Dell (PERC) S100 Personal Computer User Manual

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Dell PowerEdge
RAID Controller (PERC) S100,
PERC S300
User’s Guide
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Notes, Cautions, and Warnings
NOTE: A NOTE indicates important information that helps you make better use of
your computer.
CAUTION: A CAUTION indicates potential damage to hardware or loss of data if
instructions are not followed.
WARNING: A WARNING indicates a potential for property damage, personal
injury, or death.
____________________
Information in this publication is subject to change without notice.
© 2008—2011 Dell Inc. All rights reserved.
Reproduction of these materials in any manner whatsoever without the written permission of Dell Inc.
is strictly forbidden.
Trademarks used in this text: Dell™, the DELL logo, PowerEdge™, and OpenManage™ are
trademarks of Dell Inc. Intel™ is a registered trademark of Intel Corporation in the U.S. and other
countries. AMD® is a registered trademark and AMD Opteron™, AMD Phenom™, and AMD
Sempron™ are trademarks of Advanced Micro Devices, Inc. Microsoft®, Windows®, and Windows
Server® are either trademarks or registered trademarks of Microsoft Corporation in the United States
and/or other countries.
Other trademarks and trade names may be used in this publication to refer to either the entities claiming
the marks and names or their products. Dell Inc. disclaims any proprietary interest in trademarks and
trade names other than its own.
Models: UCS61, UCS60
February 2011
Rev. A01
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Contents
1
WARNING: Safety Instructions .
SAFETY: General .
2
. . . . . . . .
7
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8
SAFETY: When Working Inside Your System
. . . . . . .
8
Protecting Against Electrostatic Discharge
. . . . . . .
9
Overview
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Introduction
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
General Information, Intended Audience, and
Prerequisites for Use . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Related Documentation
11
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
12
. . . . . . .
12
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
17
RAID Terminology
3
Features .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
18
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
21
General Features .
Specifications
4
11
. . . . .
PERC S100 Adapter or PERC S300 Adapter
Descriptions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
About RAID .
11
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
21
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
29
Hardware Installation
Before You Begin
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
31
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
31
Contents
3
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General Considerations
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Installing the PERC S300 Adapter
. . . . . . . . . . . .
Connect Physical Disks to the PERC S300 Adapter
Complete the Hardware Installation
5
Installing the Drivers .
35
. . . . . . . . . .
35
. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
RAID Configuration and
Management . . . . . . . . .
Troubleshooting .
37
. . . . . . . . . . . . .
47
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Warning Messages: Dell Inc. PERC S100
Adapter or Dell Inc. PERC S300 Adapter
BIOS Screen . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Virtual Disk-Related Errors
Appendix A .
Controller Tasks
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
70
. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
75
77
77
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
78
Virtual Disk Tasks
Contents
61
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Physical Disk Tasks
4
61
64
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Controller Specifications
47
. . . . . . . .
Physical Disk-Related Errors
8
. . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
System Startup Problems
37
. . . . . . .
Configuring the Controller: Using the PERC
Virtual Disk Management Utility . . . . . .
7
32
. . .
Installing the Microsoft Windows Drivers
6
31
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
78
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
79
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Supported RAID Levels
Virtual Disk Specifications
9
Appendix B
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
80
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
81
RAID Technology - Understanding Disk Arrays
and Virtual Disks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
10 Appendix C
. . . .
81
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
89
Regulatory Notices
90
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Industry Canada Notice (Canada Only)
. . . . . . . . .
92
. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
92
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
94
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
95
CE Notice (European Union) .
CE Mark Notice
Contacting Dell
Index
89
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
FCC Notice (U.S. Only) .
11 Appendix D
79
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
95
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
97
Glossary
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
103
Contents
5
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6
Contents
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1
WARNING: Safety Instructions
Use the following safety guidelines to help ensure your own personal safety
and to help protect your system and working environment from potential
damage.
WARNING: Do not expose the Dell PowerEdge Expandable RAID Controller
(PERC) S300 adapter to liquids. To reduce risk of fire hazard, do not cover or
obstruct the ventilation openings of the system in which it is installed. Do not
install the controller in a zero-clearance compartment. This could result in
overheating.
WARNING: Do not operate the controller if it has been dropped or damaged in
any way.
WARNING: The controller, like every other electronic part of a system, can be
damaged by static electricity. Be sure that you are properly grounded. It is
recommended that you wear a grounded antistatic strap and that the system is
unplugged before you install the controller.
CAUTION: Cable connectors must be mated carefully with the connectors on the
PERC S300 adapter. The connectors are keyed to prevent them from being inserted
incorrectly.
CAUTION: Ensure that the current RAID controller (if any) is not currently working
on any pending tasks (such as a rebuild) before it is turned off to conduct a system
upgrade.
CAUTION: During a firmware update, do not reboot the system that contains the
PERC S300 adaper. An update might take up to five minutes per controller.
WARNING: Safety Instructions
7
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SAFETY: General
Observe and follow service markings:
•
Do not service any product except as explained in the user documentation.
Opening or removing covers that are marked with a triangular symbol with
a lightning bolt might expose you to electrical shock. Components inside
these compartments must be serviced only by a trained service technician.
•
Use the product only with Dell-approved equipment.
•
Operate the product only from the type of external power source indicated
on the electrical ratings label. If you are not sure of the type of power
source required, consult your service provider or local power company.
SAFETY: When Working Inside Your System
Before you remove the system covers, perform the following steps in the
sequence indicated.
WARNING: Only trained service technicians are authorized by Dell to remove
covers from the system, and access any of the internal components, unless the
Dell documentation expressly states otherwise.
CAUTION: To help avoid possible damage to the system board, wait five seconds
after turning off the system before disconnecting the controller.
1 Turn off the system and any devices.
2 Wear grounding straps that are properly grounded before touching
anything inside the system.
3 While you work, periodically touch an unpainted metal surface on the
chassis to dissipate any static electricity that might harm internal
components.
4 Disconnect your system and devices from their power sources. To reduce
the potential of personal injury or shock, disconnect any
telecommunication lines from the system.
8
WARNING: Safety Instructions
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In addition, take note of these safety guidelines when appropriate:
•
When you disconnect any cable, pull on its connector or on its strain-relief
loop, not on the cable itself. Some cables have a connector with locking
tabs. If you are disconnecting this type of cable, press in on the locking
tabs before disconnecting the cable. As you pull connectors apart, keep
them evenly aligned to avoid bending any connector pins. Also, before you
connect a cable, make sure that both connectors are correctly oriented and
aligned.
•
Handle the controller with care. Do not touch the components or contacts
on the controller.
Protecting Against Electrostatic Discharge
Electrostatic discharge (ESD) events can harm electronic components inside
your system. ESD, or electrostatic discharge, is the process by which static
electricity can build up within a person or an object, and then discharge into
another object. ESD events can harm your PERC S300 adaper, your system,
and other electrical components. To prevent ESD damage, you must
discharge static electricity from your body before you interact with any of the
system’s internal electronic components. You can protect against ESD by
touching a metal grounded object (such as an unpainted metal surface on
your system’s I/O panel) before you interact with anything electronic. In
addition, as you work inside the system, periodically touch an I/O connector
to remove any static charge your body might have accumulated.
You can also take the following steps to prevent damage from electrostatic
discharge:
•
When unpacking the controller from its shipping carton, do not remove
the controller from the antistatic packing material until you are ready to
install it. Just before unwrapping the antistatic package, be sure to
discharge static electricity from your body.
•
Handle all electrostatic sensitive components in a static-safe area. If
possible, use anti-static floor pads and work bench pads.
WARNING: Safety Instructions
9
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10
WARNING: Safety Instructions
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2
Overview
Introduction
The Dell PowerEdge RAID Controller (PERC) S300 provides an integrated
software RAID solution for Dell PowerEdge Value Servers. The PERC S300
controllers support SAS and SATA interfaces. Containing two internal
connectors with four ports each, the PERC S300 adapter features
eight ports for connecting drives with a maximum burst speed of up to
3 Gbps per port.
The PERC S100 adaper is targeted as a low-cost RAID solution for Dell
PowerEdge Value Servers. The PERC S100 adapter solution supports SATA
Hard Disk Drives (HDD) and Solid State Disk (SSD) drives. The PERC S100
adapter requires no additional hardware; it runs from the I/O Controller HUB
(ICH) or Platform Controller Hub (PCH) chipset on the platform
motherboard.
The PERC S100 adapter and PERC S300 adapter offer the same RAID level
support and functionality, including the support of up to eight physical
drives.
General Information, Intended Audience, and
Prerequisites for Use
This document provides information about:
•
The PERC S100 adapter and PERC S300 adapter, including server,
operating system, and software support
•
Controller configuration and startup procedures
•
Controller operating modes
Overview
11
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This document is intended for use by system administrators and technicians
who are familiar with the storage system installation and configuration.
Prerequisites for configuring and using the controller include familiarity with:
•
Servers and computer networks
•
RAID technology
•
Storage-interface technology, such as SAS and SATA
Related Documentation
For more information about the PERC S100 adapter or PERC S300 adapter
and its relationship to the Dell OpenManage Server Administrator Storage
Management documentation, see the Storage Management documentation
available on the Dell Support website at support.dell.com/manuals.
PERC S100 Adapter or PERC S300 Adapter
Descriptions
The following list describes each type of controller:
12
•
The PERC S300 Adapter has two internal connectors with x4 SAS ports.
•
The PERC S300 Modular has two internal connectors with x4 SAS ports.
•
The PERC S100 adapter runs on the ICH or PCH chipset on the platform
motherboard.
Overview
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Supported Platforms
Table 2-1. Dell Systems and Support Matrix for the PERC S100 Adapter and
PERC S300 Adapter
PowerEdge Server
PERC Controller, with Chipset and Adapter Support per Platform
PowerEdge R210
PERC S100 adapter – Intel Ibex Peak chipsets
PERC S300 adapter – Dell 3Gb/s SAS Adapter
PowerEdge R210 II
PERC S100 adapter – Intel Cougar Point chipsets
PERC S300 adapter – Dell 3Gb/s SAS Adapter
PowerEdge R310
PERC S100 adapter – Intel Ibex Peak chipsets
PERC S300 adapter – Dell 3Gb/s SAS Modular
PowerEdge R410
PERC S100 adapter – Intel ICH10R chipsets
PERC S300 adapter – Dell 3Gb/s SAS Modular
PowerEdge R415
PERC S300 adapter – Dell 3Gb/s SAS Modular,
AMD SP5100 South Bridge chipsets
PowerEdge R510
PERC S100 adapter – Intel ICH10R chipsets,
PERC S300 adapter – Dell 3Gb/s SAS Adapter
PowerEdge R515
PERC S300 adapter – Dell 3Gb/s SAS Adapter,
AMD SP5100 South Bridge chipsets
PowerEdge T110
PERC S100 adapter – Intel Ibex Peak chipsets
PERC S300 adapter – Dell 3Gb/s SAS Adapter
PowerEdge T110 II
PERC S100 adapter – Intel Cougar Point chipsets
PERC S300 adapter – Dell 3Gb/s SAS Adapter
PowerEdge T310
PERC S100 adapter – Intel Ibex Peak chipsets
PERC S300 adapter – Dell 3Gb/s SAS Adapter
PowerEdge T410
PERC S100 adapter – Intel ICH10R chipsets
PERC S300 adapter – Dell 3Gb/s SAS Adapter
Overview
13
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Platform Requirements for the PERC S100 Controller and PERC S300
Controller
Table 2-2. Platform Requirements — PERC S100 Controller or PERC S300 Controller
Component Requirements
Processor
x86, 32-bit compatible processor greater than 500 MHz.
Memory
512 MB or greater.
Physical
disk
At least one Hard Disk Drives (HDD) or Solid State Disk (SSD) Drives.
NOTE: The PERC S100 controller supports cabled configurations of up to
4 SATA HDD or 4 SATA SSD physical disks. The PERC S300 controller
supports cabled or hot-swap configurations of up to 8 SATA or SAS HDD
physical disks.
• SATA-II HDD physical disks can be used with a PERC S100 adapter or
a PERC S300 adapter.
• SATA-II SSD physical disks can be used only with a PERC S100
adapter.
• SAS HDD physical disks can be used only with a PERC S300 adapter.
Ports
• The S300 Adapter has two 8470-type internal SAS connectors on the
adapter card. Each mini-SAS connector supports 4 SAS/SATA ports.
• The S300 Modular typically plugs into a backplane that has a single
8470-type SAS connector (except for PERC S300 adapters on an R210
or T110, whose cables plug directly into the physical disks).
Available
slots
14
The PERC S300 Adapter and PERC S300 Modular cards plug into
8-lane Peripheral Component Interconnect Express (PCI-E) slots.
Overview
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Table 2-2. Platform Requirements — PERC S100 Controller or PERC S300 Controller
Component Requirements
Operating
systems
• Microsoft Windows Essential Business Server (x64)
• Microsoft Windows Server 2008 Datacenter Edition (x64)
• Microsoft Windows Server 2008 Enterprise Edition (x64)
• Microsoft Windows Server 2008 Enterprise Edition (x86)
• Microsoft Windows Server 2008 Foundation
• Microsoft Windows Server 2008 HPC Edition
• Microsoft Windows Server 2008 R2 Datacenter
• Microsoft Windows Server 2008 R2 Datacenter SP1
• Microsoft Windows Server 2008 R2 Enterprise
• Microsoft Windows Server 2008 R2 Enterprise SP1
• Microsoft Windows Server 2008 R2 Foundation
• Microsoft Windows Server 2008 R2 Foundation SP1
• Microsoft Windows Server 2008 R2 HPC Edition
• Microsoft Windows Server 2008 R2 Standard
• Microsoft Windows Server 2008 R2 Standard SP1
• Microsoft Windows Server 2008 SP2 Datacenter Edition (x64)
• Microsoft Windows Server 2008 SP2 Enterprise Edition (x64)
• Microsoft Windows Server 2008 SP2 Enterprise Edition (x86)
• Microsoft Windows Server 2008 SP2 Standard Edition (x64)
• Microsoft Windows Server 2008 SP2 Standard Edition (x86)
• Microsoft Windows Server 2008 SP2 Web Edition (x64)
• Microsoft Windows Server 2008 SP2 Web Edition (x86)
• Microsoft Windows Server 2008 Standard Edition (x64)
• Microsoft Windows Server 2008 Standard Edition (x86)
• Microsoft Windows Server 2008 R2, 64-bit, Standard and Enterprise
Edition
• Microsoft Windows Server 2008 64-bit Web Edition
Overview
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Table 2-2. Platform Requirements — PERC S100 Controller or PERC S300 Controller
Component Requirements
• Microsoft Windows Server 2008 Web Edition (x64)
• Microsoft Windows Server 2008 Web Edition (x86)
• Microsoft Windows Small Business Server 2008
• Microsoft Windows Small Business Server 2008 SP2
• Microsoft Windows Small Business Server 2003 R2 SP2 (x86 or x64)
• Microsoft Windows Small Business Server 2011
• Microsoft Windows Web Server 2008 R2
• Microsoft Windows Web Server 2008 R2 SP1
• Microsoft Windows Server 2003 SP2 (x86 or x64)
• Microsoft Windows Server 2003 R2 SP2, 32-bit or 64-bit, Standard and
Enterprise Edition
• Microsoft Windows Server 2003 R2 SP2 32-bit Web Edition
• Microsoft Windows Server 2008 SP2, 32-bit or 64-bit, Standard and
Enterprise Edition
NOTE: Microsoft Windows Server 2003 SP1 is not supported.
NOTE: Microsoft Windows Server 2003 R2 is not supported.
NOTE: PERC S100 controllers and PERC S300 controller are not supported
with Windows Hyper-V.
Supported
devices
• PERC S100 adapter: supports Dell-supported SATA-based tape devices
and SATA optical disk devices.
NOTE: The PERC S100 controller supports system boot to a tape using a
Dell RD1000 tape device. Select Continue while in CTRL-R for RD1000 to
remain first in the boot order. The RD1000 option goes to end of the boot
order listing if <Ctrl><Alt><Del> is selected and you would not be able to
boot to it.
• PERC S300 adapter: does not support tape devices or SATA optical disk
devices.
16
Overview
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About RAID
A RAID disk array is a group of independent physical disks that provides high
performance by increasing the number of drives used for saving and accessing
data. A RAID disk subsystem improves I/O performance and data availability.
The physical disks appear to the host system either as a single storage unit or
multiple logical units. Data throughput improves because several disks are
accessed simultaneously. RAID systems also improve data storage availability
and fault tolerance. Data loss caused by a physical disk failure can be
recovered by rebuilding missing data from the remaining physical disks
containing data or parity.
