executes the dump command, it displays messages showing the different passes of the dump command. This section discusses the format of the
backup data and what data is written to tape in each pass of the dump command.
%DFNXS'DWD)RUPDW
The backup data format is organized based on inodes. An inode for a file or a directory
contains information for tracking the file’s or the directory’s type, time stamps, bad
blocks, and so on.
On each tape, the dump command creates two maps:
‡
The first map shows which inodes are used in the directory to be dumped. The
filer uses this map to determine which files have been deleted or moved
between incremental dumps.
‡
The second map shows which inodes have been written to the tape. The filer
uses this map to verify the accuracy of the restore operation when the backup
data is restored.
The dump command writes files and directories to tape by inode numbers.
)LYH3DVVHVRIWKHGXPS&RPPDQG
The dump command consists of five passes. After you enter the dump command,
the filer displays messages showing which pass is in progress.
In passes 1 and 2, the filer traverses directories to search for files to be backed up.
The filer backs up a file if the file meets these requirements:
‡
‡
‡
The file is included in the dump path.
The file has changed since the previous backup at a lower dump level.
The file is not excluded by the exclude list specified in the dump command.
([DPSOH
If you initiate a level-1 dump command to back up /vol/vol0, the filer searches for files
in /vol/vol0 that have changed since the previous level-0 backup.
In passes 1 and 2, the filer also creates the maps described in “Format of the Backup
Data.”
In passes 3 and 4, the filer writes the data to tape in ascending inode order.
In pass 5, the filer writes the ACL information to tape.
Data Backup 12-5
+RZWKHGXPS&RPPDQG:ULWHVDQG
6WRUHV'DWDRQ7DSH
$ERXW7KLV6HFWLRQ
The dump command transfers a number of blocks of data at a time to an output file
on tape. This section provides information about how the command writes and stores
these blocks of data, which helps you decide the dump command format appropriate
for your backup.
0HDQLQJRI7DSH%ORFN
A tape block is 1 kilobyte of data. In the dump command, you can specify the number
of tape blocks that are transferred in each write operation. This number is called the
“blocking factor.”
&$87,21,I\RXSODQWRUHVWRUHWKHEDFNHGXSILOHVRQDFRPSXWHURWKHU
WKDQWKHILOHUPDNHVXUHWKDWWKHEORFNLQJIDFWRU\RXFKRRVHGRHVQRW
H[FHHGWKHPD[LPXPEORFNLQJIDFWRUVXSSRUWHGE\WKDWFRPSXWHU,I\RX
XVHDILOHUWRUHVWRUHWKHEDFNXSGDWDWKHEORFNLQJIDFWRUPXVWQRW
H[FHHG 0HDQLQJRI7DSH)LOH
A tape file is a dump output file on tape. It can also be an entire tape. You can back up
a dump path to one tape file on a tape, multiple tape files on a tape, or multiple tape
files on multiple tapes.
In the dump command, you can specify the maximum size of the tape file in terms of
tape blocks. For example, if you want the maximum tape file to be 2 GB, specify
2,097,151. (That is, the largest tape file can contain 2,097,151 tape blocks, which are 1
kilobyte each.)
&$87,21,IWKHEDFNHGXSILOHVDUHWREHUHVWRUHGRQDFRPSXWHURWKHU
WKDQWKHILOHUPDNHVXUHWKDWWKHWDSHILOHVL]H\RXFKRRVHGRHVQRWH[FHHG
WKHPD[LPXPWDSHILOHVL]HVXSSRUWHGE\WKDWFRPSXWHU,I\RXXVHDILOHUWR
UHVWRUHWKHEDFNXSGDWDWKHWDSHILOHVL]HFDQEHDVODUJHDVDVLQJOHWDSH
:KHQWKH'XPS&RPPDQG:ULWHVWR0XOWLSOH7DSH)LOHV
When the data being backed up exceeds the capacity of a tape, the dump command
automatically writes to the next tape file specified in the command. If the current tape
file is the last tape file listed on the dump command, the filer prompts you to load
another tape.
If you specify the maximum tape file size in the dump command, the command
writes to the next tape file when the backup data reaches that size, regardless of the
amount of space left in the current tape.
12-6 Dell PowerVault 720N, 740N, and 760N System Administrator and Command Reference Guide
A tape can contain multiple tape files, but any tape must contain at least one complete tape file.
'LIIHUHQW7\SHVRI7DSH)LOHV
The dump command can use these types of tape files:
‡
Local or remote. (Refer to “Devices Used by the Dump Command” for more
information about where the tape devices can be located.)
‡
Rewind or norewind. If the tape file is a rewind file, the filer rewinds the tape
after it finishes writing the tape file. If you want the dump command to write
multiple tape files on the same tape, specify norewind tape files in the dump
command.
The name of a norewind tape file begins with an n (for example, nrst0a); the
name of a rewind tape file begins with an r (for example, rst0a).
‡
Unload/reload tape files. These tape files apply only if you are backing up to tapes
in tape stackers. When you use these tape files, the dump command unloads the
tape when it reaches the end of tape, and then the tape stacker reloads another
tape.
The name of an unload/reload tape file begins with a u (for example, urst0a).
An unload/reload tape file cannot be a norewind tape file. For example, do not
specify unrst0a.
NOTE: If the tape stacker is attached to a remote host, the dump command can
reload the tape only if that host supports automatic reloading.
‡
Standard output, which is specified as - in the dump command.
'HWHUPLQLQJWKH$PRXQWRI%DFNXS'DWD
'HVFULSWLRQ
Before you enter the dump command, you must determine the amount of backup
data so that you can estimate the number of tape files and the number of tapes
required for the backup.
The procedure for estimating the amount of data depends on whether the data is in a
qtree.
6WHSIRU(VWLPDWLQJWKH$PRXQWRI'DWD,I<RX%DFN8S$
TWUHH
To display the number of kilobytes used for the qtree, enter the quota report
command.
Data Backup 12-7
6WHSVIRU(VWLPDWLQJWKH$PRXQWRI'DWDLI<RX%DFN8S
'DWD1RW,Q$TWUHH
The procedure for estimating the amount of backup data depends on whether the filer
is mounted on an NFS client or is shared by a CIFS client.
,IWKH)LOHU,V0RXQWHGRQDQ1)6&OLHQW
Follow these steps to determine the amount of backup data from an NFS client:
1.
On the NFS client, change directory to the mount point.
2.
Enter the following command for each directory you want to back up:
GXVSDWKQDPH
Example: If the NFS client mounts the filer to /filer and you want to back up the
/etc and /home directories, enter these commands:
FGILOHU
GXVHWFKRPH
The command output shows the amount of space allocated for the directories.
Refer to the documentation for your client system for interpreting the output
because the output is written in different units (for example, 512-byte units or
1,024 units) depending on the operating system.
,IWKH)LOHU,V6KDUHGE\D&,)6&OLHQW
Follow these steps to determine the amount of backup data from a CIFS client:
1.
On the CIFS client, point to the shared file or directory that you want to back up.
2.
Right-click to display the pull-down menu.
3.
Click Properties to display the number of bytes used by the file or directory.
'HWHUPLQLQJWKH1XPEHURI7DSHVIRUWKH
%DFNXS
'HVFULSWLRQ
You must determine the number of tapes required for the backup before entering the
dump command for these reasons:
‡
You can ensure that the dump command will not run out of tapes and be
incomplete.
‡
You can load all tapes required in the tape drives or stackers in advance for an
unattended backup. If you do not load enough tapes before entering the dump
command and you start the dump command from the console, the filer prompts
12-8 Dell PowerVault 720N, 740N, and 760N System Administrator and Command Reference Guide
you to load additional tapes. If you start the dump command through rsh, you
do not see the prompts from the filer and the dump command cannot be completed because of the lack of tapes.
3UHUHTXLVLWHV
You must meet these prerequisites before you can determine the number of tape
files required:
‡
The filer must be able to display tape drive information. To learn how to display
tape drive information, refer to “Displaying Tape Device Information” in
Chapter 14.
‡
You must know the amount of data to be backed up. For information about determining the amount of backup data, refer to “Determining the Amount of Backup
Data.”
6WHSV
Follow these steps to determine the number of tapes required for the backup:
1.
Determine the capacity of the tape drives you are using for the backup.
2.
Determine the amount of data that needs to be backed up.
3.
Determine the amount of space that will be left unused on a tape. For example, if
the dump command specifies several tape files, the command automatically
writes to the next tape file even though there is space left in the current tape.
Example: The following dump command starts the second tape file on rst1a
after writing 2,000,000 tape blocks to the first tape file, even though the tape in
rst0a contains unused space:
GXPSXI%UVWDUVWDYROYRO
3UHUHTXLVLWHVIRUWKHGXPS&RPPDQG
$ERXW7KLV6HFWLRQ
The prerequisites for the dump command depend on the format of the dump command. For example, the prerequisites for backing up data to a remote tape drive and
to a local tape drive are different. This section describes the general prerequisites that
must be met regardless of the dump command format. It also describes the specific
prerequisites for specific backup procedures.
Data Backup 12-9
*HQHUDO3UHUHTXLVLWHV
You must meet these prerequisites for the dump command to run successfully:
‡
You must have enough tape space for the backup. Refer to “Determining the
Number of Tapes for the Backup” to determine the number of tapes required for
the backup.
‡
The tape drive is available. That is, it is not currently used for data backup or
recovery.
3UHUHTXLVLWHVIRU%DFNLQJ8SWRD1RQTXDOLILHG7DSH
'ULYH
The tape drive must be included in the /etc/cloned_tapes file.
3UHUHTXLVLWHVIRU%DFNLQJ8SWRD5HPRWH7DSH'ULYH
These are the prerequisites for backing up data to a tape drive attached to a remote
host:
‡
You must know the maximum blocking factor supported by the remote host to
which data is backed up. Some computers allow a blocking factor greater than
the default used by the dump command (63). Make sure that the blocking factor
you specify in the dump command does not exceed the maximum blocking factor supported by the remote host.
‡
If you use a blocking factor greater than 63, you must know the maximum blocking factor supported by the system that you plan to use for restoring the data. If
the maximum blocking factor is 63 on the system for restoring data, that system
cannot restore data from a tape file created with a blocking factor greater
than 63.
‡
You must know the maximum tape file size supported by the remote host to
which data is backed up. For example, some UNIX systems do not support tape
files larger than 2 GB. In the dump command, you need to specify the tape file
size appropriate to your remote host.
‡
If you use a tape file size larger than 2 GB, you must know the maximum tape file
size supported by the system that you plan to use for restoring the data. If the
maximum tape file size is 2 GB on the system for restoring data, that system
might not be able to restore data from a tape file greater than 2 GB.
‡
‡
The remote host must support the rmt protocol.
The filer being backed up must have a trusting relationship with the remote host.
12-10 Dell PowerVault 720N, 740N, and 760N System Administrator and Command Reference Guide
5HFRPPHQGDWLRQVIRU3HUIRUPLQJD
%DFNXS
$ERXW7KLV6HFWLRQ
Some recommendations in this section are applicable to all kinds of backups; some
recommendations depend on your priorities, such as your need to minimize backup
time or to minimize tape handling.
*HQHUDO5HFRPPHQGDWLRQV
Follow the recommendations in this section when you back up data from the filer.
$YRLG%DFNLQJ8S7RR0XFK'DWDLQD6LQJOH'XPS&RPPDQG
The reasons are listed below:
‡
The dump command cannot be restarted. That is, if the dump command encounters an error, you cannot correct the error and proceed from the point where the
command fails. You must start the command from the beginning.
‡
The backup takes a long time to finish. This leaves you with a long time period
during which changed data cannot be written to tape by an incremental backup.
6WRUH,QFUHPHQWDO%DFNXSVIRUWKH6DPH'XPS3DWKRQWKH6DPH7DSH
If you want to do a subtree restore, you must restore from all incremental backups to
restore the most recent data. Having all the incremental backups in the same tape
minimizes tape management during the restore process.
:ULWH'RZQ4WUHH,QIRUPDWLRQ%HIRUH%DFNLQJ8STWUHHV
Record the information about qtrees if your backup contains qtrees. This is because
when you restore data from tape, the filer does not automatically re-create the qtrees.
You must re-create the qtrees into which data is to be restored. Having a record of all
qtrees enables you to re-create the qtrees quickly.
5HFRPPHQGDWLRQVIRU0LQLPL]LQJ%DFNXS7LPHDQG'DWD
/RVV
The recommendations in this section enable you to minimize both the time required
to perform a backup and the possibility of data loss. This is because the shorter the
time for the dump command to finish, the more incremental backups you can
perform. A large number of incremental backups minimize the amount of unrecoverable data.
NOTE: There is a disadvantage to having a large number of incremental backups:
When you restore data, you must restore from all the incremental backup tapes,
which might take a long time.
Data Backup 12-11
8VH0XOWLSOH/RFDO7DSH'ULYHV
Attach the maximum number of tape drives to the filer. The filer can write faster to a
local tape drive than to a tape drive attached to another system.
2UJDQL]H'DWDWREH%DFNHG8S
The first two passes of the dump command run faster if the dump path is one of
these:
‡
‡
‡
A volume
A qtree
Data not belonging to any qtrees
/LPLWWKH$PRXQWRI'DWDLQ(DFK%DFNXS
Limit the amount of data in a volume or qtree to be backed up to 200 GB.
6FKHGXOHWKH%DFNXSV$SSURSULDWHO\
Schedule backups when the load on the filer is light. Refer to “Example of Backing up
the Entire Filer” for an example of executing one full backup and several incremental
backups a night.
$YRLG8VLQJDQ([FOXGH/LVW
If you exclude certain files from the backup, the dump command takes longer
because it must compare each file name to the strings in the exclude list to determine
whether it should back up the file.
5HFRPPHQGDWLRQVIRU0LQLPL]LQJ'RZQWLPH'XULQJ'DWD
5HFRYHU\
The method used for restoring data has a greater effect on downtime than does the
dump command. However, it helps to keep the data in the dump path to 100 GB or
less because a full restore is more efficient than a partial restore. For example, it takes
less time to restore an entire 100-GB qtree than to extract 100 GB of data from a
500-GB backup.
5HFRPPHQGDWLRQVIRU0LQLPL]LQJWKH1XPEHURI7DSH
'ULYHV5HTXLUHG
Because the filer supports the rmt protocol, several filers can share the same tape
drive. Attach the tape drive to the filer with the most data to back up. Follow these
guidelines if multiple filers back up to the same tape drive:
‡
Use a private network for the backup so that the traffic load on the network does
not slow down the backup process.
‡
Schedule the dump command on each filer so that it starts only when no other
filers are using the tape drive.
12-12 Dell PowerVault 720N, 740N, and 760N System Administrator and Command Reference Guide
7KHGXPS&RPPDQG6\QWD[
&RPPDQG6\QWD[
The dump command syntax is as follows:
dump [ option argument ] path
5XOHVIRU(QWHULQJWKHGXPS&RPPDQG
The following list describes the rules for entering the dump command:
‡
option can be a list. You must list all options together; do not separate the options
by commas or spaces.
‡
argument can be a list of arguments, each of which is associated with an option.
The arguments are separated by spaces.
‡
If an option takes a list of arguments, the arguments in the list are separated by
commas.
‡
‡
‡
List the arguments in the same order as you list the options.
‡
Always precede the volume name by /vol/ even though the volume is a root
volume. This is because between different levels of backups, you might have
changed the root volume.
The dump level must be the first option. You can type other options in any order.
path is the complete path name of the file or directory to be backed up by the
dump command.
NOTE: Some options do not have any arguments.
([DPSOHRID6LPSOHGXPS&RPPDQG
The following example illustrates how you use the dump command syntax:
dump 0ufb rst0a 63 /vol/vol0/
2SWLRQV
The following list describes the options:
‡
‡
‡
‡
0 is the dump level.
u updates the /etc/dumpdates file.
f specifies the tape file.
b specifies the blocking factor.
$UJXPHQWV
The 0 and u options do not have arguments.
Data Backup 12-13
The argument for the f option is rst0a (the tape file name), and the argument for
the b option is 63 (blocking factor). The rst0a and 63 arguments must be listed in
the same order as the f and b options.
3DWK
The path name is /vol/vol0/, which means that all files and directories in the vol0 volume are backed up to tape.
NOTE: The dump command consists of more options than those described in this
section. All options are described in greater detail in the next section.
'HVFULSWLRQVRIGXPS2SWLRQV
Table 12-1 describes the meanings of the dump command options.
7DEOHGXPS&RPPDQG'HVFULSWLRQV
2SWLRQ
0HDQLQJ
Dump
level
It is mandatory. It can be a number from 0 to 9. Level 0 is a full
backup; levels 1 through 9 are for incremental backups.
A
The dump command does not back up Windows NT ACLs.
b
It is the blocking factor. It takes a number as an argument, which is
the number of 1-KB blocks in each write.
If you use a local tape drive for backup, the number should be from
4 to 64. If you use a remote tape device for backup, the number
must be from 4 to 256. The dump command generates an error
message if you specify a number that is out of range for your tape
drive. The default argument is 63.
B
It takes a number as an argument, which is the number of tape
blocks in a tape file. The dump command writes the specified
number of tape blocks to a tape file before starting a new tape file.
The argument must be equal to or larger than the argument to the
b option. If you do not specify this option, the dump command
writes data until it reaches the end of tape.
f
It is mandatory. It takes the tape file name as an argument. You
can specify a comma-separated list of tape file names.
l
It backs up only specific files and directories in the dump path. It
must be used with the n option.
n
It takes a string as an argument, which is the name of the backup
to be recorded in the /etc/dumpdates file. It is required if you use
the l option.
12-14 Dell PowerVault 720N, 740N, and 760N System Administrator and Command Reference Guide
7DEOHGXPS&RPPDQG'HVFULSWLRQVFRQWLQXHG
2SWLRQ
0HDQLQJ
Q
It takes a volume name as argument. The dump command backs
up all data in the specified volume that does not reside in a qtree.
You cannot perform incremental backups on data that is backed up
with the Q option. However, you can use both the Q option and u
option to record the backup in the /etc/dumpdates file. The entry in
the /etc/dumpdates file enables you to keep a history of the
backups.
u
The dump command updates the /etc/dumpdates file, which contains the dump path, the dump level, and the creation time of the
snapshot used by the dump command. You must use this option if
you plan to perform incremental backups in the future.
X
It takes a string as argument. You can specify a comma-separated
list of strings. If the name of a file in the dump path matches one
of the strings, the dump command excludes that file from the
backup. Each string for the X option applies to files at every directory under the dump path.
The following list describes the rules for specifying the strings:
‡
To exclude a file, the name of the file must match the string
exactly. For example, if you specify core, only those files
whose names are core are excluded. A file named a.core
is not excluded.
‡
‡
You can use the asterisk (*) as a wildcard character.
‡
Because the strings in the list are comma-separated, if you
want to exclude files whose names contain a comma, precede the comma in the string with a backslash.
‡
You can specify up to 32 strings for the X option.
The wildcard character must be the first or last character of
the string. Each string can contain up to two wildcard characters. For example, you can specify *.core, core.*, or
*core.*, but not core*.1.
8VLQJWKHGXPS&RPPDQGWR%DFN8S
'DWDWR7DSH
'HVFULSWLRQ
You can enter the dump command at any time to back up data in a specified path.
After the dump command is finished, the data in the path is written to tape.
Data Backup 12-15
3UHUHTXLVLWHV
You must meet all the prerequisites described in “Prerequisites for the Dump
Command.”
5HVWULFWLRQV
You can run up to four dump commands in parallel.
6WHSV
Follow these steps to execute a dump command:
1.
Prepare the number of tapes required, following the steps described in “Determining the Number of Tapes for the Backup.”
2.
Determine and note the blocking factor used in the backup. For more information
about blocking factors, refer to “Meaning of Tape Block.”
3.
Determine and note the tape file size used in the backup. For more information
about tape file size, refer to “Meaning of Tape File.”
4.
Enter the dump command in the appropriate format, using the examples that follow as a guide.
([DPSOHVRI/HYHO%DFNXSVWRD/RFDO7DSH)LOH
The following list provides examples of level-0 backups to a local tape file.
‡ dump 0f rst0a /vol/vol1/users/tom/specs
The command performs a full backup of the /vol/vol1/users/tom/specs directory.
After the dump command is finished, the filer rewinds the tape.
‡ dump 0uf rst0a /vol/vol1/users/tom
The command performs a full backup of the /vol/vol1/users/tom directory and
records the backup in the /etc/dumpdates file.
‡ dump 0fQ rst0a /vol/vol1
The command performs a full backup of all data in the /vol/vol1 volume that does
not belong in any qtrees.
([DPSOHVRI%DFNXSVWRD5HPRWH7DSH)LOH
‡ dump 0f filer1:nrst0a /vol/vol1
The command performs a backup to a tape drive attached to a filer named filer1.
‡ dump 0f unix_machine:/dev/rst0 /vol/vol1
The command performs a backup to a tape drive on a UNIX system.
12-16 Dell PowerVault 720N, 740N, and 760N System Administrator and Command Reference Guide
([DPSOHRIDQ,QFUHPHQWDO%DFNXSWRD/RFDO7DSH'ULYH
‡ dump 1uf nrst0a /vol/vol1
The command performs a level-1 backup of the /vol/vol1 volume to nrst0a. This
means that only files that have changed since the most recent level-0 backup are
written to tape. After the command is finished, it does not rewind the tape.
([DPSOHVRI%DFNXSVWR0XOWLSOH7DSH)LOHV
‡ dump 0f rst0a,rst1a /vol/vol1
The command backs up the /vol/vol1 volume to the tape on rst0a. If the volume exceeds the capacity of the tape on rst0a, the command writes the
second tape file to the tape on rst1a. Otherwise, it does not use the tape on
rst1a.
‡ dump 0f urst0a,urst0a /vol/vol1
The command backs up the /vol/vol1 volume to the tape in urst0a. After the
command finishes writing to the first tape drive, it does not rewind the tape. If
the volume exceeds the capacity of the tape on urst0a, the command writes
the second tape file to the same tape drive on urst0a. If the command needs
to write the third tape file, it prompts you to load a new tape.
NOTE: In this example, if you know in advance that the backup requires two tape files,
use rst0a as the second tape file name in the dump command so that the
command automatically rewinds the tape after it is finished.
([DPSOHRI%DFNLQJ8SD'LUHFWRU\)URPD6QDSVKRW
‡ dump 0f rst0a /vol/vol1/.snapshot/weekly.0/home/users
From the weekly snapshot, the command performs a level-0 backup of the /vol/
vol1/home/users qtree.
([DPSOHRI%DFNXSVWRD7DSH6WDFNHU
‡ dump 0f urst0a,urst0a,urst0a,nrst0a /vol/vol1
The command backs up the /vol/vol1 volume to a tape stacker. After the command finishes writing a tape file, it unloads the tape and reloads another tape.
After the command finishes writing the fourth tape file, it does not rewind the
tape.
([DPSOHRI%DFNLQJ8S0XOWLSOH)LOHVRU'LUHFWRULHVLQ
2QHGXPS&RPPDQG
‡ dump 0ufnl rst0a user.1.3.5 /vol/vol1/home
The n option specifies the name of the backup (user.1.3.5), which is
recorded in the /etc/dumpdates file. If you do not specify a name, the dump
Data Backup 12-17
command fails. The l option specifies that you interactively enter the names of
individual files and directories to be backed up from the /vol/vol1/home directory.
The filer displays some messages and a prompt for the names of the files and
directories you want to back up. Enter each name as a path name relative to the
dump path in the dump command. Do not specify “..” or specify a directory that
contains symbolic links. To end the list of names, use a blank line or press Ctrl-D.
Then the dump command displays messages about the progress of each pass of
the command.
The following example shows how to enter the relative path names for the directories to be backed up. The example ends the list of path names with a blank line.
DUMP: creating "snapshot_for_backup.0" snapshot.
creating....................................................
DUMP: Date of this level 0 dump: Tue Jun 3 12:47:14 1997
DUMP: Date of last level 0 dump: the epoch
DUMP: Dumping /vol/vol0/home to nrst0a
DUMP: mapping (Pass I) [regular files]
DUMP: Reading file names from standard input
user1
user3
user5
([DPSOHRI%DFNLQJ8S'DWD:LWKRXW$&/V
‡ dump 0uAf rst0a /vol/vol1
The command performs a level-0 backup of the /vol/vol1 volume. The A option
means that the backup does not include any Windows NT ACL information. Use
this option if the files in the volume are for NFS only.
([DPSOHRI6SHFLI\LQJD%ORFNLQJ)DFWRU
‡ dump 0ufb rst0a 32 /vol/vol1
The command performs a level-0 backup of the /vol/vol1 volume. The command
writes 32 KB of data at a time, enabling you to restore the data from systems
that limit each write to 32 KB.
([DPSOHRI6SHFLI\LQJD7DSH)LOH6L]H
‡ dump 0ufB nrst0a,nrst0a 2000000 /vol/vol1
The command performs a level-0 backup of the /vol/vol1 volume to the tape in
nrst0a using a tape file size of 2,000,000 tape blocks. After writing 2,000,000
tape blocks to the first tape file, the command does not rewind the tape; it continues writing the second tape file on the same tape. If there is more data to be
backed up after the command reaches the end of the second tape file, the command prompts you for a new tape.
12-18 Dell PowerVault 720N, 740N, and 760N System Administrator and Command Reference Guide
([DPSOHRI([FOXGLQJ)LOHV)URPD%DFNXS
‡ dump 0ufX rst0a tmp,*.o,core*,*backup*,usr\, /vol/vol1
The command performs a level-0 backup of the /vol/vol1 volume, which excludes
the files that meet one of these requirements:
— The name is tmp.
— The name ends in .o (for example, program.o).
— The name begins with core (for example, core.small).
— The name contains backup (for example, spec.backup.1).
— The name is usr,.
([DPSOHRI%DFNLQJ8SWRD7DSH6WDFNHU6KDUHGE\
0XOWLSOH)LOHUV
This section provides a sample schedule for backing up the following filers to the
same tape stacker:
‡
‡
‡
filer1, which contains 3 volumes
filer2, which contains 2 volumes
filer3, which contains 2 volumes
The schedule uses the following assumptions:
‡
‡
The level-0 backup takes 10 hours.
‡
Root on each filer has the permission to write to filer1
The tape stacker is attached to filer1, and the tape stacker contains two tape
drives.
According to this schedule, the filers perform the following types of backups:
‡
‡
The filers fully back up each volume once a week.
‡
The filers do not rewind the tape for each level-1 backup so that the subsequent
level-2 backup can be written immediately after the level-1 backup on the tape.
The filers perform a level-1 backup and a level-2 backup for each volume every
week.
Table 12-2 shows the sample backup schedule:
Data Backup 12-19
7DEOH6DPSOHRI%DFNLQJ8SWR7DSH6WDFNHU6KDUHGE\
0XOWLSOH)LOHUV
'D\RIZHHN
GXPSFRPPDQGVRQHDFKILOHU
Sunday
filer1:
dump 0uf urst0a,urst0a,urst0a /vol/vol1
filer3:
dump 1uf filer1:nrst1a /vol/vol6
filer2:
dump 2uf filer1:urst1a /vol/vol4
Monday
filer1:
dump 0uf urst0a,urst0a,urst0a /vol/vol2
filer3:
dump 1uf filer1:nrst1a /vol/vol7
filer2:
dump 2uf filer1:urst1a /vol/vol5
Tuesday
filer1:
dump 0uf urst0a,urst0a,urst0a /vol/vol3
filer1:
dump 1uf nrst1a /vol/vol1
filer3:
dump 2uf filer1:urst1a /vol/vol6
Wednesday
filer2:
dump 0uf filer1:urst0a,urst0a,urst0a /vol/vol4
filer1:
dump 1uf nrst1a /vol/vol2
filer3:
dump 2uf filer1:urst1a /vol/vol7
12-20 Dell PowerVault 720N, 740N, and 760N System Administrator and Command Reference Guide
7DEOH6DPSOHRI%DFNLQJ8SWR7DSH6WDFNHU6KDUHGE\
0XOWLSOH)LOHUVFRQWLQXHG
'D\RIZHHN
GXPSFRPPDQGVRQHDFKILOHU
Thursday
filer2:
dump 0uf filer1:urst0a,urst0a,urst0a /vol/vol5
filer1:
dump 1uf nrst1a /vol/vol3
filer1:
dump 2uf urst1a /vol/vol1
Friday
filer3:
dump 0uf filer1:urst0a,urst0a,urst0a /vol/vol6
filer2:
dump 1uf filer1:nrst1a /vol/vol4
filer1:
dump 2uf urst1a /vol/vol2
Saturday
filer3:
dump 0uf filer1:urst0a,urst0a,urst0a /vol/vol7
filer2:
dump 1uf filer1:nrst1a /vol/vol5
filer1:
dump 2uf urst1a /vol/vol3
([DPSOHRI%DFNLQJ8SWKH(QWLUH)LOHU
This section provides a sample backup schedule for backing up a filer with seven volumes. The schedule uses the following assumptions:
‡
‡
A low rate of change enables you to fit multiple incremental backups on one tape.
‡
The level-0 backup takes 10 hours.
Two incremental backups performed on each volume each week offer sufficient
data protection due to a low rate of change.
According to this schedule, the filer performs the following types of backups:
‡
‡
The filer fully backs up each volume once a week.
‡
The filer does not rewind the tape for each level-1 backup so that the subsequent
level-2 backup can be written immediately after the level-1 backup on the tape.
The filer performs a level-1 backup and a level-2 backup for each volume every
week.
Data Backup 12-21
Table 12-3 shows the sample backup schedule:
7DEOH6DPSOHRI%DFNLQJ8SWKH(QWLUH)LOHU
'D\RIZHHN
GXPSFRPPDQGV
Sunday
dump 0uf urst0a,urst0a,urst0a /vol/vol1
dump 1uf nrst1a /vol/vol6
dump 2uf urst1a /vol/vol4
Monday
dump 0uf urst0a,urst0a,urst0a /vol/vol2
dump 1uf nrst1a /vol/vol7
dump 2uf urst1a /vol/vol5
Tuesday
dump 0uf urst0a,urst0a,urst0a /vol/vol3
dump 1uf nrst1a /vol/vol1
dump 2uf urst1a /vol/vol6
Wednesday
dump 0uf urst0a,urst0a,urst0a /vol/vol4
dump 1uf nrst1a /vol/vol2
dump 2uf urst1a /vol/vol7
Thursday
dump 0uf urst0a,urst0a,urst0a /vol/vol5
dump 1uf nrst1a /vol/vol3
dump 2uf urst1a /vol/vol1
Friday
dump 0uf urst0a,urst0a,urst0a /vol/vol6
dump 1uf nrst1a /vol/vol4
dump 2uf urst1a /vol/vol2
Saturday
dump 0uf urst0a,urst0a,urst0a /vol/vol7
dump 1uf nrst1a /vol/vol5
dump 2uf urst1a /vol/vol3
12-22 Dell PowerVault 720N, 740N, and 760N System Administrator and Command Reference Guide
&+$37(5
'DWD5HFRYHU\
,QWURGXFWLRQWR'DWD5HFRYHU\
:K\<RX:DQWWR5HVWRUH'DWD)URP7DSH
This section describes why you want to restore data to the filer from tape.
)LOHV:HUH'HOHWHG)URP'LVNEXW%DFNHG8SWR7DSH
For example, if you inadvertently delete a file and want to restore the file, you can
recover the file from tape.
)LOHV$UH&RUUXSWHG
If some files are corrupted, you can restore the subtree containing the files.
1R'LVN6ORWV$UH$YDLODEOHIRU([SDQVLRQ
If the filer runs out of storage space, you can do the following tasks:
‡
‡
‡
‡
Back up the entire filer
Replace the current disks with disks of greater capacity
Set up volumes on new disks
Restore the filer from tapes
7KH(QWLUH)LOHU,V'DPDJHGDQG8QXVDEOH
If the entire filer is damaged and unusable, call Dell technical support to determine
whether you can repair the filer.
If you can repair the filer but some files are deleted during the repair process, you
need only restore the missing files. Otherwise, you need to reinitialize the disks and
restore all files from tape.
&$87,21%HIRUHLQLWLDOL]LQJGLVNVRQ\RXUILOHUFDOO'HOOWHFKQLFDOVXSSRUW
IRULQVWUXFWLRQV,QLWLDOL]LQJGLVNVGHVWUR\VDOOGDWDRQ\RXUGLVNV
Data Recovery 13-1
:KHQ<RX'R1RW5HFRYHU'DWD)URP7DSH
Recover a deleted file from tape only if you cannot recover the deleted file from any
snapshot on the filer. If the file is in a snapshot, copying the file to the active file system is faster than recovering the file from tape.
'LIIHUHQW0HWKRGVIRU5HFRYHULQJ'DWD
The filer supports these methods for recovering data that was backed up by the filer’s
dump command:
‡
Using the restore command on the filer to restore the file from a local or
remote tape drive. If you use a remote tape drive, the host for the tape drive
must support the rmt protocol.
‡
Using the UNIX ufsrestore command on a client that supports the SunOS
5.x/Solaris 2.x ufsdump format.
&$87,218VHWKH6RODULVufsrestoreFRPPDQGRQO\LI\RXUILOHUUXQV1)6
H[FOXVLYHO\,I\RXUILOHUUXQVWKH&,)6SURWRFROGRQRWXVHWKH6RODULV
ufsrestoreFRPPDQG'RLQJVRUHVXOWVLQGDWDORVV
:KDW'DWD&DQQRW%H5HFRYHUHG
The restore command cannot recover data that was backed up by commands
issued on other systems. For example, do not try to use the filer’s restore command to recover a tape file created by the Solaris ufsdump command.
81,;),OH3HUPLVVLRQVDQG:LQGRZV17$&/V
A file recovered by the restore command has the same UNIX file permissions and
Windows NT ACLs as it did when it was backed up. If you restore a file that has only
UNIX file permissions to an NTFS qtree or volume, the file has no Windows NT ACLs.
The filer uses only the UNIX file permissions on this file until you create Windows NT
ACLs on it.
6FRSHRI7KLV&KDSWHU
This chapter describes how to use the filer’s restore command for data recovery. It
does not describe how to use data recovery commands or programs on other systems. Refer to the documentation accompanying the other systems for information
about their data recovery commands or programs.
7KHUHVWRUH&RPPDQG6\QWD[
7KHUHVWRUH&RPPDQG6\QWD[
The syntax for the restore command is as follows:
restore [ function_key ] [ options ] [arguments] [subtree]
13-2 Dell PowerVault 720N, 740N, and 760N System Administrator and Command Reference Guide
5XOHVIRU8VLQJWKHUHVWRUH&RPPDQG
Follow these rules when you enter the restore command:
‡
‡
‡
Specify no more than one function key.
‡
Place the subtree parameter after the last argument.
Specify multiple options without intervening spaces.
Enter the arguments for each option in the order that you specify the options.
Separate each argument from the next with a space.
7KHUHVWRUH&RPPDQG)XQFWLRQ.H\V
Table 13-1 describes the function keys for the restore command.
7DEOHUHVWRUH&RPPDQG)XQFWLRQ.H\V
.H\
0HDQLQJ
r
Rebuilds the file system or subtree. If you are applying incrementals,
this must be the only option specified.
R
After the restore command is interrupted, this function key
restarts data recovery from the last tape file used successfully by the
command.
t
Lists all the file names on a tape. If you specify a path name, only the
files in the path name are listed.
x
Extracts an individual file or subtree from the backup.
7KHUHVWRUH&RPPDQGRSWLRQV
Table 13-2 describes the options for the restore command.
7DEOHUHVWRUH&RPPDQG2SWLRQV
2SWLRQ
$UJXPHQW
0HDQLQJ
b
number
Specifies the blocking factor. Use the same argument for the b option in the dump command.
f
tape_file
Specifies the name of the tape file. If you specify
“-”, restore reads from standard input.
Data Recovery 13-3
7DEOHUHVWRUH&RPPDQG2SWLRQVFRQWLQXHG
2SWLRQ
$UJXPHQW
0HDQLQJ
D
pathname
Specifies the absolute path name of a directory
into which the files are restored. Without the path
name, the files are restored to the directory from
which they were backed up.
If you created a backup before you installed multiple volumes on the filer, specify the path name into
which the backup is restored. For example, if you
backed up the /home directory when the filer contained a single volume and you want to restore
/home to /vol/engineering/home, specify /vol/
engineering/home as the target path name in the
restore command. Otherwise, the home backup
is restored to the /home directory of the root
volume.
s
number
Specifies the number of the file if multiple tape
files exist on a tape. File numbering starts at 1.
v
Specifies that restore takes place in verbose
mode. That is, restore displays each file name
preceded with its file type. The filer restores files
faster without the v option.
y
Specifies that restore not ask whether it should
terminate when getting an error. That is, if there are
bad blocks, restore skips over them and continues. This option is particularly useful if you use
restore through rsh. This is because without
the y option, if restore through rsh encounters
a read error, it terminates immediately.
A
Specifies that restore does not restore
Windows NT ACLs.
8VLQJWKHUHVWRUH&RPPDQG
'HVFULSWLRQ
Use the restore command if you want to recover data that was backed up by the
filer’s dump command. After you recover the data, the files contain the same data as
they did when you ran the dump command. You can use the restore command at
any time.
5HVWULFWLRQV
This section describes the restrictions of the restore command.
13-4 Dell PowerVault 720N, 740N, and 760N System Administrator and Command Reference Guide
7KHL)XQFWLRQ.H\RIWKH6RODULV8IVUHVWRUH&RPPDQG
The restore command is similar to the Solaris ufsrestore command, except
that the restore command doesn’t support the i function key of ufsrestore.
This function key enables you to specify interactively individual files and directories to
be restored from a tape. However, you can restore individual files and directories
using the x argument of the filer restore command.
,QFUHPHQWDO2QO\5HVWRUHV
If you want to restore all files in a backup using the restore r command, you must
begin the restoration from a level 0 backup. You can, however, restore a specified file
or directory from an incremental backup tape when you use the restore x
command.
3DUDOOHO5HVWRUHV
The filer supports up to three simultaneous restore commands.
3UHUHTXLVLWHV
This section describes the requirements that you must meet for the restore command to be completed successfully.
‡
The space required for the restore command to be completed is about
100 MB more than the amount of data to be restored. The command terminates
if it runs out of space. If you want to perform a full restore, the additional space
should be in the directory that is the root of the backup. If you want to restore
only some data in a backup, the additional space should be in the /etc/tmp directory of the volume where data is to be restored.
‡
The restore command does not restore qtree information. Before you restore
a volume containing qtrees, create the qtrees. Refer to “Performing a Full
Restore of a Volume Containing qtrees” for the procedure for restoring qtrees.
‡
Before you perform a full restore, make sure that the directory into which you
restore data does not contain the restore_symboltable file. The restore command uses the restore_symboltable file for incremental restores and for
resuming an interrupted restore. If the restore_symboltable file exists in the
directory because of an unsuccessful restore, remove the file before starting the
full restore, or the full restore fails.
:KHUHWR(QWHUWKHUHVWRUH&RPPDQG
You can enter the restore command through the console or through rsh. Entering
the restore command through rsh gives you these benefits:
‡
When the restore command is in progress, you can still use the console to
manage the filer.
‡
You can start multiple restore commands through rsh.
Data Recovery 13-5
‡
It is less likely that someone inadvertently terminates the restore command.
If you enter a restore command on the console, it could be terminated by a
Ctrl-C entered on a host connected to the filer using telnet.
However, if you enter the restore command on the console, you can read and
respond to screen messages displayed by the command. For example, the command
might prompt you for another tape to complete the recovery.
6WHSV
Follow these steps to restore files to the filer:
1.
Place the tape containing the first tape file of the backup in the tape drive.
2.
Enter the restore command as follows:
UHVWRUH>IXQFWLRQBNH\@>RSWLRQV@>DUJXPHQWV@>VXEWUHH@
3.
If prompted, insert the next tape in the backup.
4.
Repeat Step 3 until the restore is complete.
3HUIRUPLQJD)XOO5HVWRUHRID9ROXPH
&RQWDLQLQJTWUHHV
'HVFULSWLRQ
The restore command does not restore qtree information. For example, if you
need to restore a volume or a part of a volume that contains qtrees, you must first
create the qtrees into which data is to be restored.
6WHSV
Follow these steps to fully restore a volume containing qtrees:
1.
Obtain the record of the qtree information as of the last volume backup.
2.
Create all qtrees according to the record.
3.
Set the security style of each qtree to the value that is the same as when the volume was backed up.
4.
If you want to recover the entire volume with one restore command, go to
Step 5. Using one restore command requires less time for recovering the
entire volume than using multiple restore commands.
If you want to use multiple restore command to recover all qtrees in the volume, go to Step 6. Using multiple restore commands enables you to quickly
recover those qtrees that are needed the most.
13-6 Dell PowerVault 720N, 740N, and 760N System Administrator and Command Reference Guide
5.
Enter the restore command to recover the entire volume.
Example: UHVWRUHUI'UVWDYROYRO
6.
Enter the restore command to restore each qtree in the volume.
Examples: UHVWRUH[I'UVWDYROYRO17XVHUV17XVHUV
UHVWRUH[I'UVWDYROYRO81,;XVHUV81,;XVHUV
([DPSOHVRIWKHUHVWRUH&RPPDQG
([DPSOHRI5HVWRULQJD6XEWUHH
Perform the following steps to restore a subtree named /vol/vol0/home from a local
tape drive. The subtree was backed up as a subtree, not as a directory within a
subtree.
1.
Enter the sysconfig -t command on the filer to determine the name of the
tape device.
2.
Delete all files in the subtree before the restore.
3.
Install the tape that contains the level 0 backup for the home subtree in a local
tape drive.
4.
Enter the following command if the subtree is backed up to only one tape:
UHVWRUHUI'UVWDYROYROKRPH
You do not have to specify the D option and /vol/vol0/home if the destination
directory for the restore is the same as the directory that was backed up. This
command restores the backup in rst0a to the /vol/vol0/home directory, using
the same block size as when the subtree was backed up to the tape.
If the backup of the subtree is contained in multiple tape files, restore
prompts you for the next tape file when appropriate.
5.
After the restore is finished, remove the tape from the drive.
Install another tape that contains the next lowest level of incremental backup.
Example: If you have tapes containing level 1, level 2, and level 3 backups of /vol/
vol0/home, load the tape with the level 1 backup in the drive and repeat the
restore command.
6.
After the last incremental backup is restored, from a client, remove the
restore_symboltable file in the directory that you just restored.
Data Recovery 13-7
([DPSOHRI5HVWRULQJWKH(QWLUH)LOHU
To restore the entire filer, repeat the procedure described in this section for each volume. This section assumes that you already initialized the disks on your filer.
,I7KHUH,V2QH%DFNXSIRU(DFK9ROXPH
If you used one dump command to back up each volume, follow the procedure in
“Example of Restoring a Subtree” to restore each volume. The only difference is that
you use /vol/volume_name as the directory to which the backup is restored.
,I(DFK9ROXPH:DV%DFNHG8SDV6XEWUHHVRUTWUHHV
If you used separate dump commands to back up files, directories, and qtrees that
make up each volume, restore each file, directory, and qtree. For example, if the root
volume contains two directories, /vol/vol0/etc and /vol/vol0/home, and you used the
dump commands to back them up separately, perform the following steps to restore
the entire volume. In this example, the files are restored from a local tape drive.
1.
If you are not restoring qtrees, go to Step 4.
If you want to restore qtrees, go to Step 2.
2.
Create directories on the filer using the qtree command that is used as the top
of the subtrees to be restored.
Examples:
TWUHHHWF
TWUHHKRPH
3.
Set the security for each qtree created in Step 2.
4.
Install the tape that contains the level 0 backup for the /vol/vol0/etc subtree in
the local tape drive.
NOTE: The restore command doesn’t support incremental-only restores. You
must begin the restoration from a level 0 dump.
5.
Enter the sysconfig -t command on the filer to determine the name of the
tape device.
6.
Enter the following command on the filer:
UHVWRUHUI'UVWDYROYROHWF
This command restores the backup in rst0a to the /vol/vol0/etc directory.
If the backup for the subtree is in multiple tape files, restore prompts you for
the next tape volume when appropriate. See “Examples of Restoring From Multiple Tapes” for a sample screen display when more than one tape contains the
dump volume.
13-8 Dell PowerVault 720N, 740N, and 760N System Administrator and Command Reference Guide
7.
After the restore is finished, remove the tape from the drive. Install another tape
that contains the next lowest level of incremental dump.
Example: If you have dump tapes containing level 1, level 2, and level 3 dumps of
/vol/vol0/etc, load the tape with the level 1 dump in the drive and repeat the
restore command. Repeat this step until the backup of the highest dump
level, level 3 in this example, is restored.
8.
From the client, remove the restore_symboltable file in the directory that you just
restored.
9.
Repeat Steps 4 through 8 for the /vol/vol0/home subtree.
([DPSOHVRI5HVWRULQJ)URP0XOWLSOH7DSHV
This section provides examples illustrating how to restore /vol/vol0 that was backed
up to multiple tapes using the following command:
dump 0fB rst0a,rst1a 600 /vol/vol0
5HVWRULQJWKH9ROXPHWRD'LUHFWRU\)URP0XOWLSOH7DSHV8VLQJ7ZR7DSH
'ULYHV
The following command restores the volume to the /vol/vol0/myexample directory
from two tapes that are in different tape drives:
restore rfD rst0a /vol/vol0/myexample
When the restore command prompts you for the next tape drive, enter the name
of the tape drive, for example, rst1a.
5HVWRULQJD9ROXPHWRD'LUHFWRU\)URP0XOWLSOH7DSHV8VLQJ2QH7DSH
'ULYH
If the two tapes use the same tape device, for example, rst0a, remove the tape
currently in the tape drive and load the next tape. Then accept the default tape device
name, for example, rst0a, when the filer prompts you for the name of the device
for the second tape.
([DPSOHRI5HVWRULQJD1DPHG)LOH)URP0XOWLSOH7DSHV
If you want to restore a specific file or directory from a subtree, use the x option in
the restore command. Specify the path name of the file or directory relative to the
subtree that was backed up.
([DPSOH
If the vol0 volume was backed up as a subtree and you want to restore all contents of
the /vol/vol0/test directory, specify /test as the path name in the restore
command.
Data Recovery 13-9
([DPSOH
The subtree containing the directory to be restored was backed up to two tapes:
restore xf rst0a /test
In this command, you must specify the tape device for the first tape; it is rst0a in
this example. This is necessary because restore needs to read information about
the directory structure of the subtree from the first tape before restoring the data.
The filer then displays the following messages to let you specify the tape devices containing the multiple tape volumes. When the filer prompts you for the tape volume
number, start with the last tape volume, as shown in this example:
You have not read any tapes yet.
Unless you know which volume your file(s) are on you should start with
the last volume and work towards the first.
Specify next volume #: 2
Mount tape volume 2
Enter “none” if there are no more tapes
otherwise enter tape name (default: rst0a) rst1a
You have read volumes: 2
Specify next volume #: 1
Mount tape volume 1
Enter “none” if there are no more tapes
otherwise enter tape name (default: rst1a) rst0a
After prompting for the tape devices, the filer also displays the following question:
set owner/mode for '.'? [yn] y
To keep the original owner and permission modes for the restored files and directories, enter y.
([DPSOHRI/LVWLQJ)LOHV
The following example lists the names of all files backed up to rst0a:
restore tf rst0a
The following example lists the names of all files in the /vol/vol0/home directory on
rst0a after you backed up the /vol/vol0 volume:
restore tf rst0a /home
5HVWDUWLQJWKHUHVWRUH&RPPDQG
'HVFULSWLRQ
Restart the restore command if data recovery is interrupted for reasons such as a
power outage or a Ctrl-C inadvertently entered by someone on the filer console.
When you restart the restore command, the filer restarts data recovery from the
13-10 Dell PowerVault 720N, 740N, and 760N System Administrator and Command Reference Guide
last tape file that was successfully used for restoring data. You do not have to start
the command from the beginning of the backup.
5HVWULFWLRQV
The restore command has the following restrictions:
‡
You can restart a restore command only if the backup consists of multiple
tape files. If the backup contains only one tape file, simply reenter the restore
command to start the recovery from the beginning of the backup.
‡
You can restart a restore command only if the command is for a full restore. If
the restore command is for extracting an individual file or subtree from a
backup (that is, if you use the x function key), you cannot restart the command.
6WHSV
Enter the same restore command as the one that was interrupted with the following changes:
‡
Replace the r function key with the R function key to indicate that you want to
restart the restore command.
‡
Use the appropriate tape file name for the f function key. The tape file should be
the one used by the original restore command when it was interrupted.
([DPSOH
In this example, the following restore command was entered on the filer console
for performing a full restore from three tape files in a tape stacker:
restore rfD urst0a,urst0a,rst0a /vol/vol0
When the restore command is recovering data from the second tape file, it is
interrupted by a Ctrl-C entered on the filer console. Because the second tape file is on
an unload/reload device, the filer closes the file and ejects the tape when the
restore command is interrupted.
To restart the restore command, reload the second tape file and enter the following command.
restore RfD urst0a,rst0a /vol/vol0
The restore command restarts data recovery from the beginning of the second
tape file of the backup.
Data Recovery 13-11
+RZWR8VHD)LOHU7DSH'ULYHWR5HVWRUH
)LOHVWR$QRWKHU6\VWHP
$ERXW7KLV6HFWLRQ
This section describes the requirements for using commands such as ufsrestore
on another system to restore data from a tape drive attached to the filer. It also
describes how to specify the tape drive in the command for restoring data.
This section does not discuss the exact commands that you need to enter on the
other system. Refer to the documentation for the other system to learn about its
commands for restoring data.