NOTE: When a physical disk in a RAID 0 virtual disk fails, data is lost because there
is no redundancy for this RAID level. However, when a physical disk in a
RAID 1, RAID 5, or RAID 10 fails, data is preserved because there is redundancy
with these RAID levels.
Summary of RAID Levels
•
Volume uses available space on a single physical disk and forms a single
logical volume on which data is stored.
•
RAID 0 uses disk striping to provide high data throughput, especially for
large files in an environment that requires no data redundancy.
•
RAID 1 uses disk mirroring so that data written to one physical disk is
simultaneously written to another physical disk. RAID 1 is good for small
databases or other applications that require small capacity but also
complete data redundancy.
•
RAID 5 uses disk striping and parity data across all physical disks
(distributed parity) to provide high data throughput and data redundancy.
•
RAID 10 uses disk striping across two mirrored sets. It provides high data
throughput and complete data redundancy.
Overview
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RAID Terminology
Disk Striping
Disk striping allows you to write data across multiple physical disks instead of
just one physical disk. Disk striping involves partitioning each physical disk
storage space into stripes of the various sizes. These stripes are interleaved in
a repeated sequential manner. The part of the stripe on a single physical disk
is called a stripe element.
For example, in a four-disk system using only disk striping (used in RAID
level 0), segment 1 is written to disk 1, segment 2 is written to disk 2, and so
on. Disk striping enhances performance because multiple physical disks are
accessed simultaneously, but disk striping does not provide data redundancy.
Figure 2-1 shows an example of disk striping.
Figure 2-1. Example of Disk Striping (RAID 0)
Stripe element 1
Stripe element 5
Stripe element 9
Stripe element 2
Stripe element 6
Stripe element 10
Stripe element 3
Stripe element 7
Stripe element 11
Stripe element 4
Stripe element 8
Stripe element 12
Disk Mirroring
With mirroring (used in RAID 1), data written to one disk is simultaneously
written to another disk. If one disk fails, the contents of the other disk can be
used to run the system and rebuild the failed physical disk. The primary
advantage of disk mirroring is that it provides 100 percent data redundancy.
Because the contents of the disk are completely written to a second disk, it
does not matter if one of the disks fails. Both disks contain a copy of the same
data at all times. Either of the physical disks can act as the operational
physical disk. Disk mirroring provides 100 percent redundancy, but is
expensive because each physical disk in the system must be duplicated.
Figure 2-2 shows an example of disk mirroring.
18
Overview
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NOTE: Mirrored physical disks improve read performance by read load balancing.
NOTE: The PERC S300 controller only supports physical disks (SAS and SATA). SSD
devices cannot be migrated to a PERC S300 controller.
Figure 2-2. Example of Disk Mirroring (RAID 1)
Stripe element 1
Stripe element 2
Stripe element 3
Stripe element 4
Stripe element 1 Duplicated
Stripe element 2 Duplicated
Stripe element 3 Duplicated
Stripe element 4 Duplicated
Spanned RAID Levels
Spanning is a term used to describe the way in which RAID level 10 is
constructed from multiple sets of simpler RAID levels. For example, a RAID
10 has multiple sets of RAID 1 disk arrays in which each RAID 1 set is
considered a span. Data is then striped (as it is in RAID 0) across the RAID 1
spans to create a RAID 10 virtual disk.
Parity Data
Parity data is redundant data that has been generated to provide fault
tolerance within certain RAID levels. In the event of a drive failure, the parity
data can be used by the controller to regenerate user data. Parity data is
present only for RAID 5 disk arrays.
The parity data is distributed across all the physical disks in the system. If a
single physical disk fails, it can be rebuilt from the parity and the data on the
remaining physical disks. RAID 5 combines distributed parity with disk
striping, as shown in Figure 2-3. Parity provides redundancy for one physical
disk failure without duplicating the contents of entire physical disks.
Overview
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Figure 2-3. Example of Distributed Parity (RAID 5)
20
stripe element1
stripe element2
stripe element3
stripe element4
stripe element5
parity (1-5)
stripe element7
stripe element8
stripe element9
stripe element10
parity (6-10)
stripe element6
stripe element13
stripe element14
stripe element15
parity (11-15)
stripe element11
stripe element12
stripe element19
stripe element20
parity (16-20)
stripe element16
stripe element17
stripe element18
stripe element25
parity (21-25)
stripe element21
stripe element22
stripe element23
stripe element24
parity (26-30)
stripe element26
stripe element27
stripe element28
stripe element29
stripe element30
Overview
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3
Features
General Features
The features of the Dell PowerEdge RAID Controller (PERC) S100 and
PERC S300 adapter are described in Table 3-1.
NOTE: BAS, BGI, CC and OCE run only on the operating system.
Table 3-1. Features of the PERC S100 controller and PERC S300 controller
RAID Controller Feature Description
Automatic virtual disk Rebuilds a redundant virtual disk automatically when a
rebuild
failure is detected, if a hot spare is assigned for this capability.
Background Array
Scan (BAS)
Verifies and corrects correctable media errors on mirror,
volume, or parity data for virtual disks. BAS starts
automatically after a Virtual Disk is created while in the OS.
Background virtual
disk initialization
(BGI)
The background initialization of a redundant virtual disk
creates the parity data that allows the virtual disk to maintain
its redundant data and survive a physical disk failure.
Because background initialization helps the controller to
identify and correct problems that might occur with the
redundant data at a later time, background initialization is
similar to a consistency check.
Background initialization allows a redundant virtual disk to
be used immediately. Data is lost if a physical disk fails before
the completion of a BGI.
NOTE: Although a BGI is software-initiated at the PERC Virtual
Disk Management utility, the PERC S100 adapter/PERC S300
adapter drivers must be loaded before the BGI runs.
NOTE: Unless mentioned otherwise, the term PERC Virtual Disk
Management utility refers to both the PERC S100 Virtual Disk
Management utility and the PERC S300 Virtual Disk
Management utility.
Features
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Table 3-1. Features of the PERC S100 controller and PERC S300 controller (continued)
RAID Controller Feature Description
Boot support for RAID Allows boot support for Volume, RAID 0, RAID 1, RAID 5,
levels
and RAID 10.
Boot support for
degraded virtual disks
Enables the system to boot from degraded redundant virtual
disks (RAID 1, RAID 5, or RAID 10).
Cache support for
virtual disks
Supports these cache options: None, Read Only, Read/Write.
The PERC S100 adapter or PERC S300 adapter uses part of
system memory for cache.
Checkpointing
Allows different types of checkpointing (background
initialization, consistency check, and rebuild) to resume at
the last point following a restart.
After the system restarts, background checkpointing resumes
at its most-recent checkpoint.
Command queuing
Command queuing is a command protocol used by SATA
and SAS physical disks that is supported by the PERC S100
adapter and PERC S300 adapter.
Command queuing allows the host to issue multiple
input/output requests to a disk simultaneously. The disk can
then decide in which order to process the commands to
achieve maximum performance.
The SATA and SAS versions of command queuing have
slightly different protocols and means of handling multiple
traffic requests at the same time, but the end-purposes are
comparable.
22
Features
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Table 3-1. Features of the PERC S100 controller and PERC S300 controller (continued)
RAID Controller Feature Description
Consistency check
(CC)
A consistency check is a background operation that verifies
and corrects the mirror or parity data for fault-tolerant
physical disks. It is recommended that you periodically run a
consistency check on the physical disks.
By default, a consistency check corrects mirror or parity
inconsistencies. After the data is corrected, the data on the
primary physical disk in a mirror set is assumed to be the
correct data and is written to the secondary physical disk in
the mirror set.
A consistency check cannot be user-initiated in the PERC
Virtual Disk Management utility. However, a consistency
check can user-initiated when using Dell OpenManage Server
Administrator Storage Management.
Disk initialization
For physical disks, initialization writes metadata to the
physical disk, so that the controller can use the physical disk.
Fault tolerance
The following fault tolerance features are available with the
PERC S100 adapter and PERC S300 adapter, in order to
prevent data loss in case of a failed physical disk:
• Physical disk failure detection (automatic).
• Virtual disk rebuild using hot spares (automatic, if the hot
spare is configured for this functionality).
• Parity generation and checking (RAID 5 only).
• Hot-swap manual replacement of a physical disk without
rebooting the system (only for systems with a backplane that
allows hot-swapping).
If one side of a RAID 1 (mirror) fails, data can be rebuilt by
using the physical disk on the other side of the mirror.
If a physical disk in RAID 5 fails, parity data exists on the
remaining physical disks, which can be used to restore the
data to a new, replacement physical disk configured as a hot
spare.
If a physical disk fails in RAID 10, the virtual disk remains
functional and data is read from the surviving mirrored
physical disk(s). A single disk failure in each mirrored set can
be sustained, depending on how the mirrored set fails.
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Table 3-1. Features of the PERC S100 controller and PERC S300 controller (continued)
RAID Controller Feature Description
Mirror rebuilding
A broken mirror can be rebuilt after a new physical disk is
inserted and the physical disk is designated as a hot spare.
The system does not have to be rebooted.
Online Capacity
Expansion (OCE)
OCE is a process that allows you to add storage capacity to an
existing virtual disk. In most cases additional storage capacity
can be added without taking the system offline. However, if
an additional physical disk needs to be added and the system
does not support hot-swapping, the system must be turned
off.
OCE enables you to increase the total storage capacity of a
virtual disk by integrating unused storage with the virtual
disk.
Data can be accessed while the physical disks are added (if a
system has hot-swap capability) and while data on the virtual
disk is being redistributed.
For Volume and RAID 1, OCE expands the virtual disk by
using the available space of the physical disks that are already
members of the virtual disk. For RAID 0, RAID 5 and RAID
10, additional capacity can be attained by adding physical
disks to the virtual disk.
Physical disks
(general)
The PERC S100 adapter supports up to four SATA HDD or
SSD physical disks. The PERC S300 adapter supports up to
eight SAS or SATA HDD physical disks.
NOTE: The physical disks in a virtual disk must be the same
interface and drive type (HDD or SSD). For example, you cannot
mix a SATA and SAS interface (HDD or SSD), or HDD and SSD
physical disks, in the same virtual disk.
A maximum of eight physical disks can be used for RAID 0
and RAID 5. A maximum of two physical disks can be used
for RAID 1. A maximum of four physical disks can be used for
RAID 10.
If a physical disk fails during system startup, the controller
identifies the failed physical disk as follows:
• At the PERC Virtual Disk Management utility by
highlighting the failed physical disk in a virtual disk in red.
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Table 3-1. Features of the PERC S100 controller and PERC S300 controller (continued)
RAID Controller Feature Description
• In a brief warning at the Dell Inc. PERC S100 Controller
BIOS or Dell Inc. PERC S300 Controller BIOS screen,
that a virtual disk(s) were found that are Degraded and/or
Failed. This alerts the user to the failed physical disk(s).
• At Dell OpenManage Server Administrator Storage
Management.
• With a bi-color Status LED on each physical disk. The green
element of the Status LED is off, while the amber element
flashes on and off.
NOTE: The Status LED applies only to systems with a PERC S300
adapter and a backplane that has removable physical disks.
NOTE: PERC S100 adapters support HDD physical disks of
capacity 2 TB and greater. Current and upcoming releases of
PERC S300 adapters will only support upto 2 TB HDD physical
disks .
Physical disk
hot-swapping
(hot-swap capability)
Hot-swap (hot-plug) capability is the manual substitution of
a physical disk for another one while the host system is
powered on.
If a system supports hot-swapping, physical disks can be
plugged into a system’s backplane while the controller is
operating, without causing the controller to reset.
CAUTION: A physical disk can be hot-swapped from a system
only if the system has a PERC S300 adapter and a backplane
that supports hot-swapping.
NOTE: If a system’s physical disks are accessible only when the
system’s cover is removed, the physical disks cannot be hotswapped. The physical disks must be located on the backplane
(behind the removable front panel) and accessible externally.
NOTE: When replacing physical disks in a virtual disk that has
already been created, make sure that SAS HDD physical disks
are replaced with SAS HDD physical disks, that SATA HDD
physical disks are replaced with SATA HDD physical disks, and
that SATA SSD physical disks are replaced with SATA SSD
physical disks.
NOTE: When hot-swapping a physical disk, make sure that the
new disk is of equal or greater capacity to the physical disk that
is being replaced.
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Table 3-1. Features of the PERC S100 controller and PERC S300 controller (continued)
RAID Controller Feature Description
Physical disk roaming
The controller supports moving a physical disk from one
backplane slot or cable connection to another (on the same
controller). The controller automatically recognizes the
repositioned physical disk and logically places it in the proper
order.
WARNING: A virtual disk is lost if you perform disk
roaming while an OCE is running at Storage Management.
NOTE: For more information on how to open the system and
add parts, see the Hardware Owner’s Manual, available on the
Dell Support website at support.dell.com/manuals.
Perform the following steps for physical disk roaming:
NOTE: These steps do not apply to systems that have a
backplane with hot-swap capability.
1 Turn off the power to the system, physical disks, and system
components.
2 Disconnect the power cables from the system.
3 Move the physical disks to different slots on the backplane
or to different cable connections.
4 Perform a safety check. Make sure the physical disks are
inserted properly.
5 Connect the power cables and power up the system.
NOTE: The controller detects the RAID configuration from the
configuration data on the physical disks.
Storage port (Storport) For use with Microsoft Windows Server 2003 and later, the
Storport driver improves throughput and miniport driver
driver support
interfaces.
Stripe size
26
Features
Stripe size is determined by a PERC S100 adapter/PERC
S300 adapter algorithm. Stripe size cannot be configured by
the user.
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Table 3-1. Features of the PERC S100 controller and PERC S300 controller (continued)
RAID Controller Feature Description
Virtual disks (general) Up to eight virtual disks are supported.
The PERC S100 adapter and PERC S300 adapter allows:
• Creating virtual disks of different RAID levels on a single
controller.
• Creating different RAID level virtual disks on the same
physical disk, to adapt each virtual disk to the I/O that it
processes.
• Building different virtual disks with different characteristics
for different applications.
The PERC S100 adapter and PERC S300 adapter does not
allow:
• Creating a virtual disk from a mix of different type physical
disks. For example, a RAID 10 virtual disk cannot be created
from two SATA-II HDD physical disks, a SAS HDD physical
disk, and a SSD physical disk. All of the physical disks must
be the same interface (SAS or SATA) and drive type (HDD
or SSD).
• Selecting a physical disk as a dedicated hot spare if the
physical disk is a different type from the physical disk or
disks.
A virtual disk refers to data storage created by the controller
from one or more physical disks. Although a virtual disk can
be created from several physical disks, it is seen by the
operating system as a single disk.
The capacity of a virtual disk can be expanded online for any
RAID level, without the operating system being rebooted.
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Table 3-1. Features of the PERC S100 controller and PERC S300 controller (continued)
RAID Controller Feature Description
Virtual disk migration The controller supports automatic virtual disk migration
from a PERC S100 adapter to a PERC S300 adapter (or vice
versa). Manual intervention for migration is not required or
used by the PERC S100 adapter or
PERC S300 adapter.
CAUTION: Before starting a virtual disk migration, powerdown both systems before removing or inserting the physical
disks. After the migration occurs, make sure that all of the
physical disks have been migrated and are present in the
virtual disk.
CAUTION: The virtual disk is lost if you perform a virtual disk
migration during an OCE.
NOTE: The PERC S100 adapter only supports SATA HDD and
SATA SSD disks. SAS disks cannot be migrated with a
PERC S100 adapter.
NOTE: A bootable virtual disk cannot be migrated between
dissimilar controllers or dissimilar system models when the
system uses Microsoft Windows Server 2003 as its operating
system.
Virtual disk RAID
levels
Virtual disks at different RAID levels can be created.
Virtual disk
transformation
Virtual disk transformation can consist of:
• Capacity expansion, using OCE (to allocate additional
virtual disk space on the original physical disks or after
additional physical disks are added).
• Rebuilding (rebuilding data on a virtual disk consists of
using an available hot spare or backup physical disk).
28
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Specifications
Table 3-2 compares the specifications of the PERC S100 adapter and PERC
S300 adapter.
Table 3-2. Specifications for the PERC S100 adapter and PERC S300 adapter
Specification
PERC S100 adapter
PERC S300 adapter
SAS technology
No
Yes
SATA technology
Yes
Yes
eSATA technology
Yes
No
SSD technology
Yes
No
Support for x8 PCI-E Host Interface No
Yes
I/O Controller
Intel ICH10R or
Dell 3Gb/s SAS
Intel Ibex Peak chipsets Adapter
or Intel Cougar Point
chipsets
Communication to the system
Integrated
PCI-E lanes
Communication to end devices
SATA links
SAS/SATA links
SAS connectors
No
Two 4-port connectors
on all systems
SATA connectors
Discrete on the
motherboard
Two 4-port connectors
on all systems
Lead-free
Yes
Yes
Supported operating systems
Microsoft Windows Server 2003 Family,
Microsoft Windows Server 2008 Family,
Microsoft Windows Server 2008 R2
Dell-compliant SATA compatibility Yes
Yes
Dell-compliant SAS compatibility
No
Yes
Dell-supported direct-connected
end devices
Dell-compliant
physical disks
Dell-compliant
physical disks
*SMART error support through
management applications
Yes
Yes
Backplane supported systems
No
Yes
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Table 3-2. Specifications for the PERC S100 adapter and PERC S300 adapter
Specification
PERC S100 adapter
PERC S300 adapter
Software-based RAID
Volume, RAID 1,
RAID 0, RAID 5,
RAID 10
Volume, RAID 1,
RAID 0, RAID 5,
RAID 10
Maximum number of virtual disks
8
8
Support for internal tape drive
Yes
No
Support for global hot spare
Yes
Yes
Maximum number of hot spares
Varies (by the number
of free disks in the
system)
Varies (by the number
of free disks in the
system)
*SMART is supported under the Windows Driver but is not supported with
Unified Extensible Firmware Interface (UEFI) and CTRL-R. The SWRAID
SMART drive status shows as "Degraded" in OpenManage Storage Services
(OMSS).
30
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4
Hardware Installation
Before You Begin
This chapter describes how to install the Dell PowerEdge RAID Controller
(PERC) S300 adapter.
NOTE: The PERC S100 controller is an integral component of the motherboard.
Hardware installation instructions are not required for a system with a PERC S100
controller.
General Considerations
WARNING: Before you begin any of the procedures in this chapter, follow the
safety instructions that were shipped with your system. For additional safety
information, see the Regulatory Compliance Homepage on dell.com at the
following location: dell.com/regulatory_compliance.
WARNING: Electrostatic discharge can damage sensitive components. Always
use proper antistatic protection when handling components. Touching
components without using a proper ground can damage the equipment.
WARNING: Plug the PERC S300 controller only into a PCI-E slot. Plugging the
controller into an incorrect type of slot can potentially destroy the controller, as
well as the motherboard.
CAUTION: Before installing a controller in an existing system, back up all critical
data. Failure to follow this accepted system management practice could result in a
loss of data.
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Installing the PERC S300 Adapter
NOTE: The procedure to open a system and add parts might vary from system to
system. For more information, see the Hardware Owner's Manual of the system on
the Dell Support website at support.dell.com/manuals.
1 Unpack the PERC S300 Adapter and check it for damage.
NOTE: If the PERC S300 Adapter is damaged, contact Dell Support at
support.dell.com.
2 Turn off the system and attached peripherals. Disconnect the system
power cable from the electrical outlet. See the system’s Hardware Owner’s
Manual or User’s Guide on support.dell.com/manuals for more information
about power supplies.
3 Disconnect the system from the network and remove the cover of the
system. See your system’s Hardware Owner’s Manual or User’s Guide for
more information on opening the system.
4 Select an appropriate PCI-E slot. Remove the blank filler bracket on the
back of the system aligned with the PCI-E slot you have selected.
NOTE: Insert the controller into a slot that has at least eight PCI-E lanes for
optimum performance.
NOTE: Insert the controller into a slot with a PCI-E x8 or larger physical
connector.
NOTE: For more information about your system’s PCI-E slots, see your
system’s Hardware Owner’s Manual or User’s Guide on the Dell Support
website at support.dell.com/manuals.
5 Align the PERC S300 Adapter to the PCI-E slot you have selected.
6 Insert the controller gently, but firmly, until the controller is firmly seated
in the PCI-E slot. See Figure 4-1.
7 Tighten the bracket screw, if any, or use the system’s retention clips to
secure the controller to the system’s chassis.
NOTE: If you are attempting to install a Modular PERC S300 refer to the
platform documentation for help with the installation.
32
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Figure 4-1. Installing a PERC S300 Adapter
1
5
2
4
3
1
bracket screw
2
PERC S300 Adapter
3
PCI-E slot
4
filler bracket
5
PCI bracket
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Figure 4-2. Connecting the Cables
1
2
3
34
1
cables to the physical disks (applies to
systems with a PERC S300 adapter) or to
backplanes (applies only to systems with a
PERC S300 modular)
3
PERC S300 Adapter
Hardware Installation
2
SAS/SATA x4 internal
connectors (2)
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Connect Physical Disks to the PERC S300 Adapter
WARNING: Critical system components might be damaged if the installer is not
properly grounded to prevent electrostatic discharge (ESD).
NOTE: Use either the standard power connector or, if available on the power
supply, a SATA/SATA II power connector. Do not use both.
NOTE: You can view the physical disk LEDs on a system that uses a PERC S300
controller by removing the front panel from the system.
NOTE: The controller supports a feature that staggers the spinup of each physical
disk sequentially. This allows enough time between physical disk starts to prevent
the power supply from overloading.
1 Install the physical disks into the system.
2 Connect a multiple-connector cable from the physical disks (or from the
backplane) to the controller.
NOTE: If the system contains a PERC S300 controller and has a backplane with hotswap capability, the cables cannot be inserted directly into the physical disks. The
physical disks (within their carriers) are inserted and seated in the backplane.
A cable from the backplane is then connected to the PERC S300 controller.
Complete the Hardware Installation
After the controller and cables are installed, perform the following steps:
1 Make sure that the wire bundles and cables inside the system are not
twisted. Make sure they do not interfere with fans, power supplies, heat
sinks, or electrical devices.
2 Replace the cover of the system. See your system’s Hardware Owner’s
Manual or User’s Guide for more information on closing the system.
3 Reconnect the power cable(s) and network cables, and then turn on the
system.
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36
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5
Installing the Drivers
The Dell PowerEdge RAID Controller (PERC) S100 or PERC S100 adapter
require controller drivers to operate with the supported operating systems.
This chapter contains the procedures for installing the controller drivers for
the following operating systems:
•
Microsoft Windows Server 2008
•
Microsoft Windows Server 2008 R2
•
Microsoft Windows Server 2003 SP2
NOTE: Microsoft Windows Server 2003 R2 is not supported.
Installing the Microsoft Windows Drivers
Downloading the Controller Driver Media
1 Go to support.dell.com/support/downloads.
2 Select Choose by Service TagEnter a Tag.
3 Enter the Service Tag of the system on which you want to install the
PERC S100 adapter/PERC S300 adapter drivers and select Go.
NOTE: Alternatively, you can select Choose a ModelSelect
Model. Navigate to Servers, Storage, Networking
PowerEdge Server. Select the model of your system and select
Confirm.
4 Choose the applicable operating system.
5 Expand the SAS RAID Controller category.
6 Select Download Now for the appropriate controller driver.
NOTE: Load a blank optical medium (CD-ROM or DVD) in your system.
Installing the Drivers
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7 Use the blank optical medium to burn the ISO image.
8 Download the files for the PERC S100 adapter or PERC S300 adapter to
the driver media, as indicated in Figure 5-1.
Table 5-1. Operating System And Device Driver Media
Operating System
Driver Media (CD-ROM, DVD, USB flash drive, or floppy disk)
to Use
Windows Server 2008,
32-bit or 64-bit: Copy all of the files to a CD-ROM, DVD,
Windows Server 2008 R2 USB flash drive, or floppy disk.
Windows Server 2003
32-bit or 64-bit: Copy all of the files to a floppy disk.
NOTE: Windows Server 2003 versions SP1 and older
support driver load for operating system installation using a
USB key
Pre-Installation Requirements for the Controller Drivers
38
•
Make sure that your system has the latest BIOS and firmware updates from
the Dell Support website at support.dell.com/manuals.
•
Perform the pre-installation procedures in Table 5-2 before you install the
controller drivers and the operating system.
•
When you are ready to install the controller drivers and operating system
see "Installing the Controller Drivers During the Operating System
Installation: For Systems with a PERC S100 Adapter" on page 42 or
"Installing the Controller Drivers During the Operating System
Installation: For Systems with a PERC S300 Adapter" on page 44.
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Table 5-2. Pre-Installation Procedures For The Controller Drivers
Procedure
1 Confirm or change
configuration settings
at the Dell PowerEdge
System window
Steps
a Boot the system. When the Dell Power-On Self-Test
(POST) screen appears, press <F2>.
b Wait until the Dell PowerEdge System window
appears. Perform the following, depending on the
controller:
• For a PERC S100 adapter: Scroll to SATA
Settings. Press <Enter>. At the sub-screen,
confirm that the SATA Controller is set to a RAID
mode.
NOTE: If necessary, use the space bar to change the
setting.
• For a PERC S300 adapter: Scroll to SATA
Settings. Press <Enter>. At the sub-screen, set
SATA Controller to either ATA Mode or AHCI.
NOTE: If necessary, use the space bar to change the
setting.
c Press <Esc> to exit.
d Press <Esc> again. The following occurs:
• If no change was made at step b, the boot sequence
continues.
• If a change was made at step b, a dialog box appears.
Select Save Changes and Exit. Press <Enter>.
The boot sequence continues.
NOTE: If you decide to change from a PERC S100 adapter to
a PERC S300 adapter, make sure that you also change the
setting at SATA SettingsSATA Controller
from a RAID mode to ATA Mode. See step b.
2 Install the PERC S300
adapter (as required)
See "Install the PERC S300" in the Hardware Installation
Guide, located on the Dell Support website at
support.dell.com/manuals.
3 Initialize physical disks See "Initializing Physical Disks" on page 50.
(as required)
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Table 5-2. Pre-Installation Procedures For The Controller Drivers (continued)
Procedure
4 Create a bootable
virtual disk
5 Check controller
options and the boot
list priority
Steps
See "Creating Virtual Disks" on page 51.
a At the PERC S100 Virtual Disk Management utility or
PERC S300 Virtual Disk Management utility, use the
arrow keys to select Controller Options. Press
<Enter>. Make sure that Toggle INT13 Boot
Support is ON. Press <Esc> to exit.
b At the Virtual Disks field, make sure the bootable
virtual disk created in Procedure 4, is the first virtual
disk listed.
If the bootable virtual disk is not the first virtual disk
listed, see "Swapping Two Virtual Disks" on page 55.
NOTE: If Non-Raid virtual disks are used (and appear in the
Virtual Disks list), the Swap Two Virtual Disks option
is enabled only if the system contains an initialized physical
disk.
c Select Continue to Boot and press <Enter>.
NOTE: If the next Procedure (6) is not applicable, continue
with one of the following procedures:
• "Installing the Controller Drivers During the Operating
System Installation: For Systems with a PERC S100
Adapter" on page 42
• "Installing the Controller Drivers During the Operating
System Installation: For Systems with a PERC S300
Adapter" on page 44
40
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Table 5-2. Pre-Installation Procedures For The Controller Drivers (continued)
Procedure
6 Change the Boot
Priority List
for Devices (if
applicable)
Steps
To change the order of the devices (CD-ROM, optical
DVD, and so on), perform the following:
NOTE: Unless mentioned otherwise, the term PERC Virtual
Disk Management utility refers to both the PERC S100 Virtual
Disk Management utility and the PERC S300 Virtual Disk
Management utility.
NOTE: If the PERC Virtual Disk Management utility is open,
select Continue to Boot, then press <Enter>. Press
<Ctrl><Alt><Delete> to reboot the system.
a Boot the system. When the POST screen appears,
press <F2>.
b At the Dell PowerEdge System screen, use the arrow
keys to scroll to Boot Sequence. Press <Enter>.
c Make sure that Hard drive C: is the first device
listed.
d To change the sequence of other devices:
• Use the <+> key to move devices up, or the <-> key
to move devices down.
• Use the space bar to enable or disable a device.
e Press <Esc> to exit.
f Press <Esc> again. Select Save Changes and
Exit and press <Enter>.
NOTE: Continue with one of the following procedures:
• "Installing the Controller Drivers During the Operating
System Installation: For Systems with a PERC S100
Adapter" on page 42
• "Installing the Controller Drivers During the Operating
System Installation: For Systems with a PERC S300
Adapter" on page 44
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Installing the Controller Drivers During the Operating System
Installation: For Systems with a PERC S100 Adapter
CAUTION: The latest firmware, drivers and applications must be installed
whenever the controller software is upgraded. A previous version of the driver
might not work with the latest controller software and vice versa.
NOTE: When using an external USB floppy disk drive, make sure to connect it to
the system when the system is turned-off and before starting step 1. Failure to do so
might result in the external USB floppy disk drive not being recognized by the
system.
1 Reboot the system. When the POST screen appears press <F11>.
2 Insert the Windows operating system media into the optical drive of the
system.
3 When the BIOS boot manager or boot device menu appears, select the
text that begins with Embedded SATA... and press <Enter>.
4 Install the applicable Microsoft Windows operating system, using the
on-screen instructions.
5 At the Select the driver to be installed window a Load Driver sub-screen
appears. Perform the following:
For Microsoft Windows Server 2008 and Windows Server 2008 R2:
42
a
Insert the CD-ROM, DVD, USB flash drive, or floppy disk that
contains the files copied at "Downloading the Controller Driver
Media" on page 37. Click Browse.
b
At the Browse to folder window, access the directory that contains the
controller driver files. Locate and select the files. Click OK.
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For Microsoft Windows Server 2003:
a
Insert the floppy disk that contains the files copied at "Downloading
the Controller Driver Media" on page 37. (An external USB floppy
disk drive can be used, if your system does not have a built-in floppy
disk drive).
b
Press <F6> on the keyboard, when prompted at the beginning of the
Windows setup.
c
Wait until the Windows Setup window with S = Specify
Additional Device appears. Press <S> on the keyboard.
d
Insert the requested media disk (as applicable) and press <Enter>.
6 At the next Select the driver to be installed window, select Dell PERC
S100 S300 Controller... Click Next to load the driver files.
For Microsoft Windows Server 2003:
When you are asked to load additional drivers, press <Enter> to start the
Microsoft Windows installation process.
7 From the list at the Select the operating system you want to install
window, select the applicable operating system. Click Next.
8 Perform the remaining operating system installation instructions. Some of
the windows require user-specific password and system information. As
required, contact your IT administrator for assistance.
For Microsoft Windows Server 2003 only: Two warning dialog boxes
appear during the Installing Windows segment of the installation:
•
At the Software Installation dialog box, click Yes.
•
At the Hardware Installation dialog box, click Yes.
NOTE: When the operating system installation process is finished, remove the
installation media inserted in step 5.
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Installing the Controller Drivers During the Operating System
Installation: For Systems with a PERC S300 Adapter
CAUTION: The latest firmware, drivers and applications must be installed
whenever the controller software is upgraded. A previous version of the driver
might not work with the latest controller software and vice versa.
NOTE: When using an external USB floppy disk drive, make sure to connect it to
the system when the system is powered-off and before starting step 1.
1 Reboot the system. When the POST screen appears press <F11>.
2 Insert the Windows operating system media into the optical drive of the
system.
3 When the BIOS Boot Manager window appears, select the text that
begins with SATA Optical Drive... and press <Enter>.
4 Install the applicable Microsoft Windows operating system, using the
on-screen instructions.
5 From the list at the Select the operating system you want to install
window, select the applicable operating system. Click Next.
6 Perform the on-screen instructions at the next several windows.
7 At Install Windows - Where do you want to install Windows?, perform
the following:
For Microsoft Windows Server 2008 and Windows Server 2008 R2:
a
Insert the CD-ROM, DVD, USB flash drive, or floppy disk that
contains the files copied at "Downloading the Controller Driver
Media" on page 37. Click Load Driver.
b
At the Load Driver sub-screen, click Browse.
c
Select the directory that has the controller driver files. Click OK.
For Microsoft Windows Server 2003:
44
a
Insert the floppy disk that contains the files copied at "Downloading
the Controller Driver Media" on page 37. (An external USB floppy
disk drive can be used, if your system does not have a built-in floppy
disk drive).
b
Press <F6> on the keyboard, when prompted at the beginning of the
Windows setup.
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c
Wait until the Windows Setup screen appears with S = Specify
Additional Device. Press <S> on the keyboard.
d
Insert the requested media disk (as applicable) and press <Enter>.
8 At the Select the driver to be installed window, select Dell PERC
S100, S300 Controller... Click Next to load the driver files.
For Microsoft Windows Server 2003: When you are asked to load
additional drivers, press <Enter> to start the Microsoft Windows
installation process.
9 Perform the remaining operating system installation instructions. Some of
the windows require user-specific password and system information. As
required, contact your IT administrator for assistance
For Microsoft Windows Server 2003 only: Two warning dialog boxes
appear during the Installing Windows segment of the installation:
–
At the Software Installation dialog box, click Yes.
–
At the Hardware Installation dialog box, click Yes.
NOTE: When the operating system installation process is finished, remove the
installation media inserted in step 7.