5HTXLUHPHQWV
The filer with the tape drive must allow access from the other system. That is, the
host or filer from which a dump (or ufsdump) or restore (or ufsrestore) command is issued must be listed in the following configuration files:
‡
The /etc/hosts.equiv file on the filer with the tape drive. Alternatively, you can
specify both the host and user in /etc/hosts.equiv. The filer /etc/hosts.equiv file
contains entries in this format:
hostname [ username ]
For more information about /etc/hosts.equiv, see the hosts.equiv(5) man page.
‡
The /etc/hosts file on the filer with the tape drive or in the DNS database if the
filer is using DNS.
Also, the filer with the tape drive must be added to the other system’s /etc/hosts file.
)RUPDWIRU6SHFLI\LQJ)LOHU7DSH'ULYH
In the commands for dumping and restoring, specify the filer tape drive in the following format:
filer:device_name
13-12 Dell PowerVault 720N, 740N, and 760N System Administrator and Command Reference Guide
&+$37(5
7DSH'HYLFH0DQDJHPHQW
,QWURGXFWLRQWR7DSH'HYLFH0DQDJHPHQW
:K\<RX:DQWWR0DQDJHD7DSH'HYLFH
You need to manage a tape device when you back up data from the filer to tape or
when you recover data from tape to the filer.
6FRSHRI7KLV&KDSWHU
This chapter discusses the following topics:
‡
‡
Displaying information about tape devices attached to the filer
Positioning tapes
+RZWKH)LOHU'LVSOD\V,QIRUPDWLRQ$ERXW
9DULRXV7DSH'ULYHV
,QWURGXFWLRQ
This section describes how the filer displays tape drive information about different
types of tape drives. You need the tape information for planning your backup.
This section does not describe how to display information about tape drives on
remote hosts. The filer can only display information about local tape drives.
4XDOLILHG7DSH'ULYHV
Qualified tape drives are the tape drives that Dell tests with the filer. These tape
drives are on the Dell price list.
Tape Device Management 14-1
'LVSOD\LQJ7DSH'HYLFH,QIRUPDWLRQ
'HVFULSWLRQ
Before you use the dump command to back up to a tape device attached to the filer,
verify that the filer detects the device. Also, verify the device name to be included in
the dump command.
6WHSIRU'LVSOD\LQJ,QIRUPDWLRQ$ERXW4XDOLILHG7DSH
'HYLFHV
To display information about qualified tape devices, enter the following command:
sysconfig -t
6WHSVIRU'LVSOD\LQJ1RQTXDOLILHG7DSH'HYLFHV
To display information about nonqualified tape devices, perform the following steps:
1.
If the filer has accessed the tape drive through the dump or mt command, go to
Step 3. Otherwise, go to Step 2.
2.
Enter the following command to access the tape device:
PWIGHYLFHVWDWXV
3.
Enter the following command:
V\VFRQILJW
6WHSVIRU'LVSOD\LQJ,QIRUPDWLRQ$ERXW7DSH6WDFNHUV
To display information about tape stackers, perform the following steps:
1.
If the tape stacker’s autoload setting is On, go to Step 2.
If the tape stacker’s autoload setting is Off, go to Step 4.
2.
Turn off the autoload setting of the tape stacker.
3.
Reboot the filer.
4.
Enter the following command:
V\VFRQILJP
14-2 Dell PowerVault 720N, 740N, and 760N System Administrator and Command Reference Guide
'LVSOD\LQJ7DSH'HYLFH,QIRUPDWLRQ$ORQJ:LWK2WKHU
)LOHU,QIRUPDWLRQ
You can use the sysconfig -v command to display the filer hardware information.
Look for the information about the SCSI adapter to which the tape devices are
attached.
([DPSOHRIWKHV\VFRQILJW&RPPDQGIRUD4XDOLILHG
7DSH'ULYH
The following example of the sysconfig -t command displays information about
a qualified tape drive:
sysconfig -t
Tape drive (6.4) Digital DLT7000
rst0l - rewind device,
format
nrst0l - no rewind device,
format
urst0l - unload/reload device, format
rst0m - rewind device,
format
nrst0m - no rewind device,
format
urst0m - unload/reload device, format
rst0h - rewind device,
format
nrst0h - no rewind device,
format
urst0h - unload/reload device, format
rst0a - rewind device,
format
nrst0a - no rewind device,
format
urst0a - unload/reload device, format
is:
is:
is:
is:
is:
is:
is:
is:
is:
is:
is:
is:
81633
81633
81633
85937
85937
85937
85937
85937
85937
85937
85937
85937
bpi
bpi
bpi
bpi
bpi
bpi
bpi
bpi
bpi
bpi
bpi
bpi
40
40
40
35
35
35
50
50
50
70
70
70
GB
GB
GB
GB
GB
GB
GB
GB
GB
GB
GB
GB
(w/comp)
(w/comp)
(w/comp)
(w/comp)
(w/comp)
(w/comp)
(w/comp)
(w/comp)
(w/comp)
([DPSOHV2IWKHV\VFRQILJW&RPPDQGIRUD
1RQTXDOLILHG7DSH'ULYH
The following example of the sysconfig -t command displays information about
a nonqualified tape drive that the filer has not registered as a clone:
sysconfig -t
Tape drive (6.5) DLT9000 (Non-qualified tape drive)
The following example of the sysconfig -t command displays information about
a nonqualified tape drive that the filer has registered as a clone:
sysconfig -t
Tape drive (6.5) DLT9000 emulates Digital DLT7000.
([DPSOHRIWKHV\VFRQILJP&RPPDQG
The following example of the sysconfig -m command displays information about
a tape library attached to the filer:
sysconfig -m
Media changer (6.6) BHTi
mc0 - media changer device
Quad 7
Tape Device Management 14-3
In this example, a tape library with SCSI ID 6 is attached to slot 6 of the filer.
([DPSOHRIWKHV\VFRQILJY&RPPDQG
The following example shows a tape stacker with SCSI ID 6 and a tape drive with
SCSI ID 4 attached to slot 6 of the filer:
slot 6: SCSI Host Adapter 6 (QLogic ISP 1040B)
Firmware Version 2.26
Clock Rate 60MHz.
6: BHTi
Quad 7
1.41
4: QUANTUM DLT7000
1B41
In-Band Enclosure Services
8VLQJWKHPW&RPPDQGWR&RQWURO7DSH
'HYLFHV
7KHPW&RPPDQG6\QWD[
You can control tape devices with the mt command. The syntax of the mt command
is as follows:
mt [-f|-t] tapedevice command [ count ]
This section discusses only the eom, fsf, rewind, offline, and status commands. Keep in mind the following information:
‡
The -f and -t options are interchangeable as far as the filer is concerned. Only
the -f option is shown here.
‡
For additional information about controlling tape devices and detailed information
about the mt command, consult the mt(1) man page.
‡
For information about the format of a filer tape device name, consult the tape(4)
man page.
0RYLQJD7DSHWRWKH(QGRI'DWD
You can append material, such as a dump, on a tape device. To do so, use the eom
command, which moves the tape to the end of data (end of media if the tape is full),
as in the following example:
mt -f nrst0a eom
After this command, you can write to the remainder of the tape. Make sure that there
is enough tape for your additional data.
14-4 Dell PowerVault 720N, 740N, and 760N System Administrator and Command Reference Guide
$SSHQGLQJD'XPS
To skip over a previously created dump file and append a dump on a tape device, use
the fsf command, as in the following example:
mt -f nrst0a fsf 1
5HZLQGLQJD7DSH
To rewind a tape, use the rewind command, as in the following example:
mt -f nrst0a rewind
7DNLQJD7DSH'ULYH2II/LQH
To rewind the tape and, if appropriate, take the tape drive off-line by unloading the
tape, use the offline command, as in the following example:
mt -f nrst0a offline
'LVSOD\LQJ6WDWXV,QIRUPDWLRQ
To display status information about the tape unit, use the status command, as in
the following example:
mt -f nrst0a status
Tape drive: Quantum DLT7000
Status: ready, write enabled
Format: 85937 bpi 70 GB (w/comp)
fileno = 0 blockno = 95603 resid = 0
Tape Device Management 14-5
14-6 Dell PowerVault 720N, 740N, and 760N System Administrator and Command Reference Guide
&+$37(5
9ROXPH&RS\8VLQJWKHYROFRS\
&RPPDQG6HW
$ERXW7KLV&KDSWHU
2YHUYLHZRI9ROXPH&RS\
The filer can copy data from one volume to another volume at a given time. The result
of copying a volume is an off-line volume containing the same data as the source filer
at the time you initiated the copy operation.
,QWURGXFWLRQWRWKH)LOHU·V&RPPDQGVIRU
&RS\LQJ9ROXPHV
3XUSRVHVRIWKHYROFRS\&RPPDQG6HW
The vol copy command set enables you to copy one volume to another. The commands in this command set control copying both data in the active file system and
data in snapshots from one volume to another. The source and destination volumes of
the copy can reside on the same filer or on different filers.
For more information about snapshots, see Chapter 9, “Snapshots.”
:KHQWR&RS\9ROXPHV
Table 15-1 describes some situations where you might find copying volumes useful.
Volume Copy Using the vol copy Command Set15-1
7DEOHYROFRS\&RPPDQG6LWXDWLRQV
6LWXDWLRQ
5HDVRQVIRUFRS\LQJRQHYROXPHWRDQRWKHU
You want to copy data
from one filer to
another regularly to
ensure high data
availability.
After you copy the data, clients can switch to the
destination filer in the following scenarios:
‡
When you shut down the source filer for software or hardware upgrades.
‡
If a network client process accidentally deletes
a large number of files on the source filer, clients can continue to have access to the files
when you are restoring the files to the source
filer.
‡
If the source filer is not available for reasons
such as natural disasters, you can put the destination filer on-line to continue file service.
You want to migrate
data from one filer to
another.
The destination filer has more storage or is a model
that supports newer technology, such as FC-AL
disks.
You want to move a
volume from one set
of disks to another on
the same filer.
Splitting a volume.
Example: You can copy the vol0 volume to the vol1
volume and then delete duplicated files and directories in these volumes so that the original contents of
vol0 are split into two volumes.
%HQHILWVRIWKHYRO FRS\&RPPDQG6HW
Although you can copy data on the filer using client programs such as cpio or using
the filer’s dump and restore commands, the vol copy command set offers the
following benefits:
‡
When a vol copy command reads and writes data, the filer does not traverse
directories on the filer. Data is copied block for block directly from the disks,
which means that the filer can finish the copying faster than it could with other
methods.
‡
Using a vol copy command, the filer preserves the snapshot data of the
source volume. If, in the future, users might need to use snapshots that were
taken before data was copied from one volume to another, for example, if users
accidentally delete files and need to recover them, use a vol copy command
for migrating data.
15-2 Dell PowerVault 720N, 740N, and 760N System Administrator and Command Reference Guide
5HTXLUHPHQWVDQG5HFRPPHQGDWLRQ)RU
&RS\LQJD9ROXPH
5HTXLUHPHQWVIRU&RS\LQJD9ROXPH
The filers involved in a volume copy operation must meet several requirements for
data to be copied successfully. The following list is a brief description of these requirements. The rest of this section provides more detailed information about verifying
whether the source and destination volumes meet these requirements.
‡
The source volume must be on-line and the destination volume must exist and be
off-line.
‡
The destination volume must not be the root volume because the destination volume must be off-line when the filer executes the vol copy command, and a
root volume must always be on-line.
‡
The capacity of the destination volume must be greater than or equal to the
capacity of the source volume.
‡
‡
The destination volume must not contain data that you want to preserve.
‡
The localhost interface must be specified as a trusted host if data is copied on
the same filer.
The source and destination filers must have a trusting relationship with each
other.
9HULI\LQJWKH6WDWXVRI(DFK9ROXPH
The destination volume must exist before you enter the vol copy start command to start copying a volume. If the volume does not exist, the command does not
create the volume and the command returns an error. See “Creating Volumes” in
Chapter 3 for information about how to create a volume.
After you verify that the destination volume exists, check the status of the source volume and the destination volume.
&KHFNLQJWKH6WDWXVRID9ROXPH
The source volume must be on-line and the destination volume must be off-line. To
verify whether a volume is on-line or off-line, use the following command syntax:
vol status volume_name
&KDQJLQJWKH6WDWXVRID9ROXPH
If you need to change the status of a volume, use one of the following command
syntaxes:
‡ vol offline destination_volume
‡ vol online source_volume
Volume Copy Using the vol copy Command Set15-3
NOTE: The vol offline command takes effect only after you reboot the filer.
9HULI\LQJWKH6L]HRI(DFK9ROXPH
The capacity of the destination volume must be greater than or equal to the capacity
of the source volume, regardless of how many snapshots you try to copy. To verify
the capacity of a volume, follow these steps:
1.
Enter the following command syntax:
df /vol/volume_name
The command displays information about disk space in the active file system and
in the snapshot for the specified volume.
2.
Add the numbers in the kbytes column in the df output. The result is the number
of kilobytes of data that the volume can hold.
9HULI\LQJWKH&RQWHQWVRIWKH'HVWLQDWLRQ9ROXPH
If the destination volume is not a new volume, make sure that the destination volume
does not contain data that you might need in the future. This is because after the filer
starts copying the source volume, it overwrites the entire destination volume. That is,
all data in the active file system and in the snapshot of the destination volume is lost
after the filer starts copying the data.
9HULI\LQJWKH5HODWLRQVKLS%HWZHHQ)LOHUV
If the source and destination volumes in a volume copy operation reside on two filers,
the filers must have a trusting relationship with each other. That is, you must specify
each filer as a trusted host in the /etc/hosts.equiv file of the other filer. The /etc/
hosts.equiv file contains a list of host names, each of which is on a separate line.
9HULI\LQJ/RFDOKRVWDVD7UXVWHG+RVW
If you want to copy data between volumes on the same filer, you must specify localhost on the filer as a trusted host in the filer’s /etc/hosts.equiv file. Localhost is the
interface through which the filer sends packets to itself.
If you have not already listed localhost as a trusted host, follow these steps to include
localhost in /etc/hosts.equiv:
1.
Enter the loopback address, which is 127.0.0.1, in the /etc/hosts file.
2.
Type localhost on a separate line in the /etc/hosts.equiv file.
5HFRPPHQGDWLRQIRU&RS\LQJD9ROXPH
To avoid performance problems when copying to a different filer, you might want to
set up a private network for copying between the source and destination filers. This is
because when a filer copies data between two volumes, it floods the network with
15-4 Dell PowerVault 720N, 740N, and 760N System Administrator and Command Reference Guide
packets. Users of the filers involved in a volume copy operation might notice a degradation in response time during the copy.
'HWDLOV$ERXW&RS\LQJ2QH9ROXPHWR
$QRWKHU
&RPPDQG6\QWD[IRU&RS\LQJ2QH9ROXPHWR$QRWKHU
To copy one volume to another, use the following command syntax:
vol copy start [ -S | -s snapshot ] source destination
6SHFLI\LQJWKH6QDSVKRWVWR&RS\
The -S and -s arguments specify the snapshots to copy. Table 15-2 describes the
snapshots to copy and the resulting snapshots on the destination volume, depending
on the argument.
7DEOH&RPPDQG6\QWD[IRU&RS\LQJ2QH9ROXPHWR$QRWKHU
6QDSVKRWVWRFRS\IURP
WKHVRXUFHYROXPH
6QDSVKRWVLQWKHVQDSVKRWILOH
V\VWHPRIWKHGHVWLQDWLRQYROXPH
None
The snapshot taken after
you enter the vol copy
start command
A snapshot named
snapshot_for_backup.n, where n
is a number starting at 0
-S
All snapshots in the snapshot file system of the
source volume and the
snapshot taken after you
enter the vol copy
start command
All snapshots in the source volume and
snapshot_for_backup.n, where n
is a number starting at 0
-s followed by
The specified snapshot
The specified snapshot
$UJXPHQWXVHG
the name of the
snapshot
NOTE: The vol copy start -S command does not copy any snapshots that are
created when the copying is in progress. For example, if the copying lasts from
11:45 p.m. to 1:00 a.m. the next day, and the filer creates a snapshot named nightly.1
at midnight, the filer does not copy the nightly.1 snapshot.
6SHFLI\LQJWKH9ROXPHV,QYROYHGLQWKH&RS\
The source and destination arguments are the names of the volumes. If a volume is
on a different filer, precede the volume name with the filer name and a colon. For
examples illustrating how to specify volume names, see “Examples of the vol copy
start Command.”
Volume Copy Using the vol copy Command Set15-5
:KHUHWR(QWHUWKHYROFRS\VWDUW&RPPDQG
If the copying takes place between two filers, you can enter the command on either
the source or destination filer. You cannot, however, enter the command on a third
filer that does not contain the source or destination volume.
([DPSOHVRIWKHYROFRS\VWDUW&RPPDQG
Table 15-3 shows several examples of the vol copy start command.
7DEOH([DPSOHVRIWKHYROFRS\VWDUW&RPPDQG
,I\RXZDQWWR
(QWHU
Copy all snapshots from the
vol0 volume to the vol1 volume on the same filer
vol copy start -S vol0 vol1
Copy a nightly snapshot
from the vol0 volume to the
vol1 volume on the same
filer
vol copy start -s nightly.1 vol0 vol1
Create a snapshot in the
vol0 volume to be copied to
the vol1 volume on the
same filer
vol copy start vol0 vol1
Copy all snapshots from the
vol0 volume to the vol1 volume on a different filer
named filerA
vol copy start -S vol0 filerA:vol1
5HVXOWVRIWKHYROFRS\VWDUW&RPPDQG
The vol copy start command generates volume copy operations and produces
screen messages showing the progress of the operations.
9ROXPH&RS\2SHUDWLRQV
Each vol copy start command generates two volume copy operations, as
described in the following list:
‡
One operation is for reading data from the source volume. Screen messages displayed by a vol copy command refer to this operation as the
volcopy dump operation.
‡
One operation is for writing data to the destination volume. Screen messages
displayed by a vol copy command refer to this operation as the
volcopy restore operation.
The filer assigns a volume copy operation number to each operation.
15-6 Dell PowerVault 720N, 740N, and 760N System Administrator and Command Reference Guide
:KHQWR8VHWKH9ROXPH&RS\2SHUDWLRQ1XPEHU
You need the volume copy operation number if you want to stop a volume copy operation or change the volume copy operation speed.
For more information about obtaining the volume copy operation number, see
“Checking the Status of a Volume Copy Operation.”
6FUHHQ0HVVDJHV)URPWKHYROFRS\&RPPDQG
When the filer is copying a volume, the filer displays messages indicating the percentage of the volume copy operation completed and the number of minutes remaining.
When the filer finishes copying all data, it displays the filer prompt.
0D[LPXP1XPEHURI6LPXOWDQHRXV9ROXPH&RS\
2SHUDWLRQV
Each filer supports up to four simultaneous volume copy operations. Whether a filer
can execute a vol copy start command depends on how many volume copy
operations are already in progress on the filer or filers specified in the vol copy
start command, as illustrated in the following examples.
([DPSOH
You can enter the following two vol copy start commands on a filer to copy
volumes locally:
vol copy start vol0 vol1
vol copy start vol2 vol3
When these commands are in progress, you cannot enter additional
vol copy start commands because four volume copy operations are already
running on the filer. Two of the operations are for reading the vol0 and vol2 volumes,
and two of the operations are for writing the vol1 and vol3 volumes.
([DPSOH
Suppose you enter the following three vol copy start commands on a filer
named filerA to copy volumes to another filer named filerB.
vol copy start vol0 filerB:vol0
vol copy start vol1 filerB:vol1
vol copy start vol2 filerB:vol2
When these commands are in progress, filerA runs three volume copy operations to
read the volumes, and filerB runs three volume copy operations to write the volumes.
You can enter an additional vol copy start command to copy between filerA
and filerB because the command adds one more volume copy operation to each filer.
However, you cannot enter an additional vol copy start command to copy volumes locally on either filerA or filerB. This is because the additional command would
create two volume copy operations, one for reading and one for writing, on the filer
Volume Copy Using the vol copy Command Set15-7
that performs the local copying. The filer cannot support these two additional volume
copy operations because three operations are already in progress.
3RVVLEOH(UURUV
If your filer does not meet a requirement described in “Requirements and Recommendation for Copying a Volume,” the vol copy start command generates one
or more error messages. Table 15-4 explains the meanings of the possible error
messages.
7DEOHYROFRS\VWDUW&RPPDQG(UURU0HVVDJHV
(UURUPHVVDJH
0HDQLQJ
Permission denied.
The source filer does not have permission to copy to the destination
filer.
VOLCOPY: Could not connect to
filer 127.0.0.1.
Action: Make sure that the filers
have a trusting relationship with each
other. If both the source volume and
destination volume are on the same
filer, remember to include localhost in
the /etc/hosts.equiv file.
VOLCOPY: volcopy restore:
volume is online, aborting
The destination volume is on-line.
VOLCOPY: volcopy restore:
volume is too small, aborting
The destination volume is smaller
than the source volume.
Action: Take the destination volume
off-line and reboot the filer that contains the destination volume.
Action: Add more disk space to the
destination volume or choose another
destination volume of sufficient
capacity.
0DQDJHPHQWRID9ROXPH&RS\2SHUDWLRQ
:KHQLW,VLQ3URJUHVV
&KHFNLQJWKH6WDWXVRID9ROXPH&RS\2SHUDWLRQ
You can use the following command syntax to check the status of one or more volume copy operations:
vol copy status [ operation_number ]
15-8 Dell PowerVault 720N, 740N, and 760N System Administrator and Command Reference Guide
This command displays the status for a specified volume copy operation. If you do not
specify the operation number, the command displays the status of all volume copy
operations in progress. In the command output, the operations are differentiated from
one another with unique volume copy operation numbers, ranging from 0 to 3. For
more information about volume copy operation numbers, see “Results of the vol copy
start Command.”
:KHUHWR(QWHUWKHYROFRS\VWDWXV&RPPDQG
If you start a volume copy operation from the filer’s console, you can enter the vol
copy status command only through rsh when the copy operation is in progress.
This is because you do not have access to the filer prompt on the console when the
filer is copying the volume.
If data is being copied between two filers, you can enter this command through an
rsh connection to either filer. The operation numbers displayed on the source filer
and the destination filer are different because the reading and the writing are considered two different operations.
([DPSOHRIDYROFRS\VWDWXV&RPPDQG
The following example illustrates a vol copy start command that copies the
vol0 volume to the vol1 volume on the same filer:
vol copy start -S vol0 vol1
Copy Volume: vol0 on machine 127.0.0.1 to Volume: vol1
Reading the dump stream
VOLCOPY: Starting on volume 1.
This dump contains 257 blocks
10:04 pm : volcopy restore 1 : begun.
10:04 pm : volcopy restore 1 : 5 % done. Estimate 3 minutes remaining.
.
.
.
10:04 pm : volcopy restore 1 : 95% done. Estimate 1 minutes remaining.
Before the filer prompt is displayed again, you can use the vol copy status
command on a trusted host of the filer, as shown in the following example:
rsh filer vol copy status
10:04 pm : volcopy dump 0 : 99 % done. Estimate 1 minutes remaining.
10:04 pm : volcopy restore 1 : 99 % done. Estimate 1 minutes remaining.
No operation 2 in progress.
No operation 3 in progress.
In this example, volume copy operation 0, shown as volcopy dump 0 in the display, is for reading the data from the vol0 volume; volume copy operation 1, shown as
volcopy restore 1 in the display, is for writing the data to the vol1 volume.
Volume Copy Using the vol copy Command Set15-9
$ERUWLQJD9ROXPH&RS\2SHUDWLRQ
To stop a volume copy operation, use the following command syntax:
vol copy abort [ operation_number ]
The operation_number parameter specifies the volume copy operation to be aborted.
You can obtain the operation number from the vol copy status output.
&$87,21,I\RXGRQRWVSHFLI\DQRSHUDWLRQQXPEHULQWKHFRPPDQGWKH
ILOHUDERUWVDOOYROXPHFRS\RSHUDWLRQV,WGRHVQRWGLVSOD\DKHOSVWULQJIRU
WKHvol copy abortFRPPDQG
If data is being copied between two filers, you can execute this command on either
filer.
If you start the volume copying operation from the filer console, you can enter the
vol copy abort command only through rsh because you do not have access to
the filer prompt on the console during the copying.
&$87,21$QLQFRPSOHWHYROXPHFRS\RSHUDWLRQOHDYHVXQXVDEOHGDWDLQ
WKHGHVWLQDWLRQYROXPH
&RQWUROOLQJWKH6SHHGRID9ROXPH&RS\2SHUDWLRQ
You can control the speed of a volume copy operation in two ways.
‡
Before you enter the vol copy start command, use the following command syntax to set the default speed for all volume copy operations:
options vol.copy.throttle value
‡
The value variable specifies the speed, which ranges from 10 (full
speed) to 1 (one-tenth of full speed).
If a volume copy operation is in progress, use the following command syntax to
set the speed of a specific operation:
vol copy throttle [ operation_number ] value
In this case, because a volume copy operation is in progress and you do not have
access to the filer prompt, you must enter the vol copy throttle command through rsh.
The operation_number parameter specifies the volume copy operation whose
speed you want to adjust. If you do not specify an operation number, the command applies to all volume copy operations that are in progress. The value
variable specifies the speed, which ranges from 10 (full speed) to 1 (one-tenth of
full speed).
NOTE: The speed for reading data from the source volume and the speed for writing
data to the destination volume can be different. In this case, the smaller of the two
values determines the time required for the filer to finish copying the data.
15-10 Dell PowerVault 720N, 740N, and 760N System Administrator and Command Reference Guide
'LVSOD\LQJWKH'HIDXOW6SHHGIRU&RS\LQJD9ROXPH
Before starting the vol copy start command, you can verify the default speed
for all volume copy operations using the following command:
options vol.copy.throttle
It displays the value (1 through 10) to be used by all volume copy operations. The
value of the vol.copy.throttle option was set at 10 at the factory.
([DPSOHRI&RQWUROOLQJWKH6SHHGRI&RS\LQJD9ROXPH
The following example illustrates changing the speed of all volume copy operations in
progress to one-tenth of full speed through rsh:
rsh filer vol copy throttle 1
volcopy operation 0: Throttle adjusted from 100% to 10%.
volcopy operation 1: Throttle adjusted from 100% to 10%.
Volume Copy Using the vol copy Command Set
15-11
15-12 Dell PowerVault 720N, 740N, and 760N System Administrator and Command Reference Guide
&+$37(5
'DWD5HSOLFDWLRQ8VLQJ
6QDS0LUURU
$ERXW7KLV&KDSWHU
2YHUYLHZRI6QDS0LUURU
The SnapMirror feature replicates data from one volume (the source) to another volume (the mirror) and periodically updates the mirror to reflect incremental changes on
the source. The result of this process is an on-line, read-only volume that contains the
same data as the source volume at the time of the most recent update. SnapMirror
requires a license code.
3XUSRVHVRI6QDS0LUURU
:K\<RX:DQWWR5HSOLFDWHD9ROXPH
You want to replicate a volume if you are in any of the situations described in “When
to Copy Volumes.” Because SnapMirror offers additional advantages, there are other
situations where you want to replicate a volume, as described in Table 16-1.
7DEOH5HSOLFDWLQJD9ROXPH6LWXDWLRQ
6LWXDWLRQ
+RZGDWDUHSOLFDWLRQKHOSV
Remote access to data: Users who
need read access to a volume are
distributed over a large geographical
area.
You can replicate the source volume on
other filers that are geographically
closer to the users. Users accessing a
local filer can read the data faster than
they could if they connected to a distant filer.
Load balancing: A large number of
users need only read access to a
volume.
Replicating a volume on multiple filers
enables you to distribute the load.
Data Replication Using SnapMirror16-1
7DEOH5HSOLFDWLQJD9ROXPH6LWXDWLRQFRQWLQXHG
6LWXDWLRQ
+RZGDWDUHSOLFDWLRQKHOSV
Backup: You need to reserve all processing and networking resources
on a filer for serving NFS and CIFS
requests.
After replicating data on the source
filer, you can back up the data in the
mirror to tape. This means the source
filer does not have to allocate
resources for performing backups.
Data migration: You want to
migrate data from one filer to
another without interrupting network service.
After replicating the source filer, you
can export or share the source filer
with read-only permissions so that network clients cannot make additional
changes to the source filer. Because
the source and destination filers contain identical data, you can change the
status of each mirror on the destination
filer to a regular volume. For more
information about how to convert a
mirror to a regular volume, refer to
“Setting Volume Options” in
Chapter 3.
Disaster recovery: You want to provide immediate access to data after
some disaster has caused a volume
or a filer to be unavailable.
You can change the status of the mirror
to a regular volume. Users can immediately have access to the same data as
that on the source volume. The
snapmirrored volume option controls whether a volume is a mirror or a
regular volume. For more information
about volume options, refer to “Setting
Volume Options” in Chapter 3.
+RZ6QDS0LUURU:RUNV
&RPPDQGDQG&RQILJXUDWLRQ)LOHIRU&RQWUROOLQJ
6QDS0LUURU
To use SnapMirror for replicating a volume, use the vol snapmirror command set and
two configuration files: /etc/snapmirror.conf and /etc/snapmirror.allow. The command
set is described in “Replicating a Volume.” The configuration files are described in
“The /etc/snapmirror.allow File” and “The /etc/snapmirror.conf File.”
+RZWKH)LOHU&UHDWHVD%DVHOLQH9HUVLRQRIWKH0LUURU
To use SnapMirror, you create an off-line volume to be used as the destination for data
replication. The destination volume is referred to as the “mirror.” The mirror can
reside on the same filer as the source volume or on another filer.
16-2 Dell PowerVault 720N, 740N, and 760N System Administrator and Command Reference Guide
To replicate data for the first time, the filer transfers all data in all snapshots in the
source volume to the mirror. After the filer finishes transferring the data, it brings the
mirror on-line. This version of the mirror is the base line for future incremental
changes.
+RZWKH)LOHU8SGDWHVWKH0LUURU
To make incremental changes on the mirror, the filer takes regular snapshots on the
source volume according to the schedule specified in the /etc/snapmirror.conf file. By
comparing the current snapshot with the previous snapshot, the filer determines
what changes it needs to make to synchronize the data in the source volume and the
data in the mirror. For example, if a file is deleted from the source volume, SnapMirror
deletes the corresponding file in the mirror the next time it updates the mirror.
For more information about how SnapMirror uses snapshots to transfer data from the
source volume to the mirror, refer to “Snapshots Created During Data Replication.”
1XPEHURI9ROXPH&RS\2SHUDWLRQV6QDS0LUURU
*HQHUDWHV
When SnapMirror transfers data from one volume to another, it generates two volume copy operations in the same way as the vol copy command. Refer to “Volume
Copy Operations” in Chapter 18 for the meaning of a volume copy operation.
:KDW+DSSHQV$IWHU<RX5HSOLFDWHD9ROXPH
After you replicate a volume, the active file system and all snapshots in the source volume are available on the mirror. As with any volume, you can export the mirror for
NFS mounting or add a share corresponding to this volume for CIFS sharing.
SnapMirror makes all changes to the mirror at the same time. If you have an open file
in the mirror while the filer is updating the mirror, you do not see the changes immediately. After the mirror update is finished, if you open the file, you see the changes.
This is similar to the situation where another user changes a file in a regular volume
when you are reading the file. You can see the changes the next time you open the
file.
'LIIHUHQFHV%HWZHHQD0LUURUDQGD5HJXODU9ROXPH
The following list describes the differences between a mirror and a regular volume:
‡
A mirror has snapmirrored status, which means that it contains read-only data
and network clients cannot write data to the mirror.
‡
The filer does not create automatic snapshots on the mirror based on the snapshot schedule.
‡
You cannot use the qtree create command to create qtrees on a mirror. However, if qtrees exist in the source volume, the filer mirrors the qtrees to the mirror.
‡
You cannot enable quotas on a mirror.
Data Replication Using SnapMirror16-3
6QDSVKRWV&UHDWHG'XULQJ'DWD
5HSOLFDWLRQ
1DPLQJ&RQYHQWLRQVIRU6QDSVKRWV8VHGE\6QDS0LUURU
SnapMirror creates snapshots on the source volume, which are copied to the mirror.
The snapshot name is in the following format:
filer_volume.number
filer is the host name of the destination filer.
volume is the name of the destination volume (the mirror).
number is the number for the snapshot starting at 1.
SnapMirror automatically deletes old snapshots that are no longer necessary for data
replication.
([DPSOH
The following example describes the snapshots that are created on the source volume and copied to the mirror.
In this example, data is replicated from /vol/vol1of filerA to /vol/vol2 of filerB.
To create a baseline version of a mirror, filerA creates a snapshot file named /vol/vol1/
filerB_vol2.1 on filerA. All snapshots in /vol/vol1 of filerA, including /vol/vol1/
filerB_vol2.1, are transferred to /vol/vol2 of filerB.
For example, the snap list command on filerB generates the following display after
/vol/vol1/filerB_vol2.1 is transferred from filerA to filerB.
Volume vol2
working.....
%/used
-------0% ( 0%)
1% ( 0%)
1% ( 0%)
1% ( 0%)
1% ( 0%)
2% ( 0%)
2% ( 0%)
2% ( 0%)
%/total
-------0% ( 0%)
0% ( 0%)
0% ( 0%)
0% ( 0%)
1% ( 0%)
1% ( 0%)
1% ( 0%)
1% ( 0%)
date
-----------Nov 17 10:50
Nov 17 10:00
Nov 17 00:00
Nov 15 16:00
Nov 15 15:00
Nov 15 14:00
Nov 15 13:00
Nov 15 12:00
name
-------filerB_vol2.1
hourly.0
nightly.0
hourly.1
hourly.2
hourly.3
hourly.4
hourly.5
16-4 Dell PowerVault 720N, 740N, and 760N System Administrator and Command Reference Guide
When it is time to update the mirror, another snapshot is created on filerA. The snap
list command on filerA generates the following display after /vol/vol1/filerB_vol2.2 is
created on filerA:
Volume vol1
working....
%/used
%/total
-------- ---------0% ( 0%) 0% ( 0%)
0% ( 0%) 0% ( 0%)
1% ( 0%) 0% ( 0%)
1% ( 0%) 0% ( 0%)
1% ( 0%) 0% ( 0%)
1% ( 0%) 1% ( 0%)
date
-----------Nov 17 10:52
Nov 17 10:51
Nov 17 10:00
Nov 17 00:00
Nov 15 16:00
Nov 15 15:00
name
-------filerB_vol2.2 (busy)
filerB_vol2.1
hourly.0
nightly.0
hourly.1
hourly.2
After filerB_vol2.2 is transferred from filerA to filerB, both the filerB_vol2.1 and
filerB_vol2.2 snapshots exist on filerB.
On filerA, however, filerB_vol2.1 is no longer needed and is deleted; only filerB_vol2.2
remains.
&RQVHTXHQFHVRI'HOHWLQJD5HTXLUHG6QDSVKRW
The filer fails to replicate data if it cannot find the required snapshots in the source
and destination volumes. This section provides an example illustrating what happens
if you inadvertently delete a snapshot required for data replication.
In this example, data is replicated from /vol/vol1 of filerA to /vol/vol2 of filerB. Suppose
you use the snap delete command on filerA to delete the filerB_vol2.2 snapshot. When filerB tried to update the mirror according to the schedule in the
snapmirror.conf file, it could not find the snapshot to determine what incremental
changes are required in the mirror.
As a result, filerB displays the following error message.
The source filer requires a complete transfer. The destination volume
is online and must be offline for a complete transfer.
FilerA displays the following error message:
Destination filerB could not accept a complete transfer.
These messages mean that filerB tries to create a baseline version of the mirror, but
doing so requires that the mirror on filerB be taken off-line.
To proceed, use the vol offline command to take the mirror off-line and reboot
the filer. At the next scheduled mirror update, the filer creates a baseline version of
the mirror.
Data Replication Using SnapMirror16-5
+RZ6QDS0LUURU:RUNV:LWK4XRWDV
4XRWDVRQWKH0LUURU
Quotas are always disabled on a mirror, regardless of whether quotas are enabled on
the source volume. If you try to enable quotas on a mirror, the filer generates an error
message.
+RZWR$SSO\WKH6DPH4XRWD5HVWULFWLRQVRQWKH)RUPHU
0LUURU
After you convert a mirror to a regular volume, you can enable quotas on it.
However, if the former mirror and the source volume reside on different filers, they
might be under the effect of different quota restrictions because there is one /etc/
quotas file for each filer. If you want the same quota restrictions to be applied on both
volumes, make sure that the filer on which the former mirror resides has a /etc/quotas
file containing all entries from the /etc/quotas file used by the source volume.
Refer to “Converting a Mirror to a Regular Volume” for information about changing
the status of a mirror.
+RZ6QDS0LUURU:RUNV:LWKWKH'XPS
&RPPDQG
+RZWR%DFN8S'DWDLQWKH0LUURU
If you want to back up data from a mirror, the data must be in an existing snapshot,
not the active file system, on the mirror. This is because before the dump command
writes data from an active file system to tape, the filer must create a snapshot in the
volume containing the data. The filer cannot create snapshots on the mirror, which is
a read-only volume, to be used by the dump command.
You can back up any snapshot displayed by the snap list command on the mirror.
You can also create a snapshot on the source volume, replicate the snapshot to the
mirror, and use the dump command to back up this snapshot from the mirror to tape.
(IIHFWRIWKH'XPS&RPPDQGRQWKH0LUURU8SGDWH
6FKHGXOH
Running the dump command on a mirror might change the mirror update schedule in
the following ways:
‡
If the mirror is scheduled to be updated when a dump command is in progress on
the mirror, the filer delays replicating data from the source volume until the dump
command is finished.
16-6 Dell PowerVault 720N, 740N, and 760N System Administrator and Command Reference Guide
‡
If you start the dump command when the filer is replicating data to the mirror, the
filer stops the replication and does not update the mirror. It restarts replication
after the dump command is finished.
Delaying the mirror update is necessary because when the dump command backs up
data from a snapshot, the snapshot must exist until the command is completed. During a mirror update, the filer deletes existing snapshots on the mirror and copies new
ones from the source. This process causes the snapshot being backed up to disappear and the dump command to terminate.
7KHHWFVQDSPLUURUDOORZ)LOH
3XUSRVHRIWKHVQDSPLUURUDOORZ)LOH
The /etc/snapmirror.allow file on the source filer specifies the host names of filers that
are allowed to replicate data from the source filer.
The filer is not shipped with a default /etc/snapmirror.allow file. You must use a text
editor to create the file if you want to use SnapMirror.
:KHQ<RX&DQ0RGLI\WKHVQDSPLUURUDOORZ)LOH
You can modify the /etc/snapmirror.allow file at any time.
)RUPDWRIWKHVQDSPLUURUDOORZ)LOH
Each entry in the /etc/snapmirror.allow file contains the host name of the filer that can
replicate data from the source filer. Type each entry on a separate line.
([DPSOH
If you want to replicate volumes locally on filerA, enter this line in the
/etc/snapmirror.allow file on filerA:
filerA
([DPSOH
If you want to replicate volumes from filerA to filerB, enter this line in the
/etc/snapmirror.allow file on filerA:
filerB
Data Replication Using SnapMirror16-7
7KHHWFVQDSPLUURUFRQI)LOH
3XUSRVHRIWKHVQDSPLUURUFRQI)LOH
The /etc/snapmirror.conf file resides on the destination filer. It controls where data is
copied and how often a mirror is updated.
The filer is not shipped with a default /etc/snapmirror.conf file. You must use a text
editor to create the file if you want to use SnapMirror.
:KHQ<RX&DQ0RGLI\WKHVQDSPLUURUFRQI)LOH
You can modify the /etc/snapmirror.conf line at any time.
)RUPDWRIWKHVQDSPLUURUFRQI)LOH
Each entry of the /etc/snapmirror.conf file is in the following format:
source_filer:source_vol destination_filer:destination_vol argument schedule
0HDQLQJRI(DFK)LHOGLQDVQDSPLUURUFRQI(QWU\
The following list describes the meaning of each field in a snapmirror.conf entry:
‡
‡
source_filer is the host name of the filer from which data is replicated.
‡
‡
destination_filer is the host name of the filer to which data is replicated.
‡
source_vol is the source volume name. For example, for the vol1 volume, type
vol1. Do not type the full path name (/vol/vol1).
destination_vol is the destination volume (mirror) name. For example, for the vol1
volume, type vol1. Do not type the full path name (/vol/vol1).
argument is kbs (kilobytes per second), the maximum speed at which data is
transferred. Enter a value greater than or equal to 11. By default, the filer transfers
the data as fast as it can. Enter a dash (-) to indicate that you want to use the
default value for argument.
NOTE: The actual data transfer speed might be limited by factors such as network
bandwidth. For example, if you specify a large value such as 1,000,000, the filer might
still transfer the data at 2,000 kilobytes per second.
‡
schedule is the schedule used by the destination filer for updating the mirror.
You must not leave any field in a snapmirror.conf entry blank. If you do not want to
specify the maximum speed for data transfer, specify a dash as the argument.
16-8 Dell PowerVault 720N, 740N, and 760N System Administrator and Command Reference Guide
5XOHVIRU6SHFLI\LQJWKH8SGDWH6FKHGXOH
The schedule in each /etc/snapmirror.conf entry contains four fields:
‡
‡
‡
‡
minute
hour
day of month
day of week
The fields are separated from each other by a space. If a field contains more than one
value, the values are separated from each other by a comma. A field containing an
asterisk (*) means that the field is irrelevant. If you specify an asterisk in each field of
the schedule, the filer updates the mirror every minute.
The update schedule is mandatory. The filer generates an error message if a /etc/
snapmirror.conf entry does not contain a schedule.
([DPSOH
filerA:vol1 filerB:vol2 kbs=2000 45 10,11,12,13,14,15,16 * 1,2,3,4,5
In this example, /vol/vol1 on filerA is replicated to /vol/vol2 on filerB. Data is replicated
at a maximum rate up to 2,000 kilobytes per second. FilerB updates /vol/vol2 at
10:45 a.m., 11:45 a.m., 12:45 p.m., 1:45 p.m., 2:45 p.m., 3:45 p.m., and 4:45 p.m.,
Monday through Friday. The asterisk in this example means that the mirror update
schedule is not affected by the day of month.
:KHQ&KDQJHVWRVQDSPLUURUFRQI7DNH(IIHFW
If SnapMirror is enabled, the changes take effect within two minutes. If SnapMirror is
disabled, the changes take effect immediately after you enter the vol snapmirror
on command to enable the feature.
5HFRPPHQGDWLRQ
You can create a single /etc/snapmirror.conf file for your site and copy it to all the filers
that use SnapMirror. The /etc/snapmirror.conf file can contain entries pertaining to
other filers. For example, the /etc/snapmirror.conf file on filerB can contain an entry
for replicating a volume from filerC to filerD. When filerB reads the
/etc/snapmirror.conf file, it simply ignores this entry.
5HSOLFDWLQJD9ROXPH
'HVFULSWLRQ
Replicate a volume if you are in any situation described in “Purposes of SnapMirror.”
You can replicate a volume at any time. After you replicate a volume, you have a mirror
that contains the same data as the source volume.
Data Replication Using SnapMirror16-9
3UHUHTXLVLWHV
The following prerequisites must be met before you can replicate a volume:
‡
You must purchase the SnapMirror license. If the source volume and the mirror
are on different filers, you must purchase a license and enter the SnapMirror
license code for each filer. Refer to “Enabling Services” in Chapter 2 for information about how to enter a license code.
‡
You must create an off-line volume to be used as the mirror. SnapMirror does not
automatically create a volume. Refer to “Creating Volumes” in Chapter 3 for
information about how to create a volume; refer to “Making a Volume Inactive” in
Chapter 3 for information about how to take a volume off-line.
‡
The source volume must be on-line. Refer to “Reactivating an Off-line Volume” in
Chapter 3 for information about how to put a volume on-line.
‡
‡
The source volume must not be a mirror.
‡
The mirror must not be the root volume.
The capacity of the mirror must be greater than or equal to the capacity of the
source volume. The configuration of the volumes, however, can be different. For
example, the RAID group size can be different for the two volumes. Refer to
“Adding Disks to a Volume” in Chapter 3 for information about how to add disks
to a volume.
5HVWULFWLRQV
Each filer supports up to four simultaneous volume copy operations. For information
about volume copy operations, refer to “Number of Volume Copy Operations SnapMirror Generates.”
&DXWLRQV
‡ SnapMirror creates snapshots in the source volume, which are copied to the mirror. Do not delete these snapshots because incremental changes to the mirror
depend on the snapshots. If the filer cannot find the required snapshot, it cannot
perform incremental changes to the mirror.
Refer to “Snapshots Created During Data Replication” for an example about how
snapshots are created on both the source volume and the mirror.
‡
The mirror must have snapmirrored status. Do not disable the snapmirrored status using the volume options command. Otherwise, the mirror becomes a
regular, writable volume. Disable the snapmirrored status only when you no
longer need to mirror incremental changes from the source volume.
5HFRPPHQGDWLRQV
Follow these recommendations to minimize confusion or to replicate data efficiently:
‡
When specifying the mirror update schedule in the /etc/snapmirror.conf file, stagger the update times instead of starting multiple mirror updates at the same
16-10 Dell PowerVault 720N, 740N, and 760N System Administrator and Command Reference Guide
time. If the filer does not have enough resources to perform all scheduled mirror
updates, it postpones some updates until it has enough resources to do so. As a
result, the filer might need to perform subsequent updates at times that are different from those you specify in the /etc/snapmirror.conf file.
‡
During data replication, the filer copies data from all snapshots from the source
volume. Therefore, the filer must preserve all snapshots when data replication is
in progress, even though the snapshot schedule might call for the deletion of
some snapshots. If you want the filer to delete snapshots at the exact time specified by the snap sched command, schedule the mirror updates to be different
from the snapshot deletion times.
‡
The filer transfers data faster if the source volume and the mirror have the following characteristics:
— They contain disks of the same size.
— They contain RAID groups of the same size.
— They contain the same number of RAID groups.
‡
If the source volume has quotas enabled and you want to apply the same quota
restrictions to the mirror after converting the mirror to a regular volume, make
sure that the filer on which the mirror resides contains a copy of the /etc/quotas
file from the source filer. Whenever you make a change to the /etc/quotas file on
the source filer, make the same change to the copy of the /etc/quotas file on the
destination filer.
6WHSV
Follow these steps to replicate a volume:
1.
Add the host name of the destination filer to the /etc/snapmirror.allow file on the
source filer.
2.
Edit the /etc/snapmirror.conf file on the destination filer to specify the volume to
be replicated and the schedule at which the mirror is updated.
3.
Enter the vol snapmirror on command on both the source filer and destination filer to enable SnapMirror.
Result: The filer reads the /etc/snapmirror.conf file. If the filer is a destination filer
specified in the /etc/snapmirror.conf file, it establishes a connection with the
source filer at the time of the scheduled mirror update.
If a baseline version of the mirror does not exist, the filer takes a snapshot of the
source volume at the time of the scheduled mirror update and transfers all data in
the snapshot from the source volume to the mirror.
The filer does not display any messages if it can transfer the data successfully.
You can check the data replication status following the instructions in “Checking
Data Replication Status.”
The filer makes subsequent updates to the mirror according to the schedule
specified in the /etc/snapmirror.conf file.
Data Replication Using SnapMirror16-11
NOTE: The vol snapmirror on command does not persist across filer
reboots. Put the command in the /etc/rc file if you want the command to remain
in effect after the filer is rebooted. If the /etc/rc file does not contain a vol
snapmirror command, data replication is disabled.
4.
If the source volume and the mirror reside on different filers, and if the source
volume has quotas enabled, copy the /etc/quotas file from the source filer to a
file on the destination filer. Whenever you make a change to the /etc/quotas file
on the source filer, make the same change to the copy on the destination filer so
that the destination filer always contains a record of all the quota entries used by
the source filer.
'LVDEOLQJ'DWD5HSOLFDWLRQIRUWKH(QWLUH
)LOHU
'HVFULSWLRQ
You can disable data replication for the entire filer if you decide that data replication is
no longer necessary. You can disable the feature at any time, even when replication is
underway. The mirror remains unchanged after you disable replication.
6WHSV
Follow these steps to disable volume replication for the entire filer:
1.
Enter the vol snapmirror off command on the destination filer to disable
SnapMirror.
Result: If the filer is currently transferring data from one volume to another, the
transfer stops immediately. The destination volume remains the same as before
the transfer. The snapshot taken in the source volume for the data transfer
remains, but is deleted and replaced by a new snapshot the next time the mirror
is updated.
The filer stops reading the /etc/snapmirror.conf file every minute.
Entering the vol snapmirror off command on the destination filer does not
affect SnapMirror on the source filer. Other filers can continue to replicate data
from the source filer.
2.
If the vol snapmirror on command is in the /etc/rc file, remove the
command.
NOTE: There is no need to enter the vol snapmirror off command in the
/etc/rc file. By default, data replication is disabled.
16-12 Dell PowerVault 720N, 740N, and 760N System Administrator and Command Reference Guide
5HVXPLQJ'DWD5HSOLFDWLRQIRUWKH(QWLUH
)LOHU
'HVFULSWLRQ
After you disable data replication, you can resume it at any time. When data replication resumes, the filer copies the data from the source volume to the mirror that has
changed since the last update.
3UHUHTXLVLWHV
In addition to the requirements described in “Prerequisites” on page 10, you must
meet these requirements before you can resume data replication:
‡
The mirror must have snapmirrored status. If you converted the mirror to a regular volume, the filer cannot resume data replicating on the regular volume. If you
want to use the regular volume as a mirror again, follow the procedure in “Replicating a Volume” so that the filer can create a baseline version of the mirror. Do
not try to assign the snapmirrored status to the volume, because you cannot set
the snapmirrored volume option to On.