Performing the PERC S100 Controller or PERC S300 Controller
Management Setup Procedure
The PERC S100 adapter or PERC S300 adapter management setup
procedure is described in Dell OpenManage Server Administrator Storage
Management. To set up a PERC S100 adapter or PERC S300 adapter on your
system, see the Storage Management procedures located at the Dell Support
website at support.dell.com/manuals.
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RAID Configuration and
Management
6
The Dell PowerEdge RAID Controller (PERC) S100 and PERC S100 adapter
are configured by using the PERC S100 Virtual Disk Management utility or
PERC S300 Virtual Disk Management utility. The utility is accessed at system
startup, when you are prompted to press <Ctrl><R>.
NOTE: Unless mentioned otherwise, the term PERC Virtual Disk Management utility
refers to both the PERC S100 Virtual Disk Management utility and the PERC S300
Virtual Disk Management utility.
NOTE: To configure the PERC S100 adapter or PERC S300 adapter with Dell
OpenManage Server Administrator Storage Management, see the Dell Support
Website at support.dell.com/manuals.
NOTE: The PERC Virtual Disk Management utility can be accessed and configured
without the operating system and controller drivers being installed.
Configuring the Controller: Using the PERC Virtual
Disk Management Utility
Table 6-1. PERC Virtual Disk Management Utility Operations
Operation
Description
Accessing the PERC
Describes how to log onto the PERC Virtual Disk
Virtual Disk Management Management utility.
Utility
Understanding the Text
Describes the status of the physical disks and virtual
Colors in the PERC
disks, based on the color-highlighted text.
Virtual Disk Management
Utility
Initializing Physical Disks Describes how to initialize a physical disk for data storage.
Creating Virtual Disks
Describes how to create a virtual disk from the connected
physical disks.
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Table 6-1. PERC Virtual Disk Management Utility Operations (continued)
Operation
Description
Deleting Virtual Disks
Deletes one or more virtual disks that are configured for
the controller.
Swapping Two Virtual
Disks
Swaps virtual disks to enable them to load in any order.
Managing Global Hot
Spares
Enables you to create or delete a global hot spare(s).
Viewing Physical Disk
Details
Enables you to view detailed information about any
connected physical disk.
Viewing Virtual Disk
Details
Enables you to view detailed information about any
virtual disk.
Rescanning Disks
Rescans the disks to detect new or removed physical disks
or virtual disks.
Controller Options
Changes the selected controller options, such as booting
and virtual disk warnings.
Continuing to Boot
Enables the system to continue booting after you use the
PERC Virtual Disk Management utility.
Accessing the PERC Virtual Disk Management Utility
1 Boot the system and wait until the message Press <Ctrl><R> to
Configure appears.
2 Press <Ctrl><R>.
You have a maximum of three seconds to press <Ctrl><R>, or the
system’s boot process continues.
CAUTION: If SATA Controller is not set to RAID Mode, data might be destroyed.
Make sure to backup all data before changing modes.
NOTE: If the PERC Virtual Disk Management utility does not appear and your
system uses a PERC S100, press F2 to access the Dell system BIOS. At the SATA
Settings field, make sure that SATA Controller is set to RAID Mode. If
the settings are correct and the PERC Virtual Disk Management utility still does not
appear contact Dell support at support.dell.com.
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The utility contains these fields:
•
An information field (yellow or red text): Located below the window name
and the current build number.
•
Virtual Disks: Displays the virtual disks that have been created and
information about them: virtual disk number, RAID level, virtual disk size,
virtual disk status, and caching mode status.
•
Main Menu: Indicates the main PERC Virtual Disk Management utility
operations.
•
Physical Disks: Displays information about the physical disks or
ATAPI devices.
•
Available Keys: Indicates the keyboard keys to use to select a line of
text or perform an operation.
NOTE: For a description of virtual disk and physical disk states, see Table B-2 and
Table B-3, located on the Dell Support website at support.dell.com/manuals.
NOTE: The first virtual disk listed in Virtual Disks must be the bootable
virtual disk. The system can boot only when the bootable virtual disk is at the first
position in the list.
Understanding the Text Colors in the PERC Virtual Disk Management
Utility
Text within the PERC Virtual Disk Management utility is color-coded, as
follows:
Table 6-2. PERC Virtual Disk Management Text Colors
Text Color
Description
White text
Indicates an available option or informational text.
Black text, yellow Indicates an option or device for which you might take action.
highlighting
Yellow text
Indicates information about the yellow-highlighted option.
Green text
Indicates an item that has been selected.
Light blue text
Indicates that the item cannot be selected.
Magenta text
Indicates items that are related to hot spares or boot options.
Red text
Indicates a failed virtual or physical disk or a warning. For example,
informational text might be red if an option is not available.
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Initializing Physical Disks
New physical disks must be initialized before they can be used. Initialization
writes controller configuration information to the physical disk.
Physical disks with the following statuses can be initialized:
•
Non-RAID — A physical disk that was configured by a non-PERC S100
adapter or PERC S300 adapter.
•
Ready — Contains no stored data but has PERC S100 adapter or
PERC S300 adapter configuration information.
Physical disks that are Online cannot be initialized.
1 Power-up the system to start booting.
2 When prompted, press the <Ctrl><R> keys to access the PERC Virtual
Disk Management utility.
3 At the Main Menu field use the arrow keys to select the Initialize
Physical Disk(s) option.
4 Press <Enter>.
5 Use the arrow keys to select Initialize for PERC S100 (PERC S300) or
Initialize to Non-Raid.
6 Press <Enter>.
7 Use the arrow keys to select a physical disk. Press <Insert> to select the
physical disk, or press the <A> key to choose all selectable physical disks.
NOTE: You can select and initialize multiple physical disks. There is no need
to initialize one physical disk at a time.
8 Press <Enter> to initialize the selected physical disk or disks.
NOTE: After a physical disk is initialized as Non-Raid, it appears as Non-
Raid in the Physical Disks field of the PERC Virtual Disk Management utility.
A Non-Raid virtual disk is also created and appears in the Virtual Disks
field.
9 A dialog box appears, warning that any data on the physical disk will be
permanently lost if it is initialized. Press the <C> key to continue with
initialization or press <Esc> to cancel.
Initialization takes 10–15 seconds per physical disk. A status indicator shows
which physical disk is being initialized. When initialization is complete, the
status indicator turns off, and all channels are re-scanned automatically.
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CAUTION: If a physical disk has a virtual disk on it, the physical disk cannot be
selected for initialization. To initialize the physical disk anyway, make sure to
delete the virtual disk. Be sure you want to initialize the physical disk, because all
data on it (including PERC S100 adapter or PERC S300 adapter configuration
information) is deleted.
NOTE: When Non-Raid physical disks are installed in the system, their associated
Non-Raid virtual disks must be deleted in order to use the physical disks with the
PERC S100 adapter or PERC S300 adapter. Deleting the Non-Raid virtual disks
initializes the Non-Raid physical disks and changes their state to Ready.
NOTE: Typically, continue with the next procedure, Creating Virtual Disks.
Creating Virtual Disks
You can create virtual disks after the physical disks are initialized, especially if
the virtual disk is a bootable virtual disk for your system. If you have not
decided what RAID level to use, see the Raid Technology Guide, located on
the Dell Support website at support.dell.com/manuals.
Before You Begin
•
At any point in this procedure, return to a prior state by pressing <Esc>.
•
A maximum of eight virtual disks can be created with the PERC Virtual
Disk Management utility.
•
Avoid mixing of redundant and non-redundant raid levels on the same set
of physical disks.
NOTE: The Create Virtual Disk operation is not selectable when there is no
available capacity on the physical disks.
1 Power-up the system to start booting.
2 When prompted, press the <Ctrl><R> keys to access the PERC Virtual
Disk Management utility.
3 At the Main Menu field, use the arrow keys to select Create
Virtual Disk. Press <Enter>.
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4 At the Physical Disks field, select the physical disk(s) on which to
create a virtual disk:
a
For each physical disk, press the <Insert> key to select the physical
disk. (The physical disks can be inserted in any order.)
b
After selecting the physical disk(s) to be included in the virtual disk,
press <Enter>.
5 At the User Input field, use the arrow keys to select a virtual disk type
(RAID level). Press <Enter>. (Only the virtual disk types that can be
created with the selected physical disk(s) are indicated; they are
highlighted in white text).
6 If hot spares are applicable:
a
At the User Input field, use the arrow keys to select a dedicated hot
spare. Press <Enter>.
NOTE: A global hot spare can be assigned after a virtual disk is created, by
selecting the Manage Global Hot Spare(s) option.
b
At the Physical Disks field, select the physical disk to use as a
hot spare (if applicable). Press <Insert> to select it.
c
Press <Enter> to add the hot spare. Press the <C> key to confirm
the change.
7 Select a size for the virtual disk, depending on the available free space of
the physical disks. Review the choices indicated in Table 6-3. (Virtual disk
size changes are displayed at the Create Virtual Disk and User
Input fields.)
NOTE: The maximum size of the virtual disk is affected by the available free
space of the physical disks and by the RAID level that you select.
8 After you choose the virtual disk size, press <Enter>.
9 At the User Input field, select a Caching Mode. Press <Enter>.
10 Press the <C> key to confirm that you want to create the virtual disk.
11 At the Main Menu field, perform other operations or select Continue
to Boot and press <Enter>.
NOTE: The boot virtual disk must be the first virtual disk listed in the Virtual
Disks field. If necessary, use the Swap Two Virtual Disks option to place the
bootable virtual disk in the first position.
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Table 6-3. Selection of Virtual Disk Sizes
To Create This
Perform This Task
Virtual Disk Size
< 2.199 TB
Use the <Page Up> or <Page Down> keys to select a size in large
increments
or
Use the up arrow or down arrow keys to select a size in small
increments.
Continue with "Creating Virtual Disks" on page 51.
> 2.199 TB
1 Press the <Page Up> or the up arrow key to increase the virtual
disk size.
2 At the maximum size, a dialog box appears in the User Input
field. It inquires if you want to limit the size of the virtual disk or
exceed the normal maximum size.
3 Press <Esc> to create a larger virtual disk.
4 Press the <Page Up> or the up arrow key, until the desired or
maximum available size has been attained.
5 Continue with "Creating Virtual Disks" on page 51.
NOTE: When physical disks of different capacities are used, the
maximum size of the virtual disk is limited by the size of the physical
disk with the smallest capacity.
NOTE: If you want to have a bootable virtual disk, make sure that INT 13 support is
enabled on the controller, as described in "Controller Options" on page 58.
Deleting Virtual Disks
CAUTION: Although any virtual disk in the Virtual Disks field can be
deleted, including the first-listed virtual disk in the field, do not delete the firstlisted virtual disk. It may be the system’s bootable virtual disk. Deleting the
bootable virtual disk erases the operating system and the controller drivers.
CAUTION: When a physical disk is removed from a system, the current PERC S100
adapter or PERC S300 adapter configuration information (metadata) remains on the
disk. If the removed physical disk causes a virtual disk to fail, and the virtual disk
is then deleted and a Rescan is performed, re-inserting the physical disk causes
the PERC Virtual Disk Management utility to merge the re-inserted physical disk's
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configuration information with the existing configuration information. The
previously deleted virtual disk re-appears in the PERC Virtual Disk Management
utility.
CAUTION: Make sure that all physical disks that are part of a virtual disk are in
the system before you delete the virtual disk.
1 Power-up the system to start booting.
2 When prompted, press the <Ctrl><R> keys to access the PERC Virtual
Disk Management utility.
3 At the Main Menu field, select Delete Virtual Disk(s). Press
<Enter>.
4 Perform one of the following:
•
Select each virtual disk in the Virtual Disks field that you want
to delete. Press <Insert> to confirm each selection.
OR
•
Press <A> to select all virtual disks for deletion.
NOTE: The text color of the selected virtual disk(s) changes to green.
5 Press <Enter>.
CAUTION: A dialog box appears, describing the consequences of deleting the
selected virtual disk(s). Deleting a virtual disk permanently destroys all data that
is on the virtual disk, as well as the virtual disk itself. This action cannot be
undone.
6 Press the <C> key to confirm the deletion.
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Swapping Two Virtual Disks
Use the Swap Two Virtual Disks option of the PERC Virtual Disk
Management utility to arrange virtual disks in a different order.
CAUTION: Do not swap the first-listed virtual disk at Virtual Disks if it is the
system’s bootable virtual disk. The bootable virtual disk must always be the firstlisted virtual disk at Virtual Disks.
Before You Begin
•
The Swap Two Virtual Disks option is enabled only if there is at least one
initialized physical disk in the system. For example, if all the physical disks
in the system are Non-Raid, the Swap Two Virtual Disks option is
disabled.
•
It is recommended that the bootable virtual disk be a redundant virtual
disk-type, such as RAID 1, RAID 5, or RAID 10, to preserve data in case a
physical disk in the virtual disk fails. As required, swap that virtual disk
into the first position at Virtual Disks, if it is not already virtual
disk 1. See the Swap Two Virtual Disks option below.
•
The boot device and the boot order are user-selectable.
•
The swap feature is available only with the PERC Virtual Disk
Management utility.
NOTE: Only two virtual disks can be swapped at a time.
1 Power-up the system to start booting.
2 When prompted, press the <Ctrl><R> keys to access the PERC Virtual
Disk Management utility.
3 At the Main Menu field, select Swap Two Virtual Disks. Press
<Enter>.
4 Use the arrow keys to highlight a virtual disk at the Virtual Disk field.
Press <Insert>.
5 Use the arrow keys to highlight another virtual disk. Press <Insert>.
6 Press <Enter> to swap the virtual disks.
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Managing Global Hot Spares
This option enables you to create a global hot spare from a selected physical
disk, or to delete a global hot spare.
NOTE: A global hot spare can be created only if a physical disk is in Ready or
Normal status at the Physical Disks field. If the physical disk is in Online status, it is
being used by a virtual disk and cannot be selected as a hot spare.
Create a Global Hot Spare
1 Power-up the system to start booting.
2 When prompted, press the <Ctrl><R> keys to access the PERC Virtual
Disk Management utility.
3 At the Main Menu field, select Manage Global Spare(s). Press
<Enter>.
4 Select Assign Global Hot Spare(s). Press <Enter>.
5 Use the up or down arrow key to select a physical disk(s) for use as a global
hot spare(s). Press <Insert>.
6 Press <Enter> to add the global hot spare.
7 Press the <C> key to confirm the action.
Delete a Global Hot Spare
1 Power-up the system to start booting.
2 When prompted, press the <Ctrl><R> keys to access the PERC Virtual
Disk Management utility.
3 At the Main Menu field, select Manage Global Spare(s). Press
<Enter>.
4 Select Unassign Global Hot Spare(s). Press <Enter>.
5 Use the up or down arrow key to select the physical disk(s) to delete as a
global hot spare(s). Press <Insert>.
6 Press <Enter> to delete the global hot spare.
7 Press the <C> key to confirm the action.
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Viewing Physical Disk Details
1 Power-up the system to start booting.
2 When prompted, press the <Ctrl><R> keys to access the PERC Virtual
Disk Management utility.
3 At the Main Menu field, select View Physical Disk Details.
Press <Enter>.
4 Use the arrow keys to choose a physical disk.
5 Physical disk information is displayed at the top of the window:
•
Physical disk number
•
Channel number
•
Physical disk size
•
Physical disk status: New/Non-Raid/Ready/Online
•
Amount of free space
•
Manufacturer and model number
6 When finished, press <Esc> to return to the main window.
Viewing Virtual Disk Details
1 Power-up the system to start booting.
2 When prompted, press the <Ctrl><R> keys to access the PERC Virtual
Disk Management utility.
3 At the Main Menu field, select View Virtual Disk Details. Press
<Enter>.
4 Use the arrow keys to choose a virtual disk.
5 Virtual disk information is displayed at the top of the window and in the
Virtual Disks field:
•
Virtual disk number
•
RAID level
•
Size
•
Status (R/W, R, NA)
6 When finished, press <Esc> to return to the main window.
NOTE: The Physical Disks field indicates the physical disks that are in
the virtual disk, highlighted by green text.
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Rescanning Disks
This option enables you to rescan all channels and detect new or removed
physical disks or virtual disks.
•
To perform a rescan, select Rescan Disks from the Main Menu field
and press <Enter>. (The activity indicator, in the information field at the
top of the window, spins while the physical disks are being polled).
•
The Rescan Disks option rescans all the channels, searches for new or
removed physical disks, and re-reads the configuration information from
each physical disk.
NOTE: Sometimes when a physical disk has failed, it can be brought online
through a rescan.
Controller Options
The Controller Options feature enables you to select INT 13 boot support
and select whether the boot process pauses when an error occurs. The boot
process pauses when Pause if... is enabled and a virtual disk becomes
Degraded or has Failed. Press <Enter> to continue booting.
View the error message on the window. If Pause... is OFF, the error
message is displayed briefly, but the system continues to boot.
1 At the Main Menu field, use the arrow key to select Controller
Options. Press <Enter>.
2 At the Controller Options field, use the up or down arrow keys to
scroll to the desired controller option. See Table 6-4.
3 When finished, press <Esc> to return to the main window.
Table 6-4. Controller Options
58
Controller Option
Description
INT13 Boot Support
Determines whether the BIOS Press <Enter> to
installs INT 13 support
toggle between ON
(physical disk seek, read, and and OFF.
write operations for a PERC
S100 adapter or PERC S300
adapter).
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Table 6-4. Controller Options
Controller Option
Description
How to Operate
Pause if Degraded
When ON, the BIOS stops
booting when a degraded
virtual disk is found.
Press <Enter> to
toggle between ON
and OFF.
Pause if Failed
When ON, the BIOS stops
booting when a failed virtual
disk is found.
Press <Enter> to
toggle between ON
and OFF.
Continuing to Boot
After using the PERC Virtual Disk Management utility, return the system to its
normal booting process by selecting Continue to Boot in the Main
Menu field and pressing <Enter>.
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7
Troubleshooting
To get help with your Dell PowerEdge RAID Controller (PERC) PERC S100
adapter and PERC S300 adapter, contact your Dell Technical Service
representative or access the Dell Support Web site at support.dell.com.
The chapter discusses four major categories of troubleshooting:
•
Normal tasks that cannot be performed during system startup.
•
Warning messages that might appear at the Dell Inc. PERC S100
Controller BIOS or Dell Inc. PERC S300 Controller BIOS screen.
•
Functions that cannot be performed with virtual disks.
•
Functions that cannot be performed with physical disks.
NOTE: Unless mentioned otherwise, the term PERC Virtual Disk Management utility
refers to both the PERC S100 Virtual Disk Management utility and the PERC S300
Virtual Disk Management utility.
System Startup Problems
The following table indicates potential PERC S100 adapter or PERC S300
adapter-related causes for system startup problems.
Table 7-1. System Does Not Boot
Likely Causes to Check
Controller mode is set
incorrectly at System Setup
Corrective Actions
1 At system startup, when the Dell Power-On Self-
Test (POST) screen appears, press <F2> to enter
the Dell Inc. PowerEdge BIOS screen.
2 Scroll to SATA Settings. Press <Enter> and
make sure that the following is true:
• For a PERC S100 adapter: SATA Controller
is set to a RAID mode.
• For a PERC S300 adapter: SATA Controller
is set to ATA Mode or AHCI.
NOTE: Data might be lost when switching from
RAID Mode to ATA Mode.
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Table 7-1. System Does Not Boot
Likely Causes to Check
Boot Mode, Boot Sequence,
and/or Boot Sequence Retry are
set incorrectly
Corrective Actions
1 At system startup, when the Dell POST screen
appears, press <F2> to enter the Dell Inc.
PowerEdge BIOS screen.
2 Scroll to Boot Settings. Press <Enter> and
make sure that Boot Mode is set to BIOS.
3 Scroll to Boot Sequence. Press <Enter> and
make sure that Hard drive C: (* PERC
S100 adapter or PERC S300 adapter) is
the first device listed.
* The variable text displayed here might be:
Embedded SATA 1, Slot 1, or Integrated
SAS.
4 Scroll to Boot Sequence Retry. Make sure
that the setting is Enabled.
5 Press <Esc> to exit and continue booting.
NOTE: If changes are made at the Dell Inc.
PowerEdge BIOS screen, a dialog box appears and
asks you to save your changes and then exit.
Bootable virtual disk is in a
failed state
1 Press <Ctrl><Alt><Del> to restart.
2 After the system restarts, press <Ctrl><R>.
Check the status of the bootable virtual disk at the
Virtual Disk field, or by highlighting View
Virtual Disks Details and pressing
<Enter>.
3 Check for missing or offline physical disks.
The boot order is incorrect for a
bootable virtual disk
62
Troubleshooting
1 When prompted at system startup, press
<Ctrl><R> to access the PERC Virtual Disk
Management utility.
2 Check Virtual Disks and make sure that the
bootable virtual disk is the first virtual disk listed.
3 As required, use the Swap Two Virtual
Disks option to reposition the virtual disks.
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Table 7-1. System Does Not Boot
Likely Causes to Check
A Non-Raid virtual disk is no
longer in the first position in the
PERC Virtual Disk
Management utility list after the
system is rebooted
NOTE: When booting from a
Non-Raid virtual disk, creating a
virtual disk in Dell OpenManage
Server Administrator Storage
Management changes the virtual
disk order and displaces the
bootable Non-Raid virtual disk
from the first position. PERC S100
adapter or PERC S300 adapter
then attempts to boot from the
first virtual disk.
Corrective Actions
1 When prompted at system startup, press
<Ctrl><R> to access the PERC Virtual Disk
Management utility.
2 Check Virtual Disks and determine if the
bootable Non-Raid virtual disk is no longer in the
first position.
3 Use the Swap Two Virtual Disks option to
swap the virtual disks and place the bootable NonRaid virtual disk in the first position of the
Virtual Disks field.
NOTE: A Non-Raid virtual disk
can be created from Non-Raid
physical disks (which are physical
disks initialized at a
non-PERC S100 adapter or a nonPERC S300 adapter).
Table 7-2. The PERC Virtual Disk Management Option Does Not Display
Likely Causes to Check
Corrective Actions
The PERC S100 adapter mode
is set incorrectly in the system
BIOS
See Table 7-1 for the correct SATA Setting.
The PERC S300 adapter is not
seated correctly
Make sure that the PERC S300 adapter is installed
in the correct slot and is properly seated.
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Warning Messages: Dell Inc. PERC S100 Adapter
or Dell Inc. PERC S300 Adapter
BIOS Screen
The Dell Inc. PERC S100 Controller BIOS screen or Dell Inc. PERC S300
Controller BIOS screen is one of the first screens to appear during your
system’s boot sequence. If the system’s virtual disks were in Normal or Ready
status before a system boot, the boot sequence continues normally to the
Microsoft Windows Server 2008 or Microsoft Windows Server 2003 operating
system.
But, if a virtual disk is in Degraded or Failed status, or if specific options in
the Controller Options field were changed previously at the PERC Virtual
Disk Management utility, the warning messages described in Table 7-3
through Table 7-6 appear during the boot sequence. For other issues, see
Table 7-7.
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Table 7-3. Warning Messages: Dell Inc. PERC S100 or PERC S300 Adapter BIOS
Warning Message
Corrective Action
WARNING: Found
virtual disks
that are
Degraded
This warning message appears when at least one virtual disk is
in a Degraded state and Pause if Degraded is set to ON at
the PERC Virtual Disk Management utility.
The following message appears after the warning is displayed:
--- Press <Enter> to continue, or <CTRL><R>
to enter setup --Press <Enter> to allow the operating system to continue with
the boot sequence, or press <Ctrl><R> to enter into the
PERC Virtual Disk Management utility to investigate the cause
of the Degraded virtual disk.
To investigate the cause, check for the following:
• Whether a physical disk in the virtual disk has failed or has
gone offline. Check the status at the Physical Disks
field. A Degraded status depends on the RAID level of the
virtual disk and the number of physical disks that have failed:
– For a virtual disk at RAID 1 or RAID 5, a single physical disk
failure causes a Degraded status.
– For a virtual disk at RAID 10, the failure of a physical disk in
each of the mirror sets creates a Degraded status for the
RAID 10. The failure of two physical disks in the same
mirror set creates a Failed status for the RAID 10.
• Whether the controller has failed, due to a firmware failure or
a component failure. A failed controller causes a virtual disk
not to boot.
For the virtual disk to recover from Degraded status, the failed
physical disk must be replaced and the virtual disk must be
rebuilt, using Dell OpenManage Server Administrator Storage
Management. When the rebuild operation is completed, the
virtual disk status changes from Degraded to Ready. For a
description of the rebuild function, see Storage Management,
located on the Dell Support website at
support.dell.com/manuals.
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Table 7-4. Warning Messages: Dell Inc. PERC S100 or S300 Adapter BIOS (continued)
Warning Message
Corrective Action
WARNING: Found
virtual disks
that are
Failed
This warning message appears when at least one virtual disk is
in a Failed state and Pause if Failed is set to ON at the
PERC Virtual Disk Management utility.
The following message appears after the warning is displayed:
--- Press <Enter> to continue, or <Ctrl><R>
to enter setup --Press <Enter> to allow the operating system to continue its
boot, or press <Ctrl><R> to enter into the PERC Virtual Disk
Management utility to investigate the cause of the Failed virtual
disk.
NOTE: A boot virtual disk that is in a Failed state prevents the
operating system from booting.
To investigate the cause, check for the following:
• Determine if a single or multiple physical disks in a nonredundant virtual disk have failed. If "yes," data is lost. Recover
the lost data from a backup storage source.
• Determine if two or more physical disks in a redundant virtual
disk have failed. If "yes," data is lost. Recover the lost data
from a backup storage source.
NOTE: For a RAID 10, if a single physical disk fails in each
mirrored set, the redundant virtual disk goes to a Degraded status
but data is not lost. If two physical disks fail in one of the mirrored
sets, the redundant virtual disk goes to a Failed status and data is
lost.
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Table 7-5. Warning Messages: Dell Inc. PERC S100 or S300 Adapter BIOS (continued)
Warning Message
Corrective Action
WARNING: Found
virtual disks
that are
Degraded and
Failed
This warning message appears when multiple virtual disks are
in Degraded and Failed state and Pause if Degraded or
Pause if Failed are set to ON at the PERC Virtual Disk
Management utility.
The following message appears after the warning is displayed:
--- Press <Enter> to continue, or <Ctrl><R>
to enter setup --Press <Enter> to allow the operating system to continue its
boot, or press <Ctrl><R> to enter into the PERC Virtual Disk
Management utility to investigate the cause of the Degraded
and Failed virtual disks.
NOTE: A boot virtual disk that is in a Failed state prevents the
operating system from booting.
To investigate the cause, check for the following:
• Whether the virtual disk is in Degraded status because one of
the physical disks of a RAID 1 or RAID 5 virtual disk has
failed, or one of the physical disks of a RAID 10 virtual disk
has failed.
Press <Ctrl><R> and verify if the physical disks are offline
or missing. Remove and replace a failed physical disk. A
second physical disk failure could cause a Degraded virtual
disk to change to Failed status.
• Whether the virtual disk is in a Failed status because one or
more of the physical disks have failed.
Press <Ctrl><R> and verify if the physical disks are offline
or missing. Remove and replace the failed physical disk or
disks.
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Table 7-6. Warning Messages: Dell Inc. PERC S100 or S300 Adapter BIOS (continued)
Warning Message
Corrective Action
BIOS NOT
INSTALLED User Disabled
INT13 BIOS
Load
This warning message appears when:
• The INT13 Boot Support option has been set to OFF at
the PERC Virtual Disk Management utility.
Bootable devices do not function with the controller when INT
13 Boot Support is set to OFF. (ON is the default setting,
which allows bootable devices to function with the controller).
NOTE: You can set INT 13 Boot Support to OFF when you want to
boot the system from another boot device (for example, another
hard-drive). It is recommended that you use only your system’s
current boot device.
If INT 13 Boot Support is set to OFF and another boot
device is not selected, the following occurs:
• The boot sequence stops after BIOS Not Installed User Disabled INT 13 BIOS Load appears.
• A second warning message appears: No boot device
available - strike F1 to retry boot, F2 for
setup utility, F11 for BIOS boot manager.
When the system’s boot sequence stops, perform the following:
1 Press <Ctrl><Alt><Del> to exit from the boot sequence.
2 Turn off your system, then restart it.
3 When instructed during the start-up sequence, press
<Ctrl><R> to access the PERC Virtual Disk Management
utility.
4 At the Main Menu field, use the arrow key to scroll to
Controller Options. Press <Enter>.
5 At INT13 Boot Support press <Enter> and change OFF
to ON.
6 Press <Esc>.
7 At the Main Menu field, use the arrow key to scroll to
Continue to Boot. Press <Enter>.
NOTE: The system boot sequence continues to the operating
system.
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Table 7-7. Other Errors Appearing on the BIOS
Issue
Likely Causes to Check Corrective Actions
The RAID 0 goes
Faulty physical disk
offline and the RAID 1
becomes degraded in a
PowerEdge R210
system with two drives.
When attempting to
update system
backplane firmware
and or Hard drive
firmware using DUPs
the updates fail.
DUPs are not
supported.
1 Boot system into CTLR-R and
replace faulty drive.
2 Delete the failed RAID 0 and then
create a new RAID 0. Now RAID 0
is optimal and RAID 1 is still
degraded.
3 Install OS on the RAID 0 and
backup RAID 1.
4 Delete and Recreate RAID 1 and
restore backup data.
Use the DOS utilities
eSata devices appear in Issue with the physical Remove the devices from eSata port
Ready state in CTLR-R connection
and plug them into the chassis.
NOTE: eSATA devices are blocked
from virtual disk creation.
During CTRL-R,
S100/S300 do not
display greater than
eight Virtual Disks.
The function is not
supported.
Remove all physical disks except for
the last one(s) added. Then proceed
with deleting the virtual disks that
are not needed. Remember to take
account of the virtual disks that are
currently being used.
Unable to delete
Virtual Disks when
there are more than
eight Virtual Disks
present in the system.
The function is not
supported.
Remove all physical disks except for
the last one(s) added. Then proceed
with deleting the virtual disks that
are not needed. Remember to take
account of the virtual disks that are
currently being used.
Virtual disk rebuild
status while during
CTLR-R
Rebuild is not
supported in Ctrl-R.
Boot to a supported OS. Rebuild
starts. To view rebuild status, install
a supported storage application.
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Table 7-7. Other Errors Appearing on the BIOS
Issue
Likely Causes to Check Corrective Actions
S100 rom option not
visible during S300
controller use in the
system.
S100 and S300 coexistence in the same
system is not
supported. S100
option rom becomes
disabled when S100
and S300 are available.
Remove S300 adapter and reboot
system to select F1 and select RAID
for boot BIOS.
The S100 rom option appears during
POST boot.
NOTE: If both controllers are used in
the system, the windows driver
manager displays the additional driver.
Virtual Disk-Related Errors
Use the information on the following tables as guidelines for troubleshooting
the controller.
Table 7-8. Cannot Create a Virtual Disk
Likely Causes to Check
Corrective Actions
The physical disk is not
displayed
This error might be because:
– The controller cannot communicate with the
physical disks.
– A cable might be loose or defective.
Re-seat the physical disks in the backplane and
check their cables.
Insufficient free space available There must be sufficient available free space on the
on the selected physical disks
physical disk(s) used by the virtual disk.
Incorrect number of physical
disks selected for the desired
RAID level
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Troubleshooting
See "Understanding RAID Levels" in the RAID
Technology Guide, located on the Dell Support
website at support.dell.com/manuals, for a
description of RAID levels and the allowable
number of physical disks used with each RAID
level.
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Table 7-8. Cannot Create a Virtual Disk (continued)
Likely Causes to Check
Corrective Actions
The desired physical disk is
unavailable
Determine whether the physical disk:
• Is a dedicated hot spare and unavailable for use in
another virtual disk.
• Is full or has insufficient available capacity.
The system already has a
maximum of eight virtual disks
Delete unused virtual disks.
CAUTION: Deleting a virtual disk destroys all data
on the virtual disk.
Table 7-9. A Virtual Disk is in a Failed State
Likely Causes to Check
Corrective Actions
The virtual disk has lost one or
more physical disks
Replace the failed physical disk(s) and restore the
data from a backup storage source.
A physical disk in the virtual disk
has failed or has been removed
• Re-install the original physical disk if it was
inadvertently removed. Perform a rescan.
• Check the status of the physical disks in the
virtual disk. Replace any failed disk(s), if
necessary. Restore the data from a backup storage
source.
After any change, perform a rescan to verify if the
disk is still in a Failed state.
The virtual disk has lost the
maximum allowable physical
disks per RAID level
One or more physical disks have failed.
– If the virtual disk is non-redundant, the failure
of a single physical disk can cause the virtual
disk to fail.
– If the virtual disk is redundant, two or more
physical disks have failed and the virtual disk
cannot be rebuilt.
Create a new virtual disk. Restore the data from a
backup storage source.
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Table 7-10. A Virtual Disk is in a Degraded State
Likely Causes to Check
Corrective Actions
A physical disk was removed
• Install the original physical disk, if it was
inadvertently removed, or replace it with a new or
used physical disk.
• Initialize a new physical disk. Perform a Rescan
for all physical disks that are replaced.
• If the physical disk was not removed, check that
its cables are correctly installed.
Physical or mechanical problems • Check if the physical disk in the virtual disk has
with the physical disk
failed.