‡
If the mirror never lost the snapmirrored status but you took the mirror off-line,
you must put it back on-line.
6WHS
To resume data replication for the entire filer, enter the vol snapmirror on command on the destination filer to enable SnapMirror.
Result: The filer reads the /etc/snapmirror.conf file to determine whether it needs to
create a baseline version of a mirror or to update a mirror.
'LVDEOLQJ'DWD5HSOLFDWLRQIRU2QH
9ROXPH
'HVFULSWLRQ
You can stop data replication for a particular volume if you decide that there is no need
to update the mirror. For example, you might want to change the mirror to a regular
volume.
You can disable data replication at any time, even when data transfer is underway. The
destination volume remains the same as before the transfer. The snapshot taken in
the source volume for the data transfer remains, but is deleted and replaced by a new
snapshot the next time the mirror is updated.
Data Replication Using SnapMirror16-13
6WHSVWR'LVDEOH'DWD5HSOLFDWLRQIRU2QH9ROXPH
Follow these steps to disable data replication for one volume. These steps disable volume replication until you reenable it.
1.
Comment out the entry in the /etc/snapmirror.conf file by preceding the entry
with a pound sign (#).
2.
Enter the vol snapmirror on command to make the filer reread the /etc/
snapmirror.conf file.
Result: If the filer is currently transferring data from that volume, the transfer
stops immediately.
6WHSVWR'LVDEOH'DWD5HSOLFDWLRQ:KLOH'DWD7UDQVIHU,V
LQ3URJUHVV
Follow these steps to disable data replication while data transfer is in progress. These
steps stop the replication temporarily; at the time of the next scheduled update, data
replication starts up again.
1.
Enter the vol copy status command to display the operation numbers of the
volume copy.
Result: Because SnapMirror uses the vol copy command to transfer data, the
vol copy status command displays all volume copy operations, including the
one for replicating a volume.
2.
Enter the vol copy abort command to terminate the volume copy operation.
Result: The filer stops copying data and displays messages similar to these:
LPDJHRSHUDWLRQLVQRZEHLQJDERUWHG
LPDJHRSHUDWLRQLVQRZEHLQJDERUWHG
&KHFNLQJ'DWD5HSOLFDWLRQ6WDWXV
'HVFULSWLRQ
If you want to know how much data has been copied to the mirror or whether a filer is
using resources for replicating data, you can use the vol snapmirror status
command at any time to check the status of data replication.
3UHUHTXLVLWH
SnapMirror must be enabled before you can check the status of data replication.
Otherwise, the following error message is displayed:
Snapmirror is turned off.
16-14 Dell PowerVault 720N, 740N, and 760N System Administrator and Command Reference Guide
6WHS
To check the status of data replication, enter the vol snapmirror status
command.
Result: The filer displays a message showing whether a transfer is in progress or how
much data replication has been completed.
([DPSOHV
The following examples describe how the vol snapmirror status command displays the status of data replicating.
:KHQ1R'DWD5HSOLFDWLRQ,VLQ3URJUHVV
The following display shows that currently no data is being copied from the vol0 volume to the vol1 volume on filerA:
Source
filerA:vol0
Dest
filerA:vol1
Status
Idle
:KHQ'DWD5HSOLFDWLQJ,VLQ3URJUHVV
The following display shows that the filer has just begun transferring data from the
vol0 volume to the vol1 volume on filerA:
Source
filerA:vol0
Dest
filerA:vol1
Status
Transferring
The following display shows that the filer finished transferring 26% of the data from
the vol0 volume to the vol1 volume on filerA:
Source
filerA:vol0
Dest
filerA:vol1
Status
Transferring (26% complete)
&RQYHUWLQJD0LUURUWRD5HJXODU9ROXPH
'HVFULSWLRQ
If you use SnapMirror for data migration, after you synchronize the data between the
source volume and the mirror, convert the mirror to a regular volume. If you use SnapMirror for disaster recovery, convert the mirror to a regular volume after the source
volume becomes unavailable. After the conversion, you can export the volume or create a share for the volume so that network users can write to it in the same way as
they did to the source volume.
Data Replication Using SnapMirror16-15
3UHUHTXLVLWH
You must meet this prerequisite if the source volume and the mirror reside on different filers and you want the same quota restrictions to be applied after converting the
mirror to a regular volume:
The destination filer must have a /etc/quotas file that includes all entries from the /etc/
quotas file used by the source filer. If SnapMirror is used for data migration, you can
copy the /etc/quotas entries from the source filer to the /etc/quotas file of the destination filer before you convert the mirror to a regular volume. However, if SnapMirror is
used for disaster recovery, on the destination filer, keep a copy of all /etc/quotas
entries used by the source filer at all times so that you can apply the entries to the
destination volume when the source filer becomes unavailable.
6WHSV
Follow these steps to convert a mirror to a regular volume:
1.
If you want to enable quotas after converting the mirror to a regular volume, go to
Step 2. Otherwise, go to Step 4.
2.
Edit the /etc/quotas file on the destination filer so that after the conversion, the
former mirror has the same quota restrictions as the source volume.
If the source volume uses per-volume quotas, replace the source volume name
with the mirror name in the quota entries.
3.
Enter the following command to convert the mirror to a regular volume:
YRORSWLRQVYROXPHBQDPHVQDSPLUURUHGRII
If you want to enable quotas on the former mirror, go to Step 4. Otherwise, the
procedure is complete.
4.
Enter the following command to enable quotas on the former mirror:
TXRWDRQYROXPHBQDPH
'LIIHUHQFHV%HWZHHQWKHYROFRS\&RP
PDQGDQG6QDS0LUURU
'LIIHUHQFHV
Table 16-2 describes the differences between the vol copy command and
SnapMirror.
16-16 Dell PowerVault 720N, 740N, and 760N System Administrator and Command Reference Guide
7DEOH'LIIHUHQFHVLQYROFRS\&RPPDQGDQG6QDS0LUURU
7KHYROFRS\FRPPDQG
6QDS0LUURU
It is a standard Data ONTAP 5.3 feature that requires no license codes.
It requires a license code.
The result of copying a volume is an
off-line volume.
The result of replicating a volume is a
mirror, which is an on-line, read-only
volume.
It does not copy incremental changes
from the source volume.
It periodically copies incremental
changes from the source volume.
It requires that you enter the destination filer name in the /etc/hosts.equiv
file.
It requires that you enter the destination filer name in the /etc/
snapmirror.allow file.
It does not involve a configuration file
that controls how a volume is copied.
It requires that you specify an entry in
the /etc/snapmirror.conf file to control
the volume to be replicated, the data
transfer rate, and the mirror update
schedule.
Data Replication Using SnapMirror16-17
16-18 Dell PowerVault 720N, 740N, and 760N System Administrator and Command Reference Guide
&+$37(5
6\VWHP,QIRUPDWLRQDQG
3HUIRUPDQFH
'LVSOD\LQJWKH'DWD217$39HUVLRQ
+RZWR'LVSOD\WKH'DWD217$39HUVLRQ
To display the version of Data ONTAP currently running on a filer, use the version
command. The display shows the version number and the date of the version, as
follows:
version
NetApp Release 5.3: Fri May 12 03:06:00 PDT 1998
'LVSOD\LQJ)LOHU&RQILJXUDWLRQ,QIRUPDWLRQ
8VHWKHV\VFRQILJ&RPPDQG
The sysconfig command displays information about the filer’s hardware configuration. The exact types of information displayed depend on the command options.
'LVSOD\LQJ'LVN,QIRUPDWLRQ8VLQJV\VFRQILJG
The sysconfig -d command displays product information about each disk in the
filer.
'LVSOD\LQJ5$,',QIRUPDWLRQ8VLQJV\VFRQILJU
The sysconfig -r command displays RAID configuration information about the
parity disk, data disks, and hot spare disks, if any. This information is useful for the following purposes:
‡
Locating a disk referenced in a screen message. Refer to “Using Disks of Various
Sizes” in Chapter 3 for more information about disk identifiers.
System Information and Performance17-1
‡
Determining how much space on each disk is available to the filer. Refer to
“Understanding Usable Space on Each Disk” in Chapter 3 for more information
about disk capacity.
‡
Determining the status of the disk operations, such as RAID scrubbing, reconstruction, parity verification, adding a hot spare, and disk failure.
You can obtain the information displayed by sysconfig -r from SNMP, using the
Dell custom MIB. For information about SNMP, see “Using SNMP” in Chapter 4.
'LVSOD\LQJ7DSH'ULYH,QIRUPDWLRQ8VLQJV\VFRQILJW
The sysconfig -t command displays device and configuration information for
each tape drive on the system. Use this command to determine the capacity of the
tape drive and the device name before you use the dump and restore commands.
'LVSOD\LQJ2YHUDOO)LOHU,QIRUPDWLRQ8VLQJV\VFRQILJY
The sysconfig -v command displays the system’s RAM size, NVRAM size, and
information about devices in all expansion slots. This information varies according to
the devices on the filer. You can specify a slot number to display information about a
particular slot. Slot numbers start at 0, where slot 0 is the system board.
'LVSOD\LQJ2YHUDOO)LOHU,QIRUPDWLRQ8VLQJV\VFRQILJ
If you enter sysconfig without any options, information similar to what you get
with sysconfig -v is displayed, but the information is abbreviated. When you
report a problem to Dell, provide the information displayed by sysconfig -v. This
information is useful for diagnosing system problems.
'LVSOD\LQJ9ROXPH,QIRUPDWLRQ
8VHWKH9ROVWDWXV&RPPDQG
The vol status command displays information about a volumes’s configuration.
The types of information displayed depend on the command options. When you specify a volume, the information for that volume is displayed; when you do not specify a
volume, the status of all volumes in the filer is displayed.
'LVSOD\LQJ9ROXPH6WDWH,QIRUPDWLRQ:LWK9RO6WDWXV
With no options, the vol status command displays a one-line synopsis of volume
states. This includes the volume name, whether it is on-line or off-line, and other
states, for example, partial, degraded, and so on.
'LVSOD\LQJ'LVN,QIRUPDWLRQ8VLQJ9ROVWDWXVG
The vol status -d command displays information about disks. The disk information is the same as the information from the sysconfig -d command.
17-2 Dell PowerVault 720N, 740N, and 760N System Administrator and Command Reference Guide
'LVSOD\LQJ5$,',QIRUPDWLRQ8VLQJ9ROVWDWXVU
The vol status -r command displays a list of the RAID information. The display
is the same as the sysconfig -r display.
'LVSOD\LQJ5$,',QIRUPDWLRQIRU(DFK*URXS8VLQJ9RO
VWDWXVY
The vol status -v command displays information about each RAID group.
'LVSOD\LQJ)LOHU6WDWLVWLFV
8VHWKHV\VVWDWDQGXSWLPH&RPPDQGV
You use the sysstat and uptime commands to display filer statistics.
$ERXWWKHV\VVWDW&RPPDQG
The sysstat command displays information about CPU utilization, file operations,
read and write operations on disks and tapes, and the age of data in the cache buffer.
By default, the filer displays statistics every 15 seconds; you can specify the interval,
in seconds, at which statistics are displayed.
The sysstat output is particularly useful for revealing file access patterns on your
filer, from which you can determine whether you should install more NVRAM, system
memory, or disks.
Depending on the applications that access the filer, the computers on the network,
and the network configuration, the following suggested actions might improve your
filer’s performance:
‡
The data in the Cache age column indicates how fast read operations are cycling
through system memory. If the values in the Cache age column are consistently
below 5, the filer might benefit from more system memory. Cache age shows
the age of the oldest read-only blocks in memory. A low cache age means that
the filer is retrieving information from disk instead of from memory. For information about adding memory, see “About the Uptime Command.” If the CPU
utilization percentage in the CPU column is low but you are not getting the
expected performance, you might need to add disks to the system.
‡
‡
If CPU utilization is high, you might need to add another filer.
If the network traffic shown in the Net Kb/s column is at or near the capacity of
the network interface (1 MB per Ethernet adapter) you might need to add
another network adapter card to the system.
System Information and Performance17-3
$ERXWWKHXSWLPH&RPPDQG
The uptime command prints the current time, the length of time the system has
been up, and the total number of NFS operations the system has performed since it
was last booted.
([DPSOH
An example of the display is
uptime
8:54am up 2 days 22:23, 3122520 NFS ops
'LVSOD\LQJ1HWZRUN6WDWLVWLFV
8VHWKHQHWVWDW&RPPDQG
You use the netstat command to display network statistics.
$ERXWWKHQHWVWDW&RPPDQG
The netstat command displays network-related data in various output formats.
The netstat -i and netstat -I options show the state of all network interfaces or one specific interface, respectively. The netstat -r command shows the
filer’s routing table.
For information about troubleshooting network problems, see “Network Problems” in
chapter 18. For more information about the netstat command, see the netstat(1)
man page.
'LVSOD\LQJ,QWHUIDFH6WDWLVWLFV
8VHWKHLIVWDW&RPPDQG
The ifstat command prints per-interface statistics not reported by commands such
as netstat. This includes some statistics maintained by the networking code, as
well as statistics maintained by the driver and by the networking card.
The output of the ifstat command might contain many fields, because different
types of interfaces, for example, Ethernet and Gigabit (GB) Ethernet have different
statistics.
LIVWDW6\QWD[
The syntax for the ifstat command is
17-4 Dell PowerVault 720N, 740N, and 760N System Administrator and Command Reference Guide
ifstat [-z]
-a | interface
The -z option “zeros” (or clears) the statistics. The -a option lists statistics for all the
filer’s interfaces. The interface option indicates the type of interface for which you
want statistics.
([SODQDWLRQRI,QWHUIDFH6WDWLVWLFV
(WKHUQHW
Table 17-1 describes the statistics in the RECEIVE section of the ifstat command
output when you use the command on an Ethernet interface.
7DEOHLIVWDW&RPPDQGRQ(WKHUQHW,QWHUIDFH³5(&(,9(
6WDWLVWLF
0HDQLQJ
Packets
Number of packets received on the interface.
Bytes
Number of bytes received on the interface.
Errors
Number of errors during Ethernet frame reception,
including all kinds of receive errors.
No buffers
Number of received packets dropped due to the unavailability of buffers.
Length err
Number of frames truncated due to the shortage of
receive descriptors.
Runt frames
Number of runt frames.
Long frames
Number of frames received that exceeded the maximum
Ethernet-specified size of 1,518 bytes.
CRC error
Number of CRC errors that occurred on the received
frames.
H/w overflow
Number of frames discarded because of receive FIFO
overflow.
Process stop
Number of times the receive process stopped.
List overflow
Number of frames dropped due to the unavailability of
descriptors.
Process reset
Number of times the receive process was reset.
Rst frame drops
Number of frames discarded due to the resetting of the
receive process.
Table 17-2 describes the statistics in the TRANSMIT section of the ifstat command output when you use the command on an Ethernet interface.
System Information and Performance17-5
7DEOHLIVWDW&RPPDQGRQ(WKHUQHW,QWHUIDFH³75$160,7
6WDWLVWLF
0HDQLQJ
Packets
Number of packets attempted to be transmitted.
Bytes
Number of bytes attempted to be transmitted.
Errors
Number of hardware errors encountered while attempting to transmit.
Collisions
Number of collisions that occurred while transmitting
frames.
Late collisions
Number of collisions terminated due to a late collision.
Excess coll
Number of times transmission was terminated due to
excessive collisions.
Queue full
Number of times the queue was full.
List full
Number of frames that were dropped due to the unavailability of descriptors.
No carrier
Number of times the carrier signal was not present during transmission.
Underflow
Number of times the transmitter terminated the message because data arrived late from memory.
Defer
Number of times transmission had to be deferred.
Time out
Number of times the transmit jabber timer expired.
Stopped
Number of times the receive process stopped.
List underflow
Number of frames that had to be dropped due to the
unavailability of descriptors.
Loss of carrier
Number of times the carrier was lost.
No buffers
Number of times buffers were unavailable.
Requeue
Number of times the frame was requeued due to list
underflow.
Threshold up
Number of times the transmit threshold was increased.
Threshold dn
Number of times the transmit threshold was decreased.
Threshold lvl
Current threshold level.
Table 17-3 describes the statistics in the DEVICE section of the ifstat command
output when you use the command on an Ethernet interface.
17-6 Dell PowerVault 720N, 740N, and 760N System Administrator and Command Reference Guide
7DEOHLIVWDW&RPPDQGRQ(WKHUQHW,QWHUIDFH³'(9,&(
6WDWLVWLF
0HDQLQJ
Interrupts
Number of times the Ethernet device interrupted the
host.
Resets
Number of times the Ethernet device was reset.
Table 17-4 describes the statistics in the LINK INFO section of the ifstat command
output when you use the command on an Ethernet interface.
7DEOHLIVWDW&RPPDQGRQ(WKHUQHW,QWHUIDFH³/,1.,1)2
6WDWLVWLF
0HDQLQJ
Auto
Auto-Negotiation state.
Mediatype
Media type, such as twisted pair.
Link Partner
The Auto-Negotiation capability of the remote end. It
is unknown if Auto-Negotiation is disabled.
Link State
Link status.
*%(WKHUQHW
Table 17-5 describes the statistics in the RECEIVE section of the ifstat command
output when you use the command on a GB Ethernet interface.
7DEOHLIVWDW&RPPDQGRQ*%(WKHUQHW,QWHUIDFH³5(&(,9(
6WDWLVWLF
0HDQLQJ
Packets
Number of packets received on the interface.
Bytes
Number of bytes received on the interface.
Errors
Number of errors during Ethernet frame reception,
including all kinds of receive errors.
Queue full
Number of received packets dropped due to the unavailability of buffers.
Unicast packets
Number of unicast packets received.
Table 17-6 describes the statistics in the TRANSMIT section of the ifstat command output when you use the command on a GB Ethernet interface.
System Information and Performance17-7
7DEOHLIVWDW&RPPDQGRQ*%(WKHUQHW,QWHUIDFH³75$160,7
6WDWLVWLF
0HDQLQJ
Packets
Number of packets attempted to be transmitted.
Bytes
Number of bytes attempted to be transmitted.
Errors
Number of hardware errors encountered while attempting to transmit.
Collisions
Number of collisions that occurred while transmitting
frames.
Unicast
packets
Number of unicast packets transmitted.
Table 17-7 describes the statistics in the DEVICE section of the ifstat command
output when you use the command on a GB Ethernet interface.
7DEOHLIVWDW&RPPDQGRQ*%(WKHUQHW,QWHUIDFH³'(9,&(
6WDWLVWLF
0HDQLQJ
Received errors
Number of errors encountered during reception by the
interface.
Transmit errors
Number of errors encountered during transmission by
the interface.
Collisions
Number of collisions encountered during transmission
by the interface.
,PSURYLQJ)LOHU3HUIRUPDQFH
$ERXW7KLV6HFWLRQ
This section describes configuration procedures that might improve your filer’s
performance.
/LPLWLQJ'LUHFWRU\)LOH6L]H
An extremely large directory file can use up most of the filer’s CPU cycles when a
user enters a ls command in the directory. The limit on directory file size is set by
the options wafl.maxdirsize command. The default limit, 10 MB, should
prevent the system from hanging. A directory of this size accommodates approximately 300,000 files with short file names.
The wafl.maxdirsize option takes the maximum number of kilobytes as its
argument. When you reset the maximum directory size, the argument that you supply
17-8 Dell PowerVault 720N, 740N, and 760N System Administrator and Command Reference Guide
is rounded up to the next highest 4K boundary. If a user tries to create a file that
would cause the directory to grow larger than the specified size limit, the user’s command fails.
%DODQFLQJ1)67UDIILFRQ1HWZRUN,QWHUIDFHV
To balance network traffic among different interfaces, attach multiple interfaces on the
filer to the same physical network. For example, if two Ethernet interfaces on the filer
named filer are attached to the same network where four clients reside, specify in /
etc/fstab on client1 and client2 that these clients mount from filer-0:/home. Specify in
/etc/fstab on client3 and client4 that these clients mount from filer-1:/home. This
scheme can balance the traffic among interfaces if all clients generate about the same
amount of traffic.
The filer always responds to an NFS request by sending its reply on the interface on
which the request was received.
$YRLGLQJ$FFHVV7LPH8SGDWHIRU,QRGHV
If your applications do not depend on having the correct access time for files, you can
disable the update of access time (atime) on an inode when a file is read. To prevent
updates, turn the no_atime_update option On. Consider turning this option On if
your filer has extremely high read traffic, for example, on a news server used by an
Internet provider, because it prevents inode updates from contending with reads from
other files.
&$87,21,I\RXDUHQRWVXUHZKHWKHU\RXUILOHUVKRXOGPDLQWDLQDQDFFX
UDWHDFFHVVWLPHRQLQRGHVOHDYHWKLVRSWLRQDWLWVGHIDXOW2IIVRWKDWWKH
DFFHVVWLPHLVXSGDWHG
,PSURYLQJ3HUIRUPDQFHRQ'LUHFWRU\/RRNXSV
Turning the nfs.big_endianize_fileid option On improves performance on
directory lookups for clients that use the file ID in the file handle as a hash key in certain ways. Enable this option if your NFS clients are mainly running HP-UX or IRIX.
NOTE: If you turn the big_endianize_fileid option On, all NFS clients that
have mounted directories from the filer must unmount and remount them; otherwise,
they get “stale file handle” errors on all references to files already opened on the filer
until they unmount and remount all directories.
,PSURYLQJ5HDG$KHDG3HUIRUPDQFH
If the file access patterns of your clients are random (nonsequential), turning minimal
read-ahead On might improve performance. By default, the filer uses aggressive readahead, which enhances sequential access, which is more commonly used by UNIX
clients and applications. To specify minimal read-ahead, turn the minra option On.
By default, the option is Off and the filer does very aggressive read-ahead.
System Information and Performance17-9
17-10 Dell PowerVault 720N, 740N, and 760N System Administrator and Command Reference Guide
&+$37(5
7URXEOHVKRRWLQJ
*HWWLQJ7HFKQLFDO$VVLVWDQFH
,QIRUPDWLRQWR1RWH%HIRUH&DOOLQJIRU6XSSRUW
If you encounter problems with the filer that you cannot solve, you might need to contact your service provider or Dell technical support for assistance. If you do, have the
following information available:
‡
‡
‡
the system service tag and your Express Service code
the system configuration as reported by the sysconfig -v command (if the
filer still responds to the command)
any diagnostic messages that were reported (diagnostic messages are in the
/etc/messages file on the root volume)
For additional information you may need, see “Getting Help” in your Installation and
Troubleshooting Guide.
+RZWR&RQWDFW'HOO
For numbers that you can use to contact Dell technical support, see “Getting Help” in
your Installation and Troubleshooting Guide.
%RRWLQJ)URP6\VWHP%RRW'LVNHWWH
%RRW)URP'LVNHWWH7R&RUUHFW6RPH7\SHVRI3UREOHPV
You might need to reboot the filer from the system boot diskette to correct configuration problems, recover from a lost password, or correct certain disk configuration
problems.
Troubleshooting 18-1
3URFHGXUHIRU%RRWLQJ)URP'LVNHWWH
To display the boot menu from a diskette, perform the following steps:
1.
Insert the diskette labeled System Boot Disk 1 into the filer’s diskette drive.
NOTE: The Data ONTAP 5.3 system boot diskettes are specific to the model of
filer that you are updating. You received diskettes appropriate to the model you
are updating. If you have different models, be sure to check the diskette labels to
make sure you’re using the correct diskettes for the filer.
2.
From the system console, enter the reboot command or, if the system is powered off, power it on.
Result: The filer begins the boot process.
3.
When the filer’s LCD prompts you to, remove the diskette and insert the diskette
labeled System Boot Disk 2 into the filer’s diskette drive.
4.
Press the Enter key on your console.
Result: The filer boots and, if it can, displays the following boot menu:
1RUPDO%RRW
%RRWZLWKRXWHWFUF
&KDQJH3DVVZRUG
,QLWLDOL]HDOOGLVNV
0DLQWHQDQFHPRGHERRW
6HOHFWLRQ"
5.
Choose one of the boot types shown below by entering the corresponding
number.
‡
Normal Boot (1) — Use Normal Boot to run the filer normally, but
from a diskette.
‡
Boot without /etc/rc (2) — Use Boot without /etc/rc to troubleshoot
and repair configuration problems.
NOTE: Booting without /etc/rc causes the filer to use only default options
settings, disregard all options settings you put in /etc/rc, and disable some
services, such as syslog.
‡
Change Password (3) — Use Change Password to reset your filer’s administrative password.
‡
Initialize all disks (4) — Use Initialize all disks to zero all disks attached to the
filer.
NOTE: This action will result in a loss of all data on the disks.
18-2 Dell PowerVault 720N, 740N, and 760N System Administrator and Command Reference Guide
‡
Maintenance mode boot (5) — Use Maintenance mode boot to go into
Maintenance mode and perform some volume and disk operations and get
detailed volume and disk information. Maintenance mode is special for the
following reasons:
—
Most normal functions, including file-system operations, are disabled.
—
A limited set of commands is available for diagnosing and repairing disk
and volume problems.
—
You exit Maintenance mode with the halt command.
5HVWDUWLQJD6KXW'RZQ)LOHU
3URFHGXUHIRU5HVWDUWLQJ)LOHU$IWHU8QH[SHFWHG
6KXWGRZQ
Complete the following steps to restart your filer if it shuts down unexpectedly:
1.
Write down the messages displayed on the console and the message on the
LCD, if your filer has an LCD.
2.
If the console is...
Then...
‡
‡
‡
Showing the mon> prompt — Enter b (for boot) to reboot the filer.
Showing the ok prompt — Enter boot to reboot the filer.
Unresponsive — Reset the filer by turning it off, leaving it off for 30 seconds,
and turning it back on.
Results: The filer boots and displays the system prompt on the console.
3.
If the filer still does not boot, display the boot menu from diskette, as described
in “Booting From System Boot Diskette,” then choose Normal Boot.
195$03UREOHP
+RZWKH)LOHU+DQGOHV,QFRQVLVWHQW195$0&RQWHQWV
The filer performs a number of checks to ensure that the NVRAM contents are consistent. If the contents are inconsistent, the filer performs one of following actions:
,QFRQVLVWHQF\'XHWR,PSURSHUO\8SGDWHG9ROXPH
If the inconsistency is due to a failure to update a volume properly, the filer displays a
message suggesting that you halt the filer with the halt command, take the offending volume off-line in Maintenance mode, and reboot the filer.
Troubleshooting 18-3
,QFRQVLVWHQF\'XHWR/RJ8SGDWHVIRU2IIOLQH9ROXPH
If the inconsistency is due to the log having updates for an off-line volume, the filer
asks whether to discard them.
,QFRQVLVWHQF\'XHWR2WKHU5HDVRQV
If there are many inconsistencies that cannot be repaired, the filer discards the inconsistent contents and creates a core dump file. The file requests received during the
last few seconds before the filer shuts down are lost. This does not cause the file system to become inconsistent, but files written during the last 10 seconds before
shutdown might contain old or incorrect data. Also, because the parity of some
recently written stripes might be incorrect, the filer must do a parity check on the
entire RAID array. The parity check, and any correction, is performed on-line; that is,
the filer conducts the test in the background while continuing otherwise normal
operation.
This kind of data error can happen only when you boot a system after a failure or after
you turn off a filer without using the halt command.
9ROXPH3UREOHPV
7\SHVRI9ROXPH3UREOHPV'HVFULEHG
This section describes the following types of volume problems:
‡
‡
Failed mounts and stale file handles
Volume name problems
)DLOHG0RXQWVDQG6WDOH)LOH+DQGOHV
&KDQJLQJ9ROXPH1DPHV&DQ&DXVH0RXQWDQG)LOH
+DQGOH3UREOHPV
If mounts fail and clients see stale file handles, it might be because you renamed a
volume and it is not exported anymore. This is because the new volume name was
not in the /etc/exports file on the root volume.
3URFHGXUHIRU)L[LQJWKHHWFH[SRUWV3UREOHP
To fix the problem, edit the /etc/exports file on the filer default volume to change the
old volume name to the new volume name.
Results: The problem is resolved.
18-4 Dell PowerVault 720N, 740N, and 760N System Administrator and Command Reference Guide
9ROXPH1DPH3UREOHPV
9ROXPH1DPLQJ5XOHV
A valid volume name has the following characteristics:
‡
‡
‡
The prefix is followed by either a letter or an underscore (“_”).
It contains only letters, digits, and underscores.
It is not longer than 255 characters.
([DPSOHVRI9ROXPH1DPHV
Examples of valid volume names are
‡
‡
‡
_tech_pubs
SW_Engineering
Dept_32
(UURU0HVVDJHV$ERXW9ROXPH1DPHV
You might get an error message that contains one of the following phrases:
‡
‡
‡
invalid volume name
unrecognized volume name
illegal volume name
If you get one of these messages, take one of the following actions:
‡
‡
Type correctly the name of an existing volume.
Type a valid volume name.
'LVN3UREOHPV
7\SHVRI'LVN3UREOHPV'HVFULEHG
The next two sections describe how the filer reacts to a:
‡
‡
Disk failure without a hot spare disk
Disk failure with a hot spare disk
Troubleshooting 18-5
'LVN)DLOXUH:LWKRXWD+RW6SDUH'LVN
$ERXW7KLV6HFWLRQ
This section describes how the filer reacts to a disk failure when a hot spare disk is
available.
)LOHU5XQVLQ'HJUDGHG0RGH
If a disk fails, the filer continues to run without losing any data but has a somewhat
degraded performance.
&$87,215HSODFHWKHGLVNDVVRRQDVSRVVLEOHEHFDXVHDVHFRQGGLVNIDLO
XUHFRXOGFDXVHWKHILOHUWRORVHWKHHQWLUHILOHV\VWHP
)LOHU/RJV:DUQLQJ0HVVDJHVLQHWFPHVVDJHV
The filer logs a warning message in the /etc/messages file on the root volume every
hour after a disk fails.
)LOHU6KXWV'RZQ$XWRPDWLFDOO\$IWHU+RXUV
To ensure that you notice the failure, the filer automatically shuts itself off in 24 hours,
by default, or in a period you set with the raid.timeout option to the options
command. You can restart the filer without fixing the disk, but it continues to shut
itself off periodically until you repair the problem.
&$87,21&KHFNWKH/etc/messagesILOHRQWKHURRWYROXPHRQFHDGD\IRU
LPSRUWDQWPHVVDJHV<RXFDQDXWRPDWHFKHFNLQJWKLVILOHZLWKDVFULSWRQD
UHPRWHKRVWWKDWSHULRGLFDOO\VHDUFKHVWKHILOHDQGWKHQDOHUWV\RX
)LOHU5HFRQVWUXFWV'DWD$IWHU'LVN,V5HSODFHG
After you replace a disk, the filer detects the new disk when the system boots. The
filer starts file service and reconstructs the missing data in the background with minimum interruption to service.
'LVN)DLOXUH:LWKD+RW6SDUH'LVN
$ERXW7KLV6HFWLRQ
This section describes how the filer reacts to a disk failure when a hot spare disk is
not available.
18-6 Dell PowerVault 720N, 740N, and 760N System Administrator and Command Reference Guide
)LOHU5HSODFHV'LVN:LWK6SDUHDQG5HFRQVWUXFWV'DWD
If a disk fails, the filer
‡
‡
replaces the failed disk with a hot spare disk
‡
logs the activity in the /etc/messages file on the root volume
reconstructs the missing data on the hot spare disk in the background, so that
the interruption to file service is minimized
The filer does not shut down automatically.
&$87,21$IWHUWKHILOHULVILQLVKHGUHFRQVWUXFWLQJGDWDRQWKHKRWVSDUH
GLVNUHSODFHWKHIDLOHGGLVNZLWKDQHZKRWVSDUHGLVNDVVRRQDVSRVVLEOH
VRWKDWWKHUHLVDOZD\VDKRWVSDUHGLVNDYDLODEOHLQWKHV\VWHP)RULQIRU
PDWLRQDERXWUHSODFLQJDGLVNUHIHUWR´'LVN0DQDJHPHQW7DVNVµLQ
&KDSWHU
If a second disk fails and there is no hot spare disk available, contact Dell technical
support, as described in “Getting Technical Assistance.”
5HODWHG,QIRUPDWLRQ
In addition to disk failure and hot spare disk replacement activity, the /etc/messages
file on the root volume logs any failure in a periodic check of the hot spare disk. For
more information, refer to the sysconfig(1) and messages(5) man pages.
'LVN(UURUV
7\SHVRI'LVN(UURUV'HVFULEHG
The filer displays error messages when the following disk problems occur:
‡
‡
‡
A disk does not exist.
A disk is in use.
Disks are missing.
(UURU0HVVDJH1RQH[LVWHQW'LVNV
If you get a message indicating that a disk does not exist, especially if you are adding
a disk to a volume or a RAID group, make sure that
‡
‡
The disk is specified correctly.
The specified disk is a spare.
(UURU0HVVDJH'LVNLQ8VH
If you are adding a disk to a volume and you get a message indicating that a disk is in
use, the disk you specified might already be a system disk. Make sure that
Troubleshooting 18-7
‡
‡
The disk is specified correctly.
The specified disk is a spare.
(UURU0HVVDJH6\VWHP&DQQRW%RRW%HFDXVH'LVNV$UH
0LVVLQJ
You might get a message similar to the following:
The system cannot boot with more than one disk missing from a RAID
group.
This message indicates that a volume might be missing some disks because either
not all the disks in a volume were transferred to a new filer or disks were damaged.
Make sure that all the disks in a volume were transferred. If the problem persists, it
might mean that disks were damaged. Complete the following steps to resolve the
problem.
1.
Display the boot menu from diskette, as described in “Booting From System
Boot Diskette,” then choose Maintenance mode boot.
2.
Use the vol offline command to take the volume off-line.
3.
Reboot the filer; the volume specified in Step 2 is off-line.
4.
Add missing disks, if possible, then bring them on-line; otherwise, follow these
steps:
a.
Replace any broken disks.
b.
Destroy the old volume.
c.
Create a new volume.
d.
Use the restore command to restore the contents of the old volume from
a backup tape.
,QFRQVLVWHQW)LOH6\VWHP
,QFRQVLVWHQFLHV6HOGRP2FFXU
The file system rarely becomes inconsistent. However, an inconsistent file system
can be a result of combined disk and NVRAM failure.
&RQWDFW7HFKQLFDO6XSSRUWLIDQ,QFRQVLVWHQF\2FFXUV
If your file system becomes inconsistent, contact Dell technical support for assistance, as described in “Getting Technical Assistance.”
18-8 Dell PowerVault 720N, 740N, and 760N System Administrator and Command Reference Guide
'LVN2SHUDWLRQVLQ0DLQWHQDQFH0RGH
0DLQWHQDQFH0RGH2SHUDWLRQV
Maintenance mode enables you to perform the following operations to troubleshoot
disk problems:
‡
Obtain detailed device information for each disk with the disk_list
command.
‡
‡
Check access to a particular disk with the disk_check command.
Erase a disk label with the disk_erase_label command.
NOTE: For information about Maintenance mode, see “Booting From System Boot
Diskette.”
'LVSOD\LQJ'HWDLOHG'LVN,QIRUPDWLRQ
The disk_list command displays detailed device information for each disk on the
system, such as drive type, and firmware revision level.
&KHFNLQJ$FFHVVWRD'LVN
The disk_check command checks access to a particular disk, issuing read
requests to the disk. The disk is active for approximately 15 seconds. During this time,
you can watch the disk’s activity LED to verify that the disk is accessed.
(UDVLQJD'LVN/DEHO
The disk_erase_label command erases a disk label on the specified disk drive.
&$87,218VHWKHdisk_erase_labelFRPPDQGFDUHIXOO\EHFDXVHDIWHU
DGLVNODEHOLVHUDVHG5$,'WUHDWVWKHGLVNDVXQLQLWLDOL]HGDQGQRORQJHU
UHFRJQL]HVLWDVDPHPEHURID5$,'DUUD\
Typically, use this command to remove an old RAID label on a previously used disk
that you are adding to an existing RAID group. For example, use this command to
erase the disk label when you move a disk from one filer to another.
Troubleshooting 18-9
&RQILJXUDWLRQ3UREOHPV
7KHHWFUFHWFH[SRUWVDQGHWFKRVWV)LOHV&DQ
&RQWDLQ(UURUV
Configuration problems usually occur in one of the three configuration files on the
root volume:
‡
‡
‡
/etc/rc
/etc/exports
/etc/hosts
This section describes common configuration problems.
:KDWWR'R:KHQWKH)LOHU,V1RW$FFHVVLEOH)URPWKH
$GPLQLVWUDWLRQ+RVW
If you can access the filer from the console but not from the administration host, the
filer’s /etc/hosts file on the root volume might have an IP address that is unreachable.
Complete the following steps to fix this problem:
1.
Log in to the filer from the system console.
2.
At the filer prompt, enter the following commands, replacing the information
shown in italics with values appropriate for your filer:
LIFRQILJLIPHGLDW\SHW\SH,3BDGGUHVVQHWPDVNQHWPDVN
H[SRUWIVLRURRW DGPLQKRVWB,3BDGGU
QIVRQ
3.
Mount the root file system from the administration host.
4.
Edit the configuration files as described in Chapter 2, “Filer Administration
Basics.”
)LOHU5XQV6HWXS:KHQHWFUF,V'DPDJHGRU0LVVLQJ
If the /etc/rc file on the root volume is accidentally deleted, the filer automatically runs
setup the next time it is booted.
If the system does not respond to network requests after a boot, check the console to
make sure that the system is not waiting for your input.
If the filer cannot boot from the hard disk because of damaged configuration files, you
can boot it from the system boot diskette. In this case, you must manually initialize
the filer and correct the configuration. See “Booting From System Boot Diskette” for
information about booting from the system boot diskette.
18-10 Dell PowerVault 720N, 740N, and 760N System Administrator and Command Reference Guide
+RZWR5HFRYHU)URP&RQILJXUDWLRQ(UURUVLI1)6,VWKH
2QO\/LFHQVHG3URWRFRO
If you are running NFS only, complete the following steps to recover from configuration errors in the /etc/rc file.
1.
Display the boot menu from diskette as described in “Booting From System Boot
Diskette.”
2.
Enter 2 to choose Boot without /etc/rc.
NOTE: Booting the filer without the /etc/rc file on the root volume automatically
disables CIFS service. You cannot do this procedure using CIFS.
3.
At the filer prompt, enter the following two commands, replacing the variables
shown in italics with values appropriate for your filer:
LIFRQILJLIPHGLDW\SHW\SH,3BDGGUHVVQHWPDVNQHWPDVN
H[SRUWIVLR
DFFHVV DGPLQKRVWB,3BDGGUURRW DGPLQKRVWB,3BDGGUQIVRQ
4.
Mount the root file system from the administration host.
5.
Edit the configuration files.
6.
Remove the system boot diskette from the disk drive and reboot the filer to test
the new configuration files.
NOTE: Although you can correct network problems using various keyboard
commands, correct the /etc/rc file on the root volume so that it initializes the system
correctly if there is a power outage or system software failure.
+RZWR5HVHWWKH)LOHU3DVVZRUG
5HVHWWKH3DVVZRUGLI<RX)RUJHW,W
If you forget your filer password, reset the password by using the system boot diskette. To avoid security problems, take care to limit access to the system boot
diskette.
3URFHGXUHIRU5HVHWWLQJWKH3DVVZRUG
Complete the following steps to reset the filer password:
1.
Reboot from diskette as described in “Booting From System Boot Diskette.”
2.
When the boot menu appears, enter 3 to choose Change Password.
Troubleshooting 18-11
3.
When the filer prompts you for a new password, enter it at the prompt.
Results: The system prints the following message:
3DVVZRUG&KDQJHG
+LW5HWXUQWRUHERRW
4.
Remove the diskette from the filer’s diskette drive and reboot the filer by pressing
the Enter key.
+RZWR,QLWLDOL]H$OO'LVNVDQG&UHDWHD
1HZ)LOH6\VWHP
,QLWLDOL]LQJ$OO'LVNV(UDVHV$OO'DWD
You might need to initialize all disks and create a single new file system in the following circumstances:
‡
‡
You decide to redeploy an existing filer and need to completely reconfigure it.
Dell technical support advises you that the only way to recover from an error is to
initialize all disks.
&$87,21,QLWLDOL]LQJDOOGLVNVFDXVHVDOOH[LVWLQJGDWDWREHORVW
3URFHGXUHIRU,QLWLDOL]LQJ$OO'LVNV
Complete the following steps to initialize all disks:
1.
If the console is...
Then...
2.
‡
Displaying the filer prompt, for example, filer> — Place the system boot
diskette into the diskette drive of the filer and enter reboot.
‡
Not displaying the filer prompt — Reboot from diskette as described in
“Booting From System Diskette.”
When the boot menu appears, enter 4 to choose Initialize all disks.
Results: The filer initializes all the disks and creates a single-volume file system.
1HWZRUN3UREOHPV
'HWHFW1HWZRUN3UREOHPV8VLQJSLQJDWWKH)LOHU&RQVROH
You can detect network problems by going to the filer console and using the ping
command.
18-12 Dell PowerVault 720N, 740N, and 760N System Administrator and Command Reference Guide
:KDWWKHSLQJ&RPPDQG'RHV
The ping command checks whether the filer can communicate with other hosts on
the network and that other hosts can communicate with the filer.
+RZWR7URXEOHVKRRW1HWZRUN3UREOHPV
If the filer should be able to connect with a host but ping does not respond with a
message indicating that the host is alive, complete the following steps to troubleshoot the problem:
1.
Check that the network cable is tightly connected to the proper interface
connector.
2.
Use the ifconfig command to verify that the IP address and netmask are set
correctly and that the up and running flags are displayed.
3.
Use the arp -a command to confirm that the filer has the correct
IP-to-Ethernet address map for the host you are trying to reach.
4.
Use the netstat -r command to examine the routing tables.
5.
Use the netstat -i command to check for excessive errors on the interfaces.
If you see excessive input errors (ierrs) or output errors (oerrs), check the network
connections on both ends of the connection. Bad transceivers or network hubs
can sometimes introduce errors into the network.
Collisions reported by netstat are a concern only if the filer detects a substantial percentage of collisions as compared to the total packet throughput.
NOTE: The goal is to keep collisions below 5 percent, but a network can operate
properly, but slowly, with collision rates as high as 30 percent.
6.
Use the routed status command to determine the status of the default
router.
NOTE: An improperly set up network router can also cause network problems. If
a router is not working correctly or is not configured with the filer’s address, clients or hosts on the other side of the router cannot access the filer through that
router.
7.
If you are using the filer on a CIFS network and you are experiencing difficulty
accessing the filer using name-based IP operations, for example, ping filer, create
static mappings on your WINS servers for each of the filer’s interfaces.
&RQWDFW7HFKQLFDO6XSSRUW$ERXW2WKHU1HWZRUN3UREOHP
If you encounter other problems, contact Dell technical support for assistance, as
described in “Getting Technical Assistance.”
Troubleshooting18-13
1)63UREOHPV
&OLHQW·V,QDELOLW\7R0RXQW'LUHFWRULHV,QGLFDWHV1)6
3UREOHPV
NFS problems are indicated when the filer and the client can communicate with each
other using the ping command and the client can connect to the filer using
telnet, but the client cannot mount volumes or directories from the filer.
+RZWR7URXEOHVKRRW1)63UREOHPV
Complete the following steps to troubleshoot NFS problems:
1.
Make sure that the filer is licensed for NFS by entering the license command
at the filer prompt.
If the following message appears
nfs not licensed
or if a message with protocols other than NFS appears but NFS is absent, you
must get a license for NFS.
NOTE: For information about how to get a license, contact Dell technical support,
as described in “Getting Technical Assistance.”
2.
Make sure that the filer can correctly look up the client host name.
3.
Make sure that NFS service has been turned On using the nfs on command.
4.
Make sure that the filer and the client are using correct IP addresses and names.
5.
Sometimes a client can see the filer but gets a Permission Denied message
when requesting a mount. If this happens, follow these steps:
‡
Make sure that you defined the file systems correctly in the filer’s /etc/
exports file on the root volume and that you ran the exportfs command
on the filer.
‡
On certain clients, the mount request does not come from the root user
using a privileged port. The filer denies such mount requests by default to
ensure secure access. To grant such mount requests, enter the following
options command:
options nfs.mount.rootonly off
To make this change permanent, add the preceding command to your /etc/rc
file on the root volume.
18-14 Dell PowerVault 720N, 740N, and 760N System Administrator and Command Reference Guide
:LQGRZV$FFHVV3UREOHPV
.LQGVRI$FFHVV3UREOHPV
This section describes preliminary troubleshooting steps, then describes how to troubleshoot the following problems:
‡
‡
‡
“Filer can’t register with the Windows NT domain.”
“Incorrect password or unknown username.”
“Users can’t map a drive.”
3UHOLPLQDU\7URXEOHVKRRWLQJ6WHSV
Complete the following steps to begin to troubleshoot Windows problems:
1.
Make sure that the filer is licensed for CIFS by entering the license command
at the filer prompt.
If the following message appears
&,)6QRWOLFHQVHG
or if a message with protocols other than CIFS appears but CIFS is absent, you
must get a license for CIFS.
NOTE: For information about how to get a license, contact Dell technical support,
as described in “Getting Technical Assistance.”
2.
If you are authenticating through a Windows NT domain, make sure that the filer
has an account in the domain.
NOTE: You can verify that the filer is registered with a domain controller by using
the cifs testdc command.
3.
Make sure that CIFS service has been properly configured with the cifs
setup command.
)LOHU&DQ·W5HJLVWHU:LWKWKH:LQGRZV17'RPDLQ
If you are using WINS, use the table “Using Wins” to troubleshoot the problem. If
you are not using WINS, use the table “Not Using WINS.”
8VLQJ:,16
Use Table 18-1 if you are using WINS.
Troubleshooting18-15
7DEOH8VLQJ:,16
,VWKH:,16VHUYHUZRUNLQJ"
<HV
1R
,VWKHGRPDLQFRQWUROOHUUXQQLQJ"
Get the
WINS
server
working.
<HV
1R
&DQ\RXSLQJWKHGRPDLQFRQWUROOHU"
Start the
domain
controller.
<HV
1R
&DQ\RXSLQJWKHILOHU"
Check
network
connectivity
<HV
1R
&RQWDFW'HOOWHFKQLFDO
VXSSRUWDVGHVFULEHGLQ
´*HWWLQJ7HFKQLFDO$VVLV
WDQFHµ
Check network
connectivity
1RW8VLQJ:,16
Table 18-2 if you are not using WINS.
7DEOH1RW8VLQJ:,16
,VWKH3'&RU%'&RQWKHVDPHVXEQHWDVWKHILOHUDQGLVWKHVXEQHWFRQQHFWHG
WRWKHILUVWFRQILJXUHGQHWZRUNLQWHUIDFHFDUGRQWKHILOHU"
<HV
1R
,VWKHUHDFRPSXWHUDFFRXQWFUHDWHGIRU
WKHILOHULQWKH:LQGRZV17GRPDLQ"
Put the domain controller on the
same subnet as the filer, and connect the subnet to the first
configured network interface card
on the filer.
<HV
1R
Contact Dell technical
support, as described in
“Getting Technical
Assistance.”
Create a
computer
account for
the filer in
the domain.
Without a WINS server, the filer
can talk only to the domain controller by broadcast. The filer
broadcasts only from the first configured network interface. The
domain controller must be on this
subnet.
18-16 Dell PowerVault 720N, 740N, and 760N System Administrator and Command Reference Guide
,QFRUUHFW3DVVZRUGRU8QNQRZQ8VHUQDPH
Use Table 18-3 to troubleshoot the problem.
7DEOH,QFRUUHFW3DVVZRUGRU8QNQRZQ8VHUQDPH
$UHXVHUVLQWKHVDPHGRPDLQDVWKHILOHU"
<HV
1R
$UH\RXXVLQJDYLUWXDO/$1"
,VWKHUHDWUXVWUHODWLRQVKLSEHWZHHQ
WKHILOHUDQGWKHGRPDLQ"
<HV
1R
<HV
1R
Have the users
log in with
DOMAINNAME\
USERNAME
Enter the users
into the /etc/
passwd file
Have the users
log in with
DOMAINNAME\
USERNAME
Establish a trust
relationship
between the user’s
account domain
and the filer’s
domain
8VHUV&DQQRW0DSD'ULYH
If users get an Access Denied message, use the following decision table to troubleshoot the problem.
7DEOH8VHUV&DQQRW0DSD'ULYH
,VWKHILOHULQWKHVDPHGRPDLQDVWKH3'&"
<HV
1R
'RHVWKHXVHUKDYHDFFHVVULJKWVWRWKH
VKDUH"
Use Server Manager to add the
filer to the domain or establish a
trust relationship between the
domains.
<HV
1R
Contact Dell technical support, as
described in “Getting Technical
Assistance.”
Give the user rights
to the share.
81,;FSLR3UREOHPV
7KHFSLR9HUVLRQ6KRXOG6XSSRUWELW,QRGH'HILQLWLRQ
1XPEHUV
If you copy large amounts of data using the UNIX cpio utility, some files might be
copied incorrectly. This happens in UNIX versions of cpio that still use a 16-bit inode
Troubleshooting18-17
definition number. Large file systems require a 32-bit inode definition number. The
problem generally occurs only on file systems with a large number of hard links.
:K\WKH3UREOHP2FFXUV
Some versions of cpio work by copying each file with hard links once and then recreating the hard links. Trouble occurs because the inode number is assumed to be
16 bits. If another file has a matching low-order 16 bits, an internal number collision
occurs, which cpio does not recognize. The cpio utility then overwrites the first
file and creates files that no longer contain the original data.
$VN81,;3URYLGHU:KHWKHUFSLR9HUVLRQ6XSSRUWVELW
,QRGH'HILQLWLRQ1XPEHUV
Check with your UNIX provider to see whether your version of cpio has this problem. If you use SunOS 4.x, ask for the Sun patch 100556-01. This patch works around
the problem by requiring that the files have the same UID, GID, mode, mod time,
inumber, and device before concluding that they are the same file.
81,;GI3UREOHPV
7KHGI9HUVLRQ0XVW6XSSRUW/DUJH)LOH6\VWHPV
Some UNIX versions of the df command have file system limits considerably smaller
than the file system size supported by the filer. This can cause the UNIX df command
to show an incorrect and useless amount of filer disk space in use or remaining. However, the disk space you installed in your filer is fully available and you can use it.
(QDEOH1)62SWLRQWR$YRLG'LVSOD\LQJ8VHOHVV'DWD
To avoid a useless display of disk space on a client system that uses NFS version 2,
enable the nfs.v2.df_2gb_lim option, as described in “Configuring Filer
Options.”
'26:LQGRZVDQG0DFLQWRVK&OLHQWV0LJKW+DYH
'LVSOD\3UREOHP
Some DOS, Windows, or Macintosh clients might have a display problem similar to
UNIX systems; in these cases, enable the nfs.v2.df_2gb_lim option.
)LOHUGI&RPPDQG$OZD\V6KRZV&RUUHFW'LVN6SDFH
At all times, the df command entered on the filer correctly shows the amount of disk
space used and remaining.
18-18 Dell PowerVault 720N, 740N, and 760N System Administrator and Command Reference Guide
TWUHHV$IIHFW'LVN6SDFH'LVSOD\HGE\GI
If a directory in a qtree is mounted and a client issues a df command on something
under that mount point, the command shows the smaller of the client’s file system
limit or the filer disk space. This makes the qtree look fuller according to the client df
command than it actually is.
)LOHU4XRWD5HSRUW&RPPDQG$OZD\V'LVSOD\V&RUUHFW
8VDJH
The filer quota report command shows the correct usage within that qtree.
6HULRXV(UURU0HVVDJHV
3DQLF0HVVDJHV0HDQ6HULRXV3UREOHPV
If your filer has a serious problem, such as a problem with the hardware or a bug in
the system software, it issues a system panic message similar to the following one:
PANIC: system hung (NS0)!
Volume: volname
Version: verno
Table 18-5 shows panic message components.
7DEOH3DQLF0HVVDJH&RPSRQHQWV
0HVVDJH&RPSRQHQW
'HVFULSWLRQ
system hung (NS0)
Indicates the panic class of the message and is significant. The actual text of the message varies with
circumstances.
volname
Is the name of the volume.
verno
Is the version number.
:KDWWR'R$IWHUD3DQLF0HVVDJH
Complete the following steps when your system issues a panic message:
1.
Write down the panic message.
2.
Call Dell technical support immediately, as described in “Getting Technical
Assistance.”
3.
Provide the panic message to Dell technical support.
Troubleshooting18-19
18-20 Dell PowerVault 720N, 740N, and 760N System Administrator and Command Reference Guide
&+$37(5
'HWDLOHG2SWLRQV,QIRUPDWLRQ
$ERXWRSWLRQV
$ERXW6HWWLQJ'HWDLOHG,QIRUPDWLRQ
Options are also described in other sections of this guide and in the man pages. The
vol(1) man page contains information about the vol options command options.
2SWLRQ9DOXHV
The default value of an option is listed below the option name.
The following conventions apply to default values listed:
‡
‡
‡
“None” means that there is no default value.
If the default is “On,” the other possible value is “Off.”
If the default is “Off,” the other possible value is “On.”
The values for On and Off are not case-sensitive. If you do not supply a parameter in
the options command, the command prints the current values of all available
options.
$XWRVXSSRUW2SWLRQV
:KDWWKH$XWRVXSSRUW2SWLRQV'R
The autosupport options control whether and how the filer sends automatic status
messages.
For more information about autosupport, see “Sending Automatic Email.”
Detailed Options Information 19-1
7KHDXWRVXSSRUWGRLW2SWLRQ
'HIDXOW
None
'HVFULSWLRQ
Immediately sends an email message describing the status of the filer. A word
entered as the value for the option is sent in the notification subject line and should
describe the reason for the notification.
7KHDXWRVXSSRUWHQDEOH2SWLRQ
'HIDXOW
On
'HVFULSWLRQ
Enables the autosupport daemon, which sends automatic email messages to
report the status of the filer.
7KHDXWRVXSSRUWIURP2SWLRQ
'HIDXOW
autosupport
'HVFULSWLRQ
Specifies the sender of the automatic email message.
7KHDXWRVXSSRUWPDLOKRVW2SWLRQ
'HIDXOW
administration_host
'HVFULSWLRQ
Specifies the mail hosts that receive automatic email messages. Use a commaseparated list with no spaces.
19-2 Dell PowerVault 720N, 740N, and 760N System Administrator and Command Reference Guide
7KHDXWRVXSSRUWQRWHWR2SWLRQ
'HIDXOW
None
'HVFULSWLRQ
Specifies up to five recipients of an automatic short email message. Use a commaseparated list with no spaces.
&,)62SWLRQV
:KDWWKH&,)62SWLRQV'R
The CIFS options control CIFS features on the filer.
7KHFLIVDFFHVVBORJJLQJBHQDEOH2SWLRQ
'HIDXOW
Off
'HVFULSWLRQ
When On, enables the filer to process access logging, or auditing, information. The
default is Off.
7KHFLIVDFFHVVBORJJLQJILOHQDPH2SWLRQ
'HIDXOW
None
'HVFULSWLRQ
Specifies the active event log file. The file must be in an existing directory in a network share.
7KHFLIVE\SDVVBWUDYHUVHBFKHFNLQJ2SWLRQ
'HIDXOW
On
Detailed Options Information 19-3
'HVFULSWLRQ
When On, directories in the path to a file are not required to have the 'X' (traverse)
permission.
NOTE: This option does not apply in UNIX qtrees or volumes.
7KHFLIVJXHVWBDFFRXQW2SWLRQ
'HIDXOW
None
'HVFULSWLRQ
When you leave cifs.guest_account blank, a CIFS user can log in to the filer
without an account in the password database, provided that a domain controller
authenticates the user.
When you set cifs.guest_account to the name of an account in the NIS
passwd map or /etc/passwd (typically guest), guest access to the filer is enabled, and
the user has the UNIX user ID and the group ID of the guest account. For more information, see “Enabling Guest and Generic Access” in Chapter 7.
7KHFLIVKRPHBGLU2SWLRQ
'HIDXOW
None
'HVFULSWLRQ
Specifies the complete path name of the “homes directory.” The directories under
this path should have the names of users as their names. When a CIFS user connects
to the filer and there is a directory name that exactly matches the user’s name, the
user sees a share of that name (truncated to 12 characters) that is the user’s home
directory. Only the user can access the home directory using this share. All other
users are denied access.
7KHFLIVLGOHBWLPHRXW2SWLRQ
'HIDXOW
18000
'HVFULSWLRQ
Specifies the number of seconds that elapse before the filer disconnects an idle session. The value can range from 600 through 4,000,000 (effectively infinite).
19-4 Dell PowerVault 720N, 740N, and 760N System Administrator and Command Reference Guide
7KHFLIVQHWELRVBDOLDVHV2SWLRQ
'HIDXOW
None
'HVFULSWLRQ
Specifies a list of alternative names for the filer. Use a comma-separated list of
names.
7KHFLIVRSORFNVHQDEOH2SWLRQ
'HIDXOW
On
'HVFULSWLRQ
When this option is On, the filer enables clients to use oplocks (opportunistic locks) on
files. Oplocks provide a significant performance enhancement, but have the potential
to cause lost cached data on some networks with impaired reliability or latency, particularly wide-area networks. In general, you should disable this option only if there are
problems with databases and to isolate problems.
7KHFLIVSHUPBFKHFNBXVHBJLG2SWLRQ
'HIDXOW
On
'HVFULSWLRQ
This option affects security checking for Windows clients of files with UNIX security
where the requestor is not the file owner. In all cases, Windows client requests are
checked against the share-level ACL. If the requestor is the owner, the User permissions determine the access.
If the requestor is not the owner and if perm_check_use_gid is On, files with UNIX
security are checked using normal UNIX rules; that is, if the requestor is a member of
the file's owning group, the Group permissions are used, otherwise the Other permissions are used.
7KHFLIVVFRSHLG2SWLRQ
'HIDXOW
blank
Detailed Options Information 19-5
'HVFULSWLRQ
Specifies a second element for a single-element NetBIOS computer name. This element is case-sensitive. You use this option to isolate a group of computers on a
network that communicate only with other computers with the identical NetBIOS
Scope ID.
This option is not recommended if you are using DNS for name resolution because
NetBIOS Scope IDs and DNS are incompatible.
7KHFLIVVHDUFKBGRPDLQV2SWLRQ
'HIDXOW
None
'HVFULSWLRQ
Specifies a list of domains that trust each other to search for a mapped account. The
argument for the option is a comma-separated list that is searched in order. If no list is
supplied, all domains are searched. You use this option to limit searches if you used an
asterisk for a domain name in the usermap.cfg file.
7KHFLIVVKRZBVQDSVKRW2SWLRQ
'HIDXOW
FALSE
'HVFULSWLRQ
Specifies whether to show the ~snapshot directories in folders. To show the snapshot directories, set this option to TRUE.
7KHFLIVV\POLQNVF\FOHJXDUG2SWLRQ
'HIDXOW
On
'HVFULSWLRQ
If an object being accessed by a CIFS client is a symbolic link, the
cifs.symlinks.cycleguard option, when set to On, eliminates the possibility of cyclic directories. It does so by preventing the following of symbolic links that
contain the “dot” (“.”) or “dot-dot” (“..”) component—symbolic links that could refer
to a directory higher in the same tree. With the cifs.symlinks.cycleguard
option set to Off, if you are careful, you can use symbolic links having “dot” or “dotdot” components.
19-6 Dell PowerVault 720N, 740N, and 760N System Administrator and Command Reference Guide
7KHFLIVV\POLQNVHQDEOH2SWLRQ
'HIDXOW
On
'HVFULSWLRQ
When you set cifs.symlinks.enable to On (the default setting), if the object
being accessed by a CIFS client is a symbolic link, the filer follows the link with the
condition that the ultimate target turns out to reside within the originating share. This
ensures that the client has access permission to the target. This applies both to relative symbolic links (links to paths beginning with a character other than / and treated
as a path relative to the parent directory of the symbolic link) and absolute symbolic
links (links to paths beginning with / and treated as a path relative to the root of the
file system). For more information about this option, refer to “Managing Symbolic
Links for CIFS Access” in Chapter 5.
'162SWLRQV
:KDWWKH'162SWLRQV'R
The DNS options control how the filer works with DNS.
For more information about DNS, see Chapter 4, “Network Administration.”
7KHGQVGRPDLQQDPH2SWLRQ
'HIDXOW
None
'HVFULSWLRQ
Sets the DNS domain name to the specified domain name.
7KHGQVHQDEOH2SWLRQ
'HIDXOW
Off
'HVFULSWLRQ
Enables the DNS client on the filer. Before you enable DNS, you must set the DNS
domain and the /etc/resolv.conf file must exist.
Detailed Options Information 19-7
+7732SWLRQV
:KDWWKH+7732SWLRQV'R
The HTTP options enable and control HTTP services.
For more information about HTTP on the filer, see Chapter 8, “HTTP Administration.”
7KHKWWSGDGPLQHQDEOH2SWLRQ
'HIDXOW
On
'HVFULSWLRQ
Enables HTTP access to the filer’s on-line Help files and other files used by FilerView.
7KHKWWSGHQDEOH2SWLRQ
'HIDXOW
Off
'HVFULSWLRQ
Enables the HTTP server.
7KHKWWSGORJPD[BILOHBVL]H2SWLRQ
'HIDXOW
2147483647 (2 GB - 1 byte)
'HVFULSWLRQ
Specifies the number of bytes /etc/log/httpd.log, the HTTP log file, can grow to. The
maximum value is 500 GB.
7KHKWWSGURRWGLU2SWLRQ
'HIDXOW
None
19-8 Dell PowerVault 720N, 740N, and 760N System Administrator and Command Reference Guide
'HVFULSWLRQ
Specifies the root directory containing files and directories that HTTP transfers to
clients.
7KHKWWSGWLPHRXW2SWLRQ
'HIDXOW
900 seconds (15 minutes)
'HVFULSWLRQ
Specifies the minimum amount of time, in seconds, before an idle HTTP connection
times out.
7KHKWWSGWLPHZDLWHQDEOH2SWLRQ
'HIDXOW
On
'HVFULSWLRQ
When you set this option to On, the filer drops an HTTP connection one minute after
the client closes it. When you set this option to Off, the connection is not dropped and
resources are consumed until the connection times out.
1)62SWLRQV
:KDWWKH1)62SWLRQ'RHV
The NFS option enables and controls NFS services.
For more information about NFS, see Chapter 6, “NFS Administration.”
7KHQIVPRXQWBURRWRQO\2SWLRQ
'HIDXOW
On
'HVFULSWLRQ
Configures the filer to give NFS access only to root by requiring that mount requests
come from privileged ports (ports 0 through 1023).
Detailed Options Information 19-9
7KHQIVSHUBFOLHQWBVWDWVHQDEOH2SWLRQ
'HIDXOW
Off
'HVFULSWLRQ
Specifies whether the filer collects and displays NFS statistics from individual clients.
7KHQIVWFSHQDEOH2SWLRQ
'HIDXOW
Off
'HVFULSWLRQ
Specifies whether the filer supports NFS over TCP. Enable this option if a client has
problems using NFS over UDP.
7KHQIVYGIJEOLP2SWLRQ
'HIDXOW
Off
'HVFULSWLRQ
Limits to 2 GB the response the filer gives to requests from NFS v2 clients regarding
total space, free space, or available space. This option is necessary for some NFS clients to calculate the amount of free space accurately. Without this option, a file
system with more than 2 GB of free disk space might appear to be full to the client
that initiates the “file system statistics” request.
7KHQIVYHQDEOH2SWLRQ
'HIDXOW
On
'HVFULSWLRQ
Specifies whether the filer supports NFS Version 3. Disable this option if a client has
problems using NFS Version 3 and that client cannot be configured to use NFS Version 2.
19-10 Dell PowerVault 720N, 740N, and 760N System Administrator and Command Reference Guide
7KH QIVZHEQIVHQDEOH2SWLRQ
'HIDXOW
Off
'HVFULSWLRQ
Turns WebNFS On and Off.
7KHQIVZHEQIVURRWGLU2SWLRQ
'HIDXOW
None
'HVFULSWLRQ
The specified directory becomes the root or public directory for WebNFS. When a
request specifies a relative path, lookups for files are done with respect to this
directory.
7KHQIVZHEQIVURRWGLUVHW2SWLRQ
'HIDXOW
FALSE
'HVFULSWLRQ
When set to TRUE, sets the directory specified in the nfs.webnfs.rootdir
option to be the WebNFS root or public directory.
1,62SWLRQV
:KDWWKH1,62SWLRQV'R
The NIS options control how the filer works with NIS.
For more information about NIS, see Chapter 4, “Network Administration.”
7KHQLVGRPDLQQDPH2SWLRQ
'HIDXOW
None
Detailed Options Information19-11
'HVFULSWLRQ
Sets the NIS domain to the specified domain name.
7KHQLVHQDEOH2SWLRQ
'HIDXOW
Off
'HVFULSWLRQ
Enables the NIS client on the filer. You must set the NIS domain before you enable
NIS.
5$,'2SWLRQV
:KDWWKH5$,'2SWLRQV'R
The RAID options control how the filer uses RAID.
For more information about RAID on the filer, see Chapter 3, “Disk and File System
Management.”
7KHUDLGUHFRQVWUXFWBVSHHG2SWLRQ
'HIDXOW
4
'HVFULSWLRQ
Specifies the speed of RAID reconstruction. The speed ranges from 1 (slowest) to 10
(fastest). The filer uses the number to determine the percentage of CPU time used
for RAID reconstruction.
7KHUDLGVFUXEHQDEOH2SWLRQ
'HIDXOW
On
'HVFULSWLRQ
Specifies whether the filer performs RAID scrubbing.
19-12 Dell PowerVault 720N, 740N, and 760N System Administrator and Command Reference Guide
7KHUDLGWLPHRXW2SWLRQ
'HIDXOW
24
'HVFULSWLRQ
Sets the time, in hours (from 1 through 24), that the system runs in degraded mode
before an automatic shutdown.
WLPHG2SWLRQV
:KDWWKHWLPHG2SWLRQV'R
The timed options control whether and how the filer uses the timed daemon to
synchronize time with a time server. For additional information about time synchronization and using the timed options, see “Filer System Time Synchronization” and
“Synchronizing Filer System Time” in Chapter 2.
7KHWLPHGHQDEOH2SWLRQ
'HIDXOW
Off
'HVFULSWLRQ
Determines whether a time daemon (timed) runs on the filer and synchronizes time
with a time server.
7KHWLPHGORJ2SWLRQ
'HIDXOW
Off
'HVFULSWLRQ
Determines whether to log to the console time changes initiated by the timed
daemon.
7KHWLPHGPD[BVNHZ2SWLRQ
'HIDXOW
30m
Detailed Options Information19-13
'HVFULSWLRQ
Sets the maximum allowable discrepancy between filer time and server time. If there
is a large discrepancy, it probably means that enough is wrong somewhere that the
filer time should not be synchronized with the server time, no time synchronization
takes place, and a message to that effect is sent to the console. The value is an integer followed by one of the following letters:
‡
‡
‡
s for seconds
m for minutes
h for hours
The default is 30 minutes.
7KHWLPHGSURWR2SWLRQ
'HIDXOW
ntp
'HVFULSWLRQ
Selects whether to use the protocol used by the rdate command or SNTP. The
value can be one of the following:
‡
‡
rdate for the protocol used by the rdate command
ntp for SNTP
7KHWLPHGVFKHG2SWLRQ
'HIDXOW
hourly
'HVFULSWLRQ
Schedules when to synchronize the time with a time server. The value can be one of
the following:
‡
‡
‡
‡
hourly to synchronize hourly
multihourly to synchronize every six hours
daily to synchronize every day at midnight
a number followed by m to specify an interval of minutes or h to specify an interval of hours
To avoid overburdening the time server, the filer randomly selects the exact time of
the synchronization within a 20-minute window of the specified schedule.
19-14 Dell PowerVault 720N, 740N, and 760N System Administrator and Command Reference Guide
7KHWLPHGVHUYHUV2SWLRQ
'HIDXOW
None
'HVFULSWLRQ
Specifies up to five servers in order of contact priority. The value can be a list of the
host names or IP addresses of up to five time servers, separated by commas. The
filer goes down the list until it finds a server that responds, then uses the time from
that server. It starts with the first server in the list each time. An example list of three
time servers is as follows:
sundial, sundial.dell.com, 10.152.8.12
You can get a list of NTP (Network Time Protocol) time servers, which SNTP can use,
from http://www.eecis.udel.edu/~mills/ntp/servers.htm.
YROXPH2SWLRQV
:KDWWKHYROXPH2SWLRQV'R
The volume options control volume-level operations. You use these options only with
the vol options command.
For more information about volume options, see “The vol options Command” in
Chapter 2.
7KH0LQUD2SWLRQ
'HIDXOW
Off
'HVFULSWLRQ
Configures the filer to perform minimal read ahead. By default, the option is disabled
and the filer does aggressive read ahead.
7KHQRBDWLPHBXSGDWH2SWLRQ
'HIDXOW
Off
Detailed Options Information19-15
'HVFULSWLRQ
Prevents the update of the access time (atime) on an inode when a file is read. This
option prevents inode updates from contending with reads from other files. Use it
only on a filer with extremely high read traffic (for example, on a news server used by
an Internet access provider or on a filer used mainly as an HTTP server).
7KHQRVQDS2SWLRQ
'HIDXOW
Off
'HVFULSWLRQ
Temporarily disables automatic snapshots.
7KHQRVQDSGLU2SWLRQ
'HIDXOW
Off
'HVFULSWLRQ
Makes invisible the snapshot directory that’s usually present at the client mount point
or at the root of the CIFS share. It also turns off access to the snapshot directory and
all snapshot directories under the mount point or the root of the CIFS share.
After you toggle this option, you might not notice the effect immediately because the
information about the snapshot directories might still be in the client’s attribute cache.
To force the change to take effect immediately, unmount and remount the file system.
7KHQYIDLO2SWLRQ
'HIDXOW
Off
'HVFULSWLRQ
Sets the filer to check for NVRAM errors during boot up. Change the value to On
when you want the filer to send error messages to notify you of NVRAM errors that
can effect the validity of database files.
19-16 Dell PowerVault 720N, 740N, and 760N System Administrator and Command Reference Guide
7KHUDLGVL]H2SWLRQ
'HIDXOW
None
'HVFULSWLRQ
Sets the maximum size of a RAID group in volume. Must be an integer greater than
one.
7KHURRW2SWLRQ
'HIDXOW
None
'HVFULSWLRQ
Makes volume the root volume.
7KHVQDSPLUURUHG2SWLRQ
'HIDXOW
None
'HVFULSWLRQ
The filer automatically sets this option to On if the volume is a mirror for data replication. Otherwise, the option is set to Off. Change the value to Off if you want to
convert a mirror to a regular volume. After you make the change, the volume is no
longer read-only, and the filer stops making incremental changes to the volume for
data replication.
NOTE: You cannot set this option to On. That is, you cannot use this option to convert
a regular volume to a mirror. To use a volume as a mirror, follow the instructions in
Chapter 16, “Data Replication Using SnapMirror,” to start replicating data to the
volume.
0LVFHOODQHRXV2SWLRQV
:KDWWKH0LVFHOODQHRXV2SWLRQV'R
The miscellaneous options control additional aspects of filer operation.
Detailed Options Information19-17
7KHFRQVROHHQFRGLQJ2SWLRQ
'HIDXOW
nfs
'HVFULSWLRQ
Table 19-1 specifies how non-ASCII character information is presented. The value can
be one of the following.
7DEOHFRQVROHHQFRGLQJ9DOXHV
9DOXH
'HVFULSWLRQ
nfs
NFS character set. You can use both NFS extended (greater than
0x7F) and SGML characters for input.
sgml
SGML character format. You can use both NFS extended (greater
than 0x7F) and SGML characters for input.
utf8
UTF-8 character sets. For input, any character greater than 0x7F is
the beginning of a UTF-8 encoding.
7KHLSPDWFKBDQ\BLIDGGU2SWLRQ
'HIDXOW
On
'HVFULSWLRQ
If the option is On (the default), the filer accepts any packet that is addressed to it
even if that packet came in on the wrong interface.
NOTE: If you are concerned about security, you should turn this Off.
7KHLSSDWKBPWXBGLVFRYHU\HQDEOH2SWLRQ
'HIDXOW
On
'HVFULSWLRQ
Enables or disables path MTU discovery, which is currently used only by TCP. When
enabled, the filer can discover and use the largest packet size that the filer can send to
another host without fragmenting a packet. This means that the filer doesn’t have to
limit itself to sending many small packets, which takes more time and resources than
sending fewer large packets.
19-18 Dell PowerVault 720N, 740N, and 760N System Administrator and Command Reference Guide
If you cannot establish a connection, set this option to Off.
7KHUVKHQDEOH2SWLRQ
'HIDXOW
On
'HVFULSWLRQ
Enables the rsh server on the filer.
7KHVQPSHQDEOH2SWLRQ
'HIDXOW
On
'HVFULSWLRQ
Enables the SNMP server on the filer.
7KHWHOQHWHQDEOH2SWLRQ
'HIDXOW
On
'HVFULSWLRQ
Enables the Telnet server on the filer.
7KHWHOQHWKRVWV2SWLRQ
'HIDXOW
All hosts
'HVFULSWLRQ
Specifies a list of hosts that can log in to the filer using telnet. You can limit
telnet access to up to five specified hosts. The hosts should be listed in a commaseparated list. You can disable telnet for all hosts by specifying a hyphen (-).
Detailed Options Information19-19
7KHYROFRS\WKURWWOH2SWLRQ
'HIDXOW
10
'HVFULSWLRQ
Specifies the default speed of vol copy operations. The speed ranges from 10 (fullspeed) to 1 (one-tenth of full-speed).
7KHZDIOFRQYHUWBXFRGH2SWLRQ
'HIDXOW
Off
'HVFULSWLRQ
Setting this option to On forces conversion of all directories to Unicode format when
accessed from both NFS and CIFS. By default, conversion to Unicode format occurs
as follows:
‡
‡
Access from CIFS causes conversion of pre-4.0 and 4.0 format directories.
Access from NFS causes conversion of 4.0 format directories.
7KHZDIOFUHDWHBXFRGH2SWLRQ
'HIDXOW
Off
'HVFULSWLRQ
Setting this option to On forces Unicode format directories to be created by default,
both from NFS and CIFS. By default, all directories are created in pre-4.0 format and
the first CIFS access converts a directory to Unicode format.
7KHZDIOGHIDXOWBQWBXVHU2SWLRQ
'HIDXOW
None
'HVFULSWLRQ
Specifies the Windows NT user account to use when a UNIX user accesses a file
with Windows NT security (has an ACL), and that UNIX user would not otherwise be
mapped. If this option is set blank, such accesses are denied.
19-20 Dell PowerVault 720N, 740N, and 760N System Administrator and Command Reference Guide
7KHZDIOGHIDXOWBXQL[BXVHU2SWLRQ
'HIDXOW
None
'HVFULSWLRQ
Specifies the UNIX user account to use when a Windows NT user attempts to log in
and that Windows NT user would not otherwise be mapped. If this option is set
blank, such accesses are denied.
7KHZDIOPD[GLUVL]H2SWLRQ
'HIDXOW
10240
'HVFULSWLRQ
Sets the maximum size, in kilobytes, of a directory file. A directory file with a size of
10,240 kilobytes can hold about 300,000 files or subdirectories.
7KHZDIOURRWBRQO\BFKRZQ2SWLRQ
'HIDXOW
On
'HVFULSWLRQ
Enables only the root user to change the owner of a file. When you disable the option,
the owner of a file can change its ownership without being root. By default, this
option is enabled.
When a non-root user changes the owner of a file, the set-user-id and set-group-id bits
are cleared. If a non-root user tries to change the owner of a file but the change would
cause the file’s recipient to exceed his or her quota, the attempt fails.
7KHZDIOZFFBPLQXWHVBYDOLG2SWLRQ
'HIDXOW
20
'HVFULSWLRQ
Specifies the number of minutes a WAFL credential cache entry is valid. The value
can range from 1 through 20160.
Detailed Options Information19-21
19-22 Dell PowerVault 720N, 740N, and 760N System Administrator and Command Reference Guide
$33(1',;$
&RPPDQG5HIHUHQFH
This appendix provides the commands that you use to control a filer and are grouped
in the following sections:
‡
‡
‡
‡
User Commands
File Formats
Headers, Tasks, and Macros
System Services and Daemons
Command Reference A-1
A-2
Dell PowerVault 720N, 740N, and 760N System Administrator and Command Reference Guide
8VHU&RPPDQGV
This section contains user commands.
Command Reference A-3
arp
NAME
arp - address resolution display and control
SYNOPSIS
arp hostname
arp -a
arp -d hostname
arp -s hostname ether_address [ temp ] [ pub ]
DESCRIPTION
The arp command displays and modifies the tables that the address resolution protocol uses to translate between Internet and Ethernet addresses.
With no flags, arp displays the current ARP entry for host_name. The host may be
specified by name or by number, using Internet dot notation.
OPTIONS
-a
Displays all of the current ARP entries.
-d
Deletes an entry for the host called hostname.
-s
Creates an ARP entry for the host called hostname with the Ethernet
address ether_address. The Ethernet address is given as six hex bytes separated by colons. The entry will be permanent if the words following -s
includes the keyword temp. Temporary entries that consist of a complete
Internet address and a matching Ethernet address are flushed from the arp
table if they haven’t been referenced in the past 20 minutes. A permanent
entry is not flushed.
If the words following -s include the keyword pub, the entry will be ”published”; i.e., this system will act as an ARP server, responding to requests
for hostname even though the host address is not its own.
SEE ALSO
ifconfig
A-4
Dell PowerVault 720N, 740N, and 760N System Administrator and Command Reference Guide
cifs
NAME
cifs - summary of cifs commands
SYNOPSIS
Command Summary
This is a list of the subcommands of the cifs command.
cifs access
Modifies share-level Access Control List (ACL) entries.
cifs comment
Displays/modifies the CIFS server description.
cifs lookup
Translates user/group names into SIDs, and vice versa.
cifs restart
Restarts CIFS if it has been shut down with cifs
terminate.
cifs setup
Configures CIFS service
cifs sessions
Displays current configuration and current connections.
cifs shares
Displays/modifies the CIFS exports.
cifs stat
Displays operational statistics.
cifs terminate
Shuts down CIFS, or logs off a single station.
cifs testdc
Tests the filer’s connection to domain controllers.
SEE ALSO
cifs_access, cifs_comment, cifs_lookup, cifs_restart, cifs_setup,
cifs_sessions, cifs_shares, cifs_stat, cifs_testdc, cifs_terminate
Command Reference A-5
cifs access
NAME
cifs access - modify share-level access control
SYNOPSIS
cifs access share [ -g ] user rights
cifs access -delete share [ -g ] user
DESCRIPTION
The cifs access command sets or modifies the share-level Access Control List
(”ACL”) of a share.
The share argument specifies the share whose ACL is to be modified. The user
argument specifies the user or group of the ACL entry. user can be an NT user or
group, if the filer is using NT domain authentication, or it can be a UNIX user or
group, or it can be the special all-encompassing group everyone. The rights argument can be specified in either NT or UNIX style. NT-style rights are:
No Access
Read
Change
Full Control
UNIX-style rights are a combination of r for read, w for write, and x for execute.
If a share-level ACL entry for user already exists on the specified share, cifs
access updates that ACL entry.
To display the current share-level ACL of a share, use Windows Server Manager
or the cifs shares command.
OPTIONS
-g
Specifies that user is the name of a UNIX group. Use this option when
you have a UNIX group and a UNIX user or NT user or group with the
same name.
-delete Deletes the ACL entry for user on share.
EXAMPLES
The following example grants NT Read access to the NT user ENGINEERING\mary on the share releases.
filer> cifs access releases ENGINEERING\mary Read
The following example grants UNIX read and execute access to the user john on
the share accounting.
filer> cifs access accounting john rx
A-6
Dell PowerVault 720N, 740N, and 760N System Administrator and Command Reference Guide
cifs access
The following example grants full access to the UNIX group wheel on the share
sysadmins.
filer> cifs access sysadmins -g wheel Full Control
The following example deletes the ACL entry for ENGINEERING\mary on the
share releases.
filer> cifs access -delete releases ENGINEERING\mary
SEE ALSO
cifs_shares
Command Reference A-7
cifs comment
NAME
cifs comment - display or change CIFS server description
SYNOPSIS
cifs comment [ newcomment ]
DESCRIPTION
The cifs comment command displays or changes the CIFS server description.
CIFS clients see the CIFS server description when browsing servers on the
network.
If no command-line arguments are given, cifs comment displays the current
CIFS server description. If you enter a string for the newcomment parameter, the
current CIFS server description is changed to newcomment. If newcomment
contains spaces, enclose it in double quotation marks.
A-8
Dell PowerVault 720N, 740N, and 760N System Administrator and Command Reference Guide
cifs lookup
NAME
cifs lookup - translate name into SID or vice versa
SYNOPSIS
cifs lookup { name | textualsid }
DESCRIPTION
The cifs lookup command translates a Windows NT user or group name into its
corresponding textual Windows NT SID (Security ID), or a textual NT SID into its
corresponding Windows NT user or group name.
EXAMPLES
filer cifs lookup mday
SID = S-1-5-21-39724982-1647982808-1376457959-1221
filer cifs lookup NT-DOMAIN\mday
SID = S-1-5-21-39724982-1647982808-1376457959-1221
filer cifs lookup BUILTIN\Administrators
SID = S-1-5-32-544
filer cifs lookup S-1-5-32-544
name = BUILTIN\Administrators
filer cifs lookup nonexistantuser
lookup failed
Command Reference A-9
cifs restart
NAME
cifs restart - restart CIFS service
SYNOPSIS
cifs restart
DESCRIPTION
cifs restart restarts CIFS service if it has been terminated by cifs terminate.
A-10 Dell PowerVault 720N, 740N, and 760N System Administrator and Command Reference Guide
cifs sessions
NAME
cifs sessions - information on current CIFS activity
SYNOPSIS
cifs sessions [ -s ] [ user ]
DESCRIPTION
The cifs sessions command displays information about CIFS users who are connected to the filer. If you omit the user argument, the command displays a
summary of information about the filer and lists the users who are connected to
the filer.
EXAMPLES
cifs sessions
Server Registers as ’HAWLEYR-TOKYO’ in group ’NT-DOMAIN’
Filer is using ja for DOS users
WINS Server: 10.10.10.55
Selected domain controller \NT-DOM
PC (user)
HAWLEY-PC
(hawleyr - root)
#shares
1
#files
4
If you include the user argument, the command displays information about the
specified user, along with the names and access level of files that user has
opened. If you use * as the specified user, the command lists all users.
Executing the command for user sam might produce output as follows:
cifs sessions sam
users
shares/files opened
HAWLEY-HOME1 (sam)
ENG-USERS
Read-denyW - \SAM\SRC\FASWARE\PROD\COMMON\HTTPD\httpd_fast.c
HAWLEY-PC
ENG-USERS
(sam)
The -s option displays security information for a specified connected user. If you
do not specify a user or workstation name, the command displays security information for all users.
Executing the command -s * might produce the following:
cifs sessions -s *
users
Security Information
Command Reference A-11
cifs sessions
WIN-95 (AGuest - nobody[guest])
***************
UNIX uid = 1208
user is a member of group nobody(65535)
NT membership
NT-DOMAIN\Domain Guests
BUILTIN\Guests
User is also a member of Everyone, Network Users
***************
A-12 Dell PowerVault 720N, 740N, and 760N System Administrator and Command Reference Guide
cifs setup
NAME
cifs setup - configure CIFS service
SYNOPSIS
cifs setup
DESCRIPTION
The cifs setup command performs the initial configuration of the filer for CIFS.
You must have installed the CIFS license before you enter this command. You
must run the cifs setup command from the console or from a telnet connection;
you can’t enter the command through rsh.
FILES
/etc/cifsconfig.cfg
general configuration information
/etc/cifssec.cfg
NT domain machine account information
/etc/filersid.cfg
local machine SID /etc/lclgroups.cfg local NT group
information
/etc/usermap.cfg
multiprotocol user map file
SEE ALSO
cifs_access, group, passwd
Command Reference A-13
cifs shares
NAME
cifs shares - configure and display CIFS shares information
SYNOPSIS
cifs shares
cifs shares sharename
cifs shares -add sharename path
[ -comment description ]
[ -maxusers userlimit ]
[ -forcegroup groupname ]
cifs shares -change sharename
{ -comment description | -nocomment }
{ -maxusers userlimit | -nomaxusers }
{ -forcegroup groupname | -noforcegroup }
cifs shares -delete sharename
DESCRIPTION
cifs shares displays one or more shares, edits a specified share, creates a share,
or deletes a share.
Listing shares
To list all shares and their access control lists, use the command cifs shares with
no arguments. To list a single share and its access control list, use the command
cifs shares sharename where sharename name of the share.
filer> cifs shares
Name
---HOME
C$
ENGR
NEWS
Mount Point
Description
----------- ------/vol/vol0/home
Default Share
everyone / Full Control
/vol/vol0 Remote Administration
BUILTIN\Administrators / Full Control
/vol/vol0/engr
Engineering
DOMAIN\Engineering / Full Control
/vol/vol0/news
News
DOMAIN\Guests / No Access
everyone / Read
A-14 Dell PowerVault 720N, 740N, and 760N System Administrator and Command Reference Guide
cifs shares
filer> cifs shares news
Name
---NEWS
Mount Point
Description
----------- ----------/vol/vol0/news
News
DOMAIN\Guests / No Access
everyone / Read
Creating new shares
To create a new share, use the -add option:
cifs shares -add sharename path
[ -comment description ]
[ -maxusers userlimit ]
[ -forcegroup groupname ]
sharename
name of the new share; clients use this name to access the share.
path
full path name of the directory on the filer that corresponds to the
root of the new share.
-comment description
description of the new share. CIFS clients see this description when browsing the filer’s shares. If the description includes spaces, it must be enclosed
in double quotation marks. If you do not specify a description, the description is blank.
-maxusers userlimit
maximum number of simultaneous connections to the new share. userlimit
must be a positive integer. If you do not specify a number, the filer does not
impose a limit on the number of connections to the share.
-forcegroup groupname
name of the group to which files to be created in the share belong. The
groupname is the name of a group in the UNIX group database.
Deleting existing shares
To delete a share, use the -delete option:
cifs shares -delete “sharename”
sharename is the name of the share to be deleted. A share cannot be deleted if it
is in use.
Command Reference A-15
cifs shares
Changing the settings of existing shares
To change the settings of an existing share, use the -change option:
cifs shares -change sharename
{ -comment description | -nocomment }
{ -maxusers userlimit | -nomaxusers }
{ -forcegroup groupname | -noforcegroup }
The settings of a share can be changed at any time, even if the share is in use.
sharename is the name of the existing share that is to be changed.
-comment description
changes the description of the share. For more information about the share
description setting, see the Creating new shares section, above.
-nocomment
changes the description of the share to an empty string.
-maxusers userlimit
changes the user limit on the share. For more information about the user
limit setting, see the Creating new shares section, above.
-nomaxusers removes the user limit on the share.
-forcegroup groupname
changes the forcegroup setting. For more information about the forcegroup
setting, see the Creating new shares section, above.
-noforcegroup
specifies that files to be created in the share do not belong to a particular
UNIX group. That is, each file belongs to the same group as the owner of the
file.
SEE ALSO
cifs_access
A-16 Dell PowerVault 720N, 740N, and 760N System Administrator and Command Reference Guide
cifs stat
NAME
cifs stat - print CIFS operating statistics
SYNOPSIS
cifs stat [ interval ]
DESCRIPTION
The cifs stat command has two forms. If you specify the interval, the command
continues displaying a summary of CIFS activity until interrupted. The information
is for the preceding interval seconds. (The header line is repeated in the display
every 10 lines.)
If you do not specify the interval, the command displays counts and percentages
of all CIFS operations.
EXAMPLE
filer> cifs stat 10
GetAttr
175
0
0
0
0
0
Read
142
0
8
10
6
0
Write
3
0
0
0
0
0
Lock Open/Cl
70
115
0
0
0
3
0
0
0
1
0
0
Direct
642
18
8
0
0
0
Other
50
0
0
0
0
0
Command Reference A-17
cifs terminate
NAME
cifs terminate - terminate CIFS service
SYNOPSIS
cifs terminate [ -t minutes ] [ workstation ]
DESCRIPTION
The cifs terminate command is used to terminate CIFS service. If the workstation
operand is specified, then all CIFS sessions open by that workstation will be terminated. If no workstation operand is specified, then all CIFS sessions will be
terminated and CIFS service will be shut down completely. To restart CIFS service
after it has been shut down, use the cifs restart command (see cifs_restart).
If CIFS service is terminated for a workstation that has a file open, then that
workstation will not be able to save any changes that it may have cached for that
file, which could result in the loss of data. Therefore, it is very important to warn
users before terminating CIFS service. The -t option, described below, can be
used to warn users before terminating CIFS service.
If you run cifs terminate without the -t option and the affected workstations have
open files, then you’ll be prompted to enter the number of minutes that you’d like
to delay before terminating. If you execute cifs terminate from rsh you will be
required to supply the -t option since commands executed with rsh are unable to
prompt for user input.
OPTIONS
-t minutes
Specifies the number of minutes to delay before terminating CIFS
service. During the delay the system will periodically send notices
of the impending shutdown to the affected workstations. (Note:
workstations running Windows95/98 or Windows for Workgroups
won’t see the notification unless they’re running WinPopup.) If the
specified number of minutes is zero, then CIFS service will be terminated immediately.
SEE ALSO
cifs_restart, halt, reboot, rsh
A-18 Dell PowerVault 720N, 740N, and 760N System Administrator and Command Reference Guide
cifs testdc
NAME
cifs testdc - test the filer’s connection to Windows NT domain controllers
SYNOPSIS
cifs testdc
DESCRIPTION
The cifs testdc command tests the filer’s ability to connect with Windows NT
domain controllers. The output of the cifs testdc command is useful in the diagnosis of CIFS-related network problems.
EXAMPLE
purple> cifs testdc
Using Established configuration
Current Mode of NBT is H Mode
NetBIOS scope ””
Registered names...
PURPLE
<0> WINS Broadcast
PURPLE
<3> WINS Broadcast
PURPLE
<20> WINS Broadcast
PURPLE-1
<0> WINS Broadcast
PURPLE-1
<3> WINS Broadcast
PURPLE-1
<20> WINS Broadcast
PURPLE-2
<0> WINS Broadcast
PURPLE-2
<3> WINS Broadcast
PURPLE-2
<20> WINS Broadcast
PURPLE-3
<0> WINS Broadcast
PURPLE-3
<3> WINS Broadcast
PURPLE-3
<20> WINS Broadcast
PURPLE-4
<0> WINS Broadcast
PURPLE-4
<3> WINS Broadcast
PURPLE-4
<20> WINS Broadcast
PURPLE-5
<0> WINS Broadcast
PURPLE-5
<3> WINS Broadcast
PURPLE-5
<20> WINS
PURPLE-6
<0> WINS
PURPLE-6
<3> WINS
PURPLE-6
<20> WINS
PURPLE-7
<0> WINS
PURPLE-7
<3> WINS
PURPLE-7
<20> WINS
PURPLE-8
<0> WINS
PURPLE-8
<3> WINS
PURPLE-8
<20> WINS
PURPLE-9
<0> WINS
PURPLE-9
<3> WINS
PURPLE-9
<20> WINS
Command Reference A-19
cifs testdc
NT-DOMAIN
NT-DOMAIN
NT-DOMAIN
<0> WINS
<3> WINS
<20> WINS
Testing Primary Domain Controller
found 2 addresses
trying 192.168.2.14...192.168.2.14 is alive
trying 192.168.2.85...192.168.2.85 is alive
found PDC NT-DOMAIN-BDC
Testing all Domain Controllers
found 4 addresses
trying 192.168.2.14...192.168.2.14 is alive
trying 192.168.2.85...192.168.2.85 is alive
trying 198.95.227.75...198.95.227.75 is alive
trying 192.168.2.14...192.168.2.14 is alive
found DC NT-DOMAIN-BDC
found DC FRENCH40
found DC NT-DOMAIN-BDC
found DC FRENCH40
A-20 Dell PowerVault 720N, 740N, and 760N System Administrator and Command Reference Guide
date
NAME
date - display or set date and time
SYNOPSIS
date [ -u ] [ [[[[cc]yy]mm]dd]hhmm[.ss] ]
DESCRIPTION
date displays the current date and time when invoked without arguments.
When invoked with an argument, date sets the current date and time; the argument for setting the date and time is interpreted as follows:
cc
First 2 digits of the year (e.g., 19 for 1999).
yy
Next 2 digits of year (e.g., 99 for 1999).
mm
Numeric month. A number from 01 to 12.
dd
Day, a number from 01 to 31.
hh
Hour, a number from 00 to 23.
mm
Minutes, a number from 00 to 59.
ss
Seconds, a number from 00 to 59.
If the first 2 digits of the year are omitted, they default to 19; if all 4 digits of the
year are omitted, they default to the current year. If the month or day are omitted,
they default to the current month and day, respectively. If the seconds are omitted, they default to 0.
Time changes for Daylight Saving and Standard time, and for leap seconds and
years, are handled automatically.
OPTIONS
-u
Display or set the date in GMT (universal time) instead of local time.
EXAMPLES
To set the current time to 21:00:
date 2100
To set the current time to 21:00, and the current day to the 6th of the current
month:
date 062100
To set the current time to 21:00, and the current day to December 6th of the current year:
date 12062100
Command Reference A-21
date
To set the current time to 21:00, and the current day to December 6th, 1999:
date 9912062100
To set the current time to 21:00, and the current day to December 6th, 2002:
date 200212062100
SEE ALSO
rdate, timezone
A-22 Dell PowerVault 720N, 740N, and 760N System Administrator and Command Reference Guide
df
NAME
df - display free disk space
SYNOPSIS
df [ -i ] [ pathname ]
DESCRIPTION
df displays statistics about the amount of free disk space in one or all volumes on
the filer. All sizes are reported in 1024-byte blocks.
The pathname parameter is the path name to a volume. If it is specified, df
reports only on the corresponding volume; otherwise, it reports on every on-line
volume.
For each volume, df displays statistics about snapshots on a separate line from
statistics about the active file system. The snapshot line reports the amount of
space consumed by all the snapshots in the system. Blocks that are referenced
by both the active file system and by one or more snapshots are counted only in
the active file system line, not in the snapshot line.
If snapshots consume more space than has been reserved for them by the snap
reserve command (see snap), then the excess space consumed by snapshots is
reported as used by the active file system as well as by snapshots. In this case, it
may appear that more blocks have been used in total than are actually present in
the file system.
With the -i option, df displays statistics on the number of free inodes.
EXAMPLES
The following example shows file system disk space usage:
filer> df
Filesystem
kbytes used avail capacity Mounted on
/vol/vol0
4339168 1777824 2561344 41%
/vol/vol0
/vol/vol0/.snapshot 1084788 956716 128072 88%
/vol/vol0/.snapshot
If snapshots consume more than 100% of the space reserved for them, then
either the snapshot reserve should be increased (using snap reserve) or else
some of the snapshots should be deleted (using snap delete). After deleting
some snapshots, it may make sense to alter the volume’s snapshot schedule
(using snap schedule) to reduce the number of snapshots that are kept on line.
The following example shows file system inode usage for a specified volume:
filer df -i /vol/vol0
Filesystem
iused ifree %iused Mounted on
/vol/vol0
164591 14313 92% /vol/vol0
You can increase the number of inodes in a file system at any time using the
maxfiles command (see maxfiles).
Command Reference A-23
df
SEE ALSO
maxfiles, rc, snap
A-24 Dell PowerVault 720N, 740N, and 760N System Administrator and Command Reference Guide
disk
NAME
disk - RAID disk configuration control commands
SYNOPSIS
disk fail disk_name
disk remove disk_name
disk scrub start
disk scrub stop
disk swap
disk unswap
DESCRIPTION
The disk fail command forces a file system disk to fail; the disk remove command unloads a spare disk so that you can physically remove the disk from the
filer. The disk scrub command causes the filer to scan disks for media errors. If a
media error is found, the filer tries to fix it by reconstructing the data from parity
and rewriting the data. Both commands report status messages when the operation is initiated and return completion status when an operation has completed.
The filer’s ”hot swap” capability allows removal or addition of disks to the system
with minimal interruption to file system activity. Before you physically remove or
add a SCSI disk, use the disk swap command to stall I/O activity. After you
removed or added the disk, file system activity automatically continues. If you
should type the disk swap command accidentally, or you choose not to swap a
disk at this time, use disk unswap to cancel the swap operation and continue
service.
If you want to remove or add a fibre channel disk, there is no need to enter the
disk swap command.
Before you swap or remove a disk, it’s a good idea to run syconfig -r to verify
which disks are where.
USAGE
disk swap and disk unswap
applies to SCSI disks only and does not apply to PV filers.
disk fail disk_name
removes the specified file system disk from the RAID configuration, spinning
the disk down when removal is complete. disk fail is used to remove a file
system disk that may be logging excessive errors and requires replacement.
Note that when a file system disk has been removed in this manner, the
RAID group to which the disk belongs will enter degraded mode (meaning a
disk is missing from the RAID group). If a spare disk at least as large as the
Command Reference A-25
disk
disk being removed is available, the contents of the disk being removed will
be reconstructed onto that spare disk.
The disk being removed is marked as ”broken”, so that if it remains in the
disk shelf, it will not be used by the filer as a spare disk, and if it is moved to
another filer, it will not be used by that filer as a spare disk.
disk remove disk_name
removes the specified spare disk from the RAID configuration, spinning the
disk down when removal is complete. You can use disk remove to remove a
spare disk so that it can be used by another filer (as a replacement for a
failed disk or to expand file system space).
disk scrub start
starts a RAID scrubbing operation on all RAID groups. The raid.scrub.enable
option is ignored; scrubbing will be started regardless of the setting of that
option (the option is applicable only to scrubbing that gets started periodically by the system).
disk scrub stop
stops a RAID scrubbing operation.
SEE ALSO
sysconfig
A-26 Dell PowerVault 720N, 740N, and 760N System Administrator and Command Reference Guide
disk_fw_update
NAME
disk_fw_update - update disk firmware
SYNOPSIS
disk_fw_update [ disk_name ]
DESCRIPTION
Use the disk_fw_update command to update out-of-date firmware on all disks
or a specified disk on a filer. Each filer is shipped with a /etc/disk_fw directory
that contains the latest firmware revisions. This command makes disks inaccessible for up to 2 minutes, so network sessions using the filer should be closed
down before running it. This is particularly true for CIFS sessions, which will normally be terminated while this command executes.
Warning messages for disks being updated should be ignored while this command executes.
In the /etc/disk_fw directory, the firmware file name is in the form of
product_ID.revision.LOD. For example, if the firmware file is for Seagate disks
with product ID ST118202FC and the firmware revision is FD9E, the file name is
ST118202FC.FD9E.LOD. The revision in the file name is the number against
which the filer compares each disk’s existing firmware revision. In this example, if
the filer has disks with firmware revision F307, the file /etc/disk_fw/
ST118202FC.FD9E.LOD, assuming it exists, will be downloaded to all the disks
when you execute this command.