• If a physical disk was recently removed and
replaced, check that it is correctly positioned in
the backplane. Check the cable connections at the
physical disk and at the motherboard. Perform a
rescan.
The virtual disk has lost
redundancy
• One or more physical disks in the virtual disk have
failed. Due to the failed physical disk or disks, the
virtual disk is no longer maintaining redundant
(mirrored or parity) data. The failure of an
additional physical disk results in lost data.
• Replace the physical disk or disks. Rebuild the
physical disk using Storage Management. See the
applicable Storage Management screen, located
on the Dell Support website at
support.dell.com/manuals.
Corrupted metadata in the
virtual disk
1 Delete the virtual disk that has the failed
metadata.
2 Assign the physical disk as a hot spare to rebuild a
redundant virtual disk.
3 To create a non-redundant virtual disk, delete and
rebuilt the data on a virtual disk, and restore the
data from a backup storage source.
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Table 7-11.
Cannot Assign a Dedicated Hot Spare to a Virtual Disk
Likely Causes to Check
Corrective Actions
The RAID level does not allow a Hot spares cannot be created for Volume or RAID 0
dedicated hot spare to be created virtual disks.
The designated physical disk
The capacity of the physical disk selected to be a
does not have sufficient capacity dedicated hot spare must be equal to or larger than
to be a dedicated hot spare
the capacity of the smallest physical disk in the
virtual disk.
For example, if the physical disk selected for a
dedicated hot spare is 160 GB, and the physical
disks in the virtual disk are 80 GB, 160 GB, and
500 GB, a dedicated hot spare can be assigned.
That is because the physical disk selected for the
dedicated hot spare is larger than the smallest
(80 GB) physical disk in the virtual disk.
The physical disk is already part A dedicated hot spare cannot be assigned to
of a virtual disk
another virtual disk.
The physical disks are of
different types
Table 7-12.
The physical disk used as a dedicated spare must be
the same type as the physical disks that are already
part of the virtual disk. For example, if a virtual disk
consists of SATA-II physical disks, the dedicated
hot spare must be a SATA-II physical disk.
Cannot Create a Global Hot Spare
Likely Causes to Check
Corrective Actions
There are no empty physical
disks available or the physical
disks have not been initialized
Install additional physical disks and initialize them.
If existing physical disks have a status of New they
need to be initialized.
WARNING: When a physical disk is initialized, all
data on the physical disk is lost.
NOTE: A physical disk with a Non-Raid status can be
initialized, if desired, but it is no longer Non-Raid
(initialization adds PERC S100 adapter/PERC S300
adapter configuration information to the physical
disk).
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Table 7-12.
Cannot Create a Global Hot Spare (continued)
The physical disk is already part A global hot spare cannot be selected if it is already
of a virtual disk
part of an existing virtual disk.
The physical disk assigned as the When prompted at system startup, press
global hot spare has failed
<Ctrl><R>to access the PERC Virtual Disk
Management utility.
At the PERC Virtual Disk Management utility,
select View Virtual Disk Details and
press <Enter>. Determine whether the physical
disk that is designated as the global hot spare has a
status of Failed.
• Check to see if the physical disk is malfunctioning
or is physically disconnected.
• Select another physical disk as the global hot
spare.
The physical disk assigned as the • Check to see if the physical disk was removed
global hot spare is missing
from the backplane or cable connection, or
whether the cables from the controller to the
physical disk are disconnected or faulty.
• Perform a rescan to verify that the physical disk is
still missing.
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Physical Disk-Related Errors
Table 7-13.
The Physical Disk Fails
Likely Causes to Check
Corrective Actions
A physical disk is not visible
in the PERC Virtual Disk
Management utility or is
offline
• Check that the cables are properly connected.
• For PERC S300 adapters only: check that the physical
disk is installed properly in the system’s backplane.
• For PERC S300 adapters only: check the system’s
backplane for damage.
• For PERC S300 adapters only: reinstall the physical
disk and make sure that it is seated correctly in the
system’s backplane.
• Perform a Rescan, to (a) update the status of storage
devices attached to the controller, or (b) fix an error
caused by deleting or initializing a virtual disk.
A physical disk is highlighted • Replace the physical disk. Depending on the
red at the PERC Virtual Disk
RAID level of the virtual disk, data might be lost.
Management utility
• Perform a rescan to confirm that the new disk was
discovered.
Table 7-14.
A Dedicated Hot Spare Fails
Likely Causes to Check
Corrective Actions
The controller cannot
communicate with the hot
spare
• Check that the cable from the controller to the
physical disk is connected properly.
• Make sure that the physical disk is still assigned as a
global or dedicated hot spare.
• Check if the physical disk assigned as the hot spare
has failed.
The dedicated spare is not
visible in the PERC Virtual
Disk Management utility or
is offline
The controller cannot communicate with the hot
spare.
• Check if the physical disk has been removed or has
failed.
• Check for a loose or bad cable.
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Table 7-15.
The Wrong Physical Disk was Removed
Likely Causes to Check
Corrective Actions
A physical disk has been
removed from a virtual disk
The removal of one physical disk from a virtual disk
causes:
• A Volume or RAID 0 virtual disk to change to Failed
status.
• A RAID 1 and RAID 5 virtual disk to change to
Degraded status.
• A RAID 10 virtual disk to change to Degraded status
(when a physical disk is removed from one of the
mirrored sets).
Re-insert the removed physical disk and perform a
Rescan of the virtual disk.
Table 7-16.
Cannot Initialize a Physical Disk
Likely Causes to Check
Corrective Actions
The physical disk cannot be
initialized
Check whether or not the physical disk is:
• Already a member of a virtual disk.
• Currently a global or dedicated spare.
• Reporting an Offline state.
Only physical disks that are Ready can be
initialized.
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A
Appendix A
Controller Specifications
This section contains information about the Dell PowerEdge RAID
Controller (PERC) S100 and S300 adapter specifications:
•
Read, write, and cache policy
•
Physical and virtual disk tasks
•
Virtual disk specifications
•
Supported RAID levels
Read, Write, and Cache Policy
Table A-1 indicates the read, write, and cache policies that are supported/not
supported by the PERC S100 Adapter and PERC S300 adapter.
Table A-1. Read, Write, and Cache Policy for the PERC S100 adapter and
PERC S300 adapter
Category
Supported by PERC S100 Adapter, PERC
S300 adapter
Cache Settings
Yes
Read/Write
Yes
Read Only
Yes
None (Read/Write)
Yes
CAUTION: The current default for Write-Cache mode enablement is
Write Through, Non Read Ahead (WT, NRA). To enable Write Back (WB), a UPS is
recommended.
Appendix A
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Controller Tasks
Table A-2 indicates the tasks that are supported or not supported by the
PERC S100 Adapter and PERC S300 adapter.
Table A-2. PERC S100 Adapter and PERC S300 Adapter Tasks
PERC S100 adapter or
PERC S300 adapterTask Name
Supported by PERC S100 adapter,
PERC S300 adapter
Enable alarm
No
Disable alarm
No
Quiet alarm
No
Test alarm
No
Set check consistency rate
No
Rescan controller
No
Create virtual disk
Yes
Physical Disk Tasks
Table A-3 indicates the physical disk tasks that are supported/not supported
by the controllers at the PERC Virtual Disk Management utility.
NOTE: Unless mentioned otherwise, the term PERC Virtual Disk Management utility
refers to both the PERC S100 Virtual Disk Management utility and the PERC S300
Virtual Disk Management utility.
Table A-3. Physical Disk Tasks
Physical Disk Task Name
Supported by PERC S100 adapter,
PERC S300 adapter
Blink/Unblink
Only with a system that has a
PERC S300 adapter and a backplane
Assign and unassign global hot spare
Yes
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Virtual Disk Tasks
Table A-4 indicates the virtual disk tasks that are supported/not supported by
the controllers.
Table A-4. Virtual Disk Tasks
Virtual Disk Task Name
Supported by PERC S100 adapter, PERC S300
adapter
Assign and unassign dedicated hot
spare
Yes
Create virtual disk
Yes
Reconfigure
Yes
Delete (any) virtual disk
Yes
Start a check consistency
Yes
Cancel check consistency
Yes
Initialize virtual disk
No (if using the PERC Virtual Disk
Management utility)
Yes (if doing a BGI in Storage Management)
Supported RAID Levels
Table A-5 indicates the RAID levels that are supported by the PERC S100
Adapter and PERC S300 adapter.
Table A-5. Supported RAID Levels for the PERC S100 adapter and
PERC S300 adapter
RAID Level
Supported by PERC S100 adapter,
PERC S300 adapter
Volume
Yes (only when using the PERC Virtual Disk
Management utility)
RAID 0
Yes
RAID 1
Yes
RAID 5
Yes
RAID 10
Yes
Appendix A
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Virtual Disk Specifications
Table A-6 indicates the virtual disk specifications that apply to the
PERC S100 Adapter and PERC S300 adapter.
Table A-6. Virtual Disk Specifications for the PERC S100 adapter and
PERC S300 adapter
Virtual Disk Specification
Value
Maximum number of virtual disks per controller
8
Minimum virtual disk size
102 MB
Maximum virtual disk size
No maximum size;
there may operating
system size limitations
Maximum number of physical disks per virtual disk
8
Maximum number of virtual disks per physical disk
8
Maximum number of physical disks that can be
concatenated
N/A
Maximum number of physical disks in a Volume
1
Maximum number of physical disks in a RAID 0
8
Maximum number of physical disks in a RAID 1
2
Maximum number of physical disks in a RAID 5
8
Maximum number of physical disks in a RAID 10
8
Minimum number of physical disks that can be
concatenated
N/A
Minimum number of physical disks in a Volume
1
Minimum number of physical disks in a RAID 0
2
Minimum number of physical disks in a RAID 1
2
Minimum number of physical disks in a RAID 5
3
Minimum number of physical disks in a RAID 10
4
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B
Appendix B
RAID Technology - Understanding Disk Arrays
and Virtual Disks
A disk array consists of the physical disks that are connected to a controller.
A virtual disk is data storage created by a controller from one or more physical
disks. The virtual disk is viewed by the operating system as a single disk.
The Dell PowerEdge RAID Controller (PERC) S100 controller and PERC
S300 controller allows:
•
SAS HDD (PERC S300 controller only), SATA HDD, and/or SATA SSD
(PERC S100 controller only) physical disks to co-exist on a single
controller.
•
Physical disks of the same type (SAS HDD, SATA HDD, SATA SSD) but
of different capacities.
•
Virtual disks to be at different RAID levels on the same controller, but not
supported on the same group of physical disks.
Because some RAID levels enhance performance while others improve
reliability, it is important to consider your needs when planning a virtual disk
configuration.
The ability of the controller to provide online expansion to virtual disks across
multiple physical disks and controllers becomes extremely valuable when
storage expansion is a requirement.
Appendix B
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Understanding RAID Levels
A PERC S100 controller or PERC S300 controller supports the following
RAID levels:
Table B-1. RAID Levels and Characteristics
RAID Level
Main Characteristics
Advantages
Volume (can be
created only using the
PERC S100 Virtual
Disk Management
utility or PERC S300
Virtual Disk
Management utility.
Dell OpenManage
Server Administrator
Storage Management
can manage a Volume
but cannot create it.)
A virtual disk type that links
available space on a single
physical disk and forms a
single logical volume on
which data is stored.
• Concatenation allows
access to a single physical
disk.
• When a physical disk in a
concatenated virtual disk
fails, data is lost from that
virtual disk. Because there is
no redundancy, data can be
restored only from a
backup.
NOTE: Unless
mentioned otherwise,
the term PERC Virtual
Disk Management
utility refers to both the
PERC S100 Virtual Disk
Management utility and
the PERC S300 Virtual
Disk Management
utility
RAID 0 (striping)
82
Appendix B
• Concatenation does not
provide performance
benefits or data redundancy.
Provides the highest
performance, but no data
redundancy. Data in the
virtual disk is striped
(distributed) across two or
more physical disks.
RAID 0 virtual disks are useful
for holding information, such
as the operating system
paging file, where
performance is extremely
important but redundancy is
not.
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Table B-1. RAID Levels and Characteristics (continued)
RAID Level
Main Characteristics
Advantages
RAID 1 (mirroring)
Mirrors data on one physical
disk to another, to provide
basic redundancy.
RAID 10 (striped
mirror sets)
Combines mirrored and
striped sets; data are striped
across mirrored sets of
physical disks.
• Offers better performance
than a simple mirror
because of the additional
physical disks.
RAID 10 allows multiple
physical disk failures, up to
one failed physical disk in
each mirror that has been
striped.
• Requires twice the disk
space of RAID 0 to offer
redundancy.
Useful when only two physical
disks are available, and when
data integrity is more
important than storage
In the event of a single
physical disk failure a second capacity.
copy of the data exists, which
can be used to restore the
data to a new, replacement
physical disk.
In the event of a single
physical disk failure (per
mirror set) a second copy of
the data exists, which can be
used to restore the data to a
new, replacement physical
disk.
• When a physical disk in a
RAID 10 virtual disk fails,
the virtual disk is still
functional. Data is read
from the surviving mirrored
disk.
Appendix B
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Table B-1. RAID Levels and Characteristics (continued)
RAID Level
Main Characteristics
Advantages
RAID 5 (striping with Stripes data, as well as parity, • Offers exceptional read
parity)
across all physical disks in the
performance, as well as
virtual disk. Parity
redundancy.
information is interspersed
• Requires only one extra
across the virtual disk.
physical disk to offer
In the event of a single
redundancy.
physical disk failure, parity
• For most systems with three
data exists on the remaining
or more physical disks this is
physical disks, which can be
the best choice as a RAID
used to restore the data to a
level.
new, replacement physical
disk.
Disk States - Virtual and Physical Disks
The following tables indicate the statuses that can appear at the PERC
Virtual Disk Management utility.
Table B-2. Physical Disk States
State
Definition
ATAPI
Indicates a peripheral device (CD-ROM, DVD, or tape drive) instead
of a physical disk. An ATAPI device cannot be initialized or added to
a virtual disk.
Non-Raid
A physical disk has been moved from another, non-PERC S100
controller or non-PERC S300 controller.
Online
The physical disk has been initialized and is part of a virtual disk.
Ready
The physical disk has been initialized but is not currently used in a
virtual disk.
Failed
A failed physical disk appears as Failed only when (a) View Virtual
Disk Details is selected, and (b) the virtual disk to which the physical
disk belongs is selected. The Failed status is reported only when the
physical disk is part of a virtual disk.
Spare
A physical disk that is assigned as a dedicated or global hot spare.
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Table B-3. Virtual Disk States
State
Definition
Degraded A physical disk in a redundant virtual disk has failed. Additional failures
might result in lost data.
Failed
One or more physical disks have failed. The virtual disk has gone offline.
The virtual disk cannot restore the data.
Non-Raid A Non-Raid physical disk is automatically linked to a Non-Raid virtual
disk for use with a PERC S100 controller or PERC S300 controller.
Normal
A virtual disk has been created and its preparation process has been
completed.
Ready
A redundant virtual disk has been created, and is ready for additional
preparation.
Failure States
Whether a virtual disk is marked as Failed or Degraded depends upon what
RAID level virtual disk it is, and how many physical disks of the virtual disk
have failed. In Table B-4 note the changes in state.
If a rescan of all channels is performed after disconnecting a physical disk, the
state of every virtual disk using the disconnected physical disk changes from
the Ready state to either the Failed or Degraded state, depending on the
virtual disk’s RAID level.
For additional information about rescanning to update storage configuration
changes, see the OpenManage documentation available on the Dell Support
website at support.dell.com/manuals.
Table B-4. Failure Status by Virtual Disk RAID Level
Virtual Disk RAID Level
Failure Status
Description
RAID 1, RAID 5
Degraded
A single physical disk fails.
RAID 10
Degraded
A single physical disk fails in one or
more of the mirrored sets.
Volume, RAID 0
Failed
A single physical disk fails.
RAID 1 or RAID 5
Failed
Two or more physical disks fail.
RAID 10
Failed
Two physical disks in a mirrored set
fail.
Appendix B
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Creating Virtual Disks: Future Expansion
When creating virtual disks, consider whether or not the virtual disk capacity
needs to be expanded in the future.
For a Microsoft Windows operating system, format the virtual disks with New
Technology File System (NTFS). Microsoft Corporation provides a utility
(diskpart.exe) that can dynamically extend an NTFS file system onto any
unused adjacent space.
Note also that using a single partition per virtual disk makes expansion much
easier.
NOTE: The diskpart.exe utility version depends on which version of the Windows
operating system is running.
NOTE: The diskpart.exe utility can be found on the CD for some versions of
Windows operating systems, or on the Microsoft Corporation website
(microsoft.com) for other versions. Use the correct version for your operating
system.