To download the firmware to all disks, enter disk_fw_update without any arguments. To download the firmware to a particular disk, specify the disk name in
the command, which is in the form of adapter_number.disk_ID. For example, if
the disk ID is 1 and the disk is on adapter 8, enter the following command:
disk_fw_update 8.1
To determine disk firmware revisions, enter the sysconfig -v command. The following example is partial output from the sysconfig -v command. In this
example, the firmware revision for the disk is FD9E.
slot 8: FC adapter: isp2100 (chip rev. 3)
Firmware rev: 1.14.19
Host Loop Id: 119
FC Node Name: 2:000:00e08b:00a002
Cacheline size: 8 FC Packet size: 34 000 000
0: SEAGATE ST118202FC
FD90 Size=17GB (17783112 blocks)
Command Reference A-27
download
NAME
download - install new version of Data ONTAP 5.3
SYNOPSIS
download
DESCRIPTION
download copies Data ONTAP 5.3 executable files from the /etc/boot directory
to the filer’s boot block on the disks from which the filer boots.
To install a new version of Data ONTAP 5.3, extract the files for the new release
onto the filer from either a CIFS or an NFS client that has write access to the
filer’s root directory. For more information about how to install files for the new
release, see the upgrade instructions that accompany each release.
After the filer reboots, you can verify the version of the newly installed software
with the version command.
FILES
/etc/boot
directory of Data ONTAP 5.3 executables
/etc/boot/netapp-alpha
symbolic link to current version of Data
ONTAP 5.3 for filers with Alpha processors
/etc/boot/fc-hard-alpha
boot FCode for filers with Alpha processors
/etc/boot/1-alpha
second stage boot code for filers with Alpha
processors
SEE ALSO
version, boot
A-28 Dell PowerVault 720N, 740N, and 760N System Administrator and Command Reference Guide
dump
NAME
dump - file system backup
SYNOPSIS
dump [ options [ arguments ] ] subtree
DESCRIPTION
The dump command examines files in a subtree and writes to tape the files that
need to be backed up. The Data ONTAP 5.3 dump command differs slightly from
the standard UNIX dump, but the output format is compatible with SunOS 4.x/
Solaris 1.x and SunOS 5.x/Solaris 2.x dump.
Data ONTAP 5.3 dump can write to its standard output (most useful with rsh
from a UNIX system), to a remote tape device on a host that supports the rmt
remote tape protocol or to a local tape drive, connected directly to the system
(tape).
The subtree argument specifies a subtree to be dumped. This is one way to allow
dump to work with remote tape devices that are limited to 2 GB of data per tape
file. The specified subtree may be in the active file system (e.g. /home) or in a
snapshot (e.g. /.snapshot/weekly.0/home). If the subtree is in the active file
system, dump creates a snapshot named snapshot_for_dump.X where X is a
sequentially incrementing integer. This naming convention prevents conflicts
between concurrently executing dumps. The dump is run on this snapshot so
that its output will be consistent even if the filer is active. If dump does create a
snapshot, it automatically deletes the snapshot when it completes.
Another way to allow dump to work with remote tape devices that are limited to
2 GB of data per tape file is to dump to multiple tape files or ”volumes”. The B
option to dump specifies the maximum amount of data to be dumped to one volume; when that much data has been written to one volume, dump will start
writing to another volume. A list of tape devices can be specified as arguments
to the f option, and the volumes will be written to the devices in that list, in order.
If there are no more devices in the list, dump will re-use the last device in the
list, after prompting the user to indicate that they’ve put a new tape in that
device.
The Data ONTAP 5.3 dump command handling of end of tape is slightly different
than that of the standard UNIX dump. Instead of aborting the entire dump if EOT
is reached, the Data ONTAP5.3 dump starts a new volume and continues the
dump on the next tape. Specifying a large value for the B option will cause dump
to utilize the entire tape.
You can enter the dump command on a trusted host through rsh. It is preferable
to enter the dump command through rsh if the backup takes a significant
amount of time. This is because if you enter the dump command on the console,
the filer does not display the console prompt until the backup is finished. During
the time when the filer is backing up data, you do not have console access to the
filer.
Command Reference A-29
dump
Another advantage of running the dump command through rsh is that you can
control backups from UNIX shell scripts or crontab entries.
OPTIONS
0-9
Dump levels. A level 0, full backup, guarantees the entire file system is
copied. A level number above 0, incremental backup, tells dump to copy
all files new or modified since the last dump of a lower level. The default
level is 0.
f files
Write the backup to the specified files. files may be:
a list of the names of local tape devices, in the form specified in tape;
a list of the names of tape devices on a remote host, in the form
host:devices;
the standard output of the dump command, specified as -.
The list may have a single device or a comma-separated list of devices;
note that the list must either contain only local devices or only devices
on a remote host and, in the latter case, must refer to devices on one
particular remote host, e.g.
tapemachine:/dev/rst0,/dev/rst1
Each file in the list will be used for one dump volume in the order listed;
if the dump requires more volumes than the number of names given,
the last file name will used for all remaining volumes after prompting for
media changes.
Use sysconfig -t for a list of local tape devices. See below for an example of a dump to local tape.
For a dump to a tape device on a remote host, host must support the
standard UNIX rmt remote tape protocol.
By default, dump writes to standard output.
B blocks Set the size of the dump file to the specified number of 1024-byte
blocks, If this amount is exceeded, dump will close the current file and
open the next file in the list specified by the f option. If there are no
more files in that list, dump will re-open the last file in the list, and
prompt for a new tape to be loaded.
It is recommended to be a bit conservative on this option.
This is one way to allow dump to work with remote tape devices that
are limited to 2 GB of data per tape file.
u
Update the file /etc/dumpdates after a successful dump. The format of
/etc/dumpdates is readable by people. It consists of one free format
record per line: subtree, increment level and ctime format dump date.
There may be only one entry per subtree at each level. The dump date is
defined as the creation date of the snapshot being dumped. The file
A-30 Dell PowerVault 720N, 740N, and 760N System Administrator and Command Reference Guide
dump
/etc/dumpdates may be edited to change any of the fields, if necessary. See dumpdates for details.
b factor Set the tape blocking factor in k-bytes. The default is 63 KB. If the density is set to greater than 6250 BPI, then the default blocking factor is
32 KB. NOTE: Some systems support blocking factors greater than
63 KB by breaking requests into 63-KB chunks or smaller using variable
sized records; other systems do not support blocking factors greater
than 63 KB at all. When using large blocking factors, always check the
system(s) where the potential restore might occur to ensure that blocking factor specified in dump is supported. Local tape devices restrict
the blocking factor to less than, or equal to, 63 KB.
l
Specifies that this is a multi-subtree dump. The directory that is the
common root of all the subtrees to be dumped must be specified as the
last argument. The subtrees are specified by path names relative to this
common root. The list of subtrees is provided from standard in, one
item on each line, with a blank line to terminate the list. (If you use this
option, you must also use option n.)
n
Specifies the dumpname for a multi-subtree dump. Mandatory for multisubtree dumps.
Q
Backs up all files and directories in qtree 0 of the specified volume.
Qtree 0 is a qtree that is not created by you with the qtree command. In
each volume, the files and directories that do not belong to a qtree you
create are considered to be in qtree 0. Follow the Q option with the path
name of a volume (for example, /vol/vol1).
X
Specifies an exclude list, which is a comma-separated list of strings. If
the name of a file matches one of the strings, it is excluded from the
backup. The following list describes the rules for specifying the exclude
list:
The name of the file must match the string exactly.
An asterisk is considered a wildcard character.
The wildcard character must be the first or last character of the string.
Each string can contain up to two wildcard characters.
If you want to exclude files whose names contain a comma, precede
the comma in the string with a backslash.
You can specify up to 32 strings in the exclude list.
EXAMPLES
To make a level 0 dump of the entire file system to a remote tape device with
each tape file in the dump being less than 2 GB in size, use:
filer> dump 0ufbB adminhost:/dev/rst0 63 2097151 /
Command Reference A-31
dump
To make a level 0 dump of /home on a 2 GB tape to a remote tape device, use:
filer> dump 0ufbB adminhost:/dev/rst0 63 2097151 /home
To make a level 0 dump of /home on a 2 GB tape to a local tape drive (no rewind
device, unit zero, highest density) use:
filer> dump 0ufbB nrst0a 63 2097151 /home
To make a level 0 dump of the entire file system to a local tape drive (no rewind
device, unit zero, highest density), with each tape file in the dump being less than
2 GB in size, without operator intervention, using a tape stacker, with four tape
files written per tape, assuming that the dump requires no more than 10GB, use:
filer> dump 0ufbB nrst0a,nrst0a,nrst0a,urst0a,rst0a 63 2097151 /
This will:
write the first three files to the norewind device, so that they, and the next dump
done after them, will appear consecutively on the tape;
write the next file to the unload/reload device. This will cause the stacker to
rewind and unload the tape after the file has been written and then load the next
tape.
write the last file to the rewind device, so that the tape will be rewound after the
dump is complete.
To back up all files and directories in a volume named engineering that are not in
a qtree you created, use:
filer> dump 0ufQ rst0a /vol/engineering
To run the dump command through rsh, enter the following command on a
trusted host:
adminhost# rsh filer dump 0ufbB adminhost:/dev/rst0 63 2097151
/home
FILES
/etc/dumpdates
dump date record
SEE ALSO
quota, rshd, restore, snap, sysconfig, tape, dumpdates
NOTES
Restore
As stated previously, filer dump output format is compatible with SunOS
4.x/Solaris 1.x and SunOS 5.x/Solaris 2.x dump. The filer supports a local
restore command (see restore), so the restoration process can be
A-32 Dell PowerVault 720N, 740N, and 760N System Administrator and Command Reference Guide
dump
performed on the filer. It can also be performed via a restore done on an NFS
client machine; if such a restore is being done, the client system should be
checked to ensure it supports SunOS-compatible dump/restore format.
Client Dump and Restore Capability
If a client is to be used for performing filer dump and/or restore, it is important to check what the maximum dump and restore capabilities of your client
system are before setting up a dump schedule. There are some client systems which do not support dump and restore of greater than 2 GB while
others may support very large dumps and restores. It is especially important
to check the restore capability of your system when using the filer local tape
dump since the filer supports dumps that are greater than 2 GB.
Tape Capacity and Dump Scheduling
Along with the potential 2-GB restriction of dump or restore on a client system, it is important to consider your tape capacity when planning a dump
schedule. For the filer local tape option, the Exabyte 8505 supports an
approximate maximum capacity of 10GB per tape using compression. If a client system is used as the target for your dump, the capacity of that tape
drive should be checked for dump planning.
If your filer file system exceeds the capacity of the local tape drive or the client system dump/restore, or you choose to dump multiple file system trees
to make the restore process with multiple tape drives parallel, you must segment your dump to meet these restrictions.
One way to plan a dump schedule with a UNIX client system is to go to the
root mount point of your filer and use the du command to obtain sizes of
underlying subtrees on your filer file system. Depending on the restrictions
of your client’s dump and restore capability or recording capacity of the tape
device being used, you should specify a dump schedule that fits these
restrictions. If you choose to segment your dump, the norewind device (see
tape) can be used to dump multiple tape files to one physical tape (again,
choose a dump size which meets the criteria of your client restore and
capacity of your tape drive).
The following example shows the du output from a filer file system on a client that supports dump and restore that are greater than 2 GB:
client% du -s *
4108 etc
21608 finance
5510100 home
3018520 marketing
6247100 news
3018328 users
You can use a tape device with approximately 10 GB on each tape to back up
this filer. The dump schedule for this system can use the norewind tape
device to dump the marketing and news subtrees to one tape volume, then
Command Reference A-33
dump
load another tape and use the norewind tape device to dump etc, finance,
home and users subtrees to that tape volume.
CIFS Data
The Data ONTAP 5.3 dump command dumps the CIFS attributes and 8.3
name data for each file that is backed up. This data will not be backed up by a
dump run on an NFS client machine. This data will not be restored by a
restore run on an NFS client machine. This data will only be restored if a local
restore is done of a backup created by the Data ONTAP 5.3 dump
command.
A-34 Dell PowerVault 720N, 740N, and 760N System Administrator and Command Reference Guide
exportfs
NAME
exportfs - export and unexport files or directories
SYNOPSIS
exportfs [ -aiuv ] [ -o options ] [ pathname ]
DESCRIPTION
If no pathname is specified, exportfs lists all currently exported directories and
files. If pathname is specified, exportfs makes the specified file or directory available or unavailable for mounting by NFS clients.
OPTIONS
-a
Takes the list of path names to be exported or unexported from the /etc/
exports file. If you specify pathname in the command when using the -a
option, the command ignores pathname.
-i
Ignores the options in the /etc/exports file. Without the -i option, the
exportfs command uses the options associated with the pathname specified in /etc/exports.
-u
Unexports the specified path name. If you also include the -a option, the
command unexports the path names in the /etc/exports file and ignores
pathname.
-v
Prints each path name as it is exported or unexported.
-o
option
Specifies a list of comma-separated options that describe how a file or directory is exported. You can specify the option in one of the following formats:
access=hostname[:hostname]...
Give mount access to each host listed. Alternatively, you can specify a netgroup instead of a host in the list. The netgroup must be defined in the /etc/
netgroup file. Whether the hosts can mount pathname with root access,
read-and-write access, or read-only access depends on how you use the
root, rw, and ro options, as described below.
anon=uid
If a request comes from user ID of 0 (root user ID on the client), use uid as
the effective user ID unless the client host is included in the root option. The
default value of uid is 65534. To disable root access, set uid to 65535. To
grant root access to all clients, set uid to 0.
ro
Export the pathname read-only. If you do not specify this option, the pathname is exported read-write.
rw=hostname[:hostname]...
Export the pathname read-only to all hosts not specified in the list and readwrite to the hosts in the list. Netgroup names are not allowed in the list.
Command Reference A-35
exportfs
root=hostname[:hostname]...
Give root access only to the specified hosts. By default, no hosts are granted
root access. Netgroup names are not allowed in the list.
When you export a file or directory using the ro, rw, or root option, you can specify that the file or directory be exported to a subnet instead of individual hosts.
You cannot export to a subnet when using the access option.
Instead of specifying a host name or netgroup name in the exportfs command,
specify the subnet in one of the following formats:
dotted_IP/num_bits
The dotted_IP field is either an IP address or a subnet number. The num_bits field
specifies the size of the subnet by the number of leading bits of the netmask.
”[ network ] subnet [ netmask ] netmask”
The subnet field is the subnet number. The netmask field is the netmask.
In UNIX, it is illegal to export a directory that has an exported ancestor in the
same file system. Data ONTAP 5.3 does not have this restriction. For example,
you can export both the / directory and the /home directory. In determining permissions, the filer uses the longest matching prefix.
EXAMPLES
In the following example, all network clients can mount the /home directory but
only the adminhost can mount the / directory:
exportfs -o access=adminhost,root=adminhost /home
exportfs /
The following examples show different forms of the exportfs command that
export the /home directory to the 123.45.67.0 subnet with the 255.255.255.0
netmask:
exportfs -o rw=123.45.67.0/24 /home
exportfs -o rw=123.45.67/24 /home
exportfs -o rw=”network 123.45.67.0 netmask 255.255.255.0”
exportfs -o rw=”123.45.67.0 255.255.255.0”
FILES
/etc/exports
/etc/hosts
/etc/netgroup
directories and files exported to NFS clients
host name data base
network groups data base
SEE ALSO
exports, hosts, netgroup
NOTES
Data ONTAP 5.3 supports a maximum of 255 host names in each rw and root
option. There is no limit on the number of host names in the list following the
access option, but the maximum size of the /etc/exports file is about 64 KB.
A-36 Dell PowerVault 720N, 740N, and 760N System Administrator and Command Reference Guide
fctest
NAME
fctest - test Fibre Channel environment
SYNOPSIS
fctest [ adapter ]
DESCRIPTION
Use the fctest command to test Fibre Channel adapters and disks on an appliance. This command provides a report of the integrity of your Fibre Channel
environment. It is only available in maintenance mode, and takes about 5 minutes
to complete.
If the adapter argument is missing, all Fibre Channel adapters and disks in the
system are tested, otherwise only the specified adapter, and disks attached to it,
are tested.
When finished, fctest prints out a report of the following values for each Fibre
Channel adapter tested:
1.
Number of times loss of synchronization was detected in that adapter’s Fibre
Channel loop.
2.
Number of CRC errors found in Fibre Channel packets.
3.
The total number of inbound and outbound frames seen by the adapter.
4.
A ”confidence factor” on a scale from 0 to 1 that indicates the health of your
Fibre Channel system as computed by the test. A value of 1 indicates that no
significant errors were found. Any value less than 1 indicates there are problems in the Fibre Channel loop that are likely to interfere with the normal
operation of your appliance. There is a troubleshooting checklist for Fibre
Channel problems in your System Administrator and Command Reference
Guide that may help identify and correct the problem.
If the confidence factor is reported as less than 1, go through the troubleshooting
checklist for Fibre Channel loop problems in the System Administrator and
Command Reference Guide and re-run the fctest command after making any
suggested modifications to your Fibre Channel setup.
The actual arithmetic that is used to compute the confidence factor is as follows:
The number of Fibre Channel frame errors is obtained by adding the number of
CRC and Synchronization errors, with each sync error weighted ten times as
much as a CRC error. The number of errors is then divided by the total number of
Fibre Channel frames (inbound + outbound). The quotient is subtracted from 1 to
get the final answer.
C = 1 - (Crc + 10Sync)/F,
where C = the confidence factor, representing the integrity of your FC
system.
Command Reference A-37
fctest
Crc = number of CRC errors observed in the Fibre Channel frames.
Sync = number of Fibre Channel synchronization errors.
F = the total number of inbound and outbound frames seen by the adapter.
A-38 Dell PowerVault 720N, 740N, and 760N System Administrator and Command Reference Guide
filestats
NAME
filestats - collect file usage statistics
SYNOPSIS
filestats [ ages ages] [ timetype {a,m,c,cr}] [ sizes sizes] [ snapshot
snapshot_name] [ style style] [ volume volume_name]
DESCRIPTION
The filestats utility provides a summary of file usage within a volume. It must be
used on a snapshot, and the only required argument is the snapshot name. The
volume name defaults to ”vol0” if not specified. If the volume you are examining
is named otherwise, specify the name explicitly.
OPTIONS
The following options are supported.
ages ages
Specifies the breakdown of ages, as a set of comma-separated time values.
The values are in seconds, but as a convenience you can add an H or D suffix
to a number to get hours and days. For example, ”900,4H,7D” would produce a breakdown with 4 categories - files accessed in the last 15 minutes,
files accessed in the last four hours, files accessed in the last week, and all
other files.
expr expression
This lets you specify a boolean expression that will be evaluated for each
inode encountered, and if the expression is true, then the inode will be
selected and included in the various breakdowns of file usage. The expression can contain ”variables”, which are merely the name of an inode attribute
enclosed in curly braces. For example, {size} is evaluated as the size of the
current inode. The valid inode attributes that you can use in expressions are:
tid
The tree id (for qtrees).
type
The file type (numeric, currently).
perm
Permissions.
flags
Additional flags.
nlink
Count of hard links.
uid
User id (numeric) of file owner.
gid
Group id (numeric) of file owner.
size
Size in bytes.
blkcnt
Size in blocks.
gen
Generation number.
Command Reference A-39
filestats
atime
Time of last read or write (in seconds).
mtime
Time of last write (in seconds).
ctime
Time of last size/status change (in seconds).
crtime
Time file was created (in seconds).
atimeage Age of last read or write (Now - atime).
mtimeage Age of last write (Now - mtime).
ctimeage Age of last size/status change (Now ctime).
crtimeage Age of file creation (Now - crtime).
timetype timetype
This lets you specify the type of time that will be used in the ”age” comparison. Valid values for time_type are
a
Access time
m
Modification time
c
Change time (last size/status change)
cr
Creation time
sizes sizes
Specifies the breakdown of sizes, as a comma-separated set of size values.
The values are in bytes, but as a convenience you can add a K, M, or G suffix
to a number to get kilobytes, megabytes, and gigabytes. For example,
”500K,2M,1G” would produce a breakdown with 4 categories - files less
than 500K, files less than 2 megabytes, files less than 1 gigabyte, and all
other files.
To produce a breakdown that includes all unique file sizes, specify ”*” for the
sizes value.
style style
Controls the style of output - the possible value for count are ”readable” (the
default), ”table” (colonseparated values suitable for processing by programs), and ”html”.
EXAMPLES
1.
Produce default file usage breakdowns for snapshot hourly.1 of volume vol0.
filestats volume vol0 snapshot hourly.1
2.
Produce file usage breakdowns by monthly age values:
filestats volume vol0 snapshot hourly.1 ages
”30D,60D,90D,120D,150D,180D”
A-40 Dell PowerVault 720N, 740N, and 760N System Administrator and Command Reference Guide
filestats
3.
Produce file usage breakdowns for inodes whose size is less than 100000
bytes and whose access time is less than a day old:
filestats volume vol0 snapshot hourly.1 expr
”{size}<100000&&{atimeage}<86400)”
4.
Produce a breakdown of the total number of files and their total size. You can
control the set of ages and sizes that get used for this breakdown, with the
”ages” and ”sizes” arguments. The output also contains a breakdown of file
usage by user-id and group-id.
filestats snapshot hourly.1 volume vol0
NOTES
Currently, the expression-evaluating code does not do any optimizations, so
although you can use arithmetic expressions, it is most efficient if you do not. Of
course, it’s most efficient if you don’t use any expression at all.
Command Reference A-41
halt
NAME
halt - stop the filer
SYNOPSIS
halt [ -d ] [ -t mins ]
DESCRIPTION
halt flushes all cached data to disk and drops into the monitor.
NFS clients can maintain use of a file over a halt or reboot (although experiencing a failure to respond during that time), but CIFS clients cannot do so safely.
Therefore, if the filer is running CIFS, the halt command invokes cifs terminate,
which requires the -t option. If the filer has CIFS clients and you invoke halt without -t, it displays the number of CIFS users and the number of open CIFS files.
Then it prompts you for the number of minutes to delay. cifs terminate automatically notifies all CIFS clients that a CIFS shut-down is scheduled in mins minutes,
and asks them to close their open files. CIFS files that are still open at the time
the filer halts will lose writes that had been cached but not written.
halt logs a message in /etc/messages to indicate that the filer was halted on
purpose.
OPTION
-d
Dumps system core before halting.
-t mins
Halts after the indicated number of minutes, or after all CIFS files
that were open have been closed, whichever is sooner.
SEE ALSO
cifs_terminate, reboot, savecore, messages
A-42 Dell PowerVault 720N, 740N, and 760N System Administrator and Command Reference Guide
help
NAME
help - print summary of commands and help strings
SYNOPSIS
help [ command ... ]
? [ command ... ]
DESCRIPTION
help prints a summary for each command in its argument list. With no arguments, help prints a list of all available Data ONTAP 5.3 commands.
Full UNIX-style man pages for all filer commands and files are available in the
/etc/man directory.
FILES
/etc/man
directory of UNIX-style manual pages
Command Reference A-43
hostname
NAME
hostname - set or display Dell filer name
SYNOPSIS
hostname [ name ]
DESCRIPTION
hostname prints the name of the current host. The hostname can be set by supplying an argument. This is usually done in the initialization script, /etc/rc, which
is run at boot time. name must exist in the /etc/hosts data base.
FILES
/etc/hosts
host name data base
/etc/rc
system initialization command script
SEE ALSO
hosts, rc
A-44 Dell PowerVault 720N, 740N, and 760N System Administrator and Command Reference Guide
httpstat
NAME
httpstat - display HTTP statistics
SYNOPSIS
httpstat [ -tz ] [ interval ]
DESCRIPTION
httpstat displays statistical information about HTTP (HyperText Transfer Protocol)
for the filer. It can also be used to reinitialize this information. If no arguments are
given, httpstat displays statistical information since last reboot, or last zeroed
with the -z option. If the -t option is specified, statistical information since the last
reboot is given.
The output consists of the number of GET requests successfully processed
(gets), rejected requests (badcalls), currently open HTTP connections (open
conn.), and the maximum number of simultaneous connections (peak conn.).
If the interval argument is specified, httpstat will continuously display the summary information for all the statistics. The first line of data displayed contains
cumulative statistics. Each subsequent line shows incremental statistics for the
interval (in seconds) since the last display.
SEE ALSO
netstat, options, sysstat
Command Reference A-45
ifconfig
NAME
ifconfig - configure network interface parameters
SYNOPSIS
ifconfig interface [ [ alias | -alias ] address ]
[ netmask mask ] [ broadcast address ]
[ mediatype type ] [ mtusize size ] [ up | down ]
[ trusted | untrusted ] [ wins | -wins ]
ifconfig -a
DESCRIPTION
ifconfig assigns an address to a network interface and configures network interface parameters. ifconfig must be used at boot time to define the network
address of each network interface present on a machine; it may also be used at a
later time to redefine a network interface’s address or other operating parameters. When used without optional parameters, ifconfig displays the current
configuration for a network interface.
The interface parameter is the name of the network interface. The name is of the
form en for Ethernet interfaces, possibly followed by a letter, where n is 0 for onboard network interfaces and the expansion slot number for network interfaces
plugged into expansion slots. If a card in an expansion slot has more than one
network interface, the network interface name will be followed by a letter, indicating which of the network interfaces on that card it is. The network interface
name vh is used to specify IP virtual host addresses associated with the filer.
Only alias addresses (using the alias option) may be assigned to the vh interface.
The network interface name -a is special and it does not take any optional parameters. It displays the current configuration for all the network interfaces present.
The address is either a host name present in the host name data base /etc/
hosts or an Internet address expressed in the Internet standard dot notation.
OPTIONS
broadcast address
Specifies the address to use to represent broadcasts to the network. The
default broadcast address is the address with a host part of all 1’s.
down
Marks a network interface ”down”. When a network interface is marked
”down” the system will not attempt to transmit messages through that network interface. If possible, the network interface will be reset to disable
reception as well. This action does not automatically disable routes using the
network interface.
mediatype type
Specifies the Ethernet media type used. Depending on the physical specifications of the Ethernet card the acceptable types are ”thick” (10Base5 AUI),
”thin” (10Base2 BNC), ”tp” (10Base-T RJ-45 twisted-pair), or ”tpfd” (Full
A-46 Dell PowerVault 720N, 740N, and 760N System Administrator and Command Reference Guide
ifconfig
duplex 10Base-T RJ-45 twistedpair), or ”100tx” (100Base-T RJ-45 twistedpair), or ”100tx-fd” (Full duplex 100Base-T RJ-45 twisted-pair), or ”auto”
(Auto RJ-45 twisted-pair). The default media type is set to ”tp” or to ”auto”
where applicable.
On a 10/100 Mbps auto-negotiable interface, the system will auto-negotiate
a 10 Mbps half or full duplex or 100 Mbps half or full duplex link and set the
network interface accordingly when it is configured up. If the other end does
not support auto-negotiation and full duplex operation is desired, it must be
explicitly set using the mediatype command.
On a 10/100 Mbps interface, the system will auto-detect a 10 Mbps or
100 Mbps link and set the link speed accordingly when the network interface is configured up. The hardware is not currently capable of autodetecting
full duplex interfaces, so if full duplex operation is desired, it must be explicitly set using the mediatype command. Only the 10/100 Mbps interfaces are
capable of full duplex operation.
mtusize size
Specifies the MTU (maximum transmission unit) to use for the network
interface.
netmask mask
The mask includes the network part of the local address and the subnet part,
which is taken from the host field of the address. The mask can be specified
as a single hexadecimal number with a leading 0x, with a dot-notation Internet address, or with a pseudo-network name listed in the network table
/etc/networks. The mask contains 1’s for the bit positions in the 32-bit
address that are to be used for the network and subnet parts, and 0’s for the
host part. The mask should contain at least the standard network portion,
and the subnet field should be contiguous with the network portion. A
default netmask is chosen according to the class of the IP address.
up
Marks a network interface ”up”. This may be used to enable a network interface after an ”ifconfig down.” It happens automatically when setting the first
address on a network interface. If the network interface was reset when previously marked down, the hardware will be re-initialized.
alias
Establishes an additional network address for this network interface. This is
sometimes useful when changing network numbers and one wishes to
accept packets addressed to the old network interface. It is required when
creating IP virtual host addresses.
-alias
Remove a network address for this network interface.
trusted
Specifies that the network to which the network interface is attached is
trusted relative to firewall-style security (default).
Command Reference A-47
ifconfig
untrusted
Specifies that the network to which the network interface is attached is not
trusted relative to firewall-style security.
wins
Specifies that the network interface is to be registered with Windows Internet Name Services (default). Such registration is only performed when CIFS
is running and at least one WINS server has been configured.
-wins
Specifies that the network interface is not to be registered with Windows
Internet Name Services.
SEE ALSO
hosts, networks
A-48 Dell PowerVault 720N, 740N, and 760N System Administrator and Command Reference Guide
ifstat
NAME
ifstat - display device-level statistics for network interfaces
SYNOPSIS
ifstat [ -z ] -a | interface_name
DESCRIPTION
The ifstat command displays statistics about packets received and sent on a
specified network interface or on all network interfaces. The statistics are cumulative since the filer was booted.
The -z argument clears the statistics. The -a argument displays statistics for all
network interfaces including the virtual host and the loopback address. If you
don’t use the -a argument, specify the name of a network interface.
EXAMPLES
The following command displays network statistics for an Ethernet interface
named e7:
ifstat e7
The following command displays network statistics for the loopback address:
ifstat lo
The following command displays network statistics for all network interfaces on
the filer:
ifstat -a
SEE ALSO
ifconfig
Command Reference A-49
license
NAME
license - license Data ONTAP 5.3 services
SYNOPSIS
license [ service=code ] ...
DESCRIPTION
The license command enables you to enter license codes for specific Data
ONTAP 5.3 services. The license codes are provided by Dell. With no arguments,
the license command prints the current list of licensed services and their codes.
It also shows the services that are not licensed for your filer.
The filer is shipped with license codes for all purchased services, so you need to
enter the license command only after you purchase a new service or after you
reinstall the file system.
To disable a license, enter the code DISABLE.
All license codes are case-insensitive. Do not leave a space before or after the
equal sign in the command.
The following list describes the services you can license:
Enter nfs to enable NFS.
Enter cifs to enable CIFS.
Enter http to enable HTTP.
Enter snapmirror to enable SnapMirror.
Enter snaprestore to enable SnapRestore.
EXAMPLES
The following example enables NFS:
filer> license nfs=ABCDEFG
nfs license enabled.
nfs enabled.
The following example disables CIFS:
filer> license cifs=DISABLE
unlicense cifs.
cifs will be disabled upon reboot.
A-50 Dell PowerVault 720N, 740N, and 760N System Administrator and Command Reference Guide
logout
NAME
logout - use control-D to logout
DESCRIPTION
The filer doesn’t have a logout command. (Since the telnet connection and the
console are multiplexed into the same session, there would be no way for a
logout command to tell which connection to drop.) To log out, type control-D.
Over telnet, typing control-D disconnects the session.
On the console, typing control-D returns the console to the password prompt. If
no password is set, control-D has no effect.
SEE ALSO
passwd
Command Reference A-51
maxfiles
NAME
maxfiles - increase the number of files the volume can hold
SYNOPSIS
maxfiles [ vol_name [ max ] ]
DESCRIPTION
maxfiles increases the number of files that a volume can hold to max. Once
increased, the value of max can never be lowered, so the new value must be
larger than the current value. If no argument is specified, maxfiles displays the
current value of max for all volumes in the system. If just the vol_name argument
is given, the current value of max for the specified volume is displayed.
Because each allowable file consumes disk space, and because the value of max
can never be reduced, increasing max consumes disk space permanently. If
maxfiles identifies a new size as unreasonably large, it will query the user to verify that the new value is correct.
The filer’s df command (see df) can be used to determine how many files have
currently been created in the file system.
SEE ALSO
df
A-52 Dell PowerVault 720N, 740N, and 760N System Administrator and Command Reference Guide
mt
NAME
mt - magnetic tape positioning and control
SYNOPSIS
mt [ -f | -t tapedevice ] command [ count ] [ command [ count ] ... ]
DESCRIPTION
mt is used to position or control the specified magnetic tape drive supporting the
commands listed below. Commands that support a count field allow multiple
operations to be performed (the rewind, status and offline commands do not support a count field). mt will output failure messages if the specified tape drive
cannot be opened or if the operation fails.
The -f option specifies which tape device to use. Use sysconfig -t to list all tape
devices on the filer. -t has the same effect as -f.
USAGE
eof, weof
Writes count end-of-filemarks beginning at the current position on
tape.
fsf
Forward spaces over count filemarks. Positions the tape on the
end-of-tape side of the filemark.
bsf
Backward spaces over count filemarks. Positions the tape on the
beginning-of-tape side of the filemark.
fsr
Forward spaces count records. Positions the tape on the end-oftape side of the record(s).
bsr
Backward spaces count records. Positions the tape on the
beginning-of-tape side of the record(s).
erase
Erases the tape beginning at the current tape position. When the
erase completes, the tape is positioned to beginning-of-tape.
rewind
Rewinds the tape, positioning the tape to beginning-of-tape.
status
Displays status information about the tape unit.
offline
Rewinds the tape and unloads tape media.
diag
Enables or disables display of diagnostic messages from tape
driver. Enabling diagnostic messages can be helpful when attempting to diagnose a problem with a tape device. Specifying a count of
”1” enables display of diagnostic messages, a count of ”0” disables diagnostic messages. Diagnostic messages are disabled by
default.
eom
Positions the tape to end of data (end of media if tape is full).
Command Reference A-53
mt
EXAMPLES
The following example uses mt to display status information for the no-rewind tape
device, unit zero, highest format (density):
filer> mt -f nrst0a status
Tape drive: Exabyte 8505 8mm
Status: ready, write enabled
Format: EXB-8500C (w/compression)
fileno = 0 blockno = 0 resid = 0
To skip over a previously created dump file to append a dump onto a no-rewind
tape device, use the fsf (forward space file) command:
filer> mt -f nrst0a fsf 1
SEE ALSO
sysconfig, tape
A-54 Dell PowerVault 720N, 740N, and 760N System Administrator and Command Reference Guide
netstat
NAME
netstat - show network status
SYNOPSIS
netstat [ -an ]
netstat -mnrs
netstat -i | -I interface [ -dn ]
netstat -w interval [ -i | -I interface ] [ -dn ]
netstat [ -p protocol ]
DESCRIPTION
The netstat command symbolically displays the contents of various networkrelated data structures. There are a number of output formats, depending on the
options for the information presented. The first form of the command displays a
list of active sockets for each protocol.
The second form presents the contents of one of the other network data structures according to the option selected.
The third form will display cumulative statistics for all interfaces or, with an interface specified using the -I option, cumulative statistics for that interface. It will
also display the sum of the cumulative statistics for all configured network
interfaces.
The fourth form continuously displays information regarding packet traffic on the
interface that was configured first, or with an interface specified using the -I
option, packet traffic for that interface. It will also display the sum of the cumulative traffic information for all configured network interfaces.
The fifth form displays statistics about the protocol specified by protocol.
OPTIONS
-a
Show the state of all sockets; normally sockets used by server processes are not shown.
-d
With either interface display (option -i or an interval, as described
below), show the number of dropped packets.
-I interface
Show information only about this interface. When used in the third
form with an interval specified as described below, information
about the indicated interface is highlighted in a separated column.
(The default interface highlighted is the first interface configured
into the system.)
-i
Show the state of interfaces that have been configured.
-m
Show statistics recorded by the memory management routines for
the network’s private pool of buffers.
Command Reference A-55
netstat
-n
Show network addresses as numbers. netstat normally interprets
addresses and attempts to display them symbolically. This option
may be used with any of the display formats that display network
addresses.
-p protocol
Show statistics about protocol , which is one of tcp, udp, ip, or
icmp. A null response typically means that there are no interesting
numbers to report. The program will complain if protocol is
unknown or if there is no statistics routine for it.
-s
Show per-protocol statistics. If this option is repeated, counters
with a value of zero are suppressed.
-r
Show the routing tables. When -s is also present, show routing statistics instead.
-w wait
Show network interface statistics at intervals of wait seconds.
DISPLAYS
The default display, for TCP sockets, shows the local and remote addresses, send
window and send queue size (in bytes), receive window and receive queue sizes
(in bytes), and the state of the connection. For UDP sockets, it shows the local
and remote addresses, and the send and receive queue size (in bytes). Address
formats are of the form ”host.port” or ”network.port” if a socket’s address specifies a network but no specific host address. If known, the host and network
addresses are displayed symbolically according to the databases /etc/hosts and
/etc/networks, respectively. If a symbolic name for an address is not known, or
if the -n option is specified, the address is printed numerically, according to the
address family. Unspecified, or ”wildcard”, addresses and ports appear as ”*”.
The interface display specified by the -i or -I options provides a table of cumulative statistics regarding packets transferred, errors, and collisions. The network
addresses of the interface and the maximum transmission unit (”mtu”) are also
displayed. If the interface is currently down, then a ”*” is appended to the interface name.
When an interval is specified, a summary of the interface information, consisting
of packets transferred, errors, and collisions, is displayed.
The routing table display indicates the available routes and their status. Each
route consists of a destination host or network and a gateway to use in forwarding packets. The flags field shows a collection of information about the route
stored as binary choices; the flags are:
2
Protocol-specific routing flag #2 (for ARP entries, means that the entry is
”published”).
C
Use of this route will cause a new route to be generated and used.
D
The route was created dynamically by a redirect.
G
The route is to a gateway.
A-56 Dell PowerVault 720N, 740N, and 760N System Administrator and Command Reference Guide
netstat
H
The route is to a host (otherwise, it’s to a net).
L
The route includes valid protocol to link address translation.
M
The route was modified dynamically by a redirect.
R
The route has timed out.
S
The route was manually added with a route command (see route).
U
The route is usable (”up”).
Direct routes are created for each interface attached to the local host; the gateway field for such entries shows the address of the outgoing interface. The refcnt
field gives the current number of active uses of the route. Connection oriented
protocols normally hold on to a single route for the duration of a connection while
connectionless protocols obtain a route whenever they transmit to a destination.
The use field provides a count of the number of packets sent using that route.
The interface entry indicates the network interface utilized for the route.
When netstat is invoked with the -w option and an interval argument, it displays
a running count of statistics related to network interfaces. An obsolescent version of this option used a numeric parameter with no option, and is currently
supported for backward compatibility. This display consists of a column for the
primary interface and a column summarizing information for all interfaces. The
default primary interface is the first interface configured into the system. The primary interface may be replaced with another interface with the -I option. The first
line of each screen of information contains a summary since the system was last
rebooted. Subsequent lines of output show values accumulated over the preceding interval.
FILES
/etc/hosts
/etc/networks
host name database
network name database
SEE ALSO
ifconfig, nfsstat, sysstat, hosts, networks
Command Reference A-57
nfs
NAME
nfs - turn NFS service off and on
SYNOPSIS
nfs [ on | off ]
DESCRIPTION
nfs turns NFS service off or on. With no arguments, nfs shows the current state
of NFS service. nfs is normally used in the initialization command script, /etc/rc.
FILES
/etc/rc
system initialization command script
SEE ALSO
rc
A-58 Dell PowerVault 720N, 740N, and 760N System Administrator and Command Reference Guide
nfsstat
NAME
nfsstat - display NFS statistics
SYNOPSIS
nfsstat [ interval ]
nfsstat [ -c ] [ -t ] -h [ ip_address | host_name ]
nfsstat -l [ -t ]
nfsstat -z
DESCRIPTION
nfsstat displays statistical information about NFS (Network File System) and RPC
(Remote Procedure Call) for the filer. It can also be used to reinitialize this information. If no arguments are given, nfsstat displays statistical information since
last zeroed with the -z option (or since reboot if statistics have not been zeroed).
If the interval argument is specified, nfsstat continuously displays the summary
information for the following NFS requests: getattr, lookup, readlink, read, write,
create, remove, and readdir/readdirplus. The first line of data displayed, and every
20th line thereafter, contains cumulative statistics. Each subsequent line shows
incremental statistics for the interval (in seconds) since the last display.
Per-client statistics can also be collected and displayed by enabling the
nfs.per_client_stats.enable options (using the options command - see
options) and invoking nfsstat with the -h or the -l options. Per-client statistics are
collected for up to the first 256 NFS clients that have mounted the filesystem on
the given filer.
OPTIONS
-h
Displays per-client statistics since last zeroed with the -z option (or since
reboot if statistics have not been zeroed). The statistics are displayed on a
per-client basis, with the IP address and host name (where available) of each
client being displayed at the head of each client’s block of statistics.
If an optional IP address or host name is specified with the -h option, only
the statistics associated with this client are displayed.
-l
Displays a list of the clients whose statistics have been collected on a perclient basis, along with the total NFS calls for that client since last reboot, or
last zeroed with the -z option, the count being displayed both as the actual
count and as a percentage of calls from all clients.
-z
Zeroes (reinitializes) the current statistics. (However, statistics since boot are
also retained.)
-c
Includes reply cache statistics in the data displayed.
-t
Displays the statistics since boot time, rather than since the last time they
were zeroed.
Command Reference A-59
nfsstat
DISPLAYS
The server RPC display includes the following fields, with separate values for
TCP and UDP:
calls
The total number of RPC calls received.
badcalls
The total number of calls rejected by the RPC layer (the sum of
badlen and xdrcall as defined below).
nullrecv
The number of times an RPC call was not available when it was
thought to be received.
badlen
The number of RPC calls with a length shorter than a minimumsized RPC call.
xdrcall
The number of RPC calls whose header could not be XDR decoded.
The server NFS display shows the number of NFS calls received (calls) and
rejected (badcalls), and the counts and percentages for the various calls that
were made.
SEE ALSO
netstat, options, sysstat
A-60 Dell PowerVault 720N, 740N, and 760N System Administrator and Command Reference Guide
options
NAME
options - display or set filer options
SYNOPSIS
options [ option value ] ...
DESCRIPTION
options is used to change configurable filer software options. If no options are
specified, then options prints the current value of all available options. The
default value for most options is off, which means that the option is not set.
Changing the value to on enables the option; for most options, the only valid values are on (which can also be expressed as yes, true, or 1) in any mixture of
upper and lower case, and off (which can also be expressed as no, false, or 0) in
any mixture of upper and lower case. The description of the option will indicate
the default if it is not off, and will indicate what values are allowed if it isn’t an on/
off option. If it is desired to make an option setting permanent, the necessary
options command must be placed in the /etc/rc file, as options settings are not
preserved across system reboots. The legal options are as follows:
cifs.access_logging_enable
When on, enables the filer to process access logging, or auditing,
information. The default is off.
cifs.access_logging.filename
Specifies the active event log file. The file must be in an existing
directory in a network share.
cifs.bypass_traverse_checking
When on (the default), directories in the path to a file are not
required to have the ’X’ (traverse) permission. This option does not
apply in UNIX qtrees.
cifs.guest_account
Enables a user to get access to the filer provided that either the filer
uses a Domain Controller for authentication and the user is not in a
trusted domain, or the filer uses the /etc/passwd file or the NIS
password database for authentication and the user has no entry in
the /etc/passwd or the NIS password database. If this option is
set to the name of an account in the password database, a user logging into the filer will be assigned to the guest account if their
name is not listed in the password database (when using /etc/
passwd or NIS) or if the user is not from a trusted domain (when
using a domain controller). The configured user name will be used
for the UNIX user ID, group ID, and group set of the specified
account. If the option is blank, guest access is disabled.
cifs.home_dir When set to the pathname of a directory, this defines the path to
the ”homes directory”. The directories under this path should have
the names of users as their names. When a user connects to the
filer using CIFS and there is a directory name that exactly matches
Command Reference A-61
options
the user’s lower-cased Windows login name, they will see a share
of that name (truncated to 12 characters) that is their ”home directory”. Only the user can access the home directory using this share.
All other users cannot see the share name since they are logged in
under a different user.
cifs.idle_timeout
Specifies the amount of idle time in seconds before the filer disconnects a session. An idle session is a session in which a user does
not have any files opened on the filer. The value of this option
ranges from 600 to 4,000,000 (effectively infinite). The default is
1800.
cifs.netbios_aliases
Provides a comma-separated list of alternative names for the filer. A
user can connect to the filer using any of the listed names.
cifs.oplocks.enable
When cifs.oplocks.enable is on (the default), the filer allows clients to use oplocks (opportunistic locks) on files. Oplocks are a
significant performance enhancement, but have the potential to
cause lost cached data on some networks with impaired reliability
or latency, particularly wide-area networks. In general, this option
should be disabled only to isolate problems.
cifs.perm_check_use_gid
This option affects security checking for Windows clients of files
with UNIX security where the requestor is not the file owner. In all
cases Windows client requests are checked against the share-level
ACL, then if the requestor is owner, the ”user” perms are used to
determine the access.
If the requestor is not owner and if perm_check_use_gid is ”on” it
means files with UNIX security are checked using normal UNIX
rules, i.e. if the requestor is a member of the file’s owning group
the ”group” perms are used, otherwise the ”other” perms are
used.
If the requestor is not owner and if perm_check_use_gid is ”off”,
files with UNIX security style are checked in a way which works
better when controlling access via share-level ACLs. In that case
the requestor’s desired access is checked against the file’s ”group”
permissions, and the ”other” permissions are ignored. In effect, the
”group” perms are used as if the Windows client were always a
member of the file’s owning group, and the ”other” perms are
never used.
The default setting is ”on” for new installations. For existing installations, this has the opposite effect of the old ”PC-mode” installation
setting.
A-62 Dell PowerVault 720N, 740N, and 760N System Administrator and Command Reference Guide
options
If you do not plan to use share-level ACLs to control access to UNIX
security style files (e.g. in a UNIX qtree), you might wish to change
this setting to ”on.”
cifs.save_case
By default, the filer preserves the case of CIFS names, even though
a case insensitive hash and search is done. Setting this option to
OFF forces names to be saved in lower case, avoiding some of the
case conversion problems with non-ASCII characters and preventing PC applications from changing the names of files that were
created with lower case names from UNIX.
cifs.scopeid NetBIOS scope IDs allow the system administrator to create small
workgroups out of a network by partitioning the NetBIOS name
space; only clients with the same NetBIOS scope ID as the filer will
be able to use the filer as a CIFS server. Normally, the scope ID is a
null string, but if the filer is to run in a NetBIOS scope other than
the default one, its scope ID must be set to the scope ID of that
scope. The scope ID can be changed only when CIFS is not
running.
cifs.search_domains
Specifies a list of domains that trust each other to search for a
mapped account. The argument for the option is a commaseparated list that is searched in order. If no list is supplied, all
domains are searched. You use this option to control searches if you
used an asterisk for a domain name in the usermap.cfg file.
cifs.show_snapshot
By default this option is FALSE. The snapshot directory ~snapshot
is no longer shown at the root of a share. This is a change in behavior from previous versions. Setting this to TRUE will restore the old
behavior. On Windows NT 4 or Windows 95 clients, the user can
access snapshots by entering \\filer\share\.snapshot (or ~snapshot
or ~snapsht) in the Start->Run menu. Snapshots can also be
accessed lower in the share by providing a path to a lower directory.
Snapshots can be accessed through DOS on any system by changing to the ~snapsht directory.
NOTE: When this option is TRUE it can confuse programs like FastFind that don’t know about snapshots.
cifs.symlinks.cycleguard
The cifs.symlinks.cycleguard option (on by default), eliminates the
possibility of traversing directories cyclically during the process of
following symbolic links. With this option set to on, if the target of
the symlink resolves to a directory that is directly above the symlink’s parent directory, it is disallowed.
With this option set to off, many standard Windows apps (such as
Find in Win95 / NT4.0) will not operate correctly when a symlink
points to a parent directory. This is because they do not understand
Command Reference A-63
options
symbolic links and will repeatedly loop on them. Users should use
caution when changing this option.
cifs.symlinks.enable
When cifs.symlinks.enable is on (the default), if the object being
accessed by a CIFS client is a symbolic link (whether absolute or
relative), the filer follows the link with the proviso that the ultimate
target turns out to reside within the originating share (thus ensuring
that the client has access permission to the target).
cifs.trace_login
When cifs.trace_login is on (the default is off), the filer logs all
login-related activities. This can be used to diagnose access problems on the filer.
console.encoding
Specifies how non-ASCII character information is presented. The
value can be:
nfs - NFS character set. You can use both NFS extended (> 0x7F)
and SGML characters for input.
sgml - SGML character format. You can use both NFS extended
(greater than 0x7F) and SGML characters for input.
utf8 - UTF-8 character sets. For input, any character greater than
0x7F is the beginning of a UTF-8 encoding.
The default is nfs.
dns.domainname
Sets the DNS domainname to the specified domainname.
dns.enable Enables DNS client on the filer. The DNS domain must be set and
the /etc/resolv.conf file must exist prior to enabling DNS.
ip.path_mtu_discovery.enable
Enables/disables path MTU discovery; it is currently used only by
TCP. Path MTU discovery allows a host to discover the ”maximum
transmission unit”, i.e. the largest link-level packet that can be transmitted, over a path from that host to another host. This means that
the filer needn’t choose a conservative packet size for a TCP connection to a host not on the same net as the filer, but can attempt
to discover the largest packet size that can make it to the other host
without fragmentation.
httpd.enable
Enables HTTP access to the filer.
httpd.admin.enable
Enables HTTP access to the administration area of the filer, via a private URL: any URL beginning with /na_admin is mapped to the
directory /etc/http. Thus, a man page on the filer filer with the file
A-64 Dell PowerVault 720N, 740N, and 760N System Administrator and Command Reference Guide
options
name /etc/http/man/name can be accessed with the URL http://
filer/na_admin/man/name.
httpd.log.max_file_size
Specifies the maximum size that the HTTP log file /etc/log/
httpd.log can grow to. The default is 2147483647, which is the largest file size that many clients support.
httpd.rootdir
Specifies the complete pathname of the root directory that contains files and subdirectories for HTTP access.
httpd.timeout
Specifies the minimum amount of time (in seconds) before an idle
HTTP 15 connection will time out. The default is 900 seconds,
which is fifteen minutes.
httpd.timewait.enable
When enabled, the filer will put HTTP connections that have been
closed by the client into the TIME_WAIT state for one minute,
which is twice the maximum segment lifetime (2*MSL). By default,
TIME_WAIT state is bypassed for HTTP connections.
ip.match_any_ifaddr
If the option is on, the filer will accept any packet that is addressed
to it even if that packet came in on the wrong interface. If you are
concerned about security, you should turn this off.
nfs.mount_rootonly
When enabled, the mount server will deny the request if the client
is not root user using privileged ports. By default, the feature is
enabled for more secure access.
nfs.per_client_stats.enable
Enables/disables the collection and display of per-client NFS statistics, as described in nfsstat.
nfs.tcp.enable When enabled, the NFS server supports NFS over TCP. By
default, the feature is enabled; it can be disabled if there is a problem with some client when using NFS over TCP, and that client
cannot be configured to use NFS over UDP.
nfs.v2.df_2gb_lim
Causes the filer to return replies to the ”file system statistics” NFS
version 2 request that show no more than (2**31)-1 (or
2,147,483,647) total, free, or available bytes (i.e., 2GB) on the file
system.
Some NFS clients require this option because, if they get return values from the ”file system statistics” request with more than the
specified number of bytes, they’ll incorrectly compute the amount
of free space on the file system, and may think that there’s no free
space on a file system that has more than 2GB free.
Command Reference A-65
options
nfs.v3.enable
When enabled, the NFS server supports NFS version 3. By default,
the feature is enabled; it can be disabled if there is a problem with
some client when using NFS version 3, and that client cannot be
configured to use NFS version 2.
nfs.webnfs.enable
When enabled, the NFS server supports WebNFS lookups. By
default, WebNFS lookups are disabled.
nfs.webnfs.rootdir
Specifies the WebNFS rootdir. Once the rootdir is set, WebNFS clients can issue lookups relative to the rootdir using the public
filehandle.
nfs.webnfs.rootdir.set
After specifying the rootdir, this option needs to be enabled for the
rootdir setting to take effect. Disabling this option disables the
existing rootdir setting.
nis.domainname
Sets the NIS domain to the specified domainname.
nis.enable
raid.timeout
Enables NIS client on the filer. The NIS domain must be set prior to
enabling NIS.
Sets the time in hours, as a number greater than or equal to 1, that
the system will run after a single disk failure has caused the system
to go into degraded mode. The default is 24. If the raid.timeout
option is specified after the system is already in degraded mode,
the timeout is set to the value specified and the timeout restarted.
raid.reconstruct_speed
Specifies the speed at which the RAID reconstruction should occur
ranging from the slowest speed 1 to the fastest speed possible 10.
The RAID reconstruction process is given more cpu time as the
speed is increased, so increasing the speed of the reconstruction
will take away cpu time for network operations. The default speed
is 4, which is roughly 40% of the cpu time, though more time may
be used if there is idle time available.
raid.scrub.enable
Enables/disables the RAID scrub feature (see disk). By default, it is
enabled. This option only affects the scrubbing process that gets
started from cron. For user requested scrubs, this option is ignored.
rsh.enable
Enables the RSH server on the filer.
snmp.enable
Enables the SNMP server on the filer.
A-66 Dell PowerVault 720N, 740N, and 760N System Administrator and Command Reference Guide
options
telnet.enable
Enables the Telnet server on the filer.
telnet.hosts
Specifies up to 5 clients that will be allowed telnet access to the
server. The host names should be entered as a commaseparated
list with no spaces in between. Enter a ”*” to allow access to all clients; this is the default. Enter a ”-” to disable telnet access to the
server.
timed.enable
Determines whether a time daemon (timed) runs on the filer. If
timed.enable is on, the filer synchronizes its time with a time
server.
timed.log
Specifies whether time changes initiated by timed should be
logged to the console.
timed.max_skew
Specifies the maximum amount of skew between the time
reported by the time server and the filer’s time that we will allow
when synchronizing the time. If the difference in the time reported
by the server and the filer’s time is greater than this value, the filer
will not synchronize to the time reported by the time server. The
maximum skew is specified in seconds (suffix s), minutes (suffix
m), or hours (suffix h). Defaults to ”30m”.
timed.proto
timed.sched
Specifies the protocol used to synchronize time. ”rdate” specifies
the ”rdate;” ”sntp” specifies the Simple Network Time Protocol.
Specifies the timed synchronization schedule. There are several
pre-defined schedules:
hourly
synchronize every hour (the default)
multihourly
synchronize every 6 hours
daily
synchronize every day at midnight
Custom schedules may also be specified by giving the number of
minutes or hours between time synchronization. Minutes are specified by digits followed by an ”m”; hours are specified by digits
followed by an ”h”. For example, options timed.sched 2h will cause
time to be synchronized every two hours.
To avoid overburdening the time server, the filer randomly selects
the exact time of the synchronization within a 20-minute window.
timed.servers
Specifies up to five time servers used by the time daemon. Time
servers are contacted in the order specified; if a server can’t be
contacted, the time daemon tries the next one in the list.
Command Reference A-67
options
wafl.convert_ucode
Setting this option to ON forces conversion of all directories to Unicode format when accessed from both NFS and CIFS. By default
(OFF), access from CIFS causes conversion of pre-4.0 and 4.0 format directories; access from NFS causes conversion of 4.0 format
directories.
vol.copy.throttle
Specifies the default speed of all volume copy operations. The
speed can be a number in the range from 1 to 10, 10 being the highest speed and the default.
wafl.create_ucode
Setting this option to ON forces Unicode format directories to be
created by default, both from NFS and CIFS. By default(OFF), all
directories are created in pre-4.0 format and the first CIFS access
will convert it to Unicode format.
wafl.default_nt_user
Specifies the NT user account to use when a UNIX user accesses a
file with NT security (has an ACL), and that UNIX user would not
otherwise be mapped. If this option is set blank, such accesses will
be denied.
wafl.default_UNIX_user
Specifies the UNIX user account to use when an NT user attempts
to log in and that NT user would not otherwise be mapped. If this
option is set blank, such accesses will be denied.
wafl.maxdirsize
Sets the maximum size (in K-Bytes) that a directory can grow to.
This is set to 10240 by default; it limits directory size to 10MBytes
and can hold over 300,000 files. Most users should not need to
change this setting. This option is useful for environments where
system users may grow a directory to a size that starts impacting
system performance. When a user tries to create a file in a directory that is at the limit, the system returns a ENOSPC error and fails
the create.
wafl.nt_admin_priv_map_to_root
When on (the default), an NT administrator is mapped to UNIX root.
wafl.root_only_chown
When enabled, only the root user can change the owner of a file.
When disabled, non-root users can change the owner of files that
they own. When a non-root user changes the owner of a file they
own, both the set-UID and set-GID bits of that file are cleared for
security reasons. A non-root user is not allowed to give away a file if
it would make the recipient overrun its user quota.
wafl.root_only_chown is enabled by default.
A-68 Dell PowerVault 720N, 740N, and 760N System Administrator and Command Reference Guide
options
wafl.wcc_minutes_valid
Specifies the number of minutes a WAFL credential cache entry is
valid. The value can range from 1 through 20160. The default is 20.
Multiple options can be set at once in an options command. For example:
options nfs.tcp.enable on nfs.v2.df_2gb_lim on raid.timeout 48
sets nfs.tcp.enable to on, sets nfs.v2.df_2gb_lim to on, and sets raid.timeout
to 48.
SEE ALSO
disk, nfsstat, snap, autosupport
Command Reference A-69
passwd
NAME
passwd - modify the system administrative user’s password
SYNOPSIS
passwd
DESCRIPTION
passwd changes the filer’s administrative user’s password. First it prompts you
for the login name (if any non-root users are configured). Then it prompts you for
the current password. If you type the current password correctly, the filer
requests a new password. The passwd command imposes no minimum length
or special character requirements for ” root ”. As with any password, it is best to
choose a password unlikely to be guessed by an intruder. All non-root administrative user’s password should meet the following restrictions:
- it should be at least 6 characters long
- it should contain at least two alphabets
- it should contain at least one digit or special character
If the filer is booted from floppy disk, selection ”(3) Change password”
enables you to reset the ”root” password without entering the old
password.
SEE ALSO
useradmin
A-70 Dell PowerVault 720N, 740N, and 760N System Administrator and Command Reference Guide
ping
NAME
ping - send ICMP ECHO_REQUEST packets to network hosts
SYNOPSIS
ping [ -s ] [ -Rrv ] host [ packetsize [ count ] ]
DESCRIPTION
ping uses the ICMP protocol’s mandatory ECHO_REQUEST datagram to elicit an
ICMP ECHO_RESPONSE from the specified host or gateway. ECHO_REQUEST
datagrams have an IP and ICMP header, followed by a struct timeval and then an
arbitrary number of bytes used to fill out the packet. If host responds, ping prints
”host is alive.” Otherwise, ping will resend the ECHO_REQUEST once a second. If the host does not respond after count seconds (default value is 20), ping
will print ”no answer from host.”
When the -s flag is specified, ping sends one datagram per second and prints
one line of output for every ECHO_RESPONSE that it receives. ping computes
the round-trip times and packet loss statistics. When the count number of packets have been sent or if the command is terminated with a ^C, the summary
statistics is displayed. The default packetsize is 56, which translates into 64 ICMP
bytes when combined with the 8 bytes of ICMP header.
OPTIONS
-R
Record route. Includes the RECORD_ROUTE option in the ECHO_REQUEST
packet and displays the route buffer on returned packets. Note that the IP
header is only large enough for nine such routes. Many hosts ignore or discard this option.
-r
Bypass the normal routing tables and send directly to a host on an attached
network. If the host is not on a directly-attached network, an error is
returned.
-s
Send one datagram every second.
-v
Verbose output. ICMP packets other than ECHO_RESPONSE that are
received are listed.
SEE ALSO
ifconfig, netstat
Command Reference A-71
qtree
NAME
qtree - create and manage qtrees
SYNOPSIS
qtree
qtree create [ name ]
qtree security [ name [ UNIX | ntfs | mixed ] ]
qtree oplocks [ name [ enable | disable ] ]
DESCRIPTION
The qtree command creates qtrees and specifies attributes for qtrees.
A qtree can be an entire volume or a subset of a volume. It is similar to a partition
in that you cannot move files into or out of a qtree. There are, however, two differences between a qtree and a partition:
A qtree is more flexible than a partition because you can change the size of a
qtree at any time.
A qtree enables you to apply attributes such as oplocks and security style to
a subset of files and directories rather than to an entire volume.
If there are files and directories in a volume that do not belong to any qtrees you
create, the filer considers them to be in qtree 0. Qtree 0 can take on the same
types of attributes as any other qtrees.
You can use any qtree command whether or not quotas are enabled on your filer.
The qtree command without any arguments displays the attributes of all quota
trees on the filer.
The qtree create command creates a qtree. It is equivalent to the quota qtree
command. If name does not begin with a slash (/), the qtree is created in the root
volume. To create a qtree in a particular volume, specify name in this format: /vol/
vol_name/qtree_name.
A qtree can be created only in the root directory of a volume. By default, a qtree
has the same security style as the root directory of the volume and oplocks are
enabled. The root directory of a volume, by default, uses the UNIX security style.
A qtree does not have any restrictions on disk space or the number of files. To
impose these restrictions on a qtree, edit the /etc/quotas file. Refer to the quotas man page for more information about the file format. To make the changes to
the /etc/quotas file go into effect, use the quota command. Refer to the quota
man page for more information about the quota command.
If you enter the qtree create command without arguments, the command displays all existing qtrees and their attributes.
A-72 Dell PowerVault 720N, 740N, and 760N System Administrator and Command Reference Guide
qtree
To delete a qtree, remove it from a client as you would any directory. You can create up to 254 qtrees on a filer.
The qtree security command changes the security style for files and directories.
Security style means the method the filer uses to determine whether a user has
access to a file. If name is the path name to a qtree, the security style applies to
the files and directories in the specified qtree. The path name to a qtree does not
need to end with a slash. If name is a path name to a volume, the security style
applies to those directories and files in qtree 0. Any new qtree you create inherits
the security style from qtree 0 by default. The path name to a volume must end
with a slash.
The security style can be one of the following values:
UNIX
The user’s UID and GID, and the UNIX-style permission bits of the
file or directory determine user access. The filer uses the same
method for determining access for both NFS and CIFS requests. If
you change the security style of a qtree or a volume from ntfs to
UNIX, the filer disregards the Windows NT permissions that were
established when the qtree or volume used the ntfs security style.
ntfs
For CIFS requests, Windows NT permissions determine user
access. For NFS requests, the filer generates and stores a set of
UNIX-style permission bits that are at least as restrictive as the
Windows NT permissions. The filer grants NFS access only if the
UNIX-style permission bits allow the user access.
If you change the security style of a qtree or a volume from UNIX to
ntfs, files created before the change do not have Windows NT permissions. For these files, the filer uses only the UNIX-style
permission bits to determine access.
mixed
Some files in the qtree or volume have the UNIX security style, and
some have the ntfs security style. A file’s security style depends on
whether the permission was last set from CIFS or NFS. For example, if a file currently uses the UNIX security style and a CIFS user
sends a set-ACL request to the file, the file’s security style is
changed to ntfs. If a file currently uses the ntfs style and an NFS
user sends a set-permission request to the file, the file’s security
style is changed to UNIX.
If you do not specify UNIX, ntfs, or mixed in the qtree security command, the
security style for name is displayed. If you omit name, the security styles for all
qtrees on the filer are displayed.
The qtree oplocks command enables or disables oplocks for files and directories
in a qtree or in a volume. If name is the path name to a qtree, the attribute applies
to files and directories in the specified qtree. The path name to a quota tree does
not need to end with a slash. If name is the path name to a volume, the attribute
applies to those files and directories in qtree 0. The path name to a volume must
end with a slash.
Command Reference A-73
qtree
If the cifs.oplocks.enable option is off, oplocks are not sent even if you enable
the oplocks on a per-quota-tree basis with the qtree oplocks command. The
cifs.oplocks.enable option is enabled by default.
If you do not specify enable or disable in the qtree oplocks command, the oplock
attribute for name is displayed. If you omit name, the oplock attributes for all
quota trees on the filer are displayed.
EXAMPLES
The following example sets the security style of a qtree named marketing in the
root volume to ntfs:
filer> qtree security marketing ntfs
The following example sets the security style of a qtree named engineering in
the vol1 volume to ntfs:
filer> qtree security /vol/vol1/engr ntfs
The following example sets the security style of the root volume to UNIX:
filer> qtree security / UNIX
The following example sets the security style of the vol1 volume to UNIX: filer>
qtree security /vol/vol1/ UNIX
The following example disables oplocks for the engr qtree:
filer> qtree oplocks /vol/vol1/engr disable
The following example enables oplocks for the vol1 volume:
filer> qtree oplocks /vol/vol1/ disable
The following example displays the security and oplocks attributes for all volumes
and qtrees on the filer:
filer> qtree
Volume
----------vol0
vol0
vol1
vol1
Tree
------
Style
-------UNIX
marketing ntfs
UNIX
engr
ntfs
Oplocks
-----------enabled
enabled
enabled
disabled
SEE ALSO
options, quota, quotas
A-74 Dell PowerVault 720N, 740N, and 760N System Administrator and Command Reference Guide
quota
NAME
quota - control filer disk quotas
SYNOPSIS
quota [ on | off | resize ] [ volume ]
quota report [ path ]
quota qtree [ name ]
DESCRIPTION
A quota limits the amount of disk space and the number of files that a particular
user or group can consume. A quota can also restrict the total space and files
used in a qtree, or the usage of users and groups within a qtree. A request that
would cause a user or group to exceed an applicable quota fails with a ”disk
quota exceeded” error. A request that would cause the number of blocks or files
in a qtree to exceed the qtree’s limit fails with an ”out of disk space” error.
User and group quotas do not apply to the root user; tree quotas, however, do
apply even to root.
The quota command controls quotas, and the /etc/quotas file describes the quotas to impose. All quotas are established on a per-volume basis. For further
information on the format of the /etc/quotas file, refer to the quotas man page.
With no arguments, the quota command indicates whether quotas are on or off
in each volume. The following list describes how to use the various quota
commands:
quota on volume
quota off volume
activates quotas in the specified volume based on the contents
of /etc/quotas. The volume name may be omitted if the system has only one volume. Changing /etc/quotas has no effect
until the next time quota on or quota resize is executed. The
filer remembers whether quotas are on or off even after a
reboot, so quota on should not be added to /etc/rc. When
quotas are first turned on, the filer scans the file system to
determine current file and space usage for each user and group
with a quota. This may take several minutes during which quotas are not in effect, although the file system is still accessible.
Executing quota with no arguments during this period indicates that quotas are initializing and reports how much of the
initialization process has completed.
turns quotas off on the specified volume. The volume name
may be omitted if the system has only one volume.
quota resize volume
adjusts currently active quotas in the specified volume to
reflect changes in the /etc/quotas file. For instance, if you edit
Command Reference A-75
quota
an entry in /etc/quotas to increase a user’s quota, quota
resize will cause the change to take effect. The volume name
may be omitted if the system has only one volume. quota
resize can be used only when quotas are already on. Because
it does not rescan the file system to compute usage, quota
resize is faster than turning quotas off and then on again.
quota resize will apply all updated entries in /etc/quotas;
however, it will generally ignore newly added entries. A newly
added entry will only take effect if the corresponding user or
group has an active quota as a result of updating a file subject
to default quotas.
quota report
prints the current file and space consumption for each user or
group with a quota and for each qtree. With a path argument,
quota report displays information about all quotas that apply
to the file.
FILES
/etc/quotas quota configuration file
SEE ALSO
rc, rquotad, qtree
DIAGNOSTICS
If /etc/quotas is incorrectly formatted, or if a specified file doesn’t exist, then
quota on prints a warning and does not turn quotas on.
A-76 Dell PowerVault 720N, 740N, and 760N System Administrator and Command Reference Guide
rdate
NAME
rdate - set system date from a remote host
SYNOPSIS
rdate hostname
DESCRIPTION
rdate sends a request to the time server on hostname and sets the local date
and time to the value returned by the server. rdate will time out if the server
doesn’t respond in 10 seconds.
rdate can be added to /etc/rc to automatically synchronize the system time with
the time server on each reboot.
FILES
/etc/rc
system initialization command script
SEE ALSO
date, rc
Command Reference A-77
reboot
NAME
reboot - stop and then restart the filer
SYNOPSIS
reboot [ -d ] [ -t minutes ]
DESCRIPTION
reboot halts the filer and then restarts it. reboot is commonly used to allow
modified configuration files to take effect or to run a newly installed version of
Data ONTAP 5.3.
NFS clients can maintain use of a file over a halt or reboot (although experiencing a failure to respond during that time), but CIFS clients cannot do so safely.
Therefore CIFS clients should -if possible- be warned to close their open files. If
you did not use the -t option to specify a maximum delay and there are CIFS clients with open files, the reboot command displays the number of CIFS users
and the number of open CIFS files. Then it prompts you for the number of minutes to delay. CIFS files that are still open at the time the filer halts will lose
writes that had been cached but not written.
reboot logs a message in the /etc/messages file (see messages) file to indicate
that the filer was rebooted on purpose.
OPTIONS
-d
-t
Dump system core before rebooting.
minutes Reboots after the indicated number of minutes, or after all CIFS
files that were open have been closed, whichever is sooner.
SEE ALSO
download, halt, savecore, setup
A-78 Dell PowerVault 720N, 740N, and 760N System Administrator and Command Reference Guide
restore
NAME
restore - restore files or file systems from backups made with the filer’s dump
command
SYNOPSIS
restore key args...
DESCRIPTION
The restore restores files from backup tapes created with the dump (see dump)
command. A full backup of a file system may be restored and subsequent incremental backups layered on top of it. The actions of restore are controlled by the
given key, which is a string of characters containing at most one function letter
and possibly one or more function modifiers.
The function portion of the key is specified by one of the following letters:
r
Restores (rebuilds a file system or subtree). The target subtree should be
made pristine by removing it from a client of the server or, if the entire file
system or all subtrees of the file system are to be restored, by booting from
floppy disk and selecting the ”Install new file system.” option, before starting the restoration of the initial level 0 backup. If the level 0 restores
successfully, the r key may be used to restore any necessary incremental
backups on top of the level 0.
Note that restore r will restore all files from the dump tape(s).
An example:
restore rf rst0a
Note that restore leaves a file restore_symboltable in the directory that
was dumped to pass information between incremental restore passes. This
file should be removed when the last incremental has been restored.
R
restore requests a particular tape of a multi-volume set on which to restart a
full restore (see the r key above). This is useful if the restore has been
interrupted.
t
Lists the names of the specified files if they occur on the backup. If no file
argument is given, then the root directory is listed, which results in the entire
content of the backup being listed.
x
Extracts the named files. If a named file matches a directory whose contents
were backed up, the directory is recursively extracted. The owner, modification time, and mode are restored. If no filename argument is specified, the
backup root directory is extracted. This results in the entire backup being
restored.
The following characters may be used in addition to the letter that selects the
function desired.
Command Reference A-79
restore
b
The next argument to restore is used as the block size of the media (in kilobytes). If the b option is not specified, restore tries to determine the media
block size dynamically.
f
The next argument to restore is used as the name of the archive instead of
the standard input. If the name of the file is -, restore reads from standard
input.
s
The next argument to restore is a number which selects the file on a multifile dump tape. File numbering starts at 1.
D
By default, files will be restored into the directory from which they were
dumped. If the D option is specified, the next argument to restore is the full
absolute pathname of a directory into which the files should be restored.
v
Normally restore does its work silently. The v (verbose) key causes it to type
the name of each file it treats preceded by its file type.
y
restore will not ask whether it should abort the restore if it encounters an
error. It will always try to skip over the bad block(s) and continue as best it
can.
DIAGNOSTICS
Complains about bad key characters.
Complains if it gets a read error. If y has been specified, or the user responds y,
restore will attempt to continue the restore.
If a backup was made using more than one tape volume, restore will notify the
user when it is time to mount the next volume.
There are numerous consistency checks that can be listed by restore. Most
checks are self-explanatory or can ”never happen”. Common errors are given
below.
filename: not found on tape
The specified file name was listed in the tape directory, but was not found
on the tape. This is caused by tape read errors while looking for the file, and
from using a dump tape created on an active file system.
expected next file inumber, got inumber
A file that was not listed in the directory showed up. This can occur when
using a dump created on an active file system.
Incremental dump too low
When doing incremental restore, a dump that was written before the previous incremental dump, or that has too low an incremental level has been
loaded.
Incremental dump too high
When doing incremental restore, a dump that does not begin its coverage
where the previous incremental dump left off, or that has too high an incremental level has been loaded.
A-80 Dell PowerVault 720N, 740N, and 760N System Administrator and Command Reference Guide
restore
Tape read error while restoring filename
Tape read error while skipping over inode inumber
Tape read error while trying to resynchronize
A tape (or other media) read error has occurred. If a file name is specified,
then its contents are probably partially wrong. If an inode is being skipped or
the tape is trying to resynchronize, then no extracted files have been corrupted, though files may not be found on the tape.
resync restore, skipped num blocks
After a dump read error, restore may have to resynchronize itself. This message lists the number of blocks that were skipped over.
FILES
/tmp/rstdir*
file containing directories on the tape.
/tmp/rstmode* owner, mode, and time stamps for directories.
restore_symboltable
information passed between incremental restores.
SEE ALSO
dump
Command Reference A-81
route
NAME
route - manually manipulate the routing table
SYNOPSIS
route [ -fn ] add|delete [ host|net ] destination gateway [ metric ]
DESCRIPTION
route allows the system administrator to manually manipulate the network routing table for the specific host or network specified by destination. The gateway
argument is the nexthop gateway to which packets should be addressed for the
corresponding destination. The metric argument indicates the number of ”hops”
to the destination. The metric argument is required for the add command; it
must be zero if the destination is on a directly-attached network, and non-zero if
the route is via one or more gateways.
The add command adds the specified route for the given destination to the routing table. The delete command deletes the specified route from the routing
table.
Routes to a particular host are distinguished from those to a network by interpreting the Internet address associated with destination. The optional keywords net
and host force the destination to be interpreted as a network or a host, respectively. Otherwise, if the destination has a ”local address part” of INADDR_ANY
(i.e., 0), or if the destination is the symbolic name of a network, then the route is
assumed to be to a network; otherwise, it is presumed to be a route to a host. If
the route is to a destination via a gateway, the metric parameter should be
greater than 0. If metric is set to 0, the gateway given is the address of this host
on the common network, indicating the interface to be used for transmission.
All symbolic names specified for a destination or gateway are looked up first as a
host name in the /etc/hosts database. If this lookup fails, then the name is
looked up as a network name in the /etc/networks database. ”default” is also a
valid destination, which is used if there is no specific host or network route.
The netmask for a route to a network is implicitly derived from the class of the
network; to override that, the destination for a network route can have /bits or
&mask after it, where bits is the number of high-order bits to be set in the netmask, or mask is the netmask (either as a number defaults to decimal, precede
with 0x for hexadecimal, precede with 0 for octal - or as a number IP address).
OPTIONS
-f
Remove all gateway entries in the routing table. If this is used in conjunction
with one of the commands, route removes the entries before performing
the command.
-n
Prevent attempts to print host and network names symbolically when reporting actions.
A-82 Dell PowerVault 720N, 740N, and 760N System Administrator and Command Reference Guide
route
DIAGNOSTICS
add [ host|net] destination:gateway
The specified route is being added to the table.
delete [ host|net] destination:gateway
The specified route is being deleted.
destination gateway done
When the -f flag is specified, each routing table entry deleted is indicated
with a message of this form.
network unreachable
An attempt to add a route failed because the gateway listed was not on a
directly-connected network. The next-hop gateway must be given.
not in table
A delete operation was attempted for an entry which wasn’t present in the
table.
entry already exists
An add operation was attempted for an existing route entry.
routing table overflow
An add operation was attempted, but the system was unable to allocate
memory to create the new entry.
SEE ALSO
routed
Command Reference A-83
routed
NAME
routed - network routing daemon
SYNOPSIS
routed on
routed off
routed [ -n ] status
DESCRIPTION
routed (pronounced ”route-D”) uses a variant of the Xerox NS Routing Information Protocol (RIP) to manage selection of the default gateway used for IP
network routing. The filer’s routed is different from the standard UNIX routed as
it never sends RIP packets, or builds route tables from RIP information, but only
snoops for RIP exchanges to determine gateway status; it builds the routing table
based on ICMP redirects.
When routed is started with the routed on command, it reads the /etc/
dgateways file to create a list of potential default gateways. The /etc/dgateways file consists of a series of lines, each in the following format:
gateway metric
where:
gateway is the name or address of a gateway to be used as a potential
default gateway.
metric is a metric indicating the preference weighting of the gateway. 1 is
the value to use for highest preference, 15 for the least. If no value is specified, metric defaults to the value 1.
There can be a maximum of 128 valid entries in the /etc/dgateways file - additional ones are ignored, but cause an error message. Duplicate gateway names
or addresses are not allowed - only the first one encountered in the file is added
to the table, and duplicates produce error messages.
After the list of gateways is created, routed selects the one with the lowest metric value to be used as the preferred default route. If there are multiple gateways
available with the same metric value, it uses the one named first in the /etc/
dgateways file.
routed then listens on udp port 520 for routing information packets. When a RIP
request or reply packet is received, routed marks the gateway that sent the
packet ALIVE. If the gateway has a better metric than the current default gateway, or has the same metric but is listed earlier in /etc/dgateways, the current
default gateway is changed to the new gateway.
When a gateway is not heard from for 90 seconds, routed marks the gateway as
DEAD, and if it was the current default gateway, selects a new default gateway if
one is available.
A-84 Dell PowerVault 720N, 740N, and 760N System Administrator and Command Reference Guide
routed
In addition, when routed is running, it deletes dynamic routes, created by ICMP
redirects, every 3 minutes.
USAGE
routed on
The route daemon may be turned on at any time with the
routed on command. This causes routed to read the /etc/
dgateways file, and turn on RIP snooping, dynamic route timeouts, and default gateway selection. If routed is already
running, this option causes it to reread the /etc/dgateways
file, and reinitialize. By default, routed is invoked at boot time
in /etc/rc.
routed off
The route daemon may be turned off at any time with the
routed off command. This stops all RIP snooping, default gateway selection, and dynamic route timeouts. The currently
selected default gateway is not be deleted when routed is
turned off.
routed status
Displays the status of the default gateway list. This shows
whether RIP snooping is active, the current list of default gateways, their metrics, the state of the gateways (ALIVE or
DEAD), and the last time each gateway was heard from. The
output looks like:
maytag> routed status
RIP snooping is on
Gateway Metric State Time Last Heard
alantec1 Wed
1 ALIVE
Mar 9 03:38:41 GMT 1994
groucho Wed
1 ALIVE
Mar 9 03:38:41 GMT 1994
192.9.200.66
1 ALIVE
Wed Mar 9 03:38:41 GMT 1994
192.9.200.77
1 ALIVE
Wed Mar 9 03:38:41 GMT 1994
tphub1 Wed
2 ALIVE
Mar 9 03:38:41 GMT 1994
192.9.200.32
2 ALIVE
Wed Mar 9 03:38:41 GMT 1994
192.9.200.252
3 ALIVE
Wed Mar 9 03:38:41 GMT 1994
192.9.200.251
4 ALIVE
Wed Mar 9 03:38:41 GMT 1994
192.9.200.250
5 ALIVE
Wed Mar 9 03:38:41 GMT 1994
119 free gateway entries, 9 used
OPTIONS
-n
If this option precedes status, the command displays numeric values for
gateway names.
Command Reference A-85
routed
FILES
/etc/rc
for default initialization
/etc/dgateways for the list of default gateways.
SEE ALSO
netstat, route, setup, dgateways, rc
DIAGNOSTICS
routed: unable to allocate free entry - too many valid entries were found in the
/etc/dgateways file. Only the first 128 are used.
routed: duplicate gateway entry not allowed - a duplicate gateway name or
address was found in the /etc/dgateways file. Only the first one found is used.
routed: unable to open socket - a networking error has prevented routed from initializing properly.
A-86 Dell PowerVault 720N, 740N, and 760N System Administrator and Command Reference Guide
savecore
NAME
savecore - save a core dump
SYNOPSIS
savecore
DESCRIPTION
savecore is meant to be called near the end of the initialization file /etc/rc. Its
function is to save the core dump of the system (assuming one was made) and to
write the panic string to /etc/messages. savecore saves the core dump in two
files /etc/crash/core.n, and /etc/crash/core.n-small, where n is determined by
the /etc/crash/bounds file.
The -small core file contains a subset of the memory image that Dell can use for
initial troubleshooting. Dell will only need to look at the large core file if the problem cannot be determined by examining the small one.
Before savecore writes out a core image, it reads a number from the file /etc/
crash/minfree. If the number of free kilobytes in the filesystem after saving the
core would be less than the number obtained from minfree, the core dump is
not saved. If minfree does not exist, savecore always writes out the core file
(assuming that a core dump was taken).
FILES
/etc/crash/core.*
saved core files
/etc/crash/core.*-small
saved small core files
/etc/crash/bounds
suffix for next core file
/etc/crash/minfree
free KB in FS to maintain after savecore
SEE ALSO
rc
Command Reference A-87
setup
NAME
setup - update filer configuration
SYNOPSIS
setup
DESCRIPTION
setup queries the user for the filer configuration parameters such as hostname,
IP address, and timezone. It installs new versions of /etc/rc, /etc/hosts, /etc/
exports, /etc/resolv.conf, /etc/hosts.equiv, and /etc/dgateways to reflect the
new configuration. When setup completes, the configuration files have been
updated, but their new contents do not take effect until the filer is rebooted (see
reboot). The old contents of the configuration files are saved in rc.bak,
exports.bak, resolv.conf.bak, hosts.bak, hosts.equiv.bak, and
dgateways.bak.
One piece of information that setup requests is the name and IP address for
adminhost. In /etc/exports, adminhost is granted root access to / so that it can
access and modify the configuration files in /etc. All other NFS clients are
granted access only to /home. If no adminhost is specified, then all clients are
granted root access to /. This is not recommended for sites where security is a
concern.
If an adminhost is specified, then an additional line is added to the /etc/hosts file
to point the default mailhost to the adminhost.
If a default gateway is provided to setup, it will be used in /etc/rc to specify a
default route (see route), and will also be used as the first entry in /etc/
dgateways.
The hostname that is provided to setup is used to construct default names for all
of the configured network interfaces. Ethernet interfaces are given names hostname-0, hostname-1, and so on.
FILES
/etc
directory of filer configuration and administration files
/etc/rc
system initialization command script
/etc/exports
directories exported by the server
/etc/hosts
host name data base
/etc/hosts.equiv list of hosts and users with rsh permission
/etc/resolv.conf list of DNS name servers
/etc/dgateways list of preferred default gateways for routed
/etc/nsswitch.conf list of preferred name services
A-88 Dell PowerVault 720N, 740N, and 760N System Administrator and Command Reference Guide
setup
SEE ALSO
ifconfig, reboot, dgateways, exports, hosts, hosts.equiv, resolv.conf, rc,
autosupport
Command Reference A-89
shelfchk
NAME
shelfchk - verify the communication of environmental information between disk
shelves and the filer
SYNOPSIS
shelfchk
DESCRIPTION
The shelfchk command verifies that the disk shelves and the filer can exchange
environmental information. If the environmental information is being exchanged,
you can hotswap disks in the disk shelves.
The shelfchk command is interactive. It requires that you type in your responses
after observing the LEDs on the disks. Therefore, enter this command from a
console that is near the disk shelves.
The shelfchk command steps through all the disk host adapters that the filer discovered when it booted. For each host adapter, the shelfchk command tries to
turn on the disk LEDs on the attached disk shelves. The command waits for confirmation that you have observed the LEDs. If you see that all the LEDs are on,
respond ”yes” when prompted. If one or more LEDs are off, you respond ”no”
to the prompt. In this case, a problem exists that might prevent hot swapping on
the affected shelves. The shelfchk command terminates as soon as you respond
”no” to the prompt. It does not continue to test the other disk shelves. A possible cause of disk shelf problems is that the cables for the shelves are not
connected properly.
Enter the shelfchk command immediately after you install one or more disk
shelves. This way, if there are any cabling problems, you can fix them as soon as
possible. Also, this command enables you to quickly correlate the disk shelves
with their corresponding host adapter. For example, if you intend to have all disk
shelves connected to a particular host adapter to be installed in one rack, the
shelfchk command enables you to see at a glance whether any disk shelves
were installed inadvertently in a different rack.
EXAMPLE
In the following example, the shelfchk command tests the disk shelves of a filer
with three host adapters (8a, 8b, and 7a) and finds no problems:
filer> shelfchk
Only shelves attached to ha 7a should have all LEDs ON.
Are these LEDs all ON now? y
Only shelves attached to ha 8a should have all LEDs ON.
Are these LEDs all ON now? y
Only shelves attached to ha 8b should have all LEDs ON.
Are these LEDs all ON now? y
filer> Fri Aug 22 21:35:39 GMT [rc]: Disk Configuration - No Errors Identified
A-90 Dell PowerVault 720N, 740N, and 760N System Administrator and Command Reference Guide
shelfchk
In the following example, the shelfchk command finds an error:
filer> shelfchk
Only shelves attached to ha 9a should have all LEDs ON.
Are these LEDs all ON now? n
*** Your system may not be configured properly. Check cable connections.
filer> Mon Aug 25 11:44:34 GMT [rc]: Disk Configuration - Failure Identified
by Operator
Command Reference A-91
snap
NAME
snap - manage snapshots
SYNOPSIS
snap list [ vol_name ]
snap create | delete vol_name name
snap rename vol_name from to
snap sched [ vol_name [ weeks [ days [ hours[@list] ] ] ] ]
snap reserve [ vol_name [ percent ] ]
DESCRIPTION
The snap family of commands provides a means to create and manage snapshots in each volume.
A snapshot is a read-only copy of the entire file system as of the time the snapshot was created. The filer uses a copy-on-write technique to create snapshots
very quickly without consuming any disk space. Only as blocks in the active file
system are modified and written to new locations on disk does the snapshot
begin to consume extra space.
Snapshots are exported to all CIFS or NFS clients. They can be accessed from
each directory in the file system. From any directory, a user can access the set of
snapshots from a hidden sub-directory that appears to a CIFS client as ~snapsht
and to an NFS client as .snapshot. These hidden sub-directories are special in
that they can be accessed from every directory, but they only show up in directory listings at an NFS mount point or at the root of CIFS share.
Each volume on the filer can have up to 20 snapshots at one time. Because of the
copy-on-write technique used to update disk blocks, deleting a snapshot will generally not free as much space as its size would seem to indicate. Blocks in the
snapshot may be referenced by other snapshots, or by the active file system, and
thus may be unavailable for reuse even after the snapshot is deleted.
The snap commands are persistent across reboots. Do not include snap commands in the /etc/rc. If you include a snap command in the /etc/rc file, the
same snap command you enter through the command line interface does not
persist across a reboot and is overridden by the one in the /etc/rc file.
Automatic snapshots
Automatic snapshots can be scheduled to occur weekly, daily, or hourly.
Weekly snapshots are named weekly.N, where N is ”0” for the most recent
snapshot, ”1” for the next most recent, and so on. Daily snapshots are
named daily.N and hourly snapshots hourly.N. Whenever a new snapshot of
a particular type is created and the number of existing snapshots of that type
exceeds the limit specified by the sched option described below, then the
oldest snapshot is deleted and the existing ones are renamed. If, for example, you specified that a maximum of 8 hourly snapshots were to be saved
A-92 Dell PowerVault 720N, 740N, and 760N System Administrator and Command Reference Guide
snap
using the sched command, then on the hour, hourly.7 would be deleted,
hourly.0 would be renamed to hourly.1, and so on.
USAGE
snap list [ vol_name ]
displays a single line of information for each snapshot. Along with the snapshot’s name, it shows when the snapshot was created and the size of the
snapshot. If you include the vol_name argument, list displays snapshot information only for the specified volume. With no arguments, it displays
snapshot information for all volumes in the system. The following is an
example of the snap list output on a filer with two volumes named engineering and marketing.
Volume engineering
%/used
%/total date
name
---------- ---------- ------------ -------0% ( 0%) 0% ( 0%) Nov 14 08:00 hourly.0
50% (50%) 0% ( 0%) Nov 14 00:00 nightly.0
67% (50%) 0% ( 0%) Nov 13 20:00 hourly.1
75% (50%) 0% ( 0%) Nov 13 16:00 hourly.2
80% (50%) 0% ( 0%) Nov 13 12:00 hourly.3
83% (50%) 1% ( 0%) Nov 13 08:00 hourly.4
86% (50%) 1% ( 0%) Nov 13 00:00 nightly.1
87% (50%) 1% ( 0%) Nov 12 20:00 hourly.5
Volume marketing
%/used
%/total date
name
---------- ---------- ------------ -------0% ( 0%) 0% ( 0%) Nov 14 08:00 hourly.0
17% (16%) 0% ( 0%) Nov 14 00:00 nightly.0
28% (16%) 0% ( 0%) Nov 13 20:00 hourly.1
37% (16%) 0% ( 0%) Nov 13 16:00 hourly.2
44% (16%) 0% ( 0%) Nov 13 12:00 hourly.3
49% (16%) 1% ( 0%) Nov 13 08:00 hourly.4
54% (16%) 1% ( 0%) Nov 13 00:00 nightly.1
58% (16%) 1% ( 0%) Nov 12 20:00 hourly.5
snap create vol_name name
creates a snapshot of volume vol_name with the specified name.
snap delete vol_name name
deletes the existing snapshot belonging to volume vol_name that has the
specified name.
snap rename vol_name oldname newname
gives an existing snapshot a new name. You can use the snap rename command to move a snapshot out of the way so that it won’t be deleted
automatically.
Command Reference A-93
snmp
NAME
snmp - set and query SNMP agent variables
SYNOPSIS
snmp
snmp authtrap [ 0 | 1 ]
snmp community [ add | delete ro | rw ]
snmp contact [ contact ]
snmp init [ 1 ]
snmp location [ location ]
snmp traphost [ add | delete hostname | ipaddress ]
snmp traps [ on | off | reset | delete ]
snmp traps trapname[.parameter value | on | off | reset delete]
DESCRIPTION
The snmp command is used to set and query configuration variables for the
SNMP agent daemon (see snmpd). If no options are specified, snmp lists the
current values of all variables.
OPTIONS
In all the following options, specifying the option name alone prints the current
value of that option variable. If the option name is followed by one or more variables then the appropriate action to set or delete that variable will be taken. Any
variable with an inclusive space or tab must be enclosed in single quotes ”’”.
It is recommended that all snmp commands be added to the end of the /etc/rc
file. The last snmp command in the /etc/rc file should be:
snmp init 1
This will initialize the SNMP daemon with the values set using the snmp command and it will send out a coldStart trap as described below.
authtrap [ 0 | 1 ]
Enable or disable SNMP agent authentication failure traps. To
enable authentication traps specify 1. To disable authentication
traps specify 0. Traps are sent to all hosts specified with the
traphost option.
A-94 Dell PowerVault 720N, 740N, and 760N System Administrator and Command Reference Guide
snmp
community [ add|delete ro|rw community ]
Add or delete communities with the specified access control type.
Specify ro for a read-only community and rw for a read-write community. For example, to add the read-only community private use
the following command:
snmp community add ro private
Currently the SNMP SetRequest PDU is not supported, so all readwrite communities will default to read-only. The default community
for the filer SNMP agent is public and its access mode is ro. Up to
a maximum of 8 communities are supported.
contact [ contact ]
Used to set the contact name returned by the SNMP agent as the
System.sysContact.0 MIB-II variable.
init [ 1 ]
With an option of 1 this initializes the snmp daemon with values
previously set by the snmp command. It also sends a coldStart
trap to any hosts previously specified by the traphost option. The
command:
snmp init 1
should be the last snmp command in the filer’s /etc/rc file.
On a query init will return the value 0 if the SNMP daemon has not
yet been initialized. Otherwise it will return the value 1.
location [ location ]
Used to set the location name returned by the SNMP agent as the
System.sysLocation.0 MIB-II variable.
traphost
[ add | delete hostname | ipaddress ]
To add or delete SNMP managers who will be the recipient of the
filer’s Trap PDU’s. Specify the word add or delete as appropriate
followed by the host name or address. If a host name is specified, it
must exist in the /etc/hosts file. For example, to add the host
alpha use the following command:
snmp traphost add alpha
No traps will be sent unless at least one trap host is specified. Up
to a maximum of 8 trap hosts are supported.
On a query the traphost option will return a list of registered trap
hosts followed by their IP addresses. If a host name cannot be
found in /etc/hosts for a previously registered IP address, its name
will default to a string representation of its IP address.
traps on | off | reset | delete
turns all traps on or off, or resets or deletes them
Command Reference A-95
snmp
trapname[.parameter value | on | off | reset | delete]
traps
affects a specified trap. It assigns a parameter and value, or turns it
on or off, or resets or deletes it.
You can trap on any MIB variable, but to do so you need a trap data
parser function at the traphost application or a management script
to interpret the TRAP name, OID value fields, and so on.
EXAMPLES
A typical set of snmp commands in the /etc/rc file will look like the following:
snmp contact ’Network Manager’
snmp location ’Bldg 2. Lab 3a’
snmp community add ro private
snmp traphost add snmp-mgr1
snmp traphost add snmp-mgr2
snmp init 1
FILES
/etc/rc
startup command script where snmp commands must be added
/etc/hosts
hosts name database
SEE ALSO
autosupport, snmpd, rc
A-96 Dell PowerVault 720N, 740N, and 760N System Administrator and Command Reference Guide
sysconfig
NAME
sysconfig - display filer configuration information
SYNOPSIS
sysconfig [ -d | -m | -r | -t | [ -v ] [ slot ] ]
DESCRIPTION
sysconfig displays the configuration information about the filer. Without any
arguments, the output includes the Data ONTAP™ 5.3 version number and a separate line for each I/O device on the filer. If the slot argument is specified,
sysconfig displays detail information for the specified physical slot; slot 0 is the
system board, and slot n is the nth expansion slot on the filer.
OPTIONS
-d
Displays vital product information for each disk.
-m Displays tape library information. To use this option, the autoload setting of
the tape library must be off when the filer boots.
-r
Displays RAID configuration information.
-t
Displays device and configuration information for each tape drive.
-v
Displays detailed information about each I/O device. For SCSI or Fibre Channel host adapters, the additional information includes a separate line
describing each attached disk.
SEE ALSO
version, mt
Command Reference A-97
sysstat
NAME
sysstat - report filer performance statistics
SYNOPSIS
sysstat [ interval ]
DESCRIPTION
sysstat reports filer performance statistics such as the current CPU utilization,
the amount of network I/O, the amount of disk I/O, and the amount of tape I/O.
By default, sysstat prints a new line of statistics every 15 seconds. The interval
argument overrides the default causing sysstat to report once every interval seconds. Use control-C to stop sysstat.
EXAMPLE
This is an example of sysstat running on a lightly loaded NFS-only filer:
filer> sysstat 1
CPU
NFS
CIFS
HTTP
Net kB/s
Disk kB/s
Tape kB/s
in
out
read write
read write
age
Cache
5%
82
0
0
15
17
16
0
0
0
8
6%
105
0
0
24
98
100
0
0
0
8
5%
54
0
0
32
11
0
0
0
0
8
21%
50
0
0
25
42
120
592
0
0
8
16%
27
0
0
10
10
144
1008
0
0
8
17%
90
0
0
64
11
16
104
0
552
8
15%
96
0
0
65
12
0
0
0
460
8
5%
60
0
0
30
28
24
0
0
0
8
1%
60
0
0
32
30
28
0
0
0
8
4%
57
0
0
46
45
40
0
0
0
8
5%
66
0
0
23
16
8
0
0
0
8
^C
filer>
From left to right, the columns indicate:
CPU
the percentage CPU utilization during the previous interval
seconds;
A-98 Dell PowerVault 720N, 740N, and 760N System Administrator and Command Reference Guide
sysstat
NFS
the number of NFS operations per second during that time;
CIFS
the number of CIFS operations per second during that time;
HTTP
the number of HTTP operations per second during that time;
Net kB/s
the number of kilobytes per second of network traffic into and out
of the server;
Disk kB/s
the kilobytes per second of disk traffic being read and written;
Tape kB/s
the number of kilobytes per second of tape traffic being read and
written;
Cache age
the age in minutes of the oldest read-only blocks in the buffer
cache. Data in this column indicates how fast read operations are
cycling through system memory; when the filer is reading very
large files (larger than the machine’s memory size), buffer cache age
will be very low.
SEE ALSO
netstat, nfsstat
Command Reference A-99
timezone
NAME
timezone - set the local timezone
SYNOPSIS
timezone [ name ]
DESCRIPTION
timezone sets the system timezone and saves the setting for use on subsequent
boots. The argument name specifies the timezone to use. See the system documentation for a complete list of time zone names. If no argument is supplied, the
current time zone name is printed.
Each timezone is described by a file that is kept in the /etc/zoneinfo directory on
the filer. The name argument is actually the name of the file under /etc/zoneinfo
that describes the timezone to use. For instance, the name ”America/
Los_Angeles” refers to the timezone file /etc/zoneinfo/America/Los_Angeles.
These files are in standard ”Arthur Olson” timezone file format, as used on many
flavors of UNIX (SunOS 4.x and later, 4.4BSD, System V Release 4 and later, and
others).
GMT+13 is to allow DST for timezone GMT+12.
FILES
/etc/zoneinfo
directory of time zone information files
SEE ALSO
zoneinfo
A-100 Dell PowerVault 720N, 740N, and 760N System Administrator and Command Reference Guide
uptime
NAME
uptime - show how long system has been up
SYNOPSIS
uptime
DESCRIPTION
uptime prints the current time, the length of time the system has been up, and
the total number of NFS operations the system has performed since it was last
booted.
The filer runs uptime automatically once an hour and automatically logs its output to /etc/messages.
EXAMPLE
filer> uptime
8:54am up 2 days 22:23, 3122520 NFS ops
SEE ALSO
netstat, nfsstat, sysstat, messages
Command ReferenceA-101
useradmin
NAME
useradmin - add, delete or list administrative users
SYNOPSIS
useradmin useradd [-c comments] login_name
useradmin userdel login_name
useradmin userlist [user_name_list]
DESCRIPTION
The useradmin command can be used to add, delete, or list administrative
users.
The useradd option is used to add administrative users. The user name can be
up to 32 characters long. The user name can contain any printable ASCII characters except the following characters:
space | * + , / : ; < = > ? [ \ ]
All users added through the useradd option have the same privilege level as root.
Optionally, any comment about the user being added could be provided. Comments about the user should be no longer than 128 characters and should not
contain the character ‘:’ (colon).
When users are added they are prompted for the password twice. The password
is case sensitive and it has the following restrictions:
‡it should be at least 6 characters long
‡it should contain at least two alphabets
‡it should contain at least one digit or special character
The userdel option can be used to delete any non-root administrative user.
The userlist option lists all non-root users if no user name is provided. The userlist option can also be invoked with a list of users to list information about only
those users.
SEE ALSO
passwd
A-102 Dell PowerVault 720N, 740N, and 760N System Administrator and Command Reference Guide
version
NAME
version - display Data ONTAP 5.3 version
SYNOPSIS
version
DESCRIPTION
version displays the version of Data ONTAP 5.3 running on the server, and the
date when the version was created.
SEE ALSO
download, sysconfig
Command ReferenceA-103
vif
NAME
vif - create and destroy virtual interfaces
SYNOPSIS
vif create [ vif_name ] interface_name ...
vif destroy vif_name
vif stat vif_name [ interval ]
DESCRIPTION
The vif command creates and eliminates virtual interfaces. It also displays statistics for a specified virtual interface.
The vif create command creates a virtual interface. The name of the virtual interface to be created is specified as vifn, where n is a number. Make sure that the
specified virtual interface name is not already in use. Use the ifconfig command
to check and see what virtual interface names are being used.
You can specify up to four Ethernet interfaces in the command. The interfaces do
not have to be on the same network card. However, some Ethernet switches or
routers require that all Ethernet interfaces forming a virtual interface be either
half-duplex or full-duplex. Check the documentation that comes with your Ethernet switch or router to see whether you need to configure the filer Ethernet
interfaces to be half-duplex or full-duplex.
The vif destroy command eliminates an existing virtual interface. You must configure the virtual interface down using the ifconfig command before entering the
vif destroy command.
The vif stat command displays the number of packets received and transmitted
on each Ethernet interface that makes up the virtual interface. You can specify
the time interval, in seconds, at which the statistics are displayed. By default, the
statistics are displayed at one-second intervals.
EXAMPLES
The following example creates a virtual interface:
filer> vif vif1 create e0 e7a e6b e8
The following example eliminates virtual interface 1:
filer> vif destroy vif1
A-104 Dell PowerVault 720N, 740N, and 760N System Administrator and Command Reference Guide
vif
The following example displays statistics about virtual interface 1:
filer> vif stat vif1
Virtual interface (trunk) vif1
e5d
In
e5c
Out
In
e5b
Out
In
e5a
Out
In
Out
8637076 47801540 158
159
7023083
38300325
8477195 47223431
1617
9588
0
0
634
3708
919
5400
1009
5928
0
0
925
5407
1246
7380
1269
7506
0
0
862
5040
1302
7710
1293
7632
0
0
761
4416
964
5676
920
5388
0
0
721
4188
981
5784
1098
6462
0
0
988
5772
1003
5898
2212
13176
0
0
769
4500
1216
7185
1315
7776
0
0
743
4320
530
3108
SEE ALSO
ifconfig
Command ReferenceA-105
vol
NAME
vol - commands for managing volumes, displaying volume status, and copying
volumes
SYNOPSIS
vol command argument ...
DESCRIPTION
The vol commands manage a volume, apply options to a volume, or display the
status of one or more volumes. Also, some vol commands copy volumes on the
same filer or between two filers. You can use the volume copy feature only if you
have purchased the volcopy license and entered the license code for a filer that is
involved in a vol copy command.
USAGE
vol create volname [ -r raidsize ]
ndisks[@size] | [ -l language_code ] -d diskname... creates a new volume
with the name volname. The volume name can contain letters, numbers, and
the underscore character(_), but the first character must be a letter or underscore. You can create up to 23 volumes on each filer.
The -r raidsize argument specifies the maximum number of disks in each
RAID group in the volume. The maximum value of raidsize is 28. The default
value is 14. ndisks is the number of disks in the volume, including the parity
disks. The disks in this newly created volume come from the pool of spare
disks. The smallest disks in this pool join the volume first, unless you specify
the @size argument. size is the disk size in GB, and disks within 1 GB of the
specified size are used in this volume.
If you use the -d diskname argument, the filer creates the volume with the
specified spare disks. You can specify a space-separated list of disk names.
If you use the -l language_code argument, the filer creates the volume with
the language specified by the language code. The default is the language of
the root volume of the filer. Language codes are:
C
da
de
en
en_US
es
fi
fr
he
it
ja
ja_JP.PCK
no
(POSIX)
(Danish)
(German)
(English)
(English (US))
(Spanish)
(Finnish)
(French)
(Hebrew)
(Italian)
(Japanese euc-j)
(Japanese PCK(sjis))
(Norwegian)
A-106 Dell PowerVault 720N, 740N, and 760N System Administrator and Command Reference Guide
vol
nl
pt
sv
(Dutch)
(Portugese)
(Swedish)
To use UTF-8 as the NFS character set append ’.UTF-8’
vol add volname ndisks[@size] | -d diskname...
adds disks to the volume with the name volname. Specify the disks in the
same way as for the vol create command.
When adding disks to a volume, the filer fills up one RAID group with disks
before starting another RAID group. Suppose a volume currently has one
RAID group of 12 disks and its RAID group size is 14. If you add 5 disks to
this volume, it will have one RAID group with 14 disks and another RAID
group with 3 disks. The filer does not evenly distribute disks among RAID
groups.
vol destroy volname
destroys the volume with the name volname. The disks originally in the volume become spare disks. Only offline volumes can be destroyed.
vol lang [ volname [ language_code ]
displays or changes character mapping on volname.
vol lang
by itself displays a list of supported languages.
vol lang volname
displays the language of the specified volume.
vol lang volname language_code
sets the language of volume volname to the language specified by
language_code.
vol rename volname newname
renames the volume named volname to the name newname. If the volume
named volname is referenced in the /etc/exports file, remember to make the
name change in /etc/exports also so that the affected file system can be
exported by the filer after the filer reboots. The vol rename command does
not automatically update the /etc/exports file.
vol online volname
brings the volume named volname online. This command takes effect immediately. The volume specified in this command must be currently offline or
foreign. If the volume is foreign, it will be made native before being brought
online. A ”foreign” volume is a volume that consists of disks moved from
another filer and that has never been brought online on the current filer. Volumes that are not foreign are considered ”native.” You can also use this
command to cancel a vol offline command.
vol offline volname
takes the volume named volname offline. This command takes effect when
Command ReferenceA-107
vol
the filer is rebooted. If you change your mind after entering this command,
you can enter vol online volname before the reboot.
vol options volname optname optval
sets the option named optname of the volume named vol_name to the value
optval. The command remains effective after the filer is rebooted, so there is
no need to add vol options commands to the /etc/rc file. Some options have
values that are numbers. Some options have values that may be on (which
can also be expressed as yes, true, or 1) or off (which can also be expressed
as no, false, or 0). You can use a mixture of uppercase and lowercase characters when typing the value of an option. The root option is special in that it
does not have a value. To set the root option, use this syntax:
vol options volname root
The following describes the options and their possible values:
root The volume named volname will become the root volume for the filer on the
next reboot. This option can be used on one volume only at any given time.
The existing root volume will become a nonroot volume after the reboot. The
only way to remove the root status of a volume is to set the root option on
another volume.
raidsize number
The value of this option is the maximum size of a RAID group within the volume. Changing the value of this option will not cause existing RAID groups
to grow or shrink; it will only affect whether more disks will be added to the
last existing RAID group and how large new RAID groups will be.
minra on | off
If this option is on, the filer performs minimal read-ahead on the volume. By
default, this option is off, causing the filer to perform very aggressive readahead on the volume.
no_atime_update on | off
If this option is on, it prevents the update of the access time on an inode
when a file is read. This option is useful for volumes with extremely high
read traffic, since it prevents writes to the inode file for the volume rom contending with reads from other files. It should be used carefully. That is, use
this option when you know in advance that the correct access time for
inodes will not be needed for files on that volume.
nosnap on | off
If this option is on, it disables automatic snapshots on the volume.
nosnapdir on | off
If this option is on, it disables the visible .snapshot directory that is normally
present at client mount points, and turns off access to all other .snapshot
directories in the volume.
nvfail on | off
If this option is on, the filer performs additional status checking at boot time
to verify that the NVRAM is in a valid state. This option is useful when
A-108 Dell PowerVault 720N, 740N, and 760N System Administrator and Command Reference Guide
vol
storing database files. If the filer finds any problems, database instances
hang or shut down, and the filer sends error messages to the console to
alert you to check the state of the database.
snapmirrored off
If SnapMirror is enabled, the filer automatically sets this option to on. Set
this option to off if you no longer want to use SnapMirror to update the mirror. After you set this option to off, the mirror becomes a regular writable
volume. You can set this option only to off; only the filer can change the value
of this option from off to on.
vol status [ -r | -v | -d | -l ] [ volname ] displays the status of one or all volumes. If
volname is used, the status of the specified volume is printed; otherwise the
status of all volumes in the filer are printed. By default, it prints a one-line
synopsis of the volume, which includes the volume name, whether it is
online or offline, other states (for example, partial, degraded, and so on) and
per-volume options.
The -v flag displays information about each RAID group within the volume.
The -r flag displays a listing of the RAID information for that volume.
The -d flag displays information about the disks in the specified volume. The
types of disk information are the same as those from the sysconfig -d command. The -l flag displays, for each volume on a filer, the name of the
volume, the language code, and language being used by the volume.
vol copy start [ -S | -s ] source destination copies all data, including the snapshots, from one volume to another. If you use the -S flag, the command
copies all snapshots in the source volume to the destination volume. To
specify a particular snapshot to copy, use the -s flag followed by the name of
the snapshot. If you use neither the -S nor -s flag in the command, the filer
creates a snapshot at the time when the vol copy start command is executed and copies only that snapshot to the destination volume.
The source volume and destination volume can be on the same filer or different filers. If the source or destination volume is on a filer other than the one
on which you enter the vol copy start command, specify the volume name
in the filer_name:volume_name format.
The filers involved in a volume copy must meet the following requirements
for the vol copy start command to be completed successfully:
The source volume must be on-line and the destination volume
must be off-line.
If data is copied between two filers, each filer must be defined as a
trusted host of the other filer. That is, the filer’s name must be in
the /etc/hosts.equiv file of the other filer.
If data is copied on the same filer, localhost must be included in the
filer’s /etc/hosts.equiv file. Also, the loopback address must be in
Command ReferenceA-109
vol
the filer’s /etc/hosts file. Otherwise, the filer cannot send packets
to itself through the loopback address when trying to copy data.
The usable disk space of the destination volume must be greater
than or equal to the usable disk space of the source volume. Use
the df pathname command to see the amount of usable disk space
of a particular volume.
Each vol copy start command generates two volume copy operations: one
for reading data from the source volume and one for writing data to the destination volume. Each filer supports up to four simultaneous volume copy
operations.
vol copy abort [ operation_number ]
terminates a volume copy operation. The operation_number parameter in
the vol copy abort command specifies which operation to terminate. If you
don’t specify an operation number, all volume copy operations are
terminated.
vol copy status [ operation_number ]
displays the progress of one or all volume copy operations. The operations
are numbered from 0 through 3.
vol copy throttle [ operation_number ] value
controls the performance of the volume copy operation. The value ranges
from 10 (full speed) to 1 (one-tenth of full speed). You can apply the performance value to an operation specified by the operation_number parameter.
If you do not specify an operation number in the vol copy throttle command, the command applies to all volume copy operations. Use this
command to limit the speed of the volume copy operation if you suspect
that the volume copy operation is causing performance problems on your
filer.
The vol copy throttle command enables you to set the volume copy speed
for a volume copy operation that is in progress. To set the default volume
copy speed to be used by future volume copy operations, use the options
command to set the vol.copy.throttle option.
vol snaprestore volname [-s snapshot] [volname [-s snapshot]...] reverts a volume to a specified snapshot. If you do not specify a snapshot, the filer
prompts you for the snapshot. You can use one command to revert multiple
volumes. The volume to be reverted must be on-line and must not be a
mirror.
After the reversion, the volume is in the same state as it was when the snapshot was taken.
vol snapmirror on | off
enables and disables SnapMirror. If SnapMirror is enabled, you can replicate
one volume to another according to the specifications in the /etc/
snapmirror.conf file.
A-110 Dell PowerVault 720N, 740N, and 760N System Administrator and Command Reference Guide
vol
vol snapmirror status
displays whether SnapMirror is enabled. If so, the command displays
whether the filer is copying data between the source volume and the mirror,
and the percentage of data that has been copied.
EXAMPLES
vol create vol1 -r 10 20
creates a volume named vol1 with 20 disks. The RAID groups in this volume
can contain up to 10 disks, so this volume has two RAID groups. The filer
adds the current spare disks to the new volume, starting with the smallest
disk.
vol create vol1 20@9
creates a volume named vol1 with 20 9-GB disks. Because no RAID group
size is specified, the default size (14 disks) is used. The newly created volume contains one RAID group with 14 disks and another group with six
disks.
vol create vol1 -d 8a.1 8a.2 8a.3
creates a volume named vol1 with the specified disks.
vol create vol1 10
vol options vol1 raidsize 5
The first command creates a volume named vol1 with 10 disks, which
belong to one RAID group. The second command specifies that if any disks
are subsequently added to this volume, they will not cause any current RAID
group to have more than five disks. Each existing RAID group will continue
to have 10 disks and no more disks will be added to that RAID group. When
new RAID groups are created, they will have a maximum size of five disks.
vol options vol1 root
The volume named vol1 becomes the root volume after the next filer reboot.
vol options vol1 nosnapdir on
In the volume named vol1, the snapshot directory is invisible at the client
mount point or at the root of a share. Also, for UNIX clients, the .snapshot
directories that are normally accessible in all the directories become
inaccessible.
vol status -r vol1
displays the RAID information about the volume named vol1:
RAID group 0
RAID Disk
HA.DISK_ID
Used (MB/blks) Phys (MB/blks)
----------------------------- -------------parity
0.3
4000/8192000 4095/8386728
data
0.2
4000/8192000 4095/8386728
vol copy start -s nightly.1 vol0 filer1:vol0 copies the nightly snapshot named
nightly.1 on the vol0 volume on the local filer to the vol0 volume on a remote
filer named filer1.
Command ReferenceA-111
vol
vol copy status
displays the status of all the volume copy operations.
vol copy abort 1
terminates volume copy operation 1.
vol copy throttle 1 10
changes volume copy operation 1 to one-tenth of its full speed.
SEE ALSO
sysconfig
A-112 Dell PowerVault 720N, 740N, and 760N System Administrator and Command Reference Guide
ypwhich
NAME
ypwhich - display the NIS server if NIS is enabled
SYNOPSIS
ypwhich
DESCRIPTION
ypwhich prints the name of the current NIS server if NIS is enabled. If there is no
entry for the server itself in the hosts database, then it prints the IP address of
the server.
The NIS server is dynamically chosen by the filer.
Command ReferenceA-113
)LOH)RUPDWV
This section contains file formats.
A-114 Dell PowerVault 720N, 740N, and 760N System Administrator and Command Reference Guide
tape
NAME
tape - information on filer tape interface
DESCRIPTION
The filer supports up to four local tape drives (tape drives connected directly to
the system). The tape drive interface follows a UNIX-like device name allowing
use of a rewind, norewind or unload/reload device. The format of a filer tape
device name is crstud where:
c
use n to specify the norewind device, use u to specify the unload/reload
device, or no flag to specify the rewind device. The norewind device will
not rewind when the tape device is closed. The unload/reload device is
used with sequential tape loaders and will unload the current tape volume
and attempt to load the next tape volume (note that the server will wait up to
one minute for the next volume to become ready before aborting the reload
of the next volume). The rewind device will rewind the tape volume to
beginning-of-tape on close.
rst the rst portion of the device name is always present and specifies that you
are requesting a SCSI tape device.
u
the logical unit number of the tape drive to use.
d
the density (or format) to use for tape write operations.
The density specifications for an Exabyte 8505 8mm drive are:
l
Exabyte 8200 format, no compression
m
Exabyte 8200 format with compression
h
Exabyte 8500 format, no compression
a
Exabyte 8500 format with compression
EXAMPLES
The sysconfig -t command will display the supported tape drives on your system
and the device names associated with each tape device along with the device’s
density, or format. The following is an example of the output from a sysconfig
command on a filer with one tape device attached:
filer> sysconfig -t
Tape drive (0.6) Exabyte 8505 8mm
rst0l -
rewind device,
format is: EXB-8200 2.5GB
nrst0l -
no rewind device,
format is: EXB-8200 2.5GB
urst0l -
unload/reload device,
format is: EXB-8200 2.5GB
rst0m -
rewind device,
format is: EXB-8200C (w/compression)
Command ReferenceA-115
tape
nrst0m -
no rewind device,
format is: EXB-8200C (w/compression)
urst0m -
unload/reload device,
format is: EXB-8200C (w/compression)
rst0h -
rewind device,
format is: EXB-8500 5.0GB
nrst0h -
no rewind device,
format is: EXB-8500 5.0GB
urst0h -
unload/reload device,
format is: EXB-8500 5.0GB
rst0a -
rewind device,
format is: EXB-8500C (w/compression)
nrst0a -
no rewind device,
format is: EXB-8500C (w/compression)
urst0a -
unload/reload device,
format is: EXB-8500C (w/compression)
SEE ALSO
dump, mt, sysconfig
A-116 Dell PowerVault 720N, 740N, and 760N System Administrator and Command Reference Guide
Command ReferenceA-117
+HDGHUV7DVNVDQG0DFURV
This section contains headers, tasks, and macros.
A-118 Dell PowerVault 720N, 740N, and 760N System Administrator and Command Reference Guide
boot
NAME
boot - directory of Data ONTAP 5.3 executables
SYNOPSIS
/etc/boot
DESCRIPTION
The boot directory contains copies of the executable files required to boot the
filer. The download command (see download) copies these files from /etc/
boot into the filer’s boot block, from which the system boots.
FILES
/etc/boot
directory of Data ONTAP 5.3 executables
/etc/boot/netapp-alpha
symbolic link to current version of Data
ONTAP 5.3 for filers with Alpha processors
/etc/boot/fc-hard-alpha
boot FCode for filers with Alpha processors
/etc/boot/1-alpha
second stage boot code for filers with Alpha
processors
SEE ALSO
download
Command ReferenceA-119
crash
NAME
crash - directory of system core files
SYNOPSIS
/etc/crash
DESCRIPTION
If a filer crashes, it creates a core file in the crash directory. The core files are
very useful for finding and fixing bugs in Data ONTAP 5.3, so notify Dell technical
support of any core files on your filer.
See savecore for more details about how core files are saved.
FILES
/etc/crash/core.*
saved core files
/etc/crash/core.*-small
compact core file.
/etc/crash/bounds
suffix for next core file
/etc/crash/minfree
free KB in FS to maintain after savecore
SEE ALSO
savecore
A-120 Dell PowerVault 720N, 740N, and 760N System Administrator and Command Reference Guide
dgateways
NAME
dgateways - default gateways list
SYNOPSIS
/etc/dgateways
DESCRIPTION
The /etc/dgateways file is used by the routed command to construct a set of
potential default gateways. The file is comprised of a series of lines, each in the
following format:
gateway metric
gateway is the name or address of a gateway to be used as a potential default
gateway.
metric is a metric indicating the preference weighting of the gateway. 1 is the
value to use for highest preference, 15 for the least. If no value is specified, metric will default to the value 1.
There can be a maximum of 128 valid entries in the /etc/dgateways file - additional ones will be ignored, with an error message being displayed. Duplicate
gateway names or addresses are not allowed - only the first one encountered in
the file will be added by routed to the default gateway table, and the additional
ones will produce error messages.
EXAMPLE
Here are typical lines from the /etc/dgateways file:
main_router 1
backup_router 2
SEE ALSO
routed, setup
Command ReferenceA-121
dumpdates
NAME
dumpdates - data base of file system dump times
SYNOPSIS
/etc/dumpdates
DESCRIPTION
The dump command (see dump) uses /etc/dumpdates to keep track of which
subtrees have been dumped and when. Each line in dumpdates contains the
subtree dumped, the dump level, and the creation date of the snapshot used by
dump. There is only one entry per subtree at a given dump level. dumpdates
may be edited to change any of the fields, if necessary.
EXAMPLE
This shows the dumpdate file for a system on which /home and /export are
backed up using dump.
/home 0 Tue Nov
/export 0 Tue Nov
/export 1 Tue Nov
/home 1 Tue Nov
2
2
5
5
10:56:27
13:51:17
18:31:17
18:45:27
1993
1993
1993
1993
FILES
/etc/dumpdates
SEE ALSO
dump
A-122 Dell PowerVault 720N, 740N, and 760N System Administrator and Command Reference Guide
exports
NAME
exports - directories and files exported to NFS clients
SYNOPSIS
/etc/exports
DESCRIPTION
The /etc/exports file contains a list of directories and files that are exported by
the filer. Changes to this file do not take effect until the filer executes the
exportfs command or the filer is rebooted. When the filer is rebooted, it executes the exportfs -a command from the /etc/rc script to export all files and
directories listed in the /etc/exports file.
Each export entry is a line in the following format:
pathname -option[,option ] ...
The following list describes the fields in an export entry:
pathname
path name of a file or directory to be exported.
option
the export option specifying how a file or directory is exported. You
can specify the option in one of the following formats:
access=hostname[:hostname]...
Give mount access to each host listed. Alternatively, you can specify a netgroup instead of a host in the list. The netgroup must be defined in the /etc/
netgroup file. Whether the hosts can mount pathname with root access,
read-and-write access, or read-only access depends on how you use the
root, rw, and ro options, as described below.
anon=uid
If a request comes from user ID of 0 (root user ID on the client), use uid as
the effective user ID unless the client host is included in the root option. The
default value of uid is 65534. To disable root access, set uid to 65535. To
grant root access to all clients, set uid to 0.
ro
Export the pathname read-only. If you do not specify this option, the pathname is exported read-write.
rw=hostname[:hostname]...
Export the pathname read-only to all hosts not specified in the list and readwrite to the hosts in the list. Netgroup names are not allowed in the list.
root=hostname[:hostname]...
Give root access only to the specified hosts. By default, no hosts are granted
root access. Netgroup names are not allowed in the list.
Command ReferenceA-123
exports
In an export entry, you can specify that a file or directory be exported to a subnet
instead of individual hosts. The export entry for exporting to subnets can use the
ro, rw, or root option; you cannot specify a subnet in the list for the access
option.
Instead of specifying a host name or netgroup name in the entry, specify the subnet in one of the following formats:
dotted_IP/num_bits
The dotted_IP field is either an IP address or a subnet
number. The num_bits field specifies the size of the subnet by the number of leading bits of the netmask.
”[ network ] subnet [ netmask ] netmask”
The subnet field is the subnet number. The netmask field
is the netmask.
In UNIX, it is illegal to export a directory that has an exported ancestor in the
same file system. Data ONTAP 5.3 does not have this restriction. For example,
you can export both the / directory and the /home directory. In determining permissions, the filer uses the longest matching prefix.
EXAMPLES
In the following example, all network clients can mount the /home directory but
only the adminhost can mount the / directory:
/ -access=adminhost,root=adminhost
/home
The following examples show different ways of specifying an export entry
that exports the /home directory to the 123.45.67.0 subnet with the
255.255.255.0 netmask:
/home
/home
/home
/home
-rw=123.45.67.0/24
-rw=123.45.67/24
-rw=”network 123.45.67.0 netmask 255.255.255.0”
-rw=”123.45.67.0 255.255.255.0”
FILES
/etc/exports
/etc/hosts
directories and files exported to NFS clients
host name database
SEE ALSO
exportfs, reboot, hosts, netgroup, rc
A-124 Dell PowerVault 720N, 740N, and 760N System Administrator and Command Reference Guide
group
NAME
group - group file
SYNOPSIS
/etc/group
DESCRIPTION
The /etc/group database contains information for each group in the following
form:
groupname:password:gid:user-list
The following list describes the required fields:
groupname The name of the group.
password
The group’s password, in an encrypted form. This field may be
empty.
gid
An interger representing the group; each group is assigned a
unique integer.
user-list
The user list is a comma-separated list of users allowed in the
group.
EXAMPLE
Here is a sample group file:
project:asderghuIoiyw:12:dan,dave
myproject::11:steve,jerry
SEE ALSO
nis, nsswitch.conf, quota, cifs_access, cifs_setup
Command ReferenceA-125
hosts
NAME
hosts - host name data base
SYNOPSIS
/etc/hosts
DESCRIPTION
The hosts file contains information regarding the known hosts on the network.
For each host a single line should be present with the following information:
Internet-address official-host-name aliases
Items are separated by any number of blanks and/or tab characters. A ”#” indicates the beginning of a comment; characters up to the end of the line are not
interpreted by routines which search the file.
This file may be created from the official host data base maintained at the Network Information Control Center (NIC), though local changes may be required to
bring it up to date regarding unofficial aliases and/or unknown hosts.
Network addresses are specified in the conventional ”.” (dot) notation. Host
names may contain any alphanumeric character, but not field delimiters, newline,
or comment characters.
FILES
/etc/hosts
SEE ALSO
hostname, dns, nis
A-126 Dell PowerVault 720N, 740N, and 760N System Administrator and Command Reference Guide
hosts.equiv
NAME
hosts.equiv - list of hosts and users with rsh permission
SYNOPSIS
/etc/hosts.equiv
DESCRIPTION
The hosts.equiv file contains a list of hosts on which you can enter a filer command through the remote shell protocol (rsh).
Hosts specified in this file are considered the trusted hosts of the filer.
Each line in hosts.equiv has the following format:
hostname [ username ]
If the host on which you enter the filer command is a UNIX host, the user name
is optional. If the host on which you enter the filer command is a PC, you must
enter the user name for that PC in the /etc/hosts.equiv file.
If you do not specify a user name for a UNIX host, you must be root on that host
to execute a filer command through rsh.
When you use an rsh application on your PC to issue a filer command, specify
that you are entering the command as root.
If multiple users on the same host should have access to the filer through rsh,
enter each user name on a separate line.
EXAMPLE
The following hosts.equiv file allows both root and joe_smith to enter filer commands through rsh on a UNIX host named adminhost:
adminhost
adminhost joe_smith
SEE ALSO
rshd
Command ReferenceA-127
httpd.access
NAME
httpd.access - authentication controls for HTTP access
SYNOPSIS
/etc/httpd.access
DESCRIPTION
The HTTP daemon can apply authentication controls to individual users or groups
on a per directory basis. The file /etc/httpd.access specifies the following items
for each access-controlled tree:
the path to the tree
the authority required to authenticate access to the tree
the lists of users or groups to who are permitted access when authenticated
The syntax is the same as the access control syntax used by NCSA and Apache.
However, the httpd.access file only supports a subset of directives supported by
NCSA and Apache. You can copy an existing NCSA or Apache access to the filer
without editing or reformatting.
SYNTAX
The supported directives are:
<Directory directory_name>
</Directory>
AuthName Title phrase
require user user_id [, user_id,...]
require group group_id [, group_id,...]
where Title phrase is a word or phrase that is passed to the authentication dialog
as a title for the dialog that prompts the user for a password.
EXAMPLES
The following example restricts access to the file /home/htdocs/private/bob
so that only user dole can access it, after supplying the required password. The
authentication dialog is titled ”My private stuff.”
<Directory /home/htdocs/private/bob>
AuthName My private stuff
<Limit GET>
require user dole
</Limit>
</Directory>
The <Limit GET> and </Limit> directives are not supported, but are retained for
format consistency with NCSA and Apache. The filer just ignores them.
A-128 Dell PowerVault 720N, 740N, and 760N System Administrator and Command Reference Guide
httpd.access
The following example restricts access to the directory tree /home/htdocs/
private/storage to the group ”group1,” which consists of the users whose IDs
are user1, user2, user3, and user4. The authentication dialog is titled ”Dell.”
<Directory /home/htdocs/private/storage>
AuthName Dell
<Limit GET>
require group group1
</Limit GET>
</Directory>
In this example, ”group1” is defined by the following entry in /etc/httpd.group:
group1: user1 user2 user3 user4
SEE ALSO
httpd.passwd, httpd.group
Command ReferenceA-129
httpd.group
NAME
httpd.group - names of HTTP access groups and their members
SYNOPSIS
/etc/httpd.group
DESCRIPTION
The file declares the names of groups, and the user IDs of the members of each
group, for use by the HTTP daemon in executing the access controls declared in
/etc/httpd.access.
SYNTAX
group_id1:user_id1 [ user_id2 ... ]
SEE ALSO
httpd.access
A-130 Dell PowerVault 720N, 740N, and 760N System Administrator and Command Reference Guide
httpd.hostprefixes
NAME
httpd.hostprefixes - configuration of HTTP root directories for virtual hosts
SYNOPSIS
/etc/httpd.hostprefixes
DESCRIPTION
The httpd.hostprefixes file maps virtual hosts used in HTTP to corresponding
root directories. The same configuration file is used for both IP virtual hosts (discriminated by the IP address used for connecting to the server) and HTTP virtual
hosts (discriminated by the Host: header used in HTTP requests).
Each virtual host has a corresponding subdirectory within the directory specified
by the option httpd.rootdir. This subdirectory is called the virtual host root directory. Clients connected to a virtual host can only access files within the virtual
host root directory.
In the httpd.hostprefixes file, each line consists of a virtual host root directory
followed by the names and IP addresses of a virtual host. If you specify an IP
address, the virtual host root directory is associated with the given virtual host for
IP-level virtual hosting. If you specify a name, the virtual host root directory is
associated with the virtual host with that name, using HTTP-level virtual hosting.
If the filer can resolve that name to an IP address, which is used for an IP-level
host alias (see the alias option in ifconfig), the filer uses that IP address in the
same way as it would if you specified the IP address in the httpd.hostprefixes
file.
If the /etc/httpd.hostprefixes file is edited, it is read again by the HTTP server
after the changes are saved.
EXAMPLE
This example maps requests sent to www.customer1.com to the customer1
subdirectory of httpd.rootdir and requests directed at a host with IP address
207.68.156.58 to the subdirectory customer2.
/customer1 www.customer1.com
/customer2 207.68.156.58
If the command
filer>ifconfig vh alias www.customer1.com
had been issued before the configuration file was read, requests destined for the
IP address of www.customer1.com would also be mapped to the /customer1
subdirectory, regardless any the Host: header they included.
SEE ALSO
ifconfig, options
Command ReferenceA-131
httpd.log
NAME
httpd.log - Log of HTTP
SYNOPSIS
/etc/log/httpd.log
DESCRIPTION
The HTTP server logs an entry for every file retrieved via HTTP. This log, written to
/etc/log/httpd.log, is stored in the ”Common Log Format,” which is used by
many World-Wide Web servers.
Each entry in /etc/log/httpd.log consists of one line with seven fields. The
fields are, in order:
address
The IP address of the HTTP client requesting the file.
rfc931
This field is always ”-”.
authuser
This field is always ”-”.
date
The time and date the request was is reported in the format ”[Day/
Mon/Year:HH:MM:SS]”, which is logged in universal time (GMT)
rather than the local time zone.
request
A quoted string is recorded for the method (request type) and file
involved in the request.
result
The status code for the request.
bytes
The size of the file in bytes.
Possible values for result codes include:
200
Success: the requested file was transmitted.
302
Redirected (see /etc/httpd.translations)
304
Not modified (client cache used)
400
Bad request.
403
Access to file prohibited.
404
File not found.
503
HTTP server disabled.
The size of the log file can be restricted by the option httpd.log.max_file_size.
SEE ALSO
options, httpd.translations
A-132 Dell PowerVault 720N, 740N, and 760N System Administrator and Command Reference Guide
httpd.mimetypes
NAME
httpd.mimetypes - map of file suffixes to MIME Content-Type
SYNOPSIS
/etc/httpd.mimetypes
DESCRIPTION
For HTTP/1.0 and higher protocols, a MIME header is returned in the reply of
every GET request. This header includes a ”Content-Type” field, whose contents
is determined by examining the suffix of the file being transmitted.
The /etc/httpd.mimetypes file contains the mapping of filename suffixes to
MIME Content-Type. The format of each line is: suffix, Content-Type. Comments
are introduced with a ”#”.
The filer is not shipped with the /etc/httpd.mimetypes file. Instead, the filer’s
system files include a sample file named /etc/httpd.mimetypes.sample.
Before you start using HTTP, make a copy of /etc/httpd.mimetypes.sample and
name the copy /etc/httpd.mimetypes.
If the file /etc/httpd.mimetypes is not installed, the HTTP server looks for the
file /etc/httpd.mimetypes.sample as a fallback.
EXAMPLE
#map .ps files to PostScript
ps application/postscript
Command ReferenceA-133
httpd.passwd
NAME
httpd.passwd - file of passwords required for HTTP access
SYNOPSIS
/etc/httpd.passwd
DESCRIPTION
The password file containing the encrypted form of the password that an HTTP
client must supply to have access to a file in a controlled-access directory tree, as
declared in /etc/httpd.access.
The password is encrypted in the regular UNIX style. User of NCSA or Apache
can use their htpasswd program to generate the user_id:passwd pair.
The HTTP access control does not use the existing CIFS password database on
the filer because in http basic authentication, in each request for protected pages,
the value of passwd is sent over the network in clear text, and without encryption
would compromise the user’s password.
NOTE:
Encrypted password file can only be generated and imported from a UNIX client.
SYNTAX
user_id1:encrypted_passwd1
used_id2:encrypted_passwd2
...
SEE ALSO
httpd.access
A-134 Dell PowerVault 720N, 740N, and 760N System Administrator and Command Reference Guide
httpd.translations
NAME
httpd.translations - URL translations to be applied to incoming HTTP requests
SYNOPSIS
/etc/httpd.translations
DESCRIPTION
The HTTP daemon supports four URL translation rules to filter incoming HTTP
requests. The HTTP daemon applies each rule in succession, stopping at the first
successful Redirect, Pass, or Fail rule:
Map template result
Any request which matches template is replaced with the result string given.
Redirect template result
Any request which matches template is redirected to the result URL. Note
that this must be a full URL, e.g., beginning with ”http:”.
Pass template [ result ]
Any request which matches template is granted access, and no further rule
processing occurs. An optional result can be used in place of the matching
URL.
Fail template
Any request which matches template is denied access. Rule processing
stops after a matched Fail.
Both templates and results may contain wildcards (a star ”*” character). The
wildcard behaves like a shell wildcard in the template string, matching zero or
more characters, including the slash (”/”) character. In the result string, a wildcard causes text from the corresponding match in the template string to be
inserted into the result.
EXAMPLE
This example redirects CGI queries to cgi-host, prevents accesses to /usr/
forbidden, and maps requests to images to a local image directory:
#
# Example URL translations
#
Redirect /cgi-bin/* http://cgi-host/*
Fail /usr/forbidden/*
Map /image-bin/* /usr/local/http/images/*
Command ReferenceA-135
messages
NAME
messages - record of recent console messages
SYNOPSIS
/etc/messages
DESCRIPTION
The default behavior of the filer syslogd daemon (see syslogd) is to print all logging messages of priority info or higher to the console, and to the messages file.
Every Saturday at 24:00, /etc/messages is moved to /etc/messages.0, /etc/
messages.0 is moved to /etc/messages.1, and so on. Message files are saved
for a total of six weeks.
FILES
/etc/messages
messages file for current week
/etc/messages.[0-5] messages file for previous weeks
SEE ALSO
syslogd, syslog.conf
A-136 Dell PowerVault 720N, 740N, and 760N System Administrator and Command Reference Guide
netgroup
NAME
netgroup - network groups data base
SYNOPSIS
/etc/netgroup
DESCRIPTION
netgroup defines network wide groups used for access permission checking
during remote mount request processing. Each line defines a group and has the
format:
groupname member-list
Each element in member-list is either another group name or a triple of the form:
(hostname, username, domainname)
The hostname entry must be fully qualified if the specified host is not in the local
domain.
The filer can also use the netgroup NIS map.
Since the filer uses netgroups only in /etc/exports (see exports), the username
entry is ignored. The domain_name field refers to the domain in which the netgroup entry is valid. It must either be empty or be the local domain, otherwise
the netgroup entry is ignored. This allows a single /etc/netgroup file to be used
for filers in multiple domains.
EXAMPLE
This is a typical netgroup file:
trusted_hosts
(adminhost,,) (group1,,) (group2,,) (group3,,)
untrusted_hosts (group4,,) (group5,,) (group6,,)
all_hosts
trusted_hosts untrusted_hosts
With this netgroup file it might make sense to modify /etc/exports to export
/ on the filer only to trusted_hosts, but to export /home to all_hosts.
FILES
/etc/netgroup
/etc/exports
directories and files exported to NFS clients
/etc/hosts
host name data base
SEE ALSO
exportfs, hosts, exports, nis
Command ReferenceA-137
networks
NAME
networks - network name data base
SYNOPSIS
/etc/networks
DESCRIPTION
The networks file contains information regarding the known networks which
comprise the Internet. For each network a single line should be present with the
following information:
official-network-name network-number aliases
Items are separated by any number of blanks and/or tab characters. A ”#” indicates the beginning of a comment; characters up to the end of the line are not
interpreted by routines which search the file. This file is normally created from
the official network data base maintained at the Network Information Control
Center (NIC), though local changes may be required to bring it up to date regarding unofficial aliases and/or unknown networks.
Network number may be specified in the conventional ”.” (dot) notation or as a
32 bit integer. Numbers may be specified in decimal (default), octal or hexadecimal. A number is interpreted as octal if it starts with the digit ”0”. A hexadecimal
number must begin with ”0x” or ”0X.” Network names may contain any printable character other than a field delimiter, newline, or comment character.
FILES
/etc/networks
A-138 Dell PowerVault 720N, 740N, and 760N System Administrator and Command Reference Guide
networks
NAME
nsswitch.conf - configuration file for name service switch
SYNOPSIS
/etc/nsswitch.conf
DESCRIPTION
The name service switch configuration file contains the preferred order in which
name services will be contacted for name resolution by the filer. For each map,
the name services to be used and the lookup order is specified in this file. Currently three name services are supported. They are local files in the /etc directory,
NIS and DNS. The maps or ”databases” that are supported are hosts, passwd,
shadows, group and netgroups. Each line has the form:
map: order of name services
For example:
hosts: files nis dns
passwd: files nis
When trying to resolve a name, the services are contacted one by one, as per the
order specified, until the name is successfully resolved. A name resolution failure
occurs when no service can successfully resolve the name. When enumerating a
map, enumeration happens over all the services specified for the map.
FILES
/etc/nsswitch.conf
SEE ALSO
setup
Command ReferenceA-139
passwd
NAME
passwd - password file
SYNOPSIS
/etc/passwd
DESCRIPTION
The passwd file contains basic information about each user’s account. It contains
a one-line entry for each authorized user, of the form:
username:password:uid:gid:gcosfield:home_directory:login_shell
Required Fields:
username
The user’s login name, not more than eight characters.
password
The user’s password, in an encrypted form that is generated by the
UNIX passwd function. However, if the encrypted password is
stored in /etc/shadow, (see shadow), the password field of
/etc/passwd is empty.
uid
A unique integer assigned by the UNIX administrator to represent
the user’s account; its value is usually between 0 and 32767.
gid
An integer representing the group to which the user has been
assigned. Groups are created by the UNIX system administrator;
each is assigned a unique integer whose value is generally between
0 and 32767.
gcos-field
The user’s real name. The name may be of any length; it may
include capital letters as well as lower case, and may include
blanks. The name may be empty.
home_directory
The user’s home directory. The home directory field may be empty.
login-shell
The default shell launched at login. This field may be empty.
EXAMPLE
Here is a sample passwd file when the /etc/shadow does not exist:
root:bDPu/ys5PBoYU:0:1:Operator:/:/bin/csh
dave:Qs5I6pBb2rJDA:1234:12:David:/u/dave:/bin/csh
dan:MNRWDsW/srMfE:2345:23:Dan::
jim:HNRyuuiuMFerx:::::
If the system keeps the passwords in the /etc/shadow, the file /etc/passwd
would be exactly the same but the password field would be empty.
root::0:1:Operator:/:/bin/csh
dave::1234:12:David:/u/dave:/bin/csh
A-140 Dell PowerVault 720N, 740N, and 760N System Administrator and Command Reference Guide
passwd
dan::2345:23:Dan::
jim::::::
SEE ALSO
shadow, options, nis, nsswitch.conf, quota, cifs_access, cifs_setup
Command ReferenceA-141
quotas
NAME
quotas - quota description file
SYNOPSIS
/etc/quotas
DESCRIPTION
The /etc/quotas file describes disk quotas that go into effect when quotas are
enabled. All quotas are established on a per-volume basis. If a volume name is
not specified in an entry of the /etc/quotas file, the entry applies to the root
volume.
The following sample /etc/quotas file describes different kinds of quotas:
4XRWD7DUJHW
W\SH
GLVN
ILOHV
PKRZDUG
XVHU
0
.
OILQH
XVHU#YROKRPH
0
WUDFNHU
XVHU
VWRRJHV
JURXS#YROYRO
0
.
YROYROH[SRUW
WUHH
0
.
PKRZDUG
XVHU#YROYROH[SRUW
0
.
VWRRJHV
JURXS#YROYROH[SRUW
0
.
*
XVHU#YROKRPH
0
.
*
JURXS#YROYRO
0
.
*
XVHU#YROYROH[SRUW
0
.
*
JURXS#YROYROH[SRUW
0
.
The first non-comment line in the file restricts the user mhoward to 500 MB of
disk space and 51,200 files in the root volume. The second line restricts the user
lfine to 500 MB of disk space in the home volume, but places no restriction on
the number of files he can have. You can leave the file limit blank to indicate that
no limit is imposed but you cannot omit the value for disk space. The third line
places no restriction on either disk usage or file usage by using a limit field of ”-”.
This may be useful for tracking usage on a per-user or per-group basis without
imposing any usage limits.
The next two lines restrict the stooges group and the /vol/vol0/export qtree to
750 MB and 76,800 files each in the root volume.
A-142 Dell PowerVault 720N, 740N, and 760N System Administrator and Command Reference Guide
quotas
A user or group is specified by one of the following values:
a user or group name, which must appear in the password or group database
(either in the /etc/passwd or /etc/group file on the filer, or in the password or
group NIS map if NIS is enabled on the filer and is being used for the password or group database);
a numerical user or group ID;
the pathname of a file owned by that user or group.
The user or group identifier for a user or group quota can be followed by an @/
vol/volume string, which specifies the volume to which the quota applies. If the
string is omitted, the quota applies to the root volume.
A quota of type tree can only be applied to a qtree, which is a directory in the root
directory of a specified volume. A qtree is created with the qtree create or quota
qtree command.
User and group quotas can be created inside a qtree, so that the user’s or group’s
use of space or files within that qtree is restricted. This is done by specifying the
type as user@tree or group@tree where tree is the name of the qtree. In the
example above, we first limit overall usage in the qtree /vol/vol0/export and then
we restrict the user mhoward to 50 MB and 5,120 files under the /vol/vol0/export
tree. Similarly, the group stooges has been limited to 100 MB of disk space and
10,240 files under the /vol/vol0/export tree.
In any operation that creates files or writes to them, all applicable quotas must be
satisfied. For example, the user mhoward can write to a file in the /vol/vol0/export
tree if all of these requirements are met:
his total disk usage in the root volume does not exceed 500 MB
his total number of files in the root volume does not exceed 51,200
his usage within the /vol/vol0/export tree does not exceed 50 MB
his number of files within the /vol/vol0/export tree does not exceed 5,120
the space already in use in the /vol/vol0/export tree does not exceed 750 MB
the number of files in the /vol/vol0/export tree does not exceed 768,000
The asterisk (*) in the /etc/quotas file specifies a default user or a group quota
depending on the type. Any user or group that is not specifically mentioned in the
/etc/quotas file is subject to the limits of the default user or group. Default user or
group quotas can be specified on a per qtree basis or a per volume basis.
Disk and file size limits in the third and fourth columns of the /etc/quotas file ends
in ”K”, ”M”, or ”G”. ”K” indicates kilobytes (or kilofiles). That is, it multiplies the
limit by 1,024. Similarly, ”M” denotes megabytes (or megafiles) and ”G” denotes
gigabytes (or gigafiles). The default for the disk limit is kilobytes.
Command ReferenceA-143
quotas
SEE ALSO
qtree, quota, rquotad
A-144 Dell PowerVault 720N, 740N, and 760N System Administrator and Command Reference Guide
rc
NAME
rc - system initialization command script
SYNOPSIS
/etc/rc
DESCRIPTION
The command script /etc/rc is invoked automatically during system initialization.
Since the filer has no local editor, /etc/rc must be edited from an NFS client with
root access to /etc. Alternately, you can use the setup command to generate a
new /etc/rc file without using NFS.
EXAMPLE
This is a sample /etc/rc file as generated by setup:
#Auto-generated by setup Tue Jun 2 21:23:52 GMT 1994
hostname filer.dell.com
ifconfig e0 ’hostname’-0
ifconfig e1a ’hostname’-1
route add default MyRouterBox 1
routed on
timezone US/Central
savecore
exportfs -a
nfs on
FILES
/etc/rc
SEE ALSO
exportfs, exports, hostname, hosts, ifconfig, nfs, route, routed, savecore,
setup, timezone, autosupport
Command ReferenceA-145
resolv.conf
NAME
resolv.conf - configuration file for domain name system resolver
SYNOPSIS
/etc/resolv.conf
DESCRIPTION
The resolver configuration file contains information that is read by the resolver
routines. The file is designed to be human readable and contains a list of keywords with values that provide various types of resolver information.
The different configuration options are:
nameserver address
This specifies the Internet address (in dot notation) of a name
server that the resolver should query. Up to 3 name servers may be
listed, one per keyword. If there are multiple servers, the resolver
queries them in the order listed. When a query to a name server on
the list times out, the resolver will move to the next one until it gets
to the bottom of the list. It will then restart from the top retrying all
the name servers until a maximum number of retries are made.
search domain-list
This specifies the search list for host-name lookup. The search list is
normally determined from the local domain name; by default, it
begins with the local domain name, then successive parent
domains that have at least two components in their names. This
may be changed by listing the desired domain search path following
the search keyword with spaces or tabs separating the names.
Most resolver queries will be attempted using each component of
the search path in turn until a match is found. Note that this process
may be slow and will generate a lot of network traffic if the servers
for the listed domains are not local, and that queries will time out if
no server is available for one of the domains.
The search list is currently limited to six domains with a total of 256
characters.
The keyword and value must appear on a single line, and the keyword (e.g.
nameserver) must start the line. The value follows the keyword, separated by
white space.
FILES
/etc/resolv.conf
SEE ALSO
setup, rc
A-146 Dell PowerVault 720N, 740N, and 760N System Administrator and Command Reference Guide
rmtab
NAME
rmtab - remote mounted file system table
SYNOPSIS
/etc/rmtab
DESCRIPTION
/etc/rmtab maintains the list of client mount points between server reboots.
The list of client mount points can be obtained by using the
MOUNTPROC_DUMP remote procedure call, or by using the UNIX showmount
command. When the server successfully executes a mount request from a client, the server appends a new entry to the file. When the client issues an
unmount request, the corresponding entry is marked as unused. When the
server reboots, unused entries are deleted from the file.
Command ReferenceA-147
serialnum
NAME
serialnum - system serial number file
SYNOPSIS
/etc/serialnum
DESCRIPTION
The file /etc/serialnum should contain the serial number of your machine. The
serial number is found on the back of the machine in the lower right hand corner.
If the file does not exist on your system, create it and put the machine’s serial
number in it. The file should contain a single line that only has the serial number.
FILES
/etc/serialnum
A-148 Dell PowerVault 720N, 740N, and 760N System Administrator and Command Reference Guide
shadow
NAME
shadow - shadow password file
SYNOPSIS
/etc/shadow
DESCRIPTION
The shadow file provides more secure storage for the user’s password (which
would otherwise be in /etc/passwd). When the password field of an entry in
/etc/passwd is empty, /etc/shadow must contain a corresponding entry with
the same user name but a non-empty encrypted password.
username:password:
The following list explains the required fields:
username
The user’s login name, not more than eight characters.
password
The user’s password, in an encrypted form that is generated by the
UNIX passwd function.
There can be other fields in the /etc/shadow file following the ”:” after the
password.
EXAMPLE
Here is a sample shadow password file entry:
dave:Qs5I6pBb2rJDA:
SEE ALSO
passwd, options, nis, nsswitch.conf
Command ReferenceA-149
sm
NAME
sm - network status monitor directory
SYNOPSIS
/etc/sm
DESCRIPTION
The network status monitor provides information about the status of network
hosts to clients such as the network lock manager. The network status monitor
keeps its information in the /etc/sm directory.
The /etc/sm/state file contains an integer that is incremented each time the filer
is booted.
The /etc/sm/monitor file contains a list of network hosts the filer is monitoring.
The /etc/sm/notify file contains a list of network hosts that made an NLM lock
request to the filer. Each time the filer reboots, it tries to notify the hosts of its
new state information. You can remove this file if you want the filer to stop notifying the hosts in this file.
snap sched [ vol_name [ weeks [ days [ hours [ @list ] ] ] ] ]
sets the schedule for automatic snapshot creation. The argument vol_name
identifies the volume the schedule should be applied to. The second argument indicates how many weekly snapshots should be kept on-line, the third
how many daily, and the fourth how many hourly. If an argument is left off, or
set to zero, then no snapshot of the corresponding type is created. Daily
snapshots are created at 24:00 of each day except Sunday, and weekly snapshots are created at 24:00 on Sunday. Only one snapshot is created at a
time. If a weekly snapshot is being created, for instance, no daily or hourly
snapshot will be created even if one would otherwise be scheduled. For
example, the command
snap sched vol0 2 6
indicates that two weekly snapshots and six daily snapshots of volume vol0
should be kept on line. No hourly snapshots will be created. For snapshots
created on the hour, an optional list of times can be included, indicating the
hours on which snapshots should occur. For example the command
snap sched vol0 2 6 8@8,12,16,20
indicates that in addition to the weekly and daily snapshots, eight hourly
snapshots should be kept on line, and that they should be created at 8 am,
12 am, 4 pm, and 8 pm. Hours must be specified in 24-hour notation.
With no argument, snap sched prints the current snapshot schedule for all
volumes in the system. With just the vol_name argument, it prints the
schedule for the specified volume.
A-150 Dell PowerVault 720N, 740N, and 760N System Administrator and Command Reference Guide
sm
snap reserve [ vol_name ] | [ vol_name percent ] Sets the size of the indicated
volume’s snapshot reserve to percent. With no percent argument, prints the
percentage of disk space that is reserved for snapshots in the indicated volume. With no argument, the snap reserve command prints the percentage
of disk space reserved for snapshots for each of the volumes in the system.
Reserve space can be used only by snapshots and not by the active file
system.
SEE ALSO
df
Command ReferenceA-151
snapmirror.allow
NAME
snapmirror.allow - list of filers to which you can replicate volumes from this filer
SYNOPSIS
/etc/snapmirror.allow
DESCRIPTION
The /etc/snapmirror.allow file exists on the source filer used for SnapMirror. It
contains a list of filers to which you can replicate volumes from the source filer. If
the source volume and the mirror exist on the same filer, you still must enter the
filer name in this file.
In this file, type one filer name per line.
EXAMPLE
The following snapmirror.allow file on filerA allows both filerB and filerC to replicate volumes from filerA:
filerB
filerC
A-152 Dell PowerVault 720N, 740N, and 760N System Administrator and Command Reference Guide
snapmirror.conf
NAME
snapmirror.conf - configuration file specifying how filers replicate volumes using
SnapMirror
SYNOPSIS
/etc/snapmirror.conf
DESCRIPTION
The /etc/snapmirror.conf file exists on the filer containing the mirror used for
SnapMirror. Each entry of the file specifies the volume to be replicated, an argument for the replication, and the schedule for updating the mirror.
Each entry of the /etc/snapmirror.conf file is in this format:
source_filer:source_vol destination_filer:destination_vol argument schedule
The following list describes the fields in each entry:
source_filer
the name of the filer containing the source volume.
source_vol
the name of the source volume.
destination_filer the name of the filer containing the mirror.
destination_vol
the name of the mirror.
argument
the maximum speed at which data is transferred, which is
specified in kbs (kilobytes per second). Enter a value greater
than or equal to 11. By default, the filer transfers the data as
fast as it can. To accept the default, specify a dash.
schedule
the schedule used by the destination filer for updating the mirror. The schedule contains four fields: minute, hour, day of
month, and day of week. The fields are separated from each
other by a space. If a field contains more than one value, the
values are separated from each other by a comma. A field containing an asterisk means that the field is irrelevant.
EXAMPLE
The following snapmirror.conf entry copies /vol/vol1 on filerA to /vol/vol2 on
filerB at a maximum rate of 2,000 kilobytes per second. FilerB updates the mirror
at 10:45 a.m., 11:45 a.m., 12:45 p.m., 1:45 p.m., 2:45 p.m., 3:45 p.m., and
4:45p.m., Monday through Friday. The asterisk means that the data replication
schedule is not affected by the day of month.
filerA:vol1 filerB:vol2 kbs=2000 45 10,11,12,13,14,15,16 * 1,2,3,4,5
Command ReferenceA-153
syslog.conf
NAME
syslog.conf - syslogd configuration file
DESCRIPTION
The syslog.conf file is the configuration file for the syslogd daemon (see
syslogd). It consists of lines with two TAB separated fields:
selector
action
The selector field specifies the types of messages and priorities to which the line
applies. The action field specifies the action to be taken if a message the syslogd
daemon receives matches the selection criteria.
The selector field is encoded as a facility, a period (”.”), and a level , with no intervening white-space. Both the facility and the level are case insensitive.
The facility describes the part of the system generating the message, and is one
of the following keywords: auth, cron, daemon and kern. Here’s a short description of each facil_ity keyword:
kern
Messages generated by the filer kernel.
daemon
System daemons, such as the rshd daemon (see rshd), the routing
daemon (see routed), the SNMP daemon (see snmpd), etc.
auth
The authentication system, e.g. messages logged for Telnet
sessions.
cron
The system’s internal cron facility.
The level describes the severity of the message, and is a keyword from the following ordered list (higher to lower): emerg, alert, crit, err, warning, notice,
info, and debug.
Here is a short description of each level keyword:
emerg
A panic condition that results in the disruption of normal service.
alert
A condition that should be corrected immediately, such as a failed
disk.
crit
Critical conditions, such as hard disk errors.
err
Errors, such as those resulting from a bad configuration file.
warning
Warning messages.
notice
Conditions that are not error conditions, but that may require special handling.
info
Informational messages, such as the hourly uptime message (see
uptime).
A-154 Dell PowerVault 720N, 740N, and 760N System Administrator and Command Reference Guide
syslog.conf
debug
Debug messages used for diagnostic purposes. These messages
are suppressed by default.
If a received message matches the specified facility and is of the specified level
(or a higher level ), the action specified in the action field will be taken.
Multiple selectors may be specified for a single action by separating them with
semicolon (”;”) characters. It is important to note, however, that each selector
can modify the ones preceding it.
Multiple facilities may be specified for a single level by separating them with
comma (”,”) characters.
An asterisk (”*”) can be used to specify all facilities or all levels.
The special level none disables a particular facility.
The action field of each line specifies the action to be taken when the selector
field selects a message. There are four forms:
‡
A pathname (beginning with a leading slash). Selected messages are
appended to the specified file.
‡
A hostname (preceded by an at (”@”) sign). Selected messages are forwarded to the syslogd daemon on the named host.
‡
‡
/dev/console. Selected messages are written to the console.
An asterisk. Selected messages are written to the console.
Blank lines and lines whose first non-blank character is a pound (”#”) character
are ignored.
It is recommended that all /etc/syslog.conf files include the line
*.info
/etc/messages
so that all messages are logged to the /etc/messages file.
EXAMPLES
A configuration file might appear as follows:
# Log all kernel messages, and anything of level err or
# higher to the console.
*.err;kern.*
/dev/console
# Log anything of level info or higher to /etc/messages.
*.info
/etc/messages
# Also log the messages that go to the console to a remote
# loghost system called adminhost.
*.err;kern.*
@adminhost
# The /etc/secure.message file has restricted access.
auth.notice
/etc/secure.message
Command ReferenceA-155
syslog.conf
Also see the sample configuration file in /etc/syslog.conf.sample
FILES
/etc/syslog.conf
The syslogd configuration file.
/etc/syslog.conf.sample
Sample syslogd configuration file.
SEE ALSO
syslogd, messages
A-156 Dell PowerVault 720N, 740N, and 760N System Administrator and Command Reference Guide
zoneinfo
NAME
zoneinfo - time zone information files
SYNOPSIS
/etc/zoneinfo
DESCRIPTION
The directory /etc/zoneinfo contains time zone information files used by the
timezone command (see timezone). They are in standard UNIX time zone file
format as described below.
The time zone information files begin with bytes reserved for future use, followed
by six four-byte signed values, written in a “standard” byte order (the high-order
byte of the value is written first). These values are, in order:
tzh_ttisgmtcnt
The number of GMT/local indicators stored in the file.
tzh_ttisstdcnt
The number of standard/wall indicators stored in the file.
tzh_leapcnt
The number of leap seconds for which data is stored in the file.
tzh_timecnt
The number of “transition times” for which data is stored in
the file.
tzh_typecnt
The number of “local time types” for which data is stored in
the file (must not be zero).
tzh_charcnt
The number of characters of “time zone abbreviation strings”
stored in the file.
The above header is followed by tzh_timecnt four-byte signed values, sorted in
ascending order. These values are written in ”standard” byte order. Each is used
as a transition time at which the rules for computing local time change. Next
come tzh_timecnt one-byte unsigned values; each one tells which of the different types of ”local time” types described in the file is associated with the sameindexed transition time. These values serve as indices into an array of structures
that appears next in the file; these structures are written as a four-byte signed
tt_gmtoff member in a standard byte order, followed by a one-byte signed
tt_isdst member and a one-byte unsigned tt_abbrind member. In each structure,
tt_gmtoff gives the number of seconds to be added to GMT, tt_isdst tells
whether this time is during a Daylight Savings Time period and tt_abbrind serves
as an index into the array of time zone abbreviation characters that follow the
structure(s) in the file.
Then there are tzh_leapcnt pairs of four-byte values, written in standard byte
order; the first value of each pair gives the time at which a leap second occurs;
the second gives the total number of leap seconds to be applied after the given
time. The pairs of values are sorted in ascending order by time.
Then there are tzh_ttisstdcnt standard/wall indicators, each stored as a one-byte
value; they tell whether the transition times associated with local time types
were specified as standard time or wall clock time. A local time transition
Command ReferenceA-157
zoneinfo
specified in standard time ignores any offset due to Daylight Savings Time. On
the other hand, a time specified in wall clock time takes the prevailing value of
Daylight Savings Time in to account.
Finally there are tzh_ttisgmtcnt GMT/local indicators, each stored as a one-byte
value; they tell whether the transition times associated with local time types
were specified as GMT or local time.
SEE ALSO
timezone
A-158 Dell PowerVault 720N, 740N, and 760N System Administrator and Command Reference Guide
6\VWHP6HUYLFHVDQG'DHPRQV
This section contains system services and daemons.
Command ReferenceA-159
autosupport
NAME
autosupport - email notification daemon
SYNOPSIS
Data ONTAP 5.3 is capable of sending email notification to other designated
addressees in certain situations. The email contains useful information to help
them solve or recognize problems quickly and proactively. The system can also
be configured to send a short alert notification containing only the reason for the
alert to a separate list of recipients. This email is sent only for critical events that
might require some corrective action and can be useful for Administrators with
alphanumeric pagers that can accept short email messages.
DESCRIPTION
The autosupport mechanism contacts a server system that is listening on the
SMTP port (25) to send email. A list of up to 5 mailhosts can be specified and
they will be tried in order to send mail out. It sends mail to up to 5 recipient email
addresses. The information it sends is described below.
The autosupport mechanism is triggered automatically once a week by the kernel
to send information before backing up the messages file. It can also be invoked
to send the information through the options command. Autosupport mail will
also be sent on events that require corrective action from the system administrator. And finally, the autosupport mechanism will send notification upon system
reboot from disk.
The subject line of the mail sent by the autosupport mechanism contains a text
string to identify the reason for the notification. The messages and other information in the notification should be used to check on the problem being reported.
The following are the cases where mail is sent automatically by the system and
the subject line text that identifies the reason for the notification. The events that
trigger the short note emails (if a recipient list is configured) are noted below and
will contain the subject line reason text string and the time of failure in the email
data.
1.
Weekly notification is marked ”WEEKLY_LOG”
2.
Data disk failure notification is marked ”DISK_FAIL!!!”. This event also sends
the short note mail.
3.
Spare disk failure notification is marked ”SPARE_FAIL!!!”. This event also
sends the short note mail.
4.
Disk scrubbing fixing disk errors is marked ”DISK_SCRUB!!!”.
5.
Failure of a fan in the system is notified with ”FAN_FAIL!!!”. This event also
sends the short note mail.
6.
Low NVRAM battery triggers notification with ”BATTERY_LOW!!!”. This
event also sends the short note mail.
A-160 Dell PowerVault 720N, 740N, and 760N System Administrator and Command Reference Guide
autosupport
7.
If a disk shelf reports errors, notification is sent with ”SHELF_FAULT!!!”. This
event also sends the short note mail.
8.
If one of the power supplies in the filer fails, notification is sent with
”POWER_SUPPLY_DEGRADED!!!”. This event also sends the short note
mail.
9.
If the system shuts down because it has detected that the temperature
inside the filer is too high, notification is sent with
”OVER_TEMPERATURE_SHUTDOWN!!!”. This event also sends the short
note mail.
10. System reboot notification is sent with ”REBOOT”. This event also sends the
short note mail.
The setup command does the following for the autosupport feature:
If an adminhost is specified, it adds an entry for mailhost with the same
address as the adminhost to the /etc/hosts file.
The following information is sent:
1.
Generation date and time stamp
2.
Software version
3.
System ID
4.
Hostname
5.
SNMP contact name (if specified)
6.
SNMP location (if specified)
7.
Output from sysconfig -v
8.
The system serial number, if the system has one.
9.
Currently held license codes
10. Output from options
11. Output from ifconfig -a
12. Output from nfsstat -c
13. Output from cifs stat, cifs sessions, and cifs shares; included if CIFS is
licensed.
14. Output from httpstat
15. Output from df
16. Output from df -i
17. Output from snap sched
Command ReferenceA-161
autosupport
18. Output from sysconfig -r
19. The /etc/messages file
The autosupport feature is manipulated through the options command (see options).
The options choices are:
autosupport.enable:
on,off
autosupport.mailhost:
Comma-separated list (no spaces)
autosupport.to:
Comma-separated list (no spaces)
autosupport.noteto:
Comma-separated list (no spaces)
autosupport.from:
Local user name
autosupport.doit:
text word describing reason
autosupport.enable: Default is on. This option is a switch to enable/disable the autosupport email feature. Customers who wish to disable autosupport permanently will
need to set the option in /etc/rc with the command
options autosupport.enable off
autosupport.mailhost: Default is mailhost. Enter the list of mailhosts separated by
”,” and no spaces. Up to 5 hosts will be accepted. The autosupport mechanism will try
to contact each listed host in turn until it gets a successful SMTP connection. The
default mailhost address is set to the adminhost address in /etc/hosts with a command such as
options autosupport.mailhost mercury,venus,mars
autosupport.to: Enter the list of recipients separated by ”,” and no spaces. Up to 5
email addresses may be listed with a command such as
options autosupport.to sysadm,autosupport@company.com
autosupport.noteto: Default is an empty list (short note will not be sent). Enter the
list of recipients separated by ”,” and no spaces. Up to 5 email addresses may be
listed with a command such as
options autosupport.noteto sysadm1@pager.net,sysadm2@pager.net
A-162 Dell PowerVault 720N, 740N, and 760N System Administrator and Command Reference Guide
autosupport
autosupport.from: Default is autosupport. Enter a user name designated as the
sender of the autosupport mail. This allows replies to the mail to be received by a
responsible representative at the site.
options autosupport.from sysadm
autosupport.doit: This is a trigger to send the email out. The text word argument to
this option is sent in the email subject line. This is used to identify the reason for the
notification. To send system information at any time on a running system you can type
a command such as
options autosupport.doit SYSTEM_INFO
Error conditions are logged through syslog at level LOG_ERR.
SEE ALSO
options, setup, hosts, rc
NOTES
The autosupport mechanism is enabled by default. When the system boots it will
enable the feature. If, for security or other reasons, you wish to disable this feature you should add a line in /etc/rc to disable it:
options autosupport.enable off
If you do keep autosupport enabled, remember to add the following lines in /etc/
rc with your name, phone number and site name. For example,
snmp contact ”John - 555-555-1212”
snmp location ”Computer Lab”
Add the lines with your information even if you do not use SNMP. This information is sent in the notification and will help Dell support contact you proactively in
case of a problem.
Command ReferenceA-163
DNS
NAME
DNS - Domain Name System
DESCRIPTION
Domain Name Service provides information about hosts on a network. This service has two parts: a resolver which requests information and a nameserver
which provides it.
Data ONTAP 5.3 supports only the resolver. When the filer needs to resolve a
host address, it first looks at the /etc/nsswitch.conf (see nsswitch.conf) file to
get the order in which various name services are to be consulted. If the name
services before DNS fail in their lookup and DNS is enabled, then the DNS name
server is contacted for address resolution.
DNS can be enabled on the filer by running the setup command (see setup) or by
manually editing the configuration files as described below. If DNS is enabled by
running the setup command, then the DNS domain name needs to be entered.
Enabling DNS without the setup command:
1.
Create the /etc/resolv.conf file (see resolv.conf) with up to 3 nameservers.
Each line contains the keyword nameserver followed by the IP address of
the server. For example:
nameserver 192.9.200.1
nameserver 192.9.201.1
nameserver 192.9.202.1
2.
Edit the /etc/rc file (see rc) to make sure that the option specifying the DNS
domain name is set and the option to enable DNS is on. For example:
options dns.domainname company.com
options dns.enable on
3.
Reboot the filer for these changes to take effect. If the above options commands are also entered from the console, the reboot can be avoided.
Enabling DNS with the setup command:
At setup time, one can choose to enable DNS when prompted to do so.
setup then queries for the Internet addresses of up to three DNS
nameservers.
SEE ALSO
setup, rc, resolv.conf
A-164 Dell PowerVault 720N, 740N, and 760N System Administrator and Command Reference Guide
NIS
NAME
NIS - NIS client service
DESCRIPTION
The NIS client service provides information about hosts, user passwords, user
groups and netgroups on a network. In NIS terminology, each of the above is
referred to as the map and the specific information being looked up is called the
key. For example, the hosts map is like the /etc/hosts file; it provides a translation from host names to IP addresses. The NIS service typically has two parts: a
client component which requests information and a name server which provides
it.
Data ONTAP 5.3 supports only the NIS client. When the filer needs to resolve a
key in a given map, it looks at the /etc/nsswitch.conf (see nsswitch.conf) file to
figure out the order in which the various databases should be consulted. For
example, in case of the hosts map the lookup order may be file, nis, dns. This
means that the filer will first consult the /etc/hosts file. If the host name is not
found in the local file, it will then try the NIS service. If the host name is still not
found, then it will attempt a DNS lookup.
The NIS client can be enabled on the filer by running the setup command (see
setup) or by manually editing the configuration files as described below. If NIS is
enabled by running the setup command, then the NIS domain name needs to be
entered.
Enabling NIS without the setup command:
1.
Edit the /etc/rc file (see rc) to make sure that the option specifying the NIS
domain name is set and the option to enable NIS is on. For example:
options nis.domainname dell.com
options nis.enable on
2.
Reboot the filer for these changes to take effect. If the above options commands are also entered from the console, the reboot can be avoided. If the
options are entered via the console only, they are not saved across a reboot.
Enabling NIS with the setup command:
At setup time, one can choose to enable NIS when prompted to do so.
setup then queries for the NIS domain name.
SEE ALSO
setup, rc, resolv.conf, nsswitch.conf
Command ReferenceA-165
rmt
NAME
rmt - remote magtape protocol module
SYNOPSIS
/etc/rmt
DESCRIPTION
/etc/rmt is a special command that can be used by remote computers to manipulate a magnetic tape drive over a network connection; for example, the UNIX
dump and restore commands often can either use /etc/rmt to access a remote
tape, or have rdump and rrestore variants that can do so. /etc/rmt is normally
run by the rshd daemon (see rshd) as a result of a remote machine making a
request to rshd to do so.
The /etc/rmt command accepts requests specific to the manipulation of magnetic tapes, performs the commands, then responds with a status indication.
This protocol is provided by rmt commands on many UNIX systems, although
UNIX systems may support more commands and may give more different error
codes.
All responses are in ASCII and in one of two forms. Successful commands have
responses of:
Anumber\n
number is an ASCII representation of a decimal number. Unsuccessful commands are responded to with:
Eerror-number\nerror-message\n
error-number is one of:
2 (ENOENT)
The tape device specified in an open request did not have a valid syntax.
6 (ENXIO)
The tape device specified in an open request does not exist.
5 (EIO)
An I/O error occurred when performing the request.
25 (ENOTTY)
An invalid tape operation was specified in a ”perform special tape operation”
request.
error-message is a (UNIX-style) error string for the error specified by errornumber.
A-166 Dell PowerVault 720N, 740N, and 760N System Administrator and Command Reference Guide
rmt
The protocol is comprised of the following commands, which are sent as indicated - no spaces are supplied between the command and its arguments, or
between its arguments, and \n indicates that a newline should be supplied:
Odevice\nmode\n
Open the specified device using the indicated mode. device is a tape name
of the form described in tape and mode is an ASCII representation of a decimal number specifying how the tape is to be opened:
0
read-only
1
write-only
2
read-write
If a device had already been opened, it is closed before a new open is performed.
Cdevice\n
Close the currently open device. The device specified is ignored.
Lwhence\noffset\n
Performs no operation, and returns the value of offset; UNIX-style lseek
operations are ignored on Dell filer tape devices, just as they are on tape
devices on many UNIX systems.
Wcount\n
Write data onto the open device. If count exceeds the maximum data buffer
size (64 kilobytes), it is truncated to that size. /etc/rmt then reads count
bytes from the connection, aborting if a premature end-of-file is encountered. The response value is the number of bytes written if the write
succeeds, or -1 if the write fails.
Rcount\n
Read count bytes of data from the open device. If count exceeds the maximum data buffer size (64 kilobytes), it is truncated to that size. /etc/rmt then
attempts to read count bytes from the tape and responds with Acountread\n if the read was successful; otherwise an error in the standard format
is returned. If the read was successful, the data read is then sent.
Ioperation\ncount\n
Perform a special tape operation on the open device using the specified
parameters. The parameters are interpreted as ASCII representations of the
decimal values. operation is one of:
0
write end-of-file marker
1
forward space count files
2
backward space count files
3
forward space count tape blocks
4
backward space count tape blocks
Command ReferenceA-167
rmt
5
rewind the tape
6
rewind and unload the tape
The return value is the count parameter when the operation is successful.
Any other command causes /etc/rmt to close the connection.
DIAGNOSTICS
All responses are of the form described above.
SEE ALSO
tape, rshd
A-168 Dell PowerVault 720N, 740N, and 760N System Administrator and Command Reference Guide
rquotad
NAME
rquotad - remote quota server
DESCRIPTION
The filer supports the remote quota service that allows NFS clients to determine
their quota allocation on the server.
SEE ALSO
quota
Command ReferenceA-169
rshd
NAME
rshd - remote shell daemon
DESCRIPTION
The filer has UNIX-compatible remote shell capability that enables you to execute
certain filer commands from a UNIX command line or shell script. It also enables
you to use a remote shell application on a PC to enter filer commands.
The /etc/hosts.equiv file controls which hosts have access to the filer remote
shell. The hosts listed in the /etc/hosts.equiv file are called trusted hosts. The
filer accepts commands from the filer’s administrative users only if the commands are entered through a remote shell.
To see a list of filer commands that can be executed through rsh, enter the rsh ?
command on the trusted host.
EXAMPLE
The following example shows how to enter the version command from a trusted
host named ”adminhost” through a remote shell:
adminhost% rsh -l root filer version
SEE ALSO
hosts.equiv, useradmin
A-170 Dell PowerVault 720N, 740N, and 760N System Administrator and Command Reference Guide
snmpd
NAME
snmpd - snmp agent daemon
DESCRIPTION
The filer supports an SNMP version 1 compatible agent that provides support for
both the MIB-II management information base for TCP/IP based internets as well
as a Dell Custom MIB.
A number of user configurable options for the SNMP agent can be set and queried from the console using the snmp command (see snmp).
Due to weak authentication in SNMP version 1, SetRequest commands that
allow the remote setting of configuration variables have been disabled.
MIB-II
Under MIB-II, information is accessible for the system, interfaces, at, ip,
icmp, tcp, udp and snmp MIB-II groups. The transmission and egp groups
are not supported.
The coldStart, linkDown, linkUp and authenticationFailure traps are
implemented. Traps are configured using the snmp command.
Dell CUSTOM MIB
The Dell Custom MIB provides a means to obtain detailed information about
many aspects of filer operation via SNMP.
The following is a summary of the top-level groups in the Custom MIB and the
information they contain:
product
Product-level information such as the software version string and system ID.
sysStat
System-level statistics such as CPU uptime, idle time and aggregate kilobytes received and transmitted on all network interfaces.
nfs
Statistics like those displayed by the nfsstat command (see nfsstat), including statistics for each client if per-client NFS statistics have been enabled
using the nfs.per_client_stats.enable option (see options). The per-client
NFS statistics are indexed by client IP addresses.
quota
Information related to disk quotas, including the output of the quota report
command (see quota). To access quota information, quotas must be turned
on.
filesys
Information related to the file system, including the equivalent of the maxfiles and df commands, and some of the information from the snap list
command (see df, maxfiles, snap).
Command ReferenceA-171
snmpd
raid
Information on RAID equivalent to the output of the sysconfig -r command
(see sysconfig).
SEE ALSO
df, maxfiles, nfsstat, options, quota, snap, snmp, sysconfig
A-172 Dell PowerVault 720N, 740N, and 760N System Administrator and Command Reference Guide
syslogd
NAME
syslogd - log system messages
DESCRIPTION
The syslogd daemon logs system messages to the console, log files and other
remote systems as specified by its configuration file, /etc/syslog.conf. The syslogd daemon reads its configuration file when it starts up during the boot
procedure, or within 30 seconds after the /etc/syslog.conf file is modified. For
information on the format of the configuration file, see syslog.conf.
If /etc/syslog.conf does not exist the syslogd daemon will output all log messages of priority info or higher to the console and to the file /etc/messages. To
prevent /etc/messages from getting too large, the syslogd daemon will rotate
the contents of /etc/messages through the files /etc/messages.0 through
/etc/messages.5. This rotation is done once a week. So the log messages of the
current week will be saved in the file /etc/messages and the message logs of
the six weeks prior to that are saved in the files /etc/messages.0 through /etc/
messages.5.
To prevent large numbers of repeated messages being logged, the syslogd daemon will follow the first instance of a repeated message with the number of
times the message was repeated. If a message is repeated over a long time
period, the syslogd daemon will wait for increasingly longer intervals before logging the number of repeats. The repeat notification interval starts at 30 seconds
and moves quickly to 20 minutes.
FILES
/etc/syslog.conf
/etc/syslog.conf.sample
/etc/messages
/etc/messages.[0-5]
The configuration file.
A sample configuration file.
Message log file for current week.
Message log for prior weeks.
SEE ALSO
messages, syslog.conf
Command ReferenceA-173
A-174 Dell PowerVault 720N, 740N, and 760N System Administrator and Command Reference Guide
*ORVVDU\
$&/
DXWRVXSSRUW
Access control list. A list that contains
the users’ or groups’ access rights to
each share.
A filer daemon that triggers e-mail messages from the customer site to a
specified e-mail recipient when there is a
potential filer problem.
DGDSWHUFDUG
A SCSI card, network card, hot swap
adapter card, serial adapter card, or VGA
adapter that plugs into a filer expansion
slot.
ELJHQGLDQ
$GGUHVV5HVROXWLRQ
&,)6
The procedure for determining a Media
Access Control (MAC) address corresponding to the address of a LAN or
WAN destination.
Common Internet File System. A protocol for networking PCs.
DGPLQLVWUDWLRQKRVW
The client you specify during filer setup
for managing the filer. The setup program automatically configures the filer to
accept telnet and rsh connections
from this client, to give permission to
this client for mounting the / and /home
directories, and to use this client as the
mailhost for sending autosupport email
messages. At any time after you run the
setup program, you can configure the
filer to work with other clients in the
same way as it does with the administration host.
DXWKHQWLFDWLRQ
A binary data format for storage and
transmission in which the most significant bit or byte comes first.
FOLHQW
A computer that shares files on a filer.
FRQVROH
A terminal that is attached to a filer’s
serial port and is used to monitor and
manage filer operation.
FRS\RQZULWH
The technique for creating snapshots
without consuming excess disk space.
GHJUDGHGPRGH
The operating mode of a filer when a
disk is missing from the RAID array or
the batteries on the NVRAM card are
low.
A security step performed by a domain
controller for the filer’s domain, or by the
filer itself, using its /etc/passwd file.
Glossary
1
GLVN,'QXPEHU
KRWVZDSDGDSWHU
A number assigned by the filer to each
disk when it probes the disks at boot
time.
An expansion card that makes it possible
to add or remove a hard disk with minimal interruption to file system activity.
(WKHUQHWDGDSWHU
LQRGH
An Ethernet interface card.
A data structure containing information
about files on a filer and in a UNIX file
system.
H[SDQVLRQFDUG
A SCSI card, NVRAM card, network card,
hot swap card, or console card that plugs
into a filer expansion slot.
H[SDQVLRQVORW
The slots on the system board in which
you insert expansion cards.
ILOHU
A filer is a dedicated, special-purpose
network data server that provides fast
and reliable file service to network clients connected to Ethernet networks.
*,'
Group identification number.
JURXS
A group of users defined in the filer’s
/etc/group file.
+773
Hypertext Transfer Protocol. An objectoriented protocol that can be used for
many tasks, such as name servers and
distributed object management systems,
through extension of its request methods (commands).
KRWVSDUHGLVN
A disk installed in the filer that can be
used to substitute for a failed disk.
Before the disk failure, the hot spare disk
is not part of the RAID disk array.
2
LQWHUUXSWVZLWFK
A switch on some filer front panels used
for debugging purposes.
PDJLFGLUHFWRU\
A directory that can be accessed by
name but does not show up in a directory listing. The .snapshot directories,
except for the one at the mount point or
at the root of the share, are magic
directories.
PDLOKRVW
The client host responsible for sending
automatic email when certain filer
events occur.
0DLQWHQDQFHPRGH
An option when booting a filer from a
system boot disk. Maintenance mode
provides special commands for troubleshooting hardware and configuration.
0,0(
Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions. A
specification that defines the mechanisms for specifying and describing the
format of Internet message bodies. An
HTTP response containing the MIME
Content-Type header allows the HTTP client to invoke the application that is
appropriate for the data received.
QHWZRUNDGDSWHU
KRWVZDS
An Ethernet adapter.
The process of adding, removing, or
replacing a disk while the filer is running.
1)6
Network File System. A protocol for
networking PCs.
Dell PowerVault 720N, 740N, and 760N System Administrator and Command Reference Guide
195$0FDFKH
5$,'
Nonvolatile RAM in the filer, used for
logging incoming write data and NFS
requests. Improves system performance
and prevents loss of data in case of a
filer or power failure.
195$0FDUG
Redundant arrays of independent disks.
A technique that protects against disk
failure by computing parity information
based on the contents of all the disks in
the array. The filer uses RAID Level 4,
which stores all parity information on a
single disk.
Adapter card that contains the filer’s
NVRAM cache.
5$,'GLVNVFUXEELQJ
SDQLF
A serious error condition causing the filer
to halt; similar to a software crash in the
Microsoft® Windows® operating system environment.
SDULW\GLVN
Disk on which parity information is
stored for the RAID-4 disk drive array.
Used to reconstruct data in failed disk
blocks or on a failed disk.
The process in which the system reads
each disk in the RAID group and tries to
fix media errors by rewriting the data to
another disk area.
6&6,DGDSWHU
An expansion card that supports the
SCSI disk drives and tape drives.
6&6,,'
The number of a disk drive on the SCSI
chain (0-6).
3&,
VHULDODGDSWHU
Peripheral Component Interconnect. The
bus architecture used in newer filers.
An expansion card for attaching a terminal as the console on some filers.
3'&
VHULDOFRQVROH
Primary Domain Controller. The domain
controller that has negotiated to be, or
has been assigned as, the primary
authentication server for the domain.
An ASCII or ANSI terminal attached to a
filer’s serial port. Used to monitor and
manage filer operations.
3267
A directory or directory structure on the
filer that has been made available to network users and can be mapped to a drive
letter on a CIFS client.
Power-on self-tests. The tests run by the
filer after the power is turned on.
39&
VKDUH
Permanent Virtual Circuit. A link with a
static route defined in advance, usually
by manual setup.
6,'
TWUHH
An on-line, read-only copy of the entire
file system that protects against accidental deletions or modifications of files
without duplicating file contents. Snapshots enable users to restore files and
enable you to back up the filer to tape
while the filer is in use.
A directory on which you can impose
tree quotas, created by the quota
qtree command.
Security identifier.
VQDSVKRW
Glossary
3
V\VWHPERDUG
9*$DGDSWHU
A printed circuit board that contains the
filer’s CPU, expansion bus slots, and system memory.
Expansion card for attaching a VGA terminal as the console.
WUHHTXRWD
Write Anywhere File Layout. The
WAFL™ file system was designed for
the Dell™ filer to optimize write
performance.
A type of disk quota that restricts the
disk usage of a directory created by the
quota qtree command. Different from
user and group quotas that restrict disk
usage by files with a given UID or GID.
8,'
User identification number.
8QLFRGH
A 16-bit character set standard. It was
designed and is maintained by the nonprofit consortium Unicode Inc.
4
:$)/
:,16
Windows Internet Name Service.
ZRUNJURXS
A collection of computers running
Microsoft Windows NT® or Windows for
Workgroups™ operating systems that is
grouped for browsing and sharing.
Dell PowerVault 720N, 740N, and 760N System Administrator and Command Reference Guide
,QGH[
$
%
access events, CIFS, auditing, 7-26
backup
amount of data, 12-7
data format, 12-5
data not in qtrees, 12-15
devices, 12-3
excluding files, 12-15
incremental, 12-4
metadata, 12-2
name in the /etc/dumpdates file, 12-14
qtrees, 12-7
reasons for, 12-1
specifying files and directories, 12-14
use of nonqualified tape drives, 12-10
Windows NT ACL information, 12-5
access logging, CIFS
disabling, 7-29
enabling, 7-29
access rights
assigning rights to users, 7-20
CIFS shares, 7-20
active event log, CIFS
default, 7-26
specifying, 7-30
adding a foreign volume, 3-13
adding disks to a volume, 3-12
administration host
accessibility problems from, 18-10
administration tasks, periodic, 1-9
AuthName directive, 8-3
Autosupport, 19-1
autosupport options, 19-1
autosupport.doit option, 19-2
autosupport.enable option, 19-2
autosupport.from option, 19-2
autosupport.mailhost option, 19-2
blocking factor
definition, 12-6
how to specify, 12-14
specifying when restoring data, 13-3
when backing up to remote tape
drives, 12-10
booting
from diskette, 18-1
with nvfail enabled, 4-29
without /etc/rc file, 18-2
broadcast filer address, setting using
ifconfig, 4-15
autosupport.noteto option, 19-3
Index
1
&
cables, checking, 18-13
CGI requests, redirecting, 8-9
changing size of RAID groups, 3-9
character set types, supported, 5-8
CIFS, 7-20
access event displays, 7-27
access event log, 7-26
access logging
disabling, 7-29
enabling, 7-29
active event log
default, 7-26
specifying, 7-30
adding users, 7-4
assigning and changing access rights,
7-20
creating shares, 7-12
deleting a share, 7-17
displaying session information, 7-35
displaying share information, 7-15
displaying shares, 7-10
displaying statistics, 7-34
event auditing configuration, 7-29
events, viewing, 7-32
file name case, 5-14
file names, preserving case, 5-15
filer command-line only operations, 7-1
generic account
creation by default, 7-9
users, 7-9
guest access, 7-9
home directory shares, creating, 7-18
local groups, adding to filer, 7-6
login tracing, toggling, 5-26
lost record event detail display, 7-28
oplocks, 7-33
options, 19-3
restoring files, 13-2
rsh use to enter filer commands, 7-7
session information, displaying, 7-35
2
CIFS (continued)
shares
changing description, 7-16
creating and changing, 7-12
deleting, 7-17
displaying, 7-10
displaying information, 7-15
renaming volume, effect on, 7-1
statistics, displaying, 7-34
symbolic links, 5-2
system ACL (SACL), setting, 7-30
UNIX file access detail displays, 7-28
unsuccessful file access detail display,
7-28
Windows file access detail displays,
7-27
cifs, 7-10, 7-12, 7-19, 7-21, 7-37
cifs access command, 7-22
cifs access -delete command, 7-23
CIFS guest access, 7-8
CIFS guest account, 7-8
CIFS login tracing, toggling, 5-26
cifs restart command, 7-40
CIFS sessions
starting, 7-37
stopping, 7-37
cifs sessions command, 7-35
cifs shares -add command, 7-13
cifs shares -change command, 7-15
cifs shares command, 7-11, 7-16
cifs shares -delete command, 7-18
cifs stat command, 7-34
cifs terminate command, 7-38
cifs.access_logging.enable option, 7-29,
7-30
cifs.access_logging.filename option,
19-3
cifs.access_logging.filername option,
7-30
Dell PowerVault 720N, 740N, and 760N System Administrator and Command Reference Guide
cifs.cifs.show_snapshot option, 19-6
copying a volume (continued)
recommendation for, 15-4
requirements for, 15-3
cifs.guest_account option, 19-3
copy-on-write technique, 9-1, 9-3
cifs.home_dir option, 7-19, 19-4
cpio, copying files with, 18-17
cifs.netbios_aliases option, 19-5
creating
nvfail_rename file, 4-31
cifs.bypass_traverse_checking option,
19-3
cifs.oplocks.enable option, 19-4
cifs.perm_check_use_gid option, 19-5
cifs.save_case option, 5-15
cifs.scopeid option, 19-5
creating and changing shares, 7-12
creating qtrees, 10-6
creating volumes, 3-11
cifs.search_domains option, 19-6
cifs.symlinks.cycleguard option, 5-4, 19-6
cifs.symlinks.enable option, 5-3, 19-7
clients
accessing snapshots from, 9-16
NFS statistics in the custom MIB, 4-4
collisions, 18-13
configuration
of volumes, 3-7
planning for multiple volumes, 3-8
configuration files
/etc/dgateways, 4-13
/etc/dgateways file, 4-12
/etc/hosts, 4-8
/etc/netgroup file, 6-9
/etc/nvfail_rename, 4-29, 4-31
/etc/resolv.conf file, 4-9
errors in, 18-10
configuration files, accessing, 1-3
configuration problems
booting with diskette for, 18-10
filer accessibility, 18-10
lost passwords, 18-11
with /etc/rc file, 18-10
console encoding, setting, 5-11
console.encoding option, 5-11, 19-18
copying a volume
changing the speed of, 15-10
how to stop, 15-10
possible errors during, 15-8
'
data access management, 1-7
Data ONTAP
displaying version, 17-1
overview, 1-5
data rebuild, on the hot spare disk, 18-7
data reconstruction
speed, 3-6
when filer is shut down (degraded
mode), 3-5
database file protection, 4-29
enabling/disabling nvfail, 4-31
default
route in routing table, 4-12
router, 4-12
degraded mode, 3-5
meaning of, 3-11
reasons for, 3-5
timeout period for automatic
shutdown, 3-5
when a hot spare disk is available, 3-5
when a hot spare disk is not available,
3-5
deprecated MIB objects, 4-3
destroying a volume, 3-14
df command, 9-8, 11-11, 18-18
diagnostic messages, 18-1
Index
3
directories
conversion time, 5-15
created by snapshots, 9-16
Unicode conversion upon CIFS access,
reverting to, 5-14
Unicode format conversion upon any
access, 5-16
Directory directive, 8-3
disk does not exist message, 18-7
disk fail command, 3-11
disk in use message, 18-7
disk information, using sysconfig -d, 17-1
disk information, using vol status, 17-2
DNS
disabling, 4-10
enabling, 4-9
options, 19-7
querying the name server, 4-9
resolving names with, 4-7
dns.enable option, 19-7
DOS attributes, changing from
Windows NT, 7-23
disk remove command, 3-11
DOS file names
forcing to lowercase, 5-14
disk scrub command, 3-3
double disk failures, 18-6
disk shelves, 1-5
dump command
data format, 12-5
devices, 12-3
different passes, 12-5
effect on mirror update schedule, 16-6
examples, 12-16
exclude list, 12-12, 12-15
excluding certain types of data, 12-3
how it works, 12-2
how it works with SnapMirror, 16-6
incremental backup, 12-4
multiple tape files, 12-6
options, 12-14
syntax, 12-13
using snapshot, 9-1
where to enter, 12-4
Windows NT ACL information, 12-5,
12-14
disks
addressing, use of, 3-2
changing the size of RAID groups, 3-9
concepts, 3-1
data, 1-6
degraded mode, 3-5, 3-11
different types in RAID group, 3-1
failures, effects of, 3-6
failures, handling, 3-4
free space, accessing information
through SNMP, 4-4
free space, displaying, 11-11
freeing space by deleting snapshots,
9-14
hot swapping, 3-4
information in the custom MIB, 4-4
installing new, 3-10
management tasks, 3-9
maximum number of files, 11-10
parity, 1-6, 3-1
problems, 18-5
quotas, 4-4, 9-11, 11-1
removing, 3-10
restricting usage, 11-1
SCSI ID number, 3-2
setting size of RAID group, 3-9
snapshots, space used, 9-3
4
disks (continued)
spare, 1-6
swapping, 3-11
usable space, 3-4
dump level, 12-14
dumpdates file, updating, 12-15
(
environmental adapter, filer main unit,
1-4
error messages, serious, 18-19
Dell PowerVault 720N, 740N, and 760N System Administrator and Command Reference Guide
Ethernet
setting media type on, 4-15
files
copying with cpio, 18-17
large, 4-1
maximum size, 4-1
same file criteria, 9-2
setting maximum number of, 11-10
working with large, 4-1
event auditing, CIFS, configuration, 7-29
filestats command, 3-15
event log, CIFS
access, 7-26
default, 7-26
firewall, virtual, 8-5
errors
caused by copying a volume, 15-8
caused by exceeding disk quotas, 11-9
displayed by netstat, 18-13
displayed by nvfail, 4-30
events, CIFS, viewing, 7-32
explicit routes in routing table, 4-12
)
*
generic account
creation by default, 7-9
users, 7-9
group quotas, creating, 11-8
file locking, differences between NFS
and CIFS, 5-1
guest
access, 7-8
file names
CIFS, preserving case, 5-15
conversion, 5-6
DOS, forcing to lowercase, 5-14
legal characters, 5-6
maximum length, 5-5
used by NFS and CIFS clients, 5-6
guest account, CIFS, 7-8
file space, incorrect display, 18-18
host name resolution, 4-6
file system
inconsistent, 18-8
maximum number of files, 11-10
protection through RAID scrubbing,
3-3
hot spare disk, 3-10
availability
sysconfig command, 3-6
overview, 3-4
removing, 3-10
replacement activity (/etc/messages),
3-6
filer
description, changing and viewing, 7-2
restarting, 18-3
+
home directory shares, CIFS, creating,
7-18
hot swapping a disk, 3-4
filer information, overall, displaying, 17-2
hourly snapshots, 9-5, 9-7
filer main unit components, 1-3
HTTP
displaying connection information,
8-10
displaying statistics, 8-11
options, 19-8
root directory, 8-2
filer system load
systat command, 3-6
FilerView, use for filer administration, 1-3
Index
5
HTTP (continued)
starting service, 8-1
virtual hosting, enabling, 8-5
/
httpd.admin.enable option, 19-8
languages, supported
list, 5-9
httpd.enable option, 19-8
large files, 4-1
httpd.log.max_file_size option, 19-8
LCD, filer main unit, 1-4
httpd.rootdir option, 19-8
legal characters in file names, 5-6
httpd.timeout option, 19-9
local groups, CIFS, adding to filer, 7-6
httpd.timewait.enable option, 19-9
localhost, 15-4
lost data from disk failures, 18-6
,
ICMP redirect messages, 4-12
identifying disks
SCSI ID, 3-2
IERRS (input errors) displayed by netstat,
18-13
ifconfig, 4-8
ifconfig command, 4-15, 18-13
ifstat command, 4-20, 17-4
illegal volume name message, 18-5
inconsistent file system, 18-8
inodes, effects of maximum number of
files on, 11-10
installing new disks, 3-10
interfaces
errors on, 18-13
how packets are sent and received,
4-14
using ifconfig to configure, 4-15
invalid volume name message, 18-5
6
lost passwords, 18-11
lost record event detail display, CIFS,
7-28
ls command, listing snapshot files, 9-17,
9-18
0
Makefile, NIS, 4-8, 6-10
making a volume inactive, 3-13
management tasks
for disks, 3-9
for volumes, 3-11
maps, 7-6
maxfiles command, 11-10
maximum number of files, 11-10
media type for an Ethernet interface,
4-15
messages
for disk failures, 18-6
IP addresses
setting using ifconfig, 4-15
MIB objects
deprecated, 4-3
multivolume, locations, 4-3
ip.match_any_ifaddr option, 19-18
MIB, Network Appliance custom, 4-3
ip.path_mtu_discovery.enable option,
19-18
MIB-II, 4-2
MIME Content-Type, specifying, 8-7
Dell PowerVault 720N, 740N, and 760N System Administrator and Command Reference Guide
minra option, 17-9
minra volume option, 19-15
monitoring status
of volumes, 3-12
mounting files
if there are qtrees, 11-11
problems with, 18-14
mounting volumes, 3-7
mt command, 14-4
MTU
setting, 4-16
multiple RAID groups, 3-1
multiple volumes
configuration planning, 3-8
limitations of, 3-8
multiple-mode trunks
creating, 4-24
trunks
multiple-mode, 4-19
multivolume MIB objects, locations, 4-3
networks (continued)
network mask
configuring using ifconfig, 4-15
problems with, 18-12
statistics, 18-12
using ifconfig to configure, 4-15
NFS
how interfaces respond to packets,
4-14
options, 19-9
problems with, 18-14
statistics in custom MIB, 4-3
statistics, displaying (nfsstat
command), 6-1, 6-15
NFS guest access, 7-8
NFS over UDP requests, 4-14
nfs.big_endianize_fileid option, 17-9
nfs.mount_rootonly option, 19-9
nfs.per_client_stats.enable option, 19-10
nfs.tcp.enable option, 19-10
nfs.v2.df.2gb.lim option, 19-10
nfs.v2.df_2gb_lim option, 18-18, 19-10
1
nfs.v3.enable option, 19-10
name services, specifying the order in
which contacted, 4-7
nfs.webnfs.rootdir option, 19-11
names
resolving, 4-7
volume naming conventions, 3-6
nfsstat command, 6-15
netstat command, 4-12, 4-14, 17-4, 18-13
network interfaces
balancing traffic among, 17-9
configuring, 4-15
network statistics, displaying, 17-4
networks
connections, checking, 18-13
how filer sends and receives traffic,
4-14
management services, using SNMP,
4-2
nfs.webnfs.enable option, 19-11
nfs.webnfs.rootdirset option, 19-11
nightly snapshots, 9-5
NIS
changing domain name, 4-11
disabling, 4-11
domain name
specifying with option, 19-11
enabling
during setup, 4-11
without using setup, 4-11
maps supported, 4-10
options, 19-11
propagating changes
/etc/hosts on filer, 4-8
/etc/netgroup on filer, 6-10
Index
7
nis.domainname option, 19-11
nis.enable option, 19-12
no_atime_update option, 17-9
no_atime_update volume option, 19-15
nonexistent disks, 18-7
nonqualified tape drives, 12-10, 14-2
nonvolatile RAM (NVRAM)
batteries, 3-5
failures in, 18-1
inconsistent contents, 18-3
nosnap volume option, 19-16
nosnapdir option, 9-4
nosnapdir volume option, 19-16
nvfail
bootup process, 4-29
database file protection, 4-29
enabling and disabling, 4-31
error message, 4-30
volume option, 4-29
nvfail option, 19-16
nvfail_rename file, creation of, 4-31
NVRAM, 1-4
2
operation, 15-10
oplocks, 7-33
options
autosupport.doit, 19-2
autosupport.enable, 19-2
autosupport.from, 19-2
autosupport.mailhost, 19-2
autosupport.noteto, 19-3
cifs.access_logging.enable, 7-29
cifs.access_logging.filername, 7-30
cifs.guest_account, 19-4
cifs.home_dir, 7-19, 19-4
cifs.netbios_aliases, 19-5
cifs.oplocks.enable, 7-34, 19-4
cifs.save_case, 5-15
8
options
cifs.scopeid, 19-5
cifs.show_snapshot, 19-6
cifs.symlinks.cycleguard, 5-4, 19-6
cifs.symlinks.enable, 5-3, 19-7
console.encoding, 5-11
dns.domainname, 19-7
dns.enable, 19-7
httpd.admin.enable, 19-8
httpd.enable, 8-1, 19-8
httpd.log.max_file_size, 8-1, 19-8
httpd.rootdir, 8-1, 8-6, 19-8
httpd.timeout, 19-9
httpd.timewait.enable, 19-9
ip.path_mtu_discovery, 19-18
minra, 17-9
nfs.big_endianize_fileid, 17-9
nfs.mount_rootonly, 19-9
nfs.per_client_stats.enable, 19-10
nfs.tcp.enable, 19-10
nfs.v2.df_2gb_lim, 18-18, 19-10
nfs.v3.enable, 19-10
nfs.webnfs.enable, 19-11
nfs.webnfs.rootdir, 19-11
nfs.webnfs.rootdirset, 19-11
nis.domainname, 19-11
nis.enable, 19-12
no_atime_update, 17-9
nosnapdir, 9-4
pcnfsd.umask, 19-11
raid.reconstruct_speed, 3-6, 19-12
raid.scrub.enable, 3-3, 19-12
raid.timeout, 3-5, 19-12
telnet.hosts, 19-19
vol.copy.throttle, 15-10
volume options
minra, 19-15
no_atime_update, 19-15
nosnap, 19-16
nosnapdir, 19-16
raidsize, 19-17
root, 19-17
vol.copy.throttle, 19-20
wafl.maxdirsize, 17-8, 19-21
wafl.root_only_chown, 19-21
wafl.wcc_minutes_valid, 5-17, 5-20
Dell PowerVault 720N, 740N, and 760N System Administrator and Command Reference Guide
3
packets, responses to, 4-14
panic messages, 18-19
parity disks, 3-1
role, 3-2
quotas, disk
information available through SNMP,
4-4
information available through the
custom MIB, 4-4
passwords
lost, 18-11
5
pcnfsd.umask option, 19-11
RAID, 3-6
performance, improving, 17-3
RAID (Redundant Array of Independent
Disks)
accessing information through SNMP,
4-4
data reconstruction speed, 3-6
dis