Understanding Physical Disks
Physical Disk States
Within the management applications, physical disks can be part of one or
more virtual disks and can exist in the states indicated:
Table B-5. Minimum and Maximum Physical Disk Configurations
RAID Level Minimum Number of Physical Disks Maximum Number of Physical Disks
RAID 0
2
8
RAID 1
2
2
RAID 10
8
8
RAID 5
3
8
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Rescanning Physical Disks for Changes in State
The physical disk information displayed at the PERC Virtual Disk
Management utility is the state of the physical disks when they were last
scanned. If a rescan has not been performed, the information displayed is the
state of the physical disks at boot time.
Every time a physical disk is connected or disconnected while online, a rescan
is performed. A rescan is automatically performed when Dell OpenManage
Server Administrator Storage Management detects that a physical disk has
been added or removed.
Dedicated Hot Spares
A dedicated hot spare is a backup physical disk for the redundant virtual disk
to which it is assigned. The physical disk that is used as a dedicated hot spare
cannot be a member of an existing virtual disk. When the hot spare is
activated, it becomes the receptacle for the data from the failed physical disk
member of the volume, without interrupting the system or requiring your
intervention.
A dedicated hot spare can be assigned to any redundant virtual disk, and up to
four hot spares can be assigned to a virtual disk. However, a dedicated hot
spare cannot be assigned while a task is running on the virtual disk.
A global hot spare can be assigned when a virtual disk is created in the PERC
Virtual Disk Management utility. A global hot spare can be added at any time
when Storage Management is used.
If there is enough space available on the dedicated hot spare, and a disk
failure occurs, the rebuild process for the virtual disk starts automatically.
Dedicated hot spare assignments do not apply to a non-redundant virtual
disk.
NOTE: A virtual disk is marked Failed or Degraded if a physical disk reports a Failed
state, or if the SAS/SATA cable to the physical disk or power cable is disconnected.
A dedicated hot spare is often preferred to a global hot spare, especially for
critical data. This is because a dedicated hot spare guarantees that the virtual
disk has a backup physical disk assigned exclusively to it in case of a failure.
For additional information, see "Managing Global Hot Spares" on page 56.
Appendix B
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Global Hot Spares
A global hot spare is a backup physical disk that can be used by any redundant
virtual disk. It is not assigned (dedicated) to any specific virtual disk.
Virtual disks can typically be rebuilt by using a global spare disk, as long as the
global hot spare is not already part of the virtual disk and has enough available
capacity. Unlike a dedicated hot spare, a global hot spare can be assigned at
anytime, even while tasks are running on virtual disks.
If there is enough space available on the global hot spare, and a disk failure
occurs, the rebuild process for the virtual disk starts automatically.
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C
Appendix C
Regulatory Notices
Electromagnetic Interference (EMI) is any signal or emission, radiated in free
space or conducted along power or signal leads, that endangers the
functioning of a radio navigation or other safety service or seriously degrades,
obstructs, or repeatedly interrupts a licensed radio communications service.
Radio communications services include, but are not limited to, AM/FM
commercial broadcast, television, cellular services, radar, air-traffic control,
pager, and Personal Communication Services (PCS). These licensed services,
along with unintentional radiators such as digital devices, including
computers, contribute to the electromagnetic environment.
Electromagnetic Compatibility is the ability of items of electronic equipment
to function properly together in the electronic environment. While this
system has been designed and determined to be compliant with regulatory
agency limits for EMI, there is no guarantee that interference may not occur
in a particular installation. If this equipment does cause interference with
radio communications services, which can be determined by turning the
equipment off and on, you are encouraged to try to correct the interference by
one or more of the following measures:
•
Reorient the receiving antenna.
•
Relocate the system with respect to the receiver.
•
Move the system away from the receiver.
•
Plug the system into a different outlet so that the system and the receiver
are on different branch circuits.
If necessary, consult a Dell Technical Support representative or an
experienced radio/television technician for additional suggestions.
For additional regulatory information, see the owner’s manual or user’s guide
for your system.
Appendix C
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Dell computers are designed, tested, and classified for their intended
electromagnetic environment. These electromagnetic environment
classifications generally refer to the following harmonized definitions:
•
Class A is typically for business or industrial environments.
•
Class B is typically for residential environments.
Information Technology Equipment (ITE), including devices, expansion
cards, printers, input/output (I/O) devices, monitors, and so on, that are
integrated into or connected to the system must match the electromagnetic
environment classification of the system.
A Notice About Shielded Signal Cables: Use only shielded cables for
connecting devices to any Dell device to reduce the possibility of interference
with radio communications services. Using shielded cables ensures that you
maintain the appropriate Electromagnetic Compatibility classification for the
intended environment. Cables are available from Dell at dell.com.
Most Dell computers are classified for Class B environments. However, the
inclusion of certain options can change the rating of some configurations to
Class A. To determine the electromagnetic classification for your system or
device, see the following sections specific for each regulatory agency. Each
section provides country-specific Electromagnetic Compatibility/EMI or
product safety information.
FCC Notice (U.S. Only)
FCC, Class A
This product has been tested and found to comply with the limits for a Class
A digital device pursuant to Part 15 of the FCC Rules. These limits are
designed to provide reasonable protection against harmful interference when
the equipment is operated in a commercial environment. This product
generates, uses, and can radiate radio frequency energy and, if not installed
and used in accordance with the manufacturer’s instruction manual, may
cause harmful interference with radio communications. Operation of this
product in a residential area is likely to cause harmful interference, in which
case you will be required to correct the interference at your own expense.
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FCC, Class B
This product generates, uses, and can radiate radio frequency energy and, if
not installed and used in accordance with the manufacturer’s instruction
manual, may cause interference with radio and television reception. This
product has been tested and found to comply with the limits for a Class B
digital device pursuant to Part 15 of the FCC Rules.
This device complies with Part 15 of the FCC Rules. Operation is subject to
the following two conditions:
•
This device may not cause harmful interference.
•
This device must accept any interference received, including interference
that may cause undesired operation.
CAUTION: The FCC regulations provide that changes or modifications not
expressly approved by Dell Inc. could void your authority to operate this
equipment.
These limits are designed to provide reasonable protection against harmful
interference in a residential installation. However, there is no guarantee that
interference may not occur in a particular installation.
If this equipment does cause harmful interference with radio or television
reception, which can be determined by turning the equipment off and on,
you are encouraged to try to correct the interference by one or more of the
following measures:
•
Reorient the receiving antenna.
•
Relocate the system with respect to the receiver.
•
Move the system away from the receiver.
•
Plug the system into a different outlet so that the system and the receiver
are on different branch circuits.
If necessary, consult a representative of Dell Inc. or an experienced
radio/television technician for additional suggestions.
Appendix C
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The following information is provided on the device or devices covered in this
document in compliance with FCC regulations:
Product Name
PERC S100, PERC S300
Company Name:
Dell Inc.
Worldwide Regulatory Compliance & Environmental Affairs
One Dell Way
Round Rock, Texas 78682 USA
512-338-4400
Industry Canada Notice (Canada Only)
Industry Canada, Class A
This Class A digital apparatus complies with Canadian ICES-003.
Cet appareil numérique de la classe A est conforme à la norme NMB-003 du
Canada.
Industry Canada, Class B
This Class B digital apparatus complies with Canadian ICES-003
Cet appareil numérique de la classe B est conforme à la norme NMB-003 du
Canada.
CAUTION: The Industry Canada regulations provide that changes or
modifications not expressly approved by Dell Inc. could void your authority to
operate this equipment.
CE Notice (European Union)
Marking by the symbol indicates compliance of this Dell system to the
Electromagnetic Compatibility Directive 89/336/EEC and the Low Voltage
Directive 73/23/EEC of the European Union. Such marking is indicative that
this Dell system meets the following technical standards:
92
•
EN 55022 — "Information Technology Equipment — Radio Disturbance
Characteristics — Limits and Methods of Measurement."
•
EN 55024 — "Information Technology Equipment - Immunity
Characteristics - Limits and Methods of Measurement."
Appendix C
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•
EN 61000-3-2 — "Electromagnetic Compatibility - Part 3: Limits - Section
2: Limits for Harmonic Current Emissions (Equipment Input Current Up
to and Including 16 A Per Phase)."
•
EN 61000-3-3 — "Electromagnetic Compatibility - Part 3: Limits - Section
3: Limitation of Voltage Fluctuations and Flicker in Low-Voltage Supply
Systems for Equipment With Rated Current Up to and Including 16 A."
•
EN 60950 — "Safety of Information Technology Equipment."
EN 55022 emissions requirements provide for two classifications:
•
Class A is for typical commercial areas.
•
Class B is for typical domestic areas.
To determine which classification applies to your system, examine the FCC
or ICES information on the regulatory label located on the back, side, or
bottom panel of the system.
If the FCC or ICES information on the label indicates a Class B rating, the
following Class B statement applies to your system:
This Dell device is classified for use in a typical Class B domestic
environment.
A "Declaration of Conformity" in accordance with the preceding directives
and standards has been made and is on file at Dell Inc. Products Europe BV,
Limerick, Ireland.
Appendix C
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CE Mark Notice
This equipment complies with the essential requirements of the European
Union Directive 1999/5/EC.
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D
Appendix D
Contacting Dell
For customers in the United States, call 800-WWW-DELL (800-999-3355).
NOTE: If you do not have an active Internet connection, you can find contact
information on your purchase invoice, packing slip, bill, or Dell product catalog.
Dell provides several online and telephone-based support and service options.
Availability varies by country and product, and some services may not be
available in your area. To contact Dell for sales, technical support, or
customer service issues:
1 Visit support.dell.com.
2 Click your country/region at the bottom of the page. For a full listing of
country/region click All.
3 Click All Support from the Support menu.
4 Select the appropriate service or support link based on your need.
5 Choose the method of contacting Dell that is convenient for you.
Appendix D
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96
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Index
B
background initialization, 21
BIOS, major functions, 47
boot device, warning
message, 68
boot priority list
changing it, 41
checking controller options, 40
controller drivers,
pre-installation
requirements, 38
controller options, changing, 58
controller options, changing
them, 58
controller tasks, supported by
PERC S100 adapter, PERC
S300 adapter, 78
boot support, RAID levels, 22
booting the system after using
the BIOS configuration
utility, 59
C
cache policy, 77
CE Mark Notice, 94
CE Notice (European Union), 92
checkpointing, 22
chipsets, configuration at the
Dell system BIOS, 39
Command Queuing, 22
consistency check, 23
D
dedicated hot spares, 87
degraded virtual disks, warning
message, 65
Dell system BIOS
configuring the chipset, 39
device driver installation
procedure, 37
disk arrays, understanding
them, 81
disk roaming, 26
drivers
installation, 42, 44
continuing to boot the
system, 59
controller driver, download
procedure, 37
Index
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E
electrostatic discharge,
protecting against, 9
errors, physical disks
dedicated hot spare has failed or is
in error, 75
Failed status is displayed, 75
errors, virtual disks
Failed status, 71
virtual disk has been deleted, 73
ESD protection, 9
hot spares
dedicated, 87
global, 88
hot spares, global, managing
them, 56
hot swapping, 25
I
Industry Canada Notice (Canada
only), 92
initialization, physical disks, 23
F
fault tolerance, 23
FCC Notice (U.S. only), 90
features of the PERC S100
adapter, PERC S300
adapter, 21
installing the controller drivers,
PERC S100 adapter, 42
installing the controller drivers,
PERC S300 adapter, 44
installing the operating system
and drivers, PERC S100
adapter, 42
G
global hot spares, 88
global hot spares, manage, 56
installing the operating system
and drivers, PERC S300
adapter, 44
INT13 disabled, warning
message, 68
H
hardware installation
completion, 35
general considerations, 31
PERC S100 adapter, PERC S300
adapter, 31
98
installation
PERC S300 Adapter, 32
PERC S300 adapter, 32
Index
M
Management Setup, 45
mirror rebuilding, 24
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O
OCE, 24
offline virtual disks, warning
message, 66
Online Capacity Expansion, 24
options
changing controller options, 58
options, controller, 58
P
PERC S100 controller,
Management Setup, 45
PERC S100 Virtual Disk
Management utility, PERC
S300 Virtual Disk
Management utility
access to it, 48
PERC S300 Adapter
installation, 32
PERC S300 adapter
installation, 32
PERC S300 controller,
Management Setup, 45
physical disk tasks, supported by
PERC S100 adapter, PERC
S300 adapter, 78
physical disks
automatic rebuild, 21
connecting them to the PERC
S300 controller, 35
errors, 75
troubleshooting, 75
view disk details, 57
physical disks, general
description, 24
platform requirements for the
PERC S100 controller, PERC
S300 controller, 14
R
RAID configuration and
management, 47
RAID levels, supported by PERC
S100 adapter, PERC S300
adapter, 79
RAID technology, 81
read policy, 77
physical disk hot swapping, 25
regulatory notices, 89
CE Mark Notice, 94
CE Notice (European Union, 92
FCC Notice (U.S. only), 90
Industry Canada (Canada
only), 92
physical disk initialization, 23
related documentation, 12
physical disk roaming, 26
rescan disks, 58
PERC Virtual Disk Management
utility
major functions, 47
physical disk details, viewing, 57
Index
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rescanning
for changes in state, 87
V
S
virtual disk specifications, for
PERC S100 adapter, PERC
S300 adapter, 80
configuring the controller
using the PERC S100, 47
safety
general, 8
safety instructions, 7
working inside your system, 8
specifications, PERC S100
adapter, PERC S300
adapter, 77
specificationsÖ virtual disks, 80
Storport, driver support, 26
stripe size, 26
support for RAID level, 22
T
text colors, PERC S100 Virtual
Disk Management utility,
PERC S300 Virtual Disk
Management utility, 49
transformation, virtual disks, 28
troubleshooting, PERC S100
adapter, PERC S300
adapter, 61
Virtual Disk Management
utility, 47
virtual disk tasks, supported by
PERC S100 adapter, PERC
S300 adapter, 79
virtual disks
background initialization, 21
boot support for degraded virtual
disks, 22
cache support, 22
creating, future expansion, 86
errors, 70
general description, 27
migration, 28
PERC S100 Virtual Disk
Management utility, PERC
S300 Virtual Disk
Management utility, 48
swapping the order of two
disks, 55
transformation, 28
troubleshooting, 70
view details, 57
virtual disks, understanding
them, 81
W
warning message
100
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BIOS not installed, user disabled
INT13 BIOS load, 68
found virtual disks that are
Degraded, 65
found virtual disks that are
Offline, 66
no boot device available, 68
warning messages
PERC S100 Controller BIOS
screen, PERC S300 Controller
BIOS screen
warning messages, 64
write policy, 77
Index
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102
Index
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Glossary
A D A P T E R — An adapter enables the system to access peripheral devices by
converting the protocol of one bus or interface to another. An adapter may also
provide specialized function. For example, a RAID controller is a type of adapter that
provides RAID functions. Adapters may reside on the system board or be an add-in
card. Other examples of adapters include network and SCSI adapters.
AH CI — A programming specification which defines the operation of Serial ATA
host controllers (also known as host bus adapters) in a non-implementation-specific
manner. The specification describes a system memory structure for computer
hardware vendors to exchange data between host system memory and attached
storage-devices.
ATA ( A D V A N C E D TE C H N O L O G Y A T T A C H M E N T ) — A standard interface for
connecting a system’s storage devices, such as CD-ROMs and hard-drives.
ATA PI (ATA P A C K E T I N T E R F A C E ) — An interface standard that defines the packet
protocol between a system and its internal storage peripherals, such as CD-ROM,
DVD, or tape drives. ATAPI provides the command set for controlling the devices via
an IDE interface.
B A C K G R O U N D I N I T I A L I Z A T I O N — Background initialization is the automatic check
for media errors on physical disks. It ensures that striped data segments are the same
on all physical disks in a virtual disk. The difference between a background
initialization and a consistency check is that a background initialization is automatic
for new virtual disks. The operation starts automatically after you create the disk.
BA S ( B A C K G R O U N D A R R A Y S C A N ) — Background Array Scan is a background
operation which gets executed every 100msec. that verifies and corrects the mirror,
volume or parity data for virtual disks. BAS starts automatically after a Virtual Disk is
created.
BI OS ( B A S I C I N P U T / O U T P U T S YS T E M ) C O N F I G U R A T I O N U T I L I T Y — An alternate
name for the PERC Virtual Disk Management utility. The utility appears during
system startup when <Ctrl><R> are pressed.
C A C H E — Fast memory that holds recently accessed data. Using cache speeds
subsequent access to the same data. It is most often applied to processor-memory
access but also can be used to store a copy of data accessible over a network. When
data is read from or written to main memory, a copy is also saved in cache memory
with the associated main memory address. The cache memory software monitors the
addresses of subsequent reads to see if the required data is already stored in cache
memory. If it is already in cache memory (a cache hit), it is read from cache memory
Glossary
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immediately and the main memory read is aborted (or not started). If the data is not
cached (a cache miss), it is fetched from main memory and saved in cache memory.
C A C H I N G — The process of utilizing a high speed memory buffer, referred to as a
“cache,” in order to speed up the overall read or write performance. This cache can be
accessed at a higher speed than a disk subsystem. To improve read performance, the
cache usually contains the most recently accessed data, as well as data from adjacent
disk sectors. To improve write performance, the cache may temporarily store data in
accordance with its Write-Cache Enable policies. See the definition of Write-Cache
Enable for more information.
C H A N N E L — A link that transports data point-to-point.
C O N S I S T E N C Y C H E C K — An operation to verify that all stripes in a virtual disk with a
redundant RAID level are consistent and to automatically fix any errors. For RAID 5
arrays, a consistency check verifies correct parity data for each stripe. For RAID 1 and
RAID 10 arrays, this operation verifies correct mirror data for each stripe.
C O N T R O L L E R — A chip that controls the transfer of data between the microprocessor
and memory or between the microprocessor and a peripheral device such as a physical
disk or the keyboard. In Storage Management, the hardware or logic that interacts with
storage devices to write and retrieve data and perform storage management. RAID
controllers perform RAID functions such as striping and mirroring to provide data
protection.
D I S K — A non-volatile, randomly addressable, rewriteable mass storage device,
including both rotating magnetic and optical storage devices and solid-state storage
devices, or non-volatile electronic storage elements.
D I S K A R R A Y — A grouping of physical disks that are connected to the RAID
controller. The RAID controller can group physical disks on one or more channels into
an array.
D I S K M I G R A T I O N — Disk migration refers to moving a virtual disk or a hot spare
from one controller to another by detaching the physical disks and re-attaching them
to the new controller.
D I S K R O A M I N G — Moving disks from one slot to another on a controller.
D I S T R I B U T E D P A R I T Y — Parity involves an extra bit added to a byte or word to reveal
errors in storage (in RAM or disk) or transmission. Parity is used to generate a set of
redundancy data from two or more parent data sets. The redundancy data can be used
to rebuild one of the parent data sets. In distributed parity, the parity data are
distributed among all the physical disks in the system. If a single physical disk fails, it
can be rebuilt from the parity of the applicable data on the remaining physical disks.
F A I L E D P H YS I C A L D I S K — A physical disk that has ceased to function, that
consistently functions improperly, or that is inaccessible.
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Glossary
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F A U L T TO L E R A N C E — Fault tolerance is the capability of the disk subsystem to
undergo a single drive failure for the physical disks in a virtual disk without
compromising data integrity and processing capability. The PERC S100 controller and
PERC S300 controller provide this support through redundant virtual disks in RAID
levels 1, 5 and 10. Fault tolerance is often associated with system availability because it
allows the system to be available during drive failures. In case a disk fails, the PERC
S100 controller and
PERC S300 controller support hot spare disks and the auto-rebuild feature.
F I R M W A R E — Software stored in read-only memory (ROM) or Programmable ROM
(PROM). Firmware is often responsible for the behavior of a system when it is first
turned on. A typical example would be a monitor program in a system that loads the
full operating system from disk or from a network and then passes control to the
operating system.
F O R M A T — The process of writing a specific value to all data fields on a physical disk,
to map out unreadable or bad sectors. Because most physical disks are formatted when
manufactured, formatting is usually done only if a physical disk generates many media
errors.
GB — Acronym for gigabyte(s). A gigabyte equals 1,024 megabytes or 1,073,741,824
bytes (2^30 bytes).
GPT (G UI D P A R T I T I O N TA B L E ) — A standard for the layout of the partition table
on a physical hard disk.
G L O B A L L Y U N I Q U E I D E N T I F I E R ( GU ID ) — A unique reference-number identifier
used in software applications.
HB A ( H O S T B U S A D A P T O R ) — An adaptor card that includes the I/O logic, software
and processing to manage the transfer of information between the host system and
devices connected to it.
H O S T S YS T E M — Any system on which the RAID controller is installed. Mainframes,
workstations, and personal systems can all be considered host systems.
H O T S P A R E — An idle, powered on, stand-by physical disk ready for immediate use
in case of disk failure. It does not contain any user data. A hot spare can be dedicated
to a single redundant virtual disk or it can be part of the global hot-spare pool for all
virtual disks controlled by the controller. When a disk fails, the PERC S100 controller
or PERC S300 controller automatically replaces and rebuilds the data from the failed
physical disk to the hot spare. Data can be rebuilt only from virtual disks with
redundancy (RAID levels 1, 5, or 10; not RAID 0), and the hot spare must have
sufficient capacity. If the hot spare is designated as having enclosure affinity, it
attempts to rebuild any failed disks on the backplane within which it resides before
rebuilding any other on other backplanes.
Glossary
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H O T S W A P — Replacement of a failed component while the system is running and
operating normally.
I N I T I A L I Z A T I O N — The process of writing zeros to the data fields of a virtual disk
and, in fault tolerant RAID levels, generating the corresponding parity to put the
virtual disk in a Ready state. Initialization generates parity information, so that the
virtual disk is redundant. Virtual disks can work without initialization, but they are not
truly redundant until initialization is performed.
I N T 1 3 H — A DOS interrupt used to activate seek, read, write and format disk
functions. The Int 13h interface supports physical disks that contain up to an
approximate maximum disk space of 8.45 GB.
J B O D ( J U S T A B U N C H O F D I S K S [D R I V E S ] ) — A storage subsystem that uses a
single or multiple, independent disk drives.
L E D (L I G H T E M I T T I N G D I O D E ) — An electronic device that illuminates when
powered.
L O A D B A L A N C I N G — Load balancing is a method of spreading work between two or
more computers, network links, CPUs, physical disk drives, or other resources. Load
balancing is used to maximize resource use, throughput, or response time. In the
controllers, the balancing service is performed by the firmware. You can choose
between a single path for load balancing, and a “round-robin” load balancing scheme.
In single path, the firmware can detect multiple paths to a device, and use only a single
path for I/O activity to that device. The secondary path is used if a failure is detected
on the primary path. If load balancing is enabled for the controller, the firmware
implements a round-robin scheme to issue I/Os to the redundant path device. The
round-robin scheme issues one I/O down one path, and the other I/O down the second
path, and so on. There is no restriction on firmware regarding which path to choose
first. If load balancing is disabled, the firmware can use any one of the available paths
to issue I/Os, and it should continue to use the same path for all further I/O activity.
On reboot or path failure, the firmware again chooses any available path.
M B — Acronym for megabyte(s). The term megabyte means 1,048,576 bytes (2^20
bytes); however, when referring to hard drive storage, the term is often rounded to
mean 1,000,000 bytes.
M I R R O R I N G — The process of providing complete redundancy using two physical
disks, by maintaining an exact copy of one physical disk’s data on the second physical
disk. If one physical disk fails, the contents of the other physical disk can be used to
maintain the integrity of the system and to rebuild the failed physical disk.
N A S ( N E T W O R K A T T A C H E D S T O R A G E ) — A server that runs an operating system for
handling files, and which is accessible directly on a LAN by using protocols like
TCP/IP.
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NCQ (N A T I V E C O M M A N D Q U E U I N G ) — A command protocol for Serial ATA, that
allows multiple, outstanding commands to be active on a drive at the same time.
N O N - R A I D C O N F I G U R A T I O N — Non-Raid data is data that already exists on a
replacement physical disk. The Non-Raid physical disk must be initialized before it
can be used with the PERC S100 controller or PERC S300 controller.
N O N - R E D U N D A N T V I R T U A L D I S K — A non-redundant virtual disk is one which does
not have redundant data on physical disks that can be used to rebuild a failed physical
disk. A RAID 0 virtual disk consists of data striped across the physical disks, without
disk mirroring or parity to provide redundancy. This provides for high data throughput
but offers no protection in case of a physical disk failure.
N S — Acronym for nanosecond(s), one billionth of a second.
N TF S (N E W TE C H N O L O G Y F I L E S YS T E M ) — The file system used by Microsoft
Windows operating systems.
OCE (O N L I N E C A P A C I T Y E X P A N S I O N ) — Operation to add capacity to an existing
virtual disk by adding an additional physical disk while the host system is active, and
without affecting data availability.
O F F L I N E — A physical disk is offline when it is part of a virtual disk but its data is not
accessible to the virtual disk.
O N L I N E — An online device is a device that is accessible.
P A R I T Y — An extra bit added to a byte or word to reveal errors in storage (in RAM or
disk) or transmission. Parity is used to generate a set of redundancy data from two or
more parent data sets. The redundancy data can be used to rebuild one of the parent
data sets. However, parity data does not fully duplicate the parent data sets. In RAID,
this method is applied to entire physical disks or stripe elements across all physical
disks in a virtual disk. Parity consists of dedicated parity, in which the parity of the data
on two or more physical disks is stored on an additional physical disk, and distributed
parity, in which the parity data are distributed among all the physical disks in the
system. If a single physical disk fails, it can be rebuilt from the parity of the applicable
data on the remaining physical disks.
P A R T I T I O N — A logical structure on a contiguous segment of storage on a physical
disk or virtual disk that is recognizable by an operating system.
PCI E ( P E R I P H E R A L C O M P O N E N T I N T E R C O N N E C T E X P R E S S ) — A high-speed
peripheral interconnect that can accommodate gigabit and chip-to-chip transfers.
PERC S10 0 V I R T U A L D I S K M A N A G E M E N T , PERC S3 00 V I R T U A L D I S K
M A N A G E M E N T U T I L I T Y — The PERC S100 Virtual Disk Management or PERC
S300 Virtual Disk Management utility (aka PERC Virtual Disk Management utility)
configures and maintains RAID virtual disks, and manages the RAID system. Because
the utility resides in the controller BIOS, its operation is independent of the operating
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system. The PERC Virtual Disk Management utility, accessed by pressing
<Ctrl><R> at system startup, is built on elements called controls. Each control
performs a function. The functions include procedures you can use to configure
physical disks and virtual disks. The PERC Virtual Disk Management utility differs
from the Dell Inc. system BIOS, which contains the BIOS settings for each Dell
platform and is accessed by pressing <F2> during system startup.
P H YS I C A L D I S K — A non-volatile, randomly-addressable device for storing data.
Physical disks are rewriteable and commonly referred to as disk drives.
P N P ( P L U G A N D P L A Y ) — A technology that allows automatic recognition of
interface cards and devices when plugged into a PC.
P O R T — A connection point to a RAID controller, disk drive, enclosure, or another
device.
R AI D (R E D U N D A N T A R R A Y O F I N D E P E N D E N T D I S K S ) — An array of multiple
independent physical disks managed together to yield higher reliability and/or
performance exceeding that of a single physical disk. The virtual disk appears to the
operating system as a single storage unit. I/O is expedited because several disks can be
accessed simultaneously. Redundant RAID levels (RAID levels 1, 5, and 10) provide
data protection.
R AI D L E V E L S — A set of techniques applied to the physical disks in a virtual disk to
deliver higher data availability, and/or performance characteristics to host
environments. Each virtual disk must have a RAID level assigned to it.
R AI D M A N A G E M E N T U T I L I T Y — A RAID management utility (PERC Virtual Disk
Management utility) is used to configure physical disks and virtual disks. Use the
PERC Virtual Disk Management utility if the operating system has not yet been
installed on the controller.
R E B U I L D — The regeneration of all data to a replacement disk in a redundant virtual
disk (RAID levels 1, 5, and 10) after a physical disk failure. A disk rebuild normally
occurs without interrupting normal operations on the affected virtual disk, though
some degradation of performance of the disk subsystem can occur.
R E D U N D A N C Y — The provision of multiple interchangeable components to perform
a single function to cope with failures and errors. Common forms of hardware
redundancy are disk mirroring, implementations of parity disks, or distributed parity.
R E D U N D A N T V I R T U A L D I S K — A redundant virtual disk is one which has redundant
data on physical disks that can be used to rebuild a failed physical disk. A virtual disk
can use disk striping across the physical disks, disk mirroring or parity to provide
redundancy. This offers protection in case of a physical disk failure.
R E P L A C E M E N T D I S K — A physical disk that replaces a failed physical disk in a virtual
disk.
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SAN (S T O R A G E A R E A N E T W O R K ) — A high-performance, typically enterprise-level
network that attaches disk storage subsystems to servers. The storage devices are
accessible to multiple hosts at the same time.
S A S ( S E R I A L A T T A C H E D S CSI) — SAS is a serial, point-to-point, enterprise-level
device interface that leverages the proven Small Computer System Interface (SCSI)
protocol set. The SAS interface provides improved performance, simplified cabling,
smaller connectors, lower pin count, and lower power requirements when compared to
parallel SCSI. SAS physical disks are supported only by the PERC S300 controller.
S ATA ( S E R I A L A D V A N C E D TE C H N O L O G Y A T T A C H M E N T ) — A physical storage
interface standard, is a serial link that provides point-to-point connections between
devices. The thinner serial cables allow for better airflow within the system and permit
smaller chassis designs. The PERC S100 controller and PERC S300 controller leverage
a common electrical and physical connection interface that is compatible with Serial
ATA technology.
SCS I (S M A L L C O M P U T E R S YS T E M I N T E R F A C E ) — A standard that allows multiple
devices to be connected in a daisy-chain format. The fastest hard-drives are SCSIbased, rather than IDE-based.
S P A N N I N G — The method by which nested RAID levels (such as RAID 10) are
constructed from multiple sets of basic, or single RAID types. For example, a RAID 10
is made up of multiple sets of RAID 1 arrays where each RAID 1 set is considered a
span. Data is then striped (RAID 0) across the RAID 1 spans to create a RAID 10
virtual disk. Spanning is generally used when referencing these nested RAID levels.
S P A R E — A physical disk available to replace another physical disk in case that
physical disk fails.
SSD (S O L I D S T A T E D I S K ) — A high-performance storage media that contains no
moving parts. It contains a memory board, a memory board bus, a CPU, and a battery
card.
S T O R P O R T — The Storport driver has been designed to replace SCSIport and work
with Windows 2003 and beyond. In addition, it offers better performance for newer
RAID controller protocols (like SAS), provides higher I/O throughput rates, improves
manageability, and has an upgraded miniport interface. For example, while SCSIport
allows a maximum of 254 commands per controller, Storport allows 254 commands
per logical unit number (LUN).
S T O R A G E A R R A YS — A storage entity that is managed entirely by storage
management software. A storage array consists of a collection of physical components
(drives, controllers, fans, and power supplies) and logical components (such as virtual
disks). A storage array can span multiple physical enclosures.
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S T R I P I N G — Disk striping writes data across all physical disks in a virtual disk. Each
stripe consists of consecutive virtual disk data addresses that are mapped in fixed-size
units to each physical disk in the virtual disk using a sequential pattern. For example,
if the virtual disk includes five physical disks, the stripe writes data to physical disks
one through five without repeating any of the physical disks. The amount of space
consumed by a stripe is the same on each physical disk. The portion of a stripe that
resides on a physical disk is a stripe element. Striping by itself does not provide data
redundancy. Striping in combination with parity does provide data redundancy.
T B ( T E R A B Y T E ) — One thousand gigabytes (approximately one trillion bytes).
TR A N S F O R M A T I O N — A transformation can mean: (1) Capacity expansion, using
OCE (adding more physical disks to a virtual disk and increasing the storage capacity
of the virtual disk or virtual disks), or (2) Rebuilding (rebuilding data on the virtual
disk from a redundant virtual disk or from a hot spare or backup physical disk).
V I R T U A L D I S K — A virtual disk refers to storage created by a RAID controller from
one or more physical disks. Although a virtual disk may be created from several
physical disks, it is seen by the operating system as a single disk. Depending on the
RAID level used, the virtual disk may retain redundant data in case of a disk failure.
W R I T E - C A C H E E N A B L E — In Write-cache enable mode, the controller sends a data
transfer completion signal to the host when the controller cache has received all the
data in a disk write transaction. The VD cache is disabled by default, but can be
enabled by the user through the user interface. The risk of using Write-cache enable is
that the cached data can be lost if there is a power failure before it is written to the
storage device. This risk can be mitigated by using a Uninterrupted Power Supply
(UPS) on PERC S100 or S300 system. A UPS is recommended for use if the cache is
enabled.
W R I T E - C A C H E D I S A B L E — In Write-Through caching mode, the controller sends a
data transfer completion signal to the host when the disk subsystem has received all
the data and has completed the write transaction to the disk.
W HQ L ( W I N D O W S H A R D W A R E Q U A L I T Y L A B S ) — A Microsoft Corporation facility
that provides testing services for non-Microsoft hardware and device drivers, to ensure
compliance and compatibility with Microsoft operating systems.
